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JSlevafton of Timour or Tamerlane to the throne of Sam 
marcand.'^Hifi conquests in Persia, Georgia, Tartarjfy 
Russia^ India, Si/ria, and Anatolia. — I lis lurkhh 
war. — Defeat and cjptivity of Bf^u^tt. — Death of Ti^ 
mour. — 6it?// tears of the ^ons of Bajazet .^-Restoration 
of the Turki h moH'trchy b^ Mahomet theJir^t.^^Hitig^ 
of {Jonstantinople by Amurath the second. 

A.n. ?•!• 

HisTORTPS of Timour, or Tamerlane^ - l 

1361-1 H/O. His first adventures, - - 4 

1370 He ascends the throne of Zagatai, - J 

1370-1 100. His conquests, - - ib. 

1380-1393. I. Of Persia, - - ib. 

13/0-1363. n. Of Turkestan, - 9 

13 0-1390. Of Kipzrk, Russia, &c. - 10 

1398, l>Jc)p, III. Of Hiiidosiao, - 13 

14u0 His war againtst Sultan Bajazet» - I6 

Ttrt.our invndes Syria, - - 20 

S:K'ks Aleppo, *. - , ., 21 

1401 Damascus, - - 23 
Ani Bagdad, - - 24 

1402 Invades Anatolia, - - 25 
Battle of Angom, - - 26 
Defeat and captivity of Bajazet, - 28 
The story of his iron cage disproved by the PeN 

Hitfi historian of limuijr, « 30 
A 3 

S8Xi^ o^ 


A.D* Page 

Attested, 1. by the French, - 32 

, 2. by the Italians, - 33 

, 3. by the Arabs, - 34 

, 4. by the Greeks, - - 35 

, 5. by the Turks, - ib. 

Probable conclusion, ib. 

1403 Death of Bajazet, - - 36 

Term of the conquests of Timour, - ib. 

1404, 1405* His triumph at Samarcand, - 40 

1405 His death on the road to China, - 42 

Character and merits of Timour, - ib. 

1403-1421. Civil wars of the sons of Bajazet, 47 

1. Mustapha, - - ib. 

2. Isa, - . 48 
;I403-1410. 3. Soliman, - .49 
1410 4. Mousa, - - ib. 
1413-1421. 5. Mahomet I, - .-50 
1 42 1 -1 45 1 . Reign of Amurath 11, - 51 

1421 Re-union of the Ottoman empire, - ib. 
1402-1425. State of the Greek empire, - 53 

1422 Siege of Constantinople by Amurath II, 56 
1425-1448. The emperqr John Palaeologus II, 57 

Hereditary succession and merit of the Ottomans, ib. 

Education and discipline of the Turks, 58 

Invention and use of gunpowder, - 62 


Application of the Eastern emperors to the popes. "^f^isits 
to the West, of John the first y Manuel^ and John the 
second^ Palaologm.-^Union of the Ghreek and Latin 
churches, promoted bff the council of Easily and con* 
eluded at Ferrara and Florence, -^Stfxte of literature 
at Constantinople. '^Its revival in Italy by the Greek 
fugitives. — Curiosity and emulation of the Latins* 

A«D. Page 

1339 £i&ba6sy of the younger Andronicus to pope Be- 
nedict XII, - - 05 


A. D. PifS 

The arguments for a crusade and umon, 66 

1348 Negotiation of Cantacuzene with Clement VI, 6q 
1355 Treaty of John Palaeologus I, with Innocent VI, 72 

136g Visit of John Palxologus to Urban V, at Rome, 74 

1370 His return to Constantinople^ - 77 

Visit of the emperor Manuel, - ib. 

1400 To the court of France, - 78 

Of England, • - - 80 

1402 His return to Greece, - - 81 

Greek knowledge and descriptions, -> ib. 

Of Germany, - - 82 

Of France, - - 83 

Of England, - - 84 
1402-1417- Indifference of Manuel towards the Latins, 86 

1417-1425. His negotiations, - - 87 

His private motives, - 88 

His death, - . 80 

1425-1437. Zeal of John Palaeologus II, - 90 

Corruption of the Latin church, - Ql 

1377-1 4<29. Schism, - - 92 

1409. Council of Pisa, - - ib. 

1414-14J8. Of Constance, - - ib. 
1431-1443. Of Basil, 

Their opposition to Eugenius IV, 

1434-1437. Negotiations with the Greeks, - 94 

1437 John Palaeologus embarks in the pope's gallies, g5 

1438 His triumphal entry at Venice, - 100 
; into Ferrara, - 101 

1438-1430. Council of the Greeks and Latins at Fer- 
rara and Florence, - 103 
Negotiations with the Greeks, - 108 
1438 Eugenius deposed at Basil, - - 111 
Re-unioh of the Greeks at Florence, - ib. 
1440 Their return to Constantinople, - 113 
1449 Final peace of the church, - II4 
1300-1453. State 6T the Greek language at Constan- 
tinople, « • ib. 
Comparison of the Greeks and Latins, - II6 
Revival of the Greek learning in Italy, -" II9 
1339 Lessons of Barlaam, - . ]2« 

A D. . Fai« 

13 3.0-1374. StucRw of Petrarch, •• 121 

1350 Of Boccace, - - - 123 

1360-1363. Leo Pilatiis first Greek professor at Flo- 
rence, and in the West, - - 124 

1390-1415. Foundation of the Greek language in 

Italy by Manuel Chrysoloras, - 126 

1400-1500. The Greeks in Italy, - - 128 

Cardinal Bessarion, &c. -• « 129 

Their faults and merits, - - 130 

The Platonic philosophy, - - 132 

Emulation and progress of the Latins, - 134 

1447-1455. Nicholas V, « - - ib. 

142b-U9?. Cosmo and Lorenzo of Medicis, - 135 

Use and almse of ancient learnings -> 139 


Schism of (he Greeks and Latin^.—-Beign and character 
of Amur at h the second.'^Crw^ade of Ladislaus^ king 
of Hangar ji, — Hi defeat and death, — John Uuniades, 
— Scanderbeg, — C fHstantins Palaulo^usy laU emperor 
of the East. 

iluD. Page 

Comparison of Rome and Constantinople, 141 
1440-1448. The Greek schism after the council of 

Florence, - - - 145 

Zea] of the Orientals and Russians, - 148 

1421-1451. Reign and character of Amurath II, 150 

1442-1444. His di uble abdication, - 152 

1443 Eugei ius forms a league against the Turks, 154 
Ladislaus,'^king of Poland and Hungary, marches 

against them, - - 157 

The Turkish peace, ^ -• 158 

1444 Violation of the peace, - - ib- 
Battle of Warna, - - - l6l 
Death of Lad isla us, - - 163 
The cardinal Julian, •«- - - 164 
John Corvinus Huniades, - - 16» 

1456 His defence of Belgrade, and deativ - 167 

1404«1415. Birth and cdncadoa of Scwdafaeg, ptiikce 

efAlbaaia, - - - IGB 

1443 Hi« revolt fawi the Turks» - IJl 

Hi« valour^ - - - 172 

1467 And death, . - ^ * 174 

144a-l4sa. CoAStaotine, the last of the Roman or 

Greek emperors, - — 17^ 

1450-1452. Embassies of Phranza» « 177 

State of the Byzantine coiirt9 - - 180 


Reign and character of Mahomet the second. — Siege^ ««. 
sault^ and final conquest of Constantinople bjfthe Turkic 
"^Deatk of Constantine FaUtologus. — Servitude of the 
Greeks. ^■^Extinct ion of the Roman empire in the East* 
— Consternation of Europe. — Conquests and death of 
Mahomet the Second. 

A. D. Page 

Character of Mahomet II, - - 18a 

1451-1481. His reign, - - - 184 

1451 Hostile intentions of Mahomet, - 187 

1452 He builds a fortress on the Bosphorus, - I9I 
The Turkish war, - - - 193 

1452, 1453. Preparations for the siege of Constantinople, I94 

The great cannon of Mahomet, - 197 

1453 Mahomet II forms the siege of Constantinople, 200 
Forces of the Turks, - - 202 
Greeks, - - 203 

1452 False union of the two churches, - 205 
Obstinacy and fanaticism of the Greeks, 206 

1453 Siege of Constantinople by Mahomet II, 209 
Attack and defence, - - - 212 
Succour and victory of four ships, - 214 
Mahomet transports his navy over land, « 219 
Distress of the city, - - 221 
Preparations of the Turks for the general assault, 222 
Last farewell of the emperor and the Greeks, 224 
The general assault, -* - 22iS 


A. D« page 

Death of the emperor Constantine Falseologus^ 23 Ir 

Loss of the city and empire, - - ib. 

The Turks enter and pillage Constantinople, 232 

Captivity of the Greeks, - - 233 

Amount of the spoil, - - 236 
Mahomet II visits the city^ St. Sophia, the 

palace, &c. - - « 239 

His behaviour to the Greeks, - 241 

He repeoples and adorns Constantinople, 243 
Extinction of the imperial families of Coomenus 

and Palaeologus, . « » 246 

1460 Loss of the Morea, - - 248 

1461 of Trebizond, - - 249 

1453 Grief and terror of Europe, - - 251 

1481 Death of Mahomet II, - - 254 


Siate of Rome from the twelfth century. --^Temporal do^ 
minion of the popes, — Seditions of the city, — Political 
heresy of Arnold of Brescia, — Restoration of the repub» 
lie. — The senators. — Pride of the Romans. -^Their wars. 
— They are deprived of the election and presence of the 
popes J who retire to Avignon. — TheJppilee .^^Nnhlp fn^ 
milies of Rome^-^Feud of the Colonna andUrsim, 

A. t>. Page 

1 100-1500. State and revolutions of Rome, - 256 
800-1100. The French and German emperors of 

Rome, - - - 258 
Authority of the popes in Rome, - 260 
From affection, - - - ib. 
right, - - - 261 

— virtue, - - - ib. 

— benefits, - - 262 
Inconstancy of superstition, - 263 
Seditions of Rome against the popes, - 264 

1086-1305. Successors of Gregory VII, - 266 

1099-11 18. Paschal II, - - ^7 

III8-III9. GelasiusII, - - ib. 

1144, 1145. Lucius II, -. - 26^ 


A.D. Pig» 

1181-1185. Lucius III, ^ ^ 2169 

llig-1124. Calistuall, ^ . ib. 

1130-1143. Innocent II, - - ibu 

Character of the Romans by St. Bernard, 2^0 

1140 Political heresy of Arnold of Brescia, -. 271 
1144-1154. He exhorts the Romans to restore the 

republic, - - - 274 

1155 His execution, - - 276 

1144 Restoration of the senate, - 277 

The capitol, - - . 280 

The coin, - . » 281 

The prefect of the city, - — 282 

Number and choice of the senate, - 883 

The office of senator, - « 285 

1252-1258. Brancaleone, - « 286 

1265-1278. Charles of Anjou, - - 28S 

1281 Pope Martin IV, - -. 289 

1328 The emperor Lewis of Bavaria, - ib. 

Addresses of Rome to the emperors, - « 2^0 

1144 Conrad III, .... ^^ 

1155 Frederic I, - - i- 291 

Wars of the Romans against the neighbouriog 

cities, - .. .„ 2Q6 

1167 Battle of Tusculum, -1 . *. 393 

1234 ■■ of Viterbo, , - - 299 

The election of the popes, - - Jb^ 

llfg Right of the cardinals established by Alexander 

III, - - - 300 

1274 Institution of the conclave by Gregory X^ 301 

Absence of the popes from Rome, - 304 

1294-1303. Boniface VIII, - - 305 

13C9 Translation of the holy see to Avignon, 307 

1300 Ins ^fti^tion of the j ubilee, or holy vean - 310 

1350 Vhe second juDuee, 312 

The nobles or barons of Rome, - 318 

Family of Leo the Jew, - - 315 

TheColonna, - ^ ^ 3 16 

And Ursihi, - p» » 320 

Their hereditary feuds, - - 322 



C^haracter and coronation of PetrarcL-^Restoration of the 
freedom and gove* nment (f Rome by tht^ tribune Rienzi, 
'^IJi virtues an^i vi es^ his expuhion and death.— ^Re* 
turn of the popes f torn Avignon. — Great schism of the 
Weht, '^Reunion of the Latin church^^^Last struggles 
of Roman liberty — Statit's of Rome.'^Final iet» 
ilement of the eccksiauical state* 

A. D. Page 

1304-1374. Petrarch, - - , 324 

1341 His poetic coronation at Rome, - 328 

Birth, character, and patriotic designs of Rienzi, 331 

1347 He assumes the government of Rome, - 334 

With the title and office of tribune, - 336 

Law s of the good estate, - ib. 

Freedom and prosperity of the Roman republic, 339 

The tribune is respected in Italy, &c. - 342 

And celebrated by Petrarch, - 343 

His vices and follies, - - 344 

The pomp of his knighthood, - 346 

And coronation, - - 348 

Fear and hatred of the nobles of Rome, 349 

They oppose Rienzi in arms, - 351 

Defeat and death of the Colonna, - 352 

Fall and flight of the tribune Rienzi, - 354 

1347-1354. Revolutions of Rome, ■* 356 

Adventures of Rienzi, - 35/ 

1351 A prisoner at A^gnon, - - 358 

1354 Rienzi, senator of Rome, - 359 
His death, - - 362 

1355 Petrarch invites and upbraids the emperor Charles IV, ib. 
He solicits the popes of Avignon to fix their re- 
sidence at Rome, - - 363 

1367-1370. Return of Urban V, - 365 

1377 Final return of Gregory XI, - . ib* 

1378 His death, - - 367 
Election of Urban VI, - 368 

iui* tag* 

Election of Clement VII, « 368 

1378-1418. Great schism of the We«t, -• 37I 

Calamities of Rome, - - ib. 

1392-1407. Negotiations for peace aad union, 373 

1409 Council of Pisa, - - 375 

1414-1418. Council of Constance, •• ib* 

Election of Martin V, - - 377 

1417 Martin V, - - 378 

1431 Eugenius IV, - - ib. 

1447 Nicholas V, - - ib. 

1434 Last revolt of Rome, •- - ib* 

1452 Last coronation o£ a German emperor, Frederic 

III, - - 379 

The statutes and goTcmment of Rome, 380 

1453 Conspiracy of Purcaro, - 383 
Last disorders of the nobles of Rome, 38^ 

1500 The popes acquire the absolute dominion of Rome, 387 

The ecclesiastical government, - 39I 

U&5-1 590. SixtusV, - - 392 


Prospect of the ruins of Rome in the Jrf/eenh century.'-^ 
Four causes of decay an I destruction, — Example (fthe 
Coliseum.'^Rsnuvalhn of the city •'^Conclusion of the 
whole Kork, 

A.D. Pugt 

14 JO View and discourse of Poggius from the Capitoline 

hill, - - -. sgs 

His description of the ruins, - 397 

Gradual decay of Rome. .- 398 

Four causes of destruction, ^ - 400 

I. The injuries of nature, - ib. 
Hurricanes s^d earthquakes, - 401 
Fires, - - » ib* 
Inundations, - -. 408 

II. The hostile attacks of the Barbariaas and 
Christians, - - 40i 


A. D. Pagr 

' III. The use and abuse of the materials^ 408 

IV, The domestic quarrels of the Romans, 413 

The coliseum or amphitheatre of Titus, 418 

Games of Rome, - - 420 

1332 A bull feast in the coliseum, ^ 42 1 

Injuries, - - - 423 

And consecration of the coliseum, - 425 

Ignorance and barbarism of the Romans, ib« 

1420 Restoration and ornaments of the city, 428 

Final coQclusi^ni - - 431 








Elevation of Tmour^ or Tamerlane^ to the throne oj 
Samarcand. — His conquests in Persia^ Georgiay 
TartoTif^ Russia, India, Siftia, and Anaio&a* — His 
Turldsh war. — Defeat and captixUt/ of Bajazet. — 
Death oj Timour. — Civil war of the sons of Baja* 
set. — Restoration of the Turkish monarthy by Ma* 
hornet the first, — Sie^e of Constantinople by Amth 
rath the second, 

1 HE conquest and monarchy of the world ^^^* 
was the first object of the ambition of Timour. ^^,^^^^ 
To live in the memory and esteem of future HUtorfet 
ages was the second wish of his magnanimous oi Tm 
spirit. All the civil and military transactions '"^ 
of his reign were diligently recorded in the jour- 



CHAP, nals of his secretaries :^ the authentic narratire 
^^^* was revised by the persons best informed of 
each particular transaction ; and it is believed in 
the empire and fhtnily of Tiihotir, that the mo- 
narch himself composed the comtneTUaries^ of his 
life, and the institutidHJf dfhis government.^ But 
these cares were ineffectual for the preservation 
of his fame, dfad the&e j^recidus ihemdrials in the 
Mogul or Persian language were concealed from 
the world, or at least frbih^^he knowledge of Eu« 

• These Jodrflals i^ere iionim^iAicated'lo Sheitfe^dHi/ or Cherefed- 
din AH, a native of Yezd, wlio compodfed'tn the^Pteri^lan language a 
bistory of Timonr Beg, which has been translated into French by 
M. Petis de la Croix (Paris, 1722, in 4 vols. Itoo), and has always 
been my faithful guide. His geography and chronoli^are wonder* 
fully accurate; and he may be trusted for public facts, though he 
servilely praises the virtue and fortune of the hero. Timour's at- 
tention to procure InieAigence fW>m his own and foreign countries 
may be seen in the Institutions, p. 215, 217, 349, 351. 

^ These cooimentaries are yet unicnown in Europe ; but Mr. White 
gives some hope that they may be imported and translated by his 
friend Major Davy, who had read in the East this ** minute andfaith- 
•• fnl narrative of an Interehting and eventAil period.*' 

« I am Ignorant whether the original institution, in the Turkish 
or Mogul language, be still extant. The Persic version, with an 
'Bngllsh translation and a most valuable Index, was published (Ox- 
Ibrd, 1783, in 4to) by the yAnt labours of Miyor Davy, and Mr. 
White, the Arabic professor. This work has been since translated 
from the Persic into French (Paris, 1797) by M. Langles, a learned 
Orientalist, who has added the life of Timour^ Snd many citirious 

<^ Siiaw Allum, the present Mogul, reads, values, but cannot tmi* 
^tkte, (be IMlftutlohs bf h1s'|;i1»t fandeMor. ^e'Bhgli^h Itrfanslator 
relies on* their internal evidence; bat if any suspicion should arise of 
fraiid and fiction, they will not be dispelled by Major Davy*s letter. 
The biKeniias K&ve ntv^r hMvaHid Ybe iolt of criticism ; 1h^ patron- 
^•ge of a prinee, lest hbribnraUle perhaps, is not Ihte lucrative than 
than that of a bookseller; nor can it be deemed incredible, that a 
'Fersiaii, the rtid ku£hbr,' IfhoUld: WnoUnce Vhe ^edil, to raiSe the ^ft- 
Hie'ldid^rtce 6f the iMxfk. 


tofes l%etiatieMi«d»ichliei;ttBquidi6deQBerai^ jcmat. 
a baseand impote&t cevjenf^e ; aad igncaraiice Jmis ^^ 
long Bepeated Hie tele 4x£ esduvmy/ xrfaich had dift» 
figured :the inofh and ^cdutfacter, ibe fieraoD, bdA 
67611 tine name, ctf Tamerlane/ Yetifalsiraal merit 
would be enhanced, rather tiian debased, Iqr the 
elevation of a peasant to the throne of Asia ; nor 
can his lameness be a theme .of reproach, unless 
he had the weakness to blush at a natural, or per- 
haps an honourable, infirmitj* 

In the.eyes of the Moguls, who held the inde- 
feasible succession of the house.of Zingb, he was 
doubtless a rebel subject ; yet he sprang from 
the noble tribe of Berlass : his fifth ancestor, 
Carashar Nevian, had been the vizir of Zagatai, 
in his new realm of Transoxiaria ; and in the as- 
cent of some generations, the branch of Timour 
is confounded, at least by the females,* with the 

« The original of the tale is found in the following work» which is 
much esteemed for its florid elegance of styles AkmedU Ambsiadm 
(Ahmed £bn Arabshah) VUm e< Rerum gutarMm .Timmri* jirMce €i 
Zatine EdidU Samuel HenrieuB Manger* FramequenBf 1767> 2 torn* 
in ^puario. This Syrian aut^ior Is ever a maliciousy and often an igno* 
norant, enemy : the very titles of his chapters are injurious ; as how 
the wicked, as how the impious, as how the viper, &c. The copioutf 
article of 7*mtir, in Bibliotheque Orientale, is of a mixed nature, aa 
d'Herbelot IndifTerently'drawsr his materials (p. 877-S8S)from Khon- 
demir, £bn Schounah, and the Lebtarikh. 

'Demir orJ^Tjtmtir signifies, in the Turkish language, iron ; and Seg 
is the appellation of a lord or prince. By the change of a letter or ac- 
cent, it is changed into Lenc or Lame ; and a European cogmiption 
confounds the two words in the name of Tamerlane. 

a After rdating some false and foolidi tales of Timour JLoie, Arab- 
shah is oonipeUed to speak truth, and to own. him for a klnaman ctf 
.Zingis, per mulieres (as he peevishly adds) ijlaqueos Satanse (parsxy 
c i, p» 25}, The testimony of Ahtilgfaazj Khan (p. ii>^ c. 6, pt v^ 
•c*(4>) i& clear, ttnq[ue6tionaUe, and. decisive. 



CHAP, imperial ^tem.^ He was bom forty miles to the 
south of Samarcand^ in the village of Sebzar, in 

the fruitful territory of Cash^ of which his fathers 
were the hereditary chiefs, as well as of a toman 
of ten thousand horse/ His birth ^ was cast on 
one of those periods of anarchy which announce 
the fall of the Asiatic dynasties, and open a new 
field to adventurous ambition. The khans of Zaga- 
tai were extinct ; the emirs aspired to independ- 
ence; and their domestic feuds could only be sus- 
pended by the conquest and tyranny of the khans 
of Kaishgar, who, with an army of Getes or Cal- 
ais erst ad- mucks,^ invaded the Transoxian kingdom. From 
Td °i36i- the twelfth yearof hisage,Timourhad entered the 
^^'^^' field of action ; in the twenty-fifth, he stood forth 
as the deliverer of his country ; and the eyes and 

. ^ According to one of the pedigrees, the fourth ancestor of Zingis, 
land the ninth of Timour, were brothers ; and they agreed, that the 
posterity of the elder should succeed to the dignity of khan, and that 
the descendants of the younger should fill the office of their minister 
and general. This tradition was at least convenient to justify the 
Jirat steps of Timour's ambition (Institutions, p. 24, 25, from the 
• MS. fragments of Timour's History"). 

' See the preface of Sherefeddin, and Abulfeda's Geography (Cho- 
rasmiae, &c. Descriptio, p. 60, 61), in the third volume of Hudson's 
Minor Greek Geographers. 

* See his nativity in Dr. Hyde (Syntgama Dissertat. tom. ii, p. 
466), as it was cast by the astrologers of his grandson Ulugh Beg. He 
was born, a. d. 1336, April 9, 11*> 57' p. m. lat. 36. I know not whe- 
ther they can prove the great conjunction of the planets, from whence, 
like other conquerors and prophets, Timour derived the surname of 
Saheb Keran, or master of the conjunctions (Bibliot. Orient, p. 878). 

* In the Institutions ^f Timour, these subjects of the khan of Kash« 
gar are most improperly styled Ouzbegs, or Uzbeks, a name which 
t>elongs to another branch and country of Tartars (Abulghazi, p. v, 
c 5, p. vii, c. 5). Could I be aure that this word is in the Turkish 
original, I wouljd boldly pronounce that the Institutions were framed 
a century after the death of Timour, since the establibbment of the 
Uzbeks in Transoxlana. 


wishes of the people were turned towards an hera chaf. 
who suffered'in their cause.- The chiefs of the law ^^^^ 
and of the army had pledged their salvation to 
support him with their lives and fortunes ; but in 
the hour of danger they were silent and afraid ; 
and, after waiting seven days on the hills of Sa- 
marcand, he retreated to the desert with only six- 
ty horsemen. The fugitives were overtaken by a 
thousand Getes, whom he repulsed with incredible 
slaughter^ and his enemies were forced to exclaim, 
'* Timour is a wonderful man : fortune and the 
" divine favour are with him." But in this bloody 
action his own followers were reduced to ten, a 
number which was soon diminished by the deser- 
tion of three Carizmians. He wandered in the; 
desert with his wife, seven companions, and four; 
horses ; and sixty-two days was he plunged in a 
loathsome dungeon, from whence he escaped by. 
bis own courage, and the remorse of the oppressor. 
After swimming the. broad and rapidstream of the 
Jihoon, or Oxus, he led, during some months, the 
life of a vagrant and outlaw on the borders of the 
adjacent stjates. But his fame shone brighter in 
adversity ; he learned to distinguish the friends of 
his person, the associates of his fortune, and to 
apply the various characters of men for their ad- 
vantage, and, above all, for his own. On his re- 
turn to his native country, Timour was successive- 
ly joined by the parties of his confederates,, wko 
anxiously sought. him in the desert; nor xjan I 
refuse to describe, in his pathetic simplicity, one 
of their fortunate encounters. He presented him- 
self as a guide to three chiefs, who were at the 
head of seventy horse. " When their eyes fell 




cHAp;^«5wft fl»/' 9ay» Tfattoor, ^ tbeywete oircr- 
Lxv. a whelmed with joy ; $mA they sUigkted from 
^^''^ ^ their horseis ; and they came and kjieeled ; aeid 
" they kissed my stirrup. I also came down fnuM 
'* my liorse, aiid took each of them in my anit»» 
And I put my turban on the head of the first 
chief; and my girdle, rich in jewels and 
«* wrought with gold, I bound on the loins of 
'< the second ; and the third I clothed in my 
"own co£it* And they wept, and I wept also ; and 
" the hour of prayer was arrived, and we prayed. 
<• And we mounted our horses, and came to my 
*' dwelling ; and I collected my peq)le, and made 
*^"a feast." Histrusty bands were soon increased 
by the bravest of the tribes ; he led them against 
tk superior foe; and after some vicissitudes of war, 
the Gretes were finally driven from the kingdom 
/)f TransOxiana. He had done much for his own 
glory ; but much remained to be done, much art 
to be exerted, and some blood to be spilt, before 
he could teach his equals to obey him as their 
master. The birth and power of emir Houssein 
compelled him to accept a vicious and unwc»*thy 
colleague, whose sister was the best beloved of his 
Wives. Their union was short and jealous ; but 
the policy of Timour, in their frequent quarrels, 
exposed hit riv^a! to the reproach cf injustice and 
perfidjr : and, after a small defeat, Houssein was 
dain by some sagacious friends, who presumed, 
fcr the last time, to disobey the commands of 
thw lord. At the age of thirty-four," and m a 

^ The first book of Sbereftddin is employed, on the private life of 
the hero ; and he himself, or his secretary (Institutions, p. 3-77), 


im^ <f ?WffS;; awl vi^^^^ thje WW T^'PPWf^^S^ 
reigii^ aver Zagf^^ ^4 the ^aj^jlj, a^ijpjjj^p^ 
1^ senr^d as a pi;iva>tp o^k iij ^ ^W^.^feilriJ^^' 

roile%ip 1^1^ a^d ini bj^a^^K Vfi^h^ h^vfi ^ti%., 
fied tjbe ^mbUiqii (j^ a^ ^^pjj^ > bj^t "l^i^oi^ as- 
pired tA.t^je dprnin^^ qj^ thj^/^orld; aj^^jfor^ 
hi& d|^^]|i^ t^e crqwn c^ ^^a^V^ i^^^s oqe o^ the 
twq^^^-s^ven croons wMpJl he had pjLaqed on hU 
h^ad. Without et^tiating on tjt^e. vJipt^i^ies. of 
thjirty-fiye. camp^igna^; without d^c^ip||^ the; 
Unes of iwch whkh h^ rqieated^ traced over 
the continent of Asia ; I ^a^ briefljr cepres^ nt 
his conqiJi^^t^ in^ i. jpers^i ; lu Tartaij; and» ii^ 
India f and f^^in thence pi^oceed to the more 
intere^in^ narrative of Jfus Ottoman war. 

I. For every war, a motive of safety cj^r rcrveqge^ His eon- 
of honour or zeal, of right or convenience, may beJl^s^g, 
readily found in the jurisf»nideiice of ^<^^^P^rors.^^^j^ 
No sQo^er hadTiifiour r^-un^ted to the patrimony jI ]»- i38oI 
of Zs^i^tai the de^ndent countries of Carizme^^^ 
and Candahar, than he turned bis eyes towards 
the kingdoms of Iran or Persia. From the Q^cus 
to the Tigris, that extensive country was left 
without a lawful sQvereign since tb^ dei^tb of 
Abouaai^ $he last of tbe descepdants of the great 

enlarges, with pleasure* on the thirteen designs an4 enterprises which 
most truly constitute his personal nierit- It even shines through the 
darlc colouring of Arabshah* p. i, ci 1-12. 

'^ The conquests 6f Persia, Tartary, and India* are represented in 
the second and third books of Sherefeddin, and by Arabsluih, c 13« 
f^ ConsiUt tbe esceilent iod»^ to the institutions* ^ 

B 4 


CHAP. tTouIacou. Pea€e and justice had been banished 
^^^' ftom the land above forty years ; and the Mogul 
invader might seem to listen to the cries of ail 
oppressed people. *rheir petty tyrants might 
have opposed him with confederate arms : they 
Separately stood, and successively fell ; and the 
difference of their fate was only marked by the 
t)romptitude of submission, or the obstinacy of 
. resistance. Ibrahim, prince of Shirwan or Alba- 
nia, kissed the footstool of the imperial throne* 
ttis peace-offerings of silks, horses, and jewels. 
Were composed, according to the Tartar fashion, 
each article of nine pieces;' but a critical spectator 
observed, that there were only eight slaves. " I 
** myself am the ninth,*'" replied Ibrahim, who 
was' prepared for the remark; and his flattery 
was rewarded by the smile of Tiniour. Shah 
Mansour, prince of Fars; or the proper Persia^ 
was one of the least powerful, but most dan- 
gerous, of his enemies. In a battle under the 
walls of Shiraz, he broke, with three or four 
thousand soldiers, the'covl, or main body, of 
thirty thousand horse, where the emperor fought 
In person. No more than fourteen or fifteen 
guards remained near the standard of Timour : 
ne stood firm as a rock, and received on his hel- 
met two weighty strokes of a scymetar:'^ the 
Moguls rallied ; the head of Mansour was thrown 

• ^he reverence of the Tartars for the mysterious number of nine 
Is declared by Abulghazi Khan, who, for that reason, divides his 
Oenealogical History into nine parts. 

' P According to Arabshah (p. i, c. 28, p. 183), the coward Timour 
fan away to his tent, and hid himself from the pursuit of Shah Man** 
sour under the Women's garments. Perhaps' ISberefeddin (L lit, c. 2^ 
)lQ& magnified his courage^ 

tJi? THE KOMAN EMPfRit/ 9 

nt his feet, and he declared his esteem of the chap. 
valour of a foe, by extirpating all the males of so 
intrepid a race. 'From Shiraz, his troops advanced "*"""****'' 
to the Persian gulf; and the richness and weakness 
of Ormuz^ were displayed in an annual tribute 
of six hundred thousand dinars of gold. Bagdad 
was no longer the city of peace, the seat of the 
Caliphs ; but the noblest conquest of Houlacou 
could not be overlooked by his ambitious succes-* 
son The whole course of the Tigris and Eu- 
phrates, from the mouth to the sources of those 
rivers, was reduced to his obedience : he enter- 
ed Edessa ; and thie Turkmans of the black sheep 
were chastised for the sacrilegious pillage of a 
caravan ^f Mecca. In the mountains of Georgia^ 
the native christians still braved the law and Uie 
sword of Mahomet; by three expeditions, he 
obtained the merit of the gazie, or holy war ; and 
the prince of Teflis became his proselyte and 

II. A just retaliation might be urged for then, or 
invasion of Turkestan, or the eastern Tartary. Z'^'d!^137o1 
The dignity of Timour could not endure the ^383. 

^ The hiitoiy of Ormuz is not unlike that of Tyre. The old city* 
on the continent, was dcitroyed by the Tartars, and renewed in a 
neighbouring island, without fresh water or vegetation. The kings of 
brmuz, Tich in the Indian trade and the pearl tishery, posbessed iargt 
territories both in Persia and Arabia ; but they were at first the tri- 
butaries of the sultans of Kerman, and at last were deiivtred (i. u. 
1505) by the Portuguese tyrants from the tyranny of their own vizirs 
(.Marco PoIo» 1. i, c ^5, 16, fbl. 7, B. Abulfeda, Geograph. tabid, xi, 
p. 261, 262, an original clironicle of Ormuz, in Texeira, or Stevcirs 
History of Persia, p. 3f 6-416, and the itineraries inserted in the 
first volume of Ramusio, of Ludovico fiarthema (1503), fol. 167, of 
Andrea Cbrsali (1517), fol. 202, 203, and of Odoardo Barbessa (iu 
1516), fph 315-318). 

10 run OECLINII AjK9 KAV^, 

CHAP, impumty of the Getest; k^ p^t^s^d the ^ihiPPlP^ 
J^^^^ wbdue4 tfee kiqgdooA of Cq3hj?>r, wd iiw;cU^4 
^"***^" a^vea t^iSKes 1»U> Hm hevt o^ thjev QQWXitjry . J^ 
mo^ didtant (;^p wa& ti^a ipaQijtt)i.&goxi;i:ne3[^ oi; 
£pUi^ bundredand eighty 1^9£^8» t^Q.the oorth-^asjl^ 
q{ Samarc^i^; ai^d bis emi^ ^ho tr{vv^i;sed; the 
fiver Irtifih^ ei^raved ^ ^\t^ forests^ of Si]i>eri^ ^ 
fude i^emwai of tl^eir es^gloitsi. The cout 
quest of EapzaJ^ or the w^stjern X^^^y/ ^^ 
foanded QB the dpuble ^iptiive of aiding th^ 
distressed, and cba^^i^g- \kff upgr^^efyl. Toe* 
taiaish, a fugitive pi;inp^>^ w^^; entertained and 
protected in his^ ifoufA ; the ambassadors of 
Auruss Khm were disnUssed wi^b ^ h^iigi^tj 
denial, and followed on^tl^e s^e d^y by th^ 
anpaies of ;£agatai; ^d tbe|r svcc^s established 
Toctainish in the Mog^l e^ipir^ of the i^orth- 
But, aft^r a reigp of ten ye^^, the n^w khaft 
forgot the merits and the ^fji^epgth of his bene- 
factor, the base usurper, as he deemed hinii, of 
the sacred rights of the ho^se of Zingis. Through 
the gates of Derbend, he entered Persia at the 
head of ninety thousand horse : with the innumer- 
able forces of Kipzak, Bulgaria, Circassia, and 
/ Russia, he passed the Sihoon, burnt the palaces 

of Timour, and compelled him, amidst the 
winter snows, to contend for Samarcaml and 
or Kipzak, his life. ^ After a mild expostulation and a 
^.TTssoigloriows victory, the emperor resolved on re- 
1390. venge ; and by the east and the west of the 
Caspian, and the Volga, he twice invaded Kipzalf: 

' AralMshah had travelled into Kipzak» and acquired a singular 
knowledge of the geography, cities, and irevolutiops, pf that nortllierB 
region (p. i* c 4^49). 



witb Mck flujghtjr powars, that tlHrteen mika cbap. 
were meafuied from kis ri^t to his left wiag. 
Ib a inarch of five months^ thfey rarely heheld the ^ 
foototeps of man; and t^ir daUy snbsisteace 
was i^teii trusted to the fortiuie of the chace. 
At lei^^ the armies encountered each other; 
but the treachery of the standwd-bearer, who^ in 
the lieat of action^ reversed the imperial standard 
of Kipzak; detennmed the victory of the ZMg^ 
tab; and Toctamish (I speak the language of the 
Institutiofis) gave the tribe of Toushi to the wind 
of desoktioD/ He fled to the christian duke 
of Lithuania; again returned to the banks of the 
Volga ; and^ after fifteen battles with a domestic 
rivals at last perished in the wilds of Siberia* 
The pursuit of a flying enemy carried Tunmir 
into the tributary provinces of Russia: adukeof 
the reigning family was made prisoner amidst the 
ruins of his capital ; and Yeletz, by the pride 
and ignorance of the Orientals, might easily be 
confounded with the genuine metropolis of the 
nation. Moscow trembled at the approach of the 
Tutar, and the resistance would have been feeble, 
since the hopes of the Russians were placed in a 
miraculous image of the virgin, to whose pro- 
tection they ascribed the casual and voluntary 
retreat of the conqueror. Ambition and pru- 
dence recalled him to the soutii ; the desolate 
country was exhausted, and the Mogul soldiers 
were enriched with an iimnense sfKiil of predous 

* Institutions of Tlmonr, {i. 123, 125. Mr. Wliite, tho editor, 
beotiHirs sone animadversioii on the superlidal aooount of Sherefisd- 
din (!• iii> c. 12, 13, 14), who was ignorant of the designs of Tfowor^ 
mid tli^ true springs of acUon. 


CHAR fur&y of linen of Antioch/ and of ingots of gold 
^^^•^ and silver." On the banks of the Don, or Ta- 
nais, he received an humble deput^ion from 
the consuls and merchants of Egypt,* Venice, 
Genoa, Catalonia, and Biscay, who occupied the 
commerce and city of Tana, or Azoph, at the 
mouth of the river. They offered their gifts, ad- 
mired his magnificence, and trusted to his royal 
word. But the peaceful visits of an einir, who 
^plored the state of the magazines and harbour, 
was speedily followed by the destructive presence 
o( the Tartars. The city was reduced to ashes ; 
the Moslems were pillaged and dismissed ; but all 
the christians, who had not tied to their ships, were 
condemned either to death or slavery.^ Revenge 
prompted him to burn the cities of Serai and 
Astrachan; the monuments of rising civilization ^ 

* The furs of Russia are more credible than the iagots. But the 
finen of Antioch has never been famous ; and Antioch was in ruins. 
I suspect that it was some manufacture of Europe', which the Hanse 
merchants b)ui imported by the .way of Novogorod. 

" M. Lev^squc (Hist, de Russie, tom. ii, p. 247. Vie de Timour, 
■ f» 6i-67, before the French Version of the Institutes) has corrected 
the ercor of Sherefeddin, and mm-ked the true Umit of Timour*s con- 
quests. His arguments are superfluous, and a simple appeal to the 
Russian annals is suflRcient to prove that Moscow, which six years 
bcfbrt haM been taken by Toctamish, escaped the iirms of a more 
formidable invader. 

* An Egyptian consul from Grand Cairo is mentioned in Barbarous 
Toyage to Tana in 1436, after the city had been rebuilt (Ramusioy 
tom. ii, fql. 92). 

y The sack of Azoph is described by Sherefeddin (L. iii, c. 55), and 
much more particularly by the author of an Italian chronicle (An- 
dreas de Redufiiis de Quero, in Chron. Travisiano, in Muratori Script* 
Rerum Italicarum, tom. xix, p. 802*805). He had conversed with 
the Mianis, two Venetian brothers, one of whom had been sent a de- 
puty to the camp of Timour/ and the other had lost at Asoph three 
wns aod 12,000 ducats. 


and his vanity proclaimed, that he bad pene. chap. 
trated to the region of perpetual daylight, * V[*^ 

• strange phenomenon, which authorised his ma> 
faometan doctors to dispense with the oUigation 
«f evening prayer.' 

III. When Timour first proposed to his princesin. or Bin. 
and emirs the invasion of India or Hindostan^^^l^s^ 
h^was atiswered by a murmur of discontent :*^••■ 
^ The rivers ! and the mbunUuns and deserts ! 
^ and the soldiers clad in armour ! and the . 
^* elephants, destroyers of men f" But the dis- 

. plieasure of the emperor was more dreadful than 

. all these terrors ; and his superior reason was 
convinced, that an enterprise of such tremendous 
aspect was safe and easy in the execution. He 
was informed by his spies of the weakness and 
anarchy of Hindostan : the soubahs of the pro- 

. vinces had erected the standard of rebellion ; and 
the perpetual infancy of sultan Mahmoud was 
despised, even in the haram of Delhi. The 
Mogul army amoved in three great divisions: 
and Timour observes, with pleasure, that. the 

, ninety^^-two squadrons of a thousand horse most 
fortunately corresponded with the ninety-two 
names or epithets of the prophet Mahomet. 
Between the Sihoon and the Indus they crossed 

* Sherefeddin only says <!• iii» c 13), that the rays of the setting, 
and those of the rising sun, were scarcely separated by any interval; 
a problem which may be solved in the latitude of Moscow (the fifty- 
«ixth degree), with the aid of the aurora borealis, and a long summer 
twilight* But a day of forty days (Khondemir apud d'Herbelot^ p. 
8S0) would rigorously confine us within the polar circle. 

• For the Ifidian war, see the Institutions (p. 129-139), the fourth 
book of Sherefeddin, and the history of Ferishta (in Dow, yol. ii, p. 
Jf920)f wbich throws a ^^enerali lig^t on the affairs pf Hindostan. 

■ IWi>WW< » «» 


GHftP. ane of tiie riAges afw^amtsms^ winch ase stgMl 
' by the Anbian |;eognqphers» tiie stoof girdies 
^ the earth* The fai^laBd pcfabers mtare ub- 
dued or extirpated ; but gf eat aMtmbers ^f men 
and horses perished in the snow: 1^ (emperor 
iiimself was let down a firecipice on a po^ble 
scaffold ; the ropes were one hundned and Mty 
cubits in length ; -and, before lie coidd reach %fae 
bottom, ithis dangerous operaticm was five'timies 
rq)eartod. Timour crossed the Indus at ithe or* 
dinary passage of Attok; and successively tra- 
versed^ in liie footsteps of Alexander, the Punjab^ 
or five rivers,*' that fall into tibe master-stream. 
Prom Attok to Delhi, the highroad measures no 
more than six ^hundred miles ; but the two con- 
querorsdeviated to the south-east: and the motive 
of Timour was to join his grandson, who had 
achieved, by his command, the conquest of Moul- 
tan. On the eastern^bank df the Hyphasis, on the 
edge of the desert, the Macedonian hero halted 
and wept : the MoguJ entered the desert, reduced 
the fortress of Batnir, and stood in arms before 
the gates of Delhi, a great and flourishing city, 
which had subsisted three centuries under the 
dominion of* the mahometan kings. Th^ siege, 
more especially of the castle, might have been a 
work of time ; but he tempted, by the appearance 
of weakness, the sultan Mahmoud and his vizir 

* The rivers of tite Punjab, the five eastern branches of the Indosy 
have been laid down, for the- first time, with truth and aceuracj, in 
M«jor Kennel's incomparable map of Hindestan. In his- Critical 
Memoir he illustrates^ with judgment and leamioff, Uie marges of 
AJexatfder and Timour. 


<4} descend 'itfto the 'plaiiiy with ten thoiiMBd ch4K 

durassiefs, feri^^o«ijitndorhis feat gMurdsi^ and ^^^' 

^lie hiMldredatad twenty elephants, whose tusks 

are safid to hove been anned wi^ dharp and 

poisoned daggers* Agftinrt these monsters, or 

rather, aghast the^maginatHm of his iro<^ps, he 

condescended to use some extraordinary precau- 

'tions tif fire and a ditdi, of iron spikes and a 

rampart df boeklers ; but the evtet taught the 

Mogids -to smile at their own fears ; and, as 

*50on as thesfe'u^wieldy animals were routed, the 

iiiferior spcicies (the men of India) disappewed 

frdm the field. Timour made his triumphal entry 

iuto'the capital of Hindestan; and admired, with 

a view to imitate, the architecture of the stately 

ihdsch; hut thbordcr and licence <^ a g&ikcnl 

'^faige and massacre polluted the festival ci his 

Victory* 'He resolved to purify his soldieis kt 

^e ftlCiod of the idolaters, orGentoos, who stfll 

^surpass, in thetproportiim of ten to ^e, theimm^ 

liers of the Moslems. In this pious design^ he 

advanced oncfatUHired miles to the nordi-east i^ 

'D^lhi, -passed the Ganges, fought several battles 

by land and water, and penetrated to the fasioiis 

rockof Coupele, the statue <^f the cow, thatteemf 

to iMsdiatge the mighty rivfcr, Whose source isfer 

^distant amoUg the moutitains Of Thibet'' His 

« The two great rlrers, the Ganges and Bummpooter, tiie in 
Thibet, from the opposite ridges ai the same hilis, separate frQm 
each other to the distance of 1200 miles, and after a winding course 
of 2000 miles, again meet in one point near the gulf of Bengal. 
Yet so capricious is fame, that the burrampooter is a late discovery, 
- while his Brother 6f6iges has been (he -theme of AtuAent end modern 


cttXP. return was alon^ the skirts of the northern 
^^^wwJi^ hills ; nor could this rapid campaign of one year 
justify the strange foresight of his eihirs, that 
their children, in a warm climate, would dege- 
nerate into a race of Hindoos. 
His war j^ was ou the banks of the Ganges thatTimour 

against , P 

sultan Ba- was informed, by his speedy messengers, of the 
r m^iioo, disturbances which had arisen on the confines of 
Sept. 1. Georgia and Anatolia, of the revolt of the chris- 

• tians, and the ambitious designs of the sultan 
Bajazet. His vigour of mind and body was not 
inipaired by sixty-three years, mid innumerable 
fatigues; and, after enjoyingsome tranquil months 
in the palace of Samarcand, he proclaimed a new 
expedition of seven years into the western coun- 
tries of Asia.** To the soldiers who had served in 

' the Indian war, he granted the choice of remain- 
ing^ at home, or following their prince; but the 
troops of all the provinces and kingdoms of Persia 

* were commanded to assemble at Ispahan,- and 
wait the arrival of the imperial standard. It was 
first directed against the christians of Georgia, 
who were strong only in their rocks, their castles, 
and the winter season ; but these obstacles were 
overcome by the zeal and perseverance of Timour : 
the rebels submitted to the tribute or the koran ; 
and if both religions boasted of their martyrs, 
that name is more justly due to the christian 

story, Coiipele, th6 scene of Timour's last victory, must be situate 
near Loldonj^, 1100 miles from Calcutta; and, in 1774»» a British 
camp! (Rennel's Memoir, p. 7, 59, 90, 91, 99), 

* See the Institutions, p. 141, to the end of. the first book, ;i^94 
. SJujefcddin (I. v, c. 1-16) to the ^ijtrance of Tjnioui: into S^riju 


prisoners, who were offered the choice of aik- chap. 
juration or death. On his descent from the hills, ^^^*_ 
the emperor gave audience to the first ambassadors 
of Bajazet, and opened the hostile correspondence 
of complaints and menaces ; which fermented 
two years before the final explosion. Between 
two jealous and haughty neighbours, the mo- 
tives of quarrel will seldom be wanting. The 
Mogul and Ottoman conquests now touched each 
other in the neighbourhood of Erzeroum, and the 
^Euphrates ; nor had the doubtful limit been 
ascertained by time and treaty. Each of these 
ambitious monarchs might accuse his rival of 
violating his territory; of threatening his vassals ; 
and protecting his rebels ; and, by the name of 
rebels, each understood the fugitive princes, 
whose kingdoms he had usurped, and whose life 
or liberty he implacably piirsued. The resem- . 
blance of character was still more dangerous than 
the opposition of interest ; and in their victorious 
career, Timour was impatient of an equal, and 
Bajazet was ignorant of a superior. The first 
epistle"^ of the Mogul emperor must have pro- 
voked, instead of reconciling the Tuikish sultan ; 
whose family and nation he affected to despise.^ 

« We have three copies of these hostile epistles in the Institutions 
(p. 147), in Sherefeddin (1. v, c. 14), and in Arabshah (tom. Si, c Id, 
p. 16S-301) s whieh ^ee with each other iu the spirit and sobaitance 
Tather tlian in the stjle. It is 'probable, that they have been trans- 
lated, with various latitude, from the Turkish original iiMo the Ara* 
bic and Persian tongues. 

' The Mogttl emir distingtxistles himself and his countrymen by tfa* 
name of Turkt^ and stigmatises the race and nation of Bajazet with 
tiie less honourable epithet of Turkmans, Yet I do not understand how 




jChap. ^ Dost thou not know, that the greatest part of 
^ Asia is subject to our anns and our laws ? that 
M our invincible forces extend from one sea to 
^^ the other ? that the potentates of the earth 
^ form a line before our gate ? and that we have 
*^ compelled fortune herself to watch over the 
** prosperity of our empire ? What is the founda • 
** tioa of thj insolence and follj ? Thou hast 
^' fought some battles in the woods of Anatolia ; 
^ contemptible trophies ! Thou hast obtained 
^ some victories over the christians. of Europe ; 
** thy sword was blessed by the apostle of God ; 
<< and thy obedience to the precept of the koran, 
** in waging war against the infidels, is the sole 
'< consideration that prevents us from destroying 
** thy country, the frontier and bulwark of the 
*^ Moslem world. Be wise in time ; reflect ; 
<* repent; and avert the thunder of our vengeance, 
'* which is yet suspended over thy head. Thou 
^^ art no more than a pismire ; why wilt thou seek 
^^ to provoke the elephants ? Alas, they will 
'< trample thee under their feet." In his replies, 
Biyazet poured forth the indignation of a soul 
which'was deeply stung by such unusual contempt. 
After retorting the basest reproaches on the thief 
and rebel of the desert, the Ottoman recapitulates 
his boasted victories in Iran, Touran^ and the 
Indies ; and labours to prove, that Timour had 
never triumphed unless by his own perfidy and 
the vices of his foes. " Thy armies are innumer- 
^* able: be they so ; but what are the arrows of 

the Ottomans could be descended from a Turkman sailor ; those in- 
land shepherds were so remote from the seai and all maritime affiurs* 


^ the fl^g Tartar against the scymetars and chaf. 
** battle-axesof mjfirm and invincible janizaries ? _^ ^^_^^*^. 
** I will guard the princes who have implored my 
'* protection : seek them in my tents. The cities 
'^ of Arzingan and Erzeroum are mine, and un- 
** less the tribute be duly paid^ I wUl demand 
*^ the arrears under the walls of Tauris and Sul« 
'^ tania." The ungovernable rage of the sultan 
at length beti^yed him to an insult of a more 
domestic kind. ** If I fly from my arms," said 
he, ^^ may my wives be thrice divorced from my 
*^ bed : but if thou hast not courage to meet me 
** in the field, mayest thou again receive fAy wives 
*^ after they have thrice endured the embraces of 
** a stranger."* Any violation by word or deed 
of the secrecy of the haram is an unpardonable 
offence among the Turkish nations;'' and the 
political quarrel of the two monardis was em- 
bittered by private and personal resentment. Yet 
in his first expedition, Timour was satisfied with 
the siege and destruction of Siwas or Sebaste^ a 
strong city on the borders of Anatolia ; and he 
revenged the indiscretion of the Ottoman*on a 

s According to the koran (c. ii, p. 27, and Sale*s Discourtes, p. 134)|^ 
a mussulman who had thrice divorced his wife (who had thrice re- 
peated the words of a divorce) could not take her again, till after the , 
had heen married to, and repudiated hy^ another husband ; an igno* 
miniout ti^nsaction, which it is needless to aggravate, by suppoting, 
th&t the first husband must. see her enjojed by a second before his h6m 
(Rycaut*s State of the Ottoman Empire, l.ii, c. 21). 

^ The common delicacy of the Orientals, in never speaking of their 
women, is ascribed in a much higher degree by Arabshah to the Turk- 
ish nations ; and it is remarkable enough that Chalcondyles Q» ir^ 
9* ^^ had some koowled^ of the prejudice and the insult, 

c 2 



CHAP, garrison of four thousand Armenians, who were 

buried^alive for the brave and faithftil dischfH*ge 

of their duty. As a mnssulman he seenied to re** 

spect the pious occupation of Bajazet, who was 

still engaged in the blockade of Constantinople: 

and after this salutary lesson, the Mogul conqueror 

checked liis pursuit, and turned aside to the in- 

Timour in- vasion of Syria and Egypt. In these transactions^ 

ri^X^I^ the Ottoman prince, by the Orientals, and even 

1400; by Timour, is styled the Kaissar of Rounif the 

Caesar of the Romans : a title which, by a small 

anticipation, might be given to a monarch who 

possessed the provinces, and threatened the city, 

of the successors of Constantine.^ 

The military republic of the Mamalukes still 
reigned in Egypt and Syria : but the dynastj 
of the Turks was overthrown by tbat of the 
Circassians ;^ and their favourite Barkok, from a 
slave and a prisoner, was raised and restored to 
the throne. In the midst of rebellion and discord, 
he braved the menaces, corresponded with the 
enemies, and detained the ambassadors, of the 
Mogill, who patiently expected his decease, to 
revenge the crimes of the father on the feeble 
reign of his son Parage. The Syrian emirs* 

> For the style of the Moguls, see the Institutiond (p. 131, 147), 
and for the Persians, the Bibliotheque Orientale (p. 882) : but I do 
not find that the title of Caesar has been applied by the Arabians, or 
assumed by the Ottomans themselves. 

^ See the reigns of Barkok and Pharadge, \n M. de Guignes (torn, ir, 
]. xzii), who, from the Arabic texts of Aboulmahasen, Ebn Schounah» 
and Aintabi, has added some facts to our common stock of materials. 

^ For these recent and domestic transactions, Arabshah, though 
a partial^ is a credible witness (torn. 1> c. 64-68, torn, ii, c. 1-14>« 



were assembled at Aleppo to repel the invasion : chap. 
they confided in the fame and discipline of the ^ * 

Mamalukes, in the temper of their swords and 
lances of the purest steel of Damascus^ in the 
strength of their walled cities, and in the popu- 
lottsness of sixty thousand villages; and insteadof 
sustaining a siege, they threw open their gates 
and arrayed their forces in the plain. But these 
forces were not cemented by virtue and union ; 
and some powerful emirs had been seduced to 
desert or betray their more loyal companions. 
Timour's front was covered with a line of Indian 
elephants, whose turrets were filled with archers 
and Greek fire : the rapid evolutions of his cavalry 
completed the dismay and disorder ; the Syrian 
crowds fell back on each other : many thousands 
were stifled or slaughtered in the entrance of the 
great street ; the Moguls entered with the fugi- 
tive; and, after a short defence, the citadel, 
the impregnable citadel of Aleppo, was surren- 
dered by cowardice or treachery. Among the Sacks 
suppliants and captives, Timourdistinguished the a. oAwo, 
doctors of the law, whom he invited to the ^°^* ^^ • 
dangerous honour of a personal conference.™^ — 
The Mogul prince was a zealous mussulman ; but 
his Persian schools had taught him to revere the 
memory of Ali and Hosein ; and he tad imbibed 

Timour inust ha>re been odious to a Syrian ; but the notoriety of facts 
would have obliged him, ia some measure, to respect his enemy and 
]^imself. His bitters may correct the luscious sweets of Slierefeddin 
0. V, 17-29). 

^, These interesting conversations appear to have been copied by 
Arahshah (torn, i, c. 68, p. $26'~64tS) from the cadhi and hlsforian 
Ebn Schoiinah, a principal actor. Yet how could he b« alive seventy- 
ive years afterwards (d'Herbelot, p. 792) ? " 

c 3 s 


CHAP, a deeppi^judiceagaiiistiheSyrians^asthe enemies 
' of the son of the daughter of the apostle of Gk)d. 
To these doctors he proposed a captious question, 
which the casuists of Bochara, Samarcand, and 
Herat, were incapable of resolving. " Who 
'^ are the true martyrs, of those who are slain on 
" my side, or on that of my enemies ?'* But he 
was silenced, or satisfied, by the dexterity of one 
of the cadhis of Aleppo, who replied, in the words 
of Mahomet himself, that the motive, not the en« 
sign, constitutes the martyr ; and that the Mos- 
lems of either party, who fight only for the glo- 
ry of God, may deserve that sacred appellation. 
The true succession of the caliphs was a contro- 
versy of a stillmoredelicate nature, and the franks 
ness of a doctor, too honest for his situation, pro- 
* voked the emperor to exclaim, " Ye are as false 
<* as those of Damascus : Moawiyah was an 
" usurper, Yezid a tyrant, and Ali alone is the 
" lawful successor of the prophet." A prudent 
explanation restored his tranquillity ; and he 
passed to a more familiar topic of conversation. 
<^ What is your age ?" sa^d be to the cadhi. 
" Fifty years." — " It would be the age of my 
** eldest son: you see me here (coiltinued Ti- 
" mour) a poor, lame, decrepit mortal. Yet by 
*' my arm has the Almighty been pleased to 
'< subdue the kingdoms of Iran, Touran, and 
'^ the Indies. I aip not a man of blood ; and 
^* God is my witness, that in all my wars I have 
<^ never been the aggressor, and that my enemies 
** have always been the authors of their own ca- 
** lamity." During this peaceful conversation^ 


the Streets of Ateppo streamed with blood, and chap. 
re-echoed with the cries of mothers and duldren^ ^^^^ ' 
with the shrieks of violated virgins. The rich 
plunder that was abandoned to his soldiers might 
stimulate their avarice; but their cruelty was 
enforced by the peremptory command of pro- 
ducing an adequate number of heads, which, ac« 
cording to his custom, were curiously piled in 
columns and pyraniids : the Moguls celebrated 
the feast of victory, while the surviving Moslems 
passed thenightin tear^and in chains. I shall not 
dwell on the march of the destroyer from Aleppo 
to Damascus, where he was rudely encpuntered, 
and almost overthrown, by the armies of Egypt. 
A retrograde motion was imputed to his distress 
^nd despair : one of his nephews deserted to the 
enemy ; and Syria rejoiced in the tale of his de- 
feat, when the sultan was driven by the revolt of 
the Mamalukes to escape with precipitation and 
shame to his palace of Cairo. Abandoned by 
their prince, the inhabitants of Damascus still * 
defended their walls ; and Timour consented to 
raise the siege, if they would adorn his reltreat 
with a gift or ra^som ; each article of nine pieces. 
But no sooner had he introduced himself into 
the city, under colour of a truce, than he perfi- 
diously violated the treaty; imposed a contribu-Oamaflcus, 
tion of ten millions of gold; and animated hisja^'g^;^' 
troops to chastise the posterity of those Syrians 
who had executed, or approved, the murder of 
the grandson of Mahomet. A family which had 
given honourable burial to the head of Hpsein^ 

c 4s 


CHAP, and a colonj of artificers whom be sent to labour 
at Samarcand, were alone reserved in the general 
massacre ; and, after a period of seven centuries, 
Damascus was reduced to ashes, because a Tartar 
was moved by reli^ous zeal to avenge the blood 
of an Arab. The losses and fatigues of the cam- 
paigi) obliged Timour to renounce the conquest 
of Palestine and Egypt ; but in his return to the 
Euphrates, he delivered AFeppo to the flames ; 
and justified his pious motive by the pardon and 
reward of two thousand sectariesof Ali, who were 
desirous to visit the tomb of his son. I 'have ex- 
patiated on the personal anecdotes which mark 
the character of the Mogul hero ; but I shall 
and Bag. briefly mention,'' that he erected on- the ruins 
A.D. 1401, of Bagdad a pyramid of ninety thousand heads ; 
again visited Georgia ; encamped on the banks 
of Araxes ; and proclaimed his resolution- of 
marching against the Ottoman emperor. Con- 
scious of the importance of the war, he collected 
his forces from every province : eight hundred 
thousand men were enrolled on his military list ;• 

^ The marches and occupations of Timour between the Syrian and 
Ottoman wars, are represented by Sherefeddin (1. v, c. 29-43) and 
Arabfthah ^'tom. ii, c. 15-18). 

• This number of 800,000 was extracted by Arabshah, or rather bj 
Ebn Schounah, ex rationario Timuri, on the faith of a Carizmian of- 
f cer (torn, i, c. 68, p. 617 ; aiyi it is remarkable enough, that a Greek 
Itistorian 'Phranza, 1. i, c. 29^ adds no more than 90,000 men* Pog. 
gius reckons 1,000,000 ; another Latin contemporary (Chron. Tar> 
visianum, apud Muratori, torn, xix, p. 800)' 1,100,000; and t e e- 
normous sum of 1,600,000, is attested by a German soldier, whcr was 
present at the battle of Angora (Leunclav. ad Chalcondyl. L lii, p. 82). 
Timour, in his Institutions, has not deigned to calculate his troopf^ 
bis subjects, or his revenues. 


Ibut the splendid commands of five and ten chap. 
thousand horse, may be rather expressive of the ^^^' 
raak and pension of the chiefs, than of the ge- 
nuine number of effective soldiers.^ In the pil- 
lage of Syria, the Moguls had acquired immense 
riches : but the delivery of their pay and arrears 
for seven years, more firmly attached them to 
the imperial standwd. 

During this diversion of the Mogul arms,!"'*** 
Bajazet had two years to collect his forces for a. o. iiot^ 
a more serious encounter. They consisted of 
four hundred thousand horse and foot,*' whose 
merit and fidelity were of an unequal complexion. 
We may discriminate the janizaries, who have 
been gradually raised to an establishment of forty 
thousand men ; a national cavalry, the spahis of 
modem times ; twenty thousand cuirassiers of 
Europe, clad in black and impenetrable armour ; 
the troops of Anatolia, whose princes had taken 
refuge in the camp of Timour, and a colony of 
Tartars, whom he had driven from Kipzak« and 
to whom Bajazet had assigned a settlement in the 
plains of Adrianople. The fearless confidence of 
the sultan ui^edhimto meet his antagonist; and, 
as if he had chosen that spot for revenge, he dis- 
played his banners near the ruins of the unfortu* 

' A wide latitude of aon-effectives was allowed by the great Mogul 
for his own pride and the benefit of his officers. Bernier's patron was 
Penge-Hazari, commander of 5000 horse ; of which he maintained 
no more than 500 (Voyages, tom. i, p. 288, 289> 

4 Timour himself axes at 400,000 men the Ottoman army (InstL 
tutions, p, 253), which is reduced to 150,000 by Phranza (1. i, c. 29)« 
and swelled by the German soldier to 1,400,000* It^ is evident that 
the Moguls were the more numerous. 


CHAP, nate Suvas. In the meanwhile, Timour moved 


' from the Araxes through the countries of Armenia 

and Anatolia : his boldness was secured by the 
wisest precautions ; his speed was guided by order 
and discipline ; and the woods, the mountains, 
and the rivers, were diligently explored by th? 
flying squadrons, who marked his road and pre- 
ceded his standard. Firm in his plan of fight- 
ing in the heart of the Ottoman kingdom, he 
avoided their camp ; dextrously inclined to the 
left ; occupied Caesarea ; traversed the salt de- 
sert and the river Halys ; and invested Angora : 
while the sultan, immoveable and ignorant in his 
post, compared the Tartar swiftness to the crawl- 
ing of a snail f he returned on the wings of 
3«nie of indignation to the relief of Angora ; and as both 
t^^!*iM2,S^^^^^ were alike impatient for action, the 
fuiy 28. plains round that city were the scene of a memo- 
rable battle, which has immortalized the glory of 
Timour and the shame of Bajazet For this signal 
victory, the Mogul emperor was indebted to him- 
self, to the genius of the moment, and the dis- 
cipline of thirty years. He had improved the 
tactics, without violating the manners, of his 
nation,** whose force still consisted in the misisile 
weapons, and rapid evolutions, of a numerous 

' It may not be useless to mark the distances between Angora and 
the neighbouring cities, by the journies of the caravans, each of twenty 
or twenty-five miles ; to Smyrna 20, to Klotahia 10, to Boursa 10, 
to Caesarea 8, to Sinope 10, to Nicomedia 9, to Constantinople 12 or 
13, (see Tournefort, Voyage au Levant, tom. ii, lettre xxi). 

* See the Systems of Tactics in the Institutions, which the Eng1isl| 
^itors have illustrated with elaborate plans (p. 373-407). 


cavaliy* From a single troop to a great army, chap. 
the mode of attack was the same ; a foremost Ime ^^^* 
first advanced to the charge, and was supported 
in a just order by the squadrons of the great 
vanguard. The general's eye watched over the 
field, and at his command the front and rear of 
the right and left wings successively moved for- 
wards in their several divisions, and in a direct 
or oblique line : theenemywaspressedby eighteen 
or twenty attacks ; and each attack afforded a 
chance of victory. If they all proved fruitless, 
or unsuccessful, the occasion was worthy of the 
emperor himself, who gave the signal of advancing 
to the standard and main body, which h^ led in 
person.^ But in the battle of Angora, the main 
body itself was supported, on the flanks, and in 
the rear, by the bravest squadrons of the reserve, 
commandedby the sons and grandsons of Timour. 
TheconquerorofHindostan ostentatiously shewed 
a line of elephants, the tropl^ies, rather than the 
instruments of victory : the use of the Greek fire 
was familiar to the Moguls and Ottonums : but 
had they borrowed from Europe the recent inr 
vention of gunpowder and cannon, the artificial 
thunder, in the hands of either nation, must have 
turned the fortune of the day,"* In that day, 

^ The sultan himself (says Timoiir) must then put the foot of cou- 
rage into the stirrup o£ patience. A Tartar metaphor, which is lost 
in the English, hut preserved in the French, Tersion of the Institutes 
(p. 156, 157). 

"* The Greek fire, on Timour's side, is attested bj Sherefeddin 
(I. V, c 47) ; but Voltaire's strange suspicion, that some cannon, in- 
ficribed with strange characters, must have been sent by that monarct^ 
$0 Dehli, is refuted by the universal silence of contemporaries. 


Chap. Bajazet displayed the qualities of a soldier and a 
chief: but his genius sunk under a stronger as- 


cendant ; and from various motives, the greatest 
part of his troops failed him in the decisive 
moment. His rigour and avarice had provoked a 
mutiny among the Turks ; and even his son 
Soliman too hastily withdrew from the field. 
The forces of Anatolia, loyal in their revolt, were 
drawn away to the banners of their lawful princes. 
His Tartar allies had been tempted by the letters 
and emissaries of Timour;^ who reproached 
their ignoble servitude under the slaves of their 
fathers ; and offered to their hopes the dominion 
of their new, or the liberty of their ancient^ 
^ country. In the right wing of Bajazet, the cuiras^ 
siers of Europe charged, with faithful hearts and 
irresistible arms; but these men of iron were soon 
broken by an artful flight and headlong pur- 
suit ; and the janizaries alone, without cavalry 
or missile weapons, were encompassedby thecircle 
of the Mogul hunters. Their valour was at 
length oppressed by heat, thirst, and the weight 
of numbers ; and the unfortunate sultan, afflicted 
with thegout in hishandsand feet, was transport- 
ed from the field on the fleetest of his horses. He 
Defeat and^as pursTued and taken by the titular khan of 

captivity of , 

Bigazet. Zagatai ; and after his capture, and the defeat of 
the Ottoman powers, the kingdom of Anatolia 

* Timour has dissembled this secret and important ncgociatt«n with 
the Tartars* which is indisputably proved by the joint evidence of the 
Arabian (torn. 1, c. 47, p. 391), Turkish (AnnaL Leunclav. p. 321), 
and Persian historiana (Shondamir, apud d*Herbelot, p, 8B2). 



submitted to the conqueror, who planted his chap. 
standard at Kiotahio, and dispersed on oil sides ^^^* 
the ministers of rapine and destruction. Mirza 
Mehemmed Sultan, the eldest and best belored 
of his grandsons, was dispatched to Boursa, with 
thirty thousand horse ; and such was his youthful 
ardour, that he arrived with only four thousand 
at the gates of the capital, after performing in 
five days a march of two hundred and thirty miles. 
Yet fear is still more rapid in its course ; and 
Soliman, the son of Bajazet, had already passed 
over to Europe with, the royal treasure. The 
spoil, however, of the palace and city was im- 
mense : the inhabitants had escaped ; but the 
buildings, for themost part of wood, were reduced 
to ashes. From Boursa, the grandson of Timour 
advanced to Nice, even yet a fair and flourishing 
city ; and the Mogul squadrons were only stopped 
by the waves of the. Propontis. The same success 
attended the other mirzas and emirs in thcfir 
excursions: and Smyrna, defended by the zeal 
and courage of the Rhodian knights, alone de- 
served the presence of the emperorhimself. After 
an obstinate defence, the place was taken by 
storm ; all that breathed was put to the swc»*d ; 
and the heads of the christian heroes were launch- 
ed from the engines, on board of two carracks, or 
great ships of £urope, thatTode at anchor in the 
harbour. The Moslems of Asia rejoiced m their 
deliverance from a dangerous and domestic foe, 
and a parallel was drawn between'^the two rivals, 
by observing that Timour, in fourteen days, had 


CHAP, reduced a fortress which had sustained seveor 

^^^* years the siege, or at least the blockade of Baja* 


The histo^ The iron cage in which Bajazet was imprison- 

hon^ge ed by Tamerlane, so long and so often repeated 

as a moral lesson, is now rejected as a fable by 

the modern writers, who smile at the vulgar cre^ 

dulity.* They appeal with confidence to the 

Persian history of Sherefeddin Ali, which has 

been given to odr curiosity in a French version^ 

and from which I shall collect and abridge a more 

specious narrative of this memorable transaction. 

disproved No sooucr was Timour informed that the captive 

by the Per- Ottoman was at the door of his tent, than he 

sian histo- ^ . , . 

kn of Ti. graciously stept forwards to receive mm, seated 
'"^"^ ' him by his side, and mingled with just reproaches 
a soothing pity for his rank and misfortune. 
« Alas !" said the emperor, " the- decree of fate 
^< is now accomplished by your own fault : it is 
" the web which you have woven, the thorns 
« of the tree which yourself have planted. I 
<< wished to spare, and even to assist, the cham- 
*^ pion of the Moslems : you braved our threats ; 
" you despised our friendship ; you forced us to 
^^ enter your kingdom with our invincible armies. 
" Behold the event. Had you vanquished, I am 

y For the war of Anatolia or Roum, I add some hints in the Insti. 
ttttions to the copious narratives of Sherefeddin (1. ▼, c. 44^.65) and 
Arabshah (torn, ii, c. 20*35). On this part only of Timour*s history, 
t is lawful to quote the Turks (Cantemir, p. 53* 55. Annal. Leun« 
-clav. p. 3S0-333) and the Greeks (Phranza, 1. i, c. 29. Ducas, c. 
15-17. Chalcondyles, L iii). 

* The scepticism of Voltaire (Essai sur PHistoire Generale, c 88 > 
is ready on this, as on every occasion, to reject a popular tale, and to 
diminish the magnitude of vice and virtue ; and on most octasions hh 
incredulity is reasonable. 


/^ not ignorant of the fate which you reserved for chap. 
•^ myself and my troops. But I disdain to re-^^f^ 
'^ taliate : your life and honour are secure ; and 
" I shall express my gratitude to God by my 
*^ clemency to man." The royal captive shewed 
some signsof repentance, accepted the humiliation 
of a robe of honour, and embraced with tears his 
son Mousa, who, at his request, was sought and 
found among the captives of the field. The 
Ottoman princes were lodged in a splendid pavi- 
lion ; and the respect of the guards could be 
surpassed only by their vigilance. On the arrival 
of i!be haram from Boursa, Timour restored the 
queen Despina and her daughter to their father 
and hpsband ; but he piously required that the 
Servian princess, who had hitherto been indulged 
in the profession of Christianity, should embrace 
without delay the religion of the prophet. In the 
feast of victory, to which Bajazet was invited^ 
the Mogul emperor placed a crown on his head 
and a sceptre in his hand, with a solemn assurance 
of restoring him with an increase of glory to the 
throne of his ancestors; But the effect of this 
promise was disappointed by the sultan's untimely 
death: amidst the care of the most skilful phy« 
sicians, he expired of an apoplexy at Akshehr, 
the Antioch of Pisidia, about nine months after 
his defeat. The victor dropped a tear over hh 
grave ; his body, with royal pomp, was conveyed 
to the mausoleum which he had erected at Bourse ; 
and his son Mousa, after receiving a rich present 
ef gold and jewels, of horses and arms, was in- 


CHAP, vested by a patent in red ink with the kingdom 
of Anatolia. 

Such is the portrait of a generons conqueror, 
which has been extracted from his own memo- 
rials, and dedicated to his son and grandson, 
nineteen years after his decease,' and, at a time 
when the truth was remembered by thousands, a 
manifest falsehood would have implied a satire on 
his real conduct. Weighty indeed is this evi- 
dence, adopted by all the Persian histories ;** yet 
flattery, more especially in the East, is base and 
audacious ; and the harsh and ignominious treat- 
ment of Bajazetis attested by a chain of witnesses, 
some of whom shall be produced in the order of 
^^ed, 1, their time and country. I.- The reader has not 
French; forgot the garrisou of French, whom the mar- 
shal Boucicault left behind him for the defence 
of Constantinople. They were on the spot to 
receive the earliest and most faithful intelligence 
of the overthrow of their ^eat adversary ; and 
it is more than probable that some of them ac- 
companied the Greek embassy to the camp of 
Tamerlane. From their account, the hardships 
of the prison and death of Bajazet are affirmed by 
the marshal's servant and historian, within the 

* See the history of Sherefeddin, (L v, c 49, 52» 5S, A9,60). Thii 
work was finished at Shiraz, in the year 1434* and dedicated to sul* 
tan Ibrahim, the son of Sharokh, the son of Timour, who reigned in 
Farsistan in his father's lifetime. 

^ After the perusal of Khondemir, Ebn SchouDah» &c. the learned 
d'Herbelot (Bibliot Orientale, p. 882) may affirm* that this fable is 
not mentioned in the most authentic histories ; but his denial of the 
visible testiiaony of Arabohah, Iea%«s Mine room t# fu^cct bis accu^ 


distance of seven yearai* 9. Then$meotPag^im chap; 
the Italian/ is deservedly famous among the re- ,^^*,^ 
vivers of learning in the fifteesdi cmtury. His t. ay ^m 
elegant dialogue on tiie vicissitudes of forhme'^^*"*** 
wa3 compoi^d in bis fiftieth year, twenty-^ei^t 
years after the Turkish victory of Tamerlane ^ 
whom he celebrates as not inferior to the illus* 
trious barbarians of antiquity. Of hb exploits 
and discipline, Poggius was informed by several 
ocular witnesses.; nor. does he forget an exam* 
pie so apposite to his theme as the Ottoman mo- 
narch, whom the Scythian confined like a wild 
beast in an iron cage, and exhibited a spectacle 
to Asia. I might add the authority of two 
Italian chronicles, perhiqis of an earlier date, 
which would prove at least that the same story^ 
whether false or true, was imported into Europe 

^ Et fut lui meme {Bajaui) pris, et men^ en prison, en laquelle 
tnourut de^ dure mort / Memoires de Boucicault, p. i» c. S7. Thes* 
memoirs were comiioeed while the marshal was still govern^ of Ge* 
noa, from whence he was expelled in the year 1409» by a popular in- 
surrection (Muratori, Annall d^Italia, torn, xii, p. 473, 474). 

^ The reader will find a satisfactory account of the life and writ- 
iogs of Ppggius in the P^ggiana, an entertaining work of M. Lenfciity 
and in the Bibliotheca Latina mediae et infimae ^tatis of Fabriciua 
(tom. V, p. 305-308). Poggius was horn in the year 1380, and died 
in 1459. 

* The dialogue de Varietate Portuns (of which a complete and ele* 
gant edition has been published at Paris in 1723, in 4to) was com- 
posed a short time before the death of pope Martin t (p. 5), and con. 
sequently alx>ut the end of the year 1430. ^ 

' See a splendid and eloquent encomium of Tamerlane, p. 36-39^ 
ipse enim novi (says Poggius) qui fuere in ejus castris ....•• Re- 
gem vivum cepit, caveaque in modum ferae indusam per onmem 
Asiam circumtulit egregium adroirandum que spectaculum fortun«V 

VOL. Xll. D 

84 STHB XmCLINC A:K0 FliLti 

CHAP, with the first tidings of the revolution.* 8^ At 
x>^^31n *'*^ '"'^^ when Poggius flourished at Rome, Ah- 
d, bj the med Ebn Arabshah craiposed at Damascus the 
^"^^^ florid and malevolent historjr of Timoiir, for 
which he had collected materiala in his joumies 
over Turkey and Tartary.^ Without any possible 
correquondence between the Latin and the Ara^ 
bian writer, they agree in the fact of the iron 
cage ; and their agreement is a striking proof of 
their common veracity. Ahmed Arabshah like- 
wise relates another outrage, which Bajazet en- 
dured, of a more domestic and tender nature. 
ff is indiscreet mention of women and divorces 
was deeply resented J[>y the jealous Tartar : in the 
feast of victory, the wine was served by female 
cupbearers, and the sultan bebe^ his own ooncu- 
bines and wives confbundved ailnong the slaves, 
and exposed without a veil to the eyes of intem- 
perance. To escape a similar indignity, it is said 
that his successors, except in a single instainre, 
have abstained fropi legitimate nuptials ; and the 
Ottoman practice and belief, at least in the six- 
teenth century, is attested by the observing Bus- 
bequius,* ambassador from the court of Vienna 

< The Chronlcon Tarvisianum (in Muratori, Scripts tlerum Jtalica- 
rum, torn, xix, p. 800) and the Annales tistenses (torn, xviii, p. 974). 
The two authors, Andrea de Redusiis de Quera. and James de Delayto, 
were both conteaaporaries, and both chancellors, the one of Trevigi, 
the other of Ferrara. The evidence of the former is the most positive. 
' * See Arabshah, torn, ii, c. 28, 34. He travelled in regiones Ru- 
maeas, a. h. 839 (a. b. 1435, July 27), torn, ii, c. 2, p. 13. 

* Busbequius in Legatione Turcica, epist. i, p. 52. Yet his re- 
spectable authority is somewhat shaken by the subsequent marriages 
of Amurath ii with a Servian, and of Mahomet u with an Asiatic, 
princess (Cantemir, p. S3, 93). 


to the gveat ScrfimnQ* 4. Sudi is the separation cb4R. 
fif laagui^^e, tbat the testimony of a Greek is not J^^' 
less independent than tluut of a Latin or tn Arab. 4, by the 
I suppress the names of Chalcondjles and Ducas» ^^ - 
wiio douriahed in a later period, and who speak in 
alej;s positive tone ; but n^ore attentic^ is due to 
George Phranza,^ prc^ovestiare of the last em« ' 
perors, and who was bom a year before the 
battle of Angc^ra. Twenty-two years after thai 
event; he was sent ambassador to Amurath the 
second ; and tiie historian might converse with 
some veteran janizaries, who bad been made 
prisoners with tlie sultan, and had themselves 
sean him in his iron cage. 5. The last evidence, ^* ^ th^ 
in evety sense, is that of the Turkish annals, 
which have been consulted ortranscribed byLeun- 
davius, Pocock,aad Cantemir.^ They unanimous- 
ly deplore the captivity q£ the iron cage ; and 
some credit may be alloytred to national historians^ 
who cannot stigmatize ' the Tartar without un- 
covering the ^ame of their king and country. 

From these oj^osite premises, a fair and mode- Probaw^ 
rate conclusion may be deduced. I am satisfied^*^"*^ "*'°^- 
that Sherefeddin Ali has faithfully described the 
first ostentatious interview, in which the con- 
queror, who$e spirits were harmonized by success, 
affected the character of generosity. But his 
Qiindwas insensibly alienated by the unseasonable 
acrogance of fiajazet ; the complaints of hi$ ene- 

* See the testimony of George Phranza (1. i, c. 29), and his life in 
Hancldus (de Script ByzanU p. i, c. 40)« Chalcondyles and Duca^ 
speak in general terms of Bajazet?s trains, 

' Annales Leunclav. p. 331* FocoGk, Prolegomen. ad Abulpharag. 
pynas^. Cantemir, p, 55, . ' 


CHAP, mies, the Anatolian princes, were just and vehc- 
«%%%^^ ment ; and Timour betrayed a design of leading 
his royal captive in triumph to Samarcand* An 
attempt to facilitate his escape, by digging a mine 
under the tent, provoked the Mogul emperor to 
impose a harsher restraint ; and in his perpetual 
marches, an iron cage on a waggon might be 
invented, not as a wanton insult, but as a rigor^ 
ous precaution. Timour had read in some fa- 
bulous history a similar treatment of one of his 
predecessors, a king of Persia ; and Bajazet was 
condemned to represent the person^ and expiate 
Death of the guilt of the Roman Caesar.'^ But the strength 
fTms ^^ ^^^ mind and body fainted under the trial, and 
March 9. his premature death might, without injustice^ be 
ascribed to the severity of Timour. He warred 
not with the dead ; a tear and a sepulchre were 
. all that he could bestow on a captive who was 
delivered from his power ; and if Mousa, the son 
of Bajazet, was permitted to reign over the ruins 
of Boursa, the greatest part of the province of 
Anatolia had been restored by the conqueror to 
their lawful sovereigns. 
Term of From the Irtish and Volga to the Persian gulfj.^ 
quyts"of And from the Ganges to Damascus and the Ar* 
r^uos. ^faip^^l^&^j Asia was in the hands of Timour ; his 
. armies were invincible, his ambition was bound* 

"^ A Sapor^ a king of Persia, had been made prisoner, and inclosed 
in the figure of a cow's hide, by Maxiraian or Valerius Caesar. Such 
is the fable related by Eutychius (Annal. ton). i,p. 421, vers. Pocock). 
The rtcoUection of the true history (Decline and Fall, &c. vol. li,^ 
p. 144-156) will teach u& to appreciate the knowledge of the Orient 
tals of the ages which precede the hegira* 


less, and his zeal might aspire to conquer and chap. 
convert the christian kingdoms of the West, ^^^* 
which aheadj trembled at his name. He touched 
the utmost verge of the land ; but an insuperable^ 
|;hough narrow, sea rolled between the two con- 
tinents of Europe and Asia f and the lord of 
so many tomans, or myriads, of horse, was not 
master of a single galley. The two passages of 
the Bosphorus and Hellespont, of Constantinople 
and Gallipoli, were possessed, the one by the 
christians, the other by the Turks. On this great 
occasion, they forgot the difference of religion, 
to act with union and firmness in the common 
caus^ : the double straits were guarded with 
ships and fortifications; and they separately with- 
held the transports which Timour demanded of 
either nation, under the pretence of attacking 
their enemy. At the same time, they soothed 
his pride with tributary gifts and suppliant em- 
bassies, .and prudently tempted him to retreat 
with the honours of victory. Soliman, the son 
of Bajazet, implored his clemency for his father 
and himself; accepted, by a red patent, the 
investiture of the kingdom of Romania, which 
he already held by the sword ; and reiterated 
his ardent wish, of casting himself in person at 
the feet of the king of the world. The Greek 

* Arabshah (torn, ii, c. 25) describes, like a curious traveller, the 
straits of Gallipoli and Constantinople. To acquire a just idea of 
these events, I have compared the narratives and prejudices of the 
Moguls, Turlcs, Greelcs, and Arabians. The Spanish ambassador 
mentions this hostile union of the ci^ristians an^ Ottomans (Vie de 
Timour, p. 96). 




fcHAP. emperor* (either Johft or Manuel) submitted i6 
^' paythe same tribute which be had stipulated with 
the Turkish sultan, and ratified the treaty bv an 
bath of allegiance, from which he could absolve 
his conscience as soon as the Mogul arms had 
retired from Anatolia. But the fears and fancy of 
nations ascribed totheambitiousTamerlane anew 
design of vast and romantic compass ; a design of 
isubduing Egypt and Africa, marching from the 
Nile to the Atlantic ocean, entering Europe by 
the straits of Gibraltar, and aftier imposing his 
yoke on the kingdoms of Christendom, of return- 
ing home by the deserts of Russia and Tartary. 
This remote, and perhaps imaginary, danger was 
averted by the submission of the sultan of Egypt; 
thie honours of the prayer and the coin attested 
at Cairo the supremacy of Timour ; and a rare 
gift of a grraffey, or camelopard, and nine os- 
triches, represented at Samarcand the tribute of 
^he African world. Our imagination is not less 
astonished by the portrait of a Mogul, who, in 
his camp before Smyrna, meditates, and almost 
accomplishes, the invasion of the Chinese empire.^ 
Timour was urged to this enterprise by national 
honour and religious zeal. The torrents which 
he had shed of mussulman blood could be ex- 
piated only by an equal destruction of the in- 

* Since the name of Ceesar had been transferred to the sultans of 
Roum, the Greek princes of Con^jtantinople (Sherefeddin, 1. v, c. 54) 
were confounded with the christian forrf* of Gallipoli, Theissalonica, * 
&c. under the title of Tekkur, which is derived by corruption from 
the genitire tv Kvpiv (Cantemir, p. 51). 

P See Sherefeddin, 1. v, c 4, who marks, in a just itinerary, the 
road to China, whicji Ariibshah (torn, ii, c. 33) paints in vague and 
i"Hetorical colours, 


JSdels; and as he kiow stood at the gates of chap* , 
paradise, he might best secure his elwious en ^^^ 
trancei by demolishing the idols of Chma^ 
founding, moscbs in every city, and establishing 
the profession of faith in one God, and his pro» 
phet Mahomet, The recent expulsion of the 
house of Zingis was an insist on the Mogul 
name ; an4 the disorders of the empire afforded 
the fairest opportunity for revenge. The illus- 
trious Hongvou, founder of the dynasty of 
Mingy died four years before the battle of An* 
gora ; and his grandson, a weak and unfortu- 
nate youth, was burnt in his palace, after a 
million of Chinese had perished in the civil 
war.** Befiwre he evacuated Anatolia, Timour 
dispatched beyond the Sihoon a numerous . 
army, gt rather *colony, of his old and new 
subjects, to open the road, to subdue the pagan 
Calmucks and Mungals, and to found cities 
and m£igazines in the desert ; and, by the dili- 
gence of his lieutenant, he soon received a per- 
fect map and description of the unknown re- 
gions, from the source of tl^ Irtish to the wall 
of China. During these preparations, the em- 
peror achieved the final conquest of Greorgia; 
passed the winter on the banks of the Araxes ; 
appeased the troubles of Persia ; and slowly re- 
turned to his capital, after a campaign of four 
years and nine months, 

^ Synopsis Hist. Sinicae, p. 74-76 (in the fourth part of the Rela- 
tions de Thevenot), Duhalde, Hist, dfi la Chine (torn, i, p. 607, ^S, 
folio edition) ; and for the chronology of the Chinese emperors^ lie 
Guignes, Hist, des Huns, torn, i, p. 71, 72. 

D 4» 


CHAP. On the throne of Samareand/ he displayed,* 
*^ in a short repose, his magnificence and power ; 

Higtri. listened to the complaints of the people; distri- 
iBtfca^,^buted a just measure of rewards and punish- 
Jutyi*^' nients ; employed his riches in the architecture 
A. o. 1405, of palaces and temples ; and gave audience to 
"*^ the ambassadors of Egypt, Arabia, India, Tar- 
tary, Russia, and Spain, the last of whom pre- 
sented a suit of tapestry which eclipsed the pen- 
cil of the Oriental artists. The marriage of six 
of the emperor's grandsons was esteemed an 
act of religion as well as of paternal tenderness ; 
and the pomp of the ancient caliphs was revived 
in their nuptials. They were celebrated in the 
gardens of Canighul, decorated with innumera- 
ble tents and pavilions, which displayed the 
luxury of a great city and the spoils of a victo- 
rious camp. Whole forests were cut down to 
supply fuel for the kitchens; the plain was 
spread with pyramids of meat, and vases of 
ievery liquor, to which thousands of guests were 
courteously invited: the orders of the state, and 
the nations of the earth, were marshalled at the 
royal banquet; nor were the ambassadors of 
Europe (says the haughty Persian) excluded from 
♦ the feast; since even the ccisses, the smallest of 

fish, find their place in the ocean.' The public 

I For the return, triumph, and death, of Timour^'see Sherefeddin 
(1. vi, c 1-30) and Arabshah (torn, ir, c. 35-47). 

• Sherefeddin (I. vi, c. 24) mentions the ambassadors of OQe/)f the 
most potent sovereigns of Europe. We know that it was Henry iii, 
king of Castile ; and the curious relation of his two embassies is still 



joy was testified by illuminations and masquer- chap. 
ades ; the trades of Samarcand passed in review; ^^'^ 
and. every trade was emulous to execute some 
quaint devise^ some marvelous pageant, with the 
materials of their peculiar art. After the mar- 
riage-contracts had been ratified by the cadhis^ 
the brid^^ooms and their brides retired to th^ 
nuptial chambers ; nine times, according to the 
Asiatic fashion, they were dressed and undressed; 
and at each change of apparel, pearls and rubies 
were showered on their heads, and contemptu- 
ously abandoned to their attendants. A general 
indulgence was proclaimed : every law was re- 
laxed, ever^ pleasure was allowed, the people 
w^as free, the sovereign was idle ; and the histo- 
rian of Timour may remark, that, after devoting 
fifty years to the attainment of empire, the only , 
happy period of his life were the two months in ^ 
which he ceased to exercise his power. But he 
was soon awakened to the cares of government 
and war. The standard was unfurled for the 
invasion of China ; the emirs made their report 
of two hundred thousand, the select and veteran 
soldiers of Iran and Touran ; their baggage and 
provisions were transported by five hundred great 
waggons, and an immense train of horses and ^ 

camels : and the troops might prepare for a long 
absence, since more than six months were em- 
extant (Mariana* Hist. Hispan. 1. xix, c. 11* torn. iU p* 329* 330. 
Avertissement i i*Hist4 de Timor Bee, p. 28^3). There appears 
likewise to have been some correspondence between the Mogul empe- 
ror and the court of Charles vn, king of France (Histoke de France 
far Velly et VUlaret, torn, xii, p. 336). 


CHAP, ployed in the tranquil journey of a cfffaraa from 
^^^* Samarcand to Pekin. Neither age, nor the 
severity of the winter, could retard the impatU 
enceof Timour ; h^ mounted on horseback, passed 
the Sihoon on the ice, marched seventy-six para- 
sangs, three hundred miles, from his capital, and 
pitched his last camp in th^ neighbourhood of 
Otrar, where he was expected by the angel of 

His death death. Fatiffue, and the indiscreet use of iced 

on the road 

to China, water accelerated the progress of his fever; and 
April Lj^'*'^^ conqueror of Asia expired in the seventieth 
year of his age, thirty-five years after he had 
ascended the throne of Zagatai. EUs designs 
were lost ; h^s armies were disbanded ; China was 
saved ; and fourteen years after his decease, the 
most powerful of his children sent an embassy of 
friendship and commerce to the court of Pekin.* 
Character The fame of Timour has pervaded the East and 
^Timour! West ; his posterity is still invested with the im-, 
perial title ; and the admiration of his subjects^ 
who revered him almost as a deity, may be justi- 
fied, in some degree, by the praise or con^^ssion 
of his bitterest enemies."" Although he was lame 
of an hand and foot, his form and stature were 
not unworthy of his rank; and his vigorous 
health, so essential to himself and to the world. 

* See the translation of the Persian account of their embassy, a 
eurious and original piece (in the fourth part of the Relations de 
Thevenot). They presented the en^iperor of Chiiia with an old horse 
tfrhich Timour had formerly rode. It was in the year 1419 that they 
departed from the court of Herat, to which place they returned In 
■ 1422 fVom Pekfn. 

« From Arabshah, torn, ii, c. 99. The bright or ^ofter colours are 
borrowed from Sberefeddin, d^Herbelot, and the Institutions. 



was corroborated by tenoperance and exercise, ctf ak 
in his familiar discourse he was grave and modest, 
and if he was ignorant of the Arabic language, 
he spoke, with fluency and elegance, the Persian 
and Turkish idioms; It was his delight to ccm- 
Verse with the learned on topics of history and 
science ; and the amusement of his leisure houn 
was the game of chess, which he improred, or 
corrupted, with new refinements^' In his reli* 
gion, he was a zealous, though not perhaps an 
orthodox, mnssulmaii ; ^ but his sound under- 
standing may tempt us to believe, that a super- 
stitious reverence for omens and prophesies, for 
saints and astrologers, was only affected as an 
instrument of policy. In the government of a 
vast empire, he stood alone and absolute, with- 
out a rebel to oppose his power, a favourite to 
seduce his affectrcms, or a minister t<> mislead his 
judgment. It was bis firmest maxim, that what- 
ever might be the consequence, the word of the 
prince should never be disputed or recalled ; but 
his foes have maliciously observed, that the com^ 
mands of anger and destruction were more strictly 
executed than those of beneficence and favoiu-^ 
His sons and grandsons, of whom Timour left 
isix-and-thirty at his decease, were his first and 

' His new system was multiplied from 32 pieces and 64 squares, to 
56 pieces and 110 or 130 squares. But, except In his coart, the old 
same has been thought sufflcieotlj ehihorale. The Mpgal emperor 
was rather pleased than hurt, with the victory of a subject : a chess- 
player will feel the value of this encomium ! 

' See Sherefeddin,!. v, c. 15, 25. ArabsbaK (torn, ii, c. 06, p, 
801, 803) reproves the impiety of Timour and the Moguls, who al- 
most preferred to the koran, the yatca^ or law of Zingis (cui Deus 
maledicat) ; nor will he believe that Sharokh had abolished the use 
■nd authority of that pagan code* 


^L3^'* most submissive subjects; and whenever they 
,,,,^„^^ deviated frpm their duty, they were corrected, 
- according to the laws of Zingis, with the baston- 
ade, and afterwards restored to honour and com- 
mand. Perhaps his heart was not devoid of the 
social virtues ; perhaps he was not incapable of 
loving his friends, and pardoning his enemies ; 
but the rules of morality are founded on the 
public interest; and it may be sufficient to applaud 
the wisdom of a monarch, for the liberality by 
which he is not impoverished, and for the justice 
by which he is strengthened and enriched. To 

^ maintain the harmony of authority and obedience, 

to chastise the proud, to protect the weak, to 
reward the deserving, to banish vice and idleness 
from his dominions, to secure the traveller and 
merchant, to restrain the depredations of the 
soldier, to cherish the labours of the husbandman, 
to encourage industry and learning, and, by an 
equal and m6derate assessment, to increase the 
revenue, without increasing the taxes, are indeed 
the duties of a prince ; but, in the discharge of 
these duties, he finds an ample and immediate 
recompense. Timour ttiight boast, that, at his 
accession to the throne, Asia was the prey of 
anarchy and rapine, whilst under his prosperous 
monarchy a child, fearless and unhurt, might 
carry a purse of gold from the east to the wdst. 
Such was his confidence of merit, that from this 
reformation he derived excuse for his victories, 
and a title tq universal dominion. The four fol- 
lowing observations will serve to appreciate his 
claim to the public gratitude ; and perhaps we 
shall conclude, that the Mogul emperor was 

»^i « w»»ir»» 


rather" the scourge than the benefactor of man* chap. 
kind. 1. If some partial disorders^ some local ^ 
oppressions, were healed by the sword of Ti- 
mour, the remedy was far more pernicious than 
the disease. By their rapine, cruelty, and discord, 
the petty tyrants of Persia might afflict their 
subjects ; but whole nations were crushed under 
the footsteps of the reformer. The ground whidi 
had been occupied by flourishing cities was often 
marked by his abmninable trophies, by columns, 
or pyramids, of human heads. Astracan, Cariz- 
m^ Delhi, Ispahan, Bagdad, Aleppo, Damas- 
cus, Boursa, Smyrna, and a thousand others, 
w^e sacked, or burnt, or utterly destroyed, -in 
his presence, and by his troops ; and perh^xs his 
conscience would have been startled, if a priest or 
philosopher had dared to number the millions of 
victims whom he had sacrificed to the establish- 
ment of peace and order.' 2. His most destruc-* 
tive wars were rather inroads than conquests. 
He invaded Turkestan, Kipzakf Russia, Hindos- 
tan, Syria, Anatolia, Armenia, and Georgia, with* 
out a hope or a desire of preserving those dis- 
tant prdvinces. From thence he departed, laden 
with spoil ; but he ieft behind hint neither troops 
to awe the contumacious, nor magistrates to pro- 
tect the obedient, natives. When be had broken 

■ Besides the bloodj passages of this narrative, I must refer to an 
anticipaticm in the sixth volume of the Decline and Pall, w^cli, in ft 
single note (p. 56, note 25), accumulates near 300,000 heads of th« 
monuments of his cruelty. Except in Rowe*s play on the fifth of 
November, I did not expect to hear of Timour's amiable moderation 
(White's preface, p. 7). Yet I can excuse a generous enthusiasm ia 
the reader, and still more in the editor^ of the InstUvtiom* 


eMAP. the fabric of their ancient gov^rtmieiit, be aban-t 
^*^* doned them.te the evils which liis inv^^ion had 
aggravated or caused; nor were these evils iqobi^ 
p^itsated l^ any present or po^ible faenefilis* 
3. The kingdoms of Transoxiana and Persia were 
the proper field which he laboar^ to cultivate 
and adonn^ as the perpetual inheritance of his 
family. But his peaceful iabours were often 
interrupted, and sometiines blasted, by the ab- 
sence of the conqueror. Whale he triumphed on 
the Volga or the Ganges, his servaats, and even 
his sons, focgot their masjber and their duty. 
The public and private injuries were poorly re-^ 
dressed by the tardy rigour of enquiry and po*- 
ni^mait ; and we must be cqntient to praise the 
In^itutions of Timouc as tihie specious idea of a 
perfect monarchy. 4. Whatsoever nught be 
the blessings of his administration, they eva* 
porated with his lifie. To reign, rather than to 
govern, was the ambition oS his children and 
grandchildren,"^ the enemies of each other £m4 
of the people. A fragment of the empire was up- 
held with some glory by Sharokh his youngest 
son ; but after his decease, the scene was again 
involved in darkness and blood'; and before the 
end of a century, Transoxiana and Persia wercf 
trampled by the Uzbeks from the north, and the 
Turkmans of the black and white sheep. The 
i:aQe of Timour would have been extinct, if .an 
hero, his descendant in tlie fifth degree, had not 

^ Consult the last chapters o^ Sherefeddin and A^'ft^hah, and M* 
de Guignes (Hist, des Huns, torn, iv, 1. xx), Fraser's History of Na- 
dir Shah, p. 1-62. The story of Timour's descendants is imperfectl| 
^old, and th^ second and third parts of Sherefeddin are unknown. 


fled before the Uisbek arms to the conquest of chap. 
Hmdostao. His sucx^essors (the ereat Morals)* ^^^* 
exteaded their sway from the mountains of 
Casbfliir to Cape Comorin, and from Caa^alMir 
to the gulf of Bengal Since the reign of Au- 
ruBgeebe, their empire has been dissolved ; their 
treasures of Delhi have been rifled by a Per- 
sian robber, and the richest of their kingdoms is 
now possessed by a company of christian mer- 
chants, of a remote island in the Northern ocean. 

Far different wa3 the fate of the Ottoman ciTiUm^*. 
mcmarchy. The massy trunk was bent to t^^^JJa',"!^ 
ground, but no sooner did the hunicane pass a. d. 1403I 
away, than it again rose with fresh vigour and^ ' 
more lively vegetation. When Timour, itf every 
sense, had evacuated Anatolia, he left the cities 
without a palace, a treasuiie, or a king. The 
open cofuntiywas overspread with hordes of shepi- 
herds and robbers of Tartar or Turkman origin ; 
the recent conquests of Bajazet were restored to 
the emirs, one of whom, in base revenge, demo- 
lished his sepulchre ; and his five sons were<3ager, 
by civil discord, to consume the remnant of their 
patrimony. I shall enumerate their names in the 
order of their age and actions.*' 1. It is d^tbt* j, musu-" 
fill, whether I relate the story of the true Musta^^^} 
pha, or of an impostor, who personated that lost 

^ Shah AUum, the present Mqgul, is in the fourteenth degree firom 
Timour, by Mi ran Shah, his third son. See the second volume of 
Dow's History of Hindostan. ' * 

* The civil wars, from the death of Bajazet to that ofr Mustapha, 
are related according to the Turks, by Demetrius Cantemir (p. 58- 
82. Of the Greeks, Chalcondyles (1. iv and v), Phranza (1. j, c. 30u 
32), and Ducas (c* 18-27), the ast Ifi the most copioua and best ir.< 


CHAP, prince. He fought by his father's side in the bat-^ 
^^^- tie of Angora : but when the captive sultan was 

*^"***^"" permitted to inquire for his children, Mousa a- 
lone could be found; and the Turkish historiansi 
the slaves of the triumphant faction, are persuaded 
' that his brother was confounded among the slain* 
If Mustapha escaped from that disastrous fields 
he was concealed twelve years from his friends and 
enemies, till he emerged in Thessaly, and was 
hailed by a numerous party, as the son and suc^ 

, . cessor of Bajazet. His firsts defeat would have 
been his last, had not the true, or false, Musta^ 
p^ been saved by the Greeks, and restored, after 
the decease of his brother Mahomet, to liberty and 
empire. A degenerate mind seemed to argue his 
spui^ious birth ; and if> on the throne of Adrian^ 
ople, he was adored as the Ottoman sultan, his 
flight, his fetters, and an ignominous gibbet, de- 
livered tJie impostor to popular contempt. A si- 
milar character and claim was asserted by several 
rival pretenders ; thirty persons are said to have 
suffered under the name of Mustapha ; and these 
frequent executions may perhaps insinuate, that 
the Turkish court was not perfectly secure of the 

2, ita; death of the lawful prince. 2. After his father's 
captivity, Isa* reigned for some time in the neigh- 
bourbood of Ail^ora, Sinope, and the Black 
sea ; and his ambassadors were dismissed from 
the presence of Timour with fair promises and 
honourable gifts. But their master was soon de- 
prived of his province and life, by a jealous bro- 

' Arabshah» torn, ii, c. 26, whose testimony on this occasion is 
Weighty and valuable. The existence of Isa (unknown to the Turk^i) 
if likewise conturmed by Sherefeddia (1* v, c. $7), 


ther/the sovereign of Amasia; and the final event char 
suggested a pious allusion, that the law of Moses ^^^ * 
and Jesus, of Isa and Mousa had been abrogated 
by the greater Mahomet 3. Soliman is not niim« a SoUnun, 
bered in the list of the Turkish emperors : yet he J^JJ^,**^**' 
checked the victorious progress of the Moguls ; 
and after their departure, united for a while the 
thrones of Adrianople and Boursa. In war he 
was brave, active, and unfortunate ; his courage 
was softened by clemency ; but it was likewise in^ 
flamed by presumption, and corrupted by in- 
temperance and idleness. He relaxed the nerves 
of discipline, in a government where either the 
subject or the sovereign must continually tremble; 
his vices alienated the chiefs of the army and the 
law ; and his daily drunkenness, so contemptible 
in a prince and a man, was doubly odious in a 
disciple of the prophet. In the slumber of intoxi^ 
cation he was surprised by his brother Mousa ; 
and as he fled from Adrianople towards the By-r 
zantine capital, Soliman was overtaken and slain 
in a bath, after a reign of seven years and ten 
months. 4. The investiture of Mousa degraded 4. Moutu^ 
him as the slave of the Moguls: his tributary^ "^^^^^^ 
kingdom of Anatolia was confined within a nar- 
row limit, nor could his broken militia and empty 
treasury contend with the hardy and veteran 
bands of the sovereign of Romania. Mousa fled 
in disguise from the palace of Boursa ; traversed 
the Prc^ontis in an open boat ; wandered over 
the Wallachian and Servian hills ; and after somQ 
vain attempts, ascended thethroneof Adriapople, 
$0 recently stained with the blood of Solimtm, 

VOL, Xp, )( 


CHAP. In a reign of three years and a half, his troops 
^^^* were victorious against the christians of Hungary 
and the Morea ; but Mousa was mined by his 
timorous disposition and unseasonable clemency. 
After resigning the sovereignty of AnatolijEt» he 
fell a victim to the perfidy of his ministers, and 
the superior ascendant of bis brother Mahomet^ 
M. Maho- 5^ Tjjg final victory of Mahomet was the just 
A.i>.i4i3-recompence of his prudence and moderation. 
' Before his father's captivity, the royal youth had 
been entrusted with the government of Amasia^, 
thirty days journey from Constantinople, and the 
Turkish frcmtier against the christians of Trebi* 
zond and Gteorgia, The castle, in Asiatic war- 
fare, was esteemed impregnable ; and the city of 
Aihaisia,® which is equally divided by the river 
Iris, rises on either side in the form of an amphi- 
theatre, and represents oii a smaller scale the 
image of Bagdad. In his rapid career, Timour 
appears to have overlooked this obscure and con- 
tumacious angle of Anatolia; and Mahomet, 
without provoking the conqueror, maintained hisf 
silent independence, and chased from the province 
* the last stragglers of the Tartar host. He reliev- 
ed himself from the dangerous neighbourhood of 
Isa ; but in tile contests of their more powerful 
lirethren,. his firm neutrality was re'Spected ; till, 
after the triumph of Mousa, he stood forth the 
heir and avenger of the unfoitunate Soliman^ 
Mahomet obtained Anatolia by treaty, and Ro- 
nmnia by arms; and the soldier whopresented him 

*" Arabshah, loc. citat. Abulfeda, Geograph. tab. xvii, p. 302. 
^SusbeqCiiuls, cpist. i, p. 96, 97, in Itinere C. P. et Amftsiane* 


with the head of Mousa, was rew^died «« the c hap. 
be&eft^cior of his king aod oountiy. The eight 


years of his sole and peacefi|l reiga were usefulljf 
employed in banishing the vices of civil 4icvxir<Jt. 
and restormg on a firmer basis the &bnc of tb||r 
Ottoman monarchy. His last care was the cbojoe 
of two vizirs, Q^'azet and Ibrahim/ who mighit^<8n ^ 
guide the youth of his s^a Amurath ; ^nd such a. o. i48U 
was their union and prud^sice, that they conceal- ^'^g 
ed above forty days the emperor's death, till the 
arrival of his successor in the palace of Boursa. 
A new war was kindled in Europe by the prince^ 
or impostor, M ustapha ; the first vizir lost his 
army and his head ; but the more fiHtunate Ibra* 
him, whose name and family are still revered, ex* 
tinguished the last pretender to the throne of Bar 
jazet, and closed the scene of domestic hostility. 

In these conflicts, the wisest Turks, and indeed Re-uaioo 
the body of the nation, were strongly attached tOQ^^^^ 
the unity of the empire ; and Romania and Ana-«™P^"^' 
tolia, so often torn asunder by private ambition, '* 

were animatedby a strong and invincible tendency 
of cohesion. Their efforts might have instructed 
the christijan powers ; and had they occupied with 
a confederate fket Ihe straits of Gallipoli, the 
Ottomans, at feast in Europe, must have been 
ipeedily annihilated. But the schism of the West, 
' and the factions and wars of France imd England, 
diverted the Latins from this generous enterprise: 

^ The virtues of Ibrahim are praised b^ a contemporary Greek 
iDucas, c. 95). His descendants are the sole nobles io Turkey : they 
content themselves with the administration of his pious foundational 
are erased from public offices, and receive two annual visits from thff 
puitaa (Cantenouir, p. 76). 

Jt 2 


CHAP, theyenjoyed the present respite, without a thought 
^*^* of futurity ; and were often tempted by a mo- 
^ meutary interest to serve the common enemy of 
their • religion. A colony of Genoese,^ which 
had been planted at Phocaea^ on the Ionian 
coast, was enriched by the lucrative monopoly of 
alum ;* and their tranquillity under the Turkish 
empire was secured by the annual payment of 
tribute. In the last civil war of the Ottomans^ 
the Genoese governor, Adorno, a bold and am- 
bitious youth, embraced the party of Amurath ; 
and undertook, with seven stout gallies, to tran- 
sport him from Asia to Europe. The sultan and 
five hundred guards embarked on board the admi- 
ral's ship, which was manned by eight hundred 
of the bravest Franks. His life and liberty were 
in their hands ; nor can we, without reluctance, 
applaud the fidelity of Adorno, who, in the 
midst of the passage, knelt before him, and grate- 
fully accepted a discharge of his arrears of tribute. 

• See Pachymer (1. v, c. 29), Nicephoras Gregoras (1. ii, c 1), 
Sherefeddin (1. t, c 67), and Ducas (c. 25). The last of these, 'a 
curious and careful observer, is entitled, from his birth and station, 
to particular credit in all that concerns Ionia and the isilands. Among 
the nations that resorted to New Phociea, he mentions the English 
(^A^Xtivct) ; an early «Tidence of Mediterranean trader 

^ For the spirit of navigation, ahd freedom of ancient Phocaea» or 
ratbJBr of the Phocaeans, consult the first book of Herodotus, and th6 
Geographical Index of his last and learned French translator, M* 
« Larcher (torn, vli, p. 299). 

' Pliocaea is not enumerated by Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxxv, 52) among 
the places productive of alum : he reckons Egypt as the first, and for 
the second the isle of Melos, whose alum mines are described by Tour* 
nefort (torn. i» lettre iv), a traveller and a naturalist. After .the loss 
of Phocsea, the Genoese, in 1459, found that usefurmineral in the isle 
9f Ischia(Isimael, Bouillaud, ad Ducam, c. !^5). 



They landed in sight of Mustapha and Gallipoli ; chap. 
two thousand Italians, armed with lances and 
battle-axes, attended Amurath to the conquest of 
Adrianople ; and this venal service was soon re- 
paid by the ruin of the commerce and colony of 

If Timour had generously marched at the re- 
quest and to the relief of the Greek emperor, he 
might be entitled to the praise and gratitude of 
the christians,*' But a mussulman, who carried 
into Georgia the sword of persecution, and re- 
spected the holy warfare of Bajazet, was not dis- 
posed to pity or succour the idolaters of Europe. 
The Tartar followed the impulse of ambition ; 
and the deliverance of Constantinople was the 
accidental consequence. When Manuel abdicated 
the government, it was his prayer, rather than 
his hope, that the ruin^f the church and state 
might be delayed beyond his unhappy days ; and 
after his return from a western pilgrimage, he ex- 
pected every hour the news of the sad catastrophe. 
On a sudden, he wasastonishedandrejoiced bythe 
intelligence of the retreat, the overthrow, and 
the captivity of the Ottoman, Manuel' im- 

^ The writer who has most abqs^ this fabulous gentrositj is our 
ingenious Sir William Temple (his works, vol. iii, p. 349, 350, octa- 
vo edition), that lover of exotrc virtue. After the conquest of Russia, 
&c. and the passage of tl%e Danube, his Tartar hero relieves, visits, 
admires, and refuses, the city of Constantine. His flattering pencil 
deviates ii^ every line from the truth of history ; yet his pleasing fie* 
tions are more excusat^le than the gross errors of Cantemir. 

* For the reigns of Manuel and John, of Mahomet i, and 
Amurath ii, see the Othman history of Cantemir (p. 70-95), and the 
three Greeks, Chaldondylcs, Phranza, and Dacas, who is still 8up«« 
riof to (liff rivals. 

K 8 

^4 T^S bfiCLINV A^0 FALL 

CHAP, mediately sailed from Modon iu the Morea; 
ascended the throne of Cotisitaiftiiiopte v ttid 
dismissed his blind . competitor to 'sn easy eidie 
in the isle of Lesbos. The atnJbassadcM's of the 
dbti of Bajazet were soon introAuoed tl) > his 
presence ; but their pride was fallen, their tone 
was modest ; they were aw^ed by die jns* appre- 
hension, lest the Greeks should open to the Mo^ 
gnls the gates of Europe. Soliman sahited tlie 
emperor by the name of father ; soHcited at his 
hands the government or gift of Komania ; and 
promised to deserve his favour by inviolable friend- 
ship, and the restitution of Thessalonica, with the 
most important places along the Strymon, tlie 
jPropontis, and the Black sea. The alliance of 
Soliman exposed the emperor to the enmity and 
revenge of Moursa ; the Turks ajqpeared in arms 
before the gates of Constantinople; but they 
Were repulsed by sea and land ; and unless the 
city was guarded by some foreign mercenaries^ 
the Greeks must have wondered at their own 
triumph. But, instead of prolonging the di\ision 
of the Ottoman powers, the policy or passion of 
Manuel was tempted to assist the most formidable 
of the sons of Bajazet. He concluded a treaty 
with Mahdmet, whose progress was checked by 
the insuperable barrier of Gallipoli : the sultan 
tod his troops were transported over the Bos- 
phorus ; he was hospitably entertained in the 
capital ; and his successful sally was the first stq) 
to the conquest of Romania. The ruin was 
suspended by the prudence and moderation of 
the conqueror ; he faithfully discharged his own 

%Jf THf JtOMAN EMPinB* 66 

obl^UoBs mid those of Solimaa, respected the en a p. 
laws of gratitiide aud peace ; and left the empe* ^^^* 
ror guardian of his two younger sons, in the vain 
hope of saving them from the jealous cruelty of 
their brother Amuratfa. But the execution of 
his last testament would have offended the na» 
tional honour and reUgion ; and the divan unani- 
mously pronounced, that the royal youths shouhl 
never fae^ abandoned to the custody and education 
of a christian dog. On this refusal, the Byzan-* 
tine councils were divided ; but the age and cau- 
tion of Manuel yielded to the presumption of 
bis son John ; and they unsheathed a dangerous 
weapon of revenge, by dismissing the true or 
false Mustapha, who had long been detained as a 
captive and hostage, and for whose maintenance 
they received an annual pension of three hundred 
thousand aspers.*" At the door of his prison, 
Mustapba subscribed to every proposal ; and the 
keys of Gallipoli, or rather of Europe, were sti- 
pulated as the price of his deliverance. But no 
sooner was he seated on the throne of Romania, 
than he dismissed the Greek ambassadors with a 
smile of contempt, declaring, in a pious tone, 
that, at the day of judgment, he would rather 
answer for the violation of an oath, than for the 
surrender of a mussulman city into the hands of 
the infidels. The emperor was at once the enemy 
of the two rivals ; from whom he had sustained, 

" The Turkish asper (from the Greek a^r^^s) is, or was, a piece of 
white or silver money, at present much debased, but which was for- 
merly equivalent to the fifty-fourth part, at least, of a Venetian ducat 
or sequin ; and the 300,000 aspers, a princely allowance or royal tri- 
bute, may be computed at S500J. sterling (Leunclav. Pandect. Turc. 

E 4t 


CHAP, and to whom he bad offered, an injuiy; and the 
^x.xvvuJcv ^^^^U ^^ Amurath was followed, in the ensuing 

springs by the siege of Constantinople.^ 
Siege of The religious merit of subduing the city of the 
toopieTy*^" Caesars attracted from Asia a crowd of volun- 
Amurath tcers, who aspired to the crown of martyrdom : 
A.*©. U22, their military ardour was inflamed by the promise 
ilS^rt^*. ^ "^*^ ®P^^'^ ^^^ beautiful females ; and the sul- 
♦ tan's ambition was consecrated by the presence 
and prediction of Seid Bechar, a descendant of 
the prophet,"* who arrived in the camp, on a 
mule, with a venerable train of five hundred dis- 
cipleSi But be might blush, if a fanatic could 
blush, at the failure of his assurances. The 
strength of the walls resisted an army of two hun- 
dred thousand Turks: their assaults were repelled 
by the sallies of the Greeks and their foreign 
mercenaries *, the old resources of defence were 
opposed to the new engines of attack ; and the 
enthusiasm of the dervish, who was snatched to 
heaven in visionary converse with Mahomet^ was 
answered by the credulity of the christians, who 
beheld the virgin Mary, in a violet garment, 
walking on the rampart and animating their 
courage.^ After a siege of two months, Amurath 
Was recalled ;^to Boursa by a domestic revolt, 

* For the s)iegt of C^jnsttntinople in 1423, see the particular and 
contemporary narrative of John Cananus, published by Leo Allatius, 
•t the end of his edition of Acropolita (p. 18]B^199> 

•» Cantemir, p. 80. Cananus, who describes Seid Bechar without 
naming him, supposes that the friend of Mahbpiet assumed in his 
amours the privilege of a prophet, and thiat the fairest of the Greek 
nuns were promised to the saint and his disciples. 

r For this miraculous apparition, Cananus appeals to the roussul- 
)yian saint ; \^ut who will biNir testimony for Seid Bechar P 


Xviiich had been kindled by Greek treachery, and chap. 
was soon extinguished by the death of a guiltless ^ 

brother. While he led his janizaries to new Th« cmpe. 
conquests in Europe and Asia^ the Byzantine pYja^io- 
empire was indulged in a servile and pr^^ousf ^''i^je 
respite of thirty years. Manuel sunk into theJui> ^i. 
grave, and John Palaeologus was permittetl to uctotjer^ 
reign, for an annual tribute of three hundred thou* 
sand aspers, and the dereliction of almost all that 
he held beyond the suburbs of Constantinople. 

In the establishment and restoratioir^of tiieuM -iitaiy 
Turkish empire, the first merit must doubtless be ^. '"' ;\ ;*." 
assigned to the personal qualities of the sultans ; ^^ ' «-u 
since, in human life,, the most important scenes 
will depend on the character of a single acton 
By spme shades of wisdom and virtue, they may 
be discriminatetl from each other ; but, except 
in a single instance, a period of nine reigns and 
two hundred and sixty-five years is occupied, 
from the elevation of Othman to the death of 
Soliman, by a rare series of warlike and active 
{H'inces, who impressed their subjects with obe- 
dience and their enemies with terror.* Instead of 
the slothful luxury of the seraglio, the heirs of 
royalty were educated in the council and the Held; 
from early youth they were entrusted by their 
fathers with the command ef provinces and 
armies ; and this manly institution, which was 
often productive of civil war, must have essential- 
ly contributed to the discipline and vigour of the 
monarchy. The Ottomans cannot style them- 
selves, like the Arabian caliphs, the descendants 
or successors of the apostle of God ; and the 


CHAP, kindred which they claim with the Tartar khans 
^^^' of the house of Zii^s appears to be founded in 
flattery, rather than in thith.** Their origin is 
obscure; but their sacred and indefeasible right, 
which no time can erase and no violence can in- 
fringe, was soon and unalterably implanted in the 
minds of their subjects. A weak or vicious sultan 
may bedeposed and strangled; but hb inheritance 
devolves to an infant or an idiot ; nor has th^ 
most daring rebel presumed to ascend the throne 
of bis lawful sovereign/ While the transient 
dynasties of Asia have beencontinualiy subverted 
by a crafty vizir in the palace, or a victorious ge- 
neral in the camp, the Ottoman succession has 
been confirmed by the practice of five centuries, 
and is now incorporated with the vital principle 
of the Turkish nation. 
Education Xo the Spirit and constitution of that nation, a 
.linc^theStrong ^id singular influence may however be 
^■^^■* ascribed. The primitive subjects of Othman were 
tbefourhundredfamilies of wandering Turkmans, 
who had followed his ancestors frcrni the Oxus 
to the Sangar ; and the plains of Anatolia are 
still covered with the white and black tents of 
their rustic brethren. But this original drop was 

4 See Ricaut (I. 1, c. 13). The Turkish suhans assume the title of 
klian. Yet Abulghazi is ignorant of his Ottoman cousins. 

* The third grand vizir of the name of Kiuperli, who was slain at 
the battle of Saiankanen in 1691 (Cantemir» p. d8^)i presumed to 8ay> 
that all the successors of Soliman ^ad been fools or tyrants, and that 
it was time to abolish the race (Marsigli Stato Militare, &c. p. 28). 
This political heretic was a good whig, and justified against the French 
ambassador the revolution of England (Mignot, Hist. Ottomans, torn, 
iiit p. 434). His presumption condemns the singular exceptign o( 
•entinuing offices in the same family* 



Ot tltC ttOMAX EMPiBB. 59 

Ai»9olved ifi the mass of voluntary and vanquished chap. 
subjects, wJio, under the name of Turks, *^™.J^^ 
imi^d % the common ties of religion, language^ 
aBNt manners. In the cities, from Erzeroum to 
Belgrade, that national appellation is common to 
all the- Moslems, the first and most honourable 
inbabitants ; but they have abandoned, at least 
in Romania^ the villages and the cultivation of 
the land to the christian peasants. In the vigo- 
rous age of the Ottoman government, the Turks 
Mnere themselves exchided from all civi and mi- 
litary honours ; and a servile class, an artificial 
pec^e, was raised by the discipline of educatiodL 
to obey, io conquer, and to command.* From 
the time of Orchan and the first Amurath, the 
sultans were persuaded that a government of the 
sword must be renewed in each generation with 
new soldiers ; and that such soldiers must be 
sought, not in effeminate Asia, but among the 
hardy and warlike natives of Europe. The pro* 
vinces of Thrace, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, 
and Servian became the perpetual seminary of the 
Turkish army ; and when the royal fifth of the 
<^aptrves was diminished by conquest, an inhuman 
lax of the fifth child, or of every -fifth year, was 
rigorously levied on the christian families. Atthe 
age of twelve or fourteen years, the most robust 
youths were torn from their parents; their 
names were enroHed in a book ; and from that 
moment they were clothed, taught, and main- 

*ChalGondyie8<l. v) and Dujcas (c. 23} exhibit the rude Uneaments 
ef the Ottoman policy, and the transmutation ©f christian children 
into Turkish soldiers. 



CHAP, tained, for the public service* According to the 
promise of their appearance, they were selected 
for the royal schools of Boursa, Pera, and Adrian- 
ople, entrusted to the care of the bashaws, or dis- 
persed in the houses of the Anatolian peasantry. 
It was the first care of their masters to instruct 
them in the Turkish language : their bodies were 
exercised by every labour that could fortify their 
strength: they learned to wrestle, to leap, to run, 
to shoot with the bow, and afterwards with the 
musket ; tUl they were draited into the chambers 
and companies of the janizaries, and severely 
trained in the military or monastic discipline of 
the order. The youths most conspicuous for 
birth, talents, and beauty, were admitted into the 
inferior class of agiamoglans, or the more libe- 
ral rank of ichoglans^ of whom the former were 
attached to the palace, and the latter to the person 
of the prince. In four successive schools, under 
the rod of the white eunuchs, the arts of horse- 
manship and of darting the javelin were their daily 
exercise, while those of a more studious cast ap- 
plied themselves to the study of the koran, and 
the knowledge of the Arabic and Persian tongues. 
As they advanced in seniority and merit, they 
were gradually dismissed to military, civil, and 
even ecclesiastical employments : the longer their 
stay, the higher was their expectation ; till, at a 
mature period, they were admitted into the num- 
ber of the forty agas, who stood before the sultan, 
and were promoted by his choice to the govern- 
ment of provinces and the first honours of the 



empire.* Such a mode of institution was admi- chap. 
rablj adapted to the form and spirit of a despotic 
monarchy. The ministers and generals were, in 
the strictest sense, the slaves of the emperor, to 
whose bounty they were indebted for their in^ 
stniction and support. . When they left the se- 
raglio, and suffered their beards to grow as the 
syuibol of enfranchisement, they found them- 
selves in an important office, without faction or 
friendship, without parents and without heirs, 
dependent on the hand which had raised them 
from the dust, and which, on the slightest dis- 
pleasure, could break in pieces these statues of 
glass, as they are aptly termed by the Turkish 
proverb."" In the slow and painful steps of edu- 
cation, their character and talents were unfold- 
ed to a discerning eye : the man, naked and a- 
lone, was reduced to the standard of his person- 
al merit ; and, if the sovereign had wisdom to 
chuse, he possessed a pure and boundless liber- 
ty of choice. The Ottoman candidates were 
trained by the virtues of abstinence to those of 
action ; by the habits of submission to those of 
command. A similar spirit was diffused among 
the troops ; and their silence and sobriety, their 
patience and modesty, have extorted the reluc- 

*■ ThU sketch X)€ the Turkish ediication and di;icip1ine is chiefly bor- 
rowed from Ricaut^s State of the Ottoman empire, the Stato Militare 
der Imperip Ottomanno of Count Marsigli (in Haya, 1732, in folio)* 
and a Degcription of the Seraglio, approved by Mr- Greaves himself, 
a curious traveller, and inserted in the second volume of his works, 

" From the seniles of 115 vizirs till the siege of Vienna (Marsigli, 
^ 13) their place may ba valued at three years and a half purcha^a. 


CHAP, taut praise of tbeir christiaii enemies/ Nor ca& 


^^Jj^ the victmy appear doubtful, if we compare the 
discipline and exercise of the janiiziaries with the 
pride of birth, the in<^ependence of chivalry, the 
ignorance of the new levies, tbe mutinous tem- 
per of the veterans, and the vices pf intemper- 
ance and disorder, which so long contaminated 
the armies of Europe. 
Invention The only hope of salvation for the Greek em- 
gun "^'^ ° pire and the adjacent kingdoms, would have been 
powder, gome more powerful weapon, soQie discovery in 
the art of w^r, that should give them a decisive 
superiority over their Turkish foe^. Such a 
weapon was in their hands ; such a discovery 
had been made in the critical moment of their 
fate. The chemists of China or Europe ha4 
found, by casual or elaborate experiments, tha^ 
a mixture of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoalj 
produces, with a spark al fire, a tremendous ex-. 
plosion. It was soon observed, that if the ex- 
pansive force were compressed in a strong tube, 
a ball of stone or iron might be expelled with 
irresistible and * destructive velocity. The jare- 
cise era of the invention and application of gun: 
powder^ is involved in doubtful traditions and e- I 
quivocal language ; yet we may clearly disqern, 
that it was known before the middle of the 
fourteenth century ; and that before the end of 
the same, the use of artillery in battles and 
sieges, by sea and land, was fan^iliar to the states , 

' See the entertaining and judicious letters of Busbequius. 

7 The first and second volames of Dr. Watson's Chemical Essays 
contain two valuable discourses on the discovery and composition of 


.«f Germany, Italy^ Spaio^ France, and EnglMid.' chak 
The priority of nations is of small account ; none ^^^* 
could derive any exclusire benefit from their 
previous or superior knowledge ; and in the com- 
mon ImfH-ovement they stood on tlie same level 
of relative power and miUtary science. Nor 
was it possible to circumscribe the secret with- 
in the pale of the church ; it was disclosed to 
the Turks by the treachery of apostates and 
the selfish policy of rivals ; and the sultans had 
sense to adopts and wealth to reward, the ta- 
lents of a christian en^neer. The Genoese* 
who transported Amurath into Europe, must be 
accused as his preceptors ; and it was probably 
by their hands that his cannon was cast aad 
directed at the siege of Constantinople,* The 
first attempt was indeed unsuccessful ; but in the 
general warfare of the age, the advantage was on 
their side, who were most commonly the assail- 
ants : for a while the proportion of the attack 
and defence was suspended ; and this thundering 

^ On this subject, modern testimonies cannot tje trusted. The ori- 
ginal passages are collected by Ducange (Gloss. Latin, torn, i, p. 675, 
Bombarda). But in the early doubtful twilight, th« name, sound, fire, 
find effect, that seem to express our artillery, may be fairly interpreb^ 
ed bf the old engines and the Greek fire. For the English cannon at 
Crecy, the authority of John Villani (Chron. 1. xii, c. 65) must be 
weighed against the silence of Froissard* Yet Muratori (Antiquity 
Italise medii ^vi, torn, ii. Dissert, xxvi, p. 514, 515) has produced a 
decisive passage from Petrarch (de Remediis utriusque Fortunce Dia« 
}<>g')9 who, before the year 1S44>, execrates this terrestrial thunder^ 
(luper rara, nunc communis. 

* The Turkish cannon, which Ducas (c. 30) first introduces before 
Belgrade (a. d. 143,6) is mentioned by Chalcondyles (1. v, p. 123) in 
H22, at the siege of Constantinople. 


