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I * 




3&artjart (JToUrgr flifarani 



One hnlf the iDontrte frtmi this Legacy^ which was 
received in iSSd under the will of 


of WaithaiBf Massachusetts, is to be expended tor 
hooks fur the College Library. The oHier half of the 
income is devoted to scholarships m HArimrd VnU 
versity for the heneSt of descendants of 


who died atWatettown, Afassachusetts, in i6S6, Id 
the absence of such descend a nt^^ other persona are 
eLif3:ible to the scholars hips. The will requires tliat 
UixB mnnouincemei^t shnll be made in every book, added 
to the Libr^iry under its provisions. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 









Author of "Hilary of Maryland^^' ''History of the City of Philaddphia, Pa.,'^ etc,^ etc. 

.A.SSXST:E3X) bit a. ST.A.IFIF' of A.BXiE .A.SSISa?-A.35rTS. 





Digitized by 



\AS Vlb^i^' (0 

SEP in i^?4 

PR^u; OF 




All Mights Reserved. 

Digitized by 





New Castle Ck)UNTY 611 

Wilmington 629 

Wilmington, Public Improvements, Etc. . . . 663 

Wilmington, Market-Houses 672 

Welminoton, Fire Department 674 

Wilmington, Schools 683 

Wilmington, Religious 699 

Wilmikgton, Banking 732 

Wilminoton, Commerce 749 

WiLMiNOTOM, Manufacturing 769 

Wilmington, Inns and Hotels 810 

Wilmington, Military 816 

Wilmington, Secret Societies 817 



Wilmington, Beneficial Societies, Etc .... 826 

Wilmington, Literary and Musical Societies. 834 

Wilmington, Cemeteries 841 

New Castle Hundred 848b 

City of New Castle 854 

Christiana Hundred 880 

Brandywine Hundred 898 

Mill Creek Hundred 914 

White Clay Creek Hundred 932 

Pencader Hundred 948 

Red Lion Hundred 958 

St. George's Hundred 981 

Appoquinimink Hundred 1015 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



Blackbird Hundred 


Kent County . 




Public Buildings and Civil Li8t 1031 



Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred 1215 

Georgetown Hundred 1237 

Cedar Creek Hundred 1247 

Dover 1042 ' Broadkiln Hundred 


East Dover Hundred 1077 

West Dover Hundred 1087 

Duck Creek Hundred 1091 

Little Creek Hundred 1115 

Kenton Hundred 1123 

North Murderkill Hundred 1130 

South Murderkill Hundred 1147 

MispiLLiON Hundred 1171 



Indian River Hundred 1267 

Northwest Fork Hundred 1276 

Broad Creek Hundred 1285 

Nanticoke Hundred 1292 

Seaford Hundred 1301 

Little Creek Hundred 1315 

Dagsborough Hundred 1334 

Baltimore Hundred 1339 


MiLPORD Hundred 1182 Gumborough Hundred. 


Sussex County liOO 


Index 1347 

Digitized by 




' AcUoM. John H 746 

Aaburj, Bishop Francia. 716 

i Bank of DeUwan 732 

* BeiMoo, N. R 770 

f Bright, Wm. 808 

' Bnah, O. W. ftSoni 766 

1 Bush, Chaa 776 

^Ckxier, J. B 960 

'Gui«r, J. B.,reddeDoe 948 ' 

f ChurchmAD, George W 908 

< CUrk, Wm. D 978 

Clayton House 813 

* Clajton, Joshua 994 

^Ooehrao, B. A 1000 

< Crawford, J. T 1002 

i Commlns, John lllO 

' CummlM, Geo. W IU2 

* Bean, Win 988 

Delaware Avenue Baptist Church... 724 

Delaware State Capitol. *.. 1034 

< Diamond State Iron Co 778 

i Dil worth, Tlioa. F * 982 

* Donnao, J. B 1262 

* Da Pont de Nemours, E. I 763 

^ DuPont, Alfred V .*. 764 

* Du Pont, Alexis 1 766 

'' Du Pont, La Motte 767 

^Eliasoa, Andrew 984 

' Fenimon;, J. W 1120 

^Ferguson, Baseett 1026 

Ferris, Benjamin 634 

< Frame, Paynter 1270 

^ Friends' Meeting-Heuse, Old 711 

•Giles, Isaac 1316 

Gilpin. Hon. E.W 743 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Church 720 

» Hastings, Wsshington 782 

» Herbert, Wm 878 

^Higgins, Anthony M 960 

* HUlee, KU - 687 

' Hilles, Samuel 688 

'HilleeAJoncs 784 

< HoffiBcker, John H 1108 

' Hollingsworth, ElUah 768 

* Jackson, John G 928 

' Jacobs, Mn. M. C 1276 

* Jakea, Jno. T 1186 

Jenkins, Jonathan 1070 

' Jones, Washington 738 

f Kelley, Alex 769 

Kent County Conrt-Honse 1035 

f Knowles, James G „ 865 

* Latimer, Henry 736 

* Lc«, Wm. A Sons Company „ 786 

'I Lea, Wm 788 

Lindsay, D 797 

' Lobdell Car-Wheel Co 776 

' Lake, Wm 796 

» McGomh, H. 8 764 

lUrket-House, Old 674 

r Martin, E. L 1312 

Masonic Templs 840 

Memorial Fountain 830 

I . 


Mesrick, Miles 1294 

Mitchell, John 930 

Moore, Charles 662 

Moore, Bloomfield H 792 

New Csstle Court-houie, Old 616 

New Castle Court-Honse, New (518 

Norny, B. B 1012 

Old Shipping Manifest 767 

Old Swedes* Church 706 

Pattln, WelUngton 1282 

Pimng, John 926 

Pony Express. 668 

Poole, J. Morton 781 

Postles, Stephen 790 

Presbyterian Church, Old 712 

Pusey and Jones Company, The 772 

Quigley, Philip 807 

Beed, JehuM 1160 

Beed, JehuM., Res 1161 

Bichardson House 880 

Bidgely, H 1071 

Reybold, Philip 904 

Robinson, John N 749 

Robinson, RubertR 748 

Saunders, John 794 

Second Baptist Church 723 

Security Trust and Safe Deposit Building 747 

Seeds, Joseph C 806 

Seidel and Hastings Co 7a3 

Shakespear, Wm. M 1084 

Shallcrosi, Sereck F... 995 

Sharpe, Jewe 848 

Shaw, James G 864 

Shipley Mansion 632 

Shipley, Joseph tt32 

Simpson, Clement C 1174 

Smith, Albert W 741 

Smith ft Painter 799 

Smith, Samuel 690 

St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church 7C9 

Sussex County Court-House 1208 

Sussex Manufacturing Company 1242 

Tatman, Chas lolO 

Tatnall, Joseph 734 

Tharp, Beniah 1172 

Treat, G. H., Manufacturing Company 1942 

Vandegrift, J. M 988 

Vandegrift, L. G 989 

Vincent, Francis 698 

Watson, C. S 1192 

Warner, Chas., Oo 758 

Webb, Capt. Thomss „ 911 

West, Thomas 636 

West, Thomas, Building 636 

West Presbyterian Church 716 

Willey, S. J 696 

Willis, J. S 1198 

Wilmington Boarding-School 689 

Wilmington High School 696 

Wilmington Savings Fund 740 

Wilson, Wm I0I8 

Wiltbank, Jno. H 1256 

Wollaston, Samuel 846 


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New Castle County is the most northern county of 
Delaware, and contains an areaof ahout five hundred 
square miles. It is bounded on the north by Penn- 
syWania, on the east by Delaware River and Bay, on 
the south by Kent County, on the west by Maryland. 
It is drained by the Brandywine and Christiana 
Kifera, and by the Red Clay, Red Lion, Duck and 
Appoquinimink Creeks. It is the most populous coun- 
ty in Delaware, and in manufactures and many pro- 
dacts exceeds the other counties. It is intersected by 
the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore, Wil- 
mington and Northern, Baltimore and Ohio, and Del- 
aware Railroads. It contains the city of Wilmington, 
and Brandywine, Christiana, Mill Creek, White Clay 
Creek, New Castle, Pencader, Red Lion, St. George's, 
Appoquinimink and Blackbird Hundreds. Wilming- 
ton is the county-seat 

The early history of the territory embraced in 
what is now New Castle County has been given else- 
where in the general history of the State. The 
county first assumed its boundaries in 1673. In that 
year the New Castle Court defined the boundaries of 
the county as being *' north of the Steen Kill,'' or 
Stony Creekj now at Quarry ville (it being the south 
line of a tract of land called "The Boght"), and 
extended southward to Bombay Hook and Duck 
Creek; and it also embraced land on the eastern 
shore of the Delaware, now in New Jersey. 

In the early days of the county the settlements 
were infested with wolves. To remove the pests, in 
1676, the court passed an order offering forty gilders 
for each wolf-head brought into court. This order 
did not have the desired efiect, and on January 5, 
1677-78, it was ordered that the inhabitants erect 
fifty ** woolf-pittB " along the streams before May 1st, 
under a forfeiture of seventy- five gilders. 

The collections of customs and quit-rents, being in- 
sufficient to defiray the current expenses of the 
county, in 1676 Governor Andros ordered the court 
to raise a sufficient sum of money by a levy upon the 
inhabitants. On the 8th of June, 1677, the justices 
re^KHided to this order as follows : 

" Wkereatj yonr Honor bath been pleaMd|to sdmitt of a Lery by the 
Pole, wee find that the lame can not be paid w^ oat a general meeting 
or High Ooort of all the Juaticee once a year.*' 

The court, at this meeting, appointed John Moll as 
treasurer, and on the 18th of September, 1677, passed 
the following order, directed to Samuel Land, consta- 
ble of New Castle : 

*'Ton are hereby, In hie Mag*>«" name, required to take a true and ex- 
act lift of all the Tydable [Taxable] persona from 16 to 60 yeari of 
adge, wtk in yor boanda, w«k ia all ye aouth aide ef Oristeena Greeke, and 
ao downwards to the south syde of St. Oeorge*s Creek, Including all the 
inhabitants between the two Creeks, and the same to bring att ye next 
Court to be held In New Castle, on ^e flrat Tuesday of ye month of 
Oct. next, for the doing of w«>> thia shall bee yo^ warrant 

** Given under my hand In New Castle the I8th Sept, 1677. 
(Signed) "John Moll." 

A similar order was issued to Charles Ramsey, con- 
stable in Christiana, " w"^ is all ye north syde of Cris- 
teena Creeke up as far as ye Bogt Creeke, above Oole 
fransen's house." 

This is the first record in which the early limits of 
the county are defined. The rate was to each person 
twelve gilders and ten styvers, payable either in 
wheat at Give gilders, rye four gilders, barley four 
gilders, schepple Indian corn three gilders, schepple 
tobacco eight styvers per hundredweight, pork at 
eight styvers and bacon at sixteen styvers. 

The list of taxables, which is given on pages 153- 
154, of the first volume of New Castle County Court 
Records, contains three hundred and seven names, of 
which sixty-four are given as residents on the 
''Easteame Shoare/* 

The phrase "Eastearne Shoare" refers to the now 
New Jersey shore, which was then supposed to be a 
part of Delaware. The division into assessment dis- 
tricts then made are the embryos of what later be- 
come hundreds.^ 

The returns of the constables were as follows : 

**I)eceAiber 8, 1683, New Castle, 109 Uxablee; North Christina 

1 William Penn, in a letter to the justices of the peace in Sussex 
County, dated Cheeter, the 25th of Tenth Month, 1682, in writing of 
land, says: *'That you endearor to seat the land that shall hereafter be 
taken up in the way of townshipa. As three thonsind acres amongst 
Tenn familys ; if single persons one thousand acres. Amongst Tenn of 
them laid out In the nature of a long square five or Tenn of a side, and 
a way of two hundred foot broad left between them for an Highway in 
the Township, and I would have you careful for the future good and 
grate benefit of yonr country." 

The first mention of the term "Hundred** we have found in the 
public reoords, other than the one of Duck Creek Hundred, in 1687, ie 
to be found in a deed dated J.nuary 15, I'rOS, from William Grant, of 
Appoqnenlmin Hundred, to John Domareer, of St George's Hundp 

Jigitized by 611 




Gnek, 66 taxablea ; North Side Duck Greek, 47 Uubles ; from St. 
George's Creek to north side of Appoquenomen, 50 taxablea. 

•♦ Febnuiry 17, 1684-86. 

"New OMUe, 107 taxables. 

** Te north of Dack Creek, 44 t&xables. 

** South dde of Appoquenomeu, 54 taxftbles. 

** North side of Christina Creek, 87 taxables. 

*• March, 1686. . 

*' New Castle, 73 taxables. 

" North side Christinft Creek, 58 taxables. 

"North side Duck Creeic, 41 taxables. 

"North side Appoquenomen, 51 taxables. 

** Norch Side Brandy wine, 26 taxables. 

''Of St George's, 4 taxables.'* 

In 1683 the names of the dietricts were : " The 
Onstahulary of New Castle," which embraced the 
present territory of New Castle Hundred ; " The Con- 
stabulary north of Christina Creeke;" "The 
Constabulary on the north side of Duck Creek 
Creeke." "A list of the inhabitants of ye Constab- 
ulary from St. George's Creek to the north side of 

In 1687 the district now embraced in ** Brandy wine 
Hundred" appears distinct and separate, as follows: 
A list of the Taxables on the north side of Brandy- 
wine Creek." The district embraced on the north 
side of Christiana Creek contained what is now Chris- 
tiana, Mill Creek, White Clay Creek and part of 
Pencader Hundred. 

In the same year Bed Lion was embraced in the 
district called " a list of the Taxables on the north 
side of St. George's Creeke." St. George*s Hundred 
was embraced in " a list of Taxables on the north 
side of Apoquenimy." 

The term " hundred" first appears in the following 
connection : "A list of the taxables of north side of 
Duck Creek Hundred." The territory is what is now 
(1888) Appoquinimink and Blackbird Hundreds. In 
1687 the hundreds of Bed Lion, Pencader, Mill 
Creek and White Clay Creek were not mentioned. 

The first act regularly defining the territory of New 
Castle County was made in 1775, and declares that 
the hundreds shall remain as defined by the ancient 

The last grants of land made before the occupation 
of the territory by William Penn, in October, 1682, 
were made at the September court, and were as 
follows : 

To John Hermsen, 500 acres ; Andrew Tilly, 200 
acres ; John Matthewson, 200 acres ; Bichard Smith, 
400 acres ; Jonas Askin, 200 acres ; John Williamson 
and Bennit Starr, 300 acres ; John Nommerson, 100 
acres ; Joseph Barnes, 200 acres ; John Savoy, 200 
acres; John Grubb, 200 acres; David Hendrix, 200 
acres; Thomas Bell, 200 acres ; William Skart, 200 
acres ; 'John Darby, 400 acres ; Bobberd Parke, 400 
acres ; John Smith, 200 acres ; Joseph Cookson, 200 
acres ; Joseph Moore, 100 acres ; John Smyth, Whyte 
Claye Creek, 200 acres ; Anthony Wallis, 150 acres ; 
Conrad Constantine, 150 acres ; Hendrick Garrettson, 
150 acres ; Gyles Barrett, 100 acres ; Edmund Linsey, 
200 acres; James Taylor, 400 acres; Peter Claesson, 
200 acres ; Henry Watkinson, 200 acres ; John Stal- 
cop, Samuel Peters and Andrew Stalcop, 200 acres. 

From this time warrants and patents were granted 
under authority of William Penn, who ordered that 
all occupants of land not having their lands surveyed 
or patented should report the same to the court, and 
complete their title. 

The Swedes and Dutch, under the English, were 
allowed to remain upon their lands, and were quietly 
in possession when Penn assumed authority, in Octo- 
ber, 1682. Courts were organized in November fol- 
lowing, and Penn took measures to bring the foreign 
population under English citizenship. 

At a court held at New Castle on the 21st and 
22d of February, 1683, at which Penn was present, 
the following form of naturalization was adopted, 
and the names of those appended are the Swedes 
and Dutch who took the oath of allegiance to the 
new government : 

** The Proprietor was pleesed to state ye following forme for those u 
wanted Naturalization, according to Act of Assembly, passed at Chester 
(als Upland). 

**I, A. B., doe solemly promise to keep faith and allegiance to ye King 
of England & his heirs and successors, fidelity and Lawful obedience to 
William Penn, Proprietary and Governor of the Prorlnce of PensilTS' 
nia and its Territories, and to his heirs and successors, according to ye 
Lawe of Naturalization, passed in Assembly in ye month of December 
Laest att Chester (als Upland), in ye province aforesaid. 

** Followeth the names of those who desired to bee naturalized io 

•* Peter Alrichs. 
Arnold De Lagrange. 
Hendrick Von der Burgh. 
John Nommers. 
John Barrentsen. 
Ambroose Becker. 
Broor Sinnexson. 
Hendrick Garretson. 
Adam Petersen. 
Jacob Yandenreer. 
Garret Jansen Van Beck. 
John Hermonson. 
Mary Blocq. 
Gerritt Otte. 
Isaac Saroy. 
Mathiu de Voe. 
Darid Bilderseck. 
Hans Petenion. 
Hendrick Evertsen. 
die Thomassen. 
Arent Jansen V. Burgh. 
Peter Jiuxjuet. 
Justa Andriessen de haen. 
Peter de Coonilnch. 
Abraham Enloos. 
Roelof Andries. 
Jacob Aertsen. 
Gick Oelkins. 
Olle Tearson. 
Jurian Boatsman. 
Conrad Constantine. 
Olle Ollsen Tassen. 
Lasse Oeeen Tassen. 
Peter Claessen. 
Peter De Witt. 
Peter Eschelsen Cock. 
Andries Stalcop. 
Paul Gerritson. 
Hans Hansen Miller. 
Justa ^ulson. 
Henry Doll. 
Jaoobus Andries. 
Hans Codorus. 
Cornelius Vanderveer. 
Joseph Barrons. 
Jean Paul Jaquet. 
Jacob Clementsen. 
Samuel Peterson. 
Jan Hendrickson. 
Hannen Laurien. 
Niels Nielsen Ripot. 
Michael Oelsen. 

Huyl)ert Laurenson. 
ETert Hendrickson. 
Jean Garretson Yerhoof. 
Gerrardus Wessels. 
Hendrick Walraven. 
Dirck Williemsen. 
Jacob Claasen. 
Dr. Tymen Stidden. 
Peter Maisland. 
Jan Bisk. 
Christopher Myer. 
Comeles Jansen Vries. 
Jan Jacquet Jurian. 
Hendrick Andriessen. 
John Williamsen Neering. 
Reyner Vander Collen. 
Moses De Gam. 
Olle Poulsen. 
Paul Laersen. 
Lucas Stiddem. 
Mathias Vander heyden. 
Joslyn Sempill. 
Mathias De Ringh. 
Willam Croesie. 
Peter Jogau. 
Simeon Erkelson Cock. 
Jan Erkelson Cock. 
Eldert Egbertson foreben. 
Anthony Bryant. 
Gysbert Walraven. 
Ephrani Hermon. 
(^-asparus Hermon. 
Hendrick Dulgar. 
Jan Peterson troet. 
Hendrik fronsen. 
Hendrick Lemmens. 
Engelbert Lott. 
Clays Danielson Prays. 
Jan Valch. 
Sybrout Valch. 
Isaacq Tayne. 
Luloff Stidden. 
Carell Petersen. 
Jan Moenseo. 
Erasmus Stidden. 
Adam Stidden. 
Samuel Samuella. 
Oorell Stalcop. 
Jan Stalcop, Jr. 
Sybrout Jansen. 

Digitized by 



Mrdc Hingbertaen. 

Ptotar AbriDck. 

(Me Clem«iiaon. 


JftD Boyer. 

Jan AndrieaBan Steloop 

Bannon Janaen. 
Laaaa Andrlaa OuUmn. 
MathoM Laeraon Toaaen 
Criatian Andrieaaen. 
Peter Bayard. 
Peter Volkertaen.** 

The descendants of many of these persons are 
still residents of Delaware. 

The hundreds firom time to time assumed inde- 
pendent relations, and by 1710 were all formed under 
their present boundaries with the exception of Wil- 
minjrton and Blackbird Hundreds, which were both 
Itid out within the last fifty years. The following 
t&xes were levied at various times, which may prove 
of interest: 

£ $. d. 

1775. Chrtadana Hundred Powder tax 580 18 

17W. County tax, New Caatle Hundred 26,368 15 

Chriatiana Hundred 38,336 5 

Brandywine Hundred 15,382 10 

Sinking Fund... 28,012 10 

Mill Creek Hundred 17,797 10 

Sinking Fund... 32,251 10 

Pencader Hundred 16,630 00 

Bed Lion Hundred 14,373 16 

Sinking Fund... 25,872 16 

St George Hundred 86,048 15 

Appoquinimink Hundred 27,210 00 

Sinking Fund 48,978 00 

The following is taken from the Levy Court rec- 
ords of 1815, and contains a summary of taxes in that 

' AmomMl of vahuOiom of real a»d p«r»onal propmiif in tk* eouiU§ for tht 
year 1815 : 

" Brmndywlne Hundred 1218,801 

Cbnitiana " 819,876 

Pencader " 189,096 

KewCMtle " 302,756 

BcdLyon " 128,763 

mUCraek " 228,286 

White Clay C*k'* 143,992 

Ap|M)qnenlmlDk " 361,501 

StGeorge'a '» 898,686" 

The assessed valuation of New Castle County for 
the year 1887 is as follows : 

Brandywine Hundred $2,530,166 

Wilmington Northern DiaCrict 12,798,822 

Wilmington Southern Diatrict 11.029,173 

Chriatiana Hundred 3,089,681 

Mill Crwk Hundred 2,339,469 

White Clay Creek Hundrwl I,62u,l9l 

Pencader „ 1,472,680 

NewCbrtle 3,329,186 

8t.tieorge»i 3,495,623 

Appoqninimlnk 1,393,686 

Blackbird _ 980,537 

B*l Lion 1,408,714 

Elections had been held before 1811 without any 
special legislative action, but on the 13th of January 
of that year an act passed the General Assembly for 
the purpose of regulating general elections in the 
State. The county of New Castle was divided into 
nine districts, each embracing the territory of a 
hundred, with the following polling-places : 

1^ Brandywine Hundred— Blue Ball Inn, Concord Boad, kept by 
Cwfe MUler. 

Sd, Chriatiana Hundred— houae of Uary Hendemn. 

H MQI CfMk Hundred— Mermaid Tarem, William BaU. 

4th, White Clay Creek Hundred — houae of John Herdmen, Newark. 

&th, Pancader Hundred— houae of Darkl Armatrong, Olaagow. 

ith, New CasUe Hundred— John Hare*a Tavern (now Hare*a Cor- 

7Ui, Bed Uon Hundrwl— Diana Biddle*a TaTem, St George'a. 

^ St. Oeorge'a Hundred— at the Trap Houae of Thomaa Comellly. 

^ Appoquinimink Hundred— Jamea Hilla' Tavern, Blackbird. 

The county of New Castle is at present divided 
into forty-three election districts, twenty-seven of 
which are in Wilmington and sixteen embrace the 
hundreds of the county. 

The population of New Castle by the census of 
1880 is &s follows: 

Aiqpoqulnimink 2351 

Blackbird 1778 

Brandywine 3549 

Chriatiana 0140 

Mill Creek 3474 

NewCaaUe 1568 

New OaaUe City 3700 

Pencader 2360 

Bed Lion 2480 

(Including Delaware City and 
St. George'a.) 

St. George*a 8793 

Middletown 1280 

Newark 1148 

White Oay Creek 1627 

Wilmington 42,478 

Forts, Block and Court-Houses and Prlbons 
IN New Castle County.— The early courts of New 
Castle County were held in the forts that were erected 
by the Swedes and Dutch. The first of these was 
Fort Casimir, which was erected on a point at New 
Castle, extending out into the Delaware River, which 
has slowly gained upon the shore and washed the site 

Jean Paul Jacquet was appointed Vice-Director of 
the territory on the Delaware, and assumed command 
of the fort early in December, 1655. He appointed a 
Council for the colo ny and laid out the town of 
New Castle. On the 25th of December, at his request 
Elmerhuysen Cleyn, Dirck Smith, Guysbert Bracy, 
Hans Hopman and Andraes Hudde, members of the 
Council, examined the fort and reported that they 
found it " to be decayed in its walls and batteries and 
that if the same fort, if a good work is to be made of 
it, must be run up from the ground, whereas the out- 
work has already for the greater part fallen under 
foot, and what is still standing must necessarily fall, 
because it is burst and distended (by water).'' 

It does not appear whether any repairs upon the fort 
were made under Vice-Director Jacquet, as he was 
removed in March, 1657, and was succeeded in May 
following, by Vice-Director Jacob Alrichs. 

In reply to a letter of the Governor on June 14th and 
20th, in the same year, he say s : '' Thereto comes that 
in such a newly b^^n work daily great burdens and 
expenses will occur quite unexpec tedly, also that the 
fort and other [buildings] are much decayed, so that 
there is no warehouse or other place to store the pro- 
visions, etc., and protect them against rain and other 
damages ; the quarters too, are too small, besides very 
leaky and very much out of re pairs : the ramparts and 
curtains in no way suitable, the platforms for the can- 
nons unfit for use, the parapets so decayed that one can 
pass over them as easily as through the inner gate itself, 
so that also an outer gate had to be made to be some- 
what in position of defence mostly [against] the 
Swedes, who still [nourish] great hopes to be rein- 

Alrichs writes to the Governor, March 18, 1658, that 
" the house in the Fort in which I live, has been 
raised one third for a chamber and a garret. ... I 
have also been obliged to make a new guard-house, as 
the old one could not be used and was entirely de- 

Digitized by 




After Mr. Alrichs' death in December, 1669, Alex, 
ander de Hinijossa was in command. 

The court-room is mentioned as held in the fort the 
first time on June 30, 1660. Commissary Beekman 
writing from Fort Altena in reference to the inven- 
tory of the late Mr Alrichs' property and of Mr. de- 
Hinijossa's, said : " That the city would take it very 
ill that their court- room was so despoiled of chairs, 
books, pictures and other things." This room was in the 
upper story of a building within the walls of the fort, 
as is shown by a letter from William Beekman, dated 
9th of Seventh Month 1661, where he says, " I appeared 
yesterday before the court in the fort of New Amstel 
where I found not more than two persons. . . . John 
Hendrick and Pieter Pietersen Herder, which two 
Commissaries made me come up stairs in the court 

On the 6th of October, 1670, Capt. John Carr, com- 
mander, made proposals to the Council at New Castle 
setting forth " that a suitable place might be selected 
here at New Castle to erect some fortifications for 
times of need, and that another place might be 
chosen above Christiana Kill, which would serve as 
retreat in times of need, and should also be forti- 

The Council took the subject under consideration 
and it was resolved : 

" 1. That it WM thought the market-place where the bell hangs was the 
rooet coDTenleDt place in New Castle to erect block-houses for defensive 
purposes, and It was resolved to give the order accordingly, provided his 
Honor, Captain Carr, shall cede forever the ground necenary thereto 
without retaining any claim on it. As to the expenses and labor re- 
qnbred for the aforesaid fortifications and block-houses, the citizens of 
New Oastle are first to advance money, each according to his means 
and position, to pay the laborers, provided that inhabitants of this dis- 
trict, able to do all such work, shall be held to assist in the work as 
occasion may require. 

*' 2. Concerning the fortifications above, the matter is left to the dis- 
cretion of the people there, to choose the most convenient place or 
places for the defence. All, however, with the undemtanding that, if 
no war breaks out with the natives, which Cod may prevent, the said 
houses shall be used for the public services, as council house, prison 
and for other public purposes, while they may be used as such by the 
whole Kiver for a generall and public account and expenses. 

**This resolution shall not be carried into eflbct without order of his 
Honor, the General, but preparations may be made in secret without 
arousing suspicion among the natives. 

(Signed) •' John Carr, 

** Will Tom, 
•• U. Black. 
**Pktkr Rambo, 


A few days after this action Captain Carr wrote 
to the Governor and Council of New York, rel- 
ative " to some matters touching ye towne of New 
Castle and Plantacons on Delaware River." Con- 
cerning the block-house, he says : 

"That ye Towne of New Castle being y« strength of y« River and 
only capable to defend itselfe against ye sudden violence & Incursion of 
ye Indian^ It*s humbly left to consideracon whether y* inhnbitants 
should not have some more than ordinary encouragement As first. 
That a Block-House may be erected in some convenient Flare of y« 
towns, where a constant watch may be kept, now y« fTorte is fallen 
into mine A decay, for the common Defense ; the which will coste 
noe great matt' A may be risen at y« charge and expense of y« Inhab- 
itants of y« Towne & Plantations upon y* River, who will not be back- 
wards (if any Order shall be i»ued forth for it) in contributing towards 
ye same. 

" That ye Houses in ys fTorte being soo greatly decayed as they cannot 
stand long, their Tiles, Brick, Iron, or other Materials may be taken 
downs in time and preserved for ye building a new House in their 
Boome when opportunity permits." 

William Tom, the clerk of the court at New Castle, 
in a letter to Qov. Lovelace, dated March 9, 1671, 
says : 

** Sixthly, or intencon hers is to build a blockhouse, 40 foots square 
wt^ 4 att every end for fflancks in the middle of the Towns, the fort not 
being fitt to be repaired, and if repaired of noe defence, lying at the 
extreme end of the towne, and noe garrison ; therefore wee beg that 
wee may have libty to pull it downe and make use of the tile, bricks 
and other materials for the use of o^ new intended fortificacon, w«i>, if 
we have noe occaidon for, as we fear wee shall, will bse convenient for 
a court house, notwithstanding. " 

These matters were considered by the Council in 
New York June 14, 1671, which decided, first: 

*'A8 to y* first Branch, ye Inhabitants of y* Towne of New Castle may 
assure themselves of all due Encouragement. And what is proposed as 
to y* Erecting of a Block-House for their Common Defence its very well 
approved of. The officers there being hereby Authorixed to prosecute 
that Designe by enjoyuing ye Inhabitants and others concerned to goe 
on and finish the same." 

Section thirteen recites: 

•' It is left to ye care of y Captain Carr and y* rest of y« Oflic«« in New 
Castle to see that the Materials in ye Forte be preserved in y* best 
manner they shall think fitt, who have likewise Liberty to dispose of 
Nuch of them toward ye Erecting of y« new ITorte or Block-House as 
there shall be occasion.** 

It was also provided in this answer from the 
Council that the license fees for distilling strong 
liquor "shall goe toward ye reparacon of ye New 
Block House or fforte or some other publicque work." 

The work was begun, but proceeded slowly, and in 
the summer of the next year (1672) Captain Edmund 
Cantwell, who was then high sheriff of New Castle, 
wrote to Governor Lovelace, asking : 

**That his Honor would please to give his instnictions about the 
finishing y* Block-House in Delaware w«>> standeth still in that posture 
his Honor left it It is high time that some speedy order bee taken 
therein in regard, not only of the troubles now likely to ensue fh>m the / 
Warrs in Europe, but that what is already expended thereupon will be 
as good as thrown away by reason as it is now it only stands and rotts. 
It Is humbly conceived that the most efTectiiall means to be used for ye 
accomplishment will be by a Cien* Tax to bee imposed both upon ye 
Towne and Kiver." 

Before the fort or block-house was completed the 
Dutch again become the dominant power, and at a 
meeting held at Fort William Hendrick, 12th of 
September, 1673, by the commanders of the forts and 
territory, Jacob Benckes, Cornells Evers, Jr., and 
Captain Anthony Colve, the deputies from South 
River, appeared and presented their credentials, and 
the following concerning the forts or block-houses 
was granted : 

" 2. Somebody shall be appointed Commander at the South River with 
authority to enlist 10 or 12 men at our expense, and to summon the 
sixth man from the whole population of the river, and order them to 
make a fort on a suitable place, if the (^nmniander deems it necessary, 
and as reward and in consideration of the great expenses which the 
inhabitants of the South River will have to incur in erecting the fort, 
they are herewith granted fk«edom ftvm all ground taxes, and from 
excise on beer, wine and distilled waters which may be cousuuied at the 
South River until the month of May, 1676.** 

It is not shown that a fort was built by the Dutch, 
or that they even completed the one at New Castle. 
They were driven out by the English in November 
of the following year. 

On the 15th of August, 1675, a letter was written by 
the magistrates to Governor Andross, in which occurs 
the following : 

*• As for that part of your honor*s letter concerning Oapt. Carr's Val- 
ley, itt was never improved in the least ; itt is o^ humble desire the fort 
lying on the other side may be removed, ^c^ . making of a Court 

Digitized by ' 

, yc-^ . makins of i 




HooM And that eome otb«r conTenienc«fl may be made by itt Tor a prison, 
both being Tery necesmry for this Towne'aud river, and whore it stands 
rather datrimeotal than otherwise to the place, that itt may be done at 
the puMiqne charge of the whole river and bay, itt beiDg a geuerall 
cooceroe that tlmre may be some tax layed for the expense of the High 
Court and Loir Court, it formerly being one sch of Wheat for the High 
Cottrt and one sch of Bye for the Low Court.'* 

The Council at New York, September 16, 1676 : 

"Ordered That ye Block House at New Castle bee removed & built at 
j« hack side of yo Towne, about ye middle of it, at or neare ye old Block 
HooBR, wherein there may be a Court House and a prison/' 

There is a tradition that at onetime a fort or block- 
house stood at the west end of the town, near a lane 
still known as " Fort Lane/' and it is quite probable 
this block-house, that was ordered to be removed, 
stood at or near that locality. That it was built about 
1670 or soon after on the market-place is shown by 
the following memorandum made by the Hon. George 

" Ai to the Market Square. In a survey made in 1688 by Ephraim 
Herman, for Cbipt. Markham, of 1078 [acres] land called Markham's 
Hope, adjoining to the little marsh below the town of New Castle, there 
is a Plan or representation of the said town and therein is laid down the 
Sqaan in the centre of the town called ' The Market Phtine," in which 
iqaan the Fort ifl represeuted as standing in the place where Immauuel 
ChBTch DOW isw" 

On the 8th of November, 1676, the magistrates 
wrote to Grovernor Andross on municipal affairs and 
said: "There being no prison for ye securing of deb- 
tors, fugitives and malefactors, who often make their 
escape for want of the same. Wee therefore desire 
his Honor's order for the erecting of a prison, w*=^ wee 
Imadgine would be Convenient to stand in ye Fort." 
This request was granted November 23, 1676, as fol- 

" Allowed that a prison bee built in ye Fort and the Sheriff to bee re- 
■poi^ble for the Prisoners." 

The following is of record of court, February 7, 1677 : 

"According to his hono^ the Governor order, itt was this day Resolved 
uA omcludcd by the Conunander and Court, that a prison w*i> a dun- 
g«mi under itt bee built in the forte w*i> all expedition, also a weigh< 
boase to bee built, with the Lyke Expedition, in ?onie convenient place 
Mare the wat«r8yde, manner of building the same is Left to the Contry- 
vaoce k ordering of Oapt John Colier & Mr. Moll." 

In February, 1677, the repairs and improvements 
to be made were placed in charge of Captain Collier 
and John Moll, and the court, on October 3d of the 
same year, ordered a court-room to be fitted up, as ap- 
pears in the following : 

"It was this day resolved and Mr. John Moll desired by ye court wee 
would Rdmbonree so mutch as for ye mutcheing upp of ye Court Roome, 
in ye forte, fltt for ye Court to sitt in ye winter tyiue, and yt the same 
reimhonrsement bee paid him out of yo Levy to be paid. 

" The Court doe allow to ye measons to finish ye chimney in ye forte as 
it might bee 2fi0 gilders." 

The court-room, prison, stocks and dungeon were 
inclosed in the walls of the fort or block-house. 

C!ommander Billop was in the fort on the 26th of 
September, 1677, when a disturbance occurred between 
him and Francis Jackson, which caused a rupture 
between Billop and the court. 

Many complaints were also made against Captain 
Billop during the winter of 1677-78, which were 
brought before the Court March 8, 1678, as follows : 

" That for the whole winter and now he makes use of ye Towne forte 
vhers the watch on occasion is kept, for a stable to put his horses. That 
he keeps the Court Roome above in the Fort filled with hay and fother 
that he keeps hogbs within yo forte walls and by that means keeps ye 

gates continually lockt up. That he hath and doth still debar this Court 
ftx>m sitting in their tuual place in the forte. That he makes use of ye 
soldiers (who is in pay and is kept for to looke to ye forte and to keep 
itt clean) about his owne Pryvit affyres, Ac. That he has denyed and 
forbidden the Sheriffe to put any prizoners in ye usaall prison In the 

0th er complaints were made against him in relation 
to other matters. In reply to these complaints Cap- 
tain Billop said: 

" That hee had only to doe w«h the forte and militia and that the Court 
should not sitt in the forte and that itt not concerned the Court, and as 
to Customs, Ac, Ac." 

After a long dispute Captain Billop promised to re- 
move the horses out of the fort and to cause the some 
to be made clean, and he said ''the Court mis^ht sitt 
there again, Lykewise that the Sheriffe might againe 
make use of ye country prison as formerly." These 
charges were forwarded to New York and Billop or- 
dered before the Council. 

He was succeeded by Peter Alrichs, August 24, 
1678, and the following is an inventory of stock be- 
longing to the fort: 

"Forts ammunition and guns received from Capt. 
Billop, belonging to ye Forte, viz : 8 yron Guns, 7 
Leaden aprons, 18 Match Locks, 6 fyre Locks, in all 
24 Musquetts, 12 Collers of bandeleers, 66 yron Shott. 
466 Musquetts bullets, one and one third barrills of 
powder, 3 quires of Cartridge paper, 12 skaynes of 
Match, 2 Leadells, 3 sponges, 3 Rammers, 1 loadge 
Barrell, 1 Lant stike. In New Castle. — Signed John 
Moll, Peter Alrich, September 6, 1678." 

From this time the civil magistrates assumed the 
entire control of affairs, and although Peter Alrich 
was appointed to take charge of the fort, he did not 
have the same authority as the former commanders. 
The fort was kept up a few years later, and the walls 
were still standing October 27-28, 1682, when William 
Penn arrived off New Castle, to receive the territory 
from the justices. But little mention is made of it 
from that time, and the walhs were removed a few 
years later. How long the court-house that was in 
the upper room was used for the court is not known, 
as the court records from 1680 to 1766 are very mea- 
gre. It is the opinion of those best informed that the 
east wing, now in part used for the mayor's office, was 
the old court-house of that day. As has been stated 
the provincial courts, which were then presided over 
by William Penn, were often held in the court-house 
at New Castle. The meetings of the Council and 
General Assembly, before the dismemberment of the 
three lower counties from the mother colony, were 
often held at the same place. It is probable that the 
main part of the old court-house, sometimes called 
the State- House, wasbuiltabout 1704, as the courts and 
the General Assembly of the province held their session 
at New Castle, the latter, with few exceptions, from 
May 24, 1704, to 1779, when it was removed to Dover. 
The date of erection of the old building or either of 
the wings, are beyond the memory or tradition of the 
oldest inhabitants. That the court-house, with the 
wings, was completed and in use before the Revolution 

Digitized by 




is evident from the following, which bears date No- 
vember 26, 1771. 

"The court taking into consideration the danger 
resulting to the court-house and the other public 
building thereto adjoining by fire, by reason of the 
two wings of the court-house being used for school- 
houses. Do order that the said two wings of the 
court-house shall not be occupied as school-houses or 
used for any other purpose whatsoever." 

The jail in 1771 was in the rear of the court-house, 
and joined it on the northeast side. It was used for 
jail purposes until 1793, when a new jail was built. 
In 1786 it was repaired and new floors put in. A 
new jail was erected nearly on the same site of the 
present jailer's residence, extending from Market 
Square northwestward, which was not very strong, 
as the Levy Court, November 24, 1795, reported that 
prisoners had escaped from under the hearths, and 
recommended iron bars to be put under them. The 
doors also were barred, as they had been sawed into, 
and near the hasp had been burned off, and a prisoner 






V- r ^n 1 









At New GasUe. 

had escaped. At the same term of court the old jail 
was ordered prepared for a work-house, and was used 
as such with repairs until 1811-12, when $3000 was 
appropriated to rebuild the work-house. The Levy 
Court, September 28, 1824, appropriated $500 to build 
in the jail-yard adjoining the west end of the jailer's 
house, a building for the confinement of debtors, and 
the next year appropriated $300 for furnishing the 
debtors' apartments. These rooms were between the 
east wing of the court-house and what is now the 
present jailer's residence. 

At the same term $400 was appropriated for erecting 
a wall around the back yard of the jail, and in March, 
1825, $868.82 were approprifted for completing it. 
The work-house, debtors' apartments and "new jail," 

were used until the present (1888) jail was erected. 
A new whipping-post was erected in October, 1798, 
by John Aull, at a cost of $12. Henry Darby, an 
inn-keeper in New Castle, was appointed to make 
repairs on the court-house in 1790, and on December 
28, 1794, a petition was made to the court by a judge 
of the Supreme Court, the judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas and several jurymen, ** alleging this Dec- 
ember term, that the lower court-room of the court- 
house, in its present condition, is very inconvenient 
for transacting of public business and requiring re- 
pairs." Dr. George Monro, Alexander Reynolds and 
Arnold Naudain were appointed to make a report, 
which was done, and repairs were declared necessary. 
Particular mention was made of the stairs formerly 
erected in the northwest corner of the store-house, 
which were on the outside, in the northwest corner 
of the main building, and in the angle that is now 
used as a post-office, and led to the second story over 
the court-room. The judge's stand in the lower court- 
room, as it were in the olden time was on the north- 
west side of the room. 

In May, 1798, the clerk of the peace petitioned 
the court for more commodious quarters to keep 
safely the records and papers of the offices. Meas- 
ures were taken to fit up the west wing for that pur- 
pose, for the accommodation of the clerk of the peace 
and the clerk of the Superior Court, and the offices 
were kept there until their removal to Wilmington. 

The jail built in 1793 was used until 1858. The 
Levy Court, in March, 1855, resolved to build a 
new jail, and William D. Clark, Eli Todd, Thomas 
Scott, John T. Smith and Thomas Hendrickson 
were appointed commissioners to visit other places 
and examine jails with a view of erecting one at 
New Castle. Plans were drawn and accepted, and the 
present jail was built. 

The old whipping-post stood on the Market Square, 
in the rear of the old market shed. It was moved 
later on the green between the arsenal and the jail 
wall, where it stood until 1853, when it was moved to 
its present location. 

For more than a hundred years earnest efforts 
had been made to remove the county-seat of New 
Castle County to some other place. In the year 
1765 the justices at New Castle became alarmed at 
the frequent passing on the river of Spanish pirates, 
and wrote to Judge Richard Peters, of Philadelphia, 
on the subject, suggesting that the books and rec- 
ords be taken to Christiana Bridge for safe keeping. 
This was carried into effect. 

In 1803 a movement was set on foot to remove 
the county-seat from New Castle. The subject was 
brought before the General Assembly in that year, but 
received little attention. The originators of the 
plan, however, were in earnest, and on the Uth of 
January, 1810, John Way, Senator from New Castle, 
laid upon the members' desks petitions signed by hve 
hundred citizens of New Castle County, setting forth 
reasons why the county-seat should be removed. 

Digitized by 




The reasons they gave were as follows : 

* lb 0$ homomvite^ the LegiOabMrt of Oke State of Deloneare, m Oottond 

"The PKrrriOK of tbe undersigned, Citizeni of New-Oastle County, 
" kapteiMbf Bkftoolh^ 

"That th« people of this connty, through the continued increase of 
popiilatioii, have long laboured under the greatest inconrenienoea, in 
cottSNiuence of the ineligible situation of the present seat of Justice of 
this county, the reason of which we beg leave to submit to, and to 
request your honorable body to grant such redress, as you, in your 
wiadom, may think proper, 

** A handful of Swedes, in the year lt{27, in making New Gbstle and 
its licinity their place of settlement, Hkewtse made that town their 
Mat of Jnstice, not through choice only, but necessity. — They were then 
tbe first settlers on the Delaware— the forests at their backs were then 
filled with lawless and savage inhabitants ; it was therefore absolutely 
oKcsMry, that their seat of Justice, as well as their chief place of real* 
doice, should be so situated as to afford them, in case of an attack, a 
sftfe and speedy retreat to their vessels for protection. Perhaps it ex> 
cMded their most sanguine expectations to suppose that the rugged face 
of nature around them would one day undergo the polish of a refined 
ijBtein of agriculture ;— that prosperous towns and villages would arise 
to tbrir view, and the bus of their industrious inhabitants resound 
through the interior ; and if the said settlers, by reason of their pecu- 
Ifar Btnation, did place the seat of Justice where it now is, they left 
it to the represent! vo wisdom of a Freo Poopki to make such regula- 
tk«s relative to it, as might appear proper for their convenience and 

"The leading features of our government— the liberty of the impor- 
tant right of Bttflfrage, and the constitution of our Judicial establleh- 
aents, imperiously require the seat of Justice, with the valuable rec- 
odiattached to it, to be placed in the most central and secure situation 
the nature of the country will admit of. 

"The present seat of Justice is situated at the extreme edge of the 
eouty, remote from the centre of population, and of difficult access to 
the greatest portion of our citizens — to the southern part of the country, 
by reason of its inhabitants having to travel the distance of thir^ miles 
nend an extensive cove of the river ; and to the westward and north- 
ers part of the country, the remoteness of the situation is equally in- 
reaveciSent and highly objectionable — ^the present seat of Justice being 
on the most extended promontory the first settlers could find. 

** In^the present piratical state of the world, and in particular during 
the peculiar situation of our general govamment, with respect to the 
■oTcreigttS of the ocean, and our incapability of defence, there is reason 
wrkrasly to ^yprehend, from its exposed position, that the town of New 
CMh may, at no distant period, with the court house and the records 
ot the county (the property of the public), be involved in a common 

" Tour petitioners beg leave to observe to your honorable body, that 
the rscords of Kew-Csstle, by reason of their being deposited in so hn- 
proper a place, have already been mutilated, to the g^reat loss of the 
dtiMn»~«nd that there is good reason at present to fear a similar dep- 
redation may be repeated. 

" There are few counties in the neighbouring states that have not sub- 
mitted to a removal of their ssat of Justice, even where sufThige is ex- 
wcl ee d in districts ; and a recent example has occurred in our sister coun- 
ty of Sussex, whose seat of Justice has, within a few years, been removed 
to a nnore central position, from the margin of the Delaware. 

" Tour petitioner^ therefore, request your hononU>le body, to enact 
rarh kws, ss you may think advisable, for the removal of the seat of 
jostice of Kew-GasCle county, &om its present to a more central and 
ncure situation for the citizens of the said county— and, as in duty 
bound, will ever pray." 

This petition was referred to a committee of three, 
and soon after Andrew Reynolds, of the committee, 
reported a bill, which was read. Adam Williamson, 
Xehemiah Til ton, Joseph Burns, John Crow, John 
Way, William Cooch, George Clarke, Francis 
Haughey and John Clarke were appointed to exam- 
ine for a location, not exceeding hve acres, within 
two miles of Christiana Bridge. 

The Committee on Unfinished Business for the see- 
don of 1811 reported a bill, but it was not acted upon 
during that session. At the session of 1838 numer- 
ous petitions were again sent in, presented by Mr. 
Bayard. These petitions requested that the county- 
seat be removed to Wilmington. A bill was pre- 
sented on the 15th of January of that year, but was 
postponed until the 19th, when it was amended. It 


was read a third time on the 28th, but failed to be- 
come a law. At the session of 1835 it was again 
brought forward, and again in 1837, when remon- 
strances were presented from the citizens of St. 
Ckorge's Hundred, and also from citizens of New 
Castle. The latter was signed by P. B. Dulaney, W. 
R. Janvier, Richard H. Barr, William Guthrie, Ed- 
ward Williams, John Bradford, Jeremiah Bowman, 
Samuel M. Cowper, Evan H. Thomas, Andrew C. 
Gray, James Booth, William H. Rogers, James Cow- 
per, Jr., William T. Read and George B. Rodney. 

Remonstrances were received January 25th, signed 
by many citizens from White Clay Creek and Pen- 
cader Hundreds. The bill was lost, and no further 
effort was made until 1847.^ 

The result of the election in 1889 for the removal 
of the court-house put the matter at rest for a few 
years, but in the fall of 1846 the question again came 
up and was agitated with considerable zeal. Public 
meetings were held in the county, and on the 30th of 
January, 1847, a bill was introduced in the House, 
and passed eighteen to seven for submitting the ques- 
tion to the people. In the Senate it was delayed, 
and on the 4th of February, at a public meeting in 
Wilmington, a committee of five were appointed to 
go before the Senate in the interest of the measure. 
Speeches were made by James A. Bayard, William G. 
Whitely and others. This agitation originated a new 
movement, looking to a division of the county. On 
February 6th a meeting of tax-payers of White Clay 
Creek, New Castle, Red Lion, Pencader, St. George's 
and Appoquinimink Hundreds for this purpose 
was held at the house of John Sutton, in the vil- 
lage of St. George's, which was presided over by 
Philip Reybold. Resolutions were passed in favor of 
the measure, and a bill to remove the county seat was 
taken up on the following day in the Senate, and in- 
definitely postponed. 

The subject was postponed until 1866, when tbe 
grand jury alluded to the matter as follows: 

" WhoroMf the members of the Petit Jury of the Superior Ck>urt and 
Court of General Sessions of the Peace for New Castle County at the 
November Term, A.n. 1866, having been required to attend upon the 
Court at New Castle, have found the present Court-House to be so badly 
constructed and ventilated as to subject them constantly to a foul, disa- 

1 As a last appeal a mass*meeting was held at New Castle April 27, 
1839, at which a resolution was passed that, in case the vote of the 
county should be against removal, the trustees of New Castle Common 
should contract to put the existing buildings in good order and repair, 
and with fire-proof offices at a cost ef three thousand dollars. 

Upon the renewal of the agitation in 1837, the New Cattle Rosette, a 
weekly new^wper, was established by fi. Camp for the purpose of fur. 
theringthe interests of New Castle and retaining the county-eeat. 

In the fall of 1838 William Hemphill Jones was elected to support the 
movement and William H. Rogers to oppose it. A bill was introduced 
and passed, which provided that the question should be submitted to the 
voters of the county Tuesday, May 21, 1839, a minority necessary to 
carry being based upon the number of votes cast at the last election, 
which was eighteen hundrod. 

The election was held, and fifteen hundred and fourteen votes were 
polled as follows : 

Brandywine 325 

Wilmington 786 

Christiana 222 

Mill Creek 163 

White aay Creek 1 

New Castle 5 

Pencader 3 

Red Lion 

St. George's 2 

Appoquinimink. 7 


Digitized by 




fnv«able and unwboletoroe atmocpliere, without any acoommodatioiui 
for the Jury while they are not engaged in trial, and bo imall as to be 
frequently crowded and almost intolerable tp the Judge. MenibeTV of the 
Bar, Jurors, parties and witneasea, and all others who are compelled to 
attend upon the courts. 

** And Whereas, the present Court-TIouss and County Offices are situ- 
ated at a place not the centre of buHineau in the (iTounty, but inconve- 
nient of access to a large portion of the County, thereby impeding the 
administration of Justice, and causing much trouble and expense te the 
Jurors, Suitors, witnesses and public generally, in attending upon the 
Courts and transacting business at the public officM. 

"Therefore, by the Jurors aforesaid being assembled at the close of 
the November term, 

** Be it Retyped, That the present Conrt-IIouse is a common and pub- 
lic nuisance and that the necessary action should be taken at once for 
the building of a now Conrt-House and County offices suitable for the 
wants of the community. 

** lietolvtdj That we recommend the building of a new Court-House 
and County Offices at the City of Wilmington, the centre of business, 
population and travel of tlio County. 

** Re»olv0d, That the preamble and Resolutions, signed by the Jurors 
aforesaid, be presented to the General Assembly at its coming session, 
and that a copy of it be presented to Judges of the Superior Court now 
in session." 

This document wan signed by twenty -eight persons. 

No attention was paid to this report, and it was not 
until 1875 that a presentment was made. From that 
time until 1879 the grand jury, in one form or anoth- 
er, brought the matter to the attention of the court.^ 


On the 18th of February, 1879, Senator J. Wilkins 
CJooch, of Pencader, introduced a bill in the Senate 
authorizing the Levy Court to issue bonds to the 
amount of $100,000 for the construction of a new 
court-house on any site within the limits of New 
Castle. This was vigorously fought, and Senator 
Sharpley introduced an amended bill, providing for the 
erection of a suitable building in Wilmington. This 

bill was amended, reducing the amount appropriated 
to $70,000, and in this form was passed by the Senate 
March 11, 1879, without a dissent. It passed the 
House on March 20th, by a vote of eighteen to three. 
On the 20th of March a special meeting of the City 
Council of Wilmington was held for the purpose of 
considering the question of donating the ground for 
the new building to the Levy Court, which the Coun- 
cil was empowered to convey by the passage of the 
act removing the buildings from New Castle to Wil- 
mington. The City Council appointed a committee 
of seven members to confer with the Levy Court in 
reference to the selection of the land required, and 
also to suggest the reservoir lot occupying the square 
between Market and King Streets, and Tenth and 
Eleventh Streets. 

The conference was held between the committee of 
the City Council and the Levy Court on the 8th of 
April, 1879, and on April 15th the Levy Court, having 
reviewed the different proposed sites for the erection 
of a new court-house, deemed the square known as 
the Market Basin lot in Wilmington, to be the most 
convenient and the best location. The 
attorney of the Levy Court was instruct- 
ed to examine the title, which wan found 
perfect, and in due time the lot was con- 
veyed to the trustees specially designated 
in the act, viz., Thomas F. Bayard, Daniel 
M. Bates,* J. Wilkins Cooch, Nathaniel 
Williams, George Z. Tybout and their 
heirs and assigns. 

The Levy Court, on June 19, 1879, de- 
cided to borrow $70,000 at four and one- 
half per cent., payable in twenty years 
from July 1, 1879. Plans and specifica- 
tions were drawn by Theophilus P. Chand- 
ler, an architect of Philadelphia, for a 
building eighty-three feet by one hundred 
and thirty-seven feet, containing on se- 
cond floor a court-room sixty-five feet 
square, twenty-five feet in clear, parlors^ 
jury-rooms, library and consulting rooms. 
On the first floor ofiices were provided for 
ftheriff*, prothonotary, clerk of the peace, 
register of wills, register in Chancery, 
clerk of Orphans' Court, recorder of deeds, 
Levy Court, and county treasurer. 

The building committee,— Albert H. 
Silver, Wm. R. Bright, Wm. Polk, Wm. L. 
Wier and Alexander Wilson, — on Aug. 22, 1879, made 
a contract with Archibald Given, of Wilmington, for 
the erection of the court-house for the sum of $66,- 
203. The foundation was begun and completed in 
the fall of 1879. The superstructure was erected in 
1880, and the entire court-house was completed, ac- 
cording to contract, by December 25, 1880. It is 
built of Brandy wine granite, Ohio buff* and Chester 

1 The Lery Conrt, at the November meeting In 1876, appropriated 
forty thousand dollars for repairs of building, but, fearing the result on 
the fall election, refrained ttom expending it. 

s Before the deed was executed the Hon. Daniel M. Bates died, and 
upon application to the chancellor, the Hon. George Gray was appointed 
to fill the Tacancy. 

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County serpentiDe. The building was fitted aod ftir- 
nished, grounds graded and paved by the Levy Court, 
and on the 17th of January, 1881, the building com> 
mittee notified the oflScers at New Castle to remove all 
books and papers belonging to their respective offices 
to the rooms allotted to them in the new court-house, 
on Thursday, January 20, 1881, which was done. 
The building committee, at the February term of the 
Levy Court, presented a statement of the cost of the 
boilding and grounds, which amounted to $112,- 

Almshouses. — The first mention of the poor in 
New Castle County is in 1740, when an act was pass- 
ed " to prevent poor and impotent persons from being 
brought into the government." From that time un- 
til 1775 no provision was made for the care of pau- 
pers. In the latter year an act was passed providing 
for their support and for the appointment of over- 

On the 28th of March, 1785, the first steps were 
tsken to establish a poor or almshouse in the county. 
On that day Robert Hamilton, Edward Hewes, 
Robert Pierce and John Lynam, overseers of the 
poor of Christiana Hundred, purchased the property 
of John Stapler, on Broome Street, between Front and 
Fourth Streets, Wilmington. Upon this site they 
erected a large three-story stone building, forty feet 
square, and made such other improvements at a cost 
of £1771 6«. 9rf, to provide for the poor of Christiana 
Hundred. The example set by Christiana Hundred 
awakened the people of the State to the fact that 
provision should be made for the care of the poor of 
the entire State, and accordingly, on the 29th of 
January, 1791, an act passed the General Assembly, 
authorizing the erection of a poor-house in each 
county, unless proper houses already built could 
be purchased. Trustees were appointed for each 
county, who were authorized to purchase land not 
exceeding one hundred acres and to erect buildings 

Section 9 provided that if the trustees of New 
Castie County could not agree with the overseer 
of the poor of Christiana Hundred for the purchase 
of the poor-house already built, and should build in 
another part of the county, Christiana Hundred 
should be exempt from the provisions of the act. 

Section 28 provided that the poor of each county 
should wear a badge of red cloth on the left arm, 
which should have in Roman characters the letters, 
P. N., P. K. and P. S., for the different counties.* 

The trustees appointed in the act for New Cas- 
tle County were John Lea, John James, Isaac Grant- 
ham, Thomas Montgomery Peter Hyatt, William 
Alfree and Matthew Aiken. 

They met at the house of Henry Darby in New 
Castle, February 23, 1791, and organized, with John 
James as chairman. The number of paupers in the 
county was reported as one hundred and sixteen, dis- 
tributed among the various hundreds as follows: 

>This section wm repealed lo 1804. 

New Castle, 14 ; Christiana, 30 ; Brandy wine, 6 ; 
Mill Creek, 5 ; White Clay Creek, 5 ; Pencader, 5 ; 
Red Lion, 6; St. George's, 12; and Appoquinimink, 
35. The trustees ordered a levy of £2809 6«. to be 
made for the erection or purchase of proper buildings 
and for the maintenance of the poor of the county. 
The question of the location of a site was discussed, 
and at the next meeting, March 3, 1791, several propo- 
sitions were offered. A committee was appointed to 
arrange for a site by this meeting. John James was 
chosen treasurer and Robert Hamilton overseer. On 
the 19th of April, 1791, the trustees purchased the 
almshouse property of Christiana Hundred, the con- 
sideration being £1300. The deed was not made 
until March 9, 1792. 

This purchase was added to, August 31, 1829, by 
nine acres purchased from James Baker, Abisha 
Clark and Thomas Strode ; November 16, 1835, three 
and one-quarter acres of William Sellers and a small 
triangular piece, March 13, 1882, of Mrs. Helen 
Price. To meet the needs of the county, the build- 
ing was enlarged July 27, 1781, by raising the middle 
part of the main building one story, and a cupola 
and bell was placed on the addition. 

This building stood until March, 1804, when, 
through the carelessness of a half idiotic boy, playing 
in the garret, it was destroyed by fire. 

A meeting of the trustees was held on the 20th of 
the same month at New Castle, when it was decided 
to send the county poor to their respective hundreds 
and board them out until a new building was erected. 

The burning of the building served as a pretext for 
an agitation for the removal of the building to another 
part of the county. Much bitter feeling was display- 
ed, and two petitions were presented to the L^isla- 
ture in relation to the matter — one from four hundred 
citizens of Christiana and Brandywine Hundreds, 
asking that they be allowed to care for their 
poor as under the original act; the other, that the 
Legislature authorize the Levy Court to assess 
money to enable the trustees "to rebuild or to 
procure a tract in some other section and build." 
The Legislature declined to interfere, as sufficient 
power was reposed in the Levy Court to r^ulate the 
matter. The matter was finally settled, however, by 
awarding a contract for $15,180 to Joseph Newlin, to 
erect a building on the old site, and on the 12th of 
July, 1806, the building committee reported "that 
they had received the building from the contractor 
the preceding June." An insane department was 
added prior to 1843, and in 1845 a brick wall was built 
around the grounds. In 1848 a building southwest cor- 
ner Fourth and Broome Street* was erected for the use 
of the sick emigrants, who were about that time landing 
in considerable numbers at New Castle. This build- 
ing in later years was used as a small-pox hospital. 

On July 21, 1850, fire again visited the almshouse 
and destroyed nearly all the buildings. The old walls 
were taken down and the buildings rebuilt upon a 
larger scale, on plans prepared by John McArthur, of 

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Philadelphia. They were turned over in February, 
1852, to the trustees. 

The increase of the population of the county made 
the necessity of increased accommodations felt, and 
provisions were made toward the erection of larger 
quarters. On the 22d of February, 1882, the trustees 
of the poor purchased of Graham Blandy a farm of 
about one hundred acres for $20,000, situated near 
HareV Comer Station in New Castle Hundred. A 
building committee was appointed, consisting of 
N. Williams, M. Lackey, J. W. Cooch, H. D. Hick- 
man and James Bradford, which was directed to pro- 
cure plans for the erection of a new almshouse. 

S. T. Button, an architect of Philadelphia, pre- 
pared the plans, which were accepted, and in May, 
1882, the contract was awarded to John B. Johnson 
and Joseph Hyde, of Wilmington, for the erection of 
the new buildings, for $163,500, the work to be 
completed by May, 1884. 

On March 30, 1883, the Legislature passed an 
act authorizing the Levy Court to borrow such 
sums as might be necessary to erect new build- 
ings for the insane and poor of New Castle County, 
not exceeding two hundred and ninety thousand 
dollars, for which they were authorized to issue cer- 
tificates of indebtedness, payable not less than ten 
thousand dollars each year. 

On the Ist of May, 1884, the buildings were com- 
pleted, but it was not until May, 1885, that the 
building committee reported the building ready for 
eecupancy, and on the 20th of May in that year the 
insane (seventy -five in number) were transferred to 
the new building, and the following day the inmates 
of the almshouse were removed. 

The new buildings front on the road leading from 
Wilmington to Hare's Corner. The style is Italian. 
The main building has a frontage of two hundred 
and thirty-six feet, and a depth of one hundred and 
ninety-two feet, with a centre wing fifty feet wide. 
The windows and doors have stone sills with black 
bands above. Steep roofs of slate, with galvanized 
iron crowns and tin gutttering, cover the building. 
From the towers a fine view of Wilmington, New 
Castle, Delaware City, Newport, Stanton and Green 
Hill is obtained. The basement is devoted to cook- 
ing, dining and store-rooms, laundry, dormitory for 
colored people etc. On the first floor, which has 
forty -five rooms, are the oflSces, reception rooms, 
dormitories, chapel, etc. Thirty rooms on the second 
floor divided into dormitories, separate the chambers 
and the hospital department. Elevators run through 
the building. The insane department is quite sim- 
ilar to the main building in arrangement. Both are 
well ventilated and have all the modern improve- 

After public notice a committee of the trustees 
sold at public sale in March, 1882, that part of the 
old grounds lying east of Harrison Street, between 
Front and Third, except two lots previously sold, and 
two not taken, for which they received $3807.28. Sec- 

tion 4 of an act passed March 30, 1883, directed 
the trustees of the poor to transfer, in fee simple, all 
the real estate in Wilmington, belonging to the cor- 
poration, to Henry G. Banning, Eklward T. Bellak, 
Joseph L. Carpenter, Jr., Wm. C. Lodge and Victor 
Du Pont, who were authorized to lay out the land 
into lots and streets and sell it. The greater portion 
has been sold and rows of fine buildings have been 
erected on the ground. Every vestige of the old 
buildings is entirely obliterated. 

The following items are taken from the superinten- 
dent's report, dated April 27, 1887. 

Namber of inmatwH Id both buildings at commencement of 

year 27i 

Number admitted during the year 627 

Births 12 

Total 813 

The admissions from the various hundreds were as 
follows : 

Wilmington Hundred 417 

Brandywlne Hundred. 8 

Christiana Hundred 19 

Mill Creek Hundred 11 

White Clay Creek Hundred 12 

New Castle Hundred 27 

Bed Lion Hundred 6 

Pencader Hundred 2 

St. George's Hundred 16 

Appoquinimink Hundred 6 

Blackbird Hundred 3 

Total number admitted 5'/7 

Number discharged during the year 400 

Number eloped during the year 57 

Number of deaths during the year 65 

Number of inmates at the present time 3Ul 

Total 813 

The members of the board of trustees of the poor 
and ofiicers of the board for 1887 were as follows : 

Brandywine J. M. Pierce. 

Wi.»Uo^,.. W. P«Hc. {^.Ifii^rr 

W..».lagU.».E.DWHct {t\T^"o. O,^,. 

Christiana Joseph P. Chandler. 

NewCasUe G. L. Jemison. 

Mill Creek T. L. J. Baldwin. 

White Clay Creek Dr. Frank Springer. 

Red Lion James Garman. 

St George's Nathaniel Wllllanu. 

Pencader J. W. Cooch. 

Appoquinimink G. M. D. Hart. 

Blackbird 8am*l A. Armstrong. 

Officers of the Board, 

President Thos. L.J. Baldwin. 

Secretary J. W. Cooch. 

Treasurer Edmund Haman. 

Attorney W. T. Lynam. 

Physicians | ?• Y' ^^J^l^^' 

'^ (Dr. Joseph Pyle. 

Resident Physician Dr. B. R. Tybout. 

Superintendent John Guthrie. 

Matron of Almshouse Mrs. ElUe Guthrie. 

Matron of Insane Department Mrs. Rebecca Emerson. 

Superintendents of the Almshouse. 

Robert Hamilton March 3, 1791 

Thomas aark January 7, 1792 

George Clark Januarys, 1811 

Frederick Craig Januarys, 1818 

Henry Heald .\pril 1, 1822 

Frederick Craig March 13, 1826 

Henry Heald* April 30, 1828 

1 Mrs. Heald was matron fh>m April, 1828, to October, 184d. 
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Frederick CnUg Janaary 27, 1880 

UrUh Stroup J&Duaiy 27, 1841 

Robert Gr»vw April 26, 1848 

PhiUp H. Jonea April 30, 1861 

JuiMS Rickaxdfl April 28, 1852 

Charl«a ThomM April 26, 1864 

BobttrtGravM April, 1861 

Inac L. Crouch April, 1869 

Malachi Barlow April 26, 1872 

John Guthrie April 26, 1883 


William Tong 1702 

Darid rrench November 26, 1728 

Thomas Noxon November, 1742 

John Mackey 1746 

William Till December 9, 1748 

Theodore Morris October, 1766 

Ganoing Bedford 1777 

Alexander Glaasford Aagust, 1796 

Archibald Alexander 1801 

Hngh W. Richie January 4, 1805 

Thomas Stockton January 4, 1810 

Henry Steele October 7, 18li 

Joseph Roberts October 9, 1817 

Joseph Roberta October 10, 1822 

Joseph BobertM. October 6, 1827 

Cornelius D. Blaney January 18, 1831 

James D. Man«fleld January 18, 1837 

Sunnel Biddle January, 1847 

William O. Whitely January 19, 1862 

John A. Alderdice^ January, 1867 

Wniiam Q. Whitely January, 1862 

Richard 6. Oooper January, 186p 

Charles Beasten July, 1876 

George A. Maxwell July, 1880 

George A. MaxweU July. 1885 

Recorder of Deeds, — The first record found 
bears date April 8, 1727, and is a commission, for 
Robert Oordon as recorder of deeds and keeper of 
rolls for the lower counties. 

WUUam Bead October 2, 1735 

JohnMacky 1746 

Richard McWilUanis December 9, 1748 

Bidianl MeWnUams June 23, 1777 

George Booth. March 18, 1799 

Evan Thomas January 26, 1800 

Daniel Blaney April 25, 1804 

Rran Thomas. February 20, 1805 

Daniel BUney February 2, 1811 

Abraham Tandyke March 12,1814 

Henry Steele October 6, 1821 

Abraham Vandyke April 29, 1822 

MathewKean October 4, 1822 

Junes S. White... November 26, 1834 

John Wiley December 8, 1836 

Mathew Kean May 26, 1836 

Cornelius D. Blaney 1841 

Waiiam D. Ocheltree November 10, 1847 

WiUiam D. Ocheltree November 11, 1861 

Samuels. Thompson November 12, 1866 

Charles M.Allmond November 12, 1869 

Abraham P. Shannon*. November, 1863 

James Nicholson . November 13, 1868 

Thomss M. Ogle. November 14, 1873 

Thomss Holcomb November 14, 1878 

ThocMS Holcomb November 14, 1886 

Remitters of Wills.— On the 26th of August, 1678, 
QoTeraor Edmund Andros conferred authority upon 
the court of New Castle to appoint persons to admin- 
ister upon estates, " having due regard to Widdows." 

The court before this time had, upon petition, ap- 
pointed persons to administer upon estates. This 
was continued until September 16, 1684, when John 
Cann was appointed register by order of the Provis- 
ional Council. 

On the 8th of June, 1695, commissions were given 
to John Donaldson and James Claypoole to attend to 

probates of wills and to grant letters of administra- 

Deputies. — ^For many years the offices of prothono- 
tary, .recorder of deeds, register of wills and clerks of 
the different courts were held by the same person, 
and the duties in several of these were conducted by 
deputy, of whom were the following : 

Bobert French and James Ooutts 1707 

John French 1710 

Kowland FiUgerald 1711 

Sylvester Garland 1716 

Thomas Duncan 1718 

William Read 1719 

Joseph Fox 1722 

John Denny 1724 

Robert Bobinson 1728 

Registers of Wills. — ^The first name that appears of 
record as register of wills after John Cann is John 
French, who served from 1717 to 1721. The names 
of a few persons are found, who were registers prior 
to 1800, from which time they are found recorded : 

Robert Gordon November 27, 1728 

William Read October 4, 1736 

WiUiam Shaw October 28, 1738 

Theodore Maurice 1 May;i9, 1766 

Gnnning Bedford February 26, 1788 

Evan Thomas April 9, 1799 

Nehemlah Tilton April 12, 1804 

Evan Thomas April 12, 1809 

Evan Thomas April 14, 1814 

Evan Thomas April 15, 1819 

Evan Thomas December 13, 1822 

Evan Thomas December 13, 1827 

EvanH. Thomas December 13,1832 

Jacob Caulk December 13, 1837 

Joshua B. Driver December 13, 1842 

AmosH. Wickersham December 14, 1847 

AmosH. Wickereham November 16, 1862 

Peter B. Vandeveer February 17, 1854 

Peter B. Vandeveer October 10, 1869 

Bobert C. Fralm October 26, 1864 

Benjamin Gibbs October 26, 1869 

Sewell C. Biggs October 27, 1874 

SeweUC. Biggs October 27, 1879 

Ignatius C. Grubb 1884 

John K. Bradford June 4, 1887 

Registers of Court of Chancery and Clerk of the 
Orphans^ Court. 

Hugh W. Richie January 4, 1806 

Alexander Reynolds January 4, 1810 

Alexander Reynolds January 11, 1816 

Joseph Roberts February 20, 1817 

David Paynter February 21, 1822 

Joseph L. Harper February 3, 1826 

Thomas Stockton January 18, 1832 

John Qordon June 1, 1836 

Matthew Kean 

Cornelius D. Blaney February 11, 1840 

Charles H. Black June 2, 1840 

OomeUus D. Blaney February 10, 1846 

Hugh H. Thompson November 29, 1847 

Peter B. Vandeveer 1849 

Peter B. Vandeveer February 17, 1864 

William Hnfflngton August 10, 1854 

Edward W. Clay December 1, 1864 

John D. Bird March 31, 1866 

James Duncan April 4, 1861 

Samuel Guthrie May 19, 1863 

Bei\Jamln B. Ustick May 20, 1868 

Charles M. Vandever May 21, 1873 

James M. Houseman May 28, 1877 

James M. Houseman May 29, 1882 

Charles H. McWhorter May 30, 1887 

Sheriffs. — Under the Dutch the sheriff was termed 
the schout, or scout, and on the 12th of June, 1657, 
Gregorius Van Dyck (who acted on the Delaware 

1 He was also clerk of the peace and recorder in Kent County at the 
same time. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



River as deputy schout, under the schout living at 
New Amsterdam) was appointed schout, or sheriff. 
He was succeeded hy Gerret Von Swearwingen, 
whose commission was dated May 18, 1660. • He 
served until after the surrender of the territory to the 
English, in 1664. 

Captain Edmund Cantwell was appointed April 
21, 1668, as high sheriff on the Delaware River, em- 
bracing the jurisdictions of the courts of Upland, New 
Castle and Whoorekill, and served until May 1, 1683 
(with the exception of 1673-74, when the Dutch were 
in possession, when Peter Alrich was chosen schout), 
when Abraham Mann, of Bread and Cheese Island, 
was appointed. Thomas Wollaston was appointed 
deputy sheriff under Cantwell, and served until 1679, 
when he was succeeded by Samuel Land, who con- 
tinued to act in that capacity until June 17, 1684, 
when he succeeded Abraham Mann as sheriff. 

Edward Gibbs appears in 1686 as certifying to the 
election returns of that year, and is continued until 
after 1690. The following dates are obtained from 
commissions and sheriff's deeds : 

Joseph Wood 1700 

John French 1703-08 

Elchard Clark 1712-U 

Anthony Houston ^ 1716-17 

EowUnd Fitzgerald 1718-24 

William Battoll 1725-26 

John Gooding October 4, 1726-27 

WiUiam Bead October 4, 1728-30 

Henry Newton 1731-32 

John Gooding 1733-34 

Henry Newton 1736-38 

John Gooding 1739-43 

Gideon Griffith 1744-48 

John Van Dyke October 6, 1749-52 

George Monro October 3, 1766 

William Golding 1766 

John McKinley October 4, 1757-60 

Thomas Dunn October 3, 1760-63 

Thomas Dnff October 3, 1766-66 

John Thompson October 4, 1766-69 

Thomas Duff 1770-72 

John Thompson 1773-76 

John Clark 1775 

Samuel Smith 1779 

Joseph SUdham , October 4, 1783 

Thomas McKean 1786 

John Stockton 1'88 

David Jenifer Adams October 8, 1791 

William SUdham October 11, 1794 

Maxwell Bines -October 10, 1797 

Joseph Israel October 13,1800 

BichardC. Dale October 8, 1803 

BichardC. Dale November 30, 1805 

Francis Haughey October U, 1806 

Francis Hanghey ^...November, 1808 

Thomas Perkins October6, 1809 

William Moore November 18, 1811 

WUllam Moore October 14, 1812 

William Moore October 24,1814 

Francis Haughey October 6, 1816 

John Moody October 9, 1818 

David 0. Wilson October 4, 1821 

David C. Wilson January 13, 1824 

P. B. Dulany ^ October 9, 1834 

William Herdman October 6, 1827 

Marcus B. Capelle October 11, 1830 

Marcus E. Capelle November 16, 1831 

James Gardner November 6, 1833 

Peter Vandever November 14, 1833 

Nathaniel Wolfe November 11, 1836 

Elihu Jefferson November 16, 1838 

W. G. Moore November 14, 1840 

Abraham Boys November 10, 1842 

Jacob Caulk November 16, 1844 

George Piatt November 17, 1846 

James Grubb November 16, 1848 

Samuel Chandler November 14, 1860 

William B. Lynam November 16, 1862 

John A. Wlllard October 17, 1864 

Thomas M. Ogle November 7, 1866 

Abraham Cannon ^November 6, 1868 

Levi B. Moon November 10, 1860 

Lewis W. Stidham November 10, 1862 

Georges. Hageny November 14,1864 

William Herbert November 9, 1866 

Jacob Bichardson November 7, 1868 

James Armstrong November 11, 18'0 

BobertL. Armstrong November 11, 1872 

William H. Lambson November 11, 1874 

Isaac Grubb ..November 11, 1876 

JohnPyle November 11, 1878 

Philip B. Clark November 13, 1880 

James Martin November 16, 1882 

Thomas Ford November 10, 1884 

Giles Lambson November 8, 1886 


Bobert Bobinson April 9, 1686 

Jeeeph Story Octobers, 1724 

Henry Vining October 6, 1769 

Joseph Stidham October 6, 1774 

John Stockton October 4, 1783 

William Stidham October 6, 1790 

Alex. Harvey October 10, 1797 

Thomas Anderson October 8, 1803 

Bei\jamin Ogle October 11, 1806 

Alex. Porter October 6, 1809 

John Bates ... .October 14, 1812 

Thomas Clark October 6, 1816 

James Thompson October 9, 1818 

Peter L. Ogle Octobers, 1821 

William Woonseck October 9, 1824 

Henry Vining Octobers, 1827 

William Thompson October 11, 1830 

William Thompson November 14, 1832 

Eli Crozier November 14. 1834 

James Adams November 11, 1836 

Archibald Gordon November 16, 1838 

Eli Crozier November 14, 1840 

John Moore November 10, 1842 

Outten D. Jester November, 1846 

Isaac Janvier November 16, 1848 

John StUlwell November 14, 1860 

Lindley Pearce November, 18M 

James Bickards November 6, 1866 

John Boys November 6, 1858 

Joseph Kilgore November 10, 1860 

OwenZebley November 10, 1862 

John Curry November 14, 1864 

Bei^amin Bellew November 14, 1866 

Lawrence PendegrasB November 7, 1868 

Daniel B. Woodward November 11, 1870 

Charies A. Winslow November 11, 1872 

Richard Groves November 11, 1874 

David C. Bose November 11, 1876 

Jacob BuU November 13, 1878 

Bayworth Weldin November 13,1880 

Frank E. Smith November 16, 1882 

Bayard Wlddoes November 11, 1884 

George T. Bamhill November 8, 1886 

Clerks of the Peace, — William Tom was clerk of the 
courts on South River (Delaware), embracing Up- 
land, New Castle and the WhoreTcill, prior to 1676. 
Upon the reorganization of the courts by Grov. 
Andros, in 1676, Ephraim Herman was chosen, his 
commission bearing date September 23, 1676. He 
continued until January 1, 1684, when he was suc- 
ceeded by John White, who served until March 
15, 1689. James Claypoole was then appointed, and 
continued until August 6, 1694. The prothonotary 
held several offices, and his deputies transacted the 
business in several of them. 

Prior to 1730 the names of the following persons 
appear as deputies: Joseph Fox, John Denny and 
Robert Robertson. 

The names of a few of the clerks are gleaned 
from the records, as follows : 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



DttrldrnBch November 16, 1728 

WilHun Till Deoeoiber 9. 1788 

John Legate (deputy) ^..1742 

John Mackey. 

Bkhwd HcWimaoM December 9. 1748 

Tbwjdore MMtrice May 19, 1766 

J. A, Keith. 1800 

Hugh W.KItchie ^ Januaiy 1, 1806 

Ilex. Reynolda January 4, 1810 

Alex, Beynoldi January 20, 1815 

JoMpb Roberta February 20, 1817 

DhTidPayDter February 21, 1822 

Tbomaa StocktoD February 22, 1827 

Thomas Stockton January 18, 1831 

John Gordon January 2, 1836 

Charles H. Black January 2, 184« 

Charl-eU. Black June 2, 1846 

John D. Dilwortb June 3, 1850 

£dw«rd WilllaoM June 4. 1856 

John Xerritt ^ June 4^ 1860 

John Merritt June 6, 1865 

John P. Sf^nger June 6, 1870 

Jehn P. Springer ^nne 7, 1876 

Edwin R. Cochran June 7, 1880 

Bdwin R. Cochran June 6, 1885 

Dtdimus PotesUUem.— On the 10th of April, 1756, 
the following persons were appointed to administer 
the oath of oflSce to persons in the counties of New 
Castle, Kent and Sussex, and to civil and military 

For New Castle — Jacob Von Bebber, William Arm- 
strong, Richard Mc Williams and David Bush. For 
Kent — Benjamin Chew, John Vining, John Brinck- 
loe, Andrew Caldwell, John Gooding and Theodore 
Mtarice. For Sussex — Jacob Eollock, John Clowes, 
Thomas Till, Benjamin Burton and Sheppard Eol- 


B. McWmiams. October 24, 1774 

Ceonje Bead „ October 24, 1774 

GnoninR BedfonI March 8, 1777 

Bichard McWIIIianii*. March 8, 1777 

Janiei Booth March 8, 1777 

George Bead October 9, 1797 

J«B«* Booth October 9, 1797 

Keuey Johna October 9, 1797 

Archibald Alexandt-r February 2, 1802 

Joseph Tatlow February 2, 1802 

John Bird February 2, 1802 

Kenaey John*. » February 16, IS^iS 

Jamee Booth February 15,1806 

Iran Thomas February 16, 1805 

Joseph Tatlow February 15,18()5 

Jamee Booth March 26, 18o6 

Eran Thomas. March 26, 1806 

Keoeey Johns March 26, 1806 

8amoel Barr March 26, 1806 

Jamei B. Black February 2, 1811 

Daaiel Blaney February 2, 1811 

John Crow February 2, 1811 

James B. Black August 13, 1814 

Erao Thomas Angunt 13, 1814 

James Booth, Jr August 13,1814 

Kenssy Johns, Jr August 13, 1814 

Jutlica of the Peace. — The justices of the peace 
were magistrates of the court until after Delaware 
became a State. 

Bat little has been ascertained of the Swedish and 
Datch courts. Trials of small cases were conducted 
by the Vice-Director and his Council, and although 
the English came into possession in 1664, there is no 
mention of magistrates until April 21, 1668, when 
Governor Richard Nicolls appointed Hans Blocq, 
Israel Helme, Peter Bambo, Peter Cock and Peter 
Alrichs to be magistrates on the Delaware, then 
embracing Upland, New Castle and Whorekill. On 

April 9, 1672, Captain Walter Wharton was appointed 
a justice. Upon the recapture of the territory from 
the Dutch by the English in 1674, the following 
persons were appointed magistrates on the Delaware 
for New Castle : Hans Blocq, John Moll, F. Out- 
hout, Joseph Chew, Dirck Alberts. For the river 
(Upland) : Peter Cock, Peter Rambo, Israel Helm, 
Lars Andriessen and Walla Sweinsen. 

Upon a reorganization of the court under Governor 
Andros at New Castle, October 10, 1676, there were 
chosen John Moll, Henry Ward, William Tom, Garrett 
Otto, Ffopp Outhout and Jean Paul Jacquett. 

The following are dates of commission or appear- 
ance at court : 

Peter Alrichs September 23, 1677 

William Wharton September 23, lrt77 

Johannes de Uses October 26, 1678 

William Semple October 26, 1678 

Abraham Mann October 26, 1678 

JohnOann NoTember2, 1682 

James Walliam January 1, 1683 

Gasparns Herman August 7, 1683 

WiUiamWebh December 4, 1683 

John Williams ..December 4, 1683 

Henry Williams. December 4, 1683 

Valentine HoUingsworth June 17, 1684 

Peter Alrichs October 22, 1684 

Robert Owen October 22, 1684 

Sdmund Cantwell October 22, 1684 

Abraham Mann October 22, 1684 

John Oann April, 1686 

Peter Alrichs ...April, 1686 

Richard Owen April, 1685 

Johannes de Haes. „April, 1686 

James Walliams April, 1686 

Hendrick WiliUuiw April, 1686 

ValenUne HolllngBWurth April, 1685 

Edward Qreen April, 1686 

William Guest April, 1686 

Hendrick Leman April, 1686 

William Stockdale July 29, 1686 

Cornelius Empson July 29, 1686 

Edward Blake February, 1688 

John Fforat. February, 1688 

Charles Runisey February, 1688 

John Richardson Februaiy, 1688 

Peter Alrichs May 16, 1690 

John Cann May 16,1690 

Willhun Stockdale May 16, 1690 

Edward BUike May 16, 1690 

Cornelius Empson .^. May 16, 1690 

Johannes De Ha«B. May 16, 1690 

Peter Bainton May 16, 1690 

Charles Rumsey Mi^y 16, 1690 

Robert Ashtou May 16, 1690 

JohnHayley May 16, 1690 

Henry Williams, May 16, 1600 

John Richardson June 8, 1696 

John Donoldson.. June 8, 1696 

John Houton June 8, 1696 

John Williams June 8, 1695 

Adam Peterson June 8, 1695 

Charles Springer November 10, 1714 

Wcssels Alrichs November 10, 1714 

Sylvester GarUnd November 10, 1714 

Robert Gordon August 6, 1726 

Joseph England August 5, 1726 

Charles Springer August 5, 1726 

John Richardson August 5, 1726 

Jamee James August 5, 1726 

WilUam Battell Augusts, 1726 

David Evans August 5, 1726 

Andrew Peterson August 5, 1726 

Ebeneser Empson Augusts, 1726 

Hans Hanson August 5, 1726 

James Dyre August 5, 1726 

Samuel Kirk Augusts, 1726 

Richard Grafton August 6, 1726 

Simon Hadley Augusts. 1726 

David Hanson April 2u, 1727 

William Read April 20, 1727 

Thomas January April 20, 1727 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Jamas James, Jr April 20, 1727 

Richard Cantwell April 20, 1727 

Joseph Robinson : April 20, 1727 

James Armitage April 20, 1727 

Samuel Grubb. October 7, 1727 

David French December 12, 1727 

William Bead. October 4, 1735 

Thomas Noxon 1736 

Adam Buckley 1736 

John Richardson October 28, 1738 

Andrew Peterson October 28, 1738 

Hans Hansen October 28, 1738 

Simon Hadley October28, 1738 

James Armitage October 28, 1738 

Richard Cantwell October 28, 1738 

Thomas James October 28, 1738 

John Finney October 28, 1738 

John Curtis October 28, 1738 

Thomas Noxon October 28, 1738 

Adam Buckley October 28, 1738 

William Shaw April 26, 1739 

John Richardson May 11, 1747 

William Till May II, 1747 

SimonHadley May 11. 1747 

James Armitage May 11, 1747 

Thomas James May 11, 1747 

John Finney May 11, 1747 

Abraham Gooding May 11, 1747 

David Bush May 11, 1747 

Joseph Way May 11, 1747 

Jacob Van Bebber May 11, 1747 

Jacob Gooding May 11, 1747 

William Patterson May 11, 1747 

David WItherspoon May 11, 1747 

Thomas Robinson May 11, 1747 

BenJ.Swett May 11,1747 

Henry Dyer May 11,1747 

Jacob Van Bebber June 5, 1766 

John Finney June 6, 1766 

Thonus James June 6, 1766 

Jacob Gooding June 6, 1756 

William Paltenon June 5, 1766 

David Withenpoon June 6, 1756 

Thomas Robinson June 6, 1766 

William Armstrong June 6, 1766 

Evan Kice June 6, 1756 

David Bush June 5, 1756 

James McMeehan June 6, 1766 

John Jones June 6, 1766 

William Williams June 6, 1766 

Adam Peterson June 6, 1766 

Richard McWilllams June 6, 1766 

Kvan Rice October 23, 1761 

Thomas James October 23, 1761 

William Patterson October 23, 1761 

William Armstrong October 23, 1761 

John Jones October 23, 1761 

William Williams October 23, 1761 

Richard McWIUiams October 23, 1761 

John Stapler October 23, 1761 

David Finney October 23, 1761 

Thomas Cooch October 23, 1761 

James Latimer October 23, 1761 

Thomas McKim October 23, 1761 

Jacob Peterson October 23, 1761 

John Evans October 23, 1761 

Thonms Tobin October 23, 1761 

Kvan Rice and Richard McWIUiams appointed 

to try negroes February 26, 1763 

Reappointed May 26, 1764 

Evan Rice November 1, 1764 

James W. Patterson November 1, 1764 

William Armstrong November 1, 1764 

John Jones November 1, 1764 

William Williams Noveniberl, 1764 

Richard McWilliams November 1, 1764 

John Stapler November 1,1764 

David Finney November 1, 1704 

Thomas Cooch November 1, 1764 

James Latimer November 1,1764 

Thomas McKim November 1, 1764 

Jacob Patterson Novemberl, 1764 

John Evans November 1, 1764 

Thomas Tobin November 1,1764 

Theodore Maurice November 1, 1764 

Thomas McKean July 10, 1765 

Evan Rice October 28, 1760 

Thomas Jamse October 28, 1769 

William Patterson October 28, 1769 

WUlliam Armstrong October 28, 1768 

John Jones October 28, 1769 

WilUam Williams October 28, 1769 

John Stapler October 28, 1769 

David Finney October 28, 1769 

ThomluOtoch October 28. 1769 

James Latimer October 28, 1769 

Thomas McKim October 28, 1769 

Jacob Peterson October ?8, 1769 

John Evans October 28, 1769 

Thomas Tobin Otober28, 1769 

Theodore Maurice October 28, 1769 

Thomas McKean October 28, 1769 

Benjamin Noxon October 28, 1769 

John Malcolm October 28, 1769 

Thomas James April 10, 1773 

William Patterson Aprill0,l773 

WUIiam Armstrong April 10, 1773 

John Jones April 10.1773 

William Williams April 10, 1773 

John Stapler April 10, 1773 

David Finney April 10, 1773 

Thomas Co«:h April 10, 1773 

James Latimer April 10, 1773 

Thomas McKim April 10, 1773 

Jacob Peterson April 10, 1773 

John Evans April 10, 1773 

Theodore Maurice April 10.1773 

Thomas McKean April 10, 1773 

Benjamin Noxon , April 10, 1773 

John Malcolm April 10. 1773 

George Craighead April 10, 1773 

Richard Cantwell April 10, 1773 

Samuel Patterson October 24, 1774 

David Finney March 3, 1777 

Thomas James March 3, 1777 

Richard Cantwell March 3, 1777 

George Craighead March 3, 1777 

Samuel Patterson March 3, 1777 

George Evans March 3, 1777 

John Lea March 3, 1777 

Valentine Dusbane March3,1777 

Robert Bryan March 3, 1777 

John MerisB March 3, 1777 

Evan Rice March 3, 1777 

William Alfree March 3, 1777 

George Latimer June8, 177S 

James Black June 8, 1778 

Isaac Lewis June 8, 1778 

Petar Hyatt June 8, 1778 

Joshua Clayton June 8, 1778 

William Clark „....June 8, 1778 

Henry Forster June 8, 1778 

John Crawford June 8, 1778 

John James June 30, 1783 

Thomas DulT June 30, 1783 

Andrew Gibson ^ June 30, 1783 

William Robeson June 30, 1783 

George Craighead April 26, 1784 

John Lea April 26, 1784 

Robert Bryan April 26, 1784 

William Alfree April 26, 17H4 

James Booth April 26. 1784 

Jacob Broom April 12, 1786 

David Howell April 12, 1786 

John Hyatt April 4, 1787 

John Read April 4, 1787 

Isaac Grantham April 4, 1787 

Thomas Evans April 4, 1787 

Thomas Wilson July 1, 1788 

Joseph Tatlow July 1, 1788 

Philip Reading July 1, 1778 

Gunning Bedford January 24, 1789 

William McMechen January 24, 1789 

John James November 9, 17!K) 

Thomas Ihiff November 9, 1790 

Joeeph Bums December 1, 1794 

John Reynolds Docember21, 1797 

WilUam Williams March 25, 1799 

Gideon Emory October 11, 1800 

John Hyatt October 11, 18rK) 

3Iathew Aiken October 11, 1800 

Daniel Blaney February 9, 1801 

Alexander MacBeth February 9, 1801 

Robert Hamilton June 4, 18ol 

Evan Thomas December 4, 1801 

Joseph Bums December 4, 1801 

William Carpenter January 16,1802 

iVeti; Qutle Justices of the Peace. 

James CampbeU November 18, 1803 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Robm PhlliiM December 26, 1804 

Robert Maxwell Januarys, 1806 

OlWer R. Howell January 3, 1805 

CoL John Clark > September 6, 1806 

Gileb Kirk October 23, 1806 

John Hall, Jr „ November 14, 1806 

WUUam WiUiama March 26, 1806 

Idward Boche February 4, 1807 

George Rupert....^ August 8, 1807 

WiUiam Fnuer ^ December 16, 1807 

Samuel Barr „^ February 10, 1808 

James Qrubb June 6, 1808 

Jamee Milee. Angutt 8, 1808 

Joseph Bom December 6, 1808 

Bran Thomaa ^ ^December 31, 1808 

Eliaha BouMen December 31, 1808 

WiUiam Carpenter « .January 25, 1809 

George Pearoe...„ June 14, 1809 

John Olaagow ^ « May 7, 1811 

John Merritt «. January 8, 1812 

(Hirer R. Howell January 16, 1812 

JohnToztwrt. January 16, 1812 

William Johnson January 8, 1812 

Bdo* Walter ^ March 10, 1813 

Arnold S. Naudain „ May 7, 1813 

Surael Moore » .September 25, 1813 

Thomas ReynoKli November 12, 1813 

fedward Boche.., February 5, 1814 

AmosBaodere » June 17, 1814 

6««ge Buasell Augnst 8, 1814 

WUUam Fraasr « January 19, 1815 

Samuel Barr May 13, 1815 

John Lswber May 11, 1816 

James Gmbb. June 7, 1816 

I Oorbett ^ ».Angnst 19, 1816 

» Ffcris ^ May 7, 1816 

I Bouldin « May 27, 1816 

George Pierce June 24, 1816 

Jeremiah Lewden ~ December 4, 1816 

Alexander McFarlan ..w... June 6, 1817 

Thomas McDowoU » June 26, 1818 

John llltot. November 16, 1818 

Btan Thomas June 7, 1819 

Thomas Beynolds January 14,1820 

John Green January 14, 1820 

Peter Williams ^ ^February 3, 1820 

auBuel Moore ~ September 20, 1820 

John Janin « - January 10, 1821 

■dvanl Boche February 6, 1821 

Frederick Leonard April 10, 1821 

John Tweed June 18, 1821 

James Andereon Augnst 10, 1821 

WilUam Vandegrilt March 27, 1822 

Dickinson Webster November 29, 1822 

Joshua Jeflerson January 8, 1823 

Jacob FMis February 7, 1823 

John Moody October 23, 1823 

Frederick Craig October 23, 1823 

Stephen WUIis ..December 23, 1823 

Zadock Townsend..... July 31, 1824 

Thomas McDowell June 27, 1826 

John MoCracken May 6, 1826 

John EUiot ^ November 6, 1826 

George Pearoe November 23, 1826 

Joshua Clsjton « February 22, 1826 

James Sorden »... .'..March 20, 1826 

Ivan Thomas June 14, 1826 

WiUiam Silver August 26, 1896 

Waiiam Nicholson September 6, 1826 

Thomas Boblnson September 5, 1827 

Amos Sanders 

John Janvier Januaiy 10, 1828 

Frederick Leonard. April lo, 1828 

WUIiam Streets -Octobsr 14, 1828 

Andrew Bradley November 10, 1828 

William Yandegrifl April 6, 1829 

BeqJ. Caulk November 30, 1829 

John Comwell January 6, 1830 

WUIiam Carpenter „ January 8, 1880 

Jacob Faris « ~ February 17, 1830 

Abraham Bgbert « December 28, 1830 

WUltom McOauUey ., February 14, 1831 

John Wood April 24, 1831 

Thomas McDoweH July 6, 1832 

Bobert Tweed - July 6, 1832 

James Henry. « July 6, 1832 

James Bobiosoo....^ November 21, 1832 

WiUiam A. Aldred ^ « November 21, 1832 

John ElUot March 23. 1838 


James Delaplaine April 6, 1833 

Thomas Janvier, Jr July 2, 1833 

Thomas McDoweU .July 6, 1833 

Bobert Turner July 6, 1833 

James Henry July 6, 1833 

John Wiley July 12, 1833 

James Robinson September 21, 1833 

WUIiam Weldon February 20, 1834 

Howard Ogle June 11, 1834 

Samuel Carpenter July 16, 1834 

William Thompson ..July 16, 1834 

David Justis July 16, 1834 

John Janvier January 14, 1836 

Alex. Macbeth April 11, 1835 

Dr. John L. Morris April 13, 1836 

Joseph M. Roberts July 16, 1836 

Dr. A. P. Reading October 26, 1836 

George RusseU November 14, 1836 

Frederick Leonard....^ September 10, 1836 

WiUiam Nicholson March 27, 1837 

Andrew Bradley April 3, 1837 

Abraham Egbert December 28, 1837 

WiUiam McCaulley February 14. 1839 

John Wood April 24, 1839 

James Boblnson „ December 16, 1839 

Thomas McDoweU July 4, 1839 

Curtis Tweed April 8, 1840 

WUIiam P. Veach „ July 16, 1840 

Samuel Jamee January 18, 1841 

Thomas Finneman March 5, 1841 

Samuel Carpenter April 6, 1841 

James Huston July 1, 1841 

Samuel James January 18, 1841 

Thomas Finneman March 6, 1841 

James Huston July 1, 1841 

PhlUp H. Jonss July 1, 1841 

Samuel Carpenter August 11, 1841 

Levi B. Moore October 26, 1841 

John Janvier January 18, 1842 

Stephen Boddy July 18, 1842 

John M. Smith November 1, 1842 

StUlman Ames February 21, 1843 

Peregrine Hendrickson June 9, 1843 

Frederick Leonard September 11, 1843 

Sheward Johnson February 7, 1844 

Enoch Gray February 14, 1844 

Charles Tatman April 24,1844 

Andrew Bradley November 6, 1814 

Bobert W. Black October 27, 1846 

John 8. Boblnson Novembers, 1846 

WUIiam Streets November 22, 1846 

FmnkllnW. Clements Decembers, 1846 

Faster Boone December 22, 1846 

Thomas McDoweU July 7, 1846 

James Boblnson January 15, 1847 

Jacob B. Naudain January 16, 1847 

Israel Townsend Jadnary 16, 1847 

John Bradford March 16, 1847 

Henry L. Peckord Augnst 19, 1847 

John Wbann December 24, 1847 

Max B. Ocheltree. 

Thomas ayde July, 1848 

James B. Towns ....September 6, 1848 

John Foote January 2, 1849 

James Huston January 26, 1849 

Thomas Clements January 27, 1849 

W. 8. AUmond February, 1840 

Fredns Pennington « February 1 , 1849 

Samuel JefTerson Febniary 15, 1849 

Peter Counties July 21, 1849 

Thomas M. Ogle September 25, 1849 

WUUam Wiggins September 26, 1849 

Josiah BIdgeway July 17, 1851 

Howard Ogle October 10, 1851 

JohnC. West October 20, 1861 

Patrick McManns April 8, 1862 

WUUam G. Johnson May 8, 1862 

David McAllister November 16, 1852 

George Buzine February 25, 1863 

JohnB. Law July 20, 1853 

Henry Davis November 19, 1853 

William Silver, Jr December 17, 1853 

Bryon W. Bliss December 28, 1863 

James G. Johnston February 1, 1854 

JohnBradfoid March 17, 1854 

Thomas McDowell February 7, 1865 

Andrew K. Nelson « March 10, 1855 

Robert Bayne March 22, 1856 

WiUiam P. Vwurh January 23, 1856 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



WiUUm Nicholaon February 9, 1856 

Stephen Buddy May 9, 186« 

Abraham Poalaon May 14, 1866 

Abraham Staats November 6, 1856 

John Wood, Delaware City May 23, 1857 

John Wood, Christiana Hundred June 18, 1857 

Robert M. Black January 20, 1858 

Henry P. Baker April 29, 1858 

Jeese Lake December?, 1858 

Joseph E. V heeler December 7, 1858 

Abram T. Pennington December 7, 1H58 

David McAllister November 25, 1869 

Richard Ferguson December 17, 1859 

Andrew J. Crow January 24, 1860 

Jesse L. Floyd April 4, I860 

William O. Daniel July 13. 1860 

Thomaa Deakyne November 15,1860 

Bryon W. Bliss December 4, I860 

Thomas Young December 19, 1860 

John Bradford March 29, 1861 

John Wright -. April 4, 1861 

Matthew Macklin April 4, 1862 

Thomas D. Gibson December 3(», 1862 

John C. Crosby January 8, 1863 

James H.Ray January 16, 1863 

Abraham Staats November 6, 1863 

Hugh McLaughlin January 12, 1864 

John Wood June 21, 1864 

Robert M. Bbck February 1, 1865 

Joriah Ridgway May 11, 1866 

Peter B. Vandeveer December 1?, 1865 

Lawrence R. Davis January 4, 1866 

Samuel B. Sutton March 20, 1866 

George O'Neil April 27, 1866 

Jamee P. Hall Dfcember 18, 1866 

Edward Reynolds January 31, 1867 

Stephen H. Costen. 

Thomas Deakyne November 18, 1867 

Thomas Young November 30, 1867 

Joseph H. Walker January 9, 1868 

Lawrence R. Davis November 16, 1868 

George Moore April 12, 1869 

John H. Puhl June 15, 1869 

James M. Watson August 2, 1869 

Thomas D. Gibeon January 8, 1870 

James H. Ray January 21,1870 

DeWitt C. Walker February 2,1870 

William McKeowan March 3. 1870 

Edmund B. Frwer November 21, 1870 

John A. Hazzard December 17, 1870 

Joseph L. Kilgore February 15, 1871 

Abram F. Pvnningtou May 23, 1871 

Charles Dougherty July 24, 1871 

Walter Mitchell August 7, 1871 

William L. Wier January 23, 1872 

Sylvester W. Clement February 19, 1872 

Josiah Ridgway June 1. 1872 

Peter B. Vandever December 19, 1872 

Daniel Mulherin January 21, 1878 

Georges. Hageny Februai^ 26, 1873 

George W. Smith February 26, 1873 

John C. Wilson March 6, 1873 

Samuel B. Sutton March .31, 1873 

George O'Neill April 28, 1873 

Mark M. Kirby July 10, 1873 

Thomas Deakyne November 19, 1874 

James Springer December », 1874 

William H. Brady February 18, 1875 

John H. Puhl May 24, 1876 

Jamee M.Watson August 2, 1876 

James B. Naudain February 9, 1877 

William McKeowan March 3, 1877 

John C. Cole iJoveraber 21, 1877 

Joseph Kilgore February 15, 1878 

David G. Furey February 16, 1878 

George W. Townsend July 29, 1878 

Levi \. Bertolette October 17, 1878 

William L. Wier January 29, 1879 

Sylvester W. Clements February 18, 1879 

B. F. Herdman June 10, 1879 

Frank P. Ricliarisou Augusts, 1879 

J. W. Vandegrift February 26, 1880 

James C. Wilson March 6, 1880 

Albert N. Sutton March 17, 1880 

George O'Neill April 28, 1880 

William 8. Vandyke April 5, 1881 

John G. Jackson April 22, 1881 

Thomas Deakyne November 19, 1K81 

James Springer December 14, 1881 

James Nicholson March 7, 1882 

Henry A. Wlleon March 7, 1882 

James L. ValUindigham April 11, 1882 

C. C. Register May 25, 1882 

Joeeph C. White January 23, 1884 

William McKeowan March 3, 1884 

Julian B. Janvier February 11, 1886 

Jamee T. Smith February 18, 1886 

Levi A. Bertolette October 11, 1886 

Thomas Bratt n June 21, 1886 

William L. Wier June 21, 1886 

John Vesey November 11, 1886 

Frank E. Smith February 28, 1887 

A. N. Sutton March 23, 1887 

James Monaghan April 28, 1887 

Frederick Hagmeyer May 11, 1887 

NotarieB Ptibiic. 

Tboe. McKean (for New Castle and lower counties). July 10, 1766 

David Thompeon July 23. 1774 

Isaac Stevenson September 14, 1799 

Edward Roche April 18, 1800 

David Morrison April 6, 180« 

Evan Thomas May 1, 1806 

Samuel Barr „ August 8, 1808 

Joseph Bums ^September 20, 1810 

Isaac Hendrickson November 17, 1813 

Cornelius D. Blaney August 19, 1816 

Samuel Barr August 26, 181f 

David Paynter June 16, 1816 

John P. Fairlamb November 7, 1816 

Thomas McDowell March 10, 1819 

Frederick Leonard April 10, 1821 

James Sorden December 5, 1822 

Samuel Harker February 8, 1827 

LeaPusey July 2, 1831 

Jamee A. Sparks. January 3, 183S 

T. Booth Roberts March 6, 1836 

WlUUm McCaully May 21, 183« 

Thomas Deakyne March 28, 1837 

William Mendenball March 28, 1837 

Andrew Bradley April 3, 1837 

Jamee Fraaer June 24, 1837 

Lea Pueey July 4, 1837 

William McCaully July 4, 1837 

Thomas McDowell July 4, 1837 

Alexander Macbeth July 4, 1837 

Cornelius D. Blaney July 4, 1837 

John Janvier February 2, 1838 

Franklin W. Clements February 22, 1838 

Samuel Carpenter February 22, 1838 

William Streets September So, 1838 

Joseph M. Patten December 20, 1838 

James Fraser January 3, 1839 

John D. Bird February 22, 1889 

Jonas Pusey February 22, 1839 

Hyhind B. Penlngton, Jr March 8, 1840 

Abraham Egbert May 23, 1840 

Andrew P. Reading July 3, 1840 

James Huston a July 1, 1841 

PhiUp H. Jones August 4, 1841 

Samuel Carpenter August 11, 1841 

James Rlckards. August 11, 1841 

Stephen Boddy July 18, 1842 

Peregrine Hendrickson June 8, 1843 

Sheward Johnson February 7, 1844 

Enoch Gray February 14, 1814 

Richard Clement March 26, 1844 

Abraham Ponlson March 29. 1844 

Andrew Bradley „ April 6, 1844 

Thomas McDowell ^.July 4, 1844 

Cornelius D. Blaney July 4, 1844 

William McCauUey July lo, 1844 

O. K. Bassett July 18, 1844 

Jonas P. Fairlamb January 9, 1846 

Abraham Egbert. .January 2o, 1845 

Franklin W. ClemenU February 22, 1846 

Abraham Staats March 7, 1846 

Joeeph M. Patten December 22, 1846 

Joshua E. Diven December 26, 1846 

Jonas Pusey March 17, 1846 

Thomas Fennimore September 15, 1846 

Israel Townsend January 15, 1847 

George B. Riddle February 20, 1847 

William Rnnyon February 20, 1847 

John Bradford March 16, 1847 

Thomas Lamplugh March 17, 1847 

Henry L. Packard August 19, 1847 

S. 8. McCauley November 6, 1847 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



John Hedge „ November 6, 1847 

Andrews Naadain November 25, 1847 

Katthew Mackllo January 16,1848 

Albert W. Smith April 6, 1848 

John Whann June 6, 1848 

Max a Ocheltree June 24, 1848 

Jamei Huston July 8, 1848 

William H. Jones „ July 26, 1848 

Jacob P. Byrnes ^ July 28, 1848 

Thomas Oyde July 28,1848 

Jsmet R. Towns September 6,1848 

John D. Dilwortb January 18, 1849 

John G. Jackson February % 1849 

Williams. Allmond February 3, 1849 

Fiedoi Pennington February 10, 1849 

William S. Hagany February 16, 1849 

Samuel Jalfenon ^ ^February 17, 1849 

A. F. Wickersham April 13, 1849 

Peter Oountias July 21, 1849 

Henry Davis September 4, 1849 

Thoinas M. Ogle ■. December 10, 1849 

William B. Wiggins. February 23, 1860 

William J. J. Purcell May 11, 1860 

Peter B. Yandever May 26, 1850 

baac P. Walker December 24, 1860 

WflllamW. Ferris January 29,1861 

John fl. Frick July 17, 1861 

John D. Bird March 10, 1861 

Charles Kimmey November 18, 1863 

JohnN. Zelefro April 18, 1854 

William McCaullcy „ March 12,1856 

John T. Robinson March 12, 1866 

Albert W. Smith April 6, 1866 

George W. Tpwnsend Aprils, 1866 

Joseph C. Spear November 26^ 1865 

Kobert Bayne December 3, 1866 

Mark M. Cleaver January 12, 1866 

John 0. Jackson - February 6, 1856 

William 8. Hagany February 16, 1856 

John D. Bird April 23,1866 

Ivan Price May 9, 1856 

Wfltiam H. Thompson May 9, 1866 

Thomas McDowell August 29, 1856 

Abraham Poulson August 30, 1866 

Idfflund D. aeaver October 17, 1866 

AbnUiam Staats Novembers, 1866 

WUliamB. Wiggins February 24, 1856 

J.J. Purcell May 16, 1857 

Peter B. Yandever June 29, 1857 

A. 0. Bobinaon November 4, 1867 

MoaesMcHenry February 27, 1858 

John McLear May 12, 1868 

Joseph W. Day August 4, 1858 

Henry Davis February 16,1869 

Jamee H. Ray „ February 18, 1859 

GeofgeR. Riddle March 9, 1869 

Daniel Farra, Jr March 9, 1859 

Jamea Montgomery „ March 9, 1869 

Jea»L. Floyd April 9, 1800 

John Z. Crouch April 13, 1860 

Thomas Toang March 27, 1862 

Albert W. Smith April 8, 1862 

JohoF. Robinson April 9, 1862 

GwHge W. Townsend May 10, 1862 

Matthew Macklln November 19, 1862 

George P. MiUer November 28, 1862 

Jacob B. Yandever ..- November 26, 1862 

JohaC. Crosby Januarys, 18«3 

John R. Hall January 16, 1863 

O«orge B. Dickson January 17, 1863 

Mack M. Cleaver January 23, 1863 

^niamB. Records, January 23, 1863 

WHIIamP. Yeach January 23, 1863 

John R. FUnn January 23, 1863 

Praodi Mclntire January 23, 1863 

Joaeph C. Spear , June 5, 1863 

Ahfaham Staata November 6, 1863 

J. 0. Jackson ^ March 12, 1864 

Thomas Lockwood March 14, 1864 

flMiuelOnthrie March 24, 1864 

William J. J. Purcell May 16, 1864 

Jowph L. Gibson May 27, 1864 

Joa?ph C. Spear. July 2, 1864 

William W. Ferris August 18, 1864 

Saanel W. McCaulley October 18, 1864 

Aqafll»0. Robinson November 4, 1864 

Peter R. Smith November 10, 1864 

WAardH.Bwbanks January 9, 1865 

fa«P. Walker January 13, 1865 

Peter B. Yandeveer March 18, 1866 

George R. Riddle November 1, 1866 

Ignatius C. Grubb November 2,1866 

Jamee H. Bay March 2, 1866 

Peter B. Yandeveer March 2, 1866 

Issachar H. Kldridge March 7, 1866 

Richard H. Kwbanks March 7, 1866 

Daniel Green March 12, 1866 

George W. Bright March 16, 1866 

Daniel Farra March 16, 1886 

Samuel R. Sutton March 20, 1866 

Eugene L. Ellison June 20, 1866 

George W. Llndaey August 27, 1866 

Henry Davis August 28, 1866 

James B. Olarkson January 16, 1867 

William W. Torbert ^ April 23, 1867 

James B. Gibson January 16, 1867 

Edward Reynolds January 31, 1867 

William W. Torbert April 23, 1867 

Joseph G. Brown „ June 12, 1867 

Philip Marvel ^ ~. August 8, 1867 

B. P. Rumford January 9, 1868 

George Neil Jannary 9, 1868 

William McDaniel April 29, 1868 

George P. Miller August 5, 1868 

William F. Lane September 30, 1868 

Thomas Young - March 29,1869 

Albert W. Smith April 9, 1869 

Robert M. Black J^pril 22, 1869 

JoeUh RIdgeway April 22, 1869 

John A. Reynolds April 23, 1869 

John H. Puhl June 15, 1869 

Jamee M. Watson August 2, 1869 

Francis Mclntire February 7, 1870 

William McKeowan February 22, 1870 

John Aiken April 30, 1870 

Joseph M. Barr « July 20, 1870 

Edmund B. Frazer November21, 1870 

Abraham H. Pennington ..January 18, 1871 

Joeepb L. Kilgore February 15, 1871 

Jamee M. Houseman „ March 28, 1871 

Walter Mitchell « Auguat 7, 1871 

George W. WUlIams • October 3, 1871 

James McCabe November 1, 1871 

Peter T. K. Smith Novemberll, 1871 

Peter B. Yandeveer „ „ March 25, 1872 

Ignatius C. Grubb November 2, 1872 

George W. Smith - February 26, 1873 

John C. Wilson March 6, 1873 

Daniel Green March 18, 1873 

Richard H. Ewbanks March 13, 1873 

George W. Bright March 18, 1878 

Daniel Farra March 19, 1873 

Samuel B. Sutton ..March 31, 1873 

Edmund D. Cleaver • April 18,1873 

Mark M. Kirby July 10, 1873 

D. Taylor Bradford „ Decembers, 1873 

HeAry Baird December 11, 1873 

James B. Qarkson January 17, 1874 

William W. Torbert April 11, 1874 

Joseph Roberts April 25, 1874 

Joseph G. Brown June 15, 1874 

James A. Plunkett a July 28, 1874 

John 8. Crouch January 1, 1876 

Jamee Springer January 5, 1876 

H. P. Rumford January 9, 1876 

George O'NeUl January 14, 1876 

Henry R. Dupont January 20, 1876 

WiUiam H. Brady February 18, 1875 

Thomas R. Lally April 1, 1875 

George 8. Hagany April 10, 1875 

William F. Lane September 30, 1876 

Thomas E. Young October?, 1875 

JohnH. Danby January 24, 1876 

Hanson Harmon April 10, 1876 

John A. Reynolds April 24, 1876 

John H. Pnhl June 16, 1876 

James M. Watson / August 2, 1876 

William McKeowan February 20, 1877 

William L. Wier Apnl 12, 1877 

John C. Cole November 21, 1877 

Joseph Kilgore February 16, 1878 

James M. Houseman March 28, 1878 

George W. Tuwnsend July 29, 1878 

George W. WillUms Octobers, 1878 

Levi A. Bertolette « October 17, 1878 

Peter T. E. Smith November 11, 1878 

J. Ernest Smith March 5, 1879 

Peter B. Yandever March 20, 1879 

Digitized by 




James C. Wilson March 6,1880 

Daniel Green March 13, 1880 

Albert N. Sntton ^ ..March 17, 1880 

George W. Bright March 18, 1880 

JoMph W. Vandegrift March 23,1880 

Daniel Farra .*. May 4, 1880 

Edmund D. Cleaver Awgurt 17, 1880 

Henry J. Crippen Norember 26, 1880 

Darid T. Bradfoni Dwiember, 1880 

Henry Baird « December II, 1880 

John G. Jackson April 22, 1881 

Joseph Boberta April 29, 1881 

H. R. Pennington August 18, 1881 

Edward J. Taylor November 24, 1881 

William H. Lee November 28, 1881 

John 8. Crouch January 2, 1882 

Jamee H. Springer January 6, 1882 

Henry P. Rnroford January 14, 1882 

William H. Brady March 1, 1882 

Henry A. Wilson March?, 1882 

James H. Ray s April 1, 1882 

Thomas R. Lally April 1, 1882 

Thomas E. Young September 80, 1882 

William Lane October 7, 1882 

John H. Danby January 22, 1883 

William N. Wilson May 7, 1883 

T. F. Armstrong June 23,1883 

William A. Comegys August 30, 1883 

William McKeowan ^.February 26, 1884 

Joseph G. Brown March 31, 1884 

Leonldas Darlington July 16, 1884 

John C. Cole ^ November 21, 1884 

8. M. Donnell December27, 1884 

Lloyd Chamberlain January 7, 1886 

Sewell Green ^ February 13, 1886 

W. J. Ellison .„ April 17, 1886 

J. Austin Ellison September 23, 1886 

Edward W. Smith « October 1, 1886 

George W. Williams Octobers, 1886 

Levi A. Bartolette October 17, 1886 

Frank Chandler October 17, 1886 

Henry P. Ruroford November 11, 1886 

Peter T. E. Smith November 11, 1886 

James T. Smith Januarys, 1886 

Thomas Bratton June 21, 1886 

Thomas Glffln August 27, 1886 

J. Jackson Pierce October 16, 1886 

Daniel Green March 14, 1887 

George W. Bright March 21, 1887 

Jamse B. Clarkeon March 23,1887 

Frank E. Smith ^ March 23, 1887 

Frederick Hagmeyer May 11, 1887 

D&niel Farra May 19, 1887 

Caleb M. Sbeward August 13, 1887 

Edmund D. Cleaver August 18, 18«7 

Frank D. Carpenter 1888 

James Monaghan ^ 1888 

Henry J. Crippen 1888 

Thomas F. Hmnlon 1888 

Ijevy Court and Commissioners, — ^Tbe act establish- 
ing Levy Courts was passed in 1736, under George IL 
Section 3 provided "That the Justices of the 
Peace of the respective Counties within the Govern- 
ment, or any three of them, at their respective county 
shall meet yearly and every year for the laying of 
levies, together with eight grand jurymen, . . . and 
the assessors or the majority of them shall meet 
at the Court-House or Houses within the said coun- 
ties, . . . and then and there proceed to calcu- 
late and settle the public debts and charges of the 
respective counties, and shall settle and adjust the 
sums of money which ought of necessity to be re- 
ceived yearly to defray the charges of building and 
repairing Court-Houses, prisons, workhouses, for de- 
stroying wolves, crows and blackbirds, with such 
other uses as may redound to the public service, and 
with power to make good deficiencies and to collect 
and enforce collections.*' 

In 1757 a supplement to this act was passed author- 
izing the Levy Court to appoint county treasurezs. 

On the 14th of June, 1793, the act was amended, 
which provided tbat the Levy Court and Court of 
Appeals should be composed of commissioners to be 
elected by the people — eleven for New Castle County : 
two from each hundred of Christiana and Appoquin- 
imink, and one each from the other hundreds. 
Nine from Kent County: two from Duck Creek 
and Mispillion Hundreds, three from Murderkill, 
and one each from the hundreds of Little Creek and 
St. Jones. Ten for Sussex County : one for each of 
the hundreds. 

An amendment, February 9, 1796, provides that 
the Court of Appeals shall receive the returns of valu- 
ation of assessors and remedy complaints, and stipu- 
lates that every freemen over twenty-one years of age 
should be rated, in addition to his amount, a personal 
tax for capital, not exceeding two hundred pounds 
nor less than fifty pounds. 

An amendment passed on January 19, 1797, provides, 
in addition to these powers, authority to raise money to 
maintain the poor of each county in their poor-houses, 
for laying out, repairing, amending, supporting and 
erecting bridges, causeways. State and other public 
roads and common highways. 

The first meeting of the Levy Court composed of 
commissioners, as at present, was held November 26, 
1793, at which the following persons were present : 

James McCuUoogh New Castle Hundred 

Isaac Starr Christiana 

Peter Bryuberg Christiana 

Andrew Gibson Brandywine 

Alexander Reynolds Mill Creek 

Joel Lewis White Gay Cieek 

Jacob Ferriss Pencader 

George Monro Red Lion 

Alexander Stewart St. George's 

Arnold Naudain Appoquinimink 

Chartee Pope Appoquinimink 

The following record is given as gleaned from the 
Levy Court records, and is somewhat imperfect, es- 
cially in the early records : 

1794.-^amse Thomas. Archibald McMurphy. 

1795.— Joseph England, Levi Adams. 

1706.— Patrick O'Flynn. Joseph Pieroe. 

1797.-John CUrk, WiUhun Poole, William Cooch, George Qark, 
James Haughey. 

1799.— Moses McKnight, William WlUiams. 

1800.— James Riddle, John Garrett, Jr., Adam Williamson, Isaac 

1801.— Thomas Mendenhall, Moses McKnlght, Joel Lewis, John Van- 
hickle, William Cooch. John V. Hyatt, William Williams. 

18U2.— Robert Philips, Arnold S. Naudain, John Y. Johnson, Robert 

1803.— James Riddle, Thomas McClintock, John Brynberg, Ckleb Way, 
Jacob Faris. 

1804.— Joel Lewis, George Clark, Jacob Faris, Francis Haughey, 
Thomas Montgomery. 

1805.— John R. Philips, Dr. David Stewart 

1806.— .Tames Riddle, John Brynberg, John Warner, Samuel Matler. 

