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Full text of "A history and description of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad"

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OF THE 



Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road; 

WITH 

AN APPENDIX, 

CONTAINING A FULL ACCOUNT OF THE CEREMONIES AND PROCESSION 

attending THE LAYING OF THE CORNER-STONE, by charles 

CARROLL, OF CAEEOLLTON, ON THE FOURTH OF JULY, 1828, 
AND AN ORIGINAL AND COMPLETE REPORT OF THE GREAT 

OPENING CELEBRATION AT WHEELING, January, 1853. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED A SUPPLEMENT. 31 

Jltartnbfe b\) a JUap awb Sir ©rijinal Itotratfs:'* 

• • • 

• • » • • 
BY A CITIZEN OF BALTIMORE. "'V 



BALTIMORE: •,.:.; 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY JOHN MURPHY & GtV 

No. 178 MARKET STREET. /.!'•• 

185 3. "•.".' 



iktorg atft Jestrijtbra 



OP THE 



Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road ; 



WITH 

AN APPENDIX, 

CONTAINING A FULL ACCOUNT OF THE CEREMONIES AND PROCESSION 

attending THE LAYING OF THE CORNER-STONE, by Charles 

CARROL L., OF CAEROLLTON, ON THE FOURTH OF JULY, 1828, 
AND AN ORIGINAL AND COMPLETE REPORT OF THE GREAT 

OPENING CELEBRATION AT WHEELING, January, 1853. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED A SUPPLEMENT. 



JHIttstratrt Inj a JHap mb Sir ©rijinal jforirate: 

6-v* If ^ W ™ vV e s edit : : : : , 

"' , , *« 

BY A CITIZEN OF BALTIMORE. •''*• 



BALTIMORE: •..:.; 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY JOHN MURPHY & GO/ 

No. 178 MARKET STREET. //.'•* 

18 5 3. ]".'.' 






S30^> 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and fifty-three, in the Clerk's Office of the District 
Court of Maryland. 



THIS BOOK 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO 

GEORGE BROWN, 

One of the Originators of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, and 

PHILIP E. THOMAS, 

JOHN B. MORRIS, 

BENJ. C. HOWARD, and 

THOMAS ELLICOTT, 

The Surviving Members of the Committee of Twenty-Five, who 
first applied to the Legislature of Maryland for its Original Charter. 



K K K (t v \ ♦ 



In presenting to the public this brief historical sketch and compendium 
of facts relating to the diversified career of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road Company,— from the period of its first organization in 
1827, to its completion in 1853, — the author has been influenced solely by 
a desire to place mi record a comprehensive narrative of events, redound- 
ing to the honor of the State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore, 
and reflecting immortal credit upon the intelligence, perseverance, and 
unflagging energy of those alike who originated, perfected, and have car- 
ried to a successful issue this p-eat national enterprise. 

Maryland has the honor of hiving been the first State in the Union 
to incorporate a Company for the construction of a Rail Road, — she was 
also the first to devote the public resources to tlie support of the system, — 
" a system tlmt has given to tlie people of the United States, an identity 
of feeling, a harmony of interests, and a facility of social intercourse 
which has bound them together as one great family. " Maryland may 
now also boast of having completed one of the longest and most magnifi- 
cent Rail Roads in the world, and although more limited in her territory 
than many of her sister States, she Juts thus secured the most direct chan- 
nel through which the interchange of commodities and travel, between the 
Eastern and the Western States, will be mainly earned on, and which 
will elevate her chief City still higher in ivealth, commercml activity, and 
national importance. 

This little volume, while it will, tlwreforc, give to the present genera- 
tion of Marylanders, some idea of the sacrifices that have been made for 
their advantage by those who preceded them, (as well as by others now 



6 

living,) will also remind them of the duly they owe to the future in car- 
rying out and perfecting that great Rail Road system tvhich lias already 
been of such vast importance in developing the resources of the country 
and tightening the bonds of union, — and which promises to extend its 
iron bands from the Atlantic to the Pacific, as if destined by Providence 
to be the means of rendering habitable the vast and fertile regions of the 
West and South-West, as a home for the people who are ever flying from 
the hardships of the Old World. 

A full history of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, em- 
bracing the details of its varied operations and experiments, and the 
many difficulties it encountered in developing tlie system, would necessa- 
rily be voluminous. Such a history may possibly be undertaken at some 
future day and by afar more able and experienced pen. The His- 
torical Sketch here presented, pretends to be nothing more than 
what it really is, — an abstract narrative of facts for popular reading 
and information. 

The Description of the Road, in the sixth chapter, is the 
first connected review of the entire line that has yet appeared, and may 
be relied upon for its strict truthfulness. 

The Appendix will be found to possess much interest, particularly 
to the Marylander and the Baltimorean. 

Although the book has been prepared ivith some care, the author makes 
no pretension to literary merit, and has preferred the rapid style of this 
"Rail Road Age," rather than to attempt that of the slow and lumber- 
ing one that preceded it. 



CONTENTS. 

Chapter 1 9 

Origin of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company. — The Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal pronounced impracticable. — Meeting of Citizens. — The Charter 
obtained. — The First Appropriation by Maryland. — Difficulties encountered in 
Grading the Road. — Failure to obtain aid from Congress. — Ceremonies of 
Laying the First Stone. — Opening of the Road to Ellicotts' Mills. — Visitors 
from all parts of the Country and Europe to witness its operations. — The 
Sailing Car iEolus. — Its trial by Baron Krudener, the Russian Minister. — 
Interesting Anecdote. — Rapid progress of the Road. — Opening to Frederick 
and the Point of Rocks, &c. 