CHAF. artillery was pointed against the walls and tow^ 
^^' ers which had been erected only to resist the less 
potent engines of antiquity. By the Venetians, 
the use of gunpowder was communicated with- 
out reproach to the sultans of Egypt and Per- 
sia, their allies against the Ottoman power ; the 
secret was soon propagated to the extremities of 
Asia ; and the advantage of the European was 
confined to his easy victories over the savages of 
the new world. If we contrast the rapid pro* 
gress of this mischievous discovery with the slow 
and laborious advances of reason, science, and 
the arts of peace, a philosopher, according to his 
temper, will laugh or weep at the folly of man* 



/Applications of the eastern emperors to the popes.^^ 
Visits to the Westy ofjohnthejirstj Manuelj and 
John the second^ Palcsohgus. — Ufdon of the Greet 
and Latin churches^ promoted by the council of' Ba^ 
sil, and concluded at Ferrara and Florence.-^State (^ 
literature at Constantinoplc-^Its revival in Italy bf 
the Greek fugitives* — Curiositj/ and emulation of the 

In the four last centuries of the Greek emperors^ chafI 
their friendly or hostile aspect towards the pope ^^^'• 
and the Latins may be observed as the thermo- cmbM^ 
meter of their prosperity or distress, as the scale of^^^]^?^ 
the rise and fall of the barbarian dynasties. When cu« to ^^og^ 
the Turks of thp house of Seljuk pervaded Asiaju,, 
and threatened Constantinople, we have seen, at^ ••^'*^ 
the council of Placentia, the suppliant ambassadors 
of Alexius imploring the protection of the com- 
mon father of the christians. No sooner had the 
arms of the French pilgrims removed the sultaa 
from Nice to Iconium, than the Greek princes re- 
sumed, or avowed, their genuine hatred and con- 
tempt for the schismatics of the West, which pre- 
cipitated the firs|; downfall of their empire. The 
date of the Mogul invasion is marked in the soft 
and charitable language of John Vataces. After 
the recovery ^f Constantinople, the throne of the 

rOL* XII. , F 


CHAP, first Palaeologus was encompassed by foreign and 
^^^ll domestic enemies; as long as the sword of Charles 
*****^^ was suspended over his head he basely courted the 
favour of the Roman pontiff, and sacrificed to 
the present danger his faith, his v'utue, and the 
affection of his subjects. On the decease of 
Michael, the prince and people asserted the inde- 
pendence of the churolband the purity of their, 
creed : the elder Andronicus neither feared nor 
loved the Latins ; in his last distress pride was 
the safeguard of superstition ; nor could he de- 
cently retract in his age the firm and orthodox de- 
clarations of his youth. His grandson, the young- 
er Andronicus, wa$ 1,? ss a slave in his temper an4 
situation ; and the conquest of Bithynia by the 
Turks admonished hii?i to seek a temporal and 
spiritual alliance witU the Western princes. After 
a separation and silence of fifty years, a secret 
agent, the monk B^iriaam, was (Jispatched to pope 
Benedict the twelfth ; and his aytftil instructions 
appear to have b,een drawn by the master-hand of 

The argu- the great domestic* "" Most hply Cather," was 

ments for _ . , . - • a i 

a erusade he commissioncd to Say, " th^ emperor is not less 

«nd union. ^ jesfrous than yourself of an union between the 

*• two churches : bijt in this delicate transaction^, 

<* he is obliged to respect bis own dignity and 

" the prejudices of his su.bject^. The ways of 

"* "Hiis cariojus instruction was transcribed (1 believe) from the Va. 
tic«n archives, l^ QdoricU3 Rciynal<}y9« in l^is Conti^ua^iqn oC thf^ 
Annfds of Baroniu^ (HonigB, 1646-1677, in ten voluipcs in folio), I 
have contented myself with the abbe Fleury (Hist. Ecclesiaatique* 
- tom. XX, p. US), whose ahstMfto I have alwuj^a foiud to be deav, ae^ 
curate, and impartial. 


^ unkm are twokfold ; fbrce and persuasrion. Of chap. 
** force, tbe kieSacBey has been already tried ; 
*^ since the Latins have subdued the empire, witkn 
'< odt sabduiag the minds, of the Greeks. The 
'* method of persuasion, thotigb slow, 13 sttre and 
^* permsBfent A deputation of thirty or forty of 
** dor doctors would pr(4)ably agree with those of 
*• the Vatican, in the love of truth and the unity 
** of belief, but on thek* return, wW would be the 
^ Qse^ the recompense of such agreement ? the 
*^ acorn of their brethren, and tbe reproaches of a 
^ blind aftd obstinate nation. Yet that nation is 
** accustomed to reverence the general councils, 
** which have fixed the aarticlet of our faith ; and 
" if they r^irobate Ihe decrees of Lyons, it is be- 
'^ cause the Eastern charcbes were neither heard 
" nor rei»*esented i» that arbitrary meeting. For 
•^ this salutary end, it will be expedient, and evetf 
** necessary, that a welLchosen legate should be 
^ sent into Greece, to convene the patriarchs of 
<^ Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Je- 
*^ rusatem; and, with their aid, to prepare a free 
^ and universal synod. But at this moment,'* 
continuiedtbe subtle agent, <*the empii^e is assault- 
•* ed andi endangered by tbe Turks, who* have 
** occupied four of the greatest cities in AnatoKa. 
** The chrfetian inihabitants have expressed awish 
*^ of retnrniiig ta their allegiance ^id religion ; 
•* but tbe forces and revenues? c^f tbe emperor arc 
*^ insufficient &a their deliverance ; and the Ro« 
** man legate miKsit be accompanied, or preceded; 
** by aaarmy of Franks, to expel the infidefe, and 
* openr a way to the hoty sepulchre." If the 
suspicious Latins should require some pledge, 

F 2 



CHAP, some previous effect of the sincerity of the 


Greeks, the answers of Barlaam were perspicu- 
ous and rational. *M. A general synod can a- 
" lone consummate the union of the churches ; 
** nor can such a synod be held till the three 
'^ Oriental patriarchs, and a great number of 
" bishops, are enfranchised from the mahometan 
" yoke. 2. The Greeks are alienated by a long 
** series of oppression and injury : they must be 
" reconciled by some act of brotherly love, some 
*' effectual succour, which may fortify the au- 
** thority and arguments of theemperor, and the 
" friends of the union. 3. If some difference of 
" faith or ceremonies should be found incurable, 
" the Greeks however are the disciples of Christ ; 
" and the Turks are the common enemies of the 
** christian name. . The Armenians, Cyprians, 
** and Rhodians, are equally attacked ; and it 
" will become the piety of the French princes to 
*^ draw their §words, in the general defence of 
** religion. 4. Should the subjects of Androni- 
" cus be ti^ated as the worst of schismatics, of 
" heretics, of pagans, a judicious policy may yet 
" instruct the powers of the West to embrace 
" an useful ally, to uphold a sinking empire, to 
" guard the confines of Europe ; and rather to 
" join the Greeks against the Turks, than to ex- 
** pect the union of the Turkish arms .with the 
^* troops and treasures of captive Greece." The 
reasons, the offers, and the demands, of Androni- 
cus, were eluded with cold and stately indifference. 
The kings of France and Naples declined the 
dangers and glory of a crusade : the pope refiised 



to call a new synod to determine old articles of chap. 
faith ; and his regard for the obsblete claims of 
the Latin emperor and clergy engaged him to 
use an offensive superscrifrtion ; " To the mode" 
" rcUor^ of the Greeks, and the persons who 
** style themselves the patriarchs of the Eastern 
" churches," For such an embassy, a time and 
character less propitious could not easily have 
been found. Benedict the twelfth' was a dull 
peasant, perplexed with scruples, and immersed 
in sloth and wine ; his pride might enrich with 
a third crown the papal tiara, but he was alike 
unfit for the regal and the pastoral office. 

After the decease of Andronicus, while the Negocia- 
Greeks were distracted -by inte- tine war, they ucuLne*"' 
could not presume to a^ritate a £feneral union of^*^**^^®" 
the christians. But as soon as Cantacuzene had a. d. 1348. 
subdued and pardoned his enemies, he was anxi- 
ous to justify, or at least to extenuate, the intro- 
duction of the Turks into Europe, and the nup- 
tials of his daughter with a mussuhnan iirince* 

*• The ambiguity of this title is happy or ingenious ; and moderator, 
as synon3'mous to rector, gubemator, is a word of classical, and even 
Ciceronian, Latini.ty, w|uch may >e found, not in the Glossary of Dup 
cange, but in the Thesaurus of Robert Stephens. 

• The first epistle (sine titulo) of Petrarch exposes the danger of the 
hark, and the incapacity of the pilot, Hsec inter, vino madidus, a:vo 
gravis ac soporifero ro re perfusus, jamjam nutitat, dormitat, jam 
. somno prsceps, atque (utinam solus) ruit .... Heu quanto felicius 
patrio terram sulcasset aratro, quam scalmum piscatorium ascendisset. 
This satire engages his biographer to weigh the virtues and vices of 
Benedict xii , which have been exaggerated by Guelphs and 6hibiline£> 
l»y papists and protestants (stic Memoirea sur la Vie de Petrarque, 
torn, i, p. 259, ii, not. xv, p. 13-16). He gate occasion to the say- 
ing, Bibamus papal iter. 

F 8 


CHAP. Two officers of state, with a Latin interpreter, 
wer^ sent in liis name to the Roman court, which 
was transplanted to Avignon, on the banks of 
the Rh(»)e, during a period of seventy years : 
they represented the hard necessity which had 
urged him to embrace the alliance of the mis- 
creants, and pronounced by his command the 
specious and edifying sounds of union and crusade. 
Pope Clement the sixth,* the successor of Bene- 
dict, received them with hospitality and honour, 
acknowledged the innocence of their sovereign, 
excused his distress, applauded his magnanimity, 
and displayed a clear knowledge of the state and 
revolutions of the Greek empire, which he had 
imbibed from the honest accounts of a Savoyard 
lady, an attendant of the empress 'Anne,* If 
Clement was ill endowed with the virtues of a 
priest, he possessed however the spirit and magni- 
ficence of a prince, whose liberal band distributed 
benefices and kingdoms with equal facility, len- 
der his reign Avignon was the seat c^ pomp and 
pleasure; in his, youth Tie had su! passed the li- 
centiousness of a baron ; and the palace, nay, the 
bed-chamber of the pope, was adorned, or pol- 

* See the original lives of Clement vi, in Muratori (Script, rerun) 
Italicarum, torn, iii, p. ii, p. 550-589) ; Matteo Viliani (Chron. h iii, 
c. 43, in Muratori, torn. xi\r, p. 186), who styles him, molto caval- 
laresco, poco religioso; Fleury (Hist. Eccles. torn, xz, p. 126); and 
the Vie de Petrarque (torn, il, p. 43>45. The abbe de Sade treatji 
him with the most indulgence ; but ke is a gentleman as well i^ ^ 

.• Her name (most probahly corrupted) was Zampea. She had ac- 
companied, and alone remained with her mistress at Constantinople^ 
where her prudence, erudition, and politeness, deserved the praises 
of the Greeks themselves (Cantacu2en« U i, c. 42)* 

Idfe^i by the risits of his female ferourites. The c fl A p. 

wars df France and England were adverse to the^ ^ 

holy enterprise ; but his vanity Was atnused by 
the splendid idea ; and the Greek ambassadors 
returned with two Latin bishops, the ministers of 
the pontiffl On their arrival at Constantinople 
the emperof and the nuhcios admired each other's 
piety and cloqnence ; arid their frequent confer- 
ences Wcte filled with mutual praises and pro* 
mises, by which both parties were amtised, and 
neither could be deceived. *' 1 am delighted,"* 
said the devout Gantacuzene, " with the project 
^* of ottf holy war, which jnust redound to my 
•* personal glory as well as to the public benefit 
•* of Christendom. My dominions will give a 
^' free passage to the armies of France : my troops^ 
** my gfitUies, my treafsures, shall be corisecfated 
" to the common cause ; and happy would be 
** my fatej could I deserve and obtain the crown 
** of mdi'tyi^dom. Word» are insufficient to ex- 
** ppeds the ardour with which I s^ for the re- 
*• tinidii of the scattered members 6f Christ. If 
*• my deatfr co^d avail, 1 wotfid gladly present 
'• my swoM and my neck ; if the spiritual phtKnix 
^ could arise from my a^hes, I would erect the 
^ pitej an* kindle the fltrme with my own hands.'' 
Yet the Greek emperor presumed to observe, tha6 
the articles of feith whicb dividted the two 
cfaurches bad been introdnted by the pride an<f 
]^^ipitation(^the Latins; he disclaimed the ser^' 
vile and arbitrary steps of the first Palaeologus ; 
and firmly declared, that he would never submit 
his conscience^ unless to the decrees of aTree an4 



CHAP, universal synod. " The situation of the timas.^ 


continued he, *' will not allow the pope ^nd my- 

" self to meet either at Rome or Constantinople: 
" but some maritime city may be chosen on the 
" verge of the two empires, to unite the bishops, 
" and to instruct the faithful, of the East and 
" West," The nuncios seemed content with the 
proposition ; and Cantacuzene affects to deplore 
the failure of his hopes, which were soon over- 
thrown by the death of Clement, and the differ- 
ent temper of his successor. His own life was 
prolonged, but it was prolonged in a cloister ; 
and, except by his prayers, the humble nK)nk was 
incapable of directing the counsels of his pupil 
or the state.' 
Treaty of Yet of all the Byzantine princes, that pupil, 
oio^si,*V<^hn Palaeologus, was the best disposed to em- 
^^^ ^^^""^ brace, tp believe, and to obey, the shepherd of the 
A. D. 1355, West. His mother, Anne of Savoy, was baptized 
• in the bosom of the Latin church : h^r marriage 
with Andronicus imposed a change of naine, of 
apparel, and of worship, but her heart was still 
faithful to her country and religipn ; she had 
formed the infancy of her son, and she governed 
the emperor, after his mind, or a]t least his sta- 
ture, was enlarged to the size of man. |n the 
first year of his deliverance and restoration, the 
Turks were still masters of the Hellespont ; the 
son of Cantacuzene was in arms at Adrianople ; 
^d Palaeologus could depend neither on himself 

' See this whole negociation in Cantacuzene (1. iv, c. 9), who, amidat 
the praises and. virtues which he bestows on hipsself* reveals the uns- 
teadiness of a guilty conscience. 


tior on his pec^le. By his mother's advice^ and chap. 
in the hope of foreign aid, he abjured the rights /'^^'' 
both of the church and state ; and the act of 
^laverj,^ snbscribed in purple ink, and sealed 
with the golden bull, was privately intrusted to aa 
Italian agent. The first article of the treaty is an 
oath of fidelity arfd obedience to Innocent the 
the sixth and his successors, the supreme pontifiii 
of the Roman and catholic church. The emperof 
promises to entertain with due reverence their 
legates and nuncios ; to assign a palace f4)r their 
residence, and a temple for their worship ; and to 
deliver his second son Manuel as the hostage of . 
his faith. For these condescensions he requires a 
prompt succour of fifteen gallies, with five hun« 
dred men at arms, and a thousand archers, to 
serve against his christian and mussuluian ene- 
mies. Palaeologus engages to impose on his clergy 
and people the same spiritual yoke ; but as the 
resistance of the Greeks might be justly foreseen, 
be adopts the two effectual methods of corruption 
and education. Thie legate was empowered to 
distribute the vacant benefices among the ecclesi- 
astics who should subscribe the creed of the Va- 
tican :, three schooU were instituted to instruct 
the youth of Constantinople in the language and 
doctrine of the Latins ; and the name of Andro- 
Qicus, the heir of the empire, was enrolled as the 
first student. Should he fail in the measures of 
persuasion or force, Palaeologus declares himself 

« See this ignominious treaty in Fleury (Hist. Eccles. p. 151-154), 
from Raynaldus, who drew it from th« Vatican. archives. It was not 
wbifth thfe trouble of a pious forgery. 


14 tBfi dtCLlNS AKt> VALIr 

CHAF. unworthy to reign; transferred to th^ pope aQ 
regal and paternal authority ; and invests Inno* 
cent with full power to regulate the family, the 
government, and the marriage, of his son and 
successor. But this treaty wa» neither executed 
nor published : the Roman gallies were as vain 
and imaginary as the submission of the Greek's ; 
and it was only by the secrecy, that their sore- 
reign escaped the dishonour, of this fruitless hn- 
Vidt of The tempest of the Turkish arms soon burad en 
j^og^ his head ; and, after the loss of Adriatiople and 
^^S"^**"^* Romania, he was inclosed in his capitat, the vas- 
M. 0. 1369, sal of the haughty Amurath, with the miserable 
fc^)***' ^^ hope of being the last devoured by the savage. In 
this abject state Palseologus embraced the ries^yhi- 
tion of embarking for Venice, and casting himself 
at the feet of the pope : he wasr the first of the 
Byzantine, princes who had ever visited the un-' 
known regions of the West ; yet in them akme 
he could seek consolation or relief; and with les^ 
violation of his dignity he might appear in ib* 
sacred college than at the Ottoman JPbrte. After 
a long absence the Roman pontiffs were refurn- 
ing from Avignon to the banksr of the Tyber : 
^ Urban the fifth,*" of a mild and virtuous charac^ 
ter, encouraged dr allowed the pilgrimage of 
the Greek prince ; and, within the sfime ycar^ 

^ See the two first original lives of Urban t (in MumtoW, Script* 
rerum Italicarum, torn, iii, p. ii» p. 623, 6SS)f and the Ecclesiasticaf 
Annals of Spondanus (torn. i« p. 573* a. d. 1363, No. 7), and RaynAU 
^ys (Pleury, Hist. Eccles. torn, xx, p. 223, 32i). f et, from some 
variations, I saspect the papal^writers of slightly magnifying the g^ 
nuflexions of Palcologus* 


enjoyed the glorj of receiving in tlie Yaticftn the Cn a p. 
two imperiai shadows, who represented the ma- ^^^ 
jesty of Constantine and Charlemagne. In this 
suppliant visit the emperor of Constantinople, 
whose vanity was lost in his distress, gave more 
than could be expected of empty sounds and for- 
mal submissions. A previous trial was imposed ; 
and in the presence of four cardinals, he acknow- 
ledged, as a true catholic, the supremacy of the 
pope, and the douhle « procession of the Holy 
Ghost. After this purification he was introduced 
to a public audience in the church of St. Peter ; 
Urban, in the midst of the cardinals, was seated 
on his throne ; the Greek monarch, after three 
genufleximis, devoutly kissed the feet, the hands, . 
and at length the mouth, of the holy father, who 
celebrated high mdss in his presence, allowed him 
to lead the bridle of his mule, and treated him 
with a sumptuous banquet in the Vatican. The 
entertainment of Palaeologus was friendly and 
bcnpurable ; yet some difference was observed 
between the emperors of the East and West ;* 
nor could the former be entitled to the r£U*e pri« 
yilege of chaunting the gospel in the rank of a 
deacon.^ In favour of his proselyte,, Urban 

' Paullo minus qiuam si fukset Imperator Remaoonnn. Yet hit 
title of Imperator Graecorum was no longer disputed (Vit. Urban t, 
p. 633). 

^ It was confined to the successors of Gharleroagnet and to them 
OQly on Christmas daj* On all other festivals the^e imperial deaeoas 
were content to serve the pqpe» as he said mass, with the book and . i 

the eorpoMU, Yet the abb^ de Sade generously thinks, that the merit* 
of Chaxles i\ might have entitled hlm«. though not on the proper day . 
(a. d. 1368, November 1), to the whole privilege. lie seems to affix a# 
just value on the j^vilege and the man (Vie de Petrarque, torn, iiji 
F.T3^. • > * 



CHAP, strove to rekindle the zeaX of the French king;, 
^^^^' and the other powers of the West ; but he found 
them cold in the general cause, and active only 
in their domestic quarrels. The last hope of the 
emperor was in an English mercenary, John 
Hawkwood/ or Acuto, who with a band of ad- 
venturers, the white brotherhood, had ravaged 
Italy from the Alps to Calabria ; sold his services 
to the hostile states ; and incurred a just excom- 
munication by shooting his arrows against the 
papal residence. A special licence was granted 
to negotiate with the outlaw, but the forces, or 
the spirit, of Hawkwood were unequal to the en- 
terprize ; and it was for the advantage, perhaps, 
of Palaeologus to be disappointed of a succour, 
that must have been costly^ that could not be ef- 
fectual, and which might have been dangerous." 
' The disconsolate Greek" prepared for his return, 

' Through some Italian corruptions, the etymology of Falcone in 
iptco fMatco Villani, 1. xi, c. 79, in Muratori, toni. xv, p. 746), sug- 
gests the English word Hawkwood, the true name of our adventurous 
countryman (Thomas Walsingham, Hist. Anglican., Inter Scriptores 
Cambdeni, p. 18 i). After two and twenty victories, and one defeat, 
he died, iQ 1394, general of the Florentines, and was buried with 
such honours as the republic has not paid Dante or Petprch (Mura- 
tori, Annali d'ltalia, torn, xii, p. 212-371). 

»■ This totrent of En^ish (by birth or service) overflowed from 
France into Italy after the peace of Bretigny in 1360. Yet the ex- 
clamation of Muratori (Annali, tom, xii, p. 197) is rather true than 
civil. ** Ci mancava ancor questo, che dopo essere calpestrata Tlta- 
*' lia da tanti , masnadieri Tedeschi ed Ungheri, venissero sin dall' 
•' Inghliterra nuovi cani a finire di divorarla.** 

* Ghalcondyles, 1. i, p. 25, 26» The Greek supposes his journey to 
the king of France, which is sufficiently refuted by the silence of the 
national historians. Nor am I much more inclined to believe that 
Palffiologus departed from Italy, valde bene consolatus et contentus 
(Vit. Urban t, p. 623.) 


but even his return was impeded by a most chap. 
isfnominious obstacle. On his arrival at Venice ^^^^* 
he had borrowed large sums at exorbitant usury ; 
but his coffers were empty, his creditors were 
impatient, and his person was detained as the best 
security for the payment. His eldest son Androni* 
cus, the r^ent of Constantinople, was repeatedly 
urged to exhaust every resource ; and, even by 
stripping the churches, to extricate his father 
from captivity am) disgrace. But the unnatural 
youth was insensible of the disgrace, and secretly 
pleased with the captivity, of the emperor ; the 
state was poor, the clergy were obstinate ; nor 
could some religious scruple be wanting to excuse 
the guilt of his indifference and delay. Such un- 
dutiful neglect was severely reproved by the piety 
of his brother Manuel, who instantly sold or 
mortgaged all that he possessed, embarked for 
Venice, relieved his father, and pledged his own 
freedom to be responsible for the debt. On hisHwretum 
return to Constantinople the parent and icing |"nop?e?^ 
distinguished his two sons with suitable rewards ; ^ "• ^^^^ 
but the faith and manners of the slothful Palae- 
ologus had not been improved by his Roman pil- 
grimage ; and his apostacy or conversion, devoid 
of any spiritual or temporal effects, was speedily 
forgotten by the Greeks aiid Latins.* 

Thirty years after the return of Palaeologus, Visitor the 
his son and sifccessor, Manuel, from a similar mJ^T 
motive, but on a larger scale, again visited the 

* His return .in 1370, and the coronation of Manuel, Sept. 25> 
1373 (Ducange, Fam. Byzant p. 241), leaves some intermedii^te er^ 
for the conspiracy and punishment of Andronicut. 


CHAP, eountries of the West In a preceding chapter t ' 
hare related his treaty with Ri^azeti the violatioii 
of that treaty^ the siege or blockade of Constan* 
tinople, and the Freifch succour uader the com- 
mand of the gallafit Boudcault.' By bis ambas* 
sadorsy Manuel h^ solicited the Latin powers ; 
but it was thought that thepr^enciof a distressed 
monarch would draw tears and suf^lies from tb^ 
hardest barbarians ;*^ and the marshal who ad* 
vised the journey, prepared t^ reception of the 
Byzantine prince. The land was occupied by 
the Turks ; but the navigation of Vwilce was 
safe and open ; Italy received him as the first, or, 
«t least, as the second of the christian princes ; 
Manuel was pitied as the champion tnd confessor 
of the fetth ; and the dignity of his behariotir 
prevented that pity from sinking into contempt. 
From Venice he proceeded to Padua and Pavia ; 
and even the duke of Milan, a secret ally of Ba- 
jazet, gaine him safe and boiuourable conduct to 
* the court tiie verge of his dcmimons/ On the confines erf* 
A. D. 1 W, France^ the roydt officers mtdertook the care 
June 3; ^ y^ perKJu, joursey, and expences; and two 

' Memoires de Bouclcault, p. i* c. 35, 3$. 

^ His journey into the west of Europe is slightly, and I believe re- 
lUGtantty, notked by Cbaleendyles (1. !i, e. 44-50) and Bucas a 14)L 

' Muratori, Annafi d*Ita]Ia, torn, xii, p. 409. John Galesaao wai 
the first and most powerful duke of Milan. His 9onnection with 
Bijazet is attested by Proissard ; and he contributed to aavc and de- 
Hiper tht Frtocb captives of Nicqpolis. 
' « F«r the reception of Manuel at Paris, see Sj^ndanua (Annal. Ec- 

' desy torn, i, p. 676. 677, a. ». 1400, No. 5), who quotes JSivenal delT 
Ursius, and the monk of St. Denys ; and Villaret (Hist de France. 
torn, xii, p. 391-394), who quotes^ nobody* acsoniing to tht Iwdt 
aHhioii of tiie French writers* 

^ m mmtmm^am 

0ir itw iioMAN nupnnf 79 

IbowAnd of th^ richest citizens, in sOrm^ and oft char. 
JwjTsebiBMck^ cwie fiwrtb to meet him as far as^ ^^^^ 
Ch^^tQO* in th£ Qeighh(»irhood oi the ci^ital. 
At th^ ^^tes of Paris» he was saluted by the 
cih^AC^Ior and the parUament; and Charlw tbe 
fixtbs aHi^nded by his princes and nobles, wel* 
coined his brother with a cordial embrace. The 
swcessor of Gonstantina was clothed in a robe q( 
wkiX^ siUk> ^nd mounted on a milk-white steed; 
a pijrcum^dnce, in the Fr^<^ ceremcmiaU of 
^iQgular importance: the white colour is con<- 
sid^red ^s tb^ symbol of sorereignity ; and, in a 
lati^ y'mtn tha German emperor» after an hanght j 
demand and a peevish refusal, had been reduced 
to content himself with a black courser. Manuel 
was lo^ed in the Louvre ; a succession of feasts 
^^d h^Us, the {^asures of the banquet and tha 
ch9(Ce, were ii^eniously varied by the politeness 
^ the French^ to display their magnificence and 
amw? bis gri^f : be was indulged in the liberty 
of his chapel ; and the doctors of the Sorhonmt 
wer^ as^onishadi and possibly scandalised, by thf 
lgj;iguage, the rites, and the vestments, of hja 
Gre^J; clergy- But the slightest glance on tiba 
state of the kingdom must teach him to despaii 
of any effectual assistance. The unfortunate 
Charles, though he enjoyed some lucid intervals, 
contifimaHy relapsed into furious or stupid in- 
52tnity : the rQins of government were alternately 
seiioed by his brother and uncle, the dukes aS 
Orleans and Burgimdy, whose factious compe- 
titi(Mx prepared ^t^ miseries^ of civil war. The 
fiirmer was^ a g9^ youth, dissohred in luxury an* 


CHAP. love : the latter was the father of John count of 
LXVL^ Nevers, who had so lately been ransomed from 
Turkish captivity ; and, if the fearless son was 
ardent to revenge his defeat, the more prudent 
Burgundy was content with the cost and peril of 
the first experiment. When Manuel had satiated 
the curiosity, and perhaps fatigued the patience, 
of the French, he resolved on a visit to the ad- 
•fEngiand.jacent island. In his progress from Dover he 
December* was entertained at Canterbury with due reverence 
by the prior and monks of St. Austin ; and, on 
Blackheathy king Henry the fourth, with the 
English court, saluted the Greek hero (I copy 
our old historian), who, during many days,* was 
lodged and treated in London as emperor of the 
East.* But the state of England was still more 
adverse to the design of the holy war. In the 
same year the hereditary sovereign had been 
deposed and murdered : the reigning prince was a 
successful usurper, whose ambition was punished 
by jealousy and remorse : nor could Henry of 
Lancaster withdraw his person or forces from the 
defence of a throne incessantly shaken by con- 
spiracy and rebellion. He pitied, he praised, he 
- feasted, the emperor of Constantinople ; but if 
the English monarch assumed the cross,, it was 

* A short note of Manuel, in England^ is extracted by Dr. Hody 
from a mis. at Lambeth (de Graecis illustribus, p. 14),' c. p. Impe- 
rator. diu varilsque et horrendi& paganoruih insultibus coartatus, ut 
pro eisdem resistentiam triumphalem per^uireret Anglorum regem 
visitare decrevit, &c. Rex (says Walsingham, p. Sf 4) nobili apparatd 

suscepit (ut decuit) tantum Heroa, duxitque Londonias, et per 

ttiultos dies exhibuit gloriose pro expensis hospitii sui solvens, et 
cum respiciens tanto Tastigio donativis. He repeats the sftmie w |u9 
Upodigma Neustria (p. 656), 

I ^mn^it^ft^it^ 

mt THB llOMAN UMPlRl. 81 

only id appease his people, and perhaps his con- crap. 
science, by the merit ot* semblance of this pious *-^^^^ 
intention.*" Satisfied, however, with gifts and' 
honours, Manuel returned to Paris ; and, after anii i 
residence of two years in the West, shaped his^^'iS^ 
course through G^ermany and Italy^ embarked at 
Venice, and patiently expected, in the Morea, 
the moment of his ruin or deliverance. Yet he 
had escaped the ignominious necessity of offering 
his religion to public or private ^e. The Latin 
church was distracted by the great schism : the 
kings, the nations, the universities, of Europe, 
ware divided in their obedience between the 
popes of Rome and Avignon; and the emperor^ 
anxious to conciliate the friendship of both par* 
ties, abstained from any correspondence with the 
indigent and unpopular rivals. His journey coin- 
cided with the year of the jubilee ; but he passed 
through Italy without desiring, or deserving, the 
plenary indulgence which abolished the guilt or 
penance of the sins of the faithful. The Roman 
pope was offended by this neglect ; accused him 
of irreverence to an image of Christ ; and ex- 
horted the princes of Italy to reject and aban- 
don the obstinate schismatic* 

During the period of the crusades, the Greeks Gwek 
beheld with astonishment and terror tbeperpetual ^^d^ 

^ scriptioiui 
* Shakespeare begins and ends the play of Henry !▼, with that 
prince's vow of a crusade, and his belief that he should die in Jeru- 

' This fact is preserved in ^he Historia PoIiUca, a. d. 1S91-1478, 
published by Martin Crusius (Turco Grseda, p. 1-43). The image 
of Christ, which the Greek emperor refused to worship, wasjproba'^ 
Wy a work of sculpture* 




CHAP, stream df emigrfttiottthtit flowed^ and omrt^^ 
J^!^^ to flow» from the unksoi^n cUmaleB of the West. 
The visits of tlieir last enqietorft removM the veii 
of sQNirtftion, and they disolosed to tfaeif eyes the 
powerful natioBS of Surope, whom they no longer 
pretimied to brand tritii tlie name o€ barbarians. 
The observations of Manuel, and his more inquisi* 
tive Ibllowera, have been jo'eserved by a Byean- 
tine historimi oi the times 'J his scattered ideas I 
shall collect and abridge ; and it may be amusing 
enough, perhaps instructive, to contemplate the 
rude pictures of Germany, France, and England, 
whose ancient and modern state are io familiar to 

of Germa- OUT minds. 1. Germany (says the Grede Ciial- 
condyles) is of ample latitude from Vienna to 
the ocean ; and it stretches (a strange geography) 
from Prague in Bohemia to the river Tartessi», 
and the Pyrena&an mountains.' The doil, ex- 
cept in figs and olives, is sufficiently fruitful ; the 
air it salubrious ; the bodies of the natives are 

f The Oreek and Turkish history of La^akms Chdcoadyles «iidf 
with the winter of 1463,' end the abrupt conclusion seems to mark 
that he laid down his pen in the same year. We know that he was an 
Athitiian, and that some contcv^faries^the sttaie name cMitribut* 
ed to the revival of the Greek language la Italy. But in his nume* 
rous digressions, the modest historian has never introduced himself; 
snd his editor, L^uncUtvius, as well As Pabrictus (BiUiot. Otm:, torn. 
vi» p. iT^K seems ignoraat of his life and character. For his deeorip* 
.tions of Germany, France, and England, see 1. ii, p. 36, 37, 44-50. 

* 1 shall not animadvert on the geographical errors of Chaldondyles. 
In this instance he perhaps followed, and tnistook, Herodotus (1. ii| 
c. 33), whose text may be explained (Herodote de Larcher, torn, ii, 
p. »1S, tSO), or whose igntfraikce may be elcused. Had these mo- 
dern Greeks never read Strtfbio, ot any of the lesset geo^aphers ? 

r^j^ifmt fStti BSttlllrf ; tki t&«s6 cold reg^its aM ohaK 
sfifclAifti t&ifea Wrtfe thfe cftlft«itfes of pestilence or ^^^ 
(!«ttltiyMl»». Att*f thfe Sc^tteaM tftTwrtM^^^ 
tti^ fa^tfhsm ikft tBfe Hiosft aumerous of nations ; 
thQr A% fctdtte MA pafieiit, amd were they imit-^ 
^ nm^f 4 ^gje bfeakly tUfek- forc^ would be ir- 
r^tlbl*. By «hfe gift rf the p6p*, thejf' hate 
9itM(t/i»lb4 (he ]^i^^flege of dmsing the RonMth 
eM^^ctf ;* ijrt)r Is any ptopl^ rtwyre devotrtly at«- 
€#cheA f# fft6 faftb and obedience of tfa^ Latifi 
pfttrfi#fcfi. The gfeatest part of the cotintiy is 
divided aE^oiig the (Mtiftces and prelates; but 
St#atshurgii, Cologne, Hamburgli, and more thact 
tWehttodi^fed frtt cities, are governed by sage und 
^nM lAWs, at^cording to the will, and for the 
ndtkM&ge^ of the whole cofnmunity. The use of 
du^li^^ dt sirigte tainbats on foot, prevails amongf 
tfc^rti itk p€^e and war ; th^ir indifstry excels ii< 
flffl the hiechanic arts, and the Germans may 
boast of the intention C3f gunpowder and camion, 
which is now diffused over the greatest part at 
thfe \f (*M. 11. The kihgdoiici cf Ftahce is sfpre^ofFnopti 
a1)oV6 fifteen or ttv^enly days journey from Ger- 
jx^tif te Spahi, txA froM the Alps to the Bri* 
t!sh i3bthh ; contarthhUg many flourishing cities, 
tiiiA atrfohg tfiese Parts, the seat of the kiitg, 
which suTjfrttsses th?e re*t in titl^ and luxury. 
Many princes and lords alternately wait in his 

* A cftMM iXntw l^bmkt while new Borne ieu^lved, iMttH %ipM 
w^Atied ttf ^l^giMf thff OdnfiMMi tfH with thv iitlM of iii#As#t 0i 
^^^^ifkfMm', hut tfl ^MM tv^ AtHh^t tiiifaiehbtoibdr ^asL* 
condyles < OSA h« d«ieHttlM ikh B^^^anfiMe prinee, ttM hfe fOlijeie^ by 
t3^e proper, though humble nam^s of 'fiAJi*? if , and B«#Aiiy *Cxx«f«c, 



CHAP. palacCf and acknowledge him as their soyereign ; 

^^^'' the most powerful are the dukes of Bretagne 
and Burgundy^ of whom the latter possesses the 
wealthy province of Flanders, whose harbours 
are frequented by this ships and merchants of our 
own and the more remote seas. The French are 
an ancient and opulent people ; and their lan- 
guage and manners, though somewhat different, 
are not dissimilar from those of the Italians. 
Vain of the imperial dignity of Charlemagne, of 
their victories over the Saracens, and of the ex- 
ploits of their heroes, Oliver and Rowland,** they 
esteem themselves the iirstof the western nations; 
but this foolish arrogance has been recently hum- 
bled by the unfortunate events of their wars 
against the English, the inhabitants of the Bri- 
ofEqgiaad'tish island. III. Britain, in the ocean, and op- 
posite to the shores of Flanders, may be consi- 
dered either as one, or as three islands; but 
the whole is united by a common interest, by 
the same manners, and by a similar government. 
The measure of its circumference is five thou- 
sand stadia : the land is overspread with towns 
and villages : though destitute of wine, and not 
abounding in fruit trees, it is fertile in wheat and 
barley, in hoiiey and wool; and much cloth is 
manufactured by the inh^abitants. In populous- 

^ Most of the old romances were translated in the fourteenth cen- 
tury into French prose, and soon became the favourite amusement of 
the knights and ladies in the court of Charles vi. If a Greeic believed 
in the exploits of Rowland and Oliver, he may surely be excused, 
■ince the monks of St. Denys, the inutional historians, have inserted 
the feUes of archbishop Turpin in their Chronicles of Fnmce. 


ness and power, in riches and luxury, London,* chap. 
the metropolis of the isle, may claim a pre-emi- 
nence over all the cities of the West. It is situate 
on the Thames, a broad and rapid river, which, 
at the distance of thirty miles, falls into thd Gallic 
sea ; and the daily flow and ebb of the tide affords 
a safe entrance and departure to the vessels of 
commerce. The king is the head of a powerful 
and turbulent aristocracy ; his principal vassals 
hold their estates by a fre^ and unalterable te- 
nure ; and the laws define the limits of his autho- 
rity and their obedience. The kingdom has been 
often afflicted by foreign conquest and' domestic 
sedition ; but the natives are bold and hardy, 
renowned in arms, and victorious in war. The 
form of their shields or targets is derived from the 
Italians, that of their swords from the Greeks ; 
the use of the long bow is the peculiar and decisive 
advantage of the English. Their language bears 
no affinity to the idioms of the continent : in the 
habits of domestic life, they are not easily distin- 
guished from their neighbours of France ; but 
the most singular circumstance of their manners, 
is their disregard of conjugal honour and of fe- 
male chastity. In th^ir niutual visits, as the first 
act of hospitality, the guest is welcomed in the 
embraces of their wives and daughters : among 
friends, they are lent and borrowed without 

* Adflvvff • • • . ^f ri *»Xit iwrn/Mt n it^nj^ttm 9§n t$ nt tin^t, vtutrif 

Xttir9fMffi» Even since the time of Fitzstephen (the twelfth century), 
London appears to have maintained this pre-eminence of wealth and 
magnitude ; und her gradual increase has* at least, kept pace with' 
the general improvement of Europe. 


CHAP. AmPi nor are the i$l«nd^^ o^Qsb4^4 9l %k}^ 

^' Strang commerce^ and its in^vitabl^ con&e^ 

quencesr Infor9^e4 99 wie fu^ of %\ie f9m^>os^ 

qf p|d EBglan4> ai}i4 flissw^d of t^ yiFtPP # PW 

laothjers, we in^j sm^e at the cs^e^ulityi Cfr f^^^^t 

the iiju^ti^^ of the Grepjc, :^rho m^s|; hwp cofi- 

fymijie4 a modefit 9»lu!fce^ w^tk a crm^l em- 

lir^ce. Bu(: }iis credulity and ^^^tfce p^f te^pfi 

n ^ iiQportanI; lesson : |;q di^tru^t thie 9pcoKi|tf qf 

foreign fiAfl rptpotp p^tipn^, ^lp4 itQ siiape^^ pi^;? 

belief of evpyy t§}p th?t fiey}Mes frPW tfee lav? 

qf i|§tiire and the cb^act;^ of map/ 

IndiAr. A|]ter hi^ r^turp^ 9^ tlje yjc^ciry of TinaiAvri 

M^udto-Ma^JJ^ei reigijpd inft?iyy^fti?8 in prpsperi^y and 

Ks,*^^ P<e?ce. . -/M long 9^ thp sQps of B^ja;?rt solipit^d 

1. !>. 140:^. hji^ fri^qdsliip apd i^p^red hi^ 4pniinion^, he w^ 

**^^* satisfe4 with th^ national religiQO I wd kk tei-r 

s$ire iF»3 pmplpyed in cpwppwng tyv^enty tfeeplcM 

gical di^}pgue3 fpr \tA defepce. The appearance 

pf tjip 3y?aa|tin^ ^mhass^prs «): ^le cqqncil 

of Constapce* wnpppc^§ the r^atpration rf the 

* If the dobble sense of the verb Kvm (osculor, and in utero gero) 
Jjit el|ulvocal, the context and pious horror of ChaJcondyles can leave 
hp 4oid)t of bis ineaning fnd xnUtal^f: (p. 4i9). 

* Erasmus (Epist. F^us^o Andrellno) h^ a pretty passage oi^ the 
Bnglish fashion of kissing strangers en their arrival and departure ; 
%OQi wi^ei^ce, ^oFever, ^e drai^{» no sc^fi^alo^if iiifereuc^ •' 

^ Perhaps we may apply th^s remark to the community of Tpives 
^ among the old Britons, as it is supposed by Csesar and Dion (Dion 
Ouahis, 1. lxii« torn, ii, p. 1^7), FJ^ Relnwr's judicie^ annota- 
tion. The Ai^eoy of Otaheite^ so certain at first, is become less vi- 
^blfi ^nd s^ao^a^Qug, iq pjrQftpr|iqij 9g mr^ l}^,e fi|u4ied th^ mi^n^rs 
J^ timt ^eojtl^ an(J ^oyou^ 1^9JSl^ 

f Sep Iipn%^, pi^t dtf Pw<mI« <^ Cgpfitanq?, torn, ii,, p. 57.6 f 
i^d for th£ ec^l^^lc;^} bi^^pr^ cff thp tm^t the Anofls of ^f^ndaj- 
i^, Miie p^Wi(?thi5j|^^ f^f 9vfl»% ^TO» »^^. W4 v^H^^fi* ™ 991* ?R« 
of the History, or rather the ContJLi^i|9Jt^D| pf Ftary- 

QV ^U9 ItOIMN ««tP|||V« ai 

Twkish power. » wqU a9 of the Latift dmroh; ch4P. 
th^ qonquest of tbe «uito»i» MabcHoet tnd Amu* ^^^^[^ 
ra^hi rwomihi ihe emperor to the Vafticitn; and 
tlie ^ge of Ca«ato9tui(^e almost tempted him 
$o aoqui^sqQ in ihQ double prace^stoa of the Holy 
Ghost, When Martin the fifth aacended, with* 
WJkt ar rival, tha ehair of St. Pater, a friendly in« 
toJKHwrae of totters and embaasiea wa» revived 
betwa^n tbe East and Weat. Ambition on one hu aego* 
^ide, and dtotrei^ on the other, dictated the sama^^^^in. 
d^eni language of charity and peace : the artful ^^^^ 
Greek ^xpressied a desire of marrying hia six sons 
%Q Itaiian priiiQeasea; and ,the Roman^ not leas 
urtfiil^ diapatcbed tiie dau^<£r of the marquis of 
Mxmtfefvat, with a company of noble vii^s, to 
aofitea by thoir cbarms the obstinaey of the aehia- 
maties. Yat under this mask of zeal,, a disoern- 
i^ig eya wiiX pf^eelve that ail waa hollow and in- 
pucare in.tba court and church «f Constantinople. 
Af^ef dinig ta the viciaaitndaa of danger and re- 
PKM^ the emperor advanced or retreated; alter* 
nately instructed and disavowed his ministers ; 
and escaped from an importunate pressure by 
urging the duty of inquiry, the obligation of 
eollacting the sense of hia patrlarehs and bishops, 
and th^ impQsjsiibiUty of convenimg them at a 
time whentbe Tufi[ish arms were at the gates of 
his capital. Prom a review of the public transac- 
tiQn$, it will appear t^al the Greeks inaisted on 
three snoeessive measures, a succour, a couneiH "v. 
and a final re-union, while the Latins eluded the - 
aocond^ and only promiaed the first, ast a conse- 
quentiatandvoluntary reward of the third, But 

G 4 


CHAP, we have an opportunity of unfolding the most 
^^^^' secret intentions of Manuel, as he explained them 
His private in a private conversation, without artifice or dis- 
"^^^^ guise. In his declining age, the emperor had 
associated John Palaeologus, the second of the 
name, and the eldest of his sons, on whom he 
devolved the greatest part of the authority and 
weight of government. One day, in the presence 
only of the historian Phranza,^ his favourite 
chamberlain, he opened to his colleague and 
successor the true principle of his negociations 
with the pope.* " Our last resource," said Ma- 
nuel, ** against the Turks is their fear of our 
** union with the Latins, of the warlike nations 
** of the West, who may arm for our relief, and 
^< for their destruction. As often as you are 
<< threatened by the miscreants, present this dan- 
<« ger before their eyes. Propose a council ; con- 
** suit on the means ; but ever delay and avoid tb^ 
** convocation of an assembly, which cannot tend 
^' either to our spiritual or temporal emolument. 

^ From his early youth, Geoi^ PhranzRy or PhranaeSy' ivaa eao- 
ployed in the service of the state and palace ; and Hanckius (de 
iScript. Byaant. p. i, c. 40) has collected his life from his own writ- 
ings. Ha was no more than four-and-twenty years of age at the 
death of Manuel, who recommended him in the strongest terms to 
his suceessor : Imprimis vero hunc Phranzen tibi commendo, qui 
ministrayit mihi fideliter et diligenter (Phranzes, 1. ii, c. 1). Yet 
the emperor John was cold, and he preferred the service of the des- 
pots of Peloponnesus. 

' See Phranzes, 1. ii, c IS. While so*mtay manuscripts of the 
Greeic original are extant in the libraiies of Rome, Milan, the Escu. 
rial, iu:. it is a matter of shame and reproach, that we should be 
ireduced to the Latin version, or abstract, of James Pontanus ad cal- 
cem Theophylact. Symocatta (Ingolstadt, 1<J04), so defleient in ac« 
curacy and elegance (Fabric. Bibliet. GraBC torn, vl, p. 616^620). 


'* Thie Latins are proud; the Greeks are ob- chap. 
" stinate ; neither party will recede or retract ; ^^^^ 
'' and the attenipt of a perfect union will confirm 
<' the schism, alienate the churches, and leave 
" us, without hope or defence, at the mercy of 
** the barbarians." Impatient of this salutary 
lesson, the royal youth arose from his seat, and 
departed in silence ; and the wise monarch (con- 
tinues Phranza), casting his eyes on me, thus 
resumed his discourse : ** My son deems himself 
<^ a great and heroic prince ; but, alas ! our mi- 
^' serable age does not afford scope for heroism .* 

« or greatness. His daring spirit might have 
" suited the happier times of our ancestors ; but 
♦* the present state requires not an emperor, but 
^* a cautious steward of the last relics of our 
<* fortunes. Well do I remember the lofty ex- 
*' pectations which he built on our alliance with 
'^ Mustapha; and much do I fear that his rash 
^* courage will urge the ruin of our house, and 
*^ that even religion may precipitate our down- 
*^ fall." Yet the experience and authority of Ma- 
nuel preserved the peace, and eluded the coun- 
cil, till, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, and His 
in the habit of u monk, he terminated his career, . 
dividing his precious moveables among his child- 
ren and the poor, bis physicians and his fa* 
vourite servants. Of his six sons,^ Andronicus, 
the second, was invested with the principality of 
Thessalonica, and died of a leprosy soon after 
the sale of that city to the Venetians, and its final 
conquest by the Turksw Some fortunate incidents 

^ ^ee Ducange, Fam. ByzanU p. 24f3-248. 

CH4P, luu} restored P^loponnc^uy^ or tbe MfV^^ ^ tha 
^ jf^ ewpire; and, vx \m wore pro^p^rauii cfcys, Mwiuei 
iui4 fortified the nwc(m mhjxm ^ w^ wtteil 
with ^ stone wail wd oae hwdi^4 9od Pty^-tkrea 
towers. The wall was overtbrowvi by th^ Cyrsi 
l)^t of (|h« Ottomans; the f0?^i}e. ik^ipppla 
might have be^n sul^i^Qt fw tb^ fow 7QU9g^ 
brothers, Theodore and Copsta^tvo^ Pe^l^li^ 
apd Thomas ; but tbej waM<ed m dopids^i^ eon? 
test& the remains oC their strength ; aQ4 t]|^ hm^ 
successful of the rivals were r^dUQ^d: t^^a M%: of 
djependence in. the Byzantiine palace* 
jgeii of The eldest qf the sons of Manuel^ Joto Pal^po- 
K»8^ur^^«"*^^ s^cqnd, was ack?pwle4gfid».aft«rhmf»- 
*-^-^i*2*-thqr's death, a^ the scHe eipp^rqr of ^e Greejks* 
Jle, immediately proceeded; to rep}dj#)t^ his w4fe, 
and to contract a new ovarriagei wi|:h the pii«$>esB 
of Trebheoiid ; beautgr wa%^ i^ hk eyQn^, t^ &*s^ 
qnalification o£ aift empress ; a^dL the clei^^y ha4 
yielded to his ftrm assurances thail^ wle^ he 
Qoight be indulged in a^ivofw^jt b^t^muihl t^e^dre 
to a qlpister,, and lea^e the tbf^n^ t(^hi$ brother 
Constantine. The iirst^ ^i4» in tm^ the q»I)|». 
victory of pateQlf3^?. wa^ Qv^/a^Jew*!* Wfho^i^ 
after a. long and lea^i^i dinj^^to^hf^cfm^erted to 

' The exact measure of the HexamiUon, fronl sea tp. se^, was 3800 
•Bgygm* or tM#M, 6f six Greel^ feet (Pkranset » h i, c. 38), whicfa 
imM produce a Greekr nUle* 9ti^ smi^lcr thm^ tj^^ Qf 6fP> Frtnik 
|M»e«, which is assigned by 4'Anville as sti}! -in u^e ip TurH^;« Fivf 
miles, are commonlj reckoned for the breadth oT the isthmus. Se« 
1||tf Tvfiv^lf of Spoft, Wheel«r, and Cfaaadler^ 

» The^trs^ajt^ect^aoCthfi Jewf[,isoAth^deM]^ofC|h¥ifU ifHimrt 
voluntary, Christ was a suicide ; wl\ich tl\e em^roK parr^i wU^ a igi^* 
stery. They then dispute on the conception o^ the virgin, the sense ef 
the ptophecies» &C. (fhranzes, I.iij c. 1^, a whql^lMyt|r). 

the c^stim fipth; ^d tJl^p (ppneotows tym* chap. 
Que$t i§ paFefirfly r^cofdefi in ^^e history qf the 

i^ilHi^g tfee ^( i^i Wf fj 5 aii4 regiirdl€?s of 
his fytkftfB f^drif e, Ust^Qn^ m( it sliould seeov 
if^itb $ii¥^eFitj, tp 4^^ jpropo^} of Bleeding ttx* 
pppo i)a 9 g^iP^^i f<lVP<Hl ^7on4 tbe Adriatic. 
Thh dimgef ous piFpj>ct wfii^ enponraged by Mimt- 
lin tlpie fiftllt and coldly ei^t^r^siiofid by his suo* 
4[>^9spr Sy^piiis, (ill, ^i^r n tedious n^ocj^tioi^ 
tb^ ^inf^or fp^^wed 4 ^upinipn? from thie l^tif^ 
ds$^ll)Uy ftf ^ new charact^, the inde|^^4ept 
pr^)^te& of Bftsil, who rtyled themselves ^h^ re- 
pri^9aptajti¥?s 91^ judges of the catholic cb^rch• 

The Rpmaa poptiff b^ fought and conquered Corrujutp. 
in tb0 ca}ise of ecclesiastical ireedpm; but thechiuch. 
TictpriQU9 etefgy wpr^ SQPH ^xpp^d to ♦be ty- 
ranny of tb^pir del4¥#Fef ; and bi§ 3&cr^d charactpf 
was fnvidn^f abl^ to tbo^e ftpmi^ which they foun^ 
so keen and <^eptual qgi^nst the civil magistrs^te* 
Their gi^t cb»rt@r, the right of flection, w^ 
annibUated by appejtls, evftded by trusts or conir 
meodanis* disappointed by reversionary grapt^ 
and superseded by previous and arbitrary reserv- 
ations.'^ A public auction was instituted in the 
court of Rome : the cardinals and favourites were 
enriched with the spoils of nations ; and every , ^^ 

eountry might compkun that the mast important 
and valuable beneflfices were accumulated on the 

^ In the treftUse delle Materie Beoefici«re of Fr^pFc^la (in the 
hiuxtk volume ^ the U&t and he$t «ditipn of bia. vkprlt^), th« p»p|l 
system is di^y studied and freely describe^. Shfluld Bome and ktkr 
religion be annihilated, this golden Toliuufi may stUI suniv/h ft pW* 
losopbical history, and a salutary warning. 


CHAP, heads of aliens and absentees. During their re- 
LxvL gjjence at Avignon, the ambition of the popes 
"" subsided in the meaner passions of avarice* and 
luxury : they rigorously imposed on the clergy 
the tributes of first-fruits and tenths ; but they 
freely tolerated the impunity of vice, disorder. 
Schism, and corruption. These manifold scandals were 
U29. "aggravated by the great schism of the West, 
which continued above fifty years. In the furious 
conflicts of Rome and Avignon, the vices of the 
rivals were mutually exposed ; and their preca- 
rious situation degraded their authority, relaxed 
their discipline, and multiplied their wants and 
Council of exactions. To heal the wounds, and restore 
r^*i409-*^^ monarchy, of the church, the synods of Pisa 
t)f Con- and Constance^ were successively convened ; 
A.D"*lli4-but these great assemblies, conscious of their 
^*^® » strength, resolved to vindicate the privileges of 
the christian aristocracy. From a personal sen- 
tence against two pontiffs, whom they rejected, 
and a third, their acknowledged sovereign, whom 
they deposed, the fathers of Constance proceeded 
to examine the nature and limits of the Roman 
supremacy ; nor did they separate till they had 

* Pope John xzu (in 1334) left behind him» at Avignon, eighteea 
millions of gold florins, and the value of seven millions more in plate 
and jewels. See the Chronicle of John Villani (1. xi, c, 20, in Mu- 
ratori*8 Collection, torn, xiii, p. 765>, whose brother received the ac^ 
count from the papal treasures. A treasure of six or eight millions 
jsterling in the fourteenth century is enormous, and almost incredible* 

p A learned and liberal protestant, M. Lenfant, has given a fair 
history of the councils of Pisa, Constance, and Basil, in six volumes 
in quarto ; but the last part is the most hasty and iipperfectt except 
in the account of th^ trpublea of Bohemia. 


establbhed the authoritj, above the pope, of a chap. 
general council. It was enacted, that, for the V^'^'' 
government and reformation of the church, such 
assemblies should be held at r^ular intervals ; 
and that each, synod, before its dissolution^ 
should appoint the time and place of the subse- 
quent meeting. By the influence of the court 
of Rome, the next convocation at Sienna was 
easily eluded ; but the bold and vigorous pro- 
ceedings of the council of Basil"^ had almost of Bmh. 
been fatal to the reigning pontiff, Eugenius thei'i^^ 
fourth. ' A just suspicion of his design prompted 
the fathers to hasten the promulgation of their 
first decree, tl^t the representatives of the 
church-militant on earth were invested with a 
divine and spiritual jurisdiction over all christians, 
without excepting the pope ; and that a general 
council could not be dissolved, prorogued, or 
transferred, unless by their free deliberation and 
consent. On the notice that Eugenius had 
fulminated a bull for that purpose, they ven-' 
tured to summon, to admonish, to threaten, to 
censure, the contumacious successor of St. Peter. 
After many delays, to allow time for repentance. Their op- 
they finally declared, that, unless he submitted E^g^"n^ 
within the term of sixty days, he was suspended'^* 
from the exercise of all temporal and ecclesi- 

^ The original acts or minutes of the council of Basil are preserved 
in the public library, in twelve volumes in folio. Basil was a free city, 
conveniently situate on the Rhine, and guarded by the arms of the 
neighbouring and confederate Swiss. In 14^9, the university was 
founded by pope Pius ii (iEneas Sylvius), who had been secretary to 
the counciL But what is a council, or an university, to the preseet 
of Froben and the studies of Erasmus P 


cttAP. ttiix^l authority. And to naark theit jssisdSctixm 
Jf^* c^er the pHnce to ^ell ad the <)riest^ they assumed 
*^^^^^^*^ thegovernmeBtof Arigfion, annuHed the aKena^ 
tkftk of the ^BCted patriimofiy^ and protected Rome 
ffomtbe imposition of new taxes. Their boldness 
was JBStified^ Hot Only by the gc^^ral opinion of 
the dergy, but by the sttp|)Ort and power of the 
fifst Gfionarchs of Ghristenfion)!; the efitp€rar£%is- 
mond declared himself the servaht and protector 
§f the synod ; Germany and France acSiered to 
thfeif ^au^ ; the doke cif Mitan wais the enem^ 
Irf* Engenius ; and he was driven from the Va- 
lican by an insurrection of the Boman people. 
Kejeeted at the dd<ne time by bis temporal aad 
ipiHtual stibjecte, submissiom was bis only choice: 
hy a most humiliating bull, the pope repealed 
hi^ own acte^ aild ratified those of the counc^ ; 
inci^orated his legates a^d cardinals with that 
Venerable body; and seemed to res%n himself 
lo the decrees of the stipreme lefgislature. Their 
fente perra^ the coVntri^ of the East ; and it 
Was in their presence that Sigismond received th* 
flimbassadors of the Turkidi snltan/ who laid 
at his feet twe^Ive lafge vasei^ filled with robes 
Vcgteia. of silk and pieces of gold. The faltbers of Baslil 
^e^G^^, aspired to the glory of reducing the Gi-eeks, ai 
^^^*34.^ejl ^ the Bohemians, withift the pide of the 
church ; and their deputies invited the emperor 
and patriarch of Gonstantinople to unite With an 
assembly which possessed the confidence of the > 
western nations. Palasblogiis li^as jiot avewe to 

' This Turkish embassy, attested only by Crantzius, is related, 
with some doubt, by the annalist Spoodanus, a* o. liSS^ No. 26, 
fbm. U P* 894. 


tbe|yropraal; atnd iiii amtasi^ors W^r6 faltM^ ohaK 
duced with doe hdnoUrs into the catholic genftte, ^^^[*^ 
But the t^mce of the plMe iip^ftred to be afl 
iHBu^able dbstack, dfic*^ he refuli^ to pks^ the 
Aips^ ot the sea of Sicily, litid tK>6iliveljr requii«d 
that tile synod should he a^aut&ed to Boitteeoft^ 
v^itot city ifi Italy^ or kt leasl oh th^ Danube, 
The odiei* articles of lJii$ treaty iriefe tnore readily 
stipulated : it ytm agreed to defr«ty tite travelling 
expences of the eifiperor^ with a train of dereti 
hundred persons/ to remit ah immediate smft 
of eight thousand ducats^ for the aocohiinodatfdtt 
of the Qroek clergy ; and in his absence to ^riitit 
a stt^ly of ten thousand dueats^ with three h«n* 
^ed Mcfaers and some gklAes, for the protec- 
tion of C^ftstantino^e. The dty of Atignon 
sAywmad the ftonds for the prelimihaary expences ; 
and the eifibM*kation was prepared at Marseilles 
with some dific«Ity and delay. 

In h^ distress^ the friendship of ]^akedlogui^jphiiPai«. 
was ^if^ed by the ec^eslftstical pefireti of the^|'„^^^ 
We* ; b« the de^tteS^otis l^dtivity of a toOAarchg^'»«^ 
preraUed dter the ^(>lv debMes and inflexible^D-i^ar, 
temper e€ a repufclict The decrees of ftasil tcftt* 
timially tended to cirevnnserlbe the despdtilM of 

• SyfapehR* p* m lA ^^ Uik, iJM OteMts ipp^ t6 &&▼« ei^eed- 

e« fh^ cfifl^ior iMi«gNHil%B, but ^lAck ihre tM ths&rVy i^pktoHMi hf 
tbe great <dM«ii¥^ Tlie 79|eo6 fl^in« which they ttsleeA hi thf# 
nvf^ammm 4i ffiie ^pe C^. ^ #ifre «M:M ^a!ft tK^ (^ufd hdj^' ttf 


names, the former from the dukea of Milan, the latter from flrt r^-f 
pubQedl I'J^raieA Vmsif i^» thktBt mhOm €hatMr«^<^ MifKMiQ 
Ufliljrt fi»rfi«p6 t»iM l^mA mfids tHitjr he ^tApm^i ?n W^IHf^t iSt 
v^ne, to one-tliM «f IW6 ail|Rib fuiiMft. 


CHAP* the pope, and to erect a supreme and perpetual 
^^1' tribunal in the church. Eugenius was impatient 
of the yoke ; and the union of the Greeks mi^t 
afford a decent pretence for translating a rebel- 
lious synod from the Rhine to the Po. The in- 
dependence of tlie fathers was lost if they passed 
the Alps; Savoy or Avignon, to which they 
acceded with reluctance, were described at Con- 
stantinople as situate far beyond the . pillars of 
Hercules ;" the emperor and his clergy were ap- 
prehensive of the dangers of a long navigation ; 
they were offended by an haughty declaration, 
that after suppressing the new heresy of the Bo- 
hemians, the council would soon eradicate the 
aid heresy of the Greeks.^ On the side m{ 
Eugenius, all was smooth, and yielding, and re- 
spectful ; and he invited the Byzantine monarch 
to heal by his presence the schism of the Latin, 
as well as of the Eastet-n, church. Ferrara, near 
the coast of the Adriatic, was proposed for their 
amicable interview ; and with some indulgence of 
forgery and theft, a surreptitious decree was pro- 
cured, which transferred the synod, with its own 
consent, to that Italian city. Nine gallies were 
equipped for this service, at Venice, and in the 

*■ At the end of the Latin version of Phranzes, ve read along Greek 
^istle OF declamation of Qeorge of Trebizond, who advises the em« 
peror to prefer Eugenius and Italy. He treats with contempt the 
achismatic assembly of Basil, the barbarians of Qaul and Germany, 
who had conspired to transport the chair of St Peter, beyond the 
Alps : i u4Xt»t (says he) n xmt rnt ^ir« rir fov»i«9 ^^t^ vtt» *HfmxXts«if 
fti^* *eu vtftt ToUnfuit i^^irri. Was Constantinople unprovided with 
a map? 

* Syropolus (p. 26-31)^ttests his own indignation, and that of his 
oountrymen ; and the Basil deputies, who excused the rash dedara- 
lion, could neither deny nor alter an act of tiw^^uncil* « 


, »^»^v%%»»% 


i^e of Camlia; their diUgience anticipated tlie chjip. 

slower vessels of Basil : tike Itornan adminri was ^^^- 

commssioHed to burn, sink, and destroy;^ and' 

tiiese priestly squadrons mij^hthave encountered 

f^ach other ia the same seas wliere Athens and 

BpBSttL bad formerly eontencted for the pre«eini* 

Aewce of glory, Assnulted by the importunity 

pf tke factions, who were ready to fight for the 

possession of his person, Pakeologus hemtated 

|yefore.h€i left fais palace and country on a perilous 

expernnentt. His father's advice still dwelt on 

his menrinry : and reason must suggest, that since 

the LatiiKs wa*e divided among themselves, they 

could Dievermiite in a foreigo cause. Sigismond 

dissuaded the uiiseasonable adventure ; his advice . 

was impartial, since he adhered to the council ; 

and it was enforced by the strange belief, thai 

the German Caesar would nominate a Greek h«i 

heir and successor in the empire of the West,^ 

Even the Turkish sultan was a counsellor whom if 

might be wnsafe to trvist, but whom it was dan^ 

gerous to offend^ Amurath w^as unskilled in> the 

disputes, but he was apprehelisive of tlie miion, 

of the christians. From his own treasures, he 

offered to relieve the wants of the Byzantine 

coart; yethedeclaredwithseemingmagmiiiimity,. 

y Condolteierl, the pope*8 nephew and admiral, eipretely declared, 

irt i^t0fi§t tj^u w»(ti Tit Ukt* itm w§X*ftnm im «f tufii ra xtflt^fk rrig 
Xir»^«, Mill ti 2tf¥fiiti tutlitv^ K0U mfecftfif. The naval ordei's of the synod 
were less peremfHiDry ; and, till the Hostile squadrons appeared; bdth 
parties tried to conceal their quarrel frotti the GreeVa* 

* Syropuius mentions the hoped of Palsologus (p. 36>, and tUe la^ 
advice of Sigismond (p. 57). At Corfti, the Greelj emperor was in- 
Ibrthed' of his friend's death : had' Ke known it sooner, he would JjArt 
returned home (pi 79). 

VOU XII. ^f 


CHAP. that'Constantinopleshouldfoe secure andinviolate 
^^^^^^ in the absence of her sovereign.* The resolu^ 
tion of Pabeologus was . decided by the most 
splendid gifts and the most specious promises : he 
wished to escape for a while from a scene of dan- 
ger and distress ; and afterdismissing with an am- 
biguous answer the messengers of the council, 
he declared his intention of embarking, in the 
Roman gallies. The age of the patriarch Joseph 
was more susceptible of fear than of hope ; he 
trembled at the perils of the sea, and expressed 
his apprehension, that his feeble vodce, with 
thirty perhaps of his orthodox brethren, would 
be oj^ressed in a foreign land by the power 
and numbers of a Latin synod. He yielded 
to the royal mandate, to the flattering assurance, 
that he would be heard as the oracle of nations, 
and to the secret wish of learning from his 
brother of the West, to deliver the church from 
the yoke of kings.^ The five cross-bearers, or 
dignitaries of St. Sophia, were bound to at- 
tend his person ; and one of these, the great ec- 
clesiarch or preacher, Sylvester Syropulus,*' has 

" Phranzes himself, though from different motives, was of the ad- 
vice of Amurath (I, ii, c. 13). Utinam ne synodas 'ista unquam tw 
|88et, 81 tantes ofibnsiones et detrimenta paritura erat. This Turkish 
embassy is likewise mentioned by Syropulus (p. 58) ; and Amurath 
kept his word. He might threaten (p. US, 219), but he never at- 
tacked the city. 

^ The reader will smile at the simplicity with which he imparted 
these hopes to his favourites: ramurn* ^Xnfv^fMf rxnntf nXw^^i zmt 
)/» « Harm tta^t tktvfitfttftu irm ut»Xnf*»9 »it» ism mrtrttuwns a»k 
)»AiMf w»f», rv fiaatkws (p. 92). Yet it would have been difficult fof 
him to have practised the lessons of Gregory viz. 

^ The christian name of Sylvester is borrow^ from the Latin ca. 
endar. In modern Oreek, arvx*;, as a diminutive^ is added to the 



Composed^ a free and curious history of the false cil ap. 
union.* Of the clergy that reluctantly obeyed ^^^^^^^ 
the summons of the emperor and the patriarch, 
submission was thelirst duty, andpatience the most 
useful virtue. In a chosen list of twenty bishops, 
we discover the metropolitan titles of Heracleaand 
Cyzicus, Nice and Nicomedia, Ephesus and Tre- 
bizond, andthepersonalmerit of Markand Bessa* 
rion, who, in the confidence of their learning and 
eloquence, were promoted to the episcopal rank. 
Some monks and philosophers were named to 
display the science and sanctity of the Greek 
church ; and the service of the choir was per- 
formed by a select band of singers and musicians. 
The patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jeru- 
salem, appeared by their genuine or fictitious de- 
puties ; the primate of Russia represented a na- 
tional church, and the Creeks mightcontend with 
the Latins in the extent of their spiritual empire. 
The precious vases of St. Sophia were exposed lo 
the winds and waves, that the patriarch might 
officiate with becoming^plendour ; whatever gold 

end of wonls : sor can any reasoning of Creyghton, th^ editor, excuM 
his changing into iS^ropulus (Sguros, fuscos) the Syropulus of hia 
own manuscript, whose name i& subscribed with his own hand in the 
acts of the council of Florence. Why might not the author be of 
Syrian extraction ? 

^ From the conclusion of the history, I should fix the date to the 
year 1444, four years after the synod, when the'great ecclesiarch had 
abdicated his ofRce (sectiaxii, p. 330-350). His passions were cool- 
ed by time and retirement ; and, although Syropulus is often' partial, 
he is never intemperate. 

* Fera historta unwrUs non vertB inter GrtBCoa et Laiinoi fHnga Cd^ 
wtHt, 1660, in folio) was first published with a loose arid florid ver- 
sion, by Robert Creyghton, chaplain to Charles ii, in his exile. The 
xeal of the editor has prefixed a polemic title, for the beginning of thtf 
•riginal is wanting. Syropulus may t>e ranked With the best of the 
Byzantine writers for the merit of his narration, and even of his style i 
^iit'he 28 excluded from the orthodox collections of the councils/ 

H 2 


100 TH8 0ECLINB AN!> FALt 

LXVL '^^ emperor could procure, was expended in the 
.,^vv^,<w. massy ornaments of his bed and chariot ;' and 
while they affected to maintain the prosperity of 
their ancient fortune, they quarrelled for the di- 
vision of fifteen thousand ducats, the first alms 
of the Roman pontiff. After the Yiecessary pre- 
parations, John Palaeologus, with a ifumerous 
train, accompanied by his brother Demetrius, and 
the most respectable persons of the church and 
state,' embarked in eight vessels with saUs and 
oars, which steered through the Turkish straits 
of Gallipoli to the Archipelago, the Morea, and 
the Adriatic gulf.^ 
"ai^ilm™' After a tedious and troublesome navigation of 
at Venice, seveuty-scven days, this religious squadron cast 
i'cb 9; ' anchor before Venice ; and their reception pro- 
claimed the joy aqd magnificence of that power- 
ful republic. In the command of the world, the 
modest Augustus had never claimed such honours 
from his subjects, as were paid to his feeble 
successor by an independent state. Seated on the 
poop, on a lofty throne, he received the visit, or^ 
in the Greek style, the adoration^ of the doge 
and senators.*" They sailed in the Bucentaur, 

^ Syropulus (p. 63) simply expresses his intention W iru w«^4r««» 
19 Irukoii fiifctf fieiftXtvf wot^* txufw uftt^etla ; and the Latin of Creygbton 
may afibrd a specimen of his florid paraphrase. Ut pom pa circum. 
ductus noster imperator Italiae populi^ aliquis deauratus Jupiter cre- 
derctur, aut Croesus ex opulenta Lydia. 

« Although 1 eannot stop to quote Syropulus for evei-y fact, I will 
observe that the navigation of the Greeks from Constantinople to Ve^ 
nice and Fcrarra is contained in the fourth section (p. 67-100), and 
that the historian has the uncommon talent of placing each scene be« 
fore the reader's eye. 

^ At the time of the synod, Phranzes was in Peloponnesus ; but h'e 
l«ceived from the despot Demetrius afaithfijl a^coupt of the honourable 



which was accompanied by twelve stately gallies : cb ap. 
the sea was overspread with innumerable gondolas ^^^'- 
of poipp and pleasure ; the air resounded with 
ipysic and acclamations ; the mariners, and even - 
the vessels, were-dressed in silk and gold ; and 
in all the emblems and pageants, the Roman 
eagles were blended with the iions of St. Mark. 
The triumphal procession, ascending the great 
caual, passed under the bridge of the Rialto ; and 
the eastern strangers gazed with admiration on 
the palaces, the churches^ and the populousness 
of a city, that seems to float on the bosom of 
the waves.' They sighed to behold the spoils 
and trophies with which it had been decorated 
after the sack of Constantinople. After an hps- 
pltable entertainment of fifteen days, Palaeologus 
pursued his journey by land and water from 
Venice to Ferrara; and qn this occasion, the 
pride of the Vatican was tempered by policy to 
indulge the ancient dignity of the emperor of the 
East. He made his entry on a black horse ; buti°[® ^*"** 
a nil^c-white steed, whose trappings were em-*"*^'*** 
broidered with golden eagles, was led before 
him ; and the canopy was borne over his he94 
by the princes of Este, the sons or kinsmen of 
Nicholas, marquis of the city> and a sovereign 

i-eceptioo of the emperor and patriarch both at Venice and Ferrara 
(Diui: .... 9ei})Uite0i imperatorem adofraij^ which are more slightly 
i&entioned hy the Latins (1. ii, c. 14, 15, 16). 

*■ The •astonishment of a Greek prince and a French amhassador 
<Memoires dp Philippe de Comioes, L vii, c. 18), at the sight of Ve* 
<^iff> abupdantly prove, that in the fifteenth century, it yff» the 
first aod most 9plexidi4 of the christian cities. For ihe spoils of Cqh.- 
•tanti^ople «t Veiuce, see Syropulus (p. 67)« 

H 3 

%^%'»^%<W » '^ 


CHAP, more powerful than himself.* Palaeologus dici 
not alight till he reached the bottom of the 
staircase : the pope advanced to the door of the 
apartment ; refused his proffered genuflection ; 
and, after a paternal embrace, conducted the em- 
peror to a seat on his left hand. Nor would the 
patriarch descend from his galley, till a ceremony, 
almost equal, had been stipulated between the 
bishops of Rome and Constantinople. The latter 
was saluted by his brother with a kiss of union and 
charity; nor would any of the Greek ecclesiastics 
submit to kiss the feet of the western primate. 
On the opening of the synod, the place of ho- 
nour in the centre was claimed by the temporal 
and ecclesiastical chiefs ; and it was only by alleg- 
ing that his predecessors had not assisted in person 
at Nice or Chalcedon, that Eugenius could evade 
the ancient precedents of Constantine and Mar- 
cian. After much debate, it was agreed that the 
right and left sides of the church should be oc- 
cupied by the two nations ; that the solitary c|;^air 
of St. Peter should be raised the fii:st of the Latin 
line ; and that the throne of the Greek emperor, 
fit the head of his clergy, should be equal and op- 
posite to th^ second place, the vacapt seat of the 
emperor of the West.* 

* Nicholas in of Este reigned for forty-eiglit yesxs (a. d. 1393- 
1441), and vfas lord of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, PHrma> Rovigo, 
and Commacibio. See his life in Muratori (Antichit4 Estense, torn, 
ii, p. 159-201). ' • 

' The Latin vulgiir .WM^jpvpked to lay^bter at the strange dresset 
of the Greeks, and esjglHKLl^e lengtS^^f their garments,' their 
sleeves, and their beardsl^l^Mi'as the en|{)|ror distinguished except 
by the purple colour, god his diadem cr tmrjl with a jewd on the top 

: ^- (Hody 



But as soon as festirity and fonn had given chap. 
place to a more serious treaty, the Greeks were 


dissatisfied with their journey, with themselTeSyCoancUof 
and with the pope. The artful pencil of his emis^and i^m 
saries had painted him in a prosperous state ; at J^Jyj^ 
the head of the princes and prelates of Europe, rence, 
obedient, at his voice, to believe and to arm.^g. 
The thin appearance of the universal synod of J-J- ^^* 
Ferrara betrayed his weakness ; and the Latins 
opened the first session with only five archbishops, 
eighteen bishops, and ten abbots, the greatest part 
of whom were the subjects or countrymen of the 
Italian pontiff. Except the duke of Burgundy, 
none of the potentates of the West condescended 
to appear in person, or by their ambassadors ; 
nor was it possible to suppress the judicial acts of 
Basil against the dignity and person of Eugenius, 
which were finally concluded by a new election. 
Under these circumstances, a truce or delay was 
asked and granted, till Palde9logus could expect 
from the consent of the Latins some temporal re- 
ward for an unpopular union; and, after the first 
session, the public proceedings were adjourned 
above six months. The emperor, with a chosen 
band of his favourites and janizaries, fixed his 
summer residenceatapleasantspaciousmonastery, 
six miles from Ferrara ; forgot, in the pleasures of 
the chaee, the distress of the church and state ; 
and persisted in destroying the game, without 
listening to the just complaints of the marquis or 

(Hody de Graecis Illustribus, p. 31). Yet another spectator confesses, 
that the Greek fashion was piu grave e piu de^a than the Italian (Vcfl? 
pasiano, in Vit. Eugen. it, in Muratori, torn, xxv, p. 1861). 

H 4) 

iOA tAb jtecmkc and fall ^ 

CHAP. 4ie hMdwndinflii."' In the meanvhile, Ihs milbi'^ 
^J^I^^^tUDate Gi*eeks wejre .exposed to ail liie miseries 
^of exfle and paverty : £sir die support x>f eadl 
.s^ang^er^ a monthly aUowasee ivbs aseigiied 
of three or lour gold florks ; and aijthougfa ike 
entioe £1110 did not iimoiuit to seven h'^nAn^d 
florins, sl long Wrear was i^^^atedly hiquroed bj 
the indigence or policy of the Romali jcourt.*^ 
Thegr eigbed for a speedy deliveracice, but their 
escape was prevented by a triple chain : a paaiqport 
from their superiors was required ^.t the gates of 
Ferrara : the governinent of Fenice had engaged 
to SLcrest and send back the fugitives ; and in- 
evitaUe punishment awaited them at Constanti- 
nople ; excommunication^ fines, and a ^^entence, 
wtiich.did not respect the sacerdotal dignity, that 
tibey should <be stripped naked and publicly whip- 
ped.° It wa£ 4)nJ[y by the alternative of hunger 
or dis|)kute that the Gredcs could be persuaded to 

i^ For the eniperor'« hunting, aee Syropuliis (p. 143^ 1^, 191); 
The pope had aent him eleven miserable hacks ; but he bought a 
strong and swift -horse that came from Russia, l^he name oTjeutiza- 
¥iu may $u];prise ; hut the name, rather than the intiitit^tion, had 
jpassed from the .Ottoman to the Byzantine court, and is often used 
)n the last age of the empire. 

^ The^Gceelfis obtained, with miuch difiScuUy* th»t instead of pro. 
visions, m6p£;y should he distributed, ibur ^Qi^ins fier mQi^th to the 
j)er3on8 of honouraUe rank, and three florins to their $ervapts, with 
an addition of thirty more to lihe emperor, twenty-five to the patri- 
are^, .a^d.t^^ty to theprixvce or ^e^pot Hemetrius* The ^u^rment 
pf the .first month amoui||»ted to ,691 fibrins, a sum which will not 
allow us to reckon ebove 200 Greeks of every condition (Syropulusj 
p. WArffi^j' Oo the. aoth October li3B, iibei;e was an arceitr.of four 
inonths ; niP April X439, of three; and of five and a half in July, at 
the time of the union (p. 17?, 225, ?71). 

• Syrc^ulus, (p. l^'l* lifj 204, 221) deplores the imprisonn^^^ 
khe Crreeli:s> 4nd the tyranny of t^e ejnperor and patri^di. 


^^ t>F THIS ROMAN EAtPlAB* 100 

l»peii the first coofereiice ; md tibey yielded with ch4A 
e&treme reluctance to attend from Ferrarato ^^^ 
Florence the rear of a flying ^ynod. This new 
txaaslatian was urged by inevitable necessity: the 
city was visited bf the j^lague ; the fideUty of 
th^ marqiiis might be suspected ; 4he mereenarf 
troops of the duke of Milan were at the gates ; 
and as they obcupied Bomagna, it wis not with** 
out iiiffieulty and danger that the pope» the em^ 
peror^ ^nd the bishops^ exjdored their way 
through the unfrequented paths of the Apeu* 

Yet all these obstacles weK surmounted by 
time and policy, l^e violence .of the fathers of 
j^asii rath^ promoted than injured the cause 
of Eugenius : the nations of Eiux^e abhorred the 
schism, and disowned the Section, of Feiix the 
fifth, who was successively a xluke of Savoy, an 
henuit, and a pope ; and the great princes were 
graduaMy i^claimed by his comp^tor to a favours 
9hie neutrality and a firm attacfament. The le-^ 
gates, with some<r^pect#blem«a;d>ers^de8erted to 
the Roman army, which insensibly rose in imiu^ 
bers and reputati^: the couocil of Basil was 
teduced to thirty-aine bishops^ and thnee huft<» 
dr£d of the inferior dergy ;^ whMe the LatiBS of 

p The wajrs of It^ly Are jgdoat clearly represented jn tbe thirte^t^ 
volume of the Annals of Muratori. The schismatic Greek, Syropulu^ 
(p. 14£), appears to have exaggerated the fear tuid disoifder of tbe poip^ 
in h^ ret^oeat from Ferxfra to Florence* which is proved by the acts 
to have been somewhat itaore decent and deliberate. 

4 Syropulus is pleased to reckon seven hundred prelates in the coun* 
fell of BasiL^The er^or is manifest, and perhaps voluntary. That extra- 




CHAP. Florence could prodtice the subscriptions of tb^ 
^^^'' pope himself, eight cardinals, two patriarchs, 
eight archbishops, fifty-two bishops, and forty- 
five abbots, or chiefs of religious orders. After 
the labour of nine months, and the debates of 
twenty-fire sessions, they attained the advantage 
and glory of the re-union of the Greeks. Four 
principal questions had been agitated between the 
two churches : 1. The use of unleavened bread 
in the communion of Christ's body. 2. The na- 
ture of purgatory. 3. The supremacy of the 
pope. And, 4. Xhe single or double procession 
of the Holy Ghost. The cause of either nation 
was managed by ten theological champions: 
the Latins were supported by the inexhaustible 
eloquence of cardinal Julian; and Mark of 
Ephesus and Bessarion of Nice were the bold 
and able leaders of the Greek forces. We may 
bestow some praise on the progress of human 
reason, by observing, that the first of these 
questions was now treated as an immaterial rite, 
which might innocently vary with the fashion 
of the age and country. With regard to the 
second, both parties were agreed in the belief 
of an intermediate state of purgation for the 
venial sins of the faithful ; and whether their 
souls were purified by elemental fire was a doubt- 
ful point, which in a few years might be con. 
veniently settled on the spot by the disputants. 
The claims of supremacy appeared of a more 

vagant number could not be supplied by tdl the ecclesiastics of everj 
degree who were present at the council, nor by M the absent bishops 
•f the West, who, expressly or tacitly, might adhere to its decrees. 




weighty and substantial kind ; yet by the Orien- chap. 
tals the Roman bishop had eVer been respected ^^^'* 
US the first of the five patriarchs; nor did they* 
scruple to admit, that his jurisdiction should be 
exercised agreeable to the holy canons ; a vague 
allowance, which might be defined or eluded by 
occasional convenience. The procession of the 
Holy Ghost from the Father alone, or from the 
Father and the Son, was an article of faith which 
had sunk much deeper into the minds of men ; 
and in the sessions of Ferrara and Florence, the 
Latin edition oiJUioque was subdivided into two 
questions, whether it'Were legal, and whether it 
were orthodox. Perhaps it may not be necessary 
to boast on this subject of my own impartial 
indifference ; but I must think that the Greeks 
were strongly supported by the prohibition of the 
council of Chalcedon, against adding any article 
whatsoever to the creed of Nice, or rather of 
Constantinople.' In earthly affairs, it is not 
easy to conceive how an assembly of legislators 
can bind their successors, invested with powers 
equal to their own. But the dictates of inspi^ 
ration must be true and unchangeable; nor should 
a private bishop, or a provincial synod, have 
presumed to innovate against the judgment of the 
catholic church. On the substance of the doc- 
trine, the controversy was equal and endless : 
reason is confounded by the procession of a deity: 

* The Greeks, who disliked the union j' were unwUling to sally from 
this strong fortress (p. 1 78, 193, 195, 202, of Syropulus). The shame 
of the latins was aggrayated by their prodncing an old us. of tiie se^ 
condeoundl of Nice, with /2^d^ in the Nieene cree^, A palpable 
forgery! (p. ITS), 


9 H A P. the gospel which lay on the altar, was silent ; th« 
^*^^' yaiious texts of the fathers m^bt b^ coirupted by 
fraud or entangled by sic^istry ; and the Greeks 
wene ignorant of the charactersand writings of the 
Latin saints/ Of this at least we may be sure^ 
that neither side could be convinced by the argu- 
ments of theur exponents. Prejudice may be en- 
lightened by reason, and a superficial glance may 
be rectified by a clear and more perfect view of an 
object adapted to our faculties ; but the bishops 
and monks had bean taught from their infancy to 
repeat a form of mysterious words ; their national 
and personal honour depended on the repetition 
of the same sounds; and their narrow minds 
were hardened and inflamed by the acrimony of 
a public dispute. 
Negocia. While they were lost in a doud of dust and 
^"crleks. darkness, the pope and emperor were desirous of a 
seeming union, which could alone accomplish the 
purposes of their interview ; and the obstinacy of 
public dispute was softened by the arts of private 
and personal association. The patriarch Joseph 
h^dsunk under the weight of age and infirmities; 
fm dying voice breathed the counsels of charity 
and concord, and his vacant benefice might jtempt 
the hopes of the ambitious clergy. The ready an^ 
active obedience of the archbishops of Russia and 
'Nice, of Isidore and Bessarion, was prompted and 
recompensed by their speedy promotion to the 
4JigQity of cardinal^. Bess^ion, in the first de- 

» *ili 9fi0 («dd aa cnrineni Gneek) Utta ut »••* ii#tA/ir Ai^mi $ 
8«e the perplexity of the Greeks i^ 317» S18» 352, S6S,.|^7S>, 

*> tH£ ftOMAK BMPIIIB. 109 

bates^ had stood forth the moat strenuous ftnd chap. 
eloqu^it champion of the Greek church ; and if ^^^^ 
the apostate, the bastard, was reprobated by his 
country/ he a{^)ears in ecclesiastical story a rare 
example of a patriot who was recomrnended to 
court^faTour by loud opposition and well-timed 
compliance. With the aid of his two spiritud 
coadjutors, the emperor applied his arguments to 
the general situation and personal charactersof the 
bishops, and each was successirely moved by au- 
thority and example. Their revenues were in the 
hands of the Turks, their persons in those of the 
liatins ; an episcopal treasure, three robes and 
forty ducats, was soon exhausted;" the hopes of 
their return still depended on the ships of Venice 
and the alms of Rome ; and such was their in- 
digence, that tlieir arrears, the payment of a debt, 
would be accepted as a favour, and might operate 
as a bribe.* The danger and relief of Constan- 
tinople might excuse some prudent and pious dis- 
simulation ; and it was insinuated, that the obsti- 
nate heretics who should resist the consent of the 

* See the polite altercation of Mark and Bessarion in Syropulut 
(p. 257), who never dissembles the vices of his own party, and fairljr 
praises the virtues of the Latins. 

M For the poverty of the Greek bishops, see a remarkable passage of 
Ducas (c. SI). One h^ possessed, for his whole property, three old 
gowns, &c. By -teaching one-and-twenty years in his monastery i, 
Bessarion himself had collected forty gold florind ; but of these, the 
archbishop had expended twenty-eight in his voyage from Pelopon- 
nesus, and the remainder at Constantinople (Syropulus, p. 127). 

* Syifopulus doiies that the Greeks received any money before 
they had subscribed the act of union (p. 283) : yet he relates some 
auspicious circuiBstaBces ; and their bribery and corruption are p#» 
^tively attrmed by the histoiian Ducas. 



CHAP. East and West, would be abandaned in a hostile 
land to the revenge or justice of the Roman pon* 
tiff/ In the first private assembly of the Greeks, 
the formulary of union was approved by twenty- 
foUr, and rejected by twelve^ members ; but the 
five cross^earers of St/ Sophia, who aspired to 
represent the. patriarch, were disqualified by an- 
cient discipline ; and their right of voting- was 
transferred to an obsequious train of monies, 
grammarians, and profane laymen. The will of 
the monarch produced a false and servile una* 
nimity, and no more than two patriots had cou- 
rage to speak their own sehtiments and those of 
their country. Demetrius^ the emperor's bro* 
ther, retired to Venice, that he might not be 
witness of the union ; and Mark of Ephesus> 
mistaking perhaps his pride for his conscience, 
disclaimed all communion with the Latin here- 
tics, and avowed himself the champion and con- 
fessor of the orthodox creed.'' In the treaty be- 
tween the two nations, several forms of consent 
were proposed, such as might satisfy the Latins, 
without dishonouring the Greeks; and they 
weighed the scruples of words and syllables, till 
the theological balance trembled with a slight 
preponderance in favour of the Vatican. It was 
agreed (I must intreat the attention of the read- 

y The Greeks most 4)iteously express their own fears of exile and 
perpetual slavery (Syropul. p. 196) ; and they were strongly moved 
by the empcsor's threats (p. 260). 

• I had forgot another popular and orthodox protester : a favourite 

hound, who usually lay quiet-on the foot-cloth of the emperor's throner; 

but who barked most furiously whilb the act of union was nadingi 

. without being silenced by the soothing or the lashes of the royal at* 

tcndants (Syropul. p. £65, %ee). 


er), that the Holj Ghost proceeds from the Fa^ chaf^ 
ther and the Son, as from one principle and one ^^^\* 
substaiice ; that he proceeds by the Son, being 
of Hie same nature and substance, and that he 
proceeds from the Father cmd the Son» by one . 
^piration smd production. It is less difficult to 
understand the articles of the preliminaiy treaty ; 
that the pope should defray all the expences of ^ 

the Greeks in their return home ; that he should 
annually maintcdn, two gallies and three hundred 
soldiers for the defence of Constantinople ; that 
all the ships which transported pilgrims to Je- 
rusalem should be obliged to touch at that port ; 
that as often as they were required, the pope 
should furnish ten gallies for a year, or twenty 
for six months ; and that he should powerfully 
solicit the princes of £ur(^e, if the emperor had 
occasion for land-forces. 

The same year, and almost the same day, were KugeniM 
marked by the deposition of Eugenius af'Basil ; bJSu 
and, at Florence, by his re-union of the Greeks J-JJj^^^ 
and Latins. In the former synod (which he styled 
indeed an assembly of dsemoils), the pope was 
branded with the guilt of simony, perj ury , tyranny, 
heresy, and schism f and declared to be incor- 
rigible in his vices, unworthy of any title, and in- 
capable of holding: any ecclesiastical office. In the Re-union oc 
latter he wds revered as the true and holy vicar at Florence, 
of Christ, Who, after a separation of six hundred j J' ^^* 
years, had reconciled the catholics of the East 

* From the original Lives of the Popes, in Muratori's Collection 
(torn. iii» p. 2, torn, xxv), the manners of Eugenius it appear to have 
been decent, and even exemplary. His situation, exposed to the 
^orld and to his enemies, was a Mstraint, and is a ptedge. 


CHAP, tod West, in one fold, and under one shei^erd 

'^^'' The act of union was subscribed by the pope, tie 

•u^uaou.**. ^|upg,.^y^ j^j J fj^ principal members of both 

churches; even by those wbo, l&e Syropalus,* 
had been deprired of the right of voting. Two 
copies might have sufficed for the East and West; 
but Eugenius was net satisfied, unless^ four ao^ 
thentic and siimkrtranscripts wefesignedanrf at- 
tested as the monuments of his victory .** On a 
memorable day, the sixthof Jtily,the stfcdessor^of 
St. Peter and Constantineaseendedthefr thf oftes ; 
the two nations assembled in the cathecfral of Flo^ 
rence ; their representatives, cardinal Julian and 
Bessarion archbishop of Nice, appeared ih thepiarf- 
pit, and after reading in their respective tongues 
the act of union, they mutually embraced, in the 
Qame and the presence of the applauding brethr 
ren. The pope and his ministers then offleia!ted 
according to the Heman liturgy ; the creed was 
chauated with the addition of ^Hoqtee; the ac- 
quiescence of the Greeks was poorly excused by 
their ignorance of the harmonious, but inarti* 

^ Syrc^ulus, rather ^an subficvibe, would have atiiftted) astlie leas^ 
* evil, at the ceremony of the union. He was compelled to do both ; 
|ind the great ecclesiarch pooily excuses his submission to the empe- 
IW (p. «90l-2»2). 

« None of these original acts of unioif can at present be produced. 
Of the ten m ss. that are preserved (five at Rome, and the reniainder 
' at Florence,, Bologna, Venice, Paris, and London) nine hove been ex- 
amined by an accurate critic (M. de Brequigny), wBo condemns thfem 
(or the variety and imperfections of the Greek signatures. Yet seve- 
ral of these may be esteemed as authentic copies, which wtfre sub- 
scribed at Florence, before (36th August 1439) the final separation of 
tibe'pope and emperor (Memoires de TAcademie des Inscriptioiis, toii;u 
itliil, p^ 287-311), 

Hf TH9 ltO|tf;4N AlfflBB. 118 

culjB^^ MWAcfe;'' and tlie mwe scrupulom Latim c-haiP; 
refused any puUk: celebration of the Byamtine J|^^ 
rite. Y«t the emperor and his clergy were noi 
totally uduniodfttl of national hodiour. The treaty 
was ratified by their coaaentx it was tacitly agreed 
that no innovation should be atten^)ted in their 
G<^ed tnr oerenoDies ; they 8p»red» and secretly 
TespoctGii, the generousfirmness of Mark of Ef^he-* 
sus; .9ikd, on tiue decease of the patriarch, they re^ 
fuaad to eloct his successor, except in the cotbe^ 
dral of St. Sophia. In the distribution of public 
and private reirards, the liberal pontiff exceeded 
their Jhopes and fais promises : the Greeks, with Their re« 
less pomp and pride, returned by tlie same road of J!^'^"^^^, 
Ferrara and Venice ; and their reception at Con- "^p*** ^ 
stantinople was such as will be described in the Feu iT^ 
following chapter.^ The success of the first trial 
emcowaged Eugenius to repeat the same edifying 
scenes ; and the deputies of the Armenians, the 
Maroaiies, the Jacobites of Syria and Egypt, tfaa 
Nestorians,aBd thciEthiopians, were successively 
introduced, to kiss the feet of the Roman pontiff^ 
and to announce the obedience ^nd the orthodoxy 
of the East. These Oriental embassies^ unknown 
in the oeuntries which they presumed to repre« 
sent,' diffused over the West the fame of £uge« 

* 'H f€ip 2t lis mffifut titKUf ^mut (Syropul. p. 297). 

• In their return, the Greeks conversed at Bologna with the am* 
hassadors of England ; and after some questions and answers, these 
impartial strangers laughed at the pretended union of Florence (Syr 

' So nugatory, or rather sp fabulous* are those reunions of the ^ca« 
torians, JacobiXes, &c. that I l^rfve turned over, without success, \^ 
^Ibliotheca Orientalis Qi As^eiuanaus, 4 fmtbful 3)avd of the Yatio^i^ 

VOL, xn, I 


CHAP, nius: and a clamour was artfully propagated 

axxx^g^vuu ^^^^t tfac reiiiiiant of a schism in Switzerland 

and Savoy, which alone impeded the harmony of 

the chrbtian world. The vigour of opposition 

was succeeded by the lassitude of despair : the 

council of Basil was silently dissolved ; and 

Fcelixy renouncing the tiara, again withdrew to 

the devout or delicious hermitage of Ripaille/ 

Final peace A general peace was secured by mutual acts of 

Church, oblivion and indemnity : all ideas of reformation 

A.0. 1449. g^ijgj jg J , |.jjg popes continued to exercise and 

abuse their ecclesiastical despotism; nor has 

Rome been since distiu-bed by the mischiefs of 

a contested election.^ 

stateof the The joumics of threeemperors were unavailing 

^^^^' for their temporal, or perhaps their spiritual, sal va- 

conManu- ^j'^qj,- ^ut they wcrc productive of a beneficial con- 

A. »• 1300- sequence; the revival of the Greek learning in 

Italy, from whence it was propagated to the last 

nations of the west and north. In their lowest 

servitudeand depression, the subjects of the Byzan- 

c Rlpaille is situate near Tbonon in Savoy, on the southern side of 
the lake of Geneva. It is now a Carthusian abbey ; and Mr. Addison 
(Travels into Italy, vol. ii, p. 147-148 of Baskerville's edition of his 
works) has celebrated the place and the founder. iEneas Sylvius, and 
the fathers of Basil, applaud the austere life of the ducal hermit ; 
but the French and Italian proverbs most unluckily attest the popular 
opinion of his luxury. 

*» In this account of the councils of Basil, Ferrara, and Florence, I 
have consulted the original acts, which fill the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth tomes of the edition of Venice, and are closed by the perspicu- 
ous, though jjartial, history of Augustin Patricius, an Italian of the 
fifteenth century. They are digested and abridged by Dupin (Bibli- 
otheque Eccles. tern, xii) and the continuator of Fleury (torn. xxii)j 
and the respect of the GaUican church for the adverse parties con* 
ines their members to an awkward moderatloA* 

tiAte throne were still possessed of a gfolden key chaK 
that could Hnlock the treasures of antiquity; of a^^J^^^^^ 
musical and prolific language, that gjives a soul to 
the objects of sense, anil a body to the abstractions 
of philosophy. Since thebarriers of the monarchy, 
and even of the capital, had been trampled under 
foot, the various barbarians had doubtless cor- 
rupted the form and substance of the national di- 
alect ; and ample glossaries have been composed, 
to interpret a multitude of words of Arabic, 
Turkish, Sclavonian, Latin, or French origin.* 
But a purer idiom was spoken in the court, and 
taught in the college; and the flourishing state of 
the language is described, and perhaps embellish- » 

ed, by a learned Italianf,^ who, by a long residence 
and noble marriage,^ was naturalized at Constan- 
tinople about thirty years before the Turkish 
conquest. " The vulgar speech," says Philel- 

' In the first attempt, Meursius collected 3G00 Grgeco-btrlAfour 
words, to which, in a second edition, he subjoined ISOO more ; yet . 
what plenteous gleanings did he leave to Fortius, Ducange, Fabrotti, 
the BoUandists, &c. (Fabric. Bibliot. Graec. torn, x, p* 101, &c.). S&me 
Persic words may be found in Xenophon, and some Latin ones in PIin 
tarch ; and such is the inevitable effect of war and commerce: but the 
form and substance of the language were not affected by this slight 

^ The life of Francis Philelphus, a sophist, proud, restless, and ra- 
pacious, has been diligently composed by Lancelot (Memoires de 
TAcademie des Inscriptions, torn, x, p. 691-751) and Tiraboschi 
(Istoria della Letteratura Italiana, torn, vii, p. 282*294), for the 
most part from his own letters. His elaborate writings, and those of 
his contemporaries, are forgotten : but their familiar epistles still de« 
scribe the men and the times. 

1 He married, and had perhaps debauched, the daughter of John, ^ 
and the grand-daughter of Manuel Chrysoloras* She! was youngi 
beautiful, and wealthy ; and her noble family was allied to the Dortgf 
of Genoa and the emperors of Constantinople. 




CHAP, pbuf," ^ bas. beea depraved by the pepp^e, and 

<< infect^ by the multitude of strangers and mer- 

cbaatSi who every day flock to the city, and 

'^ saiBgle with the inhabitants. It ig; from the 

'< discij^s of such a school that the Latin Ian- 

" guage received the versions of Aristotle apd 

*' Plato, so obscure ixk sense, and isk spirit so 

'* poor. But the Greejcs who have escaped the 

" contagion are those whom we follow ; and they 

" alone are worthy of our imitation. In familiar 

** discourse, they still speak the tongue of Axisto- 

** phanes and Euripides, of the histaria«is and 

** philosophers of Athens ; and the style of their 

" writings IS still more e^(H*ate and correct. 

^* The persons who, by their birth and crffices, are 

^f attached to the Byzantine court, are those who 

^^ maintain, with the least ajloy, the ancient 

" standard of elegance and purity ; and the na- 

** tive graces of language mostconspicuously shine 

^ among the noble matrons, who are excluded 

** from all intercourse with foreigners. With 

" foreigners, do I say ? They live retired and se- 

" questered from the eyes of their fellow-citizens. 

'' Seldom are they seen in the streets ; and when 

" they leave their houses, it is in the dusk of 

"» Graeci quibus lingua depravata noti sit .... ita loquuntur Tulgo 
hac ettam tempestate ut Aristophanes comicns, aut Euripides tragi- 

CU9, ut oratores omnes ut hlstoriographi ut philosophi litterati 

autem homines et doctlus et emendatius .... Nam viri aulici vete- 
fem sermonis dignitatem atque elegantiam retinebant' in primisque 
ipsae nobiles mulieres ; quibus cum nullum esset omnino cum vlris 
peregrinis commercium, menis ille ac purus Orsecorum sermo scrva- 
batur intactus (Pfailelph. Epist. ad ann. 1461, apud Hodhim, p. 188, 
189). H« observes in another passage, uxor iila mea Theodora If- 
cutione erat admodum moderatl et suavi «t mazime Attlei;. 

or Tm ftOMAN BlitPtRC. 119 

eveiiteg, Oft visits to the churehes and tlieir ciIap. 

^^ nearest kindred. On the^e occtiiioiis, thet 


'* are on horeetmck, covered with h veil^ and 
*^ eBcompassed by their partets, their hnsbands, 
** or their servants/" ' > 

Among the Greeks, a numerous and opulent 
clergy was dedicMed to the servfce df religion : 
their fnonks and bishops hare ever been distm^ ' 

guished by the gravity and austerity of their 
inanner§^» nor were they direrted, IBce the Latin 
priests, by the pursuits and pleasures of a secular^ 
and even mititary, life. After a large deduction for 
the time and talents that were lost in the derotion, 
the laeiiiess^ and the discord, of the church and 
cloister, the more inquisitive and ambitious minds 
would explore the sacred itnd profane erudi<aon of 
thek native languiige. The ecclesinstics presided 
over the education of youth ; the sciiools of phi- 
losophy and eloquence were perpetuated till the 
fall of the empire ; and it may be affirmed, that 
more books cinA more knowledge were included 
within the walls of Constantinople, than could 
be dfspiersed Over the extensive countries of the 
Wesf But an important distinction has beencompari- 
Wready noticed : the Greeks were stationary or Gr^iekal^* 
retrograde, while the Latins were advancing with^"*'"*- 
a rapid and progressive motion. The nations were 
excited by the spirit of independence and emula- 

'^ PbUelphufl^ absurdly enougli, derives this Qteek or Ofieoul jea- 
lousy ftom-the manners of and^t llolne. 

* See the state of learning in the thirteenth and fourteenth centu* 
xies, in the learned and judicious Mosheim (Institut. Hisu Eccles. 
?. 434.440, 49()-4d4), 

1 8 



CH» tion; and even the littleworld of the Italianstates 
contauied n^re people and induaAry than the de- 
creasing circle of the Byzantine empirci . InEu- 
rope, the lower ranks of society weife relieved 
from the yoke of feudal servitude; and fteedom 
is the first step to curiosity and knowledge. The 
use, however rude and corrupt, of the Latin 
tongue had been preserved by superstition ; the 
universities, from Bologna to Oxford,? were 
peopled with thousands of scholars ; and their 
misguided ardour might be directed to more li- 
beral and manly studies. In the resurrection of 
science, Italy was' the first that cast away her 
ahroud ; and the eloquent Petrarch, by his les- 
sons and his example, may justly be applauded as 
the first harbinger of day. A purer style of cons 
position, a more generous and rational strain of 
sentiment, flowed from the study and imitation of 
the writers of ancient Rome ; and the disciples of 
Cicero and Virgil approached, with reverence and 
love, the sanctuary of their Grecian masters* In 
the sack of Constantinople, tl|e French, and even 
the Venetians, had despised and destroyed the 
works of Lysippus and Homer ; the monuments 
of art may be annihilated by a single blow ; but ther 
immortal mind is renewed and multiplied by the 
copies of the pen ; and such copies it was the am- 

p At the €nd of the fifteenth century, there existed in Europe 
about fifty universities, and of these the foundation of ten or twelve is 
prior to phe year 1300. They were crowded in proportion to their 
scarcity. Bologna contained 10,000 students, chiefly of the civil Jaw. 
In the year 1357, the number at Oxford had decreased from 30,000 
to 6000 scholars (Henry's History of Great Britain, vbl. iv, p. 47^). 
Yet even this decrease is nfttch superior to the present list of the 
inembers of the university. ..... 

Ol? tUB ROMAN SMPntS. 119 

bitton of Petrarch and bis friends to possess aiid chap. 
tinderstand. The arms of the Tuii^ undoubt- ^^^** 


edly pressed the flight of the muses ; yet we may 
tremble at the thought, that Greece might have 
been overwhelmed, with her schools and libraries, 
before Europe bad emerged from the deluge of 
barbarism, that the seeds of science might have 
been scattered by the winds, before the Italian 
soil was prepared for their cultivation. 

The most learned Italians of the fifteenth cen- ReriTij mt 
tiiryhave confessed and applauded the restoration leTmii^ ki 
of Greek literature, after a long oblivion of many '**'y* 
hundred years.* Yet in that country, and be- 
yond the Alps, some names are quoted ; some 
prc^ound schol^s, who in the darker ages were 
honourably distinguished by their knowledge 
of the Greek tongue ; and national vanity has 
been loud in the praise of such rare examples of 
erudition. Without scnitinizing the merit of in- 
dividuals, truth must observe, that their science 
is without a cause, and without an effect ; that it 
was easy for them to satisfy themselves and their 
more %norant contemporaries; and tJiat tte 
idiom, which they had so marvellously acquired, 
'was transcribed in few manuscripts, and was not 
taught in any university of the West. In a corner 

1 Of those writers who professedly treat of the restoi ation of the 
Greek learning in Italj, the two principal are Hodius, Dr. Humphrey 
Hody (de Grscis lUustribus, Linguae Grocae L|terarumqne humani* 
orum Instauratoribus* Londlni, 1742, in large octavo), and Tira- 
hoschl (Istoria della Letteratura Italiana, torn, v, p. 364-377, torn, vil, * 

p. 112-143). The Oxford professor is a laborious scholar* but the 
librarian of Modena enjoys the superiority of a modern and natioiu^l 


i^ THE DBCtIN9 AlfD PktiL 

ctiAP» of Italji it faintly existed as the popultr, or at 
'^ least as the ecclesiastical dialect/. The £a*8t 
tmpression of the Dqric and Ionic cdloiiies has 
never been completelj erased : tike Calahmii 
churches were long attached to the thro^se cdT 
Constantinople ; and the monks of St. Basil puc- 
mied their studies in mount Atbos and the scho<^ 
of the East. Calabria was the native country of 
Barlaam, who has already appeared as a sectary 
LBtM^mof and an ambassadcur; and Barlaam was the first 
•••iimwhd revived, beyond the Alps, the men»ory, 
or at least the writings, of Hovier/ He k 
described, by Petrarch and Boccace,^ a^ a man 
(>f a diminutive stature^ though truly grea^t in the 
measure of learning and genius ; of a piercing 
dis^erhmefnt^ though of a slow aad pdiafui elo- 
cution. For many ages (as they affirm) Greece 
hdd not produced his equal in the knowledge of 
history, grammar, and philosophy ; and hb merit 
Was celebrated in the attestations of the princes 
ftnd doctors of Constantinople. One of these 
littestati(His is stiU extant ; and the emperor Can- 
ttouzene, the protector of his adversaries, is 
forced to allow, that Euclid, Aristotle^ and Plato, 

^ In Caiabria quae oHm xnogiia OraBcia dicehatur, coJoniis Graeeis 
Vepleta, reinansit quaedam linguae veteris cognitio (HodiiM, p. 9). If 
It were eradicated by the Romans, it was revived and perpetuated by 
the monks of St. Basil, who possessed seven convents at Rossano 
ilidne (Giannohe, Istoria di Napoli, torn, i, p. 520). 

• II Barbari (says Petrarch, the French and Germans) vix, non di- 
fcatA llbros sed nomen Homeri audiverunt. Perhaps, in that respect, 
the thirteenth century was less happy than the age of Charlemagne. 

* S^e the character of Barlaam, in Boccace de Genealeg. DeonitOj 

i, XT| C. 6i 

er run bomak bmpibe. 131 

Were familiar to that profound and subtle lo- chaf. 
giciau.'' In the court of Avignon^ he formed ^^^^' 

an itttimate counection with Petrarch,* the first 
of the Latia 9ehc4ars ; and the desire of mutual 
instruction was the principle of ^beir literaij 
commerce. The Tuscan applied himself withstudiet or 
eager curiosstj and assiduoiis diligence to thef^^^[^^[^9^ 
studj o( the Greek language ; and in a laborious ^^^i. 
stru|^le with the dryness and difficulty of the first 
rudimeats, he began to reach the sense, and to 
feel the ^irlt, of poets and philosophers, whose 
minds were congenial to his own. But he was 
soon deprived g£ the society and lessons of this 
useful assistant : Barlaam retinquished his fruitless 
embassy ; and, on his return to Greece, he rashly 
provoked the swarms of fanatic monks, by at* 
tempting to substitute the Hgbt of reason to that 
of their uavd. After a separation of three years, 
the two friends again met in the court of Naples; 
but the generous piqul renounced the fairest 
occasion of improvement ; and by his recom- 
tnendation Barlaam was finally settled in a nnall 
bbhopric of his native Calaturia*^ The manifold 
avocations of Petrarcia, love and friendship, his -^ 

^ Gaotacuz«ne, I. ii, c. 36. 

^ For the connection of Petrarch and Barlaa<n» and the two inter* 
Views, ftt Avignon hi 13319, and at Naples in 1S4(2, see the exceltent 
Memoires sur la Vie de Petrarque, took i, p. 406-41 0» torn, fl, 
f . 75-77. 

^ The bishopric to which Barjaanx retired was the old Locri, in tht 
Middle ages Seneta Cyriaea, and by eorruption Hieracium. Gerace 
(Dissert. Cherographica Italias medii iB?i, p. S12). The divea «pum 
of the Korman times soon lapsed into poverty, since even t^e ehurob 
^as poor a yet the town still contains 3000 inhabitants (S;(vinbiirne, 


CHAP, various correspondence and frequent joumiear, 
^^^ '* the Roman laurel, and his elaborate compositions 
in prose and verse, in Latin and Italian, diverted 
him from a foreign idiom; and as he fidvanced 
in life, the attainment of the Greek languag-e 
was the object of his wishes, rather than of his 
hopes. When be was about fifty years of age, a 
Byzantine ambassador, his friend, and a master 
of both tongues, presented him with a copy of 
Homer ; and the answer of Petrarch is at once 
expressive of his eloquence, gratitude, and regret. 
After celebrating the generosity of the donor, and 
the value of a gift more precious in his esti- 
mation than gold or rubies, he : thus proceedb : 
•*• Your present of the genuine and original text 
." of the divine poet, the fountain of all invention, 
" is worthy of yourself and of me : you have 
^^ fulfilled your pr<miise, and satisfied my desires. 
" Yet your liberality is still imperfect; with 
** Homer you should have given me ymirself ; a 
" guide, who could lead me into the fields of 
^ light, and diisclose to my wondering eyies the 
■y spacious miracles of the Iliad and Odyssey. 
" But, alas ! Hom^ is dumb, or' I am deaf; nor 
" is it in my power to enjoy the beauty which I 
" possess. I have seated hitti by the side of Plato, 
" the prince of poets near the prince of philoso- 
^* phers ; and I glory in the sight of my illustrious 
" guests. Of their immortal writings, whatevA 
*^ b^d been translated into the Latin idiom, I bad 
" already acquired ; but if there be no profit, 
** there is some pleasure, in beholding these 
** venerable Greeks in their proper and national 
" habit. I am delighted with the aspect of 


^ Homer ; and as often as I embrace the silent chaf. 
^* volume, I exclaim, with a sigh. Illustrious ^^^^' 
*^ bard I with what pleasure should I listen to 
** thy song, if my sense of hearing were not ob- 
** structed and lost by the death of one friend, 
^^ and in the much lamentable absence of an- 
** other! Nor do I yet despair ; and the example 
*' of Cato suggests some comfort and hope, since 
*^ it was in the last period of age that he at- 
" tsuned the knowledge of the Greek letters."* 

The prize which eluded the efforts of Petrarchof Boceaet^ 
was obtainl&d by the fortune and industry of his Jj^ ^^* 
friend Boccace,' the father of the Tuscan prose. 
That popular writer, who derives his reputation 
from the Decameron, an hundred novels of plea« 
santry and love, may aspire tothe more serious 
praise of restoriilig, in Italy, the study of die 
Greek language. In the year one thousand three 
hundred and sixty, a disciple of Barlaam, whose 
name was Leo, or Leontius Pilatus, was detained 
in his way to Avignon by the advice and hospi- 
tality of Boccace, who lodged the stranger in 

* I will transcribe a passage from this epistle of Petrarch (Famil. ix« 
t)i Donasti Homerum non in alienum scrmonem violento alveo deri- 
tatum. Bed ex ipsisGrceci eloquii scatebris, etqualis divino ille profluxit 
ingenio .... Sine tua voce Homerua tuiu apud me mutus, immo vero 
ego apud ilium surdus sum. Gaudeo tamen vel adspectik solo, ac ssi>e 
Ulum amplexus atque suspirans dico, O magne vir, &c. 

• For the life and writings of Boccace, who was born in 1313, and 
died in 1375, Fabricius (BibliQt. Latin* medii ^vi, torn, i, p. 2'4S« 
&^.) and Tiraboschi (torn, v, p. 83, 439-451) may be consulted. The 
editions, versions, imitations, of his novels, are innumerable. Yet 
^e was ashamed to communicate that trifling, and perhaps scandalous, 
work to Petrarch, his respectable friend, in whose letters and menaoirt 
^e conspicuously appears. 


CHAP, his bouse^ pperaj&td on the rqniblic of FlonoDce 
^^^^* to allow him an anntkal stipend, and deroted his 


leisure to the fir^t Greek professor, who taught 
that language in the vrestem coantries ct Europe. 
Leo pua- jThe appearance of Leo might dia^st the most 
^k'pro. eager disciple; he was clotbed in the maatle of 
^^n^ a philosopher, or a mendicant ; his coulxtenance 
•nd in the was hidcous ; his face was overshadowed with 
A.D. Iseo-black hair; his beard long and uncombed; his 
^^^^ deportment rustic ; his temper gloomy and incon- 
stant ; nor could he grace his discourse with the 
ornaments, or even the per8{HCuity, of Latin elo- 
cution. But his mind was stored with a treasure 
of Greek learning; history and fable, philosophy 
and grammar, were alike at his command ; and 
he read the poems of Homer in the schools o[ 
Florence. It was from his expianatton that Boc'- 
cace composed and transcribed a literal prose 
version of the Iliad and Odyssey, which satisfied 
the thirst of his friend Petrarch, and which per- 
haps in the succeeding century, was dandestin^ 
used by Laurentius Valla, the Latin interpreter. 
It was from his narratives that the same Boccace 
collected the materials for his treatise on the 
genealogy of the heathen gods, a work, in that 
age, of stupendous erudition, and which he 
ostentatiously sprinkled with Greek characters 
and passages, to excite the wonder and applause 
of his more ignorant readers^** The first steps 

^ Doc^ce indulges an honest tanity ; Ostentationis caiisA Grcei 
earmina adscrfpsi .... jure utojr meo ; meam est hoe deeas Aiea glorii 
icflfcet Inter Etniscos Grsecls uti carmfnibus. Nonne eg^ iui qui Le^ 
ontium Pilatum, &c. (de Genealogia Deorum, 1. xr, c.7, aworkwbieh» 
ihoUgh now forgotten, has run through thirteen or fourteen editions). 

fkf YH9 SOMAN BMPI1IB* 129 

ofka^Qg are slow ^|dJabo£^ chap. 

t^n votsxM^of Homercwld he enuiaefitted in all *-^^** 

Italy; and n^iMi^er RaDa^ i^rVenjce^ iwr Niq;Jes, 

coul4 add a ^l^lenameto tbU stvdioijs catalogue. 

But t^eir mifEttb^s wo^ld bar^ i^uUipUed, their 

progf f S3 wokM have hem aec^ler^ited* if the inn 

consent If^o^ at tba eod of three years, had aot 

reliQqiJiishedaa h€Miiourable and beaefieial statioiu 

la his paflsago, Petrarch enterlatned him at Pa* 

diM a $bort tiffie; he enjoyed the seholar, but 

was juatlj offended wUh the gloomy and unsocial 

temper of the man. Di3coiabtented with the work} 

and with biniaelf, Leo depreciated his present en* 

joyfiM^Bts, wbUe absent peraon^ and objects wer^ 

deaif to.hia in^^giaat^. In Italy be was aThessap 

lian^ in Greece a native of Calabria ; in the com* 

pany of the Latins he disdained their laaguage» 

religion^ and manner ; no sooner was he landed 

at Constantinople, than he a^n sighed for the 

wealth of Venice and the elegance oif Florence 

His Italiaai friends were deaf to his importunity ; 

he depended on their curiosity ^id indk»lgen€e» 

and embarked on a second Toyage; b«it on his 

entrance into the Adriatic, the ship was assailed 

by a tempest, and the unfortunate teacher, who, 

like Ulysses, had fastened himself to tjie mast, 

was struck dead by a flash of lightning. The 

humane Petrarch dropt a t^r on his disaster ; 

but he was most anxious to learn whether some 

copy of Euripides or Sophocles might not bo 

saved fpo.m the hands of the mariners-*" 

* Leonttva, or Leo Pllatus, is sufficiently made known by Hody 
fl> 2-11) and the AJ)b^ de Sade (Vie de Fetrmque, torn, iii, p. 625- 



CHAP. But the faint rudiments of Greek leamingv 
which Petrarch had encouraged and Boccace had 

Foundation planted, soon withered and expired. The suc- 
Gwk Ian. cccding generation was content for a while with 
g2*^j^*" the improvement of Latin eloquence ; nor was it 
Manuel bcforc the end of the fourteenth century, that a 
loraar* ^^^ *^^ perpetual flame was rekindled in Italy.* 
uu^^^^ Previous to his own journey, the emperor Manuel 
dispatched his envoys and orators to implore the 
compassion of the western princes. Of these en- 
voys, the most conspicuous, or the most learned^ 
was Manuel Chrysoloras,* of noble birth, and 
whose Roman ancestors are supposed to have 
migrated with the great Constantine. After vi- 
siting the courts of France and England, where 
he obtained some contributions, and more pro- 
mises, the envoy was invited to assume the office 
of a professor ; and Florence had again the ho- 
nour of thi^ second invitation. By his know- 
ledge not only of the Greek, but <rf the Latin 
tongue, Chrysoloras deserved. the stipend, and 
surpassed the expectation, of the republic. His 
school was frequented by a crowd of disciples of 

634, 670-673), who has very kappily caught the lively and dramatic 
manner of his original. 

^ Dr. Hody (p. 54) is angry with Leonard Aretin, Gaarinus, Paulus 
Jovius, &c. for affirming that the Greek letters were restored in Italy 
jjtost septingentoa annoss as if, says he, they had flourished till the end 
of the seventh century. These writers most probably reckoned from 
the last period of the exarchate ; and the presence of the Greek ma^ 
gistrates and troops at Ravenna and Rome must have preserved, in 
•ome degree, the use of their native tongue. 

* See the article of Emanuel, or Manuel Chrysolorais, in Hody (pb 
12-54) and Tlraboschi (torn, vii, p. IIS^IIS). The precise date of 
his arrival floats between the years 1390 and 1400, and it only con- 
fined by the reign of Boniface ix. 

OP THE ttOMAN BMl^Iftfe. 12Y 

every rank and age ; and one of these, in a ge* chap. 
necal histoiy, has described his motives and his^ 
success. ** At that time,'* says Leonard Aretin,' 
** I was a student of the civil law; but my sou! 
** was inflamed with the love of letters ; and I 
>* bestowed some application on the sciences of 
** logic and rhetoric. On the arrival of Manuel 
** I hesitiated whether I should desert my legal 
' ^ studies, or relinquish this golden opportunity ; 
*' and thus, in the ardour of youth, I communed 
^ with my own mind— Wilt thou be wanting 
" to thyself and thy fortune ? Wilt thou refuse 
^^ to be introduced to a familiar converse with 
" Homer, Plato, and Demosthenes? with those 
** poets, philosophers, and orators, of whom 
^* such wonders are related, and who are cele- 
^ brated by every age as the great masters of 
*^ human science ? Of professors and scholar^s 
"^ in civil law, a sufficient supply will always be 
^^ found in our universities ; but a teacher, and 
" such a teacher, of the Greek language, if he 
*• once be suflFered to escape, may never after- 
" wards be retrieved. Convinced by these rea- 
** sons, I gave myself to Chrysoloras; and so 
** strong was my passion, that the lessons which 
" I had imbibed in the day were the constant 

' The name of Areduua has been assumed by five or six natives of 
Arczzo in Tuscany, of whom the most famous and the most worthless 
lived in the sixteenth century. Leonardus Brunus Aretinus, the 
disciple of Chrysoloras, was a linguist, an orator, and an historian, 
the secretary of four successive popes, and the chancellor of the re- 
public of Florence, where he died, a, d. 1444, at the age of seventy* 
five (Fabric Bibliot. medli JEvi, torn, i, p. l90, &«• Tiraboschi, torn, 
vij, p. 33^8). 


IfiS run 0MohiHn avb wavu 

CHAP. << suliject of my nigWjiS^esms''' At the same 
time and piaee, the Latin classics Wi»:€ explain^ 
ed by John o( Ravenna, the domostk pufiil of 
Petrafch :^ the italtans» who ilhistrated t^eir age 
and country, were formed in this double school ; 
and Florence becawe the fryttful sesiinary of 
Greek and R<miaa eruditton*^ The presence of 
the emperor recalled Cbrys^ras from the coU 
lege to the cowrt» but he afterwards tiiugkt at 
Favia andRome wkh eqi»l industry and applause. 
The remaiader of his life, about fifteen years, was 
divided between Italy and Constantinopie, be- 
twemi embassies and ksssons. In the noble^ofiice 
^ enlightening a foreign natiw, thi^ granunarian 
was not unmindful of a more sacred duty to his 
prince and country ; and Emanuel Chrysoloras 
died at Constance, on a public mission from the 
^nperor to the council. 

The Greek After his example, the restoration of the Greek 

in ItalV) 

i.D. 1400- letters in Italy was prosecuted by a series of 
emigrants, who were destitute of fortune, and 
endowed with learning, or at least with kng^uage. 

s See the passage in Aretin. Commentario Rer^m suq Tempore i(i 
jftalia gcstarum, apud Hodium, p. 28-30. 

^ In this domestic discipIiBe, Petrarch» who lioTedtiTe yontfa, olten 
o«mplaiiis of the eager curibsity, restless temi>er, pad proud feeliogs, 
which announce the genius and glory of a riper age (Memoires sur 
Petrarque, torn, iii, p. 700-709). 

' Hinc Graecse Latinaque scholse exortae sunt, Guarino Philelp^Oi 
I<eonardo Aretino, Caroloque, ac plensque aliis tanquam ex equo Tro< 
jano prodeuntibusy quorum emulattone multa ingenia deinceps at 
laudem excitata sunt (Platina in Bonifacio ix). Another Italian 
writer adds the names of Paulus Petrus Vergerius, Omnibonus Vin- 
<*entius, Poggius, Franciscus Barbams, &m» But I question whether 
a rigid chronology would allaw Chrysoloras aU these eminent scholars 
(Hodius, p. 25-27, &c.)f 


Fpchu the terror oroppressionpf theTurkisharmSy chap. 
the natives of Thessalonica and Constantinople ^^^^ 
escaped to aland of freedom, curiosity, and wealth. 
The synod introduced into Florence the lights of 
the Greek church and the oracles of the Platonic 
philosophy ; and the fugitives who adhered to the 
union had the double merit of renouncing their 
country, not only for the christian, but for the 
catholic, cause. A patriot, who sacrifices bis par- 
ty and conscience to the allurements of favour, 
may be possessed, however, of the private and 
social virtues : he no longer hears the reproachful 
epithets of slave and apostate ; and the consider- 
ation which he acquires among hisnew associates, 
will restore in his own eyes the dignity of his 
character. The prudent conformity of Bessarion Cardinal 
was rewarded with the Roman purple : he fixed ac " 
his residence in Italy, and the Greek cardinal, the 
titular patriarch of Constantinople, was respect- 
ed as the chief and protector of his nation *} his 
abilities were exercised in the legations of Bo- 
logna, Venice, Germany, and France ; and his 
election to the chair of St. Peter floated for a 
moment on the uncertain breath of a conclave.' 
His ecclesiasticalhonours difiused a splendour and 
pre-eminence over his literary merit and service : 

^ See in Hodj the article of Bessarion (p. 136-177). Theodore 
Gaza, George of Trebizond, and the rest of the Greeks whom I have 
named or omitted, are inserted in their proper chapters of his learned 
work. See likewise Tiraboscbi, in the first and second parts of the 
sixth tome. 

' The cardinals knocked at his door, hut his conclavist refused to Iqo 
terrupt the studies of Bessarion : ** Nicholas**' said he» ** thy respect 
•• has cost thee an hat, and mc.the tiara.'* 



CHAP, hb palace was a school ; as often as the cardinal 
^^'* visited the Vatican, he was attended by a learned 


train of both nations ;^ of men applauded by 
themselves and the public ; and whose writings, 
now overspread with dust, were popular and use- 
ful in their own times. I shall not attempt to 
enumerate the restorers of Grecian literature in 
the fifteenth century ; and it may be sufficient to 
mention with gratitude the names of Theodore 
Gaza, of George of Trebizond, of John Argyro- 
pulus,and Demetrius Chalcocondyles,who taught 
' their native language in the schools of Florence 
Their and Rome. Their labours were not inferior to 
nieri^ those of Bessarion, whose purple they revered, and 
whose fortune was the secret object of their envy. 
But the lives of these grammarians were humble 
and obsaire ; they had declined the lucrative 
paths of the church : their dress and manners 
secluded them from the commerce of the world; 
and since they were confined to the merit, they 
might be content with the rewards, of learning. 
Ffom this character, Janus Lascaris° will deserve 
an exception. His eloquence, politeness, and im- ^ 

" Such a8 George of Trebispnd, Theodore 6aza» Argyropulus An- 
dronicus of Tbessalonica* Philelpbus, Poggius, Blondus, Nicholas 
Perrot, Valla, Campanus^Platina, &c. Viri (sayg Hody with the pious 
zeal of a scholar) nullo aevo perituri (p« 156). 

* He, was born before the taking of Constantinople, but his honour- 
able life was stretched far into the sixteenth century (a. o. 15SS), Leo 
X and Francis i were his noblest patrons, under whose auspices ht 
founded the Greek colleges of Rome and Paris (Hody, p. 247~?75). 
He left posterity in Prance ; but the counts de Vintimille; and their 
ntimeroub branches, derive the name of Lascaris firom a doubtAil mar. 
riage in the thirteenth century with the daughter of a Greek ^nperor 
(Ducange, Fam. Byzant, p. 22i*230). 


perial descent recommended him to the French chap. 
monarchs ; and in the same cities he was alter- 
nately employed to teach and to negociate. Duty 
and interest prompted them to cultivate the study 
of the Latin language ; and the most successful 
attained the faculty of writing and speaking with 
fluency and elegance in a foreign idiom. But they 
ever retained the inveterate vanity of their coun- 
try : their praise, or at least their esteem, was re- 
served for the national writers, to whom they 
owed their fame and subsistence ; and they some- 
times betrayed their contempt in licentious cri- 
ticism or satire on Virgil's poetry and the oratory 
of TuUy.® The superiority of these masters 
arose from the familiar use of a living language; 
and their first disciples were incapable of discern- 
ing how far they had degenerated from the know- 
ledge, and even the practice, of their ancestors. 
A vicious pronunciation,'^ which they introduc- 

* Two of his epigrams against Virgil, and three against Tully, art 
preserved and refuted by Fraociscus Floridu^t who can find no better 
names than Graeculus ineptus et impuclens, (Hody, p. 374). In our 
■own times, an English critic has accused the JBneid of containing 
muUa langulda* nvigat^ria, spiritik et majestate carmlnis heroici de- 
fecta ; many such verses as he, the said Jeremiah Markland, would 
have been ashamed of owning (preefat. ad Statii Sylvas, p. 81, it), 

' Emanuel Chrysoloras, and bis colleagues, are accused of ignorances 
envy, or avarice (Sylkge, &c* torn* ii, p. 235). The modem Greeks 
pronounce the fi as aV consonant, and confound three vowels (« t v), 
and several diphthongs. Such was the vulgar pronunciation which the 
stem Gardiney maiatained by penal statutes in the university of Caai^ 
bridge; but 'the monosyllable fin represented to an Attic ear the 
bleating of sheep, and a bellweather is better evidence than a bishop 
or a chancellor. The treatises of those scholars, particularly Erasmus, 
who asserted a more classical pronunciation, are collected in the Sylloge 
of Havereamp; (2 vols. In octavo, Lugd. Bat. 1736, 1740) • but it i* 




CHAP, ed, was banished from the schools by the rea« 
^^^'' son of the succeeding age. Of the power of the 
Greek accents they were ignorant, and those mu- 
sical notes, which, from an Attic tongue, and to 
an Attic ear, must have been the secret soul of 
harmony, were to their eyes, as to our own, no 
more than minute and unmeaning marks, in prose 
superfluous, and troublesome in verse. The art of 
grammar they truly possessed ; the valuable frag- 
ments of Apollonius and Herodian were trans- 
fused into their lessons ; and their treatises of 
syntax and etymology, though devoid of philoso- 
phic spirit, are still useful to the Greek student. 
In the shipwreck of the Byzantine libraries, each 
fugitive seized a fragment of treasure, a copy of 
some author, who, without his industry, might 
have perished: the transcripts were multiplied by 
an assiduous, and sometimes an elegant, pen ; and 
the text was corrected and explained by their own 
comments, or those of the elder scholiasts. The 
sense, though not the spirit, of the Greek classics, 
was interpreted to the Latin world : the beauties 
of style evaporate in a version ; hut the judgment 
of Theodore Gaza selected the more solid works 
of Aristotle and Theophrastus, and their natural 
histories of animals and plants opened a rich 
fund of gMiuine and experimental science. 
The Pia. Yet the fleeting shadows of metaphysics were 
iMophy. ' pursued with more curiosity and ardour. After a 

difficult to paint sounds by words, and in their reference to modem use» 
they can be understood only by their respective countrymen. We may 
observe, that our peculiar pnmunciation of the /, th, is approved by 
Erasmus (torn* ii^ p^ ISO). 


long oblition, Plato was revived in Italy"by a chap, 
venerable Greek,* who taught ill the house ^^^^ 
of Cosmo of Medids. While the synod of Flo-' 
rence was involved in theological debMe, some 
beneficial consequences might flow from the 
study of his elegant philosophy : his style is the 
purest standard of the Attic dialect ; and his su- 
blime thoughts are sometimes adapted to fami- 
liar conversation, and sometimes adorned with the 
richest colours of poetry and eloquence. The 
dialogues, of Plato are a dramatic picture of the 
life and death of a sage; and as often as he de- 
scends from the clouds, his moral system incul- 
cates the love of truth, of our country, and of 
mankind. The precept and example of Socrates 
recommended a modest doubt and liberal inquiry: 
and if the Platonists, with blind devotion, adored 
tSie visions and errors of their divine master, their 
enthusiasm might correct the dry dogmatic me- 
thod of the Peripatetic school. So equal, yet so 
opposite, are the merits of Plato and 'Aristotle, 
that they may be balanced in endless controversy; 
but some spark of freedom maybe produced by the 
collision of adverseservitude. The modern Greeks 
were divided between the two sects : with more 
fury than skill they fought under the banner of 
their leaders ; and the field of battle was removed 
in their flight from Constantinople to Rome. *But 
this philosophical debate soon degenerated into an 

^ George Gemxstus Plcftho, a various and vohiminoufl writer, ths 
louter of Besiarion, and ali tlie Platonists of tbe times. He visited 
Italy in his old age, and soon returned to «nd his days in Pelopon« 
nesus. See the curious diatribe of Leo AUatlus de Georgiis, in Fa» 
fcricius (Bibliot. Grac torn, x, p. 739-756). 