1807.— John Harlan, Thomas Philips, Morgan Jones, Anthony Hlg- 
gins, John McClintock. 

1808.— James Reynolds, Jamee Crawford, John Bryuberg, George 

1809.— John Mcaintock, James Stuart, John Harhiii, Anthony Hig- 
gins, Jacob Vandegrift^ James Crawford. 

1811.— William Phillips, James Crawford, John Lockerman. 

1812.-^ohn Dixon, Charles Tatum. 

1813.— William W. Haslet, George Gillespie, Morgan Jones, Jacob 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1814.— A. M. Force, Dr. Wm. Johnson, Arnold S. Naudain, John 


1815.— JamM Riddle, John Brynberg, John Torbert, Peter Hansen, 
William amith, Jacob Vandegrlft, William Johnson, John Tweed, 
George Oilleepie, Arnold S. Naudain, Morgan Jones, James Glasgow. 

1816.— James Thompson, Joseph Roth well, Alexander Reynolds, Jonas 

1817.— William Weldon, Thomas Reynolds, John Warner, Hugh W. 
Ritchie, CSomelius D. Blaney. 

1818.- Victor Da Pent, Thomas Mendenhall, Anthony Hlggins, 
WUUam Weldon, Jr., Jacob Farls, John Merritt, Joseph W. Oochran. 

1819.— William Seal, John Tweed, Thomas Baldwin. 

1822.- William H. Crawford, William Ferries, BeiUamm Watson, 
BeiUamin BouUen, David Penny, BeiUamin Morley. 

1823.— Amos Saunders, John Riddle. 

1824.— John O. Philips, James Chambers, Charles I. Du Pont, Alex- 
aader Crawford, Henry Steel, John Torbert. 

1825.— Philip Reybold, John Herdman, John Janvier, Jr., Justa 

18S8.— John Moody, Cornelius D. Blaney, Joseph W. Day, Robert 
Pwter, Bei\|amln Morley, James Chambers, John C- Philips, Robert 

1827.— Jacob Faris, Elihu Jefferson, Jesse Boulden, Andrew P. Read- 
ing, Philip R*-ybold. George Springer, Peter B. Dulany, Joseph W. Day, 
John Herdman, William Weldon (2d). 

1828.-John a Corbit, Jesse Boulden, SUhu Jefferson, Andrew P. 

1829.— Thomas Vandeveer, John Gordon, James Delaplaln, Peter B. 
Dokqy, John C. CorUt. 

183a— Eli Biddle, John C CUrk, Nathaniel S, Darid, George Piatt. 

mi.^James GUBn, John Mathews, William H. Roberts, George Piatt, 
Ssthaniel David, John C. Clark, Eli Biddle, William BL Roberts. 

1831— William H. Booth, John ElUot. James GIffln. 

1833.— Robert Ocbeltree, James Delaplaln. Jesse Boulden. 

1834.— John Gorden, £If Biddle, James Oiflin, William H. Roberts. 

1835.-JnsU Jnstis, Elihu Jefferson. Thomas Marim, David W. 
Tbooiss, Christopher Vandegrift, Robert Ocheltree, Nathaniel Wolfe, 
ham J. Brindl^, Jacob Hooten, David Justis, Joseph Hoasinger. John 
D. TonMr, WUllam Thompson, William Hemphill Jones. 

1839.- WilliRm R. Sellers, James Thompson, John Whann, Je«e 
BtrnUen, Robert Ocbeltree, John P. Cochran, David W. Thomas, James 

1841.— Enoch Gray, John Rice, Robert P. Robinson, David W. Gem- 
nm, Jaeob Faria, Stephen W. Stapler. 

1812.— Benjamin Dnncan. 

1843.— Samuel P. Dixon, Ho^tard Ogle, Charles C. Bigger, John P. 
Cochran, Jamm Y. Moore, Aniey Lore. 

1845.- Amos Chandler, John Rice, Robert P. Robinson, David W. 
Gemmill, John McCracken. 

1847.— Bothwell Wilson, L*»vi B. Moore, Ashbury D. Penlngton, 
George W. Kaisner, Thomas Scott, George Deakyne. 

1849.- Amor Chandler, Thomas C. Bradley, David W. GemmlU, 
8»«oel (knby, John W. Turner. 

1851.— John Foote, Robert Hawthorn, Charles C. Bigger, Richard W. 
Cochran, Thomas Middleton, Nathaniel Williams. 

185S.— Isuc S. Elliot, Jr., WUliam Graves, Joseph G. Hendrickson, 
John Smith, George Boulden. 

1855.-Ben|amio Garrett, Andrew Kerr, William D. Clark, James 
Pttgne. Thomas Scott, Jacob Staats. 

186«.-WIllUm D. Clark. 

1857.- James A. B. Smith, EU Todd, Joseph O. Hendrickson, John 
Smith. George Boulden. 

1858.— James Amor. 

Ii459.-Spencer Chandler, William McClelland, William D. Clark, 
Svick F. ShalkrosB, Levi W. Lattomus, Jacob Staats. 

ISRl.^John W. Hawklms Gilpin P. Stidham, William W. Stewart, 
Uwia K. Penlngton, Lewis Zebly. 

18S3.— Lamont S. Dixon, William L. Deakyne, Abraham Ingram, 
telck F. ShallcrosB. William D. Oark. 

1866.— Bronough M. Derringer, John W. Hawkins, A. Hollingsworth, 
8ylv«ster D. Townsend, Lewis Zebley. 

18C7.-John P. Bellville, Samuel M. Enos, Jonathan S. Hand, Abra- 
ham Ingram, William Mcaelland, Robert Walker. 

1889.- Andrew H. Fisher, Robert D. Hicks, Milton Lackey, David M. 
PHr«,JuM0A.B. Smith. 

1871.- WiUUm R. Bright, Alexander Deakyne, David Groves, Levi 
Bath.Serick F. Shallcross, William N. Wilson. 

1873.— Christian Febiger, Ferdinand Janvier, Amos Sharpless, George 
Jsckioo, Samuel H. Derrick. 

1875.-WIUlam R. Bright, George Medill, William Polk, Samuel 
«ob«tB, WiUiun L. Weir. 

1877.-Jara«s Carawell, Adolphus Husbands, William P. Lodge, Albert 
H. SUver, Alexander Wllwn. 

1879.-Wflllam A. Morrison, James T. Taylor, William R. Bright, 
wllhun L. Weir. William Polk, Henry H. Wells. 

I881.-Samnel SUver, H«>nry C. MahaffV, Amos Sharpless, L. F. Elli- 
son, CbristlaD Febiger. 

U«.-Bdmnnd Haman, George C. Roth well, James H. Mackey, John 

. Chesin, James T. Ts^lor, Serick F. Shalkrtw. 

1885.— Henry D. Hickman, Thomas W. McCracken, Robert R. Morri- 
son, Thomas Toy, Isaac N. Grubb. 

1887.— Serick F. Shallcroas, George C. Rothwell, William L. Wetr, 
Joseph Roberts, Samuel J. McCall, Howard H. Jordan. 

Treasurers. — ^The treasurers of the county have 
been elected by the Levy Court at the February term 
in each year until the recent change, which fixed the 
meeting in March. 

Richard McWilliams, November 


John Hyatt 1785 

James McCalmont, November, 


Caleb P. Bennett 1807 

George Houston..February 8, 1833 

Ziba Ferris 1841 

Washington Russell 1843 

Andrew P. Reading 1846 

Bei^amin Whitman 1847 

Edward Williams 1849 

Dr. James N. Sutton 1861 

Thomas I. Moore 1863 

Henry Rowan 1866 

James Delaplaine 1867 

Thomas Scott 1869 

Mark M. Cleaver 1861 

J. B. Clarkson 1869 

Gassaway Watkins 1871 

Mark M. Cleaver 1873 

Gassaway Watkins 1874 

William Herbert 1876 

Edmund Haman 1887 



Wilmington, the metropolitan city of Delaware, is 
situated in New Castle County, on the Delaware River 
and on the Brandywine and Christiana Creeks, which 
unite half a mile from the river. It is twenty-eight 
miles southwest of Philadelphia and seventy miles 
east- northeast of Baltimore. It is on the extension of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the main line of the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Division ot 
the Pennsylvania Railroad ; is the northern terminus 
of the peninsular system of which the Delaware 
Railroad forms the backbone, and is the connecting 
point of the Wilmington and Northern Railroad and 
the Delaware Western Railroad. By the river it 
has daily steamer communication with Philadelphia. 
It is on latitude 39° 4r north and longitude 75° 28' 
west of Greenwich. It is built on three slopes of a 
hill, the summit of which is two hundred and forty feet 
above the tide-level and commands an extensive view ot 
the Delaware and the city itself. The city is well built, 
mostly of brick, stone and iron, and its streets are 
wide and straight. Those parallel to the Christiana 
are Water, Front, Second, Third and thence in num- 
erical order up to Twenty-tighth Street, beyond the 
Brandywine. These are intersected at right angles by 
Market Street, the principal business thoroughfare, 
which extends the wholc^ length of the city and is 
over two miles long, including the bridges over 
Brandywine and Christiana Creeks. The streets par- 
allel with Market are designated by proper names, 
such as King, Shipley, French, etc. The streets, 
stores and residences are lighted with gas and elec- 

1 The history of Wilmington Is to so large an extent the history of the 
State that many of the prominent events In the foundation and growth 
of the town are narrated In the first volume of the " History of Dela- 
ware," to which the reader is referred. It includes incidents connected 
with the early settlement out of which Wilmington grew, the events 
which occurred during the Revolution, the War of 1812 and the Civil 
War and the general political annals up to the present time, that belong 
to the State as much as to Wilmington. 

Digitized by 




tricity and supplied with water from the Brandy wine, 
and efficient Fire and Police Departments are main- 

The origin of the city is to be found in the building 
of Fort Christina by the Swedish pioneers in 1638. 
Its site was within the present limits of Wilmington, 
on the south side of the creek, near "The Rocks " and 
in the vicinity of Old Swedes' Church. Around this 
fort, according to Grovemor Rising, fifteen or twenty 
houses were clustered when the Dutch captured the 
position in 1655. By them the name was changed to 
Fort Altena and a little town laid out west of the 
fort under the direction of (Governor Beekman, which 
was called Christinaham, and in 1661 lots were granted 
to settlers, among whom were John ( Anderson ) Stall- 
cop, Jacob Vanderveer, Paules Jansen, Peter Meyer, 
Thomas Bruyn, Jan Jansen and Tymen Stidham. 
The lots were adjoining the fort and were thirty feet 
in breadth ; double lots, sixty feet. The fort, which 
was nearly destroyed in the Dutch assault in 1655, 
was in 1658 repaired and eight thousand brick were 
brought from Fort Orange (Albany, N. Y.) for that 
purpose, and a few men placed in charge. Christina- 
ham at that time was next in importance to New Cas- 
tle, at which place Vice-Director Beekman resided 
most of the time from 1658 to 1663, although New 
Castle belonged to the city of Amsterdam and Chris- 
tinaham to the Dutch West India Company. In 1664 
Fort Altena was captured by the English and permit- 
ted to go to ruin. The town of Christinaham ceased 
to exist from that time and is not later mentioned. 

In 1669 Robert Jones was granted the right to es- 
tablish a ferry near the site of the old fort, to which 
a road led from the Falls of Brandywine, where 
was a fording-place (now at the foot of Adams 
Street). At Crane Hook, on the Delaware River, 
south of Christiana Creek, a church was built by 
the Swedes about 1665, the most of the Swedish 
settlers then residing at Swanwyck, north of New 
Castle, Crane Hook and Vertrecht Hook (the present 
Edgemoor ), and on the " Boght," a tract of land north 
of the latter place. Here the Swedes worshipped 
until 1698, when the present old Swedes' Church was 
built, and a burial-place established around it. No 
settlement, however, grew up, and Old Swedes re- 
mained a parish church, practically isolated until 
within the past forty years, when the locality became a 
part of the city. 

From the abandonment of the town of Christina- 
ham, about 1664, until 1731 no attempt was made to 
found a settlement or lay out a town on the river 
north of New Castle, within the limits of Delaware, 
and the territory now embraced in Wilmington was 
mostly in five large tracts that about 1671 came into 
possession of John (Anderson) Stallcop, Dr. Tyman 
Stidham, Jacob Vanderveer, Jean Paul Jacquett and 
Peter Alrich, who were all residents under the Dutch, 
either at New Amstel (New Castle) or at Fort Altena. 
Jacob Vanderveer, from whom the Vandevers in 
that vicinity descended, came to this locality in 1658, 

and was a sergeant under the Dutch for about a year, 
when he left the army and for several years com- 
manded a vessel which traded along the coast. He 
then settled on a large tract of land north of the 
Brandywine, and erected a house on the site of 
Pickel's foundry, near which the family resided 
until within the past fifty years. 

Dr. Tyman Stidham, a Swede, was a physician and 
surgeon, who came to this country with Gov. Risin^r 
in 1654, resided at New Amstel in 1658, and later took 
up lands, for which he received a patent May 23, 
1671. Rattlesnake Run was its eastern boundary. 
Peter Alrich, who was active in the government of 
the colony from 1656 to 1682, both under the Dutch 
and English, was in possession of the lands on the 
Delaware on the south side of the Christiana. 

Jean Paul Jacquett, who was Vice-Director in 
1655-56, was the owner of " Long Hook," a property on 
the Christiana, opposite the old town of Wilmington, 
which embraced a tract at the foot of Market Street, 
east and west. The territory on which the old town 
stood, and the present business part of Wilmington now 
stands, is the tract of eight hundred acres granted to 
John (Anderson) Stallcop in 1671. It was bounded 
on the north by Stidham 's land ; on the west by Rat- 
tlesnake Run and a line of marked trees ; on the south 
by the Christiana and the meadows, and extended 

On April 16, 1675, Stallcop, by an article of agree- 
ment, conveyed the one undivided half of the greater 
part of his estate to Samuel Peterson and Lars Cor- 
nelison. The latter sold his interest to Justa Ander- 
son, by whom later it was assigned respectively to 
Mathias Defoss and Charles Pickering. In April, 
1686, Thomas Pierson, a surveyor under the govern- 
ment, was employed to survey the property and 
make a division of the estate. The tract assigned in 
the division to Samuel Peterson, who still held under 
the conveyance of April, 1675, was bounded, as 
described by a later survey, as follows: Begin- 
ning at a thorn-bush standing in the middle of 
French Street and on a line with the south side 
of Water Street; from thence the eastern boun- 
dary line passed up the middle of French Street to a 
point about two rods above the upper side of Third 
Street ; thence by a line running in a northwest- 
ward direction diagonally across the square at 
Fourth and Market to the east end of " Love Lane," 
and following the lane to a stake near Rattlesnake 
Run, a distance of four hundred and forty-four rods 
from place of beginning. From the run the boundary 
line extended in a southwesterly direction fifty rods 
to a stake, and from thence to the mouth of a small 

1 Very little Is known of the early history of John Anderson. There 
was a tradition among the early settlers that he came from Holland, as 
a cook on board a vessel. On the voyage he wore a woolen cap which 
he used in place of a towel. It thos became very much soiled, greasy 
and glossy. For this reason the sailors nick*named him StAelkappe, after- 
wards spelled Stallcop. To the deeds which he executed he signed bis 
name Johan Anderson. In deeds of conveyance from his descendants, 
he is called John Anderson Stallcop. There is no evidence that the 
name Anderson was retained by any of his posterity, all taking the name 
Stallcop. He left four sons,— Andrew, Charles, John and Peter. 

Digitized by 




rivaJet which then flowed into the Christiana below 
the corner of Front and West Streets. 

The tract of Charles Pickering, according to the 
survey of 1686, had the following boundary lines : 
Spinning at a Spanish-oak tree standing in what is 
now Poplar Street, five rods below Seventh, within 
six feet of a spring; from this point the line ex- 
tended in a northwest direction foor hundred and 
sixty rods, nearly one and a half miles to a white-oak 
tree near Rattlesnake Run ; thence in a southwest- 
erly direction seventy-four rods to a comer of Peter- 
son's land ; thence by the line of Peterson's land to 
French Street near Third, and down French to the 
thorn bush mentioned above ; thence by shore of the 
Christiana to the mouth of Stallcop's Run and along 
the run to the oak where the survey began. 

John Anderson died before 1686, and the remain- 
der of his land was divided between his widow, 
Christiana, and his eldest son, Andrew. The widow 
rscdved the land lying east of Stallcop's Run and 
Dcnth of Pickering's tract. It was bounded by Tymen 
Stidham's land on the north, by a line near Rattle- 
snake Run on the west, and by the Christiana on the 
•oath. The eastern limit was near the old church- 
jtrd. Andrew Anderson's portion lay to the south- 
west of Peterson's tract 

The tract of land that Charles Pickering owned 
tfterwarda became the property of the Swedish con- 
gregation. In 1736, by an indenture under the sig- 
natures of John Enelberg, the pastor, Charles 
Springer, Jacob Stilly and Garret Garrison, church 
wardens, and Philip Vandevere and Mouns Justice, 
vestiymeDy Charlee Springer became their trustee, 
who, with Jacob Stilly and Giurret Garrison and their 
snccesBOfs, were granted power to '''lease and demise 
for a term of years or forever, in small lots, any part 
of said church lands." These lands are now occu- 
pied by the central part of Wilmington. 

Samuel Peterson, by his will dated November 20, 
1669, devised to his son who should live longest with 
the mother, all his real estate. By this novel bequest 
it came to his son Peter, who owned it during his 
life. By his will, January 29, 1714, he bequeathed 
it to his son, Peter Peterson, who, on the 8th of May, 
1727, conveyed to Andrew Justison ** all that part of 
the plantation lying on the Christiana, extending 
from the foot of French Street to the mouth of a 
rivulet at Front and West Streets, and north and 
west according to the lines above described." Thomas 
Willing, in 1728, married Catharine, daughter of 
Andrew Justison. 

September 26, 1731, his father-in-law deeded him 
part of the land lying between what is now West and 
French Streets. The part lying between French and 
3farket was then the most eligible ; and, as nearly 
as can be ascertained, in October, 1731, Thomas 
Willing laid out this tract into lots and then began 
the village of Willingtown, from which Wilmington 
really grew. The first house known to have been 
erected on the plan for a town made by Willing, 

stood at the northwest corner of Market and Front 
Streets. It was built of brick and bore the date 
1732 and the initials I. W. S. cut in a marble tablet 
placed in the gable wall. This building stood eight 
feet out from the present western line of Market 
Street. It was torn down in 1825 by Eli Sharpe, who 
kept tavern in it for many years, as did others be- 
fore him. 

In July, 1732, Joseph Way bought a lot in Wil- 
lingtown for ten pounds. On the same day, Dr. 
James Milner bought two lots at the intersection of 
Front and Market Streets for ten pounds, and Charles 
Empson one lot for fifteen pounds. In 1734, 
Samuel Kirk, store-keeper, purchased a lot sixty 
by ninety feet at the west end of Market Square 
for fifteen pounds. A few other purchases were 
made about the same time. In 1735 there were 
about ^wenty houses in the village. In that year, 
William Shipley, of Ridley, Pennsylvania, at the 
suggestion of his wife, who had previously travel- 
ed through the town, came to it on a visit of 
inquiry. On May 20, 1735, he purchased a lot of 
Samuel Kirk and his wife Margaret, at the southeast 
corner of Market and Second Streets. The lot was 
described as being on Market Square. On August 9, 
1735, William Shipley bought of Andrew Justison 
and Thomas Willing eight acres for one hundred 
and four pounds, all lying between Market and West 
Streets above Second, and below Fifth Street. At the 
same time he bought of Charles Empson one acre 
and four rods for forty pounds. He also bought 
some of the church land. 

It may be said of William Shipley that he was the 
virtual founder of the town of Wilmington, by his 
purchases and investments. He was born in Leice»- 
tershire, England, in 1693, and married Mary Ann 
Tatnall, daughter of Robert and Mary Ann Tatnall, 
and had three children — Thomas, Ann and Elizabeth. 
Eariy in 1725 he came from England to Philadel- 
phia and settled at Ridley, Pennsylvania. His wife 
died soon after his arrival in America, and he mar- 
ried Elizabeth Lewis, of Springfield, Pa. She was a 
preacher in the Society of Friends, an intelligent 
woman and very influential amoDg her people. A 
very curious and well authenticated story is told ot 
the coming of herself and her husband to Delaware. 
While they were living at Ridley, Pa., in 1730, she 
had a dream which the next day she ^elated to 
her husband. In it she was traveling on horseback, 
along a high road, and after a time she came to a 
wild and turbulent stream, which she forded with 
difficulty ; beyond this stream she mounted a long 
and steep hill-side ; when she arrived at this summit 
a great view of surpassing beauty spread out before 
her. The hill whereon she stood melted away in the 
distance into a broad savannah, treeless and covered 
with luxuriant grass. On either side of the hill ran 
a stream — upon one the wild water-course which she 
had just crossed ; upon the other, a snake-like river 
that wound sluggishly along in the sunlight. Then 

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for the first time ihe saw that a guide accompanied 
her, and she spoke to him. 

'^ Friend, what country is this that thou hast taken 
me to?" 

" Elizabeth Shipley," answered he, " beneath thee 
lieth a new land and a fruitful, and it is the design 
of Divine Providence that thou shouldst enter in 
thereto, thou and thy people, and ye shall be enrich- 
ed even unto the seventh generation. Therefore, 
leave the place where now thou dwellest, and enter 
into and take possession of this land, even as the 
children of Israel took possession of the land of 
Canaan." He finished speaking, and as she turned 
to look, he vanished, and she awoke. 

William Shipley bade his wife think no more of 
her dreams, for if one pulls up blue beans after they 
have sprouted, one's pot is like to go empty. So, 
meeting with no encouragement, after some days the 


sharpness of her dream became dulled against the 
hard things of every-day life. 

A year passed, and Elizabeth received a Divine 
call to go and preach at a meeting of the Society of 
Friends held in that peninsula that lies between the 
Delaware and Chesapeake Bays. It was in the spring- 
time, when the meadows were clad with bright 
green, when the woodlands were soft with tender 
leaves unfolding timidly in the generous warmth of 
the sun, when the birds sang, when the cocks crowed 
lustily, when the wren chattered under the eaves, 
and all the air was burdened with the sweetness of 
the apple blossoms, among which the bees swarmed 
with drowsy hum. So she set forth on her journey, 
jogging southward along the old King's road. She 
passed many streams of sweet water untainted with 
lime, where the little fish darted here and there as 
her old gray farm horse went splashing across their 
pebbly reaches. After a journey of sixteen'or eigh- 

teen miles she came to a roaring stream that cut 
through tree-covered highlands, and came raging 
and rushing down over great rocks and boulders. 
The cawing of crows in the woods, and a solitary 
eagle that went sailing through the air, was all the 
life that broke the solitude of the place. As she 
hesitated on the bank before entering the rough- 
looking ford, marked at each end by a sapling pole 
to which a red rag was fastened, the whole scene 
seemed strangely familiar to her. After she had 
crossed the stream she began ascending a hill up 
which the highway led, that feeling strong upon her 
which one has at times of having lived through such 
a scene before. At the top of the hill she came to 
a clearing in the forest where an old Swede had built 
him a hut, and begun to till the land. Here the 
woods unfolded like a curtain, and beneath her she 
saw the hill melt away into level meadows that 
spread far to a great river sparkling in the 
sunlight away in the distance. Upon one 
hand ran a sluggish river curving through 
the meadows ; on the other, the brawling 
stream she had just crossed. She sat in 
silence looking at the scene, while the little 
barefoot Swedish children gathered at the 
door of the hut, looking with blue-eyed 
wonder at the stranger ; then clasping her 
hands she cried aloud, " Behold, it is the 
land of my vision, and here will I pitch 
my tent I" 

Such is the story told by Howard Pyle, 
the author and artist, regarding the re- 
moval of William and Elizabeth Shipley to 
Wilmington. In 1735 Mr. Shipley built a 
large tliree-story brick house at the south- 
west corner of Fourth and Shipley Streets. 
It was then doubtless the largest building 
within the present limits of Delaware. In 
this house he lived until his death, in 1768, 
at the age of seventy-six years. It was 
owned for many years by Henry Latimer* 
president of the Bank of Delaware, and was subse- 
quently sold to Gawthrop & Bro., who in 1883 re- 
moved the venerable and historic old mansion and 
upon the site erected the beautiful Gawthrop Build- 
ing. The Shipley mansion thus stood one hundred 
and forty-eight years and when torn down was still 
in a good state of preservation. 

Thomas Shipley, the oldest son of William and 
Mary Shipley, was born in England in 1718, came 
with his parents to America, settled with them in 
Wilmington, and afterwards purchased part of the 
water-power of the Brandywine, which became a 
source of wealth to the family. By his marriage 
with Mary Marriott he had nine children. Those 
who grew to adult age were William, Mary, Joseph, 
Sarah, Ann and Anna. William, bom in 1746, died 
in 1816. Mary, born 1760, married Phineas Buckley 
and died in New York in 1795. Joseph was born in 
1762, married Mary Levis, of Springfield, Delaware' 

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Co., Pa., aod died in 1882. He inherited the large 
mill property on the Brandywine, was successful in 
bosiness and left an honorable name. His wife Mary 
died in 1843. Sarah, fourth child of Thomas Shipley, 
bom 1765, married Cyrus Newlin, of Wilmington, 
and died in 1884, leaving two children — ^Mary and 
Thomas. Ann, fifth child, was bom in 1758, married 
John Jones, and died in 1808, leaving two children, 

' Cyrus and Lydia. Anna, the youngest child of 
Thomas Shipley, born in 1760, married William 
Byrnes, and died in 1808, leaving one son, Thomas. 
The children of Joseph and Mary Shipley were 

I Samuel, Mary, Thomas, John, Rebecca, Anna, Eliza- 
beth, Sarah, Margaret, Joseph and Hannah. Samuel, 
the oldest son, born in 1777, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Captain James Jefieris. He engaged in 
the milling business with his father until his health 
failed and he died in 1844, leaving two children — 
Thomas and Sarah. Mary, eldest daughter of Joseph 
Shipley, married John Dixon, of Wilmington. She 
died in 1844. 

Thomas, second son of Joseph Shipley, born in 
1780, engaged in the shipping business at Philadelphia, 
and vas remarkably successful. He was prostrated 
with Bunsferoke while visiting in the south of France. 
He died soon afterwards, in 1818, at the early age of 

John, third son of Joseph and Mary Shipley, bom 
1782, for many years engaged in the milling business, 
and died in 1868. 

Joseph, fourth son of Joseph and Mary Shipley, 
born 17d5,at the age of eighteen entered the counting- 
house of Samuel Canby, in Philadelphia. In 1819, 
he went to England and, as will be seen, soon after 
became a member of the great banking house of 
Brown, Shipley & Co. The reputation of this house 
is sufficient evidence of Mr. Shipley's character and 
ability, for his importance to the firm was shown not 
only in prosperous times, but in adverse and trying 
circumstances, and his worth as a merchant and a 
citizen was recognized in the community in which 
he so long resided in England. 

Joseph Shipley, the subject of the following notice, 
was born December 4, 17d5. He was the great-grand- 
son of William Shipley and Mary (Tatnall) Shipley, 
who came to America in 1785, and belonged to the 

I Soei^ of Friends, as also did his parents. 

Though not strictly conforming to the plain speech 
of Quakers, nor fully recognizing their discipliae 
persoDally, he nevertheless remembered his origin 
with peculiar satisfaction. 

While yet a young man, he went to England, and 
assisted to build up an extensive business in the name 
of Brawn^ Shipley & 0>,, which yielded him a fortune. 

I Thirty years after he went abroad he returned to 

! his native State and purchased a fine property in 
Brandywine Hundred, where he erected a beautiful 

I residence, and called the place ''Rockwood." Here 
he continued to reside until his decease. 

' Mr. Shipley was noted for being always judicious 

in action, and to his high character as a man the firm 
to which he belonged was largely indebted for its 
celebrity and success. His sound judgment and 
singular aptitude for business rendered him an ad- 
mirable ally in prosperous times ; but it was under 
adverse circumstances that his many resources de- 
rived from long experience and natural resolution 
were most strikingly developed. 

In conversation he was solid rather than brilliant 
and showy, while his knowledge of the world made 
him a genial companion. His hospitality was large, 
and the friends he collected at his board were such 
as gave zest to the feast. He was well read in litera- 
ture, especially the English poets, whom he loved to 
recite. He died at his residence on the 9th of May, 
1867, in the seventy-second year of his age, and his 
body was interred in the Friends' Burying-Grounds 
in Wilmington, amid a large concourse of relatives 
and friends. The last sad rites were performed in the 
usual quiet and unostentatious manner, there being no 
ceremony or address observed. He passed from 
earth at a ripe age, his life being one of honor and 
usefulness, and we doubt whether the soil of Delaware 
covers the remains of a more trusty merchant, a more 
worthy citizen or a better man than Joseph Shipley. 

The enterprise of the first William Shipley was 
equal to his wealth, and the town began to grow rap- 
idly after his removal to it. In 1786 lots were 
bought by Joseph Steel, yeoman, of Maryland ; John 
McArthur, weaver; Thomas Tatnall, of Ridley; 
William Levis, Joseph Peters, Abraham Skinner, 
mariner; Lucas Stidham, Enoch Lewii>, cordwainer; 
Hans Rudolph, Henry Heath, George Howell, store- 
keeper; David Bush, merchant; Alexander Hooge, 
carpenter; Thomas Downing, inn-keeper; Thomas 

Benjamin Canby, ancestor of the Canby family in 
America, resided in Yorkshire, England. Thomas, 
the second of his two sons, emigrated to Bucks Coun- 
ty, Pa., and about 1786 moved to Wilmington. He 
died in 1742. 

Oliver, son of Thomas Canby, settled in Wilmington 
about 1740. He owned the old Timothy Stidham mill, 
which was the first built within its limits, and stood 
near the old ford road, now Adams Street. In 1744 he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of William and Mary 
Shipley, and died in 1754. William, the eldest of the 
five children of Oliver, in 1774 married Martha, daugh- 
ter of Thomas and Sarah Marriott, of Bristol, Pa. They 
settled in Wilmington, on the south side of the Brandy- 
wine, the same year. She died in 1826, and he sur- 
vived her until 1830, when he died at the age of eighty- 

Niles' RegUter, in noticing his death, said : " William 
Canby, a much beloved member of the Society of 
Friends, died in Wilmington. If it is even possible 
to suppose that any one man was more separated from 
worldly affairs, more willing to perform deeds of char- 
ity and benevolence, less guilty of bad thoughts or 
capable of a bad action, than any of the rest of his 

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kind, we should have fixed upon William Canby/' 
He was the author of a letter to Thomas Jefferson in 
1818 which, with the reply, was very extensively pub- 
lished, and may be found in the supplement of the 
ninth volume of the Register^ page 183. Though en- 
dowed with a vigorous intellect, and fitted by educa- 
tion for commercial success, he relinquished a lucra- 
tive business in the meridian of life. He had a 
considerable knowledge of practical mathematics, and 
was a diligent student of history, astronomy and some 
of the other sciences. 

Samuel Canby, second son of Oliver Canby and 
Elizabeth Shipley, was born in Wilmington in 1751. 
His father died when he was three years old. He 
learned the business of a carpenter and cabinet-maker 
with Ziba Ferris. When his term of service as an ap- 
prentice ended, in 1771, he removed to Brandywine 
and engaged in the milling business. In 1775 he 
married Frances Lea, daughter of James and Margaret 
Lea, of Wilmington, and moved to the house former- 
ly owned by his father on the banks of the Brandy- 
wine, between Orange and Tatuall Streets. Later in 
life he built a large residence at the corner of Four- 
teenth and Market Streets, in which his son James 
afterwards resided. In this mansion he lived forty- 
one years, until his death. Id the words of Benjamin 
Ferris, "here he had room to gratify his hospitable 
disposition, and to have his friends around him, which 
he greatly enjoyed. His home for many years was 
the principal one in the place for the accommodation 
and entertainment of Friends traveling on religious 
service. He was prudent in the management of his 
affairs and prospered in business. His exemplary 
conduct, dignified deportment, undoubted integrity 
and uprightness raised him to a high standing in the 
estimation of his friends and fellow-citizens." He died 
in 1882, aged eighty-one years. 

James Canby, son of Samuel Canby, was born 
January 30, 1781, and for most of his adult life 
continued the flour-mills founded by his father. He 
was one of the originators of the Philadelphia, Wil- 
mington and Baltimore Railroad and became the first 
president of the company. He was also president of 
the Union National Bank, and in all respects a busi- 
ness man of the highest class. He died May 24, 1858. 

Merrit Canby, son of William Canby, was born in 
Wilmington, November 19, 1783. From 1815 to 1836 
he was engaged in the sugar refining business in 
Philadelphia. In 1836 he removed to Wilmington 
and was connected with various financial institutions 
and other corporations until his death, December 10, 

Benjamin Ferris, the author of the "History ef the 
Early Settlements on the Delaware," was descended 
from an English family who emigrated from Reading, 
England, and settled at Groton, near Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. From there Samuel Ferris, the ancestor of 
Benjamin, removed about 1682 to New Milford, Con- 
necticut. From this place his grandson, John Ferris, 
with other members of the family, came to Wilming- 

ton and settled in the year 1748. He was the grand- 
father of Benjamin Ferris, who was born August 7, 
1780, in the house still standing at the corner of 
Third and Shipley Streets. At the age of fourteen he 
went to Philadelphia, where he learned the business 
of watchmaking, which he followed in that city until 
the year 1813, when he returned to Wilmington, 
where he resided during the remainder of his life. 

Not being actively engaged in business, and fond of 
knowledge, he read extensively upon religious and 
historical subjects, especially the history of our own 
country. In connection with this he became much 
interested in collecting and preserving such facts as 

he could obtain of the early settlement and history 
of Wilmington and its neighborhood. He conversed 
much with the oldest inhabitants, and gathered such 
information as they could give him, and searched 
diligently through old family records for such facts 
and dates as might be preserved in them. In this 
way and with a most excellent and retentive memory 
he laid up a store of facts which he turned to 
valuable uses. 

He was warmly interested in the welfare of the 
American Indians, and deeply felt the wrongs they 
suffered through the neglect of the government in fail- 
ing to protect them in their rights. In 1889 he was 
appointed one ef a committee of the Yearly Meetings 
of Friends of New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
to investigate the case of the Seneca Indians, who 
were about to be defrauded of their valuable reserva- 
tions of land in the State of New York, and to present 
a statement of their wrongs to the President and Con- 
gress of the United States. These efforts were con- 
tinued for years, and finally resulted in securing to 
the Indians their claim to fifly-three thousand acres 
of land, on which they still reside. 

The frequent visits made by Benjamin Ferris to the 

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State of New York, in connection with his duties on 
this committee, gave him an opportunity of examin- 
ing the records of Albany, and those of the New York 
Historical Society. Finding that much of the infor- 
mation he desired to obtain was only preserved in the 
Swedish records, he engaged the services of a young 
Swede to give him instruction in his native language. 

BB|p'rTrV;j- III 







and acquired enough knowledge of it to enable him 
to use the records of the Old Swedes* Church in con- 
nection with his work. With painstaking care and 
unremitting effort, he devoted several years of his life 
to historical research, and as a result of his labors, 
pablished in 1846 his *' Early Settlements on the 
Delaware,'' a work of rare historical value, copies of 
which are now very diflScult to obtain. From the 
year 1835, until he was disabled by disease, at the age 
of seventy-six, Mr. Ferris spent his time chiefly 
in literary pursuits, in the congenial society of 
his family, and the large circle of his friends 
and relatives, and in duties connected with the 
Society of Friends, of which he was a faithful 
member. He took little interest in politics, ex- 
cept when great national questions which in- 
volved the interest of our general welfare were at 
issue. He died on November 9, 1867, aged eighty- 
•even years. 

Thomas West was one of the purchasers at this 
time, and the first house on Quaker Hill was built by 
him in 1738. It stood on the northwest corner of 
Fifth and West Streets, and for nearly a century was 
without the limits of the town. After standing for 
the long period of one hundred and forty- five years 
it was removed by Cyrus Stern, a great-great-grand- 

son of the original owner, who built three brick houses 
on the site. 

Thomas West (a distant relative of Lord De La 
Warr, whose name also was Thomas West, from 
whom Delaware takes its name) was an uncle 
to the celebrated painter, Benjamin West. He 
was married to Mary Dean, in the Devonshire 
Square Friends' Meeting, London, in 1709. Their 
children were — Sarah, Samuel, Jane, Thomas, Wil- 
liam, Mary, Rachel, Elyner, Elizabeth and Joseph. 
Thomas West came to America in 1712, settled at 
Concord, Chester County, Pa., and removed to Wil- 
mington in 1736. He died in 1743. Joseph, the 
youngest son, owned one of the first tanneries in the 
town. It wait situated in the square bounded by 
Third and Fourth, Shipley and Tatnall Streets. 

William, an older brother, married Mary Wilson. 
They had two children,— Mary and Sarah. Mary 
married John Craig. Sarah married George Stern, 
who inherited the homestead and farm of William 
West, his father-in-law, at the north end of Eennett 
turnpike, near the State line. 

John Stern, his son, learned the saddler's trade. 
He was born in 1776, and was married to Phebe 
McFarlan, and resided near Gause's Corners, Ches- 
ter County, Pa., until 1816, when he moved to with- 
in one mile of Centreville, Delaware, where his 
youngest son, Cyrus Stem, now a merchant of Wil- 
mington, was born January 5, 1818. In 1885, Mr. 
Stern published a complete history and genealogy of 
the McFarlan, Stern, Heald and West families of 
Pennsylvania and Delaware. It is a work of one 
hundred and eighty quarto pages, and required sever- 
al years of careful investigation to prepare it. 

At the close of the year 1736, there were thirty- three 
dwelling-houses in Wilmington. The plan was ex- 
tended west from Market to Tatnall, and east to Walnut 
Street, and Wm. Shipley at his own expense erected a 
market-house on Fourth Street, extending from 
Shipley Street half-way to Market Street, which be- 
came a fruitful source of contention. A notice was 
given July 16, 1736, by the people interested in the 
Fourth Street Market that they would hold mar- 
ket days on each Wednesday and Saturday. In 
the same year a rival faction had taken steps towards 
opening a market on Market Street near Second, 
and a war was begun between them and the Shipley 
people, which resulted in an appeal to Governor 
Thomas Penn. Charges were made by the opposition 
affecting the private character of Mr. Shipley, but he 
was subsequently vindicated, and a compromise was 
reached by which the lower market was erected on 
Second Street, and a number of citizens bought Ship- 
ley's market and dedicated it to the use of the 

Willingtown was still without any municipal gov- 
ernment, and on June 10, 1736, a hundred and 
three citizens petitioned Governor Penn for a borough 
charter, *'that they may be impowered to choose 
burgesses and inferior ofSces as shall be found neces- 

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sary for the encouraging virtue, preserving the King's 
peace and the detecting of vice, that they may be 
enabled to form and enact such or4inance8 for the re- 
gulation of the markets and streets, and cleansing 
and mending the streets and highways within the 
precincts of the said town or borough, as may prove 
commodious and advantageous both to the said town 
and country adjacent, etc." The signers of the peti- 
tion were Joseph Pennock, William Shipley, Joseph 
Way, Charles Empson, Thomas Peters, Robert Read, 
Thomas West, Joshua Way, Theodore Broom, Ed- 
ward Tatnall, James Milner, Samuel Pennock, Grif- 
fith Minshall, John Pierce, Caleb Way, Erasmus 
Stidham, William Athorton, Samuel Houton, John 
Smith, Christopher Marshall, Mordecai Lewis, Ma- 
thias Morton, Goldsmith Folwell, William Empson, 
Joseph Greist, Andrew Justice, Thomas Willing, 
Thomas Tatnall, David Bush, Philip Vandeverej 
John Gkiest, William Cheneay, Joseph Williams, 
Richard Evenson. 

The granting of this charter was deferred - until 
November 16, 1739, and when allowed it contained 


an additional provision that the householders should 
decide by vote where to hold their markets and fairs, 
and on December 10, 1739, they elected that the 
Saturday market and Spring Fair should be kept at 
the market-place in High Street, and the Wednesday 
market and Fall Fair at the market-place on Second 
Street. The name then became Wilmington in 
place of Willingtown. By the charter the burgesses 
were clothed with the functions of justices of the 
peace, and there is good reason to believe that the 
disorderliness of the lower element of the town had 
made it very necessary that a vigorous police power 
should be exercised. There were smugglers on the 

Delaware in the first half of the eighteenth century, 
and the river inlets around New Castle and Wil- 
mington furnished the most convenient landing- 
places for illicit rum, tobacco, dress goods and various 
articles of personal adornment and finery, that found 
their way thence to Philadelphia without undergoing 
the inspection of the excise officers. The crews of 
smuggling vessels could make very lively their nights 
on shore after duty was done, and rum was cheap 
enough to allow even the negro slaves to touch oc- 
casionally an extreme limit of indulgence. Hence 
the new government of Wilmington had scarcely 
been installed before they discovered that one of their 
most pressing needs was a prison, in which of- 
fenders might be confined pending their transporta- 
tion to the county town of New Castle for trial. On 
March 31, 1740, the burgesses bought from William 
Shipley a piece of ground, on which they erected a 
*'cage'* or prison, the stocks and the whipping-post. 
For fifty-eight years thereafter the cage is said to 
have been the most prominent public building in the 
town. It stood on the west side of Market Street, a 
few doors above Third. In the borough records the 
prison is designated as " the Cage,'* though it was 
generally known as " the smoke-house." Well au- 
thenticated tradition says there was no fire-place in 
it. In very cold weather a dish full of burning coals 
was used to heat the rooms. These may have emit- 
ted smoke, and from that cause the name probably 
originated. It was a quaint one-story brick house, 
twelve feet square and eight feet high, with two 
apartments, one for males and one for females, but it 
has no chimneys or windows. The only place for 
light or pure air to enter was between the iron 
grating in an opening about a foot square in each ot 
the two doors. 

Prisoners who were held for trial at the County 
Courts until sent to New Castle Jail, vagabonds and 
disorderly persons were incarcerated here. Vagrants, 
or what are now called *' tramps," and some disturb- 
ers of the peace, were taken before the burgesses, who 
sentenced them to the stocks, to the whipping-post, 
or to be *' drummed out of town." When it became 
known that a culprit was sentenced to the last-men- 
tioned punishment, crowds assembled in front of the 
prison, awaiting for the unfortunate one to be 
brought out. Amidst the shouts of the rabble, the 
constable marched the prisoner to the centre of the 
street and shouted, " Forward ! " The drum then 
began to beat and the procession moved. Says an 
early chronicler, — "The first step the prisoner took 
was the signal of attack ; a shower of every kind oi 
offensive matter wa-* poured upon him. By the time 
he arrived down to Fourth Street he was dripping 
from head to foot with the contents of rotten eggs 
and all the filth of the streets and gutters. The 
wretched sufferer was all the time begging in vain 
for mercy. The rattle of the drum, the shout of the 
mob which followed, and the cries of the victim could 
only be realized by the spectator. Sometimes the 

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procession moved in the other direction as far as Bran- 
dywine Bridge." 

Most of the scenes such as described took place 
soon after the Bevolation, when the country here- 
abouts contained many vagabonds of the worst de- 
scription. They had been followers of the army, and 
after the war became robbers, thieves and drunken 
beggars. A class of characters called " wheelbarrow- 
men" were troublesome in Wilmington a century 
ago. They were discharged prisoners from Philadel- 
phia, where many were then sentenced to work on 
the roads and streets at the wheelbarrow, with an 
iron collar around their necks, and a heavy ball 
chained to one leg. About 1792, when the ** smoke- 
house " became old and dilapidated, a sailor prisoner 
was placed in it. His comrades marched from the 
Fonl Anchor Inn, armed with handspikes, smashed 
open the prison-door and released their man, whom 
they carried on their shoulders in triumph down 
Market Street. The Delaware Gazette, a day or two 
later, in an amusing article, " ridiculed the old prison 
and the borough authorities for retaining it." In 
1798, fifty- eight years after its erection, it was torn 
dowB, and the cells in the basement of the town hall, 
bailt that year, were used as a place of imprisonment 
DJitil the erection of the addition to the old building, 
since which time prisoners have been kept in cells. 

The first borough election was held September 8, 
1740, the franchise extending to all freeholders and 
to all tenants who paid at least five pounds yearly 
rent, and who had resided in the town one year. The 
officials elected, and the number of votes for each, 
were as follows : Chief Burgess, William Shipley, 61 ; 
Second Burgess, Joseph Way, 50 ; High Constable, 
Charles Empson, 54; Assistant Burgesses, Thomas 
West, 96 ; David Ferris, 87 ; George Howell, 78 ; Eob- 
ert Hannum, 58 ; Joshua Way, 50 ; Joshua Lit- 
tler, 46; Town Clerk, Gouldsmith Edward Folwell, 96. 

The following is a complete list of the burgesses 
and clerks elected under the original charter, those 
given for 1739 being named in the charter for the 
offices designated: 

Chief Burgeu. 

Wnihm Shipley .-1739 

JottphWay 1742 

WflllMn Shipley « 1743 

Bob«t Huinam 1744 

J<»ph Peten -.1746 

John fluplar 1748 

JauMFev 1760 

JoihiMLttUer 1761 

John Stepler. ^.1762 

Joibna Littler ^1753 

JoAw Littler. 1754 

WwMd Ikwee « »756 

JohnShipler 1756 

Ihootts Gilpin 1767 

John Stapler „ 1768 

John XcKinley 1769 

Wwini Dawes. 17C2 

J*n Lee ^....1764 

J««ph Wey 1766 

John McKinley 1767 

J«^ Benoet ...„ 1770 

John McKinley ^771 

NichohM Robinaon 1774 

John McKinley 1776 

Joseph Bennett 1777 

Joseph Stidham 177H 

Jacob Broom 1783 

Thomas Kean 1781 

Jacob Broom 1786 

James Gibbons 1786 

Thomas Way „ 1788 

Joseph ShallcrosB 1790 

David Bush 1792 

Jacob Broom 1794 

Peter Brynberg 1796 

Joseph Warner. 1798 

Nehemiah Tllton 1799 

James Brobeon 1801 

Isaac Hendrickson 1802 

James Brobson 1803 

James Lea 1806 

Isaac Dixon.. 1807 

James Brobeon 1808 


Thomas West 1739 

Joseph Way 1740 

Gouldsmith £. Folwell 1742 

Thomas Ganby 1743 

Joseph Way 1745 

Thomas Gilpin 1747 

Darid Ferris 1748 

Joshua Littler 1749 

Edward Dawes 1750 

John Stapler 1761 

Kobert Lewis 1752 

John Stapler 1753 

George Grow 1766 

William Morris 1757 

Qeoi^e Crow 1768 

Edward Dawes 1769 

JohnSUpler 1761 

John McKinley 1762 

William Marshall 1763 

Peter Osborn .....1764 

Edward Dawes 1765 

John McKinley 1766 

Edward Dawes 1767 

James Lea 1768 

John McKinley 1770 


Edward Dawes 1771 

John McKinley 1774 

Nicholas Robinson 1775 

Jonathan Robinson. 1777 

David Bush 1778 

Thomas Kean 1780 

Francis Robinson 1783 

Jacob Broom 1784 

Thomas Way 1786 

James Gibbons 1788 

Joseph Shallcroes 1780 

John Hayes 1790 

David Bush, Jr 1791 

Joseph SballcrosB 1792 

John Ferris. 1794 

Jacob Broom 1796 

James Milner 1797 

Samuel Nichols.. 1798 

John Way 1799 

James Brobson 1800 

Nehemiah Tilton 1801 

Isaac Dixon.. 1803 

James Lea 1806 

Edward ftoche 1806 

George Monro 1807 


Gouldsmith E. Folwell 1739 

Joseph FolweU 1750 

William Warner 1767 

William Poole 1759 

Joseph West 1761 

Joseph Folwell 1763 

William Poole 1764 

John Littler 1770 

Thomas Crow 1771 

John Ferris. 1772 

Jacob Broom 1773 

William Hemphill ^ 1774 

John Hayes 1776 

John Stow 1778 

Jacob Garrignes. 1781 

Joseph ShallcroBS 1783 

James Brobeon 1784 

Israel Brown 1786 

James Robinson, Jr. 1786 

James Lea 1787 

James Robinson.. 17«8 

Isaac Hendrickson 1789 

Joseph Bailey 1791 

Samuel Byrnes 1793 

John 8. Littler 1794 

Edward Hewes 1796 

John Jones 1797 

Joseph Bringhurst 1799 

Joseph Hoopes » 1800 

Hezekiah Niles.., „1801 

David Chandler 1802 

Edward Hewes 1803 

Hesekiah Niles 1804 

John Rea .....1806 

Robert Porter „ 1806 

James Wilson „1808 

Asnstant Burgesses, 

Timothy Stidham.. 1739 

Joseph Hewes. 1739 

George Howell 1739 

David Ferris 1739 

Joseph Way 1739 

Thomas West 1740 

David Ferrl8„ 1740 

George Howell 1740 

Robert Hannum.. 1740 

Joshua Way 1740 

Joshua LitUer. 1740 

David Ferris - 1741 

Joeeph Hewes 1741 

Joshua Littler 1741 

Alexander Seaton 1741 

Thomas West 1741 

Griffith Minshall 1741 

Thomas West 1742 

David Ferris 1742 

Thomas Canby 1742 

Joseph Hewe8» 1742 

Joshua Littler 1742 

Griffith Minshall 1742 

Timothy stidham 1743 

David Ferris 1743 

Joshua Littler 174:j 

Griffith Minshall 1743 

Edward Dawes 1743 

Joeeph Way 1743 

William Shipley 1744 

DaTid Ferris „ 1744 

Griffith MinshaU ......1744 

Joseph Hewes. 1744 

Andrew Jolly ....1744 

Joshua Littler „ 1744 

David Bush 1746 

Joseph Way 1745 

Edwai-d Dawes..... 1746 

Timothy Stidham 1746 

Robert Hannum.^ 1746 

JohnStalcop 1746 

Joshua Littler.. 1746 

David Bush 1746 

Thomas Gilpin 1746 

Peter Smith 1746 

Edward Dawes 1746 

Robert Hannum 1746 

David Ferris 1747 

Joshua Littler «..1747 

David Bush 1747 

Robert Hannum 1747 

Edward Dawes. 1747 

Griffith Minshall 1747 

Griffith Minshall 1748 

Thomas Ganby 1748 

Joseph Hewes „ 1748 

Joseph Way 1748 

Joshua Littler 1748 

Joshua Way 17a 

Andrew Tranberg 1749 

Digitized by 




Jamee Robinson ~ 1740 

Thomw Canby 1749 

Griffith Minihall 1749 

JaineaFow 1749 

David Biuih 1749 

Andrew Tranberg 1760 

Joshua Way 1750 

Olirer Canby 1760 

James Robinson 1750 

Griffith Minshall 1760 

JohnKnowlee 1750 

Peter Grubb 1750 

Andrew Tranberg 1751 

Joseph Way 1761 

Joshua Way 1761 

Dayid Bush 1751 

Thomas Oanby 1751 

Oliver Canby 1761 

James Robinson 1752 

Robert Hannum 1752 

Mathew McKinney 1752 

David Ferris „ 1762 

Andrew Tranberg 1762 

Joshua Littler 1752 

Thomas Canby .1753 

Joshua Way 1763 

Robert Lewis 176:* 

David Ferris 1753 

David Bush « 1763 

James Few 1763 

Andrew Tranberg 1754 

Robert Lewis 1764 

Thomas Canby 1764 

John Derry 1754 

Vincent BonsaU 1754 

James Lea 1754 

James Few 1755 

Lulof Stidham 1766 

Mathew McKinney 1755 

David Bush 1766 

William Morris 1756 

Robert Richardson 1765 

Mathew McKinney 1766 

James Robinson 1756 

Robert Lewis 1756 

Pet«r Osborn 1766 

Vincent BonsalU 1756 

James I.iea 1766 

Mathew McKinney 1757 

James Lea 1767 

James Robinson^ 1757 

Andrew Tranberg^ 1767 

Robert Hannum 1757 

Sdward Dawes 1767 

Vincent BonsaU 1758 

PeUr Osborne 1768 

Joshua LitUer 1758 

James Lea 1758 

James Robinson 1758 

Mathew McKinney 1768 

James Robinson 1759 

Peter Osborne « 1759 

James Lea 1769 

Vincent BonsaU 1769 

Griffith Miukhall 1759 

Joshua Littler 1759 

William Poole 1760 

Joshua Littler 1760 

Griffith Minshall 1760 

Vincent BonsaU 176ii 

James Robinson. 1760 

James Lea 1760 

James Robinson 1761 

James Lea 1761 

William Poole 1761 

Sdward Dawes 1761 

Vincent BonsaU 1761 

Thomas Giffin 1761 

James Lea 1762 

James Robinson 1762 

William MarahaU „1762 

Peter Osborne 1762 

Watkins Crampton 1762 

Griffith Minshall 1762 

James Robinson 1763 

Edward Tatnall 1763 

Griffith MinshaU 1763 

JohnBrwin 1763 

David Enoch 1763 

Jacobus Hains. 1763 

Watkins Crampton 1764 

Thomas Giffin 1764 

James Robinson 1764 

Vincent BonsaU 1764 

James Bennett 1764 

Nicholas Robinson 1764 

JohnKrwin 1765 

Edward TatnaU 1766 

Caleb Way 1765 

William Brobeon 1765 

John Giles 1765 

William Marshall 1765 

David Bush 1766 

John Way 1766 

Watkins Crampton 1766 

Thomas Giffin 1766 

Nicholas Robinson 1766 

James Lea 1766 

David Bush 1767 

Watkins Crampton 1767 

John Littler 1767 

John Way 1767 

Nicholas Robinson 1767 

Nicholas Robinson 1768 

David Bush 1768 

Watkins Crampton 1768 

Griffith MinshaU 1768 

Thomas Giffin 1768 

John Erwin 1768 

Watkins Crampt<m 1769 

Griffith MinshaU 1769 

Nicholas Robinson 1769 

David Bush ....„ 1760 

Thomas Giffin 1760 

James Robinson » 1769 

Watkins Crampton 1770 

David Bush 1770 

Joseph Way 1770 

Thomas Giffin. 1770 

Archibald Littler 1770 

John Way 1770 

David Bush... 1771 

Joseph SUdham 1771 

Nicholas Way 1771 

Heeekiah Niles 1771 

John Stapler 1771 

WlUlani Brobeon 1771 

Watkins Crampton 1772 

Job Harvey 1772 

Joseph Stidham 1772 

David Nelson 1772 

David Bush 1772 

.lohn Littler 1772 

Watkins Crampton 1773 

Caleb S«il « 1773 

Thomas Gilpin 1773 

Joseph Stidham 1773 

Job Harvey 1773 

Vincent Gilpin 1773 

Watkins Crampton 1771 

i Joseph Stidham 1774 

John Erwin 1774 

Caleb Sheward 1774 

Archibald Littler 1774 

Caleb Seal 1774 

Joseph Stidham 1776 

Watkins Crampton 1776 

Charles West 1776 

Joseph Shallcroes 1776 

William Hemphill 1776 

Archibald Littler 1776 

William HemphiU „ 1776 

Watkins Crampton 1776 

Jacob Broom 1776 

Simon Johnson 1776 

Charles West 1776 

Archibald Littler 1778 

John Councel 1778 

Thomas Crow 1778 

Watkins Crampton 1778 

Francis Robinson 1778 

John Erwin 1778 

Watkins Crampton 1779 

Jacob Broom 1779 

Francis Robinson 1779 

Thomas Crow 1779 

George aark 1779 

Miles Patterson 1779 

Watkins Cinmpton....^ 1780 

Thomas Robinson 1780 

Jacob Broom 1780 

Thomas Crow .....1780 

George Chirk 1780 

William Crefry 1780 

Francis Robinson 1781 

Watkins Crampton 1781 

George Clark 1781 

William Creery 1781 

William Ashtou 1781 

William Cook 1781 

Watkins Crampton 1782 

Francis Robinson 1782 

William Cook 1782 

William Creery 1782 

WUllani UemphlU 1782 

William Ashton 1782 

Watkins Crampton 1783 

WUIlam Creery 1783 

William HemphlU 1783 

William Ashton.. .„ 1783 

William Cook „ 1783 

Francis Robinson ...„ 1783 

Watkins Crampton 1784 

Wm. HemphUl 1784 

Wm. Ashton 1784 

Wm. Creery 1784 

Jas. McCorkell 1784 

Robert Hamilton 1784 

Watkins Crampton 1785 

Wm. HemphiU 1786 

Joseph Shallcroes 1785 

James Gibbons 1785 

John Hayes 1785 

Thomas Cunger.. 1786 

Jehu Hayes 1786 

Samuel HoUingsworth 1786 

George aark 1786 

Thomas Crow 1786 

Watkins Crampton 1786 

Joseph Warner 1786 

Watkins Crampton 1787 

Samuel HoUingsworth 1787 

George CUu-k 1787 

Joseph Warner 1787 

John Hayes „ 1787 

Thomas Crow 1787 

Geerge Taylor 1788 

Watkins Crampton 178h 

John Hayes 1788 

George CUirk 1788 

John Erwin 1788 

Joseph Warner 1788 

Joseph Poole 1788 

Joseph Hayes 1789 

Samuel HoUingsworth 1789 

Watkins Crampton 1789 

Geo. CUu-k 1789 

Isaac Stow 1789 

Jehn Milner « 1789 

Joseph Shallcroes 1790 

Isaac Stow 1790 

Watkins Crampton 1790 

John Milner „17»0 

Watkins Crampton 1791 

George Oark 17bl 

John Milner 1791 

Joseph SumriU 1791 

Edward Gilpin 1791 

Thomas Crow 1791 

BeAJ. Laforge « 1792 

Samuel HoUingsworth. 1792 

Watkins Crampton 1792 

Joseph Smnrill 1792 

Edward GUpin 1792 

I EleaKer MoComb 1792 

I Jacob Broom 1792 

, Edward Gilpin 1793 

Joseph SumriU 1793 

' Jacob Broom 1793 

Samuel HoUingsworth 1793 

George Clark „ 1793 

John Milner « 1793 

Edwerd Gilpin 1794 

Wm. Poole 1794 

John Hayes 1794 

Peter Brynberg 1794 

John Milner 1794 

Eleaxer McComb 1794 

Wm. Poole ^ „ 1796 

Eleazer McComb 1795 

Thomas Mendenhall.. 1795 

Peter Brynberg 1795 

John Milner 1795 

George Clarke 1796 

James Lea 1796 

Eleazer McCumb 1796 

Wm. Poole « 1796 

John Milner 1796 

Isaac Hendrickson .^..1796 

James Brobson 1796 

Edward Gilpin 1797 

James Brobson 1797 

Isaac Hendrickson 1797 

Eleazer McComb 1797 

John Way. 1797 

James Lea, Jr 1797 

James Brobeon 1798 

James Lea 1798 

Edward GUpin 1798 

Eleazer McComb ».. 1798 

John Way 1798 

Isaac Hendrickson 1798 

Samuel Nichols 1799 

Edward Gilpin 1799 

Isaac Hendrickson 1799 

Peter Brynberg 1799 

John Jones » 1799 

Joseph Warner 1799 

James Lea 1800 

Peter Brynberg. 1800 

John Jones « 1800 

John Way 1800 

John Warner I18OO 

Isaac Hendrickson 1800 

Wm. Poole ...1802 

George CUrk 1803 

HezekiahNilee 1802 

Jonliua Seal 180« 

John Tripp 1802 

Robert Squibb 1802 

EllMendenhaU 1803 

Jeremiah Wolleston.. 1803 

Digitized by 




StmntA Buh » \SOS 

PM«r Bcynbers. I8U8 

Stmnti Nichols. 1803 

John Wwoer „ 1803 

P«tor Brrntwrg 1804 

Janmiah WoUaaton. 1804 

aunwIBivh ^ 18«4 

WBi.PtoI« ^ 1804 

Imac H. Starr 1804 

JamM Lea „ 1804 

I«ac Dixon 1806 

Inae H.Starr. 1806 

EU Mendenhan 1806 

Jacob Alrich. 1805 

HeMkiahNilaa 1806 

Canon WOaoo 1806 

Tkomas Richaidaon. 1806 

Jacob Alrich 18o6 

EU Mandenhall.. ......1806 

IMMC H.Starr ISJfi 

Wm. Seal 1806 

Uaac Heudriokaon 1806 

EllHendenbaU 1807 

Samuel Biiah 18U7 

Wm. Seal 1807 

Thomas Richardaon 1807 

Isaac H. Starr 1807 

John Patterson 1807 

CymsNewlIn 1808 

Samuel Bosh 1808 

JohnTorbert 1808 

Isaac H. Starr. 1806 

Wm.8eal 1808 

Jeremhkh WoUaston. 1808 

In 1739 the population was only 610, but at the 
opeoing of the Revolution in 1775 it had increased 
to 1172 whites and 57 colored. There was no other 
computation until 1790, when the town comprised 
2335 inhabitants. In 1791 the insurrection of the 
negroes in San Domingo drove hundreds of the French 
fiunilies from the island to the United States, quite 
t nnmber of the emigres settling in Wilmington. 
The population was further augmented in 1793 by 
Hiigees fleeing from the yellow fever plague in Phila- 
del^ia, who sought new homes in Wilmington. So 
luge was their number that ail the residences in the 
town were overcrowded and high rents were paid for 
the poorest kind of accommodations. The Christiana, 
from the old ferry to the upper wharf, was so crowded 
with ships of all kinds that there was scarcely room 
left for Uie passage of a boat. In 1795-96 the pesti- 
lence was again manifested in Philadelphia and when 
itattacked that city in the most malignant form in 1798 
some of the refugees brought it to Wilmington, which 
had previously escaped the contagion. The conse- 
quences were terrible. First developed in the low 
Und on the river-bank, the fever spread to the higher 
localities and out into the village of Brandywine. 
The mortality rate was enormous and during all that 
year there was a partial paralysis of trade and indus- 
try. Nevertheless the city hall was completed in 1798 
and the growing commerce of the port was fairly 

Wilmington existed under Governor Pen n's charter 
until 1809, and in January 81st of that year the Leg- 
islature passed an amendment to it, by which the 
borough boundaries were defined as follows : 

" Beginning at the mouth of the Brandy wine Creek, 
on the east side of the same ; thence along the eastern 
and northeastern side of the same about two and a half 
miles to the Old Ford above the head of tide-water ; 
thence crossing the Brandy wine westwardly and passing 
along the Old King's Road, according to the several 
courses there to the State Boad, leading from Wil- 
mington to Lancaster ; thence in a direct line south- 
easterly, passing over the mouth of the riverlet called 
Stallcnp's Gut, to the opposite side of the Christiana 
River ; thence down the side of the same until south- 
west of the lower point of the meuth of the Brandy- 
wine ; thence northeast to the place of beginning.'* 

The amended charter established a government by 
chief burgess, one assistant burgess, a Town Council of 
thirteen members, an assessor, a treasurer and a high 
constable. Under it the officisls chosen from term to 
term w^re the following: 

Chief Burgess. 

•' Jamee Brobson 1822 

I Jamea McKean 1825 

I Jamea Broboon 1826 

Frederick Leonard 1880 

Dr. George Monro 1809 

James Brobsou 1814 

George Monro 1815 

John Torbert^ 1817 

Robert Porter. 1820 

Isaac Sterenson 1809 

Robert Porter 1817 

HanooNaff.„ 1818 

James Sorden 1822 

Assistant Burgess, 

James Gordon 1823 

Frederick Leonard 1826 

HanceNaff. 1830 


Jamea Wilaon„ 18 9 I Joseph C. Hartley 1816 

Joseph Read 1812 I Cfliartes T. Grubb ....1829 


John Torbert 1809 

Cyrus Newlin 1809 

Isaac H. Starr. 1809 

Samuel Bush 1809 

Jeremiah Wooleston 18 9 

William Seal 1809 

Isaac Dixon 1809 

OarwD Wilson 1809 

John Reynolds 1809 

James Jeffries. 1809 

John Hendrickson 1809 

Matthew R. Lockerman 18<>9 

James Collins 1809 

Cyrus Newlin 1810 

William Seal 1810 

Isaac Dixon 1810 

Robert Porter - 1810 

Joseph Grubb 1810 

John White. 18l'» 

Samuel Wallace 1810 

James Oanby 1810 

Robert Wilkinson 1810 

Jacob Alrich 1810 

JohnTorbert 1810 

JohnHadden 1810 

Eli Mendenhall 1810 

Cyrus Newlin 1811 

JohnTorbert 1811 

Isaac H. Starr. 1811 

John White 1811 

Joseph Grubb 1811 

Jacob Alrich 1811 

Ziba Ferris.. 1811 

James Jeffries.. 18U 

Robert Wilkinson 1811 

William Seal 1811 

Eli Mendenhall 1811 

Jeremiah Wolleston 1811 

Joseph B. Shipley 1811 

John Rumsey 1812 

Joseph Grubb 1812 

JohnTorbert 1812 

Eli Mendenhall 1812 

Joseph Robinson 1812 

Jamee B. Shipley 1812 

Thomas McConnell 18U 

James Jeffries. 1812 

Patrick O'Flinn.- 1812 

Robert Wilkinson 1812 

James ColUns. 1812 

Cyrus NewUn 1812 

Patrick O'Fllnn 1813 

JohnTorbert 1813 


HanceNaff. 1813 

Allen Thompson 1813 

John Gordon 18L3 

Joseph Jones 1813 

David Fitzpatrick, 1813 

Joseph B. Shipley.. 1813 

George Jones 1813 

Corson Wilson 1813 

AbUah Sharp 1813 

Washington Rice 1813 

James Robinson.. 1813 

Frederick Leonard 1814 

John Torbert 1814 

Matbew K. Lockerman 1814 

James Collins; 1814 

John Dixon 1814 

Robert Porter 1814 

Thomas McCooneU 1814 

William Shipley ^ 1814 

(^jrson Williams. 1814 

George Monro.. 1814 

Jared Chestnut 1814 

John Rumsey 1814 

John Reynolds 1814 

Joseph Robinson 1814 

John Rumsey 1815 

Jamee Hogg 1816 

Jared Chestnut 1815 

John Roes 1815 

William Shipley 1815 

James Cochran 1815 

James Collins.. 1815 

James Wolf. 1815 

John Dixon 1815 

Frederick Leonard 1816 

Darid Bush 1816 

ZilMt Ferris 1816 

Joseph Grubb 1816 

James Hogg 1816 

Thomas McConnell 1816 

Henry Physick 1816 

WilMam Shipley 1816 

Jeremiah Wolleston 1816 

David 0. Wilson.. 1816 

James Wolf. 1816 

Bei\}amin Webb.. 1816 

BeiUamin H. Springer 1817 

John Patterson 1817 

Frederick Leonard 1817 

Joeeph Grubb 1817 

Nance Naff 1817 

Thomas Warrington 1817 

John Rumsey 1817 

Digitized by 




John Sella™. WH 

JameeHogg 1817 

ThoniaaMcConnell 1817 

William Enikino 1817 

JowphGrubb 1818 

William Seal 1818 

DftvidBiuh 1818 

John Bedges 1818 

James Hogg.. 1818 

John Pattoreon 1818 

BeiUamin H. Springer 1818 

John Runuey 1818 

John Sellers. 1818 

Frederick Leonard 1818 

Edward Gilpin 1818 

Thomas HcConnell 1818 

Aaron Paulson 1818 

Thomas 0. Aldrich 1818 

John Hedges 1819 

Edward Gilpin 1819 

DaTid Bush 1819 

James Hogg 1819 

JohnRumsey 1819 

James Oanby 1819 

Samuel Wood« 1819 

William Seal 1819 

George Jones 1819 

Evan Lewis. 1819 

William Seal 1820 

John Rumsey 1820 

Edward Gilpin 1820 

George Jones 1820 

Isaac Bonsell 1820 

EU Hilles. 1820 

David Bnsh 1820 

Evan Lewis. 1820 

William Seal 1821 

John Patterson 1821 

George Jones 1821 

James S. White 1821 

James Hogg 1821 

Thomas C. Alricha. 1821 

Joseph Grubb 1821 

WilUam Chandler 1821 

Joha Gordon 1821 

James Canby 1821 

James McKean 1821 

David Bush 1821 

Eran Lewis. 1821 

Thomas Richardson 1822 

John Rumsey 1822 

Jo«)ph Grubb.. 1822 

Henry Rice» 1822 

Henry Hoopes. 1822 

James Gardiner. 1822 

John Sellars.. 1822 

Eli Mendenhall... 1822 

Samuel Wood. 1822 

James McKean 1822 

David Bush 1822 

William Chandler. 1822 

John Jones~ 1822 

Jacob Alrich 1823 

William Chandler. 1828 

EaauCoxe 1823 

Joseph Grubb 1823 

George Jones 1823 

William G. Jones 1823 

John Jones 1823 

Eli Mendenhall. 1823 

James McKean 1823 

Robert Porter. 1823 

John Patterson 1823 

John Rummy 1823 

James Rice ..1823 

William Chandler 1824 

Esau Coxe 1824 

Eli Mendenhall.. 1824 

Henry Hoopes. 1824 

Jacob Alrich 1824 

Eli Hilles. 1824 

John Adams. 1824 

Samuel Wood 1824 

John R. Brinckle 1824 

William Seal 1824 

John F. Gilpin 1824 

Robert Porter 1824 

John McClung 1824 

Robert Porter 1826 

William Chandler. 1826 

William Seal 1826 

Josiah F. Clement 1825 

John Patterson 1826 

James Price. 1826 

Joseph C. Gilpin 1826 

Eli Hilles. 18 >6 

Jacob Airichs. 1825 

Samuel Wood 1826 

James Canby 182) 

William G. Jones 1826 

John McClung 1826 

David Bush 1826 

Joseph Grubb.. 1826 

William Urkin 1826 

Israel D Jones 1826 

James Gardner 1826 

William Rice 1826 

JohnSelUrs. 1826 

Thomas Moore 1826 

Henry Hoopes. 1826 

Eli Sharpe 1826 

Jacob File 1826 

Aaron Hughes. 1826 

William Townsend. 182« 

William Chandler 1829 

William Townsend 1829 

EHsha Huxley 1829 

John M. Smith 1829 

Thomas Hawkins 1829 

Thomas Moore 1829 

George Winslow 1829 

Patrick Higgins. 1829 

MahlonBetta. 1829 

James Rice 1829 

Bei^jamin Webb. 1829 

JohnCleland 1829 

In 1832 the Legislature granted the charter that 
converted Wilmington from a borough into a city. 
It provided for a mayor, one alderman, a City Council 
of fifteen members, a treasurer, an assessor, who also 
filled the oflSce of collector, one inspector of election, 
and two assistants for each ward. On January 25, 
1833, Wilmington Hundred was erected by act of As- 
sembly, and called the City of Wilmington. From 1832 
to 1843 the mayor was elected by City Council for a 
three years' term ; in 1843 the term was shortened to 
one year, and since 1850 he has been elected by the 

people. In 1869 the term was restored to three years 
and the mayor made ineligible to re-election. The 
original salary was two hundred dollars per annum, 
which has been increased by successive steps until it 
is now fifteen hundred dollars. The roster of the mu- 
nicipal officials from 1832 to the present time is as 
subjoined : 


Richard H. Bayard. 1832 

KichoUisG. Williamson. 1834 

David C. Wilson 1843 

Alexander Porter 1845 

WilUam Huffington 1848 

Joshua E. Driver 1850 

Columbus P. Evans. 1851 

Wm. Hemphill Jones. 1852 

John A. Alderdice 1853 

James F. Hey ward.. 1854 

William B. Wiggins 1855 

WilUam Huffington. 1856 

George W. Sparks 1857 

Thomas Young 1858 

VinoentC. Gilpin 1860 

John M. Turner w 1863 

Joshua Blaris 1865 

Joshua S. Valentine. I9ffl 

Jodiua L. Simms 1872 

WilUam G. Whitely.. 1875 

John P. AUmond 1878 

John P. Wales 1882 

Calvin B. Rhoads. 1886 

Aldermen, — This office was abolished in 1869. 
tween 1832 and that date its occupants were : 


N. G. Wniiamson Ib32 

Alexander McBeth 1834 

George W.Gardner 1839 

David C. Wilson 1841 

John Gordon 1842 

William P. Chandler 1843 

William G. Whitely 1^ 

John Hedges.. 1847 

Stephen Boddy.. „ 1850 

Elias a R. Butler. 1854 

John T. Robinson. 1855 

John Wright 1856 

John T. Robinson 1857 

John Wright 1869 

Hanson Uarman... 1860 

John H. Adams 1861 

Francis Vincent, 1865, who 
served until 1869 

Presidents of Couneil.^From 1832 to 1868 the 
president of Council was elected by the members, 
and since 1868 has been chosen by the people at the 
regular election. The salary in 6fty-six years has 
been increased from fifty to three hundred dollars 
yearly. The incumbents of the office have been : 

Lea Pusey.. 1832 

John Gordon 1834 

William R.Sellars 1837 

Wro. Hemphin Jones.. 1841 

Allen McLane, M.D.„ 1842 

William R. Sellare 1813 

Henry Hicks 1840 

James Canby 1850 

John M. Turner 1851 

John Rice 1852 

Jesse Lane 1855 

Samuel MoCauUey 1856 

Vincent C. Gilpin 1857 

The Clerk has always been chosen by the Cily 
Council. The salary at first was four hundred dollars 
a year. It is now fifteen hundred dollars. These 
have been the occupants of the office : 

John M. Turner 1860 

Achilles Hollingswortb ^ 1864 

Edwin L Homer. „.. 1865 

Edward T. Bellak 1866 

John H. Adams 1867 

WiUiam Bright. 1869 

Joshua Maris 1871 

H. L. Litchtenstein 1875 

Harry Sharpley 1879 

Henry C. Conrad 1882 

John C. Farra 1885> 

Henry Eckel 1886 

Charles T. Grubb 1832 

Edward E. Warrington 1883 

T. Booth Roberts 1836 

William B. Wiggins 1849 

John A. Alderdice 1850 

Hanson Harman.. 1853 

Joshua Maris. 1859 

Edward T. Taylor 1862 

WJlliam S. Hayes. 187^ 

William H. Lee 1875 

William H. Foulk 1876 

1 Edmund B. Fraxer 1877 

Henry B. Penington 1881 

Roberta Fraim 1882 

WilUam B. HyUnd. 1884 

AugustusF. Messlck 1886^ 

7%tf City Assessor was originally elected by the 
people for a one year term. In 1845 it was provided 
that an assessor be chosen for each of the five wards,. 

1 Resigned July 7, 1881, when he was elected registrar of deaths. 
Digitized by ' 




bat from 1858 to 1870 there was a reversion to the old 
system of one assessor. Since 1871 the city has been 
dinded into two assessment districts, and an assessor 
cliosen from each for a term of three years. The 
names of the assessors, except for the period from 
1845 to 1858, are: 

InacAnderaon 1832 

Jonph Scott 1837 

B«iM«DiDWebb 1839 

John B. Lowis. 1840 

•John M TuriH^r 1843 

JobD B. Lewia^ 1844 

Bobtn Gftlbreath. 1858 

JohD 9. McNmI 1859 

William B. Scout 1860 

Diaiel Fkrr*.. 1861 

Bdwftrd L. Brown 1862 

Alezuul«r Cbaodler 1864 

AnraSmltb 1865 

JMeph Pl«reoD^ 1866 

Daniel T. Hawkins 1868 

Lewis McOall 1869 

WiUUmStlUey 1871 

Alexander Chandler 1871 

Edward Fanner 1874 

Edmund PreToef 1874 

William Kyne 1877 

Edmund Preroet 1877 

Dennis Kane 1880 

Edmund Prerort 1880 

Dennis Kane 1883 

Edmnnd P. Moody 1883 

Martin J. Mealy 1887 

Edmund P. Moody 1887 

W« City Treasurer has always been an elective offi- 
cii]. His term was originally one year, and his sal- 
try four hundred dollars ; now he serves two years, 
tod is paid one thousand two hundred dollars per 
annum. Allan Thomson was borough treasurer for 
twelve years, and after him came the following : 

James F. Wilson, M.D 1859 

John F. Miller 1861 

William Preston 18M 

Weeley Talley 1865 

William Preston 18C6 

George C. Marls 1867 

JaraesMcCabe 1869 

Joseph L. Kilgore 1870 

Francis Vincent.: 1873 

John Qathrle 1879 

Jacob E. Pierce 1882 

Milton S. Simpers 1884 

Richard R. Griffith 1886 

J«hi Beynolds 1832 

Hw7 Hicks 1837 

**■ Hagany 1840 

faMc Dixon 1841 

Abnham Alderdice 1843 

iMcDixon 1844 

Bobert B. KobinsoD 1848 

Mn T. Robinflon 1850 

B^Jamin 8. CUrke„ 1851 

JoMphSeott 1862 

BMjamln 8. Clarke 1853 

Seboo Oariisle~ 1854 

George D. Armstrong 1857 

Municipal QmrL—From 1832 to 1883 the mayor was 
the sole police and committing magistrate, but on 
Jane 1, 1883, the Municipal Court was established by 
an act of the Legislature, to assume the functions of 
primary jurisdiction. Walter Cummins was appointed 
by Governor Stockley as judge of the court, and still 
holds the position. Henry R. Penington was clerk 
until his death, in September, 1886, and his successor, 
William B. Hyland, was appointed, and has since been 
the incumbent 

Chief Engineer. — ^The department of engineering 
and surveying was created by an ordinance passed by 
City Council, January 5, 1871. The head of the de- 
partment is the chief engineer, who receives an annual 
ulary of two thousand dollars, and is chosen by 
Council for a term of three years. He is allowed two 
or more assistants at an eight hundred dollar salary. 
Daniel Farra was elected chief engineer in 1871, and 
in 1874 was superseded by Myers C. Con well, who 
resigned in 1883 and went on professional service to 
the United States of Colombia, where he soon perished 
of yellow fever. Frederic H. Robinson was elected 
his sncceasor, and was filling the office in 1887. 

The CUy Couwci/.— Under the charter of 1832 the 
election of Council men was so fixed, that while the 

1 Elected by a nuOorlty of nine rotee over John B. Lewis. 


term of each member covered three years, such a pro- 
portion retired each year as to call for an annual 
election of their successors. By this arrangement 
one member was chosen from each of the five wards 
yearly. The names of the incumbents are subjoined. 
Where more than five are recorded the additional ones 
were chosen to fill vacancies. 

Thomas Toung 1832 

Benjamin Boulden 1832 

Wni. Townaend 1832 

Allan Thomson 1832 

LeaPnsey 1832 

James Canby 1832 

John Holand 1832 

Thomas Hawkins 1832 

John Gordon 183J 

Robert Porter ia32 

Wm. Chandler^ 183i 

Wm. P. Brobson 1832 

James Webb ls:« 

William Townsend 18 W 

Samuel S. Poole 1833 

Robert Porter 1833 

John McClung 1«33 

Mahlon Betts I8.W 

Thomas Young 18:13 

Joseph M. Bailey 1833 

John McGung 1834 

John Gordon 1834 

William Chandler 18;M 

Samuel Shipley lH3i 

John CleUnd 18:^3 

William R. Sellars 183.5 

David Bush IH35 

William Hemphill J.nes 18.]A 

Benjamin Webb \v>'.\b 

Esau Cox 18:15 

Samuel Shipley 1835 

Darid C. Wilson 1835 

Thomas Toung 18:J5 

William Chandler 1835 

John Cleland 18:16 

John Gordon 1835 

William Townsend 1836 

James Webb 1836 

David Bush 1836* 

Thomas Young 1H.J6 

Mahlon Betto 1836 

William P. Brobsun le3T 

Nelson CI<*Und 1837 

William Seal 1837 

William Solomon 1837 

Jacob Derrickson . 18J7 

William Hemphill Jone^ . 1838 

William P. bellam law 

Samuel Biizby IK^H 

William Chandler.. 18:^8 

John A. Duncan 1838 

Dr. Allen McLsiih IKJji 

James Webb . 1839 

Juhu Harris I.s:i9 

William Townsend I8:<9 

David BuKh 1839 

William Seal 1840 

Enoch Moore 184(» 

Joseph C. Seeds. 1810 

Allan Thomson Ih40 

William P. Brol»on I84«» 

George McGeo 1841 

WiUiani F. O'Daniel 1841 

William Hemphill Joih<« . 1841 

Henry Hicks 1841 

John L. Hadden 1841 

George Baird 1841 

Daniel Wring 1841 

William Townsend 1842 

John HarHs 1842 

Joseph A. Hunter 1842 

Dr. Allen McLane 1842 

Jacob Miller 1842 

Benjamin Webb 1842 

William R. Sellaru 1843 

Richard B. Gilpin 1843 

Edwin A. Wilson 1843 

Kvan C. StotsenburR 1843 

Elisha Huxley 18^ 

John Rice 1843 

Achilles HoUingsworth 1843 

William F. O'Daniel 1844 

James Jllllott 1844 

Henry Hicks 1844 

Joseph Seal 1844 

Dr Henry F. Askew 1844 

James Canby I84fi 

William Townsend 1846 

Samuel McCaulley 1845 

spencer D. Eves 1846 

Achilles HoUingsworth 1846 

William R. Sellais 1846 

John M. Turner 1846 

John Rice 1S46 

Aaron Hewee 1846 

Abraham Boys 1846 

Eli Todd 1847 

Edward Moore 1847 

George Read Riddle 1847 

Henry Hicks 1847 

Dr. Robert R. Porter 1847 

Abraliam Boys 1848 

Henry Bleyer 1848 

Samuel McCaulley 1848 

JamesCauby 1848 

Achillea HolUngsworth 1848 

John McClung 1849 

William CanipU'll 1849 

Jacob .loiTeres 1849 

John M. Turner 1849 

Ut Jtiuieii W. Thomson 1849 

Jes-e Slinrpe I860 

Kli Todd 1850 

Jesse Lane 1850 

Cyrus l»yle 1860 

John Rice 1850 

J. Morton Pot)le 1851 

Henry Bleyer 1861 

Samuel McCaulley 1851 

Achilles HoUingsworth 1861 

Vincent C. Gilpin 1861 

John McClung 1852 

Joshua S. Valentine 1862 

Dr. A. H. Grimshaw 1862 

John Cochran 1862 

Joseph T. Price 1862 

George Mages 1863 

Lewis Piiyuter 1863 

Cyrus Pyle 1853 

Jesse Lane 1863 

John Rice 1853 

John Rudolph 1854 

John S. Brady 1854 

Samuel Mc(!aulley 1861 

Vincent C. Gilpin 1864 

Thomas Z. Mahafley 1854 

Digitized by 




J. Morton Poole 


John P. 8prin(r*»r 


Jamet* Elliott 


JoMph A. Hnnter 


Jacob S. Weldin 


Samuel F. BiitK 


liewis Paynter 


Jamee Bradford 


Joseph Pyle 


Edward BetN 


Dr. Bobort R. Porter 


Albert Thatcher 


John P. Springer 


Dr. John A. Draper 


Thomas Yonog 


Edwin J. Horuer 


Vincent C. Gilpin 


Joseph M. Pusey 


Spencer D. Evos 


William H. Alderdire... 

. IS'iS 

John H.Stidham 18^8 , 

James Scott 1858 

John M. Turner 1858 

Samael F. Betts 1858 

George Nebeker 1858 , 

Georges. Hagany 1859 | 

John Aikin 1859 ^ 

Edwanl Betts 1869 I 

Achilles Holllngewortli 1859 I 

Wm. H. England 1850 | 

Joseph M. Pusey 1859 ; 

Henry Bleyer 1860 , 

John Aikin. I860 

William S. Hayec 1800 

Edwin I. Homer 1860 

Henry W. Bartmro 1860 

Edward T. Bellak 1861 

Gregg Chandler 1861 

John M. Turner 18t>l 

Jowph W. Day I8nl 

William H. Pierce 18112 

Abraham Boys 1862 

Achilles Uollingsworth 1862 I 

Dr. James F. Wilson 1862 ' 

Joseph BI. Pusey 18n2 [ 

Philip Plunkett 1863 

George H. Walter 1863 

William S. Haytfl 1863 

Edwin I. Homer 1863 

Philip McDowell 1863 

Edward T. Bell«k 1864 

Thomas Titnt 1864 

Gregg Chandler 1864 

John A. Duncan 1864 

Joseph W. Day 1861 

David Woolman 1865 

Morris Weldie 1865 

Edward Mclnall 1805 

Joseph D. Pierson 1866 

John H. Adams. 1866 

Samael F. Betts 1865 

George W. Dorsey 1865 

Philip Plunkett 18f6 

Joseph C. RowUnd 1866 

Henry F. Plckels 1866 

John K. Kirkraan 1866 

William C. Leibrandt 1866 

Charles H. Gallagher 1866 

1 Ralph McCall ..1867 

James Conner 1867 

Gregg Chandler 1867 

Edwin Lewis 1867 

George W. Dorsey 1867 

Thomas Johnson 1868 

William H. Qninn 1868 

E. C. Stotsenburg 1868 

John U. Adams 1868 

Charles S. Weldi«? 1868 

Charles H. GalUigher 1868 

» William Bright 1869 

George Simmons 1869 

William H. Quinn 1869 

William Stilley 1869 

Henry Finnegan 1869 

Edward J. McManiis 1869 

Fxl ward Mel mire 1869 

Charles McCloekey 1 869 

Henry F. Plckels 1869 

William 8. Hayes It69 

George H. Walter. ...1869 

William H. Fonik 1869 

JohnJones 1869 

M.L. Lichtenstolu 1869 

Charles H. Gallagher 1869 

Joseph R. Phillipe 1869 

Christian Febiger 1869 

Jvdward C. Johnson 1869 

Patrick Dillon 1870 

William L. Gilbert 1870 

Albert Thatcher 1870 

John W. Walker 1870 

Lewis Paynter 1870 

Wm. H. Fouik 1870 

Williams. Bullock 1870 

Joseph B. Phillipp 1870 

Henry Lea 1870 

» Joshua Marls 1871 

Peter B.H nested 1871 

William H. Qulun 1871 

Joshua Baker 1871 

Henry Finnegan 1871 

JohnG. Baker 1871 

Philip W. McDowell 1871 

Gilpin P. Underwood 1871 

Christian Febiger 1871 

Dennis J. Menton 1871 

William L. Gilbert 1872 

Henry B. Mclntire 1872 

August BIcta 1872 

James P. Hayes 1872 

William Canby 1872 

Wm. H. Fouike „187i 

M. L. Lichtenstein 1872 

John T. Richardson 1»72 

Eli Mendenhall 1872 

Lewis P. Lynch 1872 

Isaac Murray 1873 

Robert H. Taylor 1873 

William Green 1873 

John G.Baker 1873 

Henry F. Plckels 1873 

John P. McLear 1873 

John H.Adams. 1873 

Joseph R, Phillips 1873 

Gilpin B. Underwood 1873 

Christian Febiger 1873 

Mylee Burke 1873 

William M. Canby 1873 

Thomas Johnson 1874 

H. B. Mclntire 1874 

James P. Hayes 1871 

A. BIcU 1874 

1 Ralph McOaU was the first Democrat elected to Council since 1860. 

9 In 1869 the city was divided Into nine wards, by act of Assembly, and 
the City Conndl increased to eighteen members. Two members were 
elected to represent each ward. After 1870 nine members were elected 
annually for a terra of two years. 

* The city charter was further amended February 6, 1871, creating 
ten wards and Increasing the City Council to twenty members. • 

William Canby , 1874 

Wm. McMenamIn 1874 

William M. Canby 1874 

M. L. Lichtenstein 1874 

Henry W. Downing 1874 

Martin Farrell 1874 

Louis P. Lynch 1874 

David Ireland 1875 

Robert H. Taylor. 1 875 

James McGlInchey 1875 

Lewis Paynter 1875 

Dr. Obed Bailey 1875 

Joseph K. Adams 1<175 

John Jones 1875 

Gilpin B. Underwood 1876 

Christian Febiger 1875 

Thomas Ford 1875 

Tbomns Johnson 1876 

B. Frank Townseud 1870 

Caleb P. WIndle 1876 

John G. Baker 1876 

..1876 j 

.1876 I 

..1870 ' 

.1876 I 

.1876 I 

.1876 , 

William Canby 

Henry F. Plckels 

Seth H. Feaster 

Philemroa Chandler. 
Henry W. Downing 

John Dhtis 

Lewis P. Lynch 

Wm. J. Maxwell 1877 

R. H.Taylor 1877 

Samuel A. Price 1877 

Lewis Paynter 1877 

Henry Evans. 1877 

Aaron Conrad 1877 

Joseph K. Adams 1877 

H. W. Downing .1877 

JohnJones 1877 

Will lam B. Norton 1877 

Bennett Haslett 1877 

Edwin C. Knight .1877 

John Guthrie 1877 

Peter B. Huested 187& 

B. F. Townsend 1878 

James McGlinchey .1878 

Alex. J. Hart 1878 

Aaron Conrad 1878 

H.W. Downing 1878 

Philemma Chandler 1878 

Peter Wood 1878 

Richard Rowe 1878 

LewisP.Lynch 1878 

Merris Taylor 1879 

Robert H. Taylor 1879 

William H. Blake 1879 

Lewis Paynter 1879 

George Abele 1870 

James Carraichael 1879 

Joseph K. Adams 1879 

Caesar A. Rodney 1879 

William McMonamin 1879 

George T. Barnhill 1879 

David R.Smith 1879 

Dennis J. Menton 1879 

William Hanna 1879 

James McKenna 1880 

Benjamin F. Townseml 1880 

William F. Roblinnm 1880 

George Abele 1880 

Edwin C. Moore 1880 

Charles W. Talley 1880 

Abner P. Bailey 1880 

David R. Smith 1880 

Robert C.Shaw 1880 

Abraham I*. Beecher 1880 

4 William G. Baugh 1882 

James 31cKenna 1882 

Thumas Johnson 1882 

William H. BlHke 1882 

Lewis Paynter 1882 

F. B. F. Miller 1882 

David Stevenson 1882 

Levi Garrett 1882 

Lewis T. Gmbb 1882 

Joseph C. File 1882 

Dennis J. Mcnti»n 1882 

Alfre<l S. Denny 1882 

John M. Newell 1882 

Amos A. E fttburii ..1882 

W. II. Quinn 1882 

JameMMcKenna 1883 

Robert II. Taylor 1883 

WilliHm H. Blake 18«3 

George Abele 1883 

Martin Fa rrel ..1883 

Henry F. Pickels 1883 

Edwin C. Moore 1883 

Samuel Speakman 1883 

Joshua S. Stitzenberg 1883 

James Lynn 1883 

James Jlurrny 1883 

John M. Newell 1883 

David R. Smith 1883 

William G. Baugh .1884 

Thomas B. Brison 1884 

Merris Taylor I88i 

Martin Famll 1884 

B. F. Miller 1884 

Samuel H. Beyuard 1884 

Thomas H. Latlnitr 1884 

Lewie T. Gmbb.,.. 1884 

D.R.Smith 1884 

Dennis J. Menton 1881 

Alfred S.Denny 1884 

James McKennn 1885 

Robert H. Taylor 1^86 

William H. Blake 1885 

George Abele 1885 

Thomas Mitchell 1885 

Edwin (-*. Moore iggs 

John W. Hawkins .1885 

Francis T. Barney 1886 

George T. Baruhill 1885 

Jamee Murray 1885 

John M. Newell 1886 

Preston Ayars iggg 

Thomas B. Brison 1886 

Merris Taylor I886 

Isaac Diliin i886 

F. B. F. Miller 1886 

S. H. Baynaid 1886 

Samuel ChamberN i886 

William B. Norton 1886 

Daniel A. Forrest 1886 

Owen J. Heti(»ion 1886 

Francis T. Sawdon 1886 

The City Council, since the addition of the Twelfth 
Ward, is composed of twenty-four members, twelve 

4 By act of Assembly pawed Apiil 7, 1881, the time of the city elec- 
tion was changed from September to June, and the mayor and members 
of Council held over until the election in June, 1882. There was no 
election in 1881. The ending of the fiscal year was changed from Jan- 
uary to July. The Eleventh Ward was added to the city. Joslah V. 
Lawrence and Alfred Denny were named in the act to represaot UuU 
ward in Council until the next election. 

Digitized by 




of whom are elected annually, 
entire membership for 1887 : 

WflUam 0. Bangb. 
Preston Ayara. 
William H. Quino. 
JohD McTsy. 
Sttoiel McKaoney. 
M erris Tajlor. 
JaniM F. McGonigal. 
Ijaac OllUn. 
Levis A. Bower, 
r. B. F. Miller. 
Edwin C. Moore. 
Samod H. Baynard. 

The following is the 

John W. Hawkins. 
Samuel Chambers 
William McMenamin. 
Aaron S. Beale. 
Daniel A. Forrest. 
H. J. Sharkey. 
Charles A. Ryan. 
John White. 
Francis T. Sawdou. 
Owen J. Uession. 
James F. McBride. 


. 4,416 
. 6,268 
. 6,628 
. 8,462 

The following has been the population of Wil- 
mington at the dates given : 

1846 10,639 

1847 12,632 

1850 .13,979 

1860 21,258 

1870 30,841 

1880 42,499 

1888 66,188 

The first town hall was built over the west end of 
the Second St. market-house, with a frontage on 
Market Street. It was supported on arches extend- 
ing from the columns, which divided the market 
Italia, and when the borough officials were not occupy- 
ing the one room which it contained, it was used for 
the accommodation of one of the early schools. It 
waa erected in 1774, to provide accommodation for 
the Borough Council, which, since the establishment 
of Willingtown, in 1739, had been meeting at public 
taverns or at the residences of members. It had a 
•mall square cupola, surmounted by a spire and 
weather-vane. It was demolished about 1795, and a 
part of the lot where the City Hall now stands was 
purchased by the borough for £127. The owner of the 
remainder of the site wanted $816 for it, and the 
bargeases refused to give him more than 1640. Several 
enterprising citizens, well aware of the future impor- 
tance of the addition, made up the balance; the 
borough borrowed $1500 on bond, and in 1798 the 
City Hall was completed. Peter Bauduy drew the 
plans, and in 1798 it was undoubtedly '*a creditable 
mofement to the liberality and public spirit of the 
citizens of Wilinington." The following letter of 
Joseph Tatnall, then president of the Bank of Dela- 
ware, tells from what source the clock and bell were 

**rrindt and /tOoio-irinMiif,— I have for several years past appre- 
kM^cd that great oouveoleuce would arise to the inhabitantu of this 
boroagh by haTlng a commodioiu tiine-pltK:e erected Id a central part of 
the town. Inthefint place it would accelerate the punctual meeting 
0f the religioualj-dispoaed people at their placet of worship ; secondly, it 
vUlbeof service to tho«e who think themselvee not of ability to pur- 
chase time-i^eces ; and the last, but not least consideration is it will 
e ornamental to the place uf my nativity. Therefore, I have pro- 
1 from Europe a large and complete townolock of excellent work- 
hip, which I DOW preaeut to you for the use of the ttiwn, with a 
ssu of money not fxceeding S20U, to be laid out in a large, complete 
sad good bell to serve the clock as well as the Town Hall now erecUng, 
«hkk I beg yon to accept. 

*' I am your Friend, 

**J0S£PB Tatnau. 
" InntywlM Bridge, 5th mo. 22d, 1798." 

At a meeting of the burgesses May 25, 1798, the 

gift was accepted, in resolutions of thanks to Mr. 
Tatnall, and a copy ordered to be sent to him. The 
bell hung in the cupola of the hall from 1798 to 1866, 
and in those sixty-eight years it struck the hour of 
day over half a million times.^ 

In 1878 it was placed in charge of the Delaware 
Historical Society, and subsequently passed into the 
possession of the Phoenix Fire Company, who still re- 
tain it. The clock in 1849 was overhauled by Jacob 
Alrich, who said it would last for fifty years more. 
The City Hall has always been a focus of interest for 
the people of Wilmington. Besides being the meet- 
ing-place of Council and the court-house of Municipal 
Courts for three-fourths of a century, nearly all public 
meetings were held within iti walls. All the fire 
companies and many other corporations met there, 
and it was the scene of many notable public fes- 
tivities, including the banquet to Lafayette, Octo- 
ber 26, 1824. In the basement cells hundreds of 
prisoners have awaited trial or undergone penal 
sentences. The building is historic and honorable, 
and while Wilmington should preserve it as a souve- 
nir of the past, it is in itself now unworthy of a 
wealthy and public-spirited community. 

The first directory of Wilmington was issued in 
1814, and marked an epoch in the progress of the city. 
It was published by Robert Porter, then one of the 
proprietors of the Delaware Journal^ and also of the 
book-store, still maintained by his grrindson, Harry 
Porter, who owns one of the few copies of the direc- 
tory now in existence, and has granted the use of it 
for re-publication in these pages. The names of the 
streets north of Third, and parallel with it, were 
changed when the city charter was obtained, in 1832, 
the numerical titles taking the place of the original 
names. The streets that are now Fourth to Fifteenth, 
both included, were in 1814 known respectively as 
High, Queen, Hanover, Broad, Kent, Wood, Chestnut, 
Elizabeth, Dickinson, Franklin, Washington and 
Stidham. In the directory of 1814 the old street num- 
bers were used, and the list of names and residences 
was as subjoined : 

Adams, Mrs Corner French and Third St. 

Adams, Widow, geijilewoman 144 Shipley St. 

Alrich, Isaac, tailor 6 Market St. 

Aliich Thomas C, tinman 6 W. High St, 

Alrichs, Jacob k Co., machine shups Shipley, corner Broad St. 

Alriclis & Dixon, machine shops g E. Uanover St. 

Alrichs, David, carpenter Shipley, bet. Broad and Kent Sts. 

Alrichs, Jacob, machinist Brandy wine Walk. 

Alderdice, Jane, bonnet-maker 3 £. Second St. 

Allen, Eli, niachina-maker 14 E. Queen St. 

Anderson, Mrs 8 E. High St. 

Anderson, John, tobacconist 67 E. Front St. 

Anderson, Isaac, innkeeper 7 W. High St. 

Arbuckle, James, tavern-keeper, '*Spi-ead Eagle**.. Maricet St. 

Ashby, Nancy, seamstress Spring Alley 

Askew, Samuel, carpenter Kenuett Road. 

Bayard, James A., attomey-at-iuw 221 Market St. 

Basiett, Nathan, dry goods 05 Mnrket 8t. 

Baasett, Richard, Esq Cor. Third and French Sts. 

Barr, Neal, cooper 146 Market.St. 

Bailey, Joseph, dwelling 47 Market St. 

1 Park Mason, a somewhat noted personage in his day, was the town 
bellman for half a century. Ue was high constable of the borough of 
Wilmington for a docan or more years and was bailiff for City Council 
from lti32 to 1867. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Bailey & Co., apothecaries 49 Market St. 

Bailey, Henry, Johns & Co., tmdeni xligh cor. French St. 

Battereby. Jmnes, butcher Cor. French and Queen Sta. 

Ball, Peter, stage-driver W. Queen and High St. 

Barrett, Thomas, carniau Below Walnut, on Second St. 

Barnes, Miller, huckster 19 W. High St. 

Barnes, Nathan, shoemaker W. Queen St. 

Baker, George, ship-airponter 36 E. Water St, 

Btiker, Thomas, sea captain 6 K. Second St. 

Bannard, John, putter I2B. Second St. 

Baldwin, Sarah, milliner 16 E. Second St. 

Baldwin, Widow 29 Shipley St. 

Bail, Ann, milliner 32 King St. 

Beris, Joseph, carter King, cor. FrontSt. 

Bovit, Job. 

Bemis, John, machine-maker. 

Benderman, Bridget, huckster ....W. Hanover St. 

Betts, Benjamin, carpenter Wwt, bet. Hanover and Queen Sts. 

Bannard, William, cooper Walnut, below Second St 

Beckley, Solomon, brush-maker 9 W. High St. 

Beckley, Chester, tinman 83 and 85 Shipley St. 

Beckley, Nathaniel, tinman. ..Tatuall, bet. Queen and Hanover St. 

Beckley, Oren, tinman High, beyond West St. 

Beckley, Robinson &Spriiigt«r, carU luauutacturers, 44 W. High St. 

Beckiuy, Cliester, brush-maker and tinman 44 King St. 

Beckley, Justis, machine-maker 44 King St. 

Brigham, Mary, dry goods 37 Market St 

Bines, Rachel, dry goods 15 £. Second St 

Blackburn, Alexander, soap-boiler High, bel. Walnut St 

Blackwell, George, shoemaker 165 Market St. 

Black, Mary, gentlewoman 211 Market St. 

Bhick, Mary, baker 20 E.Second St 

Blackford, Garrett, dry goods 9 E. Second St 

Bogga, Ann, slop-shop 16 Market St 

Bowles, Widow, huckster 139 Market St 

Bowers, Thomas, shoemaker French, bet 3d and High Sts. 

Boon, Andrew, laborer Second, bel. Walnut Sts. 

Boddy, Stephen, saddler. 71 Market St 

Boyd, Matthew, tailor 30 E.Secnd St 

Bonsall, Widow, grocery 107 and 109 Market St 

Bousall, Isaac, book-binder 10 B. High St 

Bonsall, Hannah 29 E. High St 

Bonsall, John, stone-uiabou West St 

Bonsall, Eleanor, teacher 109 Market St. 

Bonsall, Hannah, seamstress 109 Market St. 

Broom & Davis, attorneys W. Third St. 

Broom, Widow, gentlewoman Oor. 3d and Shipley Sts. 

Brown, William, coach-maker 149 Market St 

Brown, Mary 156KingSt 

Brown, John A James, wtmyers Ji E. High St 

Brown, Isabella, shop-keeper 3 E. High St. 

Brown, William tanner 22 E. High St. 

Brown, Bei^amin, grocery store 4 W. High St 

Brinton, Darid, stage-office, "Indian King" tavtjrn, S. £. cor. 4th 
and Market Sts. 

Bringhurst, Joseph, apothecary 85 Market St 

Brobson, James, marshal 48 Market St 

. Brobson, WiUlam B., attorney- a t-Uw 48 Market St. 

Briuckle, Dr. John 76 King St 

Bryan, James, merchant W. Frunt, bet. Orange and Tatnall Sts. 

Bry^n, Hugh, laborer French, betFrontand Second Sts. 

Bradun, Thomas, grocery 7 E. Second St. 

Bradun, Thomas, tailor Tatuall, above Kent St 

Brookes, Widow, gentlewoman 91 Shipley St. 

Bradford, Mra., nurse 82 King St 

Bradford, M., printer and staiiuuer 36 Market St. 

Burgees, John, farmer I'nciture at end of Broad St. 

Burrows, Eliza, mantua-makcr French St. 

Burrows, John, stone-mason West St. 

Buchanan, Nathan, hatter 34 E. Second St 

Bush, William, merchant Bush's Wharf. 

Bush, David, captain Cor. French and Water Sts. 

Bush, Samuel, captain 30 King. cor. Second St. 

Bums, Mary, widow Cor. Hanover and French Sts. 

Byrnes, Daniel, cashier (Bank of Wilmington and Brandywine), 2 
W. Second St. 

Byrnes, Jonathan, apothecary 49 Market St. 

Camahan, Samuel weaver Cor. Orange and High Sts. 

Carnahan, James, wheelwright Konnett Road. 

Catterwood, Mary, widow 32 Kent St. 

Cannon, Ann, milliner ou Market St 

Caverly, Peter, gentleman 76 Market St 

Canby, Charles, clock and watchniakur 77 Market St 

Campbell, Joseph, gardener Brandywine Walk. 

Carshaw, Robert, stone-mason WestSt. 

Cable, Thomas, shoemaker 10 E. Second St. 

Carr, Nancy, spinster French, bet Third and High Sts, 

Chandler, BeBO-.hricklayer - W. Broad St 

Chandler, William, currier-shop 15 Shipley St. 

Chestnut A Harker, dry goods 22 Market St 

Chestnut, Jared, chair-maker 20 Market St 

Clark, William, hatter One door below 3d, on French St. 

Clark, Charles, painter and glazier Tatnall St. 

Clark, William, lumber merchant 39 Market St. 

Clark, Widow Orange, bet 3d and High Sts. 

Chtyton, Charlotte West, bet Kent and Broad Sts. 

Cloud, Widow, boardinghouse 219 Market St 

Oollina, William, gentleman 115 Market St 

Collins, James, tailor 23MarketSt 

Cochran, James, dry goods 57 Market St 

Cochran, Doctor 143 Shipley St. 

Coxe, Esau, brickmaker. 131 KingSt. 

Connelly, Dominie 147 King St 

Crozier, Thomas, shoemaker. 

Crosier, Widow 50 King 8t 

Conger, John 20 E. High St. 

Cole, Thomas, house-carpenter 37 E. Water St 

Conway, Patrick, tailor 18 B. Front St 

Cook, Zacheus, stage-office Cor. French and High Sts. 

Cook, William, nailer 11 E. Water St. 

Cw)k, William 8E. High St 

Crawford, John, weaver Hanover St 

Creetner, Jacob, tobacconist 5 Market St. 

Crompton, Charles, laborer 86 King St. 

Critson, Philip, shoemaker Cor. French and Queen Sts, 

Crawford, John, weaver W. Hanover St 

Crawford, James, carter 15 E. 3d St 

Crosby, James, spring wbeoluiaker W. Broad, bet Tatnall and 

West Sts. 

Crips, John, shoemaker Shipley, bet Broad and King Sts. 

Currey, William, barber 68 Market St. 

Croeier, Josltn, combmaker 14 E.2d St 

Curtz, Elizabeth, midwife ...Orange, bet Kent and Wood Sta. 

Davis, John, attorney-at-law 206 Market St 

Davis, James, teacher 136 King St. 

Davis, Peter, sexton 136 KingSt 

Davis, Matthew Brandywine Walk 

Dawson, Sarah, gentlewoman Walnut, opp. Methodist Charcb 

Dauphin, Joseph, ship-chandler 16 £. Water St 

Dauphin, Jane, widow, gentiewoumu...WtMt, bet Kent and Bruad 

Dauphin, Frederick, ropemaker West, bet. Kent and Broad Sts. 

Day, Joseph, shipwright Tatnall, bet. High and Queen Stt. 

Dare, E. K., teacher W French, bet 2d and 3d Sta. 

Derickton, Captain Nathaniel Cor. French and Kent Sts. 

Degrier, Doctor French, bet. Hanover and Broad Sta. 

Dell, Thomas, butoher Orange, bet High and Queen Sts. 

Devou, Bei\|amiu, shoemaker 3 West High St 

Dennison, Joseph, butoher French, near Second 

Dickinson, David, patent plonghmaker... W. Front, beyond Tatnall 

Dixon, John, merchant 199 Market St. 

Dixon, Isaac, machinist 197 Market St. 

Dingee, Daniel, shoemaker 78 King St 

Downey, Michael, carter 17 W. FrontSt 

Downing, Joseph, clerk 219 Market St 

Donaldson, Margaret, dry gomls 19 Market St. 

Doras, Barney, weaver Orange, bet Second and Third Sta. 

Dougherty, Captain 56 E. Second St. 

Dodge, Rev. Daniel 44 E. High St 

Dobby, William, laborer French St 

Dunlap, Margaret, spinster French St 

Duulap, Margaret, tuiloress French St 

Durell, Joseph, painter Shipley St 

Duddell, James, machine-maker. Cor. ot Kent and King Sta. 

Dunnott, Miller, bookbinder 105 Shipley St 

Duiton, William, carter Cor. French and Spnng Alley 

Elliott, John 93 Shipley St. 

English, Elisha, laborer. 

Erwin, Letitia 33 High St 

Erskine, bhicksmith 117 Shipley St 

Evans, Robert, hedger Near Believue St 

Fairlamb, Jonas P., surveyor and conveyancer 9 E. High St. 

Ferris, Ziba, clock and watchmaker 1 W. High St 

Ferris, John 161 Market St 

Fisher, George, blacksmith 12 E. Front St 

File, John, inn«keeper Christiana Feny 

Flemraing, John, grocer 113 Market, cor. Queen St 

Fletcher, James, butoher Orange, bet. Second and Third Sts. 

Flannelly, Michael, carpenter Orange, bet. Second and Third Sts. 

Foot, James, brickmaker. 

Ford, Samuel, teacher «171 Market St, 

Ford, Turbin, carter 15 E. Third Su 

Ford, William, bUcksuiith West, bet Kent and Bruad Sta. 

Fox, Mn., huckster Cor. French and Second Sts. 

Forrester, Dr. Alexander 161 Shipley St. 

Foei, James, plasterer 144 King St 

Fobee, Azariah, teacher 82 King, cor. High St 

Digitized by 




rrvocb k Wftj. cabiiMtimkeri 99 and 101 Market St. 

rnaeh, WUUain, cabinetmaker 148 King St. 

JTivDcfa, BebecGa,hackit«r 63 S. Front St. 

rwdd, John, kborar 68 R. Second St. 

riead, John, Jr, revenue iervice 33 K. Second St. 

VvmM, bther, mantuamaker.... French, bet. Second and Third Ste. 

FuwU, Jacob ^ French, bet Second and Third Sts. 

tWk)w»y, William, cooper Paetiire Si. 

Ourett, Christopher Tatnall, bet. Uighand Queen Ste. 

GariMf, JameS) dry goods 76 Market St. 

Oarriaoa, Gaptain 70 E. Second St. 

GeddM, Henrj, domestic dry ge^dv 28 Market St. 

6«irge, Bebeooa, gentlewoman 181 Market St. 

Ocet, Abraham, carpenter 168 King St. 

GilpiD, IdvAzd, Ironmonger 42 Market St. 

GOpiB, Abigail 28 E. Second St. 

GUpiD, WiUiam W. High St. 

6Upio,Jflwpb C, grocery 13 E. Second St. 

Gilpia, WUUaan 18 W. High St. 

Oilpio, Idw«rd 2^ King, cor. Second St. 

Ortfflog, Andrew, grocery 8 King St. 

Griflhig, John , shoemaker 7 E. High St. 

GiUlDg, ThoEui, dioemaker -J4 £. High St. 

Grifing, Edward, cooper 9 E. Water St 

Gibbons, Dr. William 121 Market St 

QOnon, Tbonuu, waterman Walnut St 

eilUi, James, diy goods and hatter 7o Market St. 

Gordon, John, merchant 7 W. Front St. 

Gocfex, WilUaun. Tatnall, bet ii^nt and Second Sta 

Orsbb, Joseph, tinman 17 E. Front St 

Gicgory, John French, bet Broad and Hanover Sts. 

Gfeu^ Ckleb, sea captain lU9 Shipley St 

GriflMS. John, stonemason Tatnall St. 

&usell, Sosan, nurse 49 Market St 

Geyer, Hetekiah, catUe French St 

Hsddock, Jacob nail factory, near tollhouse. Market St Wharf. 

HtiMi, Joseph, Sr 40 Front, cor. French Sts. 

HsiloweU, William J., potter Uniuge, bet Third and High Sts. 

HigMiy, John, shoemaker 73 Market St 

Hsmiltoo, Jamce, tailor Ill Market, cor. Queen Sts. 

HsBdlton, Archibald, attomey-at-iaw 6 W4>8t Queen St 

laadily, Henrietta, gentlewoman 11 East High St 

Haaam, Thomas, merchant 59 East Frout St 

Haeson, Samuel, carpenter „.. Walnut St 

HmmI, Jacob, bressfounder... W. Broad, bet Orange and Tatnall Sts. 

Usrp, David, waterman Itf King St 

Hsrris, John, shipwright Second, bet. Orange and Tatnall Sts. 

Harris Joseph, carpenter 24 E. Third St 

BarbiBon, David, boarding-house 48 King St 

HorUMo, William, Windsor chairmaker 66 King St 

Uaiker, Joseph, cartowner h B. Front St 

Herbert, Isaiah, laborer 13 E. Front St 

Hartlsy, Joseph C, grocer 50 Market St 

Hart, Oliver, laborer opp. African Church. 

Harvey, Charifs, dry goods 127 Market St 

Harrey, John ^ 127 Market St 

Harvey, Andrew, painter and gbizier.....,Uor. French and Broad Sts. 

Harvey, William, painter and glazier 5 E. Hanover St. 

Hajei, DavU, shoemaker 88 Market St 

iiayt, Henry, grocer 41 Market St 

Hayi, Stephen, cooper Near the Arsenal. 

Hayi, Joseph, co<^ter W. Front, bet. Orange and Tatnall Sts. 

Bsdrkk, Jubn, merchant 28 King St 

Hedges, Jolin, rupe-iuaker 10 Market St 

Hcdgas. Hannah, midwife Kennett Road. 

Hsmpbill, \\illi«ui, genUeman 102 Market St 

Heodrkkson, John, cart owner 35 King St 

Ueodrickson, Iseac, conveyancer 42 £. Second St. 

Hswes, Edward, clerk (Bank of Delaware) 94 Market St. 

Uigby, James, carpenter « 8 W. High St 

Hillcs, lli, boarding-«:hool 168 King St 

HiUea, Samuel, boarding-school 168 King St 

HickinaD, Aaron, carman Walnut, bet Front and Second Sts. 

HiU, John F., revenue service 28 E. Front St 

Hmaiao, Beqj., cooper .19 E. Front St 

Hon, Eatber and sister, spinstorM 25 E. Front St 

Uugg, Janie*, tallow chandler :tl E. Water St 

Hogg, Jane, baker ....» Cor. Unuige and High Sts. 

HoDingsworth, Eli, machine-maker 230 Market St 

Hohmo, William, carter Frout St 

HutikiiM. Charies, lieut U. & Aruiy ..31 Shipley St 

Buiwy, Outerbridge, attomey-at-law 215 Market St 

Uaikia, Jamee, fatU.rer 31 E. Second St 

Hoaiphreya, IVtfr. n etch maker U E. High St. 

Inel, Bamet Orange, bet Front and Second Sis. 

laael, John, pedler W. Second, bet Orange aud Tatnall Sts. 

bimroaudiy W. Second, beyond Tatnall St 

JMksoa, Joslln, dry goods „ 94 Market St 

Jecksuis BehMca ami Mary 29 E. Second St 

James, Mary, gentlewoman „ 195 Market St 

Jefferis, Bmsillai, turner 179 Market St 

Jefferis, Mrs., widow Shipley, bet Broad and Kent Sts. 

Jones, George, tailor 80 Market St 

Jones, Theophiins, shoemaker V Market St 

Jones, George, clock and watchuiaker 29 Market St 

Jones, Edward, sea captain Walnut above Spring Alley 

Jones, Rebecca, nurse Walnut above Front St 

Jones, Morgan, merchant 31 E. High St 

Jones. William G., cabinetmaker 13 Shipley St. 

Jonee, Widow 60 Shipley St. 

Jones, John, potter Orange St 

Jones, Widow 12 W. Front St 

Jones, Richard, farmer W. Second St 

Jones, Joseph, clerk Second, bet. Orange and Tatnall Sts. 

Jones, Philip, carpenter W. Third St 

Johnson, M. and E., bonnet-makers ,131 Market St. 

Johnson, Nathan, ship-carpenter Brandywlne Walk. 

Johnson, Caleb West, bet Second and Thii*d Sts. 

Johnson, Widow W. Second St 

Johns, D. Arthur, clerk Delaware District 

Kean, Matthew, dry goods 25 Market St. 

Kean, Mrs., gentlewoman 25 Market St 

Kendall, lanac, tailor 167 Market St 

Kendall, Widow Shipley, bet Kent and Wood Sts. 

Kendall, Samuel Shipley, bet Kent and Wood Sts. 

Kindigh, Abraham, stage driver French St 

King, William, laborer. 

Klrkpatrick, David, collector 116 Shipley St 

Kirk, Caleb, bellman French, below Second St 

Kirk, Widow Orange, cor. High St 

Kirk, Jacob, wheelwright Kennett Road. 

Kinsey, Abraham, teacher. 

Kinsey,Steacy, carpenter W. Broad St 

Lamborn, £11, Innkeeper 112 Market, cor. of Queen St 

Lamborn, Jonathan, tailor 4 Market St 

Lang, Mrs 144 King St 

Larken, William, grocer 10 W. High St. 

Latimer, Ann, gentlewoman 123 Market St 

Lavery, Michael, blacksmith 6j King St 

Lowery, Peter, blacksmith 18 E. Third St 

Leonard, Fred., lumber merchant...Market, near Christiana Bridge. 

Lewis, Evan, teacher 125 King, dwelling 125 Market St 

Linch, Margaret, spinster. ...French St 

Linch, Hugh, laborer 3 King St 

Lister, Edmund, revenue service Walnut St. 

Leslie, James, fence-maker Tatnall St 

Lockerman, Matthew R.. stationer and book-biud«r 93 Market St. 

Lock, Thomas, tanner Orange, bet Second and Third Sts. 

Lane, Robert, printer 116 King St. 

Lowndes, George cor. Kent and King Sts. 

Lowderback, Henry, blacksmith 23 E. High St 

Macfarlane, Robert, innkeeper cor. Market and Water Sts. 

McDowell, John, cooper Brandywlne St. 

Manuel, Jane, nurse 63 £. Front St. 

Marshall, Margaret 120 Market St 

Mackey, Widuw 164 King St 

Mason, Barrett 16 E. High St 

Mason, Peter, farmer ^23 Market St. 

Mason, Beuj., carpenter Bruad St 

Mason, Park, constable Shipley, bet Kent and Wood Sts. 

Matlack, Benj., carter 6 King, cor. Front St 

Massey, Thomas, manufacturer 140 Market St 

Massey, Ezekiel, toll-keeper Wilmington Bridge. 

Marrow, William, laborer Kent St. 

Megear, Mlchoel, hatter.. 144 Market St 

Meudeuhall, Eli, dry goods 17 £. Second St 

Mondeuhall, Joseph, grocer 25 King, cor. Second St 

Mendenhall, Thomas, Captain 69 B. Frout St 

Mendenhall, Phili|,, Lieut U. S. Army 69 K. Front St 

Merritt, Mrs 9 B. Water St 

Merrihew, Joseph, sea captain Cor. Walnut and Spring Alley. 

Meta, Henry 106 Shipley St 

Meti^ George, traveling bookseller W««t St. 

McAllister, Widow .32 Market St 

McAllister, A., shoemaker 104 Market St 

McBride, Mrs., nurse French St 

McCall, Andrew, tobacoonist 46 Market St 

McCall A White, tobacconists 33 Market St. 

McCall, Eliia, nurse 67 E. Front St 

McCall, Isaac, carter French St 

McOarton, John, grocer 9 Market St 

McCtorroll, Widow W. Second St 

McClary, Margaret, tailorew 6 E. Second St 

McClary, Samuel, machine-maker Cor. High and French Sts. 

McClear, Mary, milliner ^..68 Market St 

McCiung, John, tailor M Market St. 

McCorkle, Mary, miiliuer 79 Market St. 

McOonnell, Thomas, goldsmith and Jeweler 122 Market St 

Digitized by 




HcOoombs, Jacob, carter Orange St. 

McCoy, Daniel, laborer French St. 

McDowell, Thomas, merchant. Ciutuni House Wharf. 

McDowell, Jane, seamstress Brandywine Walk. 

McGinn, innkeeper 1 King, cor. of Water St. 

McIWane, John, shoemaker 31 Market St. 

Mclntyre, William, stone-mason Orange St. 

Mclntyre, Christopher, laborer Orange St 

Mclntyre, Michael, plasterer W. Hanorer St. 

MoKnight, James, cooper French St. 

McKinney, M. Major, domestic store 19 E. Water St. 

McKean, Ann, talluw chandler 142 King St. 

McKean, James, shoemaker 31 Market St. 

McKee, Hugh, carpenter 183 Market St. 

McLane, Allen, Colonel, collector of the port, French, two doors 
above Second St. 

McLane, Louis, attomey-at-law 119 Market St. 

McLane, Allen, Jr., doctor .^77 Market St. 

McLane, Mary, storekeeper French St. 

McLane, Charles, tailor .33 K. Second St. 

McLaskey, John, cake man W. Front St. 

McManyman, Barney, tailor French St. 

McNeal, Valentine, shoemaker 100 Market St. 

McSparren, Widow, huckster Front St. 

Miller, William, brickmaker Church Lane. 

Miller, Caleb, butcher Orange St. 

Milligan, Catharine, gentlewoman 169 Market St. 

Milligan, Grace, midwife 25 E. Second St. 

Mitchell, John, millwright Cor. Chestnut and French Sts. 

Monroe. Qeorgs, doctor 26 Market St. 

Montgomery, Widow, dry goods 185 Market St. 

Montgomery, Elizabeth, teacher 185 Market St. 

Moore, Joseph, shoemaker 68 Market St. 

Moore A Robinson, coach-makers Market, cor. of Hanover St. 

Moore, John, stage-drirer French St. 

Moore, Nathaniel, ooach-maker ..French, b«>t. Front and Second Sts. 

Moore & Ritchie, Uilors 6 £. Second St. 

Moore, Robert, coach-maker 80 Shipley St. 

Moore, Enoch, shipwright Orange, bel. Front St. 

Moore, Widow Queen, bet. Marketand Shipley Sts. 

Morrison, Thomas, carter Orange St. 

Mount, John, stone mason 83 Shipley St. 

Mowltn, Richard, constable Shipley St. 

Murdock, James, livery stable 8 E. Second St. 

Murphy, Arthur, huckster 13W. FrontSt. 

Kaff, Hance, auctioneer and flour inspector 82 Market St. 

Newlin, Cyrus 201 Market St. 

Newlin, Joseph, carpenter 92 King St. 

Nichols, Samuel, dry goods 82 Market St. 

Nicholi, Hannah 46 E. Queen St. 

Nicholls, John, laborer French St. 

Noblett, Dell, cabinetmaker Shipley, bet. Broad and Kent Sts. 

O'Dantel, Francis, Justice of the peace 63 Market St. 

O'Daniel, Peter, tailor 3 Market St. 

Ocheltree, Elizabeth, dry goods 6 E. Second St 

Oclieltree, Eliza, milliner 6 B. Second St. 

O'Flinn, Capt. Patrick, innkeeper S. £. cor. 3d and Market Sts. 

Otiey, Abner, brassfounder Shipley, bet Kent and Wood Sts. 

Our, David, dk Co., domestic cotton yarns 96 Market St. 

Painter, Saml., rush bottom chair-moulder 148 Market St 

Patterson. John, dry goods utO Market St 

Patterson, Wni., saddler 61 Market St 

Paulson, Aaron, dry goods 43 Market St 

Penington, Ashbury, Sr., bookbinder 98 Shipley St 

Pepper, Henry J , si'versmith and Jeweler 60 Market St 

Pepper, Lydia, milliner 60 Market St 

Perkins, Widow, geutlewoman..« 175 Market St 

Perriue, John, bricklayerand stonemason French St 

Peterson, Jacob, carpenter 61 E Second St 

Peterson, John, innkeeper ** Museum Tavern." 

Peterson, John, turner Orange St 

Pbysick, Heury W., gentleman 54 King St 

Pierce, Joseph, druggist 62 Market St 

Pierce, Dinah, boarding-house 208 Market St 

Pierson, Robert, carpenter-shop 116 Market St 

Pierson, Jonathan, painter 127 Shipley St 

Piueselt, Solomon, captain French, near African Church. 

Pineselt, Uriah, captain „ 41 E. FrontSt. 

Plumley, Jjunes, tavern W. Front, bey. Tatnall St 

Poole, RichHrd, shoemaker 8 Market St 

Poole, William, shoemaker 40 King St 

Pugue, John, fisherman 29 E. FrontSt 

Pogue, William^ shoemaker 37 E. Front St 

Porter, R., printer, stationer, etc. ..97 Market ; office, 97 Shipley St 

Porter, Alexunder, livery stable 64 Shipley St 

Pryce, Rev. Wm 226 Market St 

Rankin, Wm 164 King St 

Rankin, Wm., teacher West, bet Kent and Bruad Sta. 

Rea, Moses, stonemason 203 Market St 

Read, Jos., surveyor, conveyancer and accountant.. .205 Market St. 

Read, Thomas, Rev French, bet Kent and Broad Sts. 

Reading, Mrs., gentlewoman 229 MaiicetSt 

Reason, Margaret, widow W. Queen St. 

Reynolds, John, ironmonger Market, cor. 3d St 

Rice, James, grocer Market, cor. Water St 

Richardson, Thomas, coacbmaker 202 Market St 

Richardson, John Cor. French and Third Sts. 

Richards, Nathaniel, dry goods 14 W. High St 

Richards, Wm., ironfounder W. 2d, bet. Orange and Tatnall Sta. 

Richards, Wm., flour and feed store 56 Shipley St. 

Richmond, Samuel, weaver » Orange St. 

Riley, Samuel, chairmaker 27 E. Front St. 

Ring, Wm., nailer 13 E. Water St 

Ritchie, Elifsabeth, huckster , Tatnall St 

Robinson, Nicholas 86 Klug St 

Robinson, Israel, carpenter French St. 

Robinson, Wm., coachmaker... French, bei. Mauover and Broad Sto. 

Robinson, Wm., shoestore 9d Market St 

Robinson, Ebenezer, grocer 32 Market St. 

Robinson, Jos., merchant 19 EL Second St. 

Robinson, Aquilla, carpenter 79ShipIej St 

Robinson, Thomas Orange, near Second St 

Robinson, Jacob, carter. 

Robinson & Gwynn, chair manufacturers 16 Market St 

Roblnett, David, captain Revenue SerHce. 

Robinett, Rachel French, ab. 3d St 

Roberts, Lydia, gentlewoman French, ab. 2d St 

Roberts, Catharine 121 Market St 

Roche, Ed ward Justice of the peace 90 Market St 

l^ney, Csesar A., attorney-at-law ^ 193 Market 8t 

Rollins, Thomas, hatter 63 Shipley St 

Rose, Samuel, confectioner 31 King St 

Ross, Samuel, grocer 12 Market St 

Ross, Samuel & Co., merchants Market Street Whnrf. 

Ross, John, grocer 21 West Front St 

Rudolph, John, butcher and commissary U. S. A ..13 Market St. 

Rumsey, John and William, gentlemen 21 Market St. 

Rumford, John, potter, brickmaker, etc 92 Market St. 

Rumford, Sarah 11 E. High St 

Rumford, Samuel, hatter Hanover, bet King and Fremh Sta. 

Rumford, Thomas, printer Hanover, bet. King and French Sta. 

Rumford, William, hatter 67 and 136 Market Sta. 

Ring, Thomas, tanner 39 King St 

Sanders, Abel, carpenter 162 King St. 

Sanders, John, painter and glacier 77 King St 

Savill, Levi« High, near Walnut St 

Savill, Jonathan, blacksmith 10 E. Hanover St 

Savill, John, wood-corder 179 Market St 

Savier, Mary, storekeeper 84 King St 

Scanlin, John, grocery 66 Market St 

Scott, Robert, hatter 140 Shipley St 

Schrader, Frederick, gunsmith «uid tavern-keeper... West, cor. Han- 

Sherwood, Juhn, hatter Orange, below High St. 

Sellars, Juhn, hatter 51 Market St; factory, 64 Shipley St. 

Seeds, Joseph, machine-maker Cor. Third and French Sts. 

Seal, Widow 7u Shipley St 

Seal, Caleb West, cor. Hanover St 

Seal, William West, cor. Hanover St 

Seal, William and Caleb Un-yard West, cor. Hanover St 

Sharpe, Eli, tavern-keeper. 11 Market, cor. of Front St 

Sharpe, A bial, sea captain West FrontSt 

Sbarpe, Jacob, carpenter 44 E. Second St 

Sheward, John and Perry, cabinetnuikers ,...207 Market St 

Sheward, Caleb, brewer and maltster, W. Second, bet Orange and 
Tatnall Sts. 

Shiveri, Thomas, gentleman 94 King 8t 

Sheets, Get»rgo, Rev Near King and Broad Sta. 

Shipley, William, butcher 66 Shipley Sta. 

Shipley, Joseph, brewer and maltster Tatnall, cur. High St 

Shipley, Robert, Thomas and John, farmers West, cor. High St. 

Simmons, George, carpenter and lumber merchant, M'at«r smd 
French Sts. 

Simpson, John, weaver and dyer .H7 Shipley St. 

Sims, Joseph, gentleman Coul Spring. 

Simpson, James, shoes and dry goods. lu W. French St 

Smith, Dr E. A King, cor. Broad St 

Smith, Dr. Robert S King, cor. Broad St 

Smith, Thomas, tannery W. Second, beyond Tatnall St, 

Smith, William, coach trimmer 162 King St. 

Smith, John, painter and glazier 18 Market St 

Smith, John, starch manufacturer Walnut and High Sta. 

Smyth, David, domestic yarn-store 95 Market St 

Smith, Charles, tallow chandler Tatnall St 

Sneath, Sarah, milliner 70 Market St. 

Solomon, Isaac, grocer 20 Market St 

Spackmaa, Thomas, bricklayer West 8t 

Springer, B. H. Fianvh, below TbiidSt. 

Digitized by 




Springer, Peter, wbeelwriffht 48 King St. 

Springer, John, tailor 46 Market St. 

^nger. Thomai, sboetnak^r 79 Kinjc St. 

Speny, John, grocer Hanover St. 

Spocia, John, baker King, cor. High St. 

Squibb, Robert, cnrriershop 24 W. Uigti St. 

StagK, Joeiah. brickmaker Chnrcli Lane. 

Sta&ton, Tbomaa, Unner W. High, bet. Tatnall and Wast Sta. 

Starr, Gkleb, teller in Bank of Delaware. 

Starr, Joabua, tanner West. bet. Second and Tbird Sta. 

Stapler, Jobn, merchant.. Front, bet. Orange and Tatnall Sta 

Stewart, Dancan, revenne eervica .38 King St. 

8teTen«m, Inac, Bsq., surveyor and conveyancer, Broad and King 

Stidbam, Peter 23 Shipley St. 

Sttdham, John, waterman „.W. Front St 

Stigers, Jordan, cart wrIght Orange St 

Stockton, John, General 71 Slilpley St 

Stnmd, Samuel '.69 Shipley St 

StargcM, Jonathan, bhoemaker Walnut St 

Tklley, John, laboi«r Walnut St 

Tiylor, Andrew, baker 62 Market St 

Tlijlor, Eiiza, milliner 62 Market St 

Taytor, Samuel, grocery 47 Market St 

Ti^kir, Gaorge ». 14 King St 

Taylor, A. F., hatter 0pp. AfHcan Church. 

Tajlor, John, trader C!or. Front and French Sts. 

Taytor, Charles, shoenwker 42 E. Second St 

Taykn', Debonh, widow 'W. Queen St 

Tbomaou, Allan, dry goods Market, cor. High St. 

Thomas, Edward, tavern-keeper 39 Market St 

Tbelwell, Drborah, teacher 88 King St 

Thomaa, John B., tailor 10 E. Queen St 

Torbert, John, Esq 76 Shipley St 

Towaaend, William, carpenter 99 Shipley St. 

TowDsend, Mary, widow.. W. SecondSt 

ToMn, Thomas, gentleman Orange St 

Thiner, Susan, huckster Walnut St 

Trip A Bonsall, curriers Cor. Tatnall and Second Sts. 

Treat, William, stagenuin French above Second St 

Tall, J6hn, carpenter lUO Shipley St 

Toaey, Alex., carter Church Lane. 

Uhaan, Widow, gentlewoman 117 Market St 

▼andiver, Rebecca, mantua-maker 164 King St 

Vangban, EUza L., dry goods 72 Market St 

Tining, Mia, gentlewoman^ Brandywlne Walk Market 

fining, Henry, printer Tatnall above Queen St 

Tirtws Margaret, grocery Cor. Water and King Sts. 

Wagataff, James k Hugh, spindle makers, 188 Market St, W. Kent 
near Shipley, dweliiug on Kennett Roid. 

Walker. Eliza, milliner 44 Market St 

Walker, William, blacksmith Market St., near toll-house. 

Wallace, Thomas, brick maker..... French, near African Church. 

Wallace, Samuel, pnmpwrigbt Cor. French and High Sts. 

Walraven, Jesse, carp nter 39 E. High St 

Ward, John, mill 128 Shipley St 

Ward, John, stage-driver 7 W. High St. 

Warner, John, fitrmer West St. 

Warrington, Thonoas, house<arpenter 2 E. Second St. 

Watt John, Jr, watch and clockmaker 34 Market St 

Watson, Thomas, butcher French, near Second St. 

Warwk*, Abraham Tatnall, near Front St 

Way, Francis, huckster W. Front 8t 

Weaver, William B., watchmiaker 52 Market St 

Webiter, John, bricklayer. 

Webster, John, steddler King, cor.of High St. 

Webb, Be^j., laborer 07 E. FrontSt 

Webb, Widow, grocery Shipley, near HanoverSts. 

Webb, BeqJ., tanner West bet. Hanover and Queen Sts. 

Webb, Uichulas, laborer 169 Market St 

Welch, John, U borer Second, below Walnut St 

Wella, Arthur A., grocery King, cor. High St 

White, Martha, umbrella-maker and layer-out of the dead, 80 Mar- 
ket 8t. 

Witaill, Adam, cedar-cooper 10 E. Water St 

White, Nicholas B., carpenter 108 Market St 

White, John, apothecary and china store 106 and 110 Market St 

White, Robert merchant - 33 Market St 

Whitelock, George, cabinet-maker l:j7 Market St 

Whitekick, Martha W. Queen, near WestBts. 

Wkkersbam, Tbomaa, trader 138 Market St 

WOUamson, Nicholas G., attorney at-law 77 Shipley St. 

Wilklason, William, cooper West, near High Sts. 

WOkioson, Robert ft Co., tanners 40 W. High St 

Wilson, James, editor, publisher and stationer, 103 and 105 Market 

WHaoQ, James, laborer 144 King St 

Wilson, Susan, gentlewoman 43 E. High St 

.Jane. ^ 11 E. Second St. 

Wilson, Carson ft David, tan-yard W. 3d, near Tatnall Sts. 

Windell, William, revenue service. 

Winterbottom, Thomas, huckster, bath-house, W. Front, beyond 
Tatnall Sts. 

Witherspoon, Thomas, late clerk of district 122 Market St 

Wiisill, George, cedar cooper 10 E. Water St 

WItslll, Henry, cedar cooper Shipley, oor. High St 

Woolfe, Nanc3', boarding-house 150 Market St 

Wolfe, General Jamos, silversmith Market, cur. of High St. 

Wolfe, Michael, baker West Front, near Tatnall St 

Wolfe, John, baker West Front, near Tatnall St 

Wooston, Jeremiah, grocer 142 Market St 

Wollaston, Joshua, bricklayer Shipley, near Broad St 

Wood, Samuel, coppersmith and tin plate worker 63 Market St. 

Woodslde, Widow, teacher 11 Shipley St 

Woodcock, William 4 W. High St 

Worrell, Edward, cashier Bank of Delaware 64 King St 

Worthington, Joseph, stage driver Third, below French St 

Wrench, Henry, carpenter West Brund St. 

Yamall, Edith, dry goods 6 W. High St 

Yeats, Widow 45 Shipley St 

Teates, C. and A., tobacconists 24 Market St 

Toung, George, machine maker 35 E. Front St 

Zane. Joel, teacher 66 E. Front St 

There were 112 colored people. 

Inhabitants of Brandt/wine Village. 

Anderson, William Merchant 

Askew, Parker Merchant 

Ban nard, Robert ..Cooper 

Bt«ck, John Laborer 

Boyd, John Cooper 

Bullock, Curtis Inn-keeper 

Ounpbell, Colin Tailor 

Can by, Samuel Merchant miller 

Canby, James Merchant miller 

Canby, William. 

Canby, Merritt Clerk 

Canby, William Carpenter 

Carlisle, William Cooper 

Chandler, James Cooper 

Clark, William Carpenter 

Conwell, Ellas Cabinet maker 

Cooper, William Hiachine maker 

Cummings, Inaac Miller 

Dougherty, Charle* Laborer 

Davis, George Carpenter 

Davinport, — Machine maker 

Derrickson, Jacob Millwright 

Draper, Alexander Shipbuilder 

Dnlton, Jacob Millwright 

Duncan, Jethro Cooper 

Elliott BeiKfiunin ". Butcher 

EUis, Benlamln Miller 

Ewing, John. Laborer 

Ferris, Benjamin Cotton manufacturer 

Feight, Manuel Cooper 

File, Samuel Cooper 

Freil, Daniel Huck»ter 

Fulton, John Cooper 

Garrison, Wm Miller 

German, James Waterman 

Gregg, John Cooper 

Grimes, Joseph Cooper 

Harris, Stephen Waterman 

Harris, Samuel Cooper 

Harris, Jesse Co»»per 

Hawkins, Thomas Cooper 

Hayes, John Cooper 

Hemphill, William Miller 

Hewes, Ellis Miller 

Hindman, John , Cooper 

Hull, Thomas J Clerk 

Hoopes, Henry Lumber merchant 

Hooten, Jacob Innkeeper 

Jefferis, Jonathan Miller 

Lea, Thomas Merchant miller 

Lea, Thomas, Jr Merchant miller 

Martin, Lazarus Blacksmith 

Malin, Joeeph Gentleman 

Mace, Thomas Miller 

McConnell, Henry Machine maker 

McConnell, William Cooper 

McKinzey, William Machine maker 

McKee,Andrew Farmer 

McGee, Alexander Miller 

Michael, John Millwright 

Moore, David Waterman 

Moore, Robert Teacher 

Digitized by 




Murdock, WiUiam - Cooper 

Payne, George Machine maker 

Pierce, Amoe Carpenter 

Pierce, William Millwnj?iit 

Pierson, Richard Cooper 

Pool, William Mprchant miller 

Poulaon, Mrs dtorokeeper 

Poiilsun, Isaac Shoemaker 

Poll Ison, George Shoemaker 

Price, Jamee Merchant miller 

Pyle, Joel Cooper 

Rawsou, Warren Ship carpenter 

Reynolds, WillUm BlackimJlh 

Reynolds, Thomas Blacksmith 

Rice, James Cooper 

Rice, Henry Cooper 

Roesell, Stacey Blacksmith 

Roseell, John MUler 

Shipley. Joseph Merchant miller 

Shipley, Samuel Merchant miller 

Shipley, John Merchant miller 

Smith, Robert Ship carpenter 

Smith, Thomas Cooper 

Smith, William Shoemaker 

Smith, James Cooper 

Smith, Thomas Laborer 

Smithell, Joseph Cooper 

Springer, William Cooper 

Starr, Jacob Waterman 

Stidham, John Miller 

Smart, William Cooper 

Tatem, Charles Blacksmith 

Tatnall, Edward Merchant miller 

Thompson, Mordecai Cooper 

Thompson, Thomas Farmer 

Vanderer, Peter Farmer 

Vandever, Tobias Farmer 

Yandegrift, James, Miller 

Valentine, Abraham, colored. 

Walker, Davis Shoemaker 

Walker, Andrew Cooper 

Watkins,B«iOamin. Cooper 

Weathereau, John Cooper 

Weatherby, William Gentleman 

Wilson, John Waten^ian 

WiUiams, Richard Miller 

Woodruff, Joseph Farmer 

Woodward, William Cooper 

Toung, William Cooper 

Ministers of the Gospel in Wilmington in 1814 
were Revs. Read, D.D., Daniel Dodge, William 
Pryce, George Sheetz and William Meeks. The 
places of worship were the Friends' Meeting, West 
Street ; First Baptist meeting-house, on King Street ; 
First Presbyterian Church, corner Market and Tenth ; 
Second Presbyterian Church, corner Walnut and 
Fifth ; Trinity Church (Old Swedes), then " below the 
borough on the Christiana ; " Methodist meeting- 
house, Walnut, below Third ; Zion Church (colored) 
and African Union, nearly opposite ; New Baptist 
meeting-house, corner of French and Sixth. 

The practicing physicians were Drs. E. A. Smith, 
George Monro, William Gibbons, Allen McLane, 
John Brinkle, Robert S. Smith, Alexander Forrester, 
Richard E. Cochran, Arthur Johns, J. Degier, James 

The attorneys were James A. Bayard, Outerbridge 
Horsey, Csesar A. Rodney, Brown & Davis, Louis 
McLane, Archibald Hamilton, N. G. Williamson, 
William P. Brobson. 

Edward Roche and Francis O' Daniel held the 
office of justice of the peace. Jonas P. Fairlanb, Isaac 
Stevenson and Joseph Reed were surveyors. 

The Bank of Delaware was at the corner of Market 
and Fourth, but removed to its present site the next 

year. The capital was $110,000. Joseph Baily was 
president and Edward Worrell cashier. This bank 
was then nineteen years old. The Bank of Wil- 
mington and Brandy wine was at that time located 
at its present site. John Way was president and 
Daniel Byrnes cashier. Capital, $120,000. The 
Farmers' Bank was the third door above Third on 
Market, with John Rumsey, president and Peter 
Caverly, cashier. 

Colonel Allen McLane was collector of customs, 
with office at 10 E. Water St. Joseph Bringhurst was 
botanist. The arsenal was on Washington Street, 
above Eighth. Reliance Fire- Engine House, West 
Third Street, between Market and Shipley. Friend- 
ship Engine-House, corner of Seventh and Shipley. 
Brandywine Engine-House, near Brandywine Bridge. 

The Wilmington and Philadelphia stages left 
David Brinton's Indian King Hotel every morning at 
eight o'clock, and Anderson's coachee for same city, 
left Swan Tavern (now Gibson House) at same hour, 
taking four hours to go to Philadelphia, and that 
was pretty good time by stage. Cook's coachee, 
started at Christiana Bridge Inn, daily at seven a.m., 
and arrived at Philadelphia at one P. M. The south- 
ern mail-coach stopped at Indian King for breakfast 
every morning at seven o'clock. The northern 
mail-coach from Baltimore stopped at same public 
inn for dinner. The *' Exposition '* and *'Pilot" 
were stages of other lines running north and south, that 
also stopped daily for meals. Members of Congress 
were frequently on these stages going to and from 
Washington, and partook of meals, at this time pre- 
pared by David Brinton. His tavern was known as 
the stage-office. Stages for down the Peninsula also 
started from here daily. 

There was one steamboat to Philadelphia in 1815, 
the " Delaware." The packet boats, ** Ann," Captain 
Bush ; " Tryphena," Captain Garretson ; " Sarah 
Ann," Captain Dougherty, plied between Wilmington 
and Philadelphia, one of which left or arrived at 
either place daily. 

In 1814 the Abolitionist Society in Wilmington 
flourished. A society for the education of colored 
children, a female benevolent society, one Masonic 
lodge, and a musical organization of young gentlemen. 

Mail was received daily. The great Northern and 
Southern mail route passed through Wilmington. It 
was surveyed between June, 1812, and January, 1813, 
and extended from Robinstown, Maine, to St. Mary's, 
in Georgia. The Northern route, from Washington 
City to Robinstown, the Northeast coast of Maine ^ 
was eight hundred and sixty-eight miles. The South- 
ern route, from Washington to St. Mary's, G^eorgia, 
eight hundred and twelve miles. 

The country-seats and mansion-houses in view of 
Wilmington (the sites of most of which are now in the 
city limits) in 1814 were those of Colonel Alexander 
Fairfield, David Alrichs, Peter S. Alrichs, south of 
Christiana River; Peter Bauduy, Eden Park; Hon. 
James A. Bayard, Thomas Beeson, Philadelphia Road; 

Digitized by 




Dr. John Brinkle, John Hirons, John Shallcross^ Ken- 
nett Tornpike; J. M. Brown, E^-> Tusculum Boadi 
Wilmington Turnpike ; Peter Brynberg, Healthy Hill ; 
Dr. Colesbury, near Red Lion Road ; Andrew Crips, 
Poor-House Road; Benjamin Elliot, north of Bran- 
dywine; Jane Elliott, Sheaf of Wheat Tavern, Phila- 
delphia Road ; Robert Hamilton, Esq., near Delaware 
River; William Hemphill, Shellpot Hill; Major 
Peter Jaquett, Long Hook, New Castle Road ; Cap- 
tarn Peter Jaquett, farmer. Locust Grove, Christiana 
Ferry; Isaac Jones, north of Brandy wine; John 
Piatt, Chatham ; Henry Rice, near Prospect Hill ; 
Aahton Richardson, John Richardson and Joseph 
Bobmson, Newport Road ; Caesar A. Rodney, Esq., 
Cool Spring; Samuel Spackman, Philadelphia Road>* 
John Smith, Leipsic ; Thomas Smyth near Delaware 
River ; Isaac Stidham, Point Pleasant ; General John 
Stockton, Bedford, near Christiana; Dr. James Tilton, 
Bellevue, near King's Road ; John Townsend, Adam 
Tnmhill, south of Christiana; William Tussey, 
Shellpot Hill ; Thomas Yandever, east of Brandywine 
Creek ; William Walker, merchant, south of Chris- 
tiana ; Captain John Warner, near Newport Road ; 
John Washington, inn-keeper, Cross Keys, Kennett 
Tampike ; John Way, near King's Road ; John 
Wethered, Prospect Hill. 

The records of Willingtown and Wilmington, as 
preserved by tradition and print, are replete with 
interesting incidents of the people who made the city. 
There was a good deal of wealth in the old commu- 
nity, and its owners were much given to investing it 
io fine houses and costly furniture. The early clergy 
were not, as a rule, overburdened with temporal for- 
tune, but Rev. Peter Tranberg, rector of Old Swedes' 
from 1742 to 1748, built at the corner of French 
Street and Spring Alley a residence for himself, which 
was the most elegantly furnished in town. His 
widow lived there many years after his death, and 
hit descendants occupied it to the sixth generation. 

His only son was an officer in the Revolution, and 
Colonel Benzel, who married his eldest daughter, 
waa stationed at Crown Point, New York, about 1750, 
and died in the service of King George. His young- 
est daughter married Orloff Parlin, pastor of Old 
Swedes' Church, Philadelphia, from 1750 to 1767. 

Dr. John McKinley, the first President of Dela- 
ware, resided at the northwest comer of Third and 
French Streets, where he built a mansion ; back of 
which, extending to King Street, was a beautiful gar- 
den of tulips and other rare floweri*. One of his dis- 
tinguished guests was Alexander H. Rowan, the Irish 
nobleman, then an exile in Wilmington. The doctor 
died here in 1796. The property was afterward occu- 
pied by Gevemor Caleb P. Bennett. Late in life he 
wrided on the west side of Market Street, just below 
the Lore Building. 

Dr. Didie, a French physician of note, and for- 
merly a surgeon in Napoleon Bonaparte's army, lived 
on the west side of French Street, opposite the pres- 
ent lite of Wesleyan Collie Building. J. B. Garesche 

the wealthy Frenchman, owner of the Eden Park 
Powder-Mills, lived on the east side, and Dr. Bayard 
at the corner above, until his death, in 1802. 

Dr. Ebenezer Smith, Revolutionary surgeon, and 
whose father was one of the earliest Presbyterian 
ministers in Lancaster County, Pa., resided at Seventh 
and King Streets. He was health officer when the 
yellow fever prevailed here in 1802. His brother. Dr. 
Samuel Stanhope Smith, was president of the Collie 
of New Jersey, at Princeton, from 1795 to 1812. One 
of his sons, also a physician, died in Mississippi, 
where he had gone to recuperate his health ; and his 
daughter, Eliza B. Smith, was killed by lightning in 
July, 1824, while sitting by an open window in the 
third story of their home. A second son was ap- 
pointed assistant Professor of Mathematics at West 
Point Military Academy. He died of typhoid fever 
during a summer vacation. Captain Joseph Nichol- 
son, of the United States Navy, was a neighbor to 
Dr. Smith. 

Captain Prole owned the house at southeast corner 
of Second and Walnut Streets. It had an orchard in 
the rear, and in 1796 he sold the property to Robert 
Montgomery, who laid out a beautiful flower garden 
around the house. He made a tour of Europe when 
quite young and spent a year or more in France. He 
entertained the Governor (Thomas McKean) of 
Pennsylvania four months in 1797, when the yellow 
fever prevailed in Philadelphia. 

Isaac Henderson, a merchant trader of the last 
century, resided at the northwest corner of Second 
and French Streets. Captain Elisha Brown, soon 
after the Revolution, bought this property, and in 
1791 sailed for the West Indies. He and his crew 
were lost at sea. Colonel Allen McLane afterwards 
lived in the mansion at the northeast corner of 
Second and French Streets, and John Stapler owned 
the honse next above. 

Phebe, widow of John Vining, United States Sena- 
tor from 1793 to 1798, lived at the southeast corner of 
Third and French Streets, and from there to Water 
Street was the court end of town in those days. 

James A. Bayard, Sr., who died soon after his re- 
turn from signing the treaty of peace with England, 
in 1814, once occupied this house, and Oovemor Baa- 
sett, his father-in-law, once resided in it. 

The Bush family, in colonial days, lived at the 
corner of King and Water Streets, and Captain Giles, 
a wealthy trader, resided at the northwest corner of 
King and Front Streets. His children were a son and 
a daughter. The latter married a young man named 
Malcolm, who was drowned in the Delaware a few 
days after the wedding, while boating with a party of 
his young friends. Captain Joseph Gilpin married 
the young widow and for a long time occupied the 
Giles homestead. He was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tion, and moved to the West, where he lived to the 
age of eighty-nine years. His brother, Israel Gilpin, 
lived to be nearly one hundred years old. At the 
southwest corner of Second and King Streets Edward 

Digitized by 




Gilpin long resided. He moved to Philadelphia, 
where he died in 1844. Charles Gilpin, bis son, was 
elected mayor of that city in 1850 by the Whig party. 

Eli Mendenhall had a card factory and a dry goods 
and grocery store nearly opposite Second Street 
Market, on King Street. Near by were the watch- 
maker shops of Thomas Crow and Jonas Aldrich. 

Timothy Hanson, a chair manufacturer, lived on 
Second Street, between Market and King Streets. 

The residence of Captain Jeffries, a noted seaman, 
was on King Street, above Second Street. Captain 
Brlnton, who was lost at sea, was his neighbor. 

John and Samuel Adams were printers at the cor- 
ner of Fourth and King Streets. 

Matthew Crips, about 1760, bought the land east 
of King Street, between Seventh and Eighth Streets, 
and on it started the first pottery in Wilmington. 
He also made cups and saucers and sold the products 
of his manufacture in Delaware and New Jersey, un- 
til he grew wealthy. In 1797 he built a large man- 
sion on this square, in which he lived for several 
years, and then it was rented by John Keating, a 
wealthy Englishman, who married the daughter of 
Madame Deschappeles. 

Peter Proenchere, an educated Frenchman, who 
had, prior to the French Revolution, been attached to 
V}, the household of the Due d*Orleans, brother, of King 
Louis XVI., was a member of this family. He came 
to this country in 1794, and returned to France when 
the Bourbons were restored to the throne, after the 
downfall of Napoleon. One of Mr. Keating's sons 
was educated in Paris and became a skilled chemist 
and mineralogist, dying in London in 1840. Another 
son was a lawyer of some note in Philadelphia. When 
Mr. Keating moved from the Crips mansion, Mrs. 
Capron, of Philadelphia, took it as a boarding-house, 
and it was subsequently occupied by Joshua Maule. 
Later on it became Eli Hilles' boarding-school for 

Peter Vandever owned a bridge across the Brandy- 
wine, which he built as early as 1760, and charged 
toll for crossing it. 

His ancestors settled on a large tract of land now 
included in the northeast section of the city, a por- 
tion of which was known as Vandever's Ibland, being 
then surrounded by the stream. The last bridge at 
the site was taken away by a flood in January, 1839. 

Front Street from Walnut to Market was a beauti- 
ful green lawn in early days. 

Dr. George Monro's re;iidence until his death was 
on the east side of Market Street, a few doors below 
Second. He was a surgeon in the Revolution and 
married a daughter of Col. John Haslet. John Pat- 
terson, dry goods merchant, was adjoining. The 
house above was first the home of Major Adams, 
and afterwards of the celebrated architect Benjamin 
H. Latrobe, who designed part of the Capitol at Wash- 
ington. On the northwest corner of Front and Mar- 
ket Streets stands the building for a century known 
as the Buck Tavern. On this site the first house in 

town was built. Col. Thomas Kean, a hero of the 
Revolution, and who died of yellow fever in 1802, 
had a mansion on the opposite corner, south of the 
Bank of Brandy wine. Dr. Pascal's drug store was 
near the centre of the square, on the west side. 
Joseph Baily, for thirty-three years president of the 
Bank of Delaware, succeeded him in the drug busi- 
ness. Joseph Shallcross, the merchant trader and 
patriot, who sent a letter to General Washington be- 
fore the battle of Brandywine, lived next above. Late 
in life he moved to Delaware Avenue, above Adams. 
John Sellars, the hatter, afterwards occupied the same 
house. William R. Sellars was his son. John Reyn- 
olds' hardware store was on the southwest corner ol 
Third and Market. Within the same square James 
Brobson, a prominent merchant, had a store. He 
was many years burgess of the town. The Sign of 
the Ship, at the corner of Third and Market, was a 
well-known old-time tavern. It was the headquarters 
for several officers of Washington's army just before 
the battle of Brandywine. John Marshall was pro- 
prietor at that time, and afterwards Captain Patrick 
O'Flinn kept it until his deach, in 1818. John Web- 
ster, a wit, and in 1790 a successful teacher in town, 
started a drug store, which, for many years aftiervrards, 
was owned by Joseph Bringhurst and now by H. R. 
Bringhurst. David Bush resided at the northeast 
corner of Third and Market Streets. 

Thomas Spackman had a shoe store just above the 
Bush homestead. His daughter married Joseph 
Grubb, owner of one of the earliest hardware stores 
in town ; another daughter married Joseph Richard- 

James Lea, Sr., resided at the northwest corner of 
Fourth and Market Streets, afterwards the site of the 
Bank of Delaware, from 1795 to 1815. Bonsall & 
Niles' printing-office was next-door above, and when 
Hezekiah Niles moved to Baltimore, his daughter, 
Mary B. Niles, remained in Wilmington and was 
known as one of the most successful teachers in the 
town. The residence of Robert Hamilton, an Eng- 
lishman, was on Market Street, above Fifth Street. 

Francis Robinson, a Friend, emigrated to Wilming- 
ton, from County Wicklow, Ireland, in 1732, and 
bought the land now bounded by Market, King, 
Fourth and Fifth Streets. In the centre of this 
square, in his newly-built house, he engaged in the 
preparation of buck-skins and chamois leather. 
Nicholas Robinson, his son, during his leisure hours, 
shot squirrels in the thickly-wooded land now em- 
braced in the same square, and afterward succeeded 
his father. When he retired William, his son, took 
the business, and in 1823 was the first person in 
Wilmington to manufacture moroccos. For seven 
years, with about a dozen employees, he carried on that 
business, and in 1830, with James Rice as partner, 
built a foundry at Tenth and Orange Streets. He re- 
moved to Philadelphia and later to Baltimore. 
Francis Robinson, his brother and now an aged citizen 
of Wilmington, together with his brother Harrison, 

Digitized by 




io 1833 and for eleven years afterward, engaged in 
cleaning and preparing imported wool on the site 
where his ancestors had previously conducted the 
tannery. This square for a century and a quarter 
WIS owned by the Robinsons. Hanson Robinson 
went to Philadelphia in 1843, and began the wool 
bnsiness on Front Street, below Chestnut Street. In 
1855 be built as his country residence Wool ton Hall, 
Brandywine Hundred, where he died in March, 1871. 

General John Stockton owned the Bauduy Man- 
sion, opposite the City Hall. He was brigadier- 
general of the New Castle County militia during the 
War of 1812, and his youngest son was killed fighting 
the British, on the Niagara frontier. Captain Thomas 
Stockton, an older son, commanded a company and 
was distinguished at the battle of Lundy's Lane in 
that war. His company marched from Wilmington 
to Canada. He was elected Governor of Delaware, 
and died while in office. He lived in New Castle. 
Job Harvey, a leading shipping merchant, owned the 
comer now occupied by the Clayton House, before 
1780. The Queen of the Otaheite tavern was opened 
there before 1800. On the south side of Sixth Street, 
near Market Street, prior to 1800 stood John Jordan's 
one-story brick school -house. 

The headquarters of the French officers in Wash- 
ington's army during its stay in Wilmington was in 
the large mansion of Abijah Dawes, a Friend, on the 
eirt tide of Market Street, above Sixth Street, now 
owned by the McCaalleys. They had considerable 
siuns of French money placed in kegs and deposited 
in the cellar. Gunning Bedford, whom Washington 
presented with a pocket pistol for his serviceti in the 
war, afterwards lived here until his death. He was 
one of the framers of the Constitution of the United 
States, one of the first Representatives in Congress, 
and a judge of the courts. Martha Washington gave him 
the crimson satin Masonic sash of the first President. 
Mra. Bedford was the daughter of James Parker, one of 
the early journalists of New York City. Her mother was 
a French lady. The Bedford home was famed for its 
hospitality and brilliant entertainments. The man- 
sion was sold in 1813 by the original owner to Louis 

On the west side of Market Street, opposite the old 
Presbyterian Church, prior to 1800, there was a large 
vegetable garden, owned by Governor Dickinson. 
Adjoining it was the cabin of an old colored woman, 
Lydia Hall, who lived to the age of one hundred 
years. She had two sons in the Revolutionary army, 
one ef whom was captured and executed by the 

On the south side of Front Street, near Tatnall, 
lived Francis Way, a Friend. His ancestors were. 
among the first settlers. The home of Belle McClos- 
key, a camp follower of the Revolution, was on the 
north side of Front Street, nearly opposite. Major 
Pfttten, an officer of the famous Delaware Regiment 
in the Revolution, lived on Front Street until his 
death of yellow fever, in 1798. 

William Jones, prior t<J 1800, owned a residence at 
the northwest corner of Shipley and Front Streets, 
with a beautiful flower garden surrounding it. His 
son, William G. Jones, the leading undertaker and 
cabinet-maker of half a century ago, and father of 
Washington Jones, president of the Bank of Brandy- 
wine, succeeded in the ownership. Shipley Street up 
to Third, in 1800, was not built up. On the north side 
of Second, between Orange and Tatnall Streets, was 
Caleb Sheward's brewery, one of the first in Wilming- 
ton. He operated it as late as 1814. William Shew- 
ard, his son, was the next owner till 1843, when it was 
sold. Zachariah Ferris, a minister among the Friends, 
owned a tanyard and dwelling-house on the south 
side of Second, beyond West Street. His son, John 
Ferris, built a large house on Market Street. 

Dr. Nicholas Way erected a large mansion at the 
southwest corner of Third and Shipley Streets. He 
began the practice of medicine in 1775, and was an 
eminent physician and preceptor. In 1798 he enter- 
tained nearly a hundred Philadelphians during the 
yellow fever epidemic. Monsieur Hammond, a 
wealthy Frenchman, bought the Way mansion and 
resided in it until 1802. Jacob Broom, one of the 
framers of the Constitution of the United States, was 
its next owner, and died there. His son, Jacob M. 
Broom, was a Representative in Congress. John 
Wales, United States Senator from 1849 to 1851, lived 
here for many years. 

Nicholas G. Williamson, a lawyer, resided at the 
northwest corner of Third and Shipley Streets. He 
was postmaster of Wilmington and second mayor of 
the city. It was at his house that Myra Clark Gaines 
was entertained the night before she started with her 
future husband to New Orleans to claim her fortune. 
In Revolutionary days Joel Zane kept a hardware 
store at the southeast corner of Fourth and Shipley 
Streets, and his wife daily gave food to the French 
soldiers quartered in the neighborhood. Mr. Zane 
moved to Front Street after the war. Ziba Ferris and 
his son of the same name resided for many years at 
the corner of Third and Shipley Streets. John Ferris, 
who was unceasing in his care of the yellow fever 
patients in 1798 and 1802, was one of the last victims 
of the disease, dying October 30, 1802. 

On the east side of Shipley Street, near Fifth, was 
the most famous school of colonial days, conducted 
by Henry Pepper. William Cobbett, the notorious 
political agitator, was for a brief period in the employ 
of Mr. Pepper as a teacher. Captain Kirkpatrick, of 
Revolutionary fame, lived opposite Pepper's school. 
He was the father of David, James and Robert Kirk- 
patrick, who founded a large importing house in 

About 1800 " Billy " McDougall, a town notoriety, 
kept a little tavern on the edge of the marsh at Tat- 
nall Street and Delaware Avenue. He called it 
" The House that Jack Built," but it was better known 
as "Bull Frog Tavern." The marsh was full of 
plump and juicy frogs that found no better destination 

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than to be stoned by the boys, until the French refu- 
gees from San Domingo and Paris settled in Wilming- 
ton. They knew what a table delicacy the big, green 
batrachians were, and soon had them served by their 
own cooks, but it required time and persuasion to in- 
duce the Delaware natives to eat them. 

Dr. William Gibbons lived south of Delaware Ave- 
nue near Jefferson Street, and in the vicinage resided 
John Hedges, who occupied an old-time hipped- 
roof house, and died in it at the age of one hundred. 
Moses Bradford built the large stone mansion after- 
ward owned by Job Jackson. William Shipley's 
brewery was at the foot of Quaker Hill. A large 
stone house — one of the first on West Street — was 
built by Joseph Shallcross, and was sold to Mordecai 
Woodward, who owned a large rope-walk on what is 
now Washington Street. John Dauphin, a French- 
man, succeeded him in its ownership. Frederick 
Shrader, the gunsmith, lived at the northwest corner 
of Sixth and West Streets, since the site of a Catholic 
Seminary. Caleb Seal,, who died at ninety- three 
years of age, owned a residence at northeast corner 
of Sixth and West Streets. His son, William Seal, 
lived here during his life. 

The father of Governor Caleb P. Bennett, who was 
chief burgees in 1809, resided at the northwest corner 
of Fifth and West Streets. The headquarters of Gen- 
eral Washington, before the battle of Brandywine, 
was in a building below the southwest corner of 
Fourth and West Streets, afterwards owned by Jo- 
seph C. Gilpin. Captain John Lea lived next door 
below, and the famous William Cobbett in 1794 was 
his nearest neighbor. Mrs. Mary Johnson, a woman 
** with a masculine mind," who always wore a man's 
hat and carried a cane, lived next door. She was 
said to be "the first woman lawyer in the United 
States." Before 1800 she argued causes in court at 
New Castle and West Chester, in the presence of the 
ablest attorneys of that day. 

The old barley mill was on the south side of the 
Brandywine above the residence of the late Bishop 
Lee. John Fleming used it for cleaning barley for 
a score of years. The Jordans next turned it into 
an establishment for printing and dying calico. In 
1790 Archibald Hamilton Rowan, the Irish exile, 
and William Alfred continued in the same business. 
In 1798 Rowan took charge of it himself, and engaged 
Walter Mclndoe, Robert Council and John Mc Wil- 
liams, " experienced artists," in his works. The old 
mill was enlarged, and the name "Rockburn" was 
given to it when run as a cotton-mill. Joseph 
Bringhurst afterward turned it into a carding-mill. 
Spindle-making was later carried on in it by John 
Schofield, of the Cross-Keys Tavern. 

Federal Hill, or Bellevue, was originally the home 
of Bancroft Woodcock, an Englishman who was a 
silversmith in the town as early as 1765. Though a 
conservative and somewhat austere member of the So- 
ciety of Friends, he was known as the best skater in 
all the country round-about. In mid-winter, even 

when he had attained the age of three-score years, his 
familiar tall, slim form was seen to glide over the glassy 
surface to the admiration of all spectators. He was also 
noted as a pedestrian, and when he moved to Red- 
stone, then in the backwoods of Pennsylvania, about 
1800, he would walk seventeen miles from his home 
to the meeting-house. Dr. James Til ton bought the 
Bellevue property and gave it the name of Federal 
Hill for the reason that it was one of the sites con- 
sidered by the committee of Congress appointed to 
select the location of the national capital. They 
eventually fixed upon Washington, but the Tilton 
place was much admired by them. The view from 
the cupola of the old mansion extends over the city 
ot Wilmington, reaches Philadelphia, and stretches 
away to New Jersey on the east and touches the Mary- 
land boundary on the south. In 1802 Dr. Tilton 
built the big house, thirty-eight feet square, and in 
1808 planted large chestnut trees around it, some of 
which are now standing. Charles W. Howland has 
been the owner of this property since 1852, and in 
1856 remodeled it as it now stands. 

Monckton Park, afterwards called Eden Park, was 
another of the old-time country-seats adjacent to Wil- 
mington. Before the Revolution it was owned by 
Mr. Haines, an Englishman of wealth, largely engaged 
in trading with foreign ports. His business centred 
in Philadelphia and he spent much time in the 
West Indies. Monckton Park was his summer home 
and he usually came here on horseback. He took 
an interest in public improvement and was the first 
person to propose the erection of mile-stones in New 
Castle County, and with others had them placed along 
the road between Wilmington and Red Lion. He 
was an intimate friend of Robert Morris, the cele- 
brated financier of the Revolution, and with him and 
others founded the Bank of North America. Al- 
though of English birth, he was a friend of the Ameri- 
can cause when it was not known which country 
would triumph. He was one of the most exact men 
of his day in his business as well as in his home. Late 
one evening, just he was completing an invoice for 
the cargo of a vessel to sajl the next day, a drop of ink 
fell upon the paper and he spent the remainder of the 
night re-copying it. He wore large metal buttons on 
his coat, fashionable in that day. These he covered 
with tissue paper, every night before going to bed, that 
they might be protected from rust. On one occasion, 
during the prevalence of the small-pox, he wais com- 
pelled to make a business trip to Boston on horseback. 
He related that at every place where he stopped over- 
night he was placed in a smoke-house and thoroughly 
smoked before he could enter the town. 

After the declaration of peace in 1788 Mr. Haines 
returned to England. His youngest daughter mar- 
ried Henry Phy«»ick, who bought the Governor 
Dickinson mansion. Robert Morris purchased 
Monckton Park and lived there during the summer 
months. In 1800 it was bought by Peter Bauduy, 
who changed the name to Eklen Park. Bauduy was 

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born in France in 1767, emigrated to St. Domingo 
«arly in life, and in 1791, during the insurrection in 
that island, came to Wilmington. He married a 
daughter of M. Deschappelles, who lived in the house 
built by Abijah Dawes in 1784, immediately above 
the Delaware House. 

Baudny moved to Cuba in 1819, and settled on a 
sugar plantation near Matanzas, but subsequently 
made numerous visits to Wilmington. In 1801 he es- 
tablished the Eden Park Powder-Mills, subsequently 
owned by his son-in-law, J. P. Garesche, who oper- 
ated them until 1861. M. Bauduy's principal recrea- 
tion was the indulgence of his artistic talent, and 
before he removed from Eden Park to the West In- 
dies he painted the large canvas of ** Phoebus driving 
the Chariot of the Sun," which was exhibited in a 
building standing on the site of the present Post-Of- 
fice. He made the plans for the City Hall in 1798, 
and during the War of 1812 proposed to dam the 
Brandy wine and Christiana and flood the town if the 
British should approach it. His much-loved Eden 
Park is now the property of the Lobdell Car- Wheel 

Tusculum was the name that Hon. Jacob M. Broom, 
« classical dtudent and an admirer of Cicero, gave 
the country-seat that he established early in the 
present century. He was an eminent lawyer, and 
when a young man was elected to Congress by the 
Federal party. In 1820 he removed to Philadelphia, 
and Tnsculum was bought by Dr. Martin, who resided 
upon it with his ft^ther by adoption, Rev. Thomas 
Read, D.D. It was afterwards sold to John Connell, 
Dr. Read's son-in-law, with whom Mrs. Read contin- 
ued to reside until^her death, at the age of eighty-two. 
On -ne occasion when Henry Clay visited Wilming- 
ton she said to him : " Sir, I presume you are seldom 
approached on the subject of religion. Permit me to 
entreat you, after having so long devoted your talents 
to the good of your country and having served it so 
faithfully and well, to spend the remainder of your 
dari* in searching the Scriptures in the service of your 
Master." The distinguished orator replied with great 
dignity and in a feeling manner. Tusculum is now 
owned by Dr. Read J. McKay. 

The "Willows," on Brandywine Walk, North 
Market Street, was the home of Miss Vining, the 
famous beauty, in her later years. Miss Vining was 
renowned for her personal charms, intelligence and 
wealth. During the Revolutionary period her society 
was much courted by officers of both armies, and 
those of France particularly praised her in their 
letters home, to such an extent that Marie Antoinette 
expressed to Mr. Jefferson a desire to "see Miss 
Vining at the Tuileries." General Lafayette was 
one of her correspondents for a third of a century, 
and she waa visited by the Duke de Liancoun t and 
l/)uii Philippe. She was often invitell to Governor 
Dickinson's mansion to meet and dine' with his dis- 
tinguished guests. Her brother, John Vining, was in 

United States Senator from 1795 to 1798. He mar- 
ried Miss Seaton, the New York poetess, and they 
died young, leaving four sons, whom his sister raised. 
Miss Vining was subsequently very greatly reduced 
in circumstances and lived in seclusion until her 
death, in 1821, aged sixty-three years. She was bur- 
ied in the Old Swedes' church-yard, and her grave 
is not designated. 

Cool Spring is the name of the stone mansion at 
the brow of the hill near the reservoir. It was the 
country-seat of Gsesar A. Rodney, nephew of Csesar 
Rodney, the "signer," a Congressman and the last ot 
six attorneys-general in the Cabinet of President Jef- 
ferson. The vessel which took his library and house- 
hold furniture to Washington was wrecked and the 
goods much damaged. This prevented his family 
from going to the national capital. He remained in 
the Cabinet to the end of Jefferson's term. Soon 
afterwards he went to South America with Dr. Bald- 
win, the botanist. He was sent as minister of the 
United States government to the Argentine Republic, 
and sailed in the frigate " Congress " under Commo- 
dore Biddle. He died while there and his family re- 
turned home in 1824. Cool Spring is still owned by 
the Rodneys. 

Kentmere, near the Riddle Mills on the Brandy- 
wine, was the location of some of the first factories 
and flour-mills. Joshua and Thomas Gilpin had 
their paper-mills there in 1787, the first to manufac- 
ture paper by means of revolving cylinders. They 
had a foundry near by, at which they constructed 
their own machinery. The erection of these mills 
and the improvements to 1888 cost $850,000. In 1821 
they provided Matthew Carey & Son, of Philadelphia, 
with paper for printing a large edition of Lavoisne's 
Celebrated Atlas. Their mills soon become widely 
known and the new process was destined to entirely 
revolutionize the business of making paper in this 
country. The difficulties which followed were very 
discouraging. Others were envious of the probable 
success of the new invention, and obtained informa- 
tion of the process from some of the employees 
of these mills. By these means sufficient knowl- 
edge was gained to secure a patent and make 
similar machinery by avoiding infringement 
of Gilpin's patent. By the year 1825 the 
improved machinery was introduced into the 
paper-mills at Springfield, Massachusetts, and soon 
thereafter into other paper-mills throughout the 
country, and the prestige of the invention was never 
properly credited to Thomas Gilpin. 

The great flood of February 22, 1822, when the 
Brandywine rose twenty feet above its banks, took 
away the dam, destroyed the races and badly injured 
much of the machinery and some of the buildings of 
these mills, and in April, 1825, one of the buildings 
and its valuable machinery were destroyed by fire. By 
the freshet of 1838 still greater damage was done and 
the bridges immediately below were carried away. 
The Gilpins owned and conducted the paper-mills for 

Congress from Delaware, from 1789 to 1792, and 



half a century, when the business was discontinued 
and the property sold to a company that spent five 
hundred thousand dollars in improvements. Large 
quantities of bank-note paper were also made here. 
Thomas Gilpin resided most of the year in Phil- 
adelphia, but spent part of each summer at the 
mills in a pleasant cottage. On a more elevated por- 
tion, surruunded by a forest, was the house of John 
Gilpin. He called it Kentmere. In it he enter- 
tained his numerous friends who frequently visited 
him. He died here in 1841. The large stone house 
opposite the mill was occupied by Lawrence Great- 
rake, manager of the establishment. The buildings 
after their sale by the Gilpins were turned into cotton- 

Rokeby was a cotton factory on the Brandywine 
near the old wire bridge, established by Louis Mc- 
Lane about 1818. It was formerly one of the leading 
grist-mills of the vicinity and was owned for nearly 
half a century by Vincent Gilpin, a very worthy citi- 
zen of Wilmington. Rumford Dawes' slitting-mill 
was near here. It was afterwards bought by the 
Du Fonts for fifty thousand dollars, and they erected 
powder-mills on the sites. Jacob Broom, in 1795, 
built the first cotton-mill in the vicinity. It was con- 
sidered a wonderful enterprise. He put up a large 
mansion in the vicinity, which was afterwards owned 
by Dr. Smith. In 1793 William Young, a Scotch- 
man in the book business in Philadelphia, erected a 
paper-mill. He built a house tor religious worship 
about the same time. The floor was of solid rock. 
He also erected for himself a mansion and then called 
the place Rockland. He was the chief director of 
the Wilmington Steamboat Company, which ran a 
line of boats to Philadelphia. Near the Lancaster 
road is a stone house of historic interest, which for 
some years was the residence of Louis de Tousard, a 
French officer who came to this country with the 
troops of his nation to assist the Americans. In 
1793 he removed to a farm, where he covered the 
walls of his house with canvas, on which some of his 
guests painted landscape scenes. Madame Tousard 
died on this farm in 1794. Her remains were interred 
in Old Swedes Church-yard. 

On Sixth Street near French was the little stone 
dwelling once inhabited by the Marquise de Sourci 
and her ingenious son. She was a refugee from the 
Reign of Terror in France in 1792, and arrived at 
Wilmington impoverished and infirm. Her country- 
men relieved her necessities until her boy grew up 
and was able to support her. From the fruit of the 
dwarf-gourd, that grew in the yard of their home, he 
made boxes, that, when varnished and carved by his 
deft hand, found ready sale. He constructed toys for 
the children and found much profit in making an 
automatic grasshopper of wood and whalebone. Then 
he built a boat for himself and ferried sand and gravel 
from the New Jersey shores for the Wilmington 
builders. This proved a lucrative business, but dur- 
ing a storm his boat capsized, and young De Sourci 

was lost, and his body never recovered. His mother 
died soon afterward and was buried in the Old Swedes' 

Incidents in Wilmington History.— The 22d 
of February, 1800, was a warm, pleasant day. It was 
the sixty-ninth anniversary of the birth of Washing- 
ton, who died on the 14th of December, preceding. 
The members of the Society of the Cincinnati, in Del- 
aware, had arranged for a funeral procession in his 
honor, through the streets of Wilmington, on that day. 
Gunning Bedford was master of ceremonies, assisted 
by Major Cass, of the regular army, who commanded 
a detachment then quartered in the town. The pro- 
cession was formed in front of the Town Hall, with a 
military band, followed by the soldiers of the regular 
army, the Society of the Cincinnati and the Masons; 
then came nine young ladies to represent the Muses, 
sixteen ladies to represent the sixteen States which 
then composed the Union. The ladies were dressed in 
white, with short sleeves, long kid gloves, little muslin 
hats turned up at the side, blue kid slippers and a red 
sash of broad ribbon over the right shoulder tied in 
a bow on the left side, and the name of the State rep- 
resented in gilt letters in front. Virginia led the 
Southern and Delaware the Northern Staties. Each 
lady held in her hand a sprig of laurel. Next came 
the members of the State Legislature, members of Uie 
bar and ministers of the gospel, followed by a large 
number of eitizens. When the ceremonies were closed 
the sixteen ladies deposited the sprigs of laurel on the 
bier, which stood in front of the old academy, with 
the following words : " Sacred to the memory of 
Washington, I deposit this laurel as an emblem of his 
never-dying fame." 

One of the early celebrations of the 4th of July was 
held in 1794, at Cool Spring, where a thousand or 
more persons sat down to a bounteous dinner prepared 
by the industrious house-wives of the town and its 
vicinity. Many patriotic toasts were drunk, followed 
by the singing of national airs by the vast multitude, 
and the delivery of an oration suited to the occasion. 

Many of the 4th of July celebrations after the Revo- 
lution were held in the Academy woods, then situated 
on the side of Market Street, above Eighth. 

There was a very numerous assemblage of the citi- 
zens of Wilmington and vicinity at Cool Spring, near 
Wilmington, belonging to C. A. Rodney, July 4, 1803. 
On that " auspicious oocc4ision " Doctor James Tilton 
was chosen president, Captain Patrick O'Flinn, Major 
Peter Jacquett, Dr. A. Alexander, Andrew Reynolds, 
George Clark, Capt. James Campbell, vice-presidents. 
One hundred and fifty persons sat down to a table 
prepared by David Brinton at his tavern. Turtle 
soup from a sea-turtle weighing one hundred pounds, 
cold rounds of beef and ham were served at one 
dollar for each man. Numerous toasts were responded 
to, and the day was spent in general rejoicing. 

Michael Wolf was quite a character in Wilmington. 
He was bom in 1736, and for more than a half-century 
sold cakes through the streets. He died in 1825. 

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French Kellum was in the colonial navy during 
the Re?olatioD. In 1783 he sailed for the West In- 
dies in a merchantman. He was gone two years and 
was sapposed to be dead, but returned to Wilmington 
and fell into the well at his house while trying to 
make his toilet preparatory to discovering himself to 
his family. 

Archibald Hamilton Rowan, one of the most noted 
Irish refugees who came to America, had a peculiarly 
romantic career. As a leader of the Society of United 
Irishmen in his native land, he sturdily fought the 
anion of England and Ireland, and favored the estab- 
lishment of the Irish Republic. He was arrested on 
diarges of treason to the King and imprisoned in 
Dublin. His wife was allowed the privilege of visit- 
ing him, and she smuggled into his cell a woman's 
dress, clad in which he escaped from the jail. A 
reward of ten thousand pounds was offered by the 
government for his recapture; but he reached the 
French shore in a fisherman's boat, and in a few 
months later crossed the ocean. In 1790 he came to 
Wilmington and was given a home by Thomas Armor. 
His traubles, however, had turned his disposition 
toward the life of a recluse, and he took up his abode 
in a cabin on the Brandy wine, where his only com- 
panions were his dogs ** Sallie" and " Charles," named 
for the wife and child he had left in Europe. He 
hid a small business — ^printing and dyeing calico-— 
that rendered him sufficient income for his modest 
wants. In 1802 amnesty was granted him by the 
King of England, and he returned to his Irish home 
and his valuable family estate, which yielded a large 
income. He was visited there in succeeding years by 
friends who had known him in his days of adversity in 
America, and to whom he delighted in extending the 
most generous of Irish hospitality. When he built 
& new mansion upon his property he named one of 
htt reception-rooms " Wilmington." 

Rev. Lawrence Girelius, who left Wilmington in 
1791, was the last of the Swedish pastors of the Old 
Swedes' Church. There were no religious services in 
the Scandinavian tongue in or near Wilmington 
from that date until 1849, when Rev. Mr. Unonius 
became pastor of the Swedes in Trinity Chapel. In 
1S83 the Methodists founded a Swedish mission on 
Heald Street, among some new immigrants to Wil- 

John Thelwell, the town bellman and clerk of the 
market, waa widely known in 1780, and on one oc- 
casion, as he was making his rounds of the market, 
he found a woman selling butter in " pound cakes " 
of twelve ounces each. He told her that sixteen 
ounces made a pound in Delaware, and proceeded to 
confiscate all her produce for violation of the law. 
In the altercation which followed, the woman struck 
him in the eye with a print of the butter, and disap- 
peared before he recovered his sight. He was town 
bellman over thirty years. Thelwell was one of the 
founders of the Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and one of its first exhorters. He was a teacher and 

taught at the foot of Quaker Hill in a small log 
house. Afterwards the burgesses allowed him to use 
as a school-room, their own building over the '^Second 
Street Market. 

Anna Dorothea Vertz, known as "Dutch Dolly," 
had a vegetable garden at Sixth and King Streets. 
Her husband was a tailor called " Frederick the Great, 
fortune-teller." He predicted events by the stars. 

Louis Philippe, in 1793, as the banished Duke of 
Orleans, spent considerable time in Wilmington with 
the French emigres. He succeeded to his title on 
the execution of his father in 1792, during the French 
Revolution. For participating with his father in the 
battles of Valmy and Jemappes, he was exiled. In 
America he remained several months, sustaining him- 
self part of the time teaching languages and mathe- 
matics. Subsequently he became the wealthiest man 
in France, was declared King in 1830, and continued 
until 1848, when the Second Republic was estab- 

Prospect Hill, north of Wilmington, was the home 
of Joshua North during the Revolution, but he was 
a Tory and fled the country for safety. The property 
soon afterwards was owned by Rev. Dr. Wharton, 
who succeeded Rev. Dr. Girelius as rector of Old 
Swedes' Church. He removed to Burlington, New 

Fairfield, near the site of the Old Cranehook Church, 
was the residence of Dr. Alexander, a surgeon in the 
army during the Revolution. 

William Hemphill was born in Belfast, Ireland, 
January 4, 1743. His father was engaged largely in 
the linen business. He came to America about the 
age of fifteen years, landed at New York, and there 
obtained a situation in a mercantile house. Thence 
he removed to Philadelphia, and afterwards to Wil- 
mington, where he became one of the prominent busi- 
ness men. He engaged in the shipping business 
several years, and then entered into partnership with 
Robert Ralston, of Philadelphia, who was one of the 
most enterprising business men of that city. The 
ships of this firm traded with the West Indiies, France, 
Ireland and China. Mr. Hemphill took the oath of 
allegiance to the United States government. May 
6, 1778. Hebecame a large land-holder in Wilmington, 
and was interested in, and contributed much to, its 
business prosperity. He married Elizabeth Allison, 
of Wilmington, May 22, 1770. Their children were 
James, William, Sarah, Mary, Elizabeth and John. 
He died February 10, 1823, and was buried in the 
cemetery of the First Presbyterian Church of Wil- 

John James Ullman, a native of Strasbourg, France, 
educated at the University of Paris, settled in Wil- 
mington in 1791. He had lived many years in India, 
and was celebrated as a traveler and a linguist. 
While here he was reputed worth a million dollars. 
He died of apoplexy in 1811, aged fifty -seven years, 
and his tomb is in the French corner of the Old 
Swedes' Church-yard. 

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Joseph Shallcross, a Revolutionary patriot, pur- 
chased a large tract of land beyond Cool Spring, in 
1750, for $500. He lived in a stone house near Cool 
Spring. He was a leading shipping merchant of Wil- 

Joseph Springer lived and died in a log cabin near 
the Lancaster road. He was a son of Carl Christopher 
Springer, an educated Swede with a romantic history, 
who went to London with the Swedish embassador, 
was " Shanghaied '' and brought to Virginia, where 
he was sold into servitude for five years. After work- 
ing out his time he came to Wilmington. His son 
Joseph became a farmer and gardener, and lived to 
the age of ninety-two years. 

Commodore Perry, the hero of Lake Erie, stopped 
in Wilmington, February 4, 1814, on his way from 
Philadelphia to Baltimore. He traveled in a '' pri- 
vate four-in-hand," and took dinner at the Indian 
King Inn, southeast corner of Fourth and Market, 
then kept by David Brinton. It was soon after he 
gained his brilliant victory on the lake, and there 
was an imposing demonstration in his honor the next 
day in Baltimore. 

An elegant banquet was given to Hon. Louis Mc- 
Lane, in the Town Hall, July 28, 1829, by the citi- 
zens of Wilmington. It was the day before his 
departure for Europe as minister of England. Gen. 
John Caldwell presided, and Richard H. Bayard 
wa<s vice-president. Among the distinguished guests 
present was Martin Van Buren, then Secretary of 
State in Andrew Jackson's Cabinet Alexander Porter, 
of the Indian Queen Hotel, prepared the feast. 

Dr. Daniel Bancroft, with his brother, discovered 
the proceess of making quercitron, or dye from black 
oak bark, in 1787, and several years afterward lived in 
the building on West Street now owned by the heirs of 
Benjamin Ferris. He was born in Boston and spent 
the most of his early life in England. While in Wil- 
mington he was engaged in the export trade and was 
the first person to ship quei citron from America to 
England, or any foreign country. It was made near 

Dr. John Vaughan, in June, 1802, introduced the 
practice of vaccination in Wilmington. 

Peter Davis was the first to sell ice to the people of 
Wilmington, in 1802. Benjamin Webb moved to Wil- 
mington from Chester County, Pa., at a later period, 
and sold ice on a more extended scale for many years. 
He owned several tracts of land in the vicinity. In 
1836 he became very much interested in the culti- 
vation of the silk mulberry trees, planting several 
acres with them on his farm near town. 

Bache and Todd in 1803 announced that they ** have 
a physiognatrice whereby any person may have four 
correct likenesses in profile taken for 25 cents without 
any part of the machine passing over the face, at 
McLean's tavern Sign of the Buck, on Market Street '' 
(now Sharp's Hotel). 

In 1800 John la Teller, one of the first dentists in 
town, with an office four doors below southeast corner of 

Fourth and Market Streets, announced that he "^ould 
cleanse teeth and set artificial teeth with enamel." 
He had Brufi'^s patented, perpendicular instruments 
for extracting teeth. Henry Tonveille, from Paris, 
was the next dentist in Wilmington. 

John Chandler, on Market Street opposite the Acad- 
emy, in 1797, advertised as a likeness-painter in 
miniature by a new method of his own invention. 

S. Dewey, in 1814, at the corner of Market and 
Third Streets, made '* profile likenesses, plain or in 

Frederick Shraeder, in 1808, athb residence comer 
of Sixth and West Streets, opened " a mead and flower 
garden with a number of small summer houses for 
the accommodation and amusement of genteel com- 

Charles Tatem, bom in Virginia, learned the trade 
of a blacksmith in Wilmington, and in 1818^ moved 

1 The most diiMtrooi explosion at Dupont's powder-mllli oocarred 
March 19, 1818. The origin of the dimater, as given at the time, was 
the ponnding-roill. Several workmen were employed there when one 
of them noticed a spark of fire on the sleeve of another. The man who 
made the discovery ran out to the bridge over the mill-race and q>rang 
into the water, dragging another workman with bim. These were the 
only two nved at the immediate scene of the explosion. The ponndlng- 
mill blew up and covered the grain! ng-house and magazine with a 
shower of fire. The mngazine, a stone structure, built on solid rock, 
was distant two hundred and fif^ yards. It exploded a half hour later, 
and the report fh>m the thirty-flve tons of powder stored in It was heard as 
far as Lancaster, a distance of forty miles. Thirty-six workmen were 
killed and four received mortal injuries. All of the buildings in the 
vicinity of the mills, including Mr. Dupont's residence, were badly 
. damaged, and the shock produced such consternation in Wilmington that 
many persons temporarily abandoned their homes. Mr. B. I. Dapont 
was not at home, but on his return he pensioned the widows of the 
victims at his own expense and clothed and educated their children. 
The loss by the explosion was thirty thoasand dollars. Mr. Delnms, 
brother-in-law of Mr. Dnpont, had bis shoulder dislocated. Marshal 
and Colonel Grouchy were guests of Mr. Dupont's family, and by their 
presence of mind and t ravery prevented greater loss of life and property. 
Beferring to them a Philadelphia paper said : 

"These distinguished strangers were on a visit to their friend, Mr. 
Victor Dupont, and were preparing to go out on a shooting party when 
the awful explosion of the powder works on the Brandywine took place. 
Upon the first alarm they rushed out with othere to the scene to afford 
whatever assistance circumstances might require, and had Just crowed 
the creek when the magazine blew up, spreading destruction in all 
quarters. A workman at the elbow of Colonel Grouchy was killed by 
a stone which paiMed through his breast, and the head of another fell 
at the Marshal's feet ; they, however, both escaped unhurt It was 
supposed that all the buildings in this quarter had been destroyed by 
the first explosion, as they appeared to be all in flames, but it was 
presently pointed out to them by one of the surviving workmen that the 
drying-house (in which they perceived through a window there was a 
considerable quantity of powder) had not yet caught firs. 

** There was time enough for escape from all danger fh>m this building, 
had they sought safety by flight ; but with that decision and promptness 
in action which distinguishes truly brave men, they instantly seized 
axes and commenced cutting and tearing awi^ a kind of a bridge or 
platform which communicated with all the buildings and was then in 
flames, and which in a few minutes more must have set fire to the 
drying bouse. Their example and encouragement drew others to the 
spot, and after great exertions, with the aid of water buckets, the firs 
hero stopped. Had this building blown up, the refinery and other 
buildings on the right of the creek, which had escaped from the 
explosion of the magazine, together with the c*oth manufactory on the 
left, with what remained of the dwellings of the Mr. Duponts, would. 
In all probability, have been entirely destroyed, and with these buildings 
the houses occupied by the wives and children of the workmen." 

In February, 182.1, an explosion occurred at the Eden Park Powder- 
Mills, south of the Christiana, rvsulling in the death of twelve persons. 

On April 13, 1847, nineteen men were killed by an explosion at 
Du|)ont*B mtlbi, and their remains so scattered that the number of 
victims could only be ascertained by calling the roll of employees. 

During the forenoon of May 30, 1851, three five horse wagon-loads of 
powder from Dupont's powder works exploded in the streets of Wilming- 
ton, while in transit to the wharf for shipment The wagons, h<Hses 
and drivers were blown to pieces, and five tons of powder contributed to 
the work of destruction. The disaster occurred on Fourteenth Street 
near Tatnall and Market Streets. The residence of Bishop Lee was 

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to CiDclnnati, where he became a leadiog citizen. 
He owned a large foundry and machine-shop. He 

Isaac Kendall was well known to the boys who went 
swimming in the Brandy wine about 1820. He was 
called at this time "Old Isaac/' and lived many 
yean later to teach the boys how to swim, and that, 
too, without charge. He lived in a little cabin near 
the old barley-mill, along the Brandy wine, and was 
most happy when a dozen or more youths of the town 
were his visitors and companions. They pasted the 
walls of his home with pictures, which delighted 

The assessed valuation of goods in some of the lead- 
ing stores in Wilmington, in 1825, was as follows : 

Chalkley Someis, $4500; James Gardner, $6000; 
Eean & Oliver, $4000 ; William & Robert Polk, $2000 ; 
Joseph Pogue, $6000; Gordon & Clement, $3000; 
Jose Mendenhall, $2000 ; William McCauUey, $8000 ; 
John W. Tatem, $2000; Samuel McCaulley, $2000; 
William Townsend, $4000. 

Jonas Pusey moved from London Grove, Chester 
County, Pa., in 1826, and resided on the north side of 
Tenth Street, second door west of Market. He was 
not then a man of means, but soon became an enter- 
prising and public-spirited citizen. He was the first 
treasurer of the Savings Fund Society, and filled many 
other positions of trust and responsibility. Lea 
Pusey, his brother, came to Wilmington about the 
same time. He was a man of fine literary taste, and 
knew roost of the poems of Burns by heart. Both the 
brothera were conveyancers. After 1837, Jonas Pusey 
moved to Seventh Street, and later lived in the bank 
building. He died October 4, 1851. Pennock Pusey, 
a prominent citizen of Minnesota, is his son. 

Don C. Hall was the first barber in Wilmington 
who advertised his business. It was in 1829 that he 
announced that he would '* shave the gentry of the 
town once each day, for $2.50 a quarter, and $1.50 per 
quarter, 3 times a week." 

Blythe's circus exhibited at Cross Keys Tavern in 
1820, and in 1827 for two weeks in the yard of General 
Wolf's Tavern, at Third and Market Streeto. A cir- 
cus exhibited at the comer of Seventh and Market 
Streets, on October 3, 1830. Malcolm & Howe's me- 
nagerie and circus spent one week at Fourth and 
French StreeU in 1846. 

The woolly horse captured by General Fremont in 
New Mexico in 1847, was exhibited in Wilmington in 
1S50, and considered a great curiosity. It was with 
Van Amburgh's circus. 

A locomotive built in Wilmington in 1834, under the 
direction of E. A. Young, chief engineer of the New 
Castle and Frenchtown Railroad, on June 13th of 

Udlj (knuMced, and thon of James Canby and Jamee E. Price were also 
MTcrely Injured. Hundreds of window panee were broken. The owners 
of the povder paid the Igoses. The origin of the explosion was never 

On March 10, 1865, four men were killed by an explosion at the 
GwMche powder-mills, at Eden Park, and on August 2, 1855, the 
^rying'hoose at the same place was destroyed with one hundred tons of 
powder, and all the w<^men, with one exception, were killed. 

that year, was put into successful operation on that 
road. It passed over twenty-five feet ascent per mile, 
near Frenchtown, at twelve miles per hour. Young 
was a native of Norfolk, Virginia. This was the first 
railroad engine in successful operation in Delaware. 

In 1835 a man in South Carolina owed Thomas 
Garrett, of Wilmington, a considerable sum of money 
for manufactured .products shipped to him. Being 
unable to pay the debt in cash, he proposed to give in 
exchange for it a supply of moras multicauliSf or silk 
mulberry trees, which were then being profitably cul- 
tivated in his State. The proposition was accepted, 
and Thomas Garrett planted them on seven acres of 
his land south of the Christiana. 

At this time silk-growing became a mania through- 
out all the Middle and Northern States. In the au- 
tumn of 1845 Thomas Garrett sold the cuttings on the 
ground for $7500. The purchaser sold them to anoth- 
er for $10,000, he to a third for $12,000, he to a fourth 
for $15,000, and the last buyer paid $18,000 for them. 
By this time the morus muUicaulU fever had abated, 
and the trees were still on the ground untouched. 

A silk farm was established three miles from Wil- 
mington, along the Concord turnpike, where mul- 
berry trees were cultivated and a large cocoonery 
started. As late as 1845 the crop reports show 
that five thousand five hundred pounds of cocoons 
were raised in Delaware during the year 1845. 

Joseph Wigglesworth, in 1837, owned the " Wil- 
mington Museum,'' at No. 15 East Second Street. It 
was a rare collection of curiosities. In 1838 he re- 
ceived one thousand birds from London on the ship 
** St. Jamei»," of New York. In 1840 he had a very 
fine collection of birds, insects, animals and wax 

Betty's Hollow was well-known to the school- 
boys of 1840. "Old Betty" lived alone in a 
half tumbled down frame house in this hollow, across 
which was a path leading to the skating place on the 
Brandy wine by the site of the barley mill. She kept 
chickens and ducks in great numbers, and they were 
her companions. She had no use for boys. They 
believed her to be a witch. The depression surround- 
ing her cabin became known as " Betty's Hollow," 
and the boys changed the path to the skating park so 
as to run south of her abode. She lived to old age 
and made a little money by telling fortunes. 

William Seal, for many years an influential citizen 
of Wilmington, died September 20, 1842, aged sixty- 
six years. He filled many ofiices of public trust with 
faithfulness and ability. He was president of the 
Bank of Wilmington and Brandy wine, and president 
of the Delaware Fire Insurance Company until the 
time of his death. 

Arunah S. Abell, now (1888) the aged and honor- 
ed proprietor of The Sun, published at Baltimore, 
Md., was the pioneer in the use of the " pony ex- 
press," by which he anticipated all his contempo- 
raries in announcing the exciting news of the day. 
He established relays of fleet ponies from Halifax and 

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Portland, Me., to Baltimore, Maryland, to convey the 
news brought by steamers from Europe. Fifty hours 
was the time in which the thousand miles were pass- 
ed. The little Sun penny sheet then, as now, proved 
itself to be the peer in enterprise of the New York 
press, and far beyond its " blanket sheet'' contem- 
poraries in all that push and pluck which the modem 
newspaper requires. 

Mr. Abell was the master mind also in organizing 
an overland express for the transmission of news 
from the battle-lields of Mexico, in 1846, across the 
continent to the news-rooms of 27ie Sun, in Balti- 
more, and The Ledger in Philadelphia, of which 
latter paper he was one of the founders and part 
owner. This overland express consisted of ** sixty 
blooded horses," and cost over one thousand dollars a 
month. It almost invariably anticipated the great 
Southern mail from New Orleans by thirty hours, 
and kept the government at Washington advised of 
every important event transpiring at the seat 
of war, and thereby served the entire press of the 
country. Mr Abell was also the pioneer in utilizing 
the " carrier pigeon express" to Baltimore, and the 
newly-invented magnetic telegraph found in him a 
liberal patron. As a matter of scientific history, it 
may be added that the first Presidential message ever 


transmitted by telegraph appeared in the columns of 
The Sun on May 11, 1846. Mr. Abell in the sole 
surviving member of the firm which established and 
created two of the greatest and most prosperous news- 
papers in this country — The Sun in Baltimore, Md., 
and The Ledger in Philadelphia,~both of which have 
a large circulation in Delaware, and command the 
respect and confidence of the public. In a ripe old 
age, Mr. A. S. Abell enjoys the confidence, respect 
and afiection which a long and useful life merits. 
His hand has never been missing from The Sun, and 
he has kept it abreast of every change which the 
publication of a great newspaper demands. In 1887, 
Mr. Abell as-^ociated with him in the management of 
The Sun, his three sons, — George W., Edward F. and 
Walter Abell, — who are striving to do their responsi- 
ble work for the public with conscience and common 
sense, honest purpose and clean hands. 

The pony express established by A. S. Abell, about 
1846, were largely looked to by the newspapers of 
Delaware for the exciting news of the day. 

The messages of the President were obtained in this 
way for early publication. It is astonishing how 
rapidly news was carried by these expert riders, who 
had frequent relays of horses. One of the most re- 

markable instances occurred on April 2, 1846. The 
rider for The Sun and also for the Delaware Republi- 
can left Philadelphia fifteen minutes past two o'clock 
in the a^rnoon, and arrived in Wilmington twenty 
minutes before four o'clock, traveling the distance, 
twenty-eight miles, in one hour and twenty -five min- 
utes. The rider of The Sun and the Delaware 
Journal on the same day left Philadelphia at half-past 
two o'clock, and arrived in Wilmington ten minutes 
before four o'clock, making the distance in one hour 
and twenty minutes. The news they brought on this 
occasion was from Europe, and related to the Oregon 
Question on the controversy between the United 
States and England, regarding the northwest bound- 
ary line. 

The Delaware Journal , on April 10, 1846, issued 
an extra with news from Europe sent by telegraph 
from New York to Philadelphia, and brought from 
the last-named city to Wilmington and Baltimore, for 
the papers above named, by pony express. This was 
soon afler the declaration of war between the United 
States and Mexico, and the news brought explained 
the attitude of foreign governments toward the bel- 
ligerent countries. 

The Telegraph. — Cyrus Abbott, of Wilmington, 
on January 23, 1846, contracted to construct the first 
telegraph line between Philadelphia and Wilmington. 
On March 28d, following, the posts were all erected, 
and the wires placed in position as far as Chester, 
Pa. The wires were stretched to Wilmington, and 
the telegraph put in operation on April 13, 1846. 

The line was tested the day following. The Dela- 
ware Journal, in its issue of April 17th, says : 

**The telefcraph has be«n in micceaifnl operation for the pa«t few days 
and a number of persons have examined its operation on Tuesday 
afternoon. Through the kindness of its gentlemanly agent at the sta- 
tion, Joseph Beatty, we witnessed the performance of this highway of 
thought. The sales of the afternoon Board of Brolcers, at Philadelphia, 
were ordered and in a short time the whole proceedings were here. We 
sent to Philadelphia the late n<^w8 from Washington received by mall, 
on Tuesday afternoon, and it was published in the same day^s edition of 
the Evenmg Neuft of that city. The charges ai-e 26c. for ten words.*' 

On May the 26th the same paper contained the 
following : 

" The line between Philadelphia and Baltimore was completed and 
tested this week. The whole line of posts, one hundred miles, was com- 
pleted in 36 days. Between Wilmington and Philadelphia a newly 
adopted iron cord, instead of the single wire, commonly used, has been 
put into successful operation. This iron cord was made at a wire fac- 
tory in New Jersey." 

••The only link now wanting in the great chain of the electric tele- 
graph between Washington and Boston through Wilmington, is the die* 
tance fh)m Bridgeport to New Haven, Connecticut When this great 
scheme is completed it will make the Union a whispering gallery and 
re-echo through the country with instantaneous speed from one extreme 
to the other." 

The line from Washington to Boston was com- 
pleted June 23, 1846. 

The first telegraph office in Wilmington was in the 
second story of the Wilson Building, corner of Fifth 
and Market Streets. The telegraph line down the 
Peninsula to Dover and Mil ford was completed in 

The telegraph office at the corner of Fifth and 
Market Streets was moved to the central building, 
corner Front and King Streets, on June 12, 1848. 

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Banes' Tel^mph Line was completed between 
Baltimore and Wilmington May 27, 1^49. It was 
afterwards the North American Telegraph Line. 

The third of a class of new passenger coaches 
for the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
Railroad Company, made by Betts, Harlan &^ 
Hollingsworth, was first placed on the road June 19, 
1848, for the accommodation of the Asbury Sunday 
School, on an excursion to the Susquehanna River. 
The cars were fifty feet long, eight feet eight inches 
wide. They were one-third longer than any cars 
previously used on the same soad. They had two 
apartments, one for ladies and one for gentlemen, 
and were provided with a sofa and mirrors. The 
seats were of crimson velvet. 

The railroad company, on June 20, 1848, bought of 
J. A J. W. Duncan, for fifteen thousand dollars, seven 
acres of the old ferry property, as a site for a new 
station. J. W. Duncan, the next year, moved to 
Chicago to engage in the lumber business. J. & J. 
A Harris completed their marine railway in 1850. 

On the day the cars first came to Wilmington, an 
old gentleman passed up Market Street after having 
seen the train, informing every one that he had heard 
Oliver Evans, the inventor, tell his father, many years 
before, that it would only be a few hours' journey 
from Philadelphia to Baltimore, and that carriages 
would be invented to go without horses. When the 
predicUon was made, it is said a Quaker stepped up 
and said, " Oliver, I always thought thy brain was a 
little cracked, and now I know it I" 

A church stood at the corner of Third and Tat- 
nall Streets, on a site procured on ground rent 
from Mr. Hallowell, and the lease expired Thurs- 
day night November 25, 1849. The trustees wanted 
to buy the land, but the owner asked an extravagant 
price, and at the last minute announced that he 
would claim the building after the 'lease expired. 
The bellman was sent through the town to proclaim 
the removal, and just before midnight a large crowd 
collected and removed it, amidst great excitement. 

David C. Wilson in 1846 bought twenty acres of 
land, for three thousand eight hundred dollars, op- 
posite the old Cross Keys Tavern, which was situated 
on what is now the southwest corner of Brandy wine 
Cemetery, laid it out into streets and lots, and called 
it Washington. It is now part of the city of Wil- 

Charles I. Du Pont & Co. in 1846 exhibited at the 
National Fair at Washington, cloths, cassimeres and 
kerseys of their own manufacture. The government 
then ordered sixty thousand yards of kerseys and 
twenty thousand yards of blue cloth for the army 
daring the Mexican War. 

Large brickyards were operated in Wilmington in 
1846 by D. C. Wilson, Evan Coxe, Samuel McCaulley, 
Jacob Rice, William Lovell and Washington Moore. 
During that year nine million bricks were made, and 
thirteen million in 1848. McCaulley & Rice in 1848 
built a brick-making machine, propelled by steam. 

It cost ten tliousand dollars and made twenty-five 
thousand bricks a day. 

Superior cloths were made at the Wilmington 
mills early in the present century. When the War 
of 1812 opened, exportation of goods was cut off. 
The chief market then was Philadelphia, but some of 
the merchants of that city claimed that American 
cloths were inferior to the foreign. An English agent 
took the entire supply of goods then on hand in Wil- 
mington, shipped them to Philadelphia and disposed 
of them there as English goods. It was a clever 
trick and made the cloths of the Wilmington mills 
popular before it was discovered. Large quantities 
of them wen^ sold soon after this event. 

In 1848 there were two lines of steamboats running 
between Wilmington and Philadelphia. Competition 
was lively, and the fare was put down to twenty-five 
cents. The railroad reduced the fare to twelve and 
a half cents. The boats, to meet this, for a time 
charged but ten cents. 

In 1866 there were 160 persons in Wilmington 
between 75 and 102 years old ; 14 were over 90 years. 
David Hammond was 102. 

Henry Herz, composer and pianist to the King of 
France and professor in the Royal Conservatory of 
Paris, with Signora Pico, of the Italian Opera of 
Milan, and Savoni the violinist, gave a concert in the 
City Hall, December 7, 1846. Says a local journal : 
"There never was so swell an audience in Wilming- 
ton before. The ladies were dressed in opera style, 
and there was a brilliant array of beauty and 

Charles Grobe, of Wilmington, in 1847, wrote a 
piece of music entitled ** Buena Vista," named in 
honor of General Taylor's famous victory over the 
Mexicans. " Old Rough and Ready " sent a glowing 
compliment to the composer after he heard it played. 

Adams Express Company opened its first office in 
Wilmington, December 12, 1847. J. Shaw was the 
first agent. William F. O'Daniel in 1850 sold the 
first sewing-machines in Wilmington. 

Lieutenant Joseph Roberts, of Wilmington, was in 
all the leading engagements of the Florida War. 
Soon after its close he was made Assistant Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in West Point Military Academy, 
until 1848, when he was appointed a captain in the 
Fourth Regiment of the United States Artillery. 

Dr. A. H. Grimshaw was appointed surgeon of the 
Fourth Regiment of Delaware Militia in 1848. 

William Holland in 1848 was appointed an en- 
gineer in the United States navy, and Lieutenant 
Colonel Graham, in 1850, was detailed by the War 
Department to assist in running the northwest bound- 
ary line of the United States. Both were from Wil- 

Business Men of Wilmington in 1845. — Near'y 
all the stores, previous to this year, were on Market 
Street. The city began to grow rapidly about this 
time, and stores were opened on all of the streets. 
The following is a list of the merchants of the city 

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for 1845. The present plan of numbering houses did 
not go into effect until three years later. 

Jewelry Stores, — Ziba Ferris, corner Market and 
Fourth ; W. F. Robinson, Market Street, near Fifth ; 
Benjamin S. Clark, Market above Fourth; Charles 
Canby, 83 Market Street ; John F. Robinson, second 
door above Farmers* Bank. 

Dry- Goods Stores, — John McClung, next door to 
Bank of Brandywine ; Washington Jones, 43 Market 
Street ; William Martin, Jr., J. P. Young's old stand, 
84 Market Street ; B. A. Janvier, N. W. comer Fifth 
and Market Streets ; H. B. Penington <& Son, S. £. 
comer Market and Fourth Streets ; Spencer D. Eves, 
removed to new store, 47 Market Street; M. W. 
Aylwin, 45 Market Street; J. T. Bonsall, 76 Market 
Street; John McLear, 99 Market Street; Samuel 
Buzby, 62 Market Street ; James Megratton, 52 Market 
Street ; A. C. Thompson, 101 Market Street ; Norris 
W. Palmer, 74 Market Street. 

Drug ^SJore*.— Marshall Phillips, S. W. corner Fifth 
and Market Streets ; Benjamin Johnson, 179 Market 
Street ; Joseph Bringhurst, 87 Market Street ; Edward 
Bringhurst, corner Sixth and Market Streets ; E. G. 
Chandlee & Co., 44i Market Street ; John P. Polk, 
three doors below Second on Market. 

Groceries, — George D. Armstrong, N. E. corner 
Market and Third Streets ; Slocum & Vane, comer 
Second and King Streets ; Edward L. Rice, 7 East 
Second Street ; John B. Lewis, corner Market and 
Seventh Streets ; George W. Robinson, corner Third 
and Poplar Streets ; Thomas B. Rice, S. W. corner 
Market and Front Streets ; Robert Cleland, Second 
Street, opposite market-house ; John H. Barr, S. E. 
corner Second and Market Streets ; William Murphy, 
Jr., corner Tenth and Shipley Streets; William 
Morrow, Fourth between Market and King Streets ; 
Jacob S. Weldin, King and Seventh Streets ; Jacob 
Rice, corner Market and Fifteenth Streets; Henry 
Read, S. W. corner Second and Walnut Streets; J, & 
J. C. Aiken, corner Market and Fourth Streets. 

Bookstores,^Yi&DLTy Moore, 61 Market Street; John 
B. Porter, 97 Market Street ; Wilson & Heald, 107 
Market Street. 

Hardware, — T. & H. Garrett, Shipley above Second 
Street; T. & J. B. Morrison, 18 Market Street; John 
L. Hadden & Co., 57 Market Street; George Richard- 
son, 72 Market Street ; Henry G. Banning, 42 Market 
Street ; John A. Duncan, 50 Market Street ; R. B. 
Gilpin, corner Third and Shipley Streets. 

Miscellaneous, — Evan J. Pusey, wood and coal, 4 
Market Street ; William H. Naff, auctioneer, 1 West 
Fourth Street ; Franklin Supplee, flour and feed store, 
West and Front Streets ; Andrew S. Clark, painting 
and glazing, Shipley near Third Street ; C. S. Patter- 
son, tailor. Market above Sixth Street; T. Dooley, 
shoe store, corner Sixih and Shipley Streets; Patrick 
Kelley, dyeing works, Shipley above Fourth Street ; 
Andrew Jack, shoe store, Market above Sixth Street ; 
William Alexander, baker, Market above Fourth 
Street; George Kates, cabinetmaker. Market near 

Front Street; William S. Pine, hat store. Market 
below Third Street; Abram Alderdice, grain-fan- 
maker. Front and Orange Streets ; Henry Mitchell, 
sash factory, Front near West Street; William G. 
Lowe, clothing store, 22 Market Street; Edward 
Robinson, stove store, N. E. corner Second and King 
Streets; J. A. Hunter, saddler, opposite Bank of 
Delaware ; Thomas H. Robinson, 60 Market Street ; 
R. Wallace & Co., shoe-finding store, 8 Market Street ; 
Jonas P. Fairlamb, civil engineer, Shipley above 
Third Street ; J. B. Moore, Orange, between Front 
and Second ; Robert Douglass, Venetian blind manu- 
factory, 18 Sixth Street ; Slocum & Vane, commis- 
sion store, Second and King Streets ; Adam Car- 
penter, wool dealer and skinner, Tatnall and Fifth 
Streets ; Thomas D. Webb, hat store, 56 Market 
Street ; Porter & Naff, Sfate Journal, 97 Market Street ; 
Evans & Vernon, Delaware Republican, Third and 
Market Streets; William McCaulley, conveyancer. 
169 Market Street; Alfred D. Thompson, portrait 
painter. Temperance Hall ; R. Greenwood, fiancy sign 
painter, Shipley Street ; John C. Brison, plumber, 9 
East Fourth Street; Samuel McClary, Jr., cabinet- 
maker, Shipley above Fourth Street; William G. 
Jones, cabinetmaker, Shipley above Front Street ; J. 
Rumford, hatter, 92 Market Street; S. & E. Wilson, 
notion store, Market above Fourth Street ; Jacob M. 
Garretson, shoe store, 7 East Fourth Street; E. T. 
Taylor & Co., china store, 66 Market Street; David 
McCall, segar store, N. E. comer Market and Fourth 
Streets ; Lewis Thatcher, shutter factory, Shipley and 
Seventh Streets; Jeandell & Vincent, Blue Hen*s 
Chicken, Market and Front Streets ; James Robinson, 
marble-yard. Ninth and Market Streets ; Calvin Tag- 
gart, coal dealer, Steamboat Wharf ; Johnson & Bosee, 
Delaware Gazette, 2 East Fourth Street ; John Yohe, 
shoe store, opposite City Hall ; Hartley & Foreman, 
cabinetmakers, 103 Shipley Street; Charles Devon, 
shoe store, 104 Market Street; Joseph C. Carpenter, 
ice cream maker, 145 Market Street ; George Powell, 
tailor, 78 Market Street ; William F. G'Daniel, mer- 
chant tailor, 46 Market Street ; Joseph Wall, livery 
stable. Fourth and Tatnall Streets ; Jonas Pusey, sur- 
veyor and notary, 145 Market Street; James Grubb, 
Jr., shoe store, 100 Market Street; NewUn Pyle, 
leather store, Shipley, near Front Street ; John Sparks, 
millinery, 88 Market Street; William Chandler, 
tanner and currier, Fourth and Tatnall Streets; 
William Clark, Lehigh and Schuylkill coal ; Enoch 
Roberts, soap and candles, Third and Orange Streets; 
Henry S. McComb, leather store. Third and Orange 
Streets ; Lydia C. Wolfe, millinery, 41 Market Street ; 
James M. Roach, barber, S. W. corner Sixth and 
Market Streets; D. & George Bush, coal dealers, 
French Street wharf; John M. Moedinger, baker. 
King, between Second and Third Streets; John 
Noblit, cabinetmaker, corner ^larket and Sixth 
Streets ; William H. Griffin, stove and tin store, 40 
Market Street ; Thomas J. MahaflTey, stove and tin 
store, 110 Market Street. 

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The country seats and mansions in the immediate 
vicinity of Wilmington, in 1845, were owned and 
occupied by the following-named persons : Captain 
John Andrews, Red Lion Boad ; Henry W. Bartram, 
Dear railroad bridge; John R. Brinckle, farmer, 
Kennett Boad ; Edward T. Bellak, farmer, near Brandy- 
wine; James T. Bird, Newport Boad ; J. S. H. Boise, 
fanner, old King's Boad; Peter Bowman, farmer, 
Philadelphia Boad; James Cleaden, farmer, New 
Castle Boad ; Colonel S. B. Davis, Lancaster Boad ; 
Charles Egner, near Delaware Biver ; Benjamin 
Elliott, farmer, Concord Boad ; Isaac Cloud Elliott, 
farmer, near Brandywine; Eliza Elliott, Concord 
Road; W. B. Garden, farmer, Philadelphia Boad; 
John Gardner, near old King*s Boad ; J. B. Garesche, 
powder-mill, Eden Park ; Bev. S. M. Gay ley. Classical 
Institute, Lancaster Boad ; John B. Latimer, farmer, 
Newport Boad ; Joseph Floyd, farmer, Kennett Boad; 
Joseph Mendenhall, farmer, Brandywine Hundred; 
Andrew McKee, farmer. Concord Boad ; George B. 
McLane, M.D., Kennett Boad ; Alexander S. Bead, 
Lancaster Boad ; Ashton Bichardson, farmer, New- 
port Road ; William Bobinson, farmer, Philadelphia 
Road ; John Schofield, Cross-Keys Tavern, Kennett 
Road ; Eli Wilson, farmer, Philadelphia Boad. 

In 1845 there were in Wilmington fourteen clergy- 
men, thirteen physicians, three cuppers and leechers, 
two judges, eleven attorneys, twelve houses of religious 
worship, seventeen public and benevolent institutions, 
two insurance companies, six fire companies, sixteen 
hotels, forty schools and ten thousand six hundred 
and thirty-nine inhabitants. There were erected that 
year two hundred and ninety-eight houses in this city 
and three hundred and fifty in 1847. 

General Tom Thumb, "the little great man," first 
presented himself before a Wilmington audience, 
December 26, 1848. He announced that he had kissed 
a million ladies and had a few more kisses left for 
Delaware lasses. He was then seventeen years old, 
weighing fifteen pounds and was twenty-eight inches 

8ignor Blitz, " the great and unrivalled magician," 
first exhibited in Wilmington, May 10, 1848; he 
" brought the moon to the earth and sent the stars on 
a wild goose chase through the backwoods in the 
shortest kind of notice." 

Signer L. Grassa, the world-renowned pianist, 
played in Odd Fellows' Hall in 1850, and spent part 
of the summer at Brandywine Springs. 

Ole Bull, the greatest violinist of this century, 
appeared in City Hall, January 21, 1845 ; an immense 
audience greeted him. 

Jenny Lind, the Swedish songstress, passed through 
Wilmington, December 7, 1850, in a private car on 
her way from Philadelphia to Baltimore, where she 
sang the following evening. The highest price paid 
for admission was one hundred dollars. The average 
price of the tickets was $7.50. Genin, a hat manu- 
fi^turer, paid nearly three hundred dollars for a 

ticket to hear her sing a few nights before in Castle 
Garden, New York City. 

The Siamese Twins were exhibited for the first 
time in Wilmington, December 13, 1836, and the last 
time in 1878. 

Elihu Burritt, " the learned blacksmith," lectured 
before the Ciceroneon Literary Society December 5, 

Edgar Allan Poe, the distinguished American poet, 
lectured for the Wilmington Lyceum November 24, 

Allan McLane died in California, February 23, 
1850. He was a son of Dr. Allan McLane, of Wilming- 
ton. He entered the American Navy but in 1840 re- 
signed and emigrated to Missouri, settled in Platte City 
as a lawyer, and later published a newspaper, and waa 
a member of the State Senate. He was one of the 
" forty-niners " in California. 

Midshipman Charles Bayard, son of Bichard H. 
Bayard, died at Naples, March 20, 1850. A few daya 
before his death, while visiting Mount Vesuvius, he 
passed down into its crater where an unexpected erup- 
tion of the volcano occurred. Huge stones were 
thrown up in the air ; one falling struck him in the 
right side of his body. His right arm was amputated 
after which there were hopes of his recovery, but the 
injury proved fatal. 

In 1852, William B. Anderson, son of Daniel B. 
Anderson, of Wilmington, colored, when quite a young 
man went to the Republic of Liberia, in Africa. He 
possessed remarkable intelligence and soon gained a 
good reputation and exercised a commanding in- 
fluence among the people of his race in that country. 
Aftier a few years of residence there he was elected 
speaker of the lower branch of the National Legisla- 
ture. He served one term in that position and then 
was elected by the government of Liberia to negotiate 
a five hundred thousand dollar loan in England. Soon 
afl»r accomplishing this he visited his parents in 
Wilmington. He then left the public service and 
engaged in mercantile business and accumulated con- 
siderable property. On the 14th of September, 1872, 
he was assassinated in Monrovia, the capital of the 
country, by a political opponent. He died on the 27th 
of the same month in his forty-third year. It is said 
he was the ablest colored man Delaware has produced. 

William R. Sellers, a gentleman well-known in 
Delaware, died May 1, 1855. He was a soldier in the 
war of 1812, represented the First Ward in City Coun- 
cil for many years and was president of that body 
from 1843 to 1849. He was appointed postmaster of 
Wilmington by President Tyler and recommissioned 
by President Polk, and was director in the Philadel.- 
phia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company. 
He was a generous and noble-hearted citizen. 

In 1855, the city of Wilmington, collected and sent 
$2284 to the sufferers from yellow fever, in Norfolk, 
and Portsmouth, Virginia. 

In 1878, the city of Wilmington, sent to the yellow 
fever sufferers, in Memphis, Vicksburg, Jackson and 

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New Orleans, $2878; the Young Men's Christian 
Association, $531 ; Masons, $229 ; Odd Fellows, $389 ; 
concert of Millard Club, $710 ; several of the churches 
sent upwards of $100. The total amount contributed 
by Wilmington, was $6777. 

Charles Moore, now the oldest ship-carpenter in 
Delaware, was born May 29, 1807. He is a son of 
Enoch Moore, and grandson of Nathaniel Moore, who 
came to Wilmington about 1800, and engaged in the 
shipping business with Barney Harris. 

Charles Moore, laid the plans for the Ashland and 
the Ocean, the first iron vessels, double propellers, built 
by the Harlan & Hoi lings worth Company. He re- 


modelled and put in shape the vessels of the Wilming- 
ton Whaling Company. He planned all the vessels 
for Thomas Young & Co., and E. & C. Moore, for 
fifteen years, and is one of the best informed persons 
on ship-building, in the country. 

Dell Noblit, who on account of having lived the 
age of 100 years, was somewhat a historic personage in 
Wilmington. He was born in Middletown, Delaware 
county, Pennsylvania, October 16, 1777, of French 
Huguenot parents. He moved to Wilmington, in 
1810. He was twice married, and was father of six- 
teen children. 

Hon. Henry Wilson, in October, 1856, in the City 
Hall of Wilmington, addressed the firdt Republican 
meeting, held in the State of Delaware. He was then 
United States Senator from Massachusetts, and after- 
wards vice-president during Grant's second adminis- 
tration. This speech was delivered during the can- 
didacy of General Fremont as the first nominee of the 
Republican party, for President of the United States, 
against James Buchanan, Democrat who was elected. 
Delaware that year cast but three hundred votes for 
Fremont, known in campaign hiotory as ^Hbe immor- 
tal three hundred.'' Wilson aft;erwards reminded a 
distinguished Delaware statesman, that he received 
exactly three hundred electoral votes when he waa 
chosen Vice-President. 

Theonly time that Andrew Johnson paid his respects 
to Wilmington people was on the occasion of his tour 

of the States, in the Spring of 1866. He was accom- 
panied by William H. Seward, Secretary of State, 
and General Grant, then Secretary of War. The 
President made a brief speech, from the platform of 
the car, while the train was standing at the depot. 

General Grant made a visit to Wilmington on 
Thursday, February 3, 1873, - a month previous to 
his second inauguration as President of the United 
States. The city put on her holiday attire, and in- 
terest and enthusiasm knew no bounds. Mayor 
Simms, a committee of City Council and a committee 
of citizens went to Perryville to meet him. As the 
train was crossing the State line, the mayor, in be- 
half of the committees, received the President in a 
glowing speech. He came here to take a view at the 
industrial establishments of the city, and in response 
spoke as follows: 

" It gives me the greatest pleasure that I have this 
opportunity of visiting Wilmington, the chief city of 
the State of Delaware, and noted throughout the 
Union for her manufacturing and commercial inter- 
ests. Especially was the invitation to come interest- 
ing to me, since it was not a partisan one. I shall be 
delighted to visit your manufacturing establishments 
and accept the hospitalities of your people." 

When the train, at 12.20 p.m., arrived at the sta- 
tion, the President and party, including George M. 
Robeson, Secretary of Navy, and George W. Childs, 
were escorted to the residence of Joshua T. Heald, 
at Delaware Avenue and Broome Street, where the 
distinguished party was waited upon by the Governor 
of Delaware and the members of the State Legisla- 
ture. Miss Emma Worrell, in behalf of the ladies, 
presented General Grant with a beautiful bouquet 
" for his great act in excluding wine from his New 
Year's reception." At two o'clock the entire party 
started on a visit to the leading manufacturing estab- 
lishments, and at 5.30 proceeded to Institute Hall, 
where four hundred persons partook of a banquet. 
At eight o'clock the President was escorted to the 
military fair in Masonic Temple. As he entered, 
the band struck up "Hail to the Chief." Thirty- 
seven young ladies, representing the States of the 
Union, formed in a semi-circle on the stage, and 
sang a patriotic air entitled " Welcome to the Chief." 
He proceeded to the stage and shook hands with 
each of the ladies*, and then was introduced to hun- 
dreds of citizens by Ex-Mayor Valentine. At ten 
P.M. he became the guest of Joseph C. Grubb on 
King Street, and at 1 a.m. left, in the train for Wash- 

Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, while on his visit 
to the United States during the Centennial year, was 
the guest for one day of William S. Auchincloss in 
Wilmington, who had previously spent some lime in 
Brazil, in the interests of the Jackson & Sharp Com- 
pany, and wrote a book describing the resources of 
that country. The emperor was met at the railroad 
by a delegation of manufacturers. He visited a 
number of the leading industrial establishments and 

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some of the public schools, with the design of exam- 
iniog into their managemeut for the purpose of 
introducing needed improvements in his own coun- 
try. He returned to Philadelphia in the evening of 
the same day. 

WILMINGTON— ( (kmtinued), 

The Post-Office. — ^The present postal system 
wgs established in the year 1790, during the first term 
of President Washington's administration. In that 
year Joseph Bringhurst became the first post-master 
at Wilmington. He kept the office in a small room 
adjoining his drug store, on Market Street, below 
Third. Few letters and papers were received and few 
were sent, as the entire population of the town at 
that time did not exceed 2,500. Mails arrived daily 
ftom Philadelphia and Baltimore, and was brought' 
by means of post-coaches. The amount required to 
lend a letter depended upon the distance, and hence 
the postage was paid by the one who received the 
letter, ranging from five to twenty-five cents. Joseph 
Bringhurst held the office continously from 1790 to 
1823, a third of a century. His successor was Ni- 
cholasG. Williamson, a lawyer, who was appointed by 
President Monroe, and continued in office under John 
Qaincy Adams, Andrew Jackson and Martin Van 
Boren, serving from 1823 to 1841, or eighteen years. 
While Williamson was post-master the office was 
kept at the Northwest corner of Third and Shipley 
Streets. When Harrison became President, in 1841, 
he appointed Jacob Alrich post-master. Airich was 
an ardent Whig, had been a jeweller and machinist, 
and at the time of his appointment lived in a house 
opposite the site of the present court-house. He 
moved the post-office to Cyrus Newlin's store, near 
the Delaware House. Upon the death of the Presi- 
dent and the succession of Vice-President Tyler to 
the office, Alrich was removed and John McClung, 
a dry-goods merchant who had a store on Market 
Street, was appointed in his place.^ The office was 
removed April 1, 1842, to the Southwest corner of 
Third and Market Streets, where it continued until 
the Government building was erected, in 1855, at 
Sixth and King Streets. The chief clerk during 
McClung's term and for several years succeeding, 
was James A. Roche, a small man with a club foot, 
who was so familiar with the duties of the office and 
also very popular, that the public learned to think 
his services almost indispensable to the Wilmington 

1 DiriDg hit administrattoD he anoonnced, by authority of the Poet 
Ofic« DopartmeDt, that the portage od letters weighing a half ounce or 
lea, and tent three hundred milee or leas, would be five cents, and 
«k«o tax over three hundred milee, ten cents. 

When James K. Polk became President, in 1844, 
McClung retired and William R. Sellars was given 
the place. He was a prominent hatter, lived on 
Market Street, near Third, and held the office four 
years. The Whigs again came into power in national 
affairs under President Taylor, and appointed Henry 
H. J. Naff, editor of the Journal^ postmaster at Wil- 
mington. He was continued under Fillmore, serving 
until 1852. Franklin Pierce in that year gave the 
office to Dr. Henry F. Askew, a leading physician of 
the city, who was prominent as a local politician in 
the Democratic party. His chief clerk wan John 
Otto. President Buchanan continued Askew until 
the opening of the Civil War, in 1861. 

It was during Dr. Askew's term, in 1855, that the 
office was removed to the Government building on 
King Street. The appropriation for the building was 
obtained largely through the exertions of Hon. 
George Read Riddle, then a Representative in Con- 
gress from the city of Wilmington. His efforts were 
ably seconded by United States Senators James A. 
Bayard and Martin W. Bates. The site for the build- 
ing was selected by Mr. Riddle. It was previously 
occupied by Moore's carriage works. The land was 
purchased May 27, 1853, for $3,500, the contract price 
for constructing the building being $29,234. The 
cost, however, before it was completed was $40,146..34 ; 
in 1869 certain improvements were added, making the 
entire cost of the building $45,400.29. 

After an earnest and prolonged contest for the 
office of postmaster in 1861, President Lincoln ap- 
pointed Dr. A. H. Grimshaw, who immediately upon 
assuming the duties of office, selected an entire new 
force of employees. George D. Armstrong, at present 
(1888) cashier of the First National Bank, was given 
the position ol assistant-postmaster, and Isaiah 
Thomas, previously a mail agent on the railroad, as- 
sistant clerk. There were then two carriers. On the 
death of President Lincoln and the succession of An- 
drew Johnson, another clean sweep was made of the 
Federal officers in Delaware. Captain Joseph M. 
Barr was made postmaster. He served until the be- 
ginning of the administration of General Grant, in 
1869, when James Lewis received the appointment. 
He was removed in 1872, and William M. Pyle, who 
had been chief clerk in the office for several years, 
was given the position. He was reappointed by Presi- 
dent Hayes, serving until May 11, 1882, when Presi- 
dent Arthur appointed William Y. Swiggett, pre- 
viously a mail agent, who served four years. Robert 
H. Taylor, the present efficient postmaster, was ap- 
pointed June 18, 1886, by President Cleveland. 

There is a full force of assistants to manage the 
details of the office, and seventeen letter-carriers who 
deliver mail in all parts in the city four times each 
day. Their salary the first year is $600 and after- 
ward $850 a year. 

A site has been purchased at the Southwest corner 
of Ninth and Shipley Streets, upon which the United 
States Government is about to erect an elegant and 

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costly Federal buildinfi:. Congress having appropriated 
$150,000 for that purpose. 

Board of Health. — A Board of Health for the 
borough of Wilmington was organized in 1793. Some 
of its original members were Drs. James Til ton, John 
Vaughan and Geo. Monro, all of whom were eminent 
practitioners of medicine in their day. Some of the 
other early members were Joseph Shallcross, John 
Ferris, Gen. .Tohn Stockton, Jacob Broom, John War- 
ner and Joseph Tatnall. As a body it did effective 
work during the prevalence of yellow fever here in 
1798 when Dr. James Tilton was president. In 1802 
during the prevalence of the yellow fever its mem- 
bers were James Brobson, president ; Samuel Spack- 
man, secretary; Allen McLane, Edward Worrell, 
Joshua Seal, John Warner, James Hemphill, Jos- 
eph Bailey and Dr. E. A. Smith, port physician. 

In 1832 when the cholera prevailed, Willard Hall 
was president, William Magens secretary and the 
other members were Dr. W. W. Baker, William G. 
Jones^ Joseph Bailey, Samuel McClary, Samuel Hilles, 
Washington Rice, John Wright, John Wales, Samuel 
Wollaston and Stephen Bonsall. 

In 1853 the members were Dr. J. G. Barstow, presi- 
dent ; Hanson Harman, secretary ; Ziba Ferris, trea- 
surer; Samuel Hilles, William Rice, Thomas Mahaf- 
fey. Dr. J. F. Hey ward, John H. Barr, Henry Eckel, 
James Murdock, Abner Cloud, John Rudolph, Dr. 
Henry F. Askew and John W. Smith. 

Under an ordinance of City Council passed April 
15, 1865, the Board of Health was composed of two 
members from each ward in the city and the port 
physician. This rule was in force until 1881 when an 
act of Assembly was passed under which the Board is 
now composed of the port physician, two other phy- 
sicians, one practical plumber and one general busi- 
ness man. All except the port physician are ap- 
pointed annually by the mayor. The chief engineer 
of the Surveying Department is ex officio a member, 
without salary as such. The other members of the 
Board receive $100 each. The Board annually ap- 
point two executive officers, one for the eastern and 
one for the western district, vested with police 
powers and receive $500. It is their duty to attend 
all meetings of the Board and to examine into the 
sanitary condition of all houses in that city. 

The impurity of the water supplied to the city from 
the Brandy wine was a subject of frequent discussion. 
In 1863 Dr. L. P. Bush, Obed Bailey, Edward Dar- 
lington, Henry Eckel, Joseph Richardson and Wil- 
liam Canby, members of the Board, were appointed a 
committee to examine into it and reported the water 
to contain an undue amount of mineral and organic 

In 1881 Dr. L. Bush was president; Dr. James A. 
Draper, Edward F. Kane, plumber ; John Otto, Jr., 
general business ; Dr. Willard Springer, port physi- 
cian ; M. C. Conwell, chief engineer ; E. B. Frazer, 
Secretary ; G. B. Underwood, executive officer eastern 
district ; A. V. Gay nor, executive officer western dis- 

trict. The work of this Board for the year 1881, ac- 
cording to the present report was arduous on account 
of the prevalence of small-pox. Prof. Leeds, of Brook- 
lyn, analyzed the water of the Brandywine in 1882, 
when it showed a greater degree of impurity than 
ever before. This report was confirmed by an an- 
alysis made by Dr. J. H. J. Bush, the same year. The 
Board inspected the banks of the stream to the State 
line and had certain nuisances removed. 

Drs. Draper and L. P. Bush and Mr. Otto were ap- 
pointed to revise and condense the health laws. 

Dr. E. G. Shortlidge and Dr. I. W. Hazlett were 
elected assistant vaccine physicians. In relation to- 
small-pox the Board this year required the isolation 
of all cases, private funerals, all houses where death» 
occurred disinfected, and would not allow convales- 
cent persons to leave their homes without permission 
from a physician. 

In 1884, Dr. A. H. Grimshaw, Seth H. Feaster and 
Alfred Gawthrop, were the new members appointed. 
In 1885, James C. Van Trump as plumber was the 
new member. In 1886 Dr. James A. Draper was 
president, James H. Griffin treasurer, Edward F. 
Kane, Dr. Howard Ogle, Dr. Willard Springer and 
Fred H. Robinson the other members. William H» 
Lee was chosen secretary. 

The act of Assembly, providing for the registration 
of births, deaths and marriages was passed March 15, 
1881. Under it the City Council on July 18, of that 
year appointed E. B. Frazer, the first registrar for a 
term of five years, with a salary of eight hundred dol- 
lars per annum. This officer is also secretary of the 
board of health with an additional salary of three 
hundred per annum. William H. Lee succeeded a» 
registrar in 1886. 

The Wilmington Water Department. — On 
31st day of December, 1796, Isaac Hendrickson and 
William Poole were appointed a committee by the 
Borough Council " to inquire of the inhabitants of 
Wilmington who own pumps, whether they would be 
willing to give them up to the Corporation, who will 
take care of them and keep them in order." A few 
property-holders consented and this is the first 
reference in the borough records relating to water. 

In 1800, an attempt was made by the Borough 
Council, to introduce water and John Way, John 
Jones and S. Nichols were appointed a committee 
** to examine into the propriety and expense of bring* 
ing water from the spring on the hill in Third Street 
near Tatnall, and conveying the water from Third 
down Market Street, to supply the town." This 
committee estimated the cost for eight hundred and 
thirty-five feet of pump logs, and for digging and lay- 
ing them in the ground, and a cistern containing 
thirty hogsheads, would be £112 9«. and lid. This 
effort to supply the town with water was, however, 

The Spring Water Company, was organized in 
1808. The first directors were James Lea, William 
Kobison, Peter Bauduy, Thomas Cl'ow, John Sellars^ 

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Joseph Bailey, James Brobson, Jacob Alrichi, Samuel 
Nichols, Eli Mendenhall, Edward Boche and Jere- 
miah WoIlastoD. 

They were incorporated in 1804, as the " Wilming- 
ton Sprinjc Water Company," with power to levy a 
sum of money on such persons as should use the 
water irom its works. A fountain was opened on 
High (4th) Street, between West and Tatnall, which 
sapplied all that part of the Borough lying south of 
High Street. In 1805, the works were extended to 
accommodate the inhabitants living north of Fourth 
Street, and arrangements were also made for fountains, 
persons owning property near Kennett Heights then 
outside the Borough limits. 

In 1810, the Borough Council purchased of the 
Spring Water Company for ten thousand dollars all 
their right and interest in the water-works, and es- 
tabhahed the Wilmington water department. The 
water ^m the different fountains was conveyed in 
wooden pipes from the reservoirs at the Springs along 
the principal streets, where a number of cisterns were 
placed. In 1816, at the '* upper work," a reservoir 
sixty feet long, ten feet wide and ten feet deep, was 
boilt of brick and arched. Into this reservoir the 
witer was led and from thence conveyed in under- 
groand wooden pipes down the Kennett Road to 
Market Street to supply the inhabitants north of 
Fourth Street. On September 6, 1819, Joseph Bring- 
iinrst petitioned Council for the right to introduce 
" the Spring water into his kitchen," which was the 
first request of the kind made and was granted. This 
was the first hydrant used in the town. 

The supply of water did not prove equal to the de- 
mand, because several citizens sunk pumps near the 
springs which diminished the supply of water. The 
large Lombardy poplars and willow trees in the vici- 
nity of the Water Works were believed to absorb 
much of the moisture in the soil, and also aided in 
dimmishing the supply of water at the Springs. 
To remedy this, the Borough Council unwisely order- 
ed ^ all Lombardy poplar and willow trees growing 
in any of the streets, lanes or alleys of this Borough 
within fifty feet of any fountain, reservoir, cistern, 
conduit or well shall be removed." The action of 
the Borough authorities caused a great deal of dis- 
satis&ction. The owners of those beautifiil trees were 
unwilling to have them cut down, as they were an 
adornment to the town, and also furnished delightful 
shade. Many of them were relics of a former day 
under whose balmy shade the " forefathers of the 
^iUage rested " their weary limbs protected from the 
scorching rays of the summers' sun. Some were 
planted by the ancestors of those who then owned 
them, and who were justified in saying " spare that 
tree, in youth it sheltered me and I'll protect it now." 
An old gentleman, on Market Street above Fourth, 
as the ruthless woodman was passing around fullfil- 
ing the edict of the irreverent Council, clasped af- 
fectionately the " dear old tree " in the front of his 
home saying, that if the axe touched " a single bough " 

it must first strike him. The certiorari of a justice of 
the Supreme Court supported the ordinance of the 
Council, that "trees on the streets of Wilmington 
are public nuisances." The opinion of two attor- 
neys declared that the certiorari was not a " super- 
sedeas " of the warrant ; but the edict of the be- 
nighted town authorities took its course, the sturdy 
monarchs of the highways were felled and soon 
their sacred ashes were offered in honor of Siva. 

The trees were all removed and a few months later 
when the water supply from the springs was still in- 
adequate to the demands the council awoke from its 
accustomed lethargy and stupidity, and in 1820 ap- 
pointed Chief Burgess, Eli Hilles, and John Rumsey 
a committee to " view the field and report the prob- 
able expense of having the water brought from the 
Brandy wine." They said at the next meeting that 
the revenue from the Water Works by taxation was 
fifteen hundred dollars annually, and the expenses 
the^same amount. They said the scarcity of water in 
the upper district was so great and the works in such 
a ruinous condition, that the tax in justice could not 
be levied on the citizens of that portion of the town, 
which would decrease the revenue five hundred dol- 
lars. This committee also reported that for the sum 
of fourteen thousand six hundred dollars the town 
could be supplied with water from the Brandy wine 
through iron pipes, by means of forcing pumps, to a 
tank or reservoir near the junction of Shipley and 
Chestnut (Tenth) Streets from whence it could be fur- 
nished in iron pipes to all parts of the borough. The 
report of this committee was not immediately acted 
upon. Three hundred dollars was, however, spent in 
1823 in repairing the "upper water works." The 
combined works then furnished but fourteen gallons 
of water per minute against thirty-five gallons per 
minute in 1810. Then the noble old trees in the town 
were standing, and in 1823 they were gone and the diffi- 
culty remained. On August 2, 1824, a committee 
composed of Eli Mendenhall, Henry Hoopes and 
John F. Gilpin claimed that the deficiency "has 
arisen from defective log pipes and cisterns," and re- 
quested the use of iron pipes, and on May 2d of the 
same year Jacob Alrichs, John F. Gilpin and Eli 
Mendenhall reported the work so " fiir progressed as 
to be conducted in a three- inch iron pipe from the 
borough line to the lot intended for a reservoir " be- 
tween Tenth and Eleventh Streets and Market and 
King. The reservoir at this place was built under 
the superintendence of William H. Naffl The site 
was purchased of Isaac Kendall. 

In 1825, permission was granted to all citizens to 
introduce spring water in yards and houses, in metalic 

Joseph Grubb, Aaron Hewes, Frederick Leonard, 
Israel D. Jones and James Gardner were appointed a 
committee to consult with Eli Mendenhall, Henry 
Heald, Isaac H. Starr and Jacob Alrichs and propose 
the adoption of some measures " to insure an ample 
supply of water for domestic and other purposes." 

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Their report presented August 26, 1826, was brief. 
They unanimously decided the only hope was for the 
people of Wilmington in the future to quench their 
thirst with " Brandy Wine." On the 17th of June, 
1827, the borough authorities purchased of John 
Cummins for the sum of twenty-eight thousand dol- 
lars his large mill on the south side of the Brandy wine 
as the site for the location of the Double Acting 
Pump to be used as a motive power to force the water 
to the basin. On July 9th. following, a lot fronting 
on Market, Tenth and King Streets (now the site of 
the court-house) was purchased of Sallie N. Dickin- 
son for twenty -seven hundred dollars where the reser- 
voirs were erected. Fire plugs were also erected at 
the same time. 