CHAP, angry and personal quarrel of grammarians ; and 
LXVL Bessarion,thoughanadvocatefor Plato, protected 
the national honour, byinterposingthe advice and 
authority of a mediator. In the gardens of the 
Medici, the academical doctrine was enjoyed by 
the polite and learned: but their philosophic so- 
ciety was quickly dissolved ; and if the writings 
of Uie Attic sage were perused in the closet, the 
more powerful Stagyrite continued to reign the 
oracle of the church and school.' 
EmuUiUpn I have fairly represented the literary merits of 
^1^**^' the Greeks ; yet it must be confessed that they 
the Lating. ^^^e secoudcd and surpassed by the ardoui: of the 
Latins. Italy was divided into many independent 
states ; and at that time, it was the ambition of 
princes and republics to vie with each other in 
the encouragement and reward of literature. 
j^ichoUs T, The fame of Nicholas the fifth" has not been 


i^ "adequate to his merits. From a plebeian origin, 
)ie raised himself by his virtue and learning : the 
character of the man prevailed over the interest of 
the pope ; and he sharpened those weapons which 
were soon pointed against the Roman churqh.^ 

' The state of the Platonic philosophy in Italy is iUustrated by 
Boivin (Mem. deTAcad. des Inscriptions^ torn, ii, p. 716-729) aod 
Tirahoschi (torn, vi, p. i, p. 259-^88). 

• See the life of Nicholas r, hy two contemporary authors, Janot- 
tus Manettus (torn. iii» p. ii» p. 90^962), and Vespasian of Flortnct 
(torn, xzv, p. 267-390)» in the collection of Muratori ; and consult 
Tirahoschi (torn, vi, p.' i, p. 46-52, 109) and Hody in the articles of 
Theodore Gasa, George of Trebisoad» &c. 

* Lord Bolingbroke observes, with truth and spirit, that the popcg 
f n this instance were Worse politicians than the muftis, and that the 
charm which has bound mankind for so many ages was broken by 
the magicians themselves (Letters en the Study of History, 1. vi, p. 
165, 166, octavo edition, 17T»). 



He had been the friend of the most eminent chap. 
scholars of the age: he became their patron; and ^^ 
such was the humility of his manners, that the 
change was scarcely discernible either to them or 
to himself. If he pressed the acceptance of a li- 
beral gift» it was not as the measure of desert, 
but as the proof of benevolence ; and when mo- 
dest merit declined his . bounty, " accept it," 
would he say with a consciousness of his own 
MTorth ; " you will not always have a Nicholas 
** among ye." The influence of the holy see 
pervaded Christendom ; and he exerted that in- 
fluence in the search, not of benefices, but of 
books. From the ruins of the Byzantine libraries, 
from the darkest monasteries of Germany and 
Britain, he collected the dusty manuscripts of the 
writers of antiquity ; and wherever the original 
could not be removed, a faithful copy was tran- 
scribed and transmitted for his use. The Vatican^ 
the old repository for bulls and legends, for super- 
stition and forgery, was daily replenished with 
more precious furniture ; andlsuch was the indus^ 
try of Nicholas, that in a reign of eight years, he 
formed a library of five thousand volumes. To his 
munificence the Latin world was indebted for the 
versions of Xenophon, Diodorus, Polybius, Thu- 
cydides, Herodotus, and Appian ; of Strabo's 
Geography, of the Iliad, of the most valuable 
works of Plato and Aristotle, of Ptolemy and 
Theophraatus, and of the fathers of the Greek 
church. The example of the Roman pontiff was cosmo and 
preceded or imitated by a Florentine merchant, ^^^^^ ^ 
who governed the republic without arms and *. ©. i^sa. 


CHAP, without a title. Cosmo of Medicis" was a fa- 


%«v^*%v«L *^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ princes, whose name and age are 
almost synonymous with the restoration of learn- 
ing: his credit was ennobled into fame; his 
riches were dedicated to the service of mankind ; 
he corresponded at once with Cairo and London ; 
and a cargo of Indian spices and Greek books 
was often imported in the same vessel. The genius 
and education of lis grandson Lorenzo rendered 
* him not only a patron, but a judge and candi- 
didate, in the literary race. In his palace, distress 
was entitled to relief, and merit to reward : his 
leisure hours were delightfully spent in the Platonic 
academy: he encouraged the emulation of Deme- 
trius Chalcocondyles and Angelo Politian ; and 
his active missionary Janus Lascaris returned from 
the East with a treasure of two hundred manu* 
scripts, fourscore of which were as yet unknown 
in the libraries of Europe.* The rest of Italy 
was animated by a similar spirit, and the progress 
of the nation repaid the liberally of her princes. 
The Latins held the exclusive property of their 
own literature; andthesedisciples of Greece were 

« See the literary history of Cosmo and Lorenzo of Medicis, in Ti« 

raboechi (torn, vi, p. i, 1. i, c. 2), who bestows a due measure of praise 

on Alphonso of Arragon, king ot Naplesylthe dukes of Milan, Perra- 

^ ra, ITrbino, Sec. The republic of Venice has deserved the leaist from 

the gratitude of scholars. 

' Tiraboschi (torn, vi, p. i, p. 104), from the preface of Janus Las- 
caris to the Greek Anthology, printed at Florence 1494. Latebant 
(says Aldus in his preface to the Greek Orators, flpud Hodium, p. 

249) in Atho Thracis monte. Eas Lascaris in Italium re< 

portavit. Miserat enim ipsum Laurentius ille Medices in Graciam 
ad inquirendos simul, et quantovis emendos pretio bones libie^os. It 
is remarkable enough that the research was facilitated by sultan Ba» 
jazet II* 


soon capable of transmitting and improving the chap. 
lessons which they had imbibed. After a short Jj^^^ 
succession of foreign teachers, the tide of emigra- 
tion subsided; but the language of Constantinople 
was spread beyond the Alps ; and the natives of 
France, Germany, and England,' imparted to 
theii^ country the sacred fire which they had 
kindled in the schools of Florence and Rome." 
In the productions of the mind, as in those of the 
soil, the gifts of nature are excelled by industry 
and skill : the Greek authors, forgotten on the 
banks of the Ilissus, have been illustrated on those 
of the Elbe and the Thames ; and Bessarion or 
Gaza might have envied the superior scienceof the 
barbarians; the accuracy of Budaeus, the taste of 
Erasmus, the copiousness of Stephens, the erudi- 
tion of Scaliger, the discernment of Reiske, or of 
Bentley. On the side of the Latins, the discovery 
of printing was a casual advantage ; but this use- 
ful art has been applied by Aldus, and his innu- 
merable successors, to perpetuate and itiultiply . 

' The Greek language was introduced into the university of Ox- 
ford in the last years of the fifteenth century* hy Grocyn, Lina- 
cer, and X.atimer, who had all studied at Florence under Demetrius 
Chalcocondyles. See Dr. Knight's curious life of Erasmus. Although 
a^tout academical patriot, he is forced to acknowledge that Brasmns 
learned Greek at Oxford, and taught it at Cambridge. 

* The jealous J^tallahs were desirous of keeping a monopoly of ^ 
Greek learning. When AlduiS was about to publish the Greek schoU- 
aats on Sophocles and Euripides, Cave (say they), cave hoc facias, ne 
harhari istis adjuti domi maneant, et pauciores in Italiam ventitent 
fDr. Knight, in his Life of Erasmus, p. 3^5, from Beatus Bhenanus). 



abuse of 

CHAP, the works of antiquity.* A single manuscript 
^ '• imported from Greece is revived in ten thousand 
copies ; and each copy is fairer than the original. 
In this form Homer and Plato would peruse with 
more satisfaction their own writings ; and their 
scholiasts must resign the prize to the labours 
of our western editors. 

Before the revival of classic literature, the bar- 
barians in Europe were immersed in ignorance ; 
and their vulgar tongues were marked with the 
rudeness and poverty of their manners. The 
students of the more perfect idioms of Rome and 
Greece were introduced to a new world of light 
and science ; to the society of the free and po- 
lished nations of antiquity ; and to a familiar 
converse with those immortal men who spoke the 
sublime language of eloquence and reason. Such 
an intercourse must tend to refine the taste and to 
elevate the genius of the moderns ; and yet, from 
the first experiments, it might appear that the 
study of the ancients had given fetters, rather than 
wings, to the human mind. However laudable, 
the spirit of imitation is of a servile cast ; and the 

* The press of Aldus Manutus* a Bomant was estoblisfaed at Ve- 
nice about the year 1494 ; he printed above sixty considerable works 
of Greek literature» almost all for the firit time ; several containing 
diiferent treatises and authors, and of several authors two* three, or 
four editions (Fabric Bibliot. Orsc. tom. xiii, p. 605» &c.)* Yet his 
glory must not tempt us to forget, that the first Greek book, the 
Grammar of Constantine Lascaris, was printed at Milan, in 1476 ; 
and that the Florence Homer of 1488 displays all the luxury of the 
typographical art. See the Annales Typogiaphici of Mattaire, and 
the Bibliographie Instructive of de Eurc* a knowing bookseller of 

^F THS^ ROMAir ClfPims. 190 

first' ditoiples of the Gk-eeks and Romans were a thap. 
colony of strangers in the midst of their age and ^^^^^ 
couptry. The minute and laborious diligence 
which explored the antiquities of remote times 
might have improved or adorned the present state 
of society; the critic and metaphysician were the 
slaves of Aristotle ; the poets, historians, and ora- 
tors, were proud to repeat the thoughts and words 
of the Augustan age ; the works of nature were 
observed with the eyes of Pliny and Theophrastus; 
and some pagan votaries professed a secret devo- 
tion to the gods of Homer and Plato.^ The Ita- 
lians were oppressed by the strength and num- 
ber of their ancient auxiliaries : the century af- 
ter the deaths of Petrarch and Boccace was filled 
with a crowd of Latin imitators, who decently 
repose on our shelves ; but in that era of leam« 
ing, it will not be easy to discern a real discovery 
of science, a work of invention or eloquence, ia 
the popular language of the country."^ But as 

^ I wiU select three singular examples of this classic enthusiasm. 

1. At the synod of Florence, Gemistus Pletho said, in familiar con- 
fersation, to George of Trebizond, that in a short time mankind would 
unanimously renounce the gospel and the koran for a religion similar 
to that of the gentiles (Leo Allatius, apud Fahriciuin, torn, x, p. ISl), 

2. Paul II persecuted the Roman academy, which had been founded 
by Fomponius Lsetus ; and the principal members were aocused of 
heresy. Impiety, and paganism (Tiraboschi, torn, vi, p. i, p. 81, 82). 

3. In the next century, some scholars and poets in France celebrated 
the success of Jodelle's tragedy of Cleopatra, by a festival of Bacchus, 
and, as it is said, by the sacrifice of a goat (Bay]e, Oictionaire, Jo- 
delle. Fontonelle, torn, iii, p. 56-61). Yet the spirit of bigotry 
might often discern a serious impiety in the sportive play of fancy 
and learning. 

• The survivor of Boccace died in the year 1375 ; and wc cannot 
place before liBO the composition of the Aforgante Maggiore of 
Pulci, and the Orlando Inamorato of Boyardo ^Tiraboschi, torn, vi, 
j^. ii, p. lTi-177. 


CHAP, soon as it had been deeply saturated with the ce- 
lestial dew, the soil was quickened into vegetation 
and life ; the modem idioms were refined : the 
classics of Athens and Rome inspired a pure taste 
and a generous emulation ; and in Italy, as after- 
wards in France and England, the pleasing reign 
of poetry and ficticm was succeeded by the light 
of speculative and experimental philosophy. Ge- 
nius ma^ anticipate the season of maturity ; but 
in the education of a people, as in that of an in- 
dividual, memory must be exercised, before the 
powers of reason and fancy can be expanded ; nor 
may the artist hope to equal or surpass, till he has 
learned to imitate, the works of his predecessors. 



Schism of the Greeks and Latins. — Reign and charac" 

' ter of Amurath the second.'-^Crusade of La&laus^ 

ling of Hungary. — His defeat and deaih.^^ohn 

Huniades. — Scanderbeg. — Constantine PaUologus^y 

last emperor of the East. 

1 HE respective merits of Rome and Constan- ? 5y5; 
tinople are compared and celebrated by an elo- ^,,^,^,^,^ 
quent Greek, the father of the Italian schools/ ^°"fj^ 
The view of the ancient capital, the seat of his and con- 
ancestors, surpassed the most sanguine expecta- •*"**"**p'* 
tions of Emanuel Chiysoloras ; and he no longer 
blamed the exclamation of an old sophist, that 
Rome was the habitation, not of men, but of 
gods. Those gods, and those men, had long 
since van^hed ; but, to the eye of liberal enthu- 
siasm, the majesty of ruin restored the image 
of her ancient prosperity. Them onuments of 
the consuls and Caesars, of the martyrs and a- 
postles, engaged on all sides the curiosity of the 
philosopher and the christian ; and he confessed, 
that in every age the arms and the religion of 
Rome were destined to reign over the earth, 

• The Epistle of Emanuel Chiysoloras to the emperor John Pa- 
Iffiologus will not offend the eye or ear of a classical student (ad calcem 
Codlni de Antiqaitatibus c. p. p. 107-126> The superscription sug* 
gests a chronological remark, that John Palaeologus ii was associated 
in the empire before the year 1414, the date of Chrysoloras's death. 
A still earlier date, at least 1408, is deduced from the age of his 
youngest sons, Demetrius and Thomas, who were both Porphyrog^uiti 
(Duconge, Vtan. Byzant. p. 244, 247). 


CHAP. While Chrysoloras admired the venerable beauties 
Lxvn. ^f |. j^g mother, he was not forgetful of his native 
*"**"" country, her fairest daughter, her imperial colony; 
and the Byzantine patriot expatiates with zeal 
and truth on the eternal advantages of nature^ 
and the more transitory glories of art and do- 
minion, which adorned, or had adorned, the city 
of Constantine. Yet the perfection of the copy 
still redounds (as he modestly observes) to the 
honour of the original, and parents are delighted 
to be renewed, and even excelled, by the supe- 
rior merit of their children. " Constantinople," 
says the orator, *^ is situate on a commanding 
" point, between Europe and Asia, between the 
" Archipelago and the Euxine. By her interpo- 
" sition, the two seas, and the two continents, 
" are united for the common benefit of nations ; 
" and the gates of commerce, may be shut or 
" opened at her command. The harbour, en- 
" compassed on all sides by the sea and the con- 
" tiuent, is the most secure and capacious in the 
" world. Th6 walls and gates of Constanti- 
" nople may be compared with those of Baby- 
" Ion : the towers are many ; each tower is a 
** solid and lofty structure ; and the second wall, 
" the outer fortification, would be sufficient for 
** the defence and dignity of an ordinary capital; 
'^ A broad and rapid stream may be introduced 
'* into the ditches ; and the artificial island may 
" be encompassed like Athens** by land or water." 

* Somebody observed, that the city of Athens might be circumnt- 

i gated im ufctv rmv troXiv twv Ktni»'uv ^vuirtut jun ta^ ^rXi/y jmu ir«^<r- 

>.!/>). Bnt what may be true in a rhetorical sense of Constantinople, 



Two strong and natural causes are alleged for chap. 
the perfection of the model of New Rome. The *^^^^^^^'^ 
royal founder reigned over the mostillustrious na- 
tions of the globe ; and in the accomplishment of 
his designs^ the power of the Romans was com* 
bined with the art and science of the Greeks. 
Other cities have been reared to maturity by ac- 
cident and time ; their beauties are mingled with 
disorder and deformity ; and the inhabitants, un- 
willing to move from their natal spot, are inca- 
pable of correcting the errors of their ancestors, 
and the original vices of situation or climate. 
But the free idea of Constantinople was forpied 
and executed by a single mind; and the primitive 
model was improved by the obedient zeal of the 
subjects and successors of the first monarch. The 
adjacent isles were stored with an inexhaustible 
supply of marble ; but the various materials were 
transportedfrom th^most remote shoresof Europe 
and Asia; and the public \and private buildings, 
and palaces, churches, aqueducts, cisterns, por-. 
ticoesi columns, baths, and hippodromes, were 
adapted to the greatness of the capital of the East. 
The superfluity of wealth was spread along the 
shores of Eiu-ope and Asia ; and the Byzantine 
territ«y, as far as the Euxine, the Hellespont,, 
and the long wi^U, might be consi4^red as a po^ 
pulous suburb and a perpetual garden. In this 
flattering picture, the past and the present, the 
times of prosperity and decay, are artfully con- 

cftnnot be applied to the situation of Athens, Awe miles from the leaf 
md not intetiected •r iurrounded by iwy navigable strtattiB. 



CHAP, founded ; but a sigh and a confession escape from 
^^^^^' the orator, that his wretched country was the 
shadow and sepulchre of its former self. The 
works of ancient sculpture had been defaced by 
christian zeal or barbaric violence; the fairest 
structures were demolished ; and the marbles of 
Paros or Numidia were burnt for lime, or applied 
to the meanest uses. Of many a statue, the place 
was marked by "an empty pedestal ; of many a 
column, the size was determined by a broken ca- 
pital ; the tombs of the emperors were scattered 
on the ground; the stroke of time was accelerated 
by storms and earthquakes ; and the vacant space 
was adorned, by vulgar tradition, with fabulous 
monuments of gold and silver. From these won- 
ders, which lived only in memory or belief, he 
distinguishes, however, the porphyry pillar, the co- 
lumn and colossus of Justinian,'' and the church, 
more esi^ecially the dome, of St. Sophia ; the best 
conclusion, since it could not be described ac- 
cording to its merits, and after it no other object 
could deserve to be mentioned. But he forgets, 
that a century before, the trembling fabrics of 
the colossus and the church had been saved and 
supported by the timely care of Andronicus the 
elder. Thirty years after the emperor had forti- 
fied St. Sophia with two new buttresses or pyra- 

* Nicei^orus Gregora8 has described the colossus of Justiniaii 
(1. vii, 12) t but his measures are false and inconsistent. The editor 
Boivin consulted his friend Cirardon ; and the sculptor gave him the 
true proportions of an equestrian statue. That of Justinian was still Peter 6ylliu8» not on the column, but in the outward court 
of the secaglio ; and he was at Constantinople when it was melted 
down, and cast into a brass cannon (de Topograph, c. p. 1. ii> c. 17). 


^BtMs, dia eastern hemisphere suddealf gwe wajr; chap. 
aad the imagee, the altars, anil the sanctuary,^ 

' »»>»■»»•»•»» 

•were crushed by the falling ruin. The mischief 
indeed was speedily repaired ; die rubbtrii waa 
deaped hy the ineessant labour of every rank and 
Bge ; u&A the poor remains of riches and industry 
were consecroted by the Greeks to the most ' 
atatdy and veneraUe temple of the East.^ 

The l^ hope of the falling city aful empire The OmIi 
was placed i^ the harmony of the mo<^r andj^r'^ 
'daughter, ia the materncd tenderness q€ ^l^'C^^'^f p^^t!;^ 
and the filial obedience of Constantinople. inA.i>. I44<u 
the syno4 of Florence, the X^k-eeks and Lptins 
had embraced, and subscrij^ed, and promised; 
tmt these signs ef friendship ^ere perfidious of* 
ihdtless ;^ and the baseless fi^bric of the union 
vanished like a dream/ The emperor and his 
prda^ returned hoQie in the V^ietian gallies ; 
|>ut as they touched at the Morea and the i^sof 

^ See ihe 4ecay aod repairs of Sitf Svp^Uir in Kicephorus Qregot/i^ 
0* vii, 12, 1. jLVt %)• The building ^ras propped by Andronicus in 
1317 ; the eastern hemisphere fell in 1346. The Greeks, in their 
p<«EDpo\i« rhetoDiq, exalited t^? bj^^MtyA^fii^c^iQess qf i^^ccb, ffp. 
eartbly ^eavep, the abode of angels, and of 'God himself, S^m 

« Tbe genuine and origin^ D^rfilW^of Sj^p\ilus (p, ^IJ^^) 
opens ibfi scl^sm frqm ib^e $rst <0Uie of the Greeks at Venice, to ^e 
general opposition at Constantinople of the clergy and people. 

' On the SQhism of Constantinople, see Phranza (1. ii, c. 17)^ La- 
4>ni<»is^alcoDdyles<l* vi,|>. 1&6, 156), and Ducas (e. SI); thelaat 
of wh^m wrHes jvltb tru|)i aod fiKae^^ofi. Awoi^ ,^f nH)4^ivi put 
may ^istin^ish ^he .continuator of Fleury (toip. xxii, p. 3^8^ 4c« 
401, 420, &cO and Spondanus (&. b. 1440-30). The sense of the 
Jsittrr494rainiQeclioirej^4ice»i)4fi»8M9li* 9S4i«P9.<«3AftlMBJR^'rei^ 



CH A P. Corfii and Lesbos, the subjects of the Latins com- 
^^^''' plained that the pretended union would be an in- 
strument of oppression. No sooner did they land 
on the Byzantine shore, than they were saluted, or 
rather assailed, with a general murmur of zeal 
and discontent. During their absence, above two 
years, the capital had been deprived of its civil 
and ecclesiastical rulers : fanaticism fermented 
in anarchy ; the most furious monks reigned over 
the conscience of women and bigots ; and the 
hatred of the Latin name was the first principle of 
nature and religion. Before his departure for 
Italy, the emperor had flattered the city with the 
assurance of a prompt relief and a powerful suc- 
cour; and the clergy, confident in their orthodoxy 
and science, had promised themselves and their 
flocks an easy victory over the blind shepherds of 
the West. The double disappointment exasperat- 
ed the Greeks : the conscience of the subscribing 
prelates was awakened ; the hour of temptation 
was past ; and they had more to dread from the 
public resentment, than they could hope from 
the favour of the emperor or the pope. Instead 
of justifying their conduct, they deplored their 
weakness, professed their contrition, and cast 
themselves on the mercy of God and of their 
brethren. To the reproachful question, what 
had been the event or use of their Italian 
synod? they answered, with sighs and tears, 
'* Alas! we have made a new faith ; we have 
** exchanged piety for impiety; we have betray- 
'* ed the immaculate sacrifice ; and we are become 

6V fHE AOMAK fiMPIRiS* 147 

^ AzymiiesJ" (The Azymites were those who ce- chap. 
lebrated the communion with unleavened bread ; !^^^* 
and I must retract or qualify the praise which I 
have bestowed on the growing philosophy of th« 
times). " Alas ! we have been seduced by dis- 
** tress, by fraud, and by the hopes and fears 
*' of a transitory life. The hand that has signed 
** the union should be cut off; and the tongue 
^' that has pronounced the Latin creed deserves 
" to be torn from the root." The best proof of 
their repentance was an increase of zeal for the 
most trivial rites and the most incomprehensible 
doctrines ; and an absolute separation from all» 
without excepting their prince, who preserved 
some regard for honour and consistency. After 
the decease of the patriarch Joseph, the arch- 
bishops of Heraclea and Trebizond had courage 
to refuse the vacant office; and cardinal Bessarion 
preferred the warm and comfortable shelter of the 
Vatican. The choice of the emperor and his 
clergy was confined to Metrophanes of Cyzicus ; 
he was consecrated in St. Sophia, but the temple 
was vacant. The cross-bearers abdicated their 
service ; the infection spread from the city to the 
villages ; and Metrophanes discharged, without 
effect, some ecclesiastical thunders against a na« 
tion of schismatics. The eyes of the Greeks 
w^e directed to Mark of Ephesus, the champion 
of his country ; and the sufferings of the holy 
confessor were repaid with a tribute of admira- 
tion and applause. His example and writings 
propagated the flame of religious discord ; age 
and infirmity soon removed him from the world ; 

fc 2 


qHAP* but tke gospel of Mark was not a law oi for* 
^1^"* giveness ; and he requested with his dying breathy 
T^'^ tliat none of the adherents of Rome might at- 

trad his obsequies, or pray for his soul. 
ZmI •r the The schism was not confined to the narrow 
andTiiu*. limits of the Byzantine empire. Secure under 
the Mamaluke sceptre, the three patriarchs of 
Alexa^dria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, assembled a 
numerous synod ; disown d their representatives 
at Ferrara and Florence ; condemned the creed 
and council of the Latins ; and threatened the 
emperor of Constantinople with the censures of 
the Eastern church* Of the sectaries of the Greek 
communion, the Russians were the most power- 
ful ignorant^ and superstitious. Their primate, 
the cardinal Isidore, hastened from Florence to 
Moscow,* to reduce the independent nation un- 
der the Roman yoke. But the Russian bishops 
had been educated at mount Athos ; and the 
prince and people embraced the theology of their 
priests. They were scandalieed by the title, the 
pomp, the Latin cross, of the legate, the friend of 
those impious men who shaved their beards, and 
performed the divine oflBice with gloves pn their 
bands, and rings on their fingers: Isido^re was con- 
^mned by a synod ; his person was imprisoned in 
a monastery ; and it was with extreme difficulty 

• Isidore was metropolitan of Kiow ; but the Greeks sulject to Po« 
land have removed that see from the ruins of Kiow to Lemhtt-g, or 
Lcoin^d (Herbfsteip in Bamusio* torn, ii, p. 127). On tiie other 
band, the Russians transrerired their spiritual obedience to the arch- 
btohop, who became, in 1588, the patriarch of Moscow (Luvesque, 
tU«t. ds Kussie, torn, iii, p. ISS, 190, from a Greek iMniUiCfjpt « 
^arioi Iter et latjoir^ Archiopi^pi Arw9i«}« 


tfadt the etrdiftal could escape from the hands of chap. 


a fierce and fanatic people.^ The Russians re-^ 
fused a passage to the missionaries of Rome who 
aspil*ed to convert the pagans beyond theTanais/ 
and their refusal i^'as justified by the maxim, that 
the guilt of idolatry is less damnable than that 
of ischism. The errors of the Bohemians were 
excused by their abhorrence for the pope ; and 
a deputation of the Greek clergy solicited the 
friendyship of those sanguinary enthusiasts.^ 
While Eugenius triumphed in the union and 
orthodoxy of the Greeks, his party was contract^ 
ed to the walls, or rather to the palace, of Con- 
stantinople. The zeal' of Palaeologus had been 
excited by interest ; it was soon cooled by oppo- 
sition ; an attempt to violate the national belief 
might endanger his life and crown ; nor could 
the plow rebels be destitute of foreign and do» 

^ The curious narrative of Levesque (Htet. de Russie, torn, it, p. 24| 
-247) is extracted from the patriarchal archives. The scenes of Fer- 
rara and Fiorence are described by ignorance and pasftiM) ; but the 
Ruaflfaaa are credible in t|ie aceount qf their ovrn pr^udices. 

' The sbamaHisniy the ancient rellgiiiB of the Sanaaaaaat and 
Gymaoappbistsv has been driven* by the more popular bramins, froiq 
India into the northern deserts : the naked philosophers were com- 
pelled to trrap themaslves in for 9 but they insensibly Sunk into ivlzurdk 
9xid pby«iciaB& The Mordvan$ and Taberemlsses, in thA fiutopaau 
Russia, adl^ere to this religion, which is fonped on the earthJy model 
of one king or God, his ministers or angels, and the rebellious spirits 
who Of piMT iUi fOTermnent. As these, tribes af tbe Val^ Ivive no 
imaites, tb^y might more justly retort on the Latin missionaries the 
name of idolaters (Levesque, Hist, des Peupile6 soumis a la Oomlna* 
tion des Russes, torn, i, p. 194-237, 433^60> 

^ Spondanus, Annal. Eccles. torn, ii, a, d. H&tp K^o. 13. The. 
epistl? 9f the GreekSj with n L^in version^ ia extant in the collef^Q 
library at Prague. 

L 3 


CHAP,, mestic aid. The sword of his brother Demetrius, 
^ ' who in Italy had maintained a prudent and po- 
pular silence, was half unsheathed in the cause 
of religion ; and Amurath, the Turkish sultan, 
was displeased and alarmed by the seeming 
friendship of the Greeks and Latins. 
lUign and " Sultan Murad, or Amurath, lived forty-nine, 
ofAtou-*^ •" and reigned thirty, years, six months, and eight 
V^v liai ** ^^J^' He was a just and valiant prince, of a 
1451, " great soul, patient of labours, learned, merci- 
'* ful, religious, charitable ; a lover and encou- 
'* rager of the studious, and of all who excelled 
** in any art or science ; a good emperor, and 
** a great general. No man obtained more, or 
*• greater, victories- than Amurath ; Belgrade 
" alone withstood his attacks. Under his reigD, 
" the soldier was ever victorious, the citizen rich 
** and secure. If he subdued any country, his 
" first care was to build moschs and caravahseras, 
" hospitals and colleges. Every year he gave a 
** thousand pieces of gold to the sons of the 
" prophet; and sent two thousand five hundred 
** to the religious persons of Mecca, Medina, and 
" Jerusalem."' This portrait is transcribed from 
the historian of the Othman empire : but the 
applause of a servile and superstitious people 
has been lavished on the worst of tyrants, and 
the virtues of a sultan are often the vices most 
useful to himself, or most agreeable to his sub- 

Sec Cantemir, History of the Othman Empire, p. 94, Murad, 
er Morad, may be more correct, but I have preferred the popular 
name, to that obacure diligence which is rarely successful in translat* 
mg an Oriental into the Roman alphabet 




jects. A nation ignorant of the equal benefits chap. 
of liberty and law, must be awed by the flashes ^-^^'* 
of arbitrary power : the cruelty of a despot will 
assume the character of justice; his profusion, 
of liberality ; his obstinaiy, of firmness. . If the 
most reasonable excuse be rejected, few acts of 
obedience will be found impossible; and guilt 
must tremble, where innocence cannot always be 
secure. The tranquillity of the people, and the 
discipline of the troops, were best maintained by 
perpetual action in the field; war was the trade of 
the janizaries ; and those who survived the peril, 
and divided the spoil, applauded the generous am* 
bition of their sovereign. To propagate the true 
religion, was the duty of a faithful mussulman : 
the unbelievers were his enemies, and those of 
the prophet; and, in the hands of the Turks, the 
scymetar was the only instrument of ccmversion. 
Under these circumstances^ however, the justice 
and moderation of Amurath are attested by his 
conduct, and acknowledged by the christians 
themselves ; who consider a prosperous reign and 
a peaceful death as the reward of his singular 
merits. In the vigour of his age and military 
power, he seldom engaged in a war till he was 
justified by a previous and adequate provocation : 
the victorious sultan was disarmed by submission; 
and in the observance of treaties, his word was 
inviolate and sacred.™ The Hungarians were 
commonly the aggressors : he was provoked by 

*^ See Chalcondyles (L vu» p. 196, 198), Ducas (c 33), ieuul Ma- 
rinus Barletius (in Vit. Scanderbeg, p. 145, 146). In his good faitl^ 
towards the garriaon of Sfetigrade, he was a lesson and example t9 
his son Mahomet* 


150 Tiife I^fiCLlHB AN0 FALD 

CRA^. thi h^tolt of Sdtaderbeg ; and %h% p^rfidimis 
** ^"* Caramanifin Iv^tts twice vanquished, and twice 


pardoned, by the Ottoman monarch. Befbre be 
invaded the Morea, Thebes had b^en surprised 
by tbid despot : in the conquest of Thesdalafiici^ 
the grandson of Bajazet might dispute the re* 
cent purchase of the Venetians ; and after the 
first siege of Constantinople, the sultan Was never 
tempted, by the distress, the absence, or the in- 
juries of Paleeologtis, to extinguish the dying 
light of the Byzantine empire* 
Hit double But the most striiiing feature in the life and 

abdication, ^ 

A. D. 1442- character of Amurath is the double abdication of 
'^***' the Tn Aish throhe ; and, were not his motives 
debased by an alloy of superstition, we must 
praise the royal philosopher," who, at the age of 
forty, could discern the vanity of human greatness* 
Resigning the sceptre to his son, he retired to the 
pleasant residence of Magnesia; but he retired to 
the society of saiats and hermits. It was not till 
the fourth century of the Hegira, that the religion 
6f Mahomet had been corrupted by an institution 
so adverse to hi^ genius ; but in the age «f the 
Cfrnsades, the various orders of dervishes were 
multiplied by the example of the chfistkni and 
*ven the Latin, monks.* The lord o^ national 
submitted to fust, and pray, and turn rounil^ in 

■ Voltaire (Bssai sur THistoire G^nerale, c. 2d, p. 283, 284) ad- 
ifiires U pkUo9rpiB Turc : would be have bestowed Ibe sailie pfaiSe (Al 
ik ehriatian prince fot- feUrfhg to a toonastferjr ? Ih hts iFi^y^ VoClldr^ 
VM18 a bigot, an intolerant bigot. 

* See thfe arllclefc. Vervische, faJcir, J^aaaet, Hohhanicat \n d^Hcf- 
tjclot's BibIiothequct)rJentaIe. Yet the bubject is superficially treated 
froin the Persian and Arabian writers. It is among Vttt turks that ^ 
these orders have principally flourished* 


endlesB rototkm with the £BEDatics> wko mistook c har 
the giddiness of tlie head for tLte iilumination of *^^^ 
tiie spirit' But he was soon aw akened fnun this 
dre^m crf^entfaasiastn, by the Hungariaa invasion; 
and his obedient son was the fcn^most to ui^ the 
public danger and wishes of the people. Under 
the banner df their reteran leader, thejani^ariei 
fought and conquered; but he withdrew from the 
field of Varna, again to pray, to fast, and to turm 
round to bis Magnesian brethren. These pious 
occupatiotis were again interrupted by the danger 
of the state. A rictorious army disdained the 
inexperience of their youthful ruler : the city of 
Adrianople was abandoned to rapine and slaugb* 
ter ; and the unanimous divan implored his pn»- 
sence to appease the tumult, and prevent therej>eU 
lion, of the janizaries* At the well-known voice 
of their master, they trembled and obeyed; and 
the reittctant sultan was ccnnpelled to support hm 
splendid servitude, till, at the end €i four years» 
he was relieved by the angel of death. Age oir 
disease, inisfortone or caprice, have tempted se* 
veral princes to descend from the throne ; and 
they have had leisure to repent of their irretriev- 
able step. But Amurath alcme, in the full libertf 
of choice, after the trial of empire and solitude^ 
has repeated his prderence of a private life. 

» ^ycaut (in the present Statfe of the Ottoman Empire, p. 24i3-.26S) 
affords much ihrormatlon, which he drew from his personal eonvetM* 
tion with the heads of the dervishes, most of whom ascribed their 
•rigin to the time of Orchan. He does not mention the Zickida of 
^^iMleo&dyles (L vii, p. ieS6), among whom lAADuvaHi rdtlmd 9 the » 

Mb «f ttet MKiior wt &o406cea4«itt« <3i Mabwxiei. 


€H A F. After the departure of bis Greek brethren, En- 
^^V^. gCDiius had not been unmindful of their temporal 
Eugenius Interest ; and his tender regard fw the Byzantine 
tel^e* empire wasaniniated by a just apprehension of the 
^Turks '^**^^^» ^^^ approached, and might soon invade, 
A. B. 144a the borders of Italy. But the spirit of the cru- 
sade had expired ; and the coldness of the Franks 
was not less unreasonable than their headlong pas- 
sion. In the eleventh century, a fanatic monk 
could precipitate Europe on Asia for the recovery 
of the holy sepulchre ; but in the fifteenth, the 
most pressing motives of religion and policy were 
insufficient to unite the Latins in the defence 
of Christendom. Grermany was an inexhaustible 
store^house of men and arms ;^ but that complex 
and languid body required the impulse of a vigo* 
rous hand ; and Frederic the third was alike im- 
potent in his personal character and his imperial 
dignity. A long war had impaired the strength, 
without satiating the sinimosity, of France and 
England f but Philip, duke of Burgundy^ was 
a vain and magnificent prince ; and he enjoyed, 

V In the yefu: 1431» Germany raised 40,000 horse* men at arms, 
against the Hussites of Bohemia (Lenfant, Hist, du Concile de Basle, 
ten. i» p. 318). At the siege of Nays on the Bhme, in 1474, the 
princes, prelates, and cities, sent their respective quotas ; and the 
bishop of Munster (qui n*est pas des plus grands) furnished 1400 
horse, €000 foot, all in green, with 1200 waggons. Che united ar- 
mies of the king of England and the duke of Burgundy scarcely 
equalled one third of this German host (Memoires de Philippe de 
Comine8> 1. iv, c 2). At present, six or seven hundred thousand 
men are maintained in constant pay and admirable discipline, hy the 
powers of Germany. 

> * It was not till the year 1444, that France and England could 
agree on 9, truce of some months* (See Byoier's Fcedera* and th9 
Chronicles pf both nations.) 


without danger or expence^ the adventurous piety chap. 
of his subjects^ who sailed, in a gallant fleet, from '^^'^ 
the coast of Flanders to thq Hellespont. The ma* 
ritime republics of Venice and Genoa wejre less 
remote from the scene of action ; and their hos- 
tile fleets were associated under tjbe standard of 
St. Peter. The kingdoms of Hungary and Po. 
land, which covered as it were the interior pale of 
the Latin church, were the most nearly concerned 
to oppose the progress of the Turks. Arms were 
the patrimony of the Sicythians and Sannatian% 
and these nations might appear equal to the con- 
test, could they, point against the common foe 
those swords that were so wantonly drawn in 
bloody and domestic quarrels. But the same spi- 
rit was adverse to concord and obedience : a poor 
country and a limited monarch are incapable of 
maintaining astanding force; and the loose bodies 
of Polish and Hungarian horse were not armed 
with the sentiments and weapons which, on some 
occasions, have given irresistible weight to the 
French chivalry. Yet, on this side, the designs 
of the Roman pontiff, and the eloquence of car* 
dinal Julian, his legate, were promoted by the 
circumstances of the times ;• by the union of the 
two crowns on the head of Ladislaus,^ a young 

> ■ In the Hungarian cniaadet Spoadanus (AnnaL Eocle& a. o. 1443* 
1444) has been mj leading guide* He has diligently read» and cri- 
tically comparedy the Greek and iSiricish materials, the historians of 
Hungary, Poland, and the West. His narrative is perspicuous ; and 
where he can hi free from a religious bias, the judgment of Sponda* 
nus is not contemptible. 

* I have curuiled the harsh letter (Wladislaua) which most writers 
^f^ to his pame^ either in compUance with the PoUah pronunciatioii* 



CHAP, and ambitious soldier ; by the ralour of an herd, 
^^^ whose Dame, the name of John Huniades^ was 
already popular among the christians, and formid- 
able to the Turks. An endless treasure of par- 
dons and indulgences was scattered by the legate; 
many private warriors of France and Germany 
enlisted under the holy banner ; and the crusade 
derived some strength, or at least some reputation, 
' from the new allies both of Europe and Asia.- A 
fugitive despot of Servia ei^aggerated the distress 
and ardour of the christians beyond the Danube, 
who would unanimously rise to vindicate their re- 
ligion and liberty- The Greek emperor,*- with a 
l^irit unknown to his fathers, engaged to guard 
the Bosphorus, and to sally from Constantinople 
at the head of his national and mercenary troops. 
The sultan of Caramania* announced the retreat 
^rf* Amurath, and a powerful diversion in the heart 
of Anatolia ; and if the fleets of the West could 
occupy at the same moment the straits of the 
Hellespont, the Ottoman monarchy would be dis- 
severed and destroyed. Heaven and earth must 
rejoice in the perdition of the miscreants ; and 

0T to iktisj^Uh him from his rivpO, the infoBt Utdislaut of Auslria. 
Their competition for the crown of Hungary is described bj CaliimS" 
chus (L iii, p. 447-486;, Bonfinius (Dtcad. iii« I. it), Spond«uis» 
and Lenfant. 

* The Greek his torians, Pbraaia* Cbiiemidjlt^ and Ducaa, do not 
aeerike to their prlace a very active part in this emsade, whieli ki 
ieems to have promoied by his wishes, and ii^red by his fears. 

* Gantcmir (p. 68) ascribes to his peMcy the oi^iaal plaa» and 
transeribes Me aalaDating cpisUe to <he king of Hud|pEury. But tbe 
mabometan powers are seldom informed of tYyt state of ChrlsCcndom ; 
■■dllie flftnatloii and oeffrespoQdenoe of the kniglUa of iUiodas moU 

ct then ivM the MUik ni i 

tf THX BOMAN BMriB& 157 

the legate^ with pradent ambiguity* instilled the chap; 
opinioa of the invisible, perhaps the vbible» aid^^^^^^^^ 
of the Son of Gvod, and his divine mother. 

Of the Polish and Hungarian diets, a religious i^adiRimu, 
war was the unanimous cry ; and Ladislaus, after la^f „,<! ^ 
passing the Danube, led an army of his co^^fe-J^^* 
derate subjects as far as Sophia, the capital ofa6>inst 
the Bulgarian kmgdom. In this expedition they 
obtained two signal victories, which were justfy 
ascribed to the valour and conduct of Hunlades. 
In the first, with a vanguard often thousand men» 
he surprised the Turkish camp ; in the second, he 
vanquished and made prisoner the most renowned 
of their gen^als, who possessed the double advan* 
tage of ground and numbers. The approach of 
winter, and the natural and artificial obstacles of 
mount Hasmus, arrested the progress of thehero^ 
who measured a narrow interval of sixdaysmarck 
from the foot of the mountains to the hostile 
towers c^ Adrianople, and the friendly capital of 
the Gjreek empire. The retreat was undisturbed ; 
and the entrance intoBuda was at once a military 
and religious triumph. An ecclesiastical proces^ 
sion was followed by the king and his warriors on 
foot : he. nicely balanced the merits and rewards 
of the two mitions ; and the pride of conquest 
was blended with the humble temper of Chris- 
tianity. Thirteen bashaws, nine standards, and 
four thousand captives, were unquestidnabk 
trophies ; and as all were willing to believe, and 
none were present to contradict, the crusaders 
multiplied, with unblushing confidence, the my- 
riads of Turks whom they had left on the field of 


CHAP, battle/ The most solid proof, and the mosft aa^ 
,^v^I!tu ^^^^^ consequence, of victory was a deputation 
The Turk- from the divan to solicitpeace, to restore Servia, 
** P**^ to ransom the prisoners, and to evacuate the Hun- 
garian frontier. By this treaty, therationalob/ects 
of the war were obtained : the king, the despot^ 
and Huniades himself, in the diet of Segedin^were 
satisfied with public and private emolument ; a 
truce of ten years was concluded; and the fol* 
lowers of Jesus and Mahomet, who swore on the 
gospel and the koran, attested the word of Gk>d as 
the guardian of truth and the avenger of perfidy. 
In the place of the gospel, the Turkish ministers 
had proposed to substitute the eucharist, the real 
presence of the catholic deity; but the christians 
refused to profane their holy mysteries ; and a 
superstitious conscience is less forcibly bound bj 
the spiritual energy, than by the outw^d and 
visible symbols, of an oath.' 
Violation During the whole transaction, the cardinal le- 
place! gate had observed a sullen silence, unwillii^ to 
A. D. 1444. nj^ove, and unable to oppose, the consent of the 
king and people. But the dieit was not dissolved 
before Julian was fortified by the welcome intel- 
ligence, that Anatolia was invaded by the Cara- 
manian, and Thrace by the Greek, emperor; that 

y In their letters to the emperor Frederic xii, the Hungarians slay 
300,000 Turks in one battle ; but the modest Julian reduces the 
slaughter to 6000, or even 8000, infidels (iEneas Sylvius in Europ. 
c 4* and epist. 44, 81, apud Spondanum). 

' See the origin of the Turkish war, and the first expedition of La* 
dislaus, in the fifth and sixth books of the third Decad of Bonfinius, 
who, in his division and style, copies Livy with tolerable success 
CaUimacbus (1. ii, p. 487-496) is stiU more pure and aathentic. 


i tlae fleets of Genoa, Venice, and Bui^ndj, were chap. 
masters of the Hellespont; and that the allies, in* 
formed of the victory, and ignorant of the treaty, 
of Ladislaus^ impatiently waited for the return of 
his victorious army. ^' And is it thus, ** exclaim- 
ed the cardinal,'' ** that you will desert their ex- 
** peotations and your own fortune ? It is to 
*^ them, to your God, and your fellow-christians, 
*^ that you have pledged your faith ; amd that 
** prior obligation annihilates a rash and sacri- 
** legious oath to the enemies of Christ. His 
^* vicar on earth is the Roman pontiff, without 
'^ whose sanction you can neither promise nor 
" perform. In his natne, I absolve your perjury 
^* and sanctify your arms : follow my footsteps in 
'' the paths of glory and salvation ; and if still ye 
^^'have scruples, devolve on my head thepunirii- 
*^ mentand the sin." This mischievous casuistry 
was seconded by his respectable character, and the 
levity of popular assemblies ; war was reserved on 
the same spot where peace had ^ so lately been 
sworn; and, in the execution of the treaty, the 
Turks were assaulted by the christians, to wh<mi, 
with some reason, they might apply the epithet of 
infidels. The falsehood of Ladislaus to his word 
and oath was palliated by the religion of the 
time's : the most perfect, or at least the most po- 

» I do not pretend to warrant the literal accuracy of Ju/ian's 
speech, which i« Tariously worded by Galilmachus (1. iii, p. 505- ' 
SOT), Bonfiniiu (Defu Ui, 1. vi, p. 457, 468), and other histbriana, 
who might indulge their own eloquence, while they represent one of 
the orators of the age. But they all agree in the advice and argu- 
ments for pet^ury, which in the field of controvery ate eercely at- 
tacked by the protestants, and feebly defended by the catl>olics. The 
htter are discouraged by the misfortune of Wama. 


CHAP, pular, excuse would have been the luooew of liif 
^ arms and the deliverance of the £a$tero churcfa. 

But the same treaty which should hare bouod bis 
conicience^haddiminbhedhisrtrengtbt Oo th€ 
proclamation of the peace, the Frendi and Ger* 
man volunteers departed with indignant aiurmun : 
' \ the Pdes were exhausted hf distant war£^e* and 
perhaps disgusted with foreign comiaand; and 
their palatinesaccepted the first licence, and ha^til j 
letured to their provinces and castiies. EveaHun- 
gary was divided by faction, or restramed by a 
Imidable scruple ; and the relics of the oru^ade 
that marched in the second e^^edHion were re- 
duced to an inadeqw^e force of twenty thousand 
men. A Wallachian chitf, wiuo joined tfae rcqral 
standard with his vaasais^ppesuned to remark that 
their numbers did n#t <^cceed thie buntmg retinue 
that sometimes atteodiid the i^ultan ; and the gift 
€f two horses of matchless i^eed might admomsk 
Ladidaus <of fats secret fisreisigbt of the event 
But the despot (tf Servia, after the restoratioi 
af his ceontry anddMidren, was tempted by ibi 
proarne of new realms^ and the iaescpeiience of 
the ting; the <enlihiistaiai ^ ittie le^e, aiad liie 
moartiat pvesumption of HuAiades faim^elf^ mm» 
piirsuaded that every obstacle must ^ield (to ikt 
in\*iacib}e varliue of ftdne'sword and theiQiFOSs. A&fft 
the passage of the Danube, two roads might lead 
to C onatantiB€q[>le and the HeUaspoet:; the doa^ 
direct -9 abrupt, and difficult, through the moun- 
tains cif Haamus ; the other, more tedious and 
secure, over a level country, and along fihe'ihoFes 
of the £^<uxine, in which their flanks^ according 



to theSoytiiiiiii dffici[diiie^ ou^t alwvifs be to* chap* 

vered br a moveable fortificatioD of wageooM* 

The latter was judiciously preferred; the catho* 
lies mardied tbrough the plains of Bulgwiig 
burnings with wanton crueHj, the churches and 
villages at the christian natives ; and their laat 
station was at Wama, near the sea-shoie ; on 
which the defeat and death of Ladislaus hmve 
bestowed a memorable name^^ 

It was oik this fatal spot, that, instead ci find* Battle or 
ing a confederate fleet to second their opera* ^^[^^ 
tions, they were alarmed by the approadi of A*^<>^* ^^ 
murath himself, who had issued from his Ma|f* 
nesian solitude, and transported the forcea of 
Asia to the defence of Europe* Aceording to 
some writei^, the Greek emperor had been 
awed, or seduced, to grunt the passage of the 
Bosphorus, and an indelible stain of conruption 
is fixed on the Genoese, or the pope's nej^ew^ 
the catholic admiral, whose mercenary cobsbv« 
nnce betrayed the guard of the Hellespont 
From Adrianople, the sultan advanced by hasty 
marches, at the head of sixty thousand mett; 
and when the cardinal, and Huniades, had tak^i 
a nearer survey of the numbers and ofder of the 
Turks, these ardent warriors proposed the tardy 
and impracticable measure dT a retreat The 

^ Warns, ua4er the Grecian name of Odessus, was n colonj of 
the Milesians, which they denominated from the hero tTrysses (Cet- 
larius, torn, i, p. 374, d*Anville, torn, i, p. 313). According to 
Arrian's Periplus of the Euxine (p. t4, tS, in the Swt valttiui? of 
Hudson*s Geographers), it was situate 174e stadRa, or ftirlongs^ from 
the mouth of the Danube, 2140 from Byzantium, and SflD^ to the! 
6orth of a ridge or -promontOTy of Mount H«emnv» wUeh adtaooM^ 
into the sea. 4 '• 

VOL, XII. M "*. 


CHAP, king alone was resolved to conquer or die ; and 
Lxvii^ his resolution had almost been crowned with a 
glorious and salutary victory. The princes were 
opposite to each other in the centre ; and the 
beglerbegs, or generals of Anatolia and Roma- 
nia, commanded on the right and Idft against the 
adverse divisions of the despot and Huniades. 
' The Turkish wings were broken on the first on- 
set, but the advantage was fatal ; and the rash 
victors, in the heat of the pursuit, were carried 
away far from the annoyance of the enemy or 
the support of their friends. When Amurath 
beheld the flight of his squadrons, he despaired 
of his fortune and that of the empire : a veteran 
janizary seiMd his horse's bridle ; and he had 
magnanimity to pardon and reward the soldier 
who dared to perceive the terror, and arrest the 
flight, of his sovereign. A copy of the treaty^ 
the monument of christian perfidy, had been dis- 
played in the front of battle ; and it is said, that 
the sultan in his distress, lifting his eyes and 
his hands to heaven, implored, the protection of 
the God of truth ; and called on the prophet 
Jesus himself to avenge the impious mockery of 
Mis name and religion.*^ With inferior numbers 
and disordered ranks, the kingof Hungary rushed 
forwards in the confidence of victory, till his ca- 
reer was stopped by the impenetrable phalanx of 
the janizaries; If we may credit the Ottoman 

* Some christian writers affirm, that he drew from his boeom 
the host or wafer on which the treaty had no£ been sworn. The 
Moskme suppose, with more simplicity, an appeal to God and his 
I«ophet Jesus, which is likewise insinuated by CalUmschus (L iii^ 
p. 519. Spondan. A. o. 1444, No. 8). 


annals^ his horse Was pierced by the javelin of cbak 
Amurath f he fell among the spears of the in- ' 

fantry ;.and a Turkish soldier proclaimed with ai>^otf^ 
loud voice, " Hungarians, behold the head of 
*' your king !" The death of Ladislans was the 
signal of their defeat. On his return from an 
intemperate pursuit, Huniades deplored his error 
and the public loss : he Strove to rescue the royal 
body, till he was overwhelmed by the tumultuous 
crowd of the victors and vanquished ; and the last 
efforts of his courage and conduct were exerted to 
save the remnant of his Wallachiaii cavalry. Ten 
thousanjd christians were slain in the disastrous 
battle of Warna : the loss of the Turiss, more 
considerable in numbers, bore a smaller propor- 
tion to their total strength ; yet the philosophic 
sultan was not ashamed to confess^ that his ruin 
must be the consequence of a second and similar 
victory. At his command a column was erected 
on the spot where Ladislaus had fallen ; but the 
modest inscription^ instead of accusing the rash- 
ness, recorded the valour, and bewailed the mis- 
fortune, of the Hungarian youths® 

* A critic will always distrust these spoUa optma of a victorious ge» 
neral, so difficult for valour to obtain, so easy for flattery to invent 
(Cantemir, p. 90, 91). Callimachus (I. iii, p. 517) more simply and 
probaMj affirms, fiupei^venientibtis janizarisi UHohim midtitudine^ 
non taxn confessus est, quam obrutu&; 

* Besides some valuable hints from Mneas Sylvius, which are diU« 
gently collected by Spondanus, our best authorities are three histoid 

'riansof the fifteenth century, Philippu^ CalUtnachus (de Rebus a 
Vladislao Polonorum atque Hungaroruiii Rege gestis, llbri iii, it 
BeL Script. Rerum Hungaricarum, torn, i, p. 433-51S), BonSfiius 
(decad iii, 1. v, p. 460-467),! and Chalcoeondyles (1. vii, p. 165-179). 
The two first were Italianst but they passed their lives in Poland 
and Hungary (Fabric. Bibliot. Latin, medt et infinue uSutis, totti i, 
M 2 


ea AP. before I lose sight of the field of Warna, I am 
J^^^^ tempted to pause on the character and story of 
Tha car- twQ principal actors, thecardinalJulian and John 
f^''"" Huniades. Julian^ Caesarini was bofn of a noble 
{amily of Rome : his studies had embraced both 
the Latin and Greek learning, both the sciences 
of divinity and law ; and his versatile genius was 
equally adapted to the schools, the camp» and the 
court. No sooner had he been invested with the 
Roman purple, than he was sent into Germany 
to arm the empire against the rebels and heretics 
of Bohemia. The spirit of persecution is un- 
worthy of a christian ; the military professibn ill 
becomes a priest ; but the former is excused by 
the times ; and the latter was ennobled by the 
courage of Julian, who stood dauntless and alone 
in the disgraceful flight of the Gterman host. As 
the pope's legate, he opened the council of Basil; 
but the president soon appeared th^ most strenuous 
champion of ecclesiastical freedom ; and an op- 
position of seven years was conducted by his ability 
and zeal. After promoting the strongest measures 
against the authority and person of Eugenius, 
some secret motive of interest or conscience en- 
gaged himtodesert on a sudden the popular party. 

p. SM* Vofsiu de Hist. Latin. 1. Hi, c. 9, 11. Bayle, DictioiMire, 
Bonfiniua). A small tract of Faeliic Petancius, chancellor of Siegnia 
(ad calcem Cusplniaat de Cssaribus, j). 716-722), represents the 
theatre of the war in the fifteenth century. 

. ' M. LenfAnt ha« described the origin (Hiat. du Coficile de Basle, 
to^. t, p. 247*. &e*), and Bohemian can^aign (p, 3)5, &e.), of cardi- 
i^l Juliim. His aervices at BoaU and Ferarra, and hh unfortanate . 
end, 9X9 occa9iQBiUly i-elated bjr Spondanus, and the continuator of 

OF. THE B0M4iir BMPIfiB« 165 

The cardinal witbdi^w himself from Basil to Fer- chap. 
rank; ahd, in the debates of the Greeks and La^ i^vii. 
tins, the two nations admired the doiteritj' of 
his argwnents and the depth of his theological 
erudition.^ In his Hungarian embassy we hat« 
already seen the miscfaievouii ^ffieots of his sophism 
try and eloquence, of which Juliah himself was 
the first victim* The cardinal^ who performed 
the duties of a priest and a soldier, was lost in the 
defeat of Warna* The circumstances of his death 
are variously related ; but it is believed, that a 
weighty incumbrance of gold impeded his flighty 
and tempted the cruel avarice of some christian 

From an humble, or at least a doubtful, origin, John Cor- 
the merit of John Huniades promoted him to the nliito."" 
cotnmaiKl of the Hungarian armies. His father 
was a Waltecbian, his mother a Greek ; her un«^ 
known race migbt possibly ascend to the emperors 
of Consttotinopie i and the cittims of the WaUa^ 
chians, with the surname of Odi vinus, from the 
placeof Us nativity, might suggest a thin pretence 
for mingliitg his blood with the patriciatid of an* 
cient Rome.!* In his yottib he served in the wars 
of ItflTly^ and was retained, with twelve horte* 
men, by the bishop of Zagrab: the valour of 

• Syropojtt^ UoRoniabty pniUm Hie tfde^ts of an en^mf (p. 117) s 
TOtavT» riva lirip i I»Xi«iy#f vrtirXecTv^fMvms ttytty xm XayiKttff Mas ft.wr 

^ See Bonfinius, decad iii, 1. iv, p. 423. Cpuld the Italian historian 
pronoQiiec, or the king of Hungary hcttfr Without a blusfi, the ah- 
smA ftattei-y, which eoifylbunded the name tff k Waaiachlafr vifWje \9i¥k 
the olBiuil, though gloriMia, epithet of a sh^^T^ branch (rf the Vafe 
Titn {mA}y at Home f ' 

M » 


CHAP, he white kni^^ was soon conspkaous ; he en- 
LxviL ^yg^gj jjjg fortunes by a noble .and wealttiy mar* 
riage; and in tke defence of the Hungarian 
borders, he won in the same year three battles 
against the Turks. By his influence^ Ladislaus 
of Poland obtained the crown of Hungary ; and 
the important service was rewarded by the title 
and ofBce of waived of Transylvania. The first of 
Julian's crusades added two Turkish laurels onhis 
brow; and in the public distress the fatal errors 
of Warqa were forgotten. During the absence 
and minority of Ladislaus of Austria, the titular 
king, Huniades was elected supreme captain and 
governor of Hungary ; and if envy at first was 
silenced by teiror, a reign of twelveyears supposes 
the arts of policy as well as of war. Yet the idea 
of a consumnciate general is not delineated in his 
campaigns; the white knight fought with the 
hand ratherthanthe head, as the chief of desultory 
barbarians, who attack without fear,.and fly with- 
out shame ; and his military life is composed of a 
romantic alternative of victories and escapes. By 
the Turks, who employed his name to frighten 
their perverse children, he was corruptly denomi- 
nated Jancus Lain, or the wicked : their hatred is 
the proof of their esteem ; the kingdom which 
he guarded was inaccessible to their arms ; and 
they felt him most daring and formidable, when 
they fondly believed the captain of his country 

» Philip de ComineB (Memoires, 1. vi, c. 13), from the tradition of 
tiM times, mentions him with high 6noomiums, but under the whim- 
Bieal name of the Chevalier Blanc de Valaigne (Valachia). The Greei: 
Chalcoeondyles, and the Turliish Annals of Leunclavlus, presume tt 
accuse his fidelity or valour. 


krecoveFebly lost. Instead of confining himself chap. 
to a defaisive war, four years after the defi^t of^^^^^^^ 
Wama Jbe i^ftin penetrated iptQ the heart of Bul- 
garia ; and. in the plain of Cossoya sustained, till 
the third day, the shock of the Ottoman army^ 
four times more numerous than his own. As he 
fled alone through the woods of Wallachia, the 
hero was surprised by two robbers ; but while 
they disputed a gold chain that hung at his neck, 
he recoyered his sword, slew the one, terrified the 
otherj» and, after new perils of captivity or deaths 
consoled by his presence an afflicted kingdom.. 
But the li^t and most glorious action of his life 
was the def^^dce of Belgrade against' the powers 
of Mahomet the second in person. After a siege Hisdefonce 
of forty days, the Turks, who had already entered ^e/and 
the town, were compelled to retreat; and the*^'**:.^- 
joyful nations celebrated Huniades ^nd Belgrade JuJy «»» 
as the buliprarks of Christendom.^. About a^*^** 
month afta: this great deliverance, the cham- 
pion expired ; and his most splendid epitaph is 
the regvet of the Ottooaan prince, who sighed ' 
that he could no longer hope for revenge against 
the single antagonist who had triumphed over his 
arms. On the first vacancy of the throne, Mat- 
thias Corvinus, a youth of eighteen years of age, 
was elected and crowned by the grateful Hun* 
garians. His reign was prosperous and long :' 
Matthias aspired to the glory of a conqueror and 

^ See Bpnfinius (decad iii> L viii, p. 492) and Spondaaus (a. s. 
1456, No. 1.7). Huniades shared the glory of the defence of BdU 
^rade with Capistran, a Franciscan friar ; and in their respective nar* 
ratives, neither the saint nor the hero condesc^d to take notlM of hi» 
rival's merit, 

M 4t 


CHKK n saint; but his purest iiierit is the eticmirag^nient 
<>f learning; and the LAtih orators and histeriatis^ 

'•^-*^w•' %^^-^ 

who were invited from Italy by the son, have 
shed the lustre of their eloquence bfk the father^s 
Birth and In the lists of h^x)es, John Hiinladies and Scan- 
of scandtr-^ieriieg: are commonly associated f^ and they are 
of AibwSa!*^*^ entitled to our notice, ance their occupa- 
♦. D. i404p.tion of the Ottoman arms delayed the ruin of the 
' Greek empire. John Castriot, the father of Scan- 
derbeg,* was the hereditary prince of a small 
district of Bpirus or Albania, between the moun- 
tains and the Adriatic sea. Unable to contend 
with the sultan's power, Castriot submitted to the 
hard conditions of peace and tribute : he deli- 

' See Boninius, dec(u| iii^ 1. Tiii,-«decad iv, L viii. TheiAservatioiu 
•f Spondanus on the life and character of Matthias Corvinus are cu- 
Tfeus and critical (a. d. 1464> Ko. l, 147*, No. 6, 1476» No. 14-l«k 
1490« No. 4^ Q. Italian fiuna was ths object o£ his vanitjr. His ac- 
tions are celebrated in the Epitome Rerum Hungaricarum (p. 322- 
412) of Peter lUtfzanus, a Silician. His wise and facetious sayings 
me rtgistei^ Iff Galeattia Marthtt of Kami (£l^aBS) $ sua v» ha^ 
a particular narrative of his weeding and coronation. These three 
tracts ar« all eontained in the first vol. of Bel*s Scriptores Rerura 
HingKriMraitt. • . ] . 

'" They me recked hj Sir WUliam Temfile, in hi* l^iitfuling Essaji 
on Heroic Virtue (Works, vol. iil, p, 385), ^among the 8ev€n chief* 
who haf« d«serve4, without wearing, a royal crc^vn ; Belisarius, Nar- 
seffi €ietsa|iFpiof Cordova^ WiHiam first pdtoe of Orange Alekaoder 
duke of P^ma, John Huniades, and George Castriot, or Scanderbeg- 

■ I could wish for some simple authentic memoirs of a friend o' 
Somieibff , which Would ititroduca me to the Aian, the titne, and the 
iplace. In the old and national history of Marinus Barletius, a priest 
of Scodra <da Vita» Moribus, et Rebus gestis, Georgii Castrioti, &c. 
i&Kti ^ii, |i. a«t. Argetitorat. 15S7, in fol.), his gawdy and cumber- 
aone robaa aM stuck with many (klse jewels. See likewise Chalco* 
condyles, 1. vll, p. 185, 1. vlii, p. S29. 

09 TH8 ROMAK VlCPimff* 169 

T€ved hid four sons as the pledges of hufUdi^&tj t cr ap« 
and the christian youths, after receitinir the mark ^^^^^^^ 
of circumcision, were instructed 4n the mahome- 
tan- religion, and trained in tile arms and arts 
of Turkish policj.o The tiltfee elder brothe^rs 
were confounded in the crohvd of slaves ; and the 
poison to which their deaths are ascribed cannot 
be verified or disproved by any positive evidence* 
Yet the suspicion is in a great measure removedby 
the kind and paterhal treatment ofGeorgeCastriot^ 
the fourth brother, who, from his tender youth, 
displayed the striength and spirit of a soldier. The 
successive overthrow of a Tartar and two Per- 
sians, who carried a proud defiance to the Turkish 
courti Tecommended him to the favour of Amu- 
rath ; and his Turki* appellation of Scanderbeg 
(Iskender heg)y or the lord Alexander, is an in- 
delible memorial of his glory and servitude. His 
father^s principfattly was reduced into a province : 
but the loss was compensated by the rank and 
title of sanjiak, a comniand of five thousand 
horse, and the prospect of the first dignities of the 
empire. He served with honour in the wars of 
Europe and Asia ; and we may smile at the art 
or credulity of the historian, who supposes that 
in every encounter he spared the christians, while 
he fell with a thundering arm on his mussulman 
foes. The glory of Huniades is without re- 
proach ; he fought in the defence of his religion 
and country ; but the enemies who applaud th^ 
patriot have branded his rival with the name of 

* His circumcision, education, &c are nwrksd by Hadaui widi 
Iwcvitj and reluctance G* i, p. 6, 7). 



CHAP, traitor and apostate. Intheeyesofthecluristiaii% 
'^^"- the rebellion of Scanderbeg is justified by his 
fathei^s wrongs, the ambiguous death of his three 
brothers, bis own degradation, and the slavery 
of his country ; and they adore the generous, 
though tardy, zeal, with which he asserted the 
faith and independence of b^s aqcestprs. But he 
had imbibed from his pinth year the doctrines of 
the koran ; he was ignorant of the gospel ; the 
religion of a soldier is determined by authority 
and habit ; nor is it easy to conceive what new 
ilhimination, at the age of f(»rty,^ could be poured 
into his soul^ His motives would be less expos- 
ed to the suspicion of interest or revenge^ had 
he brd^en his chain from the moment that he 
was sensible of its weight ; but a long oblivion 
had surely impaired his original right ; and every 
year of obedience and,^ew^d had cemented the 
mutual bond of the sultan and his subject. If 
Scanderbeg had long harboured the belief oS 
Christianity and the intention of revolt, a worthy 
mind must condemn the base (pssimulation, that 
could serve only to betray, that could promise only 
to be forsworn, that could actively join in the 
temporal and spiritual perdition of so many thou- 
sands of his unhappy bo'etbren. Shall we praise 
a secret correspondence with Huniades, while he 

V Since Scand^beg died a. d. 1466, in the §3d year of his age (Ma- 
TinuB, 1. lilt, p. 3T0), he was born in 1403: since he was torn from 
hw/parents by the Turks, when he was noUM^ (Marinns, L i, p. 1, 
6), that event must have happened in 1412, nine years before the ac- 
cession of Amurath ii, who must have inherited, not acquired, the 
Albanian slave. Spoi\danus has remarked this inconsistency, a. d. 
1491, No^ 31, 1449, No. 14, r 


commftiidied the v^uigiuard of tibe Turkish omy ? chap: 
shall we excuse the desertion of Us standard; a ^J^^^ 
treacherous desertion, wliicfa absmdoned the vic- 
tory to the enemies of his benefactor? In the con- h^ revolt 
fusion* of a defeat, the eye of Scanderbeg was^"***"© 
fixed on ^ne reis efiendi.or principal secretary : a. b. iW. 
with a dagger at his breast, he extorted a firman ^®^* *^ 
or patent for the goyemment of Albania; and 
the murder of the guiltliess scribe and his train 
prevented the consequences of an immediate dis- 
covery. With some bold, companions, to v/bam 
he had revealed his design, : he escaped in the 
night, by rapid marches, from the field of battle 
to his paternal mountains, liie gates of Croja 
were opened to the royal mandate: and no sooner 
did he command the fortress, than Geoi^ Cas- 
triot dropt the mask of dissimulation; abjured the 
prc^het and the sultan, and proclaimed himsdf 
the avenger of his family andcountry. The names 
of religion and liberty provoked a general revolts 
the Albanians, a martial race, were imanimous to 
live and die with their hereditary prince ; and 
the Ottoman garrisons were indulged in the choice 
of martyrdom or baptism. In the assembly of the 
states of Epirus, Scanderbeg was elected general 
of the Turkish war ; and eadh of the allies en^ 
gaged to furnish his re£^)ective proportion of men 
and money. Erom these contributions, from hia 
patrimonial estate, and from the valuable salt- 
pits of Selina, he drew an annual revenue of twq 
hundred thousand ducats ;^^and the entire sunpb 

^ His revenue atod forces arc luckily given^by Marinus 0« l^i P« 4*1- 


CHAF. exempt from the denatidk of hixiirj, waa strict] j 
^^ appropriated to the pablic uie* His maatiers 
^ were pojiiilar ; but his discipline was severe ; and 

ererj 8ijq)erfliioii8 vice was banished from his 
camp : his example streagthetied his commatKi ; 
and under his conduct, the Albanians were in- 
vincible in. theur own opinion and that of their 
Hif valour, enemies. The bravest adventurers of Firsnce and 
Germany were allured by his fame and retained 
in his service ; his standing militia consisted of 
eiffat thousand horse and seven thousand foot ; 
the horses were small) the men were active : but 
he viewed with a discerning eye the difficulties 
and resources of the mountains ; and» at the blaze 
of the beacons,^ the whole nation was ^tributed 
in the strongest posts. With such unequal arms» 
Scanderbegresistedtwenty^threeyeai^the powers 
of the Ottoman empire ; and two conquerors, 
Amurath the second, and his greater son, were 
repeatedly baffled by a rebel, whom they pursued 
with searaing contempt and implacable resent- 
ment. At the head of sixty thousand horse and 
forty thousand janizaries, Amurath entered AU 
bania : he might ravage the open countly, oc- 
cupy the defenceless towns^ convert the churches 
into moschs, circumcise the christian youths, and 
punish with death bis adult and obstinate cap« 
lives ; but the conquests of the sultan were con- 
iGlned to the petty fortress of Sfetigrade; and the 
garrison, invincJidc to his arms, was oppressed 
by a paltry artifice and a superstitious scmide.' 

' There were two Dibns, the upper and lower, the Bulgsrian and 
Albanian ; the former, 70 miles from Oroya 0. i^ p. 17), was conti- 



or TUB ttOMAll SMPIBfl. 173 

Amurath retii^ wilb sbame and hmn from the chap. 
walls of Croya, the castle and resideiice of the 
CastriotB: |he inarch, the siege, the retreat, were 
haras^d by a vexatious, and almost invisftle, ad« 
vereaaty ;' and the disappointment might tend to 
embitter, perhaps to shorten, the last days of the 
sultan/ In the fulness of conquest, Mahomet 
the second still felt at his bosom thb domestic 
thorn : his lieutenants were permitted to nego- 
ciate a truce ; and the Albanian prince may justly 
be praised as a firm and able champion of his na- 
tional independence. The enthusiasm of chivalry 
and religion has ranlied him with the names o( 
Alexander and Pyrrhus: nor would they blush to 
acknowledge their intrepid countr3nnan : but his 
narrow dominion, and slender powers, nfust leave 
him at an humble distance below the heroes of 
antiquity, who triumphed over the East and the 
Roman legions. His splendid achievements, the 
bashaws whom he encountered, the armies that 
he discomfited, and the three thousand Turks 
who were slain by his single hand, must be weighed 
in the scales of suspicious criticism. Against an 
illiterate enemy, and in the dark solitude of 

^ous to the fortress of Sfetigrade, whoie inhabitants refused ti^drink 
from a well into which a dead dog had tralterously been cast iL v, 
p. 139, 140;. We want a good map of £pinis. 

* Compare the Turkish narrative of Canteinir (p. 99) with the 
ponpous and prolix declama6<m in the fourth, fiAh, and sixth bookt 
•f the Albanian priest, who has been copied by the tri\fe of stranger* 
and moderns. 

* In honour of his hero, Barletius (L vi, p. 180^19?) kills the sul-^ 
tan; by disease indeed, under the walls of Croya. But this audacious' 
iiction is disproved by the Greeks and Turks, who agree in the time 
And manner of Amurath^s death at Adrianopter 


CHAP. £piru8^ his partial biographers niajsafel^ indulge 
^q.xxax.Jv *^^ latitude of rmnance : but thrir fictions are 
exposed bj the light of Italian history ; and they 
aSorA & strong furesumption i^ainst their own 
truth, hj a fabulous tale of his expldtey when he 
passed the Adriatic with eight hundred horse to 
the succour of the king of Naples."* Without dis- 
paragement to his fKme, they might have owned 
that be was finally oppressed by the Ottoman 
powers : in Us extreme danger^ he applied to 
p(^ Pius the second for a refuge in the eccle- 
siastical state ; and his resources were almc^t ex*> 
tad de«th» hausted) since Scanderbegdied^ fugitive atLissus 
Jan. IT. ' OB the Venetinn territory.'' His sepulchre was 
soon violated by the Turkish conquerors; but the 
janizaries, who wore his bones enchased in a 
bracelet^ declared,, by this superstitious amulet, 
their involuntaiy reverence for his valour. The 
instant ruin of his country may redound to the 
hero's glory ; yet, bad he balanced the conse- 
quences of submission and resistance, a patriot 

■^ See the marvels of his Calabrian expeditioiii ia the mnth and 
tenth books of Marinus Barletius, which may be rectified by the tes. 
timony or silence of Muratorl (Annali d'ltalia, tom. xiii, p. 291), 
and his original authors (Joh. Simonetta de Rebus Francisci Sfortix, 
m Muratori, Script. Rerum Ital. tom. xxi, p. 72S, et alios). The 
Albanian cavalry, under the name of StraditOe, sdon became famoug 
in the wars of Italy^(Memoires di Comines, 1. viii, c. 5). 

« Spondanus, from the best evidence and the most rational criti- 
cism, has reduced the giant Scanderbeg to the human size (a. d. 1461 » 
No. 20, 1463, No. % 1465, No. 12, 13, 1467, No. 1), His own let. 
ter to the pope, and the testimony of Phranza (1. iii, c 2S), a refugee 
In the neighbouring isle of Corfu, demonstrate his last distress, 
^ hidi is awkwardly concealed by Maijnus Barletius (1. x). 


perhaps would have declined the unequal con^ chap. 
test, which must depend on the life and genius of ^ ^^'^ 


one man. Scanderbeg might indeed be supported 
by the rational, though fallacious hope, that the 
pope, the king of Naples, and the Venetian re- 
public, would join in the defence of a free and 
christian people, who guarded the sea coast of the ^ 
Adriatic, and the narrow passage from Greece to 
Italy. His infant son was saved from the na- 
tional shipwreck ; the Castriots' were invested 
with a Neapolitan dukedom, and their blood 
continues to flow in the noblest families of the 
realm. A colony of Albanian fugitives obtained * 
a settlement in Calabria, and they preserve at 
this day the language and manners of their an* 

In the long career of the decline and fall of^^'^ 
the Roman empire, I have reached at length the of the Ro. 
last reign of the princes of Constantinople, whocmk m. 
so feebly sustained the name and majesty of tl^^^^Tiis, 
Caesars. On the decease of John Palaeologus, Nov. s- * 
who survived about four years the Hungarian mi^ 29. * 
crusade,* the royal family, by the death of An* 
dronicus, and the monastic profession of Isidore, 
was reduced to three princes, Constantine, De« 
metrius, and Thomas, the surviving sons of the 

' See the family of the Castriota, in Ducange (Fani. Dalmatlde, 
&€. zviii, p. 348-^50). 

* This colony of Albanese Is mentioned by Mr. Swinburne (Tra- 
vels into the two Sicilies* vol. i, p. 350^354). 

* The chronology of Phranza is clear and authentic ; but instead^ 
of four years and seven months, Spondanus (a. d. 1445, No. 7) as- 
signs seven or eight years to the reign of the last Consuntine, which 
he deduces from a spurious epistte of Eugenius iv to the king h{ Ethi- 


CHAP, emperor Manuel. Of these the first and the last 
^^^*^* werefar distant in theMorea;butDemetrius» who 
possessed the domain of Selybria, ivas in the sub- 
urbs, at the head of a party: his ambition Mras not 
diilled hj the public distress ; and his conspiracj 
with the Turks and the schismatics had dlreidy 
disturbed the peace of liis country. The funeral 
of the late emperor was accelerated with sjpgrilar 
and even suspicious haste : the claim of Deme- 
trius to t\ie vacant throne was justified by a trit6 
and flimsy schism, that he was bom in the 
purple, the eldest son of his father's reign. But 
the empress-mother, the senate and soldiers^ the 
clergy and peqde, were unanimous in the. cause 
of the lawful successor ; and the despot Thomas, 
who, ignorant of the change, accidentally re- 
turned to the capital^ asserted with becoming zeal 
the interest of his absent lu'other. An mnbas- 
sador, the hl^orian Phranza, wtm immediately 
dispatched to the court of Adrianppte. Amuratii 
KceiFed him with honour, and dismissed him 
with gifts; but the gracious iqpprobatioa of the 
Turkic sultan announced his supremacy, and 
the i^proachmg downfall of the eastern empire, 
By the hands of two illustrious deputies, the im- 
perial crown was placed at Sparta on the head q£ 
Constantine. In the spring he sailed from the 
Morea, escaped the encounter of a Turkish squa< 
dron, enjoyed the acclamations of bis subjects, 
celebrated the festival of a new reign, and ex- 
hausted by his donatives the treasure, or rathar 
the indigence; of the state. The emperor imme- 
diately resigned to his brothers the possession of 



the Mdrea ; and the brittle friendship of the twd chap. 
jprinces, Demetrius and Thomas^ was confirmed 
in their mother's presence hj the frail security 
of oaths and embraces. His next occupation waa 
the choice of a consort. A daughter of the doge 
of Venice had been proposed ; but the Byzantine 
nobles objected the distance between an heredi-^ 
taij monarch and an elective magistrate ; and in 
their subsequent distress, the chief of that power- 
ful republic was Qot unmindful of the affront; 
Constantine afterwards hesitated between the 
royal families of Trebizond and Greorgia ; and . 
the embassy of Phranza represents in his public 
and private life the last days of the Byzantine 

The prbtovestiare^OT great chamberlain, Phran'< Embattie* 
za, sailed from Constantinople as minister of a^^^5i4So!i 
bridegroom; and the relics of wealth diid luxury i*^«^ 
were applied to his pompous appearance; His 
numerous retinue consisted of nobles and guards^ 
of physicians and monks : he was attended by a 
band of music •, and the term of his costly em- 
bassy was protracted above two years. On his 
arrival in Georgia or Iberia^ the natives from the 
towns atid villages flocked around the strangers ; 
and such was theif simplicity^, that they were de- 
lighted with the effects. Without understanding 
thecause^ of musical harmony. Amotig the crowd 
was an old niian, above an hundred years of age^ 
who had formerly been carried away a captive 

^ Phranza ^. iU, c> 1*.6) deaenres credit and asteem* 


CHAP, by the barbaria&s,'' and who unused his heir&ts 
^ irith a tale of the wonders of lodi^"^ from whence 
Ke bad Detumed to Portugal by an undcnown 
sea.' From this hos{Mtahle land Phransa pro* 
oeeded to the court of Trebizond, where he was 
informed by the Greek prince of the recent de- 
cease of Amuratii. Instead of rejoicing in the 
delbierance, the experienpod statesman expneased 
lib apprehension that an ambitious youth would 
not loiig adhere to the sage and pacific system of 
his father. After the sultan's deceaae, his chris- 
tian wife Maria/ the daughter of the Servian 
despot, had been honourably restored to h^ pa- 
rents : on the fame of her beauty and m&nt, she 
was recommended by the ambassador as the most 
worthy object of the royal choice ; and Phranza 

* Suppose him to have been captured in 1394, in Timour^s first 
war in Georgia (Sherefeddin, 1. iii* c 50): be might follow his Tar* 
tar master lot* Hindostan in 1S98, and from thence sail to the spice 

* Tbe happy and pious Indians lived an hundred and fifty years, 
and enjoyed the most perfect productions of the vegetable and mine- 
Cid kincdoms. The animals were on a large scale ; dragons seventy 
cubkSy aots (the formica Indica) nine inches iQng, sheep like ele. 
phants, elephants like sheep. Quidlibet audendi, &c 

* He sailed io a country vessel from the spice islands to o9e of the 
ports of the exterior India ; inventique navem grandem Jbericam^ 
qui in PortiigtUUam est delatus. This passag'e, composed in 1477 
(Phranza, I. iii« c 3(^ twenty years before the discovery of the Cape 
of 6ood Hope, is spurious or wonderful. But this neW geograplLy 
is sullied by the old and incompatible error, which places the soiurce 
of the Nile in India. 

'Cantemir (p. 93), who styles her the donghiter of Lazame Ogli, 
a^ the Helep of the Servians, places her marriage with Amurath in 
the year 1424. It will not ^asily be believed, that in six-and-twenty 
yean cohabitation, the sultan corpus ejus non tetigit. After the 
taking of CoQftantinopiey she JBed to Mahomet h (Phranza^ 1. iiU 

recapitolates and refutes the •pecioiis ni^^etkmB tUAW. 
that laif^ be raised Agamt the })r<9os«l, Tfae ^^^^ 
majesty of the purple would eni^^e im unequal ********** 
alUanoe; tite bar of affinity mi^t be remoredbf 
libeiad alias acid tfaedtspans^JM of the cfoirch ; 
the xiisgraoe of Turkish Mptiak had heim n- 
peatedly orerioi^iad ; a»d, though the foir JMiuib 
waa near fifty year* of agie* sffae might yet hope to 
^ve an heir to the empine. Comtai^tine Itateped 
to the advice, which was transmitted io the flrat 
ship that sailed from Twbizpnd ; hut the faictioM 
^f tbe coyrt i^iposed hia marriage ; and it was 
finally presented by the pious tow of the sultana^ 
who ended her days in the monastic profeMon; 
Reduced to the first altematisre^ the choice of 
Phranza wf s decided in favour of a Gegrg^ 
priAces8$ and the yanftj of her father was da«^led 
by the glorious alliance. Instead of demt^dingTy 
according to the primitive and national cii«toni, 
a price for his daughter/ he offered a portion of" 
fifty-six thousand, with an annual pension of jSv« 
thousand, duciU;s ; and the s&rvices of the ansdbas^ ^ 
sador w^e repaid by an assurance^ that a$ hia aon 
had been adopted ip baptism by th^ empiemri thei 
establlshmei^t of his daughter should he 0^ ye^ 
culiar care af the empress of Constantinople. On 
the return of Phmnzf^ the treaty w^s ratifiadhy 
the Greek-monarch, who with his 4^wn hand ilOf 
pressed three v^mlHion crosses on the golden 
hull, and ass.\u'ed the Georgian envoy, that in the 

9 The classicftl reader wiU recoUect the o^f^rs of A^am/emnqn (Ili^d^ 
> V, 144), and the genecal practice xtf anticiiiity. 

K 2 


c HAP. spring his gallies should conduct the bride to her 
^^^^'* imperial palace. But Constantine embraced his 
faithful servant, not with the cold approbatioa 
of a sovereign, but with the warm confidence of 
a friend, who, after a long absence, is impatient 
to pour his secrets into the bosom of his friend. 
stateofthe<« Since the death of my mother and of Canta* 
cSau ^ cuzene, who alone advised me without interest 
^ << or passion,^ I am surrounded," said the emperor, 
*< by men whom I can neither love, nor trust, nor 
^ esteem. You are not a stranger to Lucas No- 
^ taras, the great admiral : obstbately attached 
^ to his own sentiments, he declares, both in 
^ private and public, that his sentiments are the 
^ absolute measure of my thoughts and actions. 
** The rest of the courtiers are swayed by their 
*^ personal or factious views ; and how can, I 
^ consult the monks on questions of policy and 
** marriage ? I have yet much employment for 
*^ your diligence and fidelity. In the spring you 
" shall engage one of my brothers to solicit the 
•* succour of the Western powers ; from the 
'' Morea you shall sail to Cyprus on a particular 
" commission ; and from thence proceed to Geor- 
** gia, to receive and conduct the future empress/* 
•* Your commands," replied Phranza, " are ir- 
<• resistible ; but deign, great sir," he added^ 
with a serious smile, ** to consider, that if I am 
«* thus perpetually absent from my family, my 

^ Cantacuzene (I am ignorant of his relation to the emperor of that 
Qffine) was great domestic^ a firm asserter of the Greek creed, and 
a brother of the queen of Serbia), whem he visited with the character 
0f amhasiador (Syropulus, p. 37, 3S, 45)« 


^< wife may be tempted either to seek another chap. 
** husband, or to throw herself into a monastery^** ^^^ 
After laughing at his apprehensions, the emperor 
more gravely consoled him, by the pleasing as- 
surance that this should be his last service abroad^ 
and that he destined for his son a wealthy and, 
noble heiress ; for himself, the important office 
of great logothete, or principal minister of state. 
The marriage was immediately stipulated ; but 
the office, however incompatible with hb own, 
had been usurped by the ambition of the admiral. 
Some d^l^y was requisite to negociate a con- 
sent and an equivalent ; and the nomination of 
Phra,nza was half declared, and half suppressed, 
lest it might be displeasing to an insolent and 
powerful favourite. The winter was spent ii| 
the preparations of his embassy; and Phranza 
had resolved that the youth his son should em- 
brace this opportunity of foreign travel, and be 
left, on the appearance of danger, with his nm- 
temal kindred of the Morea. Such were the 
private and public designs, which were interrupt- 
ed by a Turkish war, and findly buried in th^ 
ruins of the empire. 

K » 



Heign atid character of Mahomet the second, — Siege^ 
assault y and JintU conquest^ of Constantinople bj/ 
the Turks. — Death of Constantine Palaologus. — 
Servitude nf the Greeks, — Extinction of the Roman 
empire in the East. — Consternation of Europe. — 
Conquests (tnd death of Mahbniet the second. 

Lx\an Jl ^* siege of Constantinople by the Turks 
^xxxx^vxxl attf acts our first attention to the person and 
onK^ chafaicter of the great destroyer. Mahomet the 
met II, second* was the son of the second Amurath ; and 
though his mother has been decorated with the 
titles of christito and princes^, she is mqre pro- 
bably confounded with the numerous concubines 
who peopled from every climate the haram of the 
sultan. His first education and sentiments were 
thofee of a devout mussulman •,. and as often as he 
conversed with an infidel, he purified his hands 
aiid face by the legal rites of ablution. Age and 
empire appear to have relaxed thiy narrow bigotry ; 
his aspiring genius disdained to acknowledge a 
power above his own ; and in his looser hours he 

■ For the character of Mahomet ii, it is dangerous to trust either - 
the Turks or the christians. The most moderate picture appears t* 
l>e drawn by Phranza (1. i, c 32), whose resentment had cooled im 
age and solitude: see lilcewlse Spondanus U. d. 1451, No. 11), an< 
the continuator of Fleury (torn, xxii, p. 552, the Elogia of Paulus 
Jovius (I. iii, p. 164-166), and the Dictionaire de Baylc (torn, ijt* 
^ 872-279). 

1 * w«; 


presumed (it is said) to bratid tbe prophet of orap. 
MeceisL ds a robber and impostor. Yet the sultan '^^[^ 
persetered in a decent reverence for the doctrine 
and lUscipIine of the koran ;^ bis private indigo 
cretion must have been sacred from tbe vulgasr 
ear; and we should suspect the credulity of 
strangers and sectaries, so prone to believe that 
a mind which is hardened against truth must be 
armed with superior contempt for absurdity and 
error. Under the tuition of the most skilful 
masters, Mahomet advanced with an early and 
rapid progress in the paths of knowledge ; and 
besides his native tongue, it is affirmed that he 
spoke or understood five languages,'' the Arabic, 
the Persian, tbe Chaldaean or Hebrew, the Latin, 
and the Greek, The Persian might indeed con* 
tribute to his amusement, and the Arabic to his 
edification ; and such studies arc familiar to the 
Oriental youth. In the intercourse of the Greeks 
and Turks, a conqueror might wish to converse 
with the people over whom he was ambitious 
to reign ; his own praises in Latin poetry** or 

^ Cantemir (p. 115). and the mosctis which he founded, attest his 
public regard for religion. Mahomet freely disputed with the patri- 
arch Geonadius on tbe two religions (Spond. a- i>. 145.*^, No. 22). 

'^ Quinque linguas prieter suam noteret ; Qr»cam, Latinam, Chal* 
daicam, Persicam. The Latin translator of Phranza has dropt tbe 
Arabic, which the koran must recommend to evoxy mu£t.ilmar« 

* Phileiphiu, by a Latin ode, requested anct obtained the liberty of 
his wife's mother and 8ister» from the conqueror of Constantinople. 
. It was delivered into the sultan -s hands by the envoys of the Duke of 
Milan. Philelphus himself was suspected of a design of retiring to 
Constantinople i yet the orator often aooaded tbe trumpet of holy 
war (see kis life by M. Launoelot, in tbe Mcmoirea de T Academte des 
Inscriptions, tofii* x, p. 716« 124| &•.) 


%»*»» y »»»»» 


CHAP. prose»* might fiad a passage to the royal ear ; 

-?^_ _ "'' but what use or merit could recommend to the 
statesman or the scholar the uncouth dialect of 
his Hebrew slaves ? The history and geography 
of the world were familiar to his memory: the 
lives of the heroes of the East, perhaps of the 
West/ excited his emulation : his skill in astro- 
logy is excused by the folly of the times, and 
supposes some rudiments of mathematical sci- 
ence ; and a profane taste for the arts is betray* 
ed in his liberal invitation and reward of the 
painters of Italy,^ But the influence of religion 
and leamipg were employed without effect on 
his savage and licentious nature* . I will not 
transcribe, nor do I firmly believe, the stories 
of his fourteen pages, whose bellies were rip- 
ped open in search of a stolen melon ; or of the 
beauteous slave, whose head he severed from 
her body, to convince the janazaries that their 
master was not the votary of love. His sobrie- 
ty is attested by the silence of the Turkish an- 
nals, which accuse three, and three only, of the 

• Robert Valturio publish^ at Verona, in 1483, hU twelve books 
de Re Militari, in which he first mentions the use of bombs. By his 
fiatron Sigismond Malatesti, prince of Rimini, it had been. addressed 
with a Latin epistle to Mahomet ii. 

' According to Phranza, he assiduously studied the lives and actions 
of Alexander, Augustus* Constantine, and Theodosius. I have read 
somewhere, that Plutarch's Lives were translated by his orders into 
the Turkish language. If the sultan himself understood Greek, it 
must have have been for the benefit of his subjects. Yet these livet 
are a school of freedom as well as of valour. 

t The famous Gentile Bellino, whom he had ittvited from Venice, 
WES dismissed with a chain and collar of gold, and a purse of 3000 
ducats. With Voltaire I laugh at the foolish story of a slave puF« 
posely beheadedi to instruct the painter in the action of the muscles. 

^»<^w^^<w«^ , 


Ottoman line of the vice of drunkenness^ But chap. 
it cannot be denied that his passions were at once *^^*' 
furious and inexorable ; that in the paiace» as in 
the field, a torrent of blood was spilt on the 
slightest {MTOvocation ; and that the noblest of 
the captive youtlTwere often dishonoured by his 
unnatural lust. In the Albanian war, he studied 
the lessons, and soon surpassed the example, of 
his father ; and the conquest of two empires, 
twelve kingdoms, and two hundred cities, a vain 
and flatterii^ account, is ascribed to his invinci- 
ble sword. He was doubtless a soldier, and pos- 
sibly a general ; Constantinople has sealed his 
glory ; but if we compare the means, the ob- 
stacles, and.the achievements, Mahomet the se- 
cond must blush to sustain a parallel with Alex- 
ander ov Timour. Under his command, the Ot- 
toman forces were always more numerous than 
their enemies ; yet their progress was bounded by 
the Euphrates and the Adriatic ; and his arms 
were checked by Huniades and Scanderbeg, by 
the Rhodian knights, and by the Persian king. 

In the reign of Amurath, he twice tasted of Hia rdg# 
royalty, and twice descended from the throne ;Feb. ^ 
his tender age was incapable of opposing his fa- j^j^ Jf®^ 
ther's restoration, but never could he forgive the 
vizirs who had recomipen^ed that salutary mea* * 
sure. His nuptials were celebrated with the 
daughter of a Turkman emir ; and after a festival 

^ These imperial dranluffds were SoHman i, Sellm ii, and Amurath 
IT (Cantemir, p. 61). The sophis of Persia can produce a mere regu* 
lar succession ; and in the last age, our European travellers were th« 
fitnesses and cempanions of their reiels. 

I8(f TftK DCeLINft AN0 VAhh 

cUkT. df two months, he departed from Adrianople with 
I.XYIII. y^ j^j j^ ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^y^^ govemmeiit of Miig)fte- 

Ah. Before th^ end of six weekft he w«s rectified 
hy a sudden message from the divan, which an- 
nounced the decease of Amurath, and the muti- 
nous spirit of the jaftizaries. His speed and vi* 
gour commanded their obedience ; he passed the 
Hellespont with a chosen guard ; and at the dis- 
tance of a mile from Adrianople, the vizirs and 
emirs, tiie imams and cadhis, the soldiers and the 
people, fell prostrate before the new sultan. 
They affected to weep, they affected to rejoice ; 
he ascended the throne at the age of twenty- 
one J-ears, and removed the cause of sedition by 
the death, the inevitable death, of his infant 
brothers.' The ambassadors of Europe and Asia 
soon appeared to conglratulate his accession and 
solicit his friendship ; and to all he spoke the 
language of moderatbn and peacfe. The confi- 
dence of the Gi^eek emperor was revived by the 
solemn oaths and fair assurances with which he 
sealed the ratification of the treaty : and a rich 
domain on the banks of the Strymonwas assigned 
for the annual payment of three hundred thou- 
sand aspers, the pension of an Ottoman prince, 
who was detained at his request in the Byzantine 
court. Yet the neighbours of Mahomet might 
tremble at the severity With Wbi^ch a yduthful mo- 
narch reformed the pomp of his father's house- 

> Calapin, one of these royal iDfants, was saved from his cruel bro- 
ther* and baptised at Rome mider the name of Callistus Othamanas, 
The emperor Frederick lu presented him with tga estate in Austria, 
where he ended, his life ; and Cuspinias, who in his youth conversed 
with the aged prince at Vienna, applauds his piety and wisdom (do 
Ccsaribus, p. ^12, 67S> 

0V TH« ftOMAH tMPint. 1*7 

hold : tbe expences of luxury were applied to ^^^J^^ 
those of ambHioD, and a useless train of seyen ^^^ ^ 
thousand falcotiers was either disthissed from his 
service, or enlist-ed ift his troops. In the first sum- 
mer of his reigii, he visited with an army the Asiatic 
provinces; but after humbling the pride, Maho- 
met accepted the submission, of the Caramanian^ 
that he might not be diverted by the smallest ob^ 
stacle froth the execution of his great design.* 

TKe mahometaff, and more especially theH««tiiein- 
Turkish, casuists have pronounced that no pro^ Mahomet, 
mise can bind the faithful against the interest^ *" ^^^' 
and duty rf their religion ; and that the sultan 
may abrogate his own treaties and those of his 
predecessors- The justice and magnanimity of A- 
liiuratb had scwned this immoral privilege ; but 
his son, though the proudest of men, could stoop 
from ambition to the basest arts of dissimulation 
and deceit. Peace was on his lips„while war was 
in his heart ; he incessantly sighed for the posses- 
sion of Constantinople; and the Greeks, by Iheir 
own indiscretion, afforded the first pretence of the 
fatal ruptiMfe.* Instead of labouring to be for- 

* Sbe Cbe 4c(:i^sion of Mahomet ii in Cucaa (c. 33), Fbranza 0* i» 
Ci 33, 1. iii, c. 2), Chaic©condylfes (1. vil, p. 199), dnd Cantemir 
p. 9<^. 

* Before I enter on the siege of Constantinople I shall observe, that 
except the short bints of Cantemir and Leundavius, I have not been 
able to obtain anj Turkish account of this conquest ; such an account 
as we possess of the siege of lihedes by Soiiman ii (Memuireii de 
r Academic dea Inscriptions, torn, xxvi, p. 723*769). I must, tliere- 
fore, depend on the Greeks* whose prejudices. In spme degree, are 
subdued by ttieir distrass. Our standard texts are those of Diicat 
(p 34-42), nmuOL ih ui, c 7-20), Chalcocondyles (1. viii, p» 201- 

. 21*). 


CH A P. gotten, their ambassadors pursued hiscamp, to de«- 
_ ^^^^^' mand the payment, and even the increase, of their 
annual stipend: thedivan was importuned by their 
complaints, and the vizir, a secret friend of the 
christians, was constrained to deliver the sense of 
his brethren. •* Ye foolish and miserable Ro- 
•* mans," said Calil, " we know your devices, and 
'^ ye are ignorant of your own danger ! the scru* 
<< pulous Amurath is no more ; his throne is oe* 
** cupied by a young conqueror, whom no laws 
** can bind, and no obstacles can resist ; and if 
*^ you escape from his hands, give praise to the 
** divine clemency, which yet delays the chastise- 
•* ment of your sins. Why do ye seek to affright 
^ us by vain and indirect menaces ? Release the 
'^ fugitive Orchan, crown him sultan of Romania; 
^. call the Hungarians from beyond the Danube ; 
^ arm against us the nations of the West ; and 
'^ be assured that you will cmly provoke and pre- 
^ cipitate your ruin." But if the fears of th^ 
ambassadors were alarmed by the stem lasiguage 
of the vizir, they were soothed by the courteous 
audience and friendly speeches o( the Ottoman 

9X4), and Leonardus Chieasis (Historia C. P. a Tukco expugnat«. 
Kdrimberghs, 1544^ in quarto, twenty leaves^ The last of these 
narratives is the earliest in date, sinee it was composed in the isle of 
Chios, the 16th of August 1453, only seventy«nlne days aft^ the loss 
at the city, and in the flrst confusion of ideas and passions. Some hints 
may be added from an epistle of cardinal Isidore (in Farragine Remm 
Turcicarum, ad calcem Chalcocondyl. Clauseri, BasH, 1556) to pope 
37icholas v, and a tract of Theodosius Zygomala, which he addressed 
in the year 1581 to Martin Crnsius (Turco Grascia, I. i, p. 74-98. 
Basil, 1584). The various facts and materials are briefly, though cri- 
tically, reviewed by Spondanus (a. d. 1453, No. 1-27). The hearsay 
Telationa of Monstrelet and the distant Latin^^ I diatt take leave t* 


piitice ; and Malio^^t assured them that, oa his o r ap. 
return to Adrianople, he would redress the grieve _^_'_^ 
ancesy and consult the true interest, <^£<he Greeks. 
No. sooner had he repassed the Hellespont, than 
he issued a mandate to suppress their pension, 
and to expel their officers from the banks of the 
Stryntcm: in this measure he betrayed an hostile 
mind ; and the second order announced, and in 
some degree commenced, the siege of Constanw 
tinople. In the narrow pass of the Bosphorus, an 
Asiatic fortress had formerly been raised by his 
grandfather: in the opposite situation, on the Eu'^ 
ropean side, he resolved to erect amoref6rmidable 
castle; and a thousand masons were commanded 
to assemble in the q>ring oa a spot named Asoma^ 
ton, about five miles from the Gredc metroprfts * 
Persuasion is the resource of the feeble; and the 
feeUe can seldom p^suade : the ambassadors of 
the emperor attempted, without success, to divert 
Mahomet from the execution of his design. They 
represented that his grandfather had solicited the 
permission of Manuel to build a castle on his j&wn 
territories; but that this doublefortifieation, which 
would command the strait, could only tend «to 
violate the alliance of the nations ; to int^oept 
the Latins who traded in the Black sea, andper^ 
haps to annihilate the subsistence of the city. *' I 
" form no enterprise," replied the perfidious sul- 

^ The situation of the fortress, and the topography of the Bosphorus, 
are hest learned from Peter Gyllius (de Bosphoro Thracio, 1. ii, c 13), 
Leundavius (Pandect, p. 445), and Tournefort (Voyage dans le Le« 
vant, torn, ii, lettre xv, p. 443, 444) ; but I must regret the map, or 
plan, which ToumefcNrt sent to the French minister of the marine 
'^he reader may turn hfck to voL iii, c}w 17> of this history. 


180 OP run rovan iiiPiEt« 

CHAP, tan, ^' dgainst the city; but, tJie empire of Con- 
* M stantinople is measured by her wails. Have 
<< you forgd^the distress to which my fatfaior was 
^ reduced, when you formed a league with the 
<^ Hungarian ; when they invaded our coontry 
** by land, and the Hellespont was occupied by 
«< the French gallics ? Amurath was oo«f)eUed 
^< to force the passage of the Boqphoms ; and 
** your strength was not. equal to your male^ro- 
^* lence. I was then a child at Adrianople ; the 
** Moslems trembled ; and, for a while, the go- 
-'< bour^ insulted our disgrace. But when my 
^^ father had trium{rfied in the field of Wama, he 
^^ vowed to erect afc»rt on the western shore, and 
^' that vow it is my duty to accomplish. Have 
** ye the right, have ye the power, to controul 
^ my actions on my own ground ? F<Hr that 
f < ground is my own : as far as the shorn of the 
^* Bosphorus, Asia is inhabited by the Turks,, and 
** Europe is deserted by the Romans, fietun, 
f* and infoim your king, that the pnssent Otto* 
^< man is far diffenent from his predecessors ; that 
*< kds resolutions surpass tksir wishes ; and that 
f* he performs more than thej/ could resolve. &e^ 
^^ turn in safety-^fout the next who delivers a 
(f similar message may expect to be tbevyed afive.'' 
After this declaration, Constantine, the first of 

■ The opprobriou8 name which the Turks bestow on the infidels Is 
expressed Kafiw^ If Ducas, and giaour by Leunclavius and tb« mo- 
derns. The former term is derived by Dueange (Gloss. Graec. torn, i, 
p. 530) from Kmfitv^n^ in vulgar Greek, a tortoise, as denoting a re« 
trograde motion from the faith. But, alas ! gabomr is no more than 
gkeker, which was transferred from the Persian to the Turidsh lan^ 
guage, from the worshippers of fire to those of the crucifix fd'Her* 
iKlot, BibUot. Orient, p. 375), f 

OF T89 AOMAV nUFlMB. 191 

tbe tSf/^ekn m ^pjrit fia in raak/ had detenni^ed chap. 
t^o imsbaal;h tbe ^wQrdy 9fid to resist, the approich ''^^"'^ 
w4 estoUisfameftft of the Tmrks m tbe Bospho* 
rus, Hje W9s dmrm^ by the advice of his dvil 
and eoele&kstical mipistersi» who recomtnended a 
system less generoiis, and eren less prudent, than 
his owii» to fvpprove their patience asd longwM^ 
ferii^, tolHWidtheOttmiimwiththeMmeaAd 
guHt of ail aggressor, and to depend on chance 
and ti»e fox their oirn safety, and th^ desbmc- 
tioa x^ a fort, which could not long be main- 
tained in the neig^ihonrhood of a great and pt^ 
puk>ns city. Amidst hope and fiear, the fears of 
tbe wise and tlie hopes of the creduloiM, the 
winter rolled away ; the {nroper buainess of each 
man, and. each hour, was pootponed ; and the 
Greeks shut their eyes against the impendu^ 
danger, tUl the arriral of the qnring,f and the 
sultan decided the assurance of their ruin. 

Of a niaster who never forgives, the onders »ft He buiw* 
seldom disobeyed. On the twenty-sixth of Marich,onuir" 
the ai^inted spot of Asomaton was covered with]J^P^^^* 
an active swarm of Turkish artifiqie^; and the March, 
materials by sea and land were diligently trans- 
ported from BuDope and Asia/ The tioae had 

^ Pht^nza does justice to his master^s sense and courage. Callidi* 
tatem hominis non ignoras imperator prior arma movere constituit, 
«nd stjginatlses the folly of the cum s^cri turn profani prooeves* nthlcb 
he had heard* omentes spe vana pasci. Ducus waa not a priv^- 
counsellor. , 

' Instead of this clear and consistent account, the Turkish AnnaU 
(Cantemir, p. 97) revived the foolish tale of the ox's hide, and Did6*s 
Stratagem ki ihio foundation of Catthage. Thtae awuds (unless we 
^re awayed by an avtiehriatisn pvejiidioa) ai^ far lea viduaUe thjin 
the 6x«tk faiatBciaai. 

]Sf3 f HIS DIfiCLIKlB ANtf tktt 

CHAP, been burnt in Cataphrygia ; the timber was tut 
LXVHi. ^^^^ jjj |.jj^ woodg of Hertu^lea and Nicomedia f 
^ and the stones were dug from the Anatolian 
quarries. Each of the thousand masons was 
assistal by two workmen; and si measure of 
two cubits was marked for their dlulj task. The 
fortress*^ was built in a triangular form ; each 
angle was flanked by a strong and massy tower ; 
one on the declivity of the hill, two along the 
sea-shore ; a thickness of twenty«two feet was 
assigned for the walls^ thirty for the towers; 
and the Whole building was covered with a solid 
platform of lead. Mahomet himself pressed and 
directed the work with indefatigable ardour: 
his three vizirs claimed the honour of finishing 
their respective towers ; the zeal of the cadhis 
emulated that of the janizaries ; the meanest 
labour was ennobled by the service of God and 
the sultan ; and the diligence of the multitude 
was quickened by the eye of a despot, whose 
smile was the hope of fortune, and whose frown 
was 'the messenger of deatii. The Greek em- 
peror beheld, with terror, the irresistible pro- 
gress of the work ; and vainly strove, by flat- 
tery and gifts, to assuage sn implacable foe, 
who sought, and secretly fomented, the slightest 
occasion of a quarrel. Such occasions must soon 
and inevitably be foupd. The ruins of stately 
churches, and even the marble columns which had 
been consecrated to St. Michael the archangel^ 

« In the dimenaioiis of this fortress, the old castle of Europe, 
PhraiuM does not exactly agree with duOooGondylesy whose descrip- 
tion hss been verified on the spot by his editor Leuo^yius. 

6P a<irB ROMAN EMPIRE. 193 

were empldyed without scrupte by the profiiiie cbai*. 
and rapacious Moslems ; and sonie chri^ians, ^^^Z!!l 
who presumed t6 oppose the removal, recdved. 
from their h^nds the crown of martyrddra. Con- 
stantine had solicited a Turkish guard to protect 
the fields and harvests of his subjects : the guard 
was fixed ; but their first order was to allow free 
pasture to the mules and horses of the camp, 
and to defend their brethren if they should be 
molested by the natives. The retinue of an Otto- 
nian chief had left their horses to pass the night 
among the ripe corn ; the damage was felt ; the 
insult was resented ; and several of both nations 
were slain in a- tumultuous conflict. Mahomet 
listened with joy to the complaint ; and a detach- "* 

n^ent was commanded to exterminate the guilty 
village : the guilty had fled ; but forty innocent 
and unsuspecting reapers were massacred by the 
soldiers. Till this provocation, Constantinople The Turk- 
had been open to the visits of commerce and cu-jun^'" 
riosity : on the first alarm, the gates were shut ; 
but the emperor, still anxious for peace, released 
on the third day his Turkish captives f and ex- 
pressed, in a last message, the firm resignation 
of a christian and a soldier. " Since neither 
« oaths, nor treaty, nor submission, cah secure 
" peace, pursue," said he to Mahomet, " your 
" impious warfare. My trust is in God aldne : ' 

" if it should please him to mollify your heart, I 
" shall rejoice in the happy change ; if he delivers 

' Among these were some pages of Mahomet, so conscious of his in- 
^txorable rigour, that they begged to lose their heads in the city uniciRI 
they could return before sunset. 



CHAP. ** the city into your hands, I submit without a 

^^^^'^ « murmur to his holy will. But until the Judge 

.^axvT^uu** ^^ ^^ ^j^^ earth shall pronounce between us, it is 

" my duty to live and die in the defence of my 

" people.'* The sultan's answer was hostile and 

decisive : his fortifications were completed ; and 

S«i»t. 1 ; before his departure for Adrianople, he stationed 

a vigilant Aga and four hundred janizaries to 

levy a tribute of the ships of every nation that 

should pass within the reach of their cannon. A 

Venetian vessel, refusing obedience to the new 

lords of the Bosphorus, was sunk with a single 

bullet. The master and thirty sailors escaped in 

the boat ; but they were dragged in chains to the 

porte: the chief was impaled; his companions 

were beheaded ; and the historian Ducas* beheld, 

at Demotica,. their bodies exposed to the wild 

beasts. The siege of Constantinople was deferred 

till the ensuing spring ; but an Ottoman army 

marched into the Morea to divert the force of the 

A. D. 1453, brothers of Constantine. At this era of calami- 

Jan. 17. ty^ one of these princes, the despot Thomas, was 

blessed or afflicted with the birtb of a son ; ** the 

" last heir," says the plaintive Phranza, ^ of the 

^' last spark of the Roman empire."* 

frepara- The Grccks and the Turks passed an anxious 

twos; for a jj J sleepless winter : the former were kept awake 

the siege of * • i i i i 

Constanti- by their fears, the latter by their hopes ; both by 


/• Ducas, c. 35. Phranza (1. iii, c. 3), who had sailed in his vessel, 
commemorates the Venetian pilot as a martyr. 

* Auctum est Palaeologorum genus, et imperii successor, parvseque 
Romanorum scintillas haeres natus, Andreas, &c. (Phranza, I. iii, c, 
T). The strong expression was inspired by his feelings. 


the preparations of defence and attack ; and the chap« 
two emperors, who had the most to lose or to ^^^'"• 
gain» were the most deeply affected by the nation- a. d. 1459, 
al sentiment. In Mahomet, that sentiment waaf^l^^ 
inflamed by the ardour of his youth and temper ;Ai»^ 
he amused his leisure with building at Adriano* 
pie*" the lofty palace of Jehan Numa (the watch- 
tower of the world) ; but his serious thoughts 
were irrevocably bent on the conquest of the city 
of Caesar, At the dead of night, i^bout the second 
watch, he started from his bed, and commanded 
the instant attendance of his prime vizir. The 
message, the hour^ the prince, and his own situa- 
tion, alarmed the guilty conscience of Calil Basha; 
who had possessed the confidence, and advised 
the restoration, of Amurath. On tbe* accession 
of the son, the vizir wa? confirmed in his office 
and the appearances of favour ; but the veteran 
statesman was not insensible that he trode on a 
thin and slippery ice, which might break under 
his footsteps, and plunge him in the abyss. His 
friendship for the christians, which might be in- 
nocent under the late reign, had stigmatised him 
with the name of Gabour Ort^chi, oj- foster- 
brother of the infidels ;* and his avarice enter- 
tained a venal and treasonable correspondence, 
which was detected ^pd punished lafter the com 

** Cantemir, p. 97, 98. The sultan was either doubtful of his con- 
quest, or ignorant of the superior merits of Constantinople. A dty er 
a kiBgdom may sometimes be ruined by the imperial fortune of thels 

' Xi»»r^«f, by the 'president Cousin, is translated perc nourriciet, 
most correetly indeed from the Latin version ; but in his haste, h« 
has overloolied the note by which Ismael Boillaud (ad Ducam, p. 3^ 
acknowledges and rectifies his own error. 

o « 



CHAP, elusion of the war. On receiving the royal man* 
date, he embraced, perhaps for the last time, his 
wife and children; filled acup with pieces of gold, 
hastened to the palace, adored the sultan, and 
offered, according to the Oriental custom, the 
slight tribute of his duty and gratitude/ *^ It is 
^ not my wish," said Mahomet, *• to resume my 
'< gifts, but rather to hea|> and multiply them on 
^ thy head. In my turn I ask a present far more 
^ valuable and important ; — Constantinople." 
As soon as the vizir had recovered from his sur- 
prise, « the same God,** said he, " who has al-. 
*^ ready givto thee so large a portion of the Ro- 
<^ man empire, will not deny the remnant, and 
** the capital. His providence, and thy power, 
'< assure thy success ; and myself, with the rest 
•' of thy faithful slaves, will sacrifibe our lives 
•* and fortunes." " Lala,"* (or perceptor), con- 
tinued the sultan, ** do you see this pillow ? all 
** the night, in my agitation, I have pulled it on 
*^ one side and on the other ; I have risen ff om my 
^ bed, again have I lain down ; yet sleep has 
** not visited these weary eyes. Beware of the 
** gold and silver of the Romans : in arms we 

' The Oriental custom of never appearing without gifts before a so- 
vereign or a superior is of high antiquity, and seems analogous with 
the idea of sacrifice, still more ancient and universal. See the exam- 
ples of such Persian gifts, iElian, Hist. Var. L i, c. 31, 32, 33. 

• The LolM of the Turks (Cantemir, p* 34), and the Tata of the 
Greeks (Ducas, c. 35), are derived from the natural language of chil- 
dren ; and it may be observed, that all such jprimltive words which de- 
note their parents, are the simple repetition of one syllable, composed 
of a labial or dental consonant and an open vowel (des Brosses, Me- 
chanisme des Laogues, torn, i, p. 231«>247>. 


<^ af-e superior ; and with tbue aid'c^ jGrod, and chap. 
*^ th<e prayers of the prophet^ we dall speedily *Z^^^ 
*^ bepope masters of Cop^antinople." To sbund 
tbe disposition of his sddiers> he o|teu wandiered 
through the streets ^one^ ^d in disguise ; ^nd it 
was fatal to discover the suJt^A, wh,en he wished 
to esc^ipe fropi the vulgar ey^e. His }ia^s w/ere 
£|)ent \ji delineating the plan of the hostile city ; 
in debating wit^ his generals and epgiijeers on 
what spot he should e^ect his batteries ; on which 
side he should assault the walls ; wher^e l^ should 
spring hi$ mines ; to wh?^ place he sjiould apply 
his scaling-ladders : and the exercises <^ the d^y 
repeated and proved the lucubratipnsof the njght. 

Aipqng the implements of destruction, h^ stu- The great 
died with peculiar care the recenjt and tremen- suhraiet, 
dous discayery of the Latins ; and his artillery 
surpassed whatever hadyet appeared in the world. 
A founder of cannon, a Dane or Hungarian, who 
had been almost starved in the Greek service, dcr 
serted to the Moslems, and was liberally enter 
tained by tbeTuiikish sultan. M^d^oimet wassatis- 
fied with the answer to hi3 first question, which 
he eagerly pressed on the artist. ^* Am I able to 
^' cast a cannon capable of throwing a ball or 
f* stone of sufficient size to batter the walls of 
« Constantinople ?'* " I am not ignorant of their 
" strength; but we;re they more solid than those 
^' d* Babylon, I could oppose an engine of su- 
" perior power : the position and management of 
** that engine must be left to your engineers." 
On this assurance, a foundery was established at 
Adrianople : the metal was prepared; and at the 

o 3 

i98 ThE DECLll^E ANb t?ALft 

CHAP, end of three months, Urban produced a pie<ie of 
}^_ brass ordnance of stupendous, and ahnost in- 
credible, magnitude : a measure of twelve palm^ 
is assigned to the bore ; and the stone bullet 
Weighed above six hundred pounds.*^ A vacant 
place before the new palace was thosen forthe first 
experiment ; but to prevent the sudden and mis- 
chievous effects of astonishment and fear, a pro- 
blamation was issued, that the cannon would be 
discharged the ensuing day. The explosion was 
felt or heard in a circuit of An hundt*ed fui^longs | 
the ball, by the force of gunpowder, was driven 
libove a mile; and on the spot where it fell, it 
buried itself a fathom deep in the ground. For 
the conveyance of this destructive engine, a frame 
x>T carriage bf thirty waggons was linked together, 
and drawn along by a team of Sixty oxen : two 
hundred men on both sides were stationed to 
^oise or support the rolling weight ; two hundred 
Jand fifty workmen marched before to smooth 
the wdy and repair the bridges ; and near two 
tnonths virere employed in a laborious journey of 
one hundred and fifty miles. A lively philo- 
sopher^ derides on this occasion the credulity 
bf the Greeks, and observes, with much reasoii, 

* The Attic talent weighed about sixty minft, or avoirdupois pounds 
(see Hooper on|^ Ancient Weights, Measures, &c.) ; but among the 

' modern Greeks, that clisisslc Appellation was extended to a weight of 
bne hundred, or one hundred and twenty-five pounds (Ducange r«" 
kafTtf), Leonardus Chiensls measured the ball or stone of the second 
cannon : Lapidem, qui palmis undecim ex meis ambibat in gyro. 

* Sec Voltaire (Hist Generate, c. xci, p. 294, 295). He was am- 
bitious of universal monarchy ; and the poet frequently aspires to 
the name and style of an astronomer, a chemist, &c. 


that we should always distrust the exagerations chap. 
of a vanquished people. ' He calculates, that a^^^ |^^^ 
ball, even of two hundred pounds, would require 
a charge of one hundred and fifty pounds of pow** 
der ; and that the stroke would be feeble akid im- 
potent, since not a fifteenth part of the Inass cduld 
be inflamed at the same moment. A strmger 
as I am to the art of destruction^ I can discern 
that the modem improvements of artillery prefer 
the number of pieces to the weight of metal ; 
the quickness of the fire to the sound, or even 
the consequence, of a single explosion. Yet I 
dare not reject the positive and unanimous evi- 
dence of contemporary writers ; nor can it seem 
improbable, that the first artists, in their rude 
and ambitious efforts, should have transgressed 
the standard of moderation. A Turkish cannon, 
morecnormousthan thatoY Mahomet, still guards 
the entrance of the Dardanelles ; and if the use 
be inconvenient, it has been found on a late trial 
that the effect was far from contemptible. A 
stone bullet of eleven hundred pounds weight 'was 
once discharged with three hundred and thirty 
pounds of powder ; at the distance of six hundred 
yards, .it shivered into three rocky fragments, 
traversed the strait, and leaving the waters ib , 
a foam, again rose and bounded ag^nst the op- 
posite hill.*' .^ 

* The Baron de Tott (torn, iii, p. 85^^89), who fortified the Dordai- 
neUea against the Rusiians, describes in a lively, and even eomic, 
strain' his own prowess, and the consternation of the Turks. But 
that adventurous traveller does not possess the art of g/Boniug our cetT» 

o 4i . 


CHAF. While Mahomet threatened the cajAt^I of the 
^_^^^ East, the Greek emperor imploi^ with fervent 
Mabomet pmyers the assistance of earth an^ beayen. But 
tU^iii^ofthe invisible po^^ers were deaf to 14s supplica- 
^T^**" tigns; and Christendom beheld witfc indifference 
A.».i443, the fall of Constantinqple, while she derived at 
least aome promise of supply from the jeaJioysf and 
temporal policy of the sultan of Egypt. Some 
states were too weajs, and others too remote ; by 
some the danger wajs considered as in^agixugry , by 
others as inevitable : the Western princes were 
involved in their endless and domestic quarrels ; 
and the Roman pontiff was exasperated by the 
falsehood or obstinacy of the Greeks. Instead of 
employing in their favour the arms and treasures 
of Italy, Nicholas the fifth had foretold their ap- 
proaching ruin ; and his honour was engaged in 
the accomplishment of his prophecy. Perhaps he 
was softened by the last extremity of their dis- 
tress ; but his compassion was tardy ; his efforts 
were faint and unavailing ; and Constantinople 
had fallen, before the squadrons of Genoa and Ve- 
nice could sail from their harbours.^ Even the 
princes of the Morea and of the Greek brands 
afiiected a cold neutrality ; the Genoese colony of 
Galatianegociatedaprivate treaty; andthe sultan 
indulged them in the delusive hope, that by his 
clemency they might survive the ruin of the em- 

* Non audiTit, indignum duQens, says the honest Antoninus ; but 
BS the Roman court was afterwards grieved and ashamed, we find the 
more oourtly expression of Platina, in animo fulspe pontifici juvare 
Graecos, and the positive assertion of .fineas Sjlvius, stmctam clae-' 
scm, &c. (Spond. i. o. 1453, No. 3). 

09 THE ROM^V 9MPIR1. 201 

{ure. A plebeian crowds and some Bjzantiae chap. 
iioblesj basely withdrew from the daofioer of their ^^^*"" 
country ; .and the avarice of the rich denied the 
eiuporor, and reserved Cor the Turks, the secret 
tre^ures which might ha^e raised in their defence 
jK^Jiole armies of mercenaiues.^ Tl^e iiidigent and 
solitarjprinoe prejrjred hov/ev^er to sustainhisfor- 
n^idable a4versary ; but if Lis courage were equal 
to the peril, his strength was inadiequiite to the 
contest. In the beginning of the spring, the 
Turkish vanguard swept the towns and villages 
as fai* as the gaties (^i Constantinople : subnussion 
was spaced and protected ; whatever presumed te 
resist was extermins^t^d with fire and sword. The 
Greek places on the Bl^^ck sea, Mesembria, 
Acheloum, and Bizon, sjurrendered on the first 
summons ; Selvbria alone deserved the honours 
of a siege or bjLockade ; an4 the jbold iahabitantSy 
white they were inyeste/d by land, launchied their 
boats^ pillagpd tbe opposjbte coitst of Cyz^us, and 
sold tjbeir captives in the public market. But 
on tl^ nfiproach 9>^ M^o<n^ himself all was ^- 
lent aad prostrate: he first halted at tlie distance > 
of five miles; and fjrom thcQce advancing ii| 
battle array, planted before the gate of St. Ro- 
maniis the imperial standard ; and, on the sixth 

« Antonii^. in IVoein.— Epist. Cardinal. Isidor. apud Spondanum ; 

and Dr. Johnson, in the tragedy of Irene, has happily geized this 

characteristic circumstance. 

The groaning Greeks dig up the golden caverns. 
The accumulated wealth of hoarding ages ; 
.That wealth which, granted to their weeping prjnce^ 
Ha4 jrangM emhattled nations at their gpttes. 


CHAP, day of April, formed the memorable siege of 

^^I!l'' Constantinople. 

FwiTs of" The troops of Asia and Europe extended on the 

the Turks ;j^^j^^ and left from the Propontis to the harbour : 
the janizaries in the front were stationed before 
the sultan's tent ; the Ottoman line was covered 
by a deep 'entrenchment; and a subordinate army 
inclosed the suburb of Galata, and watched the 
doubtful faith of the Genoese. The inquisitive 
' Philelphus, who resided in Greece about thirty 
years' before the siege, is confident, that all the 
Turkish forces, of any name or value, could nol 
exceed the number of «ixty thousand horse and 
twenty thousand foot ; and he upbraids the pusil- 
lanimity of the nations, who had tamely yielded 
to a handful of barbarians. Such indeed might 
be the regular establishment of the capiculi/ the 
troops of the porte, who marched with the prince, 
and were paid from his royal treasury. But the 
bashaws, in their respective governments, main- 
tained or levied a provincial militia ; many lands 
were held by a military tenure ; many volunteers 
were attracted by the hope of spoil ; and the 
sound of the holy trumpet invited a swarm of 
hungry and fearless fanatics, who might contri- 
bute at least to multiply the terrors, and in a first 
attack to blunt the swords, of the christians. The 
whole mass of the Turkish powers is magnified by 

' The palatine troops are styled Capiculi, the provincials, SenUeuU; 
and most of the names and institutions of the Turkish militia existed 
before the Canon Namtk of Soliman ir, from which and his own ex- 
perience, count Marsigli has compqsed his militai^ state of the Otr«« 
man empire* 

^y tH* ROMAN EMPlAft. J2d5 

i)ucas, Chalcocondyles, and Leonard of Chios, to chap. 
the amount of three or four hundred thoustod ^^"'- 
men ; but Phraiiza was a less remote and more 
accurate judge ; and his precise definition of two 
hundred and fifty^ight thousand does not ex- 
ceed the measure of experience and probability.* 
The navy of the besiegers was less formidable \ 
the Propontis wa^ overspread with three hundred 
and twenty sail; but of these no more than 
eighteen could be rated as gallies of war ; and 
the far greater part must be degraded to the con- 
dition of storeships and transports, which poured 
into the camp fresh supplies of tnenj ammunition, 
and pr6visions. In her last decay* Constantinople of ^« 
was still pe)»pled with more than an hundred 
thousandinhabitanti$>; butthesenumbersarefound 
in the accounts, not of war, but of captivity ; 
and they mostly consisted of mechanics, of priests, 
of women, and of men devoid of that spirit which 
even w^omeh have sometimes exerted for the com- 
mon safety^ I can suppose, I could almost excuse,, 
the reluctance of subjects to serve on a distant 
frontier, at the will of a tyrant ; but the man 
who dares not expose his life in the defence of his 
children and his property has lost in society tlie 
first and knost active energies of nature. By the 
emperor's command, a particular inquiry had 
been made through the streets and houses, how 

K The observation of Pfailelphus is stppcoved by Cuspinian in the 
year 1608 (de Caesaribus, in JEpilog. de Militia Turcict, p. 697). Mar- 
si^li proves that the effective armies of the Turks are much less 
numerous than they appear. In the army that besieged Constan- 
tinople, Leonardus Chiensis reckons no more than IStOOO |tniZBriek* 


CHAP, many of the citizens, or even of the mcmks, 
Lxviii. ^^ ^y^ ^^^ willinff to bear arms for their 
country. The lists were intrusted to Phranza ;* 
and, after a diligent addiMon, he informed his 
master, with grief and surprise, that the national 
defence was reduced to four thousand nine hun- 
dred and seventy Bomms. Between Constantine 
and his faithful nuQi3ter, this comfortless secret 
was preserved; and a sirfSicient proportion of 
shields, cross-bows, and miisl^ets, was distributed 
from the arsenal to thp city bands. They deriv- 
ed some accession from a body of two thousand 
strangers, under the command of John Jusjtinia- 
ni, a noble Genoese : a Uberii) donative w^ ad- 
vanced to these auxiliaries ; and a pripcely re- 
compence, the isle of LeiQlnQS, was promised ta 
the valour and i^ictory of their ^chief. A strong 
chain was drawn across U;ie mouth of the har- 
bour : it was supported by some Greek and Ita- 
lian vessfels of war and o^rchapdise ; and the 
ships of every christian itatioBi that ^u/ccessivelj 
arrived from Candia and the Black sea^ were de- 
tained for the public service. Against the powers 
of the Ottoman emph*e, a city (rf the extent of 
thirteen, perhaps of sixteen, miles was defended 
by a scanty garrison of seven or eight thQusand 
soldiers. Europe and Asia were o^en to the be- 
siegers ; but |;he strength and provisions of the 

^ Ego, eidem <Imp*) tabellas extrlbui non absque dolore et moesti- 
tiA) mansitque apud nos duos aliis occultus Dunierus (Phranza, 1. Hi, 
. c. 8> .With some indulgence for national prejudices, we cannot de- 
sire a more authentic witness, not onl^r of public facts^ but of private 


Greeks iriust sustain a daHy decrease ; nor conld chap. 
they indulge the expectation of any foreign stic- ^ ^^ 
cour or supply. 

The primitive Romans would have drawn their False union 
swords in the resolution of death or conquest. churdM»r 
The primitive christians niight have embraced JjJ^^^^ 
each other, and awaited in patience and charity 
the stroke of martyrdom; but the Greeks of 
Constantinople were animated only by the spirit 
of religion, and that spirit was productive only 
of animosity and discord.. Before his death, the 
emperor John Palaeologus had renounced the un- 
popular measure of an union with the Latins ; 
nor was the idea revived, till the distress of his 
brother Constantine imposed a last trial of flat- 
tery and dissimulation.^ With the demand of 
temporal aid, iiis ambassadors were instructed ta 
mingle the assurance of spiritual obedience : his 
neglect of the church was excused by the urgent 
cares of the state ; and his orthodox wishes soli- 
cited the presence of a -Roman legate. The Va- 
tfcan had been too often deluded ; yet the signs of 
repefitance could not decently be overlooked ; a 
legate was more easily granted than an army ; 
and about six months before the final destruction, 
the cardinal Isidore of Russia appeared in that 
character with a retinue of priests and soldiers. 
The emperor saluted him as a friend and father; 
respectfully listened to his public and private ser- 

* In Spondanus, the narrative of the union is not onl^ partial, but 
imperfect. The bishop of Palmiers died in 164«, and the history of 
Ducas, which represents these scenes (c. 38, 37) with such truth aoA 
spirit, was qot printed till the year 1649. 


CHAP. iM&s; and with the mostobsequious of the clergy 
* and laymen subscribed the act of union, as it had 
been ratified in the council of Florence. * On the 
twelfth of December, the two nations, in the 
church of St. Sophia, joined in the communion 
of sacrifice and prayer ; and the names of the 
two pontiffs were solemnly commemorated ; the 
names of Nicholas the fifth, the vicar of Christ, 
and of the patriarch Gregory, who had beea 
driven into exile by a rebellious people. 
CHntinacy But the drcss and lan^ac^e of the Latin priest 

and fanati- , ^ . , , i^ i . ^ 

•ism of the who officiated at the altar were an object of 
^"^^ scandal ; and it was observed with horror, that 
he consecrated a cafce or' wafer of iinleavened 
bread, and poured cold water into the cup of the 
sacrament. A national historian acknowledges 
with a blush, that none of his countrymen, not 
the emperor himself, were sincere in this occa^ 
sional conformity.* Their hasty and uncondi- 
tional submission was palliated by a promise of; 
future revisal ; but the best, or the worst, of 
their excuses was the confession of their own per- 
jury. When they were pressed by the reproaches 
of their honest brethren, " Have patience," they 
whispered, ^^ have patience till God shall have 
*^ delivered the city from the great dragon who 
" seeks to devour us. You shall then perceive 
** whether we are truly reconciled with the Azy-r 
'^ mites." But patience is not the attribute of 

' Fhranza, one of the conforming Greeks, acknowledges that tke 
measure was adopted only propter spem auxilii : he affirms with 
pleasure, that those who refused to perform their devotions in St. 
Sophia^ extra culpam et in pace essent (1. iii, c. 20).. 


•z^al; nor can the arts of a court be adapted to chaf« 
the freedom and violence of popular enthusiasn. ^^^"'- 
From the dome of St. Sophia the inhabitants y£ 
either sex, and of every degree, rushed in crowls 
to the cell of the monk Gennadius,^ to consUt 
the oracle of the church. The holy man ws 
invisible ; entranced, as it should seem, in deo 
meditation or divine rapture: but he had exposd 
on the door of his cell a speaking tablet ; ad 
they successively withdrew, after reading thee 
tremendous words : <' O miserable Romans, w^ 
*^ will ye abandon the truth ; and why, insted 
** of confiding in God, will ye put your trust i 
** the Italians ? In losing your faith, you w| 
^^ lose your city. Have mercy on me, O I^ord 
" I protest in thy presence, that I am innocec 
" of the crime. O miserable Romans, conside. 
" pause^ and repent, At the same moment the 
^^ you renounce the religion of your fathers, b 
*^ embracing impiety, you submit to a foreig. 
" servitude," According to the advice of Gei 
liadius, the religious virgins, as pure as angel 
and as proud as daemons, rejected the act of umoi 
and abjured all communion with the present an 
future associates of the Latins; and their exampi 
was applauded and imitated by the greatest pa^ 

' His primitive and secular name was George Scholarius, which e 
changed for that of Gennadius, either when he became a monk OA 
patriarch. His defence, at Florence, of the same union which he» 
furiously attaclced at Constantinople, has tempted Leo Allatius (B- 
trib. de Georgiis, in Fabric. Bibliot Graec- tom. x, p. 760-786)0 
iiivide him into two men ; but? Renaudot (p. 343-383) has resto^ 
>he identity of his person and the duplicity of his character. 


CHAP, of the clergy and people. Pi*om the monastery, 
^^^^^^^^ tte devout Greeks dispersed themselves in the ta- 
vrns ; drank confusion to the slaves of the pope; 
enptied their glasses in honour of the imag-e of 
tte holy virgin ; and besought her to defend, 
a;ainst Mahomet, the city which she had for- 
nerly saved from Chosroes and the Chftgan. In 
te double intoxication of zeal and Wine, they 
vliantly exclaimed, " What occasion have we for 
"juccour, or union, or Latins ? far from us be 
":he worship of the Azymites !" During the 
^^nter that preceded the Turkish conquest, the 
ntion was distracted by this epidemical frenzy; 
ad the season of lent, the approach of easter, 
istead of breathing charity and love, served 
cly to fortify the obstinacy and influence of the 
Kilots* The confessoi:s scrutinized and al^med 
te conscience of their votaries, and a rigorous 
jlnance was impos^ed on those who had received 
te communion from a priest, who had given an 
tpress or tacit consent to the union. His ser- 
ine at the altar propagated the infection to the 
ilite andsimplespectators of the ceremony : they 
f^feited, by the impure spectacle, the virtue of 
tfc sacerdotal character ; nor was it lawful, even 
iilanger of sudden death, to invoke the assistance 
oltheir prayers or absolution. No sooner had the 
cjurch of St. Sophia been polluted by the La- 
ti^ sacrifice, than it was deserted as a Jewish 
sjnagogue, or an heathen temple, by the clergy 
^|d people ; and a vast and gloomy silence pre* 
veiled in that venerable dome, which had so often 
stioked witl> a cloud of incense, blazed with in- 



numerable liffhts, and resounded with the voice of c h a p. 


prayer and thanksfiHivin£:. The Latins were the 
most odious of heretics and infidels; and the first 
minister of the empire, the great duke, was heard 
to declare, that he had rather behold in Constan- 
tinople the turban of Mahomet, than the pope*s 
tiara or a cardinal's hat."" A sentiment so unwoc- 
thy of christians and patriots, was familiar and 
fatal te the Greeks : the emperor was deprived 
of the affection and support of his subjects ; and 
their native cowardice was sanctified by resigna- 
tion to the divine decree, or the visionary hope 
of a miraculous deliverance. 

Of the triangle which composes the figure ofsiegeor 
Constantinople, the two sides along the sea werenop'eTjr^* 
made inaccessible to an enemy ; the Propontis by M»»»«n«t 
nature, and the harbour by art. Between the two a.'d. 1458» 
waters, the basis of the triangle, the land side wa$May^29. 

i protected by a double wall, and a deep ditch of 
the depth of one hundred feet. Against this line 
of fortification, which Phranza, an eye-witness, 
prolongs to the measure of six miles,*" the Otto- 
mans directed their principal attack; and the 
emperor, after distributing the service and c<Hn- 
mand of the most perilous stations, undertoc^ the 

. defence of the external wall. In the first days of 
the siege, the Greek soldiers descended into the 

™ ^««i«A/«y, **XvirT(et^ maj be fairly translated, a cardinal's hat. 
The difference of the Greek and Latin habita embittered .the schism. ' 

* We are obliged to reduce the Greek miles to the smallest mea* 
sure^ whkh ii preserved in the wersis of Ruaaia, of 547 French ttUet, 
and of 104 three^fiObs to a d^^ree. The six miles of Phranaa 4o not 
exceed fimr Ei^lish miles (d'Aimlle» Meaiues Itia watrts, p. 0MI3,* 

VOL. xn. r 


CHAP, ditch, or saltied into tiie field ; but they soon dis. 

J!!^I!!1 covered that, in tiie proportion of ttueir numbers, 
one christian was of more value than twenty 
Turks ; and, after these bold prekides, they were 
prudently content to maintain the rampart with 
their missile weapons. Nor should this prudenc^ 
be accused of pusHlanimity. Tlie nation was ia* 
deed pusillanimous and base ; but the last C<m- 
stantine deserves the name of a hero : his noMe 
band of volunteers was inspired with Roman vir- 
tue ; and the foreign auxiliaries supported the 
honour jof the Western chivalry. The. incessant 
voUies of lances and arrows were aocompanied 
with the smoke, the sound, and the fire of their 
musketry and cannon« Their small arms dis- 
charged at the same time either five, or even ten, 
balls of lead, of the size of a walnut ; and, accord- 
ing to the closeness of the ranks and tte force of 
the powder, several breastplates and bodies were 
transpierced by the same shot. But the Turkish 
^proaehes were soon sunk in trenches, or covered 
with ruins. Each day added to the sl^ience of the 
christians ; but their inadequate stock of gun- 
powder was wasted in the operations of each day. 
Their ordnance was not powerful, either in size 
or number; and if they possessed some heavj 
cannon, they feared to plant them on the walls, 
lest the aged structure should be shaken andover- 
thrown by the explosion.* . The same destructive 

* At indies doetiorei nostri facti paravere contra hastes iiuwli]«i« 
mats, qvae tames avnnt dabaniur. . Fulvlserat tdtti madioaezigua • 
tda modifia } bontbaste, si adctaat inimiuQoditetelsd primmn bostas 



secret liad been reveeied to the Moslems ; by cHaP- 
whom it 1ms employedwith the superior energy of J^^J"* 
zealy ricbes, and dee^ism. The grekt cannon 
of M^bmet has been ^arately noticed ; an im- 
portant and visible object in the history of the 
tinnes : but tbat enormous engine was flanked by 
two fellows almost of eqmd magnitude;' the lon$ 
order of the Tuk'kish artillery was pointed againift 
the wttlts : fourteen batteries thundered at once 
on tfab nlost accessible places ; and of one of these 
it is ambiguously expressed, that it was mounted 
with one hundred and thirty guns, or that it di&» 
cbi^in^ one hundred and thnrty bullets. YH, in 
the power and activity of the sultto^ we may dis- 
cern the iilfaiKy of Hie . new science. Under A 
master, who counted the moments, the great can* 
non could b^ loaded and fired no more than seven 
times in due iday.'^ The heated metal unfi^rtu^ 
ndtely bht-st i- several workmen were destroyted \ 
and the skill of an ariist was admired who be- 
thought himself of ^preventing the danger and th^ 
accidtehi^ by ^duri% oil^ after each explosion^ in^^ 
to the. mouth of the c^nOh. 

iitendeii mdcefiet)i» alveisque iedoa fion poterant- Kadislquse mag* 
AS erifait* he diilrus concuteretcr nbster, quiescebant. This pe^ 
eage of Leonardus Chiensis is curious and important. 

P AccorjSdng to Chalcocondyles and Phranza, the greatcannon bursty 
an accident wh^b> accordhig to Ducasy was prevented by the artistV 
skill. It is evident they do not speak of the same gun. , 

^ Near an hundred years after the siege of Constantinqpie, the 
French and English fleets in the Channel were proud of firing 300 shot 
in an oDS^gement of two hours (Memoires de Martin du Bellay^ h x. 
In the CdriikctSon Qmende^ torn* xxl, p. 299). 

P 2 


Lxvi **' '^^^ ^^^^ random shots were productive of more 
*^%^*.I sound than efTect ; and it was by the advice of a 
Attack and christian, that the engineers were taught to, level 
their aim against the two opposite sides of the sa- 
lient angles of a bastion. However imperfect, the 
weight and repetition of the fire made some im- 
pression on the wall» ;: and the Turks, pushing 
thehr approaches to the edgeof thediteh^attempted 
to fill the enormous chasm, and to build a road, 
to the assault/ Innumerable fascines, and hogs- 
heads, and trunks of trees, were heaped on each 
other; and such wastheimpetuosityof thethrong, 
that the foremost and the. weakest were pushed 
headloi^ down the precipice, andinatantlj buried 
under the accumulated mass. Tor fill the ditch 
was the toil of the besiegers ; to ckar away the 
rubbish was the safety of the besieged ; and, after 
a long and bloody cpniUct, the web that had been 
woven in the day was still unravelled in the night. 
The next resource of Mahomet was the practice 
of mines ; but the soil was rocky ; in every at- 
tempt, he was stopped and undennined by the 
christian engineers; nor had tl^eart bea» yet in- 
vented of replenishing those subterraneous pas- 
sages with gunpowder, and blowing whole towers 
and cities into the au:.' ^A circumstance that dis- 

* I have selected some curious facts, without striving to emulate 
thebloodj and obstinate eloquence of the abbede Vertot, in his prolix 
descriptions of the sieges of Rhodes, Malta, &c But that agreeable 
historian had a turn for romance ; and as he wrote to please the or- 
der, he had adopted the same spirit of enthusiasm and chrvMlrj. * 

• The arst theory of mines with gunpowder appears in ISSO, in a 
iLs, of George of Sienna (Tiraboacbi, torn, ri, Pf i, p. S24w Thejr 


'tinguishes the siege of Constantinople, is the re- chap. 
• union of the ancient and modern artillery. The ^^^"'' 
cannon were intermingled with the mechanical 
engines for easting stones and' darts ; the bullet 
and the battering-ram were directed against the 
same walls ; nor had the discovery of gunpowder 
superseded theuse of the liquid and unextinguish- 
able fire, A wooden turret of the largest size was 
advanced on rollers : this portable magazine of 
ammunition and fascines was protected by a three* 
fold covering of bulls hides : incessant vollies 
were securely discharged from the loop-holes ; in 
the front, three doors were contrived for the alter- 
nate sally and retreat of the soldiers and work- 
men. They ascended by a stair-case to the upper 
platform, and as high as the level of that plat^ 
form, a scaling-ladder could be raised by pullies 
to form a bridge, and grapple with the adverse 
rampart. By these various arts of annoyance, 
some as new as they were pernicioustc the Greeks, 
the tower of St. Romanus was at length over- 
turned : after a severe struggle, the Turks were 
repulsed from the breach, and interrupted by 
darkness ; but they trusted, that with the return 
of light they should renew the attack with fresh 
vigour and decisive success. Of this pause of ac- 
tion, this interval of hope, each moment was im- 
proved by the activity of the emperor and Justir 
niani, who passed the night on the spot, and 

were first practised at Sarzanella, in 1487 ; but the honour and im- 
provement, in 1503, is ascribed to Peter of Navarre, who used them 
with success in the wars of Italy (Hist, de la Ligue de Cambray, torn. 
^i, p. 93-97). 

p 8 ' 


CHAP, urged the labours which involved the safety oi 


• the church a^d city. At th^. daw^ pf dfty^ the 

impatient sultan perceived, with ast(»i^hineiit 
and grief, that his wopden turret %b^ been re- 
duced to ashes : the ftitch was cle^^dj an4 re- 
stored ; and the tower of St. Rowamis if as a- 
gain strong and entire. He deplored the failure 
of his design ; and uttered a pi^oil^iie ei^clfLmar 
tion, that the wqrd of the thirty.s^ven t^ou^^^nd 
prophets should not have con^pelled hffl^ to be- 
lieve that such a work, in so short a tia^e, could 
have been accomplished, by the infidels. 
Succour The generosity of the cl^istia^ priaces was 
of fow cold and tardy^ ; but in the first appi;eheasion of a 
f^^ siege, Constantine had: negotiated, in the isles of 
the Archipelago, the Morea^ and Siaily, the most 
indispensable supplies. As early as the beginning 
of April, fivet great ships, equipped for merchan- 
dise and war, wopld h^ve si^led^ %)m the. harbour 
of Chios, had not the wind blown obstinately 
from the north/ One of these ships bore the , 
imperial fl^ ; the remaining four belonged ta 
the Genoese; and they were laden with wheat and , 
barley, with wine, oil, and vegetables, and, abore 
all, with soldiers and mariners, for the service of 

' It is singular that the Greeks should not agree in the nymber of 
these illustrious vessels ; the^ve of Ducas, the /our. of PhraQza and 
l^eonardust and the two of Cbalcocondyles, must be extended to the 
smaller, or confined to larger, size. Voltaire, in giving one of these 
sl^ps to Frederic lu, confoui^ds the emperors of the East and West 

^ In bold defiance, or rather in gross ignorance, of language and 
geography, the president Cousin detains them at Chios with a south| 
apd wafts them to Constantinople with a north, wind. 



tfte capitiaL After a tedious delaj, a gentle chap. 
breeze^ and, oa the second day, a strong gale ^^"^* 
from tlie A>atb> carried them through the Helles- 
pont and the Propontis: but the city was already 
invested by sea and land ; and the Turkish fleets 
at the entnmce of the Bosphorus, was stretched 
from shore to shore, in the form of a crescent, 
to mtcJrcept, or* at least to repel, these bold aux- • 
iltarie& The reader who has present to his 
iRind the geographical picture of Constantinc^le, 
will conceive and admire the greatness of the 
spectacle. The five christian ships continued to 
advance with joyful shouts, and a full press both 
of sails and oars, against an hostile fleet of thr^e 
hundred vessels ; and the rampart, the camp, the 
coasts of Europe and Asia> were lined with in- 
numer^le spectators, who anxiously awaited 
the event- of this momentous succour. At the 
first view that event could not appear doubtful : 
the saperiority of the Moslems was' beyond alt 
measure or account ; and, in a calm, their num- 
bers and valour must inevitably have prevailed^ 
Btit^ their hasty and imperfect navy had been 
created, not by the genius of the people, but by 
the will of the sultan : in the height of their 
prosperltyj the Turks have acknowledged, that 
if God bad given them the earth, he had left the 
sea to ' the infidels f and a series of defeats, a » 
rapid progress of decay^^ has established the truth 

^ The perpetual decay and weakness of the Turkish navy, may he 
observed in Rycaat- (State of the Ottoman Empire, p. 3T»^78) ; The- 
\enot (Voyages, pb i» p. 289-242); and Tott (Memolres, tom. Jii) » 
the Jttst of whom4»«lwayfi solk^toitt to«muse and-amanhia rwder. 

P 4 



CHAB of their modest confession. Except eighteen 


' gallies of some force, the rest of their fleet con- 
sisted of open boats, rudely constructed and awk- 
wardly managed, crowded with troops, and des- 
titute of cannon ; and since courage arises in a 
great measure from the consciousness oCstrength^ 
the bravest of the janizaries might tremble on 
a new element. In the christian squadron, five 
stout and lofty ships were guided by skilful pilots, 
and manned with the veteransof Italy and Greece, 
long practised in the arts and perils of the sea. 
Their weight was directed to sink or scatter the 
weak obstacles that impeded their passage : theit' 
artillery swept the waters : their liquid fire was 
poured on the heads of their adversaries, who, 
with the design of boarding, presumed to ap- 
proach them ; and the winds and waves are al- 
ways on the side of the ablest navigators. In this 
conflict, the imperial vessel, which had been al- 
most overpowered, was rescued by the Genoese ; 
but the Turks, in a distant and closer attack,were 
twice repulsed with considerable loss. Mahomet 
himself sat on horseback on the beach, to en- 
courage their valour by his voice and jwesence, 
by the promise of reward, and by fear, more po- 
tent than the fear of the enemy. The passions of 
his soul, and even the gestures of his body,^ seem- 
ed to imitate the actions of the combatants; anc^ 
as if he had been the lord of nature, he spurred 
his horse with a fearless and impotent effort into 

y I must confess, that I have before my eyes the living picture 
which Thucydides (1. vii, c. 71) has. drawn of the passions and ges- 
tures of the Athenians in a naval eBgagement in the great harbour of 


the sea. His loud reproaches, and the clamours chap. 
of the camp, urged the Ottomans to a third at '^^^"• 
tack, more fatal and bloody than the two former ; 
and I must repeat, though I cannot credit, the 
evidence of Phranza, who affirms from their own 
mouth, that they lost above twelve thousand men 
in the slaughter of the day. They fled in disorder 
to the shores of Europe and Asia, while the chris- 
tian squadron, triumphant and unhurt, steered 
along the Bosphorus, and securejiy anchored with- 
in the chain of the harbour. In the confidence 
of victory, they boasted that the whole Turkish 
power must have yielded to their arms ; but the 
admiral, or captain bashaw, found some consola* 
tion for a painful wound in his eye, by representing 
that accident as the cause of his defeat. Baltha 
OgU was a renegade of the race of the Bulgariaa 
princes ; his military character was tainted with 
the unpopular vice of avarice ; and under the des- 
potism of the prince or people^^ misfortune is a 
sufficient evidence of guilt. His rank and services 
were annihilated by the displeasure of Mahomet 
In the royal presence, the captain bashaw was ex- . 
tended on the ground by four slaves, and receiv* 
ed one hundred strokes with a golden rod :* his 
death had been pronounced ; and he adored the 
clemency of the sultan, who was satisfied with the 
milder punishment of confiscation and exile. The 
introduction of this supply revived the hopes of 

* According to the exaggeration or corri:^t text of Ducas (c. 38), 
this golden bar was of the enormous and incredible weight of 50^ 
librs, or pounds. Bouillaud's reading of 500 drachms, or five pounds, 
is sufflciient to exercise thie arm of M'ahomet, and bruise the back oC 
kis admiral 


CHAP, tile GveskSf and axxrtised tiie Siq>iiieiiess of tfaw 
^^"^ Western allied Amidst theStesMts of Anatdfia 

and the rocks of Palestine^ tibe miliioiis of the 
crasadeshad buried 1ilieinsel«e& ia a roluntaryaad 
inevitable grave; but the situation of the imperial 
city was strong againsther enemies, and accessible 
to her friends ; and a rational and modiraiate ar- 
mament of the maritime states might hare sared 
the relics of the Roman name, atid' maiataiiied a 
christian fortress in the heart of the Ottoman 
empire. Yet this was the sole and feeble attempt 
for the deliverance of Constmitinople ; tbe more 
distant powers were insensible of its danger; and 
the ambassador of Hungary, or at least of Hu- 
niades^ resided in the Turkish camp, to r^nove 
the fears, and to direct the operations, of the 
Mahomet It was difficult for the Greeks to paietrate the 
h'l^vy^ secret of the divan; yet the Greeks are persuaded, 
•¥er land, ^j^^^ ^ resistance, so obstinate and surprising, ha4 
fatigued the perse verance of Mahomet. He began 
to meditate aretreat, and thesiegewouldhave been 
speedily raised, if thie amotion and jealousy o£ the 
second vizir had not opposed the perfidious advice 
of Calil Bashaw, who still mfflntained^a secret 
correspondence with the Byzantine oourt; The 
reduction of the city appeared to be hopeless^ un* 
less a double attack could be made Skom tiie har- 
bour as well as from the land; but tite harbetir 

,,» Ducas» who confesses himself ill-informed of the afl^rs of Han- 
gary^ assigns a motive of superstition, a fi£ttal. belief that Constantino* 
j^c would be the term of the Turkish conquests. See Phranza (I. iii, 
c. 20) and Spondanus. 


was i^ccepsjj^I^ ; agx ipy^netnabtechaijiiiVA^ nom chap. 
defendecit by ^gh% large shj|j3; more than twenty' 
of a sii^^r sjz^ with sevei^algsJUe&ajid sloops; 
and, ins^ta<^ of fofcing tlii» barrio, the Tuck& 
migb)b apprehj^j&d a naval; saUy» and a second en- 
counter in the opea sea. In this perplexjly» the 
genius of MabvOH^t con^ceked and executed a plaa 
of a* bold and marvellous cast, of transpoilii^ bj) 
land his ligbiber- vessels and milkary stores ixratv 
tljie Bosphorus into the higher part ctf the harbour* 
The distance is about ten miles ; the ground is 
uneven, and was overspread with thickets ; and^ 
as the road must be. opened behind the suburb oS 
GaJ^ta, their free passage or total destruction 
rouM^ depend on the option of the Genoese. But 
these selfish merchants were ambitious of the fa- 
vour of being the last devoured ; and the de-. 
ficiency of art was supplied by the. strengtb 06 
obedient myriads. A level way was covered witb 
a broad platform of strong and solid planks; and 
to render them more slippery and smooth, they; 
were anointed with the fat of sheep and oxen. 
Fourscore light gallies and brigantines of fifty 
and thirty oars, were disembarked on. the Bos** 
phorus shore ; arranged successively on rollers ; 
and dra^wn for^wards by the force of men and, 
puUies, Two guides or pilots were stationed at 
the helm, and the prow, of each vessel ; the sails 
were unfurl^dj t^ t^e wind^; and the l^ljouri was 
cheered bysongiand acclamation. In the course of 
a single night, this .Turkish fleet painfully climbed 
the hilU stqered over the plain, and wasJauncbed 
from the declivity into the shallow waters- of the 



CHAP, harbour, far above the molestation of the deeper 
^^"' vessels of the Greeks. The real importance of 
this operation was magnified by the consternation 
and confidence which it inspired : but the noto- 
rious, unquestionable fact was displayed before 
the eyes, and is recorded by the pens* of the two 
nations.^ A similar stratagem had been repeatedr 
ly practised by the ancients:* thfe Ottoman gaUies 
(Imust again repeat) should be considered as large 
boats ; and, if we compare the magnitude and 
the. distance, the obstacles and the means, the 
boasted miracle*^ has perhaps been equalled by 
the industry of our own times.^ As soon as 
Mahomet had occupied the upper harbour with a 
fleet and army, he constructed, in the narrowest 
part, a bridge, or rather mole, .of fifty cubits in 
breadth, and one hundred in length : it was formed 
of casks and hogsheads, joined with rafters linkr? 
ed with iron, and covered with a solid floor. On 
this floatipg battery, he planted one of his largest 
cannon, while the fourscore gallies, with troops 

*• The unanimous testimony of the four Greeks is confirmed by Can-^ 
temir (p. 96), from the Turkish annals ; but I could wish to contract 
the difitance of ten miles, and to prolong the term of one night. 

* Phranza relates two examples of a similar transportation over the 
six miles of the isthmus of Corinth ; the one fabulous, of Augustus 
after the battle of Actium ; the other true, of Nieetas, a Greek gene* 
ral in the tenth century. To these he might have added a bold en- 
terprise of Hannibal, to introduce his vessels into the harbour of Ta- 
rentum (Polybius, 1. viii, p. 749, edit. Gronov.) 

* A Greek of Candia, who had served the Venetians in a similar un- 
dertaking (Spond. A. D. 1438, No. 37), might posaihly be the advisee 
and agent of Mahomet. 

* I particularly allude to our own embarkations on the lakes of Canada 
in the years 1776 and 1777, so great in the, labour, so fraitles^io 
tbetvent. . " 



and «3ali]ig«>ladders> approached the most acoes- chap^ 
sible side, which had formerly been stormed by the 
Latin conque;*ors. The indolence of the christians 
has been accused for not destroying these un*- 
finished works ; but their fire, by a superior fire, 
was controlled and silenced ; nor were they want* 
ing in a nocturnal attempt to bum the vessels as 
well as the bridge of the sultan. His vigilance 
prevented their apjHroach ; the foremost galliots 
were sunk or taken : forty youths, the bravest of 
Italy and Greece, were inhumanly massacred at 
his command ; nor could the emperor's grief be 
assuaged by the just though cruel retaliation, of 
exposing from the walls the heads of two hundred 
and sixty mussulman captives. After a siege of Distress «r 
forty days, the fate of Constantinople could no * ^^' 
longer be averted* The diminutive garrison wa* 
exhausted by a double attack ; the fortifications^ 
which had stood for ages against hostile violence, 
were dismantled on all sides by the Ottoman 
cannon ; many breaches were opened ; and neair 
the gate of St. Romanus, four towers hadheen 
levelled with the ground. For the |)aymeat of 
his feeble and mutinous troops, Constantine was 
compelled to despoil the churches, with the pro^ 
mise of a fourfold restitution; and his sacrilege of- 
fered a new reproach to the enemies of the union^ 
A spirit of discord impaired the remnant of- the 
christian strength ; the Genoese and Venetian 
auxiliaries .asserted the pre-eminence of their re- 
spective service ; and Justiniani and the great 
duke, whose ambition was not extinguished by 
the common danger, accused each other of . 
treachery and cowardice. 


GH AK During the siege of €onMahthiaple, tile words 
!'^^^!!l ^ P^*^^ ^°^ capitulatioa bad been sometimes 
Prepare- proBouiiced ; a»d severftl embassies hdd passed 
Trk^for^between the camp and the city/ The Greek 
^''•sjn*"* emperor was huimbled by adversity; and would 
May tk: have yielded to any tet-ms compatible with religion 
and royalty. The l\irkish sultan was d^strous of 
sparing the Uood of his soldifetis ; stili more de- 
^oos of securing for his own use the Byzantine 
treasures ; and he accomplished a sacred duty in 
fHTesenting to the gahours^ the choice of circHm- 
dsion» of tribute, or of death. The avarice of 
Mahomet might hate been satii^ed with an annu- 
al sum of one hundred thousand ducats ; but his 
ambition grasped the capital of the East : to the 
prince he offered a rich equivalent, to the people 
a free toleration, or a safe departure ; but after 
some fruitless treaty, he declared his res(rfution <^ 
finding either a throne, or a grave, under the 
W^Ds of Constantinople. A sense of honour, arid 
the fear of universal reproach, forbade Palaeo- 
loguB to resign the city into the bands of the 
Ottomans ; and he determined to aflbide the last 
extremities of war. Several days were employed 
by the sultan in the preparations of the assault ; 
and a respite was granted by his fet'^outlte science 
of astrology, which had fixed on the tWenty^ninth 
of May, as the fortunate and fatal hour. On the 
^ening of the twenty-seventh^ he issued his final 
wders; assembled in his presence the military 

' Chalcooondyles and nucfts diflR^r in ilie time and cfrcunstaiioes 9f 

the negoeiation ; and as it was neither glorious Dor salutary, the faitk* 
fbl Phranza spares his prince even the tlumgh't of a surrender. 


t^yefis; and dkirawd his h^vrids titMagli die crap, 
caH^ to pmekHm tbe dotf, And the metives, of J'^^''^ 
the perilous eafteii^ffie. Fetr is the first princi^ 
of a dee^tie got^ernment; a&d his tnebaoes 
were ex^esaed in the Oriental stylc^ that the 
fug^itives and deserta's, had they tbe wi^g;s of a 
bkd,* should not escape from his inexonUe 
juatioe. The greatest part itf his basba^^ and 
Jausaries were the offspring of chrisUaa parents ; 
but the glories of the Turkiadb name were per^ 
petuated by successive ad<^tion; and in the 
gradiud ttenge of individuals, the s|Nrit ^ a 
legion, a regiment, or an oda, is .kept alir^ bf 
imitation and discipline. In this holj warftNre; 
the Moslems were exhorted to purify their minds 
with prayer, their bodies with seven ablutioiss; abstain from food till the dose of the €A^ 
suifig dliy. A ctowd of dervishes vi^ted tbe leats^ 

« These wings ^haleocondyles, 1. vlii, p. 208) are no more thsA 
an Oriental figure ; but in the tragedy of Irene, Mahomet's passion 
sears above sense and reason s 

Should the fierce north, upon his frozen wingSy 
Bear him aloft above the wondering clouds. 
And seat him in the Pleiads golden chariot- 
Thence should my fury drag him down to tortures. 
Besides the extravagance of the rant, I must observe, 1, That the 
operation of the wind must be confined to the lower regions of the 
air. 2, That the name, etymology, and tbe &b1e of the neiadsvte 
purely Greek iScholiast; ad Homer, X. 686. Eudocia in Xonia^ p. 39d. 
ApoUodor. 1. iii, c. 10. Heine, p. 229, Not. 682), and had no affinity 
With the aMrottomy of the East (Hyde ad Ulugbeg, Tabul. fttSyntagi- 
ma Distertv Um*^ i, Jib 40, 42. Goguet, Origine des Arts» k,c, toas^ 
v1, p. 73-78. Gebelin, Hist, du Calendrier, p. 73^, which Mahomet 
had studied. 3, ^he golden chariot does ndt ekist eith'er iii science or 
Action ; but I tAucb bair that Dr. Johnson hais unfounded tbe TMtdU 
with the great bear or waggon, t!ie zodiac with a northern cousteVa. 

A/«f«» (hnit€* &f^i»* trmXnttif x»)*iUf» , 


iLXYiii t^^^J^^^'^J^^d^s^^^n^^rtyrdom, and the assurance 
,.^^^^^^ of spending an immcntal youth amidst the rivers 
and gardens of paradise, and in the embraces of 
the black-eyed virgins. Yet Mahomet principally 
thisted to the efficacy of temporal and visible 
rewards. A double pay was promised to the 
victorious troops ; " The city and the buildings," 
said Mahomet, *^ are mine ; but I resign to your 
*' valour the captives and the spoil, the treasures 
•* of gold and beauty; be rich and be happy. 
" Many are the provinces of my empire : the 
^ intrepid soldier who first ascends the walls of 
^* Constantinople, shall be rewarded with the go- 
^* vemment of the fairest and most wealthy; and 
** my gratitude sha^ll accumulate his honours and 
* •* fortunes above the measure of his own hopes.'* 
Such various and potent motives diffused among 
the Turks a general ardour, regdrdless of life, and 
impatient for action; the camp re-echoed with 
the Moslem shouts of " God is God, there is 
** but one God, and Mahomet is the apostle of 
" Gtod ;"^ and the sea and land, from Galata to 
the seven towers, were illuminated by the blaze 
of their nocturnal fires. 
Last fare- j^qt different was the state of the christians : 

well of the , . , , , , . , . * 

emperor who. With loud and impotent complaints, de- 
treeiu! plored the guilt, er the punishment, of their sins. 
The celestial image of the virgin had been ex- 
posed in solemn prosession ; but their divine 
patroness was deaf to their intreaties: they ac- 
cused the obstinacy of the emperor for refusing a 

^ Phranza quarrels with these Moslem acclamations^, not for the 
name of God, but for that of the prophet : the pious zeal of Voltaire 
/f excesaive and ^ven ridiculous. 2 


OY tbK HoUktf BMPIItfe. ^S 

timelj surr^ider; anticipated the borrdfd df their en ap. 
fate ; and sighed for the repose and security of ^*^"^ 
Turkish servitude. The noblest of the Greeks, 
and the bravest of the allies^ were summoned to 
the palace^ to prepare them, on the evening of the 
twenty-eighth, for the duties and dangers of the 
general assault. The last speech of PalaeoIogi'S 
was the funeral oration of the Roman empire :^ 
he prombed, he conjured, and he vainly attempted 
to infuse the hope which was extinguished in his 
own mind. In this world all was comfortless and 
gloomy ; and neither the gospel nor the church 
have proposed any conspicuous recompence to the 
heroes who fall in the service of their country. 
But the example of their prince, and tiie confine^ 
ment of a siege, had armed these warriors with 
the courage of despair; and the pathetic scene b 
described by the feelings of the historian Phranza, 
who was himself present at this mournful assem« 
bly. They wept, they embraced ; regardless of 
their families and fortunes, they devoted their 
lives ; and each commander, departing to his sta* 
tion, maintained all night a vigilant and anxious 
watch on the rampart. The emperor, and some 
faithful companions, entered the dome of St. So* 
phia, which in a few hours was to be converted 
into a mosch, and devoutly received^ with tears 
and prayers, the sacrament of the holy commu* 
nion. He reposed some moments in the palace, 

^ I am afraid that this discourse was composed by Phranaa himself t 
^d it smells so grossly of the sermon and the convent, that I aUnosi 
dou}>t whether it was pronounced by Constantine. Leonardos as* 
: signs him another speech, in which he addresses hims«iC more r9« 
spectfuUy to the l^atio auxiliaries. 

vol-, xih H 


liCHAP. which resounded with cries aii4 lamefttatlons ; 

^^^''^' adicHed the pardon of all whom he might have 
injured f and mounted on horseback to visit the 
guards^ and explore, the motions of the enem j« 
The distress and fall of the last Constantine are 
more glorious than the long proq^erity of the 
Byzantine Caesars. 

The gene- In the coufUsion of darkness, an assailant may 

May 29. ^* somctimcs succeed ; but in this great and general 
attack, the military judgment and astrological 
knowledge of Mahomet advised him to expect the 
morning, the memorable twenty-ninth of May^ 
in the fourteen hundred and fifty-third year of the 
christian era. The preceding night had been stre- 
nuously employed : the troops, the canpon, and 
the fascines, were advanced to the edge of the 
ditch, which in many parts presented a smooth 
and level passage to the breach ; and his fourscore 
gallies almost touched with the prows and their 
scaling ladders the less defensible walls of the 
harbour. Under pain of death, silence was en? 
joined; but the physical laws of motion and 
sound are not obedient to discipline or fear ; each 
individual might suppress his voice and measure 
his footsteps ; but the march and labour of thou- 
sands-must inevitably produce a strange confusion 
of dissonant clamours, which reached the ^ars 
pf the watchmen of the towers. At day-breat, 
without the customary signal of the morning gun, 
the Turks assaulted the city by sea and land; and 

^ This abasement, which devotion has sometimes extorted from 
dying princes, is an improvement of the gospel doctrine of the for- 
giveness of injuries: it is more easy to forgive 4^0 times^ than ence 
to ask pardon of an infjprior* 

0» THB AOMAir filkCPIlOE. S2f 

the sitailifude of a twined or twisted thread has oua?. 
been af^lied to the doseness aiMl continuity of^^ ^J ^;' 
their Utte of attack.^ The foreihost ranks con<^ 
sisted ofihe refuse of the host, a voluntary crowds 
who fought without order or command; pf the 
feebleness of age or childhood, of peasants and 
vagrants^ and of all who had joined the camp in 
the blind hope of plunder and martyrdom. The 
common impulse drove them onwards to the 
wall : the most audacious to climb were instantly 
precipitated r and not a dart, not a bu|]et, of the . 
christians was idly wasted on thje accumulated 
throng. But their strength and ammunition were 
exhausted in this laborious defence; the ditch was 
filled with the bodies of the slain ; they support* 
ed the fqptsteps of their companions ; and of this 
devoted vanguard, the death was more service- 
able thap the life. Under their respective bashaws 
and sanjaks, the troops of Anatolia and Romania 
were successively led to the charge; th^ir progress 
was various and 4oubtful ; but^ after a conflict of 
two hodrs, the Greeks still maintained and im« 
proved their advantage ; and the voice of th^ 
emperor was heard, encouraging his soldiers to 
achieve, by a last effort, the deliverance of their 
country. In that fatal moment, the Janizaries 
arose, fresh^ vigorous, and invincible^ The sulf 
tan himself on horseback, with an iron mfure in 
his hand^ was the spectator and judge of their 
yalour i he was surrounded by ten thousand of 
|us domestic troops, w'hom he reserved for the 

> Resides tht 10»00Q guards, and the sailors and the marines, Ducaf 
^ttf^bers In th)s pcneral assault t50,000 Turks, l^oUi biirsf^and ftiot,. . 



CHAP, decisive occasions ; aiid the tide ot battle was 
„_^ ^ ^ ^^'* directed and impelled by his voice and eye. His 
numerous ministers of justice were posted behind 
the line» to urge, to restrain^ and to punish ; and 
if danger was in the front, shame and ineritable 
death were in the rear, of the fugitives. The 
cnes of fear and of pain were drowned in the 
martial music of drums, trumpets, aiid attaballs ; 
and experience has proved, that the mechanical 
operation of sounds, by quickening the circulation 
of the blood and spirits, will act on the human 
machine more forcibly than the eloquence of 
reason and honour. From the lines, the gallies, 
and the bridge, the Ottoman artillery thundered 
on all sides ; and the camp and city, the Greeks 
and the Turks, were involved in a cloud of smoke, 
which could only be dispelled by the final deli- 
verance or destruction of the Roman empire. 
The single combats of the heroes of history or 
fable amuse our fancy and engage our affections ; 
the skilful evolutions of war may inform tlie 
mind, and improve a necessary, though perni- 
cious, science ; but in the uniform and odious 
pictures of a general assault, all is blood, and 
horror, and confusion : nor shall I strive, at the 
distance of three centuries and a thousand miles, 
to delineate a scene of which there could be no 
spectators, and of which the actors themselves 
were incapable of forming any just or adequate 

The immediate loss of Constantinople may be 
ascribed to the bullet, or arrow, which pierced 
the gauntlet of John Justiniani. The sig^ht of his 


bIdod»and the exquisite pain^appaUedtheMurage chap. 
of the chieC whose arms and ceunsels were the ^^^*''* 
firmest rampart of the city. As he.withdrew from 
his station in quest of a* surgeon, his fl^t was 
perceived and stopped by the indefatigable em- 
peror. *• Your wound/' exclaimed Palaeologus, 
^^ is slight ; the dimger is pressing ; your presence 
** is necessary ; and whither will you retire ?" 
** I will retire,? said the trembling Genoese, by 
^* the same road which God has opened to the 
" Turkfii ;" and at these words he hastily passed 
through one of the breaches of the inner wall. 
By this pusillanimous act, he stained the honours 
of a military life ; and the few days which he 
survived in Galata, or the isle of Chios, were 
embittered by his own and the public reproach.'^ 
His example was imitated by the greatest part of 
the Latin auxiliaries ; and the defence began to 
slacken when the attack was pressed with redoub* 
led vigour. The number of the Ottomans was fif- 
ty, perhaps an hundred, times superico* to tliat of 
the christians ; the double walls were reduced 
by the cannon to an heap of ruins : in a circuit of 
several miles, some places must be found more 
easy of access, or more feebly guarded ; and if 
the besiegers could penetrate in a single point, 
the whole city was irrecoverably lost. The first 

*" In the sev«re censure of the flight of Justlniania PhraptR ex- 
presses hid own feelings, and those -of th^ public For some private 
reasons, he is treated with more lenity and respect b^ Ducas ; but 
the words of Leonardus Chiensis express his strong and recent indig- 
nation, gloriae aalutls suique oblitus. In the whole series of their 
Eastern policy, his countrymen, the Genoese* were always suspects 
e^, and often guilty. 

Q 3 


CHAP, who deterred the sultan's reward was Hassaik the 
!^ Tu"^ janLiai7) ef gigantid stature aad strragth. With 
his scjrmetar in one band and his buckler in the 
other, he ascended the outward fortificatioii : of 
the thirty janizariesi who were emulous of his 
valour, eighteen perished in the held adventure, 
Hasssm and his twelve companions had reached 
the summit ; the giant was precipitated frona the 
tiunpart ; he rose on one knee, and was agaift 
oppressed by a idiower of darts and stones. But 
his success had proved that the achievement was 
possible : the walls imd towers were instantly 
covered with a swarm of Turks ; and the Greeks^ 
now driven from the vantage grounds were overw 
whelmed by increasing multitudes. Amidst these 
multitudes, the emperor,*" who accomplished all 
the duties of a general and a soldier, was long 
seen, and finally lost* The nobles, who fou^t 
i*ound his person, sustained, till their last breath, 
the honourable names of PalaBologus and Canta-^ 
cuzene : his moui'nful exclamation was heard^ 
** Cannot there be found a christian to cut off 
** my head P"** and his last fear was that of fall- 

« Dueas klUs him with two blows of Turkish soldiers; Chaleocoik 
klyles wounds him in the shoulder, and then tramples him in the gate. 
The grief of Phranza carrying him among the enemy, escapes from 
the precise image of his death ; but we may, without fiatteryi appir 
these noble lines of Dryden : 

As to Sebastian, let them search the field ; 
And where they find a iiiountain of the slain, 
Send one to climb, and looking down beneath. 
There they w|Il find him at his manly lengtli. 
With his face up to heaven, in that red monument 
Which his good sword had digged. 
P Spondanus (a. d. 1453, No. 10), who has hopes of hfs salvniion, 
willies to absolve this demand from the gu|lt of (uicide^ 



ing* aliv^ <mt0 the luinds of the infidels.^ I3ie ohap. 
prudent de^p^ of Constfuitiae cast away thej^^"^* 
purple : aaiidst the tuaadthe^fell by an unkaowji oeath^r 
hand^ and ki» body was.bmried uoder a mouQtiua^^^ , 
of the slain. After his dei^^ resistance and ordw'^*^ 
were no more : the Greeks fled towards the city ;«!», 
and many were pressed and stifled .^i the n«rrpw 
pass of thereof St JRomanus, The victorious; 
Turks rushed through the breaches of the inner 
wall; aad as they advanced into the streets, they 
were smkhi joined by their brethren, who had fore* 
ed the gate Phenar on the side of the harbour.^ 
In the first heat of their pursuit, about two thou*- 
sand christianswere put to the sword; but avarice 
soon prevailed over cruelty ; and the victors ac* 
knowledged, that they should immediately have 
given quarter, if the valour of the emperor and his 
chosen bands had not prqmred them for a simjilar 
opposition in every part of the capital. It was Loss of th^ 
thus, after a siege of fifty-three days, that Con^^Jjr* 
stantinople, which had defied the power of Chos* 
roes, the Ghagan, and the caliphs, was irretriev* 
ably subdued by the arms of Mahomet the se- 
cond. Her empire only had been subverted by 
the Latins; her religion was trampled in the 
dust by the Moslem conquerors/ 

' Leonardus Chiensis V917 properly observes, that the Turks, had 
they known the emperor, would 'have laboured to save and secure * 
captive so acceptiUde to ^e aultan* 

^ CantemuTy p. 9^. The christian ships in the mouth of the har« 
hour ha4 flankedand retarded this naval attack. 

' Chalcoeon^ylea most absurdly supposes that Constantinople waa 
sacked by the Asiatic?, in revenge for the ancient calamities of Troy ; 
and the grammarians of the fifteenth century are happy to melt down, 
the uncouth appellation of Turks, Into the more claai^c name of Tcugth 

q 4 


CH AF. The tidings of misfoitune fly wHh arflpid^iilif ; 
^ ^"^ yet sucli was tiie extent of Constatttinople, that 
the Turin the mopedistant quarters migbt prolongf sotne ino-» 
^itaft"^ ments the happy ignorance of their ruin* But 
Coiuniiiti. in ^\^ general consternation^ in the feelings of 
selfish or social anxiety^in the tumult and thnnder 
of the assault, a sleepleis night and morning must 
have elapsed : nor can I believe that many Gre*^ 
cian ladies were awakened by the janizaries from 
a sound and tranquil slumber. On the assurance 
of the public calamity, the houses and convents 
were instantly deserted ; and the tremblinginhabit» 
ants flocked together in the streets, like an herd 
of timid animals, as if accumulated weakness 
eould be productive of strength, or in the vain 
hope, that amid the crowd, each individual miglit 
be safe and invisible. From every part of the 
Oapital they flowed into the church of St. Sophia; 
In the space of an hour, the sanctuary, the choir, 
the nave, the upper and lower galleries, were filled 
with the multitude of fathers and husbands, of 
women and children, of priests, monks, and rdigi* 
ous virgins : the doors were barred on the inside, 
tod they sought protection from the sacred dome, 
which th^ had so lately abhorred as a profane 
and polluted edifice. Their confidence was 
1D:>unded on the prophecy of an enthusiast or im- 
postor, that one day the Turks would enter Con- 

' ^ Wben Cyras RUrprincd Babylon during the cdehnatloii of a festi- 
val, so vast W.1S the city, and so eareless were the inhabitants, that 
Audi time elapsed before the distant quarters knew that they were 
paptives (Herodotus, 1. i, c. 191), and (jRher (Annal. p. 78), whohf^ 
. ]|ttote4 from the prophet Jeremiah a passage of similar import* 


BtaDttnopk, and pursue the Romans as far as the chap. 
column of Constautine in the square before St> |'^^"'* 
Sophia ; but that this would be the term of their ^^"^'^ 
calamities: that an angel would descend from 
heaven, with a sword in his hand, and would 
deliver the empire, with that celestial weapon, to 
a poor man seated at the foot of the column. 
*f Tfdvt this sword,'" would he say, '* and avi nge 
*^ the people of the Lord." At these animating 
words, the Turks woiild instantly fly, and the 
victorious Romans would drive them from the 
West, and from all Anatolia, as far as the fron- 
tiers of Persia. It is on this occasion, that Du- 
cas, with some fancy and much trutb» upbraids 
the discord mid obstinacy of the Greeks. *' Had 
** thai angel appeared,** exclaims the historian, 
** had he offered to exterminate your foes if you 
** would consent . to the union of the church, 
^* even then, in that fatal moment, you would 
** have. rejected your safety, or have deceived 
♦* your God.* 

Whife they expected the descent of the tardy capHvityoi 
angel, the doors were broken with axes ; and as* '** * 
the Turks encountered no resistance, their blood- 
less hands were employed iu selecting and se« 
curing the multitude of their prisoners. Youth, 
beauty, and the appearanceof wealthy attrac ted 
their choice ; and the right of property was de« 

^ TUs lively description is extracted fiom Ducas (c. 39), who, tw«. 
years afterwards, was Hent ambaiisadui from the prince of Lesbos to the 
sultan (c. 44). Till Le&hos was subdued in 1463 (Phranza, 1. iii, c. 87), 
that island must have been full of the fugitives of Constant! 'lople, wb# 
ie]\gtiXeA to re;)eat, perha|Ni te #dorn, the tale of their miserj. 

^ ^ I^^'^^^-^^ 


CH A P. cid)ed amoi^ thcfms^lveB bya prioit fidzme, by per^ 
^^^^!!l ^^^ steengtli^ and bjrihe authority of commandL 
In the space of an hoiir, the male captives were 
bound with cords^-tiie females with theiF veils and 
girdles. The senators were linked with tbeir 
slaves ; the prelates,, with the porters of the 
chnrch ; and young meaof a plebeian class, with 
noble maids, whose faces had been invisible to the 
sun and their neatrest Idndred In< this common 
captivity, the ranks of society were confounded ; 
the ties of nature were cut asunder; and the inex- 
oraUe soldier was careless 6f the £B;dier^s groans, 
the tears of the mother, and the lamentations of 
the children. The loudest in their wailings were 
the nuns, who were torn from the altarwil^ naked 
bosoms, outstretched hands, and dishevelled hair: 
ahd we should piously beUeve, that few could be 
tempted to prefer the vigils of the haram to those 
of the monastery. Of these unfortunate Greeks, of 
these domestic animals, whole strings were rudely 
driven through the streets; and as the conquerors 
were eager to return for more prey, their trem- 
bling pace wasquickened with ^nenaces and bbws. 
At tbt same hour, a similar rapine was exercised 
in all the churches and monasteries, in all the pa^ 
laces and habitations of the capital ; nor could 
any palace, however sacred or sequestered, pro- 
tect the persons or the property of the Greeks. 
Above sixty thousand of this devoted people were 
transported from the city to the camp and fleet; 
exchanged or sold, according to the caprice or 
interest of their masters, and dispersed in remote 
servitude through the provinces of the Ottoman 


empire% Ammig tJiese we may notice some re* chap. 
mftflcftble characters. The historian Phranea, first ^^^"'* 
chamberlain and principal secretary^wasinvolired, 
with his family, in the common lot. Alter suf^ 
fering^ four months, the hardships of slavery, he 
recovered his freedom; in the ensuing winter he 
ventured to Adrianople, and ransomed his wife 
from the mir bcbshiy or master of horse ; but his 
two children, in the flower of youth and beauty^ 
had been seized for the use of Mahomet himself^ 
The daughter of Phranza died in the seraglio, 
perhaps a virgin ; his son, in the fifteenth year of 
his age, preferred death to infamy, and was stab* 
bed by the hand of Uie royal lover." A deed thus 
inhuman cannot surely be expiated by the taste 
and liberality with which he released a Grecian 
matron and her two daughters, on receiving a 
Latin ode fromPfaileIphus« who had chosen a wife 
in that noble famfily * The pride or cruelty of 
Mahomet would have been most sensibly gratified 
by the capture of a Roman legate ; but the dex- 
terity of cardinal Isidore eluded the search, and 
be escaped from Galata in a plebeian habit.' 

<",See Pbrafisa, 1. iiU e. 20* t\. Hit exprctslons are pdaltiv^t 
Ameras sua man^ jugulavit . • • * • volebftt enim co turpittr et nefarit 
abuti. Me miserum et infelicem. Yet he could only learn, f^om re* 
port» the Moody or impure scenes that were acted in the dark recesses 
of the seraglio. 

* See Tiraboschi (torn. Ti» p. i, p. tW) and Lancelpt (Mem. d« 
l*iuGadeiilie des Inscriptions* torn, x, p. 718). I should be curious to 
learn how be could praieiip the public enemy, whom he so often reviles 
as the most corrupt and inhuman of tyrants. 

' The ComroenUries of Pius ii suppose that he craftily placed 
his cardinal's hat on the head of a^orpse, which was cut off and «!• 
PQsed iti triuropby while the legate himself was boughit and delivered, 



CHAP. The chain and entrance of the outward harbour 
^^^'^ was still occupied by the Italian ships of mercban^ 

dise and war. They had signalised their valoiir 
in the si^e : they embraced the mpment of re- 
treat, while the Turkish mariners were dissipated 
in the pillage of the pity. When they hoisted 
sail, the (leach.was cpvered with a suppliant and 
lamentable crowd ; but the means of tranqxirta- 
tion were scanty : the Venetians, and Genoese 
selected their countrymen; and, notwithstandmg* 
• the fairest promises of the sultan, the inhabitants 
of Galata evacuated their houses, and embarked 
with their most precious effects. 
Amount of In the fall and the sack of great cities, an histo- 
* *^ rian is condemned to repeat the tale of uniform 
calamity : the same effects must be produced by 
the same passions ; and when those passions may 
be indulged without controul, small, alas! is the 
difference between civilized and savage man. 
Amidst the vague exclamations of bigotry and 
hatred^ the Turks are not accused of a wanton 
or immoderate effusion of christian blood ; but^ 
according to their maxims (the maxims of an- 
tiquity), the lives of the vanquished were for- 
feited; and the legitimate reward of the con- 
queror was derived from the service, the sale, or 
the ransom, of his captives of both sexes.' The 

as a captive of no value. The great Belgic Chronicle adorns his eaacpm 
vith new adventures, which he suppressed (says Spondanus* a. i>. 
144^9 No. 15; in his own letters, lest he should lose the merit and 
reward of suffering for Christ. 

' ■ Busbequius expatiates, with pleasure and applause, on the rights 
of war, and the use of slavery, among the ancients and the Turk'^ 
(de Legat* Turcica, epist* xii, p. 161). 


wealth of Constantinople had been wanted bythe chap. 
sultan to his victorious troops ; and the rapine of ^ 
an hour is more productive than the industry of 
years. Bat as no regular division was attempted 
of the spoils the respective shares were not deter- 
mined by merit ; and the rewards of valour were 
stolen away by the followers of the camp, who 
had declined the toil and danger of the battle. 
The narrative of their depredations could not 
afford either amusement or Instruction; the total 
amount, in the last poverty of the empire, has 
been valued at four millions of ducats;* and of' 
this sum a small part was the property of the 
Venetians, the Genoese, the Florentines, and the 
merchants of Ancona. Of these foreigners, the 
stock was improved in quick and perpetual cir- 
culation ; but the riches of the Greeks were dis- 
played in the idle ostentation of palaces and ward- 
robes, or deeply buried in treasures of ingots and 
old coin, lest it should be demanded at their hands 
for the defence of their country. The profana- 
tion and plunder of the monasteries and churches 
excited the most tragic complaints. The dome 
of St. Sophia itself, the earthly heaven, the se- 
cond firmament, the vehicle of the cherubim, the 
throne of the glory of God,^ was despoiled of the 
oblations of ages.; and the gold and silver, the 

* This sum is specified in a xnar^nal note pf Leunclavlus (Chfiico* 
condyles, 1. viii, p. 311); but, in the Uistribution to Venice, Genoa, 
Florence, and Aneoaa, of 50, 20, 20, and i5i000 ducats, I siispoqC 
that a figure has been dropt. Even with the restitution, the foreign 
property would scarcely exceed oiw-four.b. 

^ See thf «ntbuKiftiti^ pmim »d4 lain$fit«tioDfi 0C fhranzA ^. i|i, 
<^' 17). , . _ , 


CHAP, pearls siifl jewels^ the vases and sacerdotal oma* 
^^^"'* ments, were most wickedly converted to the ser- 
tvtn"-i^-» ^^^ ^^ mankind. Af^r the divine images had 

been strqq[)ed of all that could be valuable to a 
profane eye» the canvas^ or the wood^ was torn, 
or brol(fti» or bumt» or trod underfoot, or applied, 
in the sti^bles, qr the kitchen, to the vilest uses^ 
The example of sacrilege was imitated, however^ 
from the Latip conquercMrs of Constantinojple ; 
and the treatment which Christ, the virgin, atid 
the saints, had sustained from the guilty catho- 
lic might be inflicted by the zealous mussnlman 
on the monuments of idolatry. Perhaps, in- 
stead of joining the public clamour, a philosopher 
will observe, that in the decline of the arts, the 
workmanship could not be more valuable than 
the work, and that a fresh supply of visions and 
miracles would speedily be renewed by the craft 
oi the priest and the credulity of the people. 
He will more seriously deplore the loss of the 
Byzantine libraries, which were destroyed or 
scattered in the general confusion ; one hundred 
and twepty thousand manuscripts are said to 
have disappeared}'' ten vplumes might be pur* 
diased for a single ducat ; c^id the $ame igno- 
minious price, top high perhaps fpr a shelf of 
theplogy, included the whole works of Aristotle 
and Homer, the noblest productions of the science 
and literature of ancient Greece. We may re- 
flect, with plfs^ure, that an inestimable portion 

• See Dups (c. 43) and an epiade. fvly 15tb, 14^, (torn iMarus 
<|BiriMus to pope NieholM ?• (Hod^ fl« Ortteit, p. 192| from a mi. 
fx^ the Cotton ^itxrarjr). 


0f our daissic treaswes was ssfelj deposited in chap. 
Italy t and that die mechanics of a German town * 

had invented an art which derides the haYOc of 
time and barbarism. 

From the furst houi^ of the memorable twenty- Mahomei 
ninth of May, disorder and rapine prevailed in"ity*st, 
Constantinople, till the eighth hour of the same^^***^ 
day ; wben the sultan himself passed in triumph 
through *he gate of St Romanus. He was at- 
tended by his vizirs, bashaws, and guards, each 
of whom (says a Byzantine historian) was robust 
as Hercules, dexjtrous as Apollo, and equal in 
battle to any ten of the race of ordinary mortals. 
The conqueror^ gazed with satisfi^qtion and 
wonder on the strange, though splendid, appear* 
ance of the domes and palaces, so dissimilar 
from the style of Oriental architecture. In the 
hippodrome, or atmeidan, his eye was attracted 
by the twisted column of the three serpents | 
and, as a trial of his strength, he shattered with 
his iron mace, or battle-axe, the under*jaw of 
pne of these monsters,' which, in jthe eye of the 
Turks, were the idols or talismans of the city. 
At the principal door of St. Sophia, he alighted 
from his horse, and entered the dome ; and such 
was his jealous regard for that monument of his 
^lory^ that on observing a zealous mussulmaq 

' The Julian calendar, which reckxins the days and hours from mid* 
night, was used at Constantinople. But Ducas seems to understand 
the natural hours from sun-rise. 

* See the Turkish Annals, p. 329, and the Pandects of Leunclavius, 
If. 44S. 

^ I have had occasion (vol, iii, p. 22) to mention this curious relrc 
|f Grecian antiquitj^ 

J M»»%%%»%»» 

§40 TRB DVCLnrS and TAUh 

GHAP. In flie act of breaking the marble paveAient^ te 
^^^*"' adnionished him with his scymetar, that, if the 
spoil and captives were granted to the soldiers, 
the public and private buildings had been re« 
served for the prince. By bis command the 
metropolis of the Eastern church was trans* 
formed into a moscb : the rich and portable in- 
struments of superstition had been removed; 
the crosses were thrown down ; and tiie walls, 
which were covered with images and mosaics,^ 
were washed and purified, and restored to a state 
of naked simplicity. On the same day* or on the 
ensuing Fri<lay, the muezin, or crier, ascended 
the most lofty turret, and proclaimed the ezan, 
or public invitation in the name of God and his 
prophet ; the imam preached ; and Mahomet the 
second performed th^ namaz of prayer and thanks^ 
giving on the great altar, where the christian 
mysteries bad so lately been celebrated before 
the last of the Caesars,' From St. Sophia he 
proceeded to the august, but desolate, mansion 
of an hundred successors of the great Constan* 
tine, but which, in a few hpurs, had been stripped 
of the pomp pf royalty, A melancholy reflection 
on the vicissitudes of human greatness forced 
itself on his mind; and be repeated an. elegant 
distich of Persian poetry: *^ The spHer has 
^< wove his web in the imperial palace ; and the 

f Vfe are obliged to Cantemir (p. 102^ for the Turkish account of 
the conversion of St. So' hia« so bitterly deplored by Phranza and Du- 
cas. It is amusinflr enough to olxserve, in what opposite lights tb^ 
f9me olgect appears to a miissulman and it chnstian eye. 

^ owl hfttb ismigher watdi^smg on the tawer»of eHAP. 

¥et his mifid wm not satisfied, nor did the Hisi^iir 
victory ^eem complete, till he was informed of theo^S^I!** 
fate of ConstMrtine ; whether he had escaped^ o^ 
been made pri^opet, or had fallen in the battle. 
Two janizaries claimed the honour and reword 
of bis death t the body, under an heap of sjain, 
was discovered by the golden eagles embroid^ed 
on his^ shoes; the Greeks acknowledged with 
tears the head of their late emperor; and, after 
expoi^ng" the bloody trophy,^ Mahomet bestowed 
en his rival the honours of a decent funeral* 
After his decease, Lucas Notaras, great duke,*" 
and flr^ minister of the empire,, was the most 
important prisoner. When he offered bis persoft 
and his treasures at the foot of the throne, ** And 
«< why,'' said the indignant sultan^ ^* did you not 
•• employ these treasures in the defence of your 
« prince and country ?" •• They were yours,** 
answered the slave, ** God bad reserved them for 
** your bands." ^' If he reserved them for mey 
relied the despot, ** how have you presumed to 

* •this distich, which Cantetoir giv68 ill the original, defivednet^ 
beauties ftota the a|ypUeation. It was thus that ScipSo ttpnatud^ lA 
the sack of Carthage, the famous prophecy of Homer. The samt gff^ 
nerous feeling carried the mind of the conqueror to the past or the 

^ I CAtfnot believe whh Ducas (see SpondanuSf a. d^ 1453^ No 19^ 
that Mahomet sent round Persia, Arabia, &c. the head of the Greel^ ^ 

emperor: be would surety content himself witfi a tro{}hy less inhtf- 

^ Phranca ii^as the personal enemy of the great duke ; nor could 
time, or death, or his own retreat to a monastery, extort a feeling o( 
Mpapt^f ot forgivenessk Dtlcae is i&eUfted to praise and pity iM 
martyr ; Chalcocondyles is neuter, but we are mdebied to hjjn fo» 
the hint of the Greek conspif acy, 



c H AP. *^ with-hokl them so long by a fruitless and fatal 
LxviiL « resistance?" The great duke alleged the ofa. 
^stinacj of the strangers, and some secret encou- 
ragement from the Turkish vizir; and^ from 
thb perilous interview, he was at length dismissed 
with theassurance of pardon and protection. Ma- 
homet condescended to visit his wife» a venerable 
princessoppressed with sickness and grief; andhis 
consolation for her misfortunes was in the most 
tender strain of humanity and filial reverence. . A 
similar clemency was extended to the principal 
officers of state, of whom several were ransomed 
at his expence ; and during some days he de- 
clared himself the friend and father of the van- 
quished people. But the Scene was soon changed; 
andbeforebisdeparture, the hippodromestreamed 
with the blood of his noblest captives. His per- 
fidious cruelty is execrated by the christians: 
they adorn with the colours of heroic martyr- 
dom the execution of the^great duke and his two 
sons ; and his death is ascribed to the generous 
refusal of delivering his children to the tyrant's 
lust. Yet a Byzantine historian has dropt an 
unguarded word of conspiracy, deliverance, and 
Italian succour : such treason maybe gloricNJs; 
but the rebel who bravely ventures, has justly 
forfeited, his life ; nor should we blame a con- 
queror for destroying the enemies wht)m lie 
can no longer trust. On the eighteenth of 
June, the victorious sultan returned to Adria- 
nople ; and smiled at the base and hollow em- 
bassies of the christian princes, who viewed 

6i fHfi ItOfitAK £[MPlBfi; 243. 

their approaching ruin in the fall of the Eastdfn chap. 
empire. j^^S 

Constantinople ^had been left naked and de- He repeo. 
solate, without a prince or a people. But sh^^^^^J.*"^©!!. 
could not be despoiled-of the incomparable situa-.*t<»^nopi«; 
tion which markd her for the metropolis of sL 
great empire ; and the genius of the place will 
ever triumph over the accidents of time and for- 
tune. Boursa and Adrianopte, the ancient seats 
of the Ottomans, sunk into provmcial towns ; 
and Mahomet the second established hi^ own re- 
sidence, and that of his successors, on the same 
commanding spot which had been chosen by Con- 
stantine.' The fortifications of Galata, which, 
might affordasheltertothe Latins, were prudently 
destroyed ; but the damage of the Turkish can- 
non was soon repaired ; and before the month of 
August, great quantities of lime had been burnt 
for the restoration of the walls of the capital. 
As the entire property of the soil and buildings/ 
whether public or private, or profane or sacred, 
was now tranferred to the conqueror^ he first se- 
parated a space of eight furlongs from the point 
of the triangle forthe establishmentof his seraglio 
or palace. It is here^ in the bosom of luxury; 
that the grand signar (as he has been emphati-^ 

^ For the restitution of Constitntinople knd the Turkish foundations; 
see Cantemir (p. 102-109), Ducas (c. 42), with Thevenot, Tourne- 
Tort, and the resi of our modern travellers, trbid d gi^htic pictur^ 
of the greatness, population, &c. of Constantinople and the Ottoman 
taipire (Abreg^ de THistoire Ottomane. torn, i, p. 16-21), w« nay 
learn, that in the year 1586, the Moslems were less numerous in th4 
capital than the christians, or eveiuthe Jews. 

B 2 


CHAP, cally named by the liaMans) appears to re%ii o¥er 
Europe and Asia ; but bis person on the sbores 
c^ the Bos^icMrus may Dot always be secure firom 
the imults of an hostile navy. In the itew cfaa^ 
ractar of a moscb^ the cathedral of \St« Saphia 
was endowed with an ample revenue^ crowned 
with lofty minarets^ and surrounded with groves 
and fountains, for the devotion and refireshnoeni 
cf the Moslems The sme model waa imitated 
in the Jami or royal moscb^ ; and the first of these 
was built by Mahomet himsdf^ on the ruins of 
the church of the holy iqpostles and the tombs of 
the Greek emperors. On the third day aft^r the 
conquest, the grave of Abu Ayub» or Jdb^ who 
had fallen in the first siege of the Arabs» was re- 
vealed in a vision ; and it is before the sepulcbre 
of the martyr that the new sultai^ are girded I 
with the swwd of empire."^ Constantinople no 
longer appertains to the Roman bistCNrian ; nor | 
shall I enumerate the civil and rdigious edifices , 
that were profaned or erected by its Turkisti mas- I 
ters: the population was. iqief^y renewed ; and 
befcN^ the end of September, five thousand fa- I 
milies of Anat<^ and Bxanania had obegred the 
royal mandate, which eiyoined them, upder pain 
of death, to occupy thcsr new bahttntions in the 
capital. The throne of Mahomet was guarded 
by the numbers and fidelity ot his Mosknn sub- 
jects ; but his rational policy aspired to collect 

* The TSfrftet or aepulehral monument of Abu Afob^ is iuanbed 
and engrared in the Tableau General de l^mpife Ottomaa (Fkris, 
1787, in large folio), a work of le0»ino» ^lMp% Hkm mMfia&otstta 
(torn, i, p, 305, 306). 


or THC lOMAK XMPIftS^ 34S 

the remnant of the Greeks ; and they returned in chap* 
crowds as poon as they were assured of their live% ^^"^ 
their fiberties, and the free exercise of their reli» ^^^^ 
gion. In the election and investiture of a patri* 
arch, the ceremonial of the Byzantine court wa&i 
revived and imitated. With a mixture «^ satis* 
facticMi and horror, they beheld the sultan on his 
throne ; who delivered into the hands of Gen- 
na^us the crosier or pastoral staff, the symbol of 
his ecclesiastical office ; who conducted the pBiri^ 
arch to the gate x^ the seraglio, presented him 
with an horse richly caparisoned, and directed 
the vieirs. and bashaws to lead him to the palace 
which had been allotted for his residence.* The 
churches of Constantinople were shared between 
the two religions: their limits were marked; apd, 
till it was infringied by Selim, the grandson of 
Mahomet, the Greeks'" eivjoyed above sixty years 
the benefit of this equal partition. Encouraged 
by the ministers of the divan, who wished to 
elude the fanaticism of the sultan, the christian 
advocates presumed to allege that this division 
had been an act, not of generosity, but of justicS; 

•" Phrtoizft (]. iii# c. 10) rdfttet tlic eercmony, wlu(Bh hm potaiblf 
tiem adoRMd in the Greek reports to eaefa,othfer« Ukd to the LAdnc 
The fact Is confirmed bf Emanuel Malaxiu, wlia wrote, in vulgar 
Greek, the iiistory of the paAriarehs HfUr the taking of Conitantinople^ 
Inaerted in the Tureo-Grccia of Ck-uihis 0* v, p. 106*164), But the 
most patient retider wiU not believe that Mahomet adopted the Ca/» 
thoUc faaHf ** Sancta Trinitas quit nihi donairit imperium te in pa^- 
*< triarcham novae Kom^ deligit.^ 

* From the Torco-Grscia' of CrusiuS| &,c. Spondanus (a. s. 1453, 
No. 21, 1458, No. 16) describes the slavery and domestic quarrels of 
the Gredt church. The patriarch who succeeded Gennadiulf threw 
himself in des^ir into a wall. 

11 3 


CHAP, not a concession, but a compact ; and that if one 

. * half of the city had been taken by storm, the 

other moiety had surrendered on the faith of a 
sacred capitulation. The original grant had in- 
deed beA consumed by fire ; but the loss was 
supplied by the testimony of three aged Janiza- 
ries who ifemembered the transaction ; and their 
venal oaths are of more weight in the o^nion oi 
Cantemir, than the positive and unaninious con- 
sent of the history of the times.^ 
Extinction The remaininjef fragments of the Greek king- 
periairomi-dom in Europe and Asia I shall abandon to the 
n^^^' Turkish arms ; but the final extinction of the tiro 
Pateoio. last dynasties^ which have reigned in Constan- 
tinople, should terminate the decline and fall of 
the Roman empire in the East. The despots of 
the Morea, Demetrius and Thomas,*" the two 
surviving brothers of the' name oi PaUeologuSy 

9 Cantemir (p. 101-105) insists on the unanimous consent of the 
Turkish historians, ancient as well as modern, and argues, thai they 
would not have violated the truth to diminish their ' national glor^, 
-since it is esteemed more honourable to take a city by forte than by 
otmposition. But, 1. I doubt this consent, since he quotes no parti- 
cular historian* and the Turkish annals of Letindavius affirm* with- 
out exception* that Mahomet took Constantinople per vim (p. 329). 
% The same argument may be turned in favour of the Greeks of the 
timesy who would not' have forgotten ' this honourable and salutaij 
treaty. Voltaire, as usual, prefers the Turks to the christians. 

4 For the genealogy and -fall of the dbmneni of Trebizond see Du. 
eange (Fam.^Byzant.'p. 19d); for the last Paleolog^V the same accu- 
rate antiquarian (p. 244, 247, 249). The Palseologl of Montferrat 
. were not «xtinct till the next century I but they had forgotten their 
Greek origin and kindred. 

« In the worthless story of the disputes and misfortunes of the twe 
brothers, Phranza (L iii, c. 21-^0) is too partial on the side of Tho- 
inas ; ^ucas (c. 44, 45) is too brief, and Cbalcocondyles^ 0. viii, ix, 
x) too dif!\ise and digressive. ' 


were astonished by the death of the emperor Con- chap. 
stantine, and the ruin of the monarchy. Hopeless ^-^^*^'* 
of defence, they prepared, with the noble Greeks 
Mrho adhered to their fortune, to seek a refuge in 
Italy, beyond the reach of the Ottoman thunder. 
Their first apprehensions were dispelled by the 
victorious sultan, who contented himself with a 
tribute of twelve thousand ducats ; and while his 
ambition explored the continent and the islands 
in search of prey, he indulged the Morea in a re* 
spite of seven years. But this respite was a period 
of grief, discord, and misery. The hexamiliim^ 
tbe rampart of the isthmus, so often raised and so 
often subverted, could not long be defended by 
three hundred Italian archers ; the keys of Co- 
rinth were seized by the Turks ; they returned 
from their summer excursions with a train of 
captives and spoil ; and the complaints of the in- 
jured Greeks were heard with indifference and 
disdain. The Albanians, a vagrant tribe of shep- 
herds and robbers, filled the peninsula with ra- 
pine and murder ; the two despots implored the 
dangerous and humiliating aid of a neighbouring 
bashaw ; and when he had quelled* the revolt, his 
lessons inculcated the rule of their future conduct. 
Neither the ties of blood, nor tbe oaths which 
they repeatedly pledged in the communion and be- 
fore thealtar,nor the stronger pressure of necessity, 
• could reconcile or suspend their domesticquarrels. 
They. ravaged each other's patrimony with fire' 
and sword : the alms and succours of the West 
were consumed in civil hostility ; and their power 
was only exerted in savage and arbitrary execu- 

R 4 

CHAP, tions. The distress and rereage of the weaker 
^^^"; rival iDvoked their supreme lerd; and, ia tiie 
LoM af thesaasoD of ouitttrity and ra veaget Mduxoet dedar- 
rru6o^e<l himself the friend of Demetrius, and mareboi 
into the Morea with an irresbtible force. When 
he had taken possession of Sparta» ^ You are too 
<' wealc,'' said the sultan, *^ to controi this tttr- 
<' bulent province : I will take your daughter to 
<< mf bed ; and you shall pass the remainder of 
** youc life in security and honour." Demetnus 
sighed and otieyed ; surrendered his daughter and 
his castles ; followed to Adrianople his sovereign 
and son ; and received for his own maintenance, 
and that of his followers, a city in Thrace» and 
the adjacent isles of Imbros, Lemnbs, and Samo- 
thrace. He was joined the next year by a com- 
panion of misfortune, the last of the Comnenian 
race, who, after the taking of Constantinople by 
the Latins, had founded a new empire on the 
eoast of the Black sea.' In the progress of his 
Anatolian conque$ts, Mahomet invested with a 
fleet and army the capital of David, who pre- 
sumed to style himself emperor of Trebizond;* 
and the negociation was comprised in a short and 
j^remptory question, ♦* Will you secure your life 

* See the loss or conquest of Trebizond in Chalcocondyles (1. iz, p. 
26S-866), Ducas (c. 45), Phranza (I, ili, c. 27). and Cfantemir (p. 107). 
'^ * Though Tournefort (torn. iii» lettre xvii, p« 179) iqiealw of Tre- 
hisond as mal peuplee, Peyssonel, the latest and most accvmte oh- 
6erver» can find 100,000 inhabitants (Commerce de la Mer Noire, 
torn, ii, p. 72, and for the province, p. 5S-00). Itp prosperity and 
inde are perpetually disturbed t>y the factious quarrels of two odat 
pt janizaries, in one of which 30,000 X.azi are commonly enrolled 
^Memolres de Tott, torn, ili, p. 16, 17). 


^^ aad treasui<ies by reigning your kingdom ? or chap. 
f* had you i^her forfeit your kingdom^ your J]|^^[JJ^ 
^' treMtires, «nd jour life ?'' The feeble Comue* 
iras W46 si^ued by bis own fears» and the ex* 
ample of a mui^sulinui neighbour, the prince o[ 
Siaope^"^ who, on a similar summons^ had yield* 
ed a £9rtifi^ city with four hundred cadnon 
aad tea or twelve thousand soldiers. The capi*ofTrebi- 
tulatioB q£ Trebizond was faithfully performed ;1°^ i46L 
wad the emperor^ with his family, was transported 
to a castle in Romania ; but on a slight suspidoa 
(^ correapondiog with the Persian king, Darid^ 
and the whole Gomnenian race, were sacrificed to 
the jeaiousy or avarice of the conqueror. Nor 
could the name of father long protect the unfor* 
tunate Demetrius from exile and confiscation ; 
his abject submission moved the pity and con* 
tempt of the sultan ; his followers were trans* 
planted to Constantinople ; and his poverty was 
alleviated by a pension of fifty thousand aspers^ 
till a monastic habit and a tardy death released 
Pala^ologus from an earthly master. It is not 
easy to pronounce whether the servitude of De- 
metrius, or the exile of his brother Thomas,* 
be the most inglorious. On the conquest of the 

^ Ismael Beg» prince of Sinope or Sinople, was possessed (chiefly 
from bis copper mines) of the revenue of 200*000 ducats (Chalcocond. 
I* ix, pu 258« 269)» f eyssonel (Commerce de la Mer Noire, torn, li^ ' 

p. 100) ascribes to the modern city 60,000 inhabitants. This account 
seems enormous ; yet it Is by trading with a people that we become 
acquainted with their wealth and numbers* 

* Spondanns (from Oobelin Comment. Pii ii, L v) relates the «r« 
jrival and reception of tlw 4e^t Thom^i at Rcane (v •» IW, K«» 9» 


CHAP. Mbrea, the despot escaped to Corfu, and from 
''^l^^ thence to Italy, with some naked adherents : his 
name, his sufferings, and the head of th^ apostle 
St. Andrew, entitled him to the hospitality of 
the Vatican ; and his misery was prolonged by a 
pension of six thousand ducats from the pope 
and cardinals. His two sons, Andrew and Ma* 
nuel, were educated in Italy; but the eldest, con* 
temptible to his enemies and burthensome to his 
friends, was degraded by the baseness of his life 
and marriage. A title was his sole inheritance ; 
and that inheritance he successively sold to the 
kings of France and Arragon.' During^ this 
transient prosperity, Charles the eighth was 
ambitious of joining the empire of the East with 
the kingdom of Naples ; in a public festival, 
he assumed the appellation and the purple of 
Augustus : the Greeks rejoiced, and the Ottoman 
already trembled at the approach of the French 
chivalry.* Manuel Palaeologus, the second son, 
was tempted to revisit his native country : bis 
return might be grateful, and could not be dan- 
gerous, to the porte : he was maintained at Con- 

' Bf an act, dated a. ]». 1494, Sept. 6, aad lately transmitted from 
the archives of the Capitol to the royal library of Paris, the despot 
Andrew Palaologus, reserving the Morea« and stipulating some pri- 
vate advantages, conveys to Charles riii, king of Prance, the empires 
of Constantinople and Trebizond (Spondanus, a. d. 1495, No. ?> 
M. de Foncemagne (Mem. de rAcademie des Inscriptions, torn, xvii, 
p. 539*578) has bestowed a Dissertation on this national title, of 
which tie had obtained a copy from Rome. 

* See Philippe de Comines (1. vii, c. 14), who reckons with plea- 
^re the nmnber of Greeks who were prepared to rise, 60 miles of an 
easy navigation, eighteen days journey from Valona to Constanti- 
nople, ftc. On this occasion the Turkish empire was saved by the 
policy of Venice. 


stantinople in safety and ease; and an honour- chap. 
able train of christians and Moslems attended ^^^^'" 
him to the grave. If there be some animals of so 
generous a nature that they refuse to propagate 
in a domestic state, the last of the imperial race 
must be ascribed to an inferior kind ; he accept- 
ed from the sultan's liberality two beautiful fe- 
males ; and his surviving son was lost in the ha^ 
bit and religion of a Turkish slave. 

The importance of Constantinople was felt andoriefana 
magnified in its loss : the pontificate of Nicholas ^^J^ 
the fifth, however peaceful and prosperous, was^-**^*^ 
dishonoured by the fall of the Eastern empire ; 
and the grief and terror of the Latins revived, 
or seemed to revive, the old enthusiasm of the 
crusades. In one of the most distant countries of 
the West, Philip duke of Burgundy entertained, 
at Lisle in Flanders, an assem])ly of his nobles ; 
and the pompous pageants of the feast were skil- 
fully adapted to their fancy and feelings.* In 
the midst of the banquet, a gigantic Saracen en- 
tered the hall, leading a fictitious elephant, with 
a castle on his back ; a matron in a mourning 
robe, the symbol of religion, was seen to issue 
i^om the castle ; she deplored her oppression, and 
accused the slowness of her champions ; the prin- 
cipal herald of the golden fleece advance^ bear- 

* See the original feast in Oliver de la Marche'(Mexnoire9» p. 1« 
c 29, soy, with the abstract and observations of M. de Ste. Palay^ 
(Memoires sur la Chevalerie, torn, i, p. iji, p. 182-185). The pea« 
cook and^tbe pheasaat weire diBtittguished as royal birds. 


CHAF. iag on his fist a live pheasant, which, according 
to the rites of chivaliTy be presented to the duke* 
At this extraordinary summons, Philip, a wise 
aad aged prince, engaged his person and powers 
in the holy war against the Turks : his example 
was imitated by the barons and knights of the 
asseEobly: they swore to God, the virgin, the 
ladies, aad the pheasant; and then* particular 
vows were not less extravagant than the general 
sanction of their oath. But the performance was 
made to depend on some future and foreign con-« 
tingency ; and, dining twelve years, till the last 
hour of his life, the duke of Burgiindy might be 
scrupulously, and perhaps sincerely, on the eve of 
hi$ departure. Had every breast glowed with 
the same ardour ; had the union of the christian^ 
corresponded with their bravery; Imd every coun? 
try, from Sweden^ to Naples, siq>plied a just 
proportion of cavalry and infantry, of men and 
money, it is indeed probable that Constantinople 
woald have been delivered, and that the Turks 
might have been chased beyond the Hellespont 
or the Euphrates. But the secretary of the em^ 
percH*, who composed every epistle, and attended 
every meeting, Mneas Sylvius,"" a statesnuui and 

* It was found hj an actual enttmeration^ that Swedes, Gothlami^ 
and Finland, contained 1,800,000 fighting men, and consequently 
were far more populous than at present. 

• In the year 1454 Spondaoua has given, iron Mnea» Sylvius, a 
view of the aute of Europe, enriched with his oirn ob0er▼ationl^ 
l^bat valuable annalist, and the Italian Muratori, will eoatinue the 
aeries of events from the year 14^ to 1481, th« end of Mahoo^tV 
rife, and of this chapter. 


onto", describes ffom his own experience the re^ chap. 
pugnant state and sjHrit of Christendom. ** It is a ^^^ ^'^ 
« body," says he^ " without an head ; a republic *** 
*' without laws or magistrates. The pope and the 
^' enifieror may shine as lofty titles^ as splendid 
^' images ; but they are unable to command, and 
^^ none are willing to obey : every state has a se* 
^* parate inince, and every prince has a separate 
^ interest. What eloquence could unite so many 
'^ discordant and hostile powers under the same 
« standard ? Could they be assembled in arms^ 
^< who would dare to assume the office of ge^ 
^ neral ? What order could be maintained ?-— 
'^ what miUtary discipline ? Who would under* 
^ take to feed such an encnrmaus multitude ? 
^ Wbowould understand their various langui^s^ 
^ €g direct their stranger and incompatible man« 
ners ? What mortal could reconcile the Eng^ 
^ lish with the French, Genoa with Arragon^ 
** the Cierntans with the natives of Hungary and 
^ Bohemia ? If a small number enlisted in the 
« hoty war, they must be overthrown by the infi-^ 
" dels ; if many, by their own weight and con- 
'* fusion.** Yet the same iEneas, when he was 
raised to the papal throne, under the name of 
Pius the second, devoted his life to the prosecu- 
tion of the Turkish war« In the council of 
Mantua he excited some sparks of a false or 
feeble enthusiasm; but when the pontiff appear- 
ed at Ancona^ to embark in person with the 
troops^ engagements vanished in excuses ; a pre* 



CHAP, cise day was adjourned to an indefinite terni; 
LxvuL ^^^ i^jg eflFective army consisted of some Ger- 

man pilgrims, whom he was obliged ta disband 
with indulgences and alms. Regardless of fu- 
turity, his successors and the powers of Italy 
were involved in the schemes of present and de- 
mestic ambition ; and the distance or proximity 
of each object determined^ in their eyes, its ap- 
parent magnitude. A more enlarged view of 
their interest would have taught them to main- 
tain a defensive and naval war against the com- 
mon enemy : and the support of Scanderbeg and 
bis brave Albanians might have prevented the 
subsequent invasion of the kingdom of Naples. 
The siege arid sack of Otranto by the Turks 
diffused a general consternation ; and pope Six- 
tus was preparing to fly beyond the Alps, when 
Bwthof the storm was instantly dispelled by the death 
„, ™ of Mahomet the second, in the fifty *first year of 
Ma°* sVr* ^^^ ^S^'^ His lofty genius aspired to the con- 
"luiy 2. quest of Italy : he was possessed of a strong 
city and a capacious harbour; and the same 

* Besides the ttro annalists, the reader may consult Giannone (Is- 
toria Civile, torn, iii, p. 449-455) for the Turkish invasion of the 
kingdom of Naples. For the reign and conquests of Mahomet ii, I 
have occasionally used the M emoire Istoriche de Monarch! Ottoman- 
ni di Giovanni Sagredo (Venezia, 1677, in 4to). In peace and war, 
the "turks have ever engaged the attention of the republic of Venice. 
All her dispatches and archives were open to a procurator of St. 
Mark, and Sagredo is not contemptible either in sense or style. Yet 
he too bitterly hates the infidels ; he is ignorant of their language and 
manners ; and his narrative, which allows only seventy pages to Ma<i 
hornet XX (p. 69-140/, becomes more copious and authentic as he ap- 
proaches the years 1640 and 1644, the term of the historic labours ct 
John Sagrede. 


reign might have been decorated with the tro- chaf. 
phles of the New and the Ancient Rome.^ lxviil 

* As I am now taking an everlasting farewell of the Greek empire^ 
I shaU briefly mention the great collection of Byzantine writers, 
'Whose names and testimonies have been successively repeated in tUs 
work. The Greek presses of Aldus and the Italians were confined to 
the classics of a better age ; and the first rude editions of Procopius, 
Agathiasy Cedrenus, Zonaras, &c. were published by the learned dili« 
geiice of the Germans. The whole Byzantine series <36 volumes in 
^folio) has gradually issued < a. d. 1643, &c.) from the royal press of 
the Louvre, with some collateral aid from Rome and Leipsic ; but the 
Venetian edition (a. d. 1129), thou^ cheaper and more copious, is not 
less inferior in correctness than in magnificence to that of Paris. The 
merits of the French editors are various ; but the value of Anna Com« 
nena, Cinnamus, ViUehardouio, &c. is enhanced by the historical 
notes of Charles du Fresne du Cange. His supplemental works, the 
Graek Glossary, the Constantin(^lis Christiana, the Familiae ByEan* 
tin8e,dii!Vise a steady light over the darkness of the Lower Empire. 



State of Rome from the tweiftk century. *-^Tempiff A 
domimon of the popes^'-^SedUions of the diy^ — PO' 
litical heresy of Atnoid of Brrstia* — RestaraHon of 
the republic. — The senators, — Prafe of the Rontons. 
Their wars^ — They are deprived of the eketiou imi 
presence of the popes, who rethe to A'dgnan.-^The 
jubilee. — Noble famlks of Rome. — Feud of the Co* 
Unma and Urum* 

CHAP. In the first ages of the decline and fell of the 
LXix^ Roman empire, our eye is invariably fixed on the 
State and royal city, which had given laws to the fairest 
l^Romcrportion of the globe. We contemplate her for- 
'•^ii^>^ tunes, at first with admiration,at length with pity, 
always with attentioi;i ;.and when that attention 
is diverted from the capitol to the provinces, they 
are considered as so many branches which have 
been successively severed from the imperial trunk. 
The foundation of a second Rome on the shores 
of the Bosphorus has compelled the historian to 
follow the successors of Constantine ; and our cu- 
riosity has been tempted to visit the most remote 
countries of Europe and Asia, to explore the 
causes and the authors of the long decay of the 
Byzantine monarchy. By the conquest of Justi- 
nian, we have been recalled to the banks of the 
Tyber, to the deliverance of the ancient metro- 
polis ; but that deliverance was a, change, or per- 
haps aa aggravation, of servitude. Rome bad 

%%%«»%.«> Vk 


been already stripped of her trophies^ her gods, chap, 
and her Caesars ; nor was the Gothic dominion ^'^^^ 
more inglo];ious and oppressive than tfcie tyranny 
of the Greeks. In the eighth century of the 
christian era, a religious quarrel, the worship of 
images, provoked the Romans to assert their in- 
dependence : their bishop became the temporal, 
as well as the spiritual, father of a free people ; 
and of the western empire, which was restcnred 
by Charlemagne, the title and image still deeorate 
the singular constitution of modem Gtermany. 
The name of Rome must yet command our in- 
voluntary respect 5 the climate (whatsoever, may 
be its influence) was no longer the same :' the 
purity of blood had been contaminated through 
a thousand channels; but the venerable aspect of 
her ruins, and the memory of past greatness, re- 
kindled, a spark of the national character. The 
darkness of the middle ages exhibits some scenes 
not unworthy of our notice. Nor shall I dismiss 
the present work till I have reviewed the state 
and revolutions of the Roman city, which ac- 
quiesced under the absolute dominion of the 
popes, about the same time that Constantinople 
was enslaved by the Turkish arms. 

* The Abi)^ Dubos, who, with less genius than his successor Mon- 
tesquieu* has asserted and magnified the influence of climate, objects 
to himself the degeneracy of the Romans and Batavians. To the 
first of these examples he replies, 1. That the change is less real than 
apparent, and that the modern Romans prudently conceal m them- 
selves the virtues of their ancestolis. 3. That the air, the soil, and 
the climate, of Rome have suffered a great and visible alteration (Re- 
jections sur la Poesie et sur la Peinture^ part ii, sec. 16). 

VOL. XII. * 

CHAP, fn tbe begintiing of thte twdlMk cetttttiy,^ t*ft 
^'^^ €fra of the first •crusade, Rdme Mrlis revered 1>y the 
The ^ LatkiSy fts the toetrc^tii^ oif the W<Aid, as the 
|[|]2^r- throne of the pope afld the emp^ofir ; who, from 
™*° «"- the eternal city, derived their title, theSr troiio&rs, 
Borne, and the rigfit or e^^^dse of temporal docoStoson. 
noa^^^^^ After so 4ong aii1iiterr«{ftion, itmaiy notteu^eless 
to I'e^peat that the duck^essofrs <)f Chai4eiMgiie and 
llhe Othos were <%o6en beyond l^e IKlhine in & 
M^nal fliet; bntthat^hesey^lnd^tti^^ eoatent 
widh the humble names 'cff kings ^ 6er«i»iy and 
Italy, till they had passed the Alps a»d Ibe Apen- 
nine, to seek their imperinfl crown oh the banks 
of *the Tyber.*' At some di^ahde fi*oin the city, 
lihelr approach was saluted by a long pirooession 
of -the dlergy and people vAth palms »^m1 crosses; 
«nd the terrific emblems of Wolves and 4ktt[s, d 
dragons and eagles, that floated in ^6 m^itary 
4>anners, represented *he departed )eg$<ff£5 ai^ 
cohorts of the itepublk. The royitl oaKfc to main- 
tain the Ifee^es of Home wals tlirtte <reft€frated, 
at the bridge, the gate, EttiA cki the staiars cC Hbe 
Vatican ; and the dii^ributicto of k k^u^^maiy 
donative feebly imitated^the magfAfid€^fiK5e of t^e 
first Caesars. In the churcb ctf St. 'Pefter, lie 

^ The reader has been so long absent from Rome, that I would ad- 
vise him to recollect or review the forty-ninth chapter, in the ninth 
volume of this history. 

<* Tht coronation of the German emperors at Home, more especiallj 
in the eleventh cetitury, is best represented from the originiGUl monu- 
ments by Muratori f Antiquitat. Italise medii ^vi, torn, i, dissertat. 
ii, p. 99, &c.) and Cenni (Monument. Domin. Pontiff, torn, ii, diss, 
vi, p. 361), the latter of whom I only know from the copious extract, 
ef Schmidt (Hist, deft AUemands, torn* lii| p. 26&i9d6). 

%%»%%%v% » % 

OP VKE ROMAN fiMFI««* ^ Sir9 

t<»*o»atifDa woB pedbrHV^ by his ^successor : the ghap. 

voice of God was coRfeuHded with that of the ^^'*' 

|>eeple ; and the ^public oonsent was declared in 

the acciamatieii^ o^ ^^ Lon^ life aiul victory Co 

*^ ^m i^rti the {^opel LoBg Ufa aad victory t^ 

** our lord the emperor ! LoBg life and victory 

** to the Roman ^nfd Teutonic armies !"* The 

Q^HieB of C»ilar and Angastus^ the laws of Com- 

stantijie and jiistinkia» the exaK){)le of Chark- 

jiifaghe IiimI Oth<H et^tabtisfaed the svpreine domi^ 

HMq ti£ the e«n;^rof8 ; their title a^ image was 

etig'rated ob the |>a|>al och^is ;'' and their jurisdio 

tioM *WM inarfced by the sword of jiistice, which 

they delivered to the prefect of the oity. Bvt 

every il4)matt pr^udice was awakened by the 

nante, the language, and Hke tnanners, of a bar- 

bariati i&td. The Caesars of Saxony or Franoenia 

wete the chiefs^ a feudal aristocracy; nor co^ld 

they exercise the discipline of civil and Hiilitarjr 

power, lirWch alone secures the obedience of a 

distant people, impatient of servitude, though 

perhaps incapafble 6{ freedom* OnCe, and once 

only, in his life, each emperor, with -an army 6f 

Teutonfc vassals, descended frotn the Alps A' I 

have described the peaceful ordeo* of his entry asid 

oaronlitieki ; but tibat order Was c(»nm0iily dis- 

* Exercitui Amnano et Teutonico ! The latter was both aten and 
felt ; but the former was no more thatti magni nonrinis umbra. 

« MursiUfri hm g!ven llife -series of the papid •€oIas (AW^qoittft. tdii. 
it, disb. TxWh W' ^48^564). tie ^nds only two M6re ^aHy thaKi the 
year 800 : fifty are still extant from Leo iix to Leo ix, with addition 
of tfife rei^rnSng emperor ; none temahi of Oregory ^m, or toWn « ; 
bttt iti niftee«£l*uc;M »« ^e fieemi to have reaowioed tlxis Udge oC 

s 2 


286 fUB DECLlNft AN1> t?ALL 

CH Ajp. turbed by the clamour and sedition of the Romans; 
who encountered their sovereign as a foreign in- 
vader: his departure was always speedy, and 
often shameful ; and, in the absence of a iong 
r reign, his authority was insulted and bis name 

was forgotten. The progress of independence in 
Germany and Italy undermined the foundations 
of the imperial sovereignty, and the triumph of 
the popes was the deliverance of Rome. 
Authority Of her two sovereigns, the emperor had pre- 
po^in cariously reigned by the right of conquest ; but 
**>"«» the authority of the popes was founded on the soft, 
though mpre solid, basis of opinion and habit. 
The removal of a foreign influence restored and 
endeared the shepherd to his flock. Instead of 
the arbitrary or venal nomination of a German 
court, the vicar oi Christ was freely chosen by the 
college of cardinals, most of whom were either 
from af. natives or inhabitants of the city. The applause • 
fection ; ^f ^j^^ magistrates and people confirmed his elec- 
tion ; and the ecclesiastical power that was obey- 
ed in Sweden and Britain had been ultimately 
derived from the suffrage of the Romans. The 
saffie suffrage gave a prince, as well as a pontiff*, 
to the capital. It was universally believed, that 
Constantine had invested the popes with a tempo- 
ral dominion of Rome ; and the boldest civilians, 
the mostprophane sceptics, were satisfied with dis- 
puting the right of the emperor and the validity 
* of his gift. The truth of the fact, the authenticity 
1| of his donation, was deeply rooted in the ignorance 

'"^^ and tradition of four centuries; and the fabulous 
origin was lost in the real and permanent effects. 


The name of dominus or lord was inscribed on chap. 

' LXIX* 

the coin of the bishops : iheir title was acknow- 
ledged by acclamations and oaths of allegiance; right; 
and with the free, or reluctant consent of the 
German Caesars, they had long exercised a su-f 
preme or subordinate jurisdiction over the city ^ 

aqd patrimony of St. Peter. The reign of the 
popes, which gratified the prejudices, was not 
incompatible with the liberties, of Rome ; and a 
more critical enquiry would have revealed a still 
nobler source of their power ; the gratitude of 
9 nation, whom they had rescued from the heresy 
^nd oppression^f the Greek tyrant. In an age of . 
superstition, it should seem that the union of the 
royal and sacerdotal characters would mutually 
fortify each other ; and that the k^ys of paradise 
would be th^ surest pledge of earthly obedience. 
The sanctiity of the office might indeed be degrad- 
. ed by the personal vices of the man ; but the scan-^ J^'^e * 
dais of the tentb^entury were obliterated by the 
austere and more dangerous virtues of Gregory 
the seventh^and his successors ; and in the am- 
bitious contests which they maintained for the 
rights of the church, their sufterings or their 
success must equally tend to increase the popular 
veneration. They sometimes wandered in pover* 
ty and exile, the victims of persecution ; and the 
apostolic zeal witl| which they offered themselves 
to martyrdom must engage the favour and sym-r ' 
pathy of every catholic breast. And sometimes, 
timndering from the Vatican, they created, judged, 
and deposed the kings of the world : nor could the 
proudest Roman be disgraced by submitting to a 

S3 '' ' 


rf>/LP. priecrt, whose feet were kissed^ aad whomstbnrmf 
wa» keW by the successors of Cbajrlesiagne.- 
Even the temporal interest of the city shu^ld hare 
protected in peace and honour the resi^ace of 
the popes ; from whence a ¥ain and lazy people 
derived the greatest part of their subsisteiice an^ 
benefits ; richcs. The fixed revanue of the popes was pro- 
bably impaired : many of the old patrimoraa} 
estates, both in Italy and the provinces, hadbeea 
invaded by sacrilegious hands; nor could tbe 
loss be compensated by the claim, rather than the 
possession, of the more ample gifts of Pepin and 
his descendants. But the Yatiean and capites 
were nourished by the incessant and enereasing 
swarms of pilgrims and suppliants; the psde of 
Christianity was enlarged, and the pope and car- 
dinals were overwhelmed by the judgment of 
ecclesiastical and secular causes. A new juris- 
prudence had established in the Latin church 
the right and practice of appeals ;* and,, from the 
north and west, the bishops and abbots were 
invited or summoned to solicit, to complain, 
to accuse, or to justify, before the threshold of 

' See Ducan£^, Gloss, medise et mSmm LaUnitat. torn. vU p« 364, 
S65. Staffa* This homage was paid by kings to archbishops, and 
^y vassalsj to their lords (Schmidt, torn, iii, p. 262) ; and it was the 
nicest policy of Rome to confound the marks of filial aj^ of feudal 

» The appeals from all the churches to the Roman pontiff are de« 
plored by the zeal of St. Bernard (de Consideratione, k iii^^ ton. \U p. 
431*448, edit. Mabillon, Venet* 1750) and the judgment of Fleury 
(Discours sur I'Hist. Ecclesiastique, iv and vii). ^ut the saint, who 
Ibelieved in the false decretals, condemns on^ the abuse of these ap- 
peals s the more enlightened hiatorian investigatea the •Eigiy, and re< 
jects the principles, of this new jurisprudence. 

09^ IIHB 90HAN H^li^IRIk 903 

the apes^l^s. A if^x^ pi^o^JgJ i^ once FecordM>. (^bap. 
that twot)i0FS€S» beloiigiiig to the aiK^hbiishQp^ o£ ^^^ 
Men^Z' and Cojogne, repassed the Alps^ yet ladei^ 
wijbb goldi i^jp^d si^er :^ but it was socm ujidierstood» 
th^t th^ siusce^ bptbof th^ pilgifims ^^d clkntSji 
depended wu^^ Ies6 on the Jjjustice of their cause 
thaik OIK %h^ "^alne of tb^ir ofli^riiig. The wealth 
^n^ piety og tlpi^se stifacgers were ,09tenta,tiomsl]^ 
di&playedf ; a^ thei^ expeaces*, sacred or pro&ne, 
<:vrciAlated| upt vanipuschaiMiels for the emolument 
of tli^ I^<waRs. 

^cK pai^^cM B^otives shoi4d have fimalyiQconstan- 
attach^ the volunt^try a^A pious obedience of^k^uuoD. 
the Rovan peic^le to their spiritual and temporal 
father, jp^t th/» ^.eratioa of pi^ejudice and ixv- ^ 
teres^ J^ 9^%^ di^tur^ed \^y the salUes of ungOr 
venalile paQsjof^ The Indian who feU^ the tree, 
that k^ in^ ga4;her the fruM>* and iha Ar^ who 
SluAders th^ c^r^vans of coEuneirce* a^e actuated 
by th^ saiipbe impulse of savage nature, which over^ 
looH^ tbe fixture in the present^ and relinquishes 
for moi:nei^tary ra^^ne tt^ long and secure posses- 
sion of the na^st ing^ortant blessings^ A^d it was 
thiiis that the shrike of St. Peter was profaned 
by the thoij^htless Romaics ; who piUsaged the 
offerings^ and wounded Hhe pilgrims^ without 

^ Germanici . . . ^ summarii non ievatis sarcjnis onusti nihilominus 
repatriant invitL No^a res ! quando hactenus aurum Roma refudit ? 
£t nunc Bpmanorum consilio id usurpatum non credimus (Bernard 
de Consideratipne, 1. Hi, c. 3, p. 437). The first words of the passage 
fiire obscure, and probahlj corrupt. 

i Quand les sauvages de la Lpuisiane v^ulent avoir du ficuit. Us cou* 
pent Tarbre au pied et cueillent le fioit. Voila le gouvemement des* 
potique (Esprit des holi^, U v, c. 13) ; ^d pasdion ftnd ignorance are 
always despotic. 

s 4 


CHAP, computing the number and value of similar visits, 
^^ which they prevented by their inhospitable sa- 

crilege, Even the influence of superstition is 
jBuctuating and precarious ; and the slave, whose 
reason is subdued, will often be delivered by his 
avarice or pride. A credulous devotion for the 
fables ^nd oracles of the priesthood most power- 
fully acts on the mind oi' a barbarian : yet such 
a mind is the least capable of preferring imagi- 
nation to sense, of sacrificing to a distant motive, 
to an invisible, perhaps an ideal, object, the ap- 
petites and interests of the present world. In the 
vigour of health and youth, his practice will per- 
petually contradict his belief; till the pressure of 
age, or sickness, or calamity, awakens his terrors, 
and compels him to satisfy the double debt of 
piety and remorse. I have already observed, that 
the modern times of religious indiflFerence are 
the most favourable to the peace and security of 
the clergy. Under the reign of superstition, they 
had much to hope from the ignorance, and much 
to fear from the violence, of mankind. The 
wealth, whose constant increase must have ren- 
dered them the sole proprietors of the earth, was 
alternately bestowed by the rej)entant father, and 
plundered by the rapacious son : their persons 
were adored or violated ; and the same idol, by 
the hands of the same votaries, was pl^iced on the 
Seditionsof altar or trampled in the dust. In thefeudal system 
^hfst the^f Europe, arms were the title of distinction and 
popes, ^hg measure of allegiance ; and amidst their tu- 
mult, the still voice of law and reason was seldom 
heard or obeyed. The turbuleAt Romans dis- 



dained the yoke, and insulted the impotence, of ghap. 
their bishop ;^ nor would his education or cha- * ' 
racter allow him to exercise, with decency or ef- 
fect, the power of the sword. The motives of 
his election and the frailties of his life were ex- 
posed to their familiar observation ; and proxi- 
mity must diminish the reverence, which bis 
name and his decrees impressed on a barbarous 
world. This difference has not escaped the nor 
tice of our philosophic historian : " Though thts 
^ name and authority of the court of Rome were 
<* so terrible in the remote countries of Europe, 
^ which were sunk in profound ignorance, and 
^ were entirely unacquainted with its character 
•^ and conduct, the pope was so little revered at 
^ home, that his inveterate enemies surrounded 
" the gates of Rome itself, and even controlled 
" his government in that city ; and the ambas- 
" sadors, who, from a distant extremity of Eu- 
" rope, carried to him the humble, or rather ab- 
^^ ject, submissions of the greatest potentate of 
** the age, found the utmost difficulty to make 
** their way to him, and to throw themselves at 
" his feet'M 

^ In a free conversation with his qoun^ryman Adrian ly, John of 
Salisbury accuses the avarice of the pope and clergy : Provinciarum 
deriptunt spolia, ac si thesauros Croesi studeant reparare. Sed recte 
cum eis agit altissimus, quoniam et ip^si aliiset sspe vilissimis homi^ 
nibus datl sunt in direptionem (de ^^ugis Curialium, 1. vi, c. 24, 
P' 387). In the next page, he blames the rashness and infidelity of 
the Romans, whom their bishops vainly strove to conciliate by gifts, 
instead of virtues* It is a pity that this miscellaneous writer has not 
given us less morality and erudition, and more pictures of himself 
and the times. 

' Humeri His^ry of England, vol. i, p. 419. The same writer 
has given us, from Fitz-Stephenj a singular act of cruelty perpetrated 

266 TUB D£CUNB ANO| 1 ALi. 

CHAP. Siaee the primitive tiinues, the weal^or tha 
^xv^.x.x.v popes was exposed to eavy , th«r po^ev V> oppo- 
Sueceiisors sitioo, and their persons, to violence. Bu^ tbe 
gor/Tii, long hostility of tbe outre a«d the erown en- 
tm^^^^ creased the niuobers^ and inflaiyed tlw pawM>«|Sg, 
of their enemies. The deadly factions of ihe 
Guelphs and Ghibelines» so fieital to Itelij^ co^ld 
never be embraced with truth or co^sUuicy by 
the Romans, the subjects and adversaries bot^ 
of the bishop and en^eror ; but their supporti 
was solicited by both parties ; and th/ey aker> 
nx^tely displayed in their banners the keys of St. 
Peter and the German eagle. Gr^ory the se^ 
ventb, who may be adored or detested as the 
founder of the papal monarchy, was drivea from 
Rome, and died in exile at Salemow Siix-ajwl*- 
thirty of his successors,"" till their vetreaA to A- 
vignon, maintalDed aa unequal cowlest with tbe 
Romans : their age and dignity were oftea vio- 
lated ; and the churches, in the soleoux irites oS 
religion, were polluted ^ith sedition and murder. 
A repetition*^ of such capricious brutality,, with* 

•n the clergy by GeoffVey, the father of Henry n. «< When he was 
*• master of Normandy, the chapter of Seez presmned, without his 
** consent, to proceed to the election of a bishop : upon which he or* 
«< dered all of them, with the bishop elect, to be castrat«d» and made 
** all their testicles be brought him in a platt«r.*' OC tbe pain and 
danger they might justly complain ; yet, since they bad Yowed chas« 
tity, he deprived them of a superfluous treasure, 

"* From Leo ix and Gregory Tir, an authentic and contemporarji 
series of the lives of the popes by the cardinal of Arragon, Fandul- 
phua Ptsanus^ Bernard Guido, &c. is inserted in the Italian Histou- 
ans of Muratori (torn, iii, p. i» p. i7T~.685), and has been always be- 
fore my eyes. 

" The dates of years in the margin may throughout this chapter 
bo understood as tacit references to th« Annala of Muratori, my ordi-> 


0» VHB R^MAll »M9I»S. Alt 

o»t eentieelikm er desi^^ wetild be tedious a«i4 ^^* 
disgusting ; anf) 1 shall e€Nftte»l myself with seme .^,^,,,^^ 
events of the tweFtb eentwry, wkieli vepresent 
the state 'of tlie popes aad the city, 0» Holy Paschai h. 
Tbiirstday^ while Faseh^l oiBeiated beffere tbeal- lus]^ 
tap, he was intenpupteel by the elameuFs of the 
muhitvde, who impepie«isfy deHiamled the coo- 
fiimatioii of a fayoupite magifstpate. Hk sileaee 
exasperated their fury : his pious refusal to 
iftingle the a£foips €^ eapth and heaven was en- 
countered with Hieaacesaad oaths^ that he should 
be the cause aBd the witness of the puhlie rum. 
Duping the festival of Easter, while the bishe^ 
and the clergy, barefoot and m procession, vi- 
sited the tombs of the martyrs, they were twice 
assairited, at the brid^ of St, Angekvand b^ore 
the eapltol, with vollies of stones and darts. 
The houses of his adhercliits were levelled with 
the ground : Paschal escaped wkh dU&culty and 
dahger : , he levied an army m the patrimony 
of St. Peter ; and hb last days were embittered 
by suffering and inflicting the calamities of civil 
war, The scenes that followed the election of Geiasiusiit 
bis successor, Gelasius the second, were still J'l 1*9,^^*** 
more scandalous to the church and city. Cen- 
cio Fr^ngipani,^ a potent and fractious baron, 
burst into the assembly, furious and in arms : 

narjr ai^d ^^ceU^ot gui4e^ ^e i^s^ aQ4 indeed, quate^ with tfa« ir8«.« 
doxa of 4 i^oater, hjs gr^t CoUection of the Italian Historona, iv^ 
28 vqIuh^ ; axid as that treasure 19 m my library, I hav^ thought it 
an amusement, if not a duty* ta oqbwU the originalsu 

* I cannot refcaia irom trapsciil^uig the high^e^ouee* worcN of 
Pandulphus Pisanw (p; Sf^), : Hoc m4dm& iniHuc^ft paoia Mi)« ti«- 
bator jam fatus Centius Frajapane, more draconis immanissimi sibi- 
lans, et ab imis pectoribus trahens longfei suspiria, accinctus retra 



CHAP, the cardinals were stripped, beaten, and trampled 
^^^^ under foot ; and he seized, without pity or re- 
********** spect, the vicar of Christ by the throat. Gela^ 
sius was dragged by his hair along the ground, 
buffeted with blows, wounded with spur^, and 
bound with an iron chain in the house of his^ 
brutal tyrant. An insurrection of the people 
delivered their bishop ; the rival families oppose 
ed the violence of the Frangipani ; and Cencio, 
who sued for pardon, repented of the failure, 
rather than of the guilt, of his enterp^se. Not 
inany days had elapsed, when the pope was again 
assaulted at the altar. While his friends and 
enemies were engaged in a bloody contest, he 
escaped in bis sacerdotal garments. In this unr 
worthy flight, which excited the compassion 
of the Roman matrons, his attendants were 
scattered or unhorsed; and, in the fields behind 
the church of St. Peter, his successor was found 
alone and half-dead with fear and fatigue. — 
Shaking the dust from his feet, the apostle with- 
drew from a city in which his dignity was 
insulted and his person was endangered; and 
the vanity of sacerdotal ambition is revealed in 
the involuntary confession), that one empe- 
ror was more tolerable than twenty .^ These 

gladio sine more cucurrit, valvas ac fores confregit. Ecclesiam furi- 
bundus introiit, inde custode remoto papam {|er gulam accepit, dis» 
traiit, pugnts caldbusque percussit, et tanquam brutum animal intra 
liraen ecclesife acriter calcaribus cruenta\it ; et latro tantum dominum 
pet- capillos et brachia, Jes{^ bono Interim dormiente, detraxit ad do* 
mum, usque deduxit, inibi catenabit et Inclusit. 

' Ego coram Deo et ecclesia dico, si unquam possibile esset, mal- 
Um unum imperatorem quam tot domiaos (Vit« Gelas» u, p. 398> 


examples might suffice ; but I canuot forget the chaf. 
sufferings of two pontiffs of the same age, the ^^'^ 
second and third Of the name of Lucius. The Lucius n, 
former, as he ascended in battle-array to assaukii^^ 
the capitol, was struck on the temple bj a stone, 
and expired in a few days. The latter was se- Lucius m, 
verely wounded in the persons of his serrants.J'jJ^^^*^'' 
In a civil commotion, several of his priests had 
been made prisoners ; and the inhuman Romans, 
reserving one as a guide for his brethren, put out 
their eyes, crowned them with ludicrous mitres^, 
mounted them on asses with their faces to the tai!^ 
and extorted an -oath, that, in this wretched con- 
dition, they should offer themselves as a lesson to 
the head of the church. Hope or fear, lassitude or 
remorse, the characters of the men, and the circum- 
stances of the times, might sometimes obtain an in- 
terval of peace and obedience; and the pope was re- 
stored with joyful acclamations to the Lateran or 
Vatican, from whence he had been driven with 
threats and violence. But the root of mischief • 
was deep and perennial ; and a momentary calm 
was preceded and followed by such tempests as 
had almost sunk the bark of St. Peter. Rome 
continually presented the aspect of war and dis- 
cord; the churches and palaces were fortified 
and assaulted by the factions and families ; and, 
after giving peace to Europe, Calistus the se-caiistns m, 
cond alone had resolution and power to pro-^'^g^^^^^ 
hibit the use of private arms in the metropolis. innocentK, 
Among the nations who revered the apostolic i\J^. 
throne, the tumults of Rome provoked a gene- 
ral indignation ; and, in a letter to his disciple . 
Eugenius the third, St. Bernard, with the sharp- 

S^ Tits BttUtKV Aim VAUb 

4DiiA^. ntts <0f liits wit atnA tesA, %m isligiiiaAJifedL tlio 
J^^l^ vkes of the reteBioBS people.'* ^« W*» is ig*- 
€wl^ ^* aoraaC TOjrs the monk trfClain^aux^ •* of tfce 
^trt^st.** ''^"••^y aMlwtTOgaaoe of 1*te BsmisoB ? a aotton 
Bernard. «< nw-sed jd sedKtsDA, (CiveU iwttBCtaJble, ttidacorto- 
•• tug to ^obey, tmless tliey mte too* fiecfa)e to re- 
^ nst. Whett tbeyfmdnifle to s&tte^ tfaey^tepire 
^< to l^e^ ; itf they s^v^etr alkqgia^^ 
^ the oppottunity 'tf n^volt ; yet Aey ^vent thejr 
^ tdisc^nteiit in iMd clamoors if ymir doors iff 
^ ycAHT coavdik ni^ sunt agatest tbem. i>exlTOiis 
^' jliiij^schtef^ tjfaey bare wei^^ieirnt the Boieiicetif 
^ <^)i|g ^odd. Odio«8 to eiaith and faeatneii^ im- 
** |itoiis(te G<ad^ seditioils among thenuielves^ jea- 
'^^ kms ^ tjhdr ftdglibeM's, inhuman to ^iwigers, 
** tb6y love iid <»fte, fey wo iwae ai« they beloved; 
•* ami while they wiA to itispwe fear, they livem 
'* ^^ iaMd coi^tinud la^jprehensfon. They will 
•* not subwiiit ; Obey know li»w to govern ; faiA- 
•* liessto their superiors, intoterableto ttieirequah^ 
ttngrateiful to tiieir feeliefactors, and alike tm- 
^ordeiit ian t^teir demandB i^ad tiifeir refuss^. 
Lofty An |)roinise, pio^r in e^cecutkm : adulation 
' $md calumny^ perfidy, and treason, are the fam- 
tiar arts «f thdr policy." Snrely this dark por- 
trait h nift 'coloured by the pencil of christian 
cfcwrity f yet the !Reatures, however harsh and 

4 Quid tarn notum seculis quam protervia et cervicositas Homa- 
iKM^m ^ Oe<i8 fnsuetft paci, ttAiiuHiii a^suMft^ gens ^amnitas et in- 
•tradabiHs vsque «i^iic, suMr nctdft, nisi cum «on valet re^st^ 
(de Considerat. 1. iv^ c. 2, p. 441). The samt takes breath, aad then 
begms again : If i, tn"^isi terrae et coelo, utrique injecere numus, Ac, 
p. 443). 
' As a Ronina cUi«en» Petsaroh. takfes leave to obeerve, that Ber. 
a^d, tl^ough ^ taints "ws^ a znaa.; tbat'be znight b^ provoked by re- 

« 1 

« i 


tig4y^ le^K^ess a livefy i^esemMaiioe of the RdttiMis tnkt. 
<tf the ttv^Jfth centtwy." J^^*^ 

' The Jews fcad rejected the "Ohtist when ke^af - p^wtoa"" 
peasred utnamg them ite a plebeiim character ; and ^^^ 
tike fionvahs YAi^bt piiead their ignorance of kis Brescia, 
vicar wheJh iie ^ssuiMed the pcmip and pride of a^ '^^ 
tempord sovereigti. In the busy age of the cru- 
sades, some ^arks of curiodty and reason werere- 
kMittedifi ihe western world : the heresy of Bcd- 
gkria, the ptoKcian sect, was successfully trans- 
fAasit^ into the soil ef Italy and France ; the 
OnN$8tic vi^ons were mingled with the simplicity 
of the g^i^el ; and the enemies of the clergy i*e- 
conciled their passions with their conscience, the 
desire a[ freedom with the profession of piety,* 
The tnmipet of Roman liberty was first sounded 
by Arnold of Brescia,*' whose promotion in the 
charcfti was confined to the lowest tank, and who 
wore the monastic ha]»trather as a garb of poverty 

seiftiiieiit, and possibl^r repent of his hasty passion, ^« <Memoiretf sur 
la Vie de Petrarque, torn, i, p. 330). 

* ^huronius, in his index to the twelfth volume df his Annals', fafes 
found a Mr and easy excuse. He makes two heads, of flomani Ca- 
tkoHci and Schiamatici : to the former he appHe« all il^ gaod, to the 
latter all the evil, that is told of tlie city. 

^ Thie heresies of the twelfth oentury mtfy'be found in Motoheim 
^Clnstkut-tifet. Edclea, p. 419-^7), who entertaiqa a favouraUe ^. 
nion of Arnold of Brescia. In the tenth volume I have described the 
sect -of the paulicians, and followed their migration from Annenhi'to 

Thrace and Bulgaria, Italy and France. 
*: The original pictures of Arnold of Brescia -are drawn by Otho 

bishop of Frisingen (Chron. 1. vii, c 31, de gestrs Trederici i, 1. i, c. 

S7, 1. ii, c. 31), and in the third book of the Ligiirinus, a poem of 
'Oumher, who-flburisHed A.^. 1^W)0, in ^e monastery of Ptfrfc near 

Basil (Albric* Bittliot. Xalhi. med. ^t inftnrte ffitatis, toin. Hi, p. l¥l, 

175). Th« long passage that delates to Artoold Is profcLttc^d by ^el^ 

toto ^ftebus «^lveticis, 1. ili, c 6, p. lOB), 



CHAP, than as an uniform of obedience. His adversaries 
could not deny the wit and eloquence which they 
' severely felt : they confess with reluctance the 
specious purity of his morals ; and his errors were 
recommended to the public by a mixture ctf" im- 
portant and beneficial truths. In his theological 
studies, he had been the disciple of the famous 
and unfortunate Abelard,^ who was likewise in- 
Yolved in the suspicion of heresy : but the lover of 
JBloisa was of & soft and flexible nature ; and bis 
ecclestestic j udg^s were edified and disarmed by the 
humility of his repentance. From this master, 
Arnold most probably inbibed some metaphysical 
definitions of the trinity, repugnant to the taste 
of the times : his ideas of baptism and the euchar- 
ist are loosely censured; but apolitical heresy was 
the source of his fame and misfortunes. He pre* 
sumed to quote the declaration of Christ, that his 
kingdom is not of this world : he boldly main- 
tained, that the sword and the sceptre were en- I 
trusted to the civil magistrate ; that temporal ho- 
nours and possessions were lawfully vested in se- 
cular persons ; that the abbots, the bishops, and 
the pope himself, must renounce either their state 
or their salvation ; and that after the loss of their 
revenues, the voluntary tithes and oblations of 
the faithful would suffice, not indeed for luxury 
and avarice, but for a frugal life in the exercise 
of spiritual labours. During a short time, the 

* The wicked wit of Bayle was an^used in compoaiDg, with much 
levity and learning, the articles of Abe'lardy Fovlptes, Hdoiae^ in his 
Diciionnaire Critique. The dispute of Abelard and St. Bernard, of 
fcholastic and positive divinity, is well understood by Mosfaeim (In- 
ifitut. Hist. Eccles. p. 413*415). 

* 2 

6,9 XHS ROMAN BMPtRS. 273 

Jiteq-clier was m^rQdas ap^nqt; p^id^thecji^coii- chap, 
tent, qr^reval^, of Jgr^cjiaj^ainst her bii^hpp w^» >t?^ 
theiii:st.fruilis.of .J)i^ d^ji^erous les^qixs. JBitt t^e '^^^ 
fi?.vQHr pf tbe pQ(}pie i^ Jesp perRi^uqj^t tjian tfie 
resentment of ,tjhiej)]Ciest ;^^njl aft^r.the.jiere^ of 
Airnold ha<i be^PiCondeinned^by Ii^npcept :^be. se- 
cond,^ ia^tjie ^|?;»erftl coungjl qf ^the L^ter^n, the 
jaag'istratets .then^elves were urged .by prejqjjice 
apd.fep.r,to ejcequte .X\ie s^atence of the, church. 
Italy coul^ uo Jopg^r sffprdarefuge, arid tlj^ dis- 
cipie of Mte\(^x^ escaped fieyond the Alps, iijl 
,be ifounda^fe^anAbospf^ble shelter in Z^j;\q^9 
now the J first of, the Swiss, g^ntons. From a Ro- 
ipan station/ ,^ .rpyal villa, a chapter of npb]ie 
virgins^ Zurich (}ia|d gradually increased to a free 
and flourishing city ; where the appeals of, the 
Milanese ,w^re sometimes tried by the imperial 
commissaries^'' ,In art ^e Jess yipe for refoi;7jGi/3i- 
tion, the precursor, of Zuingjijis was heard witji 
.applause : a brave ai3d simple people imbibed, and 

' Damhatus aJb iOo 

Pva^sule, qui numeros vetUum continger^ AQsUos 
l<^oo^en ab if(jioaMi^ducit,lau^a1)l|e ?it&. 
We may applaud the dexterity and correctness of Ltgurinus, who 
turns the unpoetical name of Innocit^t ii into a compliment. 

' A. Roii^an, inspripi^ipn of Statio ITuclcensis has been fotmd at.Zu» 
rich (d* Anville, Notice de Vancienne Gaul^, p. 642-644) ; but it is 
without 8\ifficient trarrf^nt* ibat tbe city apd j^a^ioki have u»ttrped» 
und ev«ni&onqpoUsed, the names of;'tigui:i);pi i^pdPagus Tigurii;^ . * 

^GuiUiman (deJSebusiHelyeti^is, I. iii, c. 5, p. 106) rec^itul^tea 
the donation (a. d. 833).ofihei«mperor,Lfwis t^e pioi^s to. h|i^ i&m^ 
ter the abbess Hildegardus. Curtim i^ostram iTi^i^jfi^n in..^catdr 
Alamannifl? in pago- Durgaugensi^ with villages, w^oods, ^ meadowr^ 
waters, slaves, chucchedy.&c. a noble gift Qiarlj^s tbe. bold gave 
the jus monetae; the city. wa& waited under, Qt)io i; apd tbe line of th^ 
bishop of Frisingen, 

Nobile Tucegum miiltarum copia je^rvtmf 
is repeatcd.wiih ide%siire br Ahe •otiqioaries oC Sl^wkhs 
▼OL. XII^ T 


CHAP. long retained the colour of his opinions ; and hii 
^^^' art, or merit, seduced the bishop of Constance, 
and even the pope's legate, who forgot, for his 
sake, the interest of their master and their order. 
Their tardy zeal was quickened by the fierce ex- 
hortations of St. Bernard ;** and the enemy of the 
church was driven, by persecution, to the despe- 
rate measure of erecting his standard in B'Ome 
itself, in the face of the successor of St. Peter. 
He exhorts Yet the couragc of Arnold was not devoid of 
to*r«it^ discretion : he was protected, and had perhaps 
uie lepub. bg^Q invited, by the liobles and people ; and in 
A. L 1144. the service of freedom, his eloquence thundered 


over the seven hills. Blending in the same dis- 
course the texts of Livy and St. Paul, uniting the 
motive$ of gospel, and of classic, enthusiasm, he 
admonished the Romans, how strangely their pa- 
tience and the vices of the clergy had degenerated 
from the primitive times of the church and the 
city. He exhorted them to assert the inalienable 
rights of men and christians ; to restore the laws 
and magistrates of the republic ; to respect the 
name of the emperor ; but to confine their shep- 
herd to the spiritual government of his flock.' 
Nor could his spiritual government escape the 

^ ^ Bernard, epistol. cxcv» cxcvi« tom. i, p. 1S7-190. Amidst his 
invectives he drops a precious acknowledgment, qui, utinam quam 
san« esset doctrins quam districtas e$t vitae. He owns that Arnold 
would be a valuable aequfshion for the church, 
f He advised the Romans, 

Consiltis armisque sua moderamina summa 
Arbitrio tractare suo I'^nil juris in hie Te 
Pontifici summo, modicum conoedere regi 
Suadebat popula. Sic laesd stultus utrique 
Majestate, reum geminie se secerat auls. 
Nfr it the poetry of Gumher dilfec^t frpm U» praie of Otfao^ 


6li f Hit ROMAN fiMPlAB. 915 

fcensure and controul of the reformer ; and the in- c h ^* 
ferior clergy were taught, by his lessons^ tb resist^ 
the cardinals, who had usurped a des^tie com- 
mand over the twenty-eight regions ot parishes of 
Rome."^ The revolution waik not accomipUshed 
without rapiiie and violence^ the efftisioii of blood, 
and the dlemolition of houses ; the victorious fac-^ 
tion was enriched with the spoils of the cleif^ and 
the adverse nobles. Arnold of Brescia enjoyed, 
or deplored, the effects of his mission : his reign 
continued above ten years, while two pq[>es. In- 
nocent the second and Anastasius the fourth, 
either trembled ih the Vatican^ or wandered as 
exiles in the adjacent cities; They were suc- 
ceeded by a tnore vigorous and fortunate pontiff, 
Adrian the fourth,^ the only Englishman who 
has asceiided the throne of 8t. Peter ; and whbse 
meHtemergedfrom the mean condition of a monk, 
and alm.ost a beggar, in the monasteiy of St. Al- 
bans. On the first provocation, of a cardinal 
killed or Wounded in the streets, he cast an in- 
. terdict on the guilty people; imd^ from Christmas 
to Easter, Roitie was deprived of the reltl or 
imaginary comforts of religious worship. The 
Romans had despised their temporal {Hrince : 
they submitted^ with grief and ternw, to the 
censures of their spiritual father : their guilt w^s 
expiated by pentoce^ and the b^ishmeint of the 

^ See Barontus (4. t>, I14/8n No. 38, 39) from the Vaticaa mss. Her 
loudly condemns Arnold (A'O* 1141, No. 3) as the father of the pOli« 
tictd heretics, whose influence then hurt him in France. 

* The English ];eader may consult the Biographia Britannica, Adrian 
It ; but our own writers have added nothing tb the^fame or mtriUt qC 
fkeir countryman. 