In 1832, the remainder of what is now Court 
House Square, was bought for twelve hundred dollars. 

The forcing pump, which cost eight hundred dol- 
lars, was made by Prosper Martin, of Philadelphia. 
A stone building covered the over-shot water-wheel 
at the mill enclosing also the pump which was worked 
by the water-wheel of the mill. The pump was put 
into operation November 15, 1827, with a six feet 
stroke and in eighteen minutes the water reached 
the west basin. Israel D. Jones ran up from the pump 
and took the first draught of water at the basin. 

The length of the pipe from pump to basin was 
two thousand one hundred and twenty feet, and the 
ascent ninety-nine feet. The iron pipe was eight 
inches in diameter and from mill to basin contained 
five thousand five hundred and thirty-five gallons of 
water. The two basins adjoined each other and when 
filled had a combined capacity of one million gallons, 
or ten thousand hogsheads. There could be thrown 
four hundred and eighty-seven thousand six hundred 
gallons per day into the basins. 

The civil engineer who superintended the erection 
of the works was Jonas P. Fairlamb, a well-known 
citizen of Wilmington. Chief Burgess at the time 
was James Brobson ; second burgess, Frederick 
Leonard ; council, Joseph Grubb, Henry Rice, Israel 
D. Jones, James Gardner, Thomas Moore, John M. 
Smith, Mahlon Betts, Eli Sharp, William Larkin, 
William Townsend, Aaron Hewes, Jacob File, Elisha 
Huxley. The mason work was done by John Web- 
ster, excavation made by Joseph Pierson and pipes 
laid by James Logan. 

A two-story building was erected at the northeast 
corner Market and Tenth Streets, and long used as 
the oflSce of the water Department. In 1837 a new 
forcing pump, made by Betts, Pusey and Harlan, was 
purchased for one thousand two hundred dollars. In 
1839 a new basin one hundred and fifty-eight feet by 
eighty feet and fourteen feet deep was built at a cost 
of four thousand nine hundred and seven dollars, but 
there were no improvements made until 1847. 

The cost of what was known as the Spring Water 
Works from 1820 to 1827, was twenty-two thousand 
three hundred and eighty-eight dollars; cost of 
Brandy wine Water Works, erected in 1827, was forty- 

two thousand and twenty-six dollars ; cost of manage- 
ment and improvements from 1827 to 1847 inclusive 
sixty-eight thousand four hundred and fifty-one dol- 

Owing to the insufficient supply of water on Sep- 
tember 7, 1848, on motion of James Canby, the mayor 
appointed David C. Wilson, Isaac R. Trimble, Elisha 
Huxley, Dr. Henry F. Askew, Mahlon Betts and 
NeUon Cleland irom the citizens of Wilmington, and 
William R. Sellers and Dr. Robert R. Porter from the 
Council and the Water Committee to examine intothe 
condition of the Water Works. The size of the reser- 
voir wa4 then increased one half. In 1855 a direct 
acting Cornish pump was added to the power of the 
works, and used until 1872. 

The first annual report of the superintendent of the 
works was made by Aquilla Pritchard, in 1867, in 
which it was stated that an average of fourteen mil- 
lion gallons of water monthly supplied the city, and 
distributed to two thousand six hundred and ^ye 
places. The total number feet of pipes laid was 
sixty-three thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight ; 
entire cost of Brandy wine Water Works, one hundred 
and thirty-four thousand seven hundred and twenty- 
eight dollars ; amount of water rents received 
annually, sixteen thousand dollars. An act of the 
Legislature was passed empowering the Council to 
borrow ten thousand dollars for extension of the 
water works. At this time the machinery of the 
works consisted of a water-wheel, two double acting 
forcing pumps, of eight inch diameter, and a Cornish 
pumping engine with one eighteen-inch, all forcing 
water through one sixteen inch main into the basins. 
In March, 1861, the mill property and water power of 
James E. Price, west of the city mill, was bought for 
twenty-five thousand doUai:^. Mr. Bayard, in Janu- 
ary, 1862, sold the City Council, a part of his 
land known as the "Gilpin tract," near Ninth and 
Broome Streets for fifteen thousand dollars. Part of 
this land was exchanged for lands of Dr. George P. 
Norris and Charles W. Howland, the present site of 
the Rodney Street reservoir. 

The superintendent in his report for 1864, stated that 
the new reservoir in the square bounded by Rodney 
and Clayton Streets, and Eighth and Ninth Streets, 
was partially erected. An eight-inch pipe was laid 
from a new pipe and a boiler-house was erected on 
the old basin square at Tenth and Market. The 
pump was also connected with the old basins. The 
whole cost of the improvements made was $19,205 ; 
the amount appropriated by Council under new leg- 
islative enactment $25,000 ; the amount of water rent 
for 1863 was $19,772 ; cost of laying pipe from pump- 
house to new basin and connecting with old basin^ 
$14,020. The Council sold bonds of the city to the 
amount of $15,000 to complete the works. In 1866 
the water committee reported the works to consist of 
two double-acting pumps, capable of forcing into the 
reservoir at Tenth and Market Street, nine hundred 
thousand gallons of water in twenty-four hours, and 

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I Cornifth steam pump forcing through a twenty-four 
inch main-pipe one million gallons daily. This aggre- 
gate was not considered sufficient to supply the future 
demanddof the town. A citizen committee composed 
of Edward Betts, Wm. T. Porter, William Canby, 
Je«e Sharpe and John Jones after conferring with 
Gregg Chandler, Jos. C. Rowland, John A. Duncan, 
Philip Plunkett and C. H. Gallagher the water com- 
mittee, reported at a public meeting of the citizens, 
held February 13, 1867, 'Uhe absolute necessity of in- 
creasing the Hupply of water.*' On motion of Dr. L. 
P. Bush, the City Coudcil was recommended to make 
application to the Legislature to borrow money for 
completing the Cool Spring reservoir. A bill author- 
izing a loan of two hundred thousand dollars ** for the 
sole purpose of increasing the supply of water in Wil- 
mington," was passed. Isaac S. Cassin received 
seveo thousand dollars in 1869, for repairs made on 
the Rodney Street basin. The daily consumption of 
waterin 1869, was 1,118,237 gallons. A committee of the 
City Council composed of C. H.Gallagher, George H. 
Walter, H. F. Pickel.s, H. F. Finegan, Jr., and E. J. 
McManus April 7, 1870, urged the erection of new 
water works. William E. Morris, civil engineer of 
Philadelphia, was employed to "go over the whole 
groond " and make a report to the Council, which he 
did August 31, 1870. The large increase in the con- 
lamption of water on the river front, together with 
the increase of population in the lower part of the 
city, made such a draft upon the pipes as to almost 
deprive citizens who resided on the elevated parts 
from obtaining any water except at night and on 
Saoday. Improvements were needed, but at this 
time none were made, save a new pump-cylinder and 
anew boiler were placed at the pump-house on the 
Bnndywine. In October, 1871, the office of the 
water department was removed from north-west 
comer of Tenth and King Streets, to the north-west 
comer of Tenth and Market Streets, and the old office 
was used by the surveyor and engineer. On February 
1, 1S72, Col. Febiger, in behalf of the water commit- 
tee, reported that a contract had been entered into 
with Henry R. Worth ington of New York, for the 
coottmction of a compound Duplex pump to cost 
$37,000, with a capacity of forcing 5,000,000 gal- 
lons per day. The total amount of water supplied 
to the city in 1871 was 551,232,000 gallons, forty-seven 
gallons to each citizen, ; number of places supplied, 
5,358 ; entire revenue $44,000. 

J. D. WinHlow constructed a new pump-house sixty 
feet square, for $9,486, on the site of the old mill in 
1872. The total cost of the Water Works to the city, 
inclading expense of running from the time of their 
citobliahment in 1872, was $354,589. 

There was general discontent among the tax-payera 
of the city, and March 30, 1877, an act of assembly 
wai passed by which the completion of the Cool 
Spring reservoir was taken out of the hands of the 
City Council, and John P. Allmond, Csesar A. Rod- 
ney and James Bradford created a commission to 

carry the work into execution. They secured the 
services of Col. Julius W. Adams, engineer of the 
Brooklyn Water Department, Charles P. Manning, 
consulting engineer of the Baltimore Water Depart- 
ment, and William J. McAlpine, hydraulic engineer 
of New York who examined the incompleted reser- 
voirs, and made a report giving their views as to the 
best method of procedure to finish it. The com- 
mission acting upon this report and upon their own 
judgment, entered into a contract with Peter F. Col- 
lins and James Kennedy, of Philadelphia, to com- 
plete the North Basin for $33,000, with a capacity, 
filled to the coping, of 17,964.000 gallons, and $36,- 
600 for the South Basin, ^ith a capacity of 20,809,- 
000 gallons. Samuel Canby was the resident en- 
gineer, and gave the lines for the work. Coul Spring 
Reservoir was entirely finished and opened Tuesday, 
December 18, 1877, and the water was turned into the 
supply pipes on January 1, 1878. 

The board of Water Commissioners was created by 
act of Liegislature passed April 18, 1883, which named 
William T. Porter, Ceesar A. Rodney, and Lewis 
Paynter as the first members,* who by drawing lots 
were made members for six, four and two years re- 
spectively. Upon the death of his two associates, 
William T. Porter, by virtue of his office appointed 
William G. Gibbons and Christian Febiger to fill out 
their unexpired terms, at the expiration of which the 
mayor under the act appointed James Carmichael to 
succeed William G. Gibbons, and reappointed Chris- 
tian Febiger. 

During the early history of the Water Department 
some of the superintendents were James Logan, ap- 
pointed in 1826 at three hundred dollars per annum, 
Joseph Seeds, in 1830 ; Joseph R. Townsend, in 1839; 
Thomas Mahaffey, in 1845; James G. File, in 1851, 
and Aquilla Pritchard, in 1856. The last named 
served several years. Upon the reorganization of the 
Water Department, the office of chief engineer was 
created and Charles H. Gallagher was first appointed 
by Council to that office. Joseph Hyde succeeded 
in 1874; Allen Ruth, in 1875; Charles H. Gallagher, 
in 1876 ; Henry B. Mclntire, in 1878 ; David H. Coyle, 
from January, 1883, to July, 1884, when the Board of 
Water Commissioners organized. The appointing 
power being now vested in the hands of that body 
choose Henry B. Mclntire, who retired in May 1886, 
and the present chief engineer, Joseph A. Bond, was 

The office of registrar was created in 1871, when 
Frank A. Taylor was the first appointee. His suc- 
cessors have been, William S. Hayes, William J. 
Morrow, Thomas M. Ogle, Joseph A. Bond and John 
S. Grohe. George H. Simmons is inspector and 

Chief Enginer Bond in his report for the year ending 
January 1, 1887, gives the receipts for the preceding 
twelve months, $173,849; disbursemenU $130,430, 
with a balance on hand of $43,418. The revenue of 
the Water Department increased from $19,696 in 

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1862 to $96,046 in 1886. Daring the year 1886, there 
were supplied to the city 1,738,412,408 gallons of 
water. Estimating the population then at 52,000, 
the daily average per capita was ninety-one and 
three fifth gallons. 

The Wilmington Gas Company was organized 
in 1833, with a capital of six thousand dollars, in two 
hundred and forty shares of twenty-five dollars each. 
Five dollars on each share was paid at the time of 
subscription. The commissioners named in the 
charter of incorporation granted by the Legislature 
were, James Canby, William Seal, Thomas Garrett, 
Elisha Huxley and Lewis Rum ford. James Canby 
was the first president of the company and the first 
secretary, William H. Naff. The office was at No. 1 
West Fourth Street. 

The works were erected on Orange below Water 
Street, and rosin was used in the production of gas. 
The price at first charged was eighty cents per hun- 
dred cubic feet of gas, which in 1835 was reduced to 
seventy cents.' In April, 1835, Dr. James W. Thomp- 
son, Edward Grubb,,John McClung and Peter B. 
Porter, '*a committee of consumers," reported 
through the newspapers that the gas supplies by 
rosin works afforded " cheaper light than sperm oil 
and for beauty, brilliancy and freedom from smoke 
far exceeds it." The works were enlarged in 1847, 
" for the purpose of supplying the increased demand 
for gas." The first superintendent was Peter Bourk ; 
he was succeeded by Samuel McClary who managed 
the works for several years. The meters used by 
this company were made in London. 

On Thursday evening January 20, 1848, as a small 
boy was amusing himself by lighting a small jet of 
gas issuing from the gasometer, the flames were com- 
municated to a large body of gas, and a terrific ex- 
plosion took place. The works were blown up and 
the loss was two thousand dollars. The boy was 
injured; there was an insurance of three hundred 
dollars in the Delaware Fire Insurance Company. 
The company before this accident was just out of debt, 
new works were built and the company continued to 
operate until 1851, when the Coal Gas Company pur- 
chased its effects. 

Wilmington Coal Gas Company.— By an act of 
the Legislature, passed March 4, 1851, Jesse Sharpe, 
J. T. Seal, Joseph Seal, John A. Duncan, Stephen 
Bonsall, Samuel McCaulley, William Chandler, Wash- 
ington Jones, Jacob Rice and their associates, or per- 
sons who shall become stockholders, were constituted 
a body politic and corporate by the name and style of 
the " Wilmington Coal Gas Compay." Under this 
act the capital stock of the compay was fixed at $60,- 
000, in twelve hundred shares of $50 each, with the 
privilege of increasing it to $130,000. At a meeting 
held March 11, 1851, Stephen Bonsall was chosen 
president of the company, John A. Duncan, Secretary 
and Washington Jones, treasurer. The next meeting 
held on March 13th, nearly the entire amount of the 
capital stock was subscribed. A portion of the site 

now occupied at the corner of Madison and Read 
Streets, was purchased, on which works with a limited 
capacity were erected and the gas was first turned on 
for use, November 22, 1851, and during the first night 
seven thousand two hundred and ten cubic feet of 
manufactured gas were consumed. Originally there 
were but fifty consumers. The average daily consump- 
tion for the month of December in the years named 
was about as follows : in 1851, 8000 cubic feet ; in 1852, 
15,000 cubic feet ; in 1860, 60,000 cubic feet ; in 1870, 
120,000 cubic feet; in 1880, 250,000 cubic feet; in 
1887, with four thousand four hundred consumers 
about 500,000 cubic feet, daily. The works as first 
built, had a holding capacity of 30,000 cubic feet of 
gas, and a manufacturing capacity of 50,000 cubic feet, 
and had a retort house, a purifying house and a con- 

Soon after the first works were constructed, ad- 
ditions and improvements were made. The most im- 
portant improvement made in 1887, was the water 
gas plant, originated by Joseph Flannery, of New 
York, as an auxiliary to the coal gas works, thus in- 
creasing the producing capacity of the entire works to 
one million cubic feet in twenty-four hours. The 
consumption of coal in producing gas is ten thousand 
tons annually ; the entire consumption of gas for the 
year 1886 was 108,000,000 cubic feet. Two engines 
of fifleen-horse power each are used, and the exhaust- 
ers, scrubbers and condensers are all in duplicate. 
The plant covers an area of abont three hundred feet 
square. The company owns three acres of land near 
by and south of P. W. & B. R. R. A holder with 
88,000 cubic feet is situated at Fourteenth and Wilson 
Streets ; one holder at the works has a capacity of 
450,000 cubic feet, and the other 100,000, both tele- 

While the English and American law requires the 
gas companies to furnish gas of sixteen candle power, 
this company furnish gas equal to twenty candle, 
which is twenty-five per cent, more light than is re- 
quired by law. 

Stephen Bonsai, the first president of the company, 
served from 1851 to 1864, when he resigned, and 
George Richardson was elected president, and has 
since occupied the position for a term of twenty-three 

John A. Duncan was secretary from 1851 until his 
death in 1868, when Thomas Lawson succeeded him 
from 1868 to 1877, at which time William P. Taylor, 
the present secretary, was elected. In 1856, John A. 
Duncan was chosen treasurer, in connection with the 
oflSce of secretary, and since that time the secretary 
has also been treasurer of the company. Washington 
Jones was treasurer until 1856, when John A. Duncan, 
the secretary, was also chosen treasurer, and since 
that time the two positions have been filled by the 
secretary. The business office is at 300 Shipley 

Thomas J. Mahaffey was superintendent of the 
works from the time of their erection until 1867, 

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wbeD Thomas Curley succeeded him in the position, 
and has served continuously ever since. He has 
been an employe of the company from the date of its 
establishment, having previously served as foreman. 
Michael Newell is the present foreman. The capital 
stock of the company now is $408,000. 

The Wilmington City Electric-Light Com- 
PAKY. — A charter was granted October 31, 1882, to 
the Amoux Electric -Light Company to manufacture 
and sell the electric arc-light, of the Arnoux and 
Hockhausen system, in the City of Wilmington. A 
company was organized in November, 1882, with 
John R. Flinn, president; W. W. Pusey, vice presi- 
dent ; Howard L. Chandler, secretary, and Qeorge F. 
Archer, treasurer. The paid-in capital of the com- 
pany was $60,000. An electric-light station was 
erected on south Third, near Spruce Street, which 
was ready for optjration January 1, 1883, and began 
with a patronage of thirty- five arc-lights. The 
Board on May 23, 1883, had the following officers and 
directors: 8. H. Grey, of Camden, N. J., president; 
W. W. Pusey, of Wilmington, vice-president; H. C. 
Robinson, secretary and treasurer; Francis B. Colton, 
J. H. Hoffecker, Joseph Pyle, John R. Flynn, Sam- 
uel N. Trump, of Wilmington, and W. C. Dreyer, of 
New York. The company ran the arc-light from the 
Third Street station until December 2, 1885, when 
the first incandescent lamps of the Edison system 
were installed. On September 6, 1886, a charter was 
^oted by the Courts of Delaware, incorporating the 
"Wilmington City Electric-Light Company," appli- 
cation having been made to the State of New Jersey 
for the dissolution of the original company, the stock- 
holders of which agreed to exchange its stock for 
that of the new company. At this time S. M. Trump 
was president ; J. Davis Sisler, vice-president ; Fer- 
dinand L. Gilpin, secretary ; H. G. Robinson, treas- 
urer; W. W. Pusey, J. H. Hoffecker, Francis B. 
Colton, and Thomas H. Savery, directors. Owing to 
the increasing demand for electricity as a motor and 
to produce light in Wilmington, the company pur- 
chased a lot on the north side of Fifth Street, between 
Orange and Tatnall, and erected a large station, with 
an electrical plant with a manufacturing capacity 
of foor thousand lamps of ten candle-power. This 
plant, including the lot, building and electrical ap- 
paratos, coat sixty thousand dollars. Since the spring 
of 1887 the company has greatly extended its busi- 
ness by way of supplying electricity as a motive- 
power for manufacturing, and has entered into a 
contract with the Wilmington City Railway Company, 
to ran its cars over the Brandy wine extension of the 
Market Street line. This, with exioting contracts for 
notive power and light, will exhaust the entire pro- 
ducing power of the station, with its present capa- 
city, and a still greater extension of facilities to meet 
ftirther demands is contemplated. 

The Wilmington City Railway Company. — 
Oq the 14th of March, 1864 the first meeting of the 
stockholders of this company was held in the office 

of the New Castle County Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, on which occasion they elected seven directors 
as follows: William Tatnall, Joshua T. Heald, Wil- 
liam Wharton, Jr., Clement B. Smyth, Daniel M. 
Bates, Eli Garrett and Philip McDowell. The first 
officers elected were J. T. Heald, President ; Philip 
McDowell, Vice-President ; and Clement B. Smyth, 
Secretary and Treasurer. The charter incorporating 
the company was granted by the Legislature on Feb- 
ruary 4, 1864. The capital of the company under 
this charter is two hundred thousand dollars in shares 
of ten dollars each, of which but five dollars on each 
share has been called, making the present paid in 
capital one hundred thousand dollars. William 
Wharton, Jr., contracted to build a line from the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad 
station, up Front Street to Market, up Market to 
Delaware Avenue and from thence to Middle Depot 
a distance of two miles for twenty-nine thousand two 
hundred and fifty dollars by June 1, 1864. 

The company bought of William Tatnall, for one 
thousand dollars payable in bonds, a lot upon which 
the present office, stables and car-house are built. 
The amount of fifty thousand dollars was borrowed 
on coupon bonds at five per cent., payable January 18, . 
1874, to assist in constructing the road. On Mky 17, 
1864, it was decided to extend the line to Rising Sun 
Village. At this date one mile of the track was laid. 
The first cars were run over the road June 29, 1864, 
when the mayor, city-council and other city-officers 
joined the directors in an excursion over the line, and 
were delightfully entertained in a grove on the 
Brandywine, belonging to Clement B. Smyth. 

Seven cars were purchased from John Stephenson, 
of New York, for seven thousand and ninety -two # 
dollars, and thirty-five horses were secured. 

George W. Kelsey was appointed the first superin- 
tendent of the road June 27, 1864. Phineas Stearn, 
James W. Wood, James Fletcher and George Turner 
were appointed the first conductors. Bennett Fling's 
stage-line, running between Wilmington and Brandy- 
wine Banks, was purchased for two hundred dollars. 
Clement B. Smyth resigned his position as secretary 
and treasurer May 2, 1864, and John F. Miller was 

At the second annual election in July, 1865, the 
directors chosen were James Bradford, J. Taylor 
Gause, Eli Garrett, J. T. Heald, Philip McDowell, 
William Canby and William Tatnall. From 1865 to 
1879 there was no material increase in the annual re- 
ceipts of the company ; from 1879 to 1884 the increase 
was rapid, the receipts of the latter year being double 
those of the former year. From the opening of the 
road to 1887 about twelve million passengers were 
carried. The average dividend paid is about one per 
cent, annually. 

The rails first put down lasted twenty-two years. 
In 1887 the company spent twenty thousand dollars 
in improving its lines, in renewing the substructure 
of the road and in replacing worn-out rails. 

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On March 28, 1881, the company decided to con- and care firet run on Saturday mominj?, September 11, 

struct a line from Fourth and Market Streets, east- 1881. The firet outfit included four care, built by 

ward on Fourth Street to the Christiana River. This Bowers, Dure & Company, of Wilmington, and twelve 

road was built by William Wharton, Jr., at a cost of mules. The company now owns six passenger caw 

nine thousand one hundred dollare. On October 3, and one large excureion car. Its patronage is steadily 

1881, a resolution was passed to construct a line on increasing. The office and stables are at the west end 

Spruce Street. The contract for this was given to of the line. This section of Wilmington is rapidly 

Jeremiah Mahoney June 3, 1882. improving ; many new residences have lately been 

In 1887 the same contractor built the extension erected near the western terminus of the road. The 

from Market and Tenth Streets to Riverview Ceme- officers of the company are George W. Bush, presi- 

tery, a distance of one and a half miles. This line dent; S. A. Price, secretary and superintendent; 

is run by the Sprague Electric Railway System, the E. T. Taylor, treasurer. The other directore are 

motive-power being furnished by the Wilmington Philip Plunkett, John R. Tatum, R. J. Mackay, 

Electric Light Company. The following is a list of M.D., William Ferris, Joseph Pyle and James C. 

the presidents of the company : McComb. 

The Brandy wine Bridge.— The only way of 

Joihua T. Heald March 14, 1864, to August 3. 1864 • .. t* j • • i x • r 

wm. Wharton. Jr Augurt 3. 1864, to March 21. 1865 crossing the Brandy wiuo lu comJng to or going from 

wm. Oanby March 21, 1866, t» May 7,1868 Wilmington in carlv davs was by means of a ferry 

Eli Garrett May 7, 1868, to October 9, 1873 , r j. ^i. * mu / * • ^• 

James Bradford October 9, 1873, to July 1, 1882 or by fordiug the Stream. The ferry terminating at 

Wm. Canby July 11, 1882, to date the point where French Street reaches the creek was 

The following have filled the oflSce of secretary and in use to 1764. Peter Vandever had a bridge con- 
treasurer: structed near where the Eleventh St. Bridge spans 

aement B. Smyth March 14, 1864, to May 2, 1864 the Stream, but there is no authentic information to 

i***^ 'n; »*"*'" - V^*' ^' JTo*«?f "^""^i' \T. esUblish the date. It was standing in 1767. though 

C. W. Talley January 1, 1866, to June 16, 1870 ,-,, j. !./• \ X 

Wiiuam H. Colby June 30, 1870, to NoTember 3, 1873 Ordered to be removed three years before, wnen tne 

Edward Taylor ^^^^^^J 3, If ^' ^, October 2. 1875 j^^idge above was built Under an act of Assembly, 

Frank J. HobK)n October 2, 1876, to January 2i, 1877 * , ., ^ .i. ^ u ai. 

Samuel Chambers January 22, 1877, to June 1, 1881 pasSed in 1762, a Dndge tO CrOSS the Stream Where the 

John K. Bradford June 1, iwi, to July 1, 1882 present beautifiil ouo docs, was Ordered to be built It 

John T.Miller July 1, 1882, to date *^ , . -, • ,«/». j ^.i. j j i. 

was completed in 1764, and the roads made to cou- 
William H. Burnett was appointed superintendent nect with it. For fifty-six years it served its purpose, 
October 3, 1881. The directors for the year 1888 are having borne many hundred heavily-freighted wagons 
William Canby, James Bradford, Joshua T. Heald, within that period of time. Repairs were needed, of 
John Jones, Washington Jones, George H. Bates, course, at various times. As early as 1775, Ziba 
George W. Bush. Since the lines of this company Ferris, by order of James Latimer and John Stapler, 
• have been built, great improvements have been made bridge commissioners, expended eighty-four pounds, 
in the northern and northwestern part of Wilming- five shillings and four pence for that purpose* One of 
ton. This was greatly owing to the accommodation the items of expense was one pound and one shilling, 
afforded by the street railway passing through these for ** six gallons of rum for the workmen." The first 
localities. bridge became old and somewhat dilapidated with 
The Front and Union Street-Railway Com- more than half a century's use. In 1806 a move was 
PANT. — ^The first meeting of stockholders who con- on foot and a company incorporated with a capital of 
templated the organization of this company was held $20,000 to build a stone bridge, but it never was done, 
at the Artisans' Savings Bank, February 17, 1881, A petition was presented to the Levy Court, March 4, 
when they elected the following-named directors : 1806, praying for the erection of a new bridge. John 
H. S. McComb, William G. Gibbons, Francis N. Warner, George Clark and Dr. Arnold Naudain 
Back, Philip Plunkett, John R. Tatum, £. T. Walton were appointed to view the bridge and report its con- 
and George W. Bush. On the same day the directors dition. They made no report until 1807. Another 
elected George W. Busb, president; Edward T. petition, signed by one hundred persons of Brandy- 
Taylor, secretary ; Philip Plunkett, treasurer. A wine and Christiana, asked that the bridge be repaired 
charter of incorporation was obtained February 20, or a new one built. John BrynbeVg, David Stewart and 
1877. The paid-in capital was $25,000, which has Anthony Higgins, on May 2, 1809, a new committee, 
since been increased to $30,000 in shares of $10 reported favorably to the erection of the desired 
each. bridge, and the same day Capt. James Jefferis, 
William Wharton, Jr.. of Philadelphia, April 20, William Poole, John Way and Edward Tatnall were 
1881, contracted to build the road at the rate of $7400 appointed as commissioners to build one, '*on the 
per mile, for a single track, $2.80 per foot for the curved plan of the bridge at the Falls of the Schuylkill 
part of the track, and $6 per foot for gutter plate. River," with three chains, its width to be decided upon 
Samuel A. Price was appointed superintendent May by the commissioners. The first commissioners re- 
2, 1881. The road was completed to its present fused to act, and the court appointed Jacob Derrickson, 
length, a little more than one and one-third miles, Robert Forwood, John McClintock, Isaac Dickson, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



and Jamee Jefferia to erect a chain bridge. On June 
13, 1809, the Levy Court appropriated $4000 for that 
purpose. It was completed in 1810,' and was used 
until 1822, when it was taken away by a flood, and a 
covered wooden bridge built at a cost of $7558.23. 
The old bridge was sold for $884.07. This was 
carried away by a flood in 1839, and another placed 
there, which stood forty-eight years. In 1887, a 
committee of the Levy Court erected the beautiful 
one which now spans the stream, at a cost of $27,000. 
The committee were Henry D. Hickman, of Wilming- 
ton Hundred ; Isaac N. Grubb, of Brandywine Hun- 
dred ; Thomas Toy, of Christiana Hundred ; Robert B. 
Morrison, of New Castle Hundred; and Thomas 
McCracken, of Pencader. 

Thb Christiana Bridge at Market Street. — 
In answer to a petition signed by a large number of 
citizens of Wilmington and vicinity, an act was 
passed January 20, 1807, by the General Assembly, 
incorporating a company to erect a draw-bridge over 
the Christiana " at the foot of Market Street, and to 
open a road from thence through Holland Creek 
Marsh to the fast land near the residence of Major 
Peter Jacquette, to intersect with the road from Clark's 
Corners and New Castle to Christiana Ferry below 

It was chartered as the ** Wilmington Bridge Com- 
pany," with a capiul of $15,000, in shares of fifty 
dollars each. The draw, as prescribed by the .act, 
was ^ to be twenty-five or more feet in width; the 
bridge to be lighted with six lamps, two at each end^ 
and two in the middle of the draw." 

James Stroud, Nehemiah Tilton, James Brinckley, 
Samufl Caoby and Joseph Shipley were appointed 
commissionera to locate the site of the bridge and lay 
oat the road. The directors chosen were William 
Collins, William Hemphill, John Warner, James Lea 
and Jacob Broom. They reported to the stockholders 
that the bridge was complete, April 5, 1808. 

A bill passed the Legislature, January, 1851, au- 
thoriring the Levy Court to purchase this bridge, 
since which time no toll has been charged. The 
present bridge was built in 1883. 

The Brandywine Park. — The first move toward 
securing a part of the lands bordering on the Brandy- 
wine within the city limits, for a public park, was in 
1868. On the 1 1th of July of that year a meeting of 
citizens was held in City Hall, when Thomas F. 
Bayard, Samuel M. Harrington, Charles B. Lore, 

> In 1814 tbe main post road fh>m the Eastern to the Southern States 
rwti the Brandywine on a hanging bridge, passed through the 
berongb of Wilmington, Teered off to the west and southwest ranxes of 
tlie Bortbem banks of the Christiana and continued toward the South. 
A branch of this road crossed the Christiana and continued down 
thrcragb the Peninsula to the Chesapealce and Delaware Bays. The 
Christiana bridge bad a draw of thirty feet. Three stone turnpikes ex« 
ttoded into Bsnnsylrania. Wilmington, or a large portion of it, was 
bailt on tbe southwest of a hill, nine hundred feet above tide-water, and 
Bsar tbe Christiana. Tbe Tillage of Brandy vkine \ras on the northeast 
lAope of tbe lame hill and on both sides of the river. There were seven 
kondred and fifty hoos^ in both towns. Many handsome country reel- 
itotm were located one hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty feet 
skove tide-water in the highlands, which extended from the Delaware 
roond to the southwest and east of the town. 

Daniel W. Taylor and George W. Stone were appoint- 
ed a committee to take the necessary steps towards 
procuring the desired site. On July 16, 1869, after 
haying carefully examined the lands on both sides of 
the stream, this committee, in the name of the public 
meeting of citizens, reported to the City Council, 
recommending the purchase of the land ^* lying be- 
tween Adams Street, adjoining Brandywine Cemetery 
grounds and Rattlesnake Run, northward to Levering 
Avenue, including the Brandywine Creek and Race, to 
such natural boundaries on the opposite side of the 
Brandywine as may be deemed most desirable.'' This 
committee, in a published report, glowingly described 
the eligibility of this site, its beautiful scenery and 
interesting surroundings, and declared that no city in 
the land had such a stream as the Brandywine with- 
in its limits. The report further gives a concise 
description of the leading public parks in other cities 
of the Union, and the great advantages derived from 

The City Council made arrangements to purchase 
the lands recommended by borrowing money to pay 
for the same ; but before this could be accomplished, 
several citizens procured counsel and had further pro- 
ceedings stopped by an injunction issued by the 
chancellor of the State, on the plea that the city 
charter forbade the borrowing of money for such 

No further action was taken until 1882, when a 
number of prominent citizens met together, and, 
prompted by a promise of a large tract of land outside 
the city limits, by William P. Bancroft, made the 
draft of an act which was submitted to the Legisla- 
ture, and substantially as drawn, became a law in 
1888. Under this act the following-named persons 
and their successors were created a Board of Park 
Commissioners for the city: William P. Bancroft, 
Oeorge H. Bates, Thomas F. Bayard, Edward Betts, 
Francis N. Buck, George W. Bush, William M. Can- 
by, Joseph L. Carpenter, Jr., Henry A. Du Pont, 
J. Taylor Gause, the mayor of Wilmington, the pres- 
ident and the chairman of the Finance Committee of 
the City Council, and the chief engineer of the Sur- 
veying Department William Can by and Dennis J. 
Menton have since been appointed to take the places 
of others who have retired from the board. 

The original act was inoperative from lack of 
authority to borrow sufficient money, and an amend- 
ment was passed in 1885, authorizing the city to bor- 
row $150,000 for the purchase of land for the contem- 
plated park. The lands at present embraced in 
the City Park on the Brandywine, and in a tract in the 
western part of Wilmington, were purchased by the 
city authorities at a cost of $146,000. The grounds on 
the Brandywine extend on the south side from Van 
Buren Street to the city limits back to Levering 

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WlLUmOTON— {Continued). 

The greatest of all controversies in the history of 
Wilmington arose on the establishment of the markets. 

The first market-house in Wilmington was built by 
William Shipley, at his own expense and on his own 
land, in the spring of 1736, the year after he moved 
to Wilmington from Ridley Township, Chester 
County, Pa. It stood on Front Street and extended 
from Shipley Street half-way to Market. The town 
then had but thirty-three houses, nearly all of which 
were south of Third Street, and between Walnut and 
Market Streets. The Fourth Street market house was 
erected three years before the town was incorporated 
as a borough under the name of Wilmington, and 
when it yet was known as Willingtown. 

On July 13, 1736, thirty persons put their signa- 
tures to a public notice declaring that there ''should 
be particular days on which the country-people may 
bring to town their victualing which they are minded 
to sell, and which the inhabitants of the town may 
furnish themselves with, as they may think conveni- 
ent. '^ It was therefore agreed and advertised that 
"after the 17th of July, 1736, there may be a public 
sale of all sorts of victualing kept in the market-house 
built in Willingtown, On Wednesday and Saturday of 
each week, to begin at 8 o'clock in the morning." 

The market-house being erected by William Ship- 
ley on his own land and at his own expense, even 
though allowed to be used by the public, was not con- 
sidered lost, and eighty-one persons, in Willingtown 
and the Hundred of Christiana, in which the village 
was then located, nominated Thomas West and 
Joseph Hewes, of Willingtown, Timothy Stidham 
and Henry Colesbury, of New Castle County, and 
Jossph Mendenhall and Jacob Chandler, of Chester 
County, as trustees to receive and collect subscriptions 
to purchase the market-house, that it might become 
public property, and *^ to finish it and to build an ad- 
dition thereto." They performed their duty by col- 
lecting sixty-seven pounds, of which William Shipley 
himself contributed ten; Joshua Way, four; David 
Ferris, three; Thomas West, two; William Levis, 
two; Edward Tatnall, two; Robert Lewis, two; 
GriflSth Minshall, two; G. E. Fol well, two ; Joseph 
Mendenhall and Joseph Hewes, each one pound and 
ten shillings ; Christopher Wilson, Samuel Hooten, 
Samuel Littler, Enoch Lewis, William Warner, John 
Swett, Richard Carson, James Speary, John Vanne- 
man, William Cleny, William Seal, Stephen Foulk, 
Timothy Stidham, Honce Smith, Anthony Benezet, 
Joshua Littler, Job Jacob, George Howell, each one 
pound ; Thomas Hollingsworth, William Hewes, each 
fifteen shillings ; John Trimble, John Gleave, Chris- 
topher Springer, William Tussey, James Chandler, 
George Jen kin, Daniel Barker, Joseph Williamson, 
Andrew Jolly, Richard Eveson, Daniel Calfat, Na- 

thaniel Pennock, Isaac Lobdell, each ten shillings ; 
Owen Evans, Nathan Wood, Wm. Welton, Daniel 
Few, Moses Minshall, Jonathan Sell, Jacob Stiliey, 
Jacob Springer, Mouns Justis, Joseph Springer, 
Jonas Walraven, John Way, Samuel Pennock and 
Joseph Davis, each five shillings. A number of other 
persons a distance from town contributed the re- 

With the money thus raised they bought the right 
of the owner to it and obtained a deed, and the mar- 
ket-house became public property. This pleased the 
advocates of what then became known as the " Upper 
Market," but some time previous to its erection, and 
before Wm. Shipley moved to the young town, the 
people in the lower part of the town had discussed 
the advisability of building a market- house down 
** nigher to the water*s side," on Second Street, be- 
tween Market and King, on land given by Thomas 
Willing and Andrew Justison, when the town was 
first laid out. 

To oppose the completion of the lower market, the 
supporters of the Fourth Street Market prepared the 
subjoined address, which is here inserted to illustrate 
the nature of the controversy, and show who the first 
settlers of the town wei'e : 

*' To all Chri$tiaH people to tchom theae preeenU shall come : 

" We, whoee names are hereunto snbsoribed, inhabitants of and adven- 
turers in Willingtown, on the Hundred of Christiana, in the County of 
New Castle upon Delaware, and other inhabitants of the Country and 
parts adjacent, send greeting : 

*' Whereas, There has already been built in Willing Town aforesaid, 
for the use and benefit of said Town and conntiy a4JoiniDg, one house or 
building commonly called a Market-House or Sharablee, and situated on 
High (Fourth) Street and between Market and Shiply, and 

** Wherea*^ There in since proposed by some persons, inhabitants in the 
said Town, and now by them, a putting forward to be built, another 
Market-House, proposed to be erected in Market Street or Second Street 
aforesaid, but down nigher to the wator side : Now theae are, therefore, 
to declare to all persons, that 

'* Ws, whose names are hereunto subscribed, being very well satisfied 
that the Market-House already built in High Street as aforesaid is, and 
doth, stand very commodious for the benefit of said Town, both as to 
situation, largeness and form of building, and that ws, and every of ca, 
do approve the same, and that wb, nor any of ns, do any waysapproTS of^ 
but do utterly disallow and disapprove the building or erecting any 
other Market-House or Shambles in the said Town at the present, and 
until we shall see more reasonable occasion for the same. 
*' William Shipley. Daniel Macforson. 

David Ferris. John Pogue. 

James Speary. Thomas McCullough. 

Thomas West. James Phillips. 

Edward Tatnall. Jonathan Langley. 

Joshua Way. Ephraim Pogne. 

William Warner. George Harlan. 

Samuel Hooten. Samuel Hollingsworth. 

Samuel Littler. Enoch Hollingsworth. 

John Sweet. Edward Way. 

John Vanneman. Ellis Lewis. 

Robert Read. Jacob Chandler. 

Daniel Few. Samuel Pennock. 

Christopher Wilson. Joseph Mendenhall. 

George Robinson. Thomas Hollingsworth. 

Nathan Wood. William Levis. 

John Blto. Robert Lewis. 

Swithin Cliandler. Thomas Carlton. 

Joseph Pennock. Jacob Way. 

John Gregg. Christopher Marshall. 

John Heald. John Glennis. 

William Passmore. Job Jacob. 

Daniel Webb. John Trimble. 

Joshua Pearce. Nathaniel Pennock. 

Briuesby Barnes. William Garsuch. 

Valentine Hollingsworth. Daniel Colfelt. 

Alexander Frazier. Enoch Hollingsworth. 

John Ball. Samuel Greave, Jr. 

Samuel Greave. Adolphus Kirk. 

Thomas Wilson. Adam Kirk." 

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The signers to the above document were nearly all 
English Qoakers, who lived in or near the town. It 
seems the Swedes to a man were also opposed to the 
erection of an additional market. They also pre- 
pired a written protest opposing it, stating that for 
their own interests and that of their lessees : 

" Now th«ie are to docUre to ail persons that we, whose naraee are here- 
unto Mbacribed, members of said (Swedish) congregation, holding diTers 
Uada io the «Ud Town for the use of said (Swedes*) church and minister 
UMiectf, and hsTiog by our tmstees leased many lots of land there to 
diren persona, and considering the interests of our said charch and 
minister, and ss well the interest and advantage of those persons that 
hare already, or which shall hereaftfr, lease any of our said church 
laiidi,and the fature adrantage, rise and growth of the said town in 
gn«aJ, and being wvll satisfied of the situation of the present 
MariLct-Honse on High Street, etc. 

(Signed) John Embbko. 

"Charles Springer. Paul Jnstison. 

PblUp TandeTer. William Tussey. 

Morton Jostis. Henry Stidham. 

Timothy Stidbam. George Read. 

Haas 0. Schmiz. Joseph Springer. 

Jseob Stilly. Timothy Stiddeu. 

John Morten. Andrew A. Lina. 

Morton Morton. Ellas King. 

Lucas Stidham. Hans Peterson. 

JaoMS Sinnexson. .Tohn Springer. 

PMerHeodrickBon. Matthias Morten. 

Andrew Stilly. Henry Colesberry. 

Christian Brynberg. Peter Peterson. 

William Cleneay. Andrew Hendrickson. 

Jonas WaliaTen. Jonas Stidham. ** 

JHtis Jnstis. 

By the frame of gorernment of the province of 
Pennsylvania, of which the counties of New Castle, 
Soasex and Kent were then a part, one of the powers 
delegated to the Gk>vernor and Provincial Council was 
"to settle and order the situation of all cities and 
market towns in every county, modelling therein all 
public buildinflfs, streets and market-places.'' As 
WUlingtown was not a chartered corporation and there 
being no municipal body in it, the " down-towners," 
or those opposed to the erection of the upper mar- 
ket, addressed a letter to ** the Hon. Thomas Penn, one 
ofthe proprietors of Pennsylvania/' describing their 
wants. Governor Penn ordered James Steel to write 
a letter to the " down-towners*' asking them to sus- 
pend further proceedings in relation to the erection 
of tht lower market-house until it would be con- 
venient to the Governor to pay them a visit. 

A letter signed by the following persons was then 
^ent to the Governor : Samuel Scott, Charles Empsom, 
James Milner, Sr., John McArthur, David Bush, 
Thomas Peters, David Enoch, Thomas Milner, 
Simnel Milner, James Milner, Thomas Downing, 
Timothy Scott, Joseph Tomlinson, James Hutchin- 
aon, Joseph Steel, John Buchanan, Daniel Beeby, 
Richard Dockrill and Alexander Hooge. 

They stated that they desired to erect a market- 
boose on the spot originally selected, and claimed 
that William Shipley " had fallen away from the 
pablic interest and his former good intentions*' by 
building a market -house on Fourth Street, and they 
"oilered to pay the full expense he had gone to, but 
his resolution is so strong that he is not moved to 
acc^t any acknowledgement." Therefore, it would 

be a great detriment to defer the building of their 
market on Second Street until the Governor would 
visit them, " the workmen being all ready employed, 
the bricks and other materials provided." This 
market-house was built in 1737. 

Their address to the Governor contained some 
reflection on the conduct of William Shipley, and on 
November 15, 1737, he explained his position in a 
letter to Governor Penn. In very strong terms he 
assured the authorities that he had acted for the pub- 
lic interest and not for his own welfare. He further 
claimed that the site upon which the down-town party 
were about to erect a market-house " was a low, dirty 
place." Two months later David Ferris addressed 
a letter to the Governor in defense of his friend 
Shipley, and Joseph Hewes, another early settler, did 
the same a few days afterwards. 

For a short time there was peace and quiet in the 
" quaint old Quaker-town," until the " down-towners" 
became indignant at the apparent success of the *' up- 
towners." In command of a somewhat audacious 
leader, they marched up to Fourth Street, and with 
axes determined to cut down the white-oak pillars 
that supported the market-house. They demanded 
that the men who were at work, enlarging and com- 
pleting it, should discontinue their operations. A 
large crowd soon assembled. There was a stirring war 
of words, in which a strong mixture of bad English, 
Swedish and Scotch-Irish blood was shown, and 
things waxed so warm that some of them came to 
blows. This resulted in two men being badly injured. 
Quiet was again restored, and the belligerent party 
marched down-town to their homes. The question 
was never finally decided until a borough charter was 
obtained in 1739. The matter was put to a vote of 
the " freeholders and inhabitants of the borough," 
December 10, 1739, who decided that "The Saturday 
market and Spring Fair,'' be held at the market- 
house on Fourth Street, and the " Wednesday market 
and Fall Fair" at the market- house on Second Street. 

The controversy, which greatly disturbed the peace 
and harmony of the town, was now settled. The 
Fourth Street market-house was slightly enlarged, but 
few changes were made, and it did good service for 
one hundred and ten years, being removed in 1846, 
and another erected on the same site, which was com- 
pleted November 17th ofthesame year, and stood until 
about 1867, when, by order of the City Council, it was 
taken away. In 1830 the Athenaeum was built over 
the eastern end of the old market-house, and was used 
as a meeting-place of literary societies. The Wil- 
mington Library was kept in it for a time. 

The Second Street Market, built in 1737, stood until 
1793, when it was rebuilt. 

77ie Second Street Market- Ho use^ now (1888) stand- 
ing, was erected by the City Market Company in 
1876 on the site of the old one, the ground being 
leased from the city. The oflScers of the company then 
were: President, William Miller; Vice-president, 
Peter B. Huested; Secretary, James F. Sutton; 

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Treasurer, Joseph L. Carpenter, Jr.; Directors, Her- 
man Ahrens, J. L. Carpenter, Jr., Henry Ward, 
Richard Lovell, Peter Wood, JamC') F. Sutton, Peter 
Durham, John Gibbon, James Curren, Peter B. 
Huested and William Miller. 

The corner-stone was laid with ceremonies on April 
10th, 1876. On the outside of the comer-stone are 
the dates 1737 and 1876. 


The following are the officers and directors of the 
company: President, William Miller; Vice-president, 
John J. Joslin ; Secretary, David H. Magill ; Treas- 
urer, Abraham P. Geary ; Lewis Lee, John Gibbons, 
Thomas Curtis, H. H. Moore and William F. Lovell. 

The Twelfth Street Market was established by the 
city authorities in 1848. Market-sheds were built on 
ihtX street between Market and King, at a cost of 
three thousand dollars, and farmers were allowed to 
have wagons on either side of the street, along the 
pavements, to Walnut. This market never prospered ; 
very few farmers and fewer butchers secured stalls, 
and at the end of six months from its start was dis- 
continued, and the building for years was used to store 
carriages, and eventually was removed. 

Front Street Market-House was owned by David H. 
Craig, and was situated between Jefferson and Madison 
on Front. It was conducted for a year or two and then 
discontinued for lack of patronage. The building is 
now used as a carriage manufactory. 

The Farmers^ Market on Eighth Street was estab- 
lished by Gregg & Bowe in 1868, when they erected 
their large carriage works at the corner of Eighth and 
Shipley. It has Mnce been incorporated. The market 
is on the first floor of their large building, one hundred 
and sixty-seven by fifty-two feet. It is well patron- 
ized by butchers, truckers and farmers, and is open 
every day. Wednesdays and Saturdays and the after- 
noons preceding them are days when farmers attend. 
There are about two hundred and fifty stalls. 

Wilmington Market Company was chartered in 1885. 
It is familiarly known as the "Third Street Market," 
at the corner of Third and King. It was established 
at the same place by James Bradford in 1876, who 
then erected the present building, sixty by one hun- 
dred and eleven feet, and three stories high, contain- 

ing one hundred stalls, all of which are disposed of 
to butchers, hucksters and farmers. The board of 
directors are Patrick Monaghan, president; Joel 
Walton, treasurer ; John K. Bradford, secretary ; J. 
W. Butler and Charles C. Mamele. 

A market has recently been opened on Washington 

As the town grew in size and importance and 
the population increased, the farmers sold most of 
their produce from their wagons on Market and 
Fourth Streets, until the street railway was built in 
18G3, and since then they stand on King Street. Thus 
for a century and a half have the country people from 
this neighborhood and from across the Delaware 
brought their produce to town in carts, dearborns and 
market wagons, which stand with their tail-boards to 
the pavement, while a row of benches placed along 
the curb displays their wares ; butter as yellow as 
gold and as sweet as a nut, milk, eggs, sausage, scrap- 
ple, vegetables, and poultry, all fresh from the farm. 
Up and down in front of this array of benches the 
town-folk crowd and jostle, inspecting the marketing, 
and driving shrewd bargains with the venders. Rain 
or shine, on every Saturday and Wednesday, the line of 
farm wagons stands along the pavement. In the hottest 
day of summer, when the sun beats down on straw-hats 
and shirt-sleeves, in the coldest day of winter, when 
the snow drifts in blinding sheets up the street, these 
good folk come to town to turn an honest penny 
In summer-time the wagons stand upon the east 
side of the street to avoid as much as possible the 
morning sun ; in winter .they shift to the west side, 
so as to gain ihe warmth as soon as possible. 

During the spring and early Fummer the markets 
are gay with flowers, sometimes ranged tier on tier in 
a gaudy tableau of color and fragrance newly trans- 
ported from the greenhouse, sometimes tied in home- 
ly nosegays of homely flowers — daflbdils, lilacs and 
pinks, pied and plain. Around these stands gather 
a group of feminine folk, and in many a market-bas- 
ket butter and eggs contest the place with a bouquet, 
or jostle against a flower-pot, in which blooms some 
sweet blossom, or are decked with a bunch of the 
water-lilies which barefooted boys offer at every cor- 
ner. Then in the season come the fruits in their 
natural order, free from forcing-houses, from the early 
strawberry of the spring to the apples of late 
autumn, each with a freshness and ripeness only too 
rarely found in our larger cities. 


WILMINGTON— ((7o/i<mit«(£). 

Fire Department— 7%^ Friendship Fire Company 
— On the 22d of December, 1775, a number of the 
prominent citizens of Wilmington, for the protection 

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of their own property and that of their neighbors 
from fire, formed themselves into an association, to be 
known as the Friendship Fire Company. Each mem- 
ber pledged himself to fumi«h during a fire two leather 
backets and one large wicker basket, and, when a 
fire occurred, to place a lighted candle in their win- 
dows and proceed to the conflagration. Should one 
member in passing another member's house fail to 
see a '* light in the window," he was in duty bound to 
stop and awaken the other. The whole fire appara- 
tus at this time consisted of some seventy- four buck- 
ets and baskets. When a fire occurred two parallel 
rows of firemen and citizens were formed leading from 
the fire to a spring, well, pump or stream of water. 
The buckets full of water were passed down one row 
and returned empty up the other to the source of 
supply. This work was continued until the fire was 
pat oat. The old time hand-engines were supplied 
with watar in the same way. A small hand-engine 
was purchased by the Friendship before 1790. It was 
gotten from a French man-of-war. A fire broke out 
in a row of old houses on East Fourth Street, in 1801 » 
when nearly all the members of the Friendship Com- 
ptoy were at New Castle attending the general elec- 
tioD, which was then the voting-place for the entire 
county. In the absence of the men, women acted 
(heir part well as firemen. Following the example of 
the men, some of them arranged themselves into rows 
with buckets, while others pumped the hand-engine. 
They did their work so faithfully that a general con- 
iligretion was averted. 

In 1793 a borough ordinance was passed directing 
how chimneys should be "burned out" and in 1803 
another ordinance fined every person five dollars who 
allowed the flames to extend a " yard above the top 
of the chimney." The members of the fire company 
then were oflered a reward if they reported persons 
who disobeyed this ordinance. 

In 1798 the Friendship declared it would disband 
unless the Council gave it all the buckets belonging 
to the borough and grant thirty dollars to assist in 
building a house for the engine. In 1803 the engine 
was reported as being " very much deranged.'' It was 
"fixed up" and used until 1826. The first engine- 
hoose was on Fifth Street, between Shipley and 

The Friendship Company was incorporated Janu- 
ary 15, 1805. In 1812 its engine-house was at the 
northeast corner of Seventh and Shipley Streets. 
The bell was hung on a pole in front of it. The 
membership then was forty-three. Carson Wilson 
was president; David C. Wilson, his son, secretary; 
Joseph Qrubb, treasurer. The engineers were Samuel 
Wollaston, Joseph Newlin, James Crosby and General 
James Wolfe. Charles Yeates and Adam Witsell were 
appointed to collect buckets after a fire. 

The engine-house about 1825 was moved to the east 
side of Market Street, between Sixth and Seventh 
Streets. It was a one-story building. The ofiScers 
elected February 28, 1827, were: President, Cai son 

Wilson ; Secretary, Joseph K. Robinett ; Treasurer » 
George Jones; Commander, Captain John McClung. 
The engineers were Samuel Wollaston, Aaron Hewes, 
John Cleland and Albert Robinson. 

The oflScers elected February 26, 1835, were : Presi- 
dent, John McClung ; Treasurer, George Jones ; Sec- 
retary, John T. Robinson ; Commander, Charles Bush ; 
Engineers, Jeremiah W. Duncan, James Kernes, 
Joseph C. Seeds, Elisha Huxley; Hose Directors, 
Thomas Moore, Charles T. Grubb, James C. Aiken 
and Esau Coxe ; Committee to see that chimneys in 
houses are properly burned, Aaron Hewes, William 
Hemphill Jones, James Carson and John McClung ; 
Committee of Accounts, Stephen Bonsall, James C. 
Aikin and Samuel Wollaston. These men were then 
some of the leading citizens in the city. 

In 1840, John McClung was president; George 
Jones, treasurer ; J. B. Lewis, secretary ; J. W. Dun- 
can, commander; James Kearns, Joseph C. Seeds, 
Alexander Kelley and Thomas Baynes, engineers. 
In 1845 the engine-house on Market Street was sold 
and the site used as a marble-yard by James Robin- 
son. In 1847 the company built an engine-house on 
Orange Street above Tenth. The present engine 
house is on Tenth Street facing Shipley. 

On December 22, 1875, the company celebrated its 
one hundreth anniversary by firing one hundred guns, 
a ball in the Masonic Temple and a supper at the 
Clayton House. The ofiicers in 1877 were : Presi- 
dent, Jacob Stevenson; Vice-President, John A. 
Shroeder ; Secretary, Samuel T. Bayliss ; Treasurer, 
Thomas Lynch. The steamer now owned cost five 
thousand dollars and was made by the Gould Manu- 
facturing Company, of Newark, New Jersey. This 
company now (1888) has a new La France engine 
valued at four thousand one hundred dollars, three 
horses, a Silsby hose-carriage, one thousand feetof hose, 
sixteen hundred feet of fire hose, a four-story engine- 
house with iron front, valued at sixteen thousand 
dollars, eighty-seven active and honorary members. 
It can be justly proud of its historic record. 

The Rdmnoe Fire Chmpany was organized March 4, 
1796, and obtained a charter of incorporation January 
2, 1802. It was originally a bucket company only, 
but as early as 1810 had also a hand-engine. The 
engine-house in 1812 was on Third Street, between 
Market and. Shipley. This company, like the Friend- 
ship, was instituted and controlled by iome of the 
leading citizens of the town. In 1814 the member- 
ship was fifty. John Reynolds was president ; Joseph 
Read, secretary; Isaac H. Starr, treasurer; John 
Jones, Samuel Askew, James Wilson, William Seal, 
Robert Porter and Hance Naff, engineers. 

On February 7, 1824, Evan Thomas was elected 
president ; Ziba Ferris, treasurer ; and Dr. Henry F. 
Askew, secretary. Buckets were still in use. The 
company had an open lattice- work wagon to carry the 
men. The Reliance Fire Company, together with the 
Friendship and Delaware, did good service at the 
great fire in New Castle in 1824. They arrived at 

Digitized by 




that town within half an hour from the time of start- 
ing, by the steamer '* Superior/' in command of Cap- 
tain Henry Read. In 1829 John Hedges was presi- 
dent ;William;H. Naff, secretary ; Ziba Ferris, treasur- 
er ; Allan Thomson, Henry F. Askew, Samuel Buzby, 
William J. Hallo well and Joseph Hayes, engineers. 
The company then owned a hook-and-ladder, which 
was carried to a fire by the members. 

About 1830 a building owned by William Naff, on 
Fifth Street near Orange, was used as the engine- 
house. Many years later the company erected an 
engine-house on Fifth Street, between Walnut and 
Poplar, which continued to be the headquarters of the 
company until the building now occupied by it was 

In 1836 the following were elected: President, 
Samuel Buzby ; Secretary, William H. Naff; Captain, 
Ziba Ferris ; Engineers, John L. Hadden, Edward 
Bringhurst, George Reynolds, P. Countess, B. A. 
Crozier and George W. Mortimer. Ten hosemen and 
fifteen ladder-men were elected at the same time. 

The Reliance in 1840 purchased a largesupply of hose 
and a fine hose-carriage. The affairs of this company 
had heretofore been conducted without asking aid. 
A few voluntary contributions were made by the 
banks and by individuals. On March 12, 1841, the 
company sold its old engine, which would yet throw 
water one hundred and seventy feet, and their "buck- 
et-carriage," and on April 3d of the same year ob- 
tained from Betts, Pusey & Harlan a handsome new 
engine. It had a " seven and a half inch cylinder and 
a nine-inch stroke, and threw a gallery stream and 
had one discharging-screw on each side.^* 

The motto of the company " Non nobis solum " — 
not laboring for ourselves alone — was neatly engraved 
on the engine. 

Henry H. J. Naff, editor of the Delaware Journal^ 
and postmaster of the city, was president of the Re- 
liance for twenty years, and Ziba Ferris served as 
treasurer equally as long. The engineers in 1843 were 
John C. Price, John B. Porter, Benjamin Johnson, 
Jacob Stevenson, Edward Bringhurst and William 
R. Pennington. In 1871 the Reliance had forty ac- 
tive members, eleven hundred feet of steam-forcing 
hose, a two-story brick house, on Fifth Street below 
Walnut, built in 1820. In 1887 there were sixty-three 
active and honorary members. G. A. Messick 
president, and H. A. Duffy, treasurer. The new en- 
gine-house, at the southeast corner of Fourth and 
Lombard Streets, erected in 1886, is 20 by 80 feet and 
cost $17,000. The company owns a Silsby engine 
valued at $5500, with a capacity of discharging 650 
gallons per minute, 1 Silsby hose-carriage, 1000 feet, 
of hose and 3 horses. 

The Brandi/mne Fire Company was organized in 
Brandywine Village early in the present century, 
and had a very honorable existence for nearly half a 
century. In 1841 it had thirty-eight members, most 
of whom were connected with the large flouring- 
mills or cooper-shops in that section of town. This 

company contributed liberally toward providing fire 
apparatus and an engine-house for the Phoenix when 
it organized. 

The Delaware Fire Company. — A number of young 
men met on April 23, 1819, to organize a fire com- 
pany in Wilmington. Vincent Gilpin was chairman, 
and Samuel Harker, • then editor of the Delaware 
Gazette, secretary. The name " Delaware Fire Com- 
pany " was decided upon. Jesse Mendenhall, George 
Bush, Vincent Gilpin and Samuel Harker were ap- 
pointed a committee to wait on the Borough Council 
and request to be recognized in the Fire Department 
and to secure an appropriation. George Worrell, 
Jesse Mendenhall, Thomas S. Newlin, Lewis Rum- 
ford, James Webb, Josiah H. Gilpin and Israel D. 
Jones were appointed to call on the citizens for sub- 
scriptions toward erecting an engine-house and to 
secure appratus. The next meeting was held in the 
Town Hall, February 29, 1819, when the citizens' 
committ-ee reported a collection of seven hundred and 
fifty dollars, and from the Council one hundred and 
fifty dollars. William Alrich, George Bush and 
John F. Gilpin were appointed to procure an engine. 
They reported soon after that " the hand-engine they 
bonght was constructed upon the old English prin- 
ciple, with the addition of Coleman Sellers' patent 
improvement of the follower in the air chamber, and 
would play from two pipes at the same time." The 
first officers of the company were Henry J. Pepper, 
president; Isaac Jackson, vice-president; George 
W. Worrell, secretary; and Vincent Gilpin, treas- 

The following members signed the constitution and 
by-laws, November 9, 1819 ; 

Vincent Gilpin. 
Samuel Harker. 
John F. Gilpin. 
John D. Vaughan. 
John D. Wood. • 
John McLear. 
Lewis Rumford. 
Wesley McClung. 
Israel Jones. 
James Webb. 
Jesse Mendenhall. 
E. W. Buckman. 

George W. Worrell. 
Josiah H. Gilpin. 
George Bush. 
Henry J. Pepper. 
Charles Reynolds. 
Thomas S. Newlin. 
William Alrich. 
John Guyer. 
Henry Vining. 
Israel Saunders. 
James P. Merihew. 
William Simmons. 

The membership was soon afterwards increased by 
the following additional names : 

George Simmons. 

Archibald Bingham. 

John R. Brinckle. 

William D. Brinckle, M.D. 

William Johnston. 

Reuben Webb. 

James White. 

Mahlon Betts. 

Thomas Cole, Jr. 

Isaac Jackson. 

Samuel Ash. 

B. W. Bracken. 

George GrifBn. 

E. S. Ray. 

A. N. Watwn. 

Peter A. Humphreys. 

Thomas G. Cable. 

Thomas A. Sterrett. 

James Brown. 
John Virtue. 
Samuel Hogg. 
Ezekiel Harkei. 
James Watson. 
John Wright. 
John Rudolph. 
Ephraim Thompson. 
Samuel McLary, Sr. 
John Joneis. 
John Adams. 
John F. Gunn. 
Joseph Pogue. 
Allan W. Law. 
Edward Stroud. 
Jonas P. Fairlamb. 
Dell Noblit 

In 1824, Peter Dulaney was president; John D. 
Vaughan, vice-president; Jesse Mendenhall, secre- 

Digitized by 




tary ; and Vincent Gilpin, treafiurer. In 1828, Mah- 
Ion Betts waa president ; Lewis Bumford, vice-presi- 
dent ; Charles B. Peterson, secretary ; John McLear, 
treasurer. The engineers were Jesse Mendenhall, 
John F. Gilpin, Samuel McClary, Sr., Wilson Pier- 
son, Mahlon Betts, James Simpson and Dell Noblit. 
In 1842, Evan C. Stotsenburg was president ; Spen- 
cer D. Eves, vice-president; Benjamin S. Clark, 
secretary ; John McLear was treasurer for more than 
twenty years, and Benjamin S. Clark secretary for 
the same length of time. A one-story frame engine 
house, eighteen feet front, was the first one owned 
by this oMnpany. It stood on Sixth Street, to the 
rear of the present Water Department building. A 
three-story brick engine-house was built on same 
site, but was burned down when nearly finished. It 
was rebuilt and used until the one now owned by this 
company was erected. 

Their first hand-engine was made by Alrich & Mc- 
Kay, members of the company. It played two 
streams, and took thirty-two members to man it, and 
did good service for many years. 

A steamer was bought January 1, 1869, in Port- 
land, Maine, for four thousand five hundred dol- 
lars, which was kept in service until 1883, when the 
company sold it to the town authorities of Crisfield, 

The Hayee hook-and -ladder truck, built by the 
Ja France Engine Company, of Elmira, New York, 
was bought August 21, 1882, at a cost of three thou- 
sand five hundred dollars. 

The officers of the company in 1887 were Henry 
W. Perkins, president ; Edward Lummis, secretary ; 
James F. WiNon, treasurer. Some of the oldest 
members are William J. King, John C. Williams, 
H. W. Perkins, Peter Wood, John Hendrickson, 
Joseph C. Button, Thomas Wilson and Charles Hig- 
gins. William J. King is fire recorder. 

The Phcenix Fire Company. — As the open territory 
on the hill between Wilmington and the village of 
Brandywine b^an to be occupied by dwellings, so 
that the two towns came nearly together, it*was de- 
termined to organize a fire company in that section. 
On December 8, 1825, a meeting of a number of the 
inhabitants of Wilmington residing in the vicinity of 
the mills, and on the south side of the Brandywine, 
was held, and after a brief discussion the Phoenix Fire 
Company was instituted with about thirty members. 
James Canby was elected the first president; John 
H. Price, secretary ; and Samuel S. Poole, treasurer. 
The engineers chosen at this meeting were James 
Price, Samuel S. Poole, Edward Canby, John H. 
Price, William S. Poole, Wm. H. Marshall, John 
Springer and Wm. Rice/all of whom were prominent 
citizens. Treasurer Poole reported the cash assets of 
the Brandywine Fire Company to be $383.87, which was 
transferred to the Phcenix. The borough of Wil- 
mington gave $100. The organization having been 
effected, a hand-engine was purchased firom Sellars <& 
Pennock, of Philadelphia, at a cost of $545. This 

was used for many years. The first ofllcers of the com- 
pany were several times re-elected. January, 1827, 
Edward Canby was chosen secretary. In 1828 Wm. 
Morrow was appointed to collect fines. March 13, 
1830, the president appointed Samuel S. Poole and 
Henry Rice to wait upon the Water Department of 
the borough, and obtain permission to use the water 
from the fire-plugs " in filling and playing their new 
engine." The original headquarters of the company 
seems to have been temporary. In 1832 the company 
rented " a room of Mary Wilkinson, for six dollars 
per annum, as an engine-house." It was a small 
building, which then stood on the west side of French 
Street, north of Twelfth. The bell was hung in the 
forks of a willow tree which stood near by. It was 
known as the " Factory bell." A committee appointed 
to secure a site and build a new house reported at a 
meeting, January 3, 1835, that the engine-house was 
removed to the situation proposed on " The Green.*' 
A new engine-house and a ladder- house were built, 
and the bell hung, and '' everything in good condi- 
tion." The site of this Qngine-house was on the 
east side of the market-house, between Fourteenth 
and Fifteenth Streets. At this time James Canby 
was treasurer of the company. In 1837 Joseph Bice 
was president and James McAllister, treasurer.^ The 
engine-house now owned and occupied by the Phoenix, 
situated on the northeast corner of Twelfth and King 
Streets, was built in 1869. It was remodeled to pres- 
ent dimensions — twenty and one-half feet front, sixty 
feet deep and two stories high — in 1883. Its value ia 

In 1875 the company celebrated the fiftieth year of 
its existence by an interesting demonstration, with 
street parade and banquet. The first charter waa ob- 
tained ffom the State Legislature on January 26, 
1835 ; renewed in February, 1855, March 6, 1869 and 
again March 2, 1875. 

A Haupt engine was bought in 1867, and used un- 
til 1875, when the company, on July 3d, purchased a 
steam engine from the Allerton Iron Company for 
$4400. The other apparatus are one hose-carnage, 
value $500 ; one thousand two hundred feet of hose, 
value $1000. The company owns three horses. The 
entire valuation of real and personal property i& 

In the second story of the engine-house is a parlor. 
It is carpeted with Brussels, has a fine suite of furni- 
ture and piano and the walls are decorated with pic- 

The number of active members of the company i» 
twenty-seven, and honorary members, ninety-one. 

The oflScers in 1887 were : President, William Price ; 
Vice-President, Scott Porter; Secretary, Williano 
McCracken; Treasurer, H. R. Price; Trustees, Wm. 
Brown, E. G. Patterson, Sr., and Wm. Walker. 

The Water Witch Fire Chmpany was instituted with 
thirty members May 1, 1833. It was incorporated 

1 In 1860 William Morrow was president ; Thomas Porter, vlce-presi^ 
dent ; Henry Shane, secretary ; and J. Wesley Hawkins^ treasurer. 

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January 22, 1835, and filled a very influential position 
in the Fire Department of the city to the time it dis- 
banded, in 1882. The first engine-house of this com- 
pany was on Fifth Street, nearly opposite Every 
Evening office. It was a small frame building erected 
by the members of the company at a cost of two hun- 
dred dollars. The bell was hung on a pole in front of 
the engine-house. The Delaware Fire Company pre- 
sented the Water Witch with a hand-engine, Septem- 
ber 10, 1840. The company bought a new hand- 
engine of "Betts, Fusey & Harlan, for two thousand 
dollars. It was tried in front of City Hall, and threw 
water one hundred and eighty-three feet on the 
street, and fifteen feet above the spire of the City 
Hall. It had two side streams, three receiving 
streams and one suction. This engine was used for 
twenty years, and in 1860 was sold for old iron. The 
same year a new steam fire-engine was bought of a 
Philadelphia firm, and in 1873 another engine of 
Clapp & Jones, Hudson, New York, at a cost of five 
thousand dollars. 

In 1837, F. Robinson ^^as president ; B. Staggers, 
vice-president ; T.C. Plumly, treasurer ; E. A. Wilson, 
secretary ; F. Hollingaworth, E. A. Wilson, Cyrus 
Pyle, C. P. Mattock, H. Robinson, engineers. On June, 
1839, this company extinguished the fire and saved from 
destruction the brig " Rupert,'' from Bangor, Maine, 
on her way down the Delaware from Philadelphia to 
Matanzas. The firemen went to the rescue of the 
vessel on the steamboat " New Jersey." In 1840 the 
company built a two-story engine-house on Shipley 
Street, between Fifth and Sixth Streets. It was re- 
built three stories high in 1857, at a cost of four 
thousand dollars ; a one thousand six hundred pound 
bell, costing five hundred dollars, was bought at the 
flame time. • 

May 12, 1841, W. Buchman, J. L. Pusey and T. F. 
Lowe presented each member of the Water Witch 
with a fire hat, cape, coat and belt. 

Among the presidents of the company were R. B. 
Oilpin, Francis Robinson, William Weatherold, 
Timothy Bowe, H. R. Bringhurst, E. A. Wilson j 
Secretaries, Francis* Robinson, E. A. Wilson, Samuel 
J. Flinn, F. B. Richards, William H. McCIees, H. R. 
Bringhurst, John B.Ginder, Franklin Wright, Joseph 
D. Pierson and Samuel G. Tazewell ; Treasurers, 
Thomas C. Plumly, William H. Horn, James D. 
Pierson, Franklin Wright and Joseph K. Adams. 

The Fame Hose Company, — A meeting for the organi- 
zation of this company was held at the " Bird in 
Hand" tavern on Front Street, kept by Joseph K. 
Robinett, on New Year's day, 1839, when Joseph 
S. Hedges was elected president, Joseph K. Robinett 
secretary and James C. Aiken treasurer. Some of 
the other original members were Henry G. Banning 
<now president of the National Bank of Delaware), 
(George Richardson, president of the Farmers' Bank 
of Delaware), Biuduy Simmons, Samuel N. Pusey, 
John Stewart, Charles Warner, David Woolman 
and Lewis Paynter. The permanent name of the 

company was not decided upon, until a committee 
returned from Philadelphia, where a hose-carriage was 
procured for $350 from the Fame Hose Company of 
that city, when this organization assumed the same 
name. A charter of incorporation was obtained 
February 9, 1841. The oflScers of the company in 
1846 were : president, John A. GriflSn ; vice-president, 
James C. Aiken ; treasurer, John C. Patterson ; sec- 
retary, John T. Robinson ; directors, Bernard Calahan, 
Lewi^ Paynter, John Read, Joseph S. Hedges, John 
Bowers and David Pogue. 

In 1850, Lewis Paynter was president ; Joseph 
Hyde, vice-president; Joseph K. Robinett, secretary; 
James C. Aiken, treasurer ; William Stevenson, Rob- 
ert A. Young, John Decatur, William Banner, Albert 
Coxe and William McLaughlin, directors. 

The first headquarters of the company was nearly 
opposite the present engine-house, on the north side 
of Second Street, where a two-story brick building 
was erected, at a cost of $1500. It was afterwards 
made into a three-story building and continued to be 
used until 1873, when the handsome three-story brick 
engine-house now owned by this company was com- 
pleted at a cost of $13,000. The iron front, costing 
$3000, was made in Baltimore. The building com- 
mittee were: David Woolman, John V. Christy, 
John Wentz, Manuel Richenberger, John Stewart, 
Leighton Grimes and Harry Feldmeyer. Elliot k 
Houston made a hose-carriage for the company in 
1846, which was in use until 1868. In 1867 the com- 
pany purchased a Haupt steam fire-engine, at a cost 
of $4500, though the name Fame Hose Company was 
still retained. This engine was disposed of in 1874, and 
in May of that year a committee appointed by the 
company purchased a new engine from R. J. Gould, 
of Newark, New Jersey, at a cost of $5500. This en- 
gine was brought to Wilmington from Chicago, having 
been sent there by the manufacturer to take part in 
a competitive trial of engines of American manu- 
facture. A new hose-carriage was made for the 
company by William S. Bullock in 1887, at a cost of 
$405. • 

The Fame in 1846 was composed mostly of owners 
of real estate. J. A. Griffin was president and J. T. 
Robinson secretary. The same year this company 
bought a new hose-carriage, made by Elliot <& Hous- 
ton, of Wilmington. On one side of it wjis painted 
the Goddess of Fame holding a trumpet in one hand 
and a portrait of Washington in the other. This was 
done as a mark of** Friendship toward the Washing- 
ton " company. On the other side of the carriage 
the goddess was represented as sculling over the open 
sea, while the ** Water Witch " was plowing her way 
over the waves underneath her. 

The first time this company was brought into active 
service was in 1839, at a fire in New Castle, when 
the members arrived there on foot, fifty-eight minutes 
after starting from Wilmington. Within the past 
few years this company has paid fraternal visits to 
fire companies in Hagerstown and Frederick, Mary- 

Digitized by 




knd, and Philadelphia, Reading and Harrisburg, 

In the second story of the engine-house is a parlor 
elegantly furnished, with hanging pictures, full parlor 
suit of furniture and Brussels carpet. The meeting 
room is on the third floor. The total value of the ef- 
fects of the company, including apparatus, three horses 
and real estate, is about $28,000 ; number of active and 
honorary members, two hundred and fifly-six. The 
officers in 1887 were Hugo F. Bourdon, president j 
Lewis Peekey, vice-president ; Alexander Whitcraft, 
secretary; Thomas Johnson, treasurer; Alexander 
Whitcraft, Hugh F. Sweeney and James Crawford, 

T/u Washington Fire Company, — The first meet- 
ing of tiie citizens of Wilmington, who laid the 
plans for the organization of the Washington Fire 
Company, was held in a school-house, on the east 
side of Shipley Street, above Third. On the 4th of 
Jan nary, 1840, the second meeting was held at the 
Delaware House, where the organization was effected 
with John Quinby as president, Samuel McLaughlin 
secretary, and John Luff* treasurer. Of the original 
members Thomas Mitchell, of Wilmington, and 
William Blackshire, now of Philadelphia, are still 

The first apparatus was a hand-engine presented 
by the Friendship Fire Company, known among its 
members as the ''Black Maria.'* A hose-carriage 
wa<i bought from a Philadelphia hose company for 
ODe hundred and fifty dollars. The hand-engine was 
in use until October 18, 1842, when Betis, Pusey & 
Harlan built for the company, at a cost of one thou- 
sand two hundred and ninety-five dollars, a new hand- 
engine which did good service until 1866. It was 
then sold to the Fenwick Fire Company, of Salem, 
New Jersey, for four hundred dollars, and the same 
year a new Amoskeag steam fire-engine was pur- 
chased at a cost of four thousand six hundred and 
fifty dollars. This engine is still in active use. In 
1880 it was rebuilt at Manchester, New Hampshire. 
The third hose-carriage was built by John TVeed, of 
Wilmington. The fine hook-and-ladder truck now 
owned by the Washington was bought in New York, 
July 3, 1868, for one thousand three hundred and fifcy 
dolUis. By this additional apparatus it became also 
a truck company. 

The name first given to the company was the Fame 
Fire Company of Wilmington. This was changed to 
the present title about six months after organization. 
Daring the first few months the apparatus was kept 
in the Friendship engine-house, then on the east side 
of Market Street, where the Smith Building stands. 
The first engine-house of the Washington was a one- 
ttory fimne, on East Sixth Street, between Market 
and King. This was torn down in 1852, and on 
the same site a three-story brick engine-house was 
erected and used as the headquarters of the company 
until 1873. It was then sold to the city for four 
thousand two hundred and fifty dollars, and is now 

occupied by the offices of the city treasurer, auditor 
and street commissioner. 

In 1873 the company bought the lot on the west 
side of French Street, between Third and Fourth, 
from Mrs. McNamee, for four thousand seven hun- 
dred dollars, and the same year erected the present 
engine-house, three stories high, at a cost of thirteen 
thousand dollars. The building committee were 
William Hanna, Isaac G. Saxton, Maxwell B. Dixon, 
Samuel R. Jones, Thomas Massey and Isaac Steven- 
son. This company has on several occasions paid 
fraternal visits to the Fire Departments of Norfolk, 
Petersburg and Richmond, Va., Charleston, S. C, 
and Philadelphia, Reading and Harrisburg, Pa. 

Among the interesting relics of the Washington 
carefiilly preserved are a large gilt frame, six by nine 
feet, containing pictures of prominent members of 
the company at different times ; a silver horn pre- 
sented, in 1866, by the Hanover Presbyterian Church 
of Wilmington ; a gold horn and silk flag by the First 
Presbyterian Church in 1866; a white metal horn 
presented by the citizens of New Castle for services 
rendered at a fire March 19, 1869 ; a solid silver horn 
in a vase presented by the Washington Fire Company, 
of Conshohocken, Pa.; a silk banner presented by 
the United Fire Company, of Norfolk, in 1872; and 
a silver pitcher and goblet by the Fire Department 
of Charleston, S. C, in 1872. 

The following is a list of the presidents of the com- 
pany since its organization : 

Thomu Mitchell 

William H. Hyatt. 

Samuel L. Bodgera. 

David Titu». 

Iflaac SteveDsoD (nine years). 

A. W. Nolen (six yean). 

Joseph H. Greenman (eight 

George U. Leech. 
Peter J. Babcock. 
Wm. Hanna (nine years). 

John Quinby. 

Abner P. Baily. 

Joseph Henderson. 

George Gregg. 

Joel Frist. 

James M. Dixon. 

Bichard Beynolds. 

Isaac G. Saxton (thirty years), 

though not continuous. 
James Scott. 
George MoOall. 
James £. Speakuian. 

Edward H. Singles was secretary twenty-one years ; 
M. B. Dixon, five years; James H. Yates, four 
years; Ii*aac W. Hallam, two years; and Benjamin 
F. Strickler, eight years. Kennett Martin was treas- 
urer seven years, and Joseph H. Greenman, fifteen 

Weccacoe Fire Company, whose engine-house is at 
the corner of Jackson and Second Streets, was organ- 
ized July 19, 1869. The first meeting to take steps 
toward the formation of a company in the western 
part of the city, was held at the house of John Thomp- 
son, on Linden Street. The first memher^ of the com- 
pany were William J. Donaughy, Robert Cottingham, 
Dennis J. Menton, Michael Holland, John Dunn, 
Charles W. Sol lo way, Samuel Cannon, John Thomp- 
son, Benjamin Green, John J. Donahue, James Har- 
rigan, Bernard • Nugent, Philip Lynch, James Zeb- 
ley, Michael Vaughan, James P. Devlih, James A. 
Bourke and Edward McGuire. Of these, ten were 
members in 1887. 

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The first officers of the company were Dennis J. 
Menton, president ; William J. Donaughy, secretary ; 
John Dunn, treasurer; Samuel Cannon, William 
Green, Michael Holland, Robert Oottingham and 
James Zebley, directors. 

The name first chosen was " The Western Fire Com- 
pany," by which it was designated but a short time. 
A committee composed of William J. Donaughy, Rob- 
ert Cottingham and Dennis J. Menton petitioned the 
City Council to be admitted into the Fire Department of 
Wilmington as a hose company. Another committee 
appointed to procure apparatus visited the Weccacoe 
Hose Company, of Camden, New Jersey, and obtained 
from that company a fine hose-carriage for $250 and 
five hundred feet of hose for $300. It was decided then 
to call the new organization the Weccacoe Hose Com- 
pany of Wilmington, in honor of the Camden com- 
pany. Philip Lynch was chosen the first honorary 
member, and being a man of wealth was of valuable 
service to the Weccacoe in its early days. Robert 
Cottingham served several years as treasurer and is 
yet a member of the company. 

When the first hose-carriage became unfitted for 
use it was sold to a Philadelphia dealer and another 
one purchased of a fire company in Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, for $350. William S. Bullock, of Wilming- 
ton, about the same time, made for the Weccacoe the 
hose-cart now in use. 

It continued as a hose company until December 3, 
1875, when it was chartered as " Weccacoe Steam 
Fire-Engine Company, No. 8," which name it now 
bears. The fire engine was obtained firom Samuel 
Tazewell, of Wilmington, for $1500, which was used 
until 1878 when it was sold to the Rolling-Mills Com- 
pany at Marshallton, Delaware. The same year the 
company bought a second-class Clapp & Jones engine, 
which is now in use, for $3500. The first engine- 
house of the Weccacoe was a frame building on Lib- 
erty Street, erected by members of the company. It 
continued to be the headquarters for three years, when 
a site was secured nearly opposite the present engine- 
house, on which a two-story engine-house was built 
at a cost of $3500. In 1886 this was sold and the 
present convenient and suitable location secured, upon 
which was erected, in 1886, at a cost of $9000, the 
handsome three-story brick engine-house, thirty by 
eighty feet, now owned and occupied by the Weccacoe, 
and of which its members can justly feel proud. The 
building committee were John McCloskey, Charles 
W. Solloway, Peter Matthews and Michael Walsh. 
The first floor is used for the apparatus ; on the second 
story front is an elegantly furnished parlor, to the rear 
of which is the business meeting room of the company ; 
the third story is a large hall used as a ball room and 
contains a piano. 

The equipments are an engine, hose-cart, 2000 feet 
of hose and three bay horses. The total value of real 
and personal property of the company is nearly $20,000. 
Some of the presidents of the company have been D. 
J. Menton, Robert Cottingham, Edward Nugent, 

Ezra Lukens and William F. Green ; secretaries, J. 
P. Devlin (now an active member), Charles W. 
Solloway, Charles Lukens, Edward McGuire and 
Michael S. Kelley. Peter H. Miller is the present 

Chief Fire Engineers. — An ordinance was passed 
April 6, 1868, reorganizing the Fire Department. One 
of its provisions created the oflSce of chief engineer 
of the department, to be elected by the members of 
the diflferent companies for a term of two years. 
The following is a list of the engineers, with the 
names of the company to which they belonged : 

1868. Wilson E. Perkins. Delaware 

187U. Samuel Springer Friendship 

1872-74, George McCall Washington 

1876. William Hanna Washington 

1878. William MuOrae. Fame Hoee 

181^0. Samuel G. Tazewell ^.WateT Witeh 

1882. Patrick Murphy Reliance 

1884. DaTld Reeder Weccacoe 

1886. Hugh F. Sweeney Fame How • 

Destructive Fires,— Some of the most destructive 
fires occurring in Wilmington, from 1797 to 1887, 

1797, June 3d.--0otton factory of Jacob Broom ; loss, (4000. 

1804, March 7th. — County almshouse, totally destroyed. 

1804 —Four houses on East Fourth Street burned. This flre took place 
during an election and was extinfi^tished by women. 

1824, March 30th.— OiHce of WibningtonUm and the BereoM, and Joseph 
Pogne's dry-goods store. 

1826, March 29th.— Joshiia & Thomas Gilpin's paper-mills. 

1826, May 10th. — Mahlon Betts' foundry, southwest corner Eighth and 
Orange Streets. 

lg40._Large flre Fourth and Market and Shipley Streets. 

1H40.— St. Andrew's Church. 

1840, March. —A fire broke out in a stable attached to Mrs. Magee't 
hotel, in Fourth Street The stable was destroyed and tho roof 
and second story of the hotel burned ; the three story house of 
David C. Wilson, corner Fourth and Shipley Streets, burned to 
the second story, and furniture of Stephen Boddy was badly 
damaged ; grocery store of J. Menough burned to second story 
and goods and furniture broken and damaged ; roof and thiid 
story of adjoining millinery ttore burned ; roof and part of 
third story of house, corner Fourth and Market Streets, burned, 
occupied by Ziba Ferris, watchmaker; Joseph Briughurst, 
druggist ; Misses Barr & Brown, milliners ; A. Shadd, barber, 
and W. H. Naff; roof and garret floor of the Union Bank &e- 
stroyed. Tho flre was supposed to hare been ef incendiary 

1840, December 2d.— Grist-mill on Brandywine. 

1841, January 27th.— Iron-foundry of Mr. Hyatt, Front, near Washing- 
ton Streets. 

1842, 0ct(^>er 28th.— Soap and candle factory of Isaac Solomon A Co. 

1843, February 10th —Fan factory and wire- weaving works of Abrsham 

Allderdice, on Orange Street 

1846, January 14th.— J. Adams A Co.'s sad iron factory. 

1846, June 8th.— Storehouse of George Craig, near Hemphill's wharf 
was totally destroyed ; two flro companies which responded en- 
gaged in a free fight and allowed the fire to bum ; meantmie, 
Wetherald's Neat's foot oil factory, on Second Street, was 

1846, June 18th.— C. I. Du Font's large woolen-mill, at Rokeby ; rebuilt 
in six weeks. 

1846, July 10th.— Machine-shop of Holllngsworth and Teas, Front Street, 

between Poplar and Lombard Streets. 

1847, March 6th.— Steam saw and planing-mill of Thomas, Walter & 

Jeshua & Baudy Simmons ; loss, 912,000 ; also Mitchell & 
McFarlane's sash-flu;tory adjoining. 

1848, March 23d.— Du Font's cotton-mill, east side of Brandywine, near 

bridge, Mr. Walker, of Philadelphia, lessee ; leasee's loss on 
machineiy, 925,000 ; Harmony Mills were burned the same 

1849, February 4th.— W^illiam Chandler's tannery, Fourth and Tatnall 

•* April 1.— Poor-house stable and bam. 
" May 14th.— Sash, planing and carving-mill of Garrett A Wollastoa 

and valuable machinery. 
*• June 21.— Gilbert & Campbell's foundry, on Tenth Street 
•*' Aug\ist 30th.— Carpenter-shop of S. D. Newlin. 
•* October 2d.— Rockland cotton-mills on Brandywine. 

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lUO, July 24th.— South wiog county almshouse ; Ion, 14000. 

l>iS5, 3Iay 20th.— Car- wheel foundry of Bush k, Lobdell. 

ljJ7f\ October 25th.— Bancroft A Sod's cotton -fiictory, on Brandy wine, 
partially destroyed ; Ion, 86488. 

IfiTl, Miy 3l8t— Number of fires in the year reaching twenty-seven ; 
leces, $3,136 ; insured. 

1^73 -.Forty-seTen fires ; losses, $14,000 ; insurance, $5165. 

lST7.-Torty-fonr fires; losses, $47,435; insurance, $11,610; during 
ysar John Green's carriage (isctory ; loss, $6000 ; Oanby k Co.'b 
floor-miU, near Stanton ; lose, $6000 ; Jessup k Moore's paper 
mill, on Brandy wine, $250,000 ; Bee-hive, on Orange Street, loss, 

Iwi-Eigbty-two fires ; loss, $102,050 ; insurance, $100,080 ; first fire 
aUnu telegraph used July 4th ; Pusey k Jones' establishment 
partially destroyed this year, loss, f75,000 ; Joseph Stoeckel's 
brewery, FUlh and Adams Street, burned ; loss, $18,000. 

l!i>U. -Seventy-two fires; losses, $117,625 ; insurance, $41 ,050; McLear 
k Kendall's carriage-fiftctory burned, Hay 27th ; loss^ $75;000 ; 
Person's sash-factory, September 3d ; loss, $20,000. 

I»^.>-Thirty-oine fires ; losses, $34,754 ; insurance, $22,579 ;• Wilming- 
ton Glass Works destroyed, November 9th ; loss, $15,000. 

ISt'T.-'Fony-nine fires; losses, $73,825; insurance, $59,925; David 
Lemon's candy-factory destroyed May 18th ; loss, $12,000 ; An- 
drew Traymore's stable, $6,175 ; Bradford's paint-store, January 
7th ; loos, $30,000 ; Kennebec Coal and Ice Co,'s property, 
March 4th ; loss, $17,000 ; Bailey's cracker bakery, southeast 
comer Fourth and French Streets, August 10th ; loss, $30,000 ; 
Both k Co., building materials, August 15th ; loss, $25,000. 

For many years members of the fire companies 
ptid their poll tax with firemen's certificates, under 
an ordinance granting that privilege. In 1843 this 
Uw was repealed. In 1842 the city collector passed 
into the hands of the treasurer $2330 in firemen's cer- 
tificates. This money accrued to the companies and 
aided them in the improvement of apparatus. An 
appropriation of $1000 to the city fire companies was 
anthorized by the State Legislature in 1843. This 
was amended in 1847, increasing the amount to 
$1500. The sum of .$2500 is now annually appro- 
priated to each company by City Council. 

The Fire Watch, or fire alarm station for many 
years was on the top of City Hall. The Fire Alarm 
Tel^;raph was first used in Wilmington, July 4, 1882. 

Parade in 1841.— On May 1, 1841, all the fire com- 
panies of the city engaged in a street parade in order 
to show the strength of the Fire Department and make 
a display of the apparatus, much of which was new. 
Jeremiah W. Duncan was chief marshal and Dr. H. 
F. Askew and George Powell assistants. The Water 
Witch, with seventy-three members, marshaled by 
Richard P. Gilpin, headed the parade. They wore 
black hats and capes, with the name of the company 
in gold letters. The Washington came next with 
^ixty-eight members, wearing black hats and capes, 
with Greorge Gregg as marshal. The Phoenix was in 
citizens' dress with name of company in gold letters 
OQ hats. There were seventy-two members in line, 
UDder command of William F. Eice. James L. 
Devon led off the Friendship, following with their 
" newly improved, enlarged and beautified " engine. 
Thirty members marched in line with blue hats and 
capes' with name of company in gold letters. The Re- 
liance, forty -seven members, with their '* new, highly 
ornamental engine, with carved work/' followed. 
George McCorkle marshaled them. They wore green 
capes and hats. The Brandywine Company, with 
thirty-eight members, wearing black tarpaulin hats 
and a black badge gilded with the name of the 
company. Milton Bnssell marched in the van. Then 

came the Delaware, just two years old, with ninety 
members in line, wearing '^ handsome hats and highly 
ornamental capes," with Wilson Pierson marshal. 
This parade was the subject of conversation for 
several days thereafter, so delighted were the people 
with the display. 

The FiremevCi GtntenniaZ Association was formed 
January 16, 1876, by repreientative delegates of the 
different fire companies of Wilmington. Its object 
was to raise funds and erect a building on the exhi- 
bition grounds at Philadelphia, to represent the State 
during the Centennial. At the first meeting in the 
Washington engine-house George McCall, of the 
Washington, was elected president ; William Blake, of 
Fame Hose, vice-president; S. H. Bay lis, of the 
Friendship, secretary ; George A. Messick, of the Re- 
liance, assistant secretary ; and Joseph K. Adams, of 
the Water Witch, treasurer. The finance committee was 
composed of Greorge McCall, Thomas Lynch, Joseph 
H. Smith, Alfred H. Kirby, L. Stidham and L, 
Grimes; the soliciting committee, John Stratner, 
Joseph K. Adams, William Hanna, P. H. Peterson, 
Robert Cottingham, D. Richardson and J. Porter. 
Efforts were at once made and by the middle of April 
sufficient money was raised. J. K. Adams, J. W. 
Carey, Greorge A. Messick, B. Richardson, T. Riley, 
Gleorge McCall and C. Lukens were appointed the 
building committee. £. L. Rice, Jr., was the archi- 

A neat and attractive cottage was erected during 
the months of April and May at a cost of two thou- 
sand three hundred and sixty- four dollars. It be- 
came the pride of every Delawarean who visited the 
Centennial Exhibition and was familiarly known as 
the " Delaware Building." The whole Firemen's 
Association, together with thousands of other people 
of the State, visited the Centennial on "Delaware 
Day," October 19, 1876. This association, after hav- 
ing accomplished its patriotic work, feeling very jubi- 
lant over it, did not disband until February 18, 1878. 
Insurance Companies. — The Delaware Fire In- 
surance Company was organized August 19, 1825, with 
a capital of one hundred thousand dollars, of which 
thirty thousand dollars was immediately paid in. 
William Seal was elected president ; Daniel Byrnes, 
secretary; and William Chandler, John Patterson, 
Joseph Bailey, David C. Wilson, Joseph C. Gilpin, 
Robert Porter, Joseph Grubb and David Bush, di- 
rectors. The first office was at 21 Shipley Street, but 
removed to 29 Shipley in 1829. It was a stock com- 
pany in shares of fifty dollars each, and paid a divi- 
dend of three per cent, at the end of the first six months, 
and dividends varying from four to six per cent, semi- 
annually thereafter. A charter was obtained January 
25, 1826, giving the company the privilege of taking 
both inland and marine insurance. John Wales and 
T. C. Alrich were|elected directors in 1830, and William 
Mendenhall secretary, with office on Shipley Street, 
two doors below post-office. He died in 1839, and Mat- 
thew Kean succeeded him as secretary. November 2, 

Digitized by 




1883, the seventeenth dividend of five per cent, was paid. 
In 1844 Oeorge Jones was president and Matthew Kean 
secretary, and the directors were George Jones, Wil- 
liam Chandler, John Wales, David Bush, Thomas 0. 
Alrich, Joseph Mendenhall, Joseph Scott and John 
Ferris. Perpetual insurance on real estate was then 
taken. The same persons were officers and directors 
in 1850. 

This company gradually extended its business with 
profitable results, and in 1876 declared two stock div- 
idends amounting to forty-five thousand dollars. The 
full capital stock was then paid in. The assets in 
1879 amounted to one hundred and five thousand one 
hundred and sixty-one dollars, and the liabilities to 
fourteen thousand six hundred and eight dollars. 
The officers were William Canby, president ; F. L. 
Gilpin, secretary and treasurer; and William Canby, 
George W. Sparks, Wm, G. Gibbons, George W. 
Stone, John R. Tatum, George W. Bush, William 
M. Canby, George S. Capelle, the board of managers. 
The office was then at 608 Market Street. 

The company continued in business until March 10, 

1884, when it was decided, owing to the small margin 
of profit realized after the increase of the capital 
stock in 1879, paid up largely out of the earnings of 
previous years, that it was to the best interest of 
stockholders to reinsure the company's liabilities 
under the policies of insurance, retire from business 
and make a dividend of assets among the stockholders. 
The reinsurance was effected in the American Fire 
Insurance Company of Philadelphia, and during the 
year ending December 31, 1886, there was paid back 
to the stockholders $104,600, including $4600 surplus 
over the capital of $100,000. 

The Wilmington Insurance Company was incorpor- 
ated February 20, 1833, with a capital of one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars. Its office was on the 
east side of Market Street, first door below City Hall. 
James Canby was the first president and Lea Pusey 
secretary. The other original directors were James 
Price, Stephen Bonsai 1, Lewis Rum ford, Vincent 
Gilpin, Jesse Mendenhall, Jacob Pusey, Edward Tat- 
nall, Thomas H. Larkin, Joseph C. Gilpin, Washing- 
ton Rice and George Bush. This company did not 
take marine insurance. In 1835 Stephen Bonsall was 
elected president, William McCaulley secretary, and 
Samuel Hilles and E. I. Du Pont were directors. In 
1842 other new directors were John Bullock, James 
Delaplaine, Dr. R. R. Porter, Samuel Buzby, Thomas 
Janvier, John A. Duncan, John Rice and Joseph 
Bringhurst. The office was then opposite City Hall, 
in property bought that year of Philip Jones. In 1847 
the company had an eight per cent, dividend. In 
1849 William McCaulley was succeeded by Joseph 
Bringhurst as secretary. Soon after this date it closed 
out business. 

l%e Farmers* Mutual Fire Insurance Company of the 
State of Delaware was organized June 12, 1839, at the 
Mermaid Tavern in Mill Creek Hundred. The first 
officers elected were James Thompson, president; 

Robert McCabe, secretary ; Jonathan Wilson, treas- 
urer; William Bracken, Thomas Walter, David Wil- 
son, Maxwell B. Ocheltree, managers; Dr. F. W. 
Clement, Philip Chandler, Stephen M. Stapler, Mat- 
thew Lockhard, Stephen B. Johnson and M. B. 
Ocheltree, appraisers. A charter was procured March 

24, 1843, the original name being the Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Mill Creek Hun- 
dred, by which it was known until a revised charter 
extending the privileges of the company was received 
in 1853, and the present name given to it. Originally 
the taking of risks by this company was limited to 
Mill Creek Hundred. By resolution passed August 

25, 184i, the territory was increased so as to include 
White Clay Creek and Christiana Hundreds, and in 
1847, the whole of New Castle County. Insurance is 
now taken throughout the State of Delaware and the 
bordering counties of Maryland. The company was 
organized with a board of three managers, which in 
1843 was increased to nine, and in March, 1853, in- 
creased to seventeen, and January, 1878, reduced to 
fifteen — five elected annually for three years. The 
managers elected in 1843 were Aquila Lambom, 
James Griffin, M. B. Ocheltree, James J. Brindley, 
John S. Caldwell, John Allen, Thomas Benneson. 
Thomas B. Armstrong and James Lindsey. 

The regular business meetings of the company 
were held at the Mermaid Tavern in Mill Creek 
Hundred, from 1839 to 1850, when, after a few meet- 
ings held at the Indian Queen Hotel in Wilmington, 
a room was secured in the Odd Fellows* Hall in Wil- 
mington. This continued to be the office of the com- 
pany until 1865, the year in which the premises now 
owned and occupied by the company at 833 Market 
Street, were purchased of Miss Black for $6000, and 
a brown stone office and dwelling erected at an addi- 
tional cost of $16,500. 

Only a limited amount of insurance was taken the 
first year of the company's history, but since 1870 it 
has steadily increased. The following statistics will 
illustrate the growth and prosperity of the company: 
The cash surplus fund in 1850 was $10,700 ; 1869, 
$61,000; 1875, $129,000; 1880, $234,000 ; 1886, $230,- 
000. In addition to the above cash surplus, the 
company holds $900,000 of notes of members subject 
to assessment in the event of extraordinary losses. 
As a security to members, this fund is invested in 
city, county and railroad bonds and first mortgage 
liens. The value of life policies issued by the com- 
pany is $11,442,666; the amount received from mem- 
bers for annual payments, and the interest on loans 
and investments for the year 1886, was $56,904. The 
amount of losses by fire, paid from 1851 to 1886, was 
$534,935. The afiairs of this company are careftilly 
and judiciously managed to the best interest of all 

Jonathan Wilson held the position of treasurer from 
the time of the organization of the company until 
his death, in March, 1850, when Pusey Wilson was 
elected, who served one year, when the office of sec- 

Digitized by 




retaiy and treasurer were merged in one, and Robert 
McCabe elected. 

The following is a list of the presidents, with the 
length of time each served : 

Janes Thompaon June 1, 1839, to Aug. 8, 1843 

AqaflaUmborn ~ Aug. 8, 1843, to Jan. 1, 1840 

Maxwell R Ocheltree «Jan. 22, 1849, to Jan. 26, 1851 

Samael HUIm Jan. 26, 1851, to Feb. 3, 1867 

JeM Sharp Feb. 3, 1867, to Jan. 1, 1874 

B. C. Stotaenburg Jan. 17, 1874, to Jan. 17, 1882 

Ytetor Dq Pent Jan. 17, 1882, to date 

8«cre(afTf and Tr9a$urer. 

Soben McC^be June 1, 1839, to Dec. 22, 1869 

S. BodnoDd Smith Jan. 19, 1869, to Sept. 16, 1873 

William A. U Motte Sept 16, 1873, to date 

Board of Direotonfor 1888. 

Victor Dn Pont Wilmington 

W. H.Swift t Wilmington 

Samoel McClary, Jr Wilmington 

Ricbard P. GIbbona Wilmington 

William T. Porter Wilmington 

Chrwtlan Febiger Wilmington 

Philip Plunkett Wilmington 

Samael Bancroft, Jr Wilmington 

Charles 0. Ash Delaware City 

Gwfge Z. Tybout Red Lion 

Maolore Hayes DoTer 

John P. Cochran Middletown 

WikonS. GaTender. 8myma- 

Bei\)amin Burton Georgetown 

Solomon K. Curtis Newark 

The New Castle OourUy Mutual Insurance Company, 
—An act of incorporation for this company was passed 
by the State Legislature, February 6, 1849, there being 
thirty-five charter members. At a meeting held in 
the Town Hall, December 21, 1849, James Canby was 
chosen chairman, and John A. Duncan secretary. 
On January 2, 1850, a meeting was held in the Indian 
Qaeen Hotel, when the following named directors were 
elected : James Canby, Stephen BonsalK William R. 
Sellare, Jesse Sharpe, Samuel N. Pusey and John A. 
Duncan, of Wilmington, Rathmel Wilson, of New- 
ark, and James Brindley, of Christiana Hundred. 
Thej organized the same day by electing James Can- 
by president and Joshua £. Driver secretary. Dr. 
Charles Black was elected a director June 21, 1850, 
and William Morrow, Jacob Pusey and George Rich- 
ardson in 1851, to take the place of directors who re- 
tired from the board. In 1851 an act of Assembly 
was passed increasing the number of directors from 
nine to fifteen. The new members chosen were 
George W. Churchman, Eli B. Tally, Samuel Canby, 
Caleb Heald and Samuel £. Thompson. The com- 
pany began business in a building four doors below City 
Hall, on east side of Market Street, continued theresev- 
eral years and then removed to 602 Market Street, 
and from thence to the luHtitute Building. In 1874 the 
office was returned to its present place, 602 Market 
Street, the property being purchased of the McLear 
eitate. The amount of insurance taken by this com- 
pany has steadily increased ; great care has always been 
exercised in the selection of risks, and the claims of 
policy-holders promptly paid. In 1870 the surplus 
was $22,539; in 1875, $49,583; in 1880, $73,756; 
b 1885, $100,980 ; 1887, $110,149. This fund is judi- 
cioosly invested in safe securities. 

The amount of the policies in force for the year 

1887 is $5,454,784. The following is a list of the dif- 
ferent presidents: 

James Canby » Jan. 2, 18M, to Jan. 1, 1862 

Jacob Pusey Jan. 21, 1852, to Jan. 21, 1857 

Wmiam Canby „ Jan. 21. 1867, to May 2, 1870 

WllUam Tatnall May 2, 1870. to Oct. 38, 1886 

William Canby Nov. 2, 1886. to date 

The following-named persons have been secretary 
and treasurer: 

Joehua B. Driver Jan, 2, 1850, to May 8, 1861 

William B. Wiggins. May 8, 1851, to Jan. 19, 1867 

George H. P. Simmoni Jan. 19, 1867, to Jan. 4, 1866 

Samuel D. Smith Jan. 4, 1866, te Jan. 20, 1879 

Mark M. Cleaver .Jan. 20, 1879, to date 

The office of vice-president was created by act ot 
the Legislature, March 23, 1883, and William Canby 
elected January 21, 1884. He filled the office until 
elected president of the company, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of William Tatnall. George Rich- 
ardson was chosen vic^president November 2, 1885. 
William Tatnall, who was a director for thirty years, 
and president fifteen years, died suddenly in the office, 
while attending to business, October 28, 1885. 


WILMINGTON— ( Continued), 


The first school within the present limits of 
Wilmington was opened before 1700 under the di- 
rection of the pastor of Old Swedes' Church. It was 
continued for nearly a century, and among its early 
teachers was the brother of Emanuel Swedenborg. 
In 1716 Lars GUwding was the teacher. 

A portion of the house of Johan Gustafson was 
used as the school-room. The names of the pupils 
will indicate their nationality. The exercises of 
this opening day began with a prayer and a speech 
by the pastor. The teacher then examined his pu- 
pils, and placed on record the following : 

" Qustaf, Bon of Joliann Gustafson, 9 years old. He can read bis 
catechism tolerably and answer nice questions in doctrines. 

" Peter, son of the same, can recite the ten commandments tolerably. 

** Mary Qeens, 9 years, can read Swedish and recite the ten com- 

**Annika, daughter of Mans Qustof, 6 years old, can read Swedish 

"Catharine, daughter of Andraes Gustafiron, 12 years old, can read a 
book, but must begin with spelling right. 

"Peter, son of John Stalcop, 5 years old, knows the letters. 

"Margaret, daughter of Peter Stalcop (deceased), 11 years bid, reads 
indifferently well Swedish and must learn to spell anew. 

" Thomas, son of M. Davis, 11 years old, can read very little. 

"Annika, daughter of Andreas Gustafiton, 8 years old, can spell a 

** Lars, son of Ante Vainon, 7 yten old, and knows the letters. 

On April 8, 1719, the same teacher was in charge 
of this school, then kept at the house of Johan Stal- 
cop. This parochial school was continued as long as 
services were held in the old church in the Swedish 

Master Wilson, a learned Scotchman, in 1760 kept 

Digitized by 




a school in a frame building in the centre of an or- 
chard, back of which is now southeast corner of 
Third Street and Spring Alley. He taught both 
sexes ; but he said he did not think it was necessary 
for girls to ** go in arithmetic further than through 
simple Division, 'cause it was no use ; only torn-boys, 
with big slates, would care to cipher in the Double 
Rule of Three." 

Dr. Nicholas Way and Samuel Canby were among 
his pupils. 

Robert Coram was an old-time schoolmaster of 
note. In 1790 he taught in a building on Fourth 
Street between Market and King Streets. 

James Filson taught in Wilmington before the 
Revolution. He returned from the army with no 
injury, save a slight wound in the right arm. He 
again opened his school in 1785, and continued it 
for two years. His wounded arm prevented him 
from ''thrashing the boys" as he thought they de- 
served; so he abandoned his profession, went to 
Kentucky, and was one of the early adventurers 
there with Daniel Boone. He made the first com- 
plete map of the State of Kentucky. Less favored 
than the famous hunter, he fell a victim to the toma- 
hawk, and was killed in a desperate contest with an 
Indian about 1810. . 

The name of the teacher who succeeded Filson 
has not been ascertained. The latter studied law 
with Gunning Bedford, and removed to Tennessee, 
and was one of the first Representatives in Congress 
from that State. 

John Thelwell was a well-known teacher in Wil- 
mington and the surrounding country. He began 
his career in his chosen profession about 1765, and 
continued it for nearly half a century, besides follow- 
ing the occupations of bellman, market master and 
clerk. He was one of the founders of the Asbury 
Methodist Church, and its first records were kept on 
the fly-leaves of his " ciphering-book." His daugh- 
ter, Deborah, was also a teacher. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Way was a popular teacher of nee- 
dle-work in 1790, and later taught in a room of her 
own house on French Street, where a dozen or more 
girls of that day were continually under instruction. 
She used a cat-o'-nine-tails to make her pupils obe- 
dient, and put leather spectacles on those who did 
imperfect work. In her early days she was a school- 
mate of Benjamin West, the famous painter. 

M. Michel Martel, a French refugee, was a teacher 
in Wiltoington a century or more ago. He was a 
linguist, and, tradition says, knew fifteen languages. 
Success attended him in New York and Boston, 
where he had taught for years. Hearing that some 
of his friends lived in Wilmington, he determined to 
spend the remainder of his days with them. Two 
more yeajrs in his profession were spent with pleasure 
and profit in Wilmington, and he then fell a victim 
to paralysis. He lost his knowledge of all languages 
save his native tongue. Sad as it was, charity 
waned, and M. Martel, now poor, became an inmate 

in the County Almshouse, a large white building on 
the hill west of the town, where he died. He had 
once been a teacher of Theodosia Burr and on inti- 
mate terms with her father, Aaron Burr. To her he 
dedicated several poems, chiefly translations, whicli 
ha wrote in this eountry. Aaron Burr visited Wil- 
mington when Vice-President of the United States, 
in 1808. People thought he would be generous to 
his daughter's former preceptor, but with his charac- 
teristic ingratitude, said he knew Martel when ho 
was rich — he did not know him in his poverty. 

William Cobbett taught school for awhile in an old 
house standing on Quaker Hill (so named on account 
of the numerous Quaker families residing there). 
Cobbett's straight, soldierly figure and military tread, 
were well known in the town and long remembered 
by his scholars. 

Monsieur Turel, in 1797, had a fencing school on 
Market Street, and Francis Gattels a drawing and 
dancing academy on French Street. Azariah Forbes, 
on January 5, 1803, b^an to teach "psalmody" in 
the academy. At the expiration of one quarter, he 
congratulated himself and the public on his success, 
and resolved ta continue his instructions. M. du 
Coudray opened a dancing school at Mr. McOoy'd 
house, on Market Street, in September, 1803. Cath- 
arine Hall, in 1804, advertised a school in which she 
taught pupils to play on the piano. The next year, 
John Scanlan started a school on Shipley Street, and 
Mrs. Chandler her seminary on Market Street. John 
Webster advertised, in 1805, that he could "teach 
the Latin and Greek classics with grammatical accu- 
racy and give strict attention to the vernacular 
tongue." He was a teacher in Wilmington as early 
as 1785. For a number of years he presided over his 
'' kingdom'' on Quaker Hill. 

General Lewis Cass, a distinguished American 
statesman, who represented Michigan in the United 
States Senate, was Secretary of War in the Cabinet 
of Andrew Jackson ; minister to France, and Secre- 
tay of State in President Buchanan's Cabinet, and a 
candidate for President against Taylor, taught school 
in Wilmington during 1797. He was born in New 
Hampshire, came to Wilmington on foot on his 
way West and remained here nearly a year. In 1848, 
when he made a great speech in City Hall, he refer- 
red to his experience as a teacher in Wilmington, a 
few of his former pupils being present. 

In 1814, Evan Lewis taught a Ladies' Seminary 
on comer of Sixth and King ; Miss Elizabeth Mont- 
gomery a sewing and drawing school at Market co^ 
ner of Eighth Street ; Miss Eleanor Bonsall a similar 
school on Market Street. Miss Green's school was 
at 109 Shipley ; Miss Deborah Thelwell at 33 King ; 
Mrs. Woodside, on Shipley Street; Mrs. Martha 
Mason's at 223 Market ; Mrs. Hannah Hollingsworth 
147 King Street; Azariah Forbes had an English 
and musical school at the corner of King and 
Fourth Streets; James Davis' school was at 136 
King ; Joel Zane's at 65 East Front ; Jesse Gause's 

Digitized by 




West Street near Friends' Meeting-house; William 
Rankin's, West Street, corner of Seventh. William 
Wickes opened a select school for young ladies, 
August 3, 1814, and Richard Elkton a tjeminary for 
young ladies and gentlemen on French Street. 

In 1814 there was one school for colored children, 
with thirty-four pupils. On January, 1816, Evan 
Lewis sold to William Seal, Jacob Alrichs and Ben- 
jamin Webb, trustees of the African School Society, 
a lot on Sixth Street between West and Tatnall, on 
which a school-house for colored children was built, 
at the cost of eight hundred dollars. Nicholas 
Donelly, on January 25, 1822, removed his school 
from Oxford to Wilmington, and opened it at the 
honse of Mr. Pogue, on Market Street. He adver- 
tiaed to teach a " class of English grammarians on 
the celebrated plan of Mr. Green leaf." D. Hewett 
in 1822, advertised ''a geography and penmanship 
school near the Indian Queen tavern. Running 
hand a specialty." The Female Fr'ie School was kept 
in the Presbyterian Church in 1823. The Mis$»es 
Grosvenor in 1823 opened a seminary for females un- 
der the direction of Rev. R. Williston, of St. An- 
drew's Church. In 1826 they moved to King Street ; 
their school was well patronized. Mr. and Mrs. 
Shifler had a school on Orange Street in 1824. Mrs. 
Brady began teaching in Wilmington in the same 

fl. Hardy, in 1833, opened a school in the Second 
Presbyterian Church session-room. Miss M. C. 
Smith opened a boarding-school in 1825, which was 
quite popular. 

The system of grammar taught by James Brown, 
in his school, was criticised through the newspa- 
pers. This annoyed him so much that he called a 
public meeting in the Town Hall in 1825, where he 
defended his mode of teaching. Edward Maher the 
same year kept a school above the " barber-shop '* on 
Front Street. 

Enoch Roberts, who was a noted teacher in Wil- 
mington, in 1828 gave a course of lectures in the 
Town Hall on the Natural Sciences. Edward Wor- 
rell kept the " Union school room,'* Fourth and 
French Streete, in 1828. James C. Allen, from 1826 
to 1830, taught a school on Orange Street above 

William Sherer removed from Newark in 1826, 
where he taught several Jyears and started a young 
ladies' boarding-school in Wilmington, which he con- 
ducted until 1828, when Bishop Davenport succeeded 
him with several female assistants. 

Enoch Lewis, afterward noted as a mathematician 
and educator, taught a school for advanced pupils 
at Third and West Streets about 1830. 

Caleb Kimber began the Wilmington Seminary 
for boys on Market Street near Eighth in 1835. His 
school was large and popular. In 1842, he and J. 
Sharpless revised and published an edition of Com- 
\f» Spelling-book. 

Madame Decl6my started a French school in 1835. 

J. M. €k>odman opened " his celebrated Chirograph- 
ic Institution " on Market Street in 1835. 

James Gardner, July 6, 1835, opened an English 
and classical school in a room on the third floor of 
Webb's leather-store, at Orange and Fourth Streets. 

J. McNevin, in 1836, and before, taught a seminary 
for boys and girls on Eighth Street, between Market 
and King Streets. 

Drawing, painting and French school by F. G. 
Gwinczewski in 1839. 

Mrs. 'Janvier's seminary for young ladies was pros- 
perous in 1840. It was situated three-quarters of a 
mile west of the city. 

Rev. K. J. Stewart, in 1841, started his English and 
Classical Institute. 

Mr. Parker had a school at Sixth and French Sts. 
in 1839, with Miss Wilkinson as assistant. Miss 
Charlotte Grimshaw succeeded Mrs. M. C. Smith with 
a school for young ladies, in 1842, on King Street. 

John Thomas, in 1840, was principal of an academy 
in the old Presbyterian Church on Market Street 

Mrs. Maxwell's academy for young ladies was 
opened in 1841. 

In 1840 the Wilmington Classical Institute, with 
Rev. S. M. Galey as principal, was removed from Mar- 
ket Street to Mantua, one mile from the city. This 
was quite a school in its day. 

In 1842 Rev. Corry Chambers started the Literary 

The Franklin Academy was established in 1842, on 
Sixth Street, between Market and King Streets, by 
Benjamin F. Niles and Mary B. Niles. 

John T. Page, a graduate of Bowdoin College in 
1845, began a classical school in " Mayor Wilson's 
new building, on Market Street." 

Captain Aldin Partridge, in 1846, opened a mili- 
tary and scientific academy at Ninth and Market 
Streets, and Colonel Hyatt's celebrated Chester Mili- 
tary Academy was started in Wilmington, at the cor- 
ner of Ninth and Tatnall Streets. It prospered here 
for a few years, and was then removed to West Ches- 
ter, occupying the old Bolmar Academy, and from 
thence to its present location, at Chester, Pa. 

The Hannah More Academy, for young ladies, was 
for many years a well-conducted educational institu- 
tion, at the northwest corner of Eighth and West 
Streets. The building, which is now used as a board- 
ing-house, was erected in 1853, with large recitation- 
rooms, dormitories and dining-room. The principals 
were Misses Charlotte and Isabella Grimshaw. Dr. 
Arthur H. Grimshaw delivered lectures to the stu- 
dents on various subjects. This school flourished for 
many years. 

Carson Adams, who afterward became a prominent 
clergyman in New England, taught a classical school 
in the basement of Hanover Street Church in 1847. 
Rev. E. Wilson, in the same year, moved from New- 
ark, and started a school in Wilmington, at the cor- 
ner of Eighth and West Streets. In 1849 he opened 
a boarding-school for girls. 

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Rev. Azariah Prior was principal of Trinity Epis- 
copal Church school in 1849. 

William Robert Stratton, in 1850, opened a select 
school for boys at the comer of Fourth and West 
Streets. Sarah Tyson was at the same time teacher 
of the Friends' school, on West Street. 

Rev. T. M. Cann's Young Ladies' Institute was 
well patronized in 1859. 

James H. Crabb taught in the Wilmington Acad- 
emy for several years, beginning in 1876. 

Joshua Maule was one of the most successful 
teachers of Delaware. He was bom in Radnor, Pa., 
in 1776, of Quaker parentage. At the age of eighteen 
he enlisted in the army, and joined the march to 
quell the Whiskey Insurrection in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, but his father met him at Downingtown, and 
induced him to return. He taught school near home, 
and, in 1803, came to Wilmington and founded the 
boarding-school for girls on King Street. He became 
a minister among the Friends, and in 1809 made a re- 
ligious visit to Canada. In 1809 Eli Hilles joined 
him in the school. Joshua Maule died in 1812, in 
Bucks County, where he had gone on a visit. 

The Old Academy was situated on the east side 
of Market Street between Eighth and Ninth. The 
building was built of stone, two and a half stories 
high and stood a distance in from the street. It was 
the leading educational institution in the State of 
Delaware during the latter part of the last century. 
Many hallowed associations to the early residents of 
Wilmington, were associated with it, as within its 
walls most of them obtained their education. It was 
built as early as 1765, on land obtained from John 
Stalcop, within a beautiful grove of native trees. 

The celebrated preacher of Methodism, George 
Whitefield, on his visit to this country in 1774, noted 
in his journal : ** In the academy woods at Wilming- 
ton I preached to 3000 persons." On April 10, 1773, 
it was chartered as a Public Grammar School for the 
County of New Castle. Rev. Lawrence Girelius, 
pastor of the Old Swedes' Church, was the first presi- 
dent of the board of trustees. Some of the first mem- 
bers of the board were Bishop White, Hon. Thomas 
McKean, Gunning Bedford, Dr. Robert Smith, 
Thomas Gilpin, Dr. Nicholas Way and Joseph Shall- 
cross. The first principal of this institution of learn- 
ing, of whom there is any record, was Professor Robert 
Patterson. He was the father of Dr. Robert M. Pat- 
terson, of Philadelphia, once president of the United 
States Mint. When the War of the Revolution 
opened, he proved himself to be a devoted patriot — 
versed in military tactics. He began to drill his 
older pupils, and the young men of the town and 
vicinity. Israel Gilpin, whom he trained, took charge 
of this company. Prof. Patterson afterward joined 
the New Jersey Line, and was a major in the pay- 
master's department during the war. 

The instructors in charge of the academy soon after 
the war were M. Murdock and M. Maffit. 

In 1786 a meeting of scientific men was held in it, 

among whom were Benjamin Franklin, Dr. Ritten- 
house, Benjamin Rush and James Madison. They 
brought with them instmmeuts for astronomical inves- 
tigation, and from the cupola of the building made 
some observations. The next day Dr. Franklin ex- 
perimented with electricity. 

Interest in the academy must have declined about 
1795, when the building was turned into a cotton 
factory, and filled with looms and spinning-jennies, 
and so continued for a few years. 

In 1803 it was remodeled and refitted, and on 
January 26th of that year an act was passed revok- 
ing the charter granted in 1773, and granting power 
to found an institution of learning in the academy 
building, to be known as the '' College of Wilming- 
ton." The province of the institution was " to edu- 
cate the young in the American, learned and foreign 
languages.'' Gunning Bedford was chosen president 
of the board of trustees. The other members were 
William White, Thomas Read, D.D., John Dickin- 
son, Caesar A Rodney, James A. Bayard, Dr. James 
Tilton, Dr. George Monro, Outerbridge Horsey, Dr. 
Latimer, Jacob Broom, Louis McLane, Joseph Tat- 
nall, Henry Latimer, Thomas McComb, Robert Ham- 
ilton, Ebenezer Smith, Joshua Gilpin, David Hall, 
Nicholas Ridgely, James Sykes, John Warner, James 
Lea, Thomas Lea, James Wilson, Daniel Rodney, 
George Kennard and William McKee. This board of 
trustees was remarkable for the number of distin- 
guished men in it. The charter of 1803 gave full 
powers to grant degrees upon graduation, but there 
is no record of any classes that completed a coll^iate 
course. The higher branches were taught, however, 
by experienced teachers. William Maffit and his 
brother John, who was a graduate of Yale College, 
were teachers. £. K. Dare was principal of the male 
department, and Abraham Kinsey of the female 

In 1805 an act was passed allowing the trustees to 
raise money by lottery to support the institution, 
which power was renewed in 1809. In 1811 an act 
to raise ten thousand dollars by lottery was passed. 