T 2 


ck AP« indBtiotispreacherwastfaeprlceof tbeirabsolution. 
''"^ BiittberemngeofAdrifmwasyetuDsatisfied, and 
^"****~ the approaching coronation of Frederic Bariba- 
nna was fatal, to the bold reformer, who had of- 
fendedy though notin an equal degree, the heads 
of the chnrch and state. In their interview at 
Viterbo, tbe.p<^ represented to the emperor the 
'ImrBoas m tgo ^ CTnable spirit bf the Romans ; the 
insalts, the injuries, the fears, to which his person 
and his clergy were continually eitposed; and 
the pemidois tendency of the here^ of Arnold, 
whicA must subvert the principles of civil, as well 
as ecdlesiastical, suboidinatimi. Frederic was 
omvinced by these aiguments, or tempted by the 
desire of the imperial crown ; in the balance of 
ambition, the innocence Or life of an Undividual is 
•of small account ; and their common enemy was 
sacrificedto a moment of political concord. After 
his retreat fHom Borne, Arnold had been protect- 
ed fay the viscounts of Can^pania, from^whom he 
waffextorted by the power of Caesar ; the prefect 
of the city pronounced his sent^iee ; the martyr 
Wm caecn-of fDeedom was buratt altvein the presence of a 
]|]^ii^€arelesfs and ungrateftil people; and his asha 
were cast into the Tyber, lefist the heretics should 
collect and worship t^ relics of their master/ 
The deigy triimiph^ in his death: with his 
ashes, his sect was <£bpersed ; his memory still 
lived in the minds of the Romans. From his 
school they had probably deirived a' new articlie of 

^ Bpdiea ihfi liistoriaii ami poet already quoted, the last adventoras 
• «f Arnold ara related by the biographer of Adrian it. (MunUori» 
fScript. Berum ItaL tom« iii» p. i» p. 441, 443)« 


0» TH9 S0SC4.N UMmit^ Vll 

faiA, that tbe metropolis of the cathdic. duirch ch Af. 
is exeimit from the Denaltles of excommunication 
and iuterdict Their bishops might ai^e» tha^ 
the supreme jurisdiction^ which they exercised 
over kings and nation^^ more especially embraced 
the city and diocese of tbe prince of the apostles. 
But they preached to ^he winds^ and the same 
principle that weal^ened tbe effect^ must temper 
the abuse, of the thunders of the Vatican. 

The love of ancient freedom has encouraged aae^on. 
belief, that as early as the tenth century, in their 1^^^!*^* 
first struggles against the Saxon Otbos, the com- ^ "• ^^**' 
9K>n wealth was vindiqated and restored by the s^ 
uate a;nd people of Rome ; that two consuls wer^ 
annually elected among the nobles, and th^t tCA 
or twelve plebeian magistrates revjyqd ib^ pame 
and ofBce of tbe tribunes of the (romnions.^ Bi^ 
this venerable structuredi^^ppi^rsbeibre the Hgh^ 
of criticism. In the darkness of th^ middle ageSji 
the appellations of senators, of consul;^, of the 
sons of consuls, may aometimies be discovered** 

< I>ueaQg9(Glo^ Latlnitiitia m^ise et iojOiiDiiP 4^ts4^* Uecarc^ofifs* 
torn. U,- p. 726) gives me a quotation tnm BIo»dt|8 (deca^ ii» )• n) : 
puo consuleat ex nolulitate quo^annis fiebau^ qm ad vetu^tum cpn j 
4ulum exemplar summa renun prseess^t^ ^nd in Sigonius (de 
BegDO ItalifB, I, vi» opp» tonu iU p. 4fiO} I xe9^ of tbe cfuisuU and 
tribunes of the tenth century, i ^otb ]^ojadus» and even S^onius, 
too freely copied the dassie method of supplying* frofu reajii»on o^ 
fancy» the deficiency of recordF^ 

^ In th« panegyric of Ikrengarius (Muratori, Script, a^r. Itfl tom. 
ii» p. i, p, 40^) a ^ogaan is ?xtentioned as f^nsuJis natus in ^he begin? 
ning of the tenth centi^ry, Muj^tori (dissert* v) dispovers* in tbe 
years 9^ aqd 956, Gratianys in Dei noxpiq^ consul et du^ fie^rgius 
^nsul et dux $ and in 1014» Komanus* brother of ,Gveg/xj ¥^]|, 
prqudly, ,but vuguely^ ftiiefb hixiyself oonsuJ et 4ux ^% gqxniipn Po^* 
nerum senator. 



CHAP. They were bestowed by the emperors, or assumed 
. by the most powerful citizens, to denote their 
rank, their honours,* and perhaps the claim of a 
pure and patrician descent ; but they float on the 
surface, without a series or a substance; the titles 
of men, not the orders of government ;* audi it is 
only from the year of Christ one thousand one 
hundred and forty-four, that the establishment of 
the senate is dated, as a glorious era, in the acts 
of the city. A new constitution was hastUy 
framed by private ambition, or popular enthu- 
siasm ; nor could Romie, in tjie twelfth century, 
produce aii antiquary to explain, or a legislator to 
l^store, the harmony and proportions of the an- 
cient model. The assembly of a free, of an armed, 
people will ever speak in loud and weighty accla* 
mations. But the regular distribution of the 
thirty-five tribes, the nice balance of the wealth 
and numbers of the centuries, the debates of the 
iidverse orators, and the slow operation of votes 
and ballots, could not easily be adapted by a blind 

' As late as the tenth century, the Greek emperors conferred on the 
^ukes of Venice, Naples,' Amalphi, Ice. the iitleot vwmrisf oar consuls 
Csee Chron. Sagorhini, passim) ; and the successors of Charlemagne 
would not abdicate any of their prerogative But, in general, the 
iiames of-corutd and tenatoTf which 'may be found among the Prendb 
and Germans, signify no more than count und lord (Stgneur^ Qilcange, 
GloSsar.)* ' The monkish writers are often ambitious of fine classic, 
words* ^ • * 

^ The most constitutional form is a diploma of Otho in (a. b« 
998), Consulibus'senatii^ populiqtie Romani ; but the aet is prohablj^ 
iipurious; At the 'coronation of Henry i, a. d. 1014, the historiaA 
Dithmar (apud Muratorr, dissert, xxlii) describes him, a senatoribot 
duodecim vallatum, quorum sex rasi harba, alii prolix , mystice in- 
€edebant cum baeulis. The senate is mentioned in the panegyric eC 
Berengarius (p. 406). - « «* 


multitude^ ignorant of the arts, and insensible of chap. 
the benefits, of legal government. It "was pro- ^^x. 
posed by Arnold to revive and discriminate the ****"'*'^* 
equestrian order ; but what could be the motive 
or measure of such distinction ?^ The pecuniary 
qualification of the knights must have been re- 
duced to the pov.erty of the times : those times 
no longer required their civil functions of judges 
and farmers of the revenue ; and their primitive 
duty, their military service on horseback, was 
more nobly supplied by feudal tenures and the 
spirit of chivalry. The jurisprudence of the re- 
public was useless and unknown : the nations 
and families of Italy who lived under the Roman 
and barbaric laws were insensibly mingled in a 
common mass ; and some faint tradition, some 
imperfect fragments, preserved the memory of 
the code and pandects of Justinian. With their, 
liberty the Romans might doubtless have restor- 
ed the appellation and office of consuls ; had they 
not disdained a title so promiscuously adopted 
in the Italian cities, that it has finally Settled on 
the humble station of the agents of commerce 
in a foreign land. But the rights of the tri* 
bunes^ the formidable word that arrested the 
public counsels,* suppose or must produce a legi« 
timate democracy. The old patricians were the 
subjects, the modem barons the tyrants, of the 
state ; nor yjTifiild, th(e enemies of peace and order, 

' In ancient Rome, the equestrian order was not ranked with the 
senate and people as a third branch of the republic till the consulsliip 
ofg Cicero, irho assumes the merit of jthe establishment (Plin. Hist. 
Natur. xicxiii, 3. Beaufort RepuUique Romaine, torn, i, p. 144.15^). 

T 4 ' 



CHAP. i^h6 m^Tte^f tfite Tfo^ of ChUsl^ Hwehikg i^r 
J^^a^ spited the unarnii^d sanctity of a ptebemn nia-r 

The cqii. K tKe tevolutioii of tlte twelifth cthiv^, wBfch 
gaV^e a new existeniee arid ei*a to ltokhe» we majr 
observe the real arid important events? t&tat marked 
or confirmed fier political fridfepdriVferitie, i. T|ie 
Capitoline hitf, one of hei ^everi eirifeteices,'* is 
about four hundred yafds iri leh^tbv and two 
hundred iq breadth. A flig^ht of an hun)|fred steps 
led to the summit of tlie Tarpfeiaii tbck ; and for 
3te6per Was the ascent befoi'6 the decffvities had 
been smoothed, and the precipices filled by the 
ruins of fallen edifice^. From' the Earliest ages, 
the Capitol had been u^d ^ a (emp!e Jft peace, 
a fortress in war : after the loss of the city, 
it maintained a siege against the victorious 
Gaul, and the sanctuary of empire Was occu- 
pied, assaulted, and burnt, in the civil wars of 
Vitellius and Vespasian.* 'The temples of Ju- 

"I The republican plan o£ Arnold of Brescia it thu9 stated by 6ub* 
tber : 

Quin etiam titulos urbis renovare vetustos ; 
Komine plebio seoernere nomen equestre» 
Jura tribunorum* sanctum reparire senatum, 
£t senio tessas mutasque reponere leges* . 
. Lapsa rulnosis» et adliuc pchdentia muris 
aeddere prinuevo Capitolia prisca nitori. 

But of fbese reformations, so|ne were no moire tlian idaas, others 09 
more than words. 

* After many disputes among the antiquaries of Rome, it seems 
determined, that the summit of the Capitolhie hill next the river is 
strictly the Af ons Tarpius, the Arx ; and that on the odker sumttiit, 
the church and convent of Araceli, the. barefoot (Tiars of St. Francis^ 
•ocupy the temple of Jupiter (Nardinl, Roma Anticay U Vf c 11*16)^ 
\ • Tacit. Hist, iii, €9, 70. 

pmt and Ms' Mrid]^^' deiti^ Iiad dfttrtlbUd intd eit aK 
dftis€ ; iX^vt pliab6 M'^ajr suppfiterf by mottdsrteries and J]^^ 
hoi3^s!^& ; Md flie soBd Walls, thfc fon^ and shelv- "^"""^"^ 
ing porficdes; Were deesiyed oi" ruined by the 
l^se of ttme. It was the first act of the Romans, 
aii act of fj^edcHm, to'ifestore the streiiigthi though 
ntot €he bejWfy, 6f the capital ; to^ fortify the seat 
of tTiei* arrtis and cotfnsefe: arid as ofteti as they 
ascended tlite hfll, the coldest rmnds mn«t hate 
glowed with the remembrance of their ancestors. 
II. The first CadSBts had been iiivested with theThocohH 
excltrsive coinage of the gold and silver ; to the 
setfate they abandoned the baser metal of bronze 
oi" copper.^ The emblems and legends were in- 
sci^ibed on a tfiore ample field by the geftitis of 
flattei'y; and the prince Was relieved from th^ 
care of celebrating his own virtues. The successors 
of Dioctetian despised even th>6^ flattery of the se- 
nate: their royal officers at Home, and in the pro- 
rinceSy assmned the sole dieection of the mint ; 
and the same prerogative was inherited by the 
Gk)thic kings of Italy, and the long series of the 
Greek, the French, and the German dynasties. 
After an abdication of eight hundred yeafs, the 
Roman senate asserted this honourable and lucra- 
tive privilege ; which was tacitly renounced by 
the popes, ftotti Paschal the second to the esta- 
blishtnent of their residence beyond the Alps. 

' This ^eitiMi dr tA« hdbU and baser tn^tald b«ftw66h the empef ov 
V^a «^i£te mittf fabfi^^r he tdopted, not as a pbsttive fkct* bat as the 
pTobi^Ie df^lim of tM btet antiquaries {ase the science dtfs Medatlles 
of the Pere Joubert, tom. I!, p. fOMllf in the i«iprotred and aciUxo 
nUtion of the Baron de ia Bastia). 



CHAP, ^cmieof these republicaocoips of the twelfth and 
^'^^ thirteenth centuries are shewn in the cabinets of 
the curious. On one of these, a gold medal, 
Christ is depictured hokfing in his left hand a 
book with this inscription : " TfiE vow of the 
*^ Roman senatk and peopi^e*: Rome ths 
" CAPITAL OF THE woRtD }** ou the reverse, St. 
Peter delivering a banner to ^ Reeling senator 
in his cap and gown, with the n^me ^d arms 
The pnfectof his family impressed on his shield.^ With 
•f the city. ^^ empire, the prefect of the city hftd declined to 
a municipal officer ; yet he still exercised in his last 
appeal the civil and criminal jurisdiction ; and a 
drawn sword, which he received from the suc- 
cessors of Otho, was the mode of his investiture 
and the emblems of his functions."^ The dignity 
was confined to the noble families of Rome : the 
chpice of the people was ratified by the pope; 
but a triple oath of fidelity must have often em** 
barrassed the prefect in the conflict of adverse 

4 In his twentj-seventh dissertation on the Antiquities of Italy 
(torn. iU p* 559-569), Muratori exhibits a series of the senaterian 
coins, which bore the obscure names of ujforiiati, infarHatij frwn- 
iini, paparini. During this period all the popes,, without excepting 
Boniface tiii, abstained (Vom the right of coining, which was resiuned 
by his successor Benedict xi, and regularly exercised in the court of 

' A German historian, Gerard of Reicherspeg (in Baluz. Miscdl. 
torn. V, p. 64, apud Schmidt, Hist des All^mands, torn, iii, p. 265), 
thus describes the constitution of Rome in the eleventh century : 
Grandiori urbis et orbis negotia spectant ad Romanum paotjficem 
^temque ad Rpmanum imperatorem ; sivi ilUns vicarium urbis pne- 
fectum, qui de sui dignitate respicit utrumque» videlicet dominura 
papam cui facit hominum, et dominum imperatorum a que ac^pit 
fVLg^ potestatis insi|^e« scilicet gladium ezertum. 


duties/ A servant, in whom they possessed but a chap, 
third share^ was dismissed by the independent 

Romans : in his place they elected a patrician ; but 
this title, which Charlemagne had not disdained^ 
was too lofty for a citizen or a subject; and, after 
the first fervour of rebellion, tbey consented with- 
out reluctance to the restoration of the prefect. 
About fifty years after this event. Innocent theJ-^J^y* 
third, the most ambitious, or at least the most 
fortunate, of the pontiffs, delivered the Romans 
apd himself from this badge of foreign dominion ; 
he invested the prefect with a banner instead of a 
syvord, and absolved him from all dependence of 
oaths or service to the German emperors/ Ii| 
his place an ecclesiastic, a present or future car- 
dinal, was named bv the pope to the civil govern- 
ment of Rome ; bpt his jurisdiction has been re- 
duced to a narrow compass ; and in the days of 
freedom, the right or exercise was derived from 
the senate and people, iv. After the revival ofNumber 

' • ' and choio6 

the senate,"* the conscript fathers (if J may use of the le^ 
the expression) were invested with the legislative"*^^ 
and executive power; but their views seldom 

* The words of a oontempornry writer (Fandulph. Pisaii. in Vit. 
Paschal ix, p. 357, 358) describe the Section and oath of the prefect 
in Ills, inconsultis patribu9 .... loca prasfectoria. • . . 'Laudee prae- 
fectoriae .... conunitoram applausum . . . •' juraturum pc^mlo in am* 
bdnem sublevaiit . -v • . confirmaxi eum in urbe pr«e(ectuin petunt. 
* * Urbis praefectum ' ad ligiam fidelitatem recepit, et per mautura 
quod illi doiiavit de prxtetturi eum ptfblice Investivit, qui usque ad 
id tempus juramento fldelitdtis imperateri fuit obltgatub et ab eo prae* 
fecturse tenuit honorem (Gesta Innocent iii, in MuratoH, toiti. iii» 
p. 1, P.487.J 

? See Otho Prising. Chron, tii, ^31, de Gest. Frederic i, Li, c. 2T. 

284 TBV wmcLmm jwo fai.& 

CHAF. readied bejond Hie present di^; and IbaEt Jbif 
^^^ was most firequently distubed by viohoKe and 
tumult, in its ntmost plemtud^ the <»diei? or 
dssemUj consisted of fifty-six senators;^ the most 
enunent of whom were distinguished by tbe UUe 
of counseUors : they were noniuiated» paAiaps 
annually^ 1^ the people ; and a previous dioice 
of their electors, ten persons in eadi region, <»* 
parish, might afford a basis for a free and per- 
manent constitution. The popes, who in this 
tempest submitted rather to bend than to break, 
confirmed, by treaty, the establishment and pri- 

\ ^ vileges of the senate, and expected from time, 
peace, and religion, the restoration of their go- 
vernment. The motives of public and private 
interest might sometimes draw from the Romans 
an occasional and temporary sacrifice of their 
claims ; and they renewed their oath of allegiance 
to the successor of St. Peter and Constantine, the 
lawful head d* the diurch and the republic.' 

* Oar MQDtryraaD, Roger I{o¥«dea» speaks of Uie dngle senatoit^ 
•f the Capuzti family, &c. quorum temporibus melius rcgebatur Ho- 
ma quam nunc (a, i>.1194) est temporibus Ivi teDatorum ^(Ducao^^ 
Gloss; torn, vl, p^ 191, Senatoire$)^ 

7 Muratori (diMert. xUi» torn. Ut, p^ 7S&*;S$) has ptt^ished an 
•riginaJ treaty : Concerdia inter IX nostnuB papam Clementem iii» 
at senatores populi RoiaaDi super regalibHS etaliia4igBitatilMisurbis, 
aib anno U^ ecaatib* The senate speakst and qpaaks with autho- 
rity : KediiiUM ad preteiis • • • • habebiaiua .. • • . dahitis presby 
terla .... jurabimus paeen} et fidelitatefli» &€» A chartula de Te- 
aementis Tuscuhuii* dated inithe ierty-seventh year of the saoie era, 
«iid confirmed decreta amplissimi ordiois senate* acdamatione P. IL 
puhlice Capitolio eonsistentis. It is there we find the diflbrenoe of se- 
natores consiUarii and simple aenators (Muratori* dissert. xlii> torn. iii» 
p. f W.789>. 


4^9 ^BE aOlf AH BHPIEI. 285 

The union and vigour of a.]mUk council was ghak. 
dissolved in a lawless city ; and the Romans soon i^i^ 
adopted anu^re starong and simple mode of admi- 1^ 
nistesUion. Thej condensed the name and au-^* 
thority of the ^senate in a single magistrate, or 
two^Golte^lgues; and, as ^ley were changed at the 
end of a year, or of six months, the greatness of 
the trust was compensated by the shortness of the 
term. But in this transient reign, ^ithe senators 
of Rome indulged their avarice «id ambition ; 
their justice was perverted by the interest of their 
family and £action,; and as they punished only 
their enemies, thcgr were obeyed only by their 
adherents. Anarchy, no longer tempered by .the 
ipastoral care of their bishop, admonished the Ro- 
mans* that tbey were incapajtileof governing them- 
selves ; and they sought abroad those Uessangs 
'Which they were hopeless of finding at home. In 
the same age, and from the same motives, most 
of the Italiaiv republics were prompted to em- 
brace a measure, which, however strangeit may 
seem, was adapted to their situation, and pro- 
ductive of the most salutafy effects/ They 
chose, in some foreign but friendly dty, an im- 
partial .magistrate of noble birth and unblemish- 
ed character, a soldier and a statesman, recom- 
mended by the voice of fame and his country, to 
whom they del^;ated, for a time, the supreme 
administration of peace and war. The compact 

* Mnratori fdissert. zlv, torn, it, p. 64-'92) l^as fully explained 
"^ this mode of government;' and the OoUub PagittaMtt which he has 
fiven at the end, hr a teettlse or sermon on lbi»4nliet of theee foreifn 

486' trii tUctiJii AND *Alt 

c H A I*, behreeh the governor and the governed was sibal- 
Jl^^^ ed with oaths and subscriptions; a:nd the duratioil 
of his power, the measure of his stipend, the 
nature of their mutual obligations^ were defined 
with scrupulous preciiidn. They swore to obejr 
him as their lawful superior; he pledged his 
. faith to unite the indiflerence of a strangef' with 
the 2eal of a patriot; At his choice, four or six 
knights and civilians, his assessors in arms and 
justice, attended the podesta/' who maintained, 
at his own expence, a decent retinue of servants 
and horses ; his wife, his soh^ his brother, who 
knight bias the affections of the judge, were left 
behind ; during the exercise of his ojBice^ he wHs 
not permitted to purchase land, to contract ah 
alliance, or even to accept an invitation in the 
house of a citizen; nor could he honourably 
depart till he had satisfied the complaints that 
might be urged against his government. 
Bnmca- It was thus, about the middle of the thirteenth 
A. o. 1252. century, that the Romans called from Bologna 
^^^ the senator Brancaleone,'' whose fame and merit 
have been rescued from oblivion by the pen of an 
English historian. A just anxiety for his repu- 
tation, a clear fbresight of the difficulties of the 

* In the Latin writers, at least of tlie silver age, the title of po- 
tutat was transferred from the office to the magistrate. 
Hujus qui trahitur prstextam somere maris ; 
Ka Fidenarum Gabiorumque esse patettaa* 

/ (JuvenaL Satir. z, 99). 

^ See the life and death of Brancaleone* in the Historia. Major of 
Matthew Paris, p. 741, 757, 792, 797, 799, 810, 883, 833, S36, 
840. The multitude of pilgrims and suitors oonnected Rome and 
St.Alban*8 ; and tbe resentment of the English clergy prompted thea 
to rejoice whenever the popes were humbled and oppressedL 

OV riE ROMAN Elipifti: ^y 

task^had engaged him to refuse the honour 4f cbak 
their choice; the statutes of Rome were suspend-* lxix. 
ed, and his ofSce prolonged to the term of three 
years. Bjthe guilty and licentious he was accused 
as cruel ; by the clergy he was suspected as p^tial ; 
but the friends of peace and order applauded the 
firm and upright magistrate by whom those bless- 
ings were restored ; no criminals were so power- 
ful as to brave, so obscure as to elude, the justice 
of the senator. By his sentence, two nobles of the 
Annibaldi family were executed on a gibbet ; and 
he inexorably demolished, in the city and neigh- 
bourhood, one hundred and forty towers, the 
strong shelters of rapineandmischief. The bishop, 
as a simple bishop, was compelled to reside in his 
diocese; and the standard of Brancaleone was 
displayed in the field with terror and eflfect. His 
services were repaid by the ingratitude of a people 
unworthy of the happiness which they enjoyed. 
By the public robbers, whom he had provoked 
for their sake, the Romans were excited to depose 
and imprison their benefactor ; nor would his life 
have been spared, if Bologna had not possessed 
a pledge for his safety. Before his departure, the 
prudent^ senator had required the exchange of 
thirty hostages of the noblest families of Rome ; 
on the news of his danger, and at the prayer of his 
wife, they were more strictly guarded; and Bo- 
logna, in the cause of honour, sustained the thun- 
ders of a papart interdict. This generous resist- 
ance allowed the Romans to compare the present 
with the past ; and Brancaleone was conducted 
from the prison to the capitol amidst the accla^ 

<;haP4 ttmlioiKi'Of ^trapen^^pecy^le. . The I'emainder 
of his goreffBiik^iit Wfi^>fiirm aii4 fortuiiiite ; and 
M.8o<m as^ivyiWas apj)€iQ$edby.|de^ib» hisrhead^ 
eoolosed in a precious v$^ w9B dqposHed on a 
lofty column of roarfcle.*' 
chariMof The impotepce of reason and tirtiie ncom- 
ii. iTitos^mended in Italy aiporeieffeotMal choline ; instead 
^^^•* -0f a jMrivate fcitia«U, to .whppi .they yielded a 
ivoluntm^ and precai^ious ohedieiice^ the Romans 
elected for.their senator some prince of indq^nd- 
.rat power, ;W^o,eauld defend them from their 
.enemies and ithemsetves* Chart^s of ^lyou and 
jProveace, the most amhUious a^d^warlifce mo- 
.nareh^of the age, a<?cepted at;the:Wme time the 
dungdom of Naples from ^tbe pope, and the of- 
sfice of senator from the Bopaan people.^ As he 
rpassed through tbecity, in his. road to victory, he 
'received their oath of jAlle^^ance, lodged in the 
.Lateran {palace, and smoothed in a short visit the 
rharsh features of bis despotic character. i!l^et even 
'.Charles was exposed to the inconstancy of the 
tpeople, who saluted with the same acclamatioDs 

* Matthew Paris thus ends his account : Caput vero ipsios Bran- 
•aleonis in vase pretioso super marmoream eolutenam col]ocatum» in 
^gnum tui Taloris et proMt«tis» gu^ i(el|qu|a8a aaperstitiose nimis 
.ctponkpose^sustulerunt. Fuerat enim superborumpotentumetms- 
lefactorum urbis malleus et exstirpator, et populi protector et defen- 
sor, veritatis et justitiae imitator et amator (p. 840). A hic^fnpker 
.of Innocent it (Muratori, Script, torn, iii, p* i» p* 591, 592) drawstS 
less favourable portrait of this GhibeUine senator. 

. * The election 4>f Charles of Anjou to the olfiee of perpetual sena- 
tor of Rome is mentioned by the historians in the eighth volume of 
the collection ef Muratori» by Nicholas de Jamsilla (p^ 59S)» the monk 
.of Padua ^ 7f4>> Sabas Malaspina (1. il, c. 9, p.S08)t and^RicoE' 
4uiQ Malespini (e. 177, p. 999). 


the passages of his rivals the unfortunate Con- chaf« 
radin ; and a powerful avenger, who reigned in r ' 
the capito], alarmed the fears and jealousy of the 
popes. The absolute term of his life was supers 
seded by a renewal erery third year ; and th^' 
enmity of Nicholas the third obliged the Sicilian 
king to abdicate the government of Rome. In 
his bull, a perpetual law, the imperious pontiff 
asserts the truth, validity, and use, of the dona* 
tion of Constantine, not less essential to the peace! 
of the city than to the independence of the 
church ; establishes the annual election of the 
senator ; and formally disqualifies all emperors, 
kings> princes, and persons of an eminent and 
conspicuous rank.^ This prohibitory clause was Pope MWl 
repealed in his own behalf by Martin the fourth^ J|°»!'i88i. 
/who humbly solicited the suffrage of the Romans; 
in the presence, and by the authority, of the 
people, two electors conferred, not on the pope, 
but on the noble and faithful Martin, the dignity 
b{ senator, and the supreme administration of the 
reupblic,' to hold during his natural life, and to 
exercise at pleasure by himself or his deputies; 
About fifty years afterwards, the same title was ^^^ ^^j^i 
granted to the emperor Lewis of Bavaria ; and ror Lewia 
the liberty ef .Rome was acknowledged by her li,, 132s/ 

• The high-sounding hull of Kicholas iii» which fbuifds his tempo- 
ral sovereignty bn the donation of Constiintiiie, is ftti|l extant ; &ad 
as it has been inserted by Boniface yiii in the Sexte of the Decretals* 
it must be received by the caibollcs, or at least by the jftpists; as a 
sacred ahd perpetual law. 

' I am indebted td Pieurjr (Hist. Ecdes. torn, xviii, p. 306) for an 
extract of this Roman act, which he has taken from the Ecdeslasttcif 
^nals df Odfericus Haynaldus, a. d. 1281, No. 14, 15. 

r&h4 jkih V 


CHAP, two sovereigns, Who accepted a n^ttnicli^I office 

' in the ffovernment of their own metropolis. 
Addresses In the first moments of rebellion, when Ar- 
thee^^!°nold of Brescia had inflamed their minds a- 
"*^ gainst the church, the Romans artftilfy labour- 
ed to conciliate the favour of the empire, and 
to recommend their merit and services in the 
Connid in, causc of CaesaT. The style of their ambassadors 
^"•"*^to Conrad the tMrd and Fred«ic the first is 
a mixture of 'flattery and pride, the tradiUon 
and ihe'%nbrance of their own history.* Af- 
ter some complaint of his silence and neglect^ 
they exhort the former of these princes to pass 
the Alps, and a^uine from their hands the im- 
perial crown. ** We beseech your majesty, not 
'< to disdain the humility of your sons and vas- 
** sals, riot to listen *to the accusations of our 
** common enemies, who calumniate the senate as 
" hostile to Jrour throne, Vho sow the seeds of 
** discord, that they may reap the harvest of 
•* destruction. The pope and the Sicilian are 
" united in an impious leagfue to expose our 11- 
**berty sind yotir coronation. With the bless- 
" ihg bf God, our zeal arid courage has faither- 
** to defeated their attempts. Of their power- 
^' ful and factious adherents, more especially 
" the. Frangipani, we have taken by assault 
^* the houses and turrets : som^ of these are 

t These letters and speeches are preserved by Otho bishop of Fri- 
singen (Fabric. Bibliot. Lat. med. et infim. torn. v» p. 186, 187), per- 
haps the noblest of hbtorians : he was son of Leopold marquis 
, of Austria; his mother, Agnes* was daughter of the emperor Hemy 
iv, and he was half brother and uncle to Conrad m, and Frederic i. 
He has left, in seven books, a Chronicle of the Times f in two, the 
Gesta Frederici i, th^last of which ts Inserted in the taxOk v^ume ef 
Muratori's hbtorianf. 

^ w}%h the^ounfl- The Milviali bridge, which }^^L 

*^ they iHifl .Iroj^p^ \is re^^red and fortified for 

** yOHa- safe^p^ss^ge; .agd yq^n ^n^y may enter- 

•^ tjie cily wi^llflat Ijeij^ apiioyed^Vo^-^e castle 

^^ <^ St* Apgelo. All that ^we haye.4oney and all 

** th^t we 4esignf is.fpr your hopqi^* ajid $^rvjce» 

f ^ in $he lq^life>pe,^a,tjy<?u yill sp^^y f^pfi^ar 

'^ in pi^rsc^, to vindicate tl^Qse ri^ts wl4<^,h^vje 

>^ been jnva^ed hy.tlje clergy, to jrevivcjthe ^ig- 

*^ nity of the>empire,^nd.tosuurp^s.theif^B?e§nd 

** glory of ypiir.predece^prs. May youfix ypur 

« residenpe in lipme, the c^^it^ of the world ; 

" give laws to Italy^ndtlje Teutonic kingdofn; 

<^ and liQit^tei the example of 'Cpnstai^tii^e and 

*< Justiniap^^ who, by the vigour of the senate 

^^ and people, obtain^ th^ $ceptre of the earth.?' 

(But these splendid and fallacious wishes w^re 

not cberifibed ^y Conrad the jFrapconian, whose 

eyes w^re f^5?e4 on tJie Holy Ismd, and who died 

without visiting Rome soon after his ^'eturn frpm 

the Hply Japd. 

Hisi^^efv^and^ucc^sspr, Frederic Bart!9i^ossa,Fiedeck i» 
was more .aphitious of the,iflip^rial crpwn ;.nor** ^ *^*^ 
had ai^y i>f the ^wce^sors, of Qtho apqjg^if ed such 
absolute sf^ay over, the feipgdom of r It^Iy. Sur- 
rounded by h^ ecclesiastical and secular prinpes, 
he gave audience in his cajnpat Sytrita tbeam- 
. l»ssadprs.offRoine,.whp. Ihtts .addyos^ a 

* Wc desire (siudth^ ign^rfnt Romans) to restore the enjpire. in 
eum statuxn, quo fuit tempore Constant^ni et JuBtimani, qjui totiun 
^•rbe|n vi||}Qre^natus et ^pi(U JRoi^fmi ^ / 

^ Otho Prising, de Gestis Frederic! i^ 1* i> c 28» p« P^}^%^ 

y 2 



CHA>. free and florid oration : ** Incline your ear to tlie 
^ queen of cities ; approach with a peaceful and 

* friendly mind the precinct* of Rome, mrhich 
•* has cast away the yoke of the clergy, and is 
" impatient to crown her legitimate emperor. 
" Under your auspicious influence, may the pri- 
*^ mitive tini^ be restored- Assert the prero- 
" rojgatives of the eternal city, and reduce under 
^ hir monarchy the ihkolence of the world. You 
*^ are not ignorant, that, in former ages, by the 
" Wisdom of the senate, by the valour and disci- 
** plineof the equestrian order, she extended her 
^^ victorious arms to the East and West, beyond 
** the Alps, and over the islands of the ocean. 
" By our sins, in the absence of our prince^ 
*^ the noble institution of the senate has sunk in 
" oblivion; and with our prudence, our strength 
*• has likewise decreased. We have revived the 
'* senate and t^e equestrian order : the counsels 
" of the one, the arms of the other, will be de- 

* voted to your person and the service of the 
*< empire. Do you not hear the language of the 
" Roman matron ? You were a guest, I have 
*« adopted you as a citizen ; a Transalpine stran- 
** ger, I have elected you for my sovereign ;^ and 
^* given you myself and all that is mine. \ our 
** first and most sacred duty is to swear and 
** subscribe that you will shed your blood for 
«* the republic ; that you will maintain in peace 
'* and justice the laws of the city and the charters 
'* of your predecessors; and that yoii will reward 

^ HMpes eras, civexn f«cS. A^veoa fuLsti ex Traosalpinis pmibos ; 
pri&dp«m CQOfftHai, 


** with five thousand pounds of silver, the faithful c ha r. 

^^ senators who shall proclaim your titles in the ^^^^ 

^^ capitol. With the name, assume the character,^ 

** of Augustus." The flowers of Latui rhetoric 

were not yet exhausted ; but Frederic, impatient 

of their vanity, interrupted the orators in the high 

tone of royalty and conquest. ^' Famous indeed 

^' have been the fortitude and wisdom of the 

^* ancient Romans ; but your speech is not sea- 

*^ soned with wisdom, and I could wish that 

^ fortitude were conspicuous in your actions. 

*^ Like all sublunary things, Rome has felt the vi- 

<^ cissitudes of time and fortune. Tour noblest 

<^ families wer^ translated to the East, to the 

<* royal city.of Constantine; and the remains of 

*^ your, strepgth and freedom have long since 

*^ beeA es^austed by the Greeks and Franks. 

'^ Are you 4esirous of beholding the ancient glory 

*^ of Rome^ the gravity of the senate, the spirit 

*^ of the l^nigh^s, the discipline of the camp» the 

!* valour of the legions ? . you will fipd them in 

*> the German republic* Jt is not eippire, naked 

*> and alone ; the ori^aipents aiid virtues, of eiur 

f^ pire have likewi^ migrated beyond the Alps 

" to a mor^ deserving people.' T^^y will bje em- 

" ployed in yojijr defence, but they clajm ypur 

« obedience, you pr^end that myself or my 

^* predecessors fcaye been ipvited by the Romans ; 

" you mistake the word ; they were not invited ; 

" they were implpred,, J^rom its foreign and 

^ Non oessit nobis nudum imperiuitti vlitute toa anaictum v«nit; 
ornamente sua secum trazit Fenes noasunt bonsuleatui, &«* Cieera 
or Livy would not haTe rejected these images* tha eloqueme of a 
1»arbarian, ^n l^ld eduoated in the Hartynlaii forest 

. U S 

i2d4 YRE vtictivn and fAit 

chAp. ** domestic tyrarits^ the cit^ wis restlted Bj* 
^^. " Ch«^lemagiA? aid 0tho,' *rh6s# aSh^ repoM iir 
« our cdtmtry ; and tncff doiA Aionf was the pfiti 
•^ of your deliverance. Vtt^r tKat dolnfiDiotf 
" your ancestors lived arid died, I elaim by the 
<* right of inheritance and posses9i6n, and vAib 
** shall dare to extort yoii froth itiy Kandd ? Is the 
« hand df the Franks** atrd Gerthfaris enfeebled 
"by age? Am I v^riq[uishfed? Arii I a captivfe? 
" Am I not enconi^a«?sed with the bathers of a 
** potent and invincible army ? Yefii iihpose con- 
** ditions pri your master; you require oaths: if 
** the coridltions dt-e jiist, an oath id superfluous; 
** if unjust, it is crimifaal; Can ^ou doubt my 
*' equity ? II is extehdfed to the mfeiiiest of my 
" subjects. Will nbt thy sword be liiisheathed in 
*' the defeiice df the ca^ltbl ? tiy that s^oM the 
•' nortiierh kingdom of Dienifaark hdi been re- 
** stored to the Rorilan eiitpire. You prescribe 
" the measur^ iibd the objects of my bounty, 
<' which flows in si copious but a voluntsiry stream. 
" All will be given to t)atient merit ; all will be 
^* denied to rude irhportunity,"'* Neither the 
emperor nor the senate could maintain these loftj 
pretensions of ttominibn atid Hbel'ty, United 
^ith the p'ope, and suspicions 6f the Romans^ 
Ifrederic continuetl Jhi3 m$i-ch to thie Vatican: 
his coronation t^^as disturbed by A SAllJ^ ft-om tie 

"* Otho of FrUingeiiy who surely understood the language of the 
court and diet of Germany, sjiekks of the Prablti^ in tke iweUth cen^ 
pity AS tke reigning nation (Pro^eres Franci, equites Fra^ici, maaus I 
Franconun) ; he adds, however* the epithet of Tatt^ndcL 

^ Otho Prising, de Gestis Frfderici u L ii» & 22, |». 720-723. I 
These original and authentic uts I hate translated ^nd •^4ged witk i 
lireedom* yet wit&^fidelity. 


0^ TH^ HOU^V, WJPIftJtt 40^ 

f^ffpiffill ; ipd if the ainnb^.aad valour of the cjha^p, 

^ermfmP pr-erailpd m, thfi Hw^f. copi4i<i^ ^ Jz!fL 

could not sfifely c^ani^ Iq tl|^ pq^ip^Qce of a city 

of whifh he .styled him^f tlie £toir^/e]gi). About 

iiwelv^ y^r» «S»iWWipf he.lK»i^ge4 R<Wfe tq 

seat ai^«rtippp« i» tlw qfeateofi Sl|*J?eter.; ap<|[ 

twelve PisMm. s^i^ ^^r^ ilMKo4l>ced iuto t^e 

Tyb^i:; but tti^.)lfinate.awlp?Qpte^^es^vedby 

the orts Qf u^gO(^al;ioRaml t^ 9i:^^»^Qfi4i3e99e; 

nor did, Fij^fesric <>k Ws. ^t^qessorq i»it«rat? *hc 

]|09tile attempt Theif l^^l^iQWLr^iSDft M[ei;e e»- 

erci36d by tb^ ppp^» thi^,cn)6a^« aonjl the i»de- 

yenifexiQe of lAmhw^T^P^^^^^^^^f^l tbey couit- 

<?d thq a)}iUw)? of tiip IU>mAi^^ ; an4 Fre4^r;c t^e 

se^owl o^fei^ed im t^ capitoli th?.gi:eat standard 

the C<irQC(^. of Mil^.'' After <ih,<^ ^tipctioA of 

tbie h9}Jm oC Sfesvabia, tjf^yw^m l»nish^4 beypj^ 

the Al$^ ; and tb^it la^t coffimtipm. beti:ayed t|if 

impo^m^e and ppy^irty of th^ Tc^toiiic (^ars.f 

^ From the chronicles of Ricobaldo and Francis Pepin, Muratori 
<dis8ert. xxvj, torn, if, p. 492) has transcribed diis curious fact* with 
ihe^k9ggferTer8e8^9t^!ysqi9{^ . 

Ave decus orhis ave ! victus tlhi .destinor, ave ! 
Currus ab Augusto Frederico Cftsare justo- 
V«e Medloiamitt'l jam sentia sperfwre vamun 
^ ^P^^^, XV)a^ {|roprla8 ti^ to^er^ ▼»:€$. 

Ergo triuipphopim vrhs pptes memor esse prloruQi 
Qao8 tibi mittebant regea qui beUa gerebant. - 
Ne ai dee tapere (I now use the Italian disserMtioiis, torn* i» p» 444) 
che ntfll* anncf 179Z« una copia desto Ca^iocdo in mamto dianzi ig» 
noto si acopvinel Campido|^K)«. pr^aao aUe cazp^cie di •guel Jli|ogo> doiv< 
fiisto V. VtLvea. falto rlncbiudere* Staya ess^ posto aopm quatto co» 
Iqnne d^ mm^ tP<( ^^ 9«9H«9t^ iniK^risione, &d to the same pur- 
po.^^ as ^le 0I4 ids^fip^iof). 

» T*|^| 4ecliDe of ^h^ Jmjwnni anp? and aui^pyity m Italy is if^at- 
«d «ithtmpimiiai^Anu9g m (h^4im«]s o( Muratori iumu z^ 1^, J^ii); 

u 4 


CHAP. Under the re^ of Adrian, when the empii« 

^^^^ extended from the Euphrates to the ocean, from 

wanofthe mount Atlas to the Grampian hills, a fanciful 

.g^'theW^torian"* amused the Romans with the picture 
r^ciu""' ^^ **'^'' infant ware. ^* There was a time,^ says 
"' **" f^lorus, " when Tibtor and Praeneste, our summer 
•« retreats, were the objects of hostile vows in the 
*' capitol, when we dreaded the shades of the 
^ Arician groves, when we could triumph without 
^ a blush over the nameless villages of the Sabines 
f and Latins, and even Corioli cpuld afford a 
'• title not unworthy of a victorious general." 
The pride of his contemporaries was gratified bj 
the contrast of the past with the present : they 
would have been humbled by the prospect of fu- 
turity ; by the prediction, that after a thousand 
years, Rome, despoiled of empire, suid contracted 
to her primaeval limits, would renew the same 
hostilities, on the same ground which was then 
decorated with her villas and gardens. The ad- 
jitcent territory on either side #f the Tybei 
was alwa]^s claimed, and Bometimes possessed, 
as the patrimotiy of St. Peter ; but the barons as- 
sumed a lawless independence, and the cities too 
faithfully copied the revolt and discord of the 
metropolis. In the twelfth a^d.thlrteetitb cen* 

«pd the readtr may CQ«apare his narrative with the Hlitoire des Al* 
lemandeitom. tii, iv), by Sohmidt, who has deserved t|i^ esteem of 
his eounirymeii. . . 

4.Tibair ntmc suburbetiusn, et eestivae Prsneste delici»» iraiicupatis 

in capitolio votis petebantur. The whole passage of Flonu il. i« 

• c. 11) may be tread with pleasure, and 1^ deserved the praise of 4 

tnan of genius ((Euvxes de Montesquieu, t0n. iii, p. (>34, 636, qusB; 

to edition . ^ 


Ituries, the RoBums incei^saiitly laboured to reduce chap« 
or destroy the contumiunous vassals of the church ^^^ 
and senate ; and if their headstrong and selfish 
ambition was moderated by the pope, he often 
encouraged their zeal by the alliance of his spi- 
ritual arms. Their warfare was that of the first 
consuls and dictators, who were taken from the 
plough. They assembled in arms at the foot of the 
capitQl ; sallied from the gates, plundered or 
burnt the harvests of their neighbours, engaged 
in tumultuary conflict, and returned home after 
an expedition of fifteen or twenty days. Their 
sieges were tedious and unskilful : in the use <£ 
victory, they indulged the meatier passions of 
jealousy ^nd revenge ; and instead of adopting the 
valour, they trampled on the misfortunes, of their 
adversaries. The captives, in their shirts, with 
a rope round their necks, solicited their pardon: 
the fortifioations, and even the buildings, of the 
rival cities, were demolished, and the inhabitants 
were scattered in the fuijacettt villages^ It was 
thus that tl^e seats of the cardinal bishops, Porto, 
Ostia, AlbanutD, Tusculum, Praeneste, and Tibur 
or jjTivoU, were successively overthrown bf the 
ferocious hostility of the Romans.^ Of these,^ 

* Ne a feritate Romanonim sicut Aierant Hqstjen^es, Portuenses, 
TuBCulanenses, Albanenses, Labicenses, et nui>«r Tiburtini, desitrue« 
rentur ' (Matthew Paris, p. 757). Thes^ events are marked in the 
Annals and Index (the eighteenth volume^ of JVfiiratori. 

• For the state or ruin of these suburban cities, the banks o£ thp 
Tyber, fcc. see the lively picture of the P. Labat. (Voyage en Espagne 
et em Italie), who had not Ions resided in the neighbourhood of 
Rome; and the more accurate description of which P. Eschinar^ 
(Roma^ ^^^» ^^ octavo) l^as ^dded t« the topographical pap of Cin« 
SoUmi» '•'•••■•■•.■"• 

298 TkB DlU^lilNB AND FALL 

CHAP. Pppto wd Ostia, the two l&eys of tb^.Tybqr> an 
^^^^ 9tUl. vacant and desolates tk^ mansliy ami uih- 


wholesome baoks are.peopljBd wiA herds of bnf- 
falos, and the river is lost, to every purpose of 
navigation and trade. The biUs» wfakli. afbnd a 
abady retirement from: the autumnal heate, h&ve 
agaiB smiled with the bl^flsijigs of peace : Frescati 
has arisen near the ruUwt of Tusculiua : Tibur or 
Tivoli has resumed the l¥>nour of a city,^ and 
the meaner towns of Albano and Palestrina axe 
decorated with the villas of the cardinals and 
princes of Rome. In the work of destructioii^ 
the ambitioa of the Bomans was often checked 
and repulsed by the neighbouring cities and their 
allies: in the fir9t siege of T9mr; they were driven 
Battle of from tbeiT camp ; and the batdka of TusnJuitf 
A. A. 1167. and Viterbo^ might be compai*ed, m their relative 
state,, to the niemorable.field&of Thrasymene and 
Cannae. In the first of these petty wars» thirty 
thousand Romans were overthrown by a thcMisand 
German horse» whom Frederic Barbarossa had 
detached to the relief of Tusculum ; and if we 
number the slain at three, the prisoners at two, 
thousand, we shall embrace the most authentic 
and tnoderate accmint. Sixty-eight years iEdler- 

* Labat (torn, iii, p. 1S36) mentions a r^ent d,9er^ oC the j 
government/ which has severely niortified the.prk|^ an4 poyer^ of 
Tivoli : in civitate Tiburtlna non viyitur civiliter* 

" I depart from my usual method, of ^uotin^ only by the date the 
annals of Af uratori, in ■consideration of the critical balance in which 
he has weighed nine contemponury ivrUicrs« who pientiQ^ tha bat% Q^ 
Tu3culum (torn, x, p. 42-44*). 

« Matthew Paris, p. 345. TltJs Wst^pp of Wjij^hes^e* Df^ Peter ^ 
Bupius, who occupied the se^ thirty- ^wo y^rs (4%0.4?Qi;r}93f|)y and 
Is described, by an English historian^ as a soldier and a stat^^pn^a 
<p* 1T«, 399). ' 

0|P TVB mOMAI^ BM9IltK. S90^ 

Wftt^d ^^ tiiwibed agaihstTiteidiw iti.tiie ecele- chap. 
sitefical sttWte with the whdle fo^ce of the city :. by J^^* 
a i^»t €<(telitk)iip tBe Teutcmic eagle wte Mewled, Battle of" 
Hi tffce ak>r€rse bawMrs^ with Ute Jbey of St.. Peter ^.p^^^J^^ 
and the pOj^'sr aintfliaries wereiddminanded by ai 
<^6tittt cf rf'fawdiMse iaood a bisfaop of Whicbester^ 
7he BfMMlto trere di»eomfited with shame and 
sl^trght^ ; bat the Edglisb ptel»te must ha^e m- 
dulged til>& Vanity of a piilgrim^ if, he multiptbd 
tlhteit niimb^Ys to one hundred, a«id thenr hnm ia 
the fieidfo^tbilty, thousand men. HadthepeJii^ 
of tbe sedate,^ and the disciphiie of the legions, 
beeii festered with the capitoI, the divided condi* 
tioh of Italy troitld have o^ered thcf fairest oppor^ 
tunity of a s^dnd conqueirt But in arms, the 
tnod^rii Romsuis w«fe not (ibove^ and in arts they 
Irere fat b&hu^, the common level of the nei^h- 
bduriilg republics* Nor was their warlike spirit 
of any long contiimance : after some irregular sal* 
lies, they subsided in the national apathy, in the 
neglect of iriilitarf institutions, and in the disgrace* 
ful and dangerous ilse of foreign mercenaries. 

Ambition is a weed of quick and ^arly vegeta^^ The elec- 
tion in the vitieyard of Christ. Under the first J^^^ ^^ 
christian princes, the chair of St. Peter was dis* 
puted by the votes, the venality, the violence, of 
a popular election' : the sanctuaries of Rome were 
polluted Wi^ blood ; a^ d, from the third te the 
ti^elfth eehtu^i the dmrdi wasliikracted by the 
mischief c^ frequent schisms. As long as the final 
^Tpp^ was determined by the civil magistrate, 
these mischiefs Were transient and local : the me* 
ritg were tried by equity or favour; nor could jthe 


CHAP, unsttccessful competitor long disturb the triumjA 
LXix. of jj|g j^^ij^ g^^ ^f^^j, ^jjg emperors had been di- 

"*******'*** Tested of their prerogatives, after a maxkn had 
been estabfished, that the vidar of Christ is ame- 
nable to no earthly tribunal, each vacancj of the 
holy see might involve Christendom in contro- 
versy and war. The claims of the cardinals and 
inferior clergy, of the nobles and people, were 
vague and litigious : the freedom of choice was 
overruled by the tumults of a city that no longer 
owned or obeyed a superior. On the decease of a 
pope, two factions proceeded in different churches 
to a double election: the number and weight of 
votes, the pridrity of times, the merit of the can- 
didates, might balance each other : the most re- 
spectable of the clergy were divided ; and the 
distant princes, who bowed before the spiritual 
throne, could net distinguish the spurious, from 
the legitimate, idol. The emperors were often 
the authors of the schism, fron^ the political mo- 
tive of opposing a friendly to an hostile pontiff; 
and each of the competitors was reduced to suffer 
the insults of his enemies, who were not awed by 
. conscience ; and to purchase the support of his 
adherents, who were instigated by avarice or am- 
itigbt of bition. A peaceful andperpetual succession was 
natwu." ascertamed by Alei^nder the third,^ who finally 
Wished by abolished lie tumultuary votes of the clergy and 
^^^exan er p^^^j^^ ^^^ deffned thc right of election in the 

y See Mosheim, Institut. H'htor. Ecclesia^t. p. 401, 403L Alwandef 
hypaseli had nearly been the viciioiof a.cpn«e8te<i election ; and the 
doubtfui merits of Innocent had only preponderated by the weight of 
genius and learning which St. Bernafd cast into the scale (see his lift 
an^ wridngB). 


sole college of cardinals.' Tbe three orders of ghap. 
bishops, priests, and deacons, were assimilated to^^ 

each other by this important privilege : the pa- 
rochial clergy of Rome obtained the first rank 
in fhe^ hierarchy; they were indifferently chosen 
among the nations of Christendom ; and the pos^ 
session of the richest benefices, of the most im- 
portant bishojNrics, was not incompatible with 
their title and office. The senators of the catholic 
church, the coadjutors and l<^ates of the suprente 
pontiff, were robed in purple, the symbol of 
martyrdom or royalty; they claimed a proud 
equality with kings ; and their dignity was en- 
hanced by the smallness of their number, whieby 
till the reign of Leo the tenth, seldom exceeded 
twenty or twenty-five persons. By this wise re- 
gulation, all doubt and scandal were removed, and 
the root of schism was so effectually destroyed, 
that in a period of six hundred years, a double 
choice has only once divided the unity of the 
sacred college* But as the concurrence of two 
thirds of the votes had be^n made necessaiy^ the 
election was often delayed by tbe private interest 
and passicms of the cardinals ; and while they 
prolonged their indeiiendcnt reign, the christian 
world was left destitute of an head. AVacancy institufkm 
of almost three years had preceded the elevation ^f^^^^ 
of Gregory the tenth, who resolved to prevent ^""^sw*. 

■TheorigiB» titles, importafice, dress, precedency:, &c. of the Roman 
f ardinals, are very-ably discussed by Thomassin (Discipli-ne de TEglise, 
tdm. i, p. It68-1887) . but their purple is now much faded. Th« 
•aered coiUge wa« raUed to the definite number -of «eventytwO| t9 
xepvesen^ iiader lUs vicar, the disciples of Cl^lst. • 


S03 ¥Mt IMrCLlKdfi Aim PAIX 

CHAP, th^ future libuse ; and his buU, after :Some'Oppo* 
/'^'^ sitioD, has been consecrjated in the code of the 
canon law.* Nine daj^ are aUonred for the ob- 
sequies of the deceased pope, and the arrival of 
the absent cardinijs; on the'teecth, tb^ane-lRi- 
prisonedy each with one domestic, in a common 
apartment or conc/ieit^e, without a,ny<separation of 
walls or curtains ; a small window is^reserrod for 
the introduction of necessaries ; but the door is 
locked on both sides, and guarded by the magis- 
trates of the citj, ta seclude them from all corres- 
pondence with the world. If the election be 
not consummated in three days, the liKxury of 
their tables is contracted to a single dish at dinner 
and supper; and after the eighth day, they are 
reduced to a scanty allowance of bread, water, 
and wine. During the vacancy of the holy see, 
the cardmals are prohibited from touching tiie 
revenues, or assuming, unless in some rare emer- 
gency, the government^ of the church ; all agree- 
ments and promises amcmg the electors are form- 
ally annulled ; and their integrity is fcHiified by 
their solemn oath and the prayers of the catho- 
lics. Some articles of inconvenient or super- 
fluous rigour have been gradually relaxed, but 
the principle of confinement is vigorous and en- 
tire ; they are still urged, by the personal motives 
of health aqd freedom, to accelerate the moment 
of their deliverance; and the improvement of 
batlot or secret votes has wrapt the struggles of 

• See the bull of Gregory z, approbante Mcro concUio, in Uie Sti^U 
'of the Canon Lew (1. i, tit. 6, c^S), a supplement to-.^be Decoetais, 
which Boniface nii promulgated «t Rome-ln l^lPSr «bA ■rtrttrntril to 
<ill the universities of fiurope. 




^bie icohclare^ in the silky Teil df charity anfl po- chap. 
liteness.^, By these institutions, the Romans were ^^^ 
exdnded from the election of their prince and* 
bishdp; and in the fever of wild and precarious 
liberty, they ?eemed insensible of the loss of this 
inestimable privilege. The emperor Lewis ofA.ii.i3St. 
Havana revived the example of the great Otho. 
After some negociation with the magistrates, 
the tloman people was assembled*^ in the square 
before St. Peter's ; the pope of Avignon, John 
the twenty- second, was deposed ; the choice of i 
his successor was ratified by their consent and 
applause. They freely voted for a new law, that 
their bishop should never be absent more than 
three months in the year, and two days journey 
from the city ; and that if he neglected to re- 

^ The geniud of eurdinal de Itetz hid a right to paint a conclave (of 
166^, in which he was a spectator and an actor (Memoirs, torn, iv, 
p. 15-57) ; but I am at a loss to appreciate the knowledge or autho- 
rity of an anonymous Italian, tjrhose history (Conclavi de Pontifici 
Boinani, in qnarto, 1667) has been continued mnce the reign of Alex- 
ander VII. The accidenUl form of the work furnishes a lesson, though 
not an antidote, to ambition. From a labyrinth of Intrigues, we 
emerge to the adoration of the successful candidate ; Iwt the next 
page opens with his funeral. 

« The expressions of cardinal de Rets are positive and picturesque :. 
On y ve^ut toujours ensemble avec le m^e fespect, et la mime dvi* 
lit^ que Ton observe dans le cabinet des rois, avec la meme politesse 
qn'oil avtit'dansiaoour de Heiiri ni, avec la m^e Aumltnit^ que 
Ton vMt dans lea coU^^ges ; avec la meme modestie, qui se renuvque 
' dans les ndviciats ; et avec U mime charitd, du mohis en apparence, 
' dui poumit itre entr^ des frerei'parfaitement Unis. 

' Rechiestiper bando (says Jehri Vittani) sanatori di Roma, ^6Sdel 
popolo, et capitani de' 25 e consoii fc<m8oU?Js et 13 buone huomini, 
uno per rione. Our knowledge is too imperfect to pronounce how 
much of this constitution was temporary, and how much ordinary 
and pennanent. Yet it is faintly illustrated by the anciept stttute* 
•f Room. 


CHAP, turn on the third summons, the public servant 
^^^^ should bo degraded and dismissed.^ But Licwis 

^ forgot his own debility and the prejudices of the 

times : beyond the precincts of a German camp, 
his useless phantom was rejected ; the Romans 
despised their own workmanship ; the antipope 
implored the mercy of bis lawful sovereign*/ 
and the^ exclusive right of the cardinals was 
more firmly established by this unseaaonabJe 

Abeetioeor Had the election been always held in tlieVa- 

goin]^e.tican, the rights of the senate and people would , 
not have been violated with impunity. But the 
Romans fbrgot> and were forgotten, in the absence 
of the successors of Gregory the seven th, who did 
not keep as a divine precept their ordinary resi- 
dence in the city and diocese. The care of that 
diocese was less important than the government 
of the universal church ; nor could the popes de- 
light in a city in which their authority was always 
opposed, and their person was often endai^igered. 
From the persecution of the emperoris, and the 
wars of Italy, they escaped beyond the Alps into 
the hospitable bosom of France ; from the tu- 
mults of Rome they prudently withdre\^ to lire 

*" « ViHani 0* x« c. 68.T1 in Muratori, Scripts t<ftn. xHr^ p* 641-^ 
i«lftte« tfara law, and the whole .transaction, with miicb less abfaorreoee 
than the prudent Muratori Any one conversant with the darker ago 
must have obsorved how much the senw ^ mean Uia noasaoee} of 
eiiperstition is fluctuating and inconaistentM 

^ In the first volume of the Popes of Avigiion» ftee the setond Ori' 
gina' Life of John xxii, p. 142-145, the confession Of the antipopCf 
p. 146»152, aod the laborious notes of Baluase, p. 714, tl& 

0^ TttB kcmkit kUFtnti ^6 

BtkA die in the inot^ tranqiril statics of AnhgtA, c^k^i 
Perugia, Vitwbo, and the Bi^^wsini citie^. When ^^:^^J,^ 
the flock wag irfTi^iided oir impoVeri^lbid by Hit 
abseiice'af tlve diephetd^ they i^ere reclftl^ by ^ 
stern admtmition: that St. Peter had fixed jhis 
cbair^ notih aii obscurd village^ but in th^ capital 
of the world ; by a ferbciouss mehac^ thlit the 
Romans wonM march in arms io ^troy the place 
and people tliat should dar^ to afford them a re- ' 
treat. They rettirned with timorous obedience ; 
and were saluted with tlie account of an heavy 
debtj of ay the losses which their desertion had 
occasioned, the hii'e of lodgings, the sd,le of pro- 
visiotis, and the various expehces of s^rviifits and 
strangers whd attended the court.' After a short 
interval of peace^ and perhaps of authority^ they 
were again banished by new tumults, and agaid 
summoned by the imperious or respectful invita- 
tion of the senate; , In these occasional retreats^ 
the exiles and fugitivefif of the Vatican were sel- 
dom \ongj or f&ti distant from the metropolis; but 
In the beginning of the fourteenth century thc^ 
apostdic throne was transported, as it might seeni 
for ever, from the Tyber to flie Rh6fte ; and the? 
cause of the transiiiigration may be deduced from, 

s Romani autem iron valeritesr nee vcdentes ultra suam d^lare Cupi- 
ditatem gravissimam contra papam movere cfbeperunt qu'estionem, exi- 
gentes ab eo lirgentiseime omtria quae subierant per ejus absentiam 
damna et jacturas, videlicet in hospitis locanilis, in mercimoniis, in 
uBuHSf in rectittibutf, in provisionibus, et in aliis modis intnimertibili- 
btts. .Qu6'd cum audisact papa, praecordialiter ingemuit et se compe- 
riens tmudptUatunl^ &c Matt. Paris, p. 7^. For the ordinary his- 
tory of the popes, their life and death, their residence and absence, it 
is enough to refer to the ecdenastical annalists, Spondaous and Fleuty . 

iroh xiK X 


CHAP, the furious contest between Boniface the ekfhtk 

and the kine: of France,*" The spiritual arms of 

Bonifiue excommunication and interdict were repulsed by 
To! 1294- the union of the three estates, andtheprif^ileg-esof 
^^^ the (xallican church ; but the pope was not against 
the carnal weapons which Philip the fair had 
courage to employ. As the pope resided at 
Anagni, without the suspicion of danger, his pa 
lace and person were assaulted by three hundred 
horse, who had been secretly levied hy Wiftiam 
of Nogaret, a French minister, and Sciarra Co- 
lonna, of a noble but hostile family of Ex)me. 
The cardinals fled ; the inhabitants of Anagni 
were seduced from their allegiance and gratitude; 
but the dauntless Boniface, unarmed and alone^ 
seated himself in his chair, and awaited, like 
the conscript fathers of old, the swords of the I 
Gauls. Nogaret,a foreign adversary, was content 
to execute the orders of his master: by the domes- I 
tic enmity of Colonna, he was insulted with words I 
and blows ; and during a confinement of three 
days his life was threatened by thehardships which 
they inflicted on the obstinacy which they pro- 
voked. Their strangedelay gave timeandcour^ 
to the adherents of the church, who rescued him 
from sacrilegious violence; but his imperious soul 
was wounded in a vital part ; and Boniface ex- 
pired at Rome in a frenzy of rage and revenge, 

^ Besides the general historians of the church of Italy and of France, i 
we possess a valuable treatise composed by a learned friend of Thuanus, 
which his last and b6^t editors have published in the appendix (His- | 
toire particuliere du grand DiU'eread entre Boniface yiii, et Philipp* 
I^tBf^], par Fivrre du Puis* torn, vii, p. zi, p. Gl*&t), \ 


His memory is stained with the glaring vices of cuat^ 
avarice and pride; nor has the courage of a martyt ^-^^^ 
promoted this ecclesiastical champion to the ho« 
Hours of a saint ; a magnatiimous sinner (say the 
chronicles of the times), who entered like a fox, 
reigned like a lion, and died like a dog. He was 
succeeded by Benedict the eleventh, the niildest 
of mankind. Yet he excommunicated the impi<« 
ous emissaries of Philip, and devoted the city and 
people of Anagni by a tremendous curse, whose 
effects are still visible to the eyes of superstition.* 

After his decease, the tedious and equal suspense Transia- 
of the conclave was fixed by the dexterity of the lioiy ^8L*\*0 
French faction. A specious offer was made and Avignon, 
accepted^ that, in the term of forty days, they would *' ^' ^^^? 
elect one of the three candidates who should be 
named by their opponents. The archbishop of 
Bourdeaux, a furious enemy of his king and 
country, was the first on the list ; but his ambi- 
tion was known ; and his conscience obeyed the 
call^ of fortune and th^ commjands of ^. benefac- 
tor, who had been informed by a swift messenger 
that the choice of a pope was now in his handd^ 
The terms were regulated in a private interview ; 
and with such speed and secrecy was the busi^ 
ness transacted, that the unanimous conclave q,p- 
plauded the eleviatipn of Clement the fifth.^ The 

* It is difficult to know whether I^abat (torn, iv, p. A3-67) be in 
j^st jor in earnest, when he supposes that Anagni still feels the weight 
of this curse, and that the corn fields, or vineyards, or olilre^trees, 
are annually blasted by puture, the obsequious handmaid of the. popes* 

^ See in the Chronicle of Giovanni Viilani (1, viii, c. 63, 64, SO, in, 
Muratori, torn, xiii) the imprisbpiment of poniface viii, and the e}ec» 
tion of Clement v, the last of which, likjc most anecdotes, is embafy 
pUBWd with some difficulties. 


cjiAP. Cardinals of both parties were soon ^astonished by 
9 summons to attend him beyond the Alps ; from 
**** whence, as they soon discoverei jtey must never 
hope to return. He was enga^d» by promise and 
affection, to pn^Qsr the residence of France ; and, 
after dragging bis court through PoUou and 
Gascogny, and devouring, by hui eppence^ the 
cities and eonventson the road, he finally repos- 
ed at Avignon,^ which flpurished above seventy 
years'^ the seat of the Roman pontiff aiid the me- 
tropolb of ChristendosL By land, by sea, by the 
Rhone, the position of Avignon was on all sides 
accessible ; the southern provinces of France do 
not yield to Italy itself; new palaces arose for the 
accommodation of the pope and cardinals ; and 
the $urts of luxury were soon attracted by the trea- 
sures of the church; They were already possessed 
of the adjacent territory, the Y enaissin county,'' a 

'* The original lives of the eight popes of Avignon, Clement ▼, John 
xmx, B^nediet xii, Clement vi, Innocent vi. Urban v, Gregory 21, and 
Clement vn, are published by Stephen Baluze (VitiB Papiarum Are- 
nionensium; Paris 1693,-2 vols, in 4to.) with copio^ and elaborate 
notes, and a otcond volume of acts and documents."*With the true 
£ealof ail editor and a patriot^ he devoutly justifies or excuses the 
characters of his countrymen. 

• w The exile of Avignon fs compared by the Italians with Babylon 
land the Bab^lon»5h (Aiptivity. . Suth furious meUphors, more suit* 
able to the ardour of Petrarch than to the judgment of Muratbri, are 
gravely refuted in Baluze's prefaoe^ ' The ab)^ de Sade isjdlstracfed 
between the love of Petrarch and of his country ; Yet lie modestly 
pleads that many of the local inconveniencies of Avignon are now 
remaved'; and many < of the vices against which the poet declaims, 
had ^een imported with the Roman court by the strangers of Italy 
(torn- i, pw 23-28). * 

. a The cointat Venaissin was ceded to the popes in 1273 bj^hilipiiu 

king of .Vranee, Sifter he had inherited the dominions of the count of 

^enloufie. Fort/yeor« before, the here^ of count Baymond had given 

• • . them 



populous and fertile spot; and the sovereignty chap. 
of Aviffnon was afterw^irds pUrcIiased from the ^ 
jrouth and distress of Jane, the firdt queen of 
Naples and countesi^ of Prolrence, for the inade- 
quate price* of fourscore.thoatond florins/ Un • 
der the shadow of the Frencli ihonai'chy, amidst , 
an obedient^pedpte, the pope&^n^oycd an honour-* 
able and tranqtiil $tate» to which they long ha4 
been strangers : but Italy deplored their absence ; 
and R6me, in solitude and poverty, might re- 
pent of the iingbveraable freedom which had 
driven froigi tjie Vatican the successor of St% Pe- 
ter. Her repentance was tardy and fruitless i 
after the death of the old memljors, the sacred ' 
college was filled with French cardinals,^ who 
beheld Rome and Italy with abhorrence and 
contempt, and perpetuated a series of nalTiohal, 
^nd even provincial, popes, attached by the most 
indissolubte ties to their native country. 

them a pretence of seizure, and they derived some obscure claim A'ojd 
the eleventh centuiy to some lands cftfa Rhodapum (Valesii Notitia 
Galiiarun), p, 459, 610' lyonguerue, Desa*iption de la France, torn, i, 
p. 376-,381). 

* If a possession of four centuries were not itself a title, syeh objec« 
tions might annul itfb bargain ; but the purchase money must be re- 
funded, for indeed it was paid. Civltatem Avenionem emit. . .. per " 
ejusmodi venditionem pecuni4 redundantes, &c. (^da-Vita Clement tu 
in Baluz. tomrj^, p. 272. Muratori, Script, torn, iij, p. ii, p. 56^), 
The only temptation for Jane aAd her second hu6banc|f was ready mo* 
ney, and without it th^y^ouldnot h4ve^fttur9e4 to the thronf of^ajijei^ 
^ Clement v iminediately promoted ten cardinajs, pine French and 
one English <Vita 4u» p. 63, et Baluz. p. 625, &c) In 1331, the 
pope refused two candidates recommended by the king of France, quod 
XX Uardinaies, de quibusxvii dc {tegno' Francis origineni traxfsse 
noscuntur in memorato coU^o existant (Thomassin, DitcliHine i\p 
VEglise, tom. i, p. 1281). 

X 3 ' 


CHAP. The progress of industry had produced BXkA en* 
^^^* riched the Italiaii republics : the era of their U-^ 

Institution berty is the most flourishing period of population 

1^* or hSy and agriculture^ of manufactures and commerce ; 

r»I'isoo ^^^ ^^^^ mechanic labours were gradually re- 
' fined into the arts of elegance and genius. 'But 
the position of Rome was less favourable, the 
territoiy less fruitful ; the character of the inha- 
bitants was debased by indolence and elated by 
pride; and they fondly conceived that the tribute 
of subjects must for ever nourish the metropolis 
of the church and empire* This prejudice was 
encouraged in some degree by the resort of pil- 
grims to the shrines of the apostles i and the 
last legacy of the popes, the institution of the 
holy year t"^ was not Idss beneficial to the people 
than to the clergy. Since the loss of Palestine, 
the gift of plenary indulgences, which had been 
applied to the crusades^ remained without an ob- 
ject ; and the most valuable treasure of the church 
was sequestered above eight years from public 
^ circulation. A new channel was opened by the 
diligence of Boniface the eighth, who reconciled 
the vices of ambition and avarice ; and the pope 
had sufficient learning to recollect and revive 
thfe secular games^ which were celebrated in 
llome at the conclusion of every century. To 
aound without danger the depth of popular cre- 
dulity, a sermon wa^ se^^sonably pronounced, a 

4 Our primitive account is from cardinal James Caietan (Maxima 
feibliot. Patriim, torn, xxv) ; and I am .at a loss to determine whether 
ihe nephew of Boniface viii J)e a fooj or a knave r the uncle is « much 
Iblearer character. 



report was artfully scattered, some aged wit« chap. 
nesses were produced ; and on the first of Janu< 
ary of the year thirteen hundred, the church of 
St« Peter was crowded with the faithful, who de* 
xnanded the customary indulgence of the holy 
time. The pontiff, who watched and irritated 
their devout impatience, was soon persuaded by 
ancient testimony of the justice of their claim ; 
and he proclaimed a plenary absolution to all 
catholics who, in the course of that year, and at 
every similar period, should respectfully visit the 
apostolic churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. 
The welcome sound was propagated through 
Christendom ; and at first from the nearest pro- 
vinces of Italy, and at length from the remote 
kingdoms of Hungary and Britain, the highways 
were thronged with a swarm of pilgrims who 
sought to expiate their sins in a journey, however 
costly or laborious, which was exempt from the 
perils of military service. All exceptions of rank 
or sex, of age or infirmity, were foi;gotten in the 
common transport; and in the streets and church- 
es many persons were trampled to death by the 
eagerness of devotion. The calculation of their 
numbers could not be easy nor accurate; and they 
have probably been magnified by a dextrous 
clergy, well apprised of the contagion of example : 
yet we are assured by a judicious historian, who 
assisted at the ceremony, that Rome was never 
replenished with less than two hundred thou- 
sand strangers ; and another spectator has fixed 
at two millions the total concourse of the year. 
A trifling oblation from each individual would 
accumulate a royal treasure; and two prieste 

X 4 


CHAP, stood night and day> with rakes in their hgmds^ 
^'^"^ to collect, without counting, the heaps of gtrfd 
and silveB that were poured in the altar of St. 
Paul/ It was fortunately a season of peace ^n4 
plenty ; and if forage was scarce, if ixms and 
lodgings were extravagantly dear, an inexhaust- 
ible supply of bread and wine, of meat an4 fish, 
was provided by the policy of Boniface and the 
venal hospitality of the Romany. From a city 
without trade or industry, all casual riches witt 
^pee^ily evaporate : but the avarice and envj of 
the next generation solicited Clement the wM 
to anticipate the distant period of tiie century^ 
The gracious pontiff complied with their wishes; 
^ffcHrded Rome this poor consolation for his loss ; 
and justified the change by the name and prac- 
tice of the mosaic jubilee, • His summons wa^ 
obeyed ; and the number, zeal, and liberality of 
the pilgrims did not yield to the primitive 
festival. But they encountered the triple 
The second scoarge of War, pestilence, and famine: many 
i"^J!735a wives and virgins were violated in the castles of 
Italy ; and many strangers were pillaged or mur- 

' See John Villani (1, viiiy c 36) in the IStb, and the ChroniciMi 
Astense, in the 11th volume <p. 191, 192) of Murjitori's Collection. 
Fapa inmiinerabilem pecuniam ab eisdem accepit, nam duo clerici« 
cum niBtrit, Ito* 

* The two hulls of Boniface Tin and Clement vi, are inserted in th^ 
Corpus Juris Canonici (Extravagant. Conimun. I. v, tit. i^, c 1, ^. 

* The qahbatic years and jubilees of the mosaic tow (Car, Sigon. de 
BepubK^a HebrKorum, Opp. torn. !v, 1. iii, c. U, 1^, p. 151« 152)| 
|he suspension of all care and labour, the periodical release of lands,' 
^ebts, servitude, &c. may seem a noble idea ;but the execution wouli 
be impracticable in tiprffaw republic ; and I should be glad to leatft 
that this ruinous festival was olj)sei*ved by the Jewish l>eopIe« 


deredhytke savage Romans, no longw mode- chap. 
rated by the presence of their bishop." To the ^^^^ 
impatience of the popes we may ascribe the snc- 
cessire reduction to fifty, thirty-three, and twenty- 
five years; although the second of these terms is 
commensiirate with the life of Christ. The pro- 
fusion of indulgences, therevoltof the protestants, 
and the decline of superstition, have much dimi- 
nished the value of the jubilee ; yet even the 
nineteenth and last festival was a year o( pleasure 
and profit to the Romans; and a phiIoso{Ai<^ 
smile will not disturb the triumph of the priest 
or the happiness of the people."^ 

In the beginning of the eleventh caitury, Italy The nou<« 
was expose^ to the feudal tyranny, alike op-ofii^^ 
pressive to the sovereign and the people. The 
rights of human nature were vindicated by her 
numerous republics, who soon extended their li- 
berty and dominion from the city to the adjacent 
country. The sword of the nobles was broken ; 
their slaves were enfranchised ; their castles were 
dem<dished ; they assumed the habits of society 
and obedience ; their ambition was confined to 
municipal honours, and in the proudest tu*istocra- 
cy of Venice or Genoa, each patrician was sutgect 

* See the Chronicle of Matteo Villani (I. i, c 56) in the fourteenth 
Tolame of Muratori, and the Memoires sur la Vie de Petrarque, torn, 
iii. p. 75-89. 

* The subject is exhausted by M. Chais, a French minister at thte 
Hague, in his Lettres Historiques et Dogmatiqu€s, sur les Jubiles et. 
les Indulgences ; la Haye, I7S1, S vols, in 12mo ; an elaborate and 
pleasing work, had not the author preferred the character of a pole- 
mic to that of « philosopher. 


CHAP, to the laws/ But the feeble and disorderly gv* 
vernment of Rome was unequal to the task of 
curbing her rebellious s(ms, who scorned the au*- 
tbority of the magistrate within and without the 
walls. It was no longer a civil contention be^ 
tween the nobles and plebeian's for the govern- 
ment of the state ; the barons asserted in arms 
their personal independence ; their palaces and 
castles were fortified against a si^e ; and tiieir 
private quarrels were maintained by the num- 
bers of their vassals and retainers. In origin and 
affection, they were aliens to their country;* 
and a genuine Roman, could such have been 
produced, might have renounced these haughtj 
strangers, who disdained the appellation of citi- 
zens, and proudly styled themselves the princes 
of Rome.* After a dark series of revolutions, all 
records of pedigree were lost ; the distinction of 
surnames were abolished; the blood of the nations 
was mingled in a thousand channels ; and the 
Goths and Lombards, the Greeks and Franks, 
the Germans and Normans, had obtained the 

y Muratori (Dissert, xlvii) alleges the Annals of Florence, Padaa^ 
Genoa, &c. the analogy of the rest, the evidence of Otbo of Frisiogen 
(de Gest. Fred. i» L ii, c. 13), and the submission of the marquis of 

■As early as the year S2*, the emperor Lothaire i found it ex- 
pedient to interrogate the Roman people, to learn from each indiw- 
dual by \i'hat national law he chose to be governed <Muratori, Dis- 
sert, xxii). 

« Petrarch attacks these foreigners, the tyrants of Ronae, in adecia* 
mat] on or epistle, full pf 'bold truths and absurd pedantry, in which 
he applies the maxims, and even prejudices, of the old republic ta 
the state of the fourteenth century (Memoires, torn, ill, p. 157*169). 


Sairest possessions by royal bounty or the preW- chap. 
ffative of valour. These examples might be rea- 
diVy presumed ; but the elevation of an HelM-ew 
race to the rank of senators and consuls, is an 
event without a parallel in the long captivity of 
these miserable exiles,** In the time of Leo 
the ninth, a wealthy and learned Jew was con- 
verted to Christianity, and honoured at His bap- 
tism with the name of his godfather, the reigning 
pope«> The zeal and courage of Peter the son Family of 
of Leo were signalised in the cause of Gr^ory j^.*^* 
the seventh, who entrusted his faithful adherent 
with the government of Adrian's mole, the tower 
of Crescentiug, or^ as it is now called, the castle of 
St. Angelo* Both the father and the son were the 
parents of a numerous progeny ; their riches, the 
fruits of usury> were shared with the noblest fa- 
milies of the city ; and so extensive was their al- 
liance, that the grandson of the proselyte was ex- 
alted by the weight of his kindred to the throne 
of St. Peter. A majority of the clergy and people 
supported his cause : he reigned several years in 
the Vatican, and it is only the eloquence of St. 
Bernard, ajid the final triumph of Innocent the 
second, thit^^s branded Anacletus with the epi-* 
tKet of antipope. After his defeat and death, the 
posterity of Leo is no longer conspicuous ; and 
none will be found of the modern nobles am- 

*» The origin and adventufes of ihis Jewish family arje noticed by 
P^i (Critica, torn, iv, p. 435, a, d. 1124, No. 3. 4), who draws hi« 
information from the Chronographus Maurigoiacensis, and Arnul- 
phus ftigiensis de Schismate (in Muratoii, Sciipt. It«d. tom. iii, p. i, 
p. 423-432). The fact must in some degree be true^ yet I could 
wish that it had been coolly related, before it was turned into a rt* 
proach against the antipope, ' 


CHAP. Mtknifctf descending from a Jewish stock. It is 
not itff design to enumerate the Roman familiesr 


which have failed at different peiiods, or fiiose 
which are continued in different degrees of splen- 
dor to the present time.'' The old consular line 
of the Frangipani discover their name in the ge« 
n^tnis act of breaking or dividing bread in a time 
of famine; and such benevolence is moretruij 
glorious than to have enclosed, wkh their allies 
the Corsif a spacious quarter of the city in the 
chains of their fortifications : the 3<iveUi^ &s it 
should seem a Sabine race, have maintained their 
original dignity ; the absolute surname of the Cfl- 
pizuochi is inscribed on the coins of the first sena- 
tors ; the Conti preserve the honour, without the 
estate, of the cdiitits of Signia; and the Annu 
baldi must ha,ve been very ignorant, or very mo- 
dest, if they had not descended from the Cartha- 
ginian hero."^ 

TbeCo. , But among, perhaps above, the peers and 
princes of the city, I distinguish the rival houses 

^ Muratori has given two dissertations (zli and zlii) to the names, 
surnames, and families of Italy. Some nobles* , v '^ glorj in their 
domestic fables^ may be oilbnded with his iirm t^^ ^<e|q((por&te eriti. 
cism ; yet surely some ounces of pure gold are ^^ Joo^ value than 
many pounds of base metak ' 

' The cardinal of St. Ge«rge^ in his poetical, or rather metrScai iiis« 
tory of the election and coronatipo of BomCace vui (Mui^tori, Script. 
Ital. torn, iii, p. 1, p. 641, &c), describes the state and famiiJesof 
Rome at the coronation of Boniface tiii U. d. 1295). 
Interea titulis redimiti sanguine- et armis 
Illustresque viri Roman& astfrj)efraltente9 '^ 

Nomen in emeritos tantiB virt«r(H(*honorvs 
/ Intulerant se medios festum^u^rHBoIebant ^ 

Aurnta ftilgentes toga sociaiid^'caterva. • -> 


of CdoxMixi and Urnni, whose private story is en An 
an essential part of the annals of modern Rome* 
1. The name and arms of Colonna^ have been 
Ihe thense of much doubtful etymology; nor 
have th^ artifors- and antiquarians overlooked 
either Trajan's pillar, or the colunuis of Hercules, 
or the pifiar bf Christ's flagellation, or the lu- 
minous .cbhimn that guided the Israelites in the 
desert. Their first historical appearance in the 
year eleven hundred and four, attests the power 
and antiquity, while it explains' the shnple mean* 
ihg, of the name. By tlie usurpation of Cavae^, 
the Colonna provoked the arms o€ Paschal the 
second ; but they lawfully held, in the Campagna 
of Rome, the hereditary fiefs of Zagarola and 
Colonna ; and the latter of these towns was pio* 
bably a4omed with some lofty pillar, the relic of 
a villa or temple/ They likewise possessed one 
jmoiety of the neighbouring city of Tiisculum ; a 
strongpresumptionoftheirdescentfrom the counts 

Ex ipflis devota domus praestantis ab Urga 

Eccitisia;, VMiiumquegereiK demiKsnw altum 

l^estA Columjiajocis, neCRon SabflUamltiBi 

Stepbanides senior, Comitea^ Aidbaiica prolos, 

Prserfectusque urbia magnum sine viribua Demea. 
(1. li, c 5y 100, p. €47» 648). 
The ancient statues of Rome (|. iiii C> 59» p. 174, 175) diatinguish 
eleven families of barons, who ai^e obliged to swear in ^otitilio com. 
muT'i,. befoie the senator, that they wbuld not harbour or prot^t any 
malefactors, outlaws, &c.~-a feeble security. 

* It is pity that the Colonna themselves have not favoured the wcrid ^ 
M'itH-aVoniplete and critical history of their iUltstrious house. I ad- 
here to Muraton (Dissert. sUi, torn, iii, p. 647, 648). 

' Fandi4l>^. Piaaio, in V it., Paschal. 'ii, in Muratori, Script.' Ital. 
tonn. iii, p. i, p. 335. The family has stfll great possesaions in the 
Camj^agiia of Rome; Imt they iiave aliebatedto the Rospigliosi this 
•riginal fief of CoUnna (Eachinaid, p. 258,. 259). 


CHAP of Tusculum» who in the tenth centuiy were tk 
tyrants of the apostolic see* According to tbeir 
own and the public opinion, the primitiye and 
remote source was derived from thebanks of the 
Rhine f and the sovereigns of Germany were 
not ashamed of a real or fabulous affinity with a 
noble race, which in the revolutions of seven 
hundred years has been often illustrated by me- 
rit, and always- by fortune.* About the end of 
the thirteenth century, the most powerful branch 
was composed of an uncle and six brothers, all 
conspicuous in arms, or in the honours of the 
church. Of these, Peter was elected senator of 
Rome, introduced to the capitol in a triumphant 
car, and hailed in some vain acclamations with 
the title of Caesar ; while John and Stephen were 
declared marquis of Ancona and count of Ro- 
magna by Nicholas the fourth, a patron so par* 
tial to their family, that he has been delineated, 
in satirical portraits, imprisoned as it were in a 
hollow pillar.* After his decease, their haughty 

c Te^onginqua dedit tellus et pascua Rheni, 

says Petrarch ; and, in 1447, a duke of Gueldersand Juliers acknow* 
ledges (Lenfant, Hist, du Concile de Constance, torn, ii, p. 539) 
his descent from the ancestors of Martin t (Otho Colonna) : but the 
royal author of the Memoirs of Brandenburg observes, that the sceptre 
in his arms has been confounded with the column. To maintain the 
Jloman origin of the Colonna, it was ingeniously supposed (Diario di 
Monaldesehi, in the Script. Ital. tom. xii, p. 533), that a cousin of the 
emperor Nero escaped from the city, and founded Ments in Gef 

^ I cannot overlook the Roman triumph or ovatioii of Marco Ajh 
tonio Colonna, who had conimanded the pope's gallies at the naval 
victory of Lepanto (Thuan. Hist. 1. 7, tom. iii, p* 55, 56» Murel« 
Dratio x,:Opp. tom. i, p. 180-190). 

f Muratori, Annali d'ltalia, torn* x, p. 216, 230, 


behaviour proToked|the displeasure of themost im- chap. 
placable of mankind. The two cardinals, the un- ^^^^^ 
cle and the nephew, denied the election of Boniface 
the eighth ; and the Colonna wer^ oppressed for 
a moinent by his temporal and spiritual arms.^ 
He proclaimed a cr^sade againpit his personal ene- 
mies ; their estates were confiscated ; their for- 
tresses on either side of the Tyber were besieged 
by the troops of St. Peter and thos^ of the riyal 
nobles ; and after, the ruin of Palestrina or Prae- 
neste, theirprincipal seat, the ground was marked 
with a ploughshare, the emblem of perpetual de* 
solatioh. Degraded, banished, proscribed, the six 
brothers, in disguise and danger, wandered over 
Europe without renouncing the hope of de- 
liverance and revenge. In this double hope, 
the French court was their surest asylum:' they 
prompted and directed the enterprise of Philip ; 
and I should praise their magnanimity, had they 
respected the misfortune and courage of the cap« 
tive tyrant. His civil acts were annulled by th^ 
Roman people, who restored the honours and 
possessions of the Colonna ; and some estimate 
may be formed of their wealth by their losses, of 
their losses by the damages of one hundred thoUf 

* Petmrch^s attachment to the Colon&a, hafi* authorised the abb^ 
lie Sacle to expatiate on the state of the family in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, the persecution of Boniface viii, the character of Stephen and 
his fionst their quarrels with the Ursini, &c. (Memoires sur Petrarqae, 
torn, i, p. 9S.110, 146-148, 1T4-176, 222-230, 275-280.) His cri, 
ticism often rectifies the hearsay stories ofVillani, and the errors 
of the le^ diligent moderns* 1 under&taQd the jirancb of Stephen tt 
h^ now e]LtiA]^t. 

CH A P. sandgotd florins which were granted f tiem s^ainsf 
^^^^ the accomplices and heirs of the deceased pope. 
All the spiritual censures and disqiialificati0ii9 
were abolished^ by Ins prudent stieeessorsr and 
the fortune of the house was more firmlj esta- 
Mished by this transient hurricane^ Tbe bold- 
ness of Sciarra Colonna was signalised in the cap- 
tivity of Boniface, and long afterwards in the 
coronation of Lewis of Bavaria; and by the gra« 
titude of the emperor, the pillar in their arms 
was encircled with a royal crown. But the first 
of the family in fame and merit Was the elder 
Stephen, whom Petrarch loved and esteemed as 
an hero superior to his own times, and not un- 
worthy of ancient Rome. Persecution and exile 
displayed to the natiohs his abilities in peace and 
war ; in his distress he was an object^ not of 
pity but of reverence ; the aspect of danger pro- 
voked him to avow his name and country : and 
when he was asked, *• where is now your for- 
V tress ?** he laid his hand on his hearty and 
answered, " here." He supporteil with the same 
virtue the return of prosperity ; and till the ruin 
of his declining a^e, the ancestors, the character^ 
and the children of Stephen Colonna, exalted his 
dignity in the Roman republic, and at the court 
andUrsini. of Avignon. II. The Ursini migrated from Spo- 

> Alexander in had declared the Colonna wha adhered to the eoH 
jieror Frederic i, incapable of holdinganyeccleBiastical benefice (Villani, 
], V, c. i) ; and the last stains of| annual excommanication were puri< 
Hed by Siztus v <;Vita di Sisto v, torn, iii, p. 416). Traoon, sa^ 
crikgCi prescriptiony are often the best titles of ancient nobility* 


leto ;^ the sons of Ursus, as they are styled in chap. 
the twelfth century, from some eminent person,^ lxix. 
who is only known as the father of their race. 
But they were soon distinguished among the 
nobles of Rome, by the number and bravery of 
their kinsmen, the strength of their towers, the 
honours of the senate and sacred college, and the 
elevation of two popes, Celestin the third and 
Nicholas the third, of their name and lineage.'^ 
Their riches may be accused as an early abuse of 
nepotism : the estates of St. Peter were alienated 
in their favour by the liberal Celestin;* and 
Nicholas was ambitious for their sake td solicit the 
alliance of monarchs ; to found new kingdoms in: 
Lombardy and Tuscany; and to invest them with 
the perpetual ofiBce of senators of Rome. All 
that has been observed of the greatness of the Co-. 

■* — Vallis te prozima misit 

Appenninigense qui'i prata virentia sylvs 
Spoletana metunt armenta greges protervi. 
Monaldeschi (torn, xii. Script. Ital. p. 533) gives ,the Ursini a French 
origin » which may be remotely true. 

" In the metrical life of Celestin v, by the cardinal of St. George 
(Muratoriy torn, iii^ p. 1, p. 613, &c.), we find a luminous, and not in- 
eleganty passage (1. i, c. 3, p. 803, &c.) : 

\ g enuit quem nobilis Ursae {Urai .') 
Progenies, Romana domus, veterataque magnis 
Fascibi^s in clero, pompasque experta senat^is, 
Bellorumque manii grandi stipata parentum 
Cardineos apices necnon fastigia dudum 
PapatCis iterata tenens. ' 

Muratorl (Dissert, lir, torn, xiii, p. ) observes* that the first Ursini 
pontificate of Celestine m was unknown : he is inclined to read Urti 

^ Filli Ursi, quondam Coelestini papae n^M>tes, de bonis ecclesias 
Romanse ditati (Vit. Innocent iii, in Muratori, Script, tom. iii, p. i). 
The partial prodigality of- Nicholas iii is more conspicuous in ViUa* 
ni and Muratorl. Yet the Ursini would disdain the nephews of a 
vtodem pope. 

yok* xn. y 


CBAP. hmUBf will Hkewue redound to the glorsr of tk 
Li! f^ i Uni]ii» their constant and equal antagomsts ia 
the long hereditary fend, which distracted above 
twohundredandfiftyyeara the ecclenastical state, 
Tiieir he- The joalousy of pre-eminence and power was the 
ttJS^ true ground of their quarrel ; but as a spcdova 
badge of distinction, the Colornm embracaA the 
name of Ghibelines and the party of the empire ; 
the Ursmi espoused the title of Guelphs sad the 
cause of the church. The eagle and the Ikeys 
were displayed in their adTerse banners ; and the 
two fhcticms of Italy most furiously taged when 
the origin and nature of the dispute were long 
nnce forgotten.^" After the retreat of the popes 
to Arignon, they disputed in arms the vacant 
tepublic ; and the mischiefs of discord w^re per- 
petuated by the wretched compromise of elect- 
ing each year two rival senators. By their private 
hostilities, the city and country were desolated, 
and the fluctuating balance inclined with their 
alternate success. But none of either flmiity had 
ftnen by the sword, till the most renowned cham- 
pion of the Ursini was surprised and slain by tbe 
younger Stefan Colonna."* His triumph is 
stained with the reproach of violating the truce; 
their defeat was basely avenged by the assassina- 
tion, before the church-door, of an hinocent boy 
and his two servants^ Yet the victorious Co- 

' In his fiAf-iirst Dissertation on the Italian Antiquities, i 
cPKlptakM Hkm ftctien* ef the ChMlphs jMd GlibeUncik 

4 Petfaick (tcmi. f , ]i. SSS^SSO) hm cdribnMd tlile yitlmy i 
ing t« tke Ccdonna^ hat two coBtenpormrieB, a Floveotiii# ^iMrnni 
Villiml, k z, c atO) nd a aiwaii (Luiorioo MonaMiBriii, pi^ISS, 
AS4)9 are less favourable to ^eir anns. i 

lonna^ with an annual colleague, was declared chap. 
senator of Rome during the term of five years. ^^'^ 
And the muse of Petrarch inspired a wish, a hope, 
a prediction, that the gefief otis youth, the son of 
his venerable hero, would restore Rome and Italy 
id their pristine glory ; that his justice would ei^« 
tirpate the wolves and lions, the serpents and 
bears, who laboured to subvert the eternal basis 
of the marble column^ 

• The abb^ de Sade (torn, i, n^tes, p. 61«06) haft applied the 
sixth cansom of Petfarch, Syirto GentUf Ac. to Stephen Colonna the 
younger : 

Ortt, lupi, leoni, aquile e aerpi 

Ad nna gran marmorea eoUmna 

Fanno noja savente e i ie damno* 

2 Y 



Character and coronation of Petrarch. — ReAoration of 
the freedom and government oj Rome by the tribune 
Rienzi — I/is virtues and vices^ his expulsion and 
death. — Return of the popes from Axignon^—Gieai 
schism of the West, — Re-union cf the iMm 
church. -^Last struggles of Roman libertt/. — S(fl- 
tutes of Rome. — Final settlement of the ecclesiasti- 
cal state* 

^i!x3^' In the apprehension of modern times, Petrarch' 
— < .is the Italian songster oi Laura and love. In 
rr^Ti*. *he harmony of his Tuscan rhymes, Italy ap- 
June 19- piauds, or rather adores, the father of her lyric 
July 19. ' poetry ; and his verse, or at least his name, is 
repeated by the enthusiasm, or affectation of amo- 
rous sensibility. Whatever may be the private 
taste of a stranger, his slight and superficial know- 
ledge should humbly acquiesce in the taste of 
a learned nation : yet I may hope or presume, 
that the Italians do not compare the tedious uni- 
formity of sonnets and elegies, with the sublime 

■ The Memoires sur la Vie de Fran9ois Petrarque (Amsterdami 
1764, 1767, 3 vols, in 4to) form a copious, original, and entertainiojr 
work, a labour of love, composed from the accurate study of Petrsrch 
and his contemporaries ; but the hero is too often lost in the general 
history of the age, and the author too often languishes in the afE^ta- 
tion of politeness and gallantry. In the preface to his first volume, 
he enumerates and weighs twenty Italian biographers, who have pro* 
fessedly treated of the same subject. 


compositions of their epic muse, the original wild- chap. 
ness of Dante, the regular beauties of Tasso, and^^^^^ 
the boundless variety of the incomparable Ariosto. 
The merits of the lover I am still less qualified 
to appreciate ; nor am I deeply interested in a 
metaphysical passion for a nymph so shadowy, 
that her existence has been questioned ;^ for a 
matron so prolific,* that she was delivered of 
eleven legitimate children,** while her amorous 
swain sighed and sung at the fountain of Vau- 
cluSe.® But in the eyes of Petrarch, and those 
of his graver contemporaries, his love was a sin, 
and Italian verse a frivolous amusement. His 
Latin works of philosophy, poetry, and elo- 
quence, established his serious reputation, which 
was soon diffused from Avignon over France and 

^ The allegorical interpretation prevailed in the fifteenth century ; 
but the wise commentators were not agreed whether they should un- 
derstand by Laura, religion, or virtue, or the blessed virgin, or 
■ See the prefaces to the first and second volume* 

* Laure de Noves, bom about the year 1307, was married, in Ja- 
nuary 1325, tatiugues de Sade, a noble citizen of Avignon, whose 
jealousy was not the effect of love, since he married a second wife with* 
in seyen months of her death, which happened the 6th of April I348» 
precisely one-and-twenty years after Petrarch had seen and loved her. 

^ Corpus crebris partubus exhaustum : from one of these is issued, 
in the tenth degree, the abb^ de Sade, the fond and grateful biogra- 
pher of Petrarch ; and this domestic motive most probably suggested 
the idea of his work, and urg^d him to enquire into every circum* 
stance that could affect the history and character of his grandmother 
(see particularly torn, i, p. 122*133, notes, p. 7-58, torn. 11, p. 455- 
495, not. p. 76-82). 

* Vaucfuse, so familiar to our English travellers, is decribed from 
the writings of Petrarch, and the local knowledge of his biographer 
(Memoires, torn, i, p. 34a-359)r It was, in truth, the retreat of an 
hermit, and the modems are much mistaken, if they place Laura 
and aa happy lover ia the grotto. 

Y 3 


^lisf' IWyj hUfriaqdeaod disciple* were multiplied J* 
^^.^^ ^^^^ ^**y *» •'^^ i^ *h^ pouderow yolume of bu 
writings' be now sitiwdowd to e long repoie, 
our g^titude munt applaud the mw, w^o bj 
precept dpd ei^ample revived the spirit md Btudy 
of the Auffuiitan age. Frpm his etrlleftt youth, 
Fetntrcb aspired to the poetic crpwo. T^ ftca- 
demieal bonoim of the three faculties had tolro- 
dvoed A royal degree of master or doctw tn the 
art of poetry i^ and the title of poet-laureat* 
whiob custom, rather thap vanity, perpetuates in 
tba Siiglisb covrt,^ was first invented by the 
C»sar3 of Germmy* In the musical games of 
antiquity, a priae was bestowed on the victor:^ 

' Of 1250 pagcs» in a close print, at Basil in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, bnt without the date of the year. The abb^ de Sade calb 
aloud for a new edition of Petrarch's Latin works ; but I much doubt 
whether it would redound to the profit of the bookseller, or the amuse, 
m^nt of the puUic 

9 CMMUlt S«)d«ii's Titles of Heneitr. in his works (voL Hi, p, 457. 
4^^ An hundfed ytars hdem Petrareh, St. Fnnets rec^vad tiic 
vMl of 9 pe«t. f ul ah impwatof a Aiavat ooronatus et exlnde rex vcr- 
simm dii:tV«» > 

> frgm Augustus to Louis, the 'n^usa has too often been false asd 
vfi)*} I Imt I mush doubt whether 9ny age or court ean produce a 
llmMM ^*blish»eiit of a stipendiary poet, who in every reign, and 
^t «11 9Vtp^« is booiMl to furnish twice a year a measure of praise and 
v^rse, such M nifty be sung ip tli^ chapel, and. I beUeve, in the pie- 
s^nce, of the sovereign. I speak the iWQr« freoly, as the beat time f«r 
Hbolishing this ridiouliws (Custom, is while the prinee is a aum of vir- 
tue* and thf poet a i^an of g^iup. 
, * l»apr»t#«(in fanegyrieo, tam. i, p. lie, 117, edit. Battle, Om- 
\9^ 1?W} clgims Ibr his pative Athens the glory of first lostKntinr 
and recommending the a^fa, Km r« «^x« ^,y,„ ^ f^^ rmscH Ji 
fti^m, v^Ae MCi ^«y«Hr mm ijfitiftw. The tmnple of the Ftaalbenasa 
was imitotad et Delpbii hut tba Olympic games weve ignonet of s 
W«iwl prwn, till it wa« mm9i by the vain tyranny of UTeso (Sue. 
tnn, in If«fon^,c, tl J PWtoitfat. Wd Caaaoban ad leeumi Dian 
Cassius, or Xiphilin. 1. Ixiii, p. 1031. WL Potlar'a OfMk Aeli. 
quities, VOL i, p. 445, 4 JP), ^^ 


or THB K<MAai BHPiat. OV 

the belief that Vitffl and Hance liad fcaoi chavw 
crowned ia the cmitdi inflamed the emulation ^^^^ 
i^ a L<atin bard ;^ and the lauKl^ was endeai«d 
to the lorer by a verbal resemblance with the' 
name of his misti^s. The valae of etthsr ofc»ject 
was aihaaced by the diffieukies of the pwsnit ; 
and if the virtue or prudence of Laitfa was tn- 
eKorable,°^ he enjoyed^ and might boost of en- 
joyingy the nymph of poetry. Mis vanity was 
not of the most delicate kind, since he applauds 
the success of his own labours; his name was po- 
pular ; his friends were active ; the open or se- 
cret opposition of envy and prejudice was sur* 
mounted by the dexterity of patient merit. In 
the thirty-sixth year of his age, he was solicited to 
accept the object of his wishes ; and on the same 
day, in the solitude of Vauduse, he received a 
aimilajr and solemn invitation froaa the senate of 
Rome and the university of Paris. The leamiog 
of a theological school, and the ignorance of a 

* The Cspitoline games (certamen quinquenate, muncmm, equestrt, 
gjrmnicum) were instituted by Domitiaii (Suetoo. c 4) in Uie year of 
Christ 86 (Cenaorfai de iOAe NataU» e. 1% p. tOO, edit. HtfeRawpH 
and were not abolished ia the fourth century (Ausoniusde Professor!* 
bus Burdqpal. y). If the crown weie given to supeiior merit, tlie ex* 
cluaioii of Statius (cipllaUaaMlnilnficlata l|n«» Syl». 1. Iii» ▼. Sl| 
max ^ honyar to tlie ganpes of the capiytol ; iuit the h9tifi ^oeta wh<» 
lived before Domitian were crowned only in the public opinion. 

*■ Petnreh and the senators of Rome wefe fgnoranc that the hmrel 
was not the Capitolipe^ but the Oalphic, oown (FUd. Hist. Natyr. 
XY, 39. if ist. Critique de la a^ublique des liettres^ torn, i, P* ^SOm 
220). l^M vicars in the «api;tol w^re crowned with a g^^rland of oak 
}«aves (Mar^^ 1. iv« epigcwi Hy 

^ The pious grandson of Laura has Mour9d» ao4 ^t without sue- 
ctasy to vindicate l^r '^u^nfiuciM^ chaj»Uty i^ost the c^aures mf 4m 
grave and the aneera of tht ppofape (tunuu ii« notes* Jf^ 7ftpW> 


CHAP, lawless city, were alike unqualified to bestow the 
^^^^ ideal though immortal wreath which genius may 

obtain from the free applause of the public and 
of posterity ; but the candidate dismissed this 
troublesome reflection, and after some moments 
of complacency and suspense, preferred the sum- 
mons of the metropolis of the worid. 
Hit poetic The ceremony of his coronation"" was per- 
SlS^i? formed in the capitol by his friend and patron 
A. 0.1341, the supreme magistrate of the republic. TweWe 
^ patrician youths were arrayed in scarlet ; sk re- 

presentatives of the most illustrious families, in 
green robes, with garlands of flowers, accom- 
panied the procession : in the midst of the princes 
and nobles, the senator, count of Anguillara, a 
kinsman of the Colonna, assumed his throne; and 
at the voice of an herald Petrarch arose. After 
discoursing on a text of Virgil, and thrice repeat- 
ing, his vows for the prosperity of Rome, he knelt 
before the throne, and received from the senator 
a laurel crown, with a more precious declaration, 
" This is the reward of merit." The people 
shouted ^^ long life to the capitol and the poet P' 
A sonnet in praise of Rome was accepted as the 
effusion of genius and gratitude'; and after the 
whole procession had visited the Vatican, the 
profane wreath was suspended before the shrine 
of St. Peter. In the act of diplomao which was 

* The whole process of Petrarch's coronation is accurately describ- 
ed by the abb^ de Sade (torn, i, p. 425-435, torn, ii, p, 1-6, notes* 
p. 1-13) from his own writings, and the Roman dlar^ of Ludoy'ico 
Monaldeschi, without mixing in this authentic narrative the more 

. recent fables of Sannuccio Delbene. 

* The original act is printed among the Pieces Justificatives in the 
Memoifes sur Fetrarquei.tom. iU, p. 50«53» 


presented to Petrarch, the title and prerogatives chap, 
of poet laureat are revived in the capitol, after ^^^^^^^'^^ 
the lapse of thirteen, hundred years; and he 
receives the perpetual privilege of wearing, at his 
choice, a crown of laurel, ivy, or myrtle, of as- 
suming the poetic habit, and of teaching, disput- 
ing*, interpreting, and composing, in all places 
whatsoever, and on all subjects of literature. The 
gFant was ratified by the authority of the senate 
and people ; and the character of citizen was the 
recompence of his affection for the Roman name. 
They did him honour, but they did him justice. 
In the fan^iliar society of Cicero and Livy, he had 
imbibed the ideas of an ancient patriot ; and his 
ardent fancy kindled every idea to a sentiment, 
and every sentiment to a passion. The aspect of 
the seven hills and their majestic ruins confirmed 
these lively impressions ; and he loved a country 
by whose liberal spirit he had been crowned and 
adopted. The poverty and debasement of Kome 
excited the indignation and pity of her grateful 
son : he dissembled the faults of his fellow-citi- 
zens ; applauded with par.tial fondness the last of 
their heroes and matrons ; and in the remem- 
brance of the past, in the hope of the future, was 
pleased to forget the miseries of the present time. 
Rome was still the lawful mistress of the world : 
the pope and the emperor, her bishop and general, 
had abdicated their station by an inglorious re- 
treat to the Rhone and the Danube ; but if she 
could resume her virtue, the republic might again 
vindicate her liberty and dominion. Amidst the 


GHAP. indulgence of enthusiasm and eloquence.' Pe- 
^^^^^ trarcb, Italy, and Europe, were astonished hy a 
********^ revolution which realized for a moment his most 
splendid virions. The rise and fall of the tribune 
Rienzi will occupy the following pages :« the 
subject is interestmg, the materials are lidi, and 
the glance of a patriot-bard' wiH sometimes vivi- 
fy the copious, but simple, narrative of the FFo- 
rentiine,' and more especially of the Roman,^ his- 

» To find the proofs of bis enthusiasm for Rome, I need only le- 
qawit that the reader would open, bjr chaiysa, either Petrarch, or 1h9 
French biographer. The latter has described the poet'a fiist viiit 
to Rome (torn, i, p. 323-33^). But in the place of much idle rhe- 
toric and moralftjr, Petrarch might have amused the preaeot sod 
ftituTO 9gt with an original aceouat of the city and his eorvnatisn. 

« It haa been treated by the pen of a Jesuit, the IP. du Cer9eiB, 
whose posthumous work (Conjuration de Nicolas Gabrini, dit de 
Bienai Tyran de Rsoie, en 1347) was published at Paris 1746, i& 
IfBiOu I an indebted to him for some facts and documenta in Join 
Hocsemius, canon of Leige, a contemporary historian (Fabricius, 8i* 
Ulal. Lat. med. Mtu torn, iii, p. 273, tom. iv, p: 85). 

* Tb» abb^ de Sade, who so freely expatiates on the history of the 
iovteenth century, might treat as his proper subject a levolatioB 
in which the heart of Petrarch was so deeply engaged (Memoires, torn. 
il, p. 50, 51, 3tOL417, notes, p. 70-76, tom. iii. p. 221..243, 36$- 
375). Not an idea or a fact in the writings of Petrarch haa ptstaiblj 
escaped him* 

" Giovani Villani, 1. xii, c. 89, 104, in Muratori, Rerum Italics* 
umi Scriptores, tom. xiii, p. M9, 970, 981-'9d3. 

• la his thh^ Yfdume of Italian antiquities (p. 94$u6^), Unrar 
tori has inserted the Fragmenta Historis Romana ab anno 1$27 iv- 
que ad annum 1354, in the original iKalect of Rome or Naples in 
Ik9 CMKlaaBth century, anda LsAin version for the benefit ofalrai^crs. 
It contains the most partimlar and authestic lift of Cola (Xicholaa) 4i 
Rienzi ; which had been printed at Bracciano 16^7, in 4to, under the 
aa«# of TovMMo Fortillecea, who is only mentioned in tfdsworkis 

.l¥nii«f hfcii funiflbtdlpgrtt9«dbm>9li^rf9iqp*7, Mmmm mtsm is 



In a quarter of the city wUdi was inhabited chap. 
only by mechanics and Jews, the marriage of an ^^^ 
mnkeeper anda washerwoman producedthefuture Birth, chfr. 
deliverer of Rome.* From such parents Nicholas JJ|^^^* 
Bienzi Gabrini could inherit neither diffnity nordesigMof 
fortune; and the gift of a liberal education, which 
they painfully bestowed, was the cause of hit 
glory and untimely end. The study of hbtory 
and eloquence^ the writings of Cicero, Seneca^ 
Livy, Caesar, and Valerius Maximus, elevated 
above his equals and contemporaries the genius 
of the young plebeian : he perused with indefa^ 
tigable diligence the manuscripts and marbles of 
antiquity; loved to dispense his knowledge in 
familiar language ; and was often provoked to 
exclaim, " Where are now these Romans ? their 
** virtue, their justice, their power ? why was I 
«« not born in those happy times !"* When the 

icarceljr capable of such sublime or stupid impartiality; but whoso- 
ever U the author of these fragments, he wrot^ on the spot and at the 
tin^, and paints, without design or art, the manners of Borne wad 
the character of the tribune. 

* The first and splendid period of Rienxi, his tribunitian govem- 
Boent, is contained in the eighteenth chapter of the Fragments (p. 
S99-479), which, in the new division, forms the second liook of the 
history in 38 smaDer chapters or sections. 

* The reader may be pleased with a specimen of the original idiom } 
F6 da soa juventutine nutricato di latte de eloquentia, bono grama* 
tico, megliore rettuorico, autorista bravo. Deh como et quanto era 
Vfloce leirore 1 moito usava Tito Livio, Seneca, et "tullio, et Balerlo 
MassiiQo, moito li dilettava le magnificentie di Julie Cesare raeoontaift 
Tutta la die se speqplava negl' intagU di marmo lequali iaccio intorne 
Roma. Nen era altri che esso, che sapesse lejere 11 antichi pataffll* 
Tutte scritture antiche vulgarizzava ; quesse fiure di marmo justa* 
mente interpretava. Oh come spes^o diceva, *< Dove mOQO qnfiH 
** buonl BeoEHuii f deve eneloro foxnma ju4titi« ? poler«aiBie \mm 
in tenfe ehe nprnA iwitoe t**^ 


CHAP, republic addressed to the throne of Avignon an 
^^^ embassy of the three orders, the spirit and e/o- 
******** quence of Rienzi recommended him to a place 
among the thirteen deputies of the commons. 
The orator had the honour of haranguing* pope 
Clement the sixth, and the satisfaction of convers- 
ing with Petrarch, a congenial mind ; but his 
aspiring hopes were chilled by disgrace and po- 
verty ; and the patriot was redmced to a smgle 
garment and the charity of the hospital. Erom 
this misery he was relieved by the sense of merit 
or the smile of favour ; and the employment of 
apostolic notary afforded him a daily stipend of 
five gold florins, a more honourable and extensive 
connection ; and the right of contrasting, both 
in words and actions, his own integrity with the 
vices of the state. The eloquence of Rienzi was 
prompt and persuasive : the multitude is always 
prone to envy and censure : he was stimulated by 
the loss of a brother and the impunity of the 
assassins; nor was it possible to excuse or exagge- 
rate the public calamities. The blessings of peace 
and justice, for which civil society has been insti- 
tuted, were banished from Rome? the jealous citi- 
zens, who might have endured every personal or 
pecuniary injury, were most deeply wounded in 
the dishonour of their wives and daughters:^ they 
were equally oppressed by the arrogance of the 
nobles and the corruption of the magistrates; and 
the abuse of arms or of laws was the only circum- 

' Petrarch compares the jealousy of the Ramans with the eisf 
temper of the husbands of Avignon (Memoires, torn, i, p. 330). 


stance that distinguished the lions from the dogs chap. 
and serpents of the capitoL These allegorical^^ 
emblems were variously repeated in the pictures 
ivbichKienzi exhibited in the streets andchurches ; 
and while the spectators gazed with curious won- 
der, the bold and ready orator unfolded the mean- 
ing, applied the satire, inflamed their passions^ 
and announced a distant hope of comfort and deli- 
verance. The privileges of Rome, her eternal 
sovereignty over her princes and provinces, was 
the theme of his public and private discourse; and 
a monument of servitude became in his hands a 
title and incentive of liberty. The decree of the 
senate, whichgranted the most ample prerogatives 
to the emperor Vespasian, had been inscribed on a 
copperplate still extant in the choir of the church 
of St. John Lateran.'' A numerous assembly of 
nobles and plebeians was invited to this political 
lecture, and a convenient theatre was fft^ected for 
their reception. The notary appeared, in a mag- 
nificent and mysterious habit, explained the in- 
scription by a version and commentary,* and des- 
canted with eloquence and zeal on the ancient 
glories of the senate and people, from whom all 
legal authority was derived. The supine igno- 

» The fragments of the Lex Regia may be found in the Inscrip- 
tions of Gruter, torn, i, p. 242, and at the end of the Tacitus of Er- 

v^ nesti, with some learned notes of the editor, torn. ii. 
' • I^annot overlook a stupenduous and laughable blunder of Ri- 
enzi. The Lex Regia empowers Vespasian to enlarge the Pomari* 

' UTO, a word familiar to every antiquary. It was not so to the tribune ; 
he confounds it with p<marium an orchard, translates lo Jardino de 
Roma cioene Italiae, and is copied by the less excusable ignorance of 
the Latin translator (p. n406) and the French historian (p. 33). Eveo 
the learning of Muratori has slumbered over the passage. 

iM tun DiGttKs A^n f aii* 

CHAP, ranee of the nobles was incapable of ^BiMfiiifi| 
^ _ theserioustendency of such representations : tbej 
might sometimes chastise with woirds and bloW9 
the plebeian reformer ; but he was often suffered 
in the Colonna palace to amuse thecompanj with 
his threats and predictions; and the modem 
Brutus^ was concealed under the mask of follj 
and the character of a buffoon. WhHe they in- 
dulged their contempt, the restoration of the good 
estate, his favt>urite expression, was entertained 
among* the people as a desirable, a possible, and 
at length as an approaching, event ; and vhile 
all had the disposition to applaud, some had the 
courage to assist, their promised deliverer. 
He as- A prophecy, or rather a summons, affixed on 
^^^. the church-door of St George, was the first pubtic 
J^**^ ftvidence of his designs ; a nocturnal assemlily of 
A. A. isi7, an hundred citizens on mount Arentine, the first 
*^ step to their execution. After an oath of secrecy 
and aid, be represented to the conspirat«rs the 
. . importance and faciUty of their enterprise; that 
the nobles^ without union or resources, were 
strong only inthefearoftbeirimaginary strength ; 
that all power, as well as right, was in tfa^ hands 
of the people ; that the revenues of the apostolical 
chamber might relieve the public distress ; and 
tl^at the pope himself would approve their victory 
ov^ the common enemies iMT government and 
freedom. After securing a faithful band to pro- 
tect his first declaratiOD^ he proclahtied through 

* Priori fBtiOo/t&meii slmilior, jtiyenis ufefqucr longe iofeni* 
quam cojud simulationem induerat, tit tab hoc obtentft fiberator ille 
P. R. aperirefur temper^ stio .... Hie teglbus, hic t/rannis con- 
temptua (Opp. p. 636). 


the citjs by sound oftrumpet, that on the evening chap; 
of the following day all persons should aasemble ^^^ 
without arms before the church of St Angelo^ ' 
to provide for the re-establishment of the good 
estate. The whole night was employed in the 
celebration of thirty masses of the Holy Ghost ; 
and in the morning, Rienzi^ bareheaded^ but in 
complete armour, issued from the church, en- 
compassed by the hundred qonspirators. The 
pope's vicar, the simple bishop of Orvieto, who 
had been persuaded to sustain a part in thid 
singular ceremony, marched on his right hand ; 
and three great standards were borne aloft as the 
emblems of their design. In the first, the banner 
of liberty f Rome was seated on two lions, with a ' 
palm in one hand and a globe in the other : St. 
Paul, with a drawn sword, was delineated in the 
banner oi justice ; and in the third, St. Peter held 
the keys of concord and peace. Rienzi was en- 
couraged by the presence and applause of an 
innumerable crowd, who, understood little, and 
hoped much ; and the procession slowly rdled 
forwards from the castle of St Angelo to the 
capitol. His triumph was disturbed by some 
secret emotion which he laboured to suppress t 
he ascended without q^sition, and with seeming 
confidence, the citadel (^ the republic ; harangued 
the people from the balcony ; and received the 
most flattering confirmation of his acts and laws^ 
The nobles, as if destitute of arms and counsels, 
beheld in silent consternation this strange revolu« 
tion; and the moment had been prudeatly diosen, 
when the mo«t formidafate^ Stephen Colonna^ was 


CHAP, absent from the city. On the first nuaour^ h^ 
^^^ returned to his palace, affected to despise this 
plebeian tumult, and declared to the messengers 
of Rienzi, that at his leisure he would cast the 
madman from the windows of the capitoJ. The 
great bell instantly rang an alarm, and so rapid 
was the tide, so urgent was the danger, that 
Colonna escaped with precipitation to the suburb 
of St. Laurence : from thence, after a moment's 
refreshment, he continued the same speedy career 
till he reached in safety his castle of Palestrina; 
lamenting his own imprudence, which had not 
trampled the spark of this mighty conflagration. 
A general and peremptory order was issued from 
the Capitol to all the nobles, that they should 
peaceably retire to their estates : they obeyed ; 
and their departure secured the tranquillity of 
the free and obedient citizens of Rome. 
with the But such Voluntary obedience evaporates with 
oml^c the first transports of zeal ; and Rienzi felt the 
tribune, importance of justifying his usurpation by a regu- 
lar form and a legal title. At his own choice, the 
Roman people would have displayed their attach- 
ment and authority, by lavishing on his head the 
names of senator or donsul, of king or emperor : 
he preferred the ancient and modest appellation of 
tribune ; the protection of the commons was the 
essence of that sacred office ; and they were igno- 
rant, that it had never been invested with any 
share in the legislative or executive powers of the 
Lavrs of the republic. In this character, and with the consent 
good estate. ^^ the Romaus, tlic tribune enacted the most 
salutary laws for the restoration and maintenance 

of the ^oq4 estate; B7 the, first he A^^ls the CPAF. 
wish of honesty and iQei^e]:ie];ice, that.qo qiy^ ^ • 
suit should be protracted beyond the ,t^rm of 
fifteen days. The danger of J^eqi^ent perjury 
might justify the pronouncing agaipst a fal^ 
accuser the same p^alty which ;his evi4ence 
would rhave inflicted; the (Usorder^ of the tipf^es 
might compel the legislator to pHni^h ^v^ry ho- 
micide ^ith death, apd,every jnj^ry with eq^f4 
retaliation; bi}t the exepjitfpn of jusiti^e wap 
hppeless^ill he hadjprevious]^ ajj^ishedthe ty^ 
ranny of the :nohJtes- J{t ;^a^ fprflfier^jr pro^ffja^ 
that nppe, e;x(?g)tthe ^fjpremeip^istr^t^ sho^lfji 
posses or .command t^e cg^tes» brid^e^;, pr 
towers, , of the st^-te; ^tljf^t po private g^iscns 
sho^Ifi:be introduced ^ifi\o .^e ,tpwnp .qr ^i]^ 
of the Rpnaan .territory ; that none $hQ\\}^]^^ 
arms, pr presume to fprtify tJbeir houfii^ in .l[l^p 
qty or 99^nt^y ; ,that ^t^e. -^rfj^sshoj^l^,^ .1^ 
sponsibJe for thejsafety pf ^tljee highw^s fnd the 
free pass^e.of pypv^ip^ ; ajjd t^at the prpt^c^ 
tion, pf jnajef^tors aijifi robbeirs i^pjjld be , expi- 
ated bj a.^jje of ,a thousand jjwajfks of jsil?^. 
But thesetreg34^tiofiis wQu]|d,h^ve:beeu impotent 
and . my;^to];y, ,ha4 pfit the |icentipus.ii9bl^^ bpejp 
awed t(y-tl^ 5§por4 ff ^the^^ivil^power. iAl.^u^ 
dep a/^rm fropa the ,b#l of the c^tpl.cp^Ij^ 

thousand volunteers : the support of the tribune 
and the Jfiws required a mpre regiilar and per- 
waneftt; fori^* la . icaph: harbour, of the CQa9«t> . if^ 
vessel wa^ stationed for the assurance of com- 
merce; a standing mUAa».jgfi^^^ 
VOL. xii. ^ 


CHAP, sixty horse and thirteen hundred foot was le^ 
^*^^ vied, clothed, and paid, in the thirteen quarters 
of the city ; and the spirit of a commonwealth 
may be traced in the grateful allowance of one 
liundred florins or pounds to the heirs of every 
•soldier who lost his life in the service of Ids 
country. For the maintenance of the public de- 
fence, for the establishment of granaries, for the 
relief of widows, orphans, and indigent convents, 
Kienzi applied, without fear of sacrilege, tlae 
Kvenues of the apostolic chamber : the three 
branches of hearth-money, the salt-duty, and 
the customs, were each of the annual produce 
of one hundred thousand florins;'' and scandalous 
were the abuses, if in four or five months the 
amount of the salt-duty could be trebled by his 
judicious economy. After thus restoring the 
forces and finances of the republic, the tribune 
recalled the nobles froni their solitary independ- 
ence ; required their personal appearance in the 
capitol ; and imposed an oath of allegiance to 
the new government, and of submission to the 
laws of the good estate. Apprehensive for their 
safety, but still more apprehen3ive of the dan- 
ger of a refusal, the princes and barons re- 
turned to their houses at Rome in the garb of 
simple and peaceful citizens : the Colonna and 
TJrsini, the Savelli and Frangipani, were con- 

• In one lu. I read (1. ii, c. 4, p. 409) persumante qxiatro mtt. In 
another quatro JUrinif an important variety, dnce the florin was 
worth ten Soman mUdi (Moratori, disaert. xxviii). The former 
jreadiAg would give ns a popuUttion of 25,0(H), iRb latter ai tSO^OOO 
families ; and I much fear that the former is more consistent with 
ihe Aodtj of Rome and her territory. 


founded before the tribunal of a plebeian, of the cujLt. 
vile buffoon whom they had so often derided; and 
their disgrace was aggravated hj the indignation 
which they vainly struggled to disguise. The 
same oath was successively pronounced by the se^ 
veral orders of society, the clergy and gentlemen, 
the judges and notariesj^ the merchants tod arti^- 
sans ; and the gradual descent was marked by 
the increase of .sincerity and zeaL They swore 
to live and die with the republic and the church, 
whose interest was artfully united by the nomihal 
association 'of the bishop of Orvietto^ the pope^s 
vicar, to the office of tribune. It was the boast 
of Rienzi, thiat he had delivered the thrbne 
and patrilnany ^of St. PeJter. from a rebellious 
aristocracy!; and Clemeaat the sixths who re- 
joiced ih its fall, affected to believe the profes- 
sions, tb>applaud the> merits, and to confirm the 
title, of his trusty servants The ^eech', per- 
haps th^ mind, of the tribune was. inspired: with . 
a lively regard. for. the pilrity of the faith; he 
insinuated his claini id alrsupernatural mission 
from the Holy Ghost ; ebfprc^d, by an heavy for- 
feiture, the annual duty^bf confession and cdnv- 
munion ; and strictly guarded the 'spiritual, as well 
as temporal welfare of his faithful pei^pki*^ 

Never perhaps has the energy and effeetof apreedooi 
single mind been more remarkably felt than iA ^^t^f 
the suddep, though > tiransieiit, t*efol*nifiAtic)(n of the Roman 
Rome by the tribune Rienzi. A den of rob "^" 
bers was converted to the 'discipline of a camp 

* HoeseipDuot, ]^. 39^^ apud du Qtr^ean, Hist de Rienzi, p. 19^ 
The fifteen tribunitian laws may be found in the Roman historian 
(whom for brevity I shall mime) Fortifiocca, I. ii, c. 4* 


9^ THE nBCLIOTfi AN© »AfA 

CHk^. er oonrent: patient to hcftF, swift *b -redress 
*^^°^ iiMSKofeable to .pHiii3h, his tribuiml w«S nhmys 
""•^"^ aocfcssibfe to «lie poor and irtmnger; ndr coakl 
hfrth, or dignity, 'or. the imfOHmities of the 
etamfh, t>K»tect^he offender « hts acodmirfioes. 
TlK^irivitegcd houdes, Jthetprivatfe sancteiaries, 
in Rbme, on which Ho officer of (jnsdce would 
p#eBQrtie to tPeipasB, wbre abolisfctd; and he 
vppKed tile timber iind irbn of their barricadea 
IB the fortifloatioM'Of the c4pi*DL Tte wner- 
Wde flither of the Cotenria was ^etepwed in his 
^iwfi palace to the ddabje Admd^oF >h«ngr derir- 
tyns, and of behig unable, to jirotedt «. carimi- 
mA: A Ahik, withfa jar of rtil, had been stolen 
tiear Capranim; andHhe Icbrd ^of the Ursfaii 
Ainil|fwafl:coiideinned*o^rfcstore the ^diunage, 
«nd to dldcbaig^ia (fine ^ fbnr a^ndred Aotos 
ibr (his a^Bgence ,m gnardibg the ii^hways. 
-Nor .wefe theipersonsiof tthe^bwrotis more invio- 
totethanthciplaiidsor houBCB ; and, ^tiber from 
-Bfccid^ii. or derfgn, »lhe same impartial r^cwr 
'Win exeikased ag^mt .the beads of the adverse 
4aotioi»5- . Petdr Agapet Cdhnina, who htad him- 
^If lieen senatea: of Rome, was arrested in the 
street^ftir 'inJMjy oir debt ; and justice w^as appeas- 
ed b/titetardy ^kcciitioii of Mai^tin Ursm, who, 
mmoikg^ftis 'various mets tfvioleixce and rapine, 
fed i^ai^ a shipwrecked i^ssel at llie mootli 
• tf the lybdr.' His mme^ the |pur|^ of two 

• F(^tifiaoca» 1» ii» c. 11. P]?om^tlve «eeount of this shipwrMk-w 
fcam sonie circumstarices of the trade and navigation of the age. 1. 
«ke 4Up->H«s'6Ui)h4kia^fr«it|Sl««hbt'4rit^Itt^ 

* s • ■ .. 'i • ; ' "■ I • tk 


c^^dioaK lus undes, a receat w^ofviegQ, and a chap* 
mortal disease^ were disregarded by the iojBexi- ]]^*V 
ble tribune, who had choMn his victim. The^ 
pubUc officers dragged him ffoca hts. palace 
and nuptial bed : his trial was short and aatk* 
fia.ctory : the beU of the capitoL convened the 
people : srtript oPhis maatle, cm his kn^es, with 
his hands bound behind hia back, he heard 
the sentence of death ; and after a Inrief con-? 
fession, Ursini was led away to the gallowsL 
After such an example, none, who were con* 
seious of guilt couM hope for impunity, and 
the ffight of the wicked, the licentions, and the 
idle, soon puriied the city and territory of 
Rome. In this time (aays the historiaa) the 
woods began to rejoice that they were no fenger 
infested with robbers ; the oxen began to plough ; 
the pilgrims visited the sanctuaries ; the roads 
and iiins were r^lenished with travellers ; trade, 
pl^ity, and good faith, were restored in the 
markets ; and a purse of gold might be exposed 
without danger in the midst of the highway. 
As soon as the life and property of the subject 
are secure, the labours and rewards of industry 
spontane€Hisly revive : Rome was still the me- 
tropolis of the christian world ; and the fame 
and fortunes of the tribune were diffused in 

fttid AvtgnOD. 2. The sailors were of Naples and the isle of CEnariA, 
IsM akiliUl th^B tkwe of SlcUj aqd Ornioa* 3, T^n aayig^loii fippi 
Mtrsetlles-w^i 4 coasting Toyage to the imout^ of the Tyb^er, wber^ 
they took shelter in a storm ; but instead of finding the current, 
UBfovtu^^ly vuR on-ti sheal : the vefiel was stsanded, the tnarinerc 
epfli^e^* - 4b The car^o, whieh WM piUf^jed, copsisf^ vf the nve* 
nue of Provence for the royal treasury, ipany bags of pepper and cin- 
namon, and bates of Preneh clotfa,*^to the vahie of S0,00(> itorins : • 
rich pri2t. 



CHAP, eveiy countrj hj the strangers who liad enjoj- 
J^^^^ ed the blessings of his government. 
The tri- The deliverance of his country inspired Ri- 
•P^todiT^^ with a vast, and perhaps visionary, idea of 
Italy, &C. uniting Italy in a great federative republic, of 
which Rome should be the ancielit and lawful 
head, and the free cities and princes the mem* 
bers and associates. His pen was not less elo- 
quent than his tongue ; and hb numerous epistles 
ifere delivered to swift and trusty messengers. 
On foot, with a white wand in their hand, they 
traversed the forests and mountains ; enjoyed, 
in the mpst hostile states, the sacred security of 
ambassadors; and reported, in' the style of flat- 
tery or truth, that the highways along their pas- 
sage were lined with kneeling multitudes, who 
implored heaven for the success of their under- 
taking. Could passion have listened to reason ; 
could private interest have yielded to the public 
welfare ; the supreme tribunal and confederate 
union of the Italian republic might have healed 
theu- intestine discord, and closed the Alps a- 
gainst the barbarians of the North. But the 
propitious season had elapsed ; and if Venice, 
Florence, Sienna, Perugia, and many inferior ci- 
ties, offered their lives and fortune^ tq the good 
estate, the tyrants of Lombardy and Tuscany 
must despise, or hate, the plebeian author pf a 
free constitution. From them, however, and from 
every part of Italy, the tribune received the 
most friendly and respectful answers : they were 
followed by the ambassadors of the princes and 
republics: and in this foreign conflux, on all 


the occasions of pleasure or business, the low- chap. 
born notiUT could assume the famUiar or ma*- ^^^^ 


jestic courtesy of a sovereign/ The most glo*- 
rious circumstance of his reign was an appeal to 
his Justice from Lewis king, of Hungary, who 
complained, that his brother, and her husband, 
had been perfidiously strangled by Jane queen 
of jNTapIes :* her guilt or innocence was plead-* 
^d in a solemn trial at Rome ; but after hear- 
ing the advocates,^ the tribune adjourned this 
^weighty and invidious cause, which was soon 
determined by the aword of the Hungarian* 
Beyond the Alps, more especially at Avignon, 
the revolution was the theme of curiosity, won- 
der, and applause. Petrarch had been the pri- and ceie- 
vate friend, perhaps the secret counsellor, of J|2^^^ 
Kienzi : his writings breathe the most ardent 
spirit of patriotism and joy ; and all respect for 
the pope, all gratitude for the Colonna, was 
lost in the superior duties of a Roman citizen. 
The poet-laureat of the capitol maintains the 

' It was thus that Oliver Cromwell^s old acqnaintance» who re- 
membered his Tulgay and ungracious entrance into the house of com« 
mons, were astqnished at the ease and majesty of tl^e projector on 
his throne (see Harris's Life of Cromwell, p. 27-34, from Clarendon, 
Warwick, Whitelock, Waller, &c.). The consciousness of merit 
and power will sometimes elevate the manners to the station, 

8 See the causes, circumstances, and effects, of the death of Andrew, 
\n Giannone (tom. iii, 1. xxiii, p. 230-229) and the Life of Pe« 
trarch (Memoires, tom. ii, p. 143-148, 245-250, 375-379^ notes, 
p. 21-37). The abb^ de Sade mhea to extenuate her ^ilt 

^ The advocate who pleaded agains^ Jane cou]4 add nothing to the 
logical force and brevity of his master's epistle, Johanna ! inordinata 
vita praecedens, retentio potestatis in regno, neglecta vindicta, vi^ 
alter susceptus, et excuaatio subsequens, necis viri tui te probant 
fliisse participem et consortem. Jane of Naples and Mary of Scot^ 
^and have a singular conformity. 

z 4 

544 TB* DBCLI*E AND f ALl* 

f : ac£,- a^plailid^ tie hero, and miAgles wRTi sotnft 
. f^.. apprebensioii atid advice the most lofty hopes of 
fte pemtanent and ribiftg greatness of th^ re- 

SfcdiL ^^'^^ Petr^ch indulged tfiese prophetic W- 
sftms, <he Koman hero was fest rfecKiSmg frota 
fte rtieridian of fame and power ; arid thfe people, 
trho had gazed with afetofnshment oh tfie as- 
£6ndin^ nteteor, began to rtrafk the irregula- 
fity of its cottrse, aiid^ the vicii^Sittide^ of light 
iirid obscurity. Mofe eloquent thstti jirfieious, 
niorfe eirte^piizing than resofllute, th^ faculties 
rf Kiehzi ^ireti not bilancM by cool and com- 
tnanding i^eason*: he magi^ified in a tetifold 
fArt^ortion thi objects of hop)6 and feaBt r and 
][i*udencef, which could Aot have etj^ied^ did 
not presume to fortify, his thrtine. In fhe 
bl^ 6f pirdsperity, his virtues wefe in^nsiblj 
iihctufed With the adjacent yices ; Jurtice with 
cruelty, liberality with prdfusion, aiid the de- 
sire df fame With puerile and (ifstentatiotis ta- 
nity* He might have learned, that the ancient 
tribunes, so strong and sacred in the public opi- 
liSoti, Were ncft disthiguiiShed in style, habit, or 
. s^pearance, from an ordinary plebeian ;^ and 
that as Often a^ they visited the feity e*i foot, a 

1 See the Epistola kdrtatorla de Capesseoda Republica, from P^ 
^arc!i tb Nicholas Rienzi (Opp. p, 535^540), and the fifth edogue 
or pastoral, a ^rpetual aiid obscure allegory. 

^ in liis Roman Questions, Plutarch (OpusciU. torn, i, p. 505, 506, 
edit. Grxc. Uen, Steph.) states, on the most constitutional principles, 
%iie atinple greatness 0!" the tribunes, who were not properly magi- 
atrates, but a check on magistracy. It was their duty and interest 

Mtr«r«n/fl^«i Ut (a saying of C. Curio) »«i /in gtfu$9 Mm nj h/ut^f 

09 THC RaMAK «i»mi. d4$ 

fsingle i/itttoK^ or beadle, attended the exerdise 6f chap. 
their office. The Gracchi would have frowned ^^*^ 
or smiled, tmtd they have read the sonorous 
titles and epithets of their successor, " Nieha* 
** las, severe and merciful; deliverer of Rome; 
** defender &f Italy ^ friend of mankind, and 
" of liberh/9 peace, and justice; tribune tmgust :'^ 
bis theiatrical pageants had prepared the revo* 
lution ; but Rieftzi ^t)tRSed, in luxury and pride, 
the political c^ra^im of speaking to the eyes, 
a^ well as the understanfdiftg, of the tnuM- 
tudef. Ffofti nature he had re^efred the gift 
of m band^me pers6ft^® jM^jtjg^lJ^^^^ 
aftd disflgu rfed b^^JntetnjCT^p^^^ and bis pro- 
pensity to laughter i^as corrected in the magis- 
ti^ate by the tfffetetatioiTr of gr^rity and sternness. 
H€f Was elot^^, ttt leftst on public occasions, 
in a pstrty-'coloftred robe of velvet or sattin, 
lined With ftfr,- tod etnWoidered with gold : the 
rod of jtisN9fee^ ^hich he carried in his hand, waii 
a scGpttfe erf polished steel, crowned with a globe 
and cross of ^old, stttd inclosing a small fragment 
of th^ ttae MA hdiy wdod. Iii his civil and re-: 

«\^ii • . . • . «^«i >i fik^^Ki^ ik^Aiitittr Ml *in^»f*mrti rs^tim^ fMXfm 
»vltTut rn iovetfAti, &c. Bienzi, and Petrarch hifliselff wer< in<iSLpggt 
ble perhaps of reafling a tireek philospher ; but they might have im« 
bibed the istrnt UbQ^fsi d^ciririeft from t^ek fatoadte Latins, Livf 
and Valerius Maximus. 

' I could not express in Bnglish the forclMe, though iirbiUvus, 
title of Zetator Ifeflji«, which Rictoki as8tt0ied»| 

"^ Era beir homo (1. ii, e^ i^ p. 999). It Is rettlarkiibl^ thitt thi^ 
riso sarcastico of the Braeciano edition is Witttiag in the ItolhlUi Aii« 
from which Muratori bus gtvto the text« Ih his seeohd reign, when 
he is painted almost dft a monster, Rienfli tnVeb lina ventr^^ca tonnt 
trionfale, a modo de uno Abbate Afliobo, or Asiniao (L iii, c. 19, 
p. 523). 


CHAP, ligious processions through the city, he rode oi 
***^' a white steed, the symbol of royalty : the great 
**^"**^* luuiner of the republic, a sun witk a circle of 
stars, a dove with an olive branch, was display^ 
over his head ; a shower of gold and silver was 
scattered among the populace ; fifty guards with 
halberds encompassed his person ; . a troop of 
horse preceded his march; and their tymbals 
and trumpets were of massy silver, 
•me pomp The ambition of the honours of chivalr]^ be- 
klight. trayed the meanness of his birth, aiid degraded 
]»od» the importance of his office : and the equestrian 
Aiqpist 1 ;' tribune was not less odious to the nobles, whom 
he adopted, than to the plebeians^ whom he de- 
serted. All that yet remained of treasure, or lux- 
' ury, or art, wa$ exhausted on that soIcHin day, 

Bienzi led the procession frinn the capitol to the 
^ Lateran ; the tediousness of the way was relieved 

wi^h decorations and games ; the ^clesiasticaly 
civil, and military, orders marched under their 
various banners ; the Roman ladies attended his 
wife ; and the ambassadors of Italy might loudly 
applaud^ or secretly deride, the novelty of the 
pomp. In the evening, when they had reached 
the church and palace of ConstaRtine,he thanked 
and dismissed the numerous assembly^ with, an 
invitation to tl^e festival of the ensuing day. From 

^ Strange &» it may seem, this festiYal was not without a precedent. 
In the year 1327, two barons, a Colonna and an Ursini, the nsiial 
lta2ance» were created knights by the Roman, people : tfaeir bath was 
of rose water» their beds were decked with royal magnificence, an$ they 
were, served at St. Maiia of Araceli, in the capitol, by the twenty ^ght 
iuoni kuominL They afterwards received from Robert king of Naples 
the sword o^ chivalry (Htf t. Rom. 1. i, e. 2, p, 2*9). 


the hands- of a venerable knis^ht he received the chap, 
order of the IJoly Ghost ; the purification of the^^^^^ 
bath was a previous ceremony; but in no step of 
his life did IjLienzi excite such scandal and censure 
as by the profane use of the porphyry vase, in 
which Constantine (a foolish legend) had been 
healed of his leprosy by pope Sylvester.® With 
equal presumption the tribunewatched or reposed 
within the consecrated precincts of the baptistery ; 
and the failure of his state-bed was interpreted 
as an omen of his approaching downfall. At the 
hour of worship he shewed himself to the return- 
ing crowds in a majestic attitude, with a robe of 
purple^ his sword, and gilt spurs ; but the holy 
rites were soon interrupted by his levity and in- 
solence. Rising from his throne, and advancing 
towards the congregation, he proclaimed in a 
loud voice : " We summon to our tribunal pope 
^^ Clement ; and command him to reside in his 
" diocese of Rome : we also summon the sacred 
** college of cardinals.^ We again summon the 
^^ two pretenders, Charles of Bohemia and Lewis 
" of Bavaria, who style themselves emperors : 
" we likewise summon all the electors of Ger- 
'^ m^ny, to inform us on what pretence they have 

** AU parties believed in the leprosy and bath of Constantine 
(Petrarch, Epist. Famil. vi, 8), and Rienzi jastified his own conduct 
by observing to the court of Avignon, that a vase which had been 
used by a pagan» could not be profaned by a pious christian. Yet 
this crime is specified in the bull of excommunication (Hocsemius, 
apud de Cer9eau, p. 189, 190. 

P This verbal summons of pope Clement vr, which rests on the au- 
thority of the Roman historian and a Vatican vs. is disputed by the 
biographer of Petrarch (torn, ii, not, p. 70-76), with arguments ra- 
ther of, decency than of weight. The court of Avignon might not 
chuse to agitate this delioite question. 


CHAP. ^ usoiped the inalienable r^t ^ tlie R»raai 
'^'"^ •< people^ the ancient and lawful sovereigns ci 
^ the empire.*^ Unsheathing his maidetr swoei^ 
he thrice brandished it to the three parts of the 
world, and thrice repeated the extravagant decia- 
ration, " And this too is mine !" The pope's \icar, 
the bishop of Orvieto, attempted to check this 
career of folly; but his feeble protest was silenced 
by martial music ; and instead of wiUidrawiag 
from the assembly, he consented to dine iMth lus 
brother tribune, at a table which had hitherto 
been reserved for the supreme pontiff. A basi^t 
such as the Caesars had given, was prepared for 
the Romans^ The apartments, porticoes, and 
courts, of the Lateran were spread with inDiiflEier* 
able tables (or either sex, and every cotidili<» : a 
stream of wine flowed from the nostrils of Con- 
stantine^s brazen horse ; no complaint except of 
the scarcity of water, could be beard ; and the t 
centiousness of the multitude was ciffbed by dis- 
siid corona, cipline and fear. A subsequent day was appointed 
for the coronation of Rienzi ;' seven crowns of 
different?leaves or metals were successively placed 
on his head by the most eminent of the Roman 
clergy ; they represented the seven gifts of the 
Holy Ghost ; and he still professed to imitate the 
example of the ancient tribunes. These extra- 
ordinary spectacles might deceive or flatter the 

4 The summons of the two rWal emperors, a monument of freedom 
and foUy, is extant in Hocsemius (Cer^^eau, p. 1$S-166>, 

' It is singular that the Roman historian should have overlooked 
this sevenfold coronationt which is suiBciently proved bv intoiuU 
evidenee» and Uie testimony of Hecsemiut, and evon of jP^ wi (Csr 

OP Tifn Boif Air «ttpntv. d4t 

pcKfile; and tlieir own Tanity nras gratified in tibe chap. 
foaiity of , their leaden But in bis private life he ^'^^^ 
soon deviated fhnn the strict rule of frugality and 
abstinence ; and the plebeians^ who were awed by 
the S|>leadour of the nobles, .were provoked l^ . • 
iffae luitury of their equal. His wife» his son, hn 
uncle (a barber 4h name and profession), exposed 
the c(Hltrast of vulgar manners and princely ex- 
pence ; 9BoA without acquiring the majesty, Ri- 
^nzi deg^iemted into the vices, of a king* 

A simple citizen describes with pity, or per-Fetrand 
haps witii pleasure, the humiMation of the barons the noues 
of Rome. ^ Bardieaded, thehr hands crossed on^^ ^^*°^ 
^^ their breast,' they stood with downcast looks in 
^^ tfae.preBeoce of the tribune ; and they trembled ; 
^< gMd God, how they trembled !"' As \xm^ as 
4he,yeke of Bienzi^was that of justice and their 
country, their consdeni^e forced them to esteem 
the man, whom priide and interest provoked them 
to hate : hb extraw^ant CQn4tict soon fortified 
4hetr hatred fay contempt; and they- conceived 
4fae hope of subverting a power which was jm> 
^longer sp deeply rooted in the.public confidoioe. 
TheoldantmosHyof the CoIonnaiaBdUrsini^as 
.suspended, for a moment, by their common dis- 
^riBce: tiiey associated their wiAes,. and perhaps 
•their dengns; an assassin^wasaeizedlamitdMurad; 
Ite aeciised the ndblea; anda8>8oana8]iliensEi>de- 
;8€!Fved the fate, he .adopted :the suspioiotts -and 

In diodi ritti oo le vraccia piecate, e co H eftpncci tratti. .D«h «anio 
stavflno<f«inMi! (Hift,aomfLii,c,tQ,p.439}. He fftw tlienii, nS 


CHAP, tnikxitns, of a t3nratit. On the same day, xmdet 
various pretences, he invited to the capitol bis 
principal enemies, amon^^ whom i^ere five mem-^ 
bers of the Ursini and thiree of the Coldnna name. 
Biit instead of a council or a banquet, they found 
themselves ^isoners under the sword of despo^ 
tism or justice ; and the consciousness of inno- 
cence or guilt might inspire them with equal 
apprehensions of danger. At the sound of the 
great bell the people assembled ; they were ar* 
r&igned for a conspiracy against the tribune's 
life ; and though sdme might sympathise in their 
distress, not a hand, nor a voice, was raised to 
rescue the first of the nobility from thdr im- 
pending doom; Their apparent boldness was 
prompted by despair; they passed iti separate 
chambers a sleepless and painful night ; and the 
venerable hero, Stephen Cdonna, striking against 
the door of his prison, repeatedly urged his guards 
to deliver him, by a speedy death, from such ig- 
nominious servitude. In the morning they un- 
derstood thd»* sentence from the visit of a con- 
fessor and the to}ling of the belK The great hail 
of the Capitol had: been decorated for the blood j 
-scene with red ^nd white hangings; the counte- 
nance of the tribune w^s dark and severe ; the 
swords of the executioners^ were unsheathed; 
and the barons were Interrupted in their dying 
speeches by the s6ufad'of trumpets* But in this 
decisive moment, Rienzi was not less anxious or 
apjH^hensive than his captives ; he di'eaded the 
splendour of their names, their surviving kins- 
men> the inconstancy of the people, the reproaches 


of Ibe world; and, after rashly offering a mortal eiH ap. 
injury, he vainly presumed that, if he could 'for- ^^^^ 

give, he might himself be forgiven. His ela^ 
borate oration was that of a christian and a 
suppliant ; and, as the humble mihist^ of the 
commons,, he entreated his masters to pardon 
these noble criminals, for whose repentance and 
future service he pledged his faith and authmtjri 
" If you are spared," said tiie tribune, ** by th« 
^^ mercy of the Romans, will ycwi not promise 
** to support the good estate with your llvies^aiid 
** fortunes ?** Astonished by this marvelloos 
clemency, the barons bowed their heads ; and^ 
while they devoutly repeated the oath of alle^ 
giance, might whisper a secret, and more sincere^ 
assurance of revenge, A priest, in the name of 
the people, pronounced their absolution: thej 
received the communion witii the tribune, 'as* 
sisted at the banquet, followed the procession-; 
and, after every spiritual and temporal' sign of 
reconciliation, were dismissed in safety to their . 
respective homes, with the new honours and . 
titles of generals, consuls, and patricians** 

During some weeks they were checked by the They ©p- 
memory of their danger, rather than of their de*. .^J^®^"*^ 
liverance, tUl t)be most powerful of the UrsinH 
escaping with the Colonna from the city, erected 
at Marino the standard of rebellion. The forti)- 
fications of the castle were instantly restored ; 
the vassals attended their lord; the outlaws 

* The original letter, in which Rienzi justifies his treatment ef the 
Colonna (Hocsemius, apud du Cergeau, p. 221^-2S9) displays, in ge« 
iMkie colours^ the mixture of theknare and the madman* 


CHAP, anntd against the magistrate; the flooks afij 
"°^ herdsp the harvests aad vineyards, fixna Marino 
to the gates of Rome, were, swept away or de- 
itroyed ; and the people arraigned Bi^p^i as ^ 
author of the calamities which his govermnent 
had taught tbem to forget. In the casup, Ri- 
tea appeared to less advantage than in the 
rosteum; and he. neglected the progress of the 
rebel barons tiU their numbers were s^ong, and 
ftbnr oastles iaiprc^naUe^ From the ps^e& of 
lAvy he had not imMbed the art, or even ^be 
cmieage, of a generbl ; an army of tweoty thou- 
tettd Romans returned, without honour or ^^t, 
from the sttaokiOf MariiK); and his ve^gii^oe 
was.amusediby painting hk enemies, ^beirhea^ 
downwards, «ui drowning two dqgs (^t least 
^ey should .have been bears) as the r^^cesenta* 
lives xif : the Ur^ni. The bfsUef of. his inc^ppcity 
encouri^ed their opecatioos : the^ were invited 
by 'tibeir secret ^adherents ; and the baroiis at- 
tempted, witiii four thousand foot ,^n.^ ^i^teen 
Iwndred hof se, to enter Rome hy.i^r^e or air- 
prise. The city>wit3!pr^pared for th^ir re^ption : 
the .darm^beU Tu^g jeAI night ; the ga|^ were 
attdctly^guarded, or.iiisokntly o^^ ; .and, aft^ 
B€mekesitetJon,ib6ys(HiQdedaii^tre9t. The two 
fiiitdi^i^$si^d along the if9l^s, l^it^tbe 
prospect i of . a :free mt^avce tempt^sd r tjhe ^bf ail- 
^tnaflog.valour of the-noUes mtbe-rear; > aii^&^aft^ 
aaicoessful sl^irmish, tkieyiWore,DyertbmFA ^d 
Defeat and massacred, without quarter, by the crowds of the 
Coioiina!^^Ronaan peciiple, Stephen Cojpnna the younger, 
¥01.20., the noUe:i8pkitito.whi0m'iFetiiarch.d»si^^ 


restoration of Italy, was preceded or accoitaipcU chap: 
nied in death by his son John^ a gallant youth; ^ 
by his brother Peter j who might regret the ease 
and honours of the church, by a nephew of le- 
g^itimate birth, and by tiyd bastards of the Co- 
lonna race ; and the number of seven, the seven 
crowns^ as Rienzi styled them^ of the Holy 
Ghosts was completed by the agony of the de- 
plorable parent, and the veteran chief, who had 
Survived the hope and fortune of his houses 
The vision and prophecies of St. Martin and 
pope Boniface had been used by the tribune to ani^ 
mate his troops i"^ he displayed^ at legist in the 
pursuit^ the spirit of an hero ; but he forgot the 
maxinis of the ancient Romans, who abhorred 
the triumphs of citil war. The conqueror as« 
cended the capitol ; deposited his crown and 
sceptre on the altar;. and boasted with some 
truth, that he had cut off an ear which neither 
pope nor emperor had been able to amputate/ 
His base and implacable revenge denied the ho- 
nours of burial ; and the bodies of the Colohna^ 
which he threatened to expose with those of the 

« Rienti, in the above-Hftntlofied letCet, asdribes t6 St' Martfh fhl 
tribune, Boniface \iiu the enemy of Colonna, himself* and ihe Roman 
people, the glory of the day, which ViUani likewise (1. 12,' c. 104^ 
describes as a regular battle. The disorderly skirmishV the flight of 
the Romans,- and the cowardice of Rienzi, are painted in the simpiie 
And minute narrative of Fortifiocca,' or the anonymous citixen ^ U/ 

c. 34-37. ,.. „ , .,..,. .,., 

' In descrilring the fall of the Colonna/ 1 ^ak only of tiie family 
^f Stephen the elder, who is often confounded by the P^ dii Cer9eaii 
with his son. That funily was extinguished, but the house has been' 
per^ietuated in the colkiteral branches,' of whi6h I have not a very ac- 
curate knowledge. CircuiAspice (says Petrarch famili^ tuae.statun^ 
tohimmensium .^osiio* : solito paiuciores habeat columnas. Quid id 
Um ? modo fundamentum stabilei soUdumq; pennaneat. 

VOL. XII. A a 


CRAP, vilest malefactors^ were secretlj interred by the 
"^ holy virgins of their name and family^. The 
^people sympathised in their grief, repeated of 
their own fury, and detested the indecent joy 
of RienzC who visited the spot where these 
illustrious victims had fallen. It was oti that 
fatal spot that he conferred on his son the 
honour of knighthood ; and the ceremony was 
lbecbm{)Ushed by a slight blow froin each of the 
liorseoien of the guard, and by a ridiculous and 
inhuman abhition from a pool of water, which 
was yet polluted with partrician blood'. 
Fnii and A short delay \trould have saved the Colonna *, 
fhf tribune ^^^ delay of a single month, which eUpsed be- 
Rienzi, twceu the triumph and exile of Rienzi. In 

A. D. 1347, , ,- ^ , , 0/..S * 

Dec. 13. the pride of victory, he forfeited what jet re- 
tnained of his civil virtiies, without acquiring the 
fame of military prbwess. * A free and vigDrcMis 
tD|q)Dsitioh was formed in the city ; and when the 
tribune proposed in the (ittblic council"^ toim- 
poie a new tax, and to regulate the gov^r&ment 
of Perugia, thkty-^nine members voted against 
hi8 tneasures ; repelled the injurious charge of 
treachery and corruption} and urged him to 

» The c(mv«Rt of St. Silvester was ibnnded, endowedj, and pro- 
tected, by the Colonna cardinals, for the daughters of the ftimilj who 
emfbraced a monastic life, and who, in tl?e yT?ar 1319, were ttrelre 
In nuiBolief. The others were allowed to marry with their kinsmen 
itt the ftJurth degree, and the dispensation was justified by the small 
number and close alliances of the noble families of Rome (Memo/res 
lur Petrai-quc, torn, i, p. 110, torn, ii, p. 401). 

« Petrarch wrote a stiff and pedantic letter of consolatfoii (Pam. 
1. vli, epist. 13, p. 68?, 683), The friend wals l-ost in the patriot. 
KuIIa toito orbe piincipum familia carior ; carhir tamen respabtica, 
earior Roma, carior Italia. 

' Je rends graces anx Dleu de n*etre pas Rothain. 

• This council and opposition is obscurely mentioned J^y Pollistore, 
a contemporary writer. Who lias preserved some curious and original 
facts (Rer.Italicaium, torn. xxv» c. 31, p. 798-804). 


prove, by their forcible exclusion, that,* if the chap» 
populace adhet*ed to his cause, it was already - 
disclaimed by the most respectable citizens. 
The pope and the sacred college had nerer beea 
dazzled by his specious professions ; they were 
justly offended by the insolence of his conduct : 
a cardinal legate was sent to Italy, and after 
some fruitless treaty, and two personal inter- 
vie\¥^B, he fulminated a bull of excoromunica- 
tion^ in which the tribune is degraded from 
his o&ce, and branded with the guilt of re- 
bellion, sacrilege, and heresy.^ The surviv- 
ing barons of Rome were now humbled to a 
sense of allegiance ; their interest and revenge 
engaged them in the service of the church ; but 
as the fate of the Colonna was before their 
eyes, they abandoned to a priva(;e adventurer 
the peril and glory of the revolution, John 
Pepin, count of Minorbino*" in the kingdom 
of Naples, had been condemned for his crimes^ 
or his riches, to perpetual imprisonment; and 
Petrarch, by soliciting his release, indirectly con- 
tributed to the ruin of his friend. At the head 
of one hundred and fifty soldiers, the count of 
Minorbino introduced himself into Rome ; bar* 
ricaded the quarter of the Colonna ; and found 

*» The briefs and bulls of Clement vi against Rienai are tran- 
slated by tbe P. du Cer9eau (p. 196, 232), from the ficdesiaatical 
Annals of Rodericus RaynaWus (a. jd. 1347, No. 15, 17, 21, &c.). who 
found them in the i^chiv^s of the Vatican. 

" Matteo Villanijdescribcs the origin, character, and death, of this 
count of Bdnorbino, a man de natura isconstante e senza sede, whose 
grandfather, a crafty notary, was enriched and ennobled by the spoils 
of the Saracens of Nocera (1. vii, c. 102, 103). See his imprisonment, 
«nd tlie efforti of fetrarcb, torn. 11, p. 140^151. 


CHAP, the enterprise as easy as it had seemed impost- 
^^.^^xx^vv ble. From the first alarm, the bell of the ca- 
pitol incessantly tolled ; but, instead of repay- 
ing to the well-known sound, the people was 
silent and inactive ; and the pusillammous Ri-- 
enzi, deploring their ingratitude with sighs and 
tears, abdicated the government and palace of 
the republic. 
Kevoiu- Without drawing his sword, count Pepin te- 
Romc, stored the aristocracy and the church ; three se- 
JM4^^^' nators were chosen, and the legate assuming the 
first rank, accepted his two colleagues from the 
rival families of Colonna and Ursini. The acts 
of the tribune were abolished, his head was pro- 
scribed ; yet such was the terror of his name, 
that the barons hesitated three days before they 
would trust themselves in the city ; and Rienzi 
was left above a month in the castle of St. An- 
gelo, from whence he peaceably withdrew, after 
labouring, without effect, to revive the afifection 
and courage of the Romans. The vision of free- 
dom and empire had vanished : their fallen spi- 
rit would have acquiesced in servitude, had it 
been smoothed by tranquillity and order ; and it 
was scarcely observed, that the new senators de- 
rived their authority from the apostolic see ; that 
four cardinals were appointed to reform, with 
dictatorial power, the state of the repubiic. 
Rome was again agitated by* the bloody 
feuds of the barons, who detested each other, 
and despised the commons : their hostile for- 
tresses, both in town and country, again rose, 
and were again demolished ; and the peace- 
ful citisens^ a flgck of ^heep^ wefe deyoured, 


says the Florentine historian, by' these rapa- chap. 
cious wolves. But when their pride and avarice 
had exhausted the patience of the Romans, a 
confraternity of the virgin Mary protected or 
avenged the republic; tbe bell of the capitol 
was again tolled ; the nobles in arms trembled 
in the presence of an unarmed multitude ; and 
of the two senators, Colonna escaped from the 
window of the palace, and Ursini was stoned at 
the foot of the altar. The dangerous oflSce of 
tribune was successively occupied by two plebe- 
ians, Cerroni and Baroncelli. The mildness of 
Cerroni was unequal to the times; and after a 
faint struggle, he retired with a fair reputation 
and a decent fortune to the comforts of rural 
life. Devoid of eloquence or genius, Baron- 
celli was distinguished by a resolute spirit : he 
spoke the language of a patriot, ^d trode in the 
footsteps of tyrants ; his suspicion was a sen- 
tence of death, and his own death was the rcr 
ward of his cruelties. Amidst the public misforr 
tunes, the faults of Rienzi were forgotten ; and 
the Romans sighed for the peace and prosperity 
of the good estate.^ 

After an exile of seven years, the first deli-^,^i®"*"'«» 

, , . -, -, ^^ Rienzi. 

verer was agaip restored to his country. In the 
disguise of a monk or a pilgrjm, he escaped 
from the castle of St. Angelo, implored the 
friendship of the kings of Hungary and Naples, 
tempted the ambition of every bbld adventurer, 

^ The troubles of Rome, from the departure to the return of Rienzi, 
are related by Matteo Villani (L ii, c. 47, 1. iii, c. 33, 57, 78) and 
Thomas Fortifiocca <1. iii, c. 1-4). I have slightly passed over these 
secondary character^, who imitated the original tribune* 

A a 3 


CHAP, mingled at Rome with the pilgrims of the jubi« 
^^^^ lee, lay concealed among the hermits of the 


Appennine, and wandered through the cities of 
Italy, Germany, and Bohemia. His person was 
invisible^ his name was yet formidable ; and the 
anxiety of the court of Avignon supposes, and 
even magnifies, his personal merit. The empe- 
ror Charles the fourth gave audience to a stran^ 
ger, who frankly revealed himself as the tnbune 
of the republic ; and astonished an assembly of 
ambassadors and princes, by the eloquence of a 
patriot, and the visions of a prophet, the down* 
fal of tyranny, and the kingdom of the Holy 
Ghost.* Whatever had been his hopes, Rienzi 
found himself a captive ; but he supported a cha- 
racter of independence and dignity, and obeyed, 
as his own choice, the irresistible summons of the 
supreme pontiff. The zeal of Petrarch, which had 
been cooled by the unworthy conduct, was rekin- 
dled by the sufferings and the presence, of his 
friend ; and he boldly complains of the times, in 
which the saviour of Rome was delivered by her 
A prisoner empcror into the hands of her bishop. Rienzi was 

lUAvignon, ^ i i i i ^ • /. 

A. p. 1351. transported slowly, but in safe custody, from 
Prague to Avignon ; his entrance into the city was 
that of a malefactor ; in his prison he was chain- 
ed by the leg ; and four cardinals were named to 
inquire into the crimes of heresy ^nd rebellion. 

• ^hese irisions, of which the friends and the enemies (^ Rienzi 
seem alike ignorant, are surely magnified by the zeal of Pollistore, a 
Dominican inquibitor (Rer. Ital. torn, xxv, c 36, p. 819). Uad the 
iribune taught, that Christ was succeeded by thfi Holy Ghost, tliat 
the tyranny of the pope would be abolished, he might have been coo- 
»icted of heresy and treason^ without offending the Roman people. 


But his tri^l iand cojideinnfttiQn would have ohav, 
involved 6pme questions, which it w*s . laaore ^^;__^\^ 

prudent to l^i^ve under the veil of mystery t the 
temporal supremacy of the popes ; the duty of 
residence; t^h^ civil and ecclesiastical privileges 
of the clergy and people of Jtpme. Th^ rejgr^- 
ing pontiff well deserved the appellation of 
Clemmt : the strange vicissitudes and magnaiii- 
mous spirit qf the captive excited his pity and 
esteem ; and Petrarch believes |:hat he respepted 
in the hero the name and sacred character of a- 
poet/ Bi^nzi was indulged with an easy con- 
finement and the use of hooks ; and in the j^ssi- 
duoiis ^tudy of Livy, and the bibki, he sought 
the cause and the consolation of his misfortunes. 

The /succeediftff poptiftcafee of Innocent th^J^'^nzi, se- 
Sixth opeped a new prospect of his deuveranceRome, 
and restoration ; and the court of Avignon was^* °* ^^^^' 
persuaded^ that the succiessful rebel could alone 
appease and refornj the anarchy of the n>etropor 
lis. After a solemn professipn of fidelity, the 
Hoiman tribune was sent into Italy, with, th^ 
title of senior; but the death of Baj-qncdiU 
appeared to supersede the use of his mission ;;and 
the legate^ cardinal Albornoz,^ a consummate 
statesman, eJlowed him with reluctance, and 

f The estdtiishmcBt, the envy alflwet, of PeU-arch is a proof, if 
not of tl?e truth of this incredible fact, at least of his own veracity. 
*rhe abb^ de Sade (Memoires, torn, iii, p. 24S) quotes the sixth 
epistle of the thirteenth booic of Petrarch, hut it is of the royal u& ^^ . 

which he consulted, and not of the ordinary Basil edition (p. 920). J,. 

B ^gidius, or Giles Alhornoz, a noble Spaniard, archbishop of 
Toledo, and cardinal legate in Italy (a. d. 1353-1367), restored, by 
his ar^is and counsels, the teoipor^ domii;ijon o^ the popes. Has 
life has been separately written by Sepulveda ; but Dryden could not 
reasonably suppose, that his name, or that of Wolscy, had reached 
Ai ears of 4die SiuiTti ia Don Sebastian. > ^ . 

A a 4 * * 



c iT^p. without aid, to undertake the perilous experi- 
ment. His first reception was equal to his wish- 
es : the day of bis entrance was a public festival ; 
and his eloquence and authority revived the laws 
of the good estate. But this momentary sun- 
shine viras soon clouded by his own vices and 
those of the people : in the capital, he might of*- 
ten regret the prison of Avignon ; and after a 
second administration of four months, Eienzi 
was massacred in a tumult which had been fo- 
mented by the Roman barons. In the society of 
the Germans and Bohemians, he is said to hdve 
contracted the habits of intemperance and cruel- 
ty ; adversity had chilled his enthusiasm, with- 
out fortifying his reason or virtue; and that 
youthful hope, that lively assurance, which is 
the pledge of success, was now succeeded by 
the cold impotence of distrust and despair^ The 
tribune had reigned with absolute dominion, by 
the choice, and in the hearts, of the Romans : 
the senator was the servile minister of a foreign 
court ; and while hcf was suspected by the peo- 
ple, he was abandoned by the prince. The 
legate Albornoz, who seemed desirous of his 
ruin, inflexibly refused all supplies of men and 
inoney : a faithful subject could no longer pre* 
isume to touch the revenues of the apostolical 
chamber ; and the first idea of a tax was the sig- 
nal of clamour and sedition. Even his justice 
was tainted with the ^ilt or reproach of selfish 
pruelty : the most virtuous citizen of Rpme was 
sacrificed to his jealousy ; and in the execution of 
a public robber, from whose purse he had been 
assisted, the magistrate too much forgot^ or to* 


mudi remembered, the obligations of the debtor,^ chap. 
A civil war exhausted his treasures and the pa- ^^^* 
tience of the city : the Golonna maintained their "^^"^ 
hostile stati(m at Palestrina ; and his mercenaries 
soon despised a leader whose ignorance and fear 
were envious of all subordinate merit. In the 
death as in the life of Rienzi, the hero and the 
coward were strangely mingled. When the capi- 
tol was invested by a furious multitude, when he 
was basely deserted by his civil and military ser- 
vants, the intrepid senator, waving the banner of 
liberty, presented himself on the balcony, address- 
ed his eloquence to the various passions of the 
Romans, and laboured to persuade them, that in 
the same cause himself and the republic must ei- 
ther stand or fall. His oration was internipted by 
a volley of imprecations and stones ; and after an 
arrow had transpierced his head, he sunk into 
abject despair, and fled weeping to the inner 
chambers, from whence he was let down by a 
sheet before the windows of the prison. Destitute 
of aid or hope, he was besieged till the evening : 
the doors of the capitol were destroyed with axes 
and fire ; and while the senator attempted to es- 
cape in a plebeian habit, he was discovered and 
dragged to the platform of the palace, the fatal 
scene of his judgments and executions. A whole 
hour, without voice or motion, he stood amidst the 
multitude half naked and half dead ; their rage 
was hushed into curiosity and wonder : the last 

^ From Matteo Villani and FortiBocca, the P. du Cer9eau (p. 344- 
394) has extracted the life and death of the chevalier Montreal, the 
life of a robher and the death of an hero. At the head of a free com* 
pany, the irst that desolated Italj, he became rich and formidable ; 
he had money in all the banks ; 10,000 duoata in Padua alone. 



CHAP, but he forgets that her scandalous vices were not 
'^^ the growth of the soil, and that in every resi^ 
Mence they would adhere to the power and lux^ 
ury of the papal court. He confesses, that the 
successor of St. Peter is the bishop of the uni- 
versal church ; yet it was not on the banks of 
the Rhone, but of the Tyber, that* the apostle 
had fixed his everlasting throne : and while every 
city in the christian world was blessed wi\h a 
bishop, the metropolis alone was desolate aad 
forlorn. Since the removal of the holy see, the 
sacred buildings of the Lateran and the Vati- 
can, their altars and their saints, were left in a 
state of poverty and decay ; and Rome was of- 
ten painted under the image of a disconsolate ma- 
tron, as if the wanderinghusbandcouldbe reclaim- 
ed by the homely portrait of the age and infirmi- 
ties of his weepingspouse."* But the cloud which 
hung over the seven hills would be dispelled by 
the presence of their lawful sovereign : eternal 
fame, the prosperity of Rome, and the peace of 
Italy, would be the recompence of the pope who 
should dare to embrace this generous resolution. 
Of thefivewhom Petrarch exhorted, thethree first, 
John thetwenty-second, Benedictthetwelfth,and 
Clement the sixth, were importuned or amused 
by the boldness of the orator; but the memorably 

** Squalida aed quoniajn facies, neglecta cultil 
Caesaries ; muUisque mails lassata senectus 
^ripuit solitam effi^iem : retus accjpe noxnen ; 
Roma vocor. (Carau 1. 2t p. TTv 

H« spins this allegory beyond all measure or patience. The Epistles 
to Urban t, in prose, are more simple and persuasive (Seniliu|D> U 
>lli p. 81 1-827, 1, ix, epist. i, p. 844-8M). 

OP THE ROMAK fi!ifPIR&< 963 

ehaijge which had been attempted by Urban the ^^:^* 
fifth, was finally accomplished by Gregory the ele- , 

ventb.Theexecutionof their design wasopposedby 
w^eighty and almost insuperable obstacles* A king 
of France, who has deserved the epithet of wise, 
was unwilling to release them from a local depen- 
dence : the cardinals, for the most part his sub- 
jectSy were attached to the language, manners, 
and climate, of Avignon ; to their stately palaces ; 
above all, to the wines of Burgundy. In their ^JJ^^®^ 
eyes, Italy was foreign or hostile; and they reluc- a d. 136T, 
tantly embarked at Marseilles, as if they had been i^. 
sold or banished into the land of the Saracens/; '*:,*?!^* 

April IT. 

Urban the fifth resided three years in the Vatican 
with safety and honour: his sanctity was protected 
by a guard of two thousand horse ; and the king 
of Cyprus, the queen of Naples, and the emperors 
of the East and West, devoutly saluted their com- 
mon father in the chair of St, Peter. But the 
joy of Petrarch and the Italians was soon turned 
into grief and indignation. Some reasons of pub- 
lic or private moment, his own impatience or 
the prayers of the cardinals, recalled Urban to 
France; and the approaching election was saved 
from the tyrannic patriotism of the Romans. The 
powers of heaven were interested in their cause : 
Bridget of Sweden, a saint and pilgrim, disapprov- 
ed the return, and foretold the death, of Urban 
the fifth: the migration of Gregory the eleventh tumoST 
was encouraged by St. Catherine of Sienna, the^']^f|^^*'* 
spouse of Christ and ambassadress of the Floren- Jan, 17. 
tines; and the popes themselves, the great masters 
of human credulity, appear to have listened to 



CHAP, these visionaiy feroales." Yet those celestial ad- 
monitions were supported by sotne arguments cff 
temporal policy. The residence of Avignon haff 
been invaded by hosttte violence : at the head of 
thirty thousand robbers, an hero had extorted 
ransom and absolution from the vicar of Christ 
and the sacred college ; and the maxim of the 
French WMtiors, to spare the people and plunder 
the church, was a new heresy qf the most danger- 
ous import."* While the pope was driven from 
Avignon, lie was strenuously invited to Rome, 
The senate and people acknowledged him as their 
lawful sovereign, and laid at his feet the keys of 
the gfCtes, the bridges, and the fortresses ; of the 
qilarter at least beyond the Tyber.^ But this 
loyal offer was accompanied by a declaration, 
that they could no longer suffer the scandal and 
calamity of his absence ; and that his obstinacy 
would finally provoke them to revive and assert 
the primitive right of election. Theabbot of mount 

^ I have not leisure to expatiate on the legends of Su Bridget or 
St, Catherine, the Jast of which might furnish some amusing stories. 
Their effect on the mind of Gregory xi is attested by the last solemn 
words of the dying pope, who admonl^hed the assistants, ut caverent 
ab hominibus, sive viris, sive mulieribus, sub specie religionis loquen- 
tibus visiones sui capitis, quia per tales ipse seductus, &c. (Baluz. 
Not. ad Vit. Pap. Avenioneasium, torn, i, p. 1233). ^ 

"* This predatory expediiivn is related by Froissard (Cbronique, 
lom. i, p. 230), and in the Ikfe of du Guesclin (Collection Generale 
des Memoires Historiques, torn, iv, c 16, p. 107-113). As early as 
the year 1361, the court of Avignon had been molested by similar 
freebooters, who afterwards passed the Alps (Memoires gur Petrar- 
que, torn, iii, p. 563-569). 

p Kleury alleges, from the annals of Odericus Raynaldus, the ori- 
ginal treaty, which was signed the 21 at of December 1374i, between 
Gregory xi and the Romans (Hist. Eccles. torn, xx, p. 275). 

69 THS ROMAN SMl^IA^, 567 

Cas^iii had been consulted whel^er ha wouM a^- en a p. 
cept the triple crowns from the clergy and peo- ^^' 
pie ; " I am a citizen of Rome/'*' replied that"" 
venerable eeclesoastil*, '^ and my first laW isthe 
*^ voice of tny country,"* 

If superstition will interpret an untimely death;* His Aeath^ 
if the merit of counsels be judged from the event; March 27I 
the heavens may seem to frown on a measufe of 
such apparent reason and propriety. Gregory the 
eleventh did not survive above fourteen months 
his return to the Vaticcm ; and his decease was fol- 
lowed by the great schism of the West, which 
distracted the Latin church above forty years. 
The sacred college was then composed of twenty- 

^ Tlie first Grown or regnum (Du6ange» Gloss. Latin, totii. v, p. 702> 
on the episcopal mitre of the popes, is ascribed to the gift of Con- 
stantine, or Clovis. The second was added by Boniface viii, as thtf 
emblem not ottly of k spiritual, but of a temporal, kingdom. The 
three states of the church are represented b^ the triple crown, which 
was introduced by John xxii or Benedict in (Memoires sur Petrarque, 
tom. i, p. 259, 25^). 

' Baluze CNot. ad Pap« Avenion. tom. i, p. 1194, 1195) produce* 
the original evidence which attests the threats of the Roman ambas" 
sadors, and the resignation of the abbot of mount Cassin, qui ultro 
86 oOateab^ resp^ndit se oivem Bomanum esse, et illud veUe quod 
jpsi velleat. 

• The return of the popes from Avignon to Rome, and their re- 
ception by the people, are related in the original Lives of Urban ▼, 
and Gregory xi, in Baluae (Vit. Paparum Avenionenaium, tom. i, 
p. 363-486) and Muratori (Script. Rer. Italicarum, tom. iii, p. i, p. 
610-71J). In the disputes of the schism, every circumstance wa« 
8eTere>y« though partially, scrutinized : more especially in the great 
inquest, which decided the obedience of Caetile, and to which Baluze* 
in his notes, so often and so largely appeals from a ms. volume in 
the Harhiy Hbrary (p. 12il, &c.). 

* CaB the death of a good man be esteemed a punishment by those 
who believe in the inimortolity of the soul ? They betray the instabi- 
lity of their faith. Yet as a mere philosopher, I cannot agree with the 
Greeks, m m ii»s ^iXurn »ro6tfiCKu not (Brunck, Poetae Gnomici, p. 
231). See in Herodotus (I. i, c. 31) the moral and pleasing tale of 
the Argive youths. 


CHAP, two cardinals: six of these had remained at Avk^ 
noD ; eleven Frenchmen, one Spaniard, and four 

Italians, entered the conclave in the usual fonn. 
Their choice was not jet limited td the puiple; 
siwtioii of and their unanimous votes acquiesced in the arch- 
April t?' bishop of Bari, a subject of Naples, e<Hi&pk:iious 
for his zf al and learning, who ascended the throne 
of St. Peter under the name of Urban the sixth. 
The epistle of the sacred college affirms \ns free 
and regular election ; which had been inspired^ 
as usual, by the Holy Ghost : he was adorned, in- 
vested, and' crowned, with the customary rights ; 
his temporal authority was obeyed at Rome ahd 
Avignon, and his ecclesiastical supremacy was ac- 
knowledged in the Latin world. During several 
weeks, the cardinals attended their new itiaster 
with the fairest professions of attachment and 
loyalty; till the summer heats permitted a decent 
escape from the city. But as soon as they were 
united at Anagni and Fundi, in a place of securi- 
ty^ they cast aside the mask, accused their own 
falsehood and hypocrisy, excommunicated the 
apostate and antichrist of Rome, and proceeded 
Etettton of to a ucw election of Robert of Geneva, Clement 
^11, " the seventh, whom they announced to the nations 
^*- ^^' as the true and rightful vicar of Christ. Their 
first choice, an involuntary and illegal act, was 
annulled by the fear of death and the menaces of 
the Romans ; and their complaint is justified by 
the strong evidence of probability and fact. The 
twelve French cardinals, above two-thirds of the 
votes, were masters of the election ; and whatever 



might be their provincial jealousies, it cannot chap. 
fairly be presumed that they would have sacri<- ^ 
ficed their nght and interest to a foreign candi- 
date, who would never restore them to their 
native country* In the various, and often incon-^ 
sistent, narratives," the shades of popular vio- 
lence are more darkly or faintly coloured ; but 
the licentiousness of the seditious Romans was 
inflamed by a sense of their privileges, and the 
danger of a second emigration* The conclave 
was intimidated by the shouts, and encompassed 
by the arms, of thirty thousand rebels ; the bells 
of the capitol and St. Peter's rang an alarm; 
** Deaths or an Italian pope !" was the universal 
cry ; the satne threat was repeated by the twelve 
bannerets, or chiefs of the quarters, in the form 
of charitable advice; some preparations were 
made for burning the obstinate cardinals ; and 
bad they chosen a Transalpine subject, it is pro* 
bable that they would never have departed alive • 
from the Vatican. The same constraint imposed 
the necessity of dissembling in the eyes of Rome 
and pf the world : the pridie and cruelty of Ur- 
ban presented a more inevitable danger; and 
they soon discovered the features of the tyrant, 
who could walk in his garden and recite his 
breviary, while he heard, from an adjacent 
chamber, six cardinals groaning on the rack. 

« In the first book of the Histoire du Concile de Pise, M. Lenfatit 
has abridged and compared the original narratives of the adherents 
pf Urban and Clement, of the Italians and Germans, the French and 
Spaniards. The latter appear to be the most active and loquacious^' 
«nd every fact and word in the original Lives of Gregory xi and Cltf 
ment VII, are supported in the notes of their editor Baluse. . 

VOL^ XII. B b 


370 nri nscLiNB and vaiXi 

cflAF. Hfi infl^Kible zeal, which loadly censured their 
^^ loxsrj and vice, would have attached them to 

"""""" 4lte9tations and duties of theirparishes atRomt; 
and had he not fatally delayed a newproaiotic»i, 
the French cardinals would have been reduced 
to an helpless minority in the sacred coUege* 
For these reasons, and in the hope of repassing 
the Alps, they ra*ly violated the peace aod 
mitj of the church ; and the merits o£ &«r 
dodiile choice are yet agitated in the cathcAk 
schools.^ The vanity, rather than the intepest, 
«rf the nation, determined the conrt and dergy 
of France/ The states^ of Savoy, IScily, Cy- 
prus, Anragon, Castile, Navarre, and Sco4lan<!t 
were inclined, by their example and authority, 
to the obedience of Clement the seventh, and, 
after his decease, of Benedict the thirteentJi. 
lUrnie, and the prindpal states of Italy, Ger- 
many, Portugal, England,* the Low Countries, 
. end the kingdon^ of the nortii, adhered to the 
prior election of Urban ^le sixth, who was suc- 

s The ordinal numbers of the popes seem to decide ibit-qwetim 
•gainst Clement tii and Benedict xiu, who are boldly stigmatissdai 
antipopes by the Italians, while the French are content with authori- 
ties and reasons to plead the canse of doubt and toleration ^aluz. ia 
Praefat). It is singular, or rather it is not singular, that saints, v> 
SionSf and miracles, should be common to both parties* 

y Baluze strenuously labours (Not. p. 1271-1280) to justify the purs 
imd pious motives of Charles ▼, king of France : .faereteed to bmtr 
the arguments of Urban ; but were not the urbanlsts eqaaUy deaf to 
the reasons of Clement, &c« ? 

■ An epistle, or deelamation, in the name of Edward m O^M. 
V}t« Pap. Avenion. tonw i, p. &6B} displays Hie ceal of the'Bnghah 
nation against the clementioes. Nor was their ctal eanfined>to woidi ; 
the bishop of Norwich led a crusade of OQ^OOO Ulgpfei ItejwA M 
(Hume's Hiatory* toL iii, p. 57, 46)* 

iedbd^y BoniSiGe tbe imAh, JjuiOM»t tiie m^ c^^ 
venthi and Gnegory the Iwselftt; .v..;,^^^ 

Fr<Mn the toaks of tbe Tyber md *he Rb&ne, ^';;'^*^ ^^ 
the hostile pootifik eucoiiiiteced eaah Dtiitdr with the west, 
the peo and Hae sword: the civil aod ecelesi- J^'J'J^'^*' 
lUitical oidcir of society was ^tiu^ed ; and the 
Romans bad their fidl share of tbe mischiefs of 
which iliey may be atraigiied as the primary 
authors/ They had !i^amly flattered themselves 
with tiie hope of restoring the seat 0f ihe eccle- 
siastical ihonairchy^ and of relieving their po- 
verty witii the tributes ^nd offerings of the na^ 
tions ; but the aepaiation of France and Spain c«jp>*J«* 
diverted the litream of lucrative cdevation ; jicur 
could the loss be compensated by the two ju^ 
bilees which were crowded into the space of teii , 
years^ fiy tbe avocations of the schism, bj 
foreign arms and popular tumults. Urban tbi^ 
sixths ^hd his three successcffs, were often com^' 
pelled to interrupt theiir residence in the Va- 
ticaui The Colonna and Ursini still exi^roised 
their deadly feuds : the bannerets of Home as^ 
serted and abused the privileges of a i?epublic : 
the vicars of Christ, who had levied a military 
force, chastbed theii^ rebellion with the gibbet^^ 
the sword, and (he dagger ; and in a friendLy 
conferencCj eleven deputies of the people were 
perfidiously murdered and cast into the street: 
Since the invasion of Robert the Norman^ thef 
Romans had pursued their dotnestic quarrels 

* Besides the general bistorians^- the Diaries of Delphinus Gentilit; 
Peter Antonius, and Stephen Infessurd* in the great foU^tionjff 
kuratorii represent the ftate and misfortunes of Bosxe» 


CHAP. Without the dangerous interpoaition of a stran- 
^^^ giT. But, in the disorders of the schism, an 
^ ^ aspiring neighbour, Ladislaus, king of Naples, 
alternately supported and betrayed the pope and 
the people : by the former he was declared gan^ 
falanier, or general, of the church, whUe the 
latter submitted to his choice the nomination of 
their magistrates. Besieging Rome by land and 
water, he thrice entered the gates as a bartsarian 
conqueror; profaned the altars, violated t\ie 
virgins, pillaged the merchants, performed his 
devotions at St. Peter's, and left a garrisoB in 
the castle of St Angelo. His arms were some- 
times unfortunate, and to a delay of three days 
he was indebted for his life and crown; but 
Ladislaus triumphed in his turn, and it was only 
his premature death that could save the metro- 
polis and the ecclesiastical state from the ambi- 
tious conqueror, who had assumed the title, or 
at least the powers, of king of Rome«^ 
Negocia. I havc not undertaken the ecclesiastical history 
iTi Ind ^^ ^^^ schism ; but Rome, the object of these last 
union. chapters, is deeply interested in the disputed suc- 
iVoT. cession of her sovereigns. The first counsels for 
the peace and union of Christendoni arose from 
the university of Paris, from the faculty of the 
Sorbonne, whose doctors were esteemed, at least 
in the Gailican church, as the most consummate 

*> It is supposed by Giannone (torn, iii, p. 992) that he ityled him- 
self Rex Romae, a title unknown to the world since the expulsion of 
Tarquin. But a nearer inspection has justifieii the reading of Rex 
Ramee, of Rama, an obscure kingdom annexed to the erown ftf 


Blasters of theological science.*" Prudently wav- chap. 
ing all invidious inquiry into the origin and me- J^^*| 
rits of the dispute, they proposed, as an healing 
measure, that the two pretenders of Rome and 
Avignon should abdicate at the same time, after 
qualifying the cardinals of the adverse factions 
to join in a legitimate election ; and that the na- 
tions should suhstract^ their obedience, if either 
of the competitors preferred his own interest to 
that of the public. At each vacancy, these phy- 
sicians of the church deprecated the mischiefs of 
an hasty choice ; but the policy of the conclave 
and the ambition of its members were deaf to 
reason and entreaties ; and whatsoever promises 
were made, the pope coufd never be bound by 
the oaths of the cardinal. During fifteen years, 
the pacific designs of the university were eluded 
by the arts of the rival pontiffs, the scruples or 
passions of their adherents^ and the vicissitudes 
of French factions, that ruled the insanity of 
Charles the sixth. At length a vigorous reso- 
lution was embraced ; and a sdlemn embassy, of 
the titular patriarch of Alexandria, two arch^ 
bishops, five bishops, five abbots, three knights, 
g.nd twenty doctors, was sent to the courts of 

• The leading and decisive part which France assumed in the schism, 
is stated by Peter du Puis in a separate History, extrgicted from au- 
thentic records, and inserted in t||e seventh volume of the iast and 
liest edition of his friend Tbuanus (p. jX, p. 1 10-184). 

^ Of this measure, John Gerson, a stout doctor, was the author or 
the champion. The proceedings of the university of Paris and the 
QaJlican church were often prompted by his advice, and are copiously 
displayed in his theological writjng§, of which Le Clerc (Bibliotheque 
Choisie* torn, x, p. 1-78) has given a valuable extract. John Gerson 
^ct«d an important part in the councils of Pisa and Constance. 

B b3 

3T* Tfli vwirmn avd f all 

^^iL* '^^^^ tti^Rome, to re<iolre» » the Eame of tk 
dnircili mtd king, the aixMcation of the two pre- 
tenders, of Peter de Luna, who ttfhilmaiM 
Benedict the thfateenth, and of Angeb Cmrn, 
Who assumed the name of Gregory tk twelfth. 
For the ancient honour of Rome, and the success 
p( their commission, the ambassadors solicited a 
conference wfth the magistrates of tbeGitf,wlK»n 
•hey gratified by a positive declaration, tW the 
most christian king did not entertain a wisii of 
transporting the holy see from the Vatican, vkicli 
he considered as the genuine and proper seat of 
|he successor of St. Peter. In the name of ^ 
tmatfe and people, an eloquent Roman asserted 
their desire to co-operate in the union of tie 
^urch, deplored the temporal and spirituaU* 
kunities of the long schism, aqd requested tlic 
{protection of France gainst the arms of thekio; 
0f Naples. The answers of Benedict andGre^ 
^ry were alike edifying and alike deceitful; ao^i' 
in evading the demand of their abdicatioD) tbe 
^wo rivals were animated by a common spint j 
Tliey agreed on the necessity of a previous iDte^* 
▼lew, but the time, the place, and the mann^' 
fould never be ascertained by mutual cousen 
t* If the one advances,** says a servant of Gre- 
gory, ** the other retreats ; the one appeal ^ 
•/ animal fearful of the land, the other a creature 
V apprehensive of the water. And thus, f^^ 
« short remnant of life and power, will these 
« aged priests endanger the peace and salvat) 
1* of the christian world.'*^ 

• lieonardui BiTinus Ar^tinu8, on« of the revisers of ci**'^ j, 


The christian world was at length provoked chap. 
by their obstinacy and fraud : they were desert- ^^^ 
ed by their cardinals, who embraced each oiher councu of 
as friends and colleagues; and their revolt wasf'^'j40$. 
supported by a numerous assembly of prelates 
and ambassadors. With equal justice^ the. 
council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and 
Avigpnon; the conclave was unanimous in the 
choice of Alexander the 1&ftb» and his vacant 
seat was soon filled by a similar election of John 
the twenty-third, the most profligate of man^ 
kind. But instead of extinguishing the schisni, 
the rashne!$s of the French and Italians had 
given a third pretender to the tbair of St. Peter. 
Such new claims of the synod and conclave 
were disputed: three kings, of Germany, Hun- 
gary, and Naples, adhered to the cause of Gre- 
gory the twelfth ; and Benedict the thirteenth, 
himself a Spaniard, was acknowledged by the 
devotion and patriotism of that powerful na- 
tion. The rash proceedings of Pisa were cor- Coundi of 
rected by the council of Constance ; the empe-A°D.^u*Hl 
ror Sigismond acted a conspicuous^ part as the ^*^®' 
advocate or protector of the catholic church; 
and the number and weight of civil and eccle- 
siastical members might seem to constitute the 
states-general of Europe. Of the three popes, 
John the twenty- third was the first victim ; he 
fled, and was brought back a prisoner ; the most 

in Italy, who» after serving many years as secretary in the Roman court, 
retired to the honourable 4)fRce of chancellor of the republic of Fierence 
(Fabric. Bibliot. medii Mvu torn, i, p. 290). Lenfant has giren the 
f anion pf this corioua e^stle CConcile de Fise, torn, i, p, 191^193), 

B b 4 



CHAF. scandalous charges were suppressed ; the vicai 
of Christ was only accused of piracy, muniefi 
rape, sodomy, and incest ; and after subscribing 
his own condenmation, he expiated u prison 
the imprudence of trusting hb person to a /ree 
city beyond the Alps. Gregory the twelfth, 
whose obedience was reduced to the narrow 
precincts of Rimini, descended with more ho- 
nour from the throne, and his ambassadoicoa^ 
vened the session, in which he renounced tiie 
title and authority of lawful pope. To van- 
quish the obstinacy of Benedict the thirteentii, 
or his adherents, the emperor in person uuder- 
took a journey from Constance to Perpignan- 
The kings of Cas^ille, Arragon, Navarre, 
Scotland, obtained an equal and 
treaty : with the concurrence of the 
Benedict was deposed by the council ; but the 
harmless old man was left in a solitary castle ^^ 
excommunicate twice each day the rebel m- 
doms which had deserted his cause, After tbus 
eradicating the remains of the schism, tbesyDOd 
of Constance proceeded, with slow and cautioos 
jteps, to elect the sovereign of Rome and the 
head of the church. On this momentous oc- 
casion, the college of twenty-three carduials 
was fortified with thirty deputies ; six o( whoia 
were chosen in each of the five great nations 
of Christendom, the Italian, the German, i^ 
French, the Spanish, and the English :'^^^^^' 

f I cannot overlook thi« great national cause, which i^a^^^^^^ 
Msly maintained by the English ambassadors against those ^.^^^ 
The latter contended, that Christendom was esscnUjUly »* ^^^ 


ierference of strangers was softened by their chap. 
g-enerous preference of an Italian and a Roman ; ^^^^_^^^ 
and the hereditary^ as well as personal, merit Election of 
of Otho Colonna recommended him to the con* 
clave* Rome accepted with joy and obedience 
the noblest of her sons, the ecclesiastical state 
was defended by his powerful family, and the 
elevation of Martin the fifth is the era of the re* 
storation and establishment of the popes in the 

into the four fpteat 'natioRS and votes, of Italy, Qermany, France^ 
and Spain ; and that the lesser kingdoms (such as England, Den* 
. mark, Portugal, &c<) were comprehended under one or other of these 
^eat divisions* The English asserted, that the British islands, of 
ivhich they were the l^ea^t should be considered as a fifth and co-ordi- 
nate nation, with an equal vpjke ; and every argument of truth o^ 
fable was introduced to exalt the dignity of their country. Including 
Bngland, Scotland, Wales, the four kingdoms of Ireland, and the V . 

Orkni^s, the British islands are decorated with eight royal crowns* 
^nd discriminated by four ot five language^, English, Welsh, Cornish, 
Scotch, Irish, &c. The greater island from north to south measures 
800 miles, or 4Q days journey ; and England alone contains 32 coun- 
ties, and 52,000 parish churches (a bold account !), besides cathedrals, 
colleges, priories, and hospitals* They celebrate the mission of St. 
Joseph of Arimathea, the birth of Constan tine, and the legantine 
powers of the two primates without forgetting the testimony of Bar- 
tholemy de Glanville (a. q. 1360), who reckons only four christian 
kingdoms, 1. of Rome, 2. of Const;antinople, 3. of Ireland, which had 
been transferred to the English mpnarchs, ancf, 4. of Spain. Our 
«ountrymen prevailed in the council, but the victories of Henry r 
added much weight to their argument^. The adverse pieadiqgs wern 
found at Constance by Sir Robert Wingfield, ambassador from Henry 
■viii to the emperor MaiLimilian i, and by him printed in 1517 at 
Louvain. From a Leipsic ms. they are ipore correctly published in 
the collection of Von der Hardt, torn, v ; but I have only seen Len- 
fant's abstract of these acts (Concile de Constat^ ce, tom. ii, p. 447« 
453, &c.) 

s The histories of the three successive councils, Pisa, Constance, and. 
Basil, have been written with a tolerable degree of candour, industry^ 
and elegance, by a protestant minister, M. Lenfant, who retired fron) 
France to Berlin. They form six volumes in quarto ; and as Basil ii| 
the worsti so Constance is the best, part of the collection. 


CHAP« The royal prerogatiTe of coimiigiiiOBqr^^i^^ 
^^^ had been exercised near three hundjl^ jevs bj 

Martina, the Senate, wasjint resumed by Martin the 
^^ ^' fifth,^ and his image and superscription intro« 
duce the series erf* the piqial medals. Of his two 
Eufenias immediate successors, Eugenius the fourth was 
A«V. 1431. the last pope expelled by the tumuHs of the 
ificfaouur, Roman people,^ and Nicholas the fifth, the liist 

A» •• 1447 ^ *r ' 

' who was importuned by the presence of a Ro* 
Last revolt man emperor/ i. The conflict of Eugemus 
rf * mi, ^i*^ ^^^ fathers of Basil, and the weight or 
Jjf»y *^ apprehension of a new excise, emboldened and 
provoked the Romans to usurp the temporal 
government of the city. They rose in arms, se- 
lected seven governors of the republic, and a 
constable of the capitol ; imprisoned the pope's 
nephew ; besieged his person in the palace ; 
and shot vollies of arrows into his bark as 
he escaped down the Tyber in the habit of a 
monk. But he still possessed in the castle of St^ 
Angelo a faithful garrison, and a train of artil- 

^ Se« the twenty-seventh dissertation of the Antiquities of Mura* 
tori, and the first Instruction of the Science des Medaiiles of the Fere 
Joubert and the Baron de la Bastie. The Metallic history of Martin 
V, and his successors, has been composed by two monks, Moolinet a 
Frenchman, and Bonanni an Italian : but I understand, that the first 
part of the series is restored from more recent coins. 

' Besides the Lives of Eugenius it (Rerum Italic torn, iii, p, i» 
p. 869, and tom. zxv, p. 256), the Diaries of Paul Petronl and Ste- 
phen Infessura are the best original evidence for the revolt of theXo- 
mans against Eugenius it* The fomer, who lived at the time, and 
on the spot, speaks the language of a eitizen, equally afRraid of pnesi. 
ly and populu;. tyranny. 

k The coronation of Frederic m, is deacribed by LenftEt (ConcUe 
de Basle, ton. 11, p. 97^286), froon Milium SylTiu8| a spectaftw: ••# 
actor in that i^lcndidfoeae. 


lapjri their batteries Incessantly thundered od chap« 
tiie dtty, Mii a kuttet »K)re dextrously pointed ^^^ 

broke down tbe barrieade of the bridge, and 
scattered with a single shot the heroes o^ the 
repitfalic. Then- coBstancy w^ exhausted by a 
rebellion cf five months. Under the tyranny of 
the Ghtbeline nobles, the .wisest patriots regret-r 
ted the dominion of the cburch ; and their repent- 
ance was unanimous and effectual. The troops of 
St. Peter again occupied the capitol ; the magis 
trates departed to their homes ; the most guilty 
were executed or exiled ; and the legate, at the 
head of two thousand foot and four thousand horse, 
was saluted as the father of the city. The synods 
of Fenrara and Florence, the fear or resentment 
of Eugenius, prolonged his absence : he was re- 
ceived by. a submissive people; but the pontiff un- 
derstood from the acclamations of his triumphal 
entry, that to secure their loyalty and his own 
repose, he must grant without delay the abolition 
of the odious excise, ii, Rome was restored, a- 
domed, and enlightened, by the peaceful reign 
of Nicholas the fifth. In the midst of these laud- 
. able occupations, the pope was alarmed by the ap- ^^ ^^^ 
proach of Frederic the third of Austria ; though nation of • 
his fears could not be justified by the character ^^^^^ 
or the power of the imperial candidate. After i* r»id«ric 
drawing his military force to Uie metropolis, a. *d.i45» 
and imposing the best security of oaths* and ^^^^ ^^ . 

* The oath of fidelity imposed on the emperor by the pope, is re- 
corded and sanctified in the Clementines (h ii, tit. ix) ; and JRoeaa 
Sylvius, who objects to this new demand,' could not foresee, that in a 
few years he should ascend the throne, ^and imbibe the maxims, ^f 
Boniface tui. 

meat of 


CHAP, treaties, Nicholas received with a smiling couih 
^^ tenance the faithful advocate and vassal of the 

church. So tame were the times, so feeble was 
the Austrian, that the pomp of his coroimtioji 
was accomplished with order and harmonj-: 
but the superfluous ^honour was so disgraceful 
to an independent ni^tioA, that his successors 
have excused themselves from the toilsome pil- 
grimage to the Vatican ; and rest theii Im- 
perial title on the choice of the electors of Ger- 
""^ •*■• A citizen has remarked, with pride and plea- 

tutetf and , » i- r 

govern, surc, that the king of the Romans, after passing 
with a slight salute the cardinals and prelates 
who met him at the gate, distinguished the dress 
and person of the senator of Rome ; and in ttus 
last farewell, the pageants of the empire and the 
republic were clasped in a friendly embrace." 
According to the laws of Rome,'' her* first ma- 
gistrate was required to be a doctor of laws, an 
alien, of a place at least forty miles from the city; 
with whose inhabitants he must not be connect- 
ed in the third canonical degree of blood or 
alliance. The election was annual : a severe 
scrutiny was instituted into the conduct of the 

™ Lo senatore di Roma> vestito di brocarto con quella beretta, e 
con quelle manicbe, et ornamenti di pelle, Co* quali va alle Teste di 
Testaccio e Nagone, might escape the eye of JSneas Sylvius, but be 
is viewed with admiration and complacency by the Roman citixeo 
(.Diario di Stephano Infessura* p. 1133). 

" See in the statutes of Rome, the senator and three judges (L ii c.^3- 
14), the ctnuervatort (1. i, c. 15, 16, 17, 1. iii, c. 4), the caporiort 
(]• i, c. 18, 1. iii, c 8), the secret council (L iii, c. 3), the commcn csim- 
efl (1. iii, c 3). The title offeudk, defiances, acts of violence, &c. i« 
spread through many a chapter (c. 14-40) of the second book* 


leparting senator; nor could he be recalled to the cha p. 
same office till after the expiration of two years. ^^^* 
Al liberal salary of three thousand florins was 
assigned for his expence and reward ; and his 
public appearance represented the majesty of 
the republic. His robes were of gold brocade or 
crimson velvet, or in the summer season of a 
lighter silk ; he bore in his hand aa ivory sceptre; 
the sound of trumpets announced his approach ; 
and his solemn steps were preceded at least by 
four lictors or attendants/whose red wands were 
enveloped with bands or streamers of the goldea 
colour or livery of the city. His oath in the 
capitol proclaims his right and duty, to observe 
and assert the laws, to controul the proud, to pro- 
tect the poor, and to exercise justice and mercy 
within the extent of his jurisdiction. In these 
useful functions he was assisted by three learned 
strangers, the two collaterals^ and the judge of 
criminal appeals ; their frequent trials of rob- 
beries, rapes, and murders, are attested by the 
laws ; and the weakness of these laws connives at 
the licentiousness of private feuds and armed as- 
sociations for mutual defence. But the senator 
was confined to the administration of justice : the 
capitol, the treasury, and the government of the 
city and its territory was entrusted to the three 
conservatorSfWho were changed four times in each 
year: the militia of the thirteen regions assembled 
under the banners of their respective chiefs or 
raporioni; and the first of these was distinguished 
by the name and dignity of the prior. The po- 
pular legislature cgnsist^d of the secret md th^ 



CHAP, common councils of the Romans. Xhe Araatf 
^^^^ was composed of the magistrates and tfadr im* 
mediate predecessors, with some fiscal and kgal 
officers, and three classes of thirteen, twenty^six^ 
and forty counsellors^ amounthig in the whole 
to about one hundred and twenty persons^ In 
the common council all male citiaais bad a 
right to vote ; and the value of theii (riTilcgts 
was enhanced by the care with which any fo« 
reigners were prevented from usuipn^ the tit\e 
and , character of Romans. The tuaoidt of a 
democracy was checked by wise and Jedkos 
precautions : except the mag'istrates, neme coiM 
propose a question; none were pepimttad to 
speak, except from an open pulpit or tr3>unai; 
all disorderly acclamations were suppressed; ti^ 
sense of the majority ,was decided by a secret 
ballot ; and their decrees were pnnxtulgated b 
the venerable name of the Roman senate and 
people. It would not be easy to asagn a 
period in which this theory of government has 
been reduced to accurate and constant prac- 
tice, since the establishmtnt of order has been 
gradually connected with the decay of liber- 
ty. But in the year one thousand five hun^ 
dred and eighty, the ancient statutes were col- 
lected, methodised in three books, and adapt* 
ed to present use, under the pontificate, and 
with the approbation, of Gregory the thir- 
teenth :^ this civil and cnminal code is the 

• StattUa ainkB Urbia RonuB AuctontaUi S. JD. ^, Gregwi zui, 

Pont, Max, a Senatu Papuioque Bom. refbrmata et eiitcu RonuB^ ISSO, 

i^fiUo. The obsolete, repugnant Statutes of antl^uit/ were oonfoiuid' 

2 9i 

09 THt AOMAK BMPfttt. SSt 

aodem taw of the city ; and if tiie p^putw as- oti ap^ 
lembties ha^e been abolished^ a foreign senator, 


nth ibe three conservators, still resides! ^^ ^^^ 
)alace of the capitol.' The foUcy of tiie Caesars 
las been repeat^ by the popes ; and the Ushop 
>f Rome alfected to maintain the form of a re- 
public, while he reigned with the absolute 
lowers of a temporal, a6 well as spiritual, mo- 

It is an obrious truUi, that the times must Cowpiracy 
^ suited to extraordmary eharact^s, and that a. d. 1453. 
the genius of Cromwell or Retz might now^*°""^^* 
expire in obscurity. The political enthusiasm 
of Bienzi had exhalted him to a throne ; the 
same enthusiasm, in the next century, conduct- 
ed his imitator to the gallows. QThe bkth of 
Stephen Porcaro was noble, his reputaticm spot- 
less ; his tongue was armed with eloquence, his 
mind was enlightened with learning; and l:te 
aspired, beyond the aim of vulgar ambition, 
to free his country, and immortalize his name^jf 
The dominion of priests is most odious to a 
liberal spirit: every scruple was removed by 
the recent knowledge of the fable and for- 
gery of Constantine's donation ; Petrarch wais 
now the oracle of the Italians ; and as often as 
Porcaro revolved the ode which describes the 

ed in five books, and Lucas Psetuff, a lawyer and aiiliqaarian, was ap* 
pointed to act as the mo<iern Triboillan. . Yet 1 regret the old code, 
with the rugged crutt of freedom and barbarism* 

V In my time (1765), and in M. Grosley's (Observations sur Tltalie, 
torn, ii, p. 361), the senator of Rome was M, Bielke, a noble Swede, 
and a proselyte to the catholic faith. The pope's right to appoint 
the senator and the conservator is implied^ rather than affinned» la 
Ihe statutes. 



C HAP. patriot and hero of Rome, he implied to UnueU 
the vbions of the prophetic bard. His first trial 
of the popular feelings was at the funeral of 
Eugenius the fourth : in an elaborate speech he 
called the Romans to liberty and arms; and tbey 
listened with apparent pleasure, till Porcaro was 
interrupted and answered by a grave adrocate, 
who pleaded for the church and state. By every 
law the seditious orator was guilty of treason ; 
but the benevolence of the new pontiff, who view- 
ed his character with pity and esteeiOy attempted 
by an honourable office to convert the patriot into 
a friend. The inflexible Roman returned from 
Anagni with an increase of reputation and zeal; 
and, on the first opportunity, the games of the 
place Navona, he tried to inflame the casual ctis* 
pute of some boys and mechanics into a general 
rising of the people. Yet the humane Nicholas 
was still averse to accept the forfeit of his life; 
and the traitor was removed from the scene of 
temptation to Bologna, with a liberal allowance 
for his support, and the easy obligation of pre- 
senting himself each day before the g'ovemor of 
the city. But Porcaro had learned from the 
younger Brutus, that with tyrapts no faith or gra- 
titude should be observed ; the exile declaimed 
against the arbitrary sentence; a party and a con« 
spiracy were gradually formed ; his nephew> a 
daring youth, assenibled a band of volunteers ; 
and on the appointed evening a feast was pre-r 
pared at his house for the friends of the republic. 
Their leader, who had escaped from Bologna, 


kppe&red among them in a robe of purple and chap. 
jgold : his voice, his countenance, his gestures; ^^^ 
bespoke the mto whd had devoted his life or 
death to the glorious cause. In a studied oration; 
he expatiated on the motives and the means of 
their enterprise: the name and liberties of Rome; 
the sloth and pride of their ecclesiastical tyrants ; 
the active or passive consent of their fellow- 
citizens ; three hundred soldiers and four hun< 
dred exiles, long exercised in arms or in wrongs ; 
the licence of revenge to edge their swords, and 
a million of ducats to reward their victory. It 
would be easy (he said), on the next day, the 
festival of the Epiphany, to seize the pope and 
his cardinals, before the doors, or at the altar, of 
St. Peter's ; to lead them in chains under the 
walls of St. Angelo ; to extort by the threat of 
their instant death a surrender of the castle ; to 
ascend the vacant capitol ; to ring the alarm- 
bell ; dnd to restore in a popular assembly the 
ancient republic of Rome. While he triumphed, 
he was already betrayed^ The senator, with a 
strong guard, invested the house : the nephew of 
Porcaro cut his way through the crowd ; but the 
unfortunate Stephen was drawn fyom a chesty 
lamenting that his enemies had anticipated by 
three hours the execution of his design^ After 
such manifest and repeated guilt, even the mercy 
of Nicholas was silent. Porcaro, and nine of his 
accomplices^ were hanged, without the benefit of 
the sacraments; and amidst the fears and in«i 
vectives of the papal court, the Romans pitied/ 
roL. XII. c c 


CHAP, and almost applauded^ these martyrs of thai 

country.** But their applause was mute, their 

pitj ineffectual, their liberty for erer extinct ; 
and, if they have since risen in a vacancy of 
the throne or a scarcity of bread, such acci- 
dental tumults may be found in the bosom of 
the most abject servitude. 
i.Mi diMT. But the independence of the nobles, which was 
ooUflt of fomented by discord, survived the freedom o{ the 
^'"'^ • the commons, which must be founded in umon. 
A privilege of rapine and oppression was long 
maintained by the barons of Rome ; their houses 
^ were a fortress and a sanctuary; and the ferocious 
train of banditti and criminals whom they pro- 
tected from the law, repaid the hospitality with 
the service of their swords and daggers. The 
private interest of the pontiffs, or their nephews, 
sometimes involved them in these dcHnestic feuds. 
Under the reign of Sixtus the fourth, Rome was 
distracted by the battles and sieges of the rival 
houses ; after the conflagration of his pialace, the 
protonotary Colonna was tortured and beheaded; | 
and Savelli, his captive friend, was murdered on I 
the spot, for refusing to join in the acclamations 

« Besides the carious thou^ eoncise namtiye of Machiavel (Isto- 
ria FlorentinA, I. vi, Opere, torn, i, p. 210, 211 » edit. Londra. 1747, 
in 4to), the Porcarlan conspiracy is related in the Diary of Stephen 
Infessura (Rer. Ital. tem. iii, p. ii, p. U34, 1185), andin a sepsnte , 
tract by Leo BabtisU Alberti (Rer. Ital. torn, kxv, p. 60a*6I4> It is 
•piuaing to compare the style and sentiments of the eeurtier and 
citizen. Facinus profecto quo .... neque pericQlo horriirilinss neque 
jfUidacU detestabilias, neque crudeliute tetrius. a quoquam perditi^* 
aimo uspiam excogitatum sit • • • • Perdette la vita quell' huomo di 
%ene, e amatore dello bene et liberti di Roma. 


of the victprioug Ursini/ But the popes no chap. 
longer trenibted in the Vatican: they had ^^^^ 
strength to command, if they had resolution to"*" ' "'^ 
::laim, the obedience of their subjects ; and the 
strangers, whp observed these partial disorders, 
idmired the easy taxes and wise administration 
)f the ecclesiastical state.' 

The spiritual thunders of the Vatican depeqdon The popes 
the force of opinion ; and if that opinion be sup-rSute**** 
slanted by reason or passion, the sound niay idly ^^™j"»°» 
Kvaste itself in the air ; and the helpless priest is a. d. 150q, 
exposed to the brutal violence of a noble or a*^* 
plebeian adversary. But after their return from 
Avignon, the keys of St. JPeter were guarded by 
the sword of St. Paul. Rome was commanded by 
an impregnable citadel : the use of cannon is a 
powerful engine against popular seditions : a re* 
^lar force of cavalry and infantry was enlisted 
under the banners of the pope : his ample re- 
venues supplied the resources of war ; and, from 
the extent of his domain, he cpuld bring down 
pn a rebellious city an army of hostile neighbours . 

' The disorders of Rome, which were much inflaqied by the par* 
tiality of Siztus it, are exposed in the Diaries of two spectators, Ste« 
phen Infessura, fnd an anonymous citizen. See the troubles of the 
year 1484, and the death of ^hc protonotary Coloni^, In torn, iii, p» 
ii, p. 1083, 1158. 

* Est toute la terre de i*eglise treubl^e pouir cette partialite (des 
Colonnes et des Ursios), come nous dirions Luce et Grammont, ou ei| 
Hollande Houc et Caballan ; et ^uand ce ne seroit cedifferend la terre 
fie Teglise seroit la plus l^eureu^e habitation pour les sujets, qui soit 
dans tout le monde (car Us ne p^yent ni tallies ni gueres autres choses)» 
ft seroient toujours bien conduits (car taujours les papes aont sage^ 
ft bien conselU^s) ; mals tres SQUVent en advient de grands et cruelftf 
neurtres et piUeriet* 

C Q ^ 


CHAP, and loyal subjects.^ Since the union of the 
^^^^ duchies of Ferarra and Urbino, the ecclesisstical 
state extends from the Mediterranean to the 
Adriatic, and from the confines of Naples to the 
banks of the Po ; and as early as Ike sixteenth 
century, thegreater partof thatspaciousandfroit- 
ful country acknowledged the lawful clsums and 
temporal sovereignty of the Roman pontiffs* Their 
claims were readily deduced from the genuine, or 
fabulous, donations of the darker ages : the sac- 
cessive stepsof theirfinal settlement would engage 
us too far in the transactions'of Ijaly, and even of 
Europe ; the crimes of Alexander -ihe sixth, the 
martial operations of JuBus the second, and the 
liberal policy of Leo the tenth,. a«theme which 
has been adorned by the pens ofrthe noblest his- 
torians of the times.*" In the first period of their 
conquests, till the expedition of Charles the eighi\ 
the popes might successfully wrestle with theadja- 
cent princes and states, whose military force was 
equal, or inferior, to their own : but as soon as 
the monarchs of France,. Germany^ and Spain, 

* Bj the eeooemy of Siztus v the revenue of the ecclesiastical sUte 
WIS railed to two millions and a half, of J^oman crowns (Vita, tami 
ii, p. 291*296) ( and so regular. was the military establishment, that 
in one month Clement vizi . could invade the **duchy of Fermra with 
three thousand horse and. twenty* thousand 'ibet /torn, iii, p^ 64). 
Since that time (a. d. 1597) the p^pai arms are happily rusted; but 
the revenue must have gained some iiom^nal increase. 

" More especially by^Giiicciardini and Maeh!avel ; in tbf general 
history of the former, in the ^Florentine history, the Prince, and the 
political diseourses of the laJter.^ These, with their worthy successofs, 
Fra-Paolo and Davila, were jos^y ^teemed the first hisUMtians of mo- 
dem languages, till. In the pre^e&t age'i Scotland aro8e» to dispute the 
priatt with Italy htnt^ 


Crontended with gigantic arms for the dominion chap. 
of Italy, they supplied with art the deficiency of ^^^' 
Btrength; and concealed, in a labyrinth of wars 
and treaties, their aspiring views, and the immortal 
biope of chacing the barbarians beyond the Alps, 
The nice balance of the Vatican was often sub- 
rerted by the soldiers of the North and West, 
who were united under the standard of Charles 
the fifth: the feeble and fluctuating policy of 
Clement the seventh expi)sed his person and do- 
minions to the conqueror; and Rome was . aban- 
doned seven months to a lawless army, more cruel 
and rapacious than the Goths and Vandals/ After 
this severe lesson, the popes contracted their am- 
bition, which was almost satisfied, resumed the 
character of a common parent, and abstained from 
all offensivehostilities, except in an hasty quarrel, 
when the vicar of Christ and the Turkish syltan 
were armed at the same time against the kingdom 
of Naples/ The French and Germans at length 
withdrew from the field of battle: Milan, Naples^ 
Sicily, Sardinia, and the sea-coast of Tuscany, 
were firmly possessed by the Spaniards ; and it 
l^ecame their interest to maintain the peace and 

^ In the history of the Qotfaic siege» I have compared the barba. 
rians with the subjects of Charles the t (vol. v, p. 319-332) ; an an* 
ticipation« which» Uke that of the Tartar conque9ts, I indulged with 
the less scruple* as I could scarcely hope to reach the conclusion of 
my work* 

' The ambitions and feeble hostilities of the Caraffii pope, Paul it» 
may be seen in Thuanus (1. xvi-xvii> and Giannone (torn, iv, p. 149- 
16S). Those catholic bigpts,' Philip^ ii, and the duke of Alva, pre- 
sumed to separate the B%nan' prince/rom the vicar of Christ : yet 
the holy character, which would have aanctified hU victory, was de» 
tently applied to protect his defeatt' 

ff c s 


390 titE DtCLINB AND FALl. 

CHAP, dependence of Italy, whlchcontinuedalmostirith- 
^^^ out dkturbance from the middle of the sixteenth 
to the opening of the eighteenth centuiy. The 
Vatican was swayed and protected by the reli- 
gious policy of the catholic king: his prejudice 
and interest disposed him in every disputeto sup- 
port the prince i^ainst the people ; and instead 
of the encouragement, the aid, and the asylum, 
which they obtained from the adjacent states^ the 
friends of liberty, or the enemies of law, werein- 
jclosed on all sides within the iron circle of despot^ 
ism. The long habits of obedience and educa- 
tion subdued the turbulent spirit of the noblesand 
commons of Rome. The barons forgot the arms 
and factions of their ancestors, and insensibly be- 
came the servants of luxury and government. In- 
stead of maintaining 'a crowd of tenants and 
followers, the produce of their estates was con- 
^med in the private expences, which multipljtbe 
pleasures, and diminish the power, of the lord/ 
The Colqnna and Ursini vied with each other in 
the decoration of their palaces and chapels ; and 
their antique splendour was rivalled or surpassed 
by the sudden opulence of the papal families. In 
Rome the voice of freedom and discord is no 
longer heard; and instead of the foaming tor- 
rent, a smooth apd stagnant lake reflects the 
image of idleness and servitude. 

« This gradual change of maaners and expence is admirably ex- 
plained by Dr. ^dam Smith (Wealth of -Nations, voL i, p. 49&-504r, 
^ho proves, perhaps too severely, that the most salutary effects bare 
yiowed from the meanest and most'tfel&h causes. 


A chri^im, a'philosopher,* and a patriot, will ch^ap. 

be equally scandalized by the temporal kingdiim [^^ 

>f the clergy; and the local majesty of Rome, theThe eccie- 
remembrance of her consuls and triumphs, may vernment. 
^em to embitter the sense^ and aggravate the 
shame, of her slaveiy. If we calmly weigh the 
merits and defects of the ecclesiastical govern- 
ment^ it may be praised in its present state, as a 
mild^ decent, and tranquil system, exempt from' 
the dangers of a minority, the sallies of youth, 
the expence* of luxury, and the calamities of 
war. But these advantages are overbalanced by 
a frequent, p^haps a septennial, election of a 
severe^, who is seldom a native of the coun- 
try : " the reign of a young statesmen of threescore, 
in the decline of his life and abilities, without 
hope to accomplish, and without <^hildren to in- 
herit, the labours of his transitory reign. The 
successful candidate is drawn from the church, 
and even the convent ; from the mode of edu- 
cation and life the most adverse to reason, hu- 
manity^ and freedom. In the trammels of ser- 
vile faith, he has learned to believe Jiiecause it 
is absurd, €o revere all that is contemptible, and' 
to despise whatever might deserve the esteem of 
a rational being: to punish error as a crime, to re« 
ward mortification and celibacy as the first of vir- 
tues ; tp place the saints of the kalendar^ above 

* Mr. Hume (Hist, of England, vol. i, p. 389) too hastily con- 
cludes, that if the civil and ecclesiastical powers be united in the 
same person, it is of little moment whether he be styled prince or pre- 
late, since the temporal character will always predominate. 

^ A protestant may disdain the unworthy preference of St. Francis 

c c 4 


CRAP, the heroes of Rome and the sages of Athens; and 
"" ^* to consider the missal^ or the crucifix^ as more 
^^ useful instruments than the plough or the loom. 
In the office of nuncio, or the rank of cardioaJ, he 
may acquire s<Hne knowledge of the world; but 
the primitive stain will adhere to his moid and 
manners : from study and experience he may. 
suspect the mystery of his profession ; buttbesa-: 
cerdotal artist will imbibe^some portion of the bi- 
pistiit ▼• gotry which he inculcates. The genius of Sixtos 
1590.^^^* the fifth*' burst from the gloom of a Franciscan 
cloister* In a r^ign of five years, he exterminated 
the outlaws and banditti, abolished the prqfoM 
sanctuaries of Rome"^, formed ^ naval and mili- 
tary force, restored and emulated the monuments 
of antiquity, and after a liberal use and large in- 
crease of the revenue, left five millions of crowns 

or St. Dominic, but he win not rashly condemn the zeal or judgment 
of Sixtus ▼, who placed the statues of the apostTes, St. Peter and Su 
Paul, on the Vacant colmnns of Trajan aftd Antonine. 

• A wanderin|[ ItaUan, Gregorio Leti, has given the Vita £ Si«U)« 
Quinto (Amstel. 1721, 3 vols, in ISmo), a oopious and amusing wort, 
but which does not command our ahsohite confidence. ' Yet the du- 
lacter of the nian, and the principal facts, 4re suj^torted ^y the aonak 
of Spondanus and Muratori (a. d. 1^85-1590), and the contemponu? 
history of the great Thuaaus (L Jxxxii, o. 1, 2. L Ixzxiv, c 10, L c. 

* These privileged places, the fwirUai or j^roitdUsas, were adopted 
from the Roman nohles by the foreign ministers. Julius ii had ooce 
iCbolished the abominandum et detestandum franchittarum hujusmodi 
nomen ; and alUr Sixtus v, they again revived. % cannot discern ei- 
ther the justice or magnanimity of Louis xiv, who, in 1687, sent bis 
ambassador, the marquis de Lavardin, to Rome, with an armed force 
of a thousand officers, guards, and domestics, to maintain this iniqul* 
tous claim, and insult pope Innocent xi in the heart] of his capital 
(Vita di Sisto v, torn, iii, p. 262-278. Muratori, Annali d^ltalii, 
iom. XV, p. 494i-496> and Voltaire^ Slede de Louis xiv« toin. ii> c* 
ii, p.58, 69). ' 


i^ th^ castle of St Angeio, But his justice was chap. 
sullied with cruelty, his activity was prompted by ^^^^ 
the ambition of conquest ; after his decease, the 
abuses revived ; the treasure was dissipated ; he 
entailed pn posterity thirty-five' new taxes and the 
venality of offices; and, after his death, his sft^tue 
-was demolished by aja ungrateful, or an injured, 
people.® The wild and original ch^acter of 
Sixtus the fifth stands alone in the series of the 
pontiflFs : the maxims and effects of their tempo- 
ral g'overnment may be collected from the posi- 
tive and comparative vicv of the arts and philo- 
sophy, the agriculture and trade, the wealth and 
population^ of the ecclesiastical state. For myself, 
it is 0iy wish to depart in charity with all man- 
kind, nor am I willing, in these last moments, 
to offend even the pope and clergy of Rome/ 

• This outrage produced a decree, which wrs inscribed on marble, 
and placed in the capitol. It is expressed in a style of manly sim- 
plicity and freedom : Si quis, sive privatus, sive'^niagistratum geren* 
de coUocand£l vivo pontifici statua mentionem facere ausit, legitimo 
s. F. Q. R. decretd in perpetuum infamis et publicorum munerum 
expers est* Moxe. Mense Augusto (Vita di Sisto v, tom. iii, p. 469). 
I believe that this decree is still observed, and I know that every 
monarch who deserves a statue, should himself impose the prohibi- 

' The histories of the church, Italy, and Christendom, have cob* 
tributed to the chapter which I now conclude. In the original Lives 
of the Popes, we often discover the city and republic of Rome ; and 
t^e events of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are preserved in 
the rude and domestic chronicles, which I have carefully inspected, 
and shall recapitulate in the order of time. 
1. Monaldesclfii (Ludovici Boncomitis) Fragmenta Annalium Roman. 

A, D. 1338, in the ^criptores Rerum Italicarum of Muratorl, tom. 

xii, p. 525. N. B. The credit of this fragment is somewhat hurt 

by a singular interpolation, in which the author relates his turn 

deat\ at the age of 115 years. 
2* Fragmentae Historian Romans (vulgo Thomas Fortifioccse), in 

Roouma Pialecto Vulgar! (a. p. 1337*1354, in Muratorl, Anti- 


CHAF. qnlttt me^ JSvi Italic, torn, lii, p» 947-MS s the aotlMntie 

UUL grouod^work of the biitory of RienzL 
«%««^«%*% 3. Dclphini (Gentilis) Diarium Romaniim (a. n. 1370-1410), in the 
Iteroin lulicarum, tom^iil, p. H, p. 846. 
4 AntonU (Petri) Dmrimm Bom. (a. ». 1404.1417X tarn xxiv, p. 

A. Petroni (Paul!) Miacellaoea Historica Bomana (a. a. 1483-1446), 
torn, zxiir, p^ 1101 • 

6. VoletamtDi (laoQtt.) Diarium Hon. (a. o. 1472*1484), torn, zsdb, 

7. Anonym! Diarium Urbis Romae (a. n. 1481-1492)« toai.;iii, p, it, 

8. Infeasurs (Stephani) Diarium Bo m a n u m (a. d. 1294» or 131^ 
1494), torn, iii, p. ii, p. 1109. 

9. Hittoria Arcana Alezaodri ti, live Excerpta ex Diario Jah. Bur* 
cardi (a. d, 1498->1503), edita»Godefir. Guliehn. Leibnlaio, Hano- 
ver, 1697, in 4to. The large and valuable Journal of Buacard 
might be completed from the msa. in different librariea of Italy 
and France (ML de Fencemagna, in the Mcawirea de TAcad* des» 
Inscrip. torn, xvii, p. 597-606. 

Except the hut, all these fragments and diaries are inserted in the 
Collections of Muratori, mj guide and master in the hlstoy of Italy. 
His country, and the public, are indebted to him for tlie fiiBowiiig 
works on that subject : 1. Rerum ItaUcarum Scriptore* (a. d. 500u. 
1500), qwrum potUgiinm pan nunc prirnvm i» Imcern prodii^ Ac 29 
Tola, in folio, Milan, 1723-1738, 1751. A v^ume of chronological 
and alphabetical tables is still wanting aa a key to this great w^rk, 
Mhich is yet in a disorderly and defective state. 2. AMdfmUata 
Italia mcdii ^vt, 6 vols, in folio, Milan, 1738i-1743, in 75 curious 
dissertations on the manners, government, religion, Ac of the Ita« 
liana of the darlser ages, with a large supplement of charters, chro- 
nicles, Ac. 3. DUieriatkm tfra U Anii^ta /talKme, 3 vols, in 4to> 
Milano, 1751, a free version by the author, which may be quoted 
with the same confidence aa the Latin text of the Antiquities. 4 A»- 
noli d* /toita, 18 vols, in octavo, Milan, 1753-1756, a dry though 
accurate and useful abridgement of the history of Italy from the 
birth of Christ ^ the middle of the eighteenth century. 5. DdC 
Antiddta Ettetuee et Italiane, 2 vols, in folio, Modena, 1717, 1740. 
In the history of this illustrious race, the parent of, our BrunswJck 
kings, the critic is not seduced by the loyalty or gratitude of the 
subject. In all his works, Muratori approves himself a diligent and 
laborious writer, who aspires above the prejudices of a Catholic priest. 
He was born in the year 1672, and died in the year 175o, after pass- 
ing near sixty years in the libraries of Milan and Modena (Vita del 
Proposto Ludovico Antonio Muratori, by his nephew and saccesw 
Gian. Francesco Soli Muratori, Venezia, 1756, ia4to). 



JProspect of .the ruins of JRome in thejifteenth cen^ 
iurt/, — Four causes of decay and destruction^ — Ex' 
ample of the Coliseum. — Renovation of the city. — 
Conclusion of the whole worh 

Xn the last days of pope Eugenius the fourth, chap. 
two of his servants, the learned Poggius* and a ^^ J^ 
friend^ ascended the Capitoline hill; reposed view and 
t^hemselves among the ruins of columns and tern- ©f^g^ 
pies; and viewed from that comnianding spot{™™*jj*^ 
the wide and various prospect of desolation.** The hiu, 
place and the object gave ample scope for moralis- 
ing on the vicissitudes of fortune^ which spares 
neither man nor the proudest of his works, which 
buries empires and cities in a common grave ; 
' and it was agreed, that in proportion to her for- 
mer greatness, the fall of Rome was the more 
awful and deplorable. '^ Her primaeval state, 
** such as she might appear in a remote age, when 
** Evander entertained the stranger of Troy% has 

* 1 have already (not. M, Si, on chap. 65) mentioBed the age« 
character, and writings of Poggius ; and particularly noticed the date 
of this elegant iporal lecture on the varieties of fortune. 

^ Consedimus in ipsis Tarpeia arcis minis, pone in gens portae 
cujusdam, ut puto, templi, inarmoreum Uhien, plurimasque passim 
confractas columnasy. un4e laagnll ex parte prospectus urbis patet 
(p. 5). 

• iBneid viii, 97-36^. This ancient picture, so artfully introduced, 
and so exquisitely finishied» must have been highly interesting to ah 
inhabitant of Rome ; and our early studies allow us to sympathise in 
the feelings of a Roman. 



CHAP. •« been delineated by the fancy of Vupgil. TAis 
** Tarpeian rock was then a savage and s(4itary 
'< thicket: in the time of the]i;o^t«.it was crowned 
<< with the golden roo£^.oif^a-tenigle; the temple 
•* is overthrown, the^old* has-been piUage(^ the 
** wheel of fortune^as accomplished ber levolu- 
** tian, and the^sacred Aground is again dis- 
*' figured with thorns and brambles. The hill of 
** the capitbl/on^whfch we sit,' was formerly ibe 
" head of the Roman empire, the citadel of tte 
" earth, the terror' of kings ; illustrated by the 
*i footsteps of so 'many triumphs, enriched with 
.** the spoils" and 'tributes of so many nations. 
."This spectacle of the world, how is it fallen! 
" how changed ! how defaced ! the .path of vic- 
** tory is obliterated by viife%, 'and tfte benches 
" of the senatdrs'^are 6on^^e& by a dung- 
*• hill. 'Cast ybuf^eySs on the Palatine hill, and 
*| seelc among the shapeless and enormous frag- 
" ments/ the marble theatre, the obelisks, the 
"' colossal statues, the porticoes of Nero's palace: 
" survey the other hills of the city, the vacant 
" space is interrupted only by ruins and gar- 
" dens. The forum of the Roman people, where 
" they assembled to enact theur laws and elect 
" their magistrates, is now enclosed for the culti- 
** vation of pot herbs, or thrown open for the 
•* reception of swine and buffaloes. The public 
^< and private edifices, that were founded for 
" eternity, lie prostrate, naked, and broken, 
" like the limbs of a mighty giant, and the 
" ruin is the more visible, from the stupendous 

OF JH« ROMAN EWfPlRfil. g9*l 

»* relics that have surviy^d tiie injuries of time chap. . 
'^ and fortune."** ^» ^^^- 

These relicts are minutely described by Pog-Hisdc- 
g'ius^ one of the first who raised his eyes fromJheTuinf. 
the monuments of legendary,'^td^ those of classic^ 
siiperstitiofl.* I. Besides a bridge, anarch, a 
sepulchre, and the pyramid^of GeStius,' he could 
discern, of the age of the republic, a double row 
of vaults, in the salt-office of the capitol, which 
■were inscribed with the name and munificencef 
of Catulus. 2. Eleven temples were visible in 
some degree, from the perfect fbrm of the Pan- 
theon, to the three arches and a marble cotumn 
of the temple of peace, which Vespasian erecteid 
after the civil wars and the Jewish triumph. 3* 
Of the number, which* he rashly defines, of sevea 
thermce or public baths, none were sufficiently 
entire to represent the use and distribution of 
the several parts : but those of Diocletian and 
Antoninus Caracalla still retained the titles of 
the founders, an'd astonished the curious spec- 
tator, who, in observing th^r *solidity and ex- 
tent, the variety. o5F -marbles, the size ahd mul- 
titude of the columns; compared the • labour 
and expence with the use and importance. 
Of the baths of Constantine, of Alexander, of 
Domitian, or rather of Titus, some vestige might 
yet be found. 4. The triumphal arches of Titus, 
Severus, and Constantine, were entire, both the 
structure and the inscriptions; a falling frag- 

' Capitdlium adeo • . • • immutatum ut vine !n senatorum sub- 
seilia successerint, stercorum ac purgamentorum receptaculum iac-' 
turn. Bespice ad Palatinum montem . • . • vasta rudera ... 
cateros coUes pcrlustra omnia vacua aedificiisy ruinis vinesfjue oppleta 
•onspicks (Pojgiiw de VarietaU Fortunap, p, %Vy 

; Se«Pogsius,p.8-82^ ' * 


CHAP, ment was honoured with the name of Trafan; 

}^^ and two arches, then extant^ in the- Flaminian 
^ way, have been ascribed to the baser memory 
of Faustina and Gallienus. 5. After the won- 
der of the Coliseum, Poggius might have over- 
looked a small amphitheatre of brick, most pro- 
bably for the use of the praetorian camp : the 
theatres of Marcellus and Pompey were occu- 
pied in a great measure by public and private 
buildings ; and in the circus, Agonalis an^ 
Maximus, little more than the situation and the 
form could be investigated. 6. The columns of 
Trajan and Antonine were still erect ; but the 
Egyptian obelisks were broken or buried. A 
people of gods and heroes, the workmanship of 
art, was reduced to one equestrian figure of 
gilt brass, and to five marble statues, of which 
the most conspicuous were the two horses of 
Phidias and Praxiteles, 7. The two mauso- 
leums or sepulchres of Augustus and Hadrian 
could not totally be lost ; but the former was 
only visible as a mound of earth ; and the latter, 
the castle of St. Angelo, had acquired the name 
and appearance of a modern fortress. With the 
addition of some separate and nameless columns, 
such were the remains of the ancient city : for 
the marks of a more rec^t structure might be 
detected in the walls, which forjiied a circum- 
ference of ten miles, included three hundred and 
seventy-nine turrets, and opened into the coun-i 
try by thirteen gates. 

Gradual This mclaucholy picture was drawn above nine 

bSSL""^ hundred years after the fall of the Western em- 
pire, and even of the Gothic kingdom pf Italy. A 


longperiod of distress and anarchy, in which em« chap. 
pire, and arts, and riches, had miCTated from the 
banks of the Tyber, was incapable of restoring or 
adorning the city ; and as all that is human must 
retrograde if it do not advance, every successive 
age must have hastened the ruin of the works of 
antiquity. To measure the progress of decay, 
and to ascertain, at each era, the state of each 
edifice, would be an endless and useless labour ; 
and I shall content myself with two observations, 
which will introduce a short enquiry into the ge^ 
neral causes and effects, i. Two hundred years 
before the eloquent complaint of Poggius, an ano- 
nymous writer composed a description of Rome.^ 
His ignorance may repeat the same objects under 
strange and fabulous names. Yet this barbarous 
topographer had eyes and ears, he could observe 
■the visible remains, he could listen to the tra- 
dition of the people, and he distinctly enumerates 
seven theatres, eleven baths, twelve arches, and 
eighteen palaces, of which many had disappeared 
before the time of Poggius, It is apparent, that 
many stately monuments of antiquity survived 
till a late period f and that the principles oi de- 

' Liber de Mirabilibus Romse, ex Registro Nicolai Cai'diiialis de 
Arragonia in Bibliotheca St, Isldori Armario iv, No. 69. This trea- 
tise, with some short but pertinent notes, has been published by 
IMontfaucon (Diarium Italicum, p. 383-SOl), who thus delivers his 
own critical opinion : Scriptor xiii^ circitir ssBCuIi, ut ibidem nota« 
tur ; antiquaris rei imperitus et, ut ab illo svo, nugis et anilibus fa- 
bellis refertus,' sed, quia monumenta, quae iis temporibus Romae su* 
pcrerant pro module recenset, non parum inde lucis mutuabitur qui 
Romanis anti^uitatibus indagandis operam navabit (p. 283). 

» The Pere Mabillon (Analecta, torn, iv, p. 503) lil^s published an 
imonymous pilgrim of the ninth century^ who, in his visit round 

the ' 


CHAP, stnictioh acted witii vifforous and encreasincf eii- 
erej in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
2. The same reflection must be applied to the 
three last ages ; and we should vainlj seek the 
Septizoniiim of Sevenis,^ which is celebrated by 
Petrarch and the antiquarians of the sixteenth 
century. While the Roman edifices were sjtill en- 
tire, the first blows, however weighty and im- 
petuous, were resisted by the solidity of tbe mass 
and the harmony of the parts ; but the slightest 
touch would precipitate the fragments of arches 
and columns, that already nodded to their falL 
ttwL of After a diligent enquiry, I can discern four 
destruo principal causes of the ruin of Rome, which con- 
tinued to operate in a period of more than a thou- 
sand years, i. The injuries of time and nature. 
II. The hostile attacks of the barbarians and 
christians, in. The use and abuse of the ma^ 
terials. And iv. The domestic quarrels of the 
a. The in- r I. The art of man is able to construct monu'^ 
Mtitfli /ments far more permanent than the narrow span 
I of his own existence : yet these monuments, like 
I himself, are perishable and frail ; and in the 
(jboundless annals of time, his life and his labours 
must equally be measured as a fleeting moment 
Of a simple and solid edifice, it is not easy, how- 
ever, to circumscribe the duration. As the won- 

the churches and holj places of Rome, touches on seTerat bivildmgi^» 
especially porticoes, which had disappeared before the the thirteentk 

^ On the Septizonium, see the Memoires sur Petrarque (tomu i, p^ 
825), Deaatus (p. 338), and Nardini (p. 117, 41i)« 
\ 9 


deri df ancient dajns, l^e pyrmnids* attract^ .tte chap. 
curiosity Off the ancients; an hundred genc^rar '" ^' 

tions, the leaTes of autumh/ have dropt into the 
grave; and after the fail of the Pharaohs and 
Pt^temi^s, the^O^Bsars and caliphs^ the same py^ 
^amids stand erect and undiaken above the floods 
ef the Nile. A complex figure, of various and 
minute parts, is more accessible to injury and de-» 
cay; and the silent lapse of time is often acce-^ 
lerated by hurricimes and earthquakes, by fires hurricanes 
and inundations. The air and earth have doubt- ^ak^*^^* 
less been shaken ; and the lofty turrets of Rome 
have tottered from their foundations ; but the 
seven bills do not appear to be placed on the 
great .cavities of the globe ; nor has the city, in 
any age, been exposed to the convulsions of na- 
ture, wfaieh, in the^climate of Autiocb^ Lisbon^ 
or Lima, have crumbled, in a few moments, the 
works c^ ages into dust. Fire is the most power- fires ) 
ful agent of life and death ; the rapid mischief 
may be kindled and propagated b} the industry 
or negligence of mankind ; and every [)eriod of 
the Roman annals is marked by the repetition of 
similar calamities. A memorable conflagration, 
the guilt or misfortune of Nero's reign, con-^ 
tinned, though with unequal fury, either six or 

^ The agce of Uie pyraxnida ift remote and unknown, since Diodoru# x 
SiculuB (torn. i» 1. i, c. 44« p. 72) is unable to decide whether they 
were constructed 1000 or 3400 years before the ISOth Olympiad* 
Sir John Biaxsham's contracted scale of the Egyptian dynastiea 
would &K. them above SOOO years before Christ (Canon. CbroDicus, 
p. 47.) 

^ See the speech of Glaucus in the Uiad (▼• 146). This natur4 
Dut melancholy picture is familiar to Homer. 

Vol. xii* p d 



CHAP. diMdiyf.' Innmncribte buiMiiigBy crovrdediii 
cttfte and otiokcd slreetf^ raided pei|ietailfiiel 
for tile flMneft ; and wben ibey ceMed^ iom mif 
of the fovrteen r^oM were left entire; tint 
were totall j destrojred, and feren were defeitted 
by tbe relk» of smokiag and lacerated ettfioes." 
In the fall meridian of cni|Mre, the mrtrffpolk 
arose with ftesh beantj from her aahM; yet the 
memory of the old deplored their k i etiab le 
losses ; tbe arts of Greece, the troptaies of ^« 
torj, the monuments of primitive or fiUNiloat 
antiquity. In the days of distress amd anan^ys 
every wound is mortaU every fall irretrievable; 
nor can the damage be restored either by the pid>- 
Uc care of government, or the activity of private 
interest. Yet two canses may be all^ped^ which 
render the calamity of fire more destrtKrtire to a 
flourishing than a decayed city. 1. The more 
combustible materials of bricks timber, and me- 
tals, are first melted or consumed; but tbe 
flames may play without injmy or efiect on 

J The learning and criticiam of M. dei Vignoles (Histoire Critique 
de la Rcpublique des Lettres, torn, viii, p. 7^118, ix, p. 172-187) 
dates the fire of Rome from a. d* 64« July 19, and tbe aiibaeqiient 
panacution of the chrietians firom November 15, of the aaSBia year. 

" Quippe in ragiones quatuordccim Roma dividitur» quorum qua- 
tuor integrs manetent, tres sblo teflud dejects: septem ivliqois 
pauca tectorum Testigia supererant, lacera et semiuata. Among tbe 
<9)d relics that were Irreparably lost, Tacitus eamaetAba tiK temple 
of the moon of Serviua* Tullina ; the fane and altar etmmcratgi by 
Btander p^aesenti Henidi ; tbe tem^ of Jujki«er Stater* a wir of 
Bomnlus ; the palaee of Numa ; the temple of Vest* caMi peaatibiis 
j^opiiR BoduuiL He then dapioras thaopea lot viotoiBS quadtae ci 
Gnacanim arttum decora . • . • multa quae seniorea nwndnoant^ 
4«itttl^ar«ri ne^aAiaat (AnoAl. xt, 40| 41). 

Q9 TH8 iQifiN BiiPtlii: 400 

jeen despmled of (Mr ornainentt; It is nmmg ^^^^^' 


lie oonamoa and plebiriaa habitatiiuis ikat a 
niscbkFoos ^pairk is imsat easUjr bioira ^ a ^Br 
lagratioQ ; but a$ soon as thejr are de#0ui«d, 
he greater edifices^ wbxch hwire resisted or es- 
;aped^ are left as so man j ialailds in a state of 
iolitude and safety^ From ker sxtuaticui. Home inundA* 
s exposed to the danger of frequent inundar °^ 
;ionSi Without excepting the Tyber, Ihe risers 
;hat descend frcnn either ttde of the Appeonine 
tiave a short and irriegular course; a shallow 
stream in the summer heats i an impetuous tor«» 
rent, when it is swelled in the spring or winter^ 
by the fall of rain> and the melting of the stows. 
When the current is repelled from the sea by ad* 
verse winds, when the ordinary bed is inadequate 
to the weight of waters^ they rise above the 
banks^ and ojev^ead, without limits or controul, 
the plains and cities of the adjacent country. 
Soon after the triumph of the first Punic war, the 
Tyber was increased by unusual rains ; and the 
inundation surpassing all former measure of time 
and place* destroyed all the buildings that were 
situate below the Ifflls of Rome« According to 
the variety of ground, th^e same mischief was pro- 
duced by different means ; and the edifices were 
either swept away by the sudden impulse, or 
dissolved and undermined by the long cotttif* 
nuance, of the flood." Under the reign of Au- 

> A* ti. c. ^7y repentiiia subversio ipsjus Romae preTenit U|- 
tMDphum Romanorum • i • • diversae ignium aquarumquc clades pene 

Dd 2 


CHAP, gustusy the same calamity was renefred: ik 
^^ * lawless river overturned the pakoes and tempJes 

"" '' on its banks f and» after the labours of the 
en^eror in cleansing and widening the bed that 
was encumbered with ruins,^ the vigilance of 
his successors was exercised by similar dangers 
and designs. The project of diverting into new 
diannels the Tyber itself, or some ci the de- 
pendent streams, was long opposed by super- 
stition and local interests;"^ nor did the use 
ooinpensate the toil and cost of the tardy and 
imperfect execution. The servitude of rivers 
is the noblest and most important victory which 
man. has obtained over the licentiousness of na- 

abRumsf re urbem. Nam Tiberis inselitis auctus imbribus et ultra 
oplnioncm, vel diurnitate vel magnitudine redundans, omnia Romae 
jBdificia ID piano poaita delevit. Dtveraee quaJitates loc»iiim ad unam 
convenere^pernicem : quontam et qu« segnior inundatio tenuit made^ 
facta dissolvit, et quae cursus tprrentis invenit impulsa dejecit (OrO' 
aiUAj Knt. !.-}▼, e. U, p. 1^44; edit. Havercamp). Yetwemajob- 
any^f t^i it is the pkm, and study of the christian apologist to mag- 
nify the calamities of the pagan world- 

• Vidimus flavum Tlberim, retortis 
Littore Btrusco ^iolcnter undis 
Ire dejectum monuxnenta regis 

Tern plaque Vestae. (Herat. Carm. 1. 2). 

li the palace of Nama, and temple of Vesta* were thrown down in 
Horace's time, ^hat was conaumed of *tbdse buildings by Nero*s fire 
could hardly deserve the epithets of vestustissima or incorrnpta. 

^ Ad'Coercendas inundationes alveum Tlbieris laxavit, ac reporga- 
vit, /^Qipletum olim niderQiua,- et sBdificiorum pralapaionibas co- 
arctatum (Suetonius in Augusto, c. 30). 

< Tacitus (Annal. i, 79) reports the petitions of the different towns 
of Italy to the senate against the measure ; and we may4ippiaod the 
progress of reason. On a similar occasion, local in tenets would un- 
doubtedly be consulted ; but an English house of commons would 
reject with contempt the arguments of superstitioix, " that nature 
♦• had assjflfncd to the rivers their proper course," &c. 


ture f and if such were the ravages of the Tyher chap* 
under aifirm and active government, what could - 
oppose, or who can enumerate, the injuries of 
the city after the fall oP the western empire? 
A remedy was at length producied by the. evil 
itself : the accumulation of rubbish,:and the earth 
that has been washed down from the hills, is sup« 
posed to have elevated the plain of Borne, four- 
teen or fitteen feet perhaps, above the ancient 
level ;• and the modern city is less accessible to 
the attacks' of the rivJer.* 

II. The crowd of writers of every njationi who n. Theho«- 
impute the destruction (rf the Roman monlimlents onhe ur-* 
to the Goths and the christians, have nejarlected*^"**;'*"** 

A . . , /• , . < , christians. 

to mquire ' how far they were animatied by an 
hostile principle, and how far they pos^ess^d the 
means iand the leisure to satiate their enmity. In 
the prieceding volumes of this* history, I havede*^ 
scribed the triumph of' barbarism jand religion; 
and I can only resume, in a few words, their real 
or imaginary connection with the ruin of ancient 
Rome. . Our fancy may oreate, or adopt, a.pleasr 
ing romance, that the Goths, and YandabsaHied 
from Scandinavia, ar<fent to avenge the flight of 

' See tfae Epoqnes de la Nature of the eloquent and philosophic 
BuffoQ. Hii^piotiire of Guyama io S&ath America is that oi a new 
lind sayage lapd, ia which th^e waters are abandoned to themselveaiy 
without being regulated by human industry (p. 212, 561, quarto 

• In his Travfels in Italy, Mr. Addison (his works, vol. ii, p. 98, 
Baskerville^s edition) has observed this curious and unquestionable 

* Yet In modern times, the Tyber has sometimes damaged the 

city ; and in the years 1530, 1557, 1598, the annals of Muratori , 

record three mischievous and memorable inundations (torn* xir, p. 269^^ 
429, torn. XV, p. 99, Ac). .-.-..,. 

D d 8 


406 THB DBtLtKft AKi) TALL 

t^At. (MSn/ to break tke diains^ and to c\m&e^ 
oppresnrS) of mankind; tkat thej^ wkbedtoborp 
the records of classic literature, and to finud tinr 
bationid architecture on the bnriteatoeiBbersoi 
the Tuscan and Corinthian orders. BotmsmpJe 
truUi, the northern conquerors were seifiieTSHf* 
fidently salvage, nor saAcientiyrefiiKiitoeD* 
tertain such a^irini; ideas of destnictaHRBdre- 
?enge. The shepherds of Scythia and Gemy 
had been educated in the armies of die etngm, 
whose discipline they aciquired, aad wbose veak- 
fiess they invaded : with the famitnr m ottlie 
Latin tongue, they had learned to re^^ereocetlie 
iiame and titles of Rome; and, thougli iscapabk 
of emulating^ they were more mctiDed to admire, 
than to abolish, the arts and studies of abrigtit(^ 
period. In tke transient possession of t rick and 
iinresisting capital, the soldiers of Alaric td 
iGenseric were stimulated by the passions of<^' 
tcoious army ; amidst the inxtim indulgence of 
lust or cruelty, portable wealth wastbeobj^*^ 
their search; nor could they derive either prifeflf 
pleasure ih>mthe unprofitfeWe itiflectioD,Wt'9 
imd battered to the ground the works of thecoD- 
suls and Caesars. Their moments were ifldeed 
precious; the Goths evacuated RoiDeon* 
*ixth,* the Vandals on the fifteenth, daj, 

« 1 Uke this opportunity of declariB^, that ia t^«"*'^'^^'^J 
years I have forgotten, or renounced, the flight of Odin^i^"* 
to Sweden, which I never very seriously believed i^^^'^^\^. 
The Goths are apparently Germans { but all beyond CsBStf"* 
tus is darknesa or fable in the antiquities of Ger^naoj* 
' * History of the Decline, &c. vol. v, j>. 325. 

^ ■' vol. vi, p. 151» 



ithdiigb it Im fw s^ore ^^i^^U to build tbw c h ▲ i;. 
V: to dbsstivgr, tteir h^y ^$&mlt woiul4 b»v« i»«4e » ^^^^ 
^ slight impression on tjipe fifoM4 pUes of ant^i^ty* 
^Q Wetimyrem^in'ber^tb^l^hAIwicitndGepi^^ric 
. Infected to spwe tb^ buUdmg«; of the city ; ik^t 
er tiiey BufaMted im strength ^nd bawty i^od^^ 
fP the auapjejow g^^mamit of TfaeodpFic f aa4 
r that the inoimat^ry rep^tm^t of T/Qtila"^ w^a 
,, diearmed by hk own temper land tl^ advice of hi^ 
^ friends sod f^^mes. From thes^ UmcK^e^l; barr 
j^ bartani, the reproach t»ay ba tr«n$£!erred to tk^ 
'^ catholicB of R0iBe. The statuesp A^tar/Si a^4 
, houfiesy (tf the d^^mop^ Wjere nn .abomuiation iq 
] their eyess and in t|ie ablate cocSmwd ^.f th?' 
city» they might liabour w4tbzealaadperseverafQbC(^ 
' toemxethe idolatry of their aia^stom. The der 
] moUtion af the t^n^^a la the East^ affords Xq 
them aa eacample of eondnct, aad to 9^ an argu- 
ment of belief; aad it is ptiobable, that a portion 
of gutit or merit mny be implied with iu&tic^ to 
the Roman proselytes. Yet their abhorrence was 
confined to the monuments of heathen supersti- 
tion; aad the civil structui^s that were dedicat- 
ed to the bns^ess or pleasure of society might 
be preserved without injury or scandal. The 
ahange of religion was aeoomplished^ not by a 
popular tumult, but by the decrees of the empe- 
rors, of the sejiptOj and ^ time. Of the cliris- 
tian hierarchy, Itoe bishops of Rome were e(»n- 
monly the most prudent and least fanatic : nor 

* History of the Decline, &c. vol. vH, p. 29-33. 

» ■■ vol. vir, p. 368, 374. 

» I , voL Va c. zxviii, p. lOd^lOSl 

n d 4 


CHAP, can any positive charge be opposed to the men* 
y^^' torious act of saving and converting the mflg^tic 
structure of the panthe6n.* 

lli/Jbtiir '"• "^^^ ^**"^ ^ ®°y ^^i^^ ^^^ mpplies the 
Dfthenui. wants or pk^asures of mankind is compounded 
of its substance and its form, of the materials and 
the manufacture. Its price must depend on the 
number of persons by whom it may be acquired 
and used; on the extent of the market; ai^ cxm* 
sequently on the ease or difficulty of remote ex- 
portation, according to the nature 6f the com- 
modity, its local situation, and the temp(Nrary 
circumstances of the world. The barbarian con< 
querors of Rome usurped in a moment the toil 
and treasure of successive ages ; but, except the 
luxuries of immediate consumption, they must 
view without desire all that could not be removed 
from the city, in the Gothic waggons or ihe fleet 
of the Vandals.* Gk)ld and silver, were the first 
objects of their avarice; as in every countiy, and 

« Eodem tempore petlit a Phocate principe teiiiplum quod appella- 
tur Pantheon, in quo fecit ecclcsiam Sanctce Mariae semper virginis, 
et omnium martynim ; in qui ecclefeix princeps multa bona obtalit 
CAnastifius rel potius ^iber Ppntificalia In Bonifacio it, in Muratoii 
pcript. Rerum Italicarum, torn, iii, p. i, p. 135).- According to the 
anonymous writer in Montfaucon, the pantheon had been vowed by 
Agrippa * to Cybele and Neptune, and was dedic£(t«cl bj Boniface it, 
on the calends of November, to the vJrgiD, quae esj /nater omnium 
sanctorum (p. 297, 298). • ' 

* Flaminius Vacca (api'd ^Tontfaucon, p. 155, 156>. His Memoir 
is Ukewisf printed, pp. 21, at the eiidpf the Eoma Attica of Nsidini, 
^rid several Romans, doctrina graves, were persuaded that the Goths 
buried their treasures at Rome, and bequeathed the secret marks fi« 
]iis nepotibu&que. He i elates some anecdotes to prove that, m his 
own time, these places were visited and rifled by the Transalpine 
pilgrims, t^e heirs of the Gothic conquerors. 

(1 the ^aaallest compass, they represeiit themofit chap. 
tmple comm^Jld of. the industry, and possessions '^^^' 
f .maxikjUi^.. A vase or a statue. of those precious^ 
aetals might tempt the vanity of some.barbarjiau 
hief; but the grosser multitude, regardless, of 
be form, was tenacious only of the svbstajice; 
ind the melted ingots might be readily divided 
tnd stamped into the current coin of the empire* 
The less active, or less fortunate, robbers were 
educed to the baser plunder of brass, lead, iron, 
tnd copper: whatever bad escaped the Gotl\s 
md Vandals was pillaged by the Greek tyji^ts ; 
ind the emperor Constans, in his rapacious visits 
stripped the bronze tiles from the roof of the 
pantheon.*' The edifices of Rome might be 
considered as. a vast and various mine ; the first 
labour of extracting the m^^terials was already 
performed; the metals were purified and cast; the 
marbles w^re hewn and polished; and after foreign 
a.nd domestic rapine had been satiated, the remains 
of the city, could a purchaser have been found, 
ivere still venal. The monuments of antiquity 
had been left naked of their precious ornaments, 
but the Romans WQuld demolish with their own 
liands the arches and walls, if the hope of profit 
could surpass the cost of the labour and exporta- 
tion. If Charlemagne had fixed in Italy the scat 
of the Western empire, his genius would havt 
aspired to restore, rather than to violate, the 

* Omaia qiue erant in aere ad orpatum civitatis deposuit : sed et 
eoclefciam B» Maris ad marly res quae de tegulis ancm coopcrta di^ 
ooopevuit (Anast. in Vitalian. .p. 141). The base and sacrilegious 
Gr«.^ek had not even the poor pretenct: of plundering an heatl^en> t^m* 
pie ; t|ie pantheon was already a catholic church. 


CHAP. w<n1» Of^the Caesars: but polky coain cd tk 
""* rVench monarch to tlic ferests of Germam; U 
taste cottM be gratified ofAj by destenctioa; and 
the new palace of Aix la Chapelle was <ieeorsi- 
ed with the marbles of Rvreana^ and Smoe.' 
Frre Inindred years after Charlem^^e^ atingof 
Sicily, Robert, the wisest and iBoat libera] so- 
Tereign of the age, was supplied wiA the same 
materials by the easy navigation of the Tjfber aad 
the sea; and Petriu^ sighs an wcK^aiit com- 
plaint, that the ancient capital of the world shodd 
adorn, foom her own bowels, the slotlrfiil hixwy 
of Naples.^ But these examples of piaaderor 

' Far ifu spoilt of laveiiMi (oHMivt «t^ue inanDora) «ee ib^ wigioal 

graat of pope Adrian i to Charlemagne (Codex Carolin. epkt. IitiIi 
'in Murttori, Script* Ital. torn, iii, p. li» p. t2S). 

« I shall qtiote the anthentie tevtinon/of t^ fiaacon pset U. *. tt7 
^S9) deBelan^i^ftUt Csroli Bpi|pM|, L v, 437*440, in t)i« HialanaiH 
of Franee (torn, v, p. ISO) ; 

Ad quae marmoreas prsstabat Roma columnas, 

Qnmdam pnecipuas pulehra lUvouu^ dodU 
De tam longiaqvi poterH tt^oae vctnaUs. 
Illiua ornatum Francia ferre tibi. 
And I shall add, from the Chronicle of Sigebert (Historians q( Frsoce, 
torn. ▼» p. S7S)9 extruxit otiam Aquiagcaiii hjiaiWram plufiva pulohn" 
tudinis, ad cujus atnicturam a Koma et Ravenna CQlvBuias et max- 
mora devehi fecit. 

^ I cannot refuse to transcribe a long passage of Petrarch (0pp. ^ 
6S6, 537, in Epistola hortatoria ad Nicolaum Lauremiom), it is so 
Ytrong and full to the pc^nt : Kec pudor out pietas contiouit quomiiaB 
4nipU«poliatftDei tenpla, ocoupatasaeoes, opes publicas F^ojoesizriiis, 
atque honores magistratuum inter sc dirisos ; fhabeant ?J quam una in 
re, turbulenti ac scditiosi homines et totins reliquee vite eonsfiiis et 
rationlbus discordes, inhumani foederis stupendasocietate conFenerant, 
^ pontes «t meenfa «tqiie iBUuerltos'lapides dess»cixet^ DesMpie post 
'Vi-Td senie 'collapsa pslathi, -quce .quondam ingentes tesaenrnt viiii 
*po8t drmptos arcus trkHnpbades <uiiide majores horum forsitan cor« 
rudrant) de ipsiua vetustatis He jwopriv •injpiftfttis Jragmj n ttos.viieffl 


aV THfi EOMAH «MPIRt. 411 

purchase wete rails in the darker ages ; and tfee chap. 
Romand^ iAcme and uftenvied, mi^ht have ap* ^^^^ 
[>iied to their private or public use the remaiiiiii^ 
rtructwres of antiquitf, if^ in their present ferin 
»)d situatvoQ, they had not be*en useless in a great 
neasure to the dty and its ii!ihabitants. The walls 
stil! deserved the old circumference, but the city 
haddesceiMledfrom the seven hilis into tlie campus 
Martitis ; and some of the noblest monumieDts, 
which had braved the injuries of time, were left in 
a desert, far remote from the habitations of maR^ 
kind. The palaces of ttie senators were no Icwoger 
adapted to the manners or fortunes of their in- 
digent successors ; the wse of baths^ and porticoes 
was forgotten ; in the sixth century, the games , 
of the theatre, amphitheatre,* and circus, had 
been interrupted: some temples were devoted 
to the prevailing worship ; but the christian 
churches preferred the holy figure of the cross; 
and fiishion, or reaoon, had dtstrifeuted, after a pe* 
culiar Tftodel, the cells and offices of the cloister. 
Underthe eoclesia^ical reign, the numfeerof these 
pious foundations was enormously multiplied; and 
the city was crowded with forty monasteries of 

questum turpi mercimonio cftptare non puduit. Itaque nunc* hea 
dolor ! heu scelus indignuzn ! de vestris jnarmorejs coluinnis* d« li- 
minibus templorum (tid quae nuper ex orbe toto concursus devotissi* 
mus fiebat), de ihiaginibus sepulchrorukn subquibus patrum vestrorum 
venerabilis ciyis fcinh ?J erat, ut rellquas sifeam, desidiosa Neapdifs 
adornatur. Src paulatim minx fpsx deficiuiit. Yet king Itobert wsu 
the friend of Petrarch. 

« VelCllMUPkaMgiie Wftritied ani 4wilni 9t Aix laCfaqralle with «n 
liftndred of Mg'Ooar«i«rs<BgkiliArt, c-SS, p. 109, 109^ and Muri»mn 
^iesotftM, «« late as tha ywt ili, «ha public baths wfatcli aweiiiiiU 
at Sfoteto in Italy (Annaii, torn. vj» p. 416). 


CHAP. men» twentj of women, and sixty chapters and 
^^^\ coUqjes of canons and priests,^ who aggrvr^ted, 
* instead of relieving, the depopulation of the tenth 
century. But if the forms of ancient architecture 
were disregarded by a people insensiUe of their 
use and beauty, the plentiful materials were ap* 
plied to every call of necessity or superstition ; 
till the fairest columns of the Ionic and Coring 
thian orders, the richest marbles of P^'o& and 
Numidia, were degraded, perhaps, to the support 
of a convent or a stable. The daily havock which 
is perpetrated by the Turks in the cities of Greece 
and Asia may afford a melancholy example ; and 
in the gradual destruction of the monuments of 
Rome, Sixtus the fifth may alone be excused 
for employing tl^e stones of the Septizonium in 
the glorious edifice of St. Peter's.' A fragment, 
a ruin, howsoever mangled or profaned, may be 
viewed with pleasure and regret ; but the greater 
part of the marble was depriv^ of substance, as 
well as of place and prc^rtion ; it was burnt to 
lime for the purpose of cement. Since the arrival 
bf Puggius, the temple of Concord,™ and many 

^ See the Annals of Italy, a, d. 988. For this and the preceding 
fact, Muratori l^mself is indebted to the Benedictine history of Fere 

' VXtd di Sisto Quinto, da Gre^io Leti, torn, iii, p. 50. 