In 1814 the Latin department was in charge of Job 
Staples. He was succeeded in 1818 by Joseph Down- 
ing, a teacher who was very successful. He was 
superintendent of Trinity Church Sunday-school of 
three hundred pupils, which in 1819 met in the 
academy. Lyman Matthews, a graduate of Middle- 
bury College, Vermont, was elected principal of the 
academy in 1823, by the trustees, composed of E .W. 
Gilpin, Archibald Hamilton, Robert Porter, Rev. E. 
W. Gilbert, John Brinckle, M.D., John Rurasey, 
and Allan Thomson. Edward La Forest, a linguist, 
was chosen an assistant. William Rankin was a 
principal in 1825, and returned thanks to the people 
for their liberal patronage. Mrs. Aurelia W. Cort- 
land at this time had charge of the female depart- 

The building was offered for sale by the sheriff of 
New Castle County in 1825, but was bought by the 

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cijru<;t ui jLcucu a-iici xviug otreewj, wnere ne continued proachable character and sterling integrity, he lived 
to reside during the remainder of his life. Being for the benefit of mankind. 

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Masons, to whom the debt was due, to prevent the 
sheriff's sale. Dr. H. L. Davis, was principal in 1826, 
and still advertised it as ** Wilmington College." 
Byron Lawrence, a graduate of Oxford University, 
succeeded in 1828 as the principal. 

The building was sold to David C, Wilson, who 
tore it down about 1832 and erected private resi- 
deDces on the site. - 

The Boarding-School for Young Ladies, 
conducted by Eli and Samuel Hilles, was an educa- 
tional institution of high standing and excellent rep- 
utation. Joshua Maule, a very worthy member of 
the Society of Friends, had been conducting a school 
on King Street for a few years. In 1809 Eli Hilles 
came to Wilmington from Chester County, Pa., and 
in association with him founded a boarding-school 
for young ladies on the east side of King Street, be- 
tween Seventh and Eighth. The building occupied 
for this school at first was a large mansion erected by 
Matthew Crips in 1797. Under the intelligent and 
well-directed management of these two gentlemen the 
school was at once filled with pupils coming from the 
homes of the better class of people. It was not a sec- 
tarian school, and young ladies whose parents be- 
longed to different religious denominations were ad- 
mitted. Joshua Maule died a few years after the 
institution was established, and Samuel Hilles, who 
bad opened a school for boys in an octagonal build- 
ing, near the present site of Central Presbyterian 
Church, discontinued that, and associated with his 
brother, Eli Hilles, in conducting the boarding-school 
for girls in the building where it was first started. 
The intimate friendship of these two brothers, and 
their superior qualification for the careful education 
and training of the young ladies who composed their 
school, gained for it increased popularity. It was at a 
time when there were very few schools in this coun- 
try for young ladies, and when girls were not gener- 
ally afforded the same educational advantages as the 
opposite sex. In 1818 Eli and Samuel Hilles erected 
a large building, surrounded by beautiful grounds, 
with a delightful view of the Delaware River, at the 
northeast corner of Tenth and King Streets. Here, 
with extended school accommodation and increased 
facilities, they enlarged the scope of their institution. 
Young ladies from nearly all the States of the Union 
and from the West Indies were pupils. The school 
became so favorably known for its excellent manage- 
ment, the ennobling influence it exerted on the man- 
ners and character of its pupils, and the practical and 
useful instruction given, that applications were con- 
stantly being made fo^ admission to it. The two 
brothers conducted the school very prosperously to- 
gether until 1828, when Eli Hilles, intending to retire 
from the educational w^ork, withdrew from the part- 
nership, and moved into the mansion previously built 
and occupied by his brother, and now owned by his 
daughter, Miss Elizabeth B. Hilles, at the southeast 
comer of Tenth and King Streets, where he continued 
to reside during the remainder of his life. Being 

deeply interested in the cause of education, and nat- 
urally adapted for the correct training of the young, 
the next year (1829) Eli Hilles was persuaded to open 
a day-school for young ladies, to which a few board- 
ing pupils were admitted. For this purpose he 
erected a building a few doors below his residence on 
the same side of the street, and successfully conducted 
a school there from 1829 to 1838. He then retired 
with a competence as the result of his school work. 

Samuel Hilles in 1828 exchanged homes with his 
brother, moved into the building at the northeast 
corner of Tenth and King Streets, took charge of the 
Boarding-School for Young Ladies, and continued its 
popularity and success until 1832, when he was in- 
vited to take a position at Haverford College, then 
being founded. The Boarding-School was subse- 
quently taught by John M. Smith and Dubre Knight. 

Eli Hilles was a son of William and Rebecca Hilles, 
aud was born in Chester County, Pa., in 1783. His 
ancestors were of Welsh descent. When he was 
quite young his parents moved to the western part of 
Pennsylvania when that region contained but few 
inhabitants. As a young man, he was a diligent stu- 
dent of the books that came within his reach, and for 
a short time taught school. Soon after he became 
twenty-one years old he came to the well-known 
Westtown Boarding-School in Chester County, and 
was the librarian of that institution several years pre- 
vious to his removal to Wilmington in 1809 — a young 
man of twenty-six years. In connection with his 
school interest he took an active part in the growth 
and prosperity of Wilmington, and during his long 
life was identified with a number of institutions. As 
early as 1826 he was elected a director in the Bank of 
Delaware, and for more than a third of a century 
continued a member of the board of directors. He 
was one of the founders of the Savings Fund Society, 
and for thirty years a director in it. He was also 
one of the commissioners who secured the establish- 
ment of the Union Bank of Delaware. When the 
city of Wilmington, in 1851, accepted the provisions 
of the act establishing the public schools he was 
chosen one of the first members of the Board of School 
Directors in the city, and was elected its first 
president, serving but a few weeks when he retired 
from the position in favor of Judge Willard Hall, and 
in association with him and others was instrumental 
in putting into successful operation the excellent 
school system of which Wilmington now is justly 
proud. He continued in the School Board about ten 
years. He was a member of the Society of Friends, 
and for many years an elder in the meeting at 
Wilmington. In the days of slavery he was a stanch 
abolitionist, at a time when it required a brave man, 
residing in a slave State, to favor the freedom of the 
colored race. As an enterprising and public-spirited 
citizen of Wilmington he was highly esteemed by 
every one who knew him. A man of upright, irre- 
proachable character and sterling integrity, he lived 
for the benefit of mankind. 

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Eli Hilles was married in 1809 to Martha Barker, 
of Burlington, N. J., and the same year came to 
Wilmington. His wife died in 1849. During the 
last year of his life he was an invalid, and died in 
1863, at the advanced age of eighty years, leaving but 
one child, Miss Elizabeth B. Hillee, now residing in 

Samuel Hilles, son of William and Rebecca Hilles, 
was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, Novem- 
ber 20, 1788, and died in Wilmington August 4, 1873, 
aged eighty-five years. When a small boy he moved 
with his parents to the western part of the State and 
there obtained the rudiments of his education. When 
he grew to be a young man he went to the Westtown 
Boarding-School. Owing to rapid advancement in 
his studies he was soon invited to become a teacher. 
He remained in that famous institution as an instruc- 
tor for a few years and then came to Wilmington and 
entered upon the prosperous career as an educator^ 
an account of which is given above. After his retire- 
ment from the school work in Wilmington in 1832, . 
he spent nearly two years in Haverford College, being 
invited there to become its general superintendent, 
and gave his valuable services to that young institu- 
tion without charge. He then returned to Wilming- 
ton, built a house — the first building south of the Old 
Baptist Church— where he resided until theBoarding- 
School closed, when he removed into that building. 
By industry and perseverance he had accumulated a 
handsome fortune, which was increased by his caretiil 
business transactions, and he spent the remainder of 
his years in looking after his private affairs and in 
attendance upon the interests of the institutions ot 
Wilmington with which he was connected. In 1841 
he was elected a director in the Bank of Delaware, 
continued a member for thirty-five years, and was 
one of the board of directors that converted that in- 
stitution into a National Bank. For a long time he 
was a director in the Wilmington Savings Fund So- 
ciety. He was a prominent member of the Society 
of Friends. Early in life he became interested in the 
question of the freedom of slaves, was an avowed 
abolitionist, and at the end of the war was one of the 
first persons in the State of Delaware to propose 
means and methods for the education of the children 
of the colored race. The Howard School in Wil- 
mington was organized largely through his instru- 
mentality. When he was engaged in teaching and 
during his whole life Samuel Hilles was a diligent 
student of the science of botany. He was one of the 
founders of the Wilmington Botanical Society, which 
existed for several years. Together with his brother 
and others, he was one of the first members of the 
Board of Education in Wilmington. He served as 
secretary of the board for a time and was devotedly 
interested in the cause of public education. He was 
a man of excellent judgment, fine intelligence and 
most exemplary character, constantly using his best 
effort for the good of the coi](imunity in which he 

Samuel Hilles was married October 31, 1821, to 
Margaret Hill Smith, on her paternal side a great- 
granddaughter of James Logan, Deputy Governor of 
Pennsylvania under William Penn. On her mater- 
nal side she was a great-granddaughter of Grovemor 
Lloyd, of Pennsylvania. The children of this mar- 
riage were Gulielma Maria, William S. and John S. 

William S. Hilles, the oldest son, was a prominent 
and influential citizen of Wilmington. In 1861 he 
was chosen a director in the Bank of Delaware. Sub- 
sequently he was one of the founders of the Artisans' 
Savings Bank and served as its first president. 

Gulielma Maria Hilles was married September 7, 
1843, to Charles W. Howland, of Cayuga County, 
New York, who has resided in Wilmington since 
1853. Their children are Samuel Hilles Howland, 
William H. Howland, Margaret Smith Howland, 
Charles Samuel Howland, Susan Howland, Eacbel 
Smith Howland. 

William S. Hilles married Sarah L. Allen, May 
17, 1849, and their children are Susannah W. Hilles, 
Thomas Allen Hilles, Samuel Eli Hilles, Margaret S. 

John S. Hilles married Sarah C. Tatum July 
21, 1832. Their children are Anna Cooper Hilles, 
William S. Hilles, Joseph T. Hilles, Margaret H. 

St. Mary's College was an institution of learn- 
ing, founded by Rev. Patrick Reilly, afterwards 
pastor of St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church of Wil- 
mington, and vicar-general of the diocese. The 
entire grounds comprised fifteen acres on Delaware 
Avenue, and extended from Jefferson to Madison 
Streets, and ran in an irregular outline on one side 
to Ninth Street and on another to Monroe. 

In 1840 there was a female academy in Wilmington, 
conducted by the Sisters of Charity. A gentleman 
whose daughters were being educated here prevailed 
upon Father Reilly to open a school for boys, which 
he did August 15, 1841, at his residence at the north- 
east corner of Fifth and West Streets. The school 
prospered and he bought a house and grounds of Mr. 
Bradford, father of the late Judge Bradford, on Dela- 
ware Avenue, and removed the school there. 

Father Reilly had a natural fondness and great apt- 
ness to teach, and his school soon grew in public favor. 
In 1842 the building was enlarged with dormitories 
to accommodate thirty-six students, and other day 
scholars. A charter was obtained from the L^islature 
of Delaware January 29, 1847, granting fiill power to 
confer scholastic degrees. The same year the college 
building, four stories high and one hundred by sixty 
feet, was built with a large bell in the belfry. 

The first graduates of the institution in 1850 were 
Wm. McCauUey, of Wilmington; Edward McCabe, 
of New Orleans ; Edward Ridgely, of Dover ; and 
John Fulmer. Archbishop Corrigan, of New York 
received his preparatory training here, and eighteen 
of the students afterwards became priests. The col- 

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Hibool for boys at the northwest corner of Ninth and profession. 

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l^re had studeats from nearly ail the States of the 
Union, and a few from South America. The first 
board of trustees were Rev. Patrick Beilly, Rev. J. 
Walsh, Alfred Du Pont, J. B. Garesche, Dr. S. Miller, 
Peter N. Brennan and Henry Miller. 

In 1857 there were one hundred and twenty students 
io attendance. The institution prospered until the 
opening of the war. Students from the South then 
withdrew and the attendance was greatly diminished. 
The city extended its limits, and the section surround- 
ing the buildings was occupied by dwelling-houses. 

In 1866 the college closed its doors, and in 1868 the 
building was sold to a syndicate. The older portion 
was torn down. The main building was afterwards 
occupied for a short time by the Nuns of the Visita- 
tion, a religious community of ladies. It was also 
torn down a year or two later. 

Academy of the Visitation. — Among the educa- 
tional institutions of high rank in Wilmington is 
the Academy of the Visitation, conducted by the Sis- 
ters of that order, which was founded in France by 
St. Francis de Sales in 1610, for the education of 
young ladies of the higher class, and whose academies 
are well known throughout Europe and the United 
States. This branch was established in Wilmington 
in 18G8, from the house in Mouthiel, near Lyons, 
France. The academy was first opened in the build- 
ing on Delaware Avenue, known as St. Mary's Col- 
lege, but at the close of the second scholastic year 
was removed to the handsome Hollingsworth property 
on Delaware Avenue, between Harrison and Van 
Buren Streets, which was purchased by the Rt. Rev. 
T. A. Becker, bishop of Wilmington, and fitted up for 
that purpose. Young ladies of all denominations are 
received as pupils, without regard to creed, and all 
religious discussions are strictly prohibited. Within 
these walls the Sisters work silently but faithfully, 
fulfilling the mission they have chosen, and to which 
they have dedicated their lives — educating the hearts 
IS well as the minds of those entrusted to their care. 

Brandywine Academy was founded in 1799. On 
February 29th, of that year, seventy-nine persons 
met and by subscription raised $443.13, and with this 
amount soon thereafter erected the building on land 
donate I by John Dickinson and John Welsh. The 
institution was incorporated January 31, 1815, when 
the trustees were Isaac Jones, James Price, James 
Smith, Alexander Draper, William Smith, Charles 
Tatem and Thomas Lea. In 1830 Mr. McNevin con- 
ducted it as an "English and Classical Academy." 
Another charter was obtained for this school January 
26, 1832. The incorporators named in it were John 
M. Clayton, Gregory Bedell, Stephen H. Tyng, Cyrus 
H. Jacobs, Thomas Robinson, James W. Thompson, 
Thomas Mitchell, John W. Downing, John R. 
Brinckle, James Booth, John B. Clemson, J. H. Coit 
tnd others. 

John Bullock'8 Boarding-School. — About the 
jear 1821, John Bullock, a Friend, opened a boarding- 
school for boys at the northwest corner of Ninth and 

Tatnall Streets, which continued in operation until 
1846, a period of twenty-five years. The school soon 
acquired a reputation which drew to it pupils from 
remote parts of the country and from the West India 
Islands, at a time when the facilities for communica- 
tion were far from being what they are at present. 
This reputation, apart from the solid character of the 
instruction, was in no small degree based upon the 
parental care and oversight bestowed upon those com- 
mitted to his charge. 

The following paragraph is found, written in her 
quaint style, by Miss Elizabeth Montgomery, in her 
" Reminiscences of Wilmington : '* " Of those com- 
mitted to his charge, John Bullock was a faithful and 
conscientious teacher, and a public-spirited citizen 
interested in the public education of the day, and 
ready to advance with influence and effort all measures 
that concerned the general welfare. He died in 1847, 
aged sixty-three years. Samuel Alsop then took the 
school. He was well-known as an accomplished 
mathematician and capable instructor. " 

Wilmington Boarding-School for boys was 
founded by Samuel Smith in a large, three-story 
building on West Street below Fourth, in 1829. The 
school building was on high grounds overlooking the 
town of Wilmington, whose limits had not then ex- 


tended as far west as the street upon which it was 
situated. In this institution the English branches, 
natural sciences and the higher mathematics were 
very thoroughly taught by experienced teachers, and 
a large number of students regularly attended it, 
coming from the various States of the Dnion as well 
as from Wilmington and the surrounding country. 
Samuel Smith, who was the father of Albert W. Smith, 
of Wilmington, continued as principal of the school 
from 1829 to 1839, during which time he educated a 
large number of boys and young men. He possessed 
the natural qualification of a successfiil instructor of 
the young, and had carefully prepared himself for his 

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Samuel Smith, who founded the Wilmington Board- 
ing School for Boy 8, was born Eleventh month (Nov.) 
24, 1794, in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. William 
Smith, his ancestor, a member of the Society of 
Friends, came from Yorkshire, England, in 1684, and 
settled at what is now Wrightstown, Bucks County, 
Pennsylvania, where he purchased three hundred 
acres of land, bordering on Neshaminy. At that 
time he was one of the only two white men living in 
that locality. In 1690 he married Mary Croasdale, 
also a Friend, according to the good order of that re- 
ligious society. The certificate of their marriage is 
still in existence. 

William Smith died in 1743, on his Wrightstown 
farm, where he had lived from the time he first came 
to the place. He left a son, Thomas Smith, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Sanders in 1727. He died leaving a 
son also named Thomas Smith. This Thomas Smith 
married Mary Ross in 1750, and died leaving a son 
also named Thomas Smith, who married, in 1793 
Elizabeth Linton, and died leaving a son, Samuel 
Smith, the subject of this sketch, who married Sarah 
Watson in 1817. She was a direct descendant of 
Thomas Watson, also a member of the Society of 
Friends, who married Rebecca Mark in 1682, and 
subsequently settled in the province of Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Smith, whose ancestry we have thus traced, 
evinced in early life a fondness for study, and acquir- 
ed great proficiency in grammar, mathematics and 
astronomy. He was a student in John Gummere*d 
famous academy at Burlington, New Jersey. His 
habii of thought, strength of mind and earnestness 
of purpose peculiarly fitted him for the profession of 
teaching, in which he delighted, and which he pur- 
sued through his whole life. As an instructor, he 
possessed the happy faculty of arousing the enthu- 
siasm of his students. They loved to gather around 
him after the study hour to hear him illustrate and 
explain difficult parts of the branches studied in his 
classes. In social life he was cheerful fCnd entertain- 
ing,- a fine conversationalist, a man of strong convic- 
tions and attracted many warm friends. 

He conducted a successful mathematical school in 
Philadelphia until the year 1829, when, at the solici- 
tation of his friends, he instituted in Wilmington, 
Delaware, an academy, where a full course of studies 
was thoroughly taught. In connection with this in- 
stitution, Mr. Smith had an unusually large and ex- 
cellent collection of mechanical, philosophical and 
scientific apparatus. 

His school was justly celebrated, and a number of 
his students became prominent and influential men. 

In 1839 he removed to Poughkeepsie, New York, 
a large number of his pupils accompanying him, 
where he pursued his admirable mode of instruction 
for several years. 

Afterwards retiring to Philadelphia, he died in 
1861, closing his long life-work, respected and honored 
by many friends. 

Wesley AN Female College was for many years 

a prosperous and influential institution of learning. 
Rev. Solomon Prettyman, who previously had con- 
ducted a school for girls at Seaford, Delaware, opened 
Wesleyan Female Seminary with thirty pupils, in a 
rented building on Market Street, in October, 1837. 
In 1838 it was removed to a larger building at Ninth 
and Market Streets. David C. Wilson, of Wilming- 
ton, made a liberal proposition for the erection of a 
building specially adapted for school purposes. A 
site was secured on French Street above Sixth. The 
corner-stone was laid June 8, 1839, in the presence of 
students and faculty. In ten months from that date 
the building, forty-five by eic:hty-six feet, was finished 
and occupied. In 1841 the school was chartered 
under the name of Wesleyan Female Collegiate In- 
stitute. The number of pupils had increased to one 
hundred and twenty-five. In 1844 the Female Student 
and Young Ladies^ Advocate was published by the 
students and continued three years. From 1847 to 
1850 the institution did not prosper. In 1851 it passed 
from the control of Mr. Prettyman into the hands of 
a board of trustees representing the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. Under the directions of the Philadel- 
phia Conference a new charter was obtained and the 
name changed to Wesleyan Female College, with 
power to confer degrees upon graduation. Under that 
name, for thirty years it did good work. It was con- 
ducted for one year by Prof. T. E. Sudler, a graduate 
of West Point. Rev. George Loom is, a man of fine 
scholastic attainments, followed and was very success- 
ful. The building on Sixth Street was erected under 
the superintendance of William Bright, one of the 
trustees, at a cost of $13,000. Rev. J. Thompson 
joined in the educational work and a brother of Prof. 
Loomis was president for a time. In 1859 Rev. John 
Wilson was chosen president with a complete faculty. 
He remained for three years and then went away for 
a short time and returned again and continued the 
institution for several years. In 1882 the property 
was purchased by William Bright, the present owner. 
A new charter was obtained under the name of the 
Wesleyan College. A complefte board of trustees 
was selected, with Hon . Charles B. Lore as president. 
The institution for the past few years has been 

The Taylor Academy.— T. Clarkson Taylor, who 
was a very popular and successful teacher, came to 
Wilmington from Virginia about 1850. He was a 
graduate of the celebrated school of Benjamin Hal- 
lowell at Alexandria. His first experience here was 
in charge of the Friends' School, corner of Fourth 
and West Streets. He next erected a four-story build- 
ing at the comer of Eighth and Wollaston Streets— 
long known as the Taylor Academy, first for the edu- 
cation of boys only, and afterwards for both sexes. 
His school numbered from seventy-five to one hun- 
dred pupils regularly, and many persons who have 
since prospered in business were educated by him. 
He had a natural aptness to teach, was an excellent 
disciplinarian and held in the highest esteem by bis 

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by many triends. He naa a natural aptut»t» to Mmcu, f%«u» 4^ts wi^wkvui. 

WE8LEYAN FEMALE COLLEGE was for many years disciplinariaD and held in the highest esteem by bis 

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i;fa.4f^^^^.e^ i%c*.^^o^ 

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pnpik. Some of his awbtants were J. K. Taylor, 
Posey Heald, Daniel W. Taylor, Charles Swayne and 
Milton Jackson. After the death of the founder it 
was coodacted as the Taylor and Jackson Academy. 
The boilding is now used as a public school. Few 
schools anywhere were more favorably known than 
this academy. 

The Friends* School, on West Street near Fourth, 
was established in 1748, by some of the first mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends who settled in Wil- 
mlngtoo. Within the one hundred and forty years 
of its history thousands of children of both sexes 
La?e been educated in it It is the oldest school 
having a continuous existence in the State of Delaware. 
The first building used was the meeting-house, 
twenty-four feet square, with a projecting roof at the 
Boath end. A sun-dial to tell the time of day was 
placed over the small window under the peak of the 
roof. For nearly a century this school was without 
the city limits, in what was known as ** Quaker Hill.'' 
Of the early teachers very little information can be 
given either from records or tradition. For half a 
centary or more the most important branches taught 
were '* Reading, 'Riten and 'Rithmetic," — the 
last named was generally called "ciphering." In 
1786 the committee of the Friends Meeting hav- 
ing control of the school employed a teacher 
from Philadelphia, who introduced the study of 
English grammar, Latin and Greek, and the stan- 
dard of the school was raised in competition with 
the old academy on Market Street. John Webster, 
who taught here before 1780 and many years later, 
was a man of note. He became an influential citizen 
of the town. It was on him that the old-time trick 
of "barring out the teacher" was last played. " Twas 
the night before Christmas" that the boys climbed 
into the school-house by the chimney way, piled wood 
against the door inside and nailed the windows down. 
Master Webster appeared at the door at eight 
o'clock the next morning, turned the latch with the 
well-worn key he always carried in his pocket, but 
conld not open the barricaded door. '' We will only 
let you in," shouted the biggest boy, peeping through 
the window, " if you promise to give us a holiday." 

"It is not my will that boys shall rule or dictate 
terms of peace," responded the irate teacher, and 
more vehemently than ever did he attempt to capture 
the " fort," as the boys then called it. It was nearly 
ten o'clock and Master John was still assailing the 
fort. Three male Friends, on their way to meeting 
in the house on the opposite side of the street, came 
to his rescue. With a crowbar they banged open 
one of the windows, just as some of the boys escaped 
oat of another, but most of them were caught in the 
house, and finally, the whole party of them were 
inflicted with all the punishment that the law and 
the rod could apply. Nothing was saved but the boys 
and the reputation of the teacher. 

James A. Bayard, Louis McLane, Judge Qilpin 
and Cfesar A. Rodney were pupils of John Webster, 

but it is not known that they helped to bar him 

Jesse Gause was teacher in 1810, and many years 
later. He was followed by Alexander McKiever. 
The Bayards, Gil pins and the Mendenhalls were 
pupils under him. He punished the boys by shut- 
ting them in a wood closet. Robert Hurnand, an 
Englishman, was an early teacher. He believed in 
" moral suasion with a grape vine," he used to say. 
Aquilla Thomas was engaged as teacher in 1828, and 
was succeeded several years later by Thomas Hay- 
hurst. Nathan Bassett and Jacob Heald were also 
among the early teachers. Among the teachers of 
the girls' school were Margaret McCannon and Mar- 
garet Dixon. 

Sarah Ann Tyson, in 1847, had a very popular 
school for girls. She was very successful in teaching 
geography, a study introduced but a few years before. 
In 1846 a new building for females was erected. Miss 
Emma Worrell was a teacher here for many years. 

This school has had many teachers within the past 
quarter of a century, and is now under the control of 
Isaac T. Johnson, a graduate of Haverford College, 
who, with Mary £. Butler, Anna Bach, Enos L. Doan, 
Ella M. Turner, Mary J. Hoopes and Augusta La- 
Compte as assistants, is doing an excellent work for 
the educational interest of Wilmington. Males and 
females are taught together, and the total enrollment 
for 1887 was two hundred and eight pupils. The 
school within the past few years has prepared a large 
number of pupils for college. 

The school property is situated opposite the 
Friends' Meeting-house, at the corner of Fourth and 
West Streets. The building, in 1883, was remodeled 
and arranged with convenient class-rooms and labor- 
atories, and a new study hall was erected. The 
school is under the charge of a committee of the 
Monthly Meeting, composed of Edward T. Bellak, 
Thomas Worrell, Elizabeth W. Smith, Deborah Fer- 
ris, Anna Ferris, Lindley C. Kent, Ellwood Giu-rett, 
Catharine W. Garrett, Sarah S. Richardson, Mary B. 
Pyle, Pri«»cilla T. Speakman and Lucy Smyth. 

The Friends' School at Ninth and Tatnall Streets, 
to the rear of the meeting-house, was originally oii 
Market Street above Eleventh. In 1882 Samuel Can- 
by donated a lot and $1000 for the purpose of estab- 
lishing the school at its present place. A school- 
house was built that year, part of the money being 
raised by subscription. The school was placed under 
the charge of a committee of the Monthly Meeting, 
and has been regularly continued since. In 1874 the 
original frame building was replaced by the one now 
in use. 

W. A. Reynolds, for twenty-nine years a teacher in 
Delaware, was born in Cincinnati. He graduated at 
Wesleyan College, Middletown, Conn., came to Dela- 
ware and opened a school at Dover, Nov. 3, 1858. This 
school grew rapidly from two scholars to a hundred, 
they coming in from every part of the Peninsula. For 
the last ten years he has taught privately, except for 

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one year, when he held a submastership in the Boston 
Latin School. During 1887 he had under hie instruc- 
tion eight pupils who entered the best colleges of the 

At the close of the Civil War he came to Wilming- 
ton, where he had greater success than at Dover, 
building up, in the face of strong competition, 
a school of from two to one hundred and thirty 
scholars. This success continued for about ten 
years. Professor Reynolds has from time to time had 
many of the sons and daughters of Delaware under his 

H. S. Goldey, in the spring of 1887, in Institute 
Building, opened the " Wilmington Ck)mmercial Col- 
lege," for the preparation of young men and women 
for business. The school is flourishing. He has a 
number of assistants, and some of the leading citizens 
of Wilmington deliver lectures to students. 

Rugby Academy, for boys, was opened by Samuel 
W. Murphy, A.M., M.D., January 2, 1872, and has 
always had an enviable reputation for thorough 
scholarship and good discipline. It has prepared 
quite a number of students for various collies, and 
many more for business. There are three depart- 
ments—Primary, Junior and Senior — having together 
about one hundred pupils. The convenient and 
attractive rooms occupied are on the second floor of 
Masonic Temple. They are decorated with the por- 
traits of distinguished literary personages and some 
landscape paintings. There is also apparatus for in- 
struction in chemistry and physics and a fine cabinet 
of minerals and fossils. Two literary societies are 
conducted by the pupils under the direction of the 
principal. A military drill has been a feature of the 
course of instruction, and the "Rugby Cadets*' are 
drilled regularly with light arms. Dr. Murphy, after 
conducting this school with success for fifteen years, 
sold out October 18, 1887, to W. M. Foulk, late 
principal of Elkton Academy, who is the present 

The Misses Hebb, in 1880, opened an English and 
French boarding and day-school for young ladies and 
girls at Ninth and West Streets, with fifty-four pupils. 
The demand for admission increased, and in 1886 they 
erected a large and commodious house expressly for 
school purposes at Franklin Street and Pennsylvania 
Avenue. Into it they moved their school in 1887, when 
the number of pupils in attendance was ninety-six. 

Brandy WINE Seminary. — ^The Brandy wine Semi- 
nary was established by W. S. McNair, A.M., in the 
Institute Building, September, 1878. From a small 
beginning, it grew to be one of the leading schools in 
the city. The course of study commenced with 
young children unable to read, and extended to pre- 
paring a pupil for business life or entrance in any 
clai<s in college. A kindergarten was annexed, where 
children were trained by natural methods, applying 
the principles developed by Pestalozzi, Froebel and 
Grube. Both sexes were taught, and the school re- 
ceived boarding pupils from New Jersey and Penn- 

sylvania. In the management Mr. McNair was 
assisted by Mrs. McNair, and the instruction given 
was of such an excellent nature that the school 
enjoyed an enviable reputation for its thoroughness 
and discipline. It was removed to the Harkness 
Building, Tenth and Market Streets, where after sev- 
eral years it was discontinued. 

The Public Schools. — The State Constitution of 
1792 enjoined upon the Legislature the duty to provide 
for the establishment of schools. In 1796 an act was 
passed to form a school ftind. Nothing effectual was 
done in Wilmington until 1829, when the act for the 
establishment of free schools formed the system 
which, with additions and amendments, is still in force 
in the city and State. Under this act Wilmington was 
divided into ten school districts. There was consider- 
able opposition to organizing schools in these dis- 

In two other districts schools existed for irregular 
periods. In 1833 a considerable sum of dividends 
from the income of the school fund standing to the 
credit of eight of these districts was obtained. A 
plan was conceived to unite them and form one large 
public school. A supplement to the act was passed 
February 6, 1833. Under it the districts from nine to 
eighteen, inclusive, were organized as the United 
School Districts of New Castle County. This was ac- 
complished October 20, 1834. An election of two 
school commissioners from each of the sub-districts 
was held November 15th. A school-house was built 
at the southwest corner of French and Sixth Streets, 
with two rooms, one for male and the other for fe- 
male pupils, each containing one hundred and twenty 
seats. G^d teachers were selected, male for the 
boys* rooms and female for the girls' rooms, and 
these schools continued till 1852.^ They accom- 
plished much good, but there was no general interest 
taken in them from the fact that the rooms would 
only accommodate a small portion of the school chil- 
dren of the city. At times there was stern opposi- 
tion to them, but the public mind settled to the con- 
viction that the benefit of public school instruction 
ought to be extended to all desiring it. A meeting 
of citizens was held in 1851, and it was unanimously 
agreed that " the city needed a better system of 
Schools," and an act was passed February 9, 1862, 

1 In ISSO Bei^amin Webb, Eli Hollingsworth and Jonas Pony w«re 
choaen a committee to secure a teacher and open a ** free school " in the 
Tenth District. lu November of the same year the Eleventh District 
was united with it in the support of a school, and Krastus Edgerton 
was appointed teacher of the boys atone hundred dollars per quarter, 
and Hannah Monaghan, teacher of the girls' department at seventy-five 
dollars per quarter. James Wallace, of Kent County, taught the boys' 
department the second quarter, and reported thirty -three pupils in at- 
tendance. The girls* school had forty-four pupils. The Nchool was kept 
in the old academy building on Market Street. Jonas Pusey took charge 
in ISU. Henry S. Alrichs, Jacob Pienon and £11 Hollingsworth were 
the school committee for 1832 

* The whole number of pupils in the schools of the United School IMs- 
trict in 1836 was 716, of which 372 were boys and 344 girls ; 217 pupils 
were admitted in 1838. All the "common branches'* were taught, and 
some **take leesons in definitions, Grammar and English plaasica. In 
tlie girls* schools two days of each week were devoted to needle* work, 
which was attended with guod satisfaction.*' The Visitiug Committee 
were Willard Hall, Thomas Young and Jonas Pusey. 

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establkhiDg the school system which is now in force 
in Wilmington. The members of the first Board of 
Edacation were Samuel Hi lies, Jesse Sharpe, Aza- 
riah H. Quinby, Robert Carswell, David C. Wilson, 
Dr. J. F. Wilson, John H. Stidham, J. Morton 
Poole, Dr. A. H. Grimshaw, John Rudolph, Edward 
Moore and James Webb. They met for organization 
in the City Hall, March 17, 1852. Samuel Hilles 
was elected president, J. Morton Poole secretary and 
Jesse Sharpe treasurer. John Rudolph, representing 
the First Ward ; Jesse Sharpe, the Second ; Dr. J. F. 
Wilson, the Third; and Robert Crane, the Fourth, 
were appointed a committee "to propose and sub- 
mit to a future meeting of the Board some plan for 
the establishment, organization and government of 
the Public Schools of the city." 

At the next meeting Samuel Hilles resigned his 
position as a member of the board, and Judge Wil- 
lard Hall was elected. School District No. 9 
"was united with the rest of the city of Wilming- 
ton" April 6, 1852. An election was held in the 
Fifth Ward April 13th following, and Right Rev. 
Alfred Lee and Samuel Walker were chosen mem- 
ben of the board to represent that ward. 

The second story of the building corner of Tenth 
and King Streets, the office of the Water Department, 
was granted by City Council as a school-room. The 
school-building at French and Sixth Streets was or- 
dered to be repaired. Bishop Lee reported that 
School District No. 9, when it was united with the 
City School District, was in debt. Messrs. Lee, Poole 
and Dr. Wilson were appointed to '' take charge of 
the new school in the Fifth Ward." 

On May 10, 1852, the building committee bought 
as a site for a new school-house the lots on Washing- 
ton Street between Second and Third, one each from 
John Menough, and John and James Jackson. The 
price paid was seventeen dollars per foot, the entire 
front being eighty-six feet. On the 26th of May 
" James S. Williams making the lowest and best pro- 
posal for the erection of the school-house on Wash- 
ington Street, for five thousand seven hundred and 
fifty dollars, a contract was made with him." 

Under the act establishing the schools, City Council 
was allowed to appropriate ten thousand dollars 
annually for school purposes. 

William Hilles was chosen member of the board. 
Oliver H. Bryant was paid $108.15, for one quarter's 
salary as teacher of boys* school at Sixth and French 
Street ; Mrs. C. G. Hutchins, $75 ; Miss E. C. 
Holliday, $62.50 ; Margaret H. Mehaffy and Miss 
Lydia P. Bunting, $50. 

John H. Stidham resigned on June 24th, and 
George G. Lobdell was elected director in his 
place. Samuel Walker also resigned at the next 
meeting, and William F. Torbert was elected. The 
board decided to call the school comer Sixth and 
French Streets No. 1 ; the one on Twelfth Street, 
in the Fifth Ward, No. 2 ; primary school at Tenth and 
King, No. 3; and Washington Street School, No. 4. 

At the meeting held September 13, 1852, on 
motion of Dr. Grimshaw, an order was drawn on the 
city treasurer for five thousand dollars, "being 
money borrowed by authority of the Legislature by 
City Council for the exclusive benefit of the Board 
of Public Education." Wesley Talley was elected 
teacher of Boys' School No. 2, on Twelfth Street be- 
tween Orange and Market. October 4,1852,Bishop Lee, 
J. M. Poole and Dr. Wilson, who were appointed to 
purchase school-books, made a contract with J. T. 
Heald to furnish them for the year 1852-53. The 
estimated co^t for conducting all of the schools for 
the year 1853 was $8238.50. 

Owing to the increasing number of applications for 
admissions to the public schools, the City t/ouncil 
granted the building on Sixth Street, between the 
Delaware and the Washington engine-houses, for 
school purposes. This is now used by the receiver of 
taxes and Board of Education. It was then called 
School No. 5. Miss Mary Bumford was elected princi- 
pal teacher of this school, at two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars a year, and Miss Mary B. Simpson assistant, at 
one hundred and fifty dollars a year. The latter 
requested the privilege of having vocal music taught 
in her school, which was allowed, providing the board 
" would not be asked to pay for such instructions." 
School No. 4, on Washington Street, was completed 
in October, 1852, and Albert G. Webster, then at 
North Dan vers, Massachusetts, was elected principal 
teacher of the boys* department,at seven hundred dol- 
lars a year. He was authorized to " bring his assist- 
ant teacher with him.'' Miss Laura Ofigood was elected 
principal teacher of the girls' department, at three 
hundred dollars a year. 

Among the items of the committee on accounts for 
1853 was $1.40 " for mouse traps for use in school- 
rooms,'' of $12.50 for druggets and $19.75 to John 
Stein as " house-keeper" of School- house No. 4. 

Robert Carswell resigned his place in the board 
January 25, 1853, and Daniel M. Bates was elected. 
Dr. Grimshaw offered a resolution, which was passed, 
stating that " severe punishment is injurious to the 
manners and morals of the children of the public 
schools." John T. Robinson was elected secretary, at 
a salary of one hundred dollars a year. He was 
chosen under a new rule and was not a member of 
the board. The second annual election for members 
of the board was held in March, 1853. The members 
chosen were Eli Hilles and James C. Aiken. J. 
Morton Poole was elected treasurer April 11, 1853. 

Messrs. Poole, Webb, Moore, Wilson and E. Hilles 
were appointed a committee to superintend the erec- 
tion of a school-house in the 2d Ward, on a lot on the 
west side of Walnut Street between Third and Fourth. 
The property on Tenth Street, west of Orange Street, 
known as the Bowling Alley, was bought for eight 
hundred dollars and fitted up for a primary school. A 
contract was entered into July 24th, with Joseph C. 
Seeds, for the erection of School-house No. 6, on 
Walnut Street lot, to seat two hundred and forty 

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scholars, at a cost of four thousand two hundred and 
fifty dollars. Oliver T. Bryant resigned as principal of 
School No. 1, and Jabez M. Lyle was elected at six 
hundred dollars per annum ; Miss Mary Ann Robin- 
son was elected teacher of" School No. 7, with sixty- 
one pupils,'* just opened, at a salary of one hundred 
and seventy-five dollars a year. A night school with 
seventy-nine pupils was opened on November 18, 

Miss Elizabeth Dixon was elected principal teacher 
of School No. 6, at a salary of three hundred dollars. 
B. I. Howe was elected principal of Boys* School No. 
4, to take the place of W. G. Webster, resigned. The 
board allowed Miss Dixon to spend two months visit- 
ing the primary schools of Philadelphia " for the pur- 
pose of informing herself as to the mode of teaching 

New members of the board elected for 1854 were 
George Washington Hayes, Dr. James W. Thomson 
and Abraham Staats. D. C. Wilson, G. W. Hayes 
and Dr. Grinshaw resigned in June, 1854, and A. H. 
Quinby, H. J. H. Naff and D. M. Bates were elected. 
A normal school for teachers, to be held every Satur- 
day forenoon, was begun this year. In July, William 
Travis was engaged as principal of Washington Street 
School, No. 4, at a salary of seven hundred and fifty 
dollars a year and two hundred and fifty dollars as 
principal of the Normal School. Adolphus Brown, of 
Maine, was at the same time elected principal of the 
boys* school at Sixth and French Streets, at seven 
hundred dollars a year. 

Leonard E. Wales was elected a member of the 
board November, 1854, in place of John Rudolph 
(deceased), Edward Betts was elected in place of Dr. 
Wilson (resigned), and Thomas Webb in place of Mr. 
Staats. The remainder of School District No. 18, 
partly without the city limits, was added to the United 
City District. J. Morton Poole, Eli Hilles, Edward 
Moore, Edward Betts and William S. Hilles were 
appointed a committee to purchase two lots for new 
school-houses and 'to superintend the erection of 
them. They bought of Enoch Roberts a lot at the 
southwest corner of Fifth and Pine Streets, for one 
thousand dollars, and of William Torbert a lot at 
northeast corner of Eleventh and Washington Streets 
for seven hundred dollars, now No. 2 School. The 
members of the board elected in 1855 were Allen 
Gawthrop, Allen M. Robinett, Benjamin S. Clark, 
Lewis H. Coxe and Joseph Warner. The proposition 
of Jacob Jefleris to erect two school-houses at a cost 
of fourteen thousand seven hundred and twenty dol- 
lars, on the lots recently bought, was accepted, the 
buildings to be ready by October 15th. One acre of 
land was bought from John Connell for five hundred 
dollars as a site for a new school-house in the First 
Ward. Miss Laura A. Osgood was elected principal 
of Washington Street School No. 4, in place of Mr. 
Travis, and all the higher grade pupils sent to Mr. 
Brown, teacher of the grammar school at Sixth and 
French Streets. The Normal School was discontinued. 

October 16th, Miss Harriet Pike, of Newbury, Ver- 
mont, was elected principal of No. 2 Primary School, 
formed in the new school-hottse corner of Eleventh 
and Washington Streets. On account of a report 
that some teachers did not read the Scriptures at the 
daily opening of the schools, the board passed a reso- 
lution requiring that they should be read " and the 
scholars required to repeat the Lord's Prayer in con- 
cert in a serious manner.*' An association of teachen 
for mutual improvement was formed in September, 
1866, and met weekly. A general examination of the 
scholars in all the schools was begun by a committee 
of the board. The new school building at Fifth and 
Pine Streets was completed, and School No. 7 opened 
in it November 6th. The entire number of pupils in 
the public schools at this date was one thousand five 
hundred and sixty -nine. Members of the board 
elected in 1866 were Joseph Richardson, Albert 
Thatcher, Joshua 8. Valentine, James P. Hayes, John 
B. Porter and Vincent C. Gilpin. Treasurer Poole 
reported that but eight thousand six hundred and 
eighty-one dollars of the appropriation for 1864 was 
received, six thousand six hundred and five dollars in 

1866, and the amount due the board from the city in 
1866 for back appropriations was three thousand seveo 
hundred and twelve dollars. The Visiting Com- 
mittee stated that it was important to sustain the 
character of the boys' grammar school, at Sixth and 
French Streets, at a high standard. The teachers in 
that school were Adolphus Brown and Miss Mary 
Brown, who displayed superior capacity for teaching. 
Miss Brown's salary was three hundred dollars per 
annum. Adolphus Brown resigned July 1, 1856, 
stating that it *^ is a matter of interest to him to enter 
another business." He recommended as his successor 
William D. Dowe, of New Hampshire, a graduate of 
Dartmouth College, who was elected. John A. Lamp- 
rey, of New Castle, Maine, in the following Novem- 
ber, was elected principal of this school and superin- 
tendent of the ** Association for the Mutual Improve- 
ment of Teachers." On motion of Dr. Thomson, 
public examinations of pupils were ordered to be held 
semi-annually, conducted by teachers under the direc- 
tion of the Visiting Committee. 

Eli Hilles, Azariah H. Quinby, Wm. S. Hilles and 
J. P. Hayes were elected members of the board in 

1867. Miss Pike resigned as principal of School No. 
2, went to her home in New Hampshire, and Miss Sarah 
Brown was elected. Miss Lillias Watson was principal 
of the girls' grammar school at Sixth and French 
Streets for several years. A school-house was built at 
a cost of four thousand three hundred and ten dollars 
on Jefferson Street, back of School No. 4, located on 
Washington Street, and called No. 3. 

The Committee on Examination in 1867 reported to 
the board that *^ a revolution in the system of educa- 
tion in the city had taken place within the five years 
past." The number of children in the schools had 
increased during that period from three hundred to 
one thousand eight hundred, and comfortable school 

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boildings had been erected. The plan of regular 
examlnatioDs had proven to be very beneficial. The 
pupils were well prepared in the elementary branches. 
The exercises in spelling and mental arithmetic were 
remarkable for accuracy and promptness and reading 
was well taught. 

Willard Hall, president of the Board of Public 
Education, in his report of 1859, said : '* In School- 
boose No. 1, at Sixth and French Streets, are two 
schools, one for boys and one for girls ; in the former 
all of the elementary branches and history, astronomy^ 
algebra, geometry and philosophy are taught, and in 
the latter nearly the same course of study, together 
with drawing. All the lower schools are carefully 
graded. The number of teachers is thirty-nine; pupils^ 
one thousand nine hundred and forty." 

The board in 1859 applied to City Council for 
funds to raise school building No. 6 one story and to 
purchase a lot on which to erect a grammar school 
building. The amount required was fifteen thousand 
dollars. The Council assented. Permission was 
asked of Greneral Assembly, and granted, provided the 
expediency of the loan be approved by a majority of 
the Totes of citizens. Upon taking this vote in 1860, 
the persons in the city for the benefit of whose chil- 
dren this measure was proposed, voted it down. 

In 1861 there were eight school-houses in use in the 
city— six of which were the property of the board. The 
aggregate number of seats in the school-room were two 
thoosand and seventy-two ; number of pupils in attend- 
ance, two thousand and fifty -two ; number of teach- 
ers, thirty-two, of whom seven were principals ; cost 
for supporting the schools, twenty-four thousand nine 
hundred and thirty dollars. D. M. Johns was princi- 
pal of male department of the highest grade school at 
Sixth and French Streets and Miss Lillias Watson 
principal of the female department. 

The schools were continued regularly ten months 
of each year, and grew in public favor. The exami- 
nation of pupils was conducted by the teachers and a 
committee of the Board of Education until the ofiice 
of city superintendent of schools was created. 
Da?id W. Harlan was elected the first superintendent, 
entering upon the duties of the ofiice January 1, 1871. 
He was re-elected annually for a time and triennially 
for the last four terms, having filled the ofiice con- 
tinually since his first election with great accepta- 
bility. He is a graduate of Oberlin College. 

Since 1871 the following features of the system 
have been added : A course of study definite in its 
outlines and divisions, designed to lay the foundations 
of knowledge well in the primary schools and to 
secure in every grade clear conceptions and good 
training. A method of semi-annual promoting of 
pupils that is stimulating both to pupils and teachers, 
and, under which, with few, if any, exceptions, the 
pupils who ought to be promoted are promoted. 

A rule allowing the superintendent to call teachers 
together in such meetings as often as he thinks best 

fon consultation and advice in regard to methods of 
school work. 

A rule granting teachers time to visit other schools 
for the purpose of observing resuhs and methods. 

The establishment of a training-school in which all 
the candidates for positions as teachers who have not 
had one year's successful experience are required to 
spend eighty days in training and on trial, under the 
instruction and marking of a skillful teacher. 

A plan for selecting teachers that requires every 
candidate for a position, before her name is put on the 
list from which appointments are made, to show by an 
examination that she is a good scholar according to 
the grade of position she wants, and by certificates 
that she has taught successfully one year, or by a 
term in the training-school that she has skill in impart- 
ing knowledge and the power to interest and control. 

A civil service practice, an appointing and promoting 
teachers, that has been adhered to closely for ten years, 
and that secures to each teacher on the list of accep- 
ted applicants appointment in turn, and after 
appointment, promotion in turn, unless her unfitness 
for promotion is already established. 

The free text-book system, by which all pupils are 
supplied with the needed books and slating without 

Superintendent Harlan, in a recent annual report 
of the school, said : 

*' I gave the following as an outlino of tho inquiries mndo in my vi«it8 
of inspection. It is safe to say that a teacher'M classos are doing well 
when all these qneetious can be answered in tho afflnnativo : 

••1. Are the pupils who ought to be studying trying quietly to learn 
their lessons ? 

*' 2. Do the pupils who are at recitation give proper attention to the 
questions, answers and explanations, and do they recite promptly and 
in a way that shows that they are getting clear ideas ? 

** 3. Does the teacher show ability in explaining the difficult parts of 
the lesson, and in getting the pupils to try to leain these parts? 

** 4. Is the teacher dividing his attention between those who are at 
recitation and those who are studying, so as to keep all his pupils at their 
proper work ? 

** ft. When the teacher commands a thing to be done, does he follow 
up his command and see that it is done ? 

" 6. Do the manner and words of the teacher iudicatn a kindly inter- 
est in the success of his pupils ? 

"7. Is the teacher willing to do a fair day's teaching every school 

Average number belonging to the High School c lames 204 

Increase 16 

Average dally attendance in the High School clauses 195 

Increase 13 

Whole number enrolled in the Grammar and Primary Schools 858.5 

Increase 147 

Average number belonging to the Grammar and Primary Scheols... 6600 

Decrease 79 

Average daily attendance in the Grammar and Primary Schools. 6075 

Decrease 80 

Per cent, of attendance in all the schools of the average number 

belonging 90.6 

Per cent, of attendance in the High School classes of the average 

number belonging 96.6 

Per cent, of attendance in the Grammar and Primary Schools of the 

average number belonging 90.4 

Percent, of attendance in all the schools of the whole number en- 
rolled 70 

The following table shows the increase of school 
attendance during the last fifteen years : 


For the year ending Number of attendance Whole num- 

Jnly 31st. teachers. of pupils. her belonging. 

1873 82 rwr>5 5920 

1874 90 3566 6776 

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1876 98 3505 6033 » 

1876 97 3720 6947 

1877 106 4158 6687 

1878 110 44;J5 6831 

1870 Hi 4387 6802 

1880 113 44/7 6963 

1881 lift 4:i85 7W^ 

1882 117 46(10 7123 

1883 I.i2 6197 7675 

1884 155 5718 8Z69 

1885 161 5974 8718 

1886 162 6237 8677 

1887 167 6170 8814 

The High School building, at Eighth and Adams 
Streets, was erected in 1884-85. On the 11th of Novem- 
ber, 1883, the following committee to select a site for the 
building was appointed : Dr.T. A. Keables, Dr. Read J. 
McKay, J. H. HoflTecker, B. R. Heisler and Jacob 
Pusey. February 25th the committee purchased the 
lot for eight thousand dollars of J. C. Patterson. On 
May 12th the committee was re-appointed, with the 


substitution ot William Stilley in place of Dr. Read 
J. McKay, whose term had expired as a member of 
the board. S. J. Willey was added to the commit- 
tee in place of Jacob Pusey, who resigned. 

The plans of E. L. Rice, Jr., were adopted Octo- 
ber 16, 1884. J. R. D. Seeds & Sons contracted to 
erect the buildings for fifty-two thousand nine hun- 
dred dollars. 

On December 11th the corner-stone was laid by 
Charles Baird, the president of the board. The other 
members present were Messrs. Allen, Dunn, Fuekel, 
Hanson, Heisler, Hoffecker, Keables, S. R. Smith, 
Beaton Smith, Stilley, Trump, Willey and West. 
The furnishing of the building was completed the 
4th of January, 1886, and occupied by the school 
January 11, 1886. 

The cost of the ground, building and furnishings 
was $70,514.88. This is one of the finest school 
buildings in this country and one which the citi- 
zens of Wilmington may feel proud to own. 

The Boys' High School grew out of the Boys' 

Grammar School in 1871. The following is a list of it8 
principals, all of whom took the position in September 
of the years named, exceptOharlesD. Raine,who was 
elected in January to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Stansbury J. Willey, — 

Loring H. Barnum 1871 

Albert F. Teiiuey 1872 

StanBbury J. Willey 1873 

Charlea D. Ralne 1882 

WilliHm W. Birdsall IH82 

Thomas L. Graham iHSo 

Mr. Graham, the present principal, is a graduate of 
the College of New Jersey, at Princeton. 

Prof. S. J. Willey, Ph.B., who was for many yeard 
principal of the Wilmington High School, was born 
on the farm of his father, in Sussex County, Delaware, 
March 19, 1845. His parents, Robert A. and Mary 
M. Willey, gave their attention and energies to the 
usual duties of farm life. 

His early education was obtained in the public 
schools in the vicinity of his home. Afterwards he 
attended Newark Academy, Newark, Delaware ; Crit- 
tenden's Commercial College, Philadelphia; and 
Boylston Hall of Harvard College. His honorary de- 
jrree of Ph.B. was conferred upon him by Delaware 

Mr. Willey taught for a time at Public School No. 
20, in Christiana Hundred, and after acceptable ser- 
vice there he became an assistant teacher in the High 
School of Prof. William A. Reynolds, in Wilmington, 
and filled this position with credit to himself and to 
the satisfaction of the principal. While in this latter 
position he was elected principal of the Wilmington 
High School. After seven years of service in thi3 
capacity, he resigned the place to take the position he 
now holds in the Dental Manufacturing Company, of 
Wilmington. Profe8.sor Willey was for four years a 
valuable and esteemed member of the Board of Public 
K lucatiun of Wilmington, to which he was twice 
chosen by the unanimous vote of his ward. He is 
held in high esteem by his fellow-citizens, irrespec- 
tive of creed or party. Professor Willey is now the 
secretary -treasurer of the Wilmington Dental Man- 
ufacturing Company, and is treasurer of the Welch 
Dental Company, of Philadelphia. Mr. Willey holds 
a high position in the Order of the Knights of Pythias. 
He served for ten years as Grand Keeper of Records 
and Seals, and has been twice chosen Supreme Master 
of Exchequer. At the second election, in 1884, the 
choice was unanimous. For the eleven years previous 
to 1884 he served as Supreme Representative of the 
order. On December 27, 1885, he was married to 
Mrs. Lydia A. Moore, daughter of Robert R. Robin- 
son, late of Wilmington. He is an adherent of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The first class of girls who took the full high school 
course graduated in 1875. The Girls* High School 
grew out of the grammar school in School -house No. 1, 
and its beginning properly dates from the formation 
of this class in 1872. The Girls* High School has 
from its formation been under the charge of Miss 

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Mary Miller, one of the most efficient of principals, 
agisted by a corps of capable and zealous teachers. 
Nearly all the teachers now in the public schools of 
the city were educated in this school, or in the gram- 
mar school, out of which it grew; and sixty-one of 
them are graduates of the full High School course. 

The Training School was started in school No. 9 in 
1876, under the principalship of Miss Elizabeth D. 
Fraser. In 1881 Miss Fraser resigned and Miss 
Mary C. I. Williams succeeded her. Eighty-one of 
the teachers now in the public schools of the city, 
after leaving the High School, took the course in 
methods in this school. While a larger course of 
study, and one including psychology and the science 
of teaching, would be better for the preparation of 
teachers than the present course, the thorough teach- 
ing done in the High School, and the insight into 
methods given in the Training School have been ud- 
obtrusive but potent factors in the production of the 
excellent corps of teachers now in the public schools 
of the city. 

School Buildings.— School-house No. 1 was the 
High School building from 1871 to 1886. It is three 
stories high, as indicated in the accompanying illus- 
tration, and will accommodate five hundred and forty- 
six pupils. The superintendent's office is in the 

School-house No 8, comer Seventh and Spruce, was 
built in 1863 ; No. 9, comer Eighth and Wollaston, 
formerly the Taylor Academy building, was pur- 
chased soon afterward ; No, 10, corner of Adams and 
Elm Streete ; No. 11, corner Ninth and Scott, in 1869 ; 
No. 12, on Twenty-second Street near Market, in 
1869; No. 14, Claymont, near Lobdell Street, in 
1872; No. 16, at Third and Harrison, in 1874; No. 16, 
on Orange between Twelfth and Thirteenth, formerly 
Howard School, built by " Delaware Association for 
the Moral Improvement of Colored People," is now 
owned by the Board of Education. 

School-house now called No. 5 was erected in 
1876. The building committee was Henry Eckel, 
Allen Ruth, Jacob F. Sharp, Lewis Zebley and James 
C. Morrow. The lot, one hundred and fifty by one 
hundred feet, was bought of John B. Tatam for $1500. 
It was built by contract by James Mitchell, at a cost 
of $11,659. The entire cost of building, furniture, 
land, etc., was $16,885. 

No. 18 was built in 1881-82. The committee was 
Peter U. Furry, Samuel F. Betts, Edward Mclntire, 
Dr. N. B. Morrison and Luther W. Palmer. Con- 
tractor, William R. Beatty, for $4343. The entire cost 
was $5517. 

No. 19 was built the same year at an entire cost of 
|18,JH8. P. Chandler, the contractor, erected it for 
$11,743. The building committee was William J. 
Morrow, William W. Lobdell, Jonathan Hilton. Wil- 
liam F. Forsythe and Charles Baird. 

No. 20 was built in 1881-82. Building committee — 
Allen Ruth, Dr. A. H. Grimshaw, Dr. E. G. Short- 
Udgc, William Kyne, Daniel O'C. Kenny. Cost of lot, 

$3048; F.R. Carswell, architect, $250; J.R. D. Seeda 
& Son, contractors, $15,921.61. Entire cost, $22,056. 

The enlargement of School-house No. 4 was made 
in 1882. Building committee — Henry D. Hickman, 
B. R. Heisler, Samuel F. Betts, Peter U. Furry, James 
H. HefTecker, Jr. J. R. D. Seeds & Son, contractors, 
$13,349; F. R. Carswell, architect, $250. Entire cost 

No. 17 was built in 1883. Building committee — 
Stansbury J.Willey, James J.Monaghan, William G. 
Grier, W. Scott Vernon and Dr. T. A. Keables. Cost 
of lot, $1560; J. R.D. Seeds & Son, contractors, $11,- 
176 ; E. L. Rice, Jr., architect, $555. Entire cost, 

Nob. 21 and 22 are small buildings. 

In September, 1883, M. M. Child, James Bradford 
and J. T. Heald, by request, visited all of the school- 
houses of the city, and estimated their combined valu- 
ation from No. 1 to 22 and the new High School to 
be $398,660. 

The Board of Education. — ^The following is a 
complete list of all the presidents of the Board of 
Education : 

Hon. Wlllard Hall „ from 1852 to 1870 

Dr. William R. BaUock from 1870 to 1872 

Dr. A. H. Grimshaw from 1872 to 1873 

Mr. William 8. HilleB. ftvm 1873 to 1874 

Dr. B. O. Shortlidge from 1874 to 1876 

Dr. C. Elton Buck ftiom 1876 to 1878 

Mr. Henry Bckel from 1878 to 1880 

Henry C. Conrad, Esq - from 1880 to 1882 

Mr. Gharlen Baird „ from 1882 to date 

The offices of secretary and treasurer have been 
filled most of the time, since the establishment of the 
school in 1852, by one person who is not a member of 
the board. The following have served in that posi- 
tion in the order named : J. Morton Poole, John T. 
Robinson, William S. Hilles, Wesley Talley, Joseph 
L. Killgore, William H. Cloward, Henry Morrow, 
John S. Grohe and Benjamin E. Bartram. 

Board of Education for 1887. — William Kyne, 
Luther W. Palmer, Myers Hayes, William Stuart, J. 
P. Theodore Fuekel, John T. Dickey, J. Clayton 
Ma^sey, John Hanson, Dr. A. H. Grimshaw, S. Rod- 
mond Smith, William H. Foulk, Samuel F. Betts, 
Frank Magaw, Charles Baird, Bernard Ddnohue, 
James H. Morgan, Dr. Sylvester Chadwick, Dr. E. G. 
Shortlidge, Lawrence B. Jones, William G. Grier, 
J. Frank Ruth, Samuel N. Trump, Alfred Collins, 
Joseph Pyle. 

Miss Elizabeth Montgomery, daughter of Captain 
Hugh Montgomery of Revolutionary fame, spent 
several years in the profession of teaching, and was 
very successful. She is best known to the people of 
her native town by her " Reminiscences of Wilming- 
ton," — an entertaining volume of 310 pages, first 
published at the request of her friends in 1851. This 
edition had a large sale, and the work was re-pub- 
lished in 1872 by Johnston & Bogia. 

Francis Vincent, whose biographical sketch ap- 
pears elsewhere in the History of the Press, was also 
a diligent student of the history of Delaware. Un- 

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ofrtuDately he only published in numbers the first 
volume of his " History of Delaware," which shows 
great research, and is the source of information of 
much of the early history of the State. It is to be 


regretted that Mr. Vincent's work did not receive 
sufficient encouragement to enable him to complete 
his laudable enterprise. 

Howard Pyle, the author and artist, who has been 
for many years closely identified with the educational 
history of Delaware, was bom in Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, March 5, 1853. He was educated at T. Clark- 
son Taylor's well-known academy, in Wilmington, 
and ' studied art under Van du Milen, in Phila- 
delphia, a graduate of the Art School of Ant- 
werp, where he took the first prize at the age of 
twenty-two. The first literary production of Mr. 
Pyle, which indicated the remarkable talent with 
which he is gifled, was "The Magic Pill," a short 
poem or rather a story in verse, published in the bric- 
a brae department of Scribner^s Monthly, He has 
since been a frequent contributor to magazine litera- 
ture. Some of his most meritorious articles of this 
kind are the following : " The Island of Ponies" and 
*• The Thousand IsIca," which appeared in Scribner^s; 
"The Peninsular Canaan," "The Last Revel in 
Printz Hall," "The May Idyl," "Life in an Old- 
Time Quaker Town," "Stephen Wycherly," "The 
Buccaneers and the Mariners," in Harper^s Magazine, 
His fairy tales, running for three years through Har- 
per's Young People, have proven to be exceedingly in- 
teresting to children. They have gained him the 
reputation of being one of the most popular writers 
for the young in this country. "Robin Hood," the 
first book from his fertile brain, brim-full of charac- 
teristic illustrations of his own designing, has passed 
through several editions and has had a very large 
sale. " Within the Capes," a story whose scenes and 
incidents are laid in his native State, is charmingly 
written. " Pepper and Salt," his next work, appeared 
in 1884. It was the quaintest and most entertaining 
fairy book of the season and profusely illustrated by 
himself. " The Wonder Clock," also a book for chil- 
dren, was published in 1887. It is a fascinating fairy 
story, and 'at once won great'popularity. The book is 

fairly brimming over with bright and lively things ; it 
contains twenty-four marvelous tales, one for every 
hour of the day, embellished with charming verses 
written by his sister, Miss Catherine Pyle. The illus- 
trations, one hundred and sixty in all, are quaint and 
characteristic. "The Rose of Paradise," his last 
work, with its appropriate drawings, appeared in De- 
cember, 1887. It is a detailed account of certain 
adventures which happened to Captain John Mackre 
in connection with the noted pirate Edward England, 
in 1720, off the Island of Juanna, in the Mozambique 

The history of literature in Delaware does not pre- 
sent a stronger representative than Howard Pyle. 
His productions are noted for purity of style, 
elegancy of diction and fine rhetorical finish. As a 
story- writer he has endeared himself to thousands of 
children, and as an artist and designer his work indi- 
cates remarkable proficiency. 

Dr. Caleb Harlan, of Wilmington, a sketch of whom 
appears in the medical chapter of this work, is the 
author of "The Fate of Marcel," a work of fiction; 
"The Elflora of the Susquehanna," a poem; *'Ira 
Randolph," a poem ; and " Mental Power and Sound 

Right Rev. Alfred Lee, late bishop of the diocese 
of Delaware, is the author of " Eventful Nights in 
Bible History." 

Miss Harriet P. Belt, daughter of Z. James Belt, of 
Wilmington, wrote " Marjorie Huntingdon," an inter- 
esting novel. It was published in 1884, by J. B. Lip- 
pincott &, Co.| of Philadelphia, in a 12mo book of 
882 pages. The same firm, in 1887, published the 
" Mirage of Promise," another story written by Miss 

Gren. James H. Wilson, after his return from a trip 
through Asia, wrote a popular book of travels, en- 
titled " China." It was issued from the press of D. 
Appleton & Co., of New York. 

Miss Margaret Canby, who has been a frequent con- 
tributor to magazine literature, wrote " Birdie," " His 
Fairy Friends," and other works, published by Clax- 
ton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, of Philadelphia. 

Benjamin S. Clark, who conducted the jewelry bus- 
iness for fifty years at 407 Market Street, Wilmington, 
was bom in 1817, and died in January, 1888. He 
was educated at the Friends' School, comer of Fourth 
and West Streets, and leamed his trade with G^rge 
Jones, whom he succeeded in business, in the same 
building, January, 1837. Mr. Clark was a well-known 
and very popular man of sterling integrity, and hon- 
orable in all his business transactions. He was elected 
city treasurer by the Whig party in 1852, re-elected 
in 1864, serving four years in that office. He was sev- 
eralyears a member of the Board of Education of the 
city, was a director in the Wilmington Gas Company 
and in the Savings Fund Society. He was well in- 
formed in local history. 

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WILMINGTON— (Cbn«»nw«l). 

Early Chubghes and Ministers. — Among the 
original colony of Swedes who settled in Delaware 
and built Fort Christina in 1638 was Rev. Reorus 
Torkillus,* who established religious worship in the 
fort, the first meeting-place for Christians on the 
Delaware, and there it was continued until the 
church at Tinicum was erected in 1646. 

Rev. John Campanius came to Christina February 
15, 1643, with Goyernor Printz, and ministered to 
the Swedes there and at Tinicum until 1648. In the 
latter year he returned to Sweden, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Lawrence Locke* in 1647. The latter 
was identified with the congr^ations of Christina, 
Tinicum and Craine Hoot, and died in 1688. 

In the minutes of the Council at New Amstel, 
August 9, 1656, Vice-Director Jacquet in charge, 
"Mr. Laers" is mentioned as ''a preacher and an 
ecclesiastical deputy in matrimonial affairs." In 
1660 the Vice-Director reports to the Governor that 
he had fined the priest, Mr. Laerson, fifty guilders 
for marrying a couple irregularly. " Mr. Laers, the 
Swedish priest," in April, 1661, notified the Vice- 
Director that his wife had eloped with one Jacob 
JoDgh' during the night Laers was fined heavily 
for viijiting Jongh's house and breaking open his 
chest, etc. He pleaded that he was looking for his 

In June, 1663, Rev. Abelius Zetscoren * arrived at 
^'ew Castle, and received a call from the Swedish 
congregation ; but Vice-Director Beekman wrote that 
"Dominie Laers objected" to his presence to such an 
extent that he had to threaten the dominie with a 
protest before he could be persuaded to permit Dom- 
inie Zetscoren to preach. The latter was subse- 
quently "offered as high a salary as Dominie Laers 
receives; but they of New Amstel would not let 
him go." 

A few years after the occupancy of the territory by 
the English, an insurrection was much feared, and 
one Coningsmark, known as ".The Long Finn," was 
arrested, and later tried. (Governor Lovelace, in a 

1 R«v. Torkfllos died at Ghristiim September 7, 1643, and hii remalDs 
an Mid to have been interred in the fort 

^ The minfarter called by Acrelins the BeT. Lawrence Loolc is also 
caHed by him Lawrence Charles Lockensius, Lars Lock and the Rev. 
Un. In the article of Garl K. S. Springhorn, on History of Colony of 
5«v Sweden, Vol. VIII., pMnwybaiiia Magaxi$u of Htttoryy page 22, he 
aeotionshlm as Lars <>irl«son Lock and Laurontius Lockensius. In 
the translations in VoL XII., he is called the Bey. Laars-Laanen Laur- 

' JoBf;h or Toang was, at the time of his flight, hearily in debt. He 
««• at Buhemia Mancir and Oppeqaenomen later, and owned considera- 
te property at l»oth plaree. His name occurs in Clay's "Annals,'* in 
ftB oiklal letter dated Wicaco, August 10, 1684, note A, Appendix, p. 
135. where he is mentioned as agent for the Wicacu congregation. 

* Acrelins says: **A student, A. Selskoom, came to the country and 
for some time held divine service at Sand Hook (New Castle) ; then 
vest to New Amsterdam, and received a call fVom Stuyvesant He 
■ever had charge of any congregation on the South Biver as a regularly 
ordained clevgyman/* 

letter to Captain John Oarr, then commandant at 
New Castle, dated Fort James, in New York, Sep- 
tember 15, 1669, says: "I perceive y* Little Dominie' 
hath played y* Trumpeter to thi« disord". I refer y* 
quality of his punishment to ye discretion." 

Dominie Laers continued in charge of the Swedish 
congregation until after 1675, and his name appears 
May 19, 1679. The Swedish congregation at Crane 
Hook* endeavored to keep their services in the 
Swedish language. 

Crane Hook Church is said to have been built in 
1667, and probably by the united eflforts of the Dutch 
congregation and the Swedes. It was used for public 
worship until the " Old Swedes' Church " was built, 
in 1698, on the present site. Rev. Eric Biork, in 
a letter to the reverend superintendent. Dr. Israel Kol- 
modi, dated Christiana Creek, October 29, 1697, after 
speaking of a visit to Wicaco, June 30th, writes : ** We 
did the same thing on the 2d of July, to the lower 
congregation at Tran Hook where they also have a 
church. On the 11th of July I, their unworthy min- 
ister, clad in my surplice, delivered my first discourse 
to them in Jesus' name on the subject of the righteous- 
ness of the Pharisees." ' 

The Rev. Mr. Biork at that time was preparing for 
the erection of the church at Christeen, now known 
as ** Old Swedes'," and which was erected in 1698, 
and dedicated Trinity Sunday, 1699. Mr. Biork, in 
the same letter, writes respecting Tran Hook or Crane 
Hook congregation : ** They were uncomfortably situ- 
ated, the land which led to their church, being then 
overflowed with water, and yet they would not aban - 
don the place until they should have ministers to 
whom they could commit the work in which, through 
God's grace, I have succeeded, and agreed with them 
to fix on a more convenient place to build a stone 
church to be called Christina Church. ... In 
comparing the religious situation of these people, their 
divine service, attention to the ordinances and in- 
struction of their youth in the catechism and other 
things with the congregations in Sweden, I must say 
that they are quite irregular. . . . This state of 
things is not to be wondered at; for their ministers,^ 

*>Ir. Femow, in a note, says : " Probably Magister Fabriclus." This 
was not the case, however; for by a letter shown later, dated New 
York, April 13, 1670, Fal>riciii8 was, at that time, pastor of a Lutheran 
congregation at that place. That it was Dominie Laers is proven by 
the fact that his nHiue occurs among those fined as Confederates of the 
Long Finn. It is there signed as "Laurens Carolus, Minister," and he 
was fined 600 guilders There were 36 confederates who received fines 
from 15(K) guilders to 50 guilders. His name appears as fifth in amount. 

« Grane Hook is the plot of land that lies below the mouth of Chris- 
tiana Creek, and upon this place the church was built, close to the 
Delaware Biver. Ferris, writing In 1846, says: "A few years since, on 
a visit to this spot, which was pointed out by Peter Alrich, no tomb- 
stone or other trace of the grave-yard could be discovered. The church, 
which was a wooden one, was entirely gone. The only vestiges of the 
building were four large hornblende rocks, which had served for cor- 
ner-stones to raise the house above the wtrth. . . . The building and 
grave-yard occupied a piece of ground on which is at present an or- 

7 Clay's " Annals," pp. 64-66. 

B It is stated by the early writers, Rudman, Acrelius and Clay, that the 
Rev. Mr. Loch was at Tinicum from 1647 to 1688, and it Is shown from 
the records here quoted that the Rev. Laurentius Carolus Laers was in 
this vicinity from 1656 to 1679 and perhaps later. This minister, one 
and the same, preached in the Swedish language. The Rev. Jacobus 
Fabritius or Fabricius preached to the Swedes in the Dutch language, 

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particularly the last, was old and infirm and could 
not pay proper attention to the education of youth." 

In the year 1699 the Christina congregation was 
thoroughly organized, and Charles Springer was their 
authorized agent. He had been the reader in Crane 
Hook Church for some time. 

The property of the old church was sold November 
1, 1699. The deed as quoted by Mr. Ferris is here 
given : 

" Articles of Agreement done, made and concluded by A between 
Plotter Mounsoo, ofy«one party, andCharlee Springer, ofy* other party, 
witneesetb as followetb : 

'<Be it known that I, Pietter Mounson, doe acknowledge that I have 
bought a certain tract of Land, namely, 100 acres, with all the con- 
veniences thereunto belonging, Lying & being upon Delaware River 
Joyning next unto ray Land, which Tract of Land did formerly 1>eIong 
nnto Hance Pietterson and Charles Springer and the rest of y* Church 
Wardens, which then, at that time, were Church Wardens, did buy this 
aforesaid Tract of Land for a Minister to live upon, w«fc they did in the 
behalfe of ye Congregation then y* Cranehooks Congregation called. 
Butt when it pleased God in his mercy, that when our Reverend Minis- 
ter arrived, and the Congregation did conclude to Build ye Church upon 
Christeen, so was this Land altogether found not convenient for a Minis- 
ter to live upon, and so with a common consent for to be sould. Which 
aforesaid Tract of land, with 13 V^ acres of Marish and all y* conveniences 
wh : thereunto doth belong I, Charles Springer, as Church Warden, A 
in behalfe of y Congregation, doe sell this uuto Pietter Mounson for 
him and his heirs, for to have and to hold for ever. 

"And for which aforeed Tract of Land I, Pietter Mounson, doe 
obledge roe & my heirs to pay unto Charles Springer or his Ase* the full 
A just summ of Thirty-five pounds In Silver Money. Twenty pounds of 
Silver Money to be paid at the 21 of Novemb^, at which day Charles 
Springer doth obledge himself to make this aforesaid Land over to 
Pietter Mounson, If It please the Lord to permit him Life and health ; 
and the other 15 pounds the s^ Pietter Mounson Is to pay at or upon y* 
16th of Sept., 1700. As witnesH our hands and seals. 

"Christeen y Ist of Nov., 1699. 

"PiBTTBB P. Mounson, 

"Charles Spsinokb. 

"Signed, Sealed and delivered In y* presence of Us. 

"EftlCVS BlORK. 

" Minbter of Christeen CongregaUon. 
" Lucas L. 8 Stidham.'* 

Peter Mounson, who bought the church property, 
was one of the early Swedes, who settled on Vertrecht 
Hook. He, with others, received a patent for seven 
hundred acres in 1675. 

After the purchase the church gradually went to 
decay; the grave-yard was used a few years later, 
and finally given up, and at present no trace of it re- 

When the Dutch recaptured Fort Casimir from the 
Swedes, in 1655, Jean Paul Jacquet was sent to the 
colony as Vice-Director, and, in taking the oath of 
office, pledged himself to " maintain and advance as 
much as I can the Reformed religion as the same is 
taught and preached here and in the Fatherland, 
conform to God's word and the Synod of Dortrecht ;*' 
but it does not appear that in laying out the town of 
New Castle, after his arrival, he made any provision 
for a church or place of worship ; nor was there any 
minister among the Dutch at this time. Subsequent- 
ly, in April, 1657, the West India Company promised 
to send a minister to the colony. They referred to 
Rev. Mr. Wei ins, who came, and was at New Amstel 
and Altena until his death, December 9, 1659.^ 

which was but little understood by them, and not acceptable. He was 
at New Castle and Wicaco from 1670 to about 1693 
1 H*.iv. J. B. Spotswood, in his history of the Presbyterian Church in 

After Mr. Welins' death, Vice-Director Beekman, 
of Altena, referred in a letter to one Jan Jorien 
Becker," "who does not perform any other service 
here than to read aloud on Sundays, which I can 
have done by the sergeant or any other." 

From the time of Rev. Welins' death until Jun** 6, 
1663, there was no regular minister among the Dutch 
colonists' and this was the cause of a number of 
appeals from Vice-Director Beekman to his superior. 
On one occasion he wrote that there were several 
children in the colony to baptize, and, at another 
time, that the Lord's Supper had not been adminis- 
istered for two and a half years. During the interval 
Rev. ^gidius Luyck did visit the colony and preach, 
but did not perform any other ministerial ftinctions. 
On June 6,1663, Mr. Beekman writes : "Until to-day no 
chance has offered itself to speak with the Swedish or 
Lutheran Dominie." He referred to the Rev. Zet»c*o- 
ren, mentioned among the early Swedish preachers. 

No further information concerning church affairs 
is obtained until 1670, except that among the priri- 
leges granted by the English to the Dutch upon their 
occupation in 1664, it was provided "That all people 
shall enjoy the liberty of their consciences in church 
discipline as formerly." 

On the 13th April, 1670, Governor Lovelace, writ- 
ing from Fort James, in New York, to Captain John 
Carr, commandant at New Castle, says: "Upon ye 
request of Magister Jacobus Fabricius, pastor of ye 
Lutheran confession, commonly called ye Augustan, 
who, by the Duke's Lycense hath a Congr^ation 
here, I have granted my Passe to him and his wife to 
goe to New Castle or any place in Delaware River." 

In 1674 Rev. Fabricius was tried for having vio- 
lated the law by marrying Ralph Doxey and Mary 
Von Harris, " without having any lawful authority 
thereto, and without publication of bans." There 
were present at the meeting^of the court, the Governor- 
General, Anthony Colve, the honorable councillor 
Cornells Steenwyck, Mr. Comelis von Ruyven and 
Secretary Bayard, as associated councillors. 

*' The Honorable Fiscal PlainUflT ^ 

against V 

Jacob Fabricius, Late Lutheran Preacher, Defendant.**) 

AAer the recitation of the facts heretofore stated 
the plaintiff 

"therefore demands sx qfflcio that Deft, shall be brought to the place 
where Justice is usually executed, lie whipped there severely and tben 
be forever banished tvom this government. Deft, confesses to hwve 
erred through Ignorance, asks forgiveness and promises to behave prop- 
erly in future." 

New Castle, says : " In the year of 1657 or 1658 a Dutch Church was or- 
ganized in this town by the Rev. John Polhemns, while on his way 
from Brazil (where the Dutch at that time had a colony) to New Am- 
sterd'm, near which he settled and died. The same year a schoolmaster 
was sent from Holland by the name of Evert Peterson, and the follow- 
ing year the Rev. Everardus Welins was commis^oned by the Classls of 
Amsterdam as minister of the church in New Amstel, where he ar- 
rived soon after. He was the first ordained minister of any denomina- 
tion in this town." 

* Becker had been brought before the Council several times for selling 
liquor to the Indians unlawfully. He was clerk and reader, and was de- 
graded from this position by the Fiscal at Amsterdam April 12, 1660, 
fined five hundred guilders and ordered to remove from the colony. 
Andreas Hudde succeeded him as clerk and reader. 

3 Rev. Mr. Spotswood says in 16C2 the Rev. Wamerus Hadeen was 
sent from Holland to minister to this church, and died on the i 

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The Governor-General and Council of New Neth- 
erlands heard the complaint^ and " would not proceed 
against him in the most vigorous manner, consider- 
ing bis age and late position, but they condemn him 
and declare him incapable to perform the functions 
of a minister, and what is connected with them 
vHihin this province, for the time of one year. After 
the time has elapsed. Deft, shall be held to ask for 
special consent before he shall be readmitted to the 
performance of said functions." 

On the 18th of April following Fabricius requested, 
in a petition, **That the sentence against him should 
be mitigated so far that he might be allowed to bap- 
tize, if he may not preach and act as minister.'' The 
request was denied. 

About this time efforts were being made to divide 
this religious field between Rev. Laers, the Swedish 
preacher, and Rev. Fabricius, the Dutch minister, 
and in a petition to Governor Andross, June 1, 1676, 
one element presented its claims as follows : 

* Show with an reTerence the sabscribed petltionere tho commnnity of 
tbe naefauigeable Angsbnrg GonfeMdoD, called the Latbenkn, which has 
lU recideiice on tho Sooth rirer that after the petitiunera had uddi-eesed 
an homUe petition to tbe Right Honorable Oovemor on the 13^ of 
Maj. 1676, together with a document drawn up in Council at New Castle 
oD tbe lo«* of December, 1672, aud presented by petltionera' niiuister, 
whereby they divided the rirer into two {larishee, so that all aliote 
Vmhitice Uoek i is and shall remain under the pastorate of Mr. Laers, and 
sU below Verdritige Uoek under the pastorate of Magr Jakobus Fabricius, 
ud requested and asked with due humility that your Noble Honor would 
pirese to conlinn the action and the division for the sake of Ood*B glory 
and good ofder, the petitionera expected hereupon a favorable answer and 
dedflion and had hoped to receive tbe same through Capt. Ed. Kaut- 
wdl, bat as the qwedy Journey and many troubles have prevented your 
Noble Honor, the petitioners do not know how to act and they come 
theiefbre sgain to your Noble Right Honorable Worship with tlie linm- 
bfe request, to confirm the act aud the division, also their minister Mag* 
jAkobus Fabricius and to grant a favorable r^'ply to the petitioners doing 
vhkb tfaey remain your Noble Right Honorable Worsliip^s subjects and 
atdktonwith God. 

''The Commnnity of the Unchangeable Confession of Augsburg on 
ihf Sooth river belonging to the Churches of Swaenewyck and Kraen- 
"* Henrick Jansen, Hinrick Fronsen, 

Heodrick J«nsen von Breeman, William Jansen, 

Hamen JaiMMn, Jan Jansen, 

PMcr Velcker, John Vokmer, 

Peter CIsaen, Claes Andressen, 

PMer Willem's Mark, and tfli the others.*' 

Cofn Jansen, 
IVter Manslandt, 
Sibrand JauMn, 

To this action some of the Swedes and Finns of 
Crane Hook Church objected, and sent to the Gov- 
ernor the following remonstrance i 

** La TO Deo Super, Tlie 14*^ of August, 1675. 
*'Tbe Swedes and Fins belonging to the Church at Crane Hooke 
SDdemand that the Dutch Minister Fabricius very unfairly aud without 
o«r knowledge . . . to the HonU* General our church, and the . . . 
which was never granted him by General Lovelace, except the com- 
BtiBity consented to it and what reasons could induce us to do it, for 
Mither we nor our wives and children are able to understand him. We 
nqocst, therefore, his Honor Capt Cantwell with due respect, humbly 
toaA the HonM* General that we hold divine service with our priest for 
«v edification as we have done so far. If the Dutch priest desires to 
teteh let him remain among his own people at Swanewyck and pi each 
brfwe the Dutch. 

** Hemdricksbm Lkmmks. 
' Ai deacons of tbe church,— 
*' Olle Fome. 
Jan Matson. 
Samuel Peetersen. 
Moos Ptiuwelsen. 
The rest of the congregation.** 

^ The Verdritige Hook was the land lying on the east bwnk of Chris- 

An order passed the Council at New Castle, June 
4, 1676, for the construction of two dykes which did 
not meet the approbation of many of the people and 
much disturbance arose. John Ogle and Magister 
Jacobus Fabricius were leaders of the movement, and 
Captain Cantwell, high sheriff, was compelled to ar- 
rest them both. The magistrates in their declaration 
concerning it said, " The priest wa-* very angry on 
the way to the boat, and when Capt. Cantwell wanted 
to take him by the arm he swore and scolded, saying, 
* may the Devil take you if you touch me.* " The 
two men were soon released, but afterwards rearrested 
and ordered to New York for trial by warrant dated 
July 20, 1675. Fabricius appeared at the place at 
the time appointed, and on September 15, 1675, it 
was " Ordered that ye said Magister Fabricius, in re- 
gard of his being guilty of what is layd to his charge 
and his former irregular life and conversation, be sus- 
pended from exei'ciiting his functions as a Minister or 
preaching any more within this government, either 
in publique or private." To this sentence he peti- 
tioned the Governor Edmund Andros for relief, and 
probably favorably, as he was preaching in later 

In 1676 and early in 1677, Amillius de Bingh was 
reader in the church, and collected the fees for his 
maintenance through the court. In 1678 Dominie 
Petrus Teschemacker came to New Castle, and in 
1679 petitioned the court for a lot on which to build 
a house aud make a garden, which request was 
granted; and the same court, June 3, 1679, gave him 
** an order against the estate of Walter Wharton, de- 
ceased, for 50 fi^ilders, for his preaching the funeral 
sermon of the s** Wharton." 

At a council held in New York September 30, 
1679, the following action was taken : " Upon appli- 
cation of the inhabitants of New Castle, an order to 
bee given to minist" or any 8 of them to examine 
Peter Tetschemacker, & if they shall find him fitly 
qualified, then to ordain e him to bee a minister of 
God's holv word, & to administer the Sacraments, as 
is usuall in the protestant or Reformed churches." 

On March 2, 1680, Dominie Petrus Teschemacker 
asked of the court an order for salary, against the 
estate of Ralph Hutchinson, as he was a signer for 
his maintenance. This was also granted. He re- 
mained in charge a year or two 1 mger, and removed 
to Schenectady, New York.' 

tiana Creek, and extending up the river ; its inland boundary was Shell* 
pot Creek. 

* Clay's "Annals,*' page 37, and in notes A and B, pages 135-137, 
says that in 1077 the Swedes at Wicaco applied for Jacob Fabritlus, then 
at New York, to become their pastor, and that he accepted and preached 
his first sermon on Trinity Sunday, 1677 ; and that he preached there 
fourteen years, the last nine of which he whs entirely blind. 

' In Jnspar Danken.' and Peter Sluyten*' Journal, publbhed by the 
Long Island Historical Society, p. 22, is found this reference to Domi- 
nie "Tessemaker:** We had an opportunity to-day to hear Dominie 
Tfssemaker, which we "did, but never heard worse preaching. ... He 
is a man who wishes to effect some etabliM » «meni or reform liere, but he 
will not accomplish much in that respect, hm he liafl not only no grace 
therefor, but there seems to be something in his life which will hereaf- 
ter manifest itself more. For the present we can say with truth that he 
is a perfect wordling.** Dominie Tesaemaker accepted' a call tu S('lie> 
nectady in 1682, and was a victim of the French and Indian nuasacre in 

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Rev. Mr. Spotswood aays that in 1684 a French 
clergymaD resided at New Castle, of whom nothing 
was known, and that in that year the Classis of Am- 
sterdam sent a pastoral letter to the church at New 
Amstel, in which they deplore the condition of the 
church. Wm. Penn, in a letter dated 1683, said : 
" The Dutch have a meeting-place for worship at New 
CaHtle." The territory down to the Horekill was 
purchased by the West India Company in 1658. No 
mention is made of a minister for that region, and as 
late as 1675 there were but forty-seven persons at 
'• Sekonnei<sinck on Horekill ; " and it was not until 
the beginning of the eighteenth century that any or- 
ganized movement for religious purposes began in 
the lower counties of the State. 

Episcopal Churches.*— ^o/y Trinity Church (Old 
Swedes\)'-The history of Trinity Parish begins in 1638^ 
when Peter Minuit built a fort on the north side of 
Minquas Creek, at a place called by the Indians, 
Hopokahacking, naming it Christina, after the 
reigning Queeu of Sweden. 

With him came the Rev. ReorusTorkillus as pastor 
of the colony. For sev^eral years religious services 
were held in the fort, and their churchyard or cem- 
etery was on a hillside in the rear of the present 
Church of the Holy Trinity (Old Swedes*), ihe ground 
coming just half-way up the side of the church. 

In 1667, a timber church having been built on the 
south side of the creek on land now owned by Richard 
Jackson, near the old Alrich house, called Crane 
Hook, the services were transferred to it, and a cem- 
etery laid out for the use of the people on that side of 
the creek. 

The Rev. Reorus Torkillus died in Fort Christina 
September 7, 1643. The Rev. John .Campanius came 
over with Governor Printz, and remained about six 
years. The Rev. Israel Holgh and the Rev. Lawrence 
Charles (Lai-s Carl) Lokenius were sent out about that 
lime and the Rev. Mr. Peter came with one of the 
bands of colonists soon after. It is uncertain when 
Pastors Holgh and Peter returned to Sweden, but the 
former about 1655. Pastor Lokenius served the 
churches at Tenakong and Christina, but chiefly the 
latter, for twenty-two years, notwithstanding he 
became very infirm in his latter years, and died in 

The Rev. Jacob Fabricius was called from New 
York in 1677, and notwithstanding he became blind 
five years afler, did the best he could for both churches 
until about 1693. After his complete disability 
Charles Christopher Springer, a young Swede of good 
education, kept up the services by prayers, hymns and 
reading from the Postilla (Sermons on the Gospels). 
Thus they seem to have been destitute of an ordained 
minister for about four or five years. 

In 1693 Springer and others of both congregations 
sent an urgent request to Sweden for two priests to be 

1090. HU head was iplit opoD and hia bodjr buraed to the ahouldar 
1 By Horac« Burr, M.D. 

sent over to them, and some Bibles, hymn-books tod 
other religious works. The King, Charles XL, after 
some delay occasioned by the death of his wife, Queen 
Ulrica Eleanora, called to the castle Dr. Jesper Swed- 
berg,* who was at that time provost of the cathedral 
in Upsala, gave him the letter to read and asked him 
what should be done. He replied: '*In America, 
most gracious sovereign, where there are many Swedes 
who now need and desire ministers, bibles, hymn- 
books and various other works of devotion, there is a 
good opportunity to convert the heathen — ^yea, and to 
see to it that the children of Sweden do not become 
heathen, as they dwell among them." The King 
answered: **We shall find the means thereto, and 
provide them ministers, Gk>d's word and the necessary 
books; therefore provide suitable ministers for me.'' 

Thereupon the doctor suggested that His Majesty 
put the matter into the hands of the prchbishop. Dr. 
Clans Swebilius, which was done with the proper in- 
structions. The archbishop laid his instructions be- 
fore the Consistory, and after due deliberation, they 
called Andrew Rudman, of Oestrichen, candidate for 
the degree of Master in Philosophy, and it was left 
to him to select a fellow-laborer. Dr. Swedberg pro- 
posed Mr. Eric Bj6rk, of Westmania, who was then 
in his house, being tutor to the sons of his brother, 
Judge Sk6nstr6m. 

To these two were added, by the King's command, 
Mr. Jonas Aureen, of Wermeland, whose duty should 
be to gather information of the country and its inhab- 
itants, and transmit it to His Majesty. And that he 
might do the more good, he was ordained with Mr. 
Bjork at Upsala, Mr. Rudman having been ordained 
previously. By the recommendation of the archbish- 
op, the King appropriated for their outfit 1300 dollars 
copper mynt, of which was given Mr. Rudman 
500 dollars, as he had still something to pay for his 
academic degree of Magister, which was then confer- 
red, and to each of the others 400 dollars. 

The King called the three clergymen into his cabi- 
net, and told them to apply directly to him for what- 
ever they should need, and gave a large number of 
books as a free donation from himself, to be delivered 
to the oflScers of the churches, among which were five 
hundred copies of Luther*s Catechism, translated into 
the American Virginian language; and on all the 
books the King's initials were stamped in gold letters. 
When they departed the King said to them, — " Go, 
now, in the name of the Lord, to the place to which I 
send you, and may He make your undertaking suc- 

Messrs. Rudman and Bj5rk went on board ship at 
Dalaridn, December 4, 1696, and Mr. Aureen went by 
land to Gotheborg to join them in London. On the 
10th of October they arrived in London, and were 
given a special pass by King William (of Orange). 

On the 14th of February, 1697, they went to sea. 
They were ten weeks at sea, " landing first in Vir- 

< The father of EnutDuel Swedberg, commouljr called Swedenborg. 

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gioiSf and then went up to Maryland, where the ship 
was bound." 

Then, after the (Joyemor of Maryland, Sir Francis 
Nicholson, had hospitably entertained them for two 
weeks, and presented them with twenty-six dollars 
for their traveling expenses, they continued their 
journey on a yacht to Elk River, where they arrived 
June 24th. There were some Swedes dwelling in that 
place, who welcomed their countrymen most heartily, 
and Rent word to their brethren in Pennsylvania, who 
came without delay, and with tears of joy greeted 
their much-longed-for pastors, and conducted them 
overland to their homes. 

We now come to the diary of Mr. Bj5rk, which is 
so liill and rich in incidents that it is diflBcult to 
select and condense from it 

He says, July 2, 1697, "After I, together with my 
eoUesgues, Magister Andrew Budman and Mr. Jonas 
Aoreen, had notified the Vice-Grovernor, Wm. Mark- 
ham, of our arrival at Philadelphia, and shown him 
our passport, with King Wm.'s Royal seal thereon, 
giving us liberty of passage from England over to this 
place, dated at Kensington, Nov. 22, 1696, and the 
Vice-Qov. had given us assurance of all possible 
favor and assistance, we assembled for the first time 
in the Cranehook Church, when I read to them the 
letters and commission of King Charles XI., of 
Sweden, sending us over here with the promise of re- 
call, after a time, and proper preferment at home, in 
Sweden, others being sent in our place, and also the 
King's own letter to the congr^ations, dated at Stock- 
holm, July 15th, 1696, stating what books His Maj- 
esty had sent to them, being a great many more than 
they had asked for. 

*'Then we read our commission from the Arch- 
bishop, Dr. Glaus Swebilius, with his representation 
of oar duties to the churches and theirs to us as their 

"As Magister Rud man preferred to remain with the 
church at Wicacoe, I took up my residence at Chris- 
tina, and, on July 11th, the 16th Sunday after Trin- 
ity, began in Jesus' name my first Divine Service in 
Cranehook Church." 

The charge, or parish, of Mr. Bj5rk embraced at 
that time the settlement on both sides of the River 
Delaware, extending, on the west side, from Upland 
(now Chester) on the north to St. George's on the 
south ; and on the east side from Raccoon Creek 
(Swedesbury ) on the north to Pumpkin Hook (Penn's 
Neck) on the south; and he, with his assistant, Jonas 
Aurecn — who did not prove very reliable — the only 
clergyman and his log church the only church for 
tU that region. 

He not only was the pastor of the Swedes scat- 
taed over this wide extent of territory, but also be- 
gin, almost at the very commencement of his minis- 
try, to preach to the English in their own language, 
tnd perform all needed pastoral offices for them, 
while the comparatively few Dutch settlers were in- 
corporated into the Swedish fold. 

To return to the diary, — he says : " On the 30th 
of July, agreeable to notice given on the 26th, we 
met to choose certain discreet persons from both sides 
of the River to act for the whole church in selecting 
and agreeing upon a place where we, in Jesus' name, 
should set the new church ; and from this side were 
chosen Charles Springer, John Numerson, Hans Pie- 
terpon, Hendrick Juassen and Brewer Seneke ; from 
the other side, Mr. Whole Stobey, Stafian Juranson, 
Jacob Van Dover and Olle Fransen. And the fixing 
of the site was earnestly discussed, as some wished it 
to be Cranehook, some Thirdhook and some Chris- 
tina; while those on the east side of the River 
feared that if they were to coutriWte to the build- 
ing of a new church on this side they would not 
be helped by their brethren when they should be 
numerous enough to form a separate church on the 
other side. But they on this side immediately sat- 
isfied them by promising that whenever they should 
become sufficiently numerous to form a separate 
church, and able to support a separate minister of 
the evangelical doctrine, they would do as much 
for them as they now would do towards building a 
church on this side of the river. Then those who 
usually cross over from the other side to Sandhook 
(New Castle), and come up on this side, thought it 
would be hard for them to pay ferriage across the 
Christina Creek if the church were set on the north 
side of it, and, to content them, it was promised 
that they should be provided with a new canoe for 
their o^n special use in coming to church. And 
so it was finally unanimously decided that the 
church should be at Christina, and as there was 
not ground enough in the cemetery on which to 
set the building, without encroaching upon graves, 
and also that it was too much of a side hill, John 
Stalcop, of his own free will, gave land enough to 
set the upper half of the church on, and also 20 
ft. on each side of the building, and a church- walk 
to the highway. It was first decided that the 
church should be 30 ft. long and 12 ft. in height, 
and the walls of stone 3 ft. thick," but when they 
came to the final consideration of the matter Mr. 
Bjork says: "Now although some of the church 
wardens wished to have the church no longer than 
was first talked of, and most of the congr^ation 
thought it would be large enough, I opposed it ear- 
nestly, in the confidence that God would help me, 
for I saw plainly that it would not be what it 
ought, and that we should so build that it would 
not be necessary to enlarge, and I urged that our 
contract should be for a building 60 ft. long and 
80 ft broad within the walls, and that the wall 
should be 20 feet high and three ft. thick, up to 
the lower end of the windows, and then two ft. 
upwards, and the contract was so made. " 

The limited space allotted to this sketch pre- 
cludes the recital of the interesting details of con- 
struction, and it must suffice to add that the stones 
were broken by the congregation, and hauled. 

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mostly, on sleds in winter; that the boards were all 
sawed by hand on a saw-pit and the naib all 
forged by a blacksmith, and it was happily com- 
pleted and ready for consecration on Holy Trinity 
Sunday, July 4, 1699. 

September 19, 1698, there was a meeting of the 
congregation at Christina to choose new church 
wardens ; but two of the old were retained for an- 
other year viz.: Charles Christopher Springer and Mr. 
Wholley Stobey, to whom four were added, viz.: Hans 
Pieterson, Brewer Seneke, John Stalcop, and from 
the other side of the river, Jacob Van de Ver. 

From that time to the present there is an un- 
broken record of the wards, or, as they were after- 
wards constituted, wardens and vestrymen. 

On the 4th Sunday after Easter, 1699, the last 
service was held in Cranehook Church, when the 
pastor says : " I exhorted the congregation to renew 
their hearts before God, and joyfully thank Him 
that He had blessed them with a new church. '' 

Holy Trinity Sunday, July 4, 1699, Mr. Bjork 
says: "God graciously gave me and the congrega- 
tion a delightful day for our first entrance into our 
new church at Christina, after so much labour 
and cost, and the consecration took place in the 
presence of many hundred persons of various relig- 
ious belief, besides our own people, and proceeded as 
follows : After the assembly had been called together 
by the ringing of the bell, my colleague from the up- 
per church, Magister Andrew Rudman, and myself, 
clad each in a surplice (but not in a chasuble, as they 
could not be obtained here), went in before the altar, 
as also our colleague, Mr. Jonas Aureen, though he 
had only a long cloak, with a cape. 
. " Then Magister Rudman and myself stood in front 
next to the altar, and Mr. Aureen before us, and 
we began thus : 

" Mag, Hud,, 1$L — * Come, let us praise the Lord 

" Mag, Bud,, 2d, — A prayer of his own composing 
that God will be graciously pleased with this house. 

** Mr, Aureen, 3d. — Read Kings 1st, the whole 

''Pastor Zocit, 4^A.— Read the 24th King David's 
psalm, the whole. 

" Mr. Aureen, 5<A.— Read from the New Testament 
John 10th, the whole chapter. 

" Mr, Aureen, 6th, — Sang Our Father which art in 
Heaven, etc. 

''Mag, Bud,, 7th, — With a loud and slow voice 
read the Holy (Helig), as it is set forth in the church 
directory for such an occasion. 

''Mag, Bud, Sth,—'Come, Holy Spirit, Lord God, 

" Then Magister Rudman preached the consecra- 
tion sermon from the pulpit, beginning with Tobit, 
12th chapter, 7th verse. The counsels and secrets of 
Kings and rulers shall be conceded, etc., but the 
proper text was Psalm cxxvi., verse 3d : * The Lord 
hath done great things for us, whereof we are glad.' 

" And the Church was named Holy Trinity Churdi. 

"ll^A. — ^Then from the pulpit he began: * We 
praise thee, O God, etc' 11th. — ^Then Magister Rud- 
man and I only went before the altar again and he 
sang the prayer and then the blessing. 

"12th, — And then gave an exhortation to keep 
and reverence this house as the house of Grod, and 
thereupon said ' Glory be to the Father, and to the 
Son, and to the Holy Ghost' 

"Pastor Locii, — Answering. 'As it was in the 
beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without 
end. Amen.' 

"And this was the conclusion of the proper con- 
secration service. 

"The Holy Communion was then celebrated and 
administered and children baptized, closing with a 
sermon by Mr. Aureen and the customary Psalms and 

" After the conclusion of the services we gathered 
all the notable strangers in John Stalcop's house and 
entertained them with food, wine and beer, and after- 
wards all the rest. 6k>vernor Markham was invited 
to be present, but was prevented by illness." 

The congregation contributed for this entertain- 
ment of their guests five sheep, two quarters of veal, 
one quarter of venison, six hundred pounds of wheat 
flour, ten pounds of butter, four dozen of eggs, six 
pounds of sugar, one turkey, several loaves of bread, 
eight bushels of malt, three gallons red wine and a 
quantity of coffee, raisins and hops, and John Stal- 
cop's wife, with the help of Anne Ritman, an English 
woman from the other side of the river, who was 
familiar with such occasions, made all necessary 

The cost of the church, reckoning all labor and 
gifts at the ordinary price, was estimated to be £800, 
Pennsylvania currency. A considerable part of the 
money necessary for the payment of the masons, 
carpenters, etc., who were obtained from Philadelphia, 
was given by members of the congregation, and what 
was needed besides was borrowed from John Hanson 
Stelman, a wealthy Swede at Elk River, Maryland, 
on Mr. Bjork*s own recognizance, £130 of which was 
paid by him and given into the church when he 
returned to Sweden. 

Thus was completed in the year of our blessed 
Lord, 1699, this substantial church building which 
shall stand for ages a testimony to future generations 
of the piety, zeal and perseverance of that humble 
servant of Christ, but really great man, the Rev. 
Eric Bjork, and it may be truly said that of all the 
names of those who have helped to make our beloved 
Commonwealth what it is, none should be remembered 
with greater reverence and gratitude than his. 

Before the completion of the church the indefatig- 
able pastor conceived the project of securing a glebe 
for the use of the ministers of the parish, and after 
long and tedious negotiations purchased of John 
Stalcop a fiirm of five hundred acres, on which now 
stands the greater part of the city of Wilmington, 

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and which, notwithstanding much of it was lost in 
after-years by maladministration and dishonesty, has 
been the means of sustaining and carrying the church 
throogh many seasons of depression and weakness. 

He also secured from Jo^in Stalcop ground for the 
enlargement of the church-yard, and no sooner was 
the church finished than he stirred up the congrega- 
tion to go forward in their good work and provide for 
their ministry a substantial and comfortable parsonage 

A part of the money for the farm and other im- 
provements waB also borrowed of the above-mentioned 
John Hanson Stelman, and gradually repaid by 
contributions of the congregation, except £100 given 
in by Stelman to the church, he finding himself 
liable to prosecution by the Maryland authorities for 
charging ten per cent, interest, which was illegal in 
that colony. 

Thus in the short time of three or four years he 
had laid foundations for the lasting prosperity of 
this depressed and disheartened community, and by 
his exhortations and example infused life and energy 
into his people, calling them together often to lay 


his plans before them, and by his unremitting and 
unselfish devotion to the interest and welfare of the 
church, gaining their confidence and stimulating 
them to work earnestly and faithfully for the common 

As early as October, 1699, a school was established, 
and with occasional interruptions was continued 
in various parts of the parish through Mr. Bjdrk's 
administration, and from time to time through follow- 
ing generations so long as the children could speak 

As has been said above, the English people soon 
began to look to him for religious instruction, 
and he qualified himself to be useful to them by 
learning their language, and was able to preach to 
them in their own tongue shortly after his arrival in 
the country, and with him and his colleagues b^an 
that close and intimate connection with the English 
Episcopal clergy and congregations which remained 
unbroken for a century, and led to the absorption of 
the Swedish Churches into the Protestant Episcopal 
communion when they had ceased to understand the 

language of their fathers and the direct union with 
their mother church was dissolved. The Swedish 
and English clergy attended each other's councils, 
held mutual councils of both communions, and 
preached in each other's churches. 

Most of the Swedish ministers were allowed certain 
stipends for preaching in vacant English Churches by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and 
Bishop Swedberg was a member of that society. The 
bishops of London, who had the oversight of the 
Episcopal Churches and missions in America, 
repeatedly recommended the Swedish ministers to the 
kindness and hospitality of the English, and the various 
archbishops of Sweden and Bishop Swedberg 
exhorted the Swedish ministers and churches to live 
in unity and friendship with the English Churches. 

Thus, naturally, when the time came that English- 
speaking preachers and pastors were necessary, and 
the Swedish authorities deemed it best to withdraw 
their fostering care and allow the churches to choose 
religious teachers from this, now their native 
country, a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church was chosen in the place of those who returned 
to Sweden. Indeed, not all did return. Mr. Collins 
remained rector of Gloria Dei Church until the time 
of his death, in 1830, having several Episcopal minis- 
ters in succession as assistants. 

There was no difference in doctrine, and very little 
in the manner of conducting religious services, and 
many in the outlying districts had already connected 
themselves with Episcopal Churches in their neighbor- 
hood, and, as will be shown farther on, the last Swedish 
minister of Holy Trinity requested and received from 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gk>spel religious 
books for his English-speaking young people. 

On the 29th of June, 1714, Mr. Bj5rk, with his fam- 
ily, started for Sweden, having been recalled by King 
Charles XII., by a letter written at Tamarlark, near 
Adrianople, in Turkey, June 23, 1713, and appointed 
provost and to be pastor of the great Copperburg 
Church in the city of Fahlun, in Dalecartin, where he 
preached till an old man, dying in 1740, and from 
whence was sent, in 1718, a beautiful chalice and 
paten of silver given to the Holy Trinity Church by 
the mining company of that city, a result of his lov- 
ing remembrance of his first charge here in the wil- 
derness, which communion service is still used in the 
churches of the parish on all anniversary and special 

Immediately on the intended recall of Mr. Bjork 
two other ministers were selected by the ecclesiastic 
authorities and commissioned by the Royal Council 
(the King being a fugitive in Turkey, to which coun- 
try he escaped after the disastrous battle of Pultowa 
in Russia.) They were Magister A. Hessellius and Mr. 
Abraham Lidenius, and they arrived May 1, 1711. 
They labored in conjunction with Mr. Bjdrk until the 
3d of May, 1712, when they took formal charge of 
Holy Trinity Church, Mr. Bjork having been ap- 
pointed provost of all the churches by Bishop Swed- 

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berg (who now had ihe oversight of the churches in 
America), he serving in that capacity until the King 
could be heard from and his regular transfer to the 
church above mentioned be made. 

The Rev. Jonas Aureen had been in charge of that 
part of the congregation on the east side of the Dela- 
ware, under the direction of Mr. Bjork, for some time 
past, but had died in the previous February, so it 
was thought best that Mr. Lidenius should be as- 
signed to that side of the Delaware and Magister 
Thessellius remain at Christiana as pastor, with the 
general oversight of the parish. 

The people on the other side soon after began the 
erection of a church on the spot where the present 
Penn's Neck Church stands, and were organized a 
separate church, with Mr. Lidenius for their pastor, 
and as circumstances would permit, the congregation 
fulfilled their promise to those on the east side of the 
river to repay them as much as they had contributed 
towards the building of Holy Trinity, which, on ac- 
count of the great scarcity of money, was paid mostly 
in wheat. 

The folks at Raccoon Creek having already built a 
small church, they were united under the same pas- 
torate with Penn's Neck, and Holy Trinity Parish 
was henceforth confined to the west side of the Dela- 
ware River. 

During the pastorate of Magister Hessellius the 
church prospered, and, notwithstanding the times 
were bard, paid off their debts and provided schools 
for their children. He preached his last sermon Sep- 
tember 15, 1723, and soon afcer returned to Sweden, 
the English clergy giving him a most hearty testimo- 
nial for his zeal in serving in vacant English neigh- 
borhoods, and his brother Samuel, who had been for 
several years in the country serving in congregations 
in Pennsylvania, was transferred to Holy Trinity. 

The Rev. Samuel Hessellius preached his last ser- 
mon October 10, 1731, and returned to Sweden. 

The English clergy gave him a testimonial and re- 
commendation to the bishop of London and the 
Swedish authorities, on account of his exemplary life 
and his great service to the English people, the sign- 
ers of which were Archibald Cummins, commissary ; 
George Ross, minister at New Castle; Richard Back- 
house, minister at Chester ; Walter Hacket, minister 
at Appoquinimink ; William Becket, minister at 

The Rev. John Enneberg, who was already in the 
country, served the congregation as he had opportu- 
nity, and finally took the pastorate, his commission 
being dated at Stockholm, July 4, 1732, and remained 
till 1742, when he returned to Sweden and the Rev. 
Peter Tranberg was transferred from Raccoon and 
Penn's Neck to Christina, August 1, 1742. Pastor 
Tranberg died suddenly at Penn's Neck, where he had 
gone to attend the fiineral of an old friend and 
parishioner, Nove^nber 8, 1748, and lies buried in 
front of the altar in Holy Trinity Church. 

The death of Mr. Tranberg became known to 

Archbishop Benzelius and the Consistory in May' 
1749, and they immediately transferred the Rev. Is- 
rael Acrelius (the historian) from Raccoon and Penn's 
Neck to Holy Trinity, and he took charge of the 
parish in November following. Acrelius was recalled 
to Sweden, and took his departure November 9, 1756. 

The Rev. Eric Unander was transferred from Rac- 
coon and Penn's Neck to Christina in 1755, and took 
the pastoi-ate by his own authority, he being provost, 
being confirmed therein by a commission from Swe- 
den as soon as it could be obtained. He exerted 
himself very earnestly to bring the financial condi- 
tion of the church to a more safe and satisfactory 
state, and in order to legalize titles and save what re- 
mained of the glebe and other real estate from being 
squandered and lost, applied to Governor William 
Denny and the General Assembly at New Castle for 
a charter, which was granted October 27, 1759, the 
corporate title being the Minister, Church Wardens 
and Vestrymen of the Swedes' Lutheran Church, called 
Trinity Church, in the Boroughof Wilmington, which 
is the present legal title, except that by a subseqaent 
amendment the word minister was left off, Thi^ had 
long been a necessity, as the property, by bad man- 
agement and dishonesty of agents, had more than 
one-half of it been lost, and not being a body corpor- 
ate, the church as such could give no I^al title. 

Mr. Unander had leave to return, brought by Dr. 
Weanzell and Magister Andrew Borell in 1758, but 
he remained till July, 1760, staying to finish his 
undertakings and leave all things in good order. 

Mr. Borell was provost of the churches and had 
charge of Holy Trinity until the arrival of Rev. 
Lawrence Girelius, October 21, 1767, who says on the 
25th of October Mr. Borell preached in English, but 
with great difficulty, he was so weak ; and this was 
his last sermon, and the last time he was in the 
church until he was carried there and buried, after a 
long and painful illness, on the 5th of April, 1768. 

In the early days of the church, burial within its 
walls was considered the highest honor and tribute of 
respect that could be shown to the departed. Mr. 
Bj5rk relates that he buried Church- Warden Brewer 
Seneke under his own seat, he being the first buried in 
the church, and also tells us that he buried a son, 
who died here, on the south side of the altar, and 
when John Hanson Stelman, of Elk River, gave up to 
the church the note for one hundred pounds, as a 
special mark of gratitude they voted him a place 
of burial on the main aisle of the church. The 
floor being of brick and stone, a place waa easily 
made for the graves. 

During the illness of Provost Borell, Mr. Girelius 
had charge of the congr^ation, and he says, " I 
preached alternate Sundays in Swedish and English, 
with very good effect, so that on the 2d of Easter, I, 
assisted by pastor Gk)ran8on, administered the Lord's 
Supper to fifteen persons, it being the first time the 
Holy Communion was ever celebrated in English in 
this church." 

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After the death of Mr. Borell, Mr. Girelius was ap- 
pointed pastor, and in 1770 he says, ** I began to in- 
struct the youth in the English catechism, beginning 
25th of November, teaching them every day, except 
Friday, from eleven to two o'clock, and followed it up 
till Ihe 2d of June, and at the same time distributed 
amoD^ them small religious books in English, pub- 
liflhed by the Society for the Propagation of the Oos- 
pel, which they, by the request of Dr. and Provost 
Wrangell, furnished me, to give out wherever I 
thooght good might be done. I also sent a number 
of the books to the Swedes at Egg Harbor, when 
Pastors Goranson and Wicksell visited them. I es- 
pecially gave them the small book called ' The Bap- 
tismal Vow or Covenant Explained,' with directions 
to learn it by heart, and told them that hereafter I 
would examine them yearly, so long as Grod allows 
me to work in His vineyard." 

The Rev. Mr. Girelius was made provost of all the 
churches in 1770, and continued in charge of Trinity 
Pariah until 1791, at which time the Swedish super- 
intendence was officially discontinued. 

Soon after the departure of Mr. Girelius the vestry 
called the Rev. Joseph Clarkson, a clergyman of the 
Episcopal Chnrch, who remained until 1799. 

December 15, 1799, the Eev. William Price was 
engaged at a salary of one hundred and seventy-five 
pounds and the parsonage, and he remained pastor up 
to March 25, 1812. 

April 16, 1814, the vestry agreed to give the Rev. 
William Weeks seven hundred dollars and the use 
of the lot by the church, provided the congregation 
should approve of him, and their approval was voted 
at a meeting on the 19th. Mr. Weeks resigned June 
25, 1817. 

January 31, 1818, a committee appointed to take 
the sentiment of the congregation in writing, by 
their signatures, with regard to the call of the Rev. 
Levi Bull to Trinity Church for the ensuing year, re- 
ported that they had obtained eighty- nine names in 
favor and but one against, and it was resolved that 
Mr. J. M. Broom communicate the intelligence to the 
Rev. Mr. Bull. 

Mr. Bull resigned January 2, 1819, but served till 
March following. March 2, 1819, the vestry offered 
the Rev. Richard D. Hall eight hundred dollars, if 
the ^congr^ation approved, and, a meeting being 
called, there was a unanimous approval. Mr. Hall 
resigned December 25« 1821. 

The Rev. Ralph Williston was called March 30, 
1822, the sense of the congr^ation having been taken 
by a canvass of the parish. Mr. Williston left in 
1827, and the Bev. Pierce Connelly was engaged, and 
remained two years, his salary being five hundred 
dollars and the rent of the parsonage-house. The 
Bev. Isaac Pardee was engaged September 25, 1828, 
and remained till 1835. 

Having erected a new house of worship at the cor- 
ner of Fifth and King Streets, the congregation of 
Tiinity Church removed there at Christmas, 1830, and 

the old church being in a dilapidated condition the 
removal was permanent. In 1836 an effort was made 
to rescue the venerable building firom ruins, and a 
part of the roof was newly shingled and new windows 
put in and new shutters provided for their protection. 
The vestry meeting held April 4, 1842, was adjourned 
to meet at the old church on the 11th, to determine 
what repairs were necessary, and a committee was 
then appointed to make the repairs, Miss Henrietta 
Almond having left by will seven hundred dollars for 
the renovation of the interior. August 25, 1842, is 
the following minute in the vestry-book : " On Sunday 
last the old church was re-opened for occasional 
services, when Bishop Lee said prayers and read the 
lessons and the Rev. J. W.McCullough, Rector of the 
parish, preached.'^ In 1847, at a meeting of the vestry, 
it was decided to hold services at the old Trinity 
Church every Sunday afternoon, and that the evening 
service at Fifth and King be dispensed with. Febru- 
ary, 1848, it was resolved that the offerings at the old 
church be kept separate and subject to the order of 
the assistant minister. I have not been able to find 
the name of the assistant. The bell was re-cast and 
it was ordered that it be rung not only for service at 
the old church, but also the new. April 5, 1852, the 
Rev. Walter Franklin was chosen assistant minister 
to officiate at old Swedes*. January 14, 1853, the 
rector was authorized to procure an assistant to 
officiate at the old church. December 4, 1854, 
Alexis I. Du Pont and George D. Armstrong, who had 
been appointed a committee to engage the Rev. J. A. 
Spooner as missionary for the parish, report that they 
have engaged him and made the arrangement that 
Mr. Spooner should preach every Sunday morning at 
the old church and in the evening at the new house 
for the rector, Mr. Buck, and in the afternoon Mr. 
Buck preach at the old church and Mr. Spooner read 
the service. Mr. Spooner remained till 1856. 

July 21, 1856, it was resolved that the Rev. Stevens 
Parker be invited to become assistant minister at a 
salary of seven hundred dollars, and that the wardens 
make all necessary repairs to the church. 

In September, 1857, Alexis I. Du Pont, senior war- 
den and a munificent benefactor of Trinity Parish, died, 
and the church losing his aid in support of Mr. 
Parker, thought it necessary to accept his resignation ; 
but, November 2, 1857, he was re-elected and served 
at St. John^s and Old Swedes', in conjunction with 
the rector, Mr. Buck. Mr. Parker resigned as assistant 
January 4, 1859, and after his resignation no con- 
tinuous services were kept up till November, 1868, 
when the rector was requested to engage the Rev. 
William Murphy, who served until May 14, 1877. 

In February, 1882, Rev. Louis R. Lewis was 
engaged as assistant in care of the old church, and 
continued till Easter, 1883. 

To return to the rectory of the parish. The Rev. 
Mr. Pardee resigned December 25, 1834, and the 
Rev. Hiram Adams accepted a call March 3, 1835, 
and resigned February 22, 1838. 

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The Rev. John W. McCullough accepted Septem- 
ber 12, 1838, and resigned March 25, 1847. The 
Eev. Edwin M. Vandeusen accepted May 21, 1847, 
and resigned October 20, 1852. 

The Rev. Charles Breck was elected rector Decem- 
ber 6, 1852, and resigned September, 1869. The Rev. 
Wm. J. Frost became rector Jane 1st 1870 and con- 
tinued till April 17, 1881. 

The Rev. Henry B. Martin was elected rector, 
November 9, 1881. During this year the building 
at the corner of Fifth and King Streets was sold by 
consent of the bishop and standing committee of the 
diocese, and a lot of ground purchased at the comer 
of Delaware Avenue and Adams Street, and on the 
south part of it a commodious house of worship was 
erected, to be used as a church until circumstances 
should be favorable for the erection of a larger and 
more appropriate church building fronting on Dela- 
ware Avenue, which house is now used by the Trinity 
congregation as their regular place of worship. The 
Rev. Henry B. Martin resigned July 4, 1886. 

The Rev. H. Ashton Henry was elected rector Feb- 
ruary 16, 1887. 

The present officers of the pari^ are : Rector, Rev. 
H. Ashton Henry, pastor of Trinity congregation and 
ex-officio president of the vestry; Assistant Minister, 
Rev. Jesse Higgins, pastor of Holy Trinity congre- 
gation; Senior Warden, Horace Burr; Junior War- 
den, Samuel M. Murphy; Vestrymen, Victor Du 
Pont, Thomas F. Bayard, Walter Cummins, William 
Davidson, Isaac C. Pyle, Edwin T. Canby, John P. 
R. Polk, John M. Harvey and James Carrow ; Secre- 
tnry, Walter Cummins; Treasurer, Edwin T. Canby; 
Receiver, John 8. Grohe. 

Among the many honored laymen who have been 
connected with this old parish during its two-and-a- 
half-centuries' existence two names stand out as espe- 
cially worthy of grateful remembrance — Charles 
Christopher Springer and Alexis I. Du Pont The 
former, in the early days of its history, was the trusty 
agent, wise counselor and unwearied worker for its 
prosperity from early youth to a ripe old age of four- 
score years. The latter, though suddenly cut off in 
the prime of life, had already, by his untiring devo- 
tion to the cause of religion and his princely contri- 
butions towards the various needs of the parish, en- 
deared himself to the church ; and the beautiful and 
substantial St. John's stands a lasting memorial to 
his great-hearted munificence, which, though only in 
embryo at his untimely death, was built by his fam- 
ily in accordance with his wish and intentions. 

The offspring of this old parish are St. Andrew's, 
St. John's, Christ Church and, through St. Andrew's, 
Calvary, and the descendants of her old membership 
are not only found in the various Episcopal Churches 
of the vicinity, but make up no inconsiderable por- 
tion of the best membership of the other religious 
communions around us and many of the honored and 
respected citizens of distant sections of our country 
bear the name and proudly trace their descent from 

those whose dust lies in the shadow of this reverend 
old sanctuary. Old Swedes' Church. 

8t, Andrew* 9 Protestant Epucopal Church} — ^The sub- 
ject of a new Episcopal Church in Wilmington was 
agitated as early as 1815 in response to a sentiment 
declaring the Old Swedes' Church inconveniently 
situated and inaccessible. As & result, '* the Episcopal 
Association of the borough of Wilmington " was 
formed, and on April 26, 1815, John Lynam was made 
chairman ; James M. Broom, secretary ; and John 
Rumsey, Henry Rice, Dr. John Brinckle, John 
Hedges and Francis O'Daniel were appointed a com- 
mittee and purchased the Second Baptist Church, 
corner King and Sixth Streets, together with an ad- 
joining lot. Work was begun immediately, but 
owing to the business depression of 1817 the pro- 
jected edifice was abandoned and the lots sold. Rev. 
Ralph Williston, rector of Trinity Church, reported 
to the Diocesan Convention, June 7, 1828, a proba- 
bility of a new church being commenced during the 
ensuing summer, but this was not consummated. 

Subsequently a movement was inaugurated, re- 
sulting in the formation of a congregation, which, 
through the courtesy of the ancient Presbyterian 
congregation, utilized the church belonging to the 
latter, at the corner of Market and Tenth Streets, 
with Rev. John Howland Coit, called in June, 1828, 
as rector. In a few months the new congregation 
considered the expediency of erecting a church build- 
ing, and on Tuesday, December 23, 1828, the " Board 
of Trustees of the Episcopal Congregation in the 
Borough of Wilmington and its Vicinity '* met at Dr^ 
John Brinckle's residence and took formal action. 
There were present Dr. John Brinckle, Henry Rice, 
Dell Noblit, John B. Lewis and Albert Wilson. Dr. 
Brinckle was chairman and Albert Wilson secretary. 
It was decided to purchase the lot offered by S. Mc- 
Clary and C. Bush, southwest corner Shipley and 
Eighth Streets, and to erect a stone building forty-five 
by fifty-five feet. The stone was furnished at a 
price considerably under market rates by Edward 
Tatnall. The church was consecrated October 1, 
1829, by Bishop White, of Pennsylvania, assisted by a 
number of clergymen from that State and Delaware; 
Rev. Mr. Bedell, of Philadelphia, reading the service 
for the day and Rev. Dr. Bull, formerly rector of 
Trinity Church, preaching the sermon. On Easter 
Monday, 1830, the first vestry of St. Andrew's 
Church was elected. The earliest register contain g 
twenty-seven names of those who had previously 
been members of the church and who united in 
forming the new congregation. The first report of 
St. Andrew's Church, 1830, signed by Rev. Mr. Coit, 
rector, showed that the membership was gradually in- 
creasing and nearly all the pews had been taken. 
Within two years between twenty and thirty had been 
added to the communicants, who numbered fifty; 
scholars in the Sunday-school, two hundred and fifty. 

1 Compiled from a sermon by Right Rev. Alfred Lee, D.D., at the 
Bemi-centenDiAl of St. Andrew*B Obnrch, Norember 12, 1879. 

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Fonrteen persons were received on the first confirma- 
tion, May 30, 1830, by Bishop H. U. Onderdouk. 
The first deleglttes to the Diocesan Convention were 
John B. Lewis and James L. Devon, 183L In April, 
1832, Rev. Mr. Coit resigned the rectorship to accept 
a call to Plattsburg, New York. 

Rev. Wm. C. Russell, who became rector in Novem- 
ber, 1834, established the missionary organization, an 
important auxiliary, which has continued in exist- 
ence since. At Easter, 1837, Mr. Russell resigned in 
consequence of failing health and died six months 
later. In 1839 a spire was put on the church and 
other improvements were made, but on January 25, 
1840, the church was totally destroyed by fire. The 
coDgr^ation then used the Hanover Street Presby- 
terian Church until October, the same year, when a 
new edifice, forty-eight by eighty feet, was com- 
pleted at a cost of eleven thousand dollars. On 
October 16, 1840, it was dedicated by Bishop Onder- 
donk, assisted by Bishop Wbittingham, of Maryland. 
Rev. Alfred Lee assumed temporary charge of the 
parish in June, 1842, and accepted the rectorship July 
80, 1843. In 1854 the church was enlarged. In 1857 
t mission was started in a carriage-shop at Front and 
Jnstison Streets, under the auspices of St. Andrew's 
Church, and resulted in the erection of Calvary 
Charch, which was opened for service October 20, 
1859, and organized as an independent parish April 
15, 1868. A colored Sunday-school was organized in 
connection with St. Andrew's Church in 1852, and 
was continued until 1883. 

The following list embraces the rectors of St. An- 
drew's Church with their terms of service : Rev. J. 
Rowland Coit, 1828-32; Rev. John V. E. Thorn, 
1832-33; Rev. Chaplin S. Hedges, 1833-34; Rev. 
William C. Russell, 1834-37 ; Rev. William James 
Clark, 1837-38 ; Rev. John V. E. Thorne, 1838-39; 
Rev; William H. Tr.%pwell, 1840-41 ; Rt. Rev. Alfred 
Lee, D.D. L.L.D., 1842-87; and Rev. Charles E. 
Murray, 1887. 

The following clergymen have served as assistant 
ministers: Rev. Samuel Hazlehurst, 1854-55; Rev. 
William AlliboneNewbold, 1857-58; Rev. Marshall 
B. Smith, 1858-59 ; Rev. George A. Strong, 1859-00 ; 
Rev. N. C. Pridham, 1861; Rev. Joseph Newton 
Malford, 1861-62 ; Rev. James Leason Hood, 1862- 
64;. Rev. Edward Hale, 1864-65; Rev. Charles E. 
Mcllvaine, 1866-67 ; Rev. George A. Latimer, Rev. 
Charles W. Williamson, Rev. George Albert Reddles, 
1868-71; Rev. Francis E. Arnold, 1871-78; Rev. 
John William Kaye, 1878-81 ; and Rev. Charles E. 
Murray, 1881-87. 

The following gentlemen compose the vestry of the 
church : E. Tatnall Warner, senior warden ; Williard 
Thomson, junior warden ; Alfred S. Elliott, secretary ; 
J. H. Hoffecker, Jr., treasurer; George H. Bates, Al- 
fred Lee, George W. Baker, Harry H. Johnson, C. 
Elton Buck. 

St. John's JProieitant Episcopal Church} — Occasion- 

1 By Ber. T. Gardiner LItteli. 

ally, services were held in private houses, in what was 
known as Brandywine Village, a hamlet, which grtw 
up around the old grist-mills on both banks of the 
Brandywine Creek, long since absorbed in the grow- 
ing city of Wilmington. About the year 1850 Rev. 
Charles Breck, rector of Trinity Church, began 
holding services in the old district school -house, 
standing upon what is now known as Vandever Ave- 
nue. In August, 1855, measures were taken, through 
the earnest influence of Mr. Alexis Irenee Du Pont, 
to organize a parish ; and to this end a meeting was 
called at the house of Mr. Amor H. Harvey, on Au- 
gust 7th, at which the organization was completed. 
The parish received the name of St. John's, and the 
Rev. Charles Breck was elected rector. On May 8, 
1856, the property of an old tavern, the " Green Tree 
Inn," was purchased. No services were held during 


this year, as the trustees of the academy would not 
allow it to be used for religious purposes. In Sep- 
tember, 1856, a brick building was begun for Sunday- 
school purposes, and was first used for services De- 
cember 27th of that year, and, every Sunday afternoon 
and Wednesday evening thereafter by Messrs. Breck 
and his assistant, the Rev. Stevens Parker. A Sun- 
day-school was opened January 1, 1857. On March 
25, 1857, full possession of the entire property was 
obtained, and the work of tearing down the tavern 
begun. On June 4, 1857, the convention of the 
diocese sitting in St. Andrew's Church, attended the 
laying of the corner-stone. The vestry of St. John's, 
lay delegates, clergy and the bishop passed in pro- 
cession in the order given, from the Sunday-school 
building to the east corner of the tower. The service 
was conducted by Bishop Lee ; addresses being deliv- 
ered by the bishop and Rev. Benjamin Franklin; Mr. 

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Du Pont reading the list of articles deposited in the 
stone. On August 23, 1847, Mr. Du Pont died from 
the eflfects of an explosion at the powder mills. The 
walls of the church were only a few feet above the 
ground ; but Mrs. Du Pont labored earnestly and suc- 
cessfully for the completion of her husband's design. 
Bev. Stevens Parker was most assiduous, and did a 
very noble work, for several years. A parish school 
was opened in February, 1857. The church was con- 
secrated November 3, 1868, on which day Mr. Breck 
resigned, and the Rev. Stevens Parker became rector. 
A guild did much work among the poor. The neigh- 
borhood was so rude, that the services were often dis- 
turbed by noisy men and boys. Rev. James Ghrystal 
and Rev. Thomas G. Clemson were, at different times, 
assistants. In 1863 Mr. Parker resigned, and Rev. 
Leigh ton Coleman succeeded him as rector. A sew- 
ing school, night school and colored Sunday-school 
were opened. In 1866 Mr. Coleman resigned, and 
Rev. Thomas Gardiner Littell became rector. In 
May a mission Sunday-school was opened at the 
Augustine paper-mill. The comer-stone of a parish 
building was laid August 15, 1885, and the structure 
was first used November 3d. The old brick building 
was taken down, and the new Sunday-school erected 
the same year, and occupied December 28th. In 1886 
an organ chamber was built on the north side of the 
chancel, and a new organ presented. The congrega- 
tion has always been remarkable for its zeal and devo- 

Calvary Protestant Episcopal Churchy corner ofThird 
and Washington Streets, was started as a mission of 
St. Andrew's Church, and was fostered by the clergy 
of that parish. The initial services were held in 1857 
in a carriage shop, corner of Front and Justison 
Streets, " a portion of the city then illy supplied with 
religious advantages.'' From a small beginning the 
mission grew rapidly, and a large and flourishing Sun- 
day-School was also soon in operation. As a result 
Calvary Chapel was erected, at a cost in excess of five 
thousand dollars, and opened October 20, 1859. On 
April 15, 1868, it was organized as an independent 
parish, and the same year Rev. G«orge A. Latimer 
was chosen rector. In 1872 a recess chancel was 
added to the church. In March, 1877, Rev. Mr. Lati- 
mer resigned, and the following year Rev. B. H. 
Latrobe succeeded him. The latter resigned in 1879, 
and Rev. Wm. G. Ware became rector in November, 
and was in turn succeeded by Rev. George W. 
Du Bois, D.D., who continued in charge until Janu- 
ary 1, 1885. On May 1, 1885, Rev. Mr. Latrobe be- 
gan his second pastorate and remained until April 24, 
1887. On May 29, 1887, Rev. David Howard, of St. 
John's Memorial Church, Ashland, Pa., became rector. 
In 1887 Calvary Church had one hundred communi- 
cants and a Sunday-School membership of two hun- 
dred and fifty. 

The Rrformed Episcopal Church of the Covenant, on 
Second Street, near Washinsrton Street, Wilmington, 
was organized in 1878, by thirty former members of 

Calvary Protestant Episcopal Church. The first ser- 
vices were held in Institute Hall, July 21, 1878, bj 
Bishop Fallows. On September 21 , a vestry was chosen ; 
the following week Rev. J. L. Estlin was elected rec- 
tor. Services were held respectively in the Unitarian 
Church, the Masonic Temple and the Western Mar- 
ket House. Subsequently the present church build- 
ing was leased then purchased. In 1881 forty members 
withdrew to organize the Church of the Redeemer, of 
which Mr. Estlin became rector. After his departure 
Rev. W. L. White of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
supplied the pulpit until the election of Rev. W. H. 
Barnes as rector. Rev. Charles H. Tucker, the pres- 
ent rector, began his term of service in 1886. The 
church has a membership of two hundred and fifty, 
and the Sunday-school numbers three hundred and 
twenty-five; D. B. Chapin is Superintendent In 
1882, the Church of the Covenant purchased a school- 
house at Fifth Avenue and Brown Street, and organ- 
ized a Mission Sunday-school. It has now two hun- 
dred scholars, with William Y. Warner, Superin- 
tendent. ^ 

The Reformed Episcopal Church of the Redeemer y at 
Eighth and Monroe Streets, Wilmington, was organized 
May 23, 1881, by about forty members who withdrew 
from the Church of the Covenant, succeeding the 
resignation of its rector, Rev. J. L. Estlin, for the 
purpose of founding a parish in the northwestern sec- 
tion of the city. A lot belonging to Henry Evans, 
improved by a church building formerly occupied by 
the West Presbyterian Congr^ation, but for many 
years used as a carpenter-shop by Mr. Evans, was 
purchased for four thousand dollars, and improved at 
a further cost of one thousand dollars. Pending re- 
pairs the congregation. Rev. Mr. Estlin, rector, 
worshipped at the residence of Benjamin Elliot on 
Shipley Street. When the church was finished a con- 
gr^ational meeting was held for permanent organiza- 
tion. Rev. Mr. Estlin presided, and Isaac W. Hal- 
lam was secretary. About forty persons present or- 
ganized as the Reformed Episcopal Church of the 
Redeemer, and elected a vestry consisting of Isaac W. 
Hallam, Franklin P. Mason, Robert Roberts, Benja- 
min Elliott, Jno. W. Todd and Edwin N. Morley, 
Rev. Mr. Estlin was formally continued as rector. 
The church has now a membership of seventy-six, 
and a Sabbath-school of three hundred scholars. The 
present vestry is composed of Isaac W. Hallam. 
Jonathan Magargle, John F. Keys, Dr. S. C. Brinckie, 
Benjamin Elliott, Edwin N. Morley, John W. Betelle. 

The Society of Friends, — About the year 1682 several 
families of Friends arrived in America, and settled on 
the east side of the Brandy wine, in New Castle County. 
Among them were Valentine Hollingsworth, William 
Stockdale, Thomas Conoway, Adam Sharpley, Morgan 

1 Bishop Cumming, founder of the Reformed EpiscopiU Church ia 
the United StAtee, whs born in Smyrna, grmdoated at Dickinson OoUege 
and was ordained by Bishop Lee in 1845. In 187:1, while Bishop of 
Kentaclcj, he withdrew from the Proteetant Episcopal Church, and 
eetablished the Reformed Episcopal Church, of which he was the fint 
Bishop. He died in 1876. 

Digitized by 




Druitt, Valentine Morgan, Cornelius Empson. In 
the year 1684 a survey of nine hundred and eighty- 
six acres, was made for Valentine Hollingsworth, on 
Shellpot Creek, north of Wilmington, near the coun- 
try »eat of the late Edward Bringhurst. The surveyor, 
in making his return, named the tract " New Worke." 
The owner of this land Eleventh Month, 7, 1687, gave 
one-half an acre for a meeting-house and a graveyard. 

This was named the Newark Meeting which was 
continued until 1754. 

In 1684 John Hussey, John Richardson, Ed- 
ward Blake, George Hogg, Benjamin Sweet and 
other Friends settled in and near the town of New 
Castle. They first held meetings in each other's 
booses by permission of the Philadelphia Quarterly 
Meeting. In 1705 a lot was bought and a meeting- 
house built. 

When the settlement of Friends above the Brandy- 
wine increased the Newark Meeting established the 
New Castle Meeting, declined and was finally discon- 
tinued in 1758. Its members aflerwards attended the 
meeting efttablished at Wilmington and the meeting- 
bouse in New Castle was sold. 

A Monthly Meeting was held in New Castle in 
1686. In 1687 this meeting decided that it was *' more 
convenient for the present that the meeting be held 
twice on the other side of the Brandy wine and the third 
which will be the Quarterly Meeting at New Castle." 
From 1689 to 1704 the Monthly meeting seems to have 
been " held at Valentine Hollingsworth's and other 
Friends' hous^es," and was called Newark Monthly ► 
Meeting. It was then changed to Greorge Harlan's 
house at Centre. 

The last monthly Meeting held at Newark was in 
1707. It was generally held at^ Centre though some- 
times at Keonett, from that date 1760, when it was 
changed to the Kennett Monthly Meeting.* 

A number of Friends settled in the village of Wil- 
mington in 1736, among whom were William Ship- 
ley, Joshua Way, Thomas West and Joseph Hewes, 
and the 18th day of theTwelflh Month, 1737, Chester 
Quarterly Meeting established the Wilmington Meet- 
ing for worship. The record of that date says : " New- 
ark Monthly Meeting, on behalf of Friends living in 
and near Wilmington, do request that this Meeting 
would give the said Friends liberty of keeping meet- 
ing for worship on every first and fifth days of the 
week, which this meeting allows until further orders." 

The first meeting Was held in the one-story brick 
house of William Shipley. Later meetings were held 
in William Shipley's new house at the southwest 
comer of Fourth and Shipley Street, until the first 
meeting-house was completed in the fall of 1738. It 
was built of brick on the site of the Friends' school- 
house on West Street, and the date of the erection, 
1738, was placed in the gable-wall with black glazed 

Benjamin Ferris, the historian, says this building 

* The facta were obtained ttom " A Retroepect of Early QnakerSp** a 
«Dffk prepared bj Ezra Micfaner, of Chester County, Pa., in 1860. 

was twenty-four feet square and one-story high. Ori- 
ginally a broad projecting roof extended across the 
entire southwest front. A sun-dial was placed over 
the small window under the peak of the roof in the 
south gable wall and remained there for sixty years or 
more. Within ten years aft«r the establishment of 
this meeting, the society had become quite large. A 
great many Friends from New Castle and Newark 
Meetings came here regularly to worship, and those 
meetings declined. The first meeting-house was after- 
wards used exclusively for school purposes, and in a 
changed form is still standing. In 1748 another 
meeting-house was built on West Street on the site of 
the present one. It was forty-eight feet square, two- 
stories high, with galleries extending over one-half the 
ground floor. Over each of the doors was a double pitch 
roof, and elliptical arch over each of the windows 
in the first story. The form of the building was very 
singular. The four sides were of equal size, the root 


was a truncated pyramid. On the top of the pyramid, 
on the truncated part, was a small building about six 
feet square. Its roof was also of the form of a pyra- 
mid with a chimney rising out of the apex, and a 
window on each of the sides to light the garret. This 
meeting-house was a great centre of interest, and the 
society which met in it increased in numbers and 
prospered, having for many years a very numerous 

Concord Quarterly Meeting, on the 14th of the Third 
Month, 1750, constituted Wilmington and New Castle 
Preparative Meetings, a Monthly Meeting for disci- 
pline, under the name of Wilmington Monthly Meet- 
ing. It was that year that the records of the Wil- 
mington Meeting now in the hands of the society 
begin. In 1758 the same Quarterly Meeting advised 
the New Castle Preparative Meeting to resign its 
right of holding a meeting, and join that of Wilming- 
ton, which was done, and the New Castle meeting- 
house was sold. 

The meeting-house erected on West Street in 1748 
was used until 1817, when the present one was built. 

Digitized by 




Among the prominent ministers of the Wilmington 
Meeting since the beginning of the present century, 
on the men's side were Joshua Maule, Edward 
Brooks, John Brooks and Ezra Fell ; and on the 
women's side were Deborah 8packman, Ann Ferris, 
Elizabeth Robinson and Sarah. Ferris. 

The Friends of Wilmington continued as one or- 
ganization until the general division of the Society 
in 1827, when the followers of Elias Hicks became 
possessors, and have since worshipped in the Fourth 
and West Street Meeting-House. The orthodox 
Friends built a meeting-house at the northeast corner 
of Ninth and Tatnall Streets, which has since been 
their place of wor:»hip. 

Some of the earliest marriages of members of the 
Society in Wilmington are the following ; to the first 
of which all the names of persons present and who 
signed the certificate of marriage are given : 

Robert Bichardson, ion of John and Sara!) Shipley, daughter of 
William and Eliicabeth Sliiplej, of Wilmington, 6 mo. 10 d. 1762. 
Blchard lUchardson. Hannah Wood. 

Samuel Levis. John Richardson. 

David Finney. William Shipley. 

John Knowles. Klizabeth Shipley. 

David Ferris. Sarah Finney. 

Joseph Hewes. Ann Richardseu. 

Jeremiah Wollaston. Rebecca Peters, 

John Perry. Elizabeth Oanby. 

Zacharlah Ferris. Elizabeth Knowles. 

Thomas Way. Elizabeth Bayard. 

James Robinson. Elizabeth Finney. 

Absalom Dawes. John Finney. 

William West. Peter Bi^ard. 

Jonathan Rumford. William Morris. 

Henry Troth. Rachel Woodward. 

Francis Hinkley. Hannah Osborne. 

Hannah Gilpin. Rebecca Jones. 

Sarah Canby. Jane Hinshall. 

Mary Ferris. 
Henry Troth, of Wilmington, and Sarah Paschal, of Chester County, 
Seoond Month, 25, 17M. 

William Shipley. Jr., son of William, and Sarah Rumford, daughter 
of Jonathan, Twelfth Month, 27, 1763 

Daniel Jackson and Ann Warner, daughter of William, Fifth Month, 
23, 1754. 
William Poole and Martha Roberts, Sixth Month, 27, 1764. 
William Warner and Sarah Eldridge, Tenth Month, 'M, 1764. 
William Dean and Katherine King. Third Month, 16, 1766. 
John Stuart, son of Robert, and Hannah Lea, daughter of Isaac, 
Sixth Month, 10, 1766. 

William Marshall and Mary Tatnall, daughter of Edward, Eighth 
Month, 26, 1757. 

John Hobson, of Philadelphia County, and Elizabeth Warner, daugh- 
ter of William, of Wilmington, Ninth Month, 29, 1767. 

Joseph Hewes, of West New Jersey, and Rachel Boll, of Wilming> 
ton, Fourth Month, 16, 1752. 

William Evans, s')n of William, of Lancaster County, and Cathar- 
ine Wollaston, daughter of Jeremiah, of Wilmington, Ninth Month, 

William Morris, Jr., of Trenton, New Jersy, and Rebeckah Peters, of 
Wilmington, Tenth, 6, 1762. 
Thomas Canby, Jr., and Elizabeth Lewis, Seventh Month, 28, 1763. 
Oouldsmith Throlwell, of Wilmington, and Sarah Cadwalader, of 
Chester County, Fifth Month, 31, 1759. 

Samuel Wharton, son of Joseph, of Philadelphia, and Sarah Lewis, 
of New Castle, Del., Second Month, 15, 1764. 
Thomas Parry and Catharine Dean, Fifth Month, 29, 1756. 
William Poole and Elizabeth Canby. Twelfth Month, 3, 1761. 
Thomas Underbill, of Cecil County, Md., and Rachel Mendenhall, 
Seventh Month, 25, 1764. 

William White, of Philadelphia, and Ann McMullen, of Brandywine, 
Eighth Month, 21, 1760. 
Job Harvey and Sarah Dawes, Tenth Month, 30, 1760. 
Bei^jamin Canby, son of Thomas, of Darby, and Susanna Littler, of 
Wilmington, Twelfth Month, 21, 1760. 
Thomas Gilpin and Ann Caldwell, 19th of Fifth Month, 1757. 
Ezekiel Andrews and Rebecca Robinson. Fifth Month, 8, 1761. 
Bei^amin Yamall and Elizabeth Trolwell, Fourth Month, 30, 1761. 
Aaron Aahbridge, of Ooehen, Chester County, Pa., and May Tomlin- 
son, of Wilmington, Twelfth Month, 4, 1760. 

Thomas Lambom, of Chester County, Pa., and Dinah Canon, of Wil- 
mington, Fourth Month, 1, 1762. 

Robert Johnson and Mary Wollaston, Sixth Month, 3, 1762. 

William Treth and Lydie Osborne, Eighth Month, 4, 1762. 

John Andrews, sonot William, and Sarah Ferris, daughter of David, 
Eighth Month 25, 1763. 

John Littler and Sarah Stapler, Seventh Month, 6, 1763. 

Philip Jones and Edith Newlin, Fifth Month, 31, 1765. 

William Jenkins, son of Charles, of Philadelphia, and Hannah littler, 
daughter of Joshua, Sixth Month, 8, 176i. 

Samuel Carter and Rebecca Wiley, Twelfth Month, 27, 1764. 

Joshua Tatnall, son of Edward, and Elizabeth Lea, daughter of Jamsi 
Lea, First Month, 31, 1766. 

Richard Richardson, son of John, and Sarah Tatnall, daughter of 
Edward, Fourth Month, 4, 1766. 

Hezekial Niles, Philadelphia, and Mary, daughter of Fnmds, of Vni- 
mington, 14th of Seventh Month, 1766. 

Richard Dickinson, son of Richard, of New Jersey, and Phebe Osrson, 
daughter of Richard, of Wilmington, Tenth Month, 10, 1766. 

Phineas Buckley, of Bristol, and Mary Shipley, daughter of Thomas, 
of Wilmington, Fifth Month, 12, 1768. 

William Wollaston, son of Joseph, and Elizabeth England, Tenth 
Month, 4. 1770. 

Joseph Townsend and Hannah Ferris, Tenth Month, 25, 1770. 

Joseph Canby, of Maryland, and Hannah Lea, dau^ter of John, laie 
of Chester, Tenth Month, 2, 1772. 

Presbyterian Churches. — Mnt Prabyierian 
Church,^ — Among the early settlers of Wilmington 
were a number, principally Scotch and Irish descent, 


who had been educated in the Presbyterian faith, 
and there being no place of worship nearer than in 
New Castle, measures were taken to procure a site 
for place of worship and a burying-gronnd and a 
sanctuary. On December 1, 1737, an acre was pur- 
chased by the trustees chosen for that purpose. 
Three years afler, the old First Presbyterian Church 
was erected, and still stands near the corner of Tenth 
and Market Streets. 

For several years the congregation were limited io 
numbers and feeble in sources, enjoying no regular 
ministrations. The pulpit was occasionally supplied 
by the Presbytery of New Castle, with which the 
church has always with the exception of a brief inter- 
val been connected. Finally Rev. Robert Cathcart 
occupied the pulpit every fourth Sunday until his 
death, when the church had only such supplies as 
they could occasionally procure, being still too feeble 
to sustain a pastor. In June, 1759, Rev. Wm. Mc- 
Kennan began his ministrations, and in 1761, divid- 
ed his time between the churches of Wilmington 
and Red Clay Creek. In 1766 the first elder, Thomas 

1 By Rots. Charles D. Kellogg, and Henry D. Lindsay. 

Digitized by ' 




Watt, is mentioned. Under the pastorate of Mr. 
McKennan the church flourished, and soon a demand 
WW made for regular services. In April, 1773, a call 
was placed in the hands of Bey. Joseph Smith to 
preach, except on the days when Mr. McKennan offi- 
ciated, and regular services were secured through the 
united efforts of Messrs. Smith and McKennan. 

The real pastorate soon led to dual diiferences. The 
friends of Mr. Smith were the most aggressive and 
demanded his undivided time to the exclusion of 
Mr. McKennan, whose friends opposed this demand 
and a contention ensued, resulting in the secession 
of the friends of Mr. Smith, and the abrupt discon- 
tionance of his labors. The adherents of Mr. Smith 
formed a new congregation under the title of the 
Second Presbyterian Church of Wilmington, and he 
became their pastor October 25, 1774. 

The loss of so many members proved disastrous to 
the first Church, and for the next sixty-five years it 
had a continuous struggle for existence. The pastoral 
relation of Mr. McKennan was dissolved by Presbytery 
in 17d5 at his own request, and on November 23, 
1796, Rev. Francis Allison Latta was installed, and 
remained until 1803. After the departure of Mr. 
Latta the church was supplied for a few months by 
Rev. Mr. Henderson. For the nine years ensuing, 
the congregation was without stated supply, and 
although during this period represented by trustees, 
wu i^iparently without the means of supporting oc- 
casional ministrations. In February, 1813, the Rev. 
Mr. Snowden was engaged for one year. At the end 
of this time a period of four years of inactivity en- 

In 1817, Rev. Thomas Read, D. D., having resigned 
a successful pastorate of twenty years over the Second 
Presbyterian Church, commenced to labor as his 
health permitted in the First Church, continuing 
for four years when he was disabled by a fall. During 
Dr. Read's labors in this church a Sabbath-School 
wu for the first time established in 1819. 

In 1824, Rev. James Taylor supplied the pulpit for 
one year. Another interval of five years then ensued 
without stated ministrations. Rev. Thomas Love, 
conducted regular services from 1829 to 1832. Then 
for a time it seemed doubtful whether or not the First 
Church was in existence. The champion upholding 
the corporate capacity of the church, was the Rev. 
Samuel M . Gayley. In October, 1833, he united with 
the Presbytery of New Castle. For the ensuing three 
years the First Church was closed, Mr. Gayley de- 
Toting his time to the church at Rockland. In 1836, 
he again commenced to preach in the First Church 
every Sabbath afternoon. Mr. Gayley, was often the 
•ole occupant of the room. He received no stipulated 
•alary and at times supplied the necessary fuel and 
lights. At this time an application was made to the 
Tnutees by Hanover Church, a branch from the 
Second Presbyterian Church, to open the First 
Church to Mr. Gilbert, their pastor, to the exclusion 
of Mr. Gayley, which was refused. Toward the close 

of 1837, at the suggestion of certain persons, a curb 
was laid by the city authorities in front of the grounds 
occupied by the First Church, in order that a debt 
might thereby be created which would necessitate a 
sale. The funds, however, were raised by the few 
remaining friends. The congregation subsequently 
received valuable accessions from the Second Presby- 
terian Church, up to that time worshipping on the 
corner of Walnut and Fifth Streets. The congrega- 
tion thus largely increased extended an invitation 
July 7, 1838, to Rev. Stephen R, Wynkoop, to preach 
temporarily and afterwards a call was extended to him 
which he accepted and was installed January 22, 
1839. Under the care of Mr. Wynkoop the congrega- 
tion increased rapidly and at a meeting held February 
4, 1839, it was determined to build a more commodious 
church. The congregation of the Second Church, 
having become identified with them, the funds of that 
organization were appropriated to the new building. 
The corner-stone of the new church was laid May 7, 
1839. The building was completed and the congrega- 
tion commenced to worship therein early in the 
following year. A few years later the old church 
was remodelled and employed for a school. Dur- 
ing Mr. Wynkoop's ministry three hundred and 
ninety were added to the membership of the church. 
Owing to failing health he resigned in April, 1858. 
Rev. Wm. C. Roberts, succeeded him and was installed 
October 13, 1858. In 1859, the church was enlarged. 
During Mr. Roberts' pastorate an average of eighteen 
were added yearly to the membership of the church. 
He resigned in October 1862. On May 11, 1863, a 
call was presented to the Rev. Charles D. Kellogg, 
who was pastor until the Spring of 1864. This pastor- 
ate represents one of the most vigorous periods in the 
church's history — the membership was largely in- 
creased and the treasury was in better condition than 
in any former period. The present officers of the 
church are as follows : Pastor, Rev. Henry D. Lind- 
say. Elders, N. B. Culbert, Read J. McKay. M. D., 
James F. Pricef. TVustees, Wm. Lawton, President, 
T. F. Crawford, Joseph L. Carpenter, Jr., N. B. Cul- 
bert, J. S. Hamilton, R. J. McKay, M. D., Howard J. 
Wallace. Superintendent of Sunday School, Howard 
J. Wallace. 

Subjoined is a list of the Pastors who have served 
the church during the one hundred and fifly years of 
its existence. Rev. Robert Cathcart, 1742-1754 ; Rev. 
William McKennan, 1760-1795; Rev. Francis A. 
Latta,1796-1803 ; Rev. Samuel Henderson, 1811-1812 ; 
Rev. Nathaniel B. Snowden, 1813-1814 ; Rev. Thomas 
Reed, D. D., 1817-1822 ; Rev. James Taylor, 1323- 
1824 ; Rev. Thomas Love, 1825-1830 ; Rev. Samuel M, 
Gayley, 1832-1838; Rev. Stephen R. Wynkoop, 1839- 
1858 ; Rev. William C. Roberts, 1858-1862 ; Rev. 
Charies D. Kellogg, 1863-1867 ; Rev. Samuel H. Mc- 
Kown, 1869-1874 ; Rev. Frederick B. DuVal, 1875- 
1884 ; Rev. Henry D. Lindsay, 1884. 

The Hanover Street Presbyterian Church is the suc- 
cessor of the Second and the Christiana Presbyterian 

Digitized by 




Churches. The Second Church was organized by 
members who withdrew from the First Church in 
1774, with Rev. Joseph Smith^ as pastor. 

In 1787 the Second Church was, by act of assembly, 
changed to Christiana Church. In January, 1780, 
Rev. William R. Smith succeeded Rev. Joseph Smith 
as pastor of the Second Church, and continued in 
charge until 1795. He was succeeded in 1797, by 
Rev. Thomas Read, whose pastoral relations termi- 
nated in 1817. On May 20, 1818, Rev. E. W. Gilbert 
was installed as Mr. Read's successor. In 1832, Mr. 
Gilbert resigned, but accepted a second call in 1836, 
and remained until May 3, 1841, when he was elected 
president of Newark College. The old church prov- 
ing too small, the present building was erected corner 
of King and Sixth, then Hanover, Streets, and dedi- 
icated March 12, 1829. In 1833, the congregation 
was incorporated under the titlo of the Hanover 
Street Church. Rev. Arthur Granger succeeded Dr. 
Gilbert and resigned in 1835. Rev. William Hogarth, 
a licentiate of Geneva, N. Y., Presbytery, became 
pastor December 6, 1841, and resigned November 21, 
1846. Rev. Joel Edson Rockwell was installed as 
pastor. May 4, 1847, remaining five years. Rev. A. 
D. Pollock, of Virginia, was in charge from 1852 to 
1855. On November 31, 1855, Rev. William C. 
Dickinson was elected pastor, but was never formally 
installed. Rev. William Aikman, D. D., was in- 
stalled in October, 1857, and during his ministrations 
Olivet Chapel was built. The present pastor, Rev. 
Lafayette Marks, D. D., was called in 1869. His 
pastorate has continued longer than any in the history 
of the church, and has been the longest, with one 
exception, of any Protestant minister in Wilmington. 
The Sabbath -School of Hanover Church is the oldest 
in the State, having been organized in 1814. 

Olivet Presbyttrian Churchy corner of Adams and 
Chestnut Streets, grew out of a Sunday School started 
in 1849, in a frame building, corner of Dock Street 
and Newport Road, afterwards known as the '* Little 
Arch," or the " Hedgeville School House." It was 
erected at a cost of $435, collected mainly by Samuel 
Floyd and John L. Haddon. The lot was donated by 
George Jones. The Sabbath School commenced 
August 5, 1849, with twenty scholars. Edward G. 
Taylor was superintendent and the teachers were 
Samuel Floyd, John L. Haddon, James Anderson, A. 
T. Taylor, Robert Porter, John McLear, George 
Clark, Sarah Simpson, Elizabeth Simpson, Martha P. 
Bush, Mrs. Lamb, Miss C. Smith and Miss Quimby. 
The building was deeded to the trustees of the Han- 
over Street Church. Weekly prayer- meetings and 

1 B«v. Joseph Smith was born in NottinKham, Maryland, in 1736, edu- 
cated at Princeton and licensed bj the Presbytery of New Castle, 1767. 
He was first attached to the Lower Brandywine Presbyterian Chnrcb in 
1768, and in 1772 began to preach for the First Presbyterian congrega- 
tion of Wilmington, in conjunction with Rev. Mr. McKennan. The 
ministration of the two pastors led to a division and the nu^Jority of the 
First congregation withdrew and organised the Second church with Mr. 
8mith in charge. Mr. Smith continued as pastor of the Second and 
the Brandywine Churches until 1778, when he went to the west of the 
Alleghenies and founded the Pioneer Presbyterian Churches in that 
section. He died April 10, 1792, in Washington County, Pa. 

occasional preaching were maintained for several 
years. The first sermon was preached August 12, 
1849, by the Rev. W. W. Taylor of Philadelphia, but 
now a resident of Wilmington. The Sabbath School 
prospered and on February 27, 1859, Mr. Taylor was 
succeeded as superintendent by J. P. McLear. 
Among the most active workers in the school were 
Joseph W. Day, Charles Baird, W. J. Morrow, 
Thomas L. Lawson, John Crozier, J. M, Ocheltree, 
James Morrow, Sarah J. Brown, Mary Ogle, William 
D. Dowe, Esq., Brynburg Porter, Jane C. Capelle, 
William M. Pyle, George Morrison, Thomas K. Porter, 
Lizzie A. Morrow, and Misses Anna and EllaPort^. 
Mr. McLear resigned the superintendency in 1869, 
and was succeeded by William D. Dowe. The subse- 
quent superintendents were William M. Pyle, Thomas 
K. Porter and George Morrison. In 1863, steps were 
taken to erect the present building, known as Olivet 
Chapel, at the corner of Adams and Chestnut Streets, 
the cost being nearly $4,000 ; the ladies of Han- 
over Church raised $937, and partially furnished the 
building. The corner-stone was laid October 8, 1863, 
Rev. William Aikman, pastor of Hanover Church, 
officiating. Addresses were delivered by Judge Wil- 
lard Hall and the Kev. Charles D. Kellogg. The 
dedication services were held February 7, 1864. Rev. 
William Aikman preached the sermon, and Rev. 
Thomas McCann made an address. The Sabbath 
School was reorganized February 14, 1864. In De- 
cember, 1864, Rev. William Edwards was elected pas- 
tor, and resigned in June, 1865. Rev. A. J. Snyder 
was pastor from September, 1867, to March 17, 1878. 
He was succeeded June 30, 1878, by Rev. Charles P. 
Mallery, who resigned in October, 1885, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Edwin D. Newberry, the preseot 
pastor, April 1, 1886. The congregation was formerly 
organized as Olivet Presbyterian Church, January 81, 
1868, with Andrew Muir as elder. George Morrison 
and Newton C. Sample were ordained elders on April 
28, 1872. 

The Central Presbyterian Church of Wilmington 
was organized by the Presbytery of Wilmington, 
December 6, 1855. The application for the new 
congregation was made by a number of members of 
the Hanover Street Church, by which the movement 
was encouraged in the following terms : 

** We approve the separation propoeed and bid those who are engaged 
in it God-speed ; that although it will take away from us mnoh of oar 
wealth and a greater portion of the youth and vigor of this Church, 
instead of deploring we rejoice over it, because it will form so energetic 
a nucleus, not only to make the enterprise strong In its outset, bat to 
impart character to the aoeessions that will be made to it.' 

The original members of the church were : 

Lewis p. Bush, M.D. 

George W. Bush. 

Mrs. Emma D. Bush. 

John 0. Price. 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. McGomb. 

Ann Harvey. 

Mrs. Harriet Homer. 

Emma L. Valentine. 

Mrs. Hitrrlet F. Ck)le. 

Mrs. Helen G. Anderson. 

The initial services. Rev. George Duffield, Jr., of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Mrs. Fannie M. Prlca. 
Edward T. Taylor. 
Mrs. Martha C. Taylor. 
Mn. Amelia R. Peterfttn. 
Mre. Mary Robinson. 
Mrs. Martha M. Day. 
Mrs. Matilda R. Wiggins. 
Mrs. Susanna Jefferson. 
Mrs. Louisa A. Lindsay. 



Philadelphia, officiating, were held on Sunday, De- 
cember 23, 1855, in the stone building at the comer 
of Fifth and Walnut Streets, previously occupied by 
the Presbyterian Society and now used by the Ger- 
man Baptist congregation. On the following Sab- 
bath forty -nine persons were admitted as members of 
the new church. They were : 

Georgv F. Fetenon. 
G«orge & KJnkaad. 
Oiftrlei Stewart. 
Henry 8. McOomb. 
Idwin J. Horner. 
George L. Baird. 
Mre. Mmt A. Baird. 
Mil. Blizabeth Stewart. 
MrkMarthA Binh. 
Mn. Phoebe A. Cooper. 
Mn. lUn A. Ogle. 
M n. XUsa J. Niekta. 
MA. Maiy McVey. 
Mn. Bachel A. Valentine. 
Mzn Mary Hnghea. 
Oavki Binh. 
John N.Ogle. 
John Addiaon. 
SwayseB. Hagbea. 
boch D. Howell. 
WiDlaoi J. Morrow. 

William Bnih. 
William B. Wiggins. 
George T. Clark. 
Min Lydia A. Kinkead. 
MiM Maiy H. Bush. 
Miss Elizabeth Stewart. 
Miss Agnes Stewart. 
Miss Eliaa A. Howell. 
MissSallieA. HolUugsworth. 
Miss Elixabeth H. Clark. 
Mia Lydie M. Clark. 
Mrs. Eliza J. Howell. 
Mrs. Jane W. Jack. 
Mrs. Matilda Morrow. 
Mrs. Hannah E. Stanhope. 
Mrs. Letitia Remmington. 
Mrs. Elizabeth PhiUpa. 
Mrs. Harriet A. Clark. 
Mrs. Sallle Bradford. 
Mrs. Sarah Maory. 
Mn. Sarah Miller. 
Mrs. Ann Janvier. 

Twenty-two additional members were received on 
March 14, 1856, twelve on June 8th, seven on Sep- 
tember 2l8t and four on December 14, 1856, thirty- 

and the session was organized January 3, 1856, with 
Rev. Nicholas Patterson as moderator. Charles 
Stewart, Edward T. Taylor and Joseph W. Day were 
ordained elders. 

The corner-stone of the church was laid June 18, 
1856, and the building, sixty by one hundred and 
six feet, was completed and dedicated November 10, 
1867, Rev. Albert Barnes officiating. The building 
committee were John R. Latimer, William Bush, 
Jourdan W. Maury, Henry S. McComb, Lewis H. 
Coxe, Philip Quigley and George F. Peterson. The 
Sunday-school was organized December 23, 1856, 
with lifly-one scholars and twelve teachers; Edward 
T. Taylor, superintendent. In 1868 seventy mem- 
bers of the Central Church founded the West Pres- 
byterian Church and in 1880 thirty other members 
organized the Rodney Street congregation. The 
pastors of the Central Church and dates of their 
instalment were : 

Rot. George F. Wiswell May 4, 18ft6 

Rer. Charles D. Shaw » October 9, 1867 

Rev. John P. Conkey January 4, 1872 

Rev. J. Howard Nixon, D.D October 10, 1876 

The ruling elders and date of their instalment 

Lewis P. Biuh January 9,1856 

Charles Stewart January 9, 1866 


ieven April 5, 1857, four in June, thirty-three on 
April 4, 1858, twenty-five in June, four in September 
ind five in December. There were thirty accessions 
to the church in 1859, twenty-nine in 1860, forty-four 
in 1862, nineteen in 1863 and fifty-three in 1864. 
The congregation in 1887 numbered three hundred 
tnd twenty -five. 

Rev. George F. Wiswell, of Peek^kill, N. Y., be- 
«me tiie first regular pastor of Central Church March 
2,1856. Dr. Lewis P. Bush was constituted elder 

Joseph W. Day ....January 9, 186G 

B. T.Taylor January 9, 1866 

Homer Barry December 2, 1872 

Lewis P. Biwh. Jr May 9, 1880 

William K. Crwby May 9,1880 

Thomas S. Brown January, 1887 

Charles W. HowUnd January, 1887 

The West Presbyterian Church ofWilmingtonMsan 
outgrowth of the Central Presbyterian Church of that 
city. The movement leading to its organization began 
as early as March, 1867, but was not consummated until 

I From a sketch by Mr. Charles Baird. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



October 19, 1868, when the new church was constituted 
by the New Castle Presbytery, with the full consent and 
fiympathy of the Central congregation. The West 
Church was formed by sixty-seven members from the 
Central and thirty three from the Hanover Street 
church. The first public service was held October 
25, 1868, in the Hall of the Wilmington Institute, 
Rev. Geo, F. Wiswell, of Philadelphia, officiating. A 
Sunday-school was organized a week later, and on 
February 10, 1869, the session was constituted. On 
June 1, 1869, Rev. George H.Smyth, of Washington 


Oity, became pastor and was installed September 30, 
1869. In a few months the congregation removed to 
Monroe Street Chapel, corner of Monroe and Eighth 
Streets, belonging to the Central Church. On April 
21, 1871, the corner-stone of the present church was 
laid, and it was completed and dedicated December 
28th, the same year. It cost between 160,000 and 
<70,000. Rev. Mr. Smyth continued as pastor until 
September, 1873, and was succeeded by Rev. J. M. 
Otts, of Columbia, Tenn., who resigned January 27, 
1878. The present pastor. Rev. Albert N. Keigwin, of 
Philadelphia, was installed November 19, 1878. 

The Sabbath School commenced its sessions No- 
vember 1, 1868, with forty persons enrolled as teachers 
and scholars. Ac a meeting held November 7, 1868, 
the officers elected were superintendent, John P. 
McLear ; secretary, James A. Robinson ; treasurer, 
Charles Baird; librarians, J. Eldridge Pierce and 
Edward F. Lummis. 

April 18, 1869, when the church removed to the Mon- 
roe Street chapel, the School continued its sessions in 
the same building. Mr. McLear continued superin- 
tendent until the close of 1871. 

When the church removed to 
their new building corner of 
Eighth and Washington Streets, 
the school was reorganized. 
There had been until this time 
a Sabbath-school in progress in 
the before named chapel under 
the control of the Central 
church since 1 861. This school 
was united with the other school 
at the time of this removal u) 
Eighth and Washington Streets, 
under one organization. Charles 
Baird, who had filled the office 
of superintendent of this after- 
I noon school since 1868, was 
I elected superintendent of the 
I united schools, and continues 
in the position to the present 
time, December, 1887. 

The officers are superinten- 
dent, Charles Baird ; recording 
secretary, H. C. Taylor ; finan- 
cial secretary, R. O. Janvier; 
treasurer, W. J. Morrow ; libra- 
rian, F. E. Janvier. 

There are enrolled forty-three 
teachers and five hundred and 
fifty -two scholars. 

Rodney Street Presbyterian 
Church, — For more than twen- 
ty-five years the Rodney Street 
Sabbath-school was a mission 
school, under the control of the 
Central Presbyterian Church. 
Lack of teachers and inadequate 
accommodations sometimes re- 
duced its numbers until its officers almost despaired of 
its ever succeeding. As the portion of the city in 
which it is situated became more thickly populated 
the school increased, and became so over-crowded 
that better accommodations were necessary. 

In 1883 the building which is now known as the 
Rodney Street Church was erected. On Jan. 28, 18S6, 
a church organization was efiected, under the name<»f 
ihe Rodney Street Presbyterian Church, with fifty-six 
members, twenty-six of whom were from the Central 
Presbyterian Church. Eight joined on profession ot 
their faith, and the others were from different church 

Digitized by 




oiganizatioDS. W. M. Canby and Henry B. Seidel 
were iodtalled elders. Rev. William L. McEwan was 
installed pastor in May, 1886. 

The church has been self-sustaining from its organ- 
ization, and rapidly increased in membership. At 
the first communion thirty-five members were added, 
and before the end of the second year the membership 
was 006 hundred and sixty. 

MsTHODiST Churches. — The Ashury Methodist 
Epi$€0]Hil Church, of Wilmington, traces its origin 
back to 1766. In that year Captain Webb, a British 
army officer, preached in Wilmington under some 
shady trees, near the corner of King and Kent (now 
Eighth) Streets. John Thelwell, who kept a public 
house near the lower market, officiated as clerk and 
led the singing. Subsequently Mr. Thelwell offered 
hit school-house, southeast corner King and Third 
Streets, as a place of worship, and there Asbury So- 
ciety was organized. 

The original members of the society were John 
Thelwell and Deborah, his daughter, Henry Coles- 
bai^, Betsy Colesburg, Sarah Colesburg, John Miller, 
Thomas Webster, William Wood, J. Jaquet, Greorge 
Whitsill, David Ford, James Belt, Patience Erwin 
and Sarah Wood, a little band, which gave expres- 
sion to the sentiment, " Thus far have we come after 
twenty years.*' 

The society aoon numbered forty-three whito and 
nineteen colored members.' 

On May 12, 1789, a lot of ground, southeast cor- 
ner of Third and Walnut Streets, the site ot the 
present Asbury Church, was purchased of Caleb and 
Sarah Way for one hundred and five pounds, and 
rabsequently, by purchase and gift from Edward 
Worrell, additional area was secured. 

On this location, in 1789, the society proceeded to 
erect a church. Its dimensions were thirty-five feet 
square with a gallery. This was opened and dedi- 
cated October 10, 1789, by Bishop Asbury. In 1811 
the building was enlarged, and again in 1828, giving 
a structure of seventy by fifly feet. Wilmington was 
a part of Chester Circuit until 1789, when it was 
made a station and continued as such, excepting from 
1S04 to 1806, when it was again in Chester Circuit. 
Rer. Wm. Jessup was pastor in 1789. A school- 
hooae was built adjacent to the church in 1791. In 
1829 the society put up a two-story brick academy on 
Shipley, near High Street. The institution was 
continued for several years, and the building was 
then used as a parsonage until 1843. In 1803 Asbury 
Church had ninety-one contributing members, and 
John Thelwell's " ciphering book '' was used as the 
congregational registry for many years. 

The ninety-one members were divided into three 
claaaes as follows : 

Bunday class, — 

lotert Kluey. 

Maty Rodman. 
John Tbompaon. 

I Ia U05 the colored memben withdrew, formed a society and built 
t pbct of wonhip on the site of Zion Church. 

CliriatiaDa Horton. 
Ruth Wolf. 
leaac Hughes. 
George WhitslU. 
Henry Colesburg. 
WUliam Morrew. 
Eleanor Morrow. 
Elizabeth Zebley. 
Sarah Webster. 
Philip Rodman. 


Benjamin Gmbb. 
Debby Rodman. 
Ann Corkshot. 
Francis McMahan. 
John Robertson. 
Henry Pepper. 
James Oilmore. 
John Peach. 
Ann Jones. 
Philip Cake. 
Ann Cake. 

Monday night class, — 

Henry Metz. 
Henry Whitsill. 
Justice Dunott. 
Rachel Dunott. 
Elizabeth Kendall. 
Jonathan Bturgis. 
Samuel Walker. 
Jane Walker. 
Ann Mclntire. 
Hannah Fred. 
Samh McCardle. 
Elizabeth Lang. 
Deborah Thelwell. 
Eleanor Hughes. 
Hetty Bignell. 
Sally Conntis. 
Elizabeth Shay. 
Margaret Kenton. 
Sally Wilson. 

Tuesday night class, — 

Sarah Dawson. 
Mary Metz. 
Rachel Whitsill. 
Martha Saunders. 
Rebecca Paynter. 
Robert McLane. 
Mary Pepper. 
Ann Cake. 
Rachel Jones. 
Rebecca Raison. 
Sally Wilkinson. 
Sarah Smith. 
Jane Vance. 

Ruth Conner. 
Nancy Welch. 
Betsy Wilson. 
Mary McCoy . 
Patience Wood. 
Robert Sturgis. 
Elizabeth Pratt 
Isabella Saylor. 
Samuel W^alker. 
Day Branson. 
George Whitsill, Jr. 
Ira Robertson. 
Sarah Welch. 
Daniel Coleman. 
Mary Ishbow. 
Hannah Cloud. 
George Metz. 
Daniel Lowber. 
Eliza Lowber. 

Nancy Clark. 
Elizabeth Webster. 
Ann Boggs. 
Peggy McCardle. 
Debby Walker. 
Lydia Fredd. 
Mary Walker. 
Katy Witsil. 
Elizabeth Rogers. 
Susan Popham. 
Maiy Ishbow. 
Elizabeth Sturgis. 
Mary Sturgis. 

In 1807, the membership was 97 ; in 1815, 226 ; in 
1820,326; in 1834, 439; in 1841, 589; in 1845, 840; 
in 1847, 688 ; one class having withdrawn to organize 
St. Paul's Church. The present membership is 813, 
with about fifty probationers. The trustees are 
Daniel S. Truitt, W. B. Genu, Charles W. Welsh, 
John Gray, Augustus Dennis, James Floyd, Thomad 
Downing, George Richard, Henry Butler. The pas- 
tors of Asbury Church have been 

William Jessup 1789 

J. McOhkskey 1790 

T. Ware 1791 

8. Hutchinson 1792 

B. Cloud 1793 

E. Rogers 1794 

On the Circuit 17^*) 

J. Naneman - 1796 

E. Cooper 1797-98 

D. Fialer „1799 

C. Kendall 1800-01 

J. Latamus 1802 

T. Jones 1803 

On the Circuit 1804-6 

J. Wells 1806 

J. McClaskey 1807 

William Bishop 1808 

E. Cooper 1809 

William McLenahan 1810 

J. Sanders 181 1 

J. Bateman 1812 

O. Shectz 1813 

G. Sheets 1814 

J. Emory 1815 

William Williams 1816 

J. Goforth 1817 

8. J. Cox 181S 

J. RusUng a819-20 

L. lAurenson 1821 

J. Potts 1822-23 

8. Sharpe „ 1824 

H. White 1826 

L. McConibs 1826 

8. Higgins „..1827-2S 

D Daily 1829 

J. Keuneday 1830-31 

J. Lybrand 1832-33 

Joseph Rusling 1834-36 

BJ. Sorin 1836 

W. A. Wiggins 1.1837-38 

J. Lybrand 1839-40 

B. Gerry 1841-42 

J. Kenneday 1843-44 

A. Atwood 1846-46 

T. J. Thompson 1847-48 

WllUam Cooper 1849-60 

J. A. Roche 1861-62 

R.Gerry .* 1868-64 

J. Mason 1856-66 

G.Oram 1857-68 

W. Kenny 1859-60 

Charies Hill 1861-62 

Digitized by 




W. 0. Robinson 1863-64 

G. Qulgley 1865-66 

J. D. Curtis ....1867-68 

Charles Hill 1869-72 

E. Stubbs 1872-75 

G. R. Kramer 1875-77 

T. B. KUliam. 1878 

J. A. B. Wilson 1878-80 

Charles HiU 1880-93 

W. L. S. Murray 1883-84 

J. K. Brian 1886 

The Aflbury Sunday-school was organized aa early 
as 1820. In 1834 it had twenty-five teachers and one 
hundred and fifty scholars. In 1841 Isaac McConnel 
and Althea Fleming, as superintendents, reported a 
membership of 272 scholars, 41 teachers and 434 
books in the library. In 1883 the number of scholars 
was 632, and in 1887 it was 795. Edward Spencer was 
superintendent for many years. James McKay is 
now superintendent of the school and James Floyd 
assistant superintendent. The infant department is 
in care of Mrs. Anna M. Taggart, assisted by Mrs. 
Sarah Moore. 

Among the early records of the church are the 
following marriages : 

In 1788, John Miller to Eleanor Latimer ; Samuel Foudray to Ann 
Wood. In 1791, Robert Bumsey to Elizabeth Colesburg; Jonathan 
Sturgis to Mary Mehollen. In 1793, Samuel Wood to Patience Irwin. 
In 1796, James Krampton to Elisabeth Derrick. In 1797, Thomas Mc- 
Gorkle to Ann Osborne ; J^hn Food to Sarah Boetick ; Olden Griffin, 
to Rebecca Griffin ; Thomas Hyatt to Sarah Whitsili ; James Hudson to 
Letitia Eelley : James Lynch to Elizabeth Widemire ; Henry Witsill to 
Rachel Smith. In 1798, Alexander Abbott to Mary Sullivan ; John 
Francis to Jane Hersche ; jMmes Mitten to Elisabeth Trampton ; Wil- 
liam Norris to Margaretta McOuire ; Samuel Warren to Elizabeth Mo- 
GiU. In 1799, Joeeph Bates to Ann West; James Bevard to Maria 
Anderson ; William North to Elinor Robison ; John Paynter to Re- 
becca Fredd; George Reed to Elinor Reed; William Smith to Rachel 

St PauPs Methodist Episcopal Church of Wilming- 
ton was organized January 26, 1844, at the residence 
of Hyland B. Pennington, southeast corner of Fourth 
and Market Streets, by a number of members of As- 
bury M. E. Church. Rev. John Kenneday, pastor of 
Asbury Church, was chairman of the meeting and 
Mr. Pennington, secretary. The present site of St. 
PauPs Church was immediately purchased of Jno. 
McKnight and Samuel D. Newlin for $3000, includ- 
ing improvements, and the erection of the church be- 
gan without delay. The material and work were fur- 
nished at reduced prices. Samuel McCaulley supplied 
the brick at $6 per m., and John Flinn laid them at 
$2.25 ; John M. Turner did the carpenter work and 
contributed $700 ; M. Edwards was the painter and 
afterward prominent as a singer in the congregation. 
The purchasing committee were Miller Dunott, Sam- 
uel McCaulley, Henry Hicks, Thos. Young, Edward 
Moore, John Flinn, John M. Turner, William H. 
Calvert and H. B. Pennington. The building com- 
onittee were William H. Calvert, Samuel McCaulley, 
Edward Moore, Henry Hicks and Miller Dunott. The 
trustees*of the society were H. B. Pennington, Henry 
Hicks, William H. Calvert, Miller Dunott, Samuel 
McCaulley, Jacob M. GrarreUon and Ekiward Moore. 

The new church was dedicated on Thursday after- 
noon, March 3, 1845, by Rev. Dr. Kenneday and Rev. 
Levi Scott. Dr. Kenneday, celebrated as a preacher, 
lecturer and poet, was the first pastor, and in two years 
the congregation numbered three hundred. On Octo- 
ber 29, 1847, the church was somewhat damaged by 

an accidental fire. In 1872 the church was improved 
at a cost of $7000 and a $1500 pipe organ was pur- 
chased. Miss Fannie McGonigle was the first organist. 
The present membership of the church is four hun- 
dred. The board of trustees are Joseph Pyle, president; 
Authur R. Lewis, James C. Pickles, Jabez HodgsoD, 
Edgar Finley, Benjamin Murgatroyd, William Swig- 
get, Samuel H. Baynard and Edward Morrow. The 
pastors of St. Paul's have been, 1845-46, John Ken- 
neday; 1847-48, Jos. Castle; 1849-^0, Pen n el Coomb; 
1851-52, F. Hodgson ; 1853, C. D. Carson ; 1854, Jo- 
seph Mason ; 1855-56, G. R. Crooks ; 1857-58, Charles 
Cooke; 1859-60, W. H. Bartine; 1861-62, T. C. Mur- 
phy ; 1863-65, W. J. Stevenson; 1866-68, Aaron 
Rittenhouse; 1869-70, J. F. Clymer; 1871-72, B. W. 
Todd ; 1873-75, J. B. Merritt ; 1876-77,|W. P. Davis; 
1878-80, J. H. Caldwell; 1881-82, M. A. Richards; 
1883-84, R. H. Adams. Rev. Mr. Hill is the present 
pastor. The Sunday-School, organized contempo- 
raneously with the church, has over six hundred 
scholars and seventy-two officers and teachers. Joseph 
Pyle has been superintendent for nearly a quarter of 
a century. In 1886 the two-story building used for 
the infant department of the Sunday -School was torn 
down and a large and commodious Sunday-School 
erected, at a cost of $6000. 

The Union Methodist Episcopal Churchj^ of Wil- 
mington, north-wesi corner of Fifth and Washington 
Streets, was established originally in 1847, by Rev. 
Edward Kennard, as the Orange Street Society. Mr. 
Kennard was a supernumerary of the Philadelphia 
Conference. In 1847 he removed to Wilmington 
from Elkton, Maryland., and purchased the building 
corner Third and Orange Streets, previously used by 
a society of Methodist Protestants. Here he organ- 
ized the Orange Street Methodist Episcopal Society 
with fifty-three members, and it was placed under the 
care of Rev. J. Castle, pastor of St. Paul's Church, 
with Rev. Mr. Kennard as supernumerary. In 1849 
Rev. H. S. Atmore was assigned to the charge in con- 
junction with Mr. Kennard. In this year there were 
seventy-three members and a Sunday-school of one 
hundred. During the early part of Mr. Atmore's 
term a lot was secured on Second near Washington 
Street, on which to build a new church, and building 
operations proceeded until the edifice was ready for 
the roof. The corner-stone was laid with Masonic 
ceremonies, and this caused a disaffection which re- 
sulted in the disbanding of the church and suspen- 
sion of the work. In the fall of 1849 Miss Margaret 
Rumford, a member of Asbury Church, contributed 
sufficiently to roof the building, and the following 
year Rev. Andrew Manship was appointed to Union 
Mission, as the abandoned church was called. He 
found the former congregation scattered and a debt 
of twenty-six hundred dollars on the unfinished struc- 
ture. He began services in Odd Fellows' Hall, Third 
and King Streets, with Miss Margaret Rumford and 
one other lady as sole members of his congregation. 

1 From a sketch by Rev. Adam Strangle, paator. 

Digitized by 




Soon, however, the mission grew and a new board of 
trustees, consisting of Asa Pointsett, George McGee, 
John Rudolph, Albert Thatcher, Grubb Talley, 
Thomas H. Bajnard and Edward Moore, completed 
the building of the church, at a cost of seven thousand 
dollars, and it was dedicated by Bishop E. B. Ames, 
November 28, 1850. At the close of Mr. Manship's 
firat year the church had one hundred and fifty- four 
members, one hundred and forty probationers, and a 
Sunday-school of two hundred scholars. In addition 
to the trustees named, the following were the original 
church officers: Class Leaders, Barney C. Harris, 
JohnBoyce, Isaac McConnell, William Edmundson 
and Albert Thatcher ; Stewards, Asa Pointsett, John 
Rudolph, George McGee and John M. Guire ; Ex- 
horters, William Edmundson, Franklin Supplee and 
Cyras Stem ; Cyrus Stern was also the first Sunday- 
school superintendent and was assisted by Miss Mar- 
garet Bumford, who was the first female superinten- 
dent In 1865 it was determined to build a larger 
church in a better location and the present Union 
Church is the result. The committee appointed to 
take the matter in charge consisted of Rev. J. D. 
Curtis, pastor ; Cyrus Stern, Stephen Postles, Henry 
F. Pickels, Wm. Edmundson, Asa Pointsett and Wes- 
ley Talley. This committee purchased the lot and 
appointed three of their number, Stephen Postles, 
Chrrus Stern and Jethro McCollough, as building com- 
mittee. Of the latter Mrs. Postles contributed more 
than one-tenth of the entire cost. The lecture room 
was dedicated December 23, 1866, «nd the auditorium 
November 17, 1868, by Bishops E. R. Ames and Levi 
8cott. The cost of the edifice was thirty-six thousand 
dollars. Of the members who joined during Mr. 
Manship's first year, the following remain : Margaret 
Rumford, Barney C. Harris, Eliza Harris, Letitia 
Hanunitt, Susan Sinex, Cyrus Stern, Caroline Stern, 
Eliza Lewis, Lizzie Hallowell, Maria Edmundson, 
Hannah McDonald, Mary Robinson, Susan Ford, 
Catherine D. Kelley, Mary A. Flagler, Joanna Gordon, 
James Dawson, Mary Dawson. The church has now 
five hundred and fifty members, with seven hundred 
and fifty in the Sunday-school. The pastors have 
been— Orange Street, from 1847 to 1850 : 1847, Ed- 
ward Kennard, supernumerary; 1848, J. Castle (in 
connection with St. Paul); 1849, H. S. Atmore 
(Union), 1850-51, Andrew Manship; 1852-53, 
Jothna Humphries ; 1854-55, John B. Maddux ; 
1856, J. T. Cooper; 1857-58, John Ruth; 1859- 
60, William Barnes ; 1861-62, John Arthur; 1863-64, 
James A. Brindle ; 1865-66, J. D. Curtis ; 1867-68, 
W.E. England; 1869-70, S. L. Gracy; 1871, J. H. 
Lightboume; 1872-73, Charles Hill; 1874-76, T. E. 
Martindale; 1877-79, J. B. Mann; 1880-82, Adam 
Stengle ; 1883-85, C. W. Prettyman ; 1886-87, Adam 

The Scott Methodist Episcopal Church was the out- 
growth of a union Sunday-school established corner 
of Seventh and Walnut Streets, September 28, 1851, 
bj members of the Asbury Methodist Episcopal and 

Hanover Street Presbyterian Churches, with J. T. 
Welden superintendent. The following year the 
school was removed to the public school building at 
Sixth and French Streets, pending the erection of a 
chapel corner Seventh and Spruce Streets, which 
was dedicated in December, 1852. 

The Methodist denomination then came into pos- 
sesion of the school, and in 1854 a Methodist society, 
under the title of Seventh Street Church, was organ- 
ized by Rev. Mr. Geary, and among the members 
were J. S. Welden, George Mortimer, William H. 
Riley, Thomas Orpwood, Gilbert Holmes, Stewart 
Carlisle, William Bicking, William H. Foulk, John 
Dick, William Heisler, William Grifienberg, John 
Lansdale, George Carpenter and Joseph Spurway, 
In 1855 the seating capacity of the church was 
doubled and its name was changed to Scott Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. In 1866 the congrega- 
tion was supplied jointly with Grace Church and was 
called Grace Chapel, but in 1867 resumed its old 
name and independent character. The church was 
again improved in 1868, and in 1872- a new audience 
room was built. The Sunday-school is conducted 
by Thomas O'Daniel. The pastors of the Church 
have been Rev. Charlton Lewis, 1855 ; Henry King, 
supernumerary, one year; Rev. E. I. D. Pepper, 
two years ; Rev. William Ridgway, 1859 ; Rev. H. A. 
Bodine, 1861; Rev. A. Gather, 1862-63; Rev. H. A. 
Cleveland; Rev. J. O'Neil, 1865; Rev. John J. 
Jones, 1866 ; Rev. Leonidas Dobson, 1867 ; Rev. A. 
Gather, 1868 ; Rev. Francis M. Chatham, three years ; 
Rev. T. L. Tomkinson, two years; Rev. J. O, Sypherd, 
1874-76 ; Rev. C. M. Pegg, 1877-79 ; Rev. P. H. Raw- 
lins, 1880-81 J Rev. T. R. Creamer, 1882-84; Rev. N. 
M. Browne, 1885-87. Colonel H. S. McComb at one 
time manifested an active interest in the Sunday- 
school work, and among the earlier members of the 
church were L. T. Grubb, Isaac McKaig and Isaac 
Forman. In 1868, Revs. J. D. Curtis and R. G. 
Moody held a revival in the church, continuing over 
seven months. 

Brandywine Methodist Episcopal Churchy of Wil- 
mington, was founded in 1857, with Rev. Wm. G. 
Kennard, of Asbury Church, as pastor. The society 
first worshipped in Brandywine Academy. Its orig- 
inal members were: Sarah Rigby, Mary A. Hill, 
Catherine Lable, Sarah Morrow, Elizabeth Hill, 
Emeline Bullock, Mary Hill, Edgar Pierce, Rebecca 
Burton, Franklin Lloyd, Elizabeth Lloyd, James H. 
Spencer, Sarah E. Spencer, from Asbury; James 
Dengle and wife, Joseph Bratten, Elizabeth Bratten, 
David Lurten, Elizabeth Lurten, Wm. A. Brian, and 
Wm. H. McKenny, from other charges. The church 
was organized November 19, 1857, when a meeting 
composed of Wm. Kennard, Joseph T. Bratten, Wm. 
H. Brian, James Spencer, John P. Paselle, James 
Dengee, Franklin Lloyd, Edgar C. Pierce, Amos S. 
Wickersham, Benjamin String, Wm. Kenny, Wm. 
Souther, Rachel H. Tally, Sarah Rigby, Catherine 
Loab met in the old academy and elected the follow- 

Digitized by 




ing trustees : Chajs. Moore, Geo. W, Sparks, George 
Tally, Lewis Weldon, Wm. Todd, Garrett Megan, 
John T. Gause, John S. Kennard, John S. Crosley. 
The first house of worship was erected at a cost of 
six th >usand dollars, northeast corner of Twenty- 
second and Market Streets. In 1884, through the 
energy of the pastor and the co-operation of Eli Men- 
den hall, one of the trustees and his friends, the church 
was enlarged at a cost of about four thousand dollars. 
The present brick structure is valued at seventeen 
thousand dollars, and will seat seven hundred. The 
membership is two hundred and fifty ; two Suuday- 
schools have five hundred officers and scholars. Rev. 
E. L. Hubbard conducted revival services in a tent 
in 1884, during the remodeling of the church and one 
hundred and sixty persons were converted. The pas- 
tors of this charge have been Rev. Wm. Kennard, 
1857-68 ; John France, 1858-60 ; Thos. Montgomery, 
1860-61 ; Wm. H. Fries, 1861-62 ; Benjamin Christ, 
1862-63 ; Thos. McElroy, 1863-64 ; E.Wilson, 1864-65 ; 
John France, 1865-68 ; Joshua Humphries,,! 868-69 ; 
John Shilling, 1869-72; Thos. Hunter, 1872-74; 
Wm. M. Warner, 1874-75 ; A. W. Milby, 1875-76 ; 
John W. Pierson, 1876-78 ; E. E. White, 1878-81 ; 
John Shilling, 1881-84; E. L. Hubbard, 1884-87. 
C. A. Grise, the present pastor, was appointed to the 
charge in March, 1887. 

Grace Methodist EpUcopal Churchy^ of Wilmington, 
springs from St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church. 
On November 17, 1864, a meeting was held of twelve 
persons, who adopted a mutual pledge that ''our most 
zealous efforts and constant labors in the work of con- 
structing a new and handsome Methodist Church in 
this city; and that with the blessing of God, our 
labors shall not be relaxed until this great and good 
work shall have been accomplished.^' On March 28, 
1865, the plans of the present Grace Church were 
adopted. Messrs. George W. Sparks, J. Taylor Gause 
and Job H. Jackson were appointed the building 
committee. The trustees were Hon. Daniel M. Bates, 
chancellor of the State of Delaware; Deleplaine Mc- 
Daniel, C. F. Rudolph, Job H. Jackson, Jno. Mer- 
rick, George P. Norris, Jared Megaw, George W. 
Sparks, Eklward Moore, J. Taylor Gause, Samuel M. 
Harrington, Esq., was secretary, and William H. Bil- 
lany, treasurer of the Board. 

On October 7, 1865, the corner-stone was laid. 
Bishop Simpson made the address on that occasion, 
and prominent clergyman of the Presbyterian and 
Methodist Churches of Wilmington participated. On 
March 25, 1866, services were held for the first time 
in the nearly finished chapel. Rev. William J. Ste- 
venson, who had fostered the enterprise from the first, 
was made pastor. On June 10, 1866, the chapel was 
dedicated by Bishop Ames, and on June 17, 1887, the 
Sunday-school room was dedicated. 

The church was completed and dedicated on Thurs- 
day, January 23, 1868, Bishop Simpson preaching, 
and Bishops Scott and Ames being also present. The 

1 From a sketch by Prof. W. A. Beynolds. 

building is of decorated gothic design, and was built 
of Connecticut River valley stone, serpentine from 
the battle-field of Chadd's Ford and drab stone from 
Nova Scotia. The interior is very handsomely fin- 

The pastors have been : William J. Stevensoo, 
1866-68; Alfred Cookman, 1868-71; Jacob Todd, 
1871-78; L. C. Matlack, 1873-74; Job E. Smith, 
1874-77; William J. Stevenson, 1877-80 ; George W. 
Miller, 1880-83 ; J. Richards Boyle, 1883-86 ; and 
Jacob Todd, 1886. 

The church building cost over two hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and the membership aggregates four 
hundred and fifty. Ep worth and Madeley chapels 
have been erected under the auspices of Grace 
Church. Epworth, comer of Tenth and Church 
Streets, was first organized as a Sunday-school under 
the auspices of St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church 



November 6, 1863. When Grace Church went out 
from St. PauPs, Epworth was transferred to Grace. 

The history of Madeley chapel begins with the 
Rev. Jacob Todd, who preached on an open lot 
in May, 1871. He subsequently preached in a tent, 
and then services were held in a temporary structure. 
The present chapel was finished and dedicated by 
Rev. Jacob Todd, assisted by Rev. William J. Steven- 
son, in the winter of 1872-73. The building and fur- 
niture, exclusive of lot, cost eight thousand dollars. 
The pastors have been : Rev. I. N. Forman, Rev. J. 
E. Mowbray, Rev. D. Dodd, Rev. T. H. O'Brien, Rev. 
B. F. Price, Rev. H. W. Ewing. The present mem- 
bership is eighty. 

Epworth Methodist Episcopal Church of Wilmington 
was founded in 1867, in the second story of a frame 
building near East Seventh and Locust Streets, and 
held occasional services. A class of converts was 
formed with Edward Jackson as leader, and Rev. A. 

Digitized by 




Seott, son of the late Bbhop Scott, was the first regu- 
Itr pastor, in conjunction with Bev. Mr. Stephenson, 
of Grace Church. Subsequently the Sunday-School 
Union of Grace Church became interested in this 
field and as a result a chapel was built at Tenth and 
Chorch Streets, and dedicated March 17, 1879. Rev. 
H. H. Davis was pastor until 1875, and was succeed- 
ed by Rev. A. D. Davis. The other pastors have 
been Rev. L. E. Barrett, 1876 ; Rev. E. C. Macnichol, 
1878; Rev. W. S. Robinson, 1879; Rev. Edward 
Davis, 1880-1 ; Presiding Elder, 1882 ; Rev. C. A. 
HiD, 1883; Rev. B. Gr^g, 1884r^; Rev. D. H. 
Corkran, 1886-7. In 1873 the church property was 
tomsferred to the trustees of Epworth Society. 

Kingtwood Methodist Episcopal Churchy Thirteenth 
and Claymont Street, Wilmington, grew out of a 
Sanday-school, started in 1878, by Mrs. Rinker, in 
the kitchen of her residence. As the school increased 
George R. Greenman became superintendent, and St. 
PaaFs Methodist Episcopal Church assisted in the 
work. A mission was established and a chapel cost- 
ing one thousand eight hundred dollars was built in 
1873. It continued as a mission until 1884, when 
ReT. William A. Wise was appointed pastor. Re- 
cently, Rev. W. L. White, a local preacher, has been 
officiating. The church has a membership of seven- 
ty-five, and the Sunday School has two hundred 
members. Jabez Hodson was superintendent for two 
years and G^eorge W. Todd for the past six years. 

Silvtr-Brook Methodist Episcopal Church of Wil- 
mington, was established as the result of open air 
meetings, on Hawley Street. They began in May, 
1881. Andrew J. Dal bow was leader of the first 
meeting and Charles A.Foster organized a Sunday- 
ichool. On July 12, 1881, a society was formed, and 
A. J. Dillon, Charles A. Foster, B. Monkton, J. 
Walton, B. Astor, William Read, John Harris, 
Thomas Kennedy and Samuel Morris were elected 
trustees. The open-air meetings continued until 
October, 1881, and the services were then suspended 
until May 27, 1883, when Mr. Foster re-organized it. 
The Sanday-school and services were resumed by 
▼arioQs ministers. Subsequently, the dwelling of 
Robert West and a remodeled stable were used re- 
spectively. Asbury Church took charge of it as a 
minion and Charles Moore, a local preacher, was, in 
January, 1884, assigned to it. In 1885, a place of 
worship was built and dedicated May 3d by Rev. 
Measra. Murray, Hubbard and Jones. Rev. W. L. 
Tompkinson is now pastor and Mr. Foster is super- 
intendent of the Sunday-school. 

The Swedish Mission at Eleventh And Heald Street, 
Wilmington, was started as a Sunday school, in 
Kingswood Chapel in 1882. Miss Huldah Nelson 
was the first teacher of the school, composed of ten 
children, of Swedes who had lately arrived in this 
coantry. A number of the members of Grace Church 
took an active interest in the mission, prominent 
*mong whom was Capt. Alexander Kelley. Rev. 
Carl 0. Carlson, a native Swede, was sent from Phila- 

del phi a to take charge of the mission. He was 
ordained by Bishop Simpson and entered upon his 
duties in 1883. The present church was built in 
1883. In 1885, Rev. A. Z. Fryxwell, of Gottenberg, 
Sweden, succeeded Mr. Carlson, and remained two 
and a half years. The present pastor, Rev. Konrad 
R. Hartwig, also came from Sweden. He took charge 
November 2, 1886. Mrs. Jenny Hartwig, wife of the 
pastor, is superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
Services are conducted in the Swedish language. 
The church has a membership of about fifty. The 
trustees are Captain Alexander Kelly, Justin Fars- 
berg, J. W. Difiendorf, Andrew Nelson, Robert* 
Wheeler, O. Fundiu, Z. Todd and Charles Olsen. 

Wesley Methodist Episcopal Church of Wilmington 
had its inception in a Sunday-school started in a 
store by Jabez Hodson, January 11, 1885. St. Paul's 
Church made it a mission and in 1886 a society was 
formed with about twenty-five members. For sev- 
eral months the second floor of the Old Weccacoe 
Engine-house, on Jackson Street, was used for relig- 
ious services. Subsequently a church was built at 
Linden and Jackson Streets at a cost of sixteen hun- 
dred. Rev. S. T. Gardner was the first pastor and 
Rev. W. G. Koons succeeded him. The church has a 
membership of seventy and the Sunday-school one 
hundred and twenty. Howard L. George is superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school. The trustees are 
Wm. C. Gray, Jabez Hodson, Howard L. Gkorge, 
Wm. Mattier, Richard C. Jones and M. Adams. 

A religious society was formed in the Athenaeum, 
Wilmington, May 24, 1843, and clergymen of the 
Methodist Protestant Church performed ministerial 
ofi[ices for them. The first trustees were W. A. Bird, 
C. B. F. Smith, Samuel Hutton, Zenas B. Glazier, 
William F. Jeandell and H. F. Askew. This society, 
under the pastorate of Rev. William H. F. Barnes, 
an eloquent young clergyman, February 18, 1844, was 
changed to the First Congregational Church of Wil- 
mington. The trustees then were Joseph L. Carpen- 
ter, William P. Colmery, George F. Hampton, Wil- 
liam Miller and the pastor. 

A society of Methodist Protestants in 1845 put up 
a church building fifty feet by thirty-three feet at 
northwest corner Third and Orange Streets, Wilming- 
ton. The building committee were William S. Pine, 
Thomas Lynam and James Stalcup. Rev. Samuel 
Keener Cox was pastor and the church membership 
was thirty. 

An Independent Methodist Church, Rev. Andrew 
Thomas, pastor, was organized in Wilmington, in 
1850. It prospered for a short time and then dis- 

me Mrst Methodist Protestant Church of Wilming- 
ton, was organized January 9, 1880. Among the 
original members were Rev. W. T. Potter, John 
Gray, T. L. Layton, W. G. Rowand, Samuel Gray, J. 
W. Dill and William Budd. The first board of 
trustees were John Gray, H. W. Morrow, William 
Budd, Thomas Budd, James Budd, George Walls and 

Digitized by 




Henry Primrose. In March, 1880, the organization 
was received into the Maryland Annual Conference 
and constituted a mission under the care of the Home 
Missionary Society. The first public services were 
held in an old building on Seventh Street near Wal- 
nut. This building was bought September 1, 1880, 
for twenty-five hundred dollars. In 1885 the old 
building was enlarged and remodeled at an expense 
of three thousand four hundred dollars, under the 
direction of a building committee consisting of 
Henry Conner, Jesse Rhinehart, James McKelvey, 
J. H. Moss, J. D. Cael and Franklin Wyre. 
On November 29, 1885, the Sunday-school room 
was reopened by Rev. B. F. Benson, A.M., of West- 
minster, Maryland, Rev. Dr. J. E. T. Ewell, of Balti- 
more, and Rev. J. W. Charlton, of Seaford, Delaware- 
The building was completed in 1886 at an additional 
expense of one thousand dollars, and reopened Jan- 
uary 31, 1887, by Rev. W. S. Hammond, President of 
the Maryland Annual Conference and President of 
the General Conference. The first pastor was Rev. 
J. G. Sullivan, appointed in March, 1880, Jind served 
one year. Rev. F. C. Klein was appointed in March, 
1881, and resigned in September, 1882, to take charge 
of a missionary station in Yokohama, Japan, as the 
first male foreign missionary of the Methodist Prot- 
ostant Church. In September, 1882, Rev. W. T. 
Valiant was appointed pastor. Rev. G. F. Farring, 
the present pastor, was appointed in March, 1883. 
The church numbers seventy-five members. The 
Sunday-school, under the superintendency of G. H. 
Gilbert and James McKelvey, numbers over three 
hundred scholars. 

Baptist Chukches .—i^r«^ Baptist Church, — 
The First Baptist Church of Wilmington, found- 
ed Ocftober 8, 1785, was the pioneer of that de- 
nomination in that city. Prior to this date occa- 
sional services were held, and among the Baptists 
in Wilmington were Mrs. Ann Bush, who came in 
1748; Mrs. Elizabeth Way, in 1764; and John Stow 
and family, in 1769. Rev. Philip Hughes preached 
in 1782. In April, 1783, Thomas Ainger, a Philadel- 
phia Presbyterian, settled in Wilmington, and, his 
wife being a Baptist, he took a great interest in that 
denomination, of which he subsequently became a 
member, and it was mainly through his efforts that 
the First Church was established. Referring to him 
Edwards, the historian, says : " What Baptists could 
not do a Presbyterian did for them." Soon after his 
arrival Rev. Messrs. Fleeson and Boggs, by invitation, 
held meetings at Mr. Ainger's house, and on May 25, 
1784, Mr. Boggs administered the rite of baptism to 
Thomas Ainger, Rachael Ainger, Noah Cross and 
Mrs. Ferris. During the same year Rev. Mr. Hughes 
visited Wilmington to publish an original work on 
Baptism, and preachel alternately in the First Pres- 
byterian Church and the town's school-house. He 
baptized Robert Smith, John Redman, James Mc- 
Laughlin and Henry Walker in Brandy wine Creek. 
Nine of the original Baptists of Wilmington joined 

the Welsh Tract Church, in New Castle County and 
they, in conjunction with six others,-^ organized the 
First Baptist Church. These were Thomas Ainger, 
James McLaughlin, Thomas Williams, Henry 
Walker, Joseph Tomlinson, John Redman, Robert 
Smith, John McKim, Curtis Gilbert, Sarah Stow, 
Elizabeth Hopkins, Mary Mattson, John Stow, Thos. 
Stow and Abigail Ainger, of whom Thomas Ainger, 
James McLau/^hlin, Henry Walker and Curtis Gil- 
bert were subsequently ordained to the ministry. 
The organization of the First Baptist Church met 
with opposition from the other denominations, except- 
ing the Presbyterians whose pastor encouraged the 
new congregation, placed his pulpit at the disposal 
of Rev. Mr. Hughes, the Baptist minister, and pro- 
mulgated the doctrine of *' love thy neighbor as thyself." 
The Baptists soon erected a brick chucch, thirty-five 
by forty feet, and joined ihe Philadelphia Association. 
The first regular pastor of the First Church was Rev. 
Thomas Fleeson, who laid the corner-stone of the 
edifice, accomplished its erection and remained in 
charge of it until 1788. He was succeeded by Thomas 
Ainger, who was elevated to the ministry April 25, 
1786. He was ordained as pastor October 28, 1788, 
and continued bis ministration until his death, in 
1797. His successors were Revs. Joseph Boggs, 
Gideon Farrell, John Ellis and Joseph Flood. Rev. 
Flood was soon excluded from the pulpit for preach- 
ing polygamy. He subsequently went to Norfolk, 
Va., and created considerable trouble. From 1802 to 
1819 Rev. Daniel Dodge was pastor of the church, 
and during this interval baptized two hundred and 
fifty converts. He was succeeded by Rev. Samuel 
R. Green, 1819 to 1824; Rev. David Lewis, 1824 to 
1826 ; Rev. John D. Strumpfer, 1826 to 1827 ; Rev. Jno. 
P. Peckworth, 1827 to 1828. During Mr. Peckworth's 
ministry the Sabbath-school was organized. His 
successors were Revs. John Miller, Alfred Earle, 
Joseph Smart, Wilson Housel, Wm. Matthews, 
Samuel Earle and Elder E. Rittenhouse. From 1846 
to 1858 the First Church was irregular in its connec- 
tion with the Philadelphia Association, which it 
again joined in 1862, and remained until 1867, 
when it discontinued the connection, but in 1870 re- 
united with it. It was now in the Delaware Baptist 
Association. A portion of its members assisted in 
organizing the Bethany Church. 

The Second Baptist Church of Wilmington^ was or- 
ganized September 7, 1835, by thirteen members 
from the First Baptist Church,— Gideon F. Tindall, 
Susanna Boulden, John Haazlet, Susan Darby, 
Moses Bannister, Ann Bannister, Robinson Beckley, 
Margaret Springer, Sally Ann Todd, Sarah A. 
Graham, Margaret Sterret, Mary E. Stroud and Jane 
E. Cochran. In 1836 it united with the Philadel- 
phia Association. The congregation worshipped 
first in a rented room on Sixth Street, and in the old 
Presbyterian meeting-house, and was originally sup- 
plied for three months by Rev. Jonathan Collom. 

1 From a history by Bev. Rich&rd B. Cook, D.D. 

Digitized by 




^^absequentlv a church was built by them, corner 
of Wdnut and Fifth Streets, now occupied by the 
Gennan Baptist congregation. In 1840 the member- 
ship numbered eighty -one. On January 21, 1842, 
Bev. E. Andrews began a twelve weeks' meeting, dur- 
ing which one hundred and twenty -five converts 
wen baptized, among them Mr. and Mrs. Reuben 
Wheaton, Thomas Milner, Eliza J. Cloward, Wm. 
Stevenson, Mary and Bebecca Slack, Mary Billings, 
Mrs. William Emmons, Charles P. Matlack, Mrs. 
Samael Tindall, Mrs. J. Wollaston and Martha A. 
Jones. At this time Washington Jones, (>. G. Lob- 
dell and W. G. Jones were trustees, and Lydia P. 
Drew and Betsy P. Bonney were leading members. 
In 1843 thirty-four of the scholars in the Sunday- 
ochool were baptized. Elder Jacob Knapp assisted 
the pastor from December 1, 1843, to January 23, 
lS44,and one hundred and fifty-seven were baptized 
during the year, among them Joseph and Mrs. 
Gould, Edward and Mrs. Bodle, L. B. Findley and 
Mary Lowe. Anne Semple, Mrs. Sarah Coxe, J. M. 
Chalfant and Mrs. Chalfant united with the church 
by certificate. In March, 1849, John and Bebecca 
firadford, Alexander Brattan and wife, James and 
M&ry A. Bichardaon and Joseph and Mary Bonney 
were baptized ; in 1847, Mrs. Washington Hayes and 
Mrs. Ann J. Eldridge; and in 1850, W. H. Gregg and 
Hannah E. Cloward. In 1844 the membership 
aggregated three hundred and sixty-nine, and three 
Sunday -schools connected with the church had three 
hundred and twelve scholars and thirty-seven ofl^cers 
and teachers. In 1853 a lot for a new church at the 
northeast corner Fourth and French Streets was pur- 
chased for two thousand six hundred dollars and a 
building committee was appointed, consisting of Bev. 
Frederick Charleton, pastor, Thomas Allen, J. M. 
Chalftmt, Washington Jones, Jacob Bice and G. G. 
Lobdell. On May 3, 1855, the new church was dedi- 
cated at a total cost of $28,091.37. On May 29, 1865, 
fifteen members were, by request, dismissed to or- 
ganize the Delaware Avenue Church and others 
subeeqaently followed them. An organ was added 
to the church, in 1867, at a cost of two thousand five 
hundred dollars, and the same year three thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-two dollars were expended 
in repairs. In 1870 the Baptist City Mission, the 
forerunner of the Bethany Church, was formed. The 
Bemi-centennial of the church was celebrated Septem- 
ber 6 to 13, 1885, in the meeting-house corner of 
Fourth and French Streets. Bevs. Wm. Cathcart, 
D.D., J. W. T. Boothe, D.D., H. L. Wayland, D.D., 
H. G. Weston, D.D., C. 0. Bitting, D.D., L. Marks, 
D.D., C. W. Prettyman, W. L. S. Murray, C. L. 
Williams, B. W. Perkins, a former member of the 
church; B. M. Luther, Washington Jones, W. 
H, Gregg, Alfred Gawthrop and others took part. 
The historical sermon was preached by the pastor, 
Ke?. R. B. Cook, D.D., and a semi-centennial hymn 
composed by Bev. Prof. M. Heath, a member of the 
ciiorch, was sung by the congregation. The Trinity 

choir, under Prof. Bhoads, assisted, and Mr. Kurtz 
was musical director and organist. 

The several pastors of the church were : Bev. C. 
W. Dennison, September 9, 1836, to April 1, 1839 ; 
Bev. G. J. Carleton, September 15, 1839, to April 14, 
1841 ; Bev. Sanford Leach, July 1, 1841, to June 17, 
1842 ; Bev. Morgan Bhees, February 14, 1843, to 
July, 1850; Bev. J. G. CoUom, August 1, 1850, to 
1853; Bev. Frederick Charleton, July 28, 1853, to 
August, 1857 ; Bev. G. M. Condron, February 1,1858, to 
October 1, 1859 ; Bev. J. S. Dickerson, December 10, 
1860, to May 1, 1865; Bev. W. H. H. Marsh, Sep- 
tember, 1865, to March, 1871 ; Bev. James Waters, 
March 24, 1872, to 1873; Bev. A. McArthur, 1873 to 
1875; Bev. Bichard B. Cook, D.D., December 1, 1875, 


and is the present incumbent. Dr. Cook has been 
prominent in his church at State and national meet- 
ings, as trustee and moderator of the Philadelphia 
Association, manager of the American Baptist His- 
torical Society, secretary of the National Baptist 
Bible Convention, and in various other positions. 
He has also written and published " The Early and 
Later Delaware Baptists," and "The Story of the 
Baptists," a general Baptist history, which in three 
years has reached a circulation of twenty thousand 

7%« German Baptist Church of Wilmington was 
founded by Bev. Jeremiah Grimmell,* who in 1855 

1 Ber. Grimmell was bora in Marburg, and left his natire place be- 
cause of religious persecutions. He came to America in 1851 and 
labored as a colporteur, founding a church In Williamsburg, N. T. Id 

Digitized by 




devoted his leisure to fostering the religious interests 
of the German Baptists, whom he invited to meet at 
his house, where he conducted worship. At the first 
service there were thirteen persons present, and these 
comprised the original memhers of the German Bap- 
tist Church, which was organized in 1856. His house 
being too small to accommodate those attracted 
by his preaching. Rev. Grimmell was offered a room 
in the residence of John Swager, corner Fourth and 
Pine Streets, where services were continued for quite 
a period. Rev. Leonard Fleishman preached to the 
converts of Mr. Grimmell on several occasions and 
encouraged him in his religious labors. In March, 
1856, nine of them were baptized in the Second Bap- 
tist Church. Through the efforts of Miss Annie 
Semple, who manifested a zealous interest in the 
work, the church comer of Fifth and Walnut Streets 
was purchased for three thousand dollars. Here the 
congregation was organized April 17, 1856, by Rev- 
Mr. Grimmell and his wife, Edward Austermiihl, 
John Muhlhausen and Sophia, his wife, John Swager 
and Elizabeth, his wife, Peter Braunsteiti and Susan, 
his wife, Frederick Neutze, Mrs. Elizabeth Kaiser 
Mrs. Theresa Herzel and Catherine Brauustein. A 
Sunday-school was also organized the same year. 
The church has had the following pastors : Decem- 
ber, 1856, Rev. F. A. Bauer, one and a half years; 
Rev. J. C. Haselhuhn, three years ; Rev. H. Trump» 
four years; Rev. P. Piepgrass, one year; Rev. J* 
Fellman, five years; Rev. J. M. Heofflin, 1875 to 
1881 ; Rev. Henry W. Geil, 1882, is the present pas- 
tor. The church has a membership of over one hun- 
dred, and is in a prosperous condition. 

The Delaware Avenue Baptist Church of Wilming- 
ton^ was organized June 22, 1865, by Miss Annie 
Semple, Alex. Brattan, Miss Mary Slack, Mrs. Mary 
A. Brattan, Mrs. Amanda Brattan, Mrs. Marian 
Moore, Mrs. Mary Smith, Thomas Hess, William H. 
Gregg, Mrs. Lucy V. Gregg, John Bradford, Mrs. 
Eliza J. Clowan and Charles Townsend, of the 
Second Baptist Church, at the residence of Miss 
Semple. The deacons elected were Wra. H. Gregg 
and John Bradford; clerk, Thomas C. Heas; trustees, 
Wm. H, Gregg, Thomas C. Hess and Alexander 
Brattan. The first services were held July 6, 1865. 
Rev. E. W. Dickinson, D.D., preached and Rev. 
Levi G. Beck delivered the charge. For awhile the 
Wilmington Institute and the Phanix engine-house 
were used as places of worship. On April 1, 1866, 
Rev. G. W. Folwell entered upon the first pastorate 
of the church, and on June 27, 1866, ground was 
broken for a church building, which was completed 
and dedicated October 13, 1870, the lecture-room 
being finished and dedicated January 2, 1868. Mr. 
Folwell remained as pastor until December 31, 1874, 

1855 he Tisited hii countrymen in Wilmington, and being without 
money, was befriended by John H. MOlhausen. He found employment 
tm bookbinder, a trade acquired in bis youth, and subsequently removed 
to Buffalo, N. T., where he assisted bis son in organizing a church. He 
returned to Wilmington, where he died April 4, 1871. 
1 From a sketch by Rer. J. W. T. Boothe, D.D. 

when the membership was two hundred and forty-six. 
On April 1, 1875, Rev. Isaac M. Haldeman began a 
pastorate which continued until August, 1884. During 
his term the New Hampshire Confession was aban- 
doned and pre-millenarian doctrine was adopted; 
two mission-schools were established, and about one 
thousand one hundred persons were baptized. Id 
October, 1882, the membership of the church was one 
thousand one hundred and forty -five, but in 1883 de- 
clined to seven hundred and eighty-three, and sub- 
sequently to its normal number of three hundred and 
twenty-five. Rev. George C. Needham, the revivalist, 
succeeded Mr. Haldeman, but only remained about 
three months, and was succeeded by J. W. T. Boothe, 
in July, 1885. After the latter took charge about 
sixty members withdrew to form Grace Church. 


Under Dr. Boothe's charge the large debt of the 
church has been largely reduced. 

77ie Shiloh Baptist Church, of Wilmington, comer 
Twelfth and Orange Streets, was the first congrega- 
tion for colored people of that denomination establish- 
ed in the State. It was an outgrowth of the colored 
Sunday-school of the First Baptist Church, Hiram 
Yeger, superintendent, which met in a hall on Twelfth 
Street, between Market and Orange Streets. In this 
hall Shiloh Church was organized May 31, 1876, by 
Annie M. Anderson, Thomas Anderson, John W. 
Jackson, George L. Hall, William M. Winston, Jacob 
Galloway, Maggie Mitchell, Maggie V. Miner, Rachel 
Brodus, Lucinda Brodus, Jefferson Crayton, Peter 
Saunders, Julia Parsall, John W. Gordon, Jennie 
Henderson and Sarah Elias. Thomas W. Jackson 
was clerk. Subsequently, the basement of the church 
corner Twelfth and Orange Streets waa used. Rev. 
Benjamin T. Moore was made pastor November 15, 
1876, and has ofiSciated ever since. The church 

Digitized by 




building was begun in 1881, and the basement was 
dedicated in September, 1885. The church has a mem- 
bership of one hundred and thirty; Sunday-school, 
one hundred. The trustees are John W. Jackson, 
Arthur Thomas, Archie P. Hendley, Benjamin Lan- 
den, Tobias Whiten, Hiram Tate and Jeremiah 

The Bethany Baptist Church, of Wilmington, corner 
of Elm and Jackson Streets, was organized November 
14, 1878, with eighty-eight members. It succeeded 
the Elm Street Baptist Church, which had grown out 
of a Sunday-school organized by William H. Gregg 
and others. The present membership of Bethany 
Church is about 225 and the Sunday-schools number 
300. John Rumer and William U. Gregg are super- 
intendents. A handsome brick church was erected 
in 1887. The pastors of Bethany Church have been 
fie?. Thomas M. Eastwood, Rev. E. J. McKeever, 
Re?. F. B. Greul. Rev. Harry Tratt and O. G. Bud- 
dington, present incumbent. 

Grace Baptist Churchy^ of Wilmington, was organ- 
ized Odtober 1, 1885, with the following officers: 
Deacons, James J. Walker, George W. Sutton, 
George W. Hardin, John Gately, Julius Reed, Wm. 
Cloud and John A. Bennett; Trustees, Maris V. 
Pyle, Parke Ma^n, James Morrow, Jacob Melvin, 
J. Travers Jones, Philip Jones, Benjamin R. Connor, 
and William Crawford; Church Clerk, J. Travers 
Jones. Treasurer, James J. Walker. 

This congregation is an off-shoot from Delaware 
Aveoae Baptist Church. The cause of separation 
from the mother-church is best described by an extract 
(rom Grace Church letter to the Baptist Council held 
in Wilmington, September 14, 1886 : " A party of 
sixty members of the mother-ehurch in this city met 
October 1st, last, and completed organization as a 
community of worshipers. Before undertaking the 
abo?e, the brethi'en and sisters referred to made care- 
Ail consideration of the matter, and at length came 
to the conclusion that a parting from the mother- 
church was unayoidable, and, as recorded of Abraham 
and Lot, ' separated themsel ves.' " The Philadelphia 
CoDf««ion of Faith was adopted by special enact- 
ment The church was incorporated March, 1886, 
tod elected Rev. S. B. Hay ward, of Milford, Del., as 
pastor. Mr. Hayward accepted the call October 1st. 

The Sunday-school' of Grace Baptist Church was 
inatituted November 16, 1885, with John W. Gately, 
superintendent, and J. Travers Jones, secretary. The 
church was recognized as a regular Baptist Church 
September 14, 1886, by a council of Baptist churches 
which conveoed in the old Baptist Church, South and 
King Streets. Seven churches from Philadelphia and 
vicinity were represented, in addition to the local 

The present pastor is Rev. F. W. Overhiser, who 
commenced his term December 4, 1887. He is a 
graduate of Bucknell University, and also of Crozer 
Theological Seminary, Upland. 

I From a ikstch by J. TraTera Jones. 

Roman Catholic Churches.— aSJ. Peter's iVo- 
Gathedral^ of Wilmington. — Prior to the latter half 
of the last century the number of Catholics in and 
around Wilmington, and, indeed, in the State of Del- 
aware, was very limited. The Jesuits from Maryland 
and, perhaps, from Pennsylvania extended their visits 
into Delaware, until the secular priests entered the 
field, and either assisted them or relieved them 
altogether. Father Whalen was one of the first 
secular priests and lived at Coffee Run. He was 
succeeded in 1805 by Rev. Patrick Kenny, who found 
a little log chapel there, from which he ministered to 
the wants of the Catholics in Wilmington. He had 
as his assistant, for a time, Rev. George Aloysius 
Carrel 1, who afterwards became a Jesuit and finally 
died bishop of Covington, Ky. After the French Revo- 
lution, and the negro insurrection in St. Domingo, 
some distinguished French Catholic families settled 
in and around Wilmington. These French Catholics 
had priests of their own nationality with them, but 
whether for want of a sufficient knowledge of the 
language or for other reasons, they do not seem to 
have attended, to any great extent at least, to any 
but their own people. In 1816, Father Kenny built 
St. Peter's church, at the corner of Sixth and West 
Streets, Wilmington, and divided his labors between 
Cofiee Run and that city. In 1830 the Sisters of 
Charity from Emmittsburg, Maryland, established 
an academy and orphan asylum, nearly oppbsite 
St. Peter's, which is still under their charge. In 1834, 
Father Kenny had assigned to him as his assistant 
Rev. Patrick Reilly, then a young priest just ordained. 
He was a man of zeal, energy and self-sacrifice, and 
on the death of Father Kenny, in 1842, he succeeded 
him as pastor of St. Peter's. During his pastorate 
of nearly twenty years he from time to time made 
such improvements as circumstances permitted. In 
1839, at great personal sacrifice, Father Reilly built 
and opened a school which afterwards developed into 
St. Mary's College. He was not unmindftil of the wants 
of the poorer children of his parish, and a parochial 
school was built adjoining St. Peter's Church. In 
1853, finding the labors of the parish and the collie 
too great a tax upon his strength, he withdrew from 
St. Peter's and devoted himself exclusively to the 
college. In 1856, when the growing wants of the 
Catholics of Wilmington seemed to demand another 
church. Bishop Neumann, recognizing the invaluable 
services of Father Reilly as a parish priest, directed 
him to build the new St. Mary*s Church. St. Peter's 
passed under the charge of the Rev. Patrick A. Pren- 
dergast, who labored here for four or five years, and 
was succeeded by Rev. P. R. O'Brien. In 1866 the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Wood appointed the Rev. M. A. 
McGrane (late vicar general of the diocese of Wil- 
mington) pastor of St. Peter*s, and the Rev. P. P. 
McGrane, his brother, as his assistant. Under their 
care old St Peter's was enlarged, and improved inside 
and out ; so that in August, 1868, when the Rt. Rev. 

* By B6T. John N. Lyons. 

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Thomaa A. Becker, D.D., the first bishop of Wilming- 
ton, entered its portals, he found his Cathedral already 
erected and a beautiful Pro-Cathedral ready to receive 
its first bishop. The second ordination in St. Peter's 
was held on July 31, 1870, when the Rev. John N. 
Lyons, the first priest ordained in Wilmington for the 
diocese of Wilmington, received the Holy Order of 
Priesthood. Rev. M. X. Fallon, ordained for the dio- 
cese of Wilmington, had been raised to the priesthood 
some time before at Mount St. Mary's, Emmittsburg. 
Father Lyons was assigned to duty in St. Peter's as 
assistant to Bishop Becker, a position he held for 
nine years, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Ben- 
jamin Keiley, who acted in the same capacity for seven 
years. Bishop Becker gave a new impetus to religion 
around old St Peter's. He transferred the boys' 
Parochial School from the charge of lay teachers to 
that of the Sisters of St. Francis. He established 
temperance societies for the men and beneficial so- 
cieties for the women. He enlarged and beautified 
the sanctuary and exchanged the old wooden altars 
for three marble ones. For the orphans, he had 
erected an imposing structure to replace the old rook- 
ery that had so long been an eyesore, and had served in 
times galore as a tavern and beer garden. The num- 
ber of Catholics increased so much in the eighteen 
years of Bishop Becker's administration that it was 
found necessary to build the churches of St. James, 
St. "Paul's, Sacred Heart for the Germans, and St. Pat- 
rick's. On the occasion of the elevation of Bishop 
Gross to the Archiepiscopal See of Oregon, Bishop 
Becker was transferred to the vacant See of Savannah, 
where he was soon followed by Father Keiley, who 
became his vicar general. Right Rev. Alfred Am- 
brose Curtis, for twelve years secretary in the Cathedral 
of Baltimore, to Archbishop Bayley and Cardinal 
Gibbons, was chosen as the successor of Bishop Becker 
in the diocese of Wilmington. He was consecrated 
on November 14, 1886, in the Cathedral of Baltimore, 
by Cardinal Gibbons, and was installed in St. Peter*s 
Pro-Cathedral on the following Sunday, by Cardinal 
Gibbons, assisted by Archbishop Ryan, of Philadel- 
phia, and Bishop Becker and Bishop Moore, of Florida. 
Cardinal Gibbons preached the sermon, at the con- 
clusion of which he delivered a most glowing eulo- 
gium on the great learning, piety and zeal, combined 
with extraordinary humility and meekness, of his for- 
mer secretary, whom none knew but to love and to 
love all the more the better he was known. 

Alfred A. Curtis was born in Somerset County, 
Maryland, and is about fifty-three years of age. He 
began his studies for the ministry of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in 1854, supporting himself during 
his course by teaching. He was ordained in 1859 by 
Bishop Whittingham. After doing duty in different 
stations of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, he was 
placed in charge of Mt. Calvary Church, Baltimore, 
where he remained as rector until the end of 1870, 
when he resigned. He went to England in 1871 and 
in April of that year was received into the Catholic 

Church by Cardinal Newman. He returned to Balti- 
more and entered the Seminary of St. Salpice in Sep- 
tember, 1871, and there remained until ordained by 
Archbishop Bayley in 1874, and by him taken to the 
Cathedral as his assistant and secretary, which posi- 
tion he held as stated up to the time of his election to 
the episcopal dignity. Bishop Curtis was always 
very popular as an Episcopalian minister and a Cath- 
olic priest, and all his people parted from him with 
the deepest regrets. Cardinal Gibbons declared that 
he himself and his Cathedral congregation could only 
become reconciled to his loss by the knowledge that 
Bishop Curtis would have a larger field in which to 
display his extraordinary learning and virtue. Biahop 
Curtis has already endeared himself to the people of 
his diocese, both Protestants and Catholics, and by 
his untiring zeal and suavity of manners has compen- 
sated in great measure for the loss of the indefati- 
gable and learned Dr. Becker. Bishop Curtis ap- 
pointed the Rev. John N. Lyons to the rectorship of St. 
Peter's Pro-Cathedral, made vacant by the traoefer 
of Very Rev. B. J. Keiley to the diocese of Savannah, 
and later on, after the death of the venerable Father 
McGrane, selected him to be his vicar-general. The 
Rev. Francis J. Connelly, lately ordained, was made 
secretary to the bishop and assistant to the very rev- 
erend rector of the Cathedral. 

St, Mary^s of the Immaculate Conception Oatholic 
Church, of Wilmington, was established as the result 
of a meeting of Catholics in the study hall of St. 
Mary's College January 17, 1858. The site, comer 
Sixth and Pine Streets, had then been purchased ten 
years. Rev. Patrick Reilly presided and nominated 
three persons from each ward to receive subscriptions 
for the proposed church building. They were George 
Winterhalter, Philip Plunkett, Joseph Eising, Wil- 
liam J. J. Purcell, Michael Harrity, Henry Bleyer, 
William McMenamin, Christian Messick, John F. 
Miller, Charles Smith, Charles O'Donnell, Patrick 
McGrowan, Hugh Sweeny, Thomas Curley and John 
Fox. This committee realized eleven thousand dol- 
lars and a building committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of Rev. P. Reilly, pastor, Rev. Emilius 
Stenzel, assistant pastor, George Winterhalter and 
Philip Plunkett. The corner-stone was laid May 2, 
1858, by Rev. P. Reilly, assisted by all the clergy of 
the State, and the church was consecrated October 
3l8t of that year. The trustees were Joseph Eising, 
Michael Harrity, Christian Messick and William 
McMenamin. All the Germ an -speaking Catholics 
of the city were assigned to St. Mary's Church, under 
the direction of Father Stenzel. In May, 1864, the 
pastor purchased of Michael Harrity for one thou- 
sand seven hundred and sixty dollars a lot, eighty- 
six by eighty feet, adjoining the church, on which, 
two years later, he built a school-house and placed 
it in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph, of Philadel- 
phia. He also built a residence for the Sisters, mak- 
ing a total outlay of fifteen thousand five hundred 
dollars. The school was opened in 1867. A year 

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later, on the division of the diocese, the Sisters being 
withdrawn, their places were supplied with lay- 
teachers. The school was soon discontinued and the 
boilding rented to the Board of Public Education. 
Id 1866 the first mission was given in St. Mary's 
Church by the Bedemptorist fathers, and there have 
been three since. In 1871 the central tower was 
built and other improvements made at a cost of 
eighteen thousand dollars. The pastoral residence 
was built in 1881. The pastor's health failing, Rev. 
Dennis J. Flynn was appointed his assistant. On 
August 24, 1884, Father Reilly celebrated his golden 
jubilee, over forty-nine of his fifty years of priesthood 
having been spent in Wilmington, and was presented 
with an address of congratulation. The event was 
also the occasion of a parade of all the Catholic 
aocieties and other imposing ceremonies. Father 
Reilly died July 30, 1885, in the seventy-eighth year 
of his age. Rev. Father Flynn had charge of the 
work of the church during the pastor's illness and 
made many needed improvements to the church, 
including a new marble altar. At the Month's Mind 
Father Flynn was sent to Oalena, Md., and Father 
Fallon, of St. Patrick's, to St. Mary's. The latter 
made many additional improvements to the church 
and also organized the Reilly Lyceum for young 
men. When Bishop fiecker was transferred to Greor- 
gia, Bishop Curtis, his successor, transferred Rev. 
George J. Kelly from St. Joseph's, Brandy wine, to 
St. Mary's, and Father Flynn returned as assistant. 
Four Sisters belonging to the Third Order of St. 
Francis^ a religious community of women, whose 
mother house is in Philadelphia, re-opened the paro- 
chial school on the first Monday of September, 

The Sacred Heart Catholic Church was established 
by Rev. Wendeline M. Mayer, O.S.B. As early as 
1857 Father Stenzel, recently from Germany, was 
sent to Wilmington by the bishop of Philadelphia to 
take charge of the Oerman Catholics. Rev. Father 
Reilly volunteered the use of St. Mary's College 
Chapel until a church could be built. After a year's 
service Father Stenzel left Wilmington, and the Ger- 
man Catholics had no services in their language 
for a considerable period. In 1874 Rev. Wendelioe 
M. Mayer was invited by Bishop Becker to collect the 
scattered German Catholics and give them a mission 
at St. Mary's Church, which was successftilly accom- 
plished. In August, 1874, a lot two hundred and 
thirty -six by three hundred feet on Tenth Street, 
between Madison and Monroe Streets, was bought of 
Eev. Patrick Reilly for sixteen thousand five hun- 
dred dollars, less two thousand five hundred dollars 
which he donated. After collecting about twelve 
thousand dollars Father Mayer made arrangements to 
build a church and parochial residence. The comer- 
stone was laid by Bishop Becker, on Sunday, August 
16, 1874. On August 27, 1881, Father Mayer died at 
Gape May, where he had gone for his health.* He 

> TathM* Kajer waa born In Neohansen, WQrtemberg, November 3, 

was succeeded by Rev. P. Corbinian Gustbihl, the 
present pastor, September 10, 1881. At that time the 
parish comprised forty families. The basement was 
used from August 16, 1875, to September 2, 1883, 
when the building was dedicated by Bishop Becker. 
It is of Roman architecture, sixty-five by one hundred 
and forty feet, and has twenty-eight stained windows, 
costing two thousand two hundred dollars. The high 
marble altar, costing fifteen hundred dollars, was pre- 
sented by Joseph Eising and Herman and Herbert 
Lange, his nephews. The late F. A. Drexel, of Phil- 
adelphia, gave one side-altar and John and 
Eva Fuchs, of Wilmington, the other. The Brandy- 
wine granite stone steps leading to the church door 
cost two thousand three hundred dollars; chandelier, 
five hundred dollars; three bells, one thousand 
three hundred dollars. The latter weigh 2700, 1200 
and 760 pounds respectively. There are now about 
one hundred families in the congregation. A paro- 
chial school, now in charge of the Benedictine Sisters, 
was opened in the basement of the parish-house soon 
after its completion, and is now located in the base- 
ment of the church. In October, 1888, the pastor 
opened a high school for boys, and Rev. Dominic 
Block was instructor. It has been discontinued. 

St. PauVs Catholic Church, corner of Fourth and 
Jackson Streets, Wilmington, is one of the most 
prominent churches in the diocese of Wilmington. 
The corner-stone was laid by Right Rev. Dr. Becker, 
June 6, 1869. The church was dedicated and opened 
for service on Sunday, December 20, 1869, by Bishop 
Becker, assisted by Rev. Joseph Plunkett, of Ports- 
mouth, Va., and all the clergy of the diocese. The 
bishop delivered the dedicatory sermon. 

At the Solemn Pontificfal Vespers in the evening 
the bishop appointed Rev. M. X. Fallon first pastor 
of the new parish, which was bounded by Jefferson 
Street and Delaware Avenue, making an angle in- 
cluding Stanton and Newport, six miles south. There 
were then between fifty and sixty families in this 
area. In five years there were four hundred families, 
but all in very moderate circumstances. The ground 
was purchased for twelve thousand dollars from the 
late Aaron Conrad, father of Henry C. Conrad, Esq. 
Third Street was then opened only to Madison Street, 
and Van Buren from Front to Second Streets. The 
church was built by McCloskey Bros., and cost 
twenty-three thousand dollars before dedication. In 
1873 the spire was erected at a cost of three thousand 
five hundred dollars. The bell was then put in. It 
weighs between three thousand and four thousand 
pounds, and cost one thousand four hundred and 
sixty dollars. 

In 1875 Costaggini, the famous Roman artist, and 
now Brumedi's successor, did the frescoing, at a cost 
of three thousand one hundred dollars. The pillars 
and columns were done in Kilkenny Irish marble. 
The organ cost three thousand dollars. Miss Magar- 

1832 ; waa ordained priest of the Order St. Benedict, May 28, 1857. He 
wrote a prayer-book In English and German, which was approved by 
the biahopa of the church. 

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rity, of Broom and Cedar Streets, was the first 

The Germans have now a church at Tenth and 
Madison Streets, so that St. Paul's Parish is practically 
bounded on the north by Fourth Street, while St, 
Peter's Parish includes the east side of Madison St. 

St. James' Catholic Churchy on the corner of Lover- 
ing Avenue and Du Pont Street, is a neat frame struc- 
ture, 30 by 65 feet. It was built in 1869. The first 
resident pastor was Rev. John P. Hogan, who was in- 
stalled in December, 1870. The present pastor is 
Rev. William DoUard. Attached to this church is a 
protectory for orphan boys, conducted by the Francis- 
can Sisters, who are doing a most excellent work. A 
new church is now in course of erection. It is to be 
large and of Brandy wine granite. The basement 
was dedicated in December, 1887, by Bishops Becker 
and Curtis. 

St. Patrxck^s Catholic Churchy a neat brick struc- 
ture, forty-five by one hundred feet, is situated at the 
southeast corner of Fifteenth and King Streets. The 
corner-stone was laid by the Right Rev. Dr. Becker, 
bishop of Wilmington, on Sunday, July 3, 1881. 

The congregation, at first numbering only about forty 
souls, under the charge of Rev. M. X. Fallon, worship- 
ped in a rough shed for some time. On Christmas 
morning following, divine service was, for the first 
time, held in the basement. After a few months the 
church proper was completed, and service was held in 
the main room above. The basement was thereafter 
used as a school and Sunday-school room. The 
church contains the handsomest marble altar in the 
diocese. Its organ is also one of remarkable sweet- 
ness and ranks with the first in the city. It has a 
large bell, of nearly two tons in weight. 

The congregation soon increased under Father 
Fallon, who was the founder of the church and par- 
ish. The church is now too small to accommodate 
its members. The first pastor remained in charge for 
four years, and on September 20, 1885, was succeeded 
by the Rev. George S. Bradford, who is the resident 
pastor. The present boundaries of the parish are : 
On the north by PenuBylvania, east by the Delaware 
River, south by Tenth Street and Delaware Avenue 
to Van Buren Street, and west by Van Buren Street 
to Pennsylvania. 

Lutheran Churches. — The Lutheran Churchy of 
Wilmington, was organized in 1848 by Rev. F. Walz, 
and the congregation originally used the old Central 
Hall, N. W. corner of Fourth and King Sts. Among 
the first members were Gust. Weyl, Jac. Karch, 
Job. Sch wager, Jac. Butz, G. Hiller, John F. Busch, 
G. Gouert, H. D. Fr. Klund, Job. Fullmer, J. Greiner, 
H. Grebe and John Otto. Only two of these — John 
F. Busch and John Fullmer — are still in connection 
with the church. 

In 1857, under the pastorate of Rev. Thomas Steck, 
the congregation erected a church building on Walnut 
Street, above Sixth. There they worshipped for 
nearly ten years, meanwhile growing larger by immi- 

gration from Germany, while a good many of the 
original members had joined other denominations. 
The congregation intending to open a school for its 
children, and the building not having the necessary 
room for that purpose, it was decided to sell the 
church and buy the public school-house, comer of 
Sixth and French Streets. 

In the basement of this building the school was 
established ; the first story being converted into a 
place of worship, while the upper story was rented 
by the city for school purposes. In the new quarters 
the congregation prospered, and after a few years re- 
modeled the interior for church and Sabbath-school 
purposes exclusively. 

The congregation, during the forty years of its ex- 
istence, has had eight pastors, viz. : Revs. F. Walz, 
C. Jaeger, Thomas Steck, W. Hasskarl, J.Kucher, H. 
Weicksel, H. B. Kuhn and the present pastor, P. Isen- 
schmid, who has served the congregation since 1871. 

There are about two hundred communicant mem- 
bers. The Sunday-school, under the care of its su- 
perintendent, Mr. Fr. Weil, has over two hundred 
members. J. P. Theodore Fueckel is choir director 
and organist. 

SwEDENBORGiAN Church. — The First Society of 
the New Jerusalem or Stoedenborgian Church in Wil" 
mington was organized in the beginning of 1857. 
Daniel La Motte was president ; Hon. £. W. Gilpin, 
treasurer ; Daniel La Motte, Jr., secretary ; and there 
were about twenty members. A room was rented, 
and services were held by Rev. D. E. Whittaker and 
Rev. E. A. Beaman. On August 6, 1857, the corner- 
stone of the present church at Delaware Avenue and 
Washington Street was laid, and on April 29, 1858, 
the building was dedicated. Rev. Abiel Silver was 
called as pastor, and remained until March 16, 1860. 
The pulpit was temporarily supplied until September 
1, 1860, when Rev. J. T. Eaton came for one year. 
In September, 1861, Rev. R. N. Foster became pas- 
tor, and remained until July, 1863, when he left the 
ministry. The church was closed until the follow- 
ing spring, although the Sunday-school was contin- 
ued, and in May, 1864, the Rev. Abiel Silver returned 
and remained until May, 1866, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Willard H. Hinkley, of Baltimore, 
grandson of Rev. John Hargrove, the first ordained 
clergyman of the New Church in the United States. 
Mr. Hinkley remained until May, 1873. The church 
was without a settled pastor again for some months, 
although the services were regularly held by Rev. B. 
F. Barrett and Rev. E. P. Walton till January, 1874, 
when Rev. S. S. Seward became pastor, remaining 
until November, 1878. The pulpit was again tempo- 
rarily supplied till February, 1879, when Rev. J. B. 
Parmelee, the present pastor, accepted the call. The 
present oflScers are W. H. Swift, president; W. A. 
La Motte, secretary; F. L. Gilpin, treasurer. The 
Sunday-school numbers about fifty members. James 
H. Cameron is superintendent. The church is free 
of debt. 

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The Unitarian Church of Wilmington, the 
only one of that denomination in the State, was or- 
ganized February 6, 1866. A number of persons 
assembled at a private house, and after discussing 
the subject of organizing a society, made declaration 
that, — " The undersigned propose to associate them- 
selves for the purpose of forming and sustaining a 
church and society of the Unitarian faith." The 
signers were Rev. F. A. Farley, D.D., Edmund Q. 
Sewall, Charles P. Bent, N. M. Gookin, Cyrus Pyle, 
Thomas Y. de Normandie and their wives, and Mrs. 
J. P. Wales. The next meeting was attended by 
thirty persons who abo adopted a declaration and 
determined " to form a society in the Spirit and love 
of Christ, that shall be known under the name of the 
First Unitarian Society of Wilmington." Signing 
this, constituted membership. Rev. James Y. de 
Normandie preached the first sermon to the society 
in April, 1866, and was followed by Rev. Dr. F. A. 
Farley, of Brooklyn, N. Y. Rev. Fielder Israel was 
the pastor from September 9, 1866, to 1876, when he 
resigned. Under his ministry, this congregation 
erected the house of worship now owned by them, on 
West Street above Eighth. The corner-stone was 
hud October 18, 1867, and the building was dedi- 
cated March 9, 1868. For a year the church was 
without a regular pastor, until Rev. J. M. W. Pratt 
was ordained to the ministry in the church January 
28, 1878. The ordination sermon was preached by 
Rev. H. W. Bellows, D.D., of New York. Mr. Pratt 
remained until 1880. Rev. H. R. Wilson, M.D., was 
called to fill the vacancy in June, 1881, and is the 
present pastor. This church has no creed. Individ- 
ual members are left entirely to the exercise of their 
private judgment on all theological questions. Its 
standard of membership is what a person is, rather 
than what he believes. The board of trustees are 
Lea Pusey, Thomas McClary, George G. Barker, 
George W. Stone, Heywood Conant, John Wain- 
wright. Dr. W. W. Thomas. 