"* Torticus «dlis (^oncordiae, quam cum primum ad urbem acccssi 
vidi fere integraoi opere marmoreo admodum specioso : Romani post' 
piodum «4 calcem «edem totam et portidls partem disjectis columnis 
sunt demoliti (p. 12). The temple of Concord was therefore not 
destroyed by a sedition in the thirteenth century, as I have read in a 
us. tteatise del* Govcrlio' civile di acme, lent me Corntecly at arnne, 
and ascribed (I believe falsely) to the c^IabraMd G-raviiia. ?Qg^ 
likewiae affirmi, -that tbe sepolcfa^^ of Cecilia M«i«U» iraa.^wrat iv 
Fune (p. 19, 20). ••...' . . 

OF fHlE HOMAy <MPiltfi% 4iS 

capital structures, had vanifthed from his eyes; tnkP. 
and an e^gmpk of the same age expresses a just^ 


and [Hous fear/ that the continuance of this prac*- 
tice would finally annihilate all the monuments of 
antiquity.'' The smallness of their numbers was 
the sole check on the demands and depredations 
of the Romans^. The imagination of P€i;mrch 
might create? the presence of a mighty people f 
and I hesitate to believe, that even in the four^ 
teenth centory, they cotild be reduced to a con- 
temptible list Of thirty-three thousand inhabitants; 
From that period to the reign of Leo the tejathy 
if they multiplied to the. amount of eight-five 
thousand,^ the encrease of citizens was, in some 
degree, pernicious to the ancient city. 

IV. I have reserved for the last, the most potent '^- "^^ *^ 

*■ , mestic 

and forcible cause of destruction, the domestic quarrels of 
hostilities of the Romans themselves. Under the ^^^^ 
dominion (^the Greek and- French emperors, the 
peace of the city, was disturbed by accidental, 
thoxigh frequent, seditions ; it is frctai the decline 
of the latter, from the beginning of the tenth 

^ Composed by JBneas Sylvius, afterwards pope Pius ii, and pub* 
lished by Mabillon from a ms. of the queen of Sweden (Museum 
Italicum, torn. ), p. 97). 

pblectat me, Boma, tuas spectare rjdnas s 

Ex cujus lapsii gloria prisca patet. 
Sed tuus hie populus muris dcf6ssa v^tustls 
CiUtie in ^eequium mannora «lura coqult 
Impia tercentum si sic gens egerit annoj 
Nullum hinc indicium nobilitatis erit. 
" Vagabamur pariter in ilia urbe tam magna ; quae, cum propter 
spatium vacua videretur, populum habet immensum (Opp. p. 60.5, 
Kpist. Famillares, ii, 14). 

P These state? of the population of Rome at different periods are 
derived from an ingenious treatise of. the physician Lancisi, de Romani 
C<rli Qualitatibus (p. U2), 

4U tUB IMCUIfl ANt> fA%.% 

CHAR centiiiy^ that we may date: the lioeDtiiMsiHsss d 
J^ privi^ewar,wbi(^vi(^1^withiiiqpiiimt7ihe/awf 
of the code and the gwpel; wUh<nftt refpectiag* 
aiidpersoQof the vicar of Cluri9t hkudurkpe* 
rkd of five hundred years, Bxmie waa perpetaaUy 
afflicted by the aanguinary quarrels of the nobles 
and the peoirfe» the Gnelpbs and GhflidiBes^ the 
Colonna and Uraini; and if moch haa escaped the 
knowledge, and nmch is unworth j of the notke, 
of hittory, I hare exposed, in the two preoeding 
chapters, the causes and effects of the public dis- 
orders. At such a time, when every quarrel was 
decided by the sword, and none could trust their 
lives or properties to the. impotence <^ law, the 
powerful citizen9were armed for safety or offence, 
against tbe domestic enemies, whom they feared 
or hated. Except Venice al(me, the same dangers 
and designs were common to all tbe free repuUics 
of Italy; and tbe nobles usurped the prerogative 
q£ fortifying theii* houses, and ^"ecting strong 
towers^ that were capable of resisting^ a sudden 
attack. The cities were filled with these hostile 
edifices ; and the example of Lucca, which con- 
tained three hundred towers; her law which con* 
fined their height to the measure of fourscore feet, 
maybe extended with suitable latitude to the more 
opulent and populous states. The first step of tbe 
senator Brancaleone in tbe establishment of peace 

4 All tbe iacti that relate to the towers at Roaae, and in other free 
cities of Italy, may be found in the laboriout and entertaonliig camph 
Jatioa of Muratori* Antiquitatee ItaUm medH MwU dkeertat* zzfi 
jOom. ii> P> 49S^S« of tlia Latm, to8u i, p.4M vf the ItaiiaD wortV 



abd jiMiCe^ wnt to demoliak ifm we hi»re fikeftdgr OHA^r. 
seen) one bmicb^ and fortj of tiie towers of 
Home; andt in tbo: last dajrs of aniMnehy aad dis-,^ 
cord^ as late as the leign of Martin tbe fiftb,i 
f ortf^fottr stitt dtood in oiie of tk0 tiiirteea or fbiir- 
teen re^ns ot the city. To diia n^iscfaieyoas piiF«v 
p63^ the remains of antiqaity were imNit readtty 
adapted ; tbe temples and arcbeaafbuded a broa^ 
and tolid bask for tbe new struc^weaof biick and) 
stone; and we e^ name the modem turrets tbat 
were raised on tbe triumphal monumenta of JKdiun 
Caesar, Titus^ and the Antooinea.'' With soma 
slight aheratiODfit a theatre an amphitheatrej a 
mausoleum, was transformed into a strong and 
spacioos citadeL I need not repeat, that tbe mole 
of Adrian has assmned the title and form c£ the 
castle of St. Angeio ;' the s^tizonium of Seyearu^ 
was capable of standing against a royal army ;^ 
tbe sepukhre of Metella has suek under its out^ 
works ;'' the theatres of Pompey and Marcellus 

* As for Instance, Templum Jani nunc dicitur, tuirii Centii Fraiig»-> 
fSLiils ; et sane Jano Imposits turris lateritis conspicua hodieque ▼«&* 
tigia sttpersunt (Montfkticon Diarium Itelicutn, p. 18S). Th^anoitf^ 
mous writer (p. 2H6) enumerates, arcuaiTiti, tnmis Ckrtularia ; «reu* 
Jidii GflMaria «l Senatorum. turresde Bcstia; arcus Antonmit tuxria 
de €<ifl«cti8, Ac. 

• Hadriani molem magna ex parte Romaaorum iojuriUi 

^ • , . . disturbavit ; quod certe funditus evertissent, si eonim ma- 
mbus pervia, absumptis grandibus saxis, reliqua moles exstltlsset 
(hoggins de Varietatc Fortunae, p. 12). 

* Against the emperor Henry it (Muratori, Annall d^Italia* torn. 
Jx, p. 147> 

• I must copy an important passage of Montfaucon: Turris ingent 
rotunda .... Cgecilis MetelUs .... s^ulchram eral, oujus muri 
tain solidi, ut 8patium perquam mimmum intus vacuum supersit ; et 
Tenre di Bwc ^Uclttur, a bourn ogpitibus muro inseriptis. Huic sequi- 


416* TttB DfetUHB XN0 

CHAR wtt^accupiedbytheSavelliandUrsitiifiidiafejf 
"°"* and theroughfortres? had been ^raduallyseftened 
to the splendour and elegance of an Italian palace. 
Even the chun^es were encompassed ^ith arm 
and bulwarics) and the militaty engines on tAe roof 
of St. Peter's w«re t^e terror of the Vatican and 
the scandal of the christian world. Whatever is 
fttttified will be attacked; and whatev^ is attach 
ed may be destroyed. Could the* Rcnnaiis have 
wrested from the pdpes the castle of St. Angelo, 
they had resolved, by a publicd^cree, to annihilate 
that monument of servitude. Every building of 
defence was exposed to a siege; aad^ in eveiy aege 
the arts and- engines of destruction were labori- 
ously employed. After the deat3i of Nicholas tiie 
fourth, Rome, without a sovereign or a senate, 
was abandoned* six months to the fury of ciril 
war. " The houses,*' says a cardinal and poet of 
the times,^ « were crushed by the w^ffat and 

•ri ftvo, tempore intestinorum belloruni, ceu urbecula adjuncu fuit, 
cujus mcenia et turiM etiamnum visuiuur ; ita ut sepulchrum Metellc 
quasi arx oppiduli fuertt. Ferventibiis in urbe partibus, cum Uraui 
atque Column^oaet mutuis cladibus^pernkiem inferrent civitati, in 
Utriusve partis ditiooejia cederet magui momenti erat (p. 143]. 

* See the testimonies of Ponatus, Nardini, ttnd Montfaucon. In 
the Savelli palace, the remains of the theatre of Marcellus are stiJl 
gTMt and conspicuous. 

y James cardinal of St. George, ad velum smreum, in his metrical 
Life of pope Celestin v (Muratorl, Script* Ital. torn, i, p. iii, p. 621| 
1. i, c. 1, ver. 132, &c). 

Hoc dixisse sat est, Romam cariiisse senatii 
Mensibus es^actis heu sex ; belloque vocatum fvecatM) 
In'scelus, in ^ocios fraternaque vulnera patres; 
Tormentis jecisse viros immanta saxa ; 
Perfodisse domus trabibus, fecisse ruinas 
Ignibus ; ineensaa turres, obscurata4|ue fumtir 
I^umina vicino, (),uo sit spoliata supellex* 

Otr THIS ftdMA^ eMpIftB. 41? 

^* velocity of enormous stones;' the walhi wei^ ohap« 
'* perforttted bf the strokes of the battering-ram ; ^^^'' 
'* the towers were involved in fire and smoke ; 
'^ and the assailants were stimulated by rapine 
'^ and revenge." The work wasconsummated by 
the tyranny of the laws ; and the factions of Italy 
alternately exercised a blind and thoughtless, ven-* 
^eahce on their adversaries, whose houses and 
castles they razed to the ground/ In comparing 
the cUh/s of foreign, with the ages of domestic, 
hostility, we must pronounce, that the latter have 
been far more ruinous to the city ; and our opinion 
is confirmed by the evidence of Petrarch. .".B^- 
** hold," says the laureat, ^* the relics of Rome, 
^^ the image of her pristine greatness ! neither 
" tinie, nor the barbarian, can boast the merit of 
" this stupendous destruction: it was perpetrated 
** by her own citizens, by the most illustrious of 
** her sons ; and your ancestors (he writes to a 
*• noble Annibaldi) have done with the battering-^ 
" ram, what the Punic hero could not accomplish 
" with the sword."^ The influence of the two last 
principles of decay must in some degree be mul- 

*■ Muratort (Dissertazione sopra le Antiquita Italiane, torn, i, p« 
427-431) finds, that stone bullets of two or three hundred pounds 
weight were not uncomiiioii ; and they are sometimes computed at 
twelve or^ eighteen cantari of Genoa» eaph cantaro weighing ISQ 

* The sixth Jaw of the ViscontS prohibits this common and mis- 
chievous practi^ ; and strictly enjoins, that the houses of baitlshed 
citizens should b^ preserved pro communi utilitate (Guaivaneus de la 
Flamma, in Muratori, Script. Rerum Itallcarum, torn, xii, p. 1041)^ 

. ^ Petrarcli thiis address^ his ^end, who, with shame and tears* 
tiad shewn him the mttnia» lacene specimen miserabUe Romfs^ apd 0et 
VOL. XJfc )S e 


CHAR tipiied breach other; sinoe the houaes and towos, 
"f'* which were subyerted by civil war, requhed a 

new and perpetual supply froat tke 
of antiquity. 
^^^ These general obaerratioBS may be sepamte/y 
phithMtre applied to the amphiftbeatre of Titos^ wUdi has; 
^ ^'^ obtained the name of the Caiueum;' eitiieff frcuD 
its mag^tude, or from Nero^s ookissal statue; 
an edifice, had it been left to time and aatoi^ 
which m^t perhaps hare clwaned aa etenialdHr 
ration. Tiie curious antiquaries* who hsive com- 
puted the numbers and seats, are dtspoaed tabe- 
lieve, that above the ujqier row of atoaie steps, 
the amphitheatre was encircled and elevated with 
several stages of wooden gaUeries, which were 
repeatedly ctf nsumed by fire,-tuid restored 1^ the 
emperors. Whatever was preciQua^ or pwtabl^ 
or profane, the statues of gods and b^oes^ aad 
the costly ornaments of sculpture, whicb were east 
in brass, or overspread with leavea of silver and 

elared his own intention of restoring theo^ <-Carmuia Latina*. L i}» 
cpist. Paulo Annibalensi, xii, p. 97, 98). 

Kec te parva manet servatis fama ruiaia 
Quanta quod integrae Aiit olim gforia Romae 
Reliquiae teatantur adhuc ; quaa longior ataa 
Frangere non valuit ; non via aut im cruenU 
Hoatis, ab egre^is fraaguntur civibuiv hen ! h«at 

-^- Quod iUe nequivit flfm$m»aij 

P«rficit hie aries. ■ ■ — - 

* The fourth part of the Verona Illuatrata of the Marquis MaAi^ 
pTPfcfaedly ti:eats of anphUhea^tres* par.ticu.lai:]jr thpa^ of Rmoe and 
V^xopoL, of their dhnenfiions, wooden galleries, &c* It is from ma^ 
nltude that he derives the name of Cotoeseum or CoUseiim .- since the 
•una appellation was applied to the asophitheatce of Capita* without 
the aid of a colossal statue ; 8in<:e that of Nero was erected in the 
court {in atrio) of hif palacei ^d not in the C^^Haeum (pw ir^p. ISm 
19, L i» c. 4.) 

:oid, I^GMie the first janty of eeo^^ or frnta* dk Af; 
icism^ of lh« aririos of the barbariMia Of the ^^^^^^ 
hristi^oig. In tii^ massjr itonesi ai Aa Ocitimvm; 
lany liolMere deeeniod] awi the iwti oMst piio«^ 
able ooojecturos represent the various BJodMnitM 
f its ^lecay. These stoiufs were conoooted bf sdyd 
Inks of brass or iron; nor had the eye of rapuut 
verlooked tte value of the baser aaetals :^ the 
acant »paee was couTerted into a fail* m market : 
he artisans of the Coliseum afe meutioned in an 
.ncient survey; oBd tlie pbasms were perforated or 
nlarged to receive the poles that sBippcnrted the 
hops or tetits of the mechanic trades.'' Reduc- 
ed to its naked majest j, the Flavian anfiphithea- 
re was contemplated with awe and admiration 
)y the pilgrims of the north ; anS their rude e^- 
;husiasm broke forth in a sublime proverbial ex- 
)ression» which is recorded in the eighth century^ 
n the fragments of theve^raUe Bede: <^ As long T 
^ as the Coliseum stands, Home shall stand; wheii 
^ the Coliseum falls^ Rome will fall ; when Rome 
' falisi thcf woild will fall,"' In the moderri 
^ytem of war, a $ituation commanded by three 

A Joseph Maria Suar^s, a learned bishop, and the author of an falt« 
toxy of Frienest^, has composcfd a separate dissertation on the sevetf 
i)r eight probi|ble causes 6f these holes, which ha3 been since reprint;* 
ed in the Roman Thesaurus of Sallengre. Montfaucon (Diarium, p. 
23$) pronounces the rapine df ^he blEirfoarian^ to be the unara genaan-' 
bnque causanot soraminum. 

• Dodirtus, Roma Vetus et Novaj, p. 285. 

* Quamdiu stabit Colyseus, stabit et Roma ; ^uanto cade£ CoIyseUs^ 
cadet Roma ; ^uando cadet Roma, 6adet et mtindus (Beda in Excerptii# 
fieu CoIIecUneis apud Ducange Glossar. med. et infimse Latinitatis^ 
torn, if » p. 407, edit, Basil). This saying mtist be ascribed to the An- 
glo-Saxon pilgrims whp visited Rome before the year T35, the era of 
Bede*8 death ; for I do not belieye that our venerable monk ever paw* 
«d the sea. 

s e 2 



CHAF. hills would not be dioeeii for a fortress ibot the 
stiength of the walls and arches could mist tiie 
engines of assault ; a numerous garrison migMlie 
lodged in the inclosure ; and while one faction 
occupied the Vatican and the Capitol, tk other 
was entrenched in the Lateran and tk Coli- 

The abolition at Rome of the ancient games 
must be understood with some latitude ; asithe 
camiral sports of the Testaoean mount and tlie 
circus Agonatis,'^ were regulated by the law' or 
custom of the city. The senator presided witt 
dignity and pomp to adjudge and distribute tlie 
prizes^ the gold ring, or thepaUiumf as it was 
styled, of cloth or silk. A tribute on the Jews 
supplied the andual expence ;^ and the races, on 

« I cannot recover, in Muratori's original Lives of the ropes 
(Script. Uerurn Italicarum, torn, iii, p. i), the passage that attest* 
this hortfle paHitUm, which must be applied to tbe end of tbe 
deveath or the beginniDg of the twelfth century. 

^ Although the structure of the circus Agonalis bedestroyedi ' 
still retains its form and name (Agona, Nagona, Naron8);and e 
Interior space aflfbrds a sufficient level for the purpose of racing' 
the Monte Testaceo, that strange pile of broken pottery, seemsonj 
adapted for the annual practice of burling from top to bottoffl 
waggon loads of live hogs for the diveraion of the populace (S 
UfWa Rom«, p. 186). ^ 

» See the Statuta Urbis Rom®, L iii, c. 87, 88, 89, p- 1»^'^^^ 
I have already given an idea of this municipal code. The ^^ 
Nagona and Monte Testaceo are lilcewise mentioned in the i^^_ 
Peter Antonius, from 1404 to 1417 (Muratori, Script. Rerum 
earum, torn, xxiv, p. 1124). ,^, 

* The PoOiatm, which Menage so foolishly derives from r» ^ ^^ 
is an easy extension of the idea and the words, from ^ 
cloak, to the materials, and from thence to their application*^ 
(Muratori, dissert, xxxiii). H^O 

* For these expences, the Jews of Rome paid ^ J .^^^u 
florins, of which the odd thirty represented the piec«« ^ ^^j^], 


foot^ OB hoT^ehads:, or in chariots, were ennobled chap. 


bja tilt and tournament of seventy-two of the Ro-^ 


man jouth. In the year one thousand three hun>' a buu- 
dred and thuty-two, a bull-feast» after the fashion coiiseum/ 
of the Moors and Spaniards, was celebrated i^g "t/l^** 
the Coliseum itself; and the living manners are 
painted in a diary of the times ™ A convenient 
order of benches was restored ; and a general 
proclamation, as f^ as Rimini and Ravenna, in- 
vited the nobles to exercise their skill and cou- 
rage in this perilous adventure. The Roman, , 
ladies were marshalled in three squadrons, and 
seated in three balconies, which on this day, the 
third of September, were lined with scarlet cloth. 
The fair Jacova di Rovere, led the matrons from 
beyond the Tyber, a pure and native race, who 
still represent the features and character of an^ 
tiquity. The remainder of the city was divided as 
usual between the Colonna and Ursini : the two 
factions were proud of the number and beauty of 
their female bands: thei charms of Savella Ursini 
are mentioned with praise ; and the Colonna re- 
gretted the absence of theyoungest of their house, 
who had sprained her iancle in the garden of 
Nero's tower, The lo^s of the champipns were 

-which Judas had betrayed his master to their ancestors. There was a 
foot-race of Jewish, as wetl as of christian youths (Statuta Urhis^ 

n This extraordinary bull«feast in the Coliseum is described, fVom 
tradition rather than nremory, by Ludovico Buonconte Monaldesco, 
in the most ancient/ragments of Roman annals (Moratori, Script. 
Rerum Italicarum, torn. xii» p. 535, 536) ; and howeTer fanciful tbe^ 
may seem, they are deeply marked with the colours of truth and ni^^ 

E e 3 


4S9 run diclihc akd tAi.L 

CHAP. Anwnb7anoldaiidraq)ectableoittsrai;awf tiief 
descended into the areni^ or fnt^ to eneoutar 
the urild bullsi on foot^ ns H ehoiild seeiti^ whha 
tingle Bpetr. Attudst the cravird, ouf annalist 
has selected the names, colours^ and 4moes, at 
twenty of the most ooitspioaous knigirta. Serenl 
Of the names are tiie most ilhiatrions of Rome 
ind the ecclesiastical state ; Malatesta, Polentai^ 
dellaValle, Cafarello, SarelK, Cmpoccio, Conti^ 
AnnatMldi, Altierl, Corsi; the colo«irs were a- 
daf»ted to their taste and situation ; lAie devices 
are expressire of hope or despair, and breathe the 
spirit of gallantry and arms« *' I am alone like 
f* the youngest of the Horatii," the confidence 
9f an intrepid stranger : ** I live diecons^di^,'' a 
weeping widower ; ** I burn under the asbesi" a 
discreet lover : *^ I adore Lavinia, or Lucretia,'^ 
the ambiguous declaration of a modern passiofi. 
f" My fhith is as pure," the motto of a while lu 
tery : " Who is stronger than myself ? -* of A lion's 
hide : *^ If I am drowned in Mood, what a flea* 
f< sant death," the wish of ferocious covage. 
The pride or prudence of the Ursini restraiDed 
them from the field, which was occupted by Uiree 
of their hereditary Hrals, whose inscriptions de* 
noted the lofty greatness of the Colonna name: 
*• Though sad, I am strong :'* " Strong as I am 
'* great :'' « If I fall,'* addressing himself to the 
spectators, " you fall with me:" — ^intiinsting 
(says the contemporary writer) tfaat-white th« 
pt^er families were the subjects of the VaticaD) 
they alone were the supporters of the capitol. 
The combats of the amphitheatre were dangenmi 

«id bloddgr. Evtsrjr chtnapidn successively etl- chak 
countered ft wild bull; and the victory may bej^^^' 
ascribed to the quadrupeds^ since no more ihati 
leleveft were left on the field, with the toss of nine 
wounded and eighteen killed on the side df their 
adversaries. Some of the noblest families might 
mourn, but the pomp of the funerals, in the. 
churches of St« John Lateran and St. Maria Mag* 
giore> afltdrded a second holiday to the people. 
Doubtless it was not in such conflicts that the 
blood of the Romans should have been shed ; yet, 
in blaming their rashness, we are compelled to 
applaud their gallantry; and the noble volun* 
teers, who display their magnificence, and risk 
their lives, undetthe balconies of the fair^ excite 
a more generous sympathy than the thousands 
of captives and malefactors who were reluctant- 
ly dragged to the scene of slaughter.'' 

This use of the amphitheatre was a rare, per- injuries* 
haps a singular, festival ; the demand for the 
materials was a daily and continual want, which 
the citizens could gratify without restraint or re- 
morse. In the fourteenth century, a scandalous 
act of concord secured to both factions the privi- 
lege of extracting stones from the free and com- 
mon quarry of the Coliseum f and Poggius la- 
ments that the greater part of these stones had 
been burnt to lime by the folly of the Ro- 

^ Moratori has g^ven a separate dissertation (the twenty-ninth) tp 
the games of the Italians in the middle ages. 

• In a concise but instructive memoir, the abb^ Barthelemy (M^ 
moires de I'Academie des Inscriptions, torn, xxviii, p. 5S5) has men- 
tioned this agreement of the factions of the fourteenth century* #e 
Tiburtino faciendo in the Coliseum, from an original act in the ar» 
chives of Borne. 

E e 4 


CHAP, mans.'' To check this abuse, and Iq present the 
^^^^' nocturnal crimes that might be perpetrated in the 
vast and gloomy rec^ss^ Eugenius the fourth soti- 
rounded it with a wall ; and hy a charter long 
extant, granted both the ground and edifice to 
the monks of an adjacent convent-^ After his 
death, the wall was overthrown in a tumult of 
the people ; uid had they themselves respected 
the noblest monument of their fathers, they inight 
have justified the resolve that it should never be 
degraded to private property. The inside was 
damaged ; but in the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, an era of taste and learning, the exterior 
circumference of one thous^d six hundred and 
twelve feet was still entire and inviolate ; a triple 
elevation of fourscore arches, which rose to the 
height of one hundred and eight feet. Of the | 
present ruin, the nephews of Paul the third are 
the guilty agents ; and every traveller who views 
the Famese palace may curse the sacrilege and 
luxury of these upstart princes/ A simll&r re« 

f Coliseun^ I . . . ob stultitiam Romanonlm majori ex pprte ad calcem 
deletum, nys the indignant Poggius (p. 17) ; but his expression, too 
Strong for the present age, muBt be very tenderly applied to the fi£- 
teenth century. 

4 Of the OHvetan monks, Montfaucon (p. 142) affirms this fact from 
the memoriali of Flaminiutf Vacca (No. 72). They still hoped, oa 
AODoe future occasion, to revive and vindicate their grant* 

' Ailer tneasuiing the priscus arophitbeatri gynis« Montfiiucoo (p. 
142) only adds, that it was entire under Paul iii ; tacendo ciamat. 
Mutator! (Annali d*Italiae, torn, xiv, p. S71) more freely reports the 
guilt of the Farnese pope, and the indignation of the Roman people. 
Against the nephews of Urban tiii, I have no other advice than the 
ulgar saying, ** Quodnon fecerunt barbari, feca% Barberini)" T^bicb 
^as perhaps suggested by the resemblance of the vrords. 


pfMcii 18 appUed to the Barberini ; and therepe* crap* 
tition of injury might be dreaded from every ^^^\ 
reign, till the Coliseum was placed under the and consea^ 
safeguard of religion by the most liberal of the^^cX^ 
pontiffs^ Benedict the fourteenth^ who consecrat-"^"^ 
ed a spot which persecution and fable had stain-^ 
ed with the blood of so many christian martyrs.' 

When Petrarch first gratified his eyes with aignonmce 
view of those monuments, whose scattered frag-Sm*^J^t 
ments so far sihrpass the most eloquent descrip'» Romans 
tions, he was astonished at the supine indifier-^ 
ence* of the Romans themselves :"* he was hum- 
bled ratiier than elated by the discovery, that 
except his friend Rienzi and one of the Colonna, 
a istraager of the Rhone was more conversant 
with these antiquities than the nobles and natives 
of the metropolis/ The ignorance and credulity 
of the Romans are elaborately displayed in the old 
survey of the city, which was composed about the 

* As «n antiquarian and a priest, Montfaucon thus deprecates the 
ruin of the Coliseum : Quod si non suopte merito atque pukhritudine 
cUgnumfiiiSBet quod improbas arceret manus, indigna res utique in 
locum tot martyrum cniore sacrum tantopere ssvitum esse. 

* Yet the statutes of Rome (I. iii, c. 81, p. 1S2) impose a fine of ' 
500 atird on whosoever shall demolish any abcient edifice, ne ruinit 
civitas deformetur, et ut antiqua aedificia decorem urbis perpetuo re* 

" In his first visit to Rome (a. d. 1337. See M emeires sur Petrarqu6# 
tom. i, p. 322,'''&c.) Petrarch is struck mute miraculo rerum tantarum* 
et stuporis mole oltrutus .... Presentia vero, mirutn dictu, nihil im* 
minuit c vere major fuit Roma majoresque sunt reliquiae quam rebar* 
Jam non oriiem ab hac urbe domitum, sed tarn sero domitum, mlro 
(Oppb p. 605. Familiares, ii, 14. Joanni Columnae). 

* He excepts and praises the rare knowledge of John Colonna. Qui 
enim faodie;.magis ignari rerum Romanorum, quam Romani civet P In* 
Vitus dico nusquam minus Roma cognoscitur quaiQ Romae* 


CHAP, beginniilf of the thiHeenili fxntaty ; aad wJdi- 
"^'*^ out dwelling on the taunflbld errors cM* nine and 
"'"*''''' {riace^ the \egead of the c^pitol^ inagr pffQvdkt e 
tmile of contempt and indignatidn* ^ The ca|>i- 
<* tol^" says the.anonynioos witter^ ^ is to naaied 
** as being the head of the world ; where the 
^ conaab and senators f onimrly resided lir the 
^ goremment of the cit|r ahd Use ^lobe. The 
^ strong imd lofty walls were covered iHAi |^bs 
^ and gold» and crowned with a I'dof cf the 
^ richest and most curious carving. Bdow the 
^ citadel stood a palace, of gold for the grestest 
^ part, decorated with precious stones, and whose 
^ value might be esteemed at one tihird of the 
^ world itself. The statues of all the proviiiGes 
<^ were arranged in order; each with a small bdl 
^ suspended from its neck ; and soch was the 
<' contrivance of art magic/ that if the province 
^ rebelled against Rome, the statue turned round 

y After the dMcriptkm of the cftf^toU he adds, stetQflB enwl fODt simt 
nundi provixici9 ; et b^bebat qtueiibct tintiamtbttlum ad ooXfuntL £t 
fTAiit iUi per megicam aitem dispoeits, at quaiido aIi<|iiaE ftgjio Bo- 
nano imperio rebellis erat* statim imago illiue proFinciue vertebtt w 
contra illam ; unde trntinoabulum resonabat quod pendebat ad colhun ; 
tuocque vates capitolii qui erant custodes lenatuit &c He mentkms 
an example of the Sazomi and Suevi, wlio after they bad been eubdued 
by Agrippa, again rebelled: tintinnabulum 9onuit ; saoerdoa qui ent 
in speculo in hebdomada senatoribus nuntiavit ; Agrippa inarched bock 
and reduced t he ■ Persians (Anonym, ii^ Montfhucon^p. 297, 3$8). 

* The same writer aSlrms» that Virgil captos a Ronaiiis invisibili* 
^ t«r exiit, iTitqoe Neqpnlim. A Roman magician, in the deveoth een< 
tury, is introduced by William of Malmsbnry (de Gestia Bcgaa An|^ 
lorum, 1. ii, p. 86) ; and in the time of Plaminiua Tacea (No^ SI* 
103), it was the yidgar belief that the strangera (the GotiU) Vffvoked tbe 
dsBxnons for the discovery of bidden treasures. 

09 THB mOMAN BMPIBK, 4ttt 

^^ to that quarter of the heavens, the bdl rang* chap, 

^* the prophet of the capitol reported theprodigy, J^^J* 

^^ and the saiate was admoniflhed of the impend* 

«< iiig dbng^n" A tsecond example of less im^ 

portance, though of equal absurdity, mfiy be 

drawn fk*otn the two marble horses, l^d by two 

naked youths, which have since been transported 

fpon^ the bathsof CoBstantioeto theQuirinal hilL 

The groundless application of the name of Phidias 

and Praaiteleai may perhaps be excused ; but these 

Grecian sculptors should not have beep removed 

above fqur hundred years from the age of Pericles 

to that of Tiberius : they should not have been 

transformed into two philosophers or magicians^^ 

whose nakedness was the symbol of truth and 

knowledge, who revealed to the emperor his 

most secret actions ; and, after refusing all pecu> 

niary recompence, solicited the honour of leaving 

this eternal monument of themiselves.^ Thus 

awake to the power of magic, the Romans were 

insenaible to the beauties of art : no more than 

five statues were visible to the eyes of Poggius; 

and of the multitudes which chance or design had 

buried under the ruins, the resurrection was 

fortunately delayed till a safer and more en-r 

lightened age.*" The Nile, which now adorns^ 


* Anonym, p. 299. Montfaucon (p. 191) justly observes, t^t if 
Alexander be represented, these statues cannot be the work of Phi- 
dias (Olympiad Ixxxiil) or Praxiteles (Olympiad civ), who lived be* 
fore that conc^ueror (Plin. Hist. Natur. xxxiv. Id). 

* William of Malmsbury (1. ii, p. 86, 87) relates a marvellous dis- 
covery (a. 0. 1046) of Pallas, the son of Evander, who had been slain 
by Tumus : the perpetual light in his sepulchre ; a Latin epitaph ; 
the corpse, yet eatire, of a young giant $ the enormous wound in his 



GHAF. the Vaticao» had been explored by somelaboarer^; 
'*'"'* in dinruifira vineyard near thetemple^ orcatLYeDt, 
of the Minerva ; but the impatient propnetor, 
who was tormented by some visits of cariasityy 
restored the unprofitable marble to its former 
grave.* The discovery of a statue of Pompey, 
ten feet in length, was the occasion of a law-suit 
It had been found under a partition-waD : the 
equitable judge had pronounced, that the head 
should be separated from the body to satisfy the 
claims of thecontiguous owners; and the sentence 
would have been executed, if the intercession of 
a cardinal, and the liberality of a pope, had not 
rescued the Roman hero from the hands of his 
barbarous countrymen,* 
Rwiore- fiut theclouds of barbarism were gradually dis- 
onutmento pcllcd ; and the peaceful authority of Martin the 
^^^j^'^'fifth and his successors restored the ornaments of 
*c» the city as well as the order of the ecclesiastica] 
state. The improvements of Rome^ since the 
fifteenth century, have not been the spontaneous 
produce of freedom and industry. The first aad 
most natural root of a great city is the labour 
and populousness of the adjacent country, which 

breast (pectus perforat ingens)* &c. If this fable rests on the sligfat. 
est foundation, we may pity the bodies, as well as the statues, that 
were exposed to the air in a barbarous age. 

* Prope porticum Minervae, stotua est recubantis, cujus caput io- 
tegra efligie tantse magnitudinis, ut signa omnia excedat. Qoidam 
•d plantandos arbores aerobes faciens detexit. Ad hoc viseodiim cum 
piures in dies magnis concurrerent, strepitum adeuntium (astidiumque 
pertassus, horti patronus congesta humo texit (Poggius de Vaxietate 
Fortunae, p. 12). 

See the Memorials of Flaminia Vacca, No. 57, p. 11, 12, attfat 
end oj* the Roma Antica of Nardini (1704, in 


supplies the materials of subsistence, of mauufac^ ciiap% 
tures^ and of foreign trade. But the greater part ^^^** 
of the Campagna of Rome is reduced to a dreary 
and desK>late wilderness: the overgrown estates of 
the princes and the clergy are cultivated by the 
lazy hands of indigent and hopeless vissals ; and 
the. scanty harvests are confined or exported for 
the benefit oi a Qionopoly. A second and more 
artificial cause of the growth of a metropolis is the 
residence of a mouarch, the expence of a luxu* 
rious court, and the tributes of dependent pro* 
vinces. Those provinces and tributes had been 
lost in the fall of the empire ; and if some streams 
of the silver of Peru and the gold of Brasil have 
been attracted by the Vatican, the revenues of 
the cardinals, ,the fees of office, . the oblations of 
pilgrims and clients, and the remnant of eccle- 
siastical taxes, afforda poor and precarious supply, 
which maintains however the idleness of the court 
and city. The population of Rome, far below the 
measure of the great capitals of Europe, does not 
exceed one hundred and seventy thousand inhabi* 
tants f and within the spacious inclosure of the 
walls, the largest portion of the seven hills is over- 
spread with vineyards and ruins. The beauty and 
splendour of the modern city may be ascribed to 
the abuses of the government, to the influence of 
superstition. Each reign (the exceptions are r^re) 

• In the year 1 709, the inhabitants of Itome (without including 
eight or ten thousand Jews) amounted to 138,568 souls (Labat, Voy* 
ages en Espagne et in Italie, torn, ili, p. !?17, 218). In 1740 they 
had increased to 146,080; and in 1765, I left them, without the 
Jews, 161,899. 1 am ignorant whether they hav^ since continued 1 
A progressive state. ' • 


490 THB OieLIMB AN<» *Alst» 

CHAF. ha» been marked by the rapid ekvatkm of «B€W 
^^"\ famUy, enriched by the ohUdtoM pontiff, at the 
expence of thcf church and country. The paiac^ 
of these fortunate nephews are the moat costly 
monuments of eleganceand servitude; thcperfect 
arts of architecture, paintbg^ and sc^llptu^e^have 
been prostituted in theirserrice, and theirgalleries 
and gardens are decorated with the most predous 
works of antiquity, which taste or vamty tes 
prompted them to collect. The ecclesiaatical re- 
venues were more decently employed by the popes 
themselves in the pomp of the ca^Hkohc worship; 
but it is superfluous to enuBnerate their pious 
foundations of altars, chapels, and ehurehesj «nce 
these lesser stars are eclipsed by the son of the 
Vatican, by the dome of St Peter, the most glc 
rious structure that ever has been aj^Ued to the 
use of religion. The fame of Julius the second, 
Leo the tenth, and Sixtusthe fifths is accompamed 
by the superior merit of Bramante and Fontana^ 
of Raphael and MichaeI«#Ange!o ; and the same 
munificence which had been displayed in palaces 
and temples was directed With equal zeal to re- 
vive and emulate the labours of antiquity* Pros- 
trate obelisks were raised from the ground, and 
erected in the most conspicuous places ; of the 
eleven aqueducts of the Caesars and consuls, three 
were restored; the artificial rivers were conducted 
over a long series of old, or of new arches, to 
discharge into marble basins a flood of salubrious 
and refreshing waters ; and the spectator, im- 
patient to ascend the steps of St. Peter's, is de- 
tained by a column of Egyptian granite, wiuqh 


W trm &OUAS BMPItl^ 4$l 

risea tetv^en tvo lofty and perpetual fouiitaifis^ c iiAf. 
to the height of one hundred and twenty feet, ^^ ^ ^ 
The nap, the descriptUMi, the monuments^ et 
indent Rome have been dudd^ted hj the diU- 
genoe of the antiquarian find the ftudent :' and 
the fidQtsteps of heroes, the rehcs, not pf super* 
stition, but of empire, are devoutly visited by 
a new race of pilgrims from the remote, end onoe 
savage, countries of the North. 

Of these pilgrims, and pf every reader, the at- Final c<». 
tention will be excited by an history of the de- 
cline and fall of the Roman empire; the greatest, 
perhaps, and most awful scene, in the history of 
mankind. The various causes and progressive 
effects are .connected with many pf the ev^ts 

' Tl^ Perv ¥oatfhuc<n difiriinxtes hU omn ofefenrfttiom i»U 
twenty d^srs. b« sbduld have'styled tliei;n weeks, or months, of his vW 
sits to the different parts of the chy (Diarium italicum, c% 8^20, p. 
lH-801). TlMt learned Benedictine review* the topographers of 
ancient Rome ; the first efibrts of Blondua» Fvlviua, Mi^rtiaQuSy s#4 
FaunuSv the superior labours of Pyrrhus Ligorius, had his learning 
been equal to his labours ; the writings of Onupbrius Panvinius^ qui 
omnes obscuravit, and the recent but imperfect boolts of Donatus and 
Nardini. Yet Montfaucon still srghs for a more complete plan and 
description of' the old city, which must be attained by the three fol- 
lowing .snethods : 1. The measurement of the space and intervals of 
the ruins* 2. The study of inscriptions, and the places where they 
were found. 3. The investigation of all the acts, charters, djarieis, of 
the middle ages, which name any spot or building of Romei The la* 
borlous work, such as Montfaucon desired, must be- promoted by 
princely or public munificence ; but the great modem plan of NoUi 
(▲. o. 1748) would furnish a solid and accurate basis for the aficient t»i 
fograpby of Rome» 


€HAP« moftt iaterestiiig in human annals : the artfoi 
^^^ ^^ ^ ^_ policy of the Caesars, who long maintained the 
name and image of a free republic ; the disorder 
of military despotism; the rise, estaUishment, 
and sects, of Christianity; the foundation of Con- 
stantinople ; the division of the monardiy ; the 
invasion and settlements of the barbarians of 
Germany and Scy thia ; the institutions of the 
civil law ; the character and religion of Maho- 
met ; the temporal sovereignty of the popes ; the 
restoration and decay of the Western empire of 
Charlemagne ; the crusades of the Latins in the 
East ; the conquests of the Saracens and Turks ; 
the ruin of the Greek empire ; the state and re- 
volutions of Rome in the middle age. The histo- 
rian may applaud the importance and variety of 
his subject ; but, while he is conscious of his own 
> imperfections, he must often accuse the deficiency 
of his materials. It was among the ruins of the 
capitol, that I first conceived the idea of a work 
whichhas amused andexercised neartwentyyears 
of my life; and which, however inadequate to my 
own wishes, I finally deliver to the curiosity ajid 
candoipr of the public. 


June «7, 1787, 


ar, B. 'The Roittftii Nuttenls refer to the Volume, end the Figures to the Pane. 


jA BAN^ the Saracen, heroism of his widow, ix, 393. 

AbbassideSy elevation of the house of, to the office of caliph' of the Sa- 
racens, X, 28. 

Abdaliah^ the Saracen, his excursion to plunder the fair of Abyla, ix, 
4O0. His /\frican expedition, 401. 

Ahdaitnalek^ caliph of the Saracens, refuses tribute to the emperor of 
Constantinople, and establishes a nadonal mint, x, 7- 

Ahdatrahman^ the Saracen, establishes his throne at Cordova in "Spain, 
X, 34. Splendour of his court, 37* His estimate of his happmess, 

Abdelas&hf the Saracen, his treaty with Theodenur the Gothic prince 
of Spain, ix, 481,482. His death, 485. 

Abderame^ his expedition toy France, and victories there, x, 21. I£s 
death, 26. 

Abdol MotcUeb^ the grandfether of the prophet Mahomet, his history, 
ix, 253. 

Abgarus^ inquiry into the authenticity of his correspondence with Je- 
sus Christ, ix, 117* 

AbgaruSy the last king qf Edessa, sent in chains to Rome, i, 335. 

Abiavius^ the confidential prefect under Con^tantine the Great, a con- 
spiracy formed against him on that emperor^s death, iii, 130. Is 
put to death, 132. 

^bu Ayub^ his history, and the veneration paid to his memory by the 
Mahometans, x, 5 \ xii, 244. 

Abubeker^ the friend of Mahomet, is one of his first converts, ix, 283. 
Flies from Mecca with him, 288. Succeeds Mahomet as caliph of 
the Saracens, 332. His character, 358. 

Abu Caab commands the Andalusian Moors who subdued the island of 
Crete, X, 58. 

Abu Sophtan^ prince of Mecca, conspires the death of Mahomet, ix, 
288. Battles of Beder and Ohud, 298-301. Besieges Medina 
without sutcess, 301. Surrenders Mecca to Mahomet, and receives 
bim as a prophet, 307. 

vot. XII. F f 


archUihop cif Milan, S8. Opposes the Arian ivorship of the cm- 
prcM Juttma, S9. Kcfiises obedieiice to the imperial povrcr, 45. 
Controb the emperor TheodosiuSy 68, 69* Imposes penance od 
Theodosaus for his cruel treatment of Thessalonica, 71 • Emplojed 
,hit tnHuencc over Gratian and Theodoflus, to inspire them with max- 
ims of persecution, 91. Opposes Symmachus, the advocate for t!be 
old pagan religion, 99. Comforts the citizens of Florence mth a 
dream, when be^iegcd by Radagaisus, 218. 

AffttJa^ siege of, by Sapor king orPersia, iii, 205* Recoves the fugi- 
tive inhabitants of Nisibis, iv, 220. Is besieged and taken by Ca&- 
des king of Persia,' vii, 138* 

i^iatf*, prince of Ionia, his character, and passage into Europe, si, 

Ammismis the historian, his religious character of the empcKor Coo- 

* stantius, iii, 352. I^ remark on the enmity of Christians towuds 
each other, 403. His account of the fiery obstractions to restonng 
the temple of Jerusalem, iv, 108. His account of the hostile con- 
test of Pan^SGUs and Ursinus for the bishopric of Rome, iv, 274. 
Testimony b favour of his historical merit, 427* His characta of 
the nobles of Rome, v, 267- 

Ammgitw/^ the mathematician, his measurement of the circuit of 
Rome, v, 287. 

Ammonius^ the monk of Alexandria, hb martyrdom, viii, 280. 

Amorium, siege and destruction of^ by the caliph Motasaem, x, 69* 

Amphilocus^ bishop of Iconiua, gains the favour of the emperor Tfaeot 
dosius by an orthodox bon mot^ v, 16. 

Amphitheatre at Rome, a description of, ii, 103 j xll, 41 S. 

Amrou^ his birth and character, ix, 425. His invaaioa and conquest 
of Bgypt, 423. His administration there, 44-3. His desciiption of 
the country, *445. 

Amurath J, sultan of the Turks, his reign, xi, 444. 

Amurath II, sultan, his reign and character, xii, 150. 

Anachorets^ in monkish history, described, vi, 263. 

Anacleiusy pope, his Jewish extraction, xii, 31£« 

Anastasius I, marries the empress Ariadne, vii, 6. His war with The- 
odoric, the Ostrogoth king of Italy, 24. His economy celebrated, 
101. His long wall from the Propontis to the Euxine, 129. h 
humbled by the catholic clergy, viii, 316. 

Anastasius II, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 24. His preparations of 
defence against the Saracens, x, 3« 

Anastasius^ St., his brief history and martyrdom, viii, 22.3, note, 

AnatiOf the city of, on the banks of the Euphrates, described, ivy 

AnJaiusia^ derivation of the name of that province, ix, 467» n9te. 

AnJronicut^ president of Libya, excommimipated by Synesius bis^p of 
Ptolcmaxs, iii, 299, 300. 

Andronicus Ccmnenus^ his character, and first adventures, ix, 92. 
' Sdzes the em|nre of Constantinople, 104. H}s unhappy £ite, 107. 

Andronicus the elder, emperor of Constantinople, his supex^tition, xL 
35$. His war with his grandson, and ahdication^ 366. 


Anjronicus the younger, emperor of Constantinople, his licentious cha- 
racter, xi, 363. His civil >var against his grandfather, 365. Hts 
reign, 369. Is vanquished and wounded by Sultan Orchan, 436. 
His private application to Pope Benedict of Rome, xii, 66* 

Angora^ battle of, between Tamerlane and Bajazet, xii, 66* 

Anianut^ bishop of Orleans, his pious anxiety for the relief of that city, 
when besieged by Attila the Hun, vi, 108. 

Anici4Uii,ixaaiy at Rome, brief history of, v, 259. 

Anne Comnma^ character of her history of her father, Alexius I, em- 
peror of Constantinople, ix, 83. Her conspiracy against her bro- 
ther Jdhn, 86. 

AntkemtuSf emperor of the West, his descent and investiture by Leo the 
Great, vi, 193. His election confirmed at Home, 194. Is killed 
in the sacls; of Rome by Ricimer, 217, 218. * 

AnthemiuSy prefect of the East, character cf his administration, in the 
minority of the emperor Theodosius the younger, v, 414, 415. 

Antkemius the architect, instances of his great knowledge in mechanics, 
vii, 114. Forms the design of the chiirch of St. Sophia at Constan- 
tinople, 117. 

Anthony y St., father of the Egyptian monks, his history, vi, 241. 

Antbropormorphitesy among the early Christians, personifiers of the 
Deity, viii, 269. 

Antiocby taken and destroyed by Sapor king of Persia, i, 438. Flou- 
rishing state of the Christian church there, in the reign of Theodo- 
sius, ii, 361. 

' - history of the body of St. BabyLis, bishop of, iv, 122. The 

cathedral of, shut up, and its wealth confiscated, by the emperor Ju-^ 
lian, 123. licentious manners of the citizens, 144. Popular dis- 
contents during the residence of Julian there, 146. 

- .. sedition there, against the emperor Theodosius, v, 59. The 

city pardoned, 64. 

is taken, and ruined, by Chosroes king of Persia, vii, Si 3. 

Great destruction there by an earthquake, 417* Is again seized by 
Chosroes II, viii, 220. 

is reduced by the Saracens, and ransomed, ix^ 417. Is reco- 

vered by the Greeks, x, 90. 

■ besieged and taken by the first crusaders, xi, 64, 

Antmna^ the wife of Belisarius, her character, vii, 164. Examines 
and convicU Pope Sylverius of treachery, 238. Her activity during 
the siege of Rome, 241. Her secret history, 261. Founds a con- 
vent for her retreat, 408. 

Antoninus^ a Roman refugee at the court of Sapor king of Persia, sti- 
mulates him to an invasion of the Roman provinces, iii, 203. 

Antoninus Fins^ his character, and that of Hadrian, compared, i^ 12. 
Is adopted by Hadrian, 122. 

Antoninus Marcus ^ his defensive wars, i, 13. Is adopted by Pins at 
the imtance of Hadrian, 123. His character, 135. His war a- 
gainst the united Germans, 381. Suspicious story of his elHtt in 
fovour of the Christians; ii, 445. 

Aper^ Arrius^ pret^ian prefect, and father 'ia*law to tht emperbr 

OMSEMXh l!niEX. 

•^ iiudrr the wills of that dty, 255. AccepU a ransom/ and raises 

^' the neee, 995. His negotiation with the' emperor Hononos, 
^7. His second siege of Rome, 303. Places Attains on the 
imperial throne, 305. Degrades him, 309. Seizes the city of 
Uome, 31 1. His sack of Home compared with that bj the empt- 
ror Charles V, 328. Retires from Home, and ravages Italy, 325. 
His death and burial, 3«9. 

^laric 1 1, king of the Goths, hir» ovcrlhrow by Clovis king^ of the 
Franks vi, 330. 

jHhcric, the son of M arozia, his revolt, and govcizHnent of Rome} h, 

Albigeuit of France, persecution of, x, 187* 

Mboin^ king of the Lombards, bis history, viii, 1 VT* His aUiance 
with the Avars against the Gepidie, 119, 120. Redoces the Ge^ 
pida;?, 121. He undertakes the conquest of Italy, 122. Over* 
runs what is now called Lombardy, 126. Assumes the regal 
title there, 127, 128. Takes Pavia, and makes it his capftsl 
city,. 128, 129. Is murdered at the instigation of his queen Ro- 
samond, r29. 

2lfchemy, the books of, in Egypt, destroyed by Diocletian, u, 137* 

Akmanni^ the origin and warlike spirit of, i, 417. Are driven oat of 
Italy by the senate and people,. 418< Invade the empire under 
Aurelian, ii, 21. Am totally routed, €4. Gaul delivered £nom 
their depredations by Constatitius Chkarus, 131. 

— — — — invade and establish themselves in Gaul, iii, 214. Are de- 
feated 'at Strasbiirgl) by Jofian, 223. Are reduced by Julian in bis 
expeditions beyond the Rhine, 229. Invade Gaul under the empe- 
ror Valentinian, iv, 277. Arc reduced by Jovinus, 279. And 
chastised by Valentiniati, 282. 

are subdued by Clovis king of the Franks, vi, 316. 

Aleppot siege and capture of, by the Saracens, ix, 415. Is reco- 
vered by the Greeks, x, 90. \% taken and sacked by Tamerlane, 
xii,21. . 

Alexander III, pope, establishes the papal election in the coUege of 
cardinals, xii, 3001 

Alexander^ archbishop of Alexandria, excommunicates Anus for \k 
heresy, iii, 328. ' 

Akxunder Severus^ is declared Csesar by the emperor £lagabahis^ i, 
238. Is raisecl to the throne, 240. Examination into his pre- 
tended victory over Artaxerxes, 337. Shewed a regard iar \hc 
Christian religion, ii, 450. 

Alexandria y a general massacre there, by order of* the emperor Ca- 
racalla, i, 'J 19. The city describe, 452. la ruiaed by rii^cu- 
lous intestine commotions, 453. By famine and pestilence, 456^ 
'Is besieged and taken by Diocletian, H, 134» The Christian the- 
ology reduced to a systematictd form in the school of, S63. Num- 
ber of martyrs who suffered there in the persecution br Pedus, 
'■ the theological system of Plato taught in the school o£i and 

received by the Jews there, iii, 316. Questions concerning the 


nature of the Trinity, agitated in the philosophical and Christian 
schools of, S2i, 527. History of the archbishop St. Athanasius, 
i^36m Outrages attending his expuli»ion and the establishment of 
his successor, George of Cappadocia, 380. The city distracted 
by pious &ctions, 5S9- Disgraceful life and tragical death of 
Geoxgtqf Cappadocia, irv, 1^5. Kestoration of Athanasius, iSl. 
Athanasius baubhed by Julian, 132. Suffers greatly by an earth- 
quake, 339. 

AUxandria^ history of the temple of Serapis there, v, i08. This tempk, 
and the famous library, destroyed by Bishop Theophilus, 111, 

— :^— is taken by Awron the Saracen, ix, 435. - The famous li- 
brary destroyed, 439. • 

Alexius AngeiuSy his usurpation of the Greek empire, and character, 
xi. 185. Flies before the crusaders, 212, 

Alexius I, Comnenusy emperor of Constantinople, ix, 83. New titles 
of dignity invented by him, 121. Battle of Durazzo, 294. Soli* 
cits the aid of the emperor Henry III, 300. 
■ solicits the aid of the Christian princef against the Turks, xi, . 

6. His suspicious policy on the arrival of the crusaders, 45, 46. 
Exacts homage from them, 48. Profits by the success of the cru- 
saders, 101, 102. 

Alexius II, C^mnenus^ emperor of Constantinople, ix, 92. 

Alexius Strategopulus^ the Greek general, .retakes Constantinople from 
the Latins, xi, 284. -- 

AJexiusj the spn of Isaac Angelus, his escape from his uncle, who 
had deposed his father, xi, 186. His treaty with the crusaders 
for his restoration, 202, {lestoration of his father, 217. Sis death, 

J^red sends an embassy to the shrine of St. Thomas in India, viil. 

Algebra^ by whom invented, x, 47. • 

Ali joins Mahomet in his prophetical mission, ix, 284. His. he- 
roism, 304. His character, 329., Is chosen caliph of the Sa>-. 
racens« 333. Devotion paid at his tomb, 341. His posterity, 

Aligern defends Gums, for his brother Teias, king of the Goths, vii, 
390. Is reduced, 392. 

AUectus murders Carausius, and usurps his station, ii, 187* 

Al^ ArslaUy sultan of the Turks, his reign, x, 352* 

Alypius^ governor of Britain, is commissioned by the emperor Julian to 
rebuild the temple of Jerusalem, iv, 105. 

Amala^ king of the Goths, his high credit among them, i, 394.. \ » 

Amalasonthay queen of Italy, her history and character, vii, 206. .H^r 
death, 210. 

Amal^ty description. of the city, and its commerce, x, 279. 

Ama^nSf improbability of any society of, ii, 46, Mie. - '• . i J A •,. 

AnAition^^ reflections on the violence, and various operations c»6 that 
passicHi, ix, 109. i . ; ;i. * J - - 

Ambrose^ St. composes a tieatise on the Trinity, for the :iiseio£ -tha 
emperor Gratian, v, 4, note. His birth, and promotion to sthc 



Jim TsifTf the Carmathian, pillages Mecca, x, 77* 

^iMfiedtf his account of the ^endour of the calipli Moctadcr, s, 87. 

AbtJfk^rsgimi^ primate of the eastctn JacohiteSy some accaontof, m^ 

968. His encomium on wisdom and learnings x, 42. 
Abundmrntiiis^ general of the East, and pation of the eunnch Eatiopiis, 
* is dismced and exiled hj him, v, 381. 
jtbfls^ Uie fiur of, plundered b^ the Saracens, ix, 402. 
Ahjssiniaf the inhabitants of, described, vii, 340. Thdr aDiasce 

iwith the emperor Jastinian, S4S. Ecclesiastical histoiy o£, vm, 

S67. * 

Aetieius^ bishop of Amida, an uncommon instance of ciMftX)fal benero- 

knee, V, 427. 
Jkhmm^ iu extent, i, 88. 
^crr, the memorable siege of, by the crusaders, xi, 142. Final los&o^, 

AeHomt^ anstitutet of Justinian respecting, Tiii, 82. 
Actium^ a review of Roman a£Us5 after the battle of, i, 95. 
AdauthUf the only maxtjt ti distinction during the persecution xsk. 

Diocletian, ii, 48a 
AM/Aus^ the brother of Alaric, brings him a reinforcement of tioops, 

T, 296» Is made count of the domestics to the new emperor Atu- 

lu% 805. Succeeds his brother as king of the Godis, and conckie$ 

a peace with Honorius, 880. 
AdoptUM^ the two kinds of^ under the Greek empire, xi, 49, note, 
Ad^raihn of the Roman emperor, custom' of, and derivatioii of tk 

tern, X, 124. 
AithnOf the Gcnoeie governor of Pkocsea, conveys Amuratb II froiQ 

Asia to Europe, xii, 52. 
Adrwf I, Pope, his alliance M'ith Charlemagne against tk l^f- 

bards, ix, 150. His reception ci Charlemagne at Rome, 15^, 

155. Asserts the fictitious donation of Constantine the Grraf^ 

159. , 

jUu/tery, distinctions of, and bow punished by Augustus, viii, 99* % 

the Christian emperors, 102^ 
JE/ia Ca^tolina founded on Mount Sion, by Hadrian, ii, 279. 
JEluuFsiiiJ^ bis Tr^MTUiej the oldest work of Roman yssas^^^ 

JEmliantu^ governor of Pknnonia and Maesia, routs the barbarotj^ 

invaders ot the empire, and is declared emperor by his troop^ *' 

ILueat of Gaza, his attestation of the miraculous gift of speech to tn^ 
catholic con&sBors of Tipasa, whose tongues Had been cut out, vi, 

JEneat Sihiut^ his aiccount of the impracticability of an European c»' 
sade again^ the Turks, yiv, 258. His epigram on the dua^x^icm ^ 
ancient biuldings in Rome, 418, note* ^ 

JErm. of the- world, remarkable epochal in, pointed eot, vS; 1^' 

—— Gelalaean of the Turks, when settled, X, 867. 

4mal^3a!aaSijt^ in the eastdn empire^ whait> tU, 106^ 


JEtiuSy sumaii^ed the Atheist, his character and adventures, iii, SS9, 
S54, ^16, note. 

■ — '• the Roman general under Valentinian III, hk character, 
vi, 9. His treacherous scheme to ruin Count Boniface, 11. .Is 
forced to retire into Pannonia, 26. His invitation of the Huns 
into the empire, 39. Seizes the administration of the western 
empire, 89. His character, as given by Renatus a cotemporary 
historian, 90. Employs the Huns and Alani in the defence iX 
Gaul, 9*2. Concludes a peace with Theodoric, 97. Raises the 
siege of Orleans, 110. Battle of Chalons, 112. His prudence on 
the invasion of Italy by Attila, 129. Is murdered by Valentinian, 

Africa y its situation and ' revDlutions, i, 41. Great revenue raised 
from by the Romans, 258. Progress of Christianity ther<J,, ii, 

— — — is distracted with religious discord in the time of Constantine 
the Great, iii, 309* Character and revolt of the Circumcellions, 
398. Oppressions of, under the government of Count Roxnanus, iv^ 
301 . General state of Africa, 308. 

rcvoit of Count Boniface there, vi, 11. Arrival of Genseric 

king of the V^dals, 14. Persecution of the Donatists, 16. De- 
vastations of, by the Vandals, 20. Carthage surprised by Genseric, 
28. Persecution of the Catholics, 280. 

expedition of Belisarius to, vii, 168. Is recovered by the 

Romans, 186. The govtmment of, settled by Justinian, 187. 
Revolt of the troops there, under Stoz:a, 349. Devastation of the 
war, 353. 

• invasion of, by the Saracens, ix, 449. Conquest of, by Ak- 

bah, 455. Decfine and extinction of Christianity there, 495. Re- 
volt and independence of the Saracens there, x, 79. 

Aglabttes^ the Saracen dynasty of, x, 79. 

Jlglae^ a Roman lady, patronises St Boniface, ii, 482. 

Agricola^ review of his conduct in Britain, i, 7. 

Agriculture^ great improvement of, in the western countries of the Ro- 
man empire, i, 84. State of, in the eastern empire, under Justinian, « 
iv, 70. 

4jaxy the sepulchre of, how distinguished, iii, 1 1. 

Ai^nadin^ battle of, between the Saracens and the Greeks, ix, 388. 

Akbahy the Saracen, h{s exploits in Africa, ix, 4A5. 

Alani^ occasion of these people invading Asia, ii, 68. Conquest of, 
by the Huns, iv, 371. Join tKe Goths who had emigrated into 
Thrace, 400. See Gotlt and Vandah. 

Alaric^ the Goth, learns the art of war under Theodosius the Great, 
V, 80. Becomes the leader of the Gothic revolt, and ravages 
Greece, 178. Escapes from StiMcho, 186. Is appointed master- 
general of the eastern lUyricum, 188. His invaaon of Italy, 
190. Is defeated by Stilicho at Pqllentia, 199. Is driven out of 
Italy, 203t. Is, by treaty with Honorius^ declared master-general 
of the Roman armies throughout the prefecture of Illyricum, 234. 
H& pleas and motives &r marching to Rome, 252. £ncamo» 

. rf 2 


Numcrian,* is killed by Biodetiaii as the psesampdve mucdeier «f 
that prince, ii, 1(>8. 

A/fharbaa^ th^ Persian, his embassy from Narses king of Pcrsa, to the 
emperor Galerius, ii, 14*9. 

/fiocafyfise^ why now admitted into the canon of the Scriptuxe^, ii, S04, 

Jpocaucus^ admiral of Constantinople, his confederacy against Joha 
Cantacuzcne, xi, S?^. His death, S80. 

Jfolfinarut bishop of Lapdicea, his hypothecs of the divine incarna- 
tion of Jesus Christ, viii, 271* 

JfellinariSf patriarch of Ale:tandna, butchefs his flock in defence of 
the catholic doctrine of the incarnation, viii, 362. 

Jfitl/onius of Tyana, hb doubtful character, ii, S7, note: 

Apotheosis of the Roman emperors, how this custom was introduced, i^ 

Afsimar dethrones Leontius emperor of Constantinople, and usurps his 
place, ix, 19. 

Apulia is conquered by the Normans, x, 262. Is confirmed to them 
b)r papal grant, 270. 

AquUeia^ besieged by the emperor Haximin, i, 296, I,s taken and de- 
stroyed by Attila king of the Hiins, vi, 124. 

Aquitain is settled by the Godths, under their king Wallia, v, 358. Is 
conquered by Clovis king of Uic Franks, vi, 336. . 

Arabia^ its situation, sml, and climate, ix, 21p. Its division into 
the San^^ the Stony ^ and the Happy ^ 22% The -.pastoral Arabs, 
223. Their horses and camels, 224, 225. Cities of, 226. Man- 
ners and customs of the Arabs* 228. Their language, 23$^. 
Their, benevolence, 242. History and description ot the Caaba 
of Mecca, 245. Religions, 249. Life and doctrine of Maho- 
met, 253. Conquest o?, by Mahomet, 309. Character of the ca- 
liphs, 357. Rapid conquests of^ 36 1 • Limits of their conquests, 
X, I. Three caliphs ^taUished, 34. Introduction of learn- 
in? among the Arabians, 41. Their progress in the sciences, 44. 
'iiieir literary deficiencies, 50. Decline and fall of the caliphs, 77i 
78. , 

Arbeti\, a veteran under Constantino the Great, leaves hb retirement 
to oppose the usurper P^!ocopius, iv, 249. ^ 

Arbogflstes^ the Frank, his military promotion under Theodosius in 
Gaul, and conspiracy against Valentinian the younger, y, 77* h 
dtfeated by Theodosius, and kills himself^ v, 84, ^5, 

ArcasliuSj son of the emperor Theodosius, succeeds to the empire of 
the £a^, v, 137* His magnificence, 373. Extent of his do- 
npniops, 374. Administration of his favourite eunuch Eutro- 
piu9^ 376. .His cruel law against treason, 383. Signs the con- 
demnation of Eutropius, 391. ICs interview with ikvt revohers 
Tiibigild and Gainas, 393, 394. HiS|d<;ath9 and supposed testa- 
ment, 412>. , . 

Architecture^ Roman, the general magnificeiHSe o^ indicated by the ex- 
Jstiilg ruins, iy 70. 

Jr/^burftttf lis expedition to Italy, to reflnce th^ usurper John, ti, 4, 

^rgonuutty the object of their expedition to Colchos, vii, '32L . r 

^ricdne^ daughter of the emperor- Leo, and wife of Zeno^ her charac- 
ter, and marriage aftenvard with Anastasius, vli, 6» 

-^V«, . a tribe of the Lygians, their terrific mode of waging war^ ii^ 

ArintJumis, is aj^ointed general of the horse by the emperor Julian on 
his Persian expedition, iv, 162. Distinguishes himself against the 
usurper Procopius, 1149. 

AriovUtus seizes t^vo-thirds of the lands of the Sequ^ni in Gaul, iot 
himself and his Gerynan followers, vi, 3i54*. 

Arisiobulut^ prmcipal. minister of the houife of Cams, is received inti 
confidence by the emperpr Diocletian, ii, 1 14, ... 

Arhtotle^ his logic better adapted to the detection of error, than for the 
discovery of t^ruth, x, 46. 

Arius is excoramunicated for heretical notions concerning tEe Trinity^ 
iii, S^8* Strength oC his party^ tbui. His opinions, examined in 
the council of Nice, 332. Account of Arian sects, 338. Councii 
of Rimini, 348. His banishment and recal, 347, 348. His sus- 
picious death, 348. 

^ the Arians persecute the Catholics in Africa, vl, 280. 

Armenia is seized by. Sapor king of Persia, i, 435. Tiridatea rcstt^r- 
cd, ii, 139. He is i^gain cxpellpd l^ the . Persians, r«l 44. I« 
resigned to Tiridates by Veaty between the Romans afui p€;rsia|is, 

' is rendered tributary ip Persia, on the death of Tuidates, lil, 

1 37* Character of Arsaces Tiranus, king of, and his conduct to* 
wajcd the eniperor Juljan, iv, 157, 153. Is reduced h^^ Sapor to a 
IPeiraan province, 818. 

• ito distractions and division between .the Persians and the R<h( 

mans, v, 428. 

< history of Christianity there, viil, 357, 358. 

Atrmies of the eastern emj^re, state of, under the emperor Maurice* 

Armortca^ the provinces of, form a free government independent on the 

Romans, v, 363. Submits to Clovis Idng of the Franks, vi, 32^ 

Settlement of Britons in, 389* 
Armour^ defensive, is laid aside by the Romans, and adopted by the 

barbarian^, v, 89. 
Arnold of firescia, his heresy and history, xii, 271 . 
Artagon^ derivation of the name of that province,!, 31, note. 
jirrian^ his visit tp, and description of, Colchos, vii, 327. 
Arsaces Ttranufj king of Armenia, his character, and disaffection I© 

the emperor Julian, iv, 157, 158. Withdraws his troops ixeache* 

rously from the Roman service, 185. His disastrous end^ 312* 
Arsenius^ patriarch of Constantinople, excommunicates the emperor 

Michael Palaeologus, xi, 3^« Faction of the Arsenites, 328. 
Artabart^ king of Parthia, is defeated and slain by Aitaxtrxes king of 

Persia, i, 318. .... 

Artatan^ his conspiracy against the emperor Jusdnlan, vii, ST^*. h 
i intrusted :mth the conduct of the a.rmament sent to Italy, S78« 


Bstiora^ ht foondatton and situation, ix, 368. 

Bsth^ public, of Rome, described, t, 282. 

Bmime^ reception of the emperor Julian there, ir, 154. 

B^^t*^ wild, the Tariety o^ introduced in the circus, for Ae ^tzbCc 
games at Rome, ii, 101* 

Beams^e^ M. de, character of his Histoire Criti^e dm itanickeism^ 
viii, 260, note. 

Bedtr^ battle of, between Mahomet and the Koreish of Mecca, ix, 

Btdowetns of Arabia, their mode of fife, ix, 223* 

Beet^ remarks on the structure of their combs and cells, x, 42, nou. 

BeUsariui^ his birth and militar^r promotion, vii, 161. Is appointed 
by Justinian to conduct the African war, 164-. Umbarkakkn of his 
troops, 167. Lands in Africa, 171. Defeats GeHmcr, 176. Is 
received into Carthage, 177. Second defeat of Gelimer, 184. 
Reductbn of Africa, 186. Surrender of Gelimer, 191. His tri- 
umphant return to Constantinople, 194. Is declared sole coasul, 
195. He menaces the Ostn^ths of Italy, 205- He seizes Sicily, 
212. Invades Italy, 2l7. Takes Naples, 220. He enters Rome, 
$Si. He is besieged in Rome by the Goths, ibui. The siege 
raised, 246. ' Causes Constantine, one of hb generals, to be kill- 
ed, 247.' Siege of Ravenna, 253. Takes Ravenna by strata- 
gem, ^^: Returns to Constantinople, 258. His character snd 
behaviour, 259. Scandalous life of his wife Antonina, 261.' His 
disgrace and 'submission, 267. Is sent into the £ast to oppose 
Chosroes king of Persia, 315. His polidc reception of the i\^an 
ambassadors, 816. His second campaign in Italy, 360. tih in- 
effectual attempt to raise the siege of Rome, 364. Dissuades Toti- 
la from destroying Rome, 369. Recovers the city, 370. His 
final recal from Italy, 372. Rescues Constantinople ^m the Bul- 
garians, 404. His disgrace and death, 407. 

Benefice^ in feudal language, explained, vi, S57. 

B^nevento^ battle of, between Charles of Anjou, and Mainfroy the Si- 
cilian usurper, xi, 339. 

Beneventum^ anecdotes relating to the siege of, x, 259. 

Benjamin of Tudela, his account of the riches of Constantinople, i^ 

BenrCy of Aleppo, reception of the emperor Julian there, iv, 154. 

Bernard^ St., his character and influence in promoting the second cru- 
sade, xi, 117. His character of the Romans, xi, 270. 

BerytuSf account of the law-school established there, iii, 53. Is de- 
stroyed by an earthquake, vii, 417. 

Bemier^ his account of the camp of Aureng^ebe, i, 333, note, 

Besiaridn^ Cardinal, his character, xii, 129. 

Bessas^ governor of Rome for Justinian, his rapacity during the acgc 
of that city by Totila the Goth, vii, 362. Occadons the loss of 
Borne, 366. 

Be%abde is taken and garrisoned by Sapor king of Peisia, iii, 210. Is 
ineffectually besieg«l by Constantius, 212. 

Birtiioesy a Sassanian prince, deposes Hormout king of Persia, viii, 18f 


BkAr^ht^ 4lie least invidioiis of all human distinctions, i, 27L 

Bishops^ among the primitive Christians^ the office of, explained, ii/ 
S31. Progress of episcopal authority, 335. Assumed dignity of 
episcopal government, 351. 

numoer of, at the time of Constantine the Great, iii, 283. 

Mode of their election, 284. Their power of ordination, 287< The 
ecclesiastical revenue of each diocess how divided, 2d4f. Their civil 
junsdiction, 295^ Their spiritual censures, 297. Their legislative 
assemblies, 303. 

BUh9pSy rural, their rank and duties, iii, 264. 

Bissextile^ superstitious regard to this year "by the Romans, iy, 238. 

BUkynia^ the cities of, plundered by the Goths, i, 426. 

Blemmyesy their revolt against the emperor Diocletian, ii, 184. 

Boccacey his literary character, xii, 123. ' . 

BoeikmSf the learned senator of Rome, his history, vii, 43. His im- 
prisonment and death, 48. 

Bohtmondy the son of Hobert Guiscard, his character and military ex- 
ploits, X, 298 ^ xi, 85. His route to Constantinople on the crusade^ 
43. His flattering reception by the emperor Alexius Comnenus, 49. 
Takes Antioeh, and obtains the principality of it, 68. His subse* 
quent transactions and death, 103. 

Emface^ St., his History, ii, 485. 

Boniface, Count, the Roman general under Valentinian III, h|s cha- 
racter, vi, 9. Is betrayed into a revolt by j£tius, 11. His repent^ 
atice, 18. Is besieged in Hippo Regius by Genscric king of the 
Vandals, 21 . Returns to Italy, and is killed by JEtius, 24. 

Boniface VIII, Pope, his vidlent contest with Philip the Fair, king of 
France, and his character, xii,j306. Institutes the Jubilee, 910. i 

Boniface J marquis of Montserrat, is chosen general of the f(Hirth cru- 
sade to the Holy Land, xi, 198. Is made king of Macedonia,'249. 
Is killed by the Bulgarians, 264. 

Bosf>horuSy revolutions of that kingdom, i, 422. Is seized by the 
Goths, 423. The strait of, described, ii, 4. . , 

5wrtf, siege of, by the Saracens, ix, 383. . ' 

Botheric^ the imperial general in Thessalonica, mttrdered in a sedition^ 
V, 65. • 

Bousicauiiy Marshal, defends Constantinople against Bajazet, xi, 458. 

Boulogne^ the port of, recovered from Carausius, by Constantius Chlo<- 
rus, ii, 127% 

BowideSf the Perrian dynasty of, x, 83. 

Brancaleone^ senatcn: of Rome, his character, xii, 286. 

Bretagne^ the province of, in France, settled by Britons, vif 3891, note. 

Britain^ reflections on the conquests of, by the Romans, i> 5. Descrip- 
tion of, 33. Colonies planted in, 58, note. A colony of Vandab 
settled there by Probus, ii, 83. Revolt of Carausius, 1 23. 

how first peopled, iv, 291. Invawons of, by the Scots and 
Picts, 295. Is restored to peace by Theodoiaus, 298. 

revolt of Maximus there,' v, 8. Revolt of the troops there 
against Honorius, 228. Is abandoned by the Romans, 363. State of 
until the arrival of the Saxons, 364. Descetit of the Saxons on, vt. 


dignity, 9B« Division of the provinces bcMMn Um aod the s«t£, 

102. Is allowed bis mllitaiy command and guards in tlie ckyi^ 

Home, 103. Obtains the consular and tribuiiilian officei&riifc, 

104. His character and policy, 114. Adopts Tibenos, 119. 
i Formed an accurate register of the revenues and expences di tk 

empire, 257. Taxes instituted by him, 260. His naval esub&h- 

Qicnls at Ravenna, v, £08. 
Attguuux and Cssar^ tboae titles explained and discriinioated, i, 

Avienujf his character and embassy from Valentiman III to Atbh 

king of the Huns, vi, 1 SO. 
Avigmofif the bdly see bow transferred from. Rome to that city, i^f307> 

Return of Pope Urban V to Rome, S65. 
Avittti^ his embassy from -flBtius to Theodoric, king of the Vuagoihs, 

\i, 110. Assumes the empire, 157. His deposition and dal\i, 

16(5, 167. 
Aurelian^ emperor, his birtb and services, ii, 15. His cxpedi&aDa* 

gainst Palmyra, 37. His triumph, 45. His cruelty, and W, 
' 54, 55. 

Aureng^ebfj account of his immense camp, i, SS3, note. 
Aureeius u invested with the purple on tbe Upper Danube, ii, % 
AufoniySf the tutor of the emperor Gratian, bis promotioos, v, 3, 

Auiiarisf king of the Lombards in Italy, his wars with the Tnak 
viiiy 144. His adventurous gallantry, 153. 

Auiutij the city of, stormed and pkmdeied by the legions in Gaul, il, 32. 

Auversne^ province and city of, in Gaul, revolutions of, vi, 562. 

j4uxi/tanctf barbarian, fatal consequences of their admissioD into the 
Roman armies, iii, 66* 

AxucA^ a Turkish slave, his generous ftiendKhip to the princess Anne 
Comnena, ix, 87. And to Manuel Comnenus, 88. 

Aztmunimmf the citizenf of, defend their privileges against Peter, bro- 
ther of the eastern emperor Maurice, viii, 201, 202. 

jfzimuSf remarkable spirit shewn by the citizens of, against Altila »» 
his Huns, vi, 63. 


fiaalbec^ description of the ruins of, Ix, 404, 

Bahyiasy St., bishop of Autioch, his posthumous history, iv, l21> 

BagauiLty in Gaul, revolt of, its occasion, and $uppressio|i by Ma^^' 
mian, ii, 120. 

Bagdad becomes the royal residence of the Abbassidcs, x, %b* ^^^'' 
' ation of the name, 3(), note. The fallen state of the calipb* o? ^^' 
The city of, stormed and sacked by the Moguls, xi, 418. . 

Bahram^ the Persian general, his character and expknts, vili, 1^^' 
provoked to rebellion, 183. Dethrones Chosroes 188. His usurp- 
ation and death, 190. 

Baian^ chagan of the Avars, his pride, policy, and power, viu» ^^ 

■ His perfidious srizure of Sirmium and Singidunum, 197. ^^' 

^Hcst^, 199. His treacherous attempt so seize the cmpcrof^'' 

racSus, 228. Invests Constantinople in conjunction ivith the Pcn 
sians, 2i3. Retires, 245. 

Bgjaxet I, sultan of the Turks, his reign, xi, 821 « His correspond- 
ence with Tamerlane, xli, !?• Is defeated and captured by Ta- 
merlane, 28. Inquiry into the story of the iron cage, 30, His 
sons, 47. 

Balbinus elected joint emperor with M aximus, by the senate, on the 
deaths of the two Gordians, i, 291 . 

Baldwin^ count of Flanders, engages in the fourth crusade, xi, 190. 
Is chosen emperor of Constantinople, 246. Is taken prisoner by 
Calo John, king of the Bulgarians, 260. His death, 262. 

Baldwin II, emperor of Constantinople, xi, 273. His distresses and ex- 
pedients, 276. His expulsion from that city, 287. 

Baldwin f brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, accompanies him on the first 
crusade, xi, 31. Founds the principality of Edessa, 63. 

Baltic Sea, progressive subsidence of the water of, i, 346, note. How 
the Romans acquired a knowledge of the naval powers of, iv, 288, 

Baptism, theory and practice of, among the primitive Christians, iii, 

Barbary^ the name of that country, whence derived, ix, 463, nofe. 
The Moors of, converted to the Mahometan faith, 363. 

Barbaiioy general of infantry in Gaul under Julian, his misconduct, iii,. 

Backocfiehas, his rebellion against the emperor Hadrian, ii, 385. 

Bardsy Celtic, their power of exciting a martial enthusiasm in the peo- 
ple, i, 374. 

Bards^ British, their peculiar office and duties, vi, 398. 

Bardasy Caesar, one of the restorers of learning, x, 457. 

Bari is taken from the Saracens by the joint efforts of the Latin and 
Greek empires, x, 248. 

Barlaanty a Calabrian monk, his dispute with the Greek theologians 
about the light of mount Thabor, xi, 388. His embassy to Rome, 
from Andronicus the- younger, xii, 66. His literary character, 
12a ' 

Basil 1^ the Macedonian, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 48. Reduces 
the Paulicians^ x, 181. 

Basil II, emperor of 'Constantinople, ix, 67. His great wealth, x, 213. 
His inhuman treatment of the Bulgarians, 202. 

Basils archbishop of Cjvsarea, no evidence of his having been perse- 
cuted by the erojieror Valens, iv, 269. Insults his friend Gregory 
Naziinzen, under the appearance of promotion, v, 19. The father 
of the monks of Pontus, vi, 244, 245. 

Basiliscus^ brother of the empress Verina, is intrusted with the com- 
mand of the armament sent against the Vandals in Africa, vi, 201. 
His fleet destroyed by Genseric, 203. His promotion to the em- 
pire, and death, vii, 5. 

BassianuSj high priest of the sun, his parentage, I, 229. Is proclaim* 
ed emperor at Emesa, ibid. See Elagababts. 

BassianuSi brother-in-law to Constantine, revolts against him^ ii, 244. 


ArUnrti^ king of Armenia, b deposed by the Persians at the izutiga. 

tion of his own subjects, v, 431. 
Artsvasdei^ hb rcvott against the Greek emperor ConstantiDe V, a: 

Conitantinopk, iz, \^S. 
Arlaxerxei restores the Pcrsiai) ironarchy, i, 31 8., Prohibits crecy wor- 
ship but that of Zoroaster, 328. His war with the Romans, 337. 

His character and maxims, 341. 
Ariemiuff duke of Egypt under Constantius, is condemned to death 

under Julian, for cruelty and corruption, iv, 49. 
sirihur^ king of the Britons, hb history obscured by monkish fictions, 

vi, 390. 
Arvandus^ pretorian prefect of Gaul, his trial and condemnation bj 

the Roman senate, vi, 5208. 
Ascskn^ battle of, between Godfrey king of Jerusalem and the sultan 

of fgypt, ai, 87. . , 
Aseetks^ in ecclesiastical liistory, account of, vi, 239* 
AiclefioJaiui reduces and kills the Britbh usurper AUectua, ii, 128. 
Asia^ summary view of the revolutions in that quarter of the world, i, 

Asia Minor described, i, 38. Amount of its tribute to Rome, 257. 

Is conquered by the Turks, x, 370. 
AsiareAf the nature of this olRce among the ancient pagans, u, 354, 

Ajtfiar is commissioned by Theodosius the younger to conduct Valen- 
tinian III to Italy, vi, 4. Places his steward Leo on the throw 
of the eastern empire, 191. He and his sons murdered by Leo, 
vii, 4. 

Assasunsj the principality of, destroyed by the Moguls, xi, 417- 

Assemblies of the people abolbhed under the Roman emperors, i, lOS. 
The nature of, among the ancient Germans, 362« 

Assyria^ the province of, described, iv, 166. Is invaded by the empe- 
ror Julian, 169. His retreat, 193. 

Aiiarte^ her image brought froDi Carthage to Rome^ as a spouse far 
£lagabalus, i, 235. 

Astolphus^ king of the Lombards, takes the city of Ravenna, and at- 
tacks Rome, ix, 146. Is repelled by Pepin king of France, 

Astrology^vihy cultivated by the Arabian astronomers, ic, 48. 

Athalaric^ the son of Anialasofitha queen of Italy, his education aoi 
character, vii, 208. . 

Athanaric the Gothic chief, bis >^'ar against the emperor Valeos, iv, 
326* His alliance with Theodosius, his death and funeral, 432. 

jithanasiusy St, confesses his imderstanding bewildered l)y meditatmg 
on the divinity of the Logos, iii, 322. General view of Us opi- 
nioas, 335. Is banished, 349. His character and adventures, 356; 
iv, 131, 228, 267- Was not the author of the famous creed inider 
his name, vi, 291, note, 

Aibanaswsy patriarch of Constantinople, his contests with the Gred 
emperor Adronicus the elder, xi, 859. 

AfbenaUf daughter of the philosopher Leontius. See EudoctM. 

J^nsj tbe libraries la ^»t city, why ssiid to have liaen spared by the 
Oothsy iy 434. Naval strength of the republic of, during its pro* 
sperity, ii, 251 y note* 

•• is laid under contribution by Alaric the Goth, v, 180. 
• review of the philosophical history of, vii, 143. The schbqift 
of, silenced by the emperor Justinian, 150. 

-revolutions of, after the crusades, and its present state* ^ 


Athos^ mount, beatific visions of the monks of, xi, 387* 

Atlantic OceaUy derivation of its name, i, 42. 

Attacotti, a Caledonian tribe of cannibals, account of, iv, 298. 

Attaiusy prefect of Rome, is chosen emperor by the senate, under the 
influence of Alaric, v, %y)S. Is publicly degraded, 309* His £itiire^ 
fortune, 348. 

Attalusy a noble youth of Auvergne, his adventures, vi, 365. 

AttHa^ the Hun, vi, 40. Description of his person and character, 4i. 
His conquests, 45. His treatment of his captives, S5. Imposes 
terms of peace on Theodosius the younger, 61. Oppresses Theodo* 
nus by his ambassadors, 65. Description of his royal residence, 7^« 
His reception of the ambassadors of Theodosius, 75. His behavi- 
our on discovering the scheme of Theodosius to get him assassinate 
ed, 82. His haughty messages to the emperors of the East and 
WTest, 88. His invasion of Gaul, 107. His oration to his troopi 
on the approach of iEtius and Theodoric, 1 15. Battle of Chal«ii% 
1 16. His invasion of Italy, 122. His retreat purchased by Valen<^ 
tinian, 131. His death, J34. 

Atys and Cybele, the fable of, allegorized by the pen of JuUati, iv« 

Ai>ars are discomfited by the Turks, vii, 289. Their embassy to the 
emperor Justinian,' 291. Their conquests in Poland and Germato^, 
2S2. Their embassy to Justin II, viii, 115. They j<Hn the Lom- 
bards against the Gepidee, 119. Pride, policy, and power,. of their 
chagan Baian, 194. Their conquests, 199. Invest Constantin- 
ople, 243. 

Averroeif his religious infidelity, how far justifiable, x, 51, aote, 

Av^rsa^ a town near Naples, built as a settlement for the Normamd, 

Augurs^ Boman, Uieir number and pecxiliar ofiice, v, 92. 

Atigustin^ his accost of the miracles wrough^^ by the 'body of St.* 
Stephen, v, 129» Celebrates the piety of the Goths in the sacking ' 
of Rome, 313. Approves the persecution of the Donatists. of Afn*;. 
ca, vi, }?• His death,. character, and writings, 22. History of hia 
relicts, vii, 185, /zo/^. 

AugustuluSy son of the patrician Orestes, is chosen emperor of the Wes^ 
Ti, 222. Is deposed by Odoacer, 224. His banishment to the Lu« 
cuUan villa in Campania, 228. 

ilAr^&i/»x, emperor, his moderate exercise of potver, i, 2. Isimittted 
by his suocMors^ 4» His naval regulatkmt, 29* His division' dT- 
G^ S2. His dtuation after the battle of Acttiun, 95. He re- 
fiofins the senate, 97* Procures si aenatorial grant of the tniperial. 

GsmciAX. mix. 

881. £sUblUiiiait of the Sazcm heptaicby, 384. Waniii,36$. 

Saxon <le?aftotion of the coontryy 398. Manners of tk indepeak 

firitons, 396. Description of by ProcopiuSy 402. 
Brlttum^ convernon of the Britons by a mtatton fzom Pope Giegor 

the Gteaty viii, 167* The doctrine of the incarnation leodnd there, 

Btmimt the Trojan, his colonizat'on of Britahis now given up bjk;.' 

HwuH historians, iv, 291 , mou. 
B^^«t ^-9 his eatraordinary burning minors^ vii, Hi, ntne. 
Jtt/gcrwttff their character, vii, 277, 273. Their imotdsontlieeast' 

em empire, 281. Invasion of, under Zabergan, 401. Rqwkdby 

Belisariua, 403. 
I the kbgdom of, destroyed by Basil II, the Greek emperor, 

ix, 68) x,2t>2. 
^ revolt of, from the Greek empire, and submisnoQ to tk pope 

of Rome, xi, 1 83. War ivith the Greeks under Calo-Job, 25]. 
Mwtt-fiastt in the Coliseum at Rome* described, xii, 4^, 
Bmrgmtdisms^ their settlement on the Elbe, and maxims of gomn' 

nentyiv, 284. Their settlement in GauU v, 369. limits (Jtlx 

kingdom of, under Gundobald, vi, 324. Are subdued bj tiir 
* Franks, 329, 

MwmH^ character of his Sacred Theory of the Earth, ii, S06, "^ 
MaramfooteTj source of that river, xii, 15, nete. 
BaufTf in Egypt, &ur several places known under this name, x, % 

Bmsswrgf the philosophical preceptor of H^rmouz king of Persia, m 

high reputation, viii, 178, note. 
Bfuttttine historians, list and character of, xii, ^SSj note, 
Mpuintiumy siege g(^ by the emperor Sevenis, i, 193. h taken i)j 

Maximm, ii, 238. Siege of, by Conslantine the Great, 260. Its> 

tnation described, iii, 3. By whom founded, 4, note. See Co«/« 


CMaba, or temple of Mecca, described, ix, 245. The idols in, i^^ 
ed by Mahomet, 308. ... . 

CeAitJei^ king of Persia, besieges and takes Amida, ^ ^}' 
Seizes the straits of Caucasus^ 141. ^^cissitudes of bis retp' 
CeiJesHtf bftttle of, between the Saracens and the Persians, ^^^'f'r' 
Cadijahf her marriage with Mahomet, ix, 255. Is coovcrt«i»/ 
tohisnewreUgion,282. Her death, 288. Mahomet's vcflcrao«" 
for her memory, 328. . , y^ 

QeciUany the peace of the church in Africa disturbed by Vm ^^ 
■ party, iii, 309. 

Cacilius^ the authority of his account of the famous vision or wn*^ 
-: tine the Great, inquired into, iii, 260. r it mK 

Caliitkmi senator of Caxthage, his distress on the taking d^^- 
' by Gensei^, vi, 31» > . • k D« 

C^sar^ Mnu^ his inducement to die congest of Britain, h ^' 


grades the senatorial dignity, 96, note, Asssmes a place among 
th« tutelar deities of Romey in his fifetime^ 111. His address in ap^ 
peasing a military sedition, 252, note. His prudent application of 
the coronary gold presented to him, iii, 96* 
Cm tar and Augustus^ those titles explained and discriminated, i, IIS. 
Cmsars^oiikt emperor Julian, the philosophical feble of that work de- 

lineated, iv, ISa 
Cmsarta^ capital of Cappadocia, takei^ by Sapor king of Perria, i, 4S9. 

I«s reduced by the Saracens, ix, 420. 
Cahinny queen of the Moors of Africa, her policy to drive the Arabi 

oat of the country, ix, 464. 
CatroaHy the city of, founded in the kingdom of Tunis, ix, 459* 
Caledj deserts from the idolatrous Arabs to the party oi Mahomet, 
ix, 307. I£s gallant conduct at the battle of Muta^ Si4. His 
victories under the caliph Abubekar, 864. Attends the Saracen 
army on the Syrian expedition, 382. His valour at the siege of 
Damascus, 386. Distinguishes himself at the battle of Aiznadin, 
39 1. Hii cruel treatment of the refugees from Damascus, 392. 
Joins in plundering the £ur of Abyla, 402. Commands the Sa* 
racens at the battle of Yermuk, 408. His death, 422. 
Caiedonia^ and its ancient inhabitants, described, iv, S93. 
Caledonian war, under the emperor Severus, an account of, i, 20?. 
Caliphs of the Saracens, character of, ix, 357* Their rapid conquest^ 
561. Extent and power of, 500. ' Triple division of the office, 
X, 34. They patronise learning, 41. Declme and fall of their 
empire, 78; xi, 417. 
Calimcum^ the punishment of a religious sedition in that city, opposed 

by St. Ambrose, v, 68. 
Calitnicuif cf Hdiopolis, assists in defending Constantinople against the 

Saracens, by his chymical inflammable compositions, x, 14. 
Calmmcks^ black, recent emigration of, from the confines of Russia to 

those in Chma, iv, 370. 
CaUhJohn^ the Bulgarian chief, his war with Baldwin, the Latin em« 
peror of the Gredu, xi, 257. Defeats, and takes him pristmer, 260* 
His savage character and death, 266. 
Calocerujj a camel-driver, excites an inmrrectien in the island of Cy* 

prus, iii, 119. 
Calfibumius^ the machinery of his eclogue on the acccsdon of the em^ 

peror Cams, ii, 93. 
Calvin, the reformer, his doctrine of the Eucharist, x, 189. Examine 

ation of his ccmduct to Servetus, 191. 
Camei^ of Arabia, described, ix, 225. 
CamisarJt of Languedoc, their enthusiasm compared with that of the 

Circumcellions of Numidia, iii, 401. 
Campania^ the province of, desolated by tbe ill poKcy of the Roman. 

emperors, iii, 87. D^cription of the Lucullan vilk in, vi, 239* 
Canada^ the present climate and circumstances of^ compared witk 

those of ancidit Germany^ i, 348. 
CamntHft enonnotis oo» pf Ihe y^tan Mahomet II 4g|«jbg dj- xit, 197* 

T«li. xiu o g 

CttMfy , Banna, • ifaKziption o^ x, 899. 

CtfiMirasMr, J«i»,cliAnoterofbisGf!MkHiila^ Kigpo^ 

fixtUB^unda the younger Andromcui, S78* Is dcma fa asBome 
tlie purple, S76. Hu Kvdy dblinctioii bc t f» ecm fou^gsi wd ovfl 
wmi, 979. Hbeniry into CMuUB^eple, and setgn, 3fiS. AMirrtr^i 
and taffu monk, 386. I£s war with the Geooeac factaiy al Fen, 
994. Marries his daughter to a Turk, xis, 69« His- negptialjoo 
with Pflpe CleaMnt VI, sbtJ. 

Camiemir^i History of the Ottoman empire,, a charaetsr «]f, si, 4S4| «//. 

(TufliiAimar, ffoffcmor of Mauritania, defeats the younger G^rdiaB, aad 

* takes CarUttge, i, 290. 

C^iatim^iutf under the Roman en^iors, an account mt^iSfSi, 

C^fii»^ Ateius, the civilian, hia chanurter,. w, 90. 

Csfiiii of Ramey burning and restoraiion o^ ii, 412. 

C^^mdum^ famous lor ite fine bieed of horses, iii, 76. 

C^^rmia^ isle of, oharaaer of the monki there, v, 160. 

Ti^cmr, how tfcaled^by the harbMians, vi, S5t 362. 

Csr»c0lkf son of the en^wior Semrua, his fixed asrtipnthy to his 
bradier Geta^ i, 206. Sucoeeds to the empite jeintly with him, 
211. Tendency of his edict to eaBknd the privilogcs o£ Roman 
citizens to aH the finee inhabitants of hb eapiee^ 2fiS. His new id 
thirttansaclieB, Sifi. Doidiles.thetaxonkgaeies ajidwdunlaaotE, 

Catfrncormm^ the Tartar settlement of^ dfiscfiboi, xi,.42&. 
C^jKiflMvSDgdian, their roula to aadl frcn Ouna^ for sflk, to supply 

the Roman empire, vii, i)4« ^ 
Cjnwxm/f his sevok in Britaiaviit ^93* U iflrim«i1iwlj^ig| hf Dbek* 

tian and his colleagues, 126. 
Qarkemt^ Ae Panlician, his revolt iiooa the;Ga:eek fiwjiBrar to the Saza. 

tens, X, 178. - 

C«r^&Mi/#, the election of a. pnpe vetted in them, zity aCXL Imfihrtisn 

of the conclave, 501. 
Ctniiumi^ situation and histoty of that territory, ii, 154«r 
C^rinm^ the sntif. Cams, sueoeods his fiither in the ea^« jaJatlj 

with his brother Numerian, ii, 91* . 
C^dssmiaat^ their invaiion of Syria, xi, 158. 
CarUvinpan race of kinrs, commencement of, in Franoe, ix, 151. 
Qanfmtif tho Arabian remsmcr, his charaeter, x, ^Su His miBitary cx- 

plmts, 76. 
' flwinitfi'/, hoA whom they derive their pedigree, vi, 2M, mtu, 
Carpathian mountains, their situation, i, 94& 
Carthage^ the bbhopric of, bought £r Majorinus, ii, 456, naie, 
» ii ■»■» * religious discoid degenerated there by the fiuidont cf GfldSaa 

and Donatus, iil, SIO. 
.■Ill ■ ■ the temple of Venus diere, converted into a Christisn chmcL 

V, 107. Is sui^rised by Gtenaoric king iof the Vandisds, vi,>2& 

*. the gates o^ opened to Belisarius, vii, ] ??• Nalnral atetn- 

' tiona produced by time in the sitnation of dm cify, 17d» iwlr. Hk 

walls o^ repaired fay Belinatfs, Iftl. InwtaadMi.ttf 4e Roun 

troops there, S48* 

Canha^ a twdvcsd and piUa|fed hy Hanan f]» SafOccQ, hc^ 46U 

Subsequent history of, 462. 
Qartbagsne^ ait eiitraonlillaij rick silver nunewotked there forUM lk>» 

mans^ i, 258< 
r<7r«x, empenoty his eiectfon and chazactCTy ii, 91 . 
Qa^piam mk ibedan gate» of noant Caucasus^ dntinguahed^ yniy 

Cassiansy the partjF o^ among the Roman ctvilians, ea^ktned^ "viii, 

Gofsiodorius^ his Gorfnc history, i, dB7. His account of the inlMit 

state of ^ fe|iubHc of Venice, vi, \S^. His long and piosperout 

life, yii, 29: 
Castriot^ George* See Scanderbtrg. 

Catalaai^ their sorice and war in the Greek cflipire, xi^ 346* 
Quboiic ckucch, die doctrines of, how discrimbated fxom the opi- 

nions of the Hatonic school, iii, 322. The authority of, eXtiend'' 

ed to the minds of mankind, ^2)i* Faith of the western op Laftin 

church, 342« Is distmctcd by £K:tions in the cause of Athanasios^ 

3idd. The doxology, how introduced, and how perverted^ 389s. 

The iieyienue of, tnrasferved to the heathen piiests, \ff Julian, ir, 


- edict of Tbeodosius fionr the eststhlishnent of the caCboltc 

faith, T, 14. The progressive steps of idolatry in, 128. Persecu* 
tion of the catholics in Africa, vi, 2S0l Ficua fieandft of the cathoii' 
he clergy, 290» 

how bewildered by the doctrine of the incamalion^ viifi'f 275. 

Uhkxi of the Greek and Latin dttirches, SS4i 
' schism of the Greek church, xi, 169. 

Ceiestme, Popc, espouses^the party of Cyril against Nestorius; alkl pnN 

nouaccs d». d^adation of the lattev: from his episcopal digAity, rar, 

Cdtk language^ driven tv the loouniadn^ hf the Latin^ }, 09, 6)> 

Censor^ the office o^ revived under the eapeior Deeinsy i, 4C0. BMf 

withotft' effect, 402. 
Cfox, the manufacture of silk first intreduced te Europe fsein thftlf 

island, vii, 90. « 

Cenasf the principal queen of Attik king of the Hons^ her teetf^att ci# 

Maximin the Roman amhasaader, vi, 74. 
Cen'nthiff his opiaioa of tke twofold natufs ef Jesu* Chilst^ vitt^ 

fiey/on^ ancient names given to that island, and the in^rfect ktiotr* 

ledge of, by. the Bomans, iv^ 142, note. 
Qhalcedom, the injudicious' situation of this city sti^matited by^ pro^ 

verbial contempt, iii, 7. A tribunal cr^te^m^" by. the eniperor 

Julian^ to try and punish the ev41 niiBifrter|MNfe - praleces^^ Con- Sjl^-^ • 

staiiti«B»itf,46. ^f$^-'^ ?^^ ^^^ 

* a stately church built there by Rufitiu9| tht idkm*<riis mims- 

er ofi4he:empeEDr Thecrioaius, v^ 143; 

* ■' — is taken by Chosroes linking of Peraa, i^, 22!?/ 


Ciuk^mdgUif the Grade hutorian^ bn temaiks on ihe tevcnl nakiosof 

Europe, xii, 82. 
Chdomi^ bttUe of, between ihe Romans and Atdla ku^ oE the Hios, 

Cimmavians reduced and generously treated by Jidtan^ ia, 227* 

Citfucfiffpr, the original ai^ modem application of thb wcsd conpnti 
ii, 99, moie. 

CA^r^ti^rif national, the distincfcions of, bow formed, iv, Sfl. 

CAarioii of the Romans described, v, 269, noie* 

Ci^Jemsgrte caminen the kingdom of Lorobardy, », 150. His re- 
ception at Roaie, 154. Eludes fulfilling the promisa of Pepic 
and himself to the Roman pontiff, 159. His coranatioo at Bmt 
by the pope Leo III, 173. His reign and character, Hi £^' 
tent of his empire, 180* His neighbours and enemies, IS5. His 
auccessors, lb7. His negotiations and treaty irith the astern m- 
pire, 191. State of his family and dominions in the tentb centuiy, 

ChsrUt. the Fat, emperor of the Rominsy ix, 189. 
CAsrIes of Anjou subdues Naples and Sic^y, xi, 339. Tbe Siciis' 

Vettcrs^ Sil*. His character as a senator of Rone, xti, ^; 
Charles IV, emperor of Germany* his weakness and poverty, ix, 2^^> 

His puUic ostentation, 215. Contrast between him and Km^, 

CiarUs V, emperor, parallel between him and Diodetkn, % HI- 

And between the sack of Rome by him, and that by Alaric m 

Goth« V, S28, 523* 
CAastifjff its high esteem among the ancient Germans, i, B67. Axii^^ 

primitive Christians, ii, 323. 
Chemstry^ the ait of, from whom derived, x, 49.^ ... 

ChtrtonesuSf Thracian, how fortified by the emperor Jostinias, ^^> 

Chrsomitef assist Coostantine the Great against the Goths, lu, ^"^ 

Are cnidJy persecuted by the Greek emperor Justiiuan II, ix*^'* 
Chtss^ jthe*object of the game of, by whom invented, viii 9ff!' 
CAiUerie^ king of France, deposed under papal sanction, i^»,^^^' ^ 
GhiUnm^ tbe exposing of, a prevailing vice of antiquity, viii, ^ ^'' 

tural, accorduig to the Roman laws, what, 67* 
C^MJ^ how distbgwsbed in ancieijt history, ii, 141, note. Great ninn- 

bers of children annually exposed there, 347, note. , . 

— ^- its rituatien, iv, 357. The high chronology daimed by the ^ 

torians of, ;W. The great wall of, when erected, 361. WaJ^'^ 

conquered h^ the northern tribes, 364. 
• the Romans supplied with silk by the caravans from,viif9^' 

— is conquered by the Moguls, xi, 414, 426. Expulsiotto* uie 

M(^uls, 427, 428. 
Ckiwtlry^ origin of the order of, xi, 36. . ik 

CbonJomar^ prince of the Alemanni, taken prisoner by lU&° ^ 

bataeofStrasbitoh,iii,224. ^ 

ChosroeSf king of Armenia, assassinated by the enisttries ^ ^ 

king of Persia, s, 435. 


ho4r9es^ son' of Tiridates, king of Armenia, his character/ ill; 

hosroes I, king of Persia, protects the last surviving philosofJiers of 
Athens, in his treaty with the emperor Justinian, vii, 151. Be^w 
of his history, 299. Sells a peace to Justinian, ^07. JHis Invaiion 
of Syria, 311. His negotiations with Justinian, 337. His pn>sper- 
ity, 339v Battle of Melitene, 176. His death, 177. 
\Qsroes II, king of Persia, is raised to the throne on the deposition 
of his father Hormouz, viii, 186. Is reduced to implore the as- 
sistance of the emperor Maurice, 133. His resto];ation and policy, 
190. Conquers Syria, 219. Palestine, 221. Egypt and Asia 
Minor, 222. His reign and magnificence, 223. Rejects the 
Mahometan religion, 2^. Imposes an ignominious peace on the 
emperor Heracbus, 229, 230. His flight, deposition, and deaths 

fr^stfr^, the hord of, sent by the Turks to the assistance of the «mpe- 
Tor Heraclius, viii, 246. 

krist^ the festival of his hit th, ivhy fixed by the Romans at the ivin- 
ter solstice, iv, 22, note. 

hristmns^ primitive, the various sects into which they branched ou^ 
iiy 277* Ascribed the pagan idolatry to the agency of demons, 
288. Believed the end of the world to be near at hand, 3(X>. 
The miraculous powers ascribed to the primitive chui^h, 309# 
Their fiEuth stronger than in modem times, 314'. Thdr superior 
virtue and austerity, 316. Repentance, a virtue in high esteem 
among them, Ufid. Their notions of marriage and chastity, 32Su 
They disclaim war and government, 326. Were active, hoWevser, 
ia the internal government of their own society, 328. Bishops, 
d31. Synods, .$34*. Metropolitans and primates, 337. Bidtop 
of Rome, 339. Their probable proportion to the pagan subjects 
of the empire before the conversion of Constantine the Great, 37 L 
Inquiry into their persecutions, 381. Why more odious to the 
governing powers than the Jews, 387. Their seligious meetings 
suspected, 3^4'. Are persecuted By Nero, as the incendiaries of 
liome, 405. Instructions of the emperor Trajan to Pliny ^ 
Younger &r the regulation of his conduct towacds them, 419. Re- 
mained exposed to popular resentment on public festivities, 4^0. 
Legal mode of proceeding against them^ 422. The ardour with 
which they courted martyrdom, 437. When allcwcd to erect 
'places for public worship, 448. . Their persecution under Diocletian 
and his associates, 467* An edict of toleration for them published 
hy Galerius just before his death, 484. Some considerations ne^ 
izessary to be attended to in reading the sufferings of the martyrs, 
491. Edict of Milan published by Constantine the Great, iii, 244. 
Political recommendations -of the Christian morality to Constan-* 
tine, 247. Theory and practice of passive obedience, 248. . Their 
loyalty -and zeal, 253.. The sacrament of baptism, how admi« 
nistered in early times, 272. £xtraordinary propagation of 
Christianity after it obtained the imperial sanction, 276, 277. 
)kcoii(B$ tbe eflablkhaliil^gioD of the Romim empire, 280. Spi- 



riiadl wni tempond poiven, dislhgaisli^ 9M2. Ibkw q( i» 
episcopal Older tn the churchy 883. The ecclesiastical levaoe oi 
Mch dioaw, how ^livUed, 994. TMr lewhtive mofe 
90S. Edict of Constantine the Great aigamst hcretia, SOT. 
Myitcdoifei doctrioe of the Trinity^ 320. The doctriaes of lk a 
tbolic church, liow discriminated iTom the opixiiDns of ibe PiatoDk 
kJmoI, 332. General character of tiK Christian sects, 40S. Cb 
tiaii adbools prohibited by the emperor Jofian, iv. 111. T^m 
lenovod fiom all ofiices of trust, 1 14. Are dbKged tonbtatetiie 
iMgan temples, 115. Thdr impnideiA and inmtu seal ^> 
sdolatiy, 135. 

ChriaimUf di^tiaction of, into vttigar aad ascetic, vi, 238. ConwaoB 
of the barbvcooB natilms, 268. 

fbrmi^miyt inquiry into the ppogrcH and establishoRBt o^ a, ^. 
Religion and character of the Jews, 267l The Jewish idigiontbe 
tmis of Christianity, 274. h offered to aH mankiad, i^U. IV 
•ecu into which the Christians divided, 277* Ilie thi^ << ^■ 
dnoed to a ^rstematscal form in the school of Akxandna, ^3. hr 
judicious conduct of its ea^ly advocates, 377. Its pitrseciilmi, ^1 
iFirst erection of churches, 448« 

■■ ■■ ^ system ot^ Ibuad in Plato^s doctiine of the Logos, iii, 

81 «. 

> salutary ciects resulting from the converaon d the k 

banms nations, vi, 27^. 

its progress in the north of Europe, :s, 2i2. 

Ckrysafifutu the eunnch ensages £decon to assassinate \ai^g^\ 
vi, 80. Is put to desith by the fempross Pulcheria, §i. Asastel*- 
the second council of Ephesus, viii, 300. 

Ckrysdcheir^ general of the revolted Paulicians, ower-nms w^pi^g^ 
Asia Minor, x, 17a His death, 181. 

(ihrysolorfmsy Manuel, the Greek enyoy, his chatacter^ xn, 1^ '^ 
adfloiratton of Rome and Coi>stantaiople, 142. 

ChrytofiQiisy battle ol, between Constantine the G|eat and Mfii^ ^ 

Ckyiosiffm^ St., hfs account of the pompous liucury of Che ea^ 
Arcadius, v, 373. Protects his fiigitive i»tron, tte ewuicfc W 
4mi$, 891. History of his promotion to ihn ardiiepiscopal s^ 
Constantmople, $98. His character and admimstiBtioo, ^99^^ 
«b persecution, 404. His death, 410. HisceHcsieniofedtoU 
standnople, ihuf. His encomium on the monastic ikf ^ ^'> 

Ckirckis, Chsirtuh, the first erection of, $, 448. HmSm ^y ^' 
der Diocletian, 474. Splendour of, under Constantine the Oiat, 
iu,i&2. Seven, of Ana, the &te of, xi, 437. 

GMis^ battle of, between Constantine the GfOfll and i^'^ ^' 
246. . .... .-«. ^ 

Citmre, his view of the philosophical opinionK as to ifct itf»o^!. 

the sotd, ii, 291. His-eiicomium on ti» study tff the bw; ^ r 

System of his nptih/k^ 27, ' 

Gpametidn dariwts, the wrjoetsioii 4>f> fAtttM dulM y<>» W) ^' 


Circumcellw^s tif Africt, Donatist scftusntttics, kiMty-pi •tiiar Mvolt, 

ill, S98; Thtfk iciigiotts sukiifesy 401 • Penecotion o^ by the <m. 

pcror Honorius, vi, 16. 
Circumcision of both sexes* a phjMcal cu3tom in iEthiopia, unconnect- 

^ cd with religion, viii, S7S. 
Crnflr, Ronuiy the fixar Actions in, ^iescribed, vii, 76. Ceii9taaticiQple» 

and the eastern empice, :dtsUacted by these {actions, 77. 
Citiet in the Roman empire eaumesated, i, 77. 
^■ " comlnenaal of lialy^ rbe and :govemiBent of, ix^ 205, 206. 
Ciiizetu of Rome, motive of Caracalla for extondiT^ -the privileges of, 

to all the fi:ee inhabitants of the empire, i, 255^ 267. Political 

tendency of this grant, 269. 
Ci/jf, the birth of a new one, kow oelebrated by the .Romian$, 4ii» 15, 

Civi&uu of Rome, origin of tlie profession, and tiie three periods in the 

Ciwlu^ the Batavian, his successful revolt against the Romans, i, 

CJmaiipn the poet, and panegyrist of Stilkho, his works supply \the de- 
ficiencies of history, v, 15h Celebrates the murder of Ri^nus, 1 $9* 

Hisdbatii and chancier, 247. His character of the eunoch £«itro^ 

C^udmty cmperec, chosen by ^e pretorian guards, v^hhoat ibe con** 

curreftceof lihe senate, i, 116. 
£hyJha^ taxfaoCf successor to Gallienus, his chairaoter and elevalukai 

to the throne, ii, 4, 
C/tmndn-f miiaJsUr of the empesor Cconmodus, Us history, i, 14 J. 
CUfuens^ Flavius, and his wife Domitilb, why distinguished as Chris* 

tian ttartyrs, ii, 416. 
Oenum lU, P^» and tix emperor Henry III, mutually confirm «ac)i 

other's sovereign characters, x, S02. 
XTtefrst V, Pope, transftrs dbe holy •see from Rome io Avignon, idi, 

i^n^j «riien£ratdislim0Hished from the laity, ii, 340 ^ iii, 282. 
«-— -— the ranks and numbers of, how multiplwd, iii, 290. Thcar pro- 
party, itid. Tbcar e&noes only cognisable by their own order, 296. 

Valentinian's edict to restrain the avarice of, iv, 270. 
Clodion^ the first of the Merovmgian race ixf kings i^ ^ Franks in 

Giaaiyhiatdgo, vi, iOO. 
4DUiiiMs iilbinmy :govemor of Britain, his steady fidelity dnrix^ the 

revolutiE3B6 at Roane, i, 176. Declares himself against Julianus, 

dHotUda^ niBceiaf tbeUc^ of Burgundy, is married to Clovis king of 

the Franks, and converts her pagan husband, vi, 318. £xhorts 

her husband to the Gothic war, 3^. 
4M»^9 Uk niikt Flanks, his deaoeni and recgn, vi, 310. 
0KMv<i9»jc,lQa«c«ttntnf i^^objectaef adorati«& ameqg the ancient 

Cretmaia,i, itB^tiou. 
Cochmetttj inipottance of the discovery of, ii^ the art «f dying, vii, 90, 

0£N£&AI. lKO£X. 

6'iMfc of JiHtiiu«i»bo«r formed, ^,S7. New ediuaa of, 4& 
C^dkiii^ how fiir admitted by the Roman law respectiiig teitame&t^ 

viii, hO. 
CtemobiUi^ to monkiA hUtorj, described, vi, 263« ^^ 
Coi^Mg*^ how nsgulated by the Roman emperors, xii, 281. 
CJchoi^ the mo&m Mingrelta, described, vii, Si9. Mannas of tlie 

natives, S22. Revolt of, £tom the Romans to the Peraaos, and re 

pentance, 330. Colchian war, in consequence, 334. 
CMstmm of the emperor Titus, observations ob, it^^ 41 & IMm 

ofabullteastin, 4'21. 
C'iiiyruiiam heretics, an account of, ix, 261 • 
C'honieSf Roman, how planted, i, 58. 
Co/oMMMt history of the Roman family oi^ yii^ 316. 
C>/ar/ir/, of Rhodes, some account of, ix, 425. 
Cviumm of Hinrcules, their utuation, i, 42. 
Co'tSMf the rich temple of, suppressed, and the revenues confiscated, 

y the emperors of the East, ill, 76« 
Cwy^^'tf/, judicial, origin of, in the Salic laws, vi, 351. Tbelavso^ 

accordmg to the asslie of Jerusalem, xi, 96. Apology &r ^pc- 

tice of, 319, noie, 
C^meii^ account of those which appeared in the reigu of Ju5tiiiu%^^> 

Commettii^iMSf his disgraceful warfiire against the Avars, yiu, 201 
Commodus^ emperor, his education, character, and reign, i, 1^7* 
Comnem^ brigin of the family of, on the throne of ConstantiDople, ^ 

74. Its extinction, xii, 246. 
Conception^ immaculate, of the Virgin Mary, the doctrine of^ sron 

whence derived, ix, 266. 
Consubine^ according to the Roman civil law, explained, ^i^ 6^* 
Conflagraiion^ general, ideas of the primitive Christians conceiungi ii* 

Cdnquest^ the vanity of, not so justifiable as the desire of spoil, iv, 897> 

Is rather achieved by art, than personal valour, vi, 42. 
Conrdd III, emperor, engages in the second crusade, xi, 105. ^ 

•disastrous expedition, 113. 
Conrad oi Montserrat, defends Tyre against Saladin, xi, HO. ^^ 

sassinated, 146. 
Contiance^ treaty of, ix, 207. . 

Constant ^ the third son of Constantlne the Great, is senttogorcrQui^ 

western provinces of the empire, iii, 118. Division of tbcemp^ 

among htm and his brothers, on the death of their father, 1^^* " 

invaded by his brother Constantlne, 1 46. Is killed, on tbe ^ 

tion of Magn^ntius, J49. Espoused the cause pf Athanasiitf ^ 

his brother Constantius, 368. 
CMj/tfA/^II, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 13. 
Constantia^ princess, grand-daughter of Constantino the Gio^; ^!^ 
'lied by her mother to the camp of the usurper Procopius, i^i *7 

Narrowly escapes falling intQ the hands of 4he Quadi, 329. ^^ 

the empetor X^radan, 335. 
Cmistatttina^ daughter of Cpnstantbe the Great, ^nd widow d^^'^ 


nihalianuS; places the diadem on the head of the general Vetianio, 
iii, 150. Is manied to Galhis, 172. Her character, 173. Dies, 

C^msiantina^ widow of the eastern emperor Maurice, the cruel fate o( 
and her daughters, viii, 213. 

Conttaniine the Great, the several opinions as to the plaCe of his birthf 
ii, 190. His history, 191. He is saluted emperor by the Briti^ 
likens on the death of his Anther, 194. Marries Fausta, the 
daughter of Maximian, 203. Puts Maximian to death, 212. Ge- 
neral review of his administration in Gaul, 215. Undertakes t* 
deliver Rome from the tyranny of Maxentius, 220. Defeats MaX<r 
ehtius, and enters Rome, 231. His alliance with Licinius, 2S7- 
Defeats Licinius, 246, 248. .Peace concluded with Licinius, 249. 
His laws, 250. Chastises the Goths, 254. Second civil war with 

> Motives which induced him to make Byzantium the capital 

of his -empire, iii, 3. Declares his determination to spring 
divine command, 14. Despoils other cities of their ornaments to 
decorate his new capital, 19. Ceremony of dedicating his new 
city, 29. Form of civil and military administration established 
there, 30. Separates the civil from the military administration^ 
57. Corrupted military discipline, 59. His character, 99. Ac^ 
count >of his family, 104. His jealousy of his son Crispus, 10& 
Mysterious deaths of Cnspus and Licinius, 111. His repentance 
and acts of atonement inquired into, 113. His sons and nephews, 
115. Sends them to superintend the several provinces of the em« 
pire, 118. Assists the Sarmatians, and provokes the Goths, 123L 
Reduces the Goths to peace, 125. His death, 127. Attempt* 
to ascertain the date of his conversion to Christianity, 2SQ. His 
pagan superstition, 242. Protects the Christiaas in Gaul, 248.. 

N Publishes the edict of Milan, 244. Motives which recommended 
the Christians to his favour, 247. Exhorts his subjects to embrace 
the Christian profession, 252. His famous standard the Labamm 

.-described^ 257. His celebrated vision previous to his battle wi^ 
Maxentius, 260. Story of the miraculous cross in the air, 265. 
His conversion accounted for, from natural and probable causes, 
267. His theological discourses, 269* His devotion and privi- 
leges, 271. The delay of his baptism accounted for, 272. Is 
commemorated as a saint by the Greeks, 276. His edict against 
heretics, 807. Favours the cause of Caecilian against Donatus, 
311. His sensible letter to the bishop of Alexand|ia, 345. How 
prevailed on to ratify the Nicene creed, 347. His levity in reli- 
gion, 349. Granted a tolerati<Hi to his pagan subjects, 405. Hia 
reform of pagan abuses, ibid. Was associated with the Iftathen 
deities after his death, by' a decree of the senate, 409. His disco- 
very of the holy sepulckre, iv, 100. 

publication of his fictitious donation to the bishops of 

Rome, ix, 159. Fabulous interdiction of marriage with strangers, 
ascribed to him, X, 129. 
C^nstantine U, the son of Constantinc the Gx^t, is mt to presidf 


fl/rorOatil, iD« lit. DifUoB of theem^ise amoog Vm mii&s 
bcothcts, OB the death of their £itfaer» 153. Javadts his hxdk 
Constans, and b lulled, 146. 

Comttmnime Hi, enpcrar of C em t ai i lMMy le, k, 10. 

Comstmitime 1 V, Fogonatus, emperor of Coostaxtinaple, ix, IS. 

ComitaMiine V, Copraiy mus, cmfieror of CoRstantknpky ix, 26. Fate 
of liis five sous, 96l ReviaR of ArUvesdeSy and tmubles n 2c- 
•coiMit of iilfiaffe worshifs 1 28, 1S9. AboUikcs the vookish der, 

CWiMMr Vf , enperor of CoostaQtinopley tK, SI . 

OcmstrnmimeV lit Forphjiogenitut, emperor of Ccpatantmipiey is, 
il7. Hiscaution« wainst diKovenng the secret of thcGnd itt^ 
K, 17* Account oThas works, ^^ Their unpodECtisn fOBted 
ovt, 9t. His account of the cexemonies of the Byasmtbe fwit, 
187. Jw^ifies the marriage of his son with the prinoefi iotk i 

Cmtumtmt VIII, emfetor of Constantinople, ix, 5d. 

QoMHMiim IX, emperor of Constontiaopie, ixy-S?. 

ComtmHtm K, ManomachiB, emperor of Qmstantinople^Uy 7^ 

C i nurm i r ii w Xi, Ducus, emperor of ConstantiBCfde, iz, 77. 

OotmmiWie MsulogoB, tbe last of the Greek cmperecs, hii i«ig&, ui 

■ 175. 

Conttamin S^lmauo^ foonder of the Paulidatis, Us dea^ x, 175. 

CWflMfMv, a private soldier in Britain, elected emperpr far the f^ 
of hianane, ▼, 9S&. He reduces Gual aad Spain, 231, 342. Hb 
Induction and tieath, MS. 

C^^tsimaine^ general under Bdiaanus in Italy, fab death, va, 247. 

a^HsWUino/Jc^ iu situation described, with die motifcs wiiick in 
iuced Constantine the Greet to make this city tbe csfbl of h 
ompire, iii, S. Its local advantages, 12. Its extent, 15. ^^ 
i;refe of the work, 18. Prindp^ edifices, 20. How knm 
wkh inhabitants, 24. Privileges panted to it, 26. Its ^ 
tion, 28. Review of the new torn, of civil and odlitaxyatai 
. stration estoblished there, 30. Is allotted to CGnstantine the 
Yoimger in the division of the empire, on the cmpexor^i M 
ISS. Violent contesu there between the rival bishops, ^f 
Maoedonios, S92. Bloody engagement between the Masts^ 
and Arians on tbe removal of the body of Consta&tio^ ^' 
Triumphant entry of the emperor Julian, iv^ 86. The ««^f' 
^owed the same powers and honours as ^at at Rosk, 54. ^^' 
al of Valens, as emperor of the £a9t, 2«2.. lievolt of Pi^^' 

" ■ ■'■ ■■ , continued the principal seat of the Aiianhew^i ^^' 
jnglhe iretgns of Conitantiai and Valeos, t, IJ. Is purged n^"" 
Arianism by the emperor Theodosius, 22. Coaiauao^26. }^^ 
riched by the bodies of saints and martyrs, 125. lamat^^ 
gafhst Gannas and his Arian Goths, €d5. Peisccutiai ^^^ 
bishop, St. ChtjsortOBi, 404. Fopcdar tnmtdts on hb acoo^'^ 
Earthquake there, vi, 53. . r 

f m .i. y i-*^ the city and eastern eropive distractjcd by the &*'<»» 

^e^«li$, Vti, 77. BMin^tidn.of «heickuFrdli df 8t. ^S«l|^^ 116. 
OtheV cknt^ha «t«^ted 4$i^re%y ^stitliftli, 1 ^. Tviiimph df Bdi- 
%a Aus ov^r ike V^fedaU, l-S*. Ilie Wtflte'of, inr}iiEed by an carth- 
*««]^tiake, 4(^2. ^abe ^f the arfiaks uadter %h€ ckt^effOr Maurice, ^3. 
jL^e -arAii^ dnA cfty *cvoll against bim, 207. Deliverance of ihc 
city f^oAi tbe 'Pecans afWl Avars, 24-3. Religious wat iaboot the 

^^nfotnUmpie^ Prospedt«s ofthe refflaining liisfee^y <^tbe ea^erh 5eta- 

5J>Sre, -ik, 4. Siirattia^ry ¥e\iew ctf tkc frrc dyntfst«€js^f rbe Gr«ck 

eni)3^, 109. Tti^iiiilts^ii tkte cky t« of>j}d^ the de^troelioti of 

Wiag^, i^. iV^lkion of the -tnonkish or(^ by C<»istmiliiie, 1 80. 

friv* siege taPf, by ^he SaJracens, x, ^. Second meige by -the Sifirftddns, 

<$. Kevierv^ of t4]^ ^ovinctis of tbe Gr««k emfike «l tbe %d»h eei^ 

' ^iSiry, 99. $c^s of the cky df ConsltmUoopde, 1 1^. IHieimpeS^ 

%aiftc% o^ 114. Officers of ;^£Ct>e, *124. Milkafry •chacader ^ fhe 

'i&feeks^ 140. Tbe natee and chsrac^er of Romans, siiM)orted t6 ihe 

last, ^.>5i Decline and fevivail t>f Steifalure, 1S6. The <tfty ^iic- 

nacei 1)y tfce T-urks, 214. AccouWt of the V»angians, 82S. Na- 

VaA expe^ixioBS of the Hus^ans agahist the city, 228. 

.^ ^,. ....11 ■ ,. h,^ fQngiii of the separation of tiste XJr^k ^hd JLrtin 

churches, xi, 169. Massacre of the Latiins, IW. iKv^igioti of the 

breek etti^it^, and oeaquestof ConstanlinoiJleby%iiecrttsadeii!s,^OS» 

Thcdity irften, and Isaac A^^gekls t-estoFcd, 217. ^att ofite tity 

burnt by the Latins, 222. Second i^egfe of t}» >cky ^ fte Lttllhs, 

t2^6. Isp^Ikge^, 12S1. Account ol ^ tftatties destioytd, ^gM» 

Partition of the Greek empipe by tite J^endi and Vetotetiang, ^3. 

It^e Gred&s t^ against oieir La^h conquei^rs, ^8. The (^ 

t-^i4ten by the @¥t^eksj 2^. The st^t% of Oaaitaiasfitgn^ tofhe 

<SeHoese, 3ftO. HAsiiMties bfeW^reeh the Genoese wid *te «9apert)r, 

S94^. How tive city escaped the Moguls, 428. !« besieged 4^ the 

sultan Amurath II, xii, 5^. Is compared with Rome, 141. Is 

besieged by Mahomet 11^ sulUn of t^e T«^ks, 800. Is Mo^(tfiCt[ 

and taken, 231. Becomes t!ie capital ttf the TuiUsk ^etlftimis, 243. 

€^^mi^s Ohkrus^ gov^emer ^ Dbitesftk, was j»iMi«fed to tie «d«ptli 

by the emperor C^us, ib fhe roofo ibf kfis vicious son Cefrkuft, ii, 

100. Is associated as Caesar by Diocletiasiin his adminMtca^cto, 4t8p 

Assumes the title of Atigustas, on Ae abdication of Diodetian^ 

lg6. His M^, 193. Granted a toleration to ^ Chrisdatis^ 


/7^i!j/tf»/fWy,tW«e(}0ndMiii'Q( Con^antme the (^jtM, liis ed»ea*1^cm| 

ii, 11<6. foment «o ^o^^m the etfstem 'provhices off tlie empi«B| 

1 1 8. Seizes Constantinople on the death of his father, 181. Con* 

spires the deaths of his ynsmea, 1*33. Dii^&ion «f the empire 

among him and his brothers, ihid^ Restores Chosroes kffig -of Ar* 

mcnia, 138. BatUe of Singara with Sapor' king ef Persia, 140, 

Rejects the offers of Magnentius and Yetranio, on die plea of a 

vision, 152. His oration to the lUyrian troops tft the interview 

with Vetraoio, 154. Defeats Magnentius lit the battle of Mursa, 

1^, His councils governed by,<uimci3, J«8, Education of 

bb Qomm Galliis md Julian, 171. Bugrace and death «{ Gil- 
lusy 179. Sends ibr JuUan to court, 186. Invests him with tk 
tiUe o( Caesar, 188. Visiu Rome, 191. PrcsenU an obeluktotk 
dty, 195. The Quadian and Samatian wars, Mi, His Fetaao 
negotiation, SOO. Mismanagenscnt of affairs in the East, Sll. 
Favours the Arians, 351. His religious character by Ammianos 
the historian, 352. His restless endeavours to establish an uDifanoitj 
of Christian doctrine, S5i. Athanastus driven into ezik by the 
council of Antioch, d6i« is intimidated by his brother Constans, 
and invites Athanasius back again, 366. His severe treatment of 
those bishops who refused to concur in deposing AthanasliU) 87i 
His scrupulous orthodoxy, 377* His cautious conduct in ape% 
Athanasitts from Alexandria, 378. His strenuous efibrts to xtzc 
bis person, 382. Athanasius writes invectives to expose his dia- 
racter, 387* Is constrained to restore Liberius, bisiuip of Rome, 
391. Supports Macedonius, bbhop of Constantinople and com- 
tenauces his persecutions of Uie Catholics and Novatians^ 596, 5d7 
His conduct towards his pagan subjects, 407. Envies the fame of 
Julian, iv, 3. Recals the legions from Gaul, 4. Negoftiatiaiu ht- 
tween Urn and Julian, ] 9. His preparations to oppose JvHao, 32. 
His death and character^ 34, 35. 

CotuiaMSiui^ general, relieves the British emperor Constantine vlun be- 
sieged in Aries, v, 343. His character and victories, 344. His 
marriage with Placidia, and death, vi, 2. 

Oomtaniuiff secretary to Attila king of the Huns, his matximoDial ne- 
gotiation at the court of Constantinople, vi, 66^ 

Consul^ the office o^ explained, i, 103. Alterations this office 
underwent under the emperors, and when Constantwople became 
the seat of empire, ili, 35. The office of, suppressed by the eiQ; 
peror Justinian, vii, lh% Is now ^\mk to a commercial agent, \\ 

ConiractSf the Roman laws respecting, viii, 84. 

Copis of Egypt, brief history of, viii, 36a . 

Corint/tf reviving as a Roman colony, celebrates the Isthmian ga»^ 
under the emperor Julian, iv, 55. The Isthmus of, fortified by tw 
emperor Justinian, vii, 138. 

Ccrtfwa/f reduction of, by the Saxons, vi, 388. 

Qoronary gold, nature of those offerings to the Roman emperor^ ^> 

C^rvinui^ Matthias, king of Hungary, his character, xii, 167. 