The Household of Faithj a religious denomination 
rejecting the theories of eternal punishment and in- 
fant baptism, was founded in Wilmington June 24, 
1877, by Rev. George R, Kramer, formerly pastor of 
Asbury M. E. Church, and the majority of the seven- 
ty original members had also been identified with 
that charge. 

The Household first worshipped in a tent at Fourth 
and Lombard Streets, and afterwards in the McClary 
boilding on Market Street, where the membership in- 
creased to about three hundred. In 1880 a church 
was built on Tatnall Street, at a cost of thirteen thou- 
sand dollars, and dedicated December 3, 1881. In 
1SS2 Rev. Mr. Kramer resigned and was succeeded by 
Rev. 0. W. Wright. Subsequently the pulpit became 
vacant, and, with a large debt on the church, the con- 
gregation declined. 

In 1887 the property was surrendered for sale, and 
lervices were discontinued. 

Colored Churches.— ^ion Methodist Episcopal 

Church — ^The colored people of Wilmington, in early 
days, worshipped with the whites, most of them at 
Asbury Church. Richard Allen, afterwards raised to 
the office of bishop, on September 13, 1783, was the 
first colored man known to have preached in Wil- 

In 1789, of the forty-nine members of Asbury, nine- 
teen were of this race. When the colored membership 
had increased to fifty they began to hold religious ser- 
vices in their own houses and in the shady groves on 
the suburbs of the town. This they began as early as 
1800. In the year 1805 they withdrew from Asbury, 
and, by the assistance of some members of that so- 
ciety and others, built a stone meeting-house at the 
corner of Ninth and French Streets, the site of Ezion 

A society was formed entirely of colored members 
— the first in the State — and was placed in charge of 
a white minister, sent by the Philadelphia Methodist 
Episcopal Conference. For a time it prospered. In 
1812 most of the members desired an independent or- 
ganization. Litigation for church property ensued, 
pending which a large portion of the membership 
withdrew, under the leadership of Peter Spencer, a 
colored local preacher, aad formed the " Union 
Church of Africans." They built a house of worship 
nearly opposite the " stone church," as it was called. 
It remained under the control of the Methodist Confer- 
ence until the Delaware Colored Conference was es- 

In 1838 another division occurred, but the old 
members continued their work, and in 1844 enlarged 
the church. Rev. Whittington, who had long been 
the pastor, had grown old. Rev. John G. ManlufT, 
one of the most intelligent colored men of his day, 
succeeded him. He was one of the founders of the 
Delaware Conference of Colored Methodists. Rev. 
W. S. Elsey was the next pastor, and was also a pre- 
siding elder. He traveled through the Eastern Shore 
of Maryland and part of Virginia. Rev. Harrison 
Smith was next appointed. During his pastorate the 
word " colored " was stricken from the Book of Disci- 

Ezion Church was rebuilt in 1870. The pastors 
since then, sent by authority of the bishop, have 
been Revs. Jehu H. Price, Peter Burrow, J. D. El- 
bert, Solomon Cooper, L. Y. Cox, W. F. Butler, D.D., 
W. J. Parker, Henry Augustus Monroe, who in 1887 
was appointed to St. Mark's Church, New York. The 

present pastor is Rev. Walters. Mr. A. Murray 

has filled the position of superintendent of the Sunday- 
school for several years. It has thirty-five teachers 
and officers, and six hundred pupils. Church mem- 
bership, six hundred and fifty; valuation of church 
property and parsonage, thirty-eight thousand four 
hundred dollars. The church was nearly destroyed 
by fire January 6, 1886, and rebuilt the same year. 

African Union Church, — Peter Spencer was one of 

1 It derived Its name f^oin EzioD G«ber, a town in the Land of Edom, 
where Solomon^e voeseLi were built. 

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the colored Methodists who left Asbury Church in 
1805, and assisted in forming Ezion Church. In 1818, 
he and William Anderson founded the *' Union 
Church of African Members," being the first church 
in the United States organized and entirely controlled 
by colored people. Peter Spencer and his associates 
gave the following reasons for their secession : 

" In the year 1805 the colored members of the 
Methodist Church in Wilmington thought that we 
might have more satisfaction of mind than we then 
had, if we were to unite together and build a house for 
ourselyea; which we did the same year. The Lord 
gave us the favor and good-will of all religious denom- 
inations, and they all freely did lend us help, and by 
their good graces we got a house to worship the Lord 
in. Then we thought we could have the rule of our 
Church, so as to make our own rules and laws for 
ourselves; only we knew that we must help to sup- 
port the preachers that were stationed in Wilmington 
to preach at both Churches, which we were willing to 
do. We then thought we had the power to 
refuse any that were not thought proper persons 
to preach for us; but the preacher that was 
stationed in Wilmington to preach, told us 
plainly that we had no say, and that he must 
be en tire judge of all. Then that body of us who 
built the meeting-house could not see our way clear 
to g^ve up all say, and for that reason our minister 
said we had broke the Discipline and turned out all 
the Trustees and class-leaders, and never allowed us a 
hearing. This was done December, 1812. For the 
sake of peace and love, and nothing but that, we 
soberly came away." 

The trustees named in the articles of association, 
signed by the heads of thirty -one families and legally 
recorded, September 18, 1813, were Peter Spencer, 
Scotland Hill, David Smith, Jacob March, Benjamin 
Webb, John Simmons and John Kelly. Some of the 
original members were William Anderson, Deborah 
Anderson, Simon Weeks, Ellen Weeks, David Bias, 
John Benton, Edmund Hays, Henry Butcher, Amelia 
Butcher, Susan Hicks, Moses Chippey,Richard Jack- 
sdn, Peter Clayton, Samuel Bayard, Charles Read, 
John Kelley, Perry Cooper, Sarah Hall and Grace 
Powell. The African Union Church building was 
erected on a site nearly opposite Ezion in 1813, re- 
built in 1827, and enlarged in 1842. William Ander- 
son, who was one of the leaders and also a local 
preacher, died in March, 1843. Peter Spencer, who 
ministered to the colored people of this church 
from 1813, died July 24, 1843. He was a 
very worthy man and was also a mechanic. He 
was born in Kent County. The Delaware Ga- 
zeUe, in noticing his death, said : " His char- 
acter for veracity and honesty was without re- 
proach. He possessed unusual good sense, was quite 
intelligent, dignified in his manner, and exercised 
wonderful influence with his people." 

Daniel Bailey, who served under Peter Spencer as 
a deacon, was chosen to succeed him and continued 

in charge several years. The African Union Church, 
as it was generally called, or the ** Union Church of 
African Members," in 1851, had thirty-one societies 
and houses of worship in the United States. A con- 
ference already organized elected Peter Spencer 
an elder or bishop of the States of New Jersey, Dela- 
ware and Pennsylvania, and Isaac Barney to the same 
position for New York and New England. Upon the 
death of Peter Spencer, the surviving elder, Isaac 
Barney, ordained Ellis Saunders, of Christiana, Dela- 
ware, as an associate with him in the control of all 
the churches of the denomination. The majority of 
the members in Wilmington refused to allow Ellis 
Saunders to preach or administer the ordinances. A 
few favored him, among whom were some of the trus- 
tees. At the next annual election none of the former 
board of trustees were chosen, and those who advo- 
cated the cause of the newly-ordained elder were 
expelled from membership. 

Ellis Saunders obtained a mandamus to compel his 
restoration. The case was argued in the Superior 
Court, and on the opinions of Judges Wootten and 
Houston the writ was refused, Chief Justice Harring- 
ton dissenting. The case was carried to the Court of 
Errors and Appeals, Chief Justice Johns rendering a 
decision that where there is no legal right there was 
no legal remedy, and that the question in dispute was 
for an ecclesiastical body to settle. 

This difficulty culminated ultimately in the with- 
drawal of all excepting the Wilmington churches 
from the parent organization of that denomination. 
The thirty churches which withdrew under the leader- 
ship of Elder Isaac Barney organized the Union 
American Methodist Episcopal Church. Two subse- 
quently returned, — the churches at Cedar Grove and 
at Marlboro*, N. J. 

Tke African Vnwn Methodist Protestant Church, 
after the separation in 1851, was an independent 
church body until 1860, when it united with a church 
in Baltimore, and formed the " African Union First 
Colored Methodist Protestant Church of U. 8. A." 
In the mean time Daniel Bailey and Isaac Parker 
were pastors. The pastors since 1860, under the 
itinerancy system, have been Rev. Benjamin Scott, 
J. W. Leecons, E. H. Chippey, Isaac Johnson, E, H. 
Chippey, Henry Davis, Gaylord Peterson, John W. 
Hall and E. H. Chippey, who, in 1886, was called as 
pastor the third time. 

The church building was remodeled in 1877, and 
stands on the site of the original African Union 
Church, built in 1813. The church membership is 
two hundred and fifly. The Sunday-school, with 
Spencer Antrim as superintendent, has one hundred 
and fifty members. Four missions have lately been 
established by this church in different parts of Wil- 
mington. The tnistees are William Page, Peter S. 
Chippey, Nero Backus, Perry Trusty, Jonathan Chip- 
pey and William Lewis. The " Big Quarterly " is 
held at this church once a year. As early as 1846 
one thousand colored persons from Philadelphia came 

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to attend it Formerly there were four Quarterly 
Meetings held at different towns. This one attracted 
the largest attendance ; hence its name. The others 
were discontinued years ago. 

The African Wtsl^an Church was on Second Street, 
between Tatnall and West. The society was organ- 
ized in 1843, with Matthew Leary as pastor. He was 
succeeded by Rev. Jones. In 1847 the old building 
in which the society worshipped was removed and 
another built. The congregation has since dis- 

Btthel African Methodist Episcopal Church on Wal- 
nut Street near Sixth Street, was founded in 1845. 
Among its first members were Bennett Hill and 
Charles Caldwell, who still belong to it. The first 
house of worship owned by the society was a frame 
building at Twelfth and Elizabeth Streets, which was 
built in 1846, and dedicated the following year by 
Rev. Stephen Smith, of Philadelphia, who contrib- 
uted liberally toward its cost. For fi\^ years the 
society worshipped in it, and then erected a brick 
church, seventeen by thirty-four feet, on Penn Street 
near Seventh Street, using it until 1865. Meantime, 
the membership was increased to nearly two hundred. 
Id 1865 the German Lutheran Church building, on 
the site of the present Bethel Church, was bought for 
four thousand dollars. In 1878 the present edifice 
was built at a cost of seventeen thousand dollars. 
The leading members of the building committee were 
D. P. Hamilton, John Green and James H. Jones. 
It was dedicated in 1881. The pastor at that time 
was Rev. C. 0. Felts. The pastors who succeeded 
him were Revs. D. P. Sexton, Robert Way man, Jos- 
eph H. Smith, T. G. Stewart, Leonard Paterson, John 
F. Thomas, T. G. Stewart, John W. Becket and 
George W. Brodie. The pipe-organ cost eleven hun- 
dred dollars. The membership in 1887 is three hun- 
dred and thirty. The Sunday-school has three hun- 
dred and sixty names on its roll. M. F. Sterling is 

Union American Methodist Episcopal Church. — Soon 
after the controversy of 1851 a portion of the mem- 
bers of the African Union Church, in Wilmington, 
formed themselves into a new society and held wor- 
ship for three years at the house of John M. Benton. 
Rev. Edward Williams, now holding the oflSce of 
bishop, was chosen pastor. They bought a lot of 
ground at 1206 French Street and on it erected a 
board tent, which was used for a time and in 1856 a 
meeting-house was built on the same site. This 
building was removed and in 1882 the present one 
was erected at a cost of eight thousand dollars. The 
pastors who have served this society are Revs. Ed- 
ward Williams, Asbury Smith, B. T. Ruley, William 
Billingsly. Rev. B. T. Ruley was called to the pastor- 
ate a second time in 1886. The church membership 
is one hundred and eighty -two. The Sunday-school, 
organized in 1836, has one hundred and fifty schol- 
ars. The superintendents at different times have 
been Peter D. Hubert, J. C. Gibbs and J. F. Bostick. 

St. Peter^s Church, corner of Second and Union 
Streets, is now a station of the African Union Meth- 
odist Protestant Church. A number of the members 
of the church of this denomination on French Street 
lived in thettvestern part of the city. Rev. E. H. 
Chippey, pastor, had a platform erected in the colored 
cemetery on Union Street and there held the first 
services, which resulted in founding a mission. In 

1870 a lot was purchased from Mr. Reynolds for 

one thousand three hundred dollars and a 
church building of brick was erected costing one 
thousand dollars. Rev. Nicholas Collins was the 
first pastor appointed by Conference and was suc- 
ceeded by Revs. Isaac B. Cooper, George W. Riggs, 
John H. Nichols, Daniel Russell and George W. C. 
Laws. The membership is forty ; Sunday-school, 
fifty ; Joseph Price, superintendent. 

Whittington Chapel, in South Wilmington, now 
an independent colored congregation of the M. E. 
Church, was for thirteen years a mission of Ezion 
Church. On the 10th of June, 1870, Rev. Solomon 
T. Bantoum began mission work in that section of the 
city, holding services in the dwelling-house of Francis 
Bird, on Buttonwood Street. A Sunday-school was 
organized and William B. Blake chosen superinten- 

In 1873 a chapel was built and named after the late 
Rev. Whittington, pastor of Ezion. The lot and build- 
ing cost $584 and Revs. Hooper and Jarley ofiSciated 
at the dedication in October, 1873. This chapel 
burned down in 1874, and for two years services of 
the society were held in dwelling-houses. In 1876 
the first chapel was built at a cost of $700. The 
church membership is 80 and 150 scholars attend the 

The ministers of this congregation were Revs. 
Solomon T. Bantoum, Solomon Cooper, William H. 
Harlan, Isaac H. White, Thomas Hubbard, Harrison 
Webb, John J. Campbell, William F. Butler, J. J. 
Wallace and Charles H. Hudson. 

St. Jame^ Colored Church, in Ekst Wilmington, is 
the second congregation originated and fostered by 
the A. U. M. P. Church, on French Street. It was 
organized as a mission in 1873 by Rev. E. H. Chippey 
at the house of Stephen Welsh. For several years it 
was conducted as a mission. The pastors were Revs. 
E. H. Chippey, Benjamin Scott, Robert Smith, Moses 
Chippey and Daniel Russell, until 1884, when it was 
made a station with Rev. Charles Walker as pastor. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Thomas T. Scott. When 
the mission was founded a day-school and Sunday- 
school was started, which has since merged into a 
public school for colored children. The church mem- 
bership in 1887 was eighty and the Sunday-school, 
superintended by Henry Farrow, had one hundred 
scholars. The first frame school was built in 1874, 
costing $600. It has since been rebuilt at a cost of 
$1600. The lot cost $250. 

St FauPs Church, in South Wilmington, is the 
third congregation established by the A. U. M. P. 

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Church on French Street. Mission work was b^un 
in 1874 by Rev. E. H. Chippey. Religious worship was 
held in a private house for about six months, when a 
lot was bought of Mr. — Townsend for two hundred 
and fifty dollars, and in 1875 the trustees of the French 
Street Church built a house of worship on it, for the 
mission, at a cost of one thousand dollars. As a mis- 
sion it was served by Revs. Henry W. Davis, Gaylord 
Peterson and John Hall. It became a station in 1885, 
and has had as pastors, Revs. Hadrian Davis, Daniel 
Russell and Isaac B. Cooper. The membership of 
this church is seventy-five ; Sunday-school, seventy. 

Moore^B Chapel, on Ford Street, between Scott and 
Lincoln, is the house of worship of a mission con- 
nected with Bethel A. M. E. Church. A number of 
members of Bethel Church lived in McDowellvill e, 
now the northwestern part of Wilmington, and to ac- 
commodate them, religious services were first held in 
a private house in that section, commencing in 1875; 
during which year the trustees of Bethel Church pur- 
chased a lot of L. W. Stidham A Son for one hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars and erected the present 
Moore's Chapel at a cost of six hundred dollars. A 
Sunday-school was started with Francis S. Norton as 
superintendent. A camp-meeting was held in the 
vicinity, and soon after a mission of thirteen members 
formed by Rev. John F. Thomas. Religious services 
were conducted by the pastors of Bethel Church and 
local preachers for several years. The first pastor 
sent to the mission was Rev. Charles Fareira, who 
was succeeded by Revs. J. B. Till and Charles H. 

The Haven Methodist Episcopal Church yras orig- 
inally known as Browntown Mission, and was estab- 
lished in 1876 by Rev. William H. Butler, D.D., 
then pastor of Ezion Church. The first place of wor- 
ship was a small chapel in Browntown, along the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad. 
After a continuance of two years as a mission under 
the direction of Ezion Church, it was, in 1879, organ- 
ized into a station as Mount Zion Chapel. The rail- 
road company bought the small chapel in Browntown, 
December 15, 1879, for seven hundred and fifty dollars 
and the society procured a lot on Third Street, between 
Dupont and Scott Streets, and in 1880 erected a 
house of worship, at a cost of thirteen hundred dol- 
lars. This work was accomplished through the efibrts 
of the trustees of Ezion Church. The membership 
of the church in 1887 was sixty-eight. The Sunday- 
school has one hundred and two scholars. Ellis 
Jefierson is superintendent. The pastors who served 
the church have been Isaac H. White, T. M. Hub- 
bard, Harrison D. Webb, J. J. Campbell, J. R. 
Brinkley and D. A. Ridout. 

Plymouth Church, of African Methodist Episcopal 
Zion denomination, was organized in the *' old Union 
Church," corner of Second and Washington Streets, 
in 1876, by Rev. M. M. Bell, under the direction of 
Bishop Clinton, of the Philadelphia and Baltimore 
Conference. Rev. Isaac R. Johnson, formerly pastor 

of African Union Church, was assigned to the charge 
and remained two yeari). He was succeeded by 
Revs. Jacob B. Trusty, E. S. Lane and John C. 
Brown. Mr. Johnson was recalled to the pastorate 
in 1887. The congregation worshipped two years in 
the building where it was organized, in Rice's Foun- 
dry, at Tenth and Orange Streets, nearly two years, 
and in 1880 rented rooms in the " Arcade Row," on 
Tatnall Street, below Second, which is now the place 
of worship. The membership is thirty-five. Thomas 
Bird was the first class-leader. 

WILMINGTON— ( Continued), 

The National Bank of Delawake.— The 
records of public banking in this State go back 
to February 9, 1795, when the Legislature char- 
tered "The President, Directors and Company" 
of the Bank of Delaware, the institution to be lo- 
cated in Wilmington, with a capital stock of $100,- 
000, in 500 shares of $200 each. At the first meeting 
of the stockholders, June 5, 1795, Joseph Tatnall. 
Wm. Hemphill, Eleazer McComb, Samuel Canby, 
Isaac Hendrickson, John Ferris, Samuel Hollings- 
worth, Joseph Warner and Thomas Mendenhall 
were elected directors, who organized the same day 
by electing Joseph Tatnall president. A committee, 
consisting of Joseph Warner, Wm. Hemphill and 
Samuel Canby, purchased from James Lea, for one 
thousand pounds, the property on the northwest 
corner of Market and Fourth Streets for the location 
of the bank, and on August 17th it was opened for 
deposits and discounts. Notes were then issued to 
the amount of twenty thousand dollars, in denomina- 
tions of fives, tens, twenties, thirties and fifties, pay- 
able in specie on demand, as required by the State 
law. A new system was introduced in 1800, but a 
five dollar- note of the first issue and the only one 
now in existence, was deposited in a Baltimore bank 
as late as July 17, 1888, and sent to this bank for re- 
demption. It is now neatly framed and kept as a rel- 
ic among the archives of the institution. 

John Hayes was elected cashier, at a salary oi 
$600 per annum if the yearly dividends should 
amount to six per cent., and $500 if less. In 1798 
his salary was increased to $800, and from the begin- 
ning he was furnished a residence in the bank build- 
ing free of rent. John Hel lings was chosen assis- 
tant, at a salary of $400, and Daniel Byrnes teller, at 
$200. It was decided to receive no money on de- 
posit except specie, notes of the Bank of the United 
States, Bank of North America and Bank of Penn- 
sylvania, all of Philadelphia. Silver supposed to be 

Digitized by 












Digitized by 


Digitized by 



spuriooB and plugged gold coin were rejected. By Joseph Baily, Jacob M. Broom, James Canby, John 
the rules it was provided that the bank should be Ferris and Joshua Wollaston were the building corn- 
open daily except Sunday, from 9 a.m. to 12 noon, mittee. The old bank building and site were sold, 
and from 3 to 5 p.m.; discount days on Tuesdays and July 14, 1815, to William Larkins for $10,000. On 
Fridays; no man living more than a mile from the January 2, 1816, a meeting of representatives of all 
bank would be accepted as an indorse r unless the the banks of the State was held at Dover, and it was 
principal or payer lived within that distance; ac- agreed that each should receive the note issues of the 
couits to be kept in dollars and cents. At the first other in order to establish a general circulation of 
business meeting, on August 17, 1795, notes to the currency throughout Delaware, 
amount of $5000 were discounted ; November 20th, The Bank of Delaware was successfully guided by 
$9396; December 29th, $13,045; March 11, 1796, its directors through the depressing period between 
$22,502, which illustrates the gradual increase in the 1811 and 1820, when one hundred and ninety-five 
bqsiness. banks in the Union became insolvent. A new char- 
On October 16, 1796, John James, of Philadelphia, ter was obtained January 11, 1820. During the 
was appointed by the Bank of Delaware to receive financial crisis of 1837, after the failure of the Bank 
moneys in that city and make deposits of it in the of the United States and one hundred and eighty 
Bank of North America to the credit of the Wil- other monetary institutions in this country, this bank 
mington Bank, the Philadelphia institution to send stopped specie payments for a brief period, in com- 
a weekly report of the moneys received. A commit- mon with all other stable institutions, but, like them, 
tee of directors, appointed in 1796, to examine into in 1838 renewed payments in specie. In the same 
the condition of the bank, reported on April 29th of year the number of directors was reduced to seven, 
that year that there was $38,548 in the " inner As early as 1850 the stock was held at double its par 
vault" and $41,408 "in the stairway." value, and the institution had earned large fortunes 
The first semi-annual dividend declared was five that were mainly directed to the promotion ofindus- 
dollars on a share. Some interesting correspondence trial and commercial enterprises of the town. The 
passed between the banks of Philadelphia and the prudence of its management brought it through the 
Bank of Delaware in reference to the banks* of financial panic of 1857 with undiminished credit and 
the former city recognizing the notes of the latter resources. It continued business as a State corpora- 
and receiving them on deposit. On March 3, 1796, tion for more than two years after the establishment 
John Nixon, president of the Bank of North Ameri- of the national banking system, but on June 16, 1865, 
ca, wrote to Joseph Tatnall, the Wilmington president, it was decided to enter the new system, and, on July 
sayiDg, "this bank is disposed to evidence the most 29th, it was made the "National Bank of Delaware," 
friendly disposition toward your institution." The with a capital of one hundred and ten thousand dol- 
bosiness relations between these two concerns have lars, and these directors : Henry Latimer, Samuel 
regularly continued ever since. On June 2, 1802, Hilles, Joseph Shipley, Henry G. Banning, Edward 
there was on deposit $113,635. Joseph Tatnall, the Bringhurst, Charles Warner, Lewis P. Bush, M.D., 
first president, served until June 2, 1802, when his William P. Richardson and Joseph P. Richardson ; 
son-in-law, Thomas Lea, was elected, who continued Cashier, Samuel Floyd ; Assistant, R. H. Ewbanks ; 
to fill the position until 1810, and was then succeeded Teller, Henry Baird. The number of directors was 
by Joseph Baily. John Hayes, elected cashier at goon afterward again reduced to seven, 
the organization, resigned on account of ill health, xhe subsequent prosperity of the institution is at- 
March 27, 1810. The directors gave him " a beauti- tested by the fact that the stock, the par value of 
fill silver tea-set as a token of their appreciation of which is $200 a share, has sold as high as $700. The 
his faithful services." Edward Worrall, one of the surplus is $115,000, and the deposits, at the latest offi- 
directors, was chosen to fill the vacancy, at $1200 a cial statement, amounted to $538,755.81. 
year. Evan Thomas was made assistant cashier at Joseph Tatnall, the first president, was one of the 
1800, and Edward Hewes teller at $600. leading citizens of Wilmington of his time. Thomas 
After the second war with Great Britain had been j^^, his successor, was his son-in-law. Joseph Baily, 
coDcluded, business increased so rapidly that the old the third president, was a leading merchant of Wil- 
bank building could not accommodate it, and, on mington, and son-in-law of Joseph Tatnall, and Henry 
May 23, 1815, the directors appointed James Pride, Latimer, the fourth president, was a man of fine cap- 
Joseph Baily and James Canby a committee to select abilities. He served as a director for nearly sixty- 
a new location. They reported, on June 2d, that for ^wo years, during thirty-one of which he was presi- 
15000 they had purchased from William Warner the dent. Henry G. Banning, who is now the efficient pres- 
premises at the corner of Market and Sixth Streets, j^ent, has served since 1872. The following is a list 
running through to King Street, then occupied as a of the presidents, with their terms of service: 

store by Moore & Robinson. By paying this firm $500, ^^^^ ^^^„^„ ^^^^ ^^ ^,^^ ^ j^„^ 2, I802 

their immediate removal was effected, the old build- ThomaB Lea June 2, I802, to June 6, 1810 

ings were demolished, and before the year 1816 the i^^^ .^J^ - f °« ,*• ??]?» ^ f °* !• ]^\ 

^ ' '' Henry Latimer June 4, 1841, to June 7, 1872 

present banking-house was completed and occupied. Henry G. Banning June 7, I872, to date 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The following; have been cashiers : 

John Hayef fh>in August 17, 1796, to Mardi 27, ino 

Edward Worrell March 27, 1810, to December 20, 1830 

William Paxon December 24, 1830, to June 30, 1839 

Henry Warner ^ July 1, 1839, to August 8, 1844 

Samuel Floyd August 8, 1844, to December 1, 1873 

Richard H. Ewbanks December, 1873, to September 11, 1885 

Henry Baird ^ September 11, 1885, to date 

Mr. Baird has been connected with the bank since 
January, 1866. The present teller is E. W. Smith ; 
discount clerk, Henry R. Carpenter ; exchange clerk, 
John H. Banning. 

The following is a complete list of the directors 
from 1796 to 1887, together with the dates of their 
election : 

Peter Brynberg 1796 

Jamee Lea, Jr 1796 

Isaac H. Starr 1797 

William Poole 1797 

Samuel Nichols 1798 

John Warner 1798 

Joshua Seal 1799 

John Way 1799 

Peter Bauduy 1799 

Henry Latimer, M.D » 1800 

Thomas Lea 1802 

James Canby 1804 

Joseph Baily 1804 

Nathaniel Richards 1805 

Eli Mendenhall 1805 

JohnKeating„ 1806 

Jacob Broom 1807 

James Ferris 1808 

John Hedrick 1809 I 

Edward Worrell 1809 I 

John Hayes 1810 

Edward Tatnall 1810 

James A. Bayard 1810 

James M. Broom 1810 i 

Daniel Lowber 1812 

James Price 1813 

John Richardson 1816 

WlUiamSeal 1817 

Oeorge Monro „ 1819 

John Shallcroes 1821 

John Bullock „ 1822 

Samuel Sappington 1823 

Henry Latimer 1828 

BUHilles 1826 

The board of directors for 1888 are Henry G. Ban- 
ning, Charles Warner, Edward Bringhurst, John 
Richardson, Richard P. Gibbons, J. H. Hoffecker, 
Jr., and Francis H. Hoffecker. 

Joseph Tatnall, the first president of the Bank 
of Delaware, for forty years one of the principal 
millers on the Brandywine, and a noble, patriotic and 
public-spirited citizen, was born at Wilmington, Ninth 
Month 6, 1740, and died Eighth Month 3, 1813, aged 
seventy-three years. He was in the line of direct 
descent in the third generation from Robert Tatnall, 
a native of Leicestershire, England, who died in his 
native country in 1715, and whose widow and five of 
their seven children, about 1725, sailed from Bristol, 
England, and settled in Darby, Pa. These children 
were Jonathan, Thomas, Mary, Sarah, Elizabeth, Ann 
and Edward. 

Edward Tatnall, the youngest child, and father of 
Joseph Tatnall, was married at London Grove 
Friends' Meeting, Chester County, Pa., Fourth Month 

James Latimer, Jr 1830 

John Solomon 1833 

William P. Brobeon 1834 

John H. Price 1835 

Stephen Bonsall 1837 

William H. Jones 1837 

Samuel Bailey 1838 

Edward W. Gilpin 1839 

William S. Poole 1839 

John B. Latimer 1840 

Samuel Hilles 1841 

LewisP. Bush, M.D 1813 

Joseph C. Gilpin 1843 

Joseph Bringhurst 1843 

William G. Whltely 1844 

£11 Hanrey 1845 

Ashton Richardson 1846 

Evan C. Stotsenberg 1847 

Goodman Chalftint 1848 

Joseph Shipley...... 1852 

Henry Lawrence 1852 

Joseph S. LoYoring 1853 

Joseph Chandler 1856 

Henry G. Banning 1860 

William P. Richardson 1860 

William S. Hilles 1860 

Edward Bringhuret 1861 

Charles Warner 1864 

Bobert R. Porter, M.D 1868 

Joseph Bringhurst 1874 

Richard P. Gibbons 1879 

Edward Bringhunt, Jr 1881 

J. H. Hoffecker, Jr 1886 

11, 1735, to Elizabeth Pennock, by whom he had five 
children — ^Mary, married to William Marshall ; Ann, 
died unmarried ; Joseph, the sulj^ect of this sketch ; 
Elizabeth, married to John Tripp ; and Sarah, msziifid 
to Richard Richardson. 

Soon after their marriage Edward and Elizabeth 
Tatnall moved to Wilmington, and he was one of the 
first carpenters in the town. In 1765 he placed a 
weather-vane, still swinging over a building in the 
ninth ward, on the same site of the stone house over 
which he placed it one hundred and twenty -three yean 
ago. He died in Wilmington, Fourth Month 11, 

Joseph Tatnall, son of Edward and Elizabeth Tat- 
nall, was first married to Elizabeth Lea, First Month 
31, 1765, in the Friends' Meeting at Wilmington. His 
second marriage' was with Sarah Paxson. His chil- 
dren were Sarah, born 1765, married to Thomas Lea; 
Margaret, born 1767, married to James Price ; Eliza- 
beth, born 1770, married to Joseph Baily, for thirty- 
one years president of the Bank of Delaware ; Ed- 
ward, died an infant; Ann, born 1775, married to 
John Bella h; Joseph, born 1777, died of yellow 
fever in 1798 ; Esther, born 1779, married to William 
Warner, father of Charles Warner, of Wilmington ; 
Edward, born 1782, married to Margery Paxson; 
Thamas, born 1785, died of yellow fever in 1798. 

Joseph Tatnall was the first of the name to engage 
in the milling business on the Brandywine. Daring 
the War of the Revolution, when yet a young man, 
he purchased grain and manufactured flour in large 
quantities. His name was known far and near, for his 
energy in conducting his extensive business, his great 
hospitality and his sterling patriotism during the 
eventful period of the struggle for independence. 
When Washington was in Wilmington, before the 
battle of Brandywine, he was for a time the guest of 
Joseph Tatnall, who ground flour for the famishing 
army when few others would, owing to the danger of 
his mill being destroyed by the enemy if they ap- 
proached. A few years lat€r, as the first President of 
the United States, Washington, while passing througd 
Wilmington on his way from Philadelphia, then the 
national capital, to his Mount Vernon home, stopped 
his chaise in front of the home of Friend Tatnall, and 
not finding him there, walked down to the mill to 
greet this worthy patriot. 

About 1770 Joseph Tatnall built the large stone 
mansion, now No. 1803 Market Street, and then 
one of the few dwellings in the village of Brandy- 
wine, and it was here that Washington and Lafa- 
yette dined j with him. Lafayette stopped in front 
of it and inquired concerning the family of his former 
friend when he visited America in 1824. Greneral 
Wayne had his headquarters in this house, the rear 
parlor being used as the council chamber. The front 
door jamb for many years had the mark of a missile 
thrown at Gen. Wayne while here. It is, therefore, 
one of the most historic buildings now standing in 

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^ Joseph Tatnall was engaged extensively in the 

shipping trade for nearly half a century. As an evi- 
dence of his ability to perform large business trans- 
actions, it is related that on one occasion he pur- 
chased thirty-five thousand bushels of grain of Col. 
Lloyd, of Talbot County, Maryland, valued at forty 
thousand dollars, and paid for it in cash. This oc- 
curred just before the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, and was then considered a very large amount of 
money. In 1798, when the pre^ient City Hall was 
' built, he purchased a fine town clock and bell in 
Europe, and presented them to the citizens of Wil- 
mington. The bell remained in position on the City 
Hall until 1866, and in 1878 was given to the Phoenix 
Fire Company, in the belfry of whose engine build- 
ing it now hangs. 

On account of his rare executive and administra- 
tive abilities, Joseph Tatnall was chosen the first 
president of the Bank of Delaware, when it was or- 
ganized in 1795, and continued in that position until 
1802. Two of his sons-in-law, Thomas Lea and Joseph 
Baily, succeeded him in the same position. Late in 
life he built the large house at the corner of Nine- 
teenth and Market Streets, now the residence of 
Christian Febiger. He intended this building for 
himself, but his son, Edward Tatnall, having married 
about this time, the father gave him possession 
of it. He died August 13, 1813. 

Edward, son of Joseph and Elizabeth I^ea Tatnall, 
married Margery Paxson in 1809, by whom he had 
the following sons and daughters : Joseph, Edward 
and the late William and Henry L. Tatnall ; Eliza- 
beth T., widow of the late Commodore Gillis ; Sarah T., 
(deceased), married Christian Febiger ; Anne T., mar- 
ried William Canby ; Mary, married to Edward Betts ; 
Margery (deceased), married E. Tatnall Warner. 

Edward Tatnall, the father, was connected with the 
Brandywine Mills the most of his life. He was in 
business there with his father first, and later with 
James Price. The firm of Tatnall & Lea was orig- 
inally Joseph Tatnall and Thomas Lea, and after- 
ward, from 1838 to 1864, the present Joseph Tatnall 
and William Lea. 

Joseph Tatnall, the oldest son of Edward and Mar- 
gery Paxson Tatnall, owns and resides in the late home- 
•tead of hia grandfather, Joseph, at 1803 Market {Street, 
built about one hundred and eighteen years ago, the 
floors in the front of which have never been changed. 
The high ceilings show the advanced ideas of the 
builder. Joseph Tatnall was married, in 1841, to Sarah, 
daughter of Ashton Richardson. The surviving chil- 
dren of this marriage are Ashton R., Thomas, Richard 
R., Lucy R. and William. 

Henry Latimer, who for the long period of thirty- 
one years filled the position of president of the Bank 
of Delaware with honor to himself and great credit 
to that institution, was born in Wilmington May 21, 
1799, and died at his house near the same city Febru- 
ary 28, 1885. James Latimer, his grandfather, came 
to America in 1736, settled at Newport, in New Castle 

County, and engaged extensively in the mercantile 
and shipping business. Largely through his indus- 
try and enterprise that village in early days was made 
an important mercantile centre. He became one of 
the most prominent and influenlial men of his day in 
Delaware, and was president of the convention that 
framed the first State Constitution. Dr. Henry Lati- 
mer, his son, and father of Henry Latimer, was a 
skillful physician ; practiced for many years in Wil- 
mington, and was a surgeon in the War of the Revo- 
lution. He was elected a Representative in Congress 
in 1793 from Delaware, and served until 1795, when 
he was chosen United States Senator, which high 
position he filled until he resigned in 1801. Henry 
Latimer inherited a large landed estate, including 
*' Woodstock," the homestead near Newport, owning 
it during his entire life. He obtained his education 
in the best schools the town of Wilmington then 
afibrded. Under the excellent guidance of intelligent 
and worthy parents, he was early taught that nobility 
of character, honesty and integrity were essential to 
a successful and useful career. It was these valued 
traits that Henry Latimer always cultivated and pos- 
sessed during his long and prosperous life of four- 
score and six years. 

When he reached the age of seventeen he went to 
Philadelphia, and was engaged in the mercantile 
business in that city for several years. He then re- 
turned to Delaware to superintend the cultivation of 
his farms, residing at the homestead, " Woodstock," 
until by the death of his brother, John R. Latimer, he 
came in possession of the beautiful country-seat near 
Wilmington, on the Newport turnpike. It was here 
that he resided during the later years of his life. 

In his successful career as a banker, Henry Lati- 
mer was beat known in Wilmington, in Philadelphia 
and over a very large area of the surrounding coun- 
try. In 1823, when but twenty-four years old, he was 
chosen a director in the Bank of Delaware, and con- 
tinued by annual election to be a member of the 
board of directors of that institution until his death, 
a period of sixty-two years. This incident is a re- 
markable one, and doubtless does not have a parallel 
in the whole history of the State. After serving 
seventeen years as a director of the bank, a vacancy 
occurred in the oflSce of president, and Henry 
Latimer was unanimously chosen to fill that position 
June 4, 1841. He entered upon the duties of the 
ofiice and performed them with his characteristic 
good judgment and wise foresight, continually keep- 
ing uppermost in his mind during his whole career 
the best interests of the institution over which he was 
called upon to preside. He was regular and punctual 
in his attendance at the bank, watched with zealous 
care all its afiairs, continued its reputation for excel- 
lent management and increased its prosperity. On 
the 7th of June, 1872, after a long, successful and 
prosperous administration, he resigned the presidency 
of the bank and retired to private life, though con- 
tinuing a member of its board of directors. He was 

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a highly esteemed and very useful citizen of the com- 
munity in which he lived. 

National Bank of Wilmington and Brandy- 
wine. — ^The institution now known by this name 
was chartered in 1810 as the President, Directors and 
Company of the Bank of Wilmington and Brandy- 
wine, the articles of association having been signed 
by one hundred and forty subscribers to the stock. 
The capital was fixed at two hundred thousand 
dollars, in shares of fifty dollars, of which five dollars 
must be paid at the time of subscribing ; five dollars 
at the expiration of every thirty days until twenty- 
five dollars had been paid, and the remainder at the 
pleasure of the directors. No director of another 
bank could hold a similar office in this one, and all 
must be citizens of the State. On April 16, 1810, the 
stockholders met at the public inn of Edward Thomas^ 
two doors above the present location of the bank, and 
elected these nine directors, — John Way, William 
Poole, Daniel Lowber, Robert Hamilton, Joseph 
Robinson, Jeremiah Woolston, James Jefferis and 
John Torbert. They organized by electing William 
Poole president, which position he held but eleven 
days and then resigned. The amount of eighteen 
thousand three hundred and sixty dollars was sub- 
scribed to the capital, and Robert Hamilton, Jere- 
miah Woolston and Joseph Robinson, the committee 
appointed to procure a banking-house, reported that 
Samuel Hogg's property, immediately above the 
present site of the bank, could be rented for three 
hundred dollars a year. The lease was executed 
May 11th, and the president was instructed to draw 
five hundred dollars from the " trunks " of this bank, 
deposited in the Bank of Delaware, to fit the building 
up and buy paper and plates for engraving the notes. 
A loan of its plate press was ofi*ered by the Bank of 
Delaware. Daniel Byrnes, of Baltimore, was elected 
cashier at one thousand dollars a year, but refused to 
come for less than one thousand one hundred dollars 
and *' house found him.*' The first bauking business 
was done May 19, 1810, when John James' note for 
two thousand dollars, and Thomas Coffin's note for 
two thousand five hundred dollars were discounted at 
sixty days. May 26th a committee reported that the 
amount of paid-in capital was thirty-four thousand five 
hundred and sixty- four dollars. The third instalment 
of seventeen thousand five hundred and thirty-five 
dollars was paid on June 9th, and Samuel Smith's 
note for two thousand dollars was discounted the 
same day. The president and Daniel Lowber, on 
June 29th, took twenty-two thousand and ninety-six 
dollars of the paid-in capital in notes to Philadelphia 
and obtained in exchange the same amount in specie. 
Three hundred impressions were made on half-sheets 
of five, ten and fifteen-dollar notes to the amount of 
twenty-one thousand dollars, from plates bought " by 
this bank in Philadelphia." Six hundred sheets of 
the same denomination, and fifleen hundred sheets of 
one, two and three-dollar notes were ordered. The 
bank was opened r^ularly for deposits and discounts 

June 21, 1810, on which day notes to amount of 14816 
were discounted, and on June 28th, $7198; July 2d, 
$8364; August 30th, $12,115. One of the heaviest 
amounts discounted during the bank's early history 
was on April 9, 1812, being $21,816. 

The fourth installment of five dollars a share was 
paid July 6, 1810, amounting to $17,530. The fifth 
installment was called for August 16th. One-half of 
the capital stock, or $100,000, was now paid in. 

The first dividend of eight per cent, per annum 
was declared January 7, 1811. Edward Thomas was 
paid on the same day $41.49 for the use of his house 
by the bank and for a place of meeting of stockhold- 
ers during the preceding year. John Way, John 
Torbert and Robert Hamilton were paid $58.77 od 
January 11,1811, "for going to Dover on charter 
business." Two thousand impressions in small notes 
were made February 27, 1811. The president's sal- 
ary for the first year was $400. A 4} per cent divi- 
dend for the preceding six months was declared July 
1st. On August 11th there was $46,997 in specie on 
deposit, and on January 1, 1812, $53,036. The cashier 
informed the public, in 1812, that there were counter- 
feit notes on this bank in circulation. A dividend of 
5 per cent, for the preceding six months was declared 
January 2, 1812, when there was a surplus of $3500 ; 
ten thousand sheets of bank paper were printed for 
the year. A committee made up of John Way, Jacob 
Jefieris and John Torbert reported, on February 12, 
1812, that they had bought from William Townsend, 
for $3300, the present site of the bank ; whereupon, 
the directors decided that " the bank ought not to be 
a tenant-house, and the erection of a banking build- 
ing would add confidence, security and re>pectability 
to the institution." The new edifice was finished 
March 25, 1813. On May 10th, Directors Joseph 
Robison and Samuel Shipley were instructed to have 
$20,000 in specie put in boxes ready for ha-ty removal 
should it be necessary in consequence of reports of 
the arrival of the British fleet in Delaware Bay ; but 
this order was revoked on reception of the news of 
the defeat of the enemy at Baltimore on September 
12th-15th. The cashier,on August 28,1815, was ordered 
to purchase for the bank, with the Baltimore paper 
on deposit, $62,000 worth of United States stock at 
99i. These were transferred to the Bank of Pennsyl- 
vania and finally sold to the Bank of Philadelphia, 
February 22, 1816. The Bank of Wilmington and 
Brandywine sent representatives to a meeting of 
bankers held in Dover January 3, 1816, for reinstat- 
ing the credit of the paper of the banks of the State. 
The surplus fund was increased $4000 this year. 
This bank, the Farmers* Bank and the Bank of 
Delaware each subscribed $10,000 in stock to 
assist in constructing the Qap and Newport Turn- 

The financial crisis which caused considerable 
trouble from 1815 to 1819 had now shown itself, and 
an agreement by this bank with the banks of Pennsyl- 
vania was made January, 1816, not to receive on de- 

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poeit any paper issued by banks in the South and 
West. During a part of the year 1816 the local 
banks of Delaware would not receive or deposit 
each other's notes on account of *' the great embar- 
rassment of the circulating medium." January 20, 
1817, the Farmers* Bank of Delaware agreed to accept 
notes of this bank, which reciprocated the favor. 

The same relations were soon afterwards established 
with the Bank of West Chester. 

The notes of the Bank of Wilmington and Brandy- 
wine were placed at par in Philadelphia in July, 
1817, when eighty thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
seven dollars in United States bank stock were sold. 
The following statement was made in August of this 
year: Specie on hand, $16,333; bank-notes, $81,714; 
checks, drafts, etc., $54,875 ; surplus fund, $50,000 ; 
paid-in capital, $120,000. 

At the meeting of stockholders held at the public 
inn of Mary Thomas, widow of Edward, six of the 
nine directors were not re-elected. A difficulty had 
arisen on account of certain defaced notes not be- 
ing properly destroyed and the institute became 
nearly bankrupt. The stockholders appointed Jacob 
Airichs, James Brian, John Walker, Evan Morris 
and Samuel Spackman to confer with the directors on 
the advisability of closing the bank. It was decided, 
however, to restore the stock to par value. The 
amount of the bank's notes in circulation then was 
fifty-eight thousand dollars, to provide for a redemp- 
tion of which there was but thirty-five thousand dol- 
lars in assets. For a time the institution ceased to 
issue money or receive deposits. John Torbert, Jo- 
seph Grubb and John Wardell visited Philadelphia 
" to assist in restoring credit of bank there." A 
committee appointed to examine into the condition 
of the bank on May 10, 1819, reported the liabilities 
to be $265,165, and resource in bills receivable, 
bonds, stocks, etc., $298,445, leaving a " nominal bal- 
ance in favor of the bank of $33,280, most of which 
is collectible." It was therefore determined to im* 
mediately restore the credit of the bank, and for this 
parpoee $12,000 was borrowed from the State Bank 
at Camden, N. J., $10,000 from the Bank of Delaware 
and $22,000 from the Bank of Pennsylvania, the 
president and directors signing notes payable in four 
months, thus making themselves personally responsi- 
ble to the lenders. The bank resumed business May 
18th by discounting paper to the amount of $13,510. 
The first notes were issued from new plates on July 
15, 1820, to the amount of $12,000. Cashier Byrnes 
agreed to serve a year for $900 ; Evan Thomas was 
elected clerk ; John Torbert, the president, received 
1300 a year. The first dividend after the crisis was 
a semi-annual one of fifty cents on each share, de- 
clared July 2, 1821. A new charter was obtained 
February 7, 1822. Daniel Byrnes resigned the posi- 
tion of cashier May 12, 1823, and Evan Thomas was 
elected at $700 a year. Joseph Wollaston was chosen 
teller at $400. 

John Torbert resigned as president in 1824, and 

John Wales succeeded him. Evan Thomas, the 
cashier, died November 25, 1825. Joseph P. Wol- 
laston was elected to the position. Daniel Byrnes 
returned to the bank as teller at the same time. At a 
meeting of the stockholders in December, 1828, they 
resolved to make good the capital stock and on the 
21st of the following January obtained from the 
Legislature the necessary enabling act. An install- 
ment of $5 per share was called on March 28, 1829, 
$5 on July 11th and $8 on August 30th. On Septem- 
ber 17th fourteen hundred and twenty-five new 
shares were issued at $30 each, and by January 4, 
1830, the bank had so far recovered as to be able to pay 
a six per cent, dividend. It escaped disaster in the 
financial convulsion which shook the country in 
1837, when the following were amo^g the principal 
stockholders: John Janvier, 244 shares; James 
Gardner, 220 ; Jesse Mendenhall, 164 ; Joseph Men- 
denhall, 153 ; Jeremiah Wollaston's executors, 137 ; 
John Wales, 110; William Seal, 100; Martha Pen- 
nock, 100 ; John Walker, 95 ; Jesse Chandler, 85 ; 
Vincent Gilpin, 75 ; Samuel McClary, 68 ; William 
R. Sellers, 69 ; George Bush, 56 ; Mahlon Betts, 53 ; 
Jacob Pusey, 50. 

An act of Assembly, passed February 18, 1837, ex- 
tended the provision of the charter by creating 
twenty-six hundred and sixty-seven new shares, to 
be disposed of at not less than $35 each. The amount 
on deposit October 19, 1837, was $98,602. 

Washington Jones, now president of the bank, was 
the first discount clerk, elected in 1839, and served 
until the fall of that year, when he resigned and was 
succeeded by William S. Hagany. In 1854 a divi- 
dend of five per cent, and an extra dividend of two 
per cent, were declared, and by April, 1856, the de- 
posits had increased to $123,349.70. Seventpen months 
later came the great panic of 1857, and Mr^ George 
Bush, president of the bank, represented it at the gen- 
eral meeting of Wilmington bankers on September 
28, 1857, when it was resolved to suspend specie 
payments. It resumed with the general resumption 
of the next year, but of course suspended again during 
the Civil War and until 1879. In January, 1862, it 
loaned the State $10,000 to pay the direct tax assessed 
by the general government. On May 22, 1865, it 
became a member of the national banking system as 
the " National Bank of Wilmington and Brandy wine," 
with a capital stock of $200,010, the directors being 
John A. Duncan, Jacob Pusey, Leonard E. Wales, 
Washington Jones, George W. Sparks, William 
Richards, Thomas W. Bowers, Joseph Mendenhall 
and Joseph T. Bailey. 

President John A. Duncan died Wednesday, Au- 
gust 5, 1868. and Washington Jones was elected to 
succeed him and has held the position continuously 
for nineteen years. Jacob Pusey, after serving as di- 
rector for nearly twenty-five years, died March 6, 
1869. A dividend of seven per cent, was declared 
yearly from 1870 to 1878, and six per cent, in 1879. 
Otho Nowland, the present cashier, entered the bank 

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aa a clerk, April 26, 1872. Caleb Sheward is paying 
teller and Aubrey Thatcher ia receiving teller. On 
December 26, 1884, Washington Jones, Oeorge S. 
Capelle and W. T. Porter were appointed a committee 
to enlarge and improve the banking-house. By 
November ot the following year it was extended to 
Shipley Street and the office of the bank is now a 
large, roomy, well-lighted structure, and furnished 
with the best ot conveniences for banking purposes. 
One of Hall's improved burglar and fire-proof vaults 
was recently procured. The capital of the bank is 
$200,010 ; surplus, $100,000; undivided profits, about 
$25,000; loans and discount during the past year, 
$600,000; and deposits, about $550,000. 

The following is a list of the presidents and the 
length of time each has filled the office : 

WnUam Poole April 1«, 1810, to April 28, 1810 

John Way May 4, 1810, to April 6, 1819 

John Torb«rt April 6. 1819, to May 17, 1824 

John Wales May 17,1824, to April 9. 1829 

WUliam Seal April 9, 1829, died Sept 20, 1842 

George Biuh 8ept.'.24, 1812, to Sept. 22, 1863 

John A. Duncan Oct 6, 1863, to Aug. 6, 1868 

Washington Jones „...Aug. 24, 1868, to date 

The following have been cashiers : 

Daniel Byrnes May 4, 1810, to May 12, 1823 

Evan Thomas May 12, 1823, to Nor. 25, 1826 

Joseph P. WoUaston Dec. 1, 1826, te Oct 9, 1837 

George W. Sparks Oct 9, 1837, to April 7, 1866 

WiUiam 8. Hagany April 7, 1866, to Dec. 16, 1862 

Evan Bice Dec. 16, 1862, to Feb. 10, 1879 

George W. Sparks Feb. 10, 1879, to Jan. 30, 1882 

Otho NowUnd Jan. 30, 1882, to date 

The names of the first directors are • given above. 
The following is a list of the other directors, with the 
date of their election : 

Peter Biynberg 1810 

Samuel Shipley 1811 

William Seal 1811 

Joseph Grubb 1812 

Isaac Dixon 1812 

WilUamBice 1813 

John Jones 1813 

Jeremiah Woolston 1814 

Thomas Bichardson 1814 

Jacob Alrichs 1815 

Michael McGear 1815 

Allen Thompson 1816 

Bobert Porter 1816 

Thomas Braden 1817 

John Warden 1819 

EUMendenhall 1819 

John Gordon 1819 

DaridBush 1819 

John Patterron ...1819 

Isaac Lamb 1819 

Jeremiah Woolston 1819 

John Stapler 1820 

John Walk6r 1821 

Benjamin C. Chandler 1821 

Isaac Pennock 1822 

John Wales. 1823 

Edward Tatnall 1824 

Washington Bice 1826 

Samuel McClary 1827 

Jesse Mendenhall 1827 

George Griffin 1828 

James Gardner 1829 

Edward Inskip 1829 

Joseph C. Gilpin. 1829 

WUUamSeal 1829 

MaUon Betts. 1830 

William Chandler 1831 

James Brown 1831 

Vincent Gilpin 1832 

John P. McLear 1832 

George Bush 1833 

George Jones 1834 

Jacob Pusey 1835 

Henry Hicks ia39 

Benjamin A. Janvier 1839 

John A. Duncan.^ 
Henry G. Banning. 
George Bichardson. 
Thomas C. Alrichs. 
Thomas B. Bice. 
Evan C. Stotsenburg. 

Washington Jones. 1847 

Edward L. Bice 1860 

Joseph Mendenhall 1850 

William Bichards 1851 

JohnH. Adams 1853 

Edward Betts 1865 

George W. Sparks 1856 

Stephen S. Southard 1857 

Joseph T. Baily 1857 

Edward B. Mcaees ..1858 

William 8 Craig 1860 

Edward Darlington 1861 

Leonard E. Wales.. 1862 

Henry F. Dure 1863 

Thomas Darlington 18C4 

Thomas W. Bowers 1865 

James Morrow 1866 

Jesse Lane 1866 

George S. Capelle 1868 

John P. Wales, MJ) 1870 

Edward PuK^y 1872 

1 The records from 1841 to 1848 are not known to be in •zlstenoe. 

Allen Gawthrop^ 1879 Alfred D. Warner \m 

Wm. G. Pennypacker 1879 J. Newlin Gawthrop 1885 

Holstein Harvey 1879 Henry Mendenhall ISM 

William T. Porter 1883 Thomas P. Smith „...188? 

Charles W. Weldin 1883 

The directors for 1888 are Washington Jones, Geo. 
S. Capelle, William G. Pennypacker, C. Wesley Wel- 
din, William T. Porter, J. Newlin Qawthrop, Alfred 
D. Warner, Thomas P. Smith and James Morrow. 

Washington Jones, now and for many years presi- 
dent of the National Bank of Wilmington and Bran- 
dy wine, and who is about equally well known » 
manufacturer and banker, rather singularly, was not 
brought up or educated to either calling, but spent 
twenty years of his early manhood in the mercantile 
business. He is of Welsh and Irish descent. His 
great-grandfather came from Wales, and was one of 
the earliest settlers of that nationality in Delaware. 
His father, William G. Jones, who was a cabinet- 
maker, lived all of his life in the house where he was 
born, and died there in his eighty-ninth year. His 
wife, Rachel Walker, was of a Pennsylvania family, 
of Irish origin. Their son Washington, the subject 
of this short memoir, was bom in Wilmington Janu- 
ary 5, 1818, and his youth was spent in the manner 
usual in the then small town, except that he could 
not fully enjoy even the limited educational advan- 
tages of the time because of poor health. When 
sixteen years of age he went to Philadelphia and 
entered a retail dry-goods store, and two years later 
he became a clerk in a wholesale house in the same 
city. After the expiration of a year he returned to 
Wilmington, clerked a year in a dry -goods store, 
served another year as discount clerk in the same 
bank of which he has since been president, and then, 
in 1839, when twenty-one years of age, with very little 
capital besides the knowledge which he had picked up 
in his varied experience as a clerk, he engaged in the 
dry-goods business upon his own account. He pros- 
pered, slowly at first, and then more rapidly, and for 
nearly twenty years he followed this line of merchan- 
dizing with such generally good results as to lay the 
foundation of a fortune. In 1858 he sold this store 
and became associated with Thomas H. Baynard, 
under the firm-name of Baynard & Jones, in the 
manufacture of morocco. He has ever since been 
identified with that trade, as a sketch in the manu- 
facturing chapter shows. 

Mr. Jones became a director of the Wilmington 
and Brandywine Bank a few years afler he served 
there as discount clerk, and, with the exception of a 
few brief intervals, has held the position ever since. 
He was elected president in 1868. Large and exact- 
ing as have been his duties in this office, and at the 
head of a great morocco house, his energies have had 
exercise in numerous other channels. He has been a 
prime mover and active force in many of the enter- 
prises which have been instrumental in advancing 
the material welfare of the city. He was prominent* 
ly identified with the Franklin Cotton Factory, and 
was one of the foremost pushers in the movement 

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MahionBetts 1830 I Edward PMPy 1872 ly laenuneu Wit H ine i? rau Klin uoMon racwry, wu 

1 The noordf from 1841 to 1848 are not known tobe in ezMenoe. was One of the foremoSt pushers in the mOYefflent 

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which secured the establishment of gas works in the 
city. He is the only survivor of the directors who, 
in 1852, obtained the charter for the gas company. 
He has also been a chief promoter of several railroad 
enterprises, and has held positions of responsibility in 
connection with them. He is regarded as one of the 
most careful and prudent business men of the city, 
and while his abilities have brought a reward to him, 
they have not been of less value to the city — the peo- 
ple generally — both in a material and moral way. 
His religious affiliation has been with the Baptist 
denomination, and he has long been an active mem- 
ber of the Second Church, has held nearly every 
official position in it, including the presidency of the 
board of trustees and the treasurership ; took a prom- 
inent part in securing the funds for erecting the hand- 
some church edifice at Fourth and French Streets, 
and was himself one of the largest contributors. He 
has ever been one of its principal supporters, and was 
for fifteen years the superintendent of the Sunday- 
school. Mr. Jones has been twice married. His first 
wife, with whom he was united in 1841, was Margaret 
Wilson, daughter of Washington Rice, a prominent 
citizen and business man of Wilmington. There 
were four children by this union, — Emma D. (Mrs. 
Wm. W. Lobdell), Charles R., Margaret R. (Mrs. D. 
S. Cresswell, of Philadelphia) and William G. Mrs. 
Jones died October 4, 1864. In 1866 Mr. Jones mar- 
ried Emma W. Stager, of Philadelphia, and they have 
one child, Lizzie S. (Mrs. N. B. Danforth). 

The Wilmington Clearing-house Association 
was organized in September, 1887, by electing Wash- 
ington Jones president, and the National Bank of 
Wilmington and Brandywine, managers, for six 
months. The business of this association was begun 
October 1,1887. 

The Farmers* Bank.— The act incorporating the 
Farmers' Bank of the State of Delaware was passed 
February 4, 1807, empowering it to organize with a 
capital not to exceed $600,000, in ten thousand shares 
of fifty dollars each. The principal bank under this 
act was established at Dover, with branches at New 
Castle and Georgetown. 

By a supplementary charter of January 22, 1813, a 
branch of the bank was established at Wilmington 
and opened a few months later on the west side of 
Market Street, a short distance above its present 
location. While the institution thus consists of 
branches, it is invariably treated as a unit in legisla- 
tion. Each branch has a separate business, but the 
allotment of capital is permanent, and the entire 
resources of the corporation guarantee the liabilities 
of any one branch. The holdings of the State, which 
amount to $360,d60, constitute a majority of the stock, 
and the investment of this block is mainly devoted to 
the fund for establishing free schools. Annually the 
bank pays to the State in dividends for the public use, 
121,669, thus making the welfare of the institution a 
matter of personal interest to every citizen. In return, 
the bank enjoys by law the custody of certain State 

and county funds which form a large proportion of 
the public moneys. 

The total capital now is $680,000 distributed as 
follows : 

Bank At Dover 1224,000 

Bank at Georgetown $120,000 

Bank at New Oastle 100,000 

Bank at Wilmington 236,000 

The present building of the Farmers' Bank of Wil- 
mington was erected in 1836. Under the charter 
there were nine directors, six of whom are chosen by 
the stockholders, and nine elected by the General 
Assembly. The presidents of the Wilmington branch 
since its establishment, have been : 

John Ramsey July 6, 1813, to Aug. 26, 1816 

Louis McLane Sept. 18, 1816, to Jan. 7, 1818 

John Ramsey Jan. 8, 1818, to Jan. 8,1824 

Dr. Allen HcLane Jan. 8, 1821, to Oct 19, 1831 

Allan Thomson Oct. 22, 1881, to Jan. 7, 1836 

Jamee A. Bayani Jan. 7, 1836, to Jan. 6, 1848 

David G. Wilson ..Jan. 6, 1843, to March 31, 1866 

Charles I. Dn Pont April 6, 1866, to Dec. 12, 1868 

Francis Barry Jan. 7, 1868, to Jan. 8, 1878 

George Richardson Jan. 8, 1878, to date 

The cashiers have been : 

Peter Caveriy July 6, 1813, to Aug. 19, 1816 

John Rumsey Aug. 26, 1815, to March 16, 1817 

James Uarper^ March 16, 1817, to Dec. 30, 1820 

Peter Oaverly* Dec. 30, 1820, to Oct. 1, 1827 

John Torbert* Oct 17, 1827, to June 2, 1842 

Allan Thomson June 6, 1842, to Jan. 16, 1843 

Robert D. Hicki Jan. 17, 1848, to Feb. 16, 1868 

JoMph A. Heeton Feb. 15, 1868, to March 6, 1867 

Aquila G. Robinson March 9, 1867 to date. 

The subjoined is a list of the directors, and the dates 
of their appointment or election, the first nine names 
being those of the original board chosen July 6, 1813 : 
John Bumsey, Frederick Leonard, Louis McLane, 
Mordecai McKinney, John McOalmont, George Duf- 
field, John Stockton, Alexander Forrester, John War- 
ner, Caesar Rodney, 1814; E. L Du Pont, 1814; John 
Gkurdon, 1816 ; Richard E. Cochran, 1816 ; Outerbridge 
Horsey, 1816; Isaac Lamb, 1817; N. G. Williamson, 
1817; Dr. John Brinckle, 1817; Dr, Allen McLane, 
1818; Joseph Robinson, 1818; Dr. Archibald Alexan- 
der, 1820 ; Thomas Bradun, 1820; William Warner, 
1822 ; George Read, Jr., 1822 ; Victor Du Pont, 1828 ; 
John R. Brinkle, 1823; Allen Thomson, 1823; James 
A. Bayard, 1824; Cyrus Lamborn, 1824; David C. 
Wilson, 1826; Joseph C. Gilpin, 1826; Joseph G. 
Rowland, 1826 ; Josiah F. Clement, 1827; John J. 
Milligan, 1827; William Chandler, 1829 ; Samuel S. 
Grubb, 1829 ; John P. Garesche, 1830 ; Harry Con- 
nelly, 1830; Charles LDu Pont, 1830; Henry White-' 
ly,1833; Enoch Roberts, 1833; Henry M. Bayard, 
1836; John Evans Young, 1837; Elisha Huxley, 
1841; George Craig, 1841; Hyland B. Pennington, 
1843; John Flinn, 1843; Edward G. Bradford, 1843: 
Henry Hicks, 1861 ; Spencer D. Eves, 1861 ; J. M. 
Turner, 1866 ; R. R. Robinson, 1867 ; N. T. Boulden, 
1867 ; Thomas Clyde, 1867 ; T. F. Crawford, 1868 ; 
J. Morton Poole, 1861 ; Vincent C. Gilpin, 1861 ; 

1 Died in office. 

* Appointed caahier of office of discount and depoeit of the Bank of 
United States, at Lexington, Kentucky, December, 1820. 

* Died in office. 

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James Delaplaine, 1861; James Bradford, 1863; Gilpin. From these a board of twenty-five managers 

Francis Barry, 1867 ; William Bright, 1867 ; George was elected, which organized by the election of the 

G. Lobdell, 1867; William G. Gibbons, 1869; William late Hon. Willard Hall as president and Lea Posey 

M. Kennard, 1869 ; Edward Moore, 1870 ; George as secretary. A code of by-laws was adopted Febm- 

Richardson, 1875 ; George H. Bates, 1875 ; James ary 2, 1832. The first investment committee was 

Ponder, 1878 ; E. T. Warner, 1879 ; John P. Dough- composed of the president and Edward Tatnall, 

ten, 1879; John P. Allmond, 1881; J. L. Carpenter, David C. Wilson, Eli Hilles and James Canby. At 

Jr., 1883 ; Alexander J. Hart, 1885; Enoch Moore, the same time it was ** Resolved, that for the purpose 

1887. of receiving deposits and making payments the office 

The Board of Directors for 1888 are George Rich- of the society shall be open and the proper officers 

ardson, president ; Theodore F. Crawford, George G. attend from ten o'clock a.m. till noon, and from two 

Lobdell, George H. Bates, John P. Doughten, John o'clock p.m. till four, in every seventh day (Saturday) 

P. Allmond, J. L. Carpenter, Jr., James Bradford and commencing on seventh day the 18th instant." The 

Enoch Moore. first office of the society was that of its secretary, Lea 

George Richardson is president of the bank ; A. G. Pusey, which was on the east side of Market Street, 

Robinson, cashier ; Thomas E. Young, teller ; John between Fifth and Sixth Streets, below the City Hall ; 

N. Carswell, discount clerk and J. H. Gooding, and here business was commenced February 18, 1832. 

clerk. The president served without salary, and this contin- 

State of the Farmers* Bank at Wilmington, Jan- ued to be the rule for nearly fifty years. The com- 

uary, 1888. pensation to the secretary for his services and the use 

^■**=™- of his office was fixed at $100 yearly. Interest on 

SS^?o;i*di;iiunt^*ani''o^^^^^^^ m^fi dcposiU was paid at four per cent, per annum, calcu- 

Current Expensee and Taxes paid 8,351.11 lated on wholc Calendar months; but no sum less 

^^i:^,^£^-i^;:i.r;::::::::z:::z:::::z: ^^^i t»»»n five doiurs couw draw inter^t. it is a cuhous 

commentary on the business habits of the day, that 

Liabilities. $571,072.73 ^^^ Bank of Delaware was asked to allow the society 

Capital stock |23ft,ooo.oo to Overdraw its account to an amount not exceeding 

?;:s'"d.ii:;iflt.::::::::;::;::.:;::::;: 1S:« *5oo. Thh was granted, someyean, later the Bank 

Certified Checks 8,304.69 of Wilmington and Brandywine agreed to extend 

{;i?"S'ntaSSlni;;;.::::::.:;:::::::;;:::..:::"^ 'S:^ul ^hu privilege to a sum not exceeding $iooo, and the 

account was moved to it. The business of the society 

$571,072.78 gradually increased. The first audit, made by C. I. 
The Wilmington Savings Fund.— On August Dupont, Arnold Naudain and Isaac Johnson, eighteen 
20, 1831, a committee reported to an adjourned meet- months after commencement of business, showed 
ing of some of the most prominent citizens of the that there had been received $19,588.76, in four bun- 
town that in accordance with their instructions they dredand twenty deposits, of which sum $3800.22 had 
had prepared articles of association for a savings been repaid, while the investments and cash amounted 
fund, which were adopted and signed by fifty-seven to $16,966.77. 

persons. At another meeting a few days later Lea In 1837 the assets amounted to $37,463.11, the sur- 

Pusey, Richai'd H. Bayard and Samuel Hilles were plus being $1,835.60. In 1847 the assets amounted to 

commissioned to procure an act of incorporation, $71,280.46, and the surplus to $9010.35. 

which was passed January 11, 1832. The charter The business made rapid progress in the next 

members were Joseph G. Rowland, Richard H. Bay- decade and in 1857 the assets amounted to $251,659.- 

ard, William Gibbons, Thomas Garrett, E. W. Gilbert, 93, and the surplus to $27,987.46. In 1867 the amount 

E. W. Gilpin, D. C. Wilson, Allen Thompson, John of assets was $481,896.34, and of surplus, $53,876.68. 

Bullock, Samuel Hilles, Henry F. Askew, George These again nearly doubled in the next ten yean, 

Jones, W. A. Mendenhall, Henry Gibbons, James W. being respectively, in 1877, assets $876,637.79, and 

Thompson, John Gordon, John Elliot, Samuel Buzby, surplus $99,406.43. In the ten years following the in- 

Hy. Whiteley, Robert Porter, James Webb, Samuel crease was very rapid so that in 1887 the assets 

Wollaston, Henry Latimer, Willard Hall, Lea Pusey, reached the sum of $2,546,903.48, and the surplus 

James Canby, John Wales, William P. Brobson, amounted to $214,249.21. 

Joseph Dauphin, Edward Tatnall, John H. Price, In an institution such as the Wilmington Savings 
Joseph T. Price, Edmund Canby, Samuel Shipley, Fund, it is necessary that the greatest caution should 
Eli Hilles, Jacob Alrichs, Mahlon Betts, Samuel be taken in investing the money of its depositors. 
Poole, James Price, James J. Brindley, Philip .Tones, This baa always been mest carefully done. The bulk 
Thomas C. Alrichs, David Bush, Washington Rice, of the investments have been in mortgages of a first- 
Benjamin B. Boulden, Harry Connelly, James Sidall, class character, mainly in that city. Of late years 
J. P. Gkuresche, Charles I. DuPont, David Smyth, these investments have resulted in aiding many of the 
Edward Grubb, A. S. Reed, Ziba Ferris, Joseph depositors in obtaining, on easy terms, houses of their 
Bringhurst, E^dwardBringhurst, W. W. Baker, Thomas own, thus doing them a double service by first giving 

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May, 1876. He was succeeded by his son, J. Ernest which he displayed in the discharge of duties pertain- 

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them a safe place to inveat small accumulations and 
•avingB, and then aiding them further by loaning 
them money to purchase properties, which loans, by 
continued savings, are gradually discharged. This 
institution has therefore combined the best features 
of a savings fund and loan association. 

In 1840 the office of the Fund was removed to a 
property on the ^est side of Market Street, between 
Sixth and Seventh Streets, which was bought for 
four thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars, where 
it remained until 1856, when the corporation erected 
the fine, iron* front, four-story building at the corner 
of Eighth and Market Streets, for the use of the so- 
ciety, and as a dwelling for the treasurer. Within 
the last few years the growth of the business has been 
so very rapid that it was quite evident that some fur- 
ther accommodation would be required. Rather than 
attempt to improve the building which had well 
served for more contracted times, the managers wisely 
determined to make another move. Two large houses 
at the corner of Ninth and Market Streets were pur- 
chased and torn down, and the very solid and splen- 
did structure which now adorns the site was erected ; 
and to this on the 21st of November, 1887, the busi- 
ness was transferred. It is by far the finest building 
of its character in the State. The architect was 
Addison Hutton. of Philadelphia, and the builder 
James Mitchell. The material is Fox Island granite, 
and it is very substantially built. The banking- 
room is spacious and lofly, being about ninety feet in 
length by thirty-six in width and thirty-five feet in 
height, from fioor to ceiling. A steel vault fifteen 
feet by ten feet, in floor dimensions, and eight feet 
high, with doors, time-locks, etc., of the latest and 
most effective invention, protects its contents. This 
was built by the Marvin Safe Company. The 
rooms for managers' meetings, and for the useof com- 
mittees, and the president and secretary, are perfect 
in convenience and exquisite in tasteful furnishing, 
while the arrangements for heating and ventilating 
the whole leave nothing to be desired. 

The managers of the Savings Fund have always 
been ably seconded by its officers. The venerable 
Judge Hall was president from its foundation till his 
resignation, in December, 1872, a period of forty-one 
years, during which time he saw the society grow 
from a feeble beginning to a place of great usefulness 
and influence in the community ; and his wise and 
prudent management and counsel were mainly instru- 
mental in producing this result. He was succeeded 
by Joseph Bringhurst, who continued in office until 
his death, in March, 1880, and he by the present 
President, William M. Canby. 

The first treasurer was Lea Pusey, who resigned in 
December, 1838, and was succeeded by Jonas Pusey, 
who continued to hold the office until his death, in 
September, 1851. ^ Albert W. Smith was then elected, 
and continued the trusted and faithful treasurer of the 
society until ill health compelled him to resign in 
May, 1876. He was succeeded by his son, J. Ernest 

Smith, who also resigned in April, 1885, in order to 
take 'the office of solicitor, then newly created. Wil- 
mer J. Ellison, the present treasurer, was elected his 

The office of auditor was established in September, 
1848, and Albert W. Smith was elected to it. He re- 
signed in 1851 to take the office of treasurer. The 
other occupants of this responsible office have been 
William B. Wiggins, Joseph Richardson, Edward 
Tatnall and Joseph A. Richardson, the last of whom 
ably performs tbe duties. 

Albert W. Smith, the eldest son of Samuel and 
Sarah Watson Smith, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
on February 13, 1818. He was educated at his 
father's academy in Wilmington, Del., and finished 
there a full course of studies, including the French 
and Latin languages, qualifying himself for the pro- 
fession of teaching, which he pursued during his early 
life, in co-operation with his father both at Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, and Poughkeepsie, New York. From 
the latter place he removed to Wilmington, which he 
made his permanent home. 

He held commissions as notary and commissioner 
of deeds for many years, and was also by appointment 
city engineer and surveyor of Wilmington, all of 
which offices he filled with great acceptability. He 
was secretary and treasurer of the Wilmington and 
Brandywine Cemetery Company for thirty-three 
years, and after his resignation from that position 
was elected a member of the board of directors of that 
company. He was elected secretary and treasurer of 
the Wilmington Savings Fund, and served in that 
capacity from 1851 to 1876, having previously filled 
the office of auditor for that corporation. During his 
long term of office the deposits, which were less than 
$75,000 when he came into office, had increased to 
$603,000 and the surplus from $14,400 to $89,600. 

Under careful management, and the conservative 
policy adopted by this institution, which in a great 
degree devolved upon Mr. Smith to execute, its 
losses were exceedingly small, and a correspondingly 
sure and profitable business always enabled it to 
maintain its credit unimpaired. 

Ill health, resulting from overwork, compelled 
Mr. Smith's resignation as secretary and treasurer 
of the Wilmington Savings Fund, and his retire- 
ment from active business duties. At a meeting of 
the board of managers, held May 9, 1876, compli- 
mentary resolutions were unanimously adopted, 
and the hope expressed that many years of happi- 
ness and prosperity might follow his improving 
health. He was subsequently elected a member of the 
board of directors of this institution. His health was 
so much impaired as to necessitate his absence abroad 
for upwards of a year. 

Mr. Smith, as a business man, was conscientious, 
thorough, prompt and of sound judgment These 
characteristics won him strong friends and the con- 
fidence of the community. The ability and integrity 
which he displayed in the discharge of duties pertain- 

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ing to poBitioDS of trust and responsibility are best 
attested by the oflScial indorsement of the board of 
directors of the above institution to that effect, passed 
on the occasion of his retirement from ofSce. 

Mr. Smith, although often solicited, declined to 
enter politics. He was an original Republican, op- 
posed to the extension of slavery in the Territories, 
and was one of the very few Delawareans who support- 
ed Fremont and Dayton in the campaign of 1856. 

He is an active and prominent member of the relig- 
ious Society of Friends. 

Mr. Smith enjoys a green old age ; he is cheerful, 
fond of companionship and never so happy as when 
surrounded by his children. He is a great reader, 
absorbing the current topics of the day as well as the 
more serious productions of the best thinkers. 
. Mr. Smith married Elizabeth Wollaston, daughter 
of Samuel Wollaston, a prominent citizen of Wil- 
mington, June 6, 1839. 

Their descendants are S. Rodmond Smith, who 
married Sarah £., only daughter of Charles A. and 
Anna M. Ware, of Alexandria, Va. 

Linton Smith, who married Margaret, only daugh- 
ter of Charles and Mary R. Warner, of Wilmington, 

Alexis Smith, who married Mary H., eldest daugh- 
ter of Allen C. and Margaret Harmon, of Alexan- 
dria, Va. 

Walter Harold Smith, who married Isabella S., 
eldest daughter of George H. Sellers and Anna W. 
Sellers, of Ridley Park, Pa. 

Joshua Ernest Smith, who married Josephine T., 
second daughter of Henry L. and Caroline G. Tatnall, 
of Wilmington, Del. 

And Arthur H. Smith, unmarried. 

Mr. Smith's ancestry on the paternal side is given 
in the foregoing sketch of his father, Samuel Smith. 
On the maternal side it is as follows : 

His mother, Sarah, was the daughter of Levi 
and Rebecca ( Yerkes) Watson his wife ; Levi was the 
son of Joseph and Rachel (Croasdale) Watson ; Joseph 
was the son of Mark and Anna (Sotcher) Watson ; 
and Mark was the son of Thomas and Rebecca 
(Mark) Watson, his wife, who were married the 4th 
day of the Ninth Month, 1682, at Scotby, near Car- 
lisle, county of Cumberland, England, both being 
members of the religious Society of Friends. They 
subsequently came to this country and settled in the 
Pennsylvania province. 

The Union National Bank.— This bank was 
chartered as a State institution February 15, 1839, 
as the Union Bank of Delaware. The following 
commissioners were appointed to receive subscrip- 
tions to the capital stock : James Price, James Canby, 
Edward Tatnall, John Gordon, Alfred Du Pont, 
Thomas Stockton, Archibald Hamilton, Nicholas G. 
Willliamson, William Chandler, Merrit Canby, Wm. 
Hemphill Jones, William P. Brobson, David C. 
Wilson, John H. Price, Samuel Canby, John Elliott, 
John Connell, Eli Hilles, James A. Bayard, Wil- 

liam Lea, Allan Thomson, John Hemphill, Dr. 
James W. Thomson and Mahlon Betts. 

The first meeting of the commissioners was held 
at John HalPs Inn, the Indian Queen, on February 
23, 1839. James Price was appointed chairman, and 
William P. Brobson secretary. Subscription books 
were opened at City Hall on the 21st of March, fol- 
lowing. Edward Tatnall was appointed treasurer of 
the board of commissioners, Mahlon Betts assistant 
treasurer and William Hemphill Jones assistant sec- 
retary. " Peter Countiss high constable and Park 
Mason constable were appointed to preserve order iu 
City Hall during the sittings of the Commissioners.'' 
At this meeting the entire capital stock, six thousand 
shares of fifty dollars each, or three hundred thous- 
and dollars, was subscribed and five hundred dollars 
on each share immediately paid in. The next meet- 
ing of the commissioners was held at Indian Queen 
Hotel on April 3d, to conduct the first election for 
directors to serve until the first Monday in January, 
1840. The following were elected: James Price, 
James Canby, Edward Tatnall, Alfred Du Pont, 
John H. Price, Merritt Canby, William Lea, Isaac 
Starr, William Chandler, John Hemphill, James W. 
Thompson, William Hemphill Jones and Miller 

William P. Brobson was the first cashier. The 
doors were opened for business in a building on the 
site of the present large and commodious banking 
house in May, 1839. 

An act of the Legislature was passed in 1843 
changing the time of holding election of directors 
from first Monday in January to first Monday in 
February each year and also reduced the number of 
directors from thirteen to nine, which is the present 
number. Application was made to the Legislature 
and the charter of the bank amended so as to divide 
the capital stock into twelve thousand shares of 
twenty-five dollars each instead of six thousand shares 
of fifty dollars each, and authorizing the directors to 
dispose of the residue of the shares for the benefit 
of the bank. 

The Union Bank of Delaware was then fully estab- 
lished and soon recognized as one of the leading 
financial institutions in the State. Since it began 
business in 1839 it has met with the greatest suc- 
cess, as facts and statistics herein given will indicate. 
As a State institution it flourished, but the national 
banking system furnished superior advantages. The 
Board of Directors, therefore, made application and 
on the 20th of June, 1865, received a certificate from 
the comptroller of the currency at Washington con- 
verting the Union Bank of Delaware, into a National 
Bank. The directors then were Hon. Edward W. 
Gilpin, president; Henry Du Pont, James C. Aikin, 
Edgar Hounsfield, Joseph T. Warner, Edward T. 
Bellah, John H. Price, John B. Porter and Victor 
Du Pont. On June 27, 1865, they published the fol- 
lowing statement of the liabilities and resources of 
the institution : 

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Capital Stock 1203,176.00 

(IrtuUtion 99,391.00 

Depodto 185,674.1fl 

Due to Banlu. 19.862.28 

Stupenso aocoont. 1,000.00 

DiTidends 807/8 

InterMt account 16,661.31 

Sarpluflfund. 31,166.76 

The following were preBidents at the time men- 

James Price, first president, April 8, 18:i9 to 1841 ; James Canby, second 
president, January 4, 1841 to 1843; Edward W. Oilpin, third president, 
1843 to 1866 ; Victor Du Pont, fourth president, 1866 to date. 

The following is a complete list of the directors 
with the daces of election and retirement of each : 



Notes of this bank $ 30,068.00 

Other notes. 7,060.00 

Specie... 9,783.71 

■ and discounts. 274,668.98 







U.S. loans 

Delaware State bonds... 
Other bonds. 

Incidental expenses.. 


IT. S. taxes, paid dtiring past five months. 1,636..30 

Premium account.. 1,277.00 

Due from Banks 7,277.79 


The following is a record of the deposits and loans 
of this institution for the years given : 




$ 264,000 



I 185.000 355.000 

186,000 284,000 

643,(K)0 654,000 

600,000 600,000 

700,000 662,000 

831,000 900,000 

1,100,000 1,070,000 

After an existence of twenty-one years as a National 
Bank on October 5, 1887, the following official state- 
ment was furnished the government : 


LoMns and discounts. fl, 


r. 8. bonds to securH oirculatiou 

Other stockA, bonds and mortgagee 

Doe from approved reeervo ligents 

Due from otlitr National Rnnks 

Due from State Banks and bankers 

Real estate, furniture and fixtures 

Current expenstii and taxes |Mid 

Premiums paid 

Checks and other cash items 

Exchanges for rl»iaring-house 

Bills of other bflnks 

Fractional paper currency, iiiditls and cents 


Legal tender notes 

U. 8. certificates of deposit for legal tenders... 

Bederoption fund with U. S. Treasurer (5 per cent, 
of ctrcniation) 



















ToUl 11,641,402.21 


Capital stock paid in $ 203,175.00 

Sarplua fond 140,000.00 

UndJTided profits 46,374.28 

National Bank notes outstanding 178,800.00 

DiTidends unpaid 686.29 

Indlridoal depodta subject to check..... 1,031,414.84 

Certified checks 7,691.12 1,039,105.96 

Dnes to other National Banks 32,926.66 

Does to State Banks and bankers. 334.12 

James Price 1840-41 

James Canby 1840-42 

Kdward Tatnall 1840-43 

Alfred Du Pont 1840-66 

Merrit Canby 1840-62 

John H. Price 184t>-66 

William Lea 1840-46 

William Chandler 184tM3 

Miller Dunoit 1840-44 

James W. Thompson 184U-42 

Wm. Hemphill Junes 1840-41 

Isaac Starr. 1840-42 

John Hemphill 184f»-41 

Joseph T. Price 1841-52 

Caleb Ileald 1841-43 

Courtland I. Fell 1841-42 

Samuel Busby 1842-50 

Kdward W. Gilpin 1843-66 

James C. Aiken 1843-84 

Total Jl,641,402.21 

This bank has paid four hundred and seventy-four 
thousand dollars in dividends since the date of its 
oiganization as a National Bank to January 1887. 

John 0. Phillips. 1843-44 

John B. Porter 1M6-53 

Ziba Ferris 1847-58 

Vincent C. Gilpin 1848-56 

Victor Du Pont, president. ..1854 

Edward T. Beliah 1854 

Henry Du Pont, 1857-85 

Christian Febiger 1867-64 

Edgar Hounsfield 1864-65 

Joseph T. Warner 1865-66 

Charles L Du Pont, Jr 1866-72 

Benjamin S. Clark 1866-83 

William M. Canby 1867 

Jacob Derrickson 1867 

William H. Swift 1869 

Henry R. Dupont 1873 

Preston Lea 1884 

P. N. Brennan 1885 

Henry A. Du Pont 1886 

The board elected in 1888 comprises Victor Du 
Pont, Edward T. Beliah, William M. Canby, Preston 


Lea, Dr. Jacob Derrickson, William H. Swifl, Henry 
R. Du Pont, Henry A. Du Pont and Charles G. 

In January, 1873, Victor Du Pont, Edward T. 
Beliah, James C. Aiken and William M. Canby 
were appointed a committee to improve the bank 
room and place a brown stone front to the building. 
In 1885 Preston Lea, William H. Switt and William 
M. Canby, a committee of the Board of Directors, 
remodelled the banking-house. The same year a 
substantial vault was built in the banking-room and 
one in the basement, faced with Brandywine granite 
and lined with steel and iron. 

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Since his election as president of this bank, in July, 
1866, Victor Du Pont has administered its affairs with 
rare business foresight. William P. Brobson, the first 
cashier, retired on account of feeble health February 1, 
1848, when Joseph Warner was elected to succeed him. 
William S. Craig was at the same time chosen teller. 
John H. Danby entered the bank, as assistant clerk* 
in November, 1870. He has occupied every position 
in it to his present one, having been chosen cashier 
April 1, 1885. Frank C. Carpenter, paying teller and 
notary public, entered this bank, as assistant clerk, in 
1871. E. Frank Sharpley, receiving teller, in 1878 ; 
E. A. Ryan, discount clerk, in 1884 ; George H. 
Robinette, book-keeper, in 1885; William C. Buck, 
book-keeper, in 1885 ; William Butz, exchange clerk, 
in 1885. 

The late distinguished chief justice, Hon. Edward 
Woodward Gilpin, was for many years president of 
the Union National Bank, besides being associated 
in many other ways with enterprises having for their 
object the advancement of the business interests of 
Wilmington. He died, greatly lamented, on April 
29, 1876. A sketch of his legal career will be found 
in the chapter on the *' Bench and Bar," elsewhere 
in thb work. 

The Mechanics' Bank, for a few years, did busi- 
ness at the south-east corner of Fourth and Market 
Streets. The capital of this institution was two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. The directors in 1859 were 
Mahlon Betts, Evan C. Stotsenburg, Jesse Lane, G. 
W. Churchman, J. W. Maury, William Tatnall, 
Joshua T. Heald, John Marshall, Thomas Walter, E. 
Moore and George Richardson. 

Mahlon Betts was president; Samuel Biddle, 
cashier; and Joseph C. Spear, teller. When this 
institution closed out its business, Mahlon Betts, its 
president, was chosen president of the First National 
Bank. This was in July, 1864. 

FittST National Bank of Wilmington.— This 
was the first bank in Wilmington organized under 
the National Banking Law of 1864. It was organ- 
ized March 31st of that year, with these directors : 
Joshua T. Heald, Clement B. Smyth, Israel Puiey, 
George W. Bush, Stephen S. Southard, Delaplaine 
McDaniel, Mahlon Betts, William Tatnall and Dan- 
iel James. On July 2d Mahlon Betts was elected 
president. Samuel Biddle was elected cashier June 
30th. The bank was opened for business the 4th of 
July, 1864, in a building at the southeast corner of 
Fourth and Market Streets. 

Joseph C. Spear, on the same day, was elected 
teller and clerk and William H. Connell discount 
clerk. The original capital stock was three hundred 
thousand dollars, which, on April 3, 1865, was in- 
creased to four hundred thousand dollars, and on 
January 4th, 1871, to five hundred thousand dollars, 
being the largest capital of any bank in the State of 

Edward Betts, owing to the retirement of Mahlon 
Betts, was elected president on the 11th of July, 1864, 

one week after its organization, and has filled that 
responsible position continuously from that date to 
the present time. George D. Armstrong has been 
the efficient cashier since August 1, 1864. 

Dividends have been paid stockholders semi-annu- 
ally since the time of organization. The first twen- 
ty-eight dividends yielded an annual income of ten 
per cent. ; the succeeding nine dividends eight per 
cent., and all dividends since nine per cent, annually. 
The present surplus fund is one hundred thousand 
dollars. The average amount of deposits for the 
year 1864 was $171,657 ; for 1875 $364,272 ; and for 
1886 $721,950. Loans and discounU for 1886 were 

These facts illustrate the substantial growth and 
prosperity of the institution, and its intelligent and 
well-directed management. 

The principal correspondents of this bank, through 
which it makes collections, are the First National 
Bank, of Philadelphia ; the National Park Bank, of 
New York ; and the National Bank of the Common- 
wealth, of Boston. On the 1st of April, 1873, the 
bank was removed from its original location to the 
one now occupied, at the comer of Fifth and Market 

The names of the first directors are given above. 
The following is a list of directors who have been 
chosen since, with the dates of their election : 

Edward B«tti July 11, 18*4 

Isaacs. Chamberlaia Jan. 10,1865 

Eli Garrett Jan. 14, 1868 

IF. 8. McComb Jan. lo, 1871 

Samuel Bancroft, Jr Aug. 14, 1876 

John H. Adaroi June 30, 1879 

James C. McComb Jan. 10, 1882 

Wm. Bush Jan. 12, 1886 

Z. James Belt March 25, 1886 

Lewis C. Yandegrift July 16, 1886 

The directors for 1888 are, — 

Edward Betts. Daniel James. 

Clement B. Smyth. William Bush 

George W. Bush. James C. McComb. 

Lewis C. Yandegrift. Samuel Bancroft, Jr. 

Z. James Belt. 

The cashiers have been, — 

Samuel Biddle June 30, 1861, to Aug. 1, 1864 

George D. Armstrong Aug. 1, 1864, to date 

The tellers have been, — 

Joseph C. Spear July 4, 1864, to October, 1864 

Peter T. E. Smith October 24, 1864, to data 

The following is a list of the clerks, with dates of 
appointment : 

Wm. H. Connell July 4, 1864 

Charles W. Gouert Jan. 3, 1867 

Henry Bush Dec. 28, 186rt 

I. Trimble Quigley June 12, 1871 

Frank T. Darls April 29, 1872 

Oscar 0. Gouert Sept. 2, 1872 

I. Wilberforce Foreman July 3, 1873 

Henry C. Downwai-d Sept. 8, 1873 

Edward W. Smith Dec. 10, 1874 

George H. Ellison March », 1881 

Wm. L. Buck Dec. 18, 1882 

Wra. Percy Morrison Dec. 21, 1882 

Robert Adair April 80, 1886. 

Central National Bank,— A number of mer- 

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chants, manu&cturers and capitalists of Wilmington, 
daring the year 1884 determined to organize another 
banking institution. The first meetings were held at 
the office of S. & T. McClary, 606 Shipley Street, 
where the stock was subscribed and the organization 
effected. The directors elected were John H. Adams, 
Samuel McClary, Henry C. Robinson, Phillip Plun- 
kett, Archbald A. Capelle, Samuel G. Simmons, Win- 
field S. Quigley, Benjamin Nields, John Peoples, 
Charles E. Fritz, Henry F. Dure, James A. Hart, J. 
Davis Sislerand William M. Field. The board 
organized by electing John H. Adams, president, Sam- 
uel McClary, vice-president, and John Peoples, 

The capital stock is two hundred and ten thousand 
dollars, in shares of one hundred dollars each. The 
requisite amount having been subscribed the president 
forwarded the names and number of shares taken by 
each of the one hundred and sixty five stock-holders, 
to the comptroller of the currency at Washington and 
a certificate was returned empowering the institution 
to begin business as the " Central National Bank of 
Wilmington." The bank was opened in its elegant 
new rooms, in the Security, Trust and Safe Deposit 
Company building, November 30, 1885. Henry 
Rumford, was elected teller and Philip Q. Churchman, 
discount clerk. John H. Adams, on account of ill 
health, retired from the position of president, Febru- 
ary 20, 1886, and Samuel McClary was elected presi- 
dent ; Phillip Plunkett was elected vice-president. 

The surplus fund at the end of the first six months 
was eight thousand dollars, and the second six 
months sixteen thousand dollars. In January 1888, 
it was twenty-five thousand dollars. Since the 
organization of the bank, Allen Speakman and 
Charles Baird have been elected directors, taking the 
places of John H.Adams and W. S. Quigley. The 
principal correspondents and reserve banks of the 
Central National, are the Central National Bank of 
Philadelphia and the Park National Bank of New 
York. The directors for 1888, are Samuel McClary, 
Jr., Phillip Plunkett, John Peoples, Charles £. Fritz, 
J. D. Sisler, Henry C. Robinson, H. F. Dure, Samuel 
G.Simmons, William M. Field, Benjamin Nields, 
James A. Hart, Charles Baird, Allen Speakman and 
A. A. Capelle. 

The late John Hyndman Adams, first president of 
the Central National Bank and of the Security Trust 
and Safe Deposit Company, and for many years a 
heavy iron manufacturer, was born in Wilmington 
October 13, 1820. He was the son of John and Mar- 
garet (Hyndman) Adams, both descended from fami- 
lies long settled in Delaware, and belonging to the 
best elements of the pioneer population. His career 
was a simple but successful one, marked with little of 
incident and yet interestingbecauseof the influence 
that emanated from the man, and had its effect in 
various ways upon the community. To sum up re- 
sults of that influence or to portray fully the charac- 
ter of our subject, would be a difllcult task, and be- 

yond the province of this work, but the outline story 
of his life may be briefly told. His boyhood and 
youth were not notable for incident or peculiar expe- 
rience. He received a liberal English education in 
the best private schools of his early boyhood days, 
and later in life he attended the Belknap Academy, one 
of the best known of the higher institutions of learning 
that existed in Wilmington during the early part of 
the century. After leaving school he availed him- 
self of every opportunity for pursuing his studies and 
improving himself mentally. As one evidence of this, 
we find him as one of the seven, founding, in 1834, 
the " Young Men's Literary and Debating Society of 
Wilmington," of which he became president in 1841 
and which he was finally instrumental in merging 
with the Wilmington Institute. Thus at that early 
day he was evincing something of the taste for intel- 
lectual diversions and desire for knowledge, which 
became marked characteristics of the mature man. 
The greater part of his time, however, was of neces- 
sity, devoted to business, and he was permitted, in 
later years, to hold a place at the front rank of self- 
made men. 

His first humble duties in the line of making a liv- 
ing were in the hardware store of Duncan Brothers, 
and they must have been faithfully and satisfactorily 
discharged, for after serving for a period as an ap- 
prentice with Messrs. Betts, Pusey & Harlan, and 
buying his remaining time from them, he became, in 
1839, a salesman for Mr. John A. Duncan, who had, 
in the mean time, dissolved partnership with his 
brother. This position he filled for eight years. In 
1847 he began business for himself in the heater and 
range and hardware business, and in this he succeeded 
so well that at the expiration of ten years he had 
accumulated a modest capital, with which he decided 
to embark in the manufacture of iron. He accord- 
ingly connected himself with the firm of McDaniel, 
Craige & Co., proprietors of the Old Ferry Boiling 
Mill, which three years later, upon the withdrawal 
of Mr. Craige, became McDaniel, Adams & Co. In 
1863 this firm was succeeded by the Diamond State 
Iron Company, of which Mr. Adams was elected pres- 
ident. Two years later he resigned this oflice, retired 
from the company, and early in 1866, connected him- 
self with the McCullough Iron Company, with which 
he remained for sixteen years, twelve years as vice- 
president and four years as president, devoting him- 
self unremittingly to the interests of the house and 
largely enhancing its capabilities as a great manufac- 
turing establishment. In 1882 he retired and after a 
sojourn in Europe returned, only to be again pressed 
into active business life by reason of his universally 
recognized qualifications for responsible position. 
He was actively influential in organizing the Central 
National Bank and the Security Trust and Safe De- 
posit Company, and upon December 12, 1884, was 
elected president of both institutions, which positions 
he held until his death. Such, in brief, was the 
career and the success of one of Wilmington's repre- 

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of the masses, and was a champion of every measure stockholders, held April 1, of the same year, the fol- 

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lowing were elected managers : Edward Betts, Leon- 
ard E. Wales, Clement B. Smyth, William Canby, 
Joseph W. Day, Eli Todd, Edward Moore, George 
Bosh, Dr. J. F. Vanghan, James Scott, William S. 
Hilles, Charles W. Howland and Thomas W. Bowers. 
They organized by electing William S. Hilles, Presi- 
dent ; George W. Bush, Vice-President ; and John P. 
McLear, Secretary and Treasurer. Edward Betts, L. 
E. Wales, Eli Todd and Clement B. Smyth were 
chosen the first investigating committee. The bank 
opened its doors for business April 1, 1864, in a build- 
ing since removed, at No. 117 Market Street, where 
the first meeting of stockholders and of the board of 
managers had been held. 

The changes in the election of managers have been 
as follows : February 10, 1863, N. R. Benson, Henry 
C. Jones and William Billany were elected, and 
Thomas W. Bowers, Eli Todd and James Scott re- 
tired; February 14, 1865, George S. Capelle, Job H. 
Jackson and Henry F. Dure were elected, when Wil- 
liam Canby, Edward Moore and Henry C. Jones 
retired ; February 13, 1866, Edward Darlington in 
place of Leonard E. Wales ; February 12, 1867, M. 
L. Lichtenstein, in place of Dr. J. F. Vaughan; Feb- 
ruary 9, 1869, William H. Swift in place of Joseph W. 
Day : February 8, 1870, Anthony Higgins, in place of 
William H. BUlany ; February 14, 1871, John P. Mc- 
Lear, in place of Edward Betts; February 10, 1874, 
Evan Stotsenbuig, in place of John P. McLear ; Febru- 
ary 13, 1877, William M. Field,in place of William S. 
Hilles; February 12, 1878, Edward Pusey and Wash- 
ington Hastings, in place of William M. Field and E. 
C. Stotsenburg ; February 12, 1884, Joseph L. Carpen- 
ter, Jr., in place of Edward Darlington ; February 10, 
1S85. T.Allen Hilles, in place of Clement B.Smyth; 
February 8, 1887, C. Wesley Weldin, in place of Ed- 
irard Pusey. 

William S. Hilles, the first president, filled that 
position from the time of organization until his de- 
cease, and at the seventeenth annual meeting, held 
February 12, 1878, George W. Bush was elected and 
has since continued in that position. On the same 
day George S. Capelle was elected vice-president in 
place of George W. Bush, who was promoted. John 
P. McLear, the first secretary and treasurer, resigned 
November 9, 1872, when E. T. Taylor, the present 
secretary and treasurer, was elected. Joseph M. 
Mather is the present auditor. 

The managers for 1887, are George W. Bush, 
George S. Capelle, William H.Swift, Anthony Hig- 
gins, Charles W. Howland, N. R. Benson, Job H. 
Jackson, Henrv F. Dure, Joseph L. Carpenter, Jr., 
Washington Hastings, T. Allen Hilles and C. Wesley 

Two of the present board, George W. Bush and 
Charles W. Howland, were members of the first board 
in 1861. Of the first board of managers five are de- 
ceased, viz. : Joseph W. Day, Dr. J. F. Vaughan, 
William S. Hilles, Eli Todd and Edward Moore. 

In the year 1865 the bank was removed from No. 

117 to No. 602 Market Street, and since 1873 the ex- 
cellently arranged apartments in the north side of the 
Clayton House, on Market Street, have been occu- 

The bank has continued to prosper in its business, 
and fill a very important position among the financial 
institutions of Wilmington. The amount of deposits 
for 1887 was $730,000, and the general fund, or surplus, 
$70,600. The individual depositors number 2200, and 
the average for each depositor is $250. Most of the 
depositors are of the laboring classes. 

The Security Trust and Safe Deposit Com- 
pany, of Wilmington, was chartered by act of the 


L^islature of March 25, 1885. The incorporators 
were : John H. Adams, Samuel McClary, Jr., Benja- 
min Nields, Samuel Simmons, James A. Hart, Henry 
F. Dure, Archibald A. Capelle, John Peoples, Phillip 
Plunkett, Charles E. Fritz, J. Davis Sisler, Winfield 
S. Quigley and Henry C. Robinson. 

An eligible site at 519 Market Street was purchased 
of Robert Logan and sisters, and on the 25th of March , 
1885, the work of removing the buildings on it was 
begun, preparatory to the erection of the commodious 
and elegant building with all the necessary conveni- 
ences of a trust and safe deposit company. It was 
completed in 1885, at a cost of $71,000, and is an 
ornament to the city, as well as a credit to the enter - 

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prise of its owners. The first officers were : President, 
John H. Adams; vice-president, Samuel McClary, 
Jr.; treasurer and secretary, James B. Clarkson; 
directors, John H. Adams, Samuel McClary, Jr., 
Henry C. Robinson, Phillip Plunkett, Archibald A. 
Capelle, Samuel G. Simmons, Winfield S. Quigley, 
Benjamin Nields, John Peoples, Charles E. Fritz, 
Henry F. Dure, James A. Hart, J. Davis Sisler, 
WilHam M. Field. 

The company commenced business on the 30th of 
November, 1885, with a capital of $140,000, which has 
since been increased to $300,000. 

The officers and directors for 1888 are : Benjamin 
Nields, president ; Henry C. Robinson, vice-president 
and J. B. Clarkson, secretary and treasurer. Directors : 
Samuel McClary, Jr., William M. Field, Charles E. 
Fritz, Henry F. Dure, Samuel G. Simmons, James A. 
Hart, Archibald A. Capelle, J. Davis Sisler, Philip 
Plunkett, John Peoples, Joseph H. Chandler, M.D., 
and William R. Brinkle. 

The following official statement shows the condition 
of the company at the close of the year 1887 : 


Beal estate, fornitnre and flxtores 4 72,163.31 

Mortgages, bonds, etc 78,100.00 

Time loans ~ 166,735.02 

Demand loans 117,600.00 

Premiamspaid 2,616.00 

Gash on band and in banks 44,455.61 



Capital stock paid in «. J300,000.00 

Surplus 15,000.00 

UndiTided profits 984.28 

DiTidandNo.l 7,600.00 

Duetmst estates 40,493.82 

Due depositors 117,741.27 


The firm of R. R. Robinson & Company, at Fourth 
and Market Streets, conducts a private banking bufti- 
ness which is the oldest in the city, having been es- 
tablshed in 1849, though the present title is but little 
more than twenty-five years old. The house does a 
general banking business, and among its principal 
correspondents are Drexel & Company, of Philadel- 
phia ; Drexel, Morgan & Company, of New York ; 
De Haven & Towsend, of Philadelphia ; and McKim 
& Company, of Baltimore. The bank, originally 
founded by R. R. Robinson, has always been under 
the active management of himself or members of his 
family ; now by his son, H. C. Robinson. 

Robert Randolph Robinson, banker and broker 
of Wilmington, was born in Wilmington, December 
16, 1805. For many years he followed the business 
of a tobacconist, and continued in it until 1849, 
when, with his son, John N., he began the business 
of a banker. Together they founded the well-known 
Banking-House of R. R. Robinson & Co. This 
firm has embraced two other sons, Robert Emmet 
and Henry C. Robinson. The latter is now the 
only surviving member. Mr. Robinson was married, 
March 31, 1831, to Sarah Norris, of Wilmington, and 

had six children, viz. — John Norris, Robert* Emmett, 
Henry C, Lydia A., who is the wife of Prof. Stans- 
bury J. Willey, Clara and Wm. Neff, the two latter 
deceased. Mr. Robinson died February 17, 1885, at 
the advanced age of eighty. He was an exemplary 
citizen, and always highly respected. The firm, un- 
der the original title, is continued at Fourth and 
Market Streets, Wilmington. Mr. Robinson died al 
his residence. No. 810 Market Street. 

John Norris Robinson, banker and broker, was the 
son of Robert Randolph Robinson. He was born in 
Wilmington, January 8, 1832. His early life was passed 
in his native city and he enjoyed its valuable advan- 
tages. His first entry into regular business was as a 
clerk in the employ of J. B. Glazier, whose office was 
located at Third and Market Streets. Subsequently 
he went to Philadelphia, and after a short time spent 
in the ofllce of Hopkins & Co., he returned to Wil- 
mington and established the firm of R. R. Robinson 
& Co., of which he continued the active head until 
the close of 1864. During this period, among other 
matters in which he took a great interest, was teleg- 
raphy, then in its infancy. He constructed the line 
between Wilmington and New Castle, one of the 
earliest in operation in this State. January 1, 1865, 
he left Wilmington to become a member of the firm 
of Drexel &. Co., in Philadelphia, where he remained 
until 1869, during which year he was transferred to 
the New York house, Drexel, Winthrop & Co., and 
upon the formation of Drexel, Morgan & Co., in 1871, 
he joined that firm, continuing a partner in the New 
York, Philadelphia and Paris houses until he was 
compelled by ill health to retire from business at the 
close of 1874. After a year spent in Europe in the 
vain search for health, Mr. Robinson returned to 
Philadelphia, taking up his residence in that city, 
and spending his summers at "Glengarry," Torres- 
dale, near Philadelphia, where he died suddenly Sep- 
tember 13, 1878, at the age of forty-seven. 

Mr. Robinson was a self-made man ; one to whose 
untiring industry, clear business perception and in- 
tegrity was due his successful business career. He was 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

In Noyember, 1856, Mr. Robinson was married to 
Mary, only daughter of Edward Moore, an old mer- 
chant of Wilmington. Mrs. Robinson survived her 
husband, and is now the wife of Mr. J. Hood Wright, 
of the firm of Drexel, Morgan & Co., New York. 

Robert Emmett Robinson, a banker and broker of 
Wilmington, was a son of Robert Randolph Robin- 
son. He was born in Wilmington, August 6, 1833, 
and always resided in his native city. In 1849 
he entered the Banking-House of Messrs. R. R. 
Robinson & Co. as a clerk, and served continuously in 
that capacity until 1864, when he became a partner 
in the firm upon the withdrawal of his brother, 
John N. Robinson. Mr. Robinson was an ac- 
tive, public-spirited citizen, as well as a skillful 
banker. He was one of those who organized Grace 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and enthusiastically 

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pushed forward the erection of this elegant place ot 
wonhip. Later he joined heartily in its mission ef- 
forts, and took a deep interest in Ep worth and Mad- 
ely Chapels, both of which he did much to estab- 
lish. For a long time he was a teacher in the Sun- 
day-School of Grace Church, and for six years he 
was one of the trustees. He was a gentleman of 
many excellent, agreeable traits, and had many 
Mends, who esteemed him for his social as well as 
bosiness merits. He was married, November lb 
1856, to Maria J. Kates, daughter of Joseph L. 
Kates, of Wilmington, and sister of John Kates, 
Boperintendent of telegraphy at Wilmington, on the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad. 
He died November 28, 1876, r^retted by a large cir- 
cle of acquaintances. His wife and four children 
survive him. Three of the four are now married, and 
ire living in Philadelphia. 

The late Joshua T. Heald was one of the most 
prominent financiers of the city, and it is probably not 
ID exaggeration to say that he did more to enhance 
the interests of Wilminaton than any other one man. 
He projected and built the Delaware and Western 
Railroad, was the inaugurator of the city passenger 
railway service, laid out large additions to the city, 
called the attention of capitalists to the advantages 
offered here for manufacturing enterprises, and in a 
score of ways contributed to the development of the 
dty. When Wilmington extends itself to the Dela- 
ware, as it inevitably must in the next few years, 
the student of history wiU find in Mr. Heald the 
initial impulse of that movement, though others may 
be accredited by superficial observers with the ac- 
complishment of that result. Mr. Heald took a 
letding part in organizing the First National Bank 
of Wilmington and he was a director of the institu- 
tion (in more than that term usually implies) until 
1876. He was also instrumental in organizing the 
Board of Trade. In politics he was a Republican 
and a very active worker. He was bom May 26, 
1826, in Mill Creek Hundred, New Castle County, 
near the curving boundary line, and was thedescend- 
ant of a family which settled in Chester County, Pa., 
shortly after the arrival of William Penn. He died 
in Wilmington July 22, 1887, after a short illness. 

His successor and the present head of the house 
is Daniel W. Taylor, with whom is associated Mr. 
Edwin H. Gayley, both members of the original firm 
of Heald & Company established under that name in 
1874. The house conducts a general banking and 
brokerage business, transacting all affairs which are 
known under those general titles, buying and selling 
all kinds of stocks and bonds, making collections, 
baying and selling foreign exchanges, acting as for- 
eign steamship agents, and doing a large business in 
real estate and rentals. In thb department the house 
is undoubtedly the most important in the city^ their 
transactions probably amounting to seventy-five per 
cent, of the total real estate operations. The man- 
ner in which the firm is most beneficial to the city is 

in cutting up large estates and putting them into the 
market in small lots, and upon easy terms, thus en- 
abling the humbler classes to secure houses almost as 
low as rent prices and developing the growth of the 
property owning class in a degree scarcely known in 
any city of the union, except Philadelphia. Al- 
though the death of Mr. Heald caused an irreparable 
loss to the firm (as it was also to the city) the busi- 
ness is carried on upon the basis which he established, 
and the members of the house as at present consti- 
tuted having been long known to the people, possess 
their entire confidence. 

The firm of Elliott, Johnson & Company has car- 
ried on a banking business in connection with brok- 
erage for about fourteen years, and with few changes 
in its formation (the principal one being that which 
recently occurred, and caused very serious loss, in the 
death of Henry H. Johnson). The firm was estab- 
lished under the name of Merrick, Johnson & Com- 
pany in 1874, subsequently became Craige, Johnson 
& Company, and in 1876 was constituted as it at 
present exists and under the same firm-name, the 
partners being Alfred S. Elliott, Henry H. Johnson 
and Henry P. Scott While conducting a general 
brokerage business the firm makes a specialty of 
State, county, city and railroad investnients, and they 
stand high in the estimation of business men. 


WILMINGTON— ( CanHnued). 


Wilmington enjoyed very extensive commercial 
interests, particularly during the last century, and at 
one time imports and exports comprised her largest and 
most important item of industry. The first vessel, of 
which there is any record, leaving the port of Wilming- 
ton to engage in trade with foreign countries, was the 
brig "Wilmington" in 1740. She was owned by Grif- 
fith Minshall, William Shipley, David Ferris, Joshua 
Way and others, and originally sailed out of the 
Christiana, and down the Delaware, during the sum- 
mer of 1741, laden with flour, ship-bread, white and 
black oak staves, butter and beef in barrels. Her 
destination was the Island of Jamaica. Within a 
year the " Wilmington " returned to port with a valu- 
able cargo of tropical products sufficient to meet the 
demands of the people of Wilmington and surround- 
ing country. The " Wilmington " made several suc- 
cessful voyages and encouraged a traffic with foreign 
countries, which grew to large proportions. With the 
Revolutionary War it languished and did not revive 
to any considerable extent until 1789. 

Nearly all of the leading citizens, from 1741 to 
1775, owned or were interested in one or more sailing- 
vessels, the majority of which were built at home. In 
1750, Thomas Willing built the first sloop packet that 
ran between this port and Philadelphia. Joseph 

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Tatnall, Joseph Sh allcrose, Jacob Broom, Job Har- 
vey and others were prominent shipping merchantft 
here before the Revolution, and were engaged in trade 
with other countries. . William Woodcock and Barney 
Harris were ship-builders, and merchant traders of 
considerable note. John Harris succeeded them. 
Simon Cranson as early as 1720 made small brigs at 
Stanton, and sailed them from there. James Latimer, 
who settled early last century at Newport, carried on 
an extensive business in flour. It was brought from Lan- 
caster County in the old-time Conestoga wagons, and 
was shipped from his wharf to Philadelphia. About the 
same time the Lancaster teams began to come to Wil- 
mington, and continued for nearly a century to bring 
the products of that fertile agricultural region for 
shipment. Isaac Harvey owned several brigs and 
schooners, and did a large business. From his wharf, 
now owned by George W. Bush & Co., many vessels 
sailed subsequent to 1750. Captain Mendenhall suc- 
ceeded to the ownership of this wharf, engaging in 
the flour traffic, and running his packets to Philadel- 
phia, where he found a market. The principal part 
of the flour shipped by him came from Lancaster 
County. As many as thirty wagons remained over- 
night in his yard, which was above Front Street and 
extended from Walnut to French Street, near the old 
Foul Anchor Inn. John Froudray at that time 
owned a wharf below Harvey's and ran a packet to 
Philadelphia. He lived on the corner of French and 
Walnut Streets, and at high-tide the water surrounded 
his house. Capt. Samuel Bush ^ bought this wharf. 
Joseph Shallcross, a large shipper, owned the ad- 
jacent wharf up the stream. Wm. Hemphill suc- 
ceeded him and engaged in foreign commerce. About 
1812 he retired and lived in a handsome residence on 
Market Street. He died February. 10, 1828, aged 
eighty years. 

Robinson's wharf, now owned by Charles Warner, 
was the fourth in order up stream prior to the Revo- 
lution. Robinson was a sea captain early in life, and 
later a shipping merchant. He built a large residence 
on Front Street, where he died before reaching mid- 
dle age. Jonathan Rumford, an extensive shipper in 
1780, and for many years prior, owned the wharf im- 
mediately above the draw-bridge.' 

George Taylor, a Hollander, who died wealthy, in 
1787, lived here and ran a packet to New York. In 
1792, Eleazer McComb, of Dover, bought the Rum- 
ford property, fitted up the mansion in elegant style, 
and, with Colonel Tilton, conducted a trade in flour, 
in conjunction with a line of packets up and down 
the Delaware. In 1793, during the yellow fever 
scourge in Philadelphia, Mr. Wilcox, one of the 
leading shipping merchants of that city, brought the 

1 An extended notice of Captain Bush and bis family will be found 

* Rumford lived In a large mansion, sontbwest corner Front and 
Thorn Streets, and during the Reyolution was a Royal sympathizer, al- 
though not an avowed Tory. He was the victim of some over-Kealons 
patriots, and in consequence of the treatment received from them, his 
health was affected permanently. His business failed to prosper and he 
died in 1791. 

majority of his vessels to Philadelphia and made his 
home with Mr. McComb. The latter, together with 
his wife, died of the yellow fever in 1798. 

In 1789 the following vessels belonging to mer- 
chants in Wilmington were actively engaged in the 
West India trade : The schooner '* Isabella," Capt. 
Parks ; the schooner *' Pratt," Capt. Thomas Menden- 
hall ; sloop '' Hannah," Capt. Samuel Lovering ; brig 
" Polly and Betsy," Capt. Andrew Morris ; sloop 
"Industry," Capt. Hill; sloop "Sukey and Polly," 
Captain Ingham ; sloop ** Hope," Capt. T. Newbold ; 
sloop " Polly," Capt. Congdon ; brig ''Munton," Capt. 
Staunton ; brig " Maria," Capt. Fort ; brig " Keziah," 
Captain Collins. A number of vessels at the same 
time were engaged in trade with Ireland, among 
them the brig " Brothers," Capt. James JefTeris ; brig 
" Keziah," Capt, Brown ; brig " Maria," Capt. Fort ; 
brig «' Sophia," Capt. T. Thomson ; ship " Happy Re- 
turn," Capt. Erwin ; and ship *' Nancy," Capt. Craw- 
ford. They were laden with flour and other Ameri- 
can products, and brought back Irish linen, window- 
glass and glassware. Emigrants were also frequently 
brought over. For several years after this period, 
says Benjamin Ferris, " the foreign trade from this 
port continued to increase, particularly with Ireland. 
Several ships, from three hundred to four hundred 
tons burden, were owned in Wilmington. One object 
of this trade was the transportation of emigrants, of 
whom great numbers in early days were brought 
into this port." ' 

In 1799, James Brian * purchased the McComb es- 
tate. Brian was a native of Ireland, and came to 
this country about fifteen years before. Soon after 
his arrival he joined the Society of Friends. He was 
afterwards one of the leading shipping merchants, 
engaging largely in the West India and Nova Scotia 
trade. He also owned the packet "Sarah Ann," 
which plied for many years between Wilmington and 
Philadelphia. His wife died in 1802, of yellow fever. 
He died in 1817. John Stapler, his son-in-law, suc- 
ceeded him in business. 

The coasting trade with the Eastern States and 
with Nova Scotia was very extensive about 1800 and 
l>efore. Numerous vessels came into Wilmington 
from coasting ports, with plaster of Paris, smoked 
salmon and other varieties of fish, and potatoes. 

8 Among these emigrants were what were Icnown as *' Redemptioncn," 
people who pledged their labors for two or three years in the new coun- 
try to the captain in return for their passage. On their arrival in 
America the captain Iwund them out for the specified period to reim- 
burse himself. Many of these redemptionera became useful citizens and 
some were afterwards among the most useful and respected residents of 
the State. 

In this connection it may be stated that the West Indian traffic devel- 
oped a passenger feature which was not so pleasant an addition to the 
colony. In 1760 a two-masted veasel, laden with colored slaTes, wnt 
by their British owners from the West Indies dropped, anchor at the 
mouth of the Christiana, and the following year another cargo of them 
arrived. An early writer describes the appearance of a gang of thirty 
or more of these human beings fresh from Africa, driven through the 
streets of Wilmington like so many animals and offered for sale. Kren 
the consenrative Quaker at that time experienced no compunctions in 
buying dares, as some of them were slare-ownera a century ago. 

4 James McCartney, a nephew of Brian, conducted the okl "Sign of 
the Conestoga Wagon " Tarem, on Front Street, opposite Thorn Street, 
which was a populur hostelrie with the Lancaster teamsten. 

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They returned with cargoea of flour, corn, meal and 
grain. ^ 

Prior to the War of 1812, beef, pork, flour, grain 
and cheese were exported in large quantities from 
Wilmington. After the war, the home demand was so 
great that the foreign trade declined, and agricul- 
tural interest grew correspondingly. The Brandy- 
wine Mills, in 1814, owned nine sloops of from forty 
to sixty tons, and used them in shipping flour to 
Philadelphia and elsewhere.' 

The Western Transportation Line was established 
in 1827, between Philadelphia and Baltimore, via 
Wilmington and Elkton. 

An interesting ceremony incident to the early 
commerce of Wilmington was that of ^* Chairing the 
Captain.'' It was a compliment extended to a 
popular skipper at the end of a successful voyage. 
An arm-chair was procured from " The Foul Anchor 
Inn,'' or at Captain O'Flynn's tavern, at Third and 
Market Streets, two poles attached to it, and the skip- 
per was carried triumphantly up Market and down 
King Street, followed by his cheering crew. 

An important factor in the commercial interests of 
Wilmington during the present century was the Wil- 
mington Whaling Company, organized November 23, 
1833.' Up to this time the whaling industry had 
been confined almost exclusively to New England, 
but the demand for sperm and whale oil became great 
and the profits large ; this induced capitalists to go into 
the business. The Wilmington Company organized 
with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars 
and the following directors : Edward Tatnall, James 
Can by, James Price, James G. Howland, C. I. Du 
Pont, S. B. Davis, John Gordon, David C. Wilson, 
Bobert Porter, G^rge Bush, Mahlon Betts, Jonathan 
Bonney, William Chandler, William Seal, John 
Wales, Stephen Bonsall, James W. Thompson, Henry 
Whitely, George Jones, Thomas Newlin, Thomas H. 
Larkin, Miller Dunott, John Rice, John Wright and 
William P. Brobson. Beyond disposing of their 
stock, this board did not.accomplish anything definite. 
On January 23, 1835, the company was chartered 
with an authorized capital of three hundred thousand 
dollars, and reorganized with twenty-five directors, 
some of whom were Philadelphians. The Wilming- 

I A prominent figure in connection with the conunerce of Wilmington 
WM Paul Coffee, whoee fittber was an Afrlc»n slave and his mother an 
Indian. Paul adopted a sea faring life at a very early age and developed 
nnnsoal intelligent and businees capacity. He soon owned a sloop and 
•Dgaged in the coasting trade. ISext he became the possessor of a 
•ebooner, then a brig and eventually a large ship, with a crew of col- 
ored men, which was a novelty in that age. Later in life he iMcame 
well-known at American and foreign ports. He was flrequentiy in 
Wilmington, where he stood high and spent much of his time. He 
Joinefll the Society of Friends there and sometimes ** spolie in meeting.** 
Jmmm Brian was his intimate friend and had extensive business rela* 
Uons with him, as did also General John Stockton and Isaac Craig. 
Cnflee was an advocate of civilisation among the negroes. He owned 
vbvea in Sierra Leone. He is known in history as the most intelligent 
of him race and day. 

1 The brig ** Mermaid,** four hundred and fifty tons, was the beet 
Wilmfngton veasel in the foreign trade. She made her final voyage 
mbont U25. 

3 Whaling vesMls sailed from Wilmington to the South Pacific and 
recnrned with oil as early as 18U0, but their cargoes were small and the 
indoatry never amounted to much until the Wilmington Whaling 
Cbtnpany went into operation. 

ton directors were David C. Wilson, Eklward Tatnall, 
Samuel B. Wheeler, Thomas Newlin, Thomas Bon- 
sall, Charles I. Du Pont, Thomas Larkin, Jonathan 
Bonney, Mahlon Betts and James A. Bayard. In 
1835 the company purchased the whaleship ''Ceres" 
in New Bedford, and she became the pioneer of the 
fleet. The vessels belonging to the company and 
their cost were,—" Ceres," Captain Wheeden, $39,886 ; 
**Lucy Ann," Captain Baker, $33,910; "Superior," 
Captain Crocker, $40,346 ; " Jefferson," Captain Baker, 
$87,275; "North America," Captain Simmons, $32,- 
313. The several voyages of these vessels and their 
results were as follows: The "Ceres," sailed in April, 
1835, absent two and a half years, loss on voyage, 
$5228; ''Lucy Ann," sailed in the fall of 1835, absent 
nearly two years, net profit of voyage, $4006 ; "Supe- 
rior," sailed in 1838, absent nearly two years, net 
profit of voyage, $11,254; "Jefferson," sailed Sep- 
tember 16, 1839, absent twenty-eight months, profits 
not given ; " Lucy Ann " (second voyage), sailed June, 
1837, absent twenty-one months, net profits of voyage, 
about $5000; "Ceres" (second voyage), sailed De- 
cember 1, 1837, absent forty months, profitable re- 
sults; "Lucy Ann" (third voyage), returned June 
24, 1841, net profits of voyage, $2500; "Lucy Ann" 
(fourth voyage), sailed November 25, 1841, absent 
three years, voyage profitable. The "North Ameri- 
ca" subsequently made two profitable voyages, and 
then the company met with reverses. The "Supe- 
rior" on her second voyage lost her captain and re- 
turned at a loss to the company. The "North 
America" on her third voyage was wrecked in a 
hurricane off* New Holland in July, 1841. The 
"Ceres" made another unprofitable voyage after- 
wards, and the " Jefferson " made two, and the " Lucy 
Ann " one voyage at a small profit. The whaling in- 
dustry then declined, and the company sold its 
property in 1846 and went out of existence. 

In February, 1839, Merrit Canby, William Chand- 
ler and John Wright were appointed a committee to 
audit the treasurer's accounts, and reported a balance 
of $7267. The company also owned thirteen thou- 
sand dollars' worth of real estate, including a wharf, 
store and cooper-shop. In 1840 Stephen Bonsall was 
president of the company ; William T. Wheeler, sec- 
retary ; and Allan Thomson, treasurer. A dividend 
of seven per cent, was declared in that year, and 
the net profits were $16,598; valuation of vessels, 

The Christiana was navigable to Wilmington in 
1814 to vessels drawing fourteen feet, and Christiana 
Bridge was the head of navigation on that stream ; 
but when the Wilmington Whaling Company was at 
the height of its prosperity, large vessels laden with 

* Captain Bdward Ayers was the only master in the employ of the com> 
pany that settled in Wilmington. He subsequeptly sailed from Mew 
York and made two voyages around the globe. During the late Civil 
War, while on a voyage to China, his vessel, the " Tycoon," was cap- 
tured by the Confederate cruiser ** Alabama," and all of his effects were 
confiscated. Captain Ayres died of yellow fever in Galveston, Texas, in 
1867, and his heirs were awarded thirty-two hundred dollars by the Ala- 
bama Claims Commission. 

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oil were anable to get up to their wharf, which was 
located where Pusey, Jodcs & Co.'s ship-yards now 
are.^ The ships were anchored at the mouth of the 
Chris tiana, where a portion of the cargo was dis- 
charged, and they afterward went up lightered. In 
order to deepen the channel, Congress was appealed 
to in 1836, and appropriated fifteen thousand dollars 
" for improvement of the Harbor at the port of Wil- 
mington." Of this amount the City Council of Wil- 
mington, through a committee consisting of William 
R. Sellars, William Chandler and Thomas Young, 
expended fourteen thousand dollars in a dredging- 
machine made at the ship-yard of John Harris, under 
the supervision of Captain Alexander Kelley, now 
connected with the Harlan & Hollingsworth Com- 
pany, who was sent by the committee to Baltimore to 
inspect the dredges then at work there. A force of 
men, under the charge of Captain Kelley, were then 
engaged during the summer months for three years 
in dredging the Christiana. Meantime, other appro- 
priations were made by Congress. Up to 1880 the 
work of improving the harbor was confined to dredg- 
ing, at a total cost of $106,156, and a twelve-foot low- 
water channel was maintained. In 1880 Congress 
directed a survey of the Christiana, from the Dela- 
ware Railroad bridge to its mouth, and the estimated 
cost of establishing a mean depth of fifteen feet. 
This contemplated the building of a jetty at the en- 
trance to the harbor and dredging the channel above 
to fifteen feet and from fifty to one hundred and fifty 
feet wide. This work has been in progress since 1881, 
and up to 1887 the government appropriated $150,750 
toward it. The jetty was finished in 1881, and since, 
a limited amount of dredging has been required to 
maintain a fifteen-foot channel, which, in 1887, was 
made seventy -five feet wide from Market Street 
Bridge to a point within two hundred feet of the outer 
end of the jetty entrance. In addition to the funds 
contributed by the government ($259,906), since 1837, 
considerable sums have been expended by individual 
enterprise. There has been in Wilmington, since 
1884, an oflSce which controls the improvements of 
harbors and rivers in the district of Delaware, with 
General William F. Smith in charge. 

Following is a list of the several collectors of cus- 
toms at the port of Wilmington up to the present 
time : 

Georg« Bush « « October 1, 1790 

Allen McLnne March 1, 1797 

Henry Whiteley June 8, 1829 

Arnold Nandain, M.D March 22, 1841 

1 The harbor or Little Lake, in the rear of the site of Fort Christiana 
(near the foot of Seventh Street of the present), was flUod up in 1820. It 
was here the first Swedish settlers ianded in 1638. Old Ferry Point, foot 
of Third Street, and the point opposite extended into the stream in early 
times, and were called the Capos of Christiana. In 178^1 there was quite 
a stream emptied in the river at the comer of what Lb now Second and 
Orange Streets, and tliere was a mill on it operated by water-power. 

s The date of the appointment of Mi^or Bush is not known. His first 
account was filed October 1, 1790, and his last February 28, 1797, the 
year of his death. The accounts of Col. Allen McLane b^;an March I, 
1797, and closed June 7, 1829. President Andrew Jackson, after his in- 
auguration sent Col. McLane word that " to the Tictora belong the 
spoils" and appointed his political fHend, Col. Henry Whitley, of Kew- 
nrk, to succeed him. Nathaniel Toung resigned April 19, 1849, and 
Wm. P. Brobson died during his incumbency. 

Henry Hicks June 28, 1846 

Nathaniel Young u....~ April 19, 1849 

William P. Brobion « ^ „..M^4, 1819 

Charles Polk March 6, 1850 

Jesse Sharpe March 24, 1863 

Thomas M. Rodney ~ May 14, 1^1 

Theodore F. Crawford „ September 17, 1866 

William D. Nolen April 12, 1869 

Lewis Thompson ».Mi^ 9, 1876 

Henry F. Piokels June 30. 1884 

Dr. £. A. Smith was port physician in 1795 ; Dr. 
James Tilton, Jr., was appointed in 1803 ; Dr. Wil- 
liam D. Brinckle in 1824 ; Dr. L. P. Bush in 1840 ; 
Dr. H. F. Askew in 1853, and Dr. Willard Springer 
is present incumbent. The appointment is a life 
office in the gift of the Grovernor. 

The exports from the District of Delaware in 1811, 
the largost proportion being from Wilmington, aggre- 
gated $88,623, of which $76,945 were domestic arti- 
cles ; tonnage for the same year, 8192. The exports 
of domestic articles from Wilmington in 1846, were 
$113,683 ; in 1847, $250,595. 

Ck>llector Brobson's report of expenses of his 
department for the year ending January, 1849, was : 
Amount expended in collector's department, $1447 ; 
maintaining thirteen light-houses from Cape Henlo- 
pen to Fort Mifflin, $6208 ; floating lighte, $4821 ; 
beacons and buoys, $3532 ; inspections and measures, 
$4804; total, $20,316. Revenue marine service: 
Schooner " Forward," Capt. Henry B. Nones, four 
lieutenants, three second lieutenants, fifty seamen 
and twenty-five attendants, $5876 ; Schooner " Galla- 
tin," captain, two lieutenants, thirty seamen and 
eighteen attendants, $4549. The revenue service 
was removed during Collector Nolen's term to Phila- 

The number of vessels and total ^tonnage owned 
and recorded in Wilming^n for the years 1882 to 
1887 was 1882, vessels 165, tonnage 16,668; 1883, ves- 
sels 177, tonnage 17,677 ; 1884, vessels 181, tonnage 
19,864 ; 1885, vessels 186, tonnage 19,945 ; 1886, 
vessels 176, tonnage 16,750 ; 1887, vessels 120, ton- 
nage 16,412. 

The total operations of the port for 1885 aggre- 
gated $13,181,000 for the year, and in June 30, 1887, 

The custom house was originally at New Castle, 
but was removed to Wilmington about 1800. For 
nearly a half century thereafter, it was located in a 
small-rented building on Water street, between Mar- 
ket and King streets, where G. W. Stone's store is 
now. It remained there until the building comer 
Sixth and King Streets was erected. 

The first steamboat to ply between Wilmington 
and Philadelphia was the "Vestal,** which was 
launched at Grice's ship-yard in Philadelphia, April 
23, 1812, and made a trial trip the succeeding day. 
George Coxen was captain and part owner. The 
arrival of the " Vestal " was the occasion of much 
enthusiasm and hundreds of citizens visited her tt 
the wharf. She was called the ** VesU" after 1815. 
Captain Milner commanded her in 1818. 

The steamboat *' Delaware" was put on the river 

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August 20, 1814, to run between Wilmington and 
Philadelphia '' during the stoppage of the intercourse 
by water to Baltimore by the British." 

The ''Superior" was built in 1820 and put in 
charge of Captain Milner. It took her eight hours 
to go to Philadelphia, and two days were required for 
the trip. The fare to Philadelphia was one dollar. 
Captain Henry Read ran her for several years. She 
was owned by the Wilmington Steamboat Company 
of which William Young was president. Captain 
Read afterwards commanded the "Wilmington," 
built in 1829, at Philadelphia, and owned by the same 
company. In 1836 he retired and took the Indian 
King Hotel at Fourth and Market Streets. Captain 
Black took charge of the '' Wilmington." 

Wilmer Whildin wa<» one of the most successful 
steamboat captains on the river half a century ago. 
In 1829 he opened Cape May Point as a seaside resort 
and built a hotel there. The same year he com- 
menced to run the steamer " Emerald " from Phila- 
delphia to Cape May Point, charging only seventy- 
five cents for the trip. The " Emerald " afterwards 
ran from Philadelphia to Wilmington. In 1835 he 
bought the "New Castle," and his son, W. Whildin, 
Jr., who was educated for a physician became her 
captain. The same year the "Lineas," Captain 
Bilderbach, was put on the river. The " New Castle" 
in 1836, was the first boat to make the round trip to 
Philadelphia the same day, resulting in active com- 
petition between the various boats and the newly 
constructed railroad. The latter put the fare down to 
twelve and one-half cents and the steamboats for 
several months carried passengers at ten cents. 

George Thom was engineer of the steamer " Balti- 
more " and afterwards of the *' Emerald " and " Dela- 
ware." He was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1795, 
came to this country in 1822, and is still living on 
Justison Street, Wilmington, at the age of ninety- 
three. He superintended the construction of a num- 
ber of engines at the works of Thomas HoUoway in 

Captain Douglass ran the" Robert Morris" up and 
down the river in 1838 ; Captain J. L. Robinson on 
the ''Balloon" in 1842; Captain Whildin, the 
"Sun "in 1843. 

The " W. Whildin," named after its original owner, 
was the first iron steamboat with side wheels to run 
in the Delaware. It was built about 1841, and ran 
between Philadelphia and Wilmington. The " Whil- 
din " was enlarged in 1846 and is now running be- 
tween Baltimore and Philadelphia as one of the 
Ericsson Line. 

The steamboat Balloon and the Rainbow, in 1843, 
charged twelve and one-half cents between Wilming- 
ton and Philadelphia. 

The steamer E. I. Dupont, launched from Harris' 
ship yard in February, 1845, had a double propeller 
and a sixteen -inch cylinder, equal to a ninety horse- 
power engine. 

Captain Whildin, in 1846 bought the Napoleon and 

put her on between Philadelphia and Smyrna Land- 
ing. In 1848 he owned a controlling interest in the 
Balloon, Robert Morris, Ohio and Sun, but sold the 
Sun to Capt. Douglass the same year for $27,500. He 
bought the Pioneer in 1849 and gave Captain Robin- 
son charge of her. 

The Zephyr ran between New Castle and Dover 
Landing in 1848. In 1829 the New Jersey Steamboat 
Company commenced to run small boats from Wil- 
mington to the Jersey shore, to accommodate market 
people, and sold them in 1838. The Bolivar, a large 
boat, was next put on and run until 1847, when she 
was transferred to the Gulf of Mexico. Captain Wil- 
son Pierson was given charge of the Enterprise on 
this line April 27th of the same year. The Gosport, 
Captain Baker, was enlarged in 1850. The Telegraph, 
a fine steamboat, was owned by Captain Whildin. 

The " Alice E. Preston " ran for a while between 
Pennsgrove, New Jersey, and Fourth Street Wharf, 
Wilmington, when she was succeeded by the " Susie 
McCall," under Captain Denney. The "McCall" 
ran until December, 1887, when she was sold, and is 
now (1888) plying in Southern waters. 

The Oregon was a handsome new steamboat, put on 
the line between Philadelphia and Baltimore in 1849, 
and the Mountaineer began to ply between Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington and Cape May, the same year. 
The Montana and the Napoleon were fine river boats 
then. The Nebraska, built by Thomas Young in 
1849, was a steam propeller for the New York and 
Baltimore line. The engine was made by Harlan 
and Hollingsworth. The Napoleon, Captain Ball, 
took the place of the Baltimore, between Smyrna and 
Philadelphia. The Santa Clara and Eldorado, each 
one hundred and forty feet long, twenty feet beam, 
three hundred tons, were made by Thomas Young for 
Aspinwall & Co., for the line from Philadelphia to 
California during the " gold fever." 

Captain J. L. Robinson, of the Pioneer and Balloon, 
in 1850 bought the steamer " Cohanzey" and turned it 
into a " down river boat." The iron steamer Cali- 
fornia, one hundred and fifty feet long, twenty-seven 
feet beam and eleven feet hold, was built by Harlan 
and Hollingsworth in 1850. 

"The Ariel " ran between Wilmington and Philadel- 
phia, and was succeeded, in 1866, by the "Samuel M. 
Felton," which continued to run until 1886. Thb year 
an explosion took place and, upon the repairing of the 
boat, she was taken off the line. The boat was the 
property of the Philadelphia and Wilmington Steam- 
boat Company, and was, for a time, the only opposi- 
tion to the railroad company. After a few years the 
railroad company purchased a controlling interest in 
the former, and the boat was run in the company's 
interest. When the railroad bridge on the Brandywine 
was washed away in the freshet of 1869, the boat ran 
night and day transferring passengers across the river. 
The " Felton " was built by Reaney, Son & Archbold, 
of Chester, in 1866, and for a time was the finest boat 
on the Delaware River. She was the fleetest steamer 

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on the river in 1869-70, and when the " John Syl- 
vester " and " Eliza A. Hancock '* were put on as 
opposition boats, made the fastest time between 
Philadelphia and Wilmington. At this time the fare 
was reduced to ten cents one way, and fifteen cents 
the round trip. The " Felton " withstood all opposi- 
tion, and, in 1870, it was withdrawn. The ** Felton " 
was without opposition until the propeller "Wil- 
mington," owned by J. Shields Wilson and others of 
Philadelphia, was placed on the route, and has been 
running ever since. In 1885, the " Brandywine," a 
companion boat, and one of the fastest propellers in 
the country, was built by the Harlan & Hollingsworth 
Company for the same parties. A third boat, the 
" City of Chester," is now in course of construction 
for the same company, and will be placed on the line 
in 1888. For several months, in 1883, M. Green 
Wright & Co., of New York, placed the " Morrisania" 
on the river to run between Wilmington and Phila- 
delphia. She was succeeded by the " Shady Side," 
and, for a time, Wilmington had three steamboat 
lines to Philadelphia. The " Shady Side " was dis- 
continued, and the only boats that ran in 1887 
were the ** Wilmington," Captain Peter Bloomsburg, 
and the " Brandywine," Captain Horace Wilson. 

The First Board of Trade of Wilmington was 
organized January 3, 1837. David C. Wilson was 
chosen president, Jacob Alrichs, vice-president, Wil- 
liam Chandler, treasurer, and Jonas Pusey, secretary. 
The first directors were C. I. Du Pont, Jonathan 
Bonney, Samuel B. Wheeler, Samuel Buzby, Wash- 
ington Rice, Vincent Gilpin, Edward Grubb, John 
Bancroft, Thomas Young, Stephen Bonsall, George 
Bush, Allan Thomson, James Canby, Mahlon Betts, 

F. H. Larkins, Thomas Garrett, Elisha Huxley and 
John Wright. 

The object of the Board was " for the better organ- 
ization and regulation of the trade and business of 
Wilmington, mercantile, manufacturing and me- 
chanic." The original members were Peter Porter, 
J. B. Porter, D. C. Wilson, James Canby, Jonathan 
Bonney, Samuel Buzby, Elisha Huxley, Edward 
Grubb, John Bancroft, Jr., Bracken Pinkerton, 
John Gordon, Edward Warner, Dr. H. F. Askew, Dr. 
James W. Thomson, John A. Duncan, Jeremiah W. 
Duncan, Dell Noblitt, John Harris, Benjamin Chand- 
ler, James C. Aiken, John Wright, Jonas Pusey, J. 
L. Robinson, James Stroud, Mahlon Betts, William 
McCauUey, James Bayne, M. K. Carnahan & Co., F. 

G. H. Robinson, Cyrus Pyle & Co., Eli Todd, Joseph 
S. Hedges, W. P. Brobson, James Carson, Miller 
Dunott, Wilson Pierson, Esau Cox, John M. Turner, 
George Craig and Thomas Garrett. 

At the first business meeting of the Board James 
Canby offered a resolution, which was pa^-sed, favor- 
ing the removal of obstructions from the bed of the 
Christiana Creek, so as to make it navigable for large 
vessels. A resolution was at the same time adopted 
advocating the extension of the city limits so as to 
include the mouth of the Christiana, and a memorial 

with three hundred and sixty signatures was sent to 
Congress asking for the improvement of the wharves, 
and the appropriation of funds for the erection of a 
custom-house in Wilmington. This Board had an 
active existence for several years. In 1850 Da?id 
C. Wilson was president, Jonas Pusey and John A. 
Duncan, vice-presidents, Joshua T. Heald, secretary, 
and Greorge Richardson, treasurer. 

The Wilmington Board of Trade, was organ- 
ized October 27, 1868, Edward Bett3, was elected 
president, Francis Barry, vice-president, Geerge W. 
Stone, secretary and James Bradford, treasurer. The 
board of managers, were Edward Betts, Jo^ua T. 
Heald, Casper Kendall, George Richardson, George 
W. Bush, C. Febiger, Victor Du Pont, Howard M. 
Jenkins, E. Tatnall Warner, Jr., Washington Jones, 
Henry B. Seidel, William M. Kennard, George G. 
Lobdell, Lea Pusey, James Morrow, James Lewis, 
Eli Garrett, Charles Moore, William G. Gibbons, 
Henry F. Finnegan, Caleb P. Johnson, William H. 
Swift, James Morrow, Job H. Jackson. The object of 
this board was " for mutual counsel and deliberation 
on the business interests, manufacture, commerce and 
trade of the city." The first effort of the board was 
to arouse an interest in the erection of a large hotel 
building. E. T. Warner, Jr., J. T. Heald and Wil- 
liam G. Gibbons, were appointed a committee to pre- 
sent plans for it, who recommended that the subject 
be referred to the Wilmington Hotel Company, 
chartered in 1867. 

James Bradford and H. M. Jenkins, were elected 
representatives and attended the meeting of the 
National Board of Trade in Cincinnati, December 2, 
1 868. The same year George Richardson , Wi lliam H. 
Swift and George W. Stone, were sent as representa- 
tives to the opening ceremonies of the Hall of the 
Commercial Exchange, in Philadelphia. A resolution 
was almost unanimously adopted by this Board, 
recommending the repeal of usury laws of the State. 

George G. Lobdell, Francis Barry and George W. 
Stone, were appointed to visit the State Senate, then 
in session, and ask that the tax bill passed by the 
House of Representatives be altered so as to decrease 
the heavy demands its final passage would have on 
the manufacturing interests of Wilmington. Through 
the efforts of this board the bill was modified. 

In 1870 Geo. Bush was president. The new man- 
agers elected to take the place of others who retired 
were D. H. Kent, H. C. McLear, T. Y. de Normandie, 
H. F. Pickels, Geo. R. Townsend and D. W. Taylor. 
The delegates to the National Board of Trade at 
Richmond, Virginia, were Francis Barry and W. H. 
Swift. The port-wardens elected were Francis Barry, 
Charles Moore and E. T. Warner. In January of 
this year, J. T. Heald, G. W. Bush and George G. 
Lobdell, members of this board, with a Committee of 
City Council, visited Washington, and through Rep- 
resentative Biggs, obtained an interview with the 
Congressional Committee on Appropriations, which 
resulted in the government granting fifteen thousand 

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doUan for an examination and survey of the harbor 
of the Christiana. Alfred Lears, civil engineer, in 
April, 1870, read an interesting paper before the board 
on " The Improvement of the Harbor of Wilming- 
ton." The extension of the streets of the city 
to the Delaware river was the next topic dis- 
cussed. "American Commerce and Shipbuilding" 
was a subject of frequent discussion. On May 10, 
1870, the board petitioned Congress to enact such 
measures as shall encourage the building of vessels in 
the ship-yards of this country, at prices which will 
enable American ship owners to successfully compete 
with those in foreign countries for the commerce of 
the world. 

The opening of the Wilmington and Northern Rail- 
road, June 15 and 16, 1870, was conducted under the 
auspices of the Wilmington Board of Trade, by invi- 
tation of Hugh E. Steele, president of the road. The 
exercises of the 15th were held in the rooms of the 
board, northeast corner of Third and Market Streets. 
The City Council of Reading was present, and promi- 
nent citizens from other towns and cities, — all of 
whom were hospitably entertained. In the even- 
ing a complimentary supper was given in Institute 
Hall. After the banquet speeches were made by 
Hugh E. Steele, Frederick Lauer and Heister Cly- 
mer, of Reading; Dr. Charles Huston, of Coatesville; 
Henry S. Evans, of West Chester; C. W. Wright, 
Secretary of State; Dr. Franklin Taylor, of West 
Chester; Joshua Valentine, mayor of Wilmington, 
and George W. Bush. The following day a trip was 
made over the new railroad, stopping at Coatesville 
for dinner, and arriving in Reading at two p.m., when 
the party was received by Mayor Gernand, of that 
city, and a banquet was given in the Mansion House. 
The opening of the railroad created a bond of union 
between Reading and Wilmington, which has since 
been maintained. 

E. Tatnall Warner was president and William H. 
Swift vice-president in 1871. Among the new 
members of the board of managers were W. S. Auch- 
incloas, T. S. Bellah, J. N. Cooling, J. Taylor Gause, 
Washington Hastings, W. Y. Warner and Henry S. 
McComb. A resolution was passed advocating the 
widening of Water Street suflScient to accommodate 
the wants of railroads. This was accomplished. 

J. T. Heald and W. H. Swift were delegates to the 
meeting of the National Board of Trade at Buffalo. 
They were instructed to bring up the subject of Civil 
Service Reform before that body. They did, and 
secured the passage of a series of resolutions favoring 
it The Wilmington Board next passed resolutions 
advocating the removal of the county buildings to 
Wilmington. The question of State taxation and 
representation in the Legislature was next discussed. 
The new hotel, the project of the erection of which 
was freely discussed by the board two years before, 
was now in course of erection. 

In 1872 Henry S. McComb was president, and 
Preston Lea vice-president. George W. Stone was 

secretary and James Bradford treasurer since time of 
organization. George S. Capelle, W. T. Croasdale, F. 
N. Buck and George A. Le Maistre were new di- 
rectors. This was a year of business prosperity. 
Nearly every enterprise advocated by the Board of 
Trade the year before was pushed to completion. The 
meeting-place of the board was moved to newly-fur- 
nished apartments in Masonic Temple. The propo- 
sition to hold an industrial exposition met with great 
public favor, but was not held until the fall of 1874 in 
Third Street Market-House. The board in 1872 had 
seventy-five members ; a new constitution was adopted, 
and the rooms in Masonic Temple for a time were 
open daily. 

After 1873 the board did not hold regular meet- 
ings, nor put forth as vigorous an effort to the accom- 
plishment of its aims as during the years immediately 
preceding. The depression in the business affairs of 
the country was deeply felt in Wilmington at this 
time. Meetings were held, however, and better sew- 
erage for the city, a more satisfactory water supply, 
extension of the city limits and other subjects re- 
lating to the public needs were discussed with effect. 

One important good accomplished in recent years 
by the board was its advocacy and finally securing 
the passage by the Legislature of the Port Warden 
Bill. Appropriations of recent years by Congress for 
the improvement of the harbor of Wilmington were 
obtained largely through the energetic measures of 
this body. 

Preston Lea was elected president in 1873, Henry 
Mendenhall in 1875, George S. Capelle in 1877, F. N. 
Buck in 1881. E. A. Van Trump succeeded George 
W. Stone as secretary in 1875. The port wardens are 
Alexander Kelly, Job H. Jackson, Joshua L. Pusey, 
James Bradford, Enoch Moore, Jr. The rooms of 
the board since 1882 have been in the Exchange 
Building at Seventh and Market Streets. 

At the last annual election Daniel W. Taylor was 
chosen president, George W. Bush, Jr., vice-pres- 
ident, E. A. Van Trump, secretary, and James Brad- 
ford, treasurer. The membership has been increased, 
and the board has again become an active and ener- 
getic organization. 

Col. Henry 8. McComb, the successful manu- 
facturer and great railroad operator, was born in 
Wilmington, July 28, 1825, and died December 
30, 1881. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, and 
inherited the excellent traits and strong character- 
istics of worthy and highly respected ancestors. 
He was the second of a family of five children, 
whose father died when he was quite young, and 
the care and protection of the children, devolved 
upon the mother, a woman possessed of many 
noble qualities of mind and heart, and who was 
earnestly devoted to the welfare of those under 
her charge. 

But few of the early years of Col. McComb 
were spent in school, as he was required to assist in 
the common support of the family. When but a 

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boy he became an employee in the office of the 
Delaware Journal, and a year or two later was 
apprenticed to learn the trade of currier. He 
acquired a knowledge of his new occupation so 
rapidly that he was enabled to buy two years 
from the face of his indenture papers, and was free 
at the age of eighteen years. In the meantime he 
had been a diligent student, and spent all his leisure 
time at home with his books and improved every 
opportunity for mental culture. He next became 
journeyman with a prominent leather-dealer, in 
Wilmington, and by judicious management, and 
by saving his earnings soon bought out the estab- 
lishment of his employer, and just as he entered 
upon his manhood, began his brilliant and suscess- 
ful business career. By means of his intelligent 
mental grasp of every situation in which he was 
placed, by dint of his surpassing energy and un- 
tiring devotion to his business, he succeeded in 
ever3rthing he undertook. At twenty-five he was 
recognized as one of the foremost business men of 
Wilmington, and at thirty had surpassed nearly 
all his competitors in trade. He continued in this 
leather trade with the greatest success, continually 
enlarging and expanding his business, until he be- 
came known as one of the most extensive manu- 
facturers, in his line, in this country. 

He was a stanch defender of the Union at the 
outbreak of the Gvil War. He held a number 
of very important contracts from the Government 
for the manufacture of tents, knapsacks, etc., and 
filled them with such promptness and satisfaction, 
that he secured the strong friendship of President 
Lincoln, Secretary of War Stanton, and the other 
members of the Cabinet. When a Military 
Grovernor was ordered for Delaware, the commis- 
sion was made out to Col. McComb,but he advised 
against it, and no such governor was appointed. 
He then raised, and equipped at his own expense, 
the Fifth Delaware Regiment, of which he was 

After the close of the Civil War he became in- 
terested in a number of railroads. He was one of 
the originators of the Union Pacific Railroad, and 
took an active part in the construction of this great 
highway. In 1868 the Mississippi Central Rail- 
road came under his control and put into opera- 
tion a trunk line between New Orleans and Cairo, 
Illinois, by securing control of the New Orleans, 
Jackson and Great Northern Railroad. The com- 
plete consolidation of these roads was efifected 
July 4, 1873, the trunk line extending a distance 
of six hundred miles. In 1870 he bought six 
thousand acres of land along this route, about one 
hundred and five miles from New Orleans. It 
was covered with valuable pine timber. On part 
of this land now stands McComb City, with a 
population of thirty-five hundred. 

The successftil railroad operations of Colonel 

McComb in the South brought him into intimate 
intercourse with the leading men of the South, as 
well as the entire country. Besides being presi- 
dent of the railroads mentioned above, he was 
president of the Southern Railroad Association, 
and he was interested in various lines of railroads 
in the North and West. He was also president of 
the Narragansett Steamship Co. running the Bristol 
line of steamships between New York and Boston. 

When he became president of the Great North- 
ern and Mississippi Railroads they were burdened 
with debt and out of repair. Within three years 
he put over five hundred and fifty miles in com- 
plete order, extended the business of the roads, 
which greatly developed the resources of the 
country through which they passed, and added 
much to the material wealth of the South. The 
bonds of the company in the meantime passed 
from seventy to one hundred, their par value. 

In 1880 he purchased a controlling interest in 
the Delaware and Western Railroad, procured an 
amended charter for it, and made this road neces- 
sary to the projected through line to New York. 
It was greatly through the instrumentality of 
Colonel McComb that the exposures of the Credit 
Mobilier scheme were made. 

Colonel McComb was a man of commanding 
presence, magnificent physique, being six feet two 
inches tall. He was possessed of great magnetism, 
had a pleasing address and great suavity of man- 
ners. He was genial, affable and courteous. These 
qualities made him very popular and greatly con- 
tributed to his success in life. 

In politics he was a Republican and earnestly 
advocated the policy and principles of the Repub- 
lican party. 

In his youth he attended the Hanover Presby- 
terian Church of Wilmington, and later was a 
member of the Central Presbyterian Church of 
the same city in which he always resided. 

Colonel McComb was married to Elizabeth 
McKean Bush, daughter of Charles Bush, of Wil- 
mington, on the 16th of June, 1853. The children 
bom of this marriage were Charles Bush (deceased), 
Ellen Bush (deceased), James Craig, Jane Eliza- 
beth and Martha McComb. 

Transportation Lines. — The transportation 
house of Messrs. George W. Bush & bons is one of 
the oldest in any line of business in the city of 
Wilmington, its inception antedating the Revolution, 
and the continuity of its existence being unbroken 
from the outstart to the present. There was just a 
trifle of romance in the establishment of this business 
house over a century ago. Samuel Bush, the founder, 
son of Charles Bush, a West India importer, having 
been born in 1747 — December 27th — was in 1773 
twenty-six years of age, and it so happened in that 
year he fell in love with and became engaged to Ann 
McKee, the daughter of Andrew McKee, one of the 

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old settlers, a resident of Brandywine Hundred and 
the owner of broad, well-tilled acres there, — a man 
of substance and character and influence. His 
daughter, too, had influence, at least with young 
Bush, and she exerted it in the matter of inducing 
her lo?er to abandon a sea-faring life. Now, Samuel 
Bush knew more about the sea and ships than of any 
other matters in the world, for at the age of sixteen 
he had sailed on board of one of the West India ves- 
sels, and he had followed the sea for several years, 
going out several times as captain, and yet he readily 
enough abandoned his chosen and well-liked calling, 
at the simple request of Ann McKee. Casting about 
for other means of making a living, he conceived the 
idea that he could create and build up a business by 
trading and freighting between Wilmington and 
Philadelphia, and, with this object in view, early in 
1774 he bous^ht a little sloop of thirty tons burthen, 
which naturally enough he named the " Ann." 
With this little craft, the energetic and hopeful 
youDg man started a weekly line between the two 
towns, and laid the foundation for the great commer- 
cial operations of successive generations of his de- 
scendants. His plan was to take to Philadelphia the 
produce collected by storekeepers and others in Wil- 
mington and dispose of it, and also to fill orders for 
Wilmington merchants, thus making a freight both 
ways and a small commission besides. This was 
something altogether new to the business men of the 
town. Previously to 1774, when Samuel Bush began 
sailing the " Ann," there had been no regular com- 
munication between Wilmington and Philadelphia. 
It was a day's journey from one town to the other, 
either by land or water, and hence the journey was 
not often made. Merchants were accustomed to go 
up to the Quaker City in the spring and fall to buy 
their stocks of goods, and chartering sloops to bring 
them down, occasionally making the trip by land, 
when they needed things between the regular buying 
seasons; but Bush's enterprise changed all of this. 
The people of Wilmington were not slow to find out 
the conveniences of the new plan and to enter heartily 
into it, — so that it was a success from the outstart, 
but only in a small way. The breaking out of the 
War of the Revolution unsettled all business; but 
Captain Bush found full employment for his sloop 
carrying stores and produce for the army. When, in 
September, 1777, after the battle of the Brandywine, 
the British fleet came up the Delaware River and 
occupied Philadelphia, they chased his sloop so 
closely that he was compelled to run into a creek on 
the Jersey side and scuttle her, to prevent her cap- 
ture and destruction. Afler the British evacuated 
Philadelphia he raised and refitted the sloop, and 
again commenced freighting on the river as before. 
By this time the millers and distillers of Lancaster 
and Chester Counties, Pa., had found out that it was 
much cheaper for them to send their produce to Wil- 
mington, and ship it thence to Philadelphia, than to 
send it, as they had always before done, direct to the 

city in wagons. To give them easy access to Wil- 
mington, turnpikes were built out iit all directions as 
far as the State line. The success of the shipping 
enterprise being recognized, and also the fact that 
the ''Ann'' was getting all the freight she could 
carry, another sloop was started from French Street 
wharf by John Foudrey, who continued the business 
until about 1790, when he sold out his whole prop- 
erty, from the river to Front Street, to Captain 

Finding the *' Ann " too small for the trade now 
offering, Captain Bush built a new sloop, of about 
double her tonnage, which he called the " Nancy " 
after the brig whose tragical fate created so much ex- 
citement in this part of the country. She was fitted 
up to carry passengers as well as freight, the passage 
money being a charge that would now be equal to 
fifty cents. The merchants of Wilmirgton being 
offered this convenience, soon began to go to Phila- 
delphia to buy their goods in person, instead of send- 
ing orders as they had done heretofore. For some 
time they took with them their provisions for the trip, 
but after a year or so the convenience of having their 
meals prepared upon the sloop became generally 
appreciated and thus one of the now common features 
of travel by water was duly inaugurated. The charge 
was twenty-five cents for breakfast or supper and fifty 
cents for dinner, and as it usually took from six to 
nine hours to make the trip, the cost was from a dol- 
lar to a dollar and a quarter. A large bell hung upon 
the store-house signaled the hour of departure, which 
was so arranged as to take advantage of the tides, and 
the friends of those going up to the city accompanied 
them to the wharf to see them off* and say good-bye, 
much as in these days is done on the departure of 
ocean steamships for Europe. 

Mr. Bush soon found it would be more profitable to 
him to hire a captain for the sloop and himself remain 
at home to receive and deliver the freight and to attend 
to the other business, which was becoming quite exten- 
ded. Consequently engaging Captain Milner to sail the 
sloop and placing his son David, then a lad of fourteen 
•or fifteen years, on board to look after the business in 
Philadelphia, he established a regular mercantile 
business on French Street wharf, not only freighting 
to Philadelphia, but buying all kinds of produce and 
shipping it on his own account to Philadelphia, New 
York or the West Indies, as he could find the best 
market. He also kept in store such articles as the 
people of the surrounding county had need of, — flour, 
salt, fish, plaster of Paris, etc., etc., — ^and soon had a 
flourishing trade. 

About the year 1794, Captain Milner, in company 
with some other persons, started a sloop of his own 
for trading between the two towns, and Samuel Bush 
promoted his son David to the captaincy of the 
" Nancy." In the year 1801 he took his son Charles 
into business, and he remained until his death in 
1804, when David Bush took his place, but continued 
in command of the sloop for nearly twenty years af- 

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terward. Another sloop, the " Mary Ann," was built, 
and a semi-weekly line was put in operation. The 
firm, as thus constituted, remained unchanged until 
about 1820, when Samuel Bush, then in his seventy- 
fourth year, retired from the business, and George, 
his youngest son, took his place, the firm-name being 
changed to that of David <& George Bush, which name 
it retained, with one short interruption, until the 
year 1846, when David Bush, in his seventy-first 
year, gave up his share of the business to his youngest 
son, George W., and the firm-name was changsd to 
George & George W. Bush. The senior member of 
the firm died in 1863, but the business was continued 
by George W. Bush. In 1873 George W. Bush took 
into partnership his oldest son, Walter D., who had 
been raised in the business, and the firm became 
George W. Bush & Son. Again, in 1882, George 
W. Bush, Jr., a younger son, was admitted to the 
firm, and the present name was adopted, viz. : George 
W. Bush & Sons. The transportation business of the 
present firm has grown to large dimensions, and 
though it is scarcely to be recognized as the modest 
business commenced by Samuel Bush one hundred 
and fourteen years ago, yet its growth has propor- 
tioned itself naturally to the growth of the city of 
whose history it has for so long a time been a part. 
The warehouses, barges, tug-boats and wharves now 
used by the firm in the transactions of their business, 
both in Wilmington and Philadelphia, have mate- 
rially assisted Wilmington in all stages of its growth, 
by affording to the people of this enterprising city 
convenient and satisfactory means of freight commu- 
nication with Philadelphia, and, in conjunction with 
other lines, ready access to the markets of this and 
of foreign countries. 

In the early days of anthracite coal the sale of this 
commodity was added to the general mercantile busi- 
ness of the house, and this department of the business 
has grown side by side with the transportation business 
to a prominent position in the coal trade. It has 
been principally during the life of George W. Bush, 
and through his wise and able management, that the 
coal department has developed to large proportions. 
Through the general office at Wilmington, and the 
branch office at 207 Walnut Place, Philadelphia, 
the firm places great quantities of anthracite and 
bituminous coal throughout the Eastern tier of States. 
Their anthracite coal comes from all three districts 
of the anthracite region, and the Cumberland region 
of Maryland and West Virginia furnishes the largest 
part of the bituminous coal which they market. The 
larger part of the fuel of the city of Wilmington, as 
well as of the State of Delaware, is supplied by this 
firm, and their operations extend throughout the 
coast States. 

During the past few years railroads and builders 
have learned to appreciate the value of the Southern 
yellow-pine timber in frame construction, and in 
1884 the firm commenced to bring yellow-pine tim- 
ber from the Gulf States, and from the Carolinas, for 

use in the Middle and New England States. This 
department works under the name of (Jcorge W. 
Bush & Son**' Lumber Co., and has already achieved 
a high position in the yellow-pine trade. Their deal- 
ings are at wholesale only, and their yard at Wil- 
mington is used to distribute lumber to inland points 
on the various railroads which proceed from Wilming- 
ton. The recent change of gauge of the railroads in 
the South from the broad gauge of five feet to that 
of four feet nine inches, the latter being the standard 
gauge of the Northern railroads, has opened a means 
of transporting lumber through by rail from the far 
South to the North, thus enabling the yellow-pine 
lumber to be brought through in a few days, when 
quick delivery is necessary ; but by reason of cheaper 
transportation, a large part of this lumber from the 
South is still brought to the markets of Wilmington, 
Philadelphia, New York and Eastern ports by coast- 
ing schooners of heavy draft. Georgia and Florida 
pine has become the synonym for strength and 
durability in constructive work, and if it is possible 
to add to the reputation for stability of a commercial 
house that has been in existence for more than a 
century, the bringing to our markets of the stanch- 
est building timber would have that effect. 

The Charles Warner Company is the suc- 
cessor of one of the oldest transportation and general 
business houses in Wilmington, and its commercial 
value to the city has been incalcuable. For about a 
hundred years the present location upon the Chris- 
tiana at the foot of Market Street has been the busi- 
ness home of this firm or its immediate predecessors 
of the same family. The records or accounts prove 
nothing anterior to 1794 as connecting the business 
with the transactions of the present company, but it 
is well known that the commercial history of the 
house extends through a hundred years. The wharf was 
the fourth one built in the city and was owned first 
by one Robinson, who, before the Revolution, com- 
manded vessels from this port, but afterwards de- 
clined a sea-faring life, became a shipping merchant 
of some note, and dying, left a widow from whom 
William Warner purchased the property. The ear- 
liest information we have of the family in Wilmington 
shows that John and William Warner and their 
father Joseph were engaged in the West India trade, 
and that the last-named was also a silversmith by 
trade. He was a descendant of one Skippwith, who 
came to America with William Penn and is believed 
to have been the first of the family in Wilmington. 
His son William married a daughter of Joseph Tat- 
nall, who was thus the maternal grandfather of Mr. 
Charles Warner. Of this ancestor, Miss Montgomery, 
in her " Reminiscences of Wilmington," says ; " Jo- 
seph Tatnall was the most distinguished of those 
worthy men whose memories deserve notice in this 
community, and the rising generation ought to be in- 
formed that Mr. Tatnall was a true patriot. He alone 
dared to grind flour for the famishing army of the 
Revolution at the risk of the destruction of his mill." 

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Tha general wholesale and transportation business 
Id which John and William Warner were engaged 
certainly as early as 1794, and which was in all proba- 
bility a direct outgrowth or continuance of the enter- 
prises in which they were associated with their father, 
was carried on by them without interruption until 
about 1820, when the senior brother was appointed 
United States consul to Havana, and then it passed 
iato the hands of William as sole proprietor. The 
firm had been sorely pressed for means during the 
War of 1812-15, but maintained its credit and activity 
and passed successfully the only threatening period 
the house has ever known. 

In 1837 Charles Warner was taken into partnership 
with his father, under the firm -name of Charles 
Warner & Company, and in 1845 William died, leav- 
ing his son the entire responsibility of the large and 
rapidly-growing business. 

Up to this time the transportation facilities of the 
house were such as two small sloops afforded. They 
sailed between Wilmington and Philadelphia, making 
four trips per week. In 1846, Mr. Warner completed 
the first steam packet, which he named, in honor of 
his father's old friend, the " E. I. Dupont ;" but the 
enterprise proving immature, she only remained upon 
the route one season. The sloops " Fame " (the name, 
by the way, of one of the earlier Swedish ships) and the 
** Mary Warner," each of about sixty tons burden, 
were placed upon the line, and they continued to per- 
form the service of four trips per week until 1866, 
when they were found to be inadequate, and were 
replaced by the barges "Anna** and "Mary," each 
of one hundred and twenty-five tons, which were 
towed by steam tugs and formed a daily line between 
this city and Philadelphia. 

Prior to this time, in 1860, the proprietor took into 
partnership his nephew, E. Tatnall Warner, and the 
firm-name again became Charles Warner & Co. 

At the close of 1868, Charles Warner, who had 
seen many years of active business life, and under 
whose skillful and energetic management the house 
bad led a career of constantly-increasing prosperity, 
retired in favor of his son, Alfred D. Warner. Since 
his retirement Charles Warner has resided continu- 
ously in Wilmington. 

The business was continued under the old name 
until 1885, when an act of incorporation was obtained 
creating " The Charles Warner Company " of which 
E. Tatnall Warner was elected president ; Alfred D. 
Warner, vice-president and treasurer; and E. Andrews, 

Such in brief has been the history of this house ; 
but it remains to give a few facts concern iag the 
growth of its business. And in this connection we 
may state that the traffic between Wilmington 
and Philadelphia had so increased that still larger 
craft than the "Anna " and " Mary " were demanded, 
and they were superseded by two barges, the 
'*Coleta" and "Minquas," each of two hundred and 
fifty tons, or double the capacity of their predecessors. 

Another large enterprise of the firm was the estab- 
lishment of the ElectriclSteamship Line to New York, 
for which Charles Warner & Co. had laid the founda- 
tion in 1866. The charter of the Wilmington Steam- 
ship Company of Delaware, of which Warner & Co. 
and William M. Baird, of Philadelphia, were the 
promoters, was passed in 1869, and in the follow- 
ing year the Wilmington house which we have 
under consideration purchased Mr. Baird's interest, 
and in turn sold a part interest to George W. Bush. 
In 1870 a favorable arrangement was made with the 
Delaware and Raritan Canal Company, enabling the 
establishment of a safe and advantageous inland 
route. This line, on which three, and sometimes four, 
steamers plied, proved reasonably profitable to the 
projectors and of vast advantage to the city, encourag- 
ing, as it did by its facilities of cheap transportation, 
the development of numerous extensive manufac- 
tories, and especially, perhaps, the iron industry. 
The line was only discontinued in 1886, its usefulness 
having been in a large measure neutralized by rail- 
road extension. 

The growth of the firm*s various lines of business 
has been most gratifying. In the single item of 
anthracite coal, of which it is interesting to note 
this house brought the very first to Wilmington, just 
after the opening of the Schuylkill mines, about 1830, 
the increase in tonnage has been immense. The 
bulk brought to the city now is fully seventy times 
8S great as that which was annually handled twenty 
years ago. While its transportation and coal interests 
may be considered as constituting the greater part of 
its business, the company also makes specialties of 
hydraulic cement, sand, coke and lime, and handles 
them in large quantities,— of the last-named article 
taking the product of thirty-two kilns. It owns the 
Philadelphia and Wilmington Propeller Line, better 
known as Warner's Propeller Line of freight vessels. 

WILMINGTON— ( Continued). 

Wilmington had scarcely become the nucleus 
of an established community before the thrifly 
and energetic settlers of the colonial period began 
to plant the seeds that have developed into the 
vast wealth- producing manufacturing enterprises 
that now make it hum with industry. In its ship- 
building yards, its car factories, its manufactories 
of boilers, engines and machine tools, its morocco 
factories, and in numerous other branches of in- 
dustrial undertaking, it has reached a stage of 
success which its products have made famous in all 

Digitized by 




quarters of the world. While agriculture was the 
main pursuit of the pioneers of the State, its situ- 
ation upon the great bay, giving immediate access 
to the ocean, could not but stimulate commerce, 
quick upon the heels of which came the impulse 
toward employing home facilities in the construc- 
tion of such articles of daily use as might be more 
cheaply produced in the Delaware country than it 
cost to import them from abroad. The water- 
power provided by the Brandy wine, as it made its 
swift tumble from the Pennsylvania hills to the 
broad estuary of the Atlantic, was available for 
the economical working of the first flour-mills and 
fulling-mills, so that when the non-importation and 
non-exportation acts of its opening Revolutionary 
era threw the people upon their own resources, 
Delaware could turn out a very important quan- 
tity of food and the material for dress. Then 
when the epoch of steam came, her forests con- 
tributed to firing the first boilers set up. And 
again, with the use of coal and the introduction of 
iron, she was within cheap transportation distance 
of the beds of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and 
so was enabled to hold her place and even improve 
it in the swift march of progress. 

It was by the early Dutch that manufactures 
and ship-building were given their birth in the 
Wilmington neighborhood. Soon after the arrival 
of the Swedes two ship-carpenters from Holland 
had settled at the high point called Mauathan, 
just above the mouth of the Christiana, and were 
the first traders and shipwrights on the Delaware. 
Peter Minuit says, that in 1642 these men had 
their work-people and their families there, and 
made boats and small trading vessels for them- 
selves and other colonists. Campanius records 
that in 1643 two Dutch coopers began on Cooper's 
Island, a small piece of fast land on the north side 
of the Brandywine, to make kegs and hogsheads, 
and the flat-bottomed sailing shallops in which 
trade and transportation was conducted up and 
down and across the bay. From this starting 
point a small business grew up around Fort Chris- 
tana and the neighboring settlements of Christi- 
anaholm. Before 1679 three grist-mills were in 
operation on Shellpot Creek, and a fourth was 
subsequently built by Timothy ^Stidham, on the 
south side of the Brandywine, where it was crossed 
by the Ford road. Soon after the foundation of 
Willingtown (Wilmington), in 1736, Wm. Shipley 
began the queerly-combined business of building 
vessels and brewing malt liquor in the town.. lu 
1749 the mill seals, formerly Stedhams, were pur- 
chased by Oliver Canby, and the mill then built 
was the beginning of what, in 1764, was known as 
the Brandywine system of mills numbering eight, 
four on each side of the stream. 

In 1797, John Patterson & Son were manufac 
turing saddles on the west side of Market Street, 

next door to the Sign of the White Hart tavern, 
and Wm. Bryant had a shoemaker's shop near by. 
Jacob Broom had already built a cotton factory on 
the Brandywine. It was destroyed by fire in 
1797, and at the next session of the Assembly an 
act was passed authorizing a lottery to furnish 
funds for rebuilding ; but the project appears to 
have failed — at least the mill did not rise from its 
ruins. The old stone grist-mill, still standing on 
the Brandywine above Sixteenth Street, was, as 
stated by the inscription on the comer-stone, 
erected by I. Canby in 1800. Originally it com- 
prised two buildings, in which ^ye run of stone 
were used ; but the city has acquired most of the 
property in connection with the water-works, and 
only two run of stone remains in operation. In 
1802, John Aiken moved his cabinet-making es- 
tablishment from Philadelphia because of the yel- 
low-fever epidemic there, and located at the comer 
of Fourth and Shipley Streets, in Wilmington. 
George Whitelock, at the same lime, was a cabinet 
and chair-maker next door above the Town Hall 
The Delaware Paper-Mills at Brandywine were 
operated by Wm. Young and Robert Gilmour, as 
Wm. Young & Co , until 1803, when Wm. Young 
became sole proprietor. In the same year Van- 
dever & Test were engaged in distilling whiskey 
and rum from rye and molasses, near Queen and 
Tatnall Streets, and at that time increased the 
capacity of their distillery. David West made 
cut nails and other brands at his factory, at Front 
and Market Streets. James Ross discontinued his 
cooperage business and engaged with J. Chestnut 
in the manufacture of rush bottomed chairs. George 
Young made Windsor chairs at King and Second 
Streets. In 1804, Chalfant & Dixon were black- 
smiths and machinists, on Shipley Street near Sixth, 
adjoining John Dixon's coach factory. 

The large establishment, one of the most exten- 
sive of its tiaie, known as the Rokeby Cotton Fac- 
tory, was originated early in the century, first run- 
ning five hundred spindles. In 1813 stone build- 
ings were erected and the capacity increased to 
twelve hundred spindles. In 1823 the mills were 
operated by John D. Carter, whose employees were 
accommodated in eleven tenement-houses on the 
property. A still more ambitious enterprise was the 
Simmelville Mills, on the Brandy wine, a four-story 
stone structure running three thousand spindles, 
and completed in 1814 by John Siddall & Co., who 
in 1823 sold out to John Torbert and Cyrus Lam- 
born. Joseph B. Simms became the purchaser in 
1824. Beginning about 1814, Justus Beckley, 
Jacob W. Robinson and Benjamin H. Springer 
made at No. 40 Fourth Street a large quantity of 
the machine cards used in these mills. The "Upper 
Brewery" was established in 1814 a°d i" 1^*^'^ ^'^ 
owned by Wigmore & Henderson.* 

1 In the immediato vicinity of Wilmington tbo^e 

In 1814, ftwr- 

Digitized by 




John Sellars & Son, about 1814, engaged in the 
manufacture of hats in large quantities on Market 
Street. In 1825 the partnership was dissolved and 
the son, William R, Sellars, continued the business. 
About the same time Sylvester A. Bratten & Co. 
manufactured caps on Third Street opposite the 
Mechanics' Bank 

In 1822 Greorge W. Metz made brushes, hand- 
bellows and blacksmith-bellows on the corner of 
High (now Fourth) and Shipley Streets. James 
Bannister made and repaired mattresses "near the 
wharf." In the same year Justin Briggs began the 
manufacture of "spring-seated and spring-pointed 
saddles*' on Market Street, and James Sebborn 
announced that he would " begin to make strong 
and table beer at Shipley's brewery as good as any 
received from Philadelphia." 

In 1826 JohnSebo was a cabinet and sofa-mak- 
er at Seventh and Market Streets. The next year 
John Guyer moved his tannery from Shipley to 
Market Streets. The brewery that in 1828 stood 
on the corner of Tatnall and Fourth Streets was 
in 1835 conducted by A. Rudman. 

The Phoenix Foundry and Furnace, which stood 
on King Street, was established by William Robin- 
son in 1828, and in the same year Benjamin Pot- 
tage opened on Market Street a shop, in which he 
manufactured copper, tin- ware and sheet-iron. 

The old foundry at Tenth and Orange Streets 
was built by William Robinson and James Rice in 
1830. Some years later Robinson moved to Phila- 
delphia, and Jonathan Bonney became a partner 
in the business. Rice enlarged the foundry and 
was very successful. In 1833, William WoUey 
and James Siddall formed a partnership as Wil- 

te#n gTist-milU on the Brandywine, with a capacity of five hundred 
tbonand bushels per year ; sixteen cooper-shops, one tilt-hammer and 
one shop fur making cotton and woolen machinery. A half-mllo up tlie 
Brandy wine there was a cotton-mill, with seven hundred spindles ; a 
half-mile beyond that a paper-mill and a snuff-mill. From this on up 
the stream were located, in tlie order named, two woolen factories, shops 
for makinff cotton and woolen machinery, employing one hundred men ; 
a cotton-mill, 15U0 spindles ; a machine-shop, a large cotton mill an- 
other cotton-mill, 1000 spindles; large powder-mills a woolen cloth 
brtory , a cotton-mill, 6oO spindles ; grist-mill, barley mill, saw-mill and 
woolen- factory. All of these industrial eetablisliments were located 
along the Brandy wine bocuuse of its advantages for water-power. Its 
waters bad a fall of one hundred feet in four and a half milos above the 
Brandywine Bridge, and there were in operation in that distance Ihirty- 
•ix water-wheeU. Mill Creek had, at that perlcd, along its banks, a 
steam saw and grist-mill. Red Clay Creek had 7 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 
2 coiton-mllls, 1 snuff mill, a woolen-factory and other enterprises. 
Barrow's Run had several saw-mills and a grist mill. 

Wilmington and Brandywine had 9 places of public worship, 11 
schools, with 317 scholars; a library of lOOtl volumes, 3 fire companies, 3 
banks and 2 markets. Flour sold at 4 cents per pound ; corn, 70 cent, 
p«r bushel ; beef, 10 cents per pound ; pork, 10; mutton, 7 ; butter 16 ; 
and potatoes. 66 cents per bushel. There were 9 shops in Wilmington, 
•mploying 120 hands in making woolen and cotton machinery ; and 
vithin a radius of 20 milea there were 30 cotton and woolen-factories, 
which disbursed |4*,000 per year in wages. One farmer near the town 
owned 746 merino sheep, 2317 mixed and 1239 common breeds. There 
were 22 cooper-shops, 8 blacksmith-shops, 6 machine-makers, for making 
cotton and woolen goods ; 35 mill hands. 19 master shoemakers, 9 master 
tailors, 6 master carpenters, 3 carriage- making shops, 3 wheelwright 
shops, 6 cabinet-makers, 2 rope-yards, 2 shipyards, 2 breweries, ,'4 
ilniggists, 6 tanneries, 4 curriers, 1 skinner, 2 semi-weekly papers, 5 
bookblDdiri, 4 tin-shops, 1 copperamith, 6 hat-factories, 3 board-yards, 2 
potteriM, 4 watchmakers, 3 silversmiths, 1 pump-maker, 1 brass foundry, 
1 gvannith, 7 weavers, 3 tallow chandlerik 3 tobacconists. 


liara Wolley & Co., for the manufacture of ma- 
chine tools, in the former factory of Wood <fc 
Reeves at the Brandywine Bridge. A foundry 
was established in 1845 on Front Street, between 
Tatnall and Washington, by Adams & Co., and 
in the adjoining building Hall & Aldrich began 
the manufacture of patent locks. 

El wood Garrett in 1846 invented a machine for 
manufacturing wood-screws, and C. & W. Pyle 
began the manufacture of japanned leather on 
Orange Street. Moore & Chamberlain built a 
foundry in 1847 adjoining their plow factory. In 
the same year Samuel N. Pusey started a cotton- 
mill at Front and Tatnall Streets with forty-eight 
looms, which were run by a forty horse-power 
engine. The machine-shop formerly owned by 
Garrett A. Hollingsworth in the western part of 
the city was changed into a steam saw-mill, and 
William Chandler built a steam-mill on Tatnall 
Street, between Third and Fourth Streets C. H. 
Gallagher at the same time had a planing-mill 
and sash factory at Shipley and Seventh Streets. 

In 1847 the Wilmington Manufacturing Com- 
pany was organized with sixty stockholders and a 
capital of fifty-four thousand dollars. A large 
building was erected at the corner of Ninth and 
Walnut Streets. Lewis Thatcher, in February, 
1848, moved his sash and blind factory to a new 
steam-mill on Shipley Street. 

In 1849, Betts & Stotsenburg erected a brick 
foundry on Front Street, at the foot of Washington, 
for the production of large castings. Soon after 
beginning operations they moulded a shaft twenty- 
four feet long and one and a half feet in diameter, 
weighing six tons. It was cast in a deep well dug 
in the building and was made for a firm in South 

M. M. Cook, of Massachusetts, began the busi- 
ness of sailmaking and ship chandlery near the 
railroad station in 1849. At the Castle Garden Fair 
in New York, October, 1849, Bush & Lobdell re- 
ceived premiums for the best car-wheels in America ; 
J Pierson for best patent wheat-drill ; Jesse Urmy 
for self supporting endless chain and railway horse- 
power of his own invention. The Franklin Factory, 
at Ninth and French Streets, was started in 1849, 
and made muslins and tickings 

E. Belts & Co. in 1850 established an iron, brass 
and bell foundry at Eighth and Orange Streets. 
A "gold mill," weighing fourteen tons, was made by 
Pusey & Jones in 1850 for use in California mines. 
Major K B. Gilpin in 1850 leased the ship-yards 
at the old ferry and began to operate them. 

The cotton factory in Brandywine Village was 
built in 1855. It was five hundred feet long, one 
hundred feet wide and one story high. Forty 
dwellings were built in the vicinity the same year. 

As indicative of the condition of manufactures 
in the decade prior to the war, the statistics gather- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ed by Joshua T. Heald in 1853 are presented, 
which, however, do not include the Du Pont pow- 
der works, or the other large establishraents along 
the Brandy wine considered as belonging to the city. 
In 1860 the output of the manufactures of New 
Castle County (almost entirely in Wilmington), 
amounted to nearly nine millions of dollars and 
employed 5757 hands. The statistics, as given in 
the United States Census, were as follows : 




Agrlcultitral ImpIemontB.. 


Bolts, Nuts, etc , 


Boots and Shoes 


Bread aod Crackers., 


Ottbinet Famitiire 

Cars , 

Car Springs 





Cotton Goods ~ 

Drain Tile „ 

Fire Brick 

Flour and meal 


Horse-shoe Nails. 


Iron-f mndings. 

Iron, Rolled. - .■ 

Leather ;. ... 

Leather Hose and Belting , 

Machinery. Steam-engiues. etc.... 

Machinists' Tools , 


Masts and Spars , 

MetolUc Kegs 

Morocco „ , 


Patent Leather , 

Plaster, Ground , 


Quercitron Bark 

Sails , 

Saddlery and Harness. 

Sashes, Doors and Blinds 






Soap and Candles 

Spokes and Felloes 

Spices, Ground 

Stone and Marble-cutting 

Tin, Sheet-iron and Copperware... 

Turning .3 

Wool-carding | 2 

Woolen goods.. | 4 

Total, including MlncelPs Man- 
ufactures, not above sptjciflcd. 3tM) 


















































79, 79^ 




|4,863.472| 15,513,066 $8,963,440 


60. 000 < 




























.32, 22.5 






25.000 1 
17,700 1 
49,300 1 




















1,626 I 
















286,439 1 















40, 000 1 






Cast-iron and brass (including car-wheels, water" 
wheels, mill machinery): 

Tons of cast iron...... 6400 

Tons of brass 12 

Number of employees. 216 

Wrought and rolled-iron, steel and railroad cars, 
including locomotives and car steel springs, cotton 
and mill machinery and ship work : 

Tons of iron and steel 1480 

Iron steamboats 5 

Steamboats repaired ^ 20 

Eight'Wbeel passenger cars 53 


Freight cars 

Steam -engines 

Number of employees. 

8h^ buOdUg and Coal Bargf. 

New Tessels made « 

Vessels repaired 

Persons employed 


Employees 202 

Bricks made 11,700,000 

CoUon F\wtorie$. 

Persons employed „ „ 218 

Yards made 2,654,400 

Leather Manu/aetured. 

Goat-skins » 180,000 

Calf, kip and other bides 40,000 

Persons employed 178 


Penons employed 22 

Feet of lumber sawed 1,500,000 

Feet of lumber planed 1,250,000 

Spokes for wheels made 250,000 

Soap Work*. 

Persons employed 8 

Pounds ot tallow melted « 500,000 

Pounds of candles made 200,000 

Pounds of soap mada 400,000 

Ckx^tr Work. 

Persons employed „ 126 

Barrels made 82,200 

Half-barrels made 21,950 

Kegs made 40,650 

Hogsheads 4,726 

From 1860 to 1880 giant strides were made, 
and the value of the productions of Wilmington's 
manufactories was increased from a little less than 
nine million dollars to considerably over thirteen 
millions in 1880, and, including the industriee, 
along the Brandy wine, to more than fourteen 
millions. These figures, it should be borne in 
mind, represent the net value of products, while 
the gross value (taking into consideration the cost 
of raw materials) would amount to more than 
twenty-one millions. In the census report, as will 
be seen, the net figures are given : 



Boots and shoes 

Bread and other bakery pro- 

Brick and tile 


Carriage and wagon nmte- 
rials ! 

Carriages and wagons 

Clothing, msn*s 

Coffins, buriul canes and 
undertakers' goods 


Cotton goods 

Foundry and machine-shop 
products. „ 


Iron and steel 

Iron forgings. 

Kindling wood 

Leather, dressed skins 

Looking-glass and picture 

Marble and stone work 

Masonry, brick and stone... 

Paper i 

Booflng and roofing mate- 
rials ' 

Saddlery and harness. 


Soap and candles 

Tinware, copperware, sheet- 
iron ware 

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes... 



of wages 



























J23,075 $14,780 
6,400 7,000 

All other industries (44 es- 

Total $10,744,389 13, 174,821 $7,8»4,847,$U,«05^0 

















































681,6621 2,612,516 3,552,361 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 





Digitized by 



; 1 : * ■ . t 

Uely IK^n prvparauons lor e^lbarKing upon niS the posseaston of the powder compauy. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by 




About one million bushels of grain ground at 
the four Brandy wine mills on south side and three 
on north side of the stream. 

The census report for 1880 sets the value of 
gunpowder manufactured in New Castle County, 
outside of Wilmington, at 8243,365, which is un- 
doubtedly a very low estimate; and of paper, 
8737,^5. These additions bring the total up to 
$14,186,640, as the value of the product for that 
census year. In the whole State the value for 
that year was only a trifle over $20,500,000. 

PowDER-MiLLS. — The Powder-MUla of E. L 
du Pant de Netnours & Co. — This vast establish- 
ment now and for many years the largest of its kind 
in the world, was founded upon a comparatively 
small scale in 1802, by Eleuthere Ir^n^ du Pont 
de Nemours, and has been gradually enlarged to 
its present proportions by his descendants, who, 
in thus adhering to a single industry throughout 
several generations and for a period stretching 
well-nigh to a hundred years, have followed a 
custom of conservative stability which, very na- 
turally, is less common in America than in the 
countries of Europe. The founder was a French- 
man who had left his native land fur political 
reasons (as is elsewhere more fully set forth), in the 
last days of the last century, arriving at Newport, 
R. I., on the 1st of January, 1800. He had been 
a pupil of the celebrated chemist Lavoisier, who 
was superintendent of the powder-mills of the 
French government. Some months after reach- 
ing this country an accidental occurrence called 
Ir^nee du Font's attention to the bad quality of 
the gunpowder made in America, and gave him 
the first idea of engaging in its manufacture. In 
January, 1801, he went back to France to pro- 
cure plans and models, returning in August with 
a portion of the machinery for the ftiture mills. 
It now remained to find a suitable site and he 
determined to engage in its manufacture, and went 
back to France in January, 1801, to perfect his 
knowledge of the theory and obtain additional 
ideas of the practical side of the science. When 
he returned to America, in August, he was well 
provided with plans and models, and brought 
with him some of the machinery for his pro- 
posed mills. It is noteworthy that he was urged 
by Thomas JeflTerson, who had been his father's 
friend, to locate in Virginia, and that he de- 
clined, chiefly because of the strength which slav- 
ery as an institution possessed in that State, and 
the efiects which it had produced upon the char- 
acter of the white race. He was deterred by the 
same reason from locating in Maryland, and pre- 
ferring the Brandyinrine to the vicinity of Paterson, 
N. J., and several other localities which he visited, 
he bought, in June, 1802, a tract of land upon its 
banks, four miles from Wilmington, and immedi- 
ately began preparations for epubarking upon his 

cherished enterprise. This was deemed by many, at 
the time, a mad or, at least, exceedingly unwise un- 
dertaking, for it was thought that the quality of the 
powder imported from England could not by any 
possibility be surpassed, and that ruin awaited the 
man who in this country attempted to equal it. 
Thus Eleuthere Ir^n^e * du Pont ' had little sym- 
pathy or encouragement ; but he seems to have been 
a man well qualified to get along without those 
aids and comforts. He possessed wonderful confi- 
dence, courage and capacity for doingy and it was 
well he did, for he underwent many bitter disap- 
pointments and losses before he made the Brandy - 
wine Powder-Mills an assured success. Du Font's 
powder almost from the first, however, was of 
good quality, and Wilson, the American ornitholo- 
gist, who used it, said that it left no stain on paper 
when burned — one of the most common but cru- 
cial tests of good powder. The powder was put up 
in packages bearing the picture of an eagle. 

** From fuAining Brandywine*8 rough shores it came. 
To sportsmen dear its merits and its name ; 
du Ponfs best Eagle, matchless for its power, 
Strong, swift and fatal, as the bird it bore." 

By 1810 the aspiring French powder-maker was 
using a <5apital of seventy-five thousand dollars. His 
works gave employment to thirty-six men^ had a 
capacity of six hundred thousand pounds per year, 
and were regarded as the most perfect in operation. 
These works, it may be remarked, which are still 
in operation, and known as the Eleutherian Mills, 
have now a capacity of five thousand pounds of 
sporting powder per day, or one million five hun- 
dred thousand pounds per year. 

The Upper Hagley Mills were commenced by 
Mr. du Pont in 1812, and the Lower Hagley 
Mills* were built in 1828, and all brought into 
such perfection of working power that before his 
death, in 1834, the energetic proprietor had the 
satisfaction of knowing that his labors had re- 
sulted in making these the most extensive powder- 
mills in the country. 

After the death of E. I. du Pont the responsi- 
bilities of the great manufactory rested upon his 
eldest son, Alfred, and it was under his direction 
that the Brandywine Mills, in the lower yard, 
were built in 1836. He remained head of the 
house until 1850, when his brother. Gen. Henry 
du Pont, became its chief, and later, there were 
associated with him his nephews, Ir^n^e and 
La Motte, sons of Alfred, both now deceased, and 
Eugene and Francis, sons of his younger brother, 
Alexis, and his own sons, Henry A. and William, 
constituting the firm as it now exists under the old 

I The site of these works was known as Lower Hagley as far back a* 
the Rerolntion, when Samuel Gregg surveyed a tract of twenty 'thre* 
acres there, which be gare to his son ** whereon to erect and build a 
forge and other water works.*' John and Joshua Gibson became asso- 
ciated with John Gregg, and did build there a forge and rolling and 
slitting-mill, sold, in 1783, to Rumford Dawes. Shortly after 18IU the 
mills were made cotton works, and two or three years later paswd into 
the possession of the powder company. 

Digitized by 




name of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Un- 
der this company a work of improvement and en- 
largement has been constantly carried on until the 
plant has grown to be not only the largest in the 
world, as stated at the outstart of this article, but 
it is believed also the best arranged and most ad- 
vantageous for the purpose designed. Beside these, 
to supply a constantly-growing demand, ten mills 
have been built or acquired in Pennsylvania, as 
follows: In Luzerne County — the Wapwallopen 
Mills, built in 1859, and Great Falls Mills, built in 
1869; in Schuylkill County— the Edgeworth 
Mills, built in 1845; the Tunnel, in 1860; Gin- 
ter's, in 1862 ; Pine Creek, in 1863 ; Indian River, 
in 1866 ; Locust Creek, in 1869, and theMahanoy 
Mills in the same year ; also the Paxinos Mills in 
Northumberland County. 

But it is of the Brandywine Mills we have prin- 
cipally to treat in this work. They afford a pe- 
culiar and interesting sight. Here are no vast 
buildings such as one usually finds vast industries 
housed in — no rushing railroad trains such as one 
is accustomed to look for in proximity to great in- 
dustrial establishments. It needs but a moment's 
reflection however, to make it clear that these are 
not a desideratum ; indeed, they would be utterly 
impracticable, if not absolutely destructive. In- 
stead of one or two large buildings, there are about 
seventy-five or eighty small ones, widely scattered, 
and the various processes of manufacture being 
thus isolated, the destruction in case of an explo- 
sion is reduced to the minimum. The buildings in 
which there is greatest danger are, besides, so built 
as to still further curtail loss to life and property 
in case of accident. Each has very massive stone 
walls, except upon the side towards the creek or 
river, and that is made as light as possible, while 
the roof is a light shell of frame work. Thus, 
should an explosion occur, the effect would be al- 
most exactly that of firing a colossal mortar in the 
direction where there was the least chance of 
doing harm. The walls, with the exception of the 
one towards the water, would doubtless remain in- 
tact. It is such careful precaution and ingenious 
devices as this that show the knowledge that has 
been gained through long experience by the man- 
agers of these works. It is obvious that it is not 
desirable to have locomotives come too near the 
mills. The nearest railroad station, on the Wil- 
mington and Northern Railroad, is a mile away, 
but railroad tracks run in and about the works 
and the cars upon them are drawn by horses, an 
easy means of handling materials and the finished 
product being thus afforded. Stationary engines 
are employed, but there are effective means of 
guarding against danger from them. Fifteen of 
these are in use at different parts of the works, but 
the greater portion of the power here, as at the 
other works of the company, is derived from the 

fall of water, and there are ninety-three \^ heels in 
use, most of which are turbines. 

Besides the mills proper are various buildings 
in which auxiliary work is carried on. The** Salt- 
petre Refinery," with a laboratory attached, is 
two hundred and fifty-eight feet by ninety-six 
feet and contains ample appliances for sup- 
plying all of the nitre required for the fabrication 
of powder, and also considerable quantities for 
the market, for such purposes as require an 
article chemically pure. Large store-houses are 
in close proximity. There are three charring- 
houses for the preparation of charcoal, and adja- 
cent buildings for the storage of the wood from 
which it is made — chiefly the twigs and the smaller 
branches of willow, which, in some cases, is grown 
for this especial purpose, in the surrounding region. 
There are also attached to the works extensive 
machine and millwright-shops, where all repairs 
are made and most of the machinery built ; a saw- 
mill, planing-mill, carpenter and blacksmith shops, 
and capacious buildings for the making of wooden 
and metallic kegs and barrels and powder can- 

It is characteristic of the careful management 
and far-seeing policy of the " du Ponts " that the 
company should own a great tract of land sur- 
rounding their works, and, indeed, this seems a 
wise provision, both for the company and, in pos- 
sible event, for outsiders. In this way the 
company prevents the approach of endangering 
establishments, and practically says to the public : 
" Keep at a distance and you are safe," indeed, 
making people keep at a distance. The lands of 
the company amount to about two thousand five 
hundred acres, stretching for a distance of three 
miles along both sides of the stream. General du 
Pont owns about a thousand acres more. Upon 
this property are three woolen-mills, a cotton-mill, 
a merchant's and grist-mill, and a population of 
about four thousand people, including three hun- 
dred or more employees of the works. The farms 
of this great estate are in a high state of cultiva- 
tion, supplied with the best of machinery and 
utensils, and all have dwellings of excellent char- 
acter, most of them built of stone. The roads 
are macadamized for ease of transportation, some 
at the sole expense of the company, and others at 
the joint expense of the company and county. 

As before mentioned, the nearest railroad station 
is a mile away. Between this station and the 
works, and back and forth from their shipping- 
points, in Wilmington, great six-mule teams ply 
daily, drawing huge wagons laden with materials 
or with gunpowder. The passing of these ponderous 
teams and equipages through the streets of 
Wilmington forms one of the city's novel and in- 
teresting sights, at which strangers stare in wonder. 

The company have about one hundred of these 

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mules and horses at the works here and in Pennsyl- 

The shipping facilities are excellent. The main 
line of the Wilmington and Northern Railroad, 
as well as its Kentmere and Rockland Branches, 
pass through the property, on all of which the 
firm has one or more sidings for forwarding and 
receiving freight. The W^ilmington and Northern 
Railroad connects with the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad near Wilmington, and with the Phila- 
delphia and Reading Railroad near Birdsboro', and 
with the Pennsylvania system at Coatesville and 
other points. They have also two shipping-points, — 
one on the river Delaware, with magazines and a 
wharf at which large vessels can lie ; the other on 
the Christiana Creek, with ample wharfage for 
coasters and for landing coal, wood, etc. 

Returning to the works, it may be remarked 
that the original works, built in 1802, have a 
capacity for producing five thousand pounds of 
sporting powder per day ; the Middle, or Hagley 
Works, two complete sets in one inclosure, so ar- 
ranged that both can work on one description of 
powder, or, if required, each on a different kind, 
have a capacity of thirty thousand pounds of 
blasting powder per day ; and the Lower Works 
have a capacity of five thousand pounds per day. 
Thus the total capacity for twenty four hours is 
forty thousand pounds, or, allowing three hundred 
working days to the year, about twelve million 
pounds annually. This amount is largely augmented 
by the mills in Pennsylvania. Including the 
latter, there were used in the works, in 1886, over 
sixteen million five hundred thousand pounds of 
saltpetre and nitrate of soda, the chief ingredients 
of gunpowder. These figures are enormous, but 
they are correct. The production of the mills is 
principally consumed in the United States, the 
firm having agencies and magazines at all the 
most important points, with a principal depot for 
the Pacific States at San Francisco, and agencies 
in South America and West Indies. The pro- 
ducts of the works embrace all descriptions of 
gunpowder including prismatic, hexagonal, 
square, mammoth, cannon, mortar, musket and 
rifle for army and navy ordnance service ; crys- 
tal grain, eagle, and the various grades of canister 
and sporting powders, also shipping, blasting, 
mining and fuse powders. They also supply 
mealed sulphur and pulverized charcoal to order, 
refined saltpetre, warranted pure, and Patent Safety 
Fuses for blasting, and cocoa or brown powder for 
army and navy use. 

To illustrate tjie progress which has been made 
in the manufacture of powder in the United 
States, it is only necessary to recall the fact that 
during the Crimean War the Allies, to enable them 
to prosecute the siege of Sebastopol, were obliged 
to procure large supplies of gunpowder in the 

United States (one-half of which was furnished 
by the Brandy wine Powder-Mi lis), and that the 
American powder compared favorably with the 
best they could procure in Europe. 

The founder of the powder works, Eleuthere-Ir^- 
n6e du Pont de Nemours, youngest son of Pierre- 
Samuel du Pont de Nemours the eminent French 
author and statesman, and of NicoleCharlotte- 
Marie- Louise Le D6e de Rencourt, was born in 
Paris on the 24th of June, 1771. His somewhat 
unusual baptismal names were those selected on 
account of their significance by his god-father, the 
celebrated Turgot. Ir^n^e du Pont, as he was 
commonly called, was a man remarkable in many 
ways, and his life was full of action and incident, 
both in his native and his adopted country ; it 
would require an extended biography to do justice 
to his useful and honorable career, the limits of this 
article only permitting us to touch upon the more 
salient features of his life and character. Brought 
up in the country, in what is now the Department 
of "Seine et Mame." his tastes turned early to- 
wards scientific pursuits, and his father's friend, 
Lavoi!«ier, whom Turgot had made superintendent 
of the government powder-mills {Regie royale des 
poudres et salpHres), offered to take him in charge 
and secure his reversion to that important post. 
This led to his going to the royal mills at Essonne 
to acquire a practical knowledge of the manufac- 
ture of gunpowder, where he remained until the 
outbreak of the French Revolution apparently 
changed his whole future destiny. On the 8th of 
June, 1791, his father, very prominent in public 
life and one of the leading advocates of a constitu- 
tional monarchy in the Constituent Assembly, es- 
tablished, in the interest of the moderate and law- 
abiding party, a large printing and publishing 
house. At its head he placed his son Ir^n^e, whom 
he had summoned to Paris, and thus, at the age of 
twenty, the subject of this sketch found himself 
conducting, almost alone, a great business which 
was necessarily connected with the political troubles 
of those stormy times. He was three times im- 
prisoned and in the utmost peril on the 10th of 
August, 1792, when both he and his father were 
at the Tuilleries among the armed defenders of 
Louis XVI. Although Ir^n^e du Pont was fortun- 
ate enough to save his father*s life as well as his 
own on that fatal day, both were marked for sub- 
sequent destruction ; the son succeeded in hiding 
himself at Essonne, and the father, after being con- 
cealed for several weeks by the astronomer Lalande 
in the dome of the Paris Observatory, was able to 
reach his home in the country, where he was ar- 
rested some six months later and thrown into prison, 
the fall of Robespierre alone saving him from the 
guillotine. After the Reign of Terror, du Pont de 
Nemours and his son renewed their courageous 
opposition to the Jacobins, who, finding themselves 

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Alfred Victor Du Pont, upon whom the when soiicueu to accept poi«t-i.^* j, 

chief responsibility of managing the powder- might h^ve extended his field of usefulness, he de- 

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tion of the history of the company simply by 
giving the present organization, which is as follows, 
viz : President, J. Taylor Gause; vice-president and 
secretary, H. T. Gause ; treasurer, Sam'l K. Smith ; 
directors, John Taylor Gause, H. T. Gause, Thomas 
Jackson, Nathaniel R. Benson, Jr., Alex. Kelley; 
stockholders, John Taylor Gause, H. T. Gause, 
Thomas Jackson, N. R. Benson, Jr., Alex. Kelley, 
Thomas B. Smith, Edward Mahoney, Thomas 
Johnson, Andrew G. Wilson. Horace W. Gause, 
T. Jackson Shaw, Samuel K. Smith. 

The growth of the company's business and some 
of the most interesting features thereof must be 
indicated, although it is impossible to follow step 
by step the development of the huge establishment 
of the present from the humble one of 1836. 
Having in view the magnitude of the present 
plant of the company, and its world-wide recogni- 
tion, it is well to pause for a moment and recall its 
condition for work in 1836. Car-building was at 
this time the main industry. The works embraced 
a three-story brick building, sixty-five feet in 
length and forty-five in depth. In the basement 
were placed the blacksmith fires where the iron 
was forged for the trucks, while the cars were 
built and trimmed upon the upper floors. Here 
they were also painted and varnished, in readiness 
for departure, when they were lowered through 
large traps in the floor to a level with the street. 
Some idea may be formed of the volume of the 
firm's trade at this time, when it is stated that the 
number of hands employed was but twenty; yet 
with this meagre force they had turned out the 
enormous amount of $6580.79 of business. 

In 1838 the number of employees had increased 
to forty-five, and the annual production to sixty- 
three thousand three hundred and seventy-five 
dollars. The increase of work compelled a change 
in the direction of larger accommodations to be 
made in the year 1841, when the old car build- 
ing was abandoned and more commodious quarters 
were secured by moving into a new brick building 
which the firm erected at the foot of West Street, 
south of the track of the Philadelphia, Wilmington 
and Baltimore Railroad, and conveniently near to 
it for purposes of loading freight. 

The main industry up to 1841 was the building 
of cars, and it was conducted mainly under the 
direction of Mr. Harlan, who, previous to being 
admitted to the firm in 1837, had been connected 
with the concern in the capacity of manager and 
agent. He was equal to every new obligation that 
a rapidly-increasing business imposed. 

Up to this date the firm was taking work prin- 
cipally for small jobbing repairs, with occasionally 
large contracts for stationary engines, and 
machinery for mills. The increasing business 
made it imperative to secure the talents of some 
person who was thoroughly familiar with machine 

work. To this end Mr. Elijah Hollings worth, 
then the foreman of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works at Philadelphia, was engaged in negotiation 
which resulted in his purchasing Mr. Pusey's 
interest, and from henceforth the machine depart- 
ment had a head acquainted with its entire details 
and management. 

Elijah HoUingsworth, the subject of this sketch, 
was born on the banks of the Brandy wine, in New 
Castle County, Delaware, November 28, 1806, and 
was the son of Joel and Phcebe (Kirk) HoUings- 

Mr. HoUingsworth's grandmothers were first cous- 
ins — Mary Chandler married Amor HoUings- 
worth, and Sarah Chandler married Caleb Kirk. 

The family of Mr. HoUingsworth were well 
known in New Castle County, and had for gene- 
rations resided in or about the place where he was 

In the year 1830 or '31 we find him filling the 
responsible position of foreman of the machine de- 
partment at the Baldwin Locomotive Works at 
Philadelphia, where he was employed for more 
than ten years. 

On August 28, 1841, he was engaged by the firm 
of Betts, Pusey & Harlan to superintend their de- 
partment of machinery. At the time of this en- 
gagement he purchased the interest of Samuel N. 
Pusey, and was admitted a partner in the concern. 

In every successive advance made by the com- 
pany, the strong individuality of Mr. HoUingsworth 
was so thoroughly felt in the details of this depart- 
ment, that it is safe to aflSrm the great success in 
the history of the firm was in a large degree due 
to his clear judgment and entire knowledge of that 
special work. To those who knew him well, Mr. 
HoUingsworth united a kindly disposition to a 
cheerfulness that was rarely subject to sombre in- 
fluences. W^hilst he was at all times ready to listen 
to advice and suggestions, he was nevertheless ex- 
ceedingly tenacious of his opinions, and demanded 
the most irrefutable proofs before he would confess 
himself in error. 

Having been brought up a Quaker, he never 
could be made to comprehend the importance of 
an open profession of religion, but he always after 
his marriage (his wife being a member of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal communion) regularly attended 
St. Andrew's Church with his family. 

He was a warm personal friend of the late Bishop 
Lee, and for many years was a vestryman of St. 
Andrew's Church. 

In this connection it may not be inappropriate 
to remark that Mrs HoUingsworth presented a 
memorial bell to St. Andrew's Church, and upon 
asking Bishop Lee for an appropriate inscription 
for the same, he replied, "The memory of the just 
is blessed." That bell tolled out the eighty years 
of the good bishop's life. 

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Elijah Hollingsworth had nine children, only one 
of whom is now living, — Mrs. Susan H. Siter, the 
wife of Edward Siter, of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Hollingsworth died at Wilmington, Novem- 
ber 9, 1866. and was buried in the Wilmington 
and Brandywine Cemetery. 

The new machine-shop, under the energetic 
impulse of Mr. Hollingsworth was now fitted up 
CD a scale beyond anything hitherto attempted in 
Wilmington, and they were quickly in condition 
to meet every demand for machinery, both on land 
and water, that was now rapidly being made upon 
them. The circumscribed space necessarily allot- 
ted to the Harlan & Hollingsworth Company in 
this work precludes the possibility of a detailed 
account of the successive additions to plant and 
buildings, as well as the immense increase to the 
personneL It may be as well here to record the 
fact that much of the information contained in 
this sketch is derived from a voluminous and 
comprehensive work issued by The Harlan & 
Hollmgsworth Company, 1887. 

In the year 1843 the ship-building ventures of 
the firm began to assume such a magnitude as to 
take precedence of the car construction. It is here 
to be noted that the fird iron sea-going propeller 
constructed in the United States was begun at the 
yard of Betts, Harlan & Hollingsworth in 1843, 
and launched in 1844. She was delivered to her 
owners in eight months from the day her keel was 
placed in position. From this date up to the 
present time the immense work done in iron ship- 
building, both for the government, foreign and 
on private account, has been of such a magnitude 
as. to cause the name of the firm to be recognized 
at its proper estimation the world over. 

In the year 1841, the firm made an important ac- 
quisition in its personnel in adding Captain Alex- 
ander Kelley to the outside corps of practical men. 
His services were such as to almost immediately 
mark him as a rising man. 

Captain Alexander Kelley, machinist and boat- 
captain, now living (January, 1888) as a retired 
citizen, withdrawn from the active cares of business, 
in Wilmington, was born in Milburn, New Jersey, 
February 12, 1813. His father, Patrick Kelley, 
in his nineteenth year, came from the North 
of Ireland, and settled at Short Hills (now Mil- 
burn), New Jer«ey, and established himself in busi- 
ness as a merchant tailor. His mother, Barbara 
McLeod, was seven years old when she came with 
her parents and one brother, John, to this country 
from the vicinity of Edinburgh, Scotland. Captain 
Kelley *s father died when he was but twelve years 
old. Two years later he lost his mother. Afler 
the death of his father he went with his mother to 
the home of his uncle, his mother's only brother, 
John McLeod. In the four years immediately fol- 
lowing the death of his father, while living with his 

uncle, he attended school in Reading, Pa. Before 
his father's death he had learned some rudiments 
in the schools at Short Hills. When sixteen years 
old, he became an apprentice to learn the trade of 
a millwright with his uncle at his (Mr. McLeod's) 
mills on the Brandywine. After entering upon his 
apprenticeship he still sought to enlarge his stock 
of knowledge by attending night-school in the vi- 
cinity. These mills are now owned and occupied 
by Messrs. James Riddle, Son & Company, as a 
cotton factory. They were formerly known as 
Gilpin's mill. After some time spent here, Mr. 
Kelley went to Richmond, Virginia, to superin- 
tend the erection of a large plant of paper-mill 
machinery in that city. After seventeen months 
spent in this work he returned home to take charge 
of a large job of machinery erection at Siddle's 
mill on the Brandywine. This work he finished 
in the fall of 1838. A new position was now opened 
to him as master of the United States Dredge, then 
employed, under the control of the City Council of 
Wilmington, in dredging about the Delaware and 
Christiana Rivers. This position first procured for 
him his title of '' Captain." By faithful attention 
to duties not always pleasant, but always involving 
responsibility and sometimes perilous, he well 
earned his title. The necessity for a thorough over- 
hauling of the mill and renewal of the machinery 
of this boat, in the spring of 1839, brought Captain 
Kelley into acquaintance with the firm of Betts» 
Pusey & Harlan, ship-builders, and finally into 
business connection with them. In the fall of 1840, 
after voting for General Harrison, the ninth Presi- 
dent of the United States, Captain Kelley went to 
Cuba, in the interests of Messrs. I. P. Morris & Com- 
pany, to erect a large sugar-mill, put in the ma- 
chinery and " take off the crop." To do the work 
indicated by the last phrase, it would be necessary 
for him to harvest, work up, store, and perhaps 
ship the season's sugar crop. He did all that he 
was sent to do with signal success, and aft^r eight 
months' absence returned home and resumed his 
calling among his old associates. While on the 
train between Philadelphia and Wilmington, com- 
ing to the latter city, he met Mr. Harlan, of the 
ship building firm, and the circumstances having 
naturally led to a conversation about his recent trip 
to the West Indies, Mr. Harlan told the Captain 
that he would like to have him ** take hold with 
their concern — in the morning - and hold on,*' The 
captain did as Mr. Harlan wished, and devoted 
himself heartily to the interests of that firm, and 
has ^* held on " steadily and is now, and has been 
long, a stockholder and director in the corporation, 
well-known as the Harlan & Hollingsworth Com- 
pany of Wilmington. The first important piece 
of work undertaken by the captain after he took 
"hold" was the refitting of the steamer **8un," 
which needed a new cylinder, and various new parts 

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for her machinery. The successful accomplish- 
ment of this undertaking, which at first seemed to 
be beyond the ability of the firm, marked a new 
era in the history of the concern, and established 
it as the first iron ship-building yard in the United 
States. The details of this " first successful effort " 
to make an iron cylinder for a large vessel, and of 
Captain Kelley's success in setting it in place with 
the accompanying machinery, form an important 
epoch in the history of ship-building in this country. 
They may be found more at length in the " Semi- 
centennial History of the Harlan and Hollings- 
worth Company, 1836-1886," pp. 186-190. In 
1844 Captain Kelley was sought by Messrs. Charles 
Warner and Company as a desirable person to be 
put in command of the " E. I. Dupont," a passen- 
ger and freight packet running between Philadel- 
phia and Wilmington. After much urging the 
captain consented to take the position offered, but 
finding it unsuited to his tastes, he soon resigned 
the command in favor of a young man named 
James Downing, and returned to his position in the 
ship-building firm. From that time he continued 
for fifteen or eighteen years to erect all the machin- 
ery built by the firm. He was promoted, in 187 b, 
to the more responsible position of superintendent 
of dock and repairs for the corporation. 

Captain Kelley was married, December 14, 1837, 
to Miss Margaret A., daughter of Clotworthy and 
Ellen Bellingham, of Wilmington. They have 
had the following children, viz , Emma Jane, wife 
of Joseph L. Carter, of Felton, Delaware County, 
Pa.; Mary A., wife of James M. Williamson, of 
Wilmington; John M., master car-builder, in 
charge of the car-shops of the Alabama and Great 
Southern Railroad, at Chattanooga, Tennessee; 
Alexander, formerly a draughtsman for the H. 
and n. Company, Wilmington, but now deceased; 
William P., a machinist, now deceased ; Samuel H., 
deceased, and Ellen E., wife of Geo. Wright Pier- 
son, secretary of the Jackson Lime and Coal Com- 
pany. For over sixty years Captain Kelley has 
been a communing member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, much of that time an oflSce-bearer 
of some kind, and is now the president of the board 
of trustees of Grace Methodist Episcopal Church 
of Wilmington. Captain Kelley is slill quite an 
active man (January, 1888), and having good health 
for one of his age, he enjoys life and the comforts 
of a delighful home at 213 West Street. 

In 1854 the company receive 1 another noted 
acquisition in the person of Captain Benson. 

Captain Nathaniel Ratcliffe Benson was bom 
April 8, 1820, at Dagsboro', Sussex County, Del. 
His father, Thomas Benson, was a millwright, 
who married Sarah Hill Irons, of Dagsboro'. His 
grandfather, Major Benson, was one of three 
brothers who came from England and settled 
first in Virginia, and subsequently removed to 

Delaware. In 1831, when the subject of this 
sketch was but eleven years old, his father re- 
moved, with the family, to Philadelphia. Mr. 
Benson's educational advantages were very lim- 
ited. A few terms in the public schools of Sussex 
County afforded his first opportunity to learn the 
rudiments of an English education. But these 
advantages were enjoyed at an age when he had 
no adequate appreciation of their value. His sur- 
roundings led his attention frequently, if not 
chiefly, to maritime pursuits, and before he was 
twelve years old he began the struggle of life in 
his own behalf as an apprentice cook on a schooner 
of the type then term^ " Shingle Weavers," — a 
term applied to vessels that carried shingles and 
staves from New York to Norfolk. His first voy- 
age was taken, in the capacity mentioned, on the 
" John McLung," on which he embarked at Phil- 
adelphia for Norfolk, Va. This business he fol- 
lowed for three successive years, spending his 
winters at school in Wilmington. 

In 1834 Mr. Benson started as " deck boy " on 
the wooden side-wheel steamboat " Wilmington," 
plying between Philadelphia and Wilmington, 
his shore duty being to carry the mail to and from 
the post-office. Three years were passed in this 
position before another change came to relieve the 
monotony of his burdensome existence, so distaste- 
ful to the active and ambitious life. The next move 
was on board the steamers " Providence," " Narra- 
gansett ' and " Mohican," belongingto the Old Prov- 
idence Line. The work here was that of fireman 
and stoker, — a step higher than his former occu- 
pation. He continued two years in this capacity, 
and then shipped for one year aboard the tow- 
boat " Indiana," running between New York and 
Albany. This brought him to the year 1841 when 
he was twenty-one years of age. He next went as 
fireman on the wooden side-wheel steamboat " Bal- 
loon," which ran, for her first trip, from New 
York to Norfolk, Va., for the purpose of opening 
a route between Norfolk and Richmond. The 
next year the boat was run between Philadelphia 
and Wilmington. Captain Benson remained in 
the capacity of fireman. He next engaged him- 
self, in 1844, as engineer on the wooden side- 
wheel steamer "Pioneer," running in the Phila- 
delphia route The "Balloon," "Whildin" and 
" Pioneer " all belonged to Captain Wilmon 
Whildin, whose name was long connected with 
the early history of steamboating on the Delaware 

For ten years Captain Benson served as cap- 
tain or engineer on one or the other of these 
boats, until on August 14, 1854, he entered the 
employ of the concern, and was, from the first, 
given his present position of superintendent of 
hull construction in the ship-yard. Captain Ben- 
son has devoted many years of earnest labor to 

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the management of his department, and has ad- 
^ yanced steadily in the confidence of the concern, 
as in the good will of his associates. His services, 
moreover, have been appreciated by his employers, 
and his connection with the company as a stock- 
bolder gives evidence of the approbation he has 
merited by his fidelity in the discharge of all the 
I responsibilities placed upon him. 

Mr. Benson was married October 5, 1843, to 
Hargareth P.umell, of Smyrna, Delaware, and they 
have had the following children, viz., Rebecca S., 
wife ofL. E. P. Dennis, manufacturer of fertilizers, 
Crisfield, Maryland. Susan P., wife of Henry C. 
English, brass founder, of Wilmington. Sarah H., 
wife of Geo. Holton, proprietor of stave-mills, Mark 
Centre, Ohio. Nathaniel R., a superintendent in ' 
the works of Harlan & HoUingsworth Company. 
Margaret P., wife of E. J. Muhlhausen, of Wil- 
mington. Thomas, with Harlan & HoUingsworth 
Company. Nellie H., wife of Harvey F. Smith, 
train dispatcher at Clayton, Delaware. 

In 1883, Mr. Benson purchased and removed to 
his present handsome residence, at the junction of 
Delaware Avenue, JeflTerson and Eleventh Streets. 

The period embraced between the years 1843 
and 1860 mark an epoch in the history of the 
company distinguished by great results and 
vigorous growth. In 1858 John Taylor Gause 
was formally admitted to an equal partnership 
in the concern. The rise and progress of this 
gentleman, who is now the president of the 
corporation, has been simply phenomenal. He 
was bom on September 80, 1823, and comes from 
an English, Welsh and Teutonic stock. His an- 
cestors in 1682 came from England in the company 
of William Penn, and settled in Chester County, 
Pa. The boyhood of Mr. Gause was passed 
on his father*s farm, and in his twentieth year he 
came to Wilmington to seek his fortune. From 
1848. when he started in the humble capacity of an 
errand boy, by diligence and a conscientious per- 
formance of his duties, he rose through at least 
fourteen successive grades until to-day he stands at 
the head of the corporation where forty- five years 
before he served in one of the lowliest capacities. 

During the Civil War some of the most noted 
ironclads were constructed for the government by 
the firm, together with vessels of a different charac- 
ter, and it is pleasing to record that these vessels, 
without exception, fulfilled the terms of their con- 
tract to the most minute degree. Up to the present 
time about two hundred and fifty vessels of all 
classes have been built. 

Constant improvement has appeared to be the 
policy of the company, especially during the later 
years. One of the most important adjuncts of the 
ship-yards waa made in 1870, when a dry dock 
was constructed, with a capacity for vessels three 
hundred and forty feet in length. New machinery, 

the most modern power appliances — ^masting 
shears, derricks, building ways, etc., — and the 
best tools are to be found in shop and 
yard. A railway system extends throughout the 
works, forming one of its most important and 
unique features and greatly facilitating the hand- 
ling of materiak, and an elaborate fire apparatus, 
manned by a regularly organized company of em- 
ployees, affords as strong an assurance of safety as 
it is possible to secure. The number of employees 
varies from about one thousand to one thousand 
five hundred. The total number of engines em- 
ployed is fifteen, from which an aggregate of four 
hundred horse-power is obtained. 

Perhaps the best idea of the growth of this con- 
cern is conveyed by the single statement that 
while its plant in 1836 covered an area of only forty- 
five by fifty-five feet (a three-story building), its 
buildings and ship-yard now include forty-three, 
acres of land upon both banks of the Christiana — 
certainly no mean expansion. The buildings number 
fifty-eight, and there are a little over six acres of 
ground under roof. 

The Puaey & Janes Company, — This company 
has an immense plant, extending along Rail- 
road Avenue, in the vicinity of the Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington and Baltimore passenger station, 
with offices at the foot of Poplar Street, and manu- 
factures all kinds of heavy machinery, engines 
and boilers, and builds iron and steel ships. 
Like many of the large industrial establishments 
of Wilmington, this had a very humble begin- 

In the year 1848 Joshua L. Pusey and John 
Jones started the business, which has gradually 
been developed into its present vast proportions. 
Their plant, devoted to general machine-making, 
at that time consisted of a small shop located just 
back of where the present tool-room stands, and 
occupied a space of about forty by seventy-five 
feet Ten men were employed and the weekly pay- 
roll amounted to not more than one hundred dol- 
lars. Various changes took place in the constitu- 
tion of the firm from time to time. In 1851, 
Edward Betts and Joseph Seal joined the original 
proprietors, and the firm was known as Betts, 
Pusey, Jones & Seal. These partners retired in 
1857, and Alfred Betts succeeded them, the style 
of the house becoming Pusey, Jones & Betts. 
Alfred Betts gave place to William G. Gibbons in 
1860, and the firm became Pusey, Jones & Co. 
In 1866 John Jones withdrew and Thomas H. 
Savery succeeded him, the firm name remaining 
unchanged. The present incorporated style was 
taken in the year 1879, William G. Gibbons be- 
ing president subsequent to 1886. The man- 
agement has been in the hands of the following 
gentlemen: President, Joshua L. Pusey; Vice- 
President, Thomas H. Savery ; General Manager, 

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Chas. W. Pusey ; Treasurer, William W. Pusey ; 
Secretary, Samuel C. Biddle. 

The plant has been steadily increased until it 
now covers seven acres, with a wharf frontage of 
one thousand feet upon the Christiana, and con- 
sists of a dozen or more large shops splendidly 
equipped with powerful tools and machinery of the 
most modern types, for the prosecution of the varied 
lines of manufacture which form the business of 
the house. These buildings or departments, enu- 
merating them in rude order from west to east, 
are : the general machine shop, the second story 
of which is the pattern shop; the blacksmith 
shop, the paper machinery department, with the 
boiler works, tin shop and rivet factory ; on the 
wharf the paint and plumbers* and rigging shops, 
and the boat-yard shed, in which are the tools used 
in the construction of vessels, the second story of 
which is the mould loiU Next comes the furnace 
shed for building the frames and plates for use in 
the boat-yard, and then farther east the saw and 
planing-mill, over which is the joiner s shop ; the 
iron foundry, with capacity for casting eight mil- 
lion pounds annually ; the pattern storage house, 
the brass foundry, store or supply house, and still 
farther east the marine railway and lumber-yard. 
There is much that is interesting to be seen in 
these various departments. The machinery gen^ 
erally is elaborate and intricate and nearly all of 
, it ponderous and powerful to a degree that one 
seldom sees surpassed. Eleven steam-engines are 
used to develop the poVer required by this large 
establishment. Huge cranes, some of them oper- 
ated by steam, are placed here aticl there through- 
out the shops and yard where heavy machinery or 
parts of machines are to be handled. The iron 
foundry, built in 1873, and the brass foundry, 
built in 1885, are model ones, and there are facili- 
ties for casting almost anything that may be de- 
manded, however huge or complicated The writer 
saw here a cylinder for a cotton compress, having 
an internal diameter of sixty-eight inches, or nearly 
six feet, and weighing over thirteen tons, but this 
is by no means one of the heaviest castings that 
have come from the Pusey A Jones Company's 
foundry. They cast the large anchors for the 
Brooklyn bridge, which weighed twenty-three tons 
each, the dimensions being so great the castings 
could not be transported by rail, and had to be 
made at a foundry having direct water communi- 
cation with New York. A good idea of the im- 
mensity and variety of the work done at the estab- 
lishment is afforded by a tour through the pattern 
store-house in which the wooden patterns fot 
almost every conceivable form of casting crowd 
the shelving of a large three-story building, leaving 
only narrow aisles, in which the genius of the place, 
who has been seventeen years in the charge of the 
department, can walk to and fro and lay his 

hand on any especial pattern that may be desired 
among the many thousands. 

This great plant, in which from seven to nine 
hundred men are employed at a weekly expense of 
about $7000 (contrasting strangely with the 
weekly pay-roll of $100 in 1848), is devoted to the 
construction of iron and steel ships, the building 
of engines and boilers, the manufacture of heavy 
boat-yard and boiler shop tools, large and small 
castings of all descriptions both iron and brass, the 
building of improved machinery for paper-mills 
and altjo for sugar-making factories, the latter with 
especial reference to the new process of ** diffusion ;" 
also machinery for powder-mills and for cotton- 
presses, building for the latter the famous three 
thousand ton Taylor patent compress. 

The products of this business are not only dis- 
tributed throughout this country, but are found in 
foreign lands — paper machinery in England, 
Scotland, Austria, Switzerland, Russia and Japan ; 
and iron and steel steamers and lighters on the 
rivers of Mexico, Peru, New Granada, Venezuela, 
Ecuador, Brazil, and in other parts of South 
America. Thirty-seven steamers built by this 
establishment are in service upon the river Amazon 
and its tributaries, and the fact has been noted that 
vessels for four nations — viz. : the United States, 
Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico — were upon the 
stocks here at the same time. During the past 
twenty-five years the company has built over one 
hundred iron and steel steamers for Mexico, Cen- 
tral and South America and the West Indies, 
many of which were shipped in sections and 
erected afler arrival at destination, this process 
being a specialty with the company, and thus while 
their machinery has made them known almost 
everywhere throughout the civilized world, the 
name of the Pusey & Jones Company has been 
carried by their vessels on nearly all the waters of 
the Western Hemisphere. 

Enoch Moare*8 ship-yard and marine-railway is 
at the foot of East Fourth Street, and occupies over 
two acres of ground, including yard, saw-mill, store- 
houses and railway for hauling vessels out prepara- 
tory to giving them such attention as they may 
i^uire. A steam-engine of about thirty horse- 
power is used for operating the various appliances, 
and about fifty men are employed. Mr. Moore 
builds wooden vessels and ships, from the smallest 
yawl or yacht up to the large full-rigged ship, but 
his specialty is the construction of steam freight- 
barges, and he has constructed a large number of 
these which have been sent to all parts of the coun- 
try. He has ample facilities for the docking and 
repairing of all kinds of vessels, and in this respect 
his yard cannot be surpassed even in such localities 
as Philadelphia or Baltimore. A vessel of as great 
burthen as seven hundred tons can be drawn out 
of water high and dry upon the marine-railway. 

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Mr. Moore has had a life-long experience in this 
business, having begun it in the firm of E. & C. 
Moore^ as early as 1856, and conducts it as sole pro- 
prietor since 1871. 

One of the ships built at Wilmington had an 
interesting history and became widely known. 
This was the brig "Nancy," built by Barney 
Harris at a ship yard at the foot of Marker Street, 
and owned by Joseph Shallcroes, Joseph Tatnall, 
and other citizens of Wilmington, and commanded 
by Captain Hugh Montgomery. On the breaking 
out of the Revolution she was chartered (in March, 
1775) by Robert Morris, the great financier, 
" without whom Washington's sword would have 
rusted in its sheath," to proceed to the West 
Indies and procure a cargo of the munitions of 
war. In March, 1776, she sailed for Porto Rico 
under English colors, taking the Spanish consul, 
Don Antonia Serona, to procure arms and ammu- 
nition under a contract previously made with the 
Spanish government In order to elude suspicion 
she made frequent trips to other islands in the 
vicinity, and while at St. Thomas her captain 
received the news of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence and the adoption of the Stars and Stripes as 
the national colors. Captain Montgomery im- 
mediately procured materials and had a flag made, 
and as he sailed out of the harbor pulled down 
the English flag and hoisted the Stars and Stripes, 
saluting it with thirteen guns. 

On arriving in the Delaware he was chased by 
tbe Englbh fleet and to escape and save as much 
of his cargo as possible. Captain Montgomery ran 
the ** Nancy" ashore above Cape May and began 
to unload her. The English kept up a constant 
fire, which he returned with his guns. At last he 
succeeded in getting the cargo all landed except a 
few barrels of powder, but the fire of the British 
had reduced the brig to a perfect wreck. Deter- 
mined that she should never be captured, Mont- 
gomery made his preparations for blowing her up, 
and taking the flag which had been floating de- 
fiantly from the stump of the mast, he left the 
vessel and rowed rapidly away. Seeing him leav- 
ing the brig, the British sent their barges to take 
possession and just as they were going on board 
she blew up, destroying many lives. Of course 
such a tragical end to a vessel built and owned in 
Wilmington created an immense excitement in the 
town, and for that matter throughout the country. 
Captain Montgomery was complimented and fited 
as a hero and the ** Nancy" was the theme of song 
and story. 

Car-Building. — Jackson & Sharpe Company. — 
The great railroad passenger car and ship-building, 
plant of the Jackson A Sharpe Company, known 
as the Delaware Car Works, and situated at the 

^ Koocb and CbM-ks Moore, u •blpwiighta, began boslneis at the foot 
•r Poplar street October Ifi, 1883. 

foot of Eighth Street, alongside the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad tracks, and 
between the Brandy wine and Christiana, constitute 
not only one of the largest, but one of the most in- 
teresting industrial establishments in the city. It 
was founded by Job H. Jackson, and Jacob F. 
Sharpe in January, 1863, the erection of the 
first buildings immediately following, and the 
building of cars being commenced in May. The 
first product of the works, the pioneer peach or 
fruit cars of Delaware, were finished and deliv- 
ered in July, and thus was begun the activity of 
this house, which has been uninterruptedly main- 
tained and constantly increased for almost a 
quarter of a century. The only change which 
has occurred in the house came about in 1870, 
when Mr. Sharpe withdrew, and Mr. Jackson, as- 
sociating with himself two or three others, secured 
a charter of incorporation for Jackson & Sharpe 
Company, with a capital of five hundred thousand 
dollars. Job H. Jackson became president of 
this organization, and has continued in that posi- 
tion to the present time. Chas. S. Howland is now 
the treasurer, and Eilwood C. Jackson, secretary. 

Some idea of the growth of this concern may 
be conveyed to him who reads as he runs, by the 
simple statement that at the outstart the shops had 
capacity for only six cars, one hundred men being 
employed, ^hile now the vast buildings con- 
tain from seventy to eighty cars in various stages 
of construction, and the number of employees is 
from one thousand to eleven hundred. There has 
been a corresponding increase in steam-power, and 
the capabilities of the plant have been further en- 
hanced by the introduction of labor-saving ma- 
chinery, every known device that is an improve- 
ment upon an old one being secured without re- 
gard to cost of the new or the value of the dis- 
carded article. The tract of land on which the 
works are located consists of about twenty acres, 
and being bounded by the Christiana and the 
Brandywine, and by the tracks of the Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, the 
facilities for shipment are unsurpassed. The 
buildings, by successive additions and new erec- 
tions, have extended over about two-thirds of the 
ground, and constitute an elaborate and con- 
venient system, each of the greater ones being 
devoted to a specific purpose, and the whole form- 
ing such a diversified hive of industry as is seldom 
met with, even in this city, noted for its colossal 

But before taking a view of the interior of 
these buildings let us glance for a moment at what 
may be called the out-door interests of the Jack- 
son & Sharpe Company. These may be said to 
be the ship-yard, and the lumber-yard. This in- 
dustrial house, known chiefly as the builders of 
cars, curiously enough, has constructed and set 

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afloat, from the yard on the Christiana, about 
one hundred and eighty veflsels, and there is seldom 
a time when from two to a half-dozen hulls are 
not to be seen in various processes of construction 
upon the stocks or floating in the river awaiting 
the concluding details of finish. These vessels 
are of every variety (except iron), and most of 
them are stanch, sea-going ships, whose keels 
cleave the waters of every ocean of the world, 
making the name of the builder known in the 
farthest parts of the Occident, the Orient and the 
antipodes. The repairing of ships is quite a fea- 
ture here, and a fine marine railway is in opera- 
tion, upon which the man-made monsters of the 
deep can be hauled up high and dry, repaired to 
any extent and slid back in the water. The 
lumber-yard in itself represents a vast business. 
It contains almost always from five to seven 
million feet of lumber, representing about a 
quarter of a million dollars. It is kept on hand 
for several years — undergoing a seasoning by 
natural processes, and that which is used in the 
finer work is, in addition, carefully kiln-dried. 
Here are yellow-pine, ash, oak, white-wood and 
white pine, for the substantial parts of the car, 
and cherry, black-walnut and rich mahogany, 
from Mexico and the West Indies, for the inside 
ornamental work. 

Within the buildings this lumber is rapidly 
worked into form, for building the cars, by hun- 
dreds of machines, many of them costly and intri- 
cate. In two immense rooms, which seem perfect 
wildernesses of machinery and ever running, end- 
less belts, innumerable wheels are whirring, and 
swift, steam-driven saws and blades are eating their 
way into oaken plank and beam, and fashioning 
more delicate ornaments from costlier woods, the 
drowsy hum of wheels high in air mingling with 
the more incisive sound of those in contact with 
the wood. The shrieking saws and rumbling 
planers make a wonderful conglomeration of noise ; 
but if one listens long enough it seems to resolve 
itself into a sturdy rythmic song of the restless 
and resistless energy of labor and achievement 
which has a dignity of its own. In these great 
machinery halls there b no dust, for a complicated 
system of huge tubes ramifies throughout the 
building, and there is an open mouth at every 
piece of machinery, which sucks the saw dust and 
other fragments of wood away as fast as they fly 
from the iron, and presto ! they are stored in a 
great brick stack contiguous to the boilers, and 
thus the waste of the mill is made to drive the 
engines which keep all of this machinery in mo- 

But these men who labor in conjunction with the 
hundred curious and complicated machines in the 
wood-working department are, after all, only a 
small portion of the whole force employed. Else- 

where there are skillful designers, decorators, up- 
hobterers, and hundreds of carpenters, cunning 
carvers of wood, and in a darksome, far-extending 
shop, by themselves, a throng of the swarthy sons 
of Tubal Cain, toiling at their fiery forges and 
ringing anvib. Here, too, man*s strongest ser- 
vant, steam, b pressed into the service of Vulcan, 
and strikes more ponderous hammer-blows than 
can the arm of most stalwart man. The elabor- 
ate construction of a modern railroad car, and 
varied nature of its materiab, and the trades and 
arts employed in building it, are not oft;en thought 
of, probably, by those who enjoy the luxury of 
modern travel ; but an enumeration of the trades- 
men and mechanics who contribute to the structure 
will convey some idea of the complexity of the 
work. To begin with, there are the blacksmiths, 
of whom we have spoken (and the Jackson & 
Sharpe Company make all of their own forgings), 
the carpenter, the designer, painter, cabinet-maker, 
carver, turner, machinbt, iron-founder, brass- 
founder, wheel-maker, spring-maker, pattern- 
maker, upholsterer, hardware man, lamp-maker, 
stove-maker, plumber, steam-pipe fitter, china 
dealer, glazier, gilder, tinsmith, electro-plater, rub- 
ber manufacturer, engraver, chaser, letterer, axle- 
maker, varnisher, carpet weaver, plush-maker, tan- 
ner, the silk, cotton, woolen, thread, oil-cloth and 
trimming manufacturers, the common laborer, and 
last, but not least, in thb year, 1887, the electrician, 
who " wires " the car and introduces incandescent 

The process of building a car after the lumber 
is sawed and planed and otherwbe prepared is 
something like this : It goes fir:$t to the setting up 
building, where b performed the work of laying the 
silb, framing up and covering in, a process which 
b about half-way between ship building and house- 
building. Indeed, the cars, arranged much in the 
same manner as when composing a train, strongly 
suggest the latter when about half completed, look- 
ing not unlike a row of well-built miniature houses. 
Wh<in the wood- work b completed, the car goes on 
temporary tracks to the painting-house, where it 
receives a long course of treatment, one coat of 
paint aft^r another being laid on to the number of 
six. This b allowed to dry and penetrate the wood, 
is then rubbed off* until a proper surface is pre- 
pared for the three coats of varnbh which form the 
finbh. Aft;er the painting comes the uphobtering 
and ornamenting of the car. The seats have been 
made ready in the cabinet-shop, the cushions pre- 
pared, etc., and the cloth ceilings have received 
their handsome decorations in a loft set aside for 
the purpose. The trucks, which have been made in 
a separate shop, are brought in, and the car being 
mounted upon them, is trundled out upon the side- 
track to be in due time whbked away to any part 
of the United States, Canada or Mexico, or per- 

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hape shipped to Australia, Brazil, the Argentine 
Republic, Central America or the West Indies, for 
all of these lands and many others pay tribute un- 
to the Jackson & Sharpe Company. The whole 
time occupied in passing from the crude material to 
the finished car is about two months, a large portion 
of the period being taken up in the slow drying of 
the several coats of paint and varnish. From seventy 
to eighty cars are constantly undergoing this evo- 
lution, and the works have a capacity for turning 
out about four hundred passenger, sleeping and 
parlor coaches per year, which, with the ships built, 
makes a total annual product of upwards of a mil- 
lion and a half dollars value. Since the establish- 
ment of the works many thousand cars have been 
built, and, as heretofore mentioned, about one hun- 
dred and eighty wooden vessels have been launched 
fix)m the ship-yards. The Jackson & Sharpe Com- 
pany were the pioneers in the building of narrow- 
gauge cars, the first ever constructed in America 
being delivered by them at Denver, Colorado, for 
the Denver and Rio Grande Railway Company, 
on August 2, 1871. Another interesting feature 
in the work at this establishment has been the 
building of palatial private cars, among others one 
for Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, awarded the 
medal at the Centennial Exposition. They have 
also built many for the uncrowned kings of com- 
merce and trade in the United States, many of 
whom are in the true sense of the term grander 
characters and possess more power than the sov- 
ereigns of foreign countries; but perhaps the most 
notable item upon the books of the Jackson & Sharpe 
Company is one which refers to the building of a 
coach for King Oscar of Sweden. It is a fact to 
be proud of that a sovereign of the Old World, 
wanting the best railway car that could be pro- 
duced, should call into service the brains of New 
World artists and artisans, and beyond this there 
is a certain striking and practical significance in the 
fact that a sumptuous private car for Sweden's 
King should be built in 1876 within a stone's throw 
of " the Rocks," forming a natural wharf in the 
Christiana, where the first Swedish immigrants 
landed in 1638. 

The Jackson & Sharpe Company's works form a 
model industrial institution, and one exhibiting 
many admirable features peculiar to itself. The 
building up and successfiil maintenance of such a 
huge industry is always a matter worthy of admi- 
ration and respect, and in this case deserving of 
more than usual praise because exhibiting the re- 
sults of industry and acumen in a man who has 
had the benefit of no adventitious aids in life, and 
made his way by his own resources of ability and 
energy from a very humble position in boyhood 
and early manhood. 

The Pallman Palaee Car Company's Works is 
another great establishment which b of vast benefit 

to Wilmington. The works were originally started 
as a private enterprise in 1871, by Bowers, 
& Dure (Thomas W. 'Bowers and Henry F. 
Dure), and were successfully carried on by them 
for several years. They made all kinds of railway 
and street cars, and employed as many as three 
hundred and fifty men. Mr. Dure finally became 
sole proprietor, and sold out the plant and real 
property around it to the Pullman Company in 
the summer of 1886. 

This company, notwithstanding its huge plant 
near Chicago desiring similar shops in the East 
have erected the present commodious buildings. 

The work done here is rebuilding and repairing, 
and yet, it being the policy of the company to 
give every one of its cars an overhauling every six 
months, the aggregate is a huge accomplishment 
The shops have a capacity for holding twenty- 
seven cars, and about six hundred can be handled 
in a year. To do this work, an average force of six 
hundred and seventy-five is needed, and also the 
best of machinery in the difiHTerent departments 
driven by an eighty horse power engine. The shops 
are under charge of Superintendent A. J. Drake, 
who has been with the Pullman Company about 
twenty-three years, located at Elmira, New York, 
and at Philadelphia, until the shops there were 
burned, and the company located in Wilmington. 

The Lohdell Car- Wheel Company's plant is not 
only one of the very largest and oldest manufac- 
tories of any kind in Wilmington, but the oldest 
car-wheel establishment in the country, and it is 
claimed the best equipped and most complete for 
making chilled wheels in the world. The com- 
pany also does a large business in manufacturing 
chilled rails, but that specialty is one of compara- 
tively recent adoption. The car-wheel works have 
been in existence over half a century, having been 
established in 18o6. The founders were Bonney 
& Bush. It is significant that whea they started 
their small works, Ross Winaus, of Baltimore, was 
the only other successful manufacturer in this line 
in the whole country, and that now there are about 
ninety establishments in the land with an annual 
capacity of about one million five hundred thou- 
sand wheels of all kinds When Bonney & Bush 
started, they considered it an exceptional day's 
work to cast six wheels and fit them to axles, while 
now the works have a capacity of five hundred 
wheels per day. The maximum capacity reached 
by this firm in 1838 was thirty to forty wheels per 
day, with facilities for fitting possibly one-half to 
axles. In 1838, Mr. Bonney died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew, George G. Lobdell, the 
new firm bearing the title of Bush & Lobdell. 
The business grew to such proportions that in 1844 
they were compelled to build a new foundry, with 
a capacity of one hundred and fifty wheels per 
day, although it was some time before that many 

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were caat. The fitting capacity at this time was 
not over fifty per day, the wheels being forced on 
the axle by means of a ^crew-press. In 1853 the 
new foundry was burned down, but was rebuilt as 
soon as possible thereafter, and a fitting-up shop 
added ; the capacity being increased to two hun- 
dred wheels per day, with facilities for fitting 
about eighty. It was about this time that the 
hydraulic press was introduced, which greatly 
facilitated fitting wheels to axles. In 1855, Charles 
Bush, the senior member of the firm of Bush & 
Lobdell, died, and the business was conducted by 
his heirs and George G. Lobdell under the same 
name until 1859, when George Q. Lobdell obtained 
full possession. The works during this regime were 
somewhat enlarged to admit of casting an increased 
number of tires, which had become an important 
part of the business, reaching, in fact, a total of 
thirty tires per day. It was not until 1867, how- 
ever, that the demand required an increased out- 
put of wheels. During that year additional 
ground adjoining the works was bought ; the 
capacity for casting was increased to two hundred 
and fifty wheels per day, and for fitting to seventy 
pairs. In the spring of 1867 the Lobdell Car- 
Wheel Company was organized, and business 
transferred to that corporation, the officers being 
George G. Lobdell, president ; William W. Lob- 
dell, secretary; and P. N. Brennan, treasurer. 
The demand increased to such an extent that in 
1872 it was found necessary to build an additional 
foundry and a large machine-shop. In the two 
foundries three hundred wheels per day were cast, 
and the fitting facilities approached one hundred 
pairs daily. The panic