G^smMi Indicopleustes,. account oi his Christian, topography, tH, ^^) 
note; viii, 343, note* 

Cosmo of Medlcis, his character, xii, 136. 

Councils and synods of 

Antioch, iii, 364. 
Aries, iii, 371. 
Basil, xii, 93. 
CsBsarea, iii, 361. 
Carthage, vi, 283 5 vii, 187. 

Councils and Synods of 

Chalcedon, v, 405 5 viii, SOS. 
Clermont, xi, 8. 
Constance, xii, S6y 92, S75. 

'Constantinople, v, 26 j viii, 327, SS3 j ix, 125 j xi, 17i?. 
Ephesus, viii, 288, 301. 
Ferrara, xii, 103, 
Florence, xii, \iy5* 
Frankfort, ix, 168. 
Lyons, vi, 325 j xi, 276, 334. . 
MUan, iii, 372. 
Nice, ill, 332 jix, 164. 
Pisa, xi, 92. 
Placentia, xi, 5. 
Rimini, iii, 343. 
Sardica, iii, S66« 
Toledo, vi, 800, 304, 378. 
Tyre, iii, 361. 
County great di&rence between the ancient and modem application of 
this title, iii, 58% By whom first invented^ ibui. Of the sabred 
largesses under ConstaHtine the Great, his office, 74. Of the do-* 
mestics in the eastern empire, his office, 77« 
Courtenay^ history of the family of, xi, 294. 
Crescentius^ consul of Rome, his vicissitudes, and disgrace&l dealh^ 

Cretej the isle of, subdued by the Saracens, x, 58. Is recovered 
by Nicephorus Phocas, 86. Is purchased by the Venetians, xi, 
Grimes^ how disdngulshed by the penal laws of the Romans, viii, 98. 
Crispus^ son of Constantine the Gfeat, is declared Cassar, ii, 249. 
-• Distinguishes his valour against the Franks and Alemanni, 253* 
Forces the passage of the Hellespont, and defeats the fleet of JA* 
cinius, 260. His character, iii, 106. His mysterious death, 
Crispui^ the patrician, marries the daughter of Phocas, and contributes 

to depose him, viii, 214. Is obliged to turii monk, 217* 
Croatia J account of the kingdom of, x, 198. 

Cross ^ the different sentiments entertained of this instrument of punish* 
ment, by the paean and Christian Romans, iii, 256. The famous 
standard of, in the army of Constantine the Great, described, 2/58. 
His visions of, 260, 265. The holy sepulchre and cross of Christ 
discovered, J V, 101. The cross of Christ undiminished by distri^ 
butioh to pilgrims, 102. 
Crown of thorns, its transfer from Constantinople to Paris, xi, 278. 
Crowns^ mural and obsidional, the distinction between, iv, 176^ 

Crusade^ the first resolved on at the council <^ Clermont, xi, 10. 
Inquiry into the justice of the holy war, 12. £xamination into 
the private motives of the crusaders, 20. Departure of the cru- 
aadm, 24, Account of the chiefs, SO. Thegt march to Constantin- 

mIc, 41. RcTicw of tbeir numbers, 53. Tb^ «iik» lOm^ll 
Btttk of DofyUeum. 60. Thc^ take A»tioch, 64u Tbeir du^ 
Uciies,69. Are relieved by the discovery of the l^lybncc, 7S. 
Siege and conquest of Jerusalenit 81. Godftey of Aoupim cliase& 
king of Jerusalem^ 86. The second crusade^ 105. Xhe cn»d- 
ers ill treated by the Greek emperors,. 109« Tho third cxu- 
sade, 140. Siege of Acre, 142. Fourth and fifth cmsadcsi 113. 
Sixth crusade, 158. Soventh crusade, ISSi Reca^kolatioa of 
the fourth crusade, 197. General consequeacca of the cnisadcs, 

Cuj^iottf the city of, plundered by the Romans^ i, 3S4« llsaitaatkL 
described, iv, 178. Julian declines the aegc of thatr c«^, 185. I- 
sacked by the Saracens, ix, 368. 

Cublai^ emperor of China, his character, xi, 426. 

Cmr^aUta^ his oSice under the Greek emperors^ n^ 12t. 

Cusioms^ duties of, imposed by Augustus, i, 2(91. 

Cycle of indictions, the ori^ of, traced, ajul hour n^w- ea^ilojed, iil, 
83, note. 

Qyf0i0mj bishop of Carlhaga, his history and iaaityBdo9|» ii^ 428« 

^jjftut^ tho kin|^m o^ bestowed on the house of J^usignaa, b 
fiichank I of England, xi, 1 83. 

Cyrene^ the Greek coloniea thesa finadlyextMB^ia^ed by- dMHioeslt 
kmg of Persia, viii, 222. 

Cgfiadejf an obscure &^tivQ, is set ug by Sa^^ the Beraaa n^anacdi, 
as emperor of Rome, i, 437* 

fgfiril^ buhog of Jerusalem« hia pompous- relatipn of a namcuWus ap- 
pearance o£ a. celestial cross^ iii, S5Iv His asabigui^ii^ character, 
IV, 103. 

C}(jpili ptriaKb of Alex^dria, his- life and ch|»^ter^ vin^ 270'- Con- 
demns the herasy of' Nestoxios,. 287. Procures the decxwL d 
the council of £phesiv a^^st Nestonus^ 288. His coiut inla^ir^ 
294. . 

dsizicus^ how it escaped dastructfon firom thcK GbAs, i^ 428. Is al 
length ruined by them, 4:^9. The island and city of, seized b)f)die 
ViQ^per Paocopius,^ i^ 247* 

Dtfi^tf,. conquest of^ b}r the emperor Trajan,!,. S« Its atnatioir, .^7. 

Is over-iuu by> die Gotbs» 3d7. Is resigned to them by. Aucdian, 

tf^uteu/f general gf the emperor Justaoian, besieges^ Petra, vu, S3L 

Co/nmands the Huns in Italy under Narses, 383. 
Diamberty archbishop of Pisa, installed patrtacch. of Jerusakv, xi, 

2Wffir49//it> described, i. 36. Broduce of a silver mane there, 259, nou^ 
jialmaftuSf nephew ot Constantine the Great, is created Caesar, iii^llG. 

Is sent to govern the- Gothic fcontier, 118. Is craellj destr«^ 

by Constantius^ 1 32* 
Barhascufi^ siege of, by the Saiaccns, :x, 385. The. city reduced 

botK by storm and by. t^aty^ 394. Remarks ozx Bughoa's t^^y 

of tliif sicgiv S9t, tMi. Tftken and dtstroyed bj( l^m^thtm^ x&^ 
fiitf jMiSijvi^, bish<^ of Home, ediot of Vak^ttaii addresrcdt to him, to re- 
strain the crafty avarice of the Romafv ckig^, iv, 371. His bloody 
C€mtc9t witH Ursinug'for the^iscopal dignity, 274. 
'Dames ^ the Anb, his. gallant enterprise against t^e (>a8tle of Aleppo, 

ix, 416. 
M^amisea- \a taken by Louis IX of Fiance, xi, 160. 
DamofiMluSf archbishop of Constantinople, resigns his see, Mihci than ^ 

subscribe the ^Jioene creed, y, 2Sw 
Dandah^ Henry, doge of Venice, his character, xi, 195« Is madb 
i despot of Romania, 24^. 
fyaniet^ first bishop of Winchester^ his instructions to Su Bonifiwe, ftc 

the conversion of infidels, vi, 273. 
i2>4ifrM/ftP, a Grecian matron, her pvesents to the enpeoor Basil, x, l€d. 

Her visit to him at Constantinople, 117. Her testament, llifc 
IXfxrc^, eourse of the river, and the provinces of, described^ i, 96. 
^ttphw^ the sacred gtove and temple 6^ at Antioch, decribed, iv, 
1 118. Is convertod to Christian purposes by Gallus, and restacod to 

the pagansbv Julian, 121, 123. The tem'ple bimied, 123. 
¥>mra^ the fortificatlen ef, by Justinian, described, vii, I3$k TIkt de- 
moljttion of, by the Per^ans, pMvented 1^ peace, 806. Is taken by 
Ch^roes king' of Persia, viil, 175. 
I I^arius^ hi» schema ^^r centiec^iAg the coiitinetit» of Europe and Aba, 

ill, 6.- 
. Darkness^ preternatural, at the time of the passien, if vMieticodihy the 
. heatlien pltilosophers and histerians, ii, 379^ 
tousiagardy the Persian royal seat of, plundered hf the emprpar H<^' 

^iiaHusy go^mofof Spain, yields raadyobedieiice to the imperial 

edicts against the Christians, ii, 47^^* 
Baituf^ biSiep af • Mlas, instigatee the vev(^ of the L^urioos to JiMtx- 
nian, vii, 242, 243. Escapes to Constantinople en the taking of Mi- 
lan by the Burgun^aiH, 25(K 
Debtors^ insolvent, cruel punishment of, by the law of the twelve tableS| 

vHi, 9§. 
Decemviri^ review of the laws of their twelve tables, viil, 6. These 

laws superseded by the perpetual edict, 16. Severity of, 90. 
Dtciui^ hw exaltation^ to the empfre, i, SS4, 385. Was a persecutor of 

the Christians, 452. 
DecurioHt^ m the Riomui empire^ ore severely treated by the iaperiil 

laws, lit, 84. 
DetfieaHam of the KoBian emperors, how this species of idolatry^ w«ft]A« 

trodluced, i. 111. 
Delators^ are encoiiraged by the emperor CommoduSi to gratify hiih#t« 

red of the senate, i, 141. Are suppressed by Pertinax, |j0i2. 
}}elfikt\ the sacred omaonents of the temple of, removed to CqnAtaiidb- 

ople by Constantine the Great, iii, 2^ irel^« 
Pemoeraey^ a ierm of govettiaieni ua&vearalllt t^ budam in « Usfff^ 
state, i, 54. 


Dtmmu Mpp^tel to be (lit aotbon and objects of ^«g«i idolatiy, hj 

Ibc primitifc Chrotians, ii, 288b 
DnmuJunes^ mvcnior of Csnrea, his gallant jrfrpcc a^;abut| aod he- 
nPOQIf Sap 

; cacape mm, Sapor king of Pnaa, i» 4*39. 
Dtogr^iksf bishop of Cartha^Ct humanely niccoucs tile cr^itires braagiit 

from Rome by Genaeric king of the Vandals, ti, 154. 
Dermr^ the Saracen, his character, ix, S89. 
Iktideriiu^ the last king of the Lombasds, co h quei^ bj Charlaaagsc^ 

iz, 150. 
Despot^ nature of that title in the Greek empire, x, 121. 
Dt^poUsm originates in superstition, i, 362, note. 
Diidem assusMd by Diocletian, what, ii, 1S5. 
Dimmttdty the art of cutting them, unknown to the anciently i, 3B% 

DiJuu JwiioMks purchases the imperial dignity at a pnbJic aoctkn, \ 


Dioeeuet of the Roman empire, their number and croTcrmnent, m, 49. 

Diocletiavy the manner of his military election to the empire, ii, 109^ 

His birth and character, 112. Takes Maximian £o€ bis coUcs^oc, 

115. Associates as Csesars, Galeixus and Constantnis ChJoros, 

118. }£s triumph in conjunction with Maiiimian» 156. iixcs kis 

^urt at the dty of ^noomedia, 159. Abdicatea the empire^ 170. 

nralkl between him and the emperor Charles V« 171. PasKs hs 

liie in retiiement at Salona, 17i. His impartial behaviour toirards 

the Christians, 458. Causes that produced the persecution of the 

Christians under his rdgn, 460. 

Dion Caismsj the historian, screened from the fury of the soldien^ bj 

the emperor Alexander Severus, i, 250. 
Dioscomiy patriarch of Alexandria, his outrageous behaviour at the se- 
cond council of Ephcsus, viii, 501. Is deposed by the cooncii of 
Chalcedon, 306. 
Disebui^ great khan of the Turks, his reception of the ambassadocs of 
. Justinian, vii, 295. 

Divorce^ the liberty and abuse of, by the Roman laws, viii, 60. Li- 
mitations of, 63. 
DocetfSy their peculiar tenets, lii, 3l9-> viii, 265. Derivation of their 

name, lii, S20, note. 
DominiCy St. Loricatus, his fortitude in flagellation, xi, 17. 
DominuSy when thu epithet was applied to the Roman emperors^ ii, 

Domitiany emperor, his treatment of his kinsmen Flavius Sabinos and 

Flavins Clemens, ii, 415. 
Domitiany the oriental prefect, is sent by the emperor Constantios to 
reform the state of the £ast, then oppressed by Gallus, iii, 176. Is 
put to death there, 177. 
Donatusy his contest with Cscilian for the see of Carthage, iii, 309. 
Hbtory of the schism of the Donatists, 311, 398. Pcraccutiop ff 
the Donatists by the emperor Honorius, yi, 16. 
DoryUumy battle, o^ between Sultan Soliman and the first crusader^ 
xi, SO. 


^oxoiogy^ how introduced in the church service^ and how perVcHed^ 
iii, 336. 

^ramntw representations at Rome, a character of, v, 285* 

yr^amr, the popular opinion of the preternatural origin of, favour- 
able to that of Constantine previous to his battle with MaxentiuS^ 
iu, 262. 

dromedary ^ extraordinary speed of this animal, ii, 42, note. 

yrontones of the Greek empire, described, xi, 137, 138. 

^ruids^ their power in Gaul suppressed by the emperors Tiberius and 
Claudius, i, 52. 

druses of mount Libanus, a character of, x, 380, note, 

^uke^ derivation of that title, and great change in the modem, from 
the ancient application of it, iii, b%. 

Didrams&o, siege of, by Robert Guiscard, x, 288. Battle of^ between 
him and the Greek emperor Alexius, 204b 

Karthquake^ an extraordinary one ovier great part of the Roman empire, 
iv» 338. Account of those that happened in the reign of Justinian> 
vii, 41 7. 

Mast India^ the Roman commercial intercourse with that region, i, 88v 
Commodities of, taxed by Alexander Severus, 262^ 

Ebwmtes^ account of that sect, ii, 279. 

■ . ■ " " ■ * a cwifutatiou of their errors, supposed by the primitive fa- 
thers to be a particular object in the writings of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, iii, 318. 

• their ideas of the person of.lesus Christ, viii, Q61, 

Ecclesiastesy the book of, why not likely to be the production of King 
Solomon, vii, 1 95, note, 

^Ecclesiastical and civil powers, distinguished by the fathej^ of the 
Christian church, iii, 282. 

EcJicfuSy son of the emperor Avitus, his gaUant conduct in Gaul, vi, 2C?* 

Ect bests of the emperor Heraclius^ viii,^83l. 

Edda^ of Iceland, the system of mythology in, i^ S'90. 

Edecon is sent from Attila king of the Huns, as his ambassador tb the 
emperor Theodosius the Younger, vi, 68. Engages in a proposal to 
assassinate Attila, 80* His son Odoacer, the first barbarian king of 
Italy, 224. 

Edessa^ the purest dialect of the Syriac language spoken thiere, i, 335, 
note. The property of the Christians there, confiscated by the em- 
peror Julian, for the disorderly conduct of the Arians, iv, 129. Re- 
volt of the Roman troops there, viii, 20.^. Account of the school 
of, 339. History of the famous image there , ix, 118. The city 
and principality of, sazed by Baldwin the brusader, xi, 63. Is re- 
taken by Zenghi, 122. The counts of, 29^. 

Edict of Milan, published by Constantine the Grbat, iii, 244. 

Edicts oi tlie pretors of tlome, under the republic, their nature and 

tendency^ viii, 13. 
EJom, why that name was applied to the AoQian empire ^y the Jews, 
ii, 887^ note. 
Vol XII. ^ ' H h ' 


hJrUiUi^ the SuMcn ijmAj of, z, 80. 

EditmrJ 1 of England, his crusade to the Holy Landy xi, l&t, 

EgiMm^ hit character and revolt in Gaoli vi, 185. His sen Smiici^ 

Sgyft^ fgcaonl description of, i, 40k The st^enddons d^ Mh ^- 

cultjT tolerated at Roobc, 52. Amount of its revenues, 257. Pobk 

works executed there by Probus, n, 89. Conduct of Diodesian 
X there, 134. Piogreas of Christianity there, S63« 
-^— edict of the emperor Vdens, to lestrain tiie number of itclust 

monks there, iv, 270. 
■ the worship of Serapis, how introduced there, iv^ 1€8. Ifis 

temple, and the Alexandrian library, destroyed hj BisliHop Thtof^ 

lus, 1 1 i, 1 12. Orijrin of monkish iastihidons in, vi^ 241. 
— — great supplies of wheat furnished by, for the city, of CbbsMbi- 

ople, in the time of Justinian, vii, 88* Ecclesiaslicad lusteiy of, m, 

«— — « reduced by the Saracens, v, 427. Capture Kji Alexandiis, 455. 

Administration of, 443. Description of^ by Axnruu, 445. 
* ' " the Egyptians take Jerusalem from the Turks, xi^ 77- £g7P( 

conquered by the Turks, 125. Government of the Mamaliikes 

there, 164. 
Elagabaitti is declared emperor by the troops at Emesa, i, 229. Was 

the first Roman who wore garments of pure silk, vii, 92. 
ElfphantSy inquiry into the number of, brought into the field by tk 

ancient princes of the East, i, 3S7, note. With what view intio- 

doced in the circus at Rome in the first Pimic war, ii, 103. 
EUuiinian mysteries, why tolerated by the emperor Valentiniao, ir, 

ERxabeth^ queen of England, the political use she made of the national 

pulpits, iii, SSl, note. 
EmigrattOH of the ancient northern nations, the nature and motives o^ 

examined, i, d60. 
Emferort of Rome, a review of their constitutions, vifi, 16. Tbdr le- 
gislative power, 1^ TKelr Rescripts, 19. ' 

■ ' ■ of Germany, their limited powers, ix, 208. Of Cbnstantia- 

opie, their pomp and luxury, x, 1 1 S. Officers of the palace, state, 

and army, 121. Adoration of the emperor, mode of, 1 24. Their 

public appearance, 126. Their despotic power, 1S4. Tbrirnavj, 

136. They retain the name of Romans to the last, 155. 
Empire^ Roman, division of, into the East and West empires by Valen- 

tinian, iv, 242. Extinction of the western empire, vl, 224. 
Encampment^ Roman, descril>ed, i, 25. 
Ennodius^ the servile flatterer of Theodoric the Ostrogoth king of ItalV) 

is made bishop of P:ivia, vii, 16, note. 
Efagathus^ leader of the mutinous pretorians, who murdered their 

prefect Ulpian, punished by the emperor Alexander Sevcrus, i, 

250. ' 

Ephesusy the famous temple of Diana at, destroyed by the Goths, i, 

432. Council of, viii, 288. Episcopal tiots there, 291. 
Epkurus^ his legacy^ to his f hilosophi^ disciples at Athens', vii^ I4& 

fiir^Sy ^68^6t^ of, oti the dislnembermetit of the di^eek empire, ^i, 

*quitiusy master-general of thfe lUyrian frontier j is defeated by the Sar- 

znatians, iv, 830* 
T-asfHus^ his merit as d reformer, it, 192. 
'\sseniansy their distinguishing teiiets and tirsltctices, ii^ ^2^ 
\ucharist<i a knotty subject to the first reformers, x, 189. 
\udesy duke of Aquitain, nepels the first Saracen inyasioti of France, 

X, 20. Implores th: aid of Charle^ Martel^ 24. Recovers his duke* 

dom, 27. 
Zudocia^ her birth, character, and marnage with the emperor Theddo^ 

sius the Younger, v, 421. Her disgrace and death, 425. 
Zudoxia^ her marriage witli the emperor Arcadius, iii, 14S- Stimu- 
lates him to give up his favourite EutropiuSj 890. Persecutes Sti 

Chrysostom, 405. Her death and character^ 411. 
^udoxin^ the daughter of Theodoaus the Younger, is betrothed to the 

young emperor ¥alentiniaii III of the West, vi, 7, Her character, 

140. Is martied to the emperor Maximusi 149i Invites Genseric 

king of the Vandals to Italy, 150i 
Eudoxus^ bishop of Constantinople^ baptizes the emperor Valehs, ir^ 

Eugenias^ therhetorieiaii, is made emperor of the West by Arbogastes 
the Frank, v, 78. Is defeated and killed by Theodosius, 84. 

Eugentus IV, Pope, his contest Iwrith the council of Basil, xii, 93. Pro- 
cures a retmion of the Latin and Greek churches, 111, 112. Forms 
a league against the Turks, 154i Revolt of the Roman citizens a- 
gainst him, 878. 

Eumenius^ the orator, some Account of, il, \%%tiOU, 

EunapiuSy the sophist, his character of monks, and t)f the objects of 
their worship, v, 123, 124. 

Eunominns^ punishment of, by the edict of the emperor l^hebdosius 
against heretics, v, S3. ^ 

Eunuchs^ enumerated in the list of eastern eotiitnodltie^ imported and 
taxed in the time of Alexander Scvcrus, i, 262. They infest the pa- 
lace of the third Gordiah, 307. 

« ' their ascendency in the court of Cbnstahtius, iii, 168. Why 

they favouitd the Atians, 850, note. Procure the banishment of 
Liberius bishop of Rome,. 590. 

a conspiracy of, disappoint the Schemes of Rufinus, and 

marry the empetor Arcadius to Eudoxia^ v, 147. They distract the 

Court of the emperor Honorius, 30i. And govern that of Arcadius^ 

375. Scheme of Chiysaphius to assassinate Attila king of the Huns, 

vi, 80. 
• — ■' — » the bishop of Seez and his whole chapter castrated, xii, ^05^ 

Euriey king of the Visigoths in Gaul, his conquests in Spain, vi, 206. 

Is vested ivith all the Roiaatl conquests beyond the Alps by Odoa- 

cer king of Italy, 808* 
Europe^ cndenccs that the climate of, was much colder in ancient th«n 

in modem time^, i, 346. This alteration accounted for, S47. 


Eur^ptf fiaal division of, bctwecx^tbe western and eastern empires, t^ 
137' It ravaged by Attila king of the Huns, vi^ 52. Is now ok 
great republic, 41 !• 

ftf/z^tf, empress, wife of Constantltfs, her steady friendship to luliaii) 
lily 183, 185. Is accused of arts to deprive Julian of chilib^ 

Kuiibiut^ his character of the followers of Artemon, ii, 373. His own 
character, 490. Hb story of the miraculous appearance of the crjss 
in the sky to Constantine the Great, iii, 264, 265. 

Eutropius^ the eunuch, gre'nt chamberlain to the emperor ArA 
concerts his marriage \^ ith Eudoxia, in opposition to the vieivsof R:!- 
finus, V, 147. Succeeds Rufinus in the emperor^s coqfideDce, M 
His character and administration, 376. Provides for his own secur- 
ity. In a new law against treason, 383. Takes sanctuary ^\k St. 
C'hrysostom, 391. His death, 393. 

Eutycbes^ hb opinion on the subject of the incarnation supported by the 
second council at Ephesus, viii, 300. And adhered to bj ^^' 
menians, 358. 

Eyxine Sea^ description of the vessels used in n&vigating, i, 4^' 

Exaltation of the cross, origin of the annual festival of, viii, 2BS> 

Exarch^ under the Greek empire, the ofBce and rank of, ix, 153. Ot 
Ihvenna, the government of Italy settled in, and adoiiniftere^ % 
vii, 89$ V viii, l45. 

Excise duties imposed by Augu&tus, i, 262. 

ExcommunicatiQn from Christian communion, the origin of, y^ ^°' 
ill, 298. 

Exilcy voluntary, under accusation and conscious guik, its advantages 
among the Romans, viii» 107. 

Faitk^ and its operation^ defined, ii, 3]5» ^ 

Falcandutf Hugo, character of his Historia Sicula^ x, 325, «o/^ ^ 

lamentation on the transfer of the sovereignty of the island to IDc 

emperor Henry VI, 326. 
Tathers of the Christian church, cause of their austere morality, «> 

Fausta^ empress, vdfe of Constantine the Great, causes d ber bdng p"^ 

to death, iii, 113. 
Faustina y wife of Marcus Antoninus, her character, i, 135. 
Faustina, the widow of the emperor Constantius, countenancistKr'^' 

volt of Procopius against the emperor Valens, iv, 247* . . •• 
Festivals^ Pagan, great offence taken at, by the primitive Chrislia'^s»"' 

293. ' . 

/VW/i/ government, the rudiments of, to be found among tbc Sep'* 

ans, iv, 351-, 355. . 

Fi^ures^ numeral, occasion of their first public and familiar «se, ^^^' 
Finances of the Roman empire, when the seat of it was removed - 

Constantinople, reviewed, iii, 81. . .^ 

Finjal^ his' questionable history, whether to be connected vilt tie i^-' 

vasion of Caledonia by the emperor Severus, i, 209. 


Fire^ Greek, the Saracen fleet destroyed by, in th^ harbour of Constan- 
tinople, X, 11. Is long preserved as a secret, *17. Its effects not to 
be compared with gunpowdei^, 140. 
Firmus^ an Egyptian merchant, his revolt against the emperor Aurc- 

lian, ii, 45, 
Firmus^ the Moor, history of his revolt against the emperor Valentinian, 

iv, SOI*. 
'Flagellation^ its efficacy in penance, and how proportioned, xi, 18. 
Fianiens^ Roman, their number, and peculiar office, v, 93. 
Tlaminian way, its course described, vii, 384, note, 
Ficoian^ archbishop of Constantinople, is killed at the second council 

of Kphesus, viii, 302, 
Fleece^ golden, probable origin of the fable of, vii, 321. 
Florence^ the foundation of that city, v, 216, note. Is besieged by Ra- 

dagaisus, and relieved by Stilicho, 217> 218, 
F^orenilus^ pretorian prefect of Gaul under Con$tantiu$, his character, 
iii, 233 J iv, 7. Is condemned by the tribunal pf Chalcedon, but 
suffered to escape by Julian, 48. 
Florianus^ brother of the emporor Tacitus, his eager usurpation pf th(5 

imperial dignity, ii, 70, 
Talix is consecrated bishop of Rome, to supersede Liberius, who was 
exiled, iii, 390. He is violently expelled, and his adherents slaugh- 
tered, 892. ^ ^ ... 
Felixy an African bishop, his martyrdom, li, 473. 
Farntcation^ a d0ubtfijl plea for divorce, by gospel authority, viii, S5^ 

Trancfiy modem, computation of the number of its inhabitants, and th^ 

average of their tai^ation, iii, 91 . 
m ■ the name of, whence derived, vi, ^^2. Derivation of the 
French language, 372, note. 

■ — Childeric deposed, and Pepin appointed king, by papal sanctioi^ 
ix, 152. ReigR and character of Charlemagne, 174e Invasion o]^ 
by the Saracens, x, 18. 
Trangipani^ Censio, his profane violation of the persons of Pope Gela» 
Sius II and his college of cardinals, xii, ^67* Derivation of his fa« 
mily namei 316. 
Franks J their origin and confederacy, i, 412. They invade Gaul, and 
ravage Spain, 414, 415. They pass over into Africa, 415. Bold 
and successful return of 9, colony of, from the sea of Ppntus, by sea, 
ii, 85. 
■■ 1 — they over-ruA aud establish tbcmselve? at Tpxandria in Ger- 
many, iii^ 214. 

( their fidelity tp the Roman government, v, 223. Origin of 

the Merovingian race of their kings, vi^ 98. How converted to 
Christianity, 272. Reign of their Tdng Clovis, 310. Final esta- 
blishment of the French monarchy in Gaul,. 839. Their laws, 345, 
Give the name of France to thdr conquests in Caul, 362. Thcjr 
degenerate into a state of anarchy, 372. 
' they invade Italy, vii, 249, 393. 

— — — their military character, x, 147- 


Fr^miiSf the Goth, hit chaiacter« and douUj quaiid with \a 
co un toy i mn Priuli^ ir, 442. His pperationa agaiost Gunas^ t, 

Frederic I, emperor of Germany^ his tyranny in Italy, ix» W. En- 
gages in the third crutade, xi, 105. (iiB disastrous expediuont 1I3| 
141. Sacrifices Arnold of Brescia to the popca 3uiy $75« Histe- 
ply to the Roman ambassadors^ t^. 

Frederic II is driven oat of Italy, ix, 208. His disputes with tk pope, 
and rductant crusade, xi, 155. Exhorts the European princes to 
unite in opposing the Tartars, 4^. 

Frederic 111, the last emperor crowned at Rome, xii, 379. 

Freedmen^ among the Romans, their rank in society, viii, 50. 

Freemen of Laconta, account of^ x, 107. 

Fritigern^ the Godiic chief^ extricates himself ixovcL the han^ oi 
Lupicinus, governor of Thrace, iv, 3S9. Defeats him, 1% 
Battle of Salices, S97. His strength recruited by the accession of 
new tribes, 399. Negotiates with Valens, 406. E^ttle of Hadixan- 
ople, 408. The union of the Gothic tribes broken by his deatli, 

Frum/enttus was the first Christian missionary in Abyssinia, bi, ^. 

Fulk of NeuiUy, his ardour in preaching the fourth crusade, xi, 188. 

Gahimut^ king of the Quadi, is treacherously murdered by M^rcellxBus 
governor of Valeria, iv, 238. 

CaiUardy M. character of his Histoire de Charlemagne^ ix, 175, 

Cainas^ the Goth, is commissioned by Stilicho to execute his revenge o& 
Rufiiius, prefect of the East, v, 115. His conduct in the war against 
the revolter Tribigild, 389. Jobs him, 393. His flight and d^th, 

Cala^ probable derivation of the term, x, 126, note^ 

Galata^ the suburb of, at Gmstantinople, asrigned to the Genoese, li, 

Galerius is associated in the administration, as Caesar, by the emperor 
Diocletian, ii, 118. Is defeated by the Persians, 144. Sur- 
prises and overthrows Narses, 147* Assumes^the title of Au- 
gustus, on the abdication of Diocletian, 186. Ij& jealousy of Con- 
stantine, 192. Deemf it prudent to acknowledge him Csesar, 
195. Hb unsuccessful invarion of Italy, 202. Invests Lici- 
aius with the piirple oa the death of Severus, 208. His death, 
212. From what causes he entertained an avq^ion to ^e Chris- 
tians, 463. Obtains the countenance of Diocletian for perseciAmg 
them, 465. . Poblishes an edict of toleration ju^ before hk death, 
484. ^ ■ /^ ■■'* '■ ' \ 

Gatiiteans^ two-fold appScaUon of that x^ame in the infancy of CSms- 
tianity, ii, 41 1. Why the emperor Julian applied this name to the 
Christians, iv, 109. 

Gallienus^ son of the emper^ Valerian, is associated by him in the 
imperial throne, i, 411. Prohibits the senators from exerdsing 

Gsmua nmu. 

luUtasy emflcgniicBts, 419. Cbancter of bis adiiiinist]!atio& tfter 
tbe captivitj of his £ithcr, 442. Names Qaudius for his sacccssor, 
iiy 4. Favoured the Christians, 453. 

Gaileyt of the Greek empire described, x, 138. 

Galms elected emperor, on the minority of Hostiliantis, the son of De- 
cius, i, 405. 

GaUus^ nephew of Constantine the Great, his education, iii, l7l* 
Is invested with the title of Caesar, 172. His cruelty and im« 
prudence, 173» His di^;race and death, 179. Embraced the 
doctiine, but neglected the precepts, of Christianity, iv, 66. Con«> 
verts the grove of Daphne at Antioch to a Christian burial-place, 

Gemes^ public, of die Romans, described, i, 312, 415} v, 284. Ac* 
count of the Actions of die circus, vii, 75. 

Ganges^ source of ih»t rfver, xii, 15, note* 

Gauaentius, the notary, is condemned to death under the emperor Ju- 
Han, iv, 49. 

Gaui^ the province o^ described, i, SI. The power of the druids sup* 
pressed there b^ Tiberius and Claudius, 52. Cities in, 78, A- 
mount of the tnbute paid by that province to Rome, 257- Is de- 
fended against the Franks by Posthunius, 414, Succession of usurp- 
ers theric, ii, 29* Invasion of, by the Lygians, 78. Revolt of the 
Bagaudas suppressed by Maximian, 120. Progress pf Christianity 
there, 367.y 

w^ — ' proportion of the capitation-tax levied there by the Roman em- 
perors, iii,'88. Is invaded by the Germans, 213. The government 
of, assigned to Jiidian, 215. His civil.administration, 232. Is in- 
vaded by the Alemanni, imder the emperor Valentinian, iv, 277* 
And under Gralian, 401. 

"^<*— destruction of idols and temples there, by Martin, bishop of 
Tours, V, 105. Is over-run by the barbarous trpdps of Rada- 
laisus, after his defeat by Stillcho, 224. Is settled by the Goths, 
Borjgrundians, and Franks, 359. Assembly of the seven pro- 
vinces in, 369. Reign of Theodoric king of the Visigoths in, 
vi, 93. Origin of the Merovingian race of the kmgs of the 
Franks in, 98. Invasion of, by Attila king df the Huns, 107« 
Battle of Chal<vis, 112. Revolutions of, on the death of the 
emperor Majorian, 206. Conversion of, to Christianity by the 
Franks, 295. Representation of the advantages it enjoyed under 
the Roman government, 306. Conquests and pros^writy of Euric 
king of the Vidgoths, 308. Character and reign of Cloyis, 
310. The Alemapni conquered, 317' Submission of the Armo- 
ricans, and the Roman troops, 322. Final establishment of the 
French n^onarchy in Gaul, 339. History of the 5alic laws, 343. 
The lands of, how claimed and divided by the barbarian con- 
querors of, S59. DoTQain and benefices of the Merovingian princes, 
356. Usurpations of the Seniws^ 358. Privileges of the Romans 

in, 869. 
Gedrosioy revolutions of the sea^coast of, i, 331, note. 
Gelalc^an era of the Turks, when settled, x, 36?. 


Gehtstuf^ Pope, bis zeal against the celebration of the feast of Lupetcv 
lia, viy VJ9. Deplores tbe miserable decay of Italy, 235. 

GfUsims II, Pope, bis rougb treatment by Censio Fraogipani,iii, 2^7. 
Gettmer deposes Hilderic the Vandal king of Africa, and usurps the 
government, vii, 157. Is defeated by Belisarius^ 176. His final 
defeat, 1 ^4. His distressful fligbt, 1 89. Sunenders himself to fie- 
Itsarius, 192. Graces bis triumpb, 194. His peaceful retirement, 

General of tbe Roman army, bis extensive power, i, 99- 

Generofity^ Arabian, striknig instances o^ ix, 2^2. 

Gennadius^ tbe monk, his denunciation against a Greek uniim witL tbs 
Latin church, xii, 207* 

Oennerid^ the Roman general, under tbe emperor Hooqrius, b» cbiac- 
tcr, V, 300. 

Genoese^ their qiercantile estabHsbmcnt in tbe Suburb of Fera at Con- 
stantinople, xi, 390. Their war with die empeitor Cantacuzeaus, 

Gensertc^ king of tbe Vandals in Spain, bis character, vi, 13. Goes 
over to Africa on tbe invitation of Count Boniface, \ 4e, Hii sue- 
cesses there by tbe assistance of the Dpnatists, 18. I^evastation ot 
Africa by bis troops, 20. Besieges Boniface in Hjippq Regios, 21. 
His treacherous surprisal of Carthage, 28. Strengthens himself by 
an alliance with Attila kin? of the Huns, 49. liis brutal treat- 
ment of bis son*s wife, daughter of Theodoric, 97- Raises a naval 
force, and invades Italy, 147. His sack of Rome, 151. Destroys 
the fleet of Majorian, 181, 182. His naval depredations on Italy, 
187* His claims on the eastern empire, 189. l>estroys tbe Roman 
fleet under Basilicus, 203. Was an Arian, and persecuted liis a« 
tholic subjects, 280, 

GentUman^ etymology of tbe term, xi, 36, note. 

Geof>onies of the emperor Const an tine Porphyrogemtus, account of, x, 96. 

George of Cappadocia supersedes Atbanasius in tbe see of Alexandm, 
in, 380. His scandalous history, and tragical death, iv, 125. B^ 
comes tbe tutelar saint of England, 129. 

Gepidst^ their encroachments on the eastern empire checked hy the Lorn. 
bards, vii, 273. Are reduced by them, viii, 121. 

Germanus^ nephew of the emperor Justinian, bis character and promo- 
tion to the command of the a^my sent to Italy, vii, 379. His death, 

Germany^ tbe rude institutions of that country^ the original princ^les 
of European laws and manners, i, 344. Its ancient extend 345. 

. ' How peopled, 349. The natives unacquainted with letters in the 
time of Tacitus, 352. Had no cities, 354. Manners of the andent 

- Germans, 357* Population, 8^9. State of liberty among them, 
361. Authority of their magistrates, 364. Conjugal faith and 
chastity, 367. Their religion, 370. Arms and discipline, 375. 
Their feuds, 380. General idea of tbe German tribes, 382. Pro- 
bus carries the Roman arms into Germany, ii, 79. A frontier wall 
bailt by Probu% from the Rhine to tbe Danube, 81. 

,;, . ..I .J tnvasioxis of Gaul by the Geri^ans^ iii^ 213 \ iv, 277« 


'yermanyy state of, under the emperor Charlemagne, ix, liS. The im- 
perial crown established in the name and nation of Germany, by the 
iirst Otho, 191. Division of, among independent princes, 208. 
Formation of the Germanic constitution, 211. State assumed by 
the emperor, 215. 
Geronttus^ Count, sets up M aximus as emperor in Spain, and loses hb 

life in the attempt, v, S42, S43. 
Geta and Caracalla, sons of the emperor Severus, their fiiied antipathy 

to each other, i, 206. 
Gkebers of Persia, history of, v, 883. * 
Gibraltar^ derivation pf the name of, v, 368. 
Gildo the Moor, his revolt in Africa, v, 162. His defeat and death, 

Gladiatorsy desperate enterprise and fate of a party of, reserved for the 
triumph of Probus, ii, ^^. The combats of, abolished by the em- 
peror Honorius, v, 205. 
Glycerins is first emperor of Rome, and then bishop of Salona, vi, 
2 19, 220. Murders Julius Nepos, and is made archbishop of Mi' 
Ian, 221. 
Gnostics^ character and account of the sect of, ii, 282. Principal 
sects into which they divided, 286. Their peculiar tenets, iii, 319 j 
Godfrey of Bouillon, his character, and engagement in the first crusade, 
xi^ 30. His route to Constantinople, 41, 46. Is elected king of 
Jerusalem, 86. Compiles the assize of Jerusalem, 93, Form of his 
administration, 95. 
Gog and Magog, the famous rampart of, described, vii, 142. 
Goisvintlia^ wife of Leovigild king of Spain, her pious cruelty to the 

princess Ingundis, vi, 296. 
Cold of affliction, the tax so denominated in the eastern empire, abo« 

lished by the emperor Anastasius, vii, 101. 
Golden horn^ why the Bosphorus obtaped this appellation in remote 

antiquity, iii, 7- 
Gordianusy proconsul pf Africa, his character and elevation to the 
empire of Rome, i, 282. His son associated with him ia the im« 
perial dignity, 284. 
Gordiafif the third and youngest, declared Caesar, i, 291'. Is declared 
emperor by the army, pfi the ' Qiurder of Maxim^s and Balbinus, 
306. - ^ 

Gotks of Scandinavia, their origin, i, 887, Their religion, 389. The 
Goths and Vandals supposed to be originally one great people, 392. 
Their emigrations to Prussia^and the Ukraine, 393. They invade 
the Roman provinces, 397. They receive tribute from the Ro- 
mans, 406. They subdue the Bosphorus, 423. Plunder the cities 
of Bithynia, 426. They ravage Greece, 430. Conclude a treaty 
with the emperor Aurelian, ii, 18. They ravage lUyricum, and 
are chastised by Constantine the Great, 254. 
— — their war with the Sarmatians, iii, 123. Are again routed 
by Constantine, 124. Gothic war under the emperors Valenti- 
xAm und Valens, iv, 322. Are defeated by the Huns, 374* They 


imfhn Uit pcotecliflo of tbe cnipexor Vakns, 379* Tbej an ic^ 
cetved into tbe empire, 582. Thtj are oppressed by tbe Bomm 
govcfnon of Tbrace, S85. Are provoked to hostilities, and de&at 
Lopidnus, 590. They ravafle Tbrace, 891. Battle of Sdkcs, 
897- Tbey are 9trenfl;tbened oy fresh swarms of their co miliyu icn, 
898. Battle of Hadnanopk, 408. Scour the' country from Ha- 
drianoplc to Coostantinople, 414. Massacre of the GolliicTOutb in 
Asia, 418. Their formidable union broken by the death of Fiiti- 
gem, 431. I^ath and funeral of Athanaric, 432. IxiTaskn and 
defeat of the Ostrogodis, 485. Are settled ia Thrace, by Theodo- 
dtts, 488. Their hostile sentiments, 440. 

GogiSf revolt of, under Honorius, ▼, 176. They ravage Greece, 
under the command of Alaric, 179. Tbey invade itdy, 190. 
Th« sack of Rome by, 310. Death of Alaric» 329. VictoAes oC 
WalUa in Soain, 857. They are settled in Aquitain, 358. See 
Gaul and Ticodaric. Conquest of the Visigoths in Gatd and Spain, 
vi, 206. How tbe Goths were converted to the Christian religion, 

•««— reign of Theodoric king of tbe Ostrogoths, vii, 2. The Goths 
in Italy, extb^uished, 399. 

Government f civd, the oriein of, i, 862. 

Governors of provinces,' under the emperors, tbek great power and in« 
fluence, ia, 56. 

Grattan was the first emperor who refusod the pontifical robe, S, 409, 
note. Marries tbe prmcess Constantia, and succeeds to the empire, 
iv, 33^ Defeats tbe Alemanni in Gaul, 402. Invests Theodoaos 
with the empire of the East, 420. 

■ ■ his character and conduct, v, 1 . His flight from Msximus, 

and deatli, 8. Overthrew the ecclesiastical estabUshment of pagan* 
ism, 95. 

Greece is ravaged by the Goths i, 430. Is over-run by Alaric, die 
Goth, v, 179. Is reduced bjr the Turks, xii, 249. 

Greek church, origin of the schism o^ xi, 1 69 ^ xii. 111, 145. 

Greek empire. See Constantinople* 

Greeks f why averse to the Roman language and manners, i^ 161. The 
Greek becomes a scientific language among the Romans, 63. Cha- 
racter of the Greek language of Constantinople^ xii, 115. Wh&k 
first taught in luly, 126. 

Greek learning, revival of, in Italy, xii, 119. 

Gregory the Great, Pepe, his pious presents to -Recared king of Spa/n, 
VI, 301. Exhorts Theodelinda queen of the Lombards to propagate 
the Nicene faith, ibul, Hb ennuty to the venerable builcUngs and 
learning of Rome, viii, 160. I£s birth and early professiaD, 162. 
His elevation to the pontificate^ 164. Sends a mission to coti- 
vert the Britons, 167* Sanctifies the usurpation of tbe emperor 
Phocas, 211. 

Gregory 11, Pope, his epistles to Leo III, emperor of Constantinople, 
ix, 134. Revolts aeainst the Greek emperor, 138. 

Gregory VUj Pope, his ambitious schemes, ix, 199. His contcit 

with the on^eror Heniy III, x, 301. His retreat to Salem«| 
SM ; xii, 266. 

Gregory^ pre&ct of Afiica, histozj of him and his daughter^ u, ^BO^ 

Gregory 'SatXanxen^ his lamentation on the disgraceful discord among 
Chiistiansy iii, 403. Loads the monorj of the emperor Julian with 
invectiFe, iv, 63. Censures Constantius for having spared his life, 
79, note. 

— " is presented to the wretched see of Sasima, by hJs 

friend Archbishop Basil, v, 19, 20. His mission to Constantinople^ 
20. Is placed on the archlepiscopal throne by Theododus, 24. 
His resignation and character, 80. 

Grumbatesj king of the Chionites, attends Sapor king of Persia, in Ws 
invasion of Mesopotamia, iii, 204. Loses his soi> at the siege of 
Amida, 205. Returns home in §tief, 209. 

Guardianships how vested and exercised, according to the Roman civH 
laws, viii, 68. 

Guba^&eSf kmg of Colchos, his alliance isrith Chosroes king of Persia, 
yii, 330. Returns to his former connection with the emperor Jutf* 
tinian, 331. Is treacherously killed, 336. 

Guelpks and Ghibelines, the parties of, iii Italy, ix, 208 ^ xii, 322. 

Guilty the degrees of, In the penal laws of the Horn an s, viii, 98. 

Guisf;^rds Robert, bis birth and character, x, 270. Acquires the 
dukedom of Apulia, 274. His Italian conquest.^ 277- Besiegct 
Durazzo, 287. Defeats the Greek emperor Alexius there, 294, 
295. Engages in the cause of Pope Gregory VII, 302. His se- 
cond expedition to Greece, and death, 304. 

GunMalJ^ king of the Burgundians, is reduced by Clovis king <si 
the Franks, vi, 3!^. His mode of justiiyiog the judicial combat, 

Gunpowder^ the invention and use o^ xii, 62. 

Guy of Luagnan, kin^ of Jerusalem, his character, xi, 134. Is de- 
feated and taken prisoner by Saladin, 135. 

Gyarusj a small island in the i£gean sea, an instance of its poverty, i. 

Hadrian^ emperor, relinquishes the eastern conquest of Trajan, 
i, 11. Their characters compared, 12. His character contrasted 
with t^t (^ AQtoninos Pius, ihtd. Hb several adoptions of|Suc» 
cessors, 121. Founds the city of .£lia Capitolina on mount Sion, 

-» reform^ the laws of Rome in the perpetual edict, viii, 15. 

Hadrumopie^ battle of, between Constanttne the Great and Lici* 
niu4, if ^S. Is ineffectually beseg^ by Fritigem the Goth, 
iv, 393. Battle o^ between the emperor Valens and the Goths, 

Uaienty caliph of the Saracens, assumes a divine character to supplant 
the Mahometan faith, x, 379. 

HamadanUet^ the Saracen dynasty of, in Afr^potamia, x, 82« 


Hannibalf review of the state of Rome when he besieged thai city^ v, 

255. ^ .... 

HcnnibalianuSj nephew of Constantine the Great, is dignified with the 
title of king, iii, 116. Provinces assigned to him for a kingdom, 
118. Is cruelly destroyed by Constantius, 132. 

Hafipinets^ instance how little it depends on power and jmagni^cence, 
X, 39. 

Harmozarif the Persian satrap, his interview with th^ caliph Omar, is, 

Harpies^ an ancient mytbologic history, Le Clerc^i conjecture concern- 
ing, iii, 5, note* 

Harun al Rashid, caliph, his friendly correspondence with the em- 
peror Charlemagne, ix, 186. His wars with the Greek empircj 
X, 52, 

Hassan^ the Saracen, conquers Carthage, ix, 46 1. 

Hawlingf the art and sport of, introduced into Italy by the Lombards, 
viii, 152. 

Hegtra^ the era of, how fixed, ix, 289. 

Helena f the mother of Constantine, her parentage ascertained, ii, 190. 
Was converted to Christianity by her son, iii, 24-2, noi^* 

H^Apnii, ^er of the emperor Constantius, married to Julian, iii, 186. 
Is reported to be deprived of children by the arts of the empress 
Eusebia, 190. Her death, iv, 19. 

Heliopoiis taken shy the Saracens, ix, 405. 

Hell^ according to Mahomet, described, ix, 280. 

Hellespont described, iii, 9. 

Helvetia^ amount of its population in the time of Csesar, i, 359, 

Hengistf his arrival in Britain, with succours for Vortigern, against th^ 
Caledonians, vi, 382. His establishment in-Kent, 383, 387. 

Henoticou of the emperor 2^no, character of, viii, 311. 

Henry succeeds his brother Baldwin as emperor of Constantinople, xi, 
263. His character and administration, 265. 

Henry III, emperor, his contest with Pope Gregory VII, x, 301. 
Takes Rome, and sets up Pope Clement III, 302. 

Henry VI, emperor, conquers and pillages the island of Sicily, x, 

Henry the Fowler, emperor of Germany, defeats the Turkish invaders, 

Heptarchy^ Saxon, establishment of, in Britain, vi, 384* Review of 
the state of, 395. 

HeracluMf count of Africa, retains that province in obedience to Ho- 
norius, if 308. His cruel usage of the refugees from the sack of 
Rome, by AUric, S2i. His revolt and death, 339, 340. 

HeracleonaSf emperor of Constantinople, ix, 10. 

HeracliuSf deposes the eastern usurper Phocas, and is chosen em- 
peror, viii, 216. Conquests of Chosroes II, kuig of Persia, 219* 
His distressful situation, 227. Accepts an ignominious peace 
from Chosroes, 230. His first expedition against the Persians, 
233. His second Persian expedition^ 236. Strengthens himscU* 


by an alHance with the Turks, 246. His third Perskii expedition, 
24<8. His treaty of peace with Persia, 255. His triumph and pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem 256, His theological inquiries, 330. 

Herackus marries his niece Martina, ix, 9* Leaves his two sotis joint 
successors to the empire, 10. Invasion of his provinces by the Sa- 
racens, 388* Flies from Syria, 420. 

Heraciius the prefect, his expedition against the Vandab in Africa^ 
vi, 199. ^ 

Heraciius the eunuch, instigates the emperor Valentinian III, to the 
murder of the patrician >£tius, vi, 138. His death, 141. 

Herbelot^ character of his Bibliotheque Orient ale^ ix, 363, note. 

Hercynian forest, the extent of, unknown in the time of Caesar, i, 347, 

Heresy in religion, the origin of, traced, ii, 284. Edict of Constan- 
tine the Great, against, iii, 307. 

HermanrtCy king oiF the Ostrogoths, his conquests, iv, 319. His death, 

Hermeneglldj prince of Boetica, his marriage with Ingundls princess of 
Austrasia, and conversion to the Nicene faith, vi, 297* Revolt and 
death, 298. 

Hermits of the East, their mortified course of life, vi, 264. Miracles 
performed by them and their relics, 266. 

Hermodorus^ the Ephesian, assists the Romans in compiling their 
twelve tables of laws, viii, 6. 

Hermogenes^ master-general of the cavalry, is killed in the attempt to 
banish Paul bishop of Constantinople, iii, 294. 

Hero and Leander, the story of, by whom controverted and defended, 
iii, 9, note, 

Herodian^ his life of Alexander Severus, why preferable to that in the 
Augustan history, i, 254, note. 

Herodes Atticits^ his extraordinary fortune and munificeik:e, i, 72. 

Herodotus^ his character of the Persian worship, i, 322. 

Heruli^ of Germany and Poland, their character, '^^i, 21. 

Hilarion^ the monk of Palestine, account of, vi, 244. 

Hilary^ bi«ihop of Poitiers, his remarkable observations on the diver- 
sity of Christian doctrines, iii, 338. His exposition of the term 
Homoiousion, 341. 

Hi/ary^ Pope, censures the emperor Anthemius for his tolerating prin- 
ciples, viy 196. 

Hilderic^ the Vandal king of Africa, his indulgence to his catholic 
subjects displeases both the Arians and Athanasians, vii, 156, 15*7. 
Is deposed by Gelimer, 157. Is put to death, 177. 

Hindoos of the East, not the disciples of Zoroaster, ix, 492, note, 

Hindostan^ conquest of, by Tamerlane, xii, IS. 

Hippo Regius y siege of, by Genseric king of the Vandals, vi, 21. 

History^ the principal subjects of, i, 383. 

Holy war, the justice of it inquired into, xi, 12. 

Homicide^ how commuted by the Salic laws, vi, 346. 

Homoousion^ origin, and use of that term at the council of Nice, ill^ 
833. And Homoiousion, the distinction between, 341. 

Honain^ war of, ix^ 909. 

Ho^otMtns^ ftrchbi&hop of Milan, is, tritli hb clergy, diivea barn )m 

•ee, by the Lombarcb, tiii, 1^. 
Bonaria^ princess, sifter of the empetor Valentinian III, her Ustozj, 

vi, 103. 
Homorimi^ son of Theodosius the Great, is declared empeior of tb 
West, h* his dying &ther, v, 86. Marries Maria, the daugbter 
of StUicbo, 172, 173. His character, 17^. Flks from Miha 
on the invasion of Italy hj Alaric, 196. I£s triumphant entrj 
into Rome, 204*. Abolidxes the combats of gladiators, 207. 
Fixes his residence at Ravenna, 210. Orders the death of StiScbo, 
242. His impolitic measures and cruelty unite bis birbanan 
soldiers against him under Alaric, 252. His councils &ttacted 
by the eunuchs, SOI. Ifis abject overtures to Attalus and Aknc, 
307, His kst acts, and death, 340. Hcs triumph for the itdoc- 
tion of Spain by Wallia the Goth, 258. Is suspected cf incest witli 
his sister Placidia, vi, 2, 8. His persecution of the IXnatists ia 
Africa, 16. 
Honour^ the new ranks of, introduced in the city of Constantinople, i, 

84} x,lld. 
HorffdsdaSj a fugitive Persian prince, in the court of the emperor Cbn- 
stantius, his remarks on the city of Rome, iii, 19^, n0ie. Hs his- 
tory, and station under Julian, iv, 162. 
Harmou%9 the son of Chosroes, king of Per^a, his acces&on, viSy 
178. His character, 179. Is deposed, and at length kiBed, 1S4^ 
Horses^ of Arabia, their peculiar qualities, is, 224. 
ffateiJtf the son of Ali, his tragical death, ix, 343. 
HoipitalUrj^ knights, of St. John of Jerusalem, pt^iilarity and cha* 

racier of the cnrder of, xi, 92. 
HcsiUianus^ the minor son of tlie emperor Decius, elected tmperor, 

under the guardianship of Gallus, i, 405. 
Hugh^ king of Burgundy, his marriage with Maro^ia, and expukion 

from Rome by Alberic, ix, 201. 
Sugh^ count of Vermandoby engages in the £rst crusade, zi, 32. Is 
shipwrecked and made caprive by the Greek emperor Alexis Cox&- 
nenus,45. I£s return, 72. 
Human nature, its natural propen jli^s, ii, 320. 
Hums^ Mr. his natural history of religion, the best commentary on 
the polytheism of the ancients, i, 46, note* Ifis difficulty as to 
the extent of the Imperial palace at Romci resolved, 212, note. 
Charges* the most refined and philosophic sects with intoioancj, 
328, note. 
Hungary^ establishment of the Huns in, vI, 3S. State of, under the 
emperor Charlemagne, ix, 184. Terror excited by thdr jBrst ap- 
proach to Europe, x, 208. Their character, 209. 
Humades^ John, his exploits against the Turks, xii, 157* Hii defence 

of B^grade, and death, 167. 
Hunnericy the son of Genseric, king of the Vandsils, persecutes Ms 

eathotic subjects, vi, 280. His cruelty to tbe cathc^s of Tipasa^ 

':Tuns, tfaeir original seat, and their conquests, iv, 359. Their de- 
cline, 364. Thfeii* emigrations, S67. Their victories over the 
GotH 374, 377. 
■■ they drive other barbarous tribes before them, upon the Ro- 
znan provihces, v, 212. Their establishment in Hungary, vi^ 
36. Character of their king Attila, 41. Their invasion of Per- 
sia^ 47« The empire of, extinguished by the dfeath of Attila, 

Hunting of wild feasts, when a virtue^ and when* a vice, ij 151. Is 
the school of war, iv, 350. 

Hypatia^ the female philosopher, ttiurdered in the church at Altxan*- 
dria, viii, 281. 

TJypatius^ sedition of, at. Constantinople, viii, 85. 

I and J. 

Jiicohites of the East, history of the sect ofj viii, 350. 

Jatnes^ St., his legendary exploits in Spain, ii, 368. 

Jani%ari€t^ first institution of those troops, xi, 446. 

tbcrian.^sA Caspian gates of mount Caucasus, distinguislied, vii, 140. 
The Iberian gates occupied bjr Cabades king of Persiaj 141. 

Idatius^ his account of the misfortunes of S^^ain by soi irruption of the 
barbarous nations, v, 352. 

Idolatry ascribed to the agency of demons, by the primitive Christians, 
ii, 288. Derivation of the term, and its successive applications, 
iii, 410, note. 
Jeronty his extravagant representation of the devastation of Panno- 
nia by the Goths, iv, 417. His influence over the widow Paula, 
Jerusalem^ its situation, destruction, and profanation, iv, 99. Pilgrim- 
ages to, and Curious relics preserved there, 100. Abortive attempts 
of the emperor Julian to rebuild the temple, lOS. 

■ ■ — a magnificent church crectied there to the Virgin Mary 
by Justinian, vii, 123.. The vessels of the temple brought from 
Africa to Constantinople by Belisarius, 194. Is conquered by 
Chosrocs II king of Persia, 220. Insurrection of the m<»iks there, 
viii, 310. 

•ite city conquered by the Saracens, ix, 411. Grtot te- 

sort of pflgrims to, x, 376. Conquests of, by the Turks, 383. 

• is taken from the Turks by the Egyptians, xi, 77. Is 

taken by the crusaders, 84. Is erected into a kingdoi^ under God< 

firey of Bouillon, 87. Succession of its Christian princes| 134-. Is 

pillaged by the Carizmians, 158. 
Jerusalem^ New, described according to .the ideas of the primitive 

Christians, it, 30^. 
Jesuits y Portuguese, persecute the eastern Christians, viii, 348. Tiaeir 

labours in, imd cxpulrion from, Abyssinia, &73. 
JeviSi an obscure^ unsocial, obstinate race of men, ii, 268. Re- 

^iewtftlftorkioocy, S7a Tlaar region tbe Ijmm of Cfatisdiakf, 
S7i. Tbe prantfo of divine hwoar rrtciKJcd by Chxistiaiiitj toi^ 
■MJ'inil, Md, The immortality of tlie soul not hksakattd k 
tht hm of MoK^ 999. Wky there are no Hebrew gospds ex- 
tint, 557. Pkofoked the petxcutioiis of the Roman cmpcnnt 

JEfWf, ihote of a nore liberal qnfit adopted the theological system of 

Plalfl^ iii, S16b Thtai condition under the emperors ConttanHnrapd 

OnstaBtins it, 97. Abortive attempt of Joliaa to vcboild tfic tem- 
ple of JcnBalem, 103. 
M auncnloai ccmvcfmi of a number c£^ at Minocca, t, 132, note, 

Pcrsecotioo o^ in Spain, ti, S02. 
I are pcrtccotrd by tbe cathblici in Italy, tS, 40. And by Cjiil 

at Alexandria, viii, 279. How plagued by the emperor lusSsoan, 

■ those in Arabu subdocd by Mahomet, ix, S02. Aaast tbe Si- 

racenf in the reduction of Spain, ix, 476. 
^-— maxacres o^ by the first cnsaders, xi, 25, 96. 
Je%diltrd^ king of Persia, b iaid to be left guardian to Thcodosius tk 

Younger, by the emperor ArradiiM, v, 413. Uis war vdlh Tbd}- 

J^fZurm.nhe small island of, serves as a place of re&gc Cor Ronanswho 

dew from the sack of Rome by Alaric, v, 320. 
^jpuuatSf bi&hop of Antioch, the Chiistian fortitude displayed in bis e- 

fnttles, ii, 437. 
IkskUitu^ the Saracen dynasty of, x, 83. 
Ubutritms^ the title of, how Hmited in the times cxf Roman snnplidtti 

and how cxtendtd when Constantinople becamo the scat of empire, 

iii, 34. 
lUf^ricum described, i, 35. 
Images^ introduction of, into the Christian church, ix, 113. The 

wordiip of, derived from paganism, 115. Are condemned by the 

council of Constantinople, 126. The adoration of, justified bj 

Pope Gregory II, 134. And sanctified by the second couzidl d 

Nice, 105* 
ImferaUr^ in the Roman history, explamed, i, 99, noie. Tbe imperial 

pterqgatives, 106. The comt, 110. The sense of this appellatioo 

altered by long use, ii, 163. 
Incarnation^ theological history of tlie docUine of, viii, 261. 
incest^ natural, and arbitrary, distinguished, viii, 66. 
India^ account of the Christians of St. Thomas in, viii, 346. Peisecu- 

tion o£^ by the Portuguese, 347. 
Indictions^ the memorable era %£^ whence dated, ii, 229) so/'* 

The name and use o^ in the middle ages, whence deiived, iii, 

Indulgences^ in the Romish church, the natture o^ explained, xi, 16, 

IngundlSf princess of Austrasia, is married to Hermenegild prince 

of Batica, and cruelly treated by his mother Gcnsvintba, vi, 

297. I 

Inheriianctf pkiemal, subject t6 patehtal discretioil among • tfce 
tiomanSyJ, 264. The Roman law of, viii, 74. Testamentary 
dispositions of property, 774 The Voconian law, how evaded, 

Injuries^ review of the Roman law for the redress of, viii, 87. 

Inn9cent III, Pope, enjoyed the plenitude of papal power, xi, \B% 

Inquisition ^ the Brst erection of that tribunal, xi, 152. 

Institutes of Justinian, an analysis of, viii, 47* 

Interest of money, how regulated by the Roman law, viii, 86. 

Joan^ Pope, the story of, fictitious, ix, 197> noie* 

John^ principal secretary to the emperor Honorius^ usurps the empire 
after his death, vi, 4. 

Johny the almsgiver, archbishop of Alexandria, relieves the Jewish re- 
fugees when Jerusalem was taken by the Persians, viii, 221. His 
extraordinary liberality of the church treasure, 363. 

Johny bishop of Antioch, arrives at Ephesus after the meeting of the 
council, and, with his bishops, decides against Cyril, viii, 291. Co- 
alition between him and Cyril, 293. 

John of Apri, patriarch of Constantinople, his pride^ and confederacy 
against John Cantacuzene, xi^ 375. 

John of Brienne, emperor of Constantinople, xi, 273» 

John of Cappadocia, pretdrian prefect of the £ast, und^r the emperor 
Justinian, his character, vii, 109. Is disgraced by the empress 
Theodora, and becomes a bishop, 110. Opposes the African war^. 
159. His firaud in supplying the army with bread, 169. 

John Comnenusy emperor of Constantinople, ix, 86* 

John Damascenus^ St. his history, ix^ 129, note. 

John of Lycopolis) the hermit, his character, and oracular promise to 
the emperor Theodosius the Great, v, 79. 

John^ the Monophysite bishop of Asia, is employed by the emperor 
Justinian to root out pagans and heretics, viii, 321. 

John XII, Pope, his flagitious character, ix, 198. 

John XXIII, Pope, his profligate character, xii, 375. 

Johnj St. the Evangelist, reveals the true sense of Plato^s doctrine of 
the Logos ^ iii, 318. 

John the Sanguinary seizes the Gothic treasures in Picenum, and ob^* 
liges Vitiges to raise the siege of Rome, vii, 244. 

John Zimisces murders the Greek emperor Nicephorus, and succeeds 
him, ix, 65. . His eastern victories, x, 86. Defeats Swatoslaus, 
czar of Russia, 286. 

lonoy one of the Hebride islands, its ancient monastic eminence, vi, 

Jonas J renegado of Damascus, story of, ix, 397. 

Jordan y character of his work, De Originibus Sciavicis, x, 197, 

Joseph^ the Carizmian, governor of' Berzem, kills the sultan Alp Ar- 
slan, X, 362. 

Josephusj the mention of Jesus Christ in his historyj^ a forgery, n, 408, 
note. His opinion, that Plato derived knowkdge from the Jews, 
controverted, iii, 314) iro^^^ 

YOL. XII. I i 

JoptOM la elected emperor hj the troops of Julian, cxn that retreat firom 
Assyria, iv, 205* His treaty with Sapor king of Peraa, 209. His 
death, 233. 

Jovians and Herculians, new bodies of guards instituted to supersede 
the pretortan bands, ii, IGl. 

Jovtnian of Verona, his pui^ishment by a Roman synod, for heresy, v, 

Jovinus reduces the Alemanni, who had invaded Gaul, iv, 279, 
■ ■ » account of his revolt against the emperor Honorius in Ger- 
ina»y> v, 347. 

JaviuSf prctorian prcfxt under the emperor Honorius, succeeds Olyiri- 
pias as his confidential minister, v, '299. His negotiations with A- 
laric obstructed, 301. Deserts HonoriuSf and goes over to Alaric, 
and the new etnperor Attalus, 307. 

Irene^ her marriage with the Greek emperor Leo, ix, 31. Her ambi- 
tion^ smd barbarity to her son Constantine, 32. Restores images to 
public devotion, 164. 

Ireland was first colonized from Scotland, iv, 294. Derivation of die. 
name of its tutelar saint, Patrick, vi, 229,. xm)^. 

Isaac I, Comnenuiy emperor of Constantinople, ix, 74. 

Itaac II, Angeiusy empeiior of Constantinople, ix, 108. His chaxacter 
and reign, xi, 181. Is deposed by his brother Alexius, 185. Is re- 
. stored by the crusaders, 217. . His death, 225. 

Isaacy archbishop of Armenia, his apology for the vices of king Aila- 
ares, v, 430. 

Isaurioy the rebellion there against the emperor Galienus, i, 454. 

liauYianSf reduction o^ by the eastern emperors, vii, 129. 

Isidore y Cardinal, his ill treatment in Russia, xix, 148. Receives an act 
of union from the Greek clergy at Constantinople, 206. 

IsocrateSy his price for the tuition of his pupiLs, vii, 146. 

Ita/jf^ the dominion of, under Odoacer, succeeds the extinction of the 
western empire, vx, 224. Its mise;rable state at this era, 234. Con. 
vernon of the Lombards of, to the Nicene faith, 301. 

— is reduced by Theodoric the Ostrogoth, vii, 15.; His admi- 
nistration, 17. Government of,, .according to the Roman law, 
by Theodoric, 26. Its flourishing itate at this time, 33» How 
supplied with silk from China, 91. History of Amalasontba, 
queen of Italy, 200. Invasicn^ of, by Belisarius, 217* Siege of 
Rome by the Goths, 224. Invasion of Italy, by the Franks, 
249. Revolt of the Goths, 353. Expedition of the eunuch 
Narses, 381. Invaaon of, by the Franks and Alemanni, 393. 
Government of, under the exarchs of Ravenna, 396. Conquests 
of Alboin king of the Lombards in, viii, 126.. Distress of, 142. 
How divided between the Lombards, and the exarchs of Ravenna, 

— — growth of the papal power in, ix, 131. Revolt of, against the 
Greek emperors, 138. The exardiate of Ravenna granted to the 
pope, 156. Extent of the dominions of Charlemagne there, 182. 
The power of the German Caesars destro^ b^ the, rise <£ the 

Cdtttmefaial titles AaetyiSDL Factions of tlse Guelphs ^nd Ghi- 
beiinsy fiO& CoBflicteC.tbft Suafiensf LutinSy and Creeks in, x, 

Jbu/f^.Ttsntnl of Gtuek Icafning ta, xii, 119« Authors consulted for 
tliehist<try of| d94,-w/<'* f . 

Ju^iUt, popish, a rerivali of the secttkrgmiies, 1^013^110/^; Kii, 310* 
The return of, acctelatfaftedv ^I ?. 

•Am/p, St* cxaminatxoa of hjis grandsdns before the tribunal of the pro« 
curator of Judaea, li, 41 1*. . 

Judgrtums of God, in the Stlic laws, hew detecmlned, vi, 34^. 

Judgments^ popular, of the Homans^ dispkjedy.viii, 104. 

Julm Domn0^ wife of the ampen»# SeTenis, her chara^er^ i, 20B* Her 
deathy 228. 

Julian, the ticphew of Constantine the Great, bis education, ill, 
171. ijUs dangerous situation on the death of his .brother Gallup, 
181. Is tent (o Athen^i, where he cultivates philosophy^, 183. Is 
recalled hj Constantius, J 86. Is invested with the title of Caesar, 
188. Is appointed to the government of Gaul, 215. His first 
campaign, ^17. Battle of Sftrasburg, 2^. Reduces the Frajsks 
at Toxandria, 226. tiU three expeditions beyond the Rhine, 
228» Restores the cities of Gaul, 230. His civil aoministratiop, 
2d2L His accmint of the theological cakimties of the empire 
under Constantius, 39S. Constantius grows Jealous of him, iv^ 3. 
The Gaidish legions ane ordmied into the East, 4* Is saluted em- 
peror by the troops, 11. His embassy and epistle to Constantius^ 
15. His fourth and fifth expeditions beyond the Rhine, 27. t)e- 
dlaves irar ag^nst Cbastanttua, ftnd abjures the Chrj^iam ireligi^n^ 
22L His march from ihe RhKoe iilto lUyricuin, 95. Juiters Sir-* 
xniusi, 28« Publishes apologies for his conduct, 29. His triumph- 
ant entry into Con^tantiJiople on the death of Constantius, 36. 
His private life and civil government, 37» JC» reformations in the 
imperial palace, 41. Becomes a doven to avoid foppery, 4^^. 
£rects a tribunal for the trial of the eVil mi!nister<s of Constantius, 
46. Disnfisses the spies and iriforiners employed by his prede- 
cessor, 50. His love of freedofn and the republic, 52. His kind- 
tiesses to the Grecian cities, 55. His abilities as an orator, 58. 
And as a judge,. 59. His character, ibid. His ^postacy account- 
ed lor, 64.' Adopts the pagan mythology, 67. His theological 
6y»t«m, 72. His initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries, and his 
fanaticism, 75. His hypocritical duplicity, 78. Writes a vindi- 
.cation of his apostacy, 81* His edict for a general toleration^ 83, 
84. His pagan supersiiitioui zeal, 85. His circular letters for 
the refertaatiqn of the pagan religion, 88. His* industiiy in g^tin* 
ing proselytes, 04. His address to the Jews, 97. History 0? his 
attempt to nebuiid the temple at Jerusalem, 103,, Transfers the 
revjenues of the Christian church to the heathen priests, 110. 
Prohibits Christian schools, ill. Obliges the Christians to rein- 
state the pagan temples, 115. Restores the sacred grove and 
temple of Daphne, 121. Puiriabes the Christians of Anti94:h for 
btimiflg that temple, 123. I£s treatment of the cities of .Odessa 


cENUuU mtx. 

kui Alexmndm, 129. B«i»hct AUunMim, ISS. The p^k). 
phicalfrbkofliitCriiir/deliiieiled^lSa. Meditates tiie cxnqvi 
of Pcnia, 1 id. Popultr discontents during his resi den ce «t Antiodi, 
146. OccMi<» qf writing hb Miftftfom^ 150. His nmdiU) tk 
Kuphralest 154. He enters the Persian territories, 161. hmb 
As^rria, 1<I9« His pernnal oaiduct in thb entcrforise, 174. Hb 
addresi lo his (fiacontented troops, 176. Ifis s ucces sfu l paMge ovt- 
the Tigris 180. Bums his fleet, 189. His retrest and (fetrok, 
195. His death, 902. Hb funeral, 229. 
jMiisMf count, ofiert to betray Spain into the hands of the Anfas, is, 

467. Hu adrice to the victorious Turks, 475. 
Jmlkm^ the papal legate, exhorts Ladislaus king of Hungary and Po- 
land, to breach ot faith with the Turks, xii, 159. His dcstlr aiuf 
character, 165. 
Jutms^ master-general of the troops in the eastern emfrire, conceiU i 

general nassacre of the Gothic youth in Aria, iv, 419. 
JwrUprmdenet^ Roman, a review of, viii, 1. Was polished by Grecian 

philosophy, 26. Abuses of, 109. 
Justin the Elder, his military promotion, vn, 54. His elevatioa te the 

empire, and character, 9^. His deaUi, 62. 
JuttiH II, emperor, succeeds his uncle Jusrinian, viii, 113. Hsfiim 
behaviour to the ambassadors of the Avars, 116. I& abcficatioo, 
and investiture of Tiberius, as his socccsbof, 135. 
* Justin Mnrtyr^ hb decirion in the case of the Ebionites, ti, 280. His 
extravagant account of the progress of Chrisdanity, 361^ Occasiai 
of hb own conversion, 372. 
Justins^ the popular story of her marriage with the emperor Valenti- 
nian examined, iv, 334. Her infant son Valentbuan II invested 
with the imperial ensigns, on the death of hb &ther, 336. Her con- 
test with Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, v, 40. Flies from the in- 
vasion of Maximus, with her son, 48. 
Justinian^ emperor of the East, hb birth and promotion, vij, 54. Bs 
orthodoxy, 59. Is invested with the diadem by hb uncle Justin, 
60. Marries Theodora, 70. Patronises the blue faction of the cir- 
cus, 78. State of agriculture and manufacture in his provinces, 88. 
Introduces the culture of the silk worm, and manufaucture of A 
into Greece, 97. State of his revenue, 100. His avaiice aa(/ 
profiirion, 102. Taxes and monopolies, 105, 106. Hi$ nii- 
nisters, 109. Hb public buildings, 112. Founds the chuich of 
St. Sophia at Constantinople, 1 17. His other public works, 1^' 
His European fortifications, 125. Hb Asiadc fbrtificatiaDS, IS^- 
He suppresses the schoob of Athens, 145. And the consular dig- 
nity, 152. Purchases a peace from the Perrians, 156, 807. ^^; 
dertakes to restore Hilderic king of Carthage, 158. Rcdoctioo <^ 
Africa, 186. Hb instructions for the eevernment oi^ 187* ^ 
acqubitions in Spain, 203. I£s deceitful negotiations b Jta)/; 
210. Weakne<;s of his empire, 270. Receives an embassy from 
t>ie Avars 291. And from the Turks, 298. Persian war, 815. 
His negotiations with Chosroes, 837. His alliance wii ttc 
Ahyssintans, S^. NeglecU the Italian war under Belissrius, 36^' 


Settles tbe government of Italy under the exarch of Ravenna, 
398. Disgrace and. death of Belisarius, 407. His death and cha- 
racter, 409. Comets and calamities in his rei^, 41 d. His code, 
pandects, and institutes, viii, 1. His theological character and go* 
vemment, 317. His persecuting spirit, 320. His orthodoxy, 324. 
I>ied a heretic, 328. 

''uslinian H, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 17* 

^ustinian^ the son of Germanus, his conspiracy with the empress So- 
phia, and successes against the Persians, viii, 137, 138. 

^uvenaly his remarks on tbe crowded state of the inhabitants of Rome, 
V, 288. 

K^han^ import of this title in the northern parts of Asia, iv, 353 \ v, 

Kingy the title of, conferred by Constantine the Great on his nephew 
Hannibalianus, iii, 1 16. 

Kindred^ decrees of, according to the Roman civil law, viii, 75. 

Knight hood^ovi originally conferred, and its obligations, xi, 37* 

Koran of Mahomet, account and character of, ix, 267. 

Koreishy the tribe of, acquire the custody of the Caaba at Mecca, ix, 
246. Pedigree of Mahomet, 253. They oppose his preteibfons to 
a prophetical character, 286. Flight of Mahomet, 288. Battle of 
Beder, 299. Battle of Ohud, 301. Mecca surrendered to Maho« 
inet, 307. 

Laharum^ or standard of the cross, in the army of Constantine the 
Great, described, iii, 258. 

Labeoythe civilian, his diligence in business and composition, idu, 25» 
His professional character^ 30. 

Lactantiusy difficulties in ascertaining the date of his Divine Institu- 
tions, iii, 238, nqte, |iis flattering prediction of the influence of 
Christianity among mankind, 248. Inculcates the divine right of 
Constantine to the empire, 250, 

Ladi^lau^y king of Hungary and Poland, leads an su-my against th^ 
TurKs, xii, 157. His breach of faith with them, 158. 

Ladisiaus^ king of Naples, harasses Rome during the schism of the pa- 
pacy, xii, 372. 

L^tus^ pretorjan prefect, conspires the death of Commodusi and con^ 
fers tile empire pn Pertinax,i, 156, 157. 

Laity^ when first distinguished from the clergy, ii, 340. 

Lampadluij a Roman senator, boldly condemns the treaty with Alari 
the Goth, V, 238. 

Lance^ holy^ narrative of the miraculous discovery of, xi^ 73. 

Lani^ how assessed by the Roman emperors, ii^, 85. Ifow divided 
by the barbarians, vi, 3^3. Allodial, and 3alic, distinguished, 
357. Of Italy, how partitioned by Thcodoric the Ostrogoth, vii 
17. ^ 

Laodiceay its ancient splendour, i, 80* 


Lasearu^ Theodore^ esUblbhes an empire it Kice, xi, 95S, }& cha- 
racter, 308. 

Lascaris, Theodora 11, his character, ri, SM. 

Lascar h^ Janus ^ the Greek gratntnariiin, his-cjiaractct, xxi, ISO; 

Ldtln churchy occasion of its separation from* die Greek dmnjh, xi, 
169* Corruption an^ schism of, xii, 99. Reunion of, wfth the 
Greek church. 111. The subsequent Gre^k scbisla, 1^5. 

Latium^ the right of, explained, i, 58^ ' 

Laura^ in monkisli history, explained, ^ 263^ 

LaHVy review of the profession of, under the emperoii^, iii, 53. 

Laws of Rome, review of, viii, 1. Those of the kings, 4. Of thck 
twelve tables, 6. Of the people^ !!• Decrees of the senate, and 
edicts of the pret org, IS. Constitutions of the emperors, 1 6. Thdr 
rescripts, 19. The three codes of, 20. The forms of, ibtd. Suc- 
cession of civil lawyer?, 23, Reforfnation of,, by Justinian, 33. A- 
bolition and revival of the penal laws, 94. 

La%i^ the tribe of, in Colchos, account of^ vii', 3^7, 

Le ClerCy character of his ecclesiastical histbry, vnt, 260, note* 

Legacies and inheritances taxed by Augustus, i, 263. How regulated 
by the Roman law, viii, *79. 

Legion^ in the Roman army under ^he em peror$,. described, i, 19. Ge- 
neral distribution of the legions, 27. The si^fe of, reduced by Con- 
stantinc the prpat. Hi, 62. 

Leo of Thrace is inade ^mperor of the East, by his master Aspar, vi, 

191. Was the first Christian potentate who was crowned by a ptiest, 

192. Conferv tlie empire of the West on Anthemius, 193. His ar- 
. ujamen^ against the Vandal^ in Africa, 199. Murders Aspar and 

His sons, vii, 4. 
Z/9 It I, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 25. Hjs edicts against 

images in churches, 124. Revolt of Italy, 13S» 
Leo- IV J emperor of Constantinople, ix, 29. * 
Leo V, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 37. 

Leo, VI, the philosopher, emperor cf Constantinople, ix, 55. Extin- 
guishes the power of the senate, x, 134. 
^eOj bishop of Rome, his character and embassy from Valentlnian III 

to Attila king of the Huns, vi, iSl. Intercedes with Gcnseric king 

of Uie Vandals for clemency to the city of Rome, 151. Calls the 
• council of Chalcedoh, yiii, 303. 
Leo III, Pope, his miraculous recovery from the assault c^f assassins, ix, 

172. Crowns'Charlemagne emperor of the Romans^ 173, 
Leo IV, Pope, hiif reign, x, 64. Founds the Leonine city, 66. 
Leo IX, Pope^ ^is expeditipn against t^e Normans of Apulia, x, 267. 

His treaty with them, 270. 
LeOf archbishop of Thessalonica, one of the restorers of Greek learning, 

X, 157. 
2^, general of the East, under the emperor Arcadius, his character, 

V, 388. 
Leo Pilatus, first Greek professor at Florence, and in the We$t, his 

character, xii, 124. 
Zm, the Jew proselyte,, history of his family, xii, 315. 

Leonasy tke ^estor, liis embassy fttnn Constantitts to Julkn, iv, ^1« 

Leonine city at Rome founded, k, e^. 

Leontius is taken from prison, and ciiosen emperor of Constantinople^ 
on tfec deposition of Justinian II, ix, 1 8. 

Leovigiy^ Gothic king of Spain, his character, vi, 296. Revolt anil 
death of his son Hermcncgild, ^8. 

Letters^ a knowledge of, the test of civilization in a people, i, 352. 

Lewis the Pious, emperor of the Romans, ix, ,188* 

Lewis II, emperor of the Romans, ix, 189. His epistle to the Greek 
emperor Basil I, x, 248. 

Libanius, his account of the private fife of the empcibr Julian, iv, 38. 
And of his divine visions, 77* Applauds the dissimulation of Jtdian, 
79, 80. His character, 15!. His eulo^um on the emperor Va- 
lens, 41 L 

Liberiusy bishop of Rome, is banished by the exnperor Constantius, for 
refiifflng to concur in deposing Athanasius, iii, 375, 3S0. ^ 

Liberty J ptlblic, the only sure guardians of, against an aspiring prince, 

Licinzus is invested with the purple by the emperor Galerius, ii, 908. 
His alliance ivith Constantine the Great, 2S7. Defeats MaxiHiin, 
238. His cruelty, 239. Is defeated by Constantine at Cibalii, 
246. And at Mardia, 247. Peace concluded Tvith Constantine, 
249. Second civil war veith Constantine, US* His humiliatiofi, 
and death, 263. 

■»■ 1 fate of his son, fii, 111. Concurred with Constantine in 
publishing the edict of Milan, 244. Violated- this engagi^ment by 
oppresang the Christians, 252. Csecilius's account of his vision, 

Lieutenant y imperial, his ofHce ^nd rank, i, 101* 

Lightnings superstition of the Romans with reference to persons and 
places struck with, ii, 97. 

LimiganteSy Sarmatian slaves, expel their masters, and usurp pos- 
session of their country, iii, 126. Extinction of, by Constantius, 

Literature J revival of, in It^ly, xii, 119. Ancient use and abuse* of, 

Lithuania^ its late converaon to Christianity, x j 24?. 

LitoriUSy Count, is defeated and taken captive in Gaul by Theodoiii^ 
vi, 96. ^ 

Liutfirandy king of the Lombards, attacks the city of Rome, ix^^ 

Liutpnrand^ bishop of Cremona, ambassador to Constantinople, ceremo- 
ny of his audience with the emperor, x, 125.. 

Logos y Plato^s doctrine of, iii, 315. Is expounded by St John the £- 
vangelist, 31 8. Athanasius confesses himself unable to comprehcmi 
it, 822. Controversies on the eternity of, 328. 

Logotkete^ great, his office under the GreA emptors, x, 128. 

X^cmbardy^ ancient, describe j, i, fli3. Congest of, by Charknagne^ 

onnaua imMuu 

lAmhmris^ dermUon of tbcir name, and tvAem of tlneir IhsW, 
▼ii, 874* Are employed by the emperor Justinian to checJc 2k 
GcpidB, S76* Actioiif of their king Alboin, Tiii, 117- Tlhef 
reduce the Gepid«, 121, They over-nm that par( of Italy novr 

' called Lombardy, 126. Extent of their kingdom, 1 47. Lasgaage 
and manners of the Lombards, 148. Go^enun^t and lam, 155, 

LmipmMSj his representation of the degeneracy of his age, i, 9^ Is 
put to death by Aurelian, ii, 43. 

■ ■ is sent to supersede Narses, as exarch ef RaTama, vxn, OS. 

Receives Rosamond the fugitive queen of the Lombards^ 132. 

Lotisirf ly emperor of the Romans, ix, 189, 

Lomu VI I^ of France, is rescued from ihe treachery of ^e Giteb by 
Roger king of Sicily, x, 316* Undertakes the second pn^adc, xi, 
105* His disastrous expedition, 113. 

Itom's IX, of France, his crusades to the Holy Land, xi^ 158. His 
death, 163. Procured a valuable stock of relics from Constandn- 
ople, 278. 

LMciaUi the severity of his satire agaiI^t the heathen mytfaolGigy, ac- 
counted for, i, 49. 

LudaMj count of the East, under the emperor Arcadius, hia cruel treat- 
ment by the prcfipct Rufinus, v, 146. 

JLucian^ presbyter pf Jernsalpm, his miraculous discovery of the body 
of St. Stephen, the first Christian martyr, ▼, 128. 

JjUcUian^ govempr of lllyricum, is surprised, and kindly treated h] 
Julian, iv, 28. His dcjith, 232. 

LttcilUf fist^r 9f tl)e emp^r Commodus, her attempt to get him as- 
sassmated, i, }^, 141.' 

Litcsui il and III, Popes, thdr disastrous reigps, xii^ S69. 

Lucrime lake flcH^ribed, with its late destruction, v, 270, 271, wac^ 

JLucuUan villa in Campania, its destruction and history, vi, 229. 

Lufer^aftff the feast of, described, and contmued under the Christian 
emperor^, vi, 197* 

IgUfiicittvif the Roman governor of Thrace, oppresses the Gothic cnu- 
grants diere, iv, 385. Rashly prpvokes them to hostilities, 389. Is 
defeated by them, S90. 

Jjjutral contribution in the Rppaan empire, explained, iii, 94. 

Luther^ Martin^ his character, as a reformer, x, 189* 

^isuxury^ the only means of correcting the unequal distribution of pnv 
pcrty, i, 87. ^ ' ^ " ^ ^^ 

Ljfgians^ a formidable German nation, account of, ii, 78* 

Lyoniy battle of, between the competitofs Sevcrus and Albbms, i« 
192. " ^ ' 


MacedontttSy the Arian Inshop of Constantinople, his contests with b's 
competitor Pii)il, iii, 393. Fatfd consequences on his removing tbe 
body of the emperor Constantino to the chulrch of St. Acadvj^ 8^ 
His cruel persecutions of the catholics- and novatians, 597 His 
exile, viii, 316. 

\idg^r'ianus. pretorlan prefect under the einpeibr Valerian, his cbiiae- 

ter, i, 436. 
^atrrtanuT, a prince df the Alemanni, his steady alliance ivith the em- 
peror Valentinian, iv, 286. . . 
yiacrinus^ his succession to the empire predicted by an African, i^ 229*^ 
.A.ccelerates the completion of the prophecy, ibid. Ptirchases a 
peace with Parthia, 832. 
'MLadayn^ the capital of Persia, sacked by the Saracens, ix, 368. 
Mceonius of Palmyra assassinates his uncle Odenathus, ii, 35. 
M^!CstUf its situation, i, 37- 

Magi^ the wearship of, in Persia* reformed by Arlaxerxcs, i, 318. 

Abridgment of the Persian theoldgy, 320. Simplicity of their 

worship, 322. Ceremonies and moral precepts, 323* Their 

poMrer, 325. 

MagtCj severe prosecution of persons for the crime of, at Rome and 

Antioch, iv, 252. 
Magnent^Us assumes the empire in Gaul, iit, 148. Death of Constans, 
149. Sends an embassy to Constantius, 151. Makes war against 
Constantius, 157. Is defeated at the battle of Mursa, 159. Kills 
himself, 166. 
Mahmud^ the Gaznevid, his twelve expeditions into Hindostan, x, 335. 

His character, 338. 
JUaAoffuff the prophet, his embassy to Chosroes II, king of Persia, 


% ' » J - his genealogy, birth, and education, ix, 253. His persoii 
and character, 255. Assumes his prophetical mission, 26Q. Incul- 
cated the miity of God, 262. His reverential mention of Jesua 
Christ, 265. His j^oran, 267. His miracles, 270. His precepts, 
273. His hell, and paradise, 279* The best authorities for his 
history, 282, note. Converts his own family, 283. Preaches pub- 
licly at Mecca, 285. Escapes from the Koreishites there, 288* Is 
received as prin<;e Qf Medina, 292. His regal dignity, and sacer* 
dotal office, ihid. Declares war against infidels, 295. Battle of 
Beder, 299. Battle of Qhud, 301. Subdues the Jews of Arabia, 
302. Submission of Mecca tq him, 307* He conquers Arabia, 
309. His sickness a^d death, 317, 318. His character, 32Q^ 
His privite life, 324. Hi« wives, 325. His children, 328. His 
posterity, 346. Remarks on the great spread and permanency of his 
religion, 34^9. ^ 

Mahomet the son of Bajazet, his rei^n,.xti, 50. 
Mahomet II, sultan of the iSirkf, his character, xii, 182. His retgn, 
185. Indications of his hostile intentions against the Greeks, 187. 
He besieges Constantinople, 200. Takes the city by storm, 238. 
His entry into the city, 239. Makes it his capiul, 243. His 
death, 254. 
Mahamettsm^ by what means propagatied, ix, 489. Tdentioii of 

Christianity under, 388. 
Majoriatij his history, character, ^d elevation to the western empire, 
ri) 167. His epistle to the senate, 169. . His salutary laws, 171* 

Hb pcpanfites to nmuitt Afik*^ 1T7* Hi* fleet dati«^V{ 

Gcnaeric, 1 81 . His death, 183. 
Ms/atmTm^ hk chancter of the NonMBi, x, SM. 
AUUk Siak^ sulUn of the Turks, his prasperous Tcsgn, x, S6S. &• 

fenne the eistem calenilar, S66. His death, 967- 
JHflna/ TAsodonUf the great civil honours to which he attained, m^ 

54, Moie. 
MMmMimk^s^ their origm and chvacter, zi, IG2. Their cstaibliduDnt 

in Egypt, lis*- 
Mtmica^ mother of the joung emperor Alexander Sewenis, acts as re- 
gent of the empire, i, 241. Is pat to death with haqi, 377. Her 

oonfexence with Origen, ii, 449. 
Maimgo^ an Arminian nuUe, his history, ii, 14K 
Maa^ the unly animal that can accommodate himself to aD cifoole, 

i, 349, nou. 
Mancifiumf in the Roman law, explained, viii, 72. 
Mmcbaam are devoted to death, by the edict of TheodosiTis a^st 

heretics, v, SS. 
MMBMel CotHiMuu^ emperor of Consumtinople, is, 88. He npulsR 

the Normans, x, 317* But fails in his scheme of sabWag tB( 

western empire, 32i* His ill treatment of the crassdof; xlj 

JiatgamalcAst a city of Assyria, i^voed and destroyed by die em]K- 

ror Julian, iv, 171* 
Jfar6U^ the feur species of, most esteemed by tho Romaas, i, ^i 

MarciUiMus^ count of the sacred largesses nnder the emperor Canstaos 
in Gaol, assists th^ usurpation of Magnentius, iii, 148. . His em- 
bassy to CoDStantios, 151. Was killed in the bottle of Moisa, 

MafTtUimUf his revolt in Dahaatia, and character, yi, 185. Jm^^ 
emperor Anthetnins, and expels the Vandals from Sar^a, ^ 
His death, 205. ^ 

M^nrdUnuij son of the prefect Maximin, bis treacherous mw^ ^ 

' Gabinios king of the Qtiadi, iv, 338. 

MarcdUuj the centurion, martyred for desertion, ii^ 4€4. 

Marcdtiii^ bUiop of Rome^ exiled to restore peace to tkc city, ii, 

MarctUus^ bishop of Apamea in Syria, loses his lifp in dcstroywg "^ 

pagan temples, v, 106, 107. 
MMTcia^ the eoncubine of the emperor C^mmodus, a patroness of tbe 

Christians, B, 446. * 
Marcian^ senator of Constantinople, marries the empress ?^^ 
• and is acknowledged emper<Mr, vi, 85. His temperate re^ssala^^^ 

demands of Attila the Hun, 87* 
MarckmopoXs^ the city of, tdiLen by the Goths, i, S9B. 
Marcomanni are subdued and punished by Marcus AntomnaSii) ^^ 

Alliance made with, by the emperor GalHemi^, 4S0. 
Marq«4f elected bishop of the Naearcnes, ii» 27&. 

ikfii/^; battle of, betWeen Cot^tiintiii^ Aie Grtaa t&d L&iidus^il, 

»7. ' . ••■ • ;•'..■ 

MarguSf battle of, bawtctt Diocleikh'and G^lnns, li, 1 10/ 
Margus^ bishop of, betrajs his episcopal city Into the hattds of the 

Hims, vi, 51. 
Maria ^ daughter of Eudsemon of Carthage, h^ reniarkable advetrtmies, 

vi, 31.- •• ■ "/''''•'. "■ 

Mariana^ his account of the raisfortunes of Spain, bj^ ta\ i^rt^iem * of 

the barbarous nations, v, 952, 
Marittus^ a subaltern officer, chosen emperor bj the legions of Maesia, 

i, SS5. • '. ■ \'' \" 
Martvs the arirtoarcr, t candidate for the purple among the conapeti* 

tors against Gralli^ui, his character, i, 446. 
Marky bishop of Arethtisa, is cruelly treated- by the etnperar JuHan, 

iV, 1 16. • 1 • 

Marottgdy engagement tfaeze between the emjperQr Julian; aid Sapor, 

king of Persia, iV, 194, ' . 

Mafomfes^ of the East, charactct and klsftory d^, viil, 954, 
Maro'zia^ a Roman ^ostitdte, the mother, grandmother, and - great- 

gifanimolheri of thrfce popes, ix, J9<l. 
iiarriagey regulations rf, by the Reman laws, viii, 57.* Of Romw 

citizens with strisitigers, their jurisprudence, x, 129. 
Marieij Char hi ^ duke of the Franks, bis character, x, 2S.' HisT politic 

conduct on the Sataien inTasien <rf France, 24, ^l^. Defbats the 

Saracens, 26. Why he was consigned Over %6 hell-flames by Ae 

clergy, 27. 
Martin^ bishop of Tours, destroys the idols and ' pagan temples in 

Gatd, V, 106. Hb monkish institution there, vi, 2415. "• ' 
Martina J marnes her uncle, the empeiror Heraclius, ix, SL' ' ' £ndea« 

vouts to share the imperial dignity with her swis, lOi Her fete, 

12. - ... 

Martinianusy receives tb^ title of Caesar, from the empercnr Licinius^ 

ii, 261. 
Martyrs, primitive, an inquiry into the true history of, ii,' 381 J Hic 

several inducements to martyrdom, 435. Three methods of escap- 
ing it, 440. Marks by which learned catholics distinguish' the ro- 

lies of the martyrs, 427, note. The worship of, and their relic? 

introduced, v, 123. 
Mart^y Virgin, her immaculate conception, borrowed from the Koran, 

Masca%ely the persecuted brother of Gildo the Moor, takes refuge ii^ 

the imperial court of Ronoritis, v, 166. Is intrusted with troops 

to reduce Gildo, 167* Defeats him, ^70. His suspicious^ death, 
172, ; 

Master of the officers under Constantine theOteat, his fenctieins, iii, 

70. . 

Matwnusy his revolt and conspiracy against the emperor Cconmodpis, 

i, 144. . 

MattbeWy St. his gospel originally compos(Q|l in ticbrew, ii, 357, notei 
viii, 263, wAf. 

Mmnric*^ bii Urtb, diancM, and pfomodoQ to die carton ea^ 
▼iii, 140. RettOKs Choooet II, king oT Persia, 189. His ws 
agaiMi the Avan, 900. State of his amiics, 90S. HisabdicatMo 
and death, 209, Sia 

tUmritamk^ antient, its sttuaUon and extent, i, 41. Character of ^ 
naliYe Moon of, vi, 15. 

Af«r<«IMf/, the son of Maximian, dcchred emperor at Rome, ii, 200. 
l|is tjiamny in Italj and Africa, 216. The military force he had to 
oppoae Constantine, 221. His defeat and death, 2S2. His poUtic 
humanitj to th( Christians, 481. 

fisximum^ associate in the empire with Diocletian, his character, ix, 
115, Triumphs with Diocletian, 156. Holds his court at Milao, 
158, Abdicates the epvpire aloo^ with Diocletian, 174. He it- 
sanes the purple, 200. Reduces Sevqrus, ai|d puts him to dn\h, 
202. Hii second resignation, and unfortunate end, 210, 212. Hii 
aversion to the Chrictians accounted /or, 463. ^ 

MMximHiammj^ the African, a Christian martyr, ii, 464. 

Msximiu^ his birth, fortune, ^ly) elevation to the empire of Rome, i, 
273« Why deemed a peciecutor of the Christians, ^O. 

Msximm i$ declared Csesar, on the abdication (sf Dicicletiaii, ii, 189. 
Obuiv the rank of Augustus fron^ Galerius, 208. His defeat and 
death, 238, 239. Renewed the persecution of i\i^ Ql^istians after 
the toleration granted by Galerius, 487. 

Mmximittj the cruel minister of the empergr Valentiiiiaii, promoted to 
the prefecture of Gaul, iv, 258. 

Maxifnin^ his embassy from Theodosius the Younger, to Attila king 
of the Huns, vi, 68, 

Afaximtu and Balbinus elected joint emperors by the aenate, on the 
deaths of the two Gordians, i, 290. 

Ilaximutf his character and revolt in Britain, y, 8. His treaty with 
the emperor Theodosius, 12. Persecutes tiie PriscillianisU, 34. 
His invasion of Italy, 47. His defeat and df ati^, 52. 

MaximMS^ the pagan preceptor of the emperor Julian, initiates him into 
the Eleusinian mysteries, ir, 76. Is honourably invited to Con- 
stantinople by his imperial pupil, 92. Is corrupted by his residence 
at court, 93. 

Maxmnu^ Petfonius, his wife ravished by Valentian III, emperor 
of the West, vi, 140. Hb character and elevation \o the ^piie» 

Mebodeiy the Peraan general, ungratefully treated by Chosroes, tii, 

Mfcca^ its situation and .description, ii:, 227. The Caaba or tem- 
ple of, 245. Its deliverance ^om Abrahah, 254. The doc- 
trine of Mahomet opposed there, 286. His escape, 288. The 
city of, surrendered to Mahomet, 307. Is pllaged by Abu Tsher, 

Medina^ reception of Mahomet these, on hb flight from Mecca, ix, 
290. . !• 

MegdesiOf the festival of, at Rome, described, i, 145, mae. 

Meletiansj an Egyptian sect, persecuted by Athanasius, iii, 36Q. 

MeSiene^ battle cif, bct^neeo-tlie eastern trnpenr Tibetim «&d Ch^ 

iroes lung of Persia, ^nat^ 176. 
M^lo^ citizen of Ban, inyitcs the Nonnaiis into Italy, x, ^8. 
Memphis^ its ntuation and reduction by the Saracens, iz, 429* 
Merovingian kings of the Franks in Ganl, oripn of, vi, 96^ Their 

domain and benefices, S56. 
Mtr^any caliph of the Saracens, and the last of the house of Qmmiyah, 

his defeat and death, z, SI, 82. 
Mesopotamiay invasion o^ by the emperor Julian, iv, 162. Described 

by Xenophon, 163, 164. 
Messala^ Valerius, the first prefect of Rome, his high character, in, 

46y noiem 
MessiaAy under what character he was expected by the Jews, ii^ 275. 

His birth-day, how fixed by the Romans, iv, 22, noie* 
Metals and money, their operation in improving the human mind, i, 

Metellus Numidicus, the censor, his invecdve against women, i, 241, 

Metims Falconius, his artful speech to the emperor Tacitus in the se^* 

nate on his election, ii, 64. 
Metrophanes of Cyxicus, is made patriarch of Constantinople^ xii, 147. 
Met%y cruel treatment o^ by Attila king of the Huns, vi, 108. 
Miekdel I, Rhangabe, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 85. 
Michael II, the Stammerer, emperor of Cbnstantinople, ix, 40. . 
Michael \\l\ emperor of Constantinople, ix, 45. is defeated by the 

Paulicians,x, 179. 
Michael IV, the Paphkgonian, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 71« 
Micbael V, Calaphates, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 72. 
Michael VI, Stratioticus, emperor of Constantinc^le, ix, 78* . 
Michael VII, Parapinaces, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 78. • 
Milan^ how the imperial court of the western empire came to be 

transferred from Rome to that city, ii, 158. 
■ f famous edict of Constantine the Great in favour of the Christians, 

published there, iii, 244. 
St. Ambrose elected archbishop of that city, v, 37. Tumults 

occasioned by his refusing a church for the Arian worship of the 
• empress Justinia and her son, 40. 
revolt of, to Justinian, vii, 242, 248. Is taken and . destroyed 

by the Burgundians, 250. 
— — is again destroyed by Frederic I, ix, 207.* 
Military force, its strength and efficacy dependent on a due proportion 

to the number of the people, i, 167. 
Military officers of the Roman empire at the time of Constantine* the 

Great, a review of, iii, &^» 
Millenium^ the doctrine of, explained, ii, 801. • . . . 

Mingrelia. See CoUhos. 

Minority^ two distinctions of, in the Roman law, v, 1^4, note. 
Miracles^ those of Christ and his apostles, escaped the notice of the 

heathen philosophers and historians, ii^ 378, S^9% Account of those 

wrought by the body of St. Stephen, v, 128. 

.QticitAL mix* 

Mir^aJmi pofWi of iIm primitive chimh, aiiaqoiiy tato^u^SQ^ 
MisiiHems^ chief minitter and &ther4n-l«w of the tluid GodiaB, ^ 

cbancter, i, 307* 
Mwfegom of tbc emperor Iqlian, on what occasion writteny W, 150. 
Muioriitmf or great golden dish of Adolphut king of the Vui^Qdu, 

history of, v, 3d6« 
Jtfdtfwrjftf/tansumel the title of caHpb, and makes war agaimt ^ k, 

S3S. His character andreign, 341. Laj^ step to CoaitiiitiDopk, 

Slo^ar^ prince of the Amall, seduced by the emperor ThcodemSfUns 
hb arms against his own countrymen, iv^ 482. 

Mdgmlr^ primitive, their method of treating their conqucnd enoiuQ, 

vi, 54w Reign and conquetts of Zingis, xi, 402. Conquests of las 

successors, 415. See TamerUme. 
VlogmM€mm^ the city of, aurprised by the Alemanni^ iv, 2S1. 
Mokawkas the £gyptian, his treaty with the Saracen Amrao,ls, 

Mcnarcby defined, i, 95. Hereditary, ridiculons in theoiy, bot sab- 

tary in &ct, 270* The peculiar objects of cruelty said d awia 

under, iii, 82. 
M^MJiic institutions, the seeds of, sown by the primitive Chrisdans,!!, 

325.. Origin, pcogress, and consequence o^ vi, 2SS. 
Money ^ the standsord and computation o£^ und^ Coostaatiaethe Great, 

and his successors, iii, 89, note. 
Momks have embellished the su&rings of the prinutive m.aiCy0 ^ &* 

tions, ii, 423. 
^-.. character of, by Eanapauf, v, 123, 124. By Botillu^ i^ 

Origin and hktoiy of, ti, 239. Their industry in making pew- 

lytes, 248. Their obedience, 250. Their dress and liabitatioQ^ 

253. Their diet, 254. Their manuel labour, 256. TMriicb«, 

258. Theb solitude, 260. Their devotion and vidsns, 261 

Their division into the classes of Canohists and AnacfwreU^ ^5. 
> ■ « snppresdon of at Constantinople, by Constantine V, iz, 1S(X 
Monophysitei of the East, history of the sect of, viii,.350. 
MonotheliU controversy, account of^ viii, 330. 
Montesquieu, his descri]kion of the military government of the Roman 

empire, i, 310. His opinion that the degrees of freedom in a state 

are measured by taxation, controv^ted| iii, 82». 
Montius^ qucstor of the palace, is sent by the etnperor CoiatnAfi 

-with Domitian, to correct ^e administration of Gallns in the &^ 

iii, 176. Is put to death there, 177. 
Moon of Barbary, their miserable poverty, vii, 190. TW'"'^' 

sion of the Roman province punished by SoV)m<Hi the can^ 

Morea is reduced by the.Turks, >ii, 248. 
Morottnty Thomas, elected patriarch of Constantinople bylfe ^^' 

tians, xi, 246. 
Moteiiama, an Arabian chirf, eodcavours to, rival Mahomet '^^^ 

prophetical character, ix, 356. 

if«/</, the-doetrilio of die immortality 6i the soul riot iiidikftttid kl 

his law, iiy 299. His sanguinary laws compared with those of Ma- 

homety ixy 295. 
Motheim^ character of his work De rebus ChrUtiams 4imte C»mt4tntimmm^ 

Mvk^ 260y mtte^ 
Mosiemak the Saracen hcneges Constancinc^le) x, 10. 
Metassem^ the last caliph of the Saracens, his wars with the Gredc etn- 

peror TheophyuiSy x, 67. Is killed by ihe Moguls, xi, 418. 
Mour%oufte uswps the Greek empire, and destroys Isaac Angelos, and 

his son Alexius, xi, 225. Is driven from Constantinople by tlie 

Latins, 230. Hk death, 252. 
Mousdy the soil of Bajazet, invested with the kingdom of Anatolia hj 

Tamerlane, xit , S I . His reign, 49. 
Mos&arabei^ in the history of Spain, explained, ix, 497* 
Municipal cities, their advantages, i, 58. 
Muraioriy his literary character, xii, 394, note, 
Murs0y l»ttle of, between the emperor Constantius, and the usurper 

Magnentius, lii, 159. 
Musa the Saracoi, his conquest of Spain, ix, 478. His disgrace, 4S3« 

his death, 486. 
Mustapha^ the supposed sdn of Bajazet, Hs story, xii, 47. 
Muta^ battle of, between the forces of the emperor HeracHus and those 

of Mahomet, ix, 313. 
MygdoniuSy river, the course of, stopped by Sapor, king of Peraa, at 

the siege of Nisibis, iii, 144. 


NarboMHe k besieged by Tbeodoric, and relieved by Gnmt litoritis; 
vi, 95. 

NaetirMgan^ the Persian general, his defeat by the Romans, and cruel 
fate, vii, 335. 

Naitsus^ battle of^ between the emperor Claudius and the Goth^, 
ii, 12. 

Naples is beaeged and taken by Belisanns, vii, 218. Extent of the 
duchy -of, undtf the exarchs of Ravenna, viii, 146. 

Narsesj his embassy from Sapor king of Per^a to the emperor Con^ 
stantius, iii, 201. 

Narses^ king of Persia, prevails over the pretensions- of his brother, 
Hormuz, and expels Tiridates king of Armenia, ii, 143. Over* 
throws Galerius, 144. Is surprised and routed by Galeritrs,' H'L 
Articles of peace between him and the Romans, 153. 

Norses^ the Persian general of the emperOr Maurice, restores Chosroc!! 
II, king of Persia, viii, 189. His revolt against Phocas, and cruel 
death, 219. 

Narsesy the eunuch, his military promotion, and disscnaon with Bcli- 
sarius, vii, 247. Hi* character and expedition to Italy, 301. Battle 
of Tagina, 385. Takes Rome, 388. Reduces and kills Teias, the 
last king of the Goths, .S91. Defeats the Franks and Alemanni, 
395. Governs Italy in the capacity of exarch, 398. Hi^ ^i'grace 
and death, vifi^ 19I, , . ■ . 

IVbrisitflSf, acUcfoftheHeruli^oileitiiito tbe tUnosok semce^od 

ii made cotiflul, i» 431.^ 
Navjf of the Roman empire described, i, 28, 
Ns9drtme church at Jerusalem, account of^ ii, 277* 
Ussssrius^ the pagan orator, his account of miracylous appeannces in 

the sky in favour of Constantine the Great, iii« 264. 
Hibridiui^ pretorian prefect in Gaul, is maimed and superseded, \ji 

hit indttcicet opposition to the troops of Julian, iv, 24p. 
Iftgrots of Africa, evidences of their intellectual infemxity to tk rest 

of mankind, iv, 31 1. 
Ntctarius b chosen archbishop of Constantinople, v, SO. . 
N^MUUp his account of the arrival of the Saxons in JBiitain, diSaaiX 

from that of Gildas, Bede, and Witikmd, vi, 381, moU. 
Nefoj^ Julius, is.made emperor of the West by Leo tbe Great, vi,il9. 
NipQtian^ account of his revolt in Italy, iii, 162. 
Nero persecutes the Christians as the incendiaries of Rome, ii, 405. 
Ntrvm^ emperor, his character, and prudent adoption of Trajan, i, 120. 
Nestoriutj archbishop of Constantinople, his character, viii, 285. 1^ 

heresy concerning the incarnation, 285. His dispute with Cyril of 

Alexandria, 286. Is condemned, and degraded from his episcopal 

dignity, by the council of Ephesus, 291. Is exiled, 297< His 

death, 299. His opini<ms still retained in Persia, 339. MissioDs 

of his disciples in the East Indies, 343. 
Neveri^ John count of, disasterous fate of him and kls party at the 

battle of Nicopolis, xi, 451. 
Nice becomes the capital re^dence of Sultan Soliman, x, S7S. Siege 

of, by the first crusaders, xi, 57* 
Nkefkorus I, emperor of Constantinople, ix, 35. His wars widi the 

Saracens, x, 54. His death, 200. 
tiieefihorus II, Phocas, emperor of Constantinople* ix, 62. His auK* 

tary enterprises, x, 86. 
Nkephorus III, Botaniates, emperor of Constantinople, ix, SO. Was 

raised to the throne by Sultan Soliman, x, 371. 
Nicetas^ s<;nator of Constantinople, his flight tm the capture of the city 

by the Latins, xi, 23^. His brief history, 238, note. His account 

of the statues destrpyed Sit Con9tantinople, 238. 
Nicholas t patriarch of Constantinople, opposes the fourth marriage d 

the emperor Leo the philosopher, ix, 57- 
Nicholas V, Pope, his character, xii, 1S4. How interested in theia^ 

of Constantinople, 200. 
IStcomediay the court of Diocletian held there, and the city embeHisb- 

ed by him, ii, 159. The church of^ demolished by Diocletian, ^• 

His palace fired, 472. 
Niccfo/isf battle o^ between Sultan Bajazet, and Sigismond king of 

Hungary, xi, 450. 
Nika^ the sedition of, at Constantinople, vii, 84. 
Nineveh^ battle of, between the emperor Heradius, and the Persians, 

viii, 248. 
.M/i^/x, the city of, described, and its obstinate defence against tlie 

Persians, iii, 142. Is yielded to Sapor by treaty, ilr, 21 1. 


Nizamy the Persian mir, his illustrious character, and unhappy fate, x^ 

Noaif his ai'k very convenient for resolving the difficulties of Mosaic 
antiquities, i, 350. 

NohtlsssimidSy ~a title invented hy Constantine the Gr6at to distinguish 
his nephew Hanhibalianus, ill, 116. 

Noricum described, i, 56. 

N^rmans^ their settlement In the province of Normandy in France^ x, 
257. Their introduction to Italy, 258. They serve in Sicily, 261. 
They conquer Apulia, 262. Their character, 264. Their treaty 
with the -pope, 269. 

Navaiians are exempted by Constantine the Great, in a particular e* 
diet, from the general penalties of heresy, iii, 308. Are cruelly per- 
secuted by Macedoniiis bishop of Constantinople, 897* 

Novels of Justinian, how formed, and their character, viii, 46. 

Noureddin^ sultan, his exalted character, xi, 122. 

Nnlna^ conver^on df^ to Christianity, viii^ 868, 

Numertan^ the son of Cams, succeeds his father in the empire, in con- 
junction with his brdther Carinus, ii, 97. 

Nttfhu/iOf its iextent at different eras of the Roman history, i, 41. 

Oaiis, iti the deserts of Lybia, described, v, 382, nofe» Three places 
under this name point«i out, viii, 298, note, 

Obedtence^ passive, theory and practice of the Christian doctrine of, iii, 

Obelisks^ Egyptian, the {>uil>08e of their erecdon, iii, 194. 

Oblations to the church, origin of, ii, .S41. 

Obiigations^ human, the sources of, viii, S2. Laws of the Romans re- 
specting, 83. 

Odenatbu^ the Palmyrene, his successful opposition to Sapor king of 
Persia, i, 440. Is associated in the em^xc by Galienus, 449. Cha- 
. racter and fate of his queen Zenobia, ii, 32. 

Odin^ the long reign of his family in Sweden, i, 362, note, Ifis his- 
tory, 390. 

Odoacer^ the first biu-barian kmg of Italy, vi, 224. His charactd: and 
reign, 232. Resigns all the Roman conquests beyond the Aim, to 
Euric king of the Visigoths, 30&. Is reduced and killed by Th'eo- 
done die Ostrogoth, vii, 13. 

Ohud^ battle of, between Mahomet and Abu Sophian prince of Mecca, 
ix, 301. 

Olga^ princess of Rusria, her baptism, x, 239, 

Oiivej its introduction into the western world, iy 85. 

Oiubrius is raised to the western empire by Count Ricitner, vi, 215. 

Olympic game) compared with the tournaments of the Gothis, xi, 39. 

Olymfiiodorus^ his account of the magnificence of the city of Rome, v, 
262. ESs account of the marriage of Adolphus king of the Visi- 
goths widk the princess Flaeidia, 334. 

Ohjmpius^ favourite of the emperor HonoriUs, alarms hShi with un« 
lavourable suspcions of the designs of Stilicho, v, 239. Ciruiwf 


vJacko to be put to dMtk^ 242. Hii dtsgnce, and igaomiik' 

death, 299i 
Omsr^ cft)q>h of the SaraceWi ix, S32. Hit character, 559. I&joui- 

ncy to Jerusalem, 412. 
Ommijfah^ elevation of the house of, to the office of caliph of Uie Sara- 
cens, u, S4J. Why not the objects of poUic hcv^mr^ x, ^. De- 

vtniction of^ SI. 
Or0cUst Heathen, axe silenced by ConstanMpe the Qreat, iii, 406. 
Orckmn^ emir of the Ottomans, his reign, xi, 454. Alanies the daugb- 

tcr of the Greek emperor Cantacucene, 440. 
Ordination of tbe clergy in the early ages of the church, an accowt of, 

OrcU€4 is cent ambassador from Attila king of the Huns, to tbe cape' 

ror Tbeodosius the Younger, vi, 68. His history and proooUon 

under the western emperoin, 221. His son Augustulus the hst em- 
peror of the \Ve^t,1^*J2. 
Orestes^ pretor of Egypt, is insulted by a monkish mob in Akxandiu, 

▼iii, «80. . . . • 

Origen declares the number of primitive martyrs to be very inconsidet- 

able, ti, 427* His CMnference with the empre$s Mammsa, 449. 

His memory persecuted by the emperor Justinian and his clerg\, 

Qrleanx beaeged by Atllla king of the Huns ^°d reUeved by i^tios 

andXheodoiic, vi, lOS. . ^ ' '. 

O/iii/, Inshop of Cordora, his great influence with Constantine tbe 

Great, iii, 268. Prdvaik on Constantine to ratify tbe .-Nioeiie need, 
. 347* . Is wiMi difHculty prevailed on jto concur in depo«%^A^sB^- 

sius,. 37^ . . 

Oirtoen0t ibe small Juc^do^ of, reduced by the BoinMU, i, SS4. 
Ossiant his. poems, whether U> be connected with the iny^sjon o£ Cale- 
donia by the emperor Sever:s, i, 209. Is said to have.dWpi^^ 

with a Christian raisnonary, ii, 370, ««/<?• 
Oslia^ the port of, described, v, 303, 
OfAmfnt c^ph of tbe Saracens, ix, 333» 
Othman^ the father of the Ottomans, his reign, xi, 432. 
OUfO I, king of Germany, restores and approjniates the wteslezn oopirer 

IX, 190. Claims by treaty the nomination of the pope of fioroe^ 

196. Defeats the Turks, x, 216. 
Otho II deposes Pope John XII, and chastises his party at. -Boibc» Ut 

Otho^ bishop of Frisingen, his character as an historian, xii, 290^ flf^* 
OHomanty origin and history of, xi, 431. They obtain an qitsblisli'' 

ment in Europe, 443. 
OW is banished to the banks of the Danube, iii, 1 S^l . .. ^ - 

Oxyrinchusy in Egypt, monkish piety of that city, vi, 243. 

Pacaius, his encomium on the emperor Tbeodosius the pvo^i^fS* 
Bad^asty^. how punished by the Scatii\iack \m% viu, )(XK JB^ JasU* 
nian, 102. 


PagoMj derivation and revolutions of the term, iii, 4i0, nafe. 

Paganum^ the ruin of, su^ended by the divisions among the Chrtstiiins^ 
iii, 410. Theological system of the emperor Julian, iv, 72. 

general review of the ecclesiastical establi^ment and juris* 

diction of, before it was subverted by Christianity, v, 92. Is re- 
nounced by the Rom»n senate, 100. The pagan sacrifices prohi- 
bited, 103. The temples demolished, 105. The ruin of, deplored 
by the sophists, 1 23. Pagan ceremonies revived in Christian churches, 

PaUohgus^ Constantine, Greek emperor, his reign, xii, 175* Is kill- 
ed in the storm of Constantinople by the Turks, 230. 

Palceohgus^ John, emperor of Constantinople, xi, 372. Marries 
the daughter of John Cantacuzene, 382. Takes up arms against 
Cantacuzene, and is reduced to flight, 385. His restoration, 
386. Discord between him and his sons, 454. His treaty with 
Pope Innocent VI, xii, 72. His visit to Pope Urban V at Rome, 

Palaologusj John II, Greek emperor, his zeal, xii, 90. His voyage t9 
Italy, 95. 

PaUoiogus^ Manuel, associated trith liis father John, in the Greek em- 
pire, xi, 454. Tribute exacted from him by Sultan Bajazet, 
457. Hb treaties with Soliman and Mahomet, the sons of Baja- 
zet yi, xii, 54. His visits to the courts of £urope, 77. Private 
motives of his European negotiations explained, 88. His death, 


P4tidtaiegusy Micliael, emperor of Nice, his brief replies to the negoda- 
tions of Baldwin II, emperor of Constantinople, xi, £83. His fami- 
ly and character, 315. His elevation to the throncf, 318. His re- 
turn to Constantinople, 324. Blinds and bani^es his young asso- 
ciate John Lascaris, 325. He is excommunicated by the patriarch 
Arsenius, 327* Associates his son Andronicus in the empire, 330. 
His union with the Latin church, 331. Instigates the revolt of S^ 
cily, 342. 

Palatirus and Borderers, origin and nature of these distinctions in tim 
Koman troops, iii, 60. 

Palermo taken by Belisarius by stratagem, vii, 212. 

PahsUne^ a character of, i, 39. 

palladium of Bom€, described, v, 93, note. . 

FulUrdiiit^ the niitary, sient by Vgientinian to Africa to inquire into the 
government of Count Romanus, connives with him in oppressing the 
province, iv. 302. • ^ 

Paimyra; description of, iand its destruction by the emperor Aurdian, 
ii, 39. 

Pan^tius was the first teacher of the Stoic philosophy at Rome^ viii, 
28, note. - 

Pandects of Justinian, how forced, vili, 37. 

Pan hyper s^bastosy import of that title in the Greek empire, x, 120. 

P^xr^jvfif} liescribed, i, 36; 

Panth€<fti^\, Roi9e,by whom fjfccted, i, 71, note^ Is c o nve rt c d intb-a 
Christian church, V, 107. ' ' * . 



F^nlomimttf Komftn, described, v, 285. 

P^per^ where and when the manufacture of, was first found oat, ii. 

Pt^'nian^ the celebrated la\pyery created pfetocian prefect, bytbecis 
peror Severus, i, 201. His death, 217. 

Papirmt^ Caius, reasons for concluding that he could not be the aoikr 
of the Jus Papirianum^ viii, 5, noie. 

P^lfliti^ proportion their number bove to that of the protcstants in Eng- 
land, at the beginning of the last century, iii, 253, note. 

Pargf king of Armenia, his history, iv, S16. Is treachexooslj killed 
by the Komans, 319. 

PsfittQlani of Alexandria, account of^ viii,'S78, nofe. 

Varmdise^ Mahomet^ described, ix, 282. 

Parity description of that city, under the goremmeBt of JuSkif iii, 
235. Situation of his palace, iv, 10, U9te. 

Partbia subdued by Artaxerxes king of Persia, i, 329. Its constitu- 
tion of government similar to the feudal system of Europe, ihii. 
Recapilulation of the war with Hotme, 3dl. 

Paschal II, Pope, his troublesome pontificate, xii, 267- 

p0ttoral manners, much better adapted to the fieccencss of 4tar, than 
io peaceful innocence, iv, S4i\ 

PtflrrW authority, extent of, by the Eoman law:;, viii, SI. Success 
ire limitations of, 53. 

Patratf extraordinary deliverance of, from the Sdavonians and Saia- 
cem, x, 105. 

■Pgtriciansy the order bS^ under the Soman 'sqpohlic, and under tbe m- 
pecors, compared, iii, 39. Under the (^reek ^npse, their rank ex- 
plained, ix, 453. 

Pstrkkf the tutelar saint of Ireland, derivation of Ihs name, vi, S29, 

PaviOf massacre of the friends of Sdlicho there, by -die 'in^gations o: 
Olympius, V, 24:0. Is taken by Aiboin idng of the Loidbar^, ^ko 
fixes his residence there, viii, 128. 

Paid of Samosata, bishop of Anfcioch, his character and \astoTjj u, 

Pau/y archbishop of Constantinople, his fatal contest with his compet- 
itor Macedonia?;, iii, 393. 

Paula ^ a Roman widow, her iHostvious descent, v, 267.. ^^ 
owner of the city of Nicopdii, 263. Her monastic zwi, vi, 

PaulicianSy origin and character of, x, 168. Are persecuted b/^i^ 
Gdceek emperois, 1 75. They revolt, 1 77. They arc reduced, and 
transplanted to Thrace, 181. Their present state, 184. 

Paulina^ ivife of the tyrant Maximin, softens his ferocity by gentle 
counsels, i, 280, note, • 

PauUnusy master of the offices to Theodosius the Younger, his crime, 
and execution, v,' 424. 

PauHnusy bishop of Nola, his history, v, 326. 

Paulinusy patriarch of Aqulleia, flies £eom the Lombards with bistrea 
sure, into the island of Grado, viii, 137< 


PegasianSf the party of, among the Roman civilUms, explained, viii, 

Pekin^ the city of, taken by Zingis the Mogul emperor, xi, 409. 

Pelagian controversy agitated by the Latin clergy, v, 226. And in 
Britain, 369. 

Pe//a^ the church of the Nazarenes settled there on the destruction of 
Jerusalem, ii, 278« 

Peloponnesus J state of, under the Greek empire, x, 105. Manufae- 
tures, 108. 

Penal laws of Rome, the abolition and revival of, viii, 94. 

Pendragon^ his office and power in Britain, v, S69. 

Penitentials^ of the Greek and Latiii churches, history of, xi, 16. 

Pepin^ king of France, assists the pope of Rome against the Lombards, 
ix, 148. Receives the title of king by papal sanction, 152. Grants 
the exarchate to the pope, 156. 

Pepin^ John, count of Jilinorbino, reduces the tribune Rienzi, ai^d re- 
stores aristocracy and church-government at Rome, xii, 355. 

Pepper^ its high estimation and price at Rome, v, 295, note. 

PtrennJSj minister of the emperor Commodus, his great exaltadoa and 
downfal, i, 143* 

Perisohor^ a city of Assyria, reduced and burned by the emperor Ju- 
lian, iv, 170. 

Perozesj king of Persia, his fatal expedition against the NepthaUtes, 
\ii, 136. 

Persecutions^ ten, of the primitive Cbyislians, a review of; ii, 443. 

Perseus J amount of the treasures taken from that prince, i, 256. 

Persia^ the monarchy of, restored by Artaxerxes, i, 318. The reli- 
gion of the Magi reformed, ibid. Abridgment of the Persian theo- 
logy, 320. Simplicity of their v/orship, 322. Ceremonies and mo- 
ral precepts, 323. Every other mode of worship prohibited but that 
of Z6roaster, 328. Extent and population of the country, 330. Its 
military power, 342. Account of the audience given by the empe- 

- ror Carus to the ambassadors of Varanes, ii, 9-(. The throne of, . 
disputed by th« brothers Narses and Hormuz, 143. Galerius de- 
feated by the Persians, 144. Narses overthrown in his turn by Ga* 
lerius, 148. Articles of peace agreed on between the Persians and 
the Romans, 153. 

war between Sapor king of, and the emperor Constanlias, iii, 

1 39. Battle of Singara, 140. Sapor invades Mesopotamia^ 204. 
The Persian territories invaded by the emperor Julian, it, 1 6 L Pass - 
a?e of the Tigris, 180. Julian harassed In his retreat, 194. Treaty 
oF peace between Sapor and the emperor Jovian, 209. Reduction 
of Armenia, and death of Sapor, 313, 315. 

'— - the silk trade, how carried on from China through Perria, 
for the sufply^f the Roman empire, vii, 94. Death of Petozet, 
in an expedition against the white Huns, 136. Review of the 
reigns of Cabades, and his son Choerdcs, 298. Anarchy of, aR 
ter the death of Chosroes II, viH^ 254« Ecclesiastical history of, . 

*-«*- invasion ' of, by the caKph Afanbeker, sx, 364; Battle Ci 



Cadcsa, S65. Sack of Ctesiphon, 368. Conqmcst of, by the Sara- 
cciM, S72. The Magian religion supplanted by Mahometism, 49:>. 
The power of the Arabs crushed by the dynasty of the Bowides, x, 
83. Persia subdued by the Turks,' S44, 
' Persia^ conquest of, by the Moguls, xi, 416. By Taiperlanc, xii, 

Pertinax^ his charattcr and exaltation to the imperial throne^ i, 157. 
Mis funeral and apotheosis, 18?. 

Pescennius Niger, governor of Syria, assumes the imperial dignity m 
the deatli of Pcrtinax, i, 178. 

PetaviuSy character of his Dogmata Theohgiea^ viii, '2S0y note. 

PeteTt brother of the eastern emperor Maurice, his injuriouf treat- 
ment of the citizens of Azimuntium, and Hight from thence, viii, 

Peter I, citfar of Russia, his conduct toward his son, contrasted with 

that of Constantine the Great, iii, 1 12. 
Peter of Arragon, assumes the kingdom of Sicily, xi, S44. 
Peter^ Bartholemy, his miraculous discovery of the Holy Lance, jo, 73. 

His strange death, 76. 
Peter of Courtenay, emperor of Constantinople, xi, 2(58. 
Peter the Hermit, his character and scheme^to recover the Holy Land 

from the infidels, xi, !• Leads. the first crusaders, 24. Failure of 

his zeal, 7^. 
Petra^ the city of, taken by the Persians, vii, 330. Is besieged by the 

Romans, 331. Is demolished, 3:55. 
Petrarch; hb studies and literary character, xii, l2l. And histor)-, 

8S4. ' His account of the ruin pf the ancient buildings of Rome^ 

Pfeffelj character of his history of Germany, ix, ^J2, note, 
JfialanXf Grecian, compared with the Roman legion, i, 21 . 
Pkaramond^ the actions, and foundation of die French- monarchy by 

him, of doobtful authority, v, 360. 
V haras commands the Heruli, in the African war, under Bdisaiius. 

vS, 165. Pursues Gcluner, 189.' His letter to Gelimer, 191. 
Pharisees^ account of that sect among the Jews, ii^ 299. 
PiatUi river, its course described, vU, 319. 
Pheasant^ derivation of the name of that bird, viS, S21. 
PAHelfihmi^'Fnncis^ his character of the Greek language of Const^tin- 

ciple, xii, 115. 
Phthfk I 6f France, his limited dignity and power, xi, 8. 
Phiii^ Augustus, of France, engages in the third cnisade, xi, 143. 
PiU^f pretorian prefect tmder the third Gordian, raised to the em- 
pire on ids death, i, 309. Was a favourite of the Christians, ii^ 

45L' •• . • ••« .' -'i 

FMUfy pfctorian pidect of Constantbople, conveys the faiAop Paul v^* 

to boniihmeiit clandestiiicly, iii, 394. 
phUip^ms^ emperor of GmsUntinopk, iz, 2S. 
PkiUff^toUs taken and sacked by the Goths, 1, 399. 
PUh^ a character of his works, iii, 317. 
Pkaasoph^y Grecian, review of the various sects o^ i, 48. 


'}^hin€USy the situitifin of his palace, iii, 5. 

Ffiocaa id settled bj Genoese, ivho trade in alum, xii, 52. 

Phocasy a centurion, is chosen emperor by the disaffected troops of 
the eastern empire, viii, 206. Murders the emperor Maurice, 
and his children, 209. His character, 212. His fall and death, 

Phcentcta described, i, 39. 

Phoiluiy the son of Antonina, distinguishes himself at the siege of 
Naples, vii, 261. Is exiled, 263. Betrays his mother's vices to 
Belisarius, 264. Turns monk, 267. 

Pb^tiujy the patrician, kills himself to escape the persecution of Justi- 
nian, viii, 322. 

Phosius^ patriarch of Constantinople, character of his Library y x, 158.