Chapter II 29 

Progress of the Road checked at the Point of Rocks. — Charter obtained for the 
Washington Branch. — Trial of the first Locomotive, built by Phineas 
Davis. — Its entire success. — Rail Road Experiments. — Various modes of 
laying the Track. — Developement of the Resources of the Interior of the 
State. — Increase in the Trade of the Road. — Temperance necessary on a Rail 
Road. — Further Experiments with Locomotives.' — The Injunction at the 
Point of Rocks. — Appeal by the Canal Company for the abandonment of 
the Road. — Introduction of Steel Springs, — Compromise of the difficulty 
with the Canal. — Progress of the Washington Branch. — The Patapsco Via- 
duct. — Rapid increase of Locomotives. — Winans' Eight Wheeled Cars. — 
The Road again checked by the Canal Company at Harper's Ferry. — 
Lawyer Latrobe in the Work-Shops. — Completion of the Washington 
Branch. — Sad Death of Phineas Davis. — Withdrawal of Philip E. Thomas 
from the Presidency of the Road, &c. 

Chapter III 55 

Election of Joseph W.. Patterson as President pro tern. — The Presidency 
tendered to Hon. Louis McLane. — Completion of the Viaduct at Harper s 
Ferry. — Connection with the Winchester Road. — Surveys West of Harper's 
Ferry. — Three Millions more appropriated by the State.- — Manufacture of 
Locomotives by the Company. — Military Excursion to Washington. — Hon. 
Louis McLane elected President. — Mr. Latrobe's Surveys to the Ohio. — 
Renewal of the Virginia Charter. — Monetary Difficulties. — Issue of Stock 
Certificates. — Increased Receipts of the Road. — Opening to Hancock. — Pro- 
gress of the Road towards Cumberland. — Commencement of the Coal Trade. — 
Virginia, Pennsylvania and the Right of Way .^— The Connellsville Road 
Charter. — President McLane's visits to Europe. — End of the Connellsville 
Movement. — Virginia grants the Right of Way to Wheeling. — The Road to 
Wheeling Surveyed. — Reconstruction of the Eastern Sections. — Close of 
President McLane's Administration, &c. 

Chapter IV 69 

Resignation of Mr. McLane, and election of Thomas Swann to the Presidency 
of the Road. — First connection of Mr, Swann with the Company. — His 
Address as Chairman of a Special Committee of Directors. — Depressed con- 
dition of the Stock. — Successful Financial movement of Mr. Swann. 

Growth of the City of Baltimore. — Bold and confident Address of the Presi- 
dent in 1849. — The whole work to be at once executed. — Its immense cost. — 
Spirited action of Mr. Brown and his associate Directors. — The Road placed 
under Contract. — Difficulty with the City of Wheeling. — Opening of the 
First Division to Piedmont, beyond Cumberland. — The Coal region. — Large 
Outlays in constructing the Road. — Sale of Bonds to obtain money. — The 
necessity and wisdom of that measure. — Opening of the Road to Fairmont 
on the Monongahela. — Speech by Mr. Swann. — Vigorous prosecution of 
the work.— Its COMPLETION to Wheeling.— The President's allusions 
thereto in his last Report. 



8 

Chapter V 84 

Benjamin H. Latrobe. — His services as Chief Engineer. — Horse track through 
the Mountains. — Mr. Swann's Exploration. — Mr. Latrobe's Speech at Fair- 
mont. — J. H. B. Latrobe's devotion to the interests of the Company. — 
Albert Fink's Bridges. — Wendel Bollman's Bridges. — Faithful Officers.— 
Mr. Latrobe and his Assistants. — Miscellaneous Matter: — The Past, Present 
and Future. — Locomotive Power. — Mr. Elgar's Switches. — Early Reminis- 
cences. — Trial of Horse Power. — Travelling Memoranda twenty years ago. — 
Obstacles encountered in obtaining the Right of Way through the City. — 
Excitement among the Carters and Draymen, &c. 
Periods of Opening the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road — Stations and Dis- 
tances. 

Chapter VI 99 

Description of the Line of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road from Baltimore 
to Wheeling. A Synopsis of the list of Tunnels and Bridges on the Main 
Stem of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. 

Chapter VII 118 

Western Connections with the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. 



APPENDIX. 

1828 and 1853 — The Beginning and the End. 

1828. — The Laying of the Corner-Stone, 123. — Fourth of July — Foun- 
dation of the Rail Road, 126.— Song for the Day, 131.— The Grand Civic 
Procession at the Laying of the Corner-Stone of the Rail P».oad, 4th July, 
1828, 132. 

1853. — Final Opening of the Rail Road to Wheeling. — The Excur- 
sion, 145. — The Formal Reception at Wheeling, 149. — The Banquet, 155. — 
Regular Toasts, 156. — Letters from Invited Guests, 180. — Volunteer Toasts 
and Responses, 183. — Songs, 188.— The Return from Wheeling, 190.— 
Tribute to the Rail Road Company and Officers, 191. 



SUPPLEMENT 193 

Retirement of Mr. Swann from the Presidency of the Company. — His Closing 
Statement of the Condition and Prospects of the Road. — Election of William 
G. Harrison as his Successor. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 
1. — A Map of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road and its Connections. 
2. — Portrait of George Brown. 
3.— " Philip E. Thomas. 

4. — " Charles Carroll, of Carrollton. 

5. — " Louis McLane. 

6. — " Thomas Swann. 

7. — " Benj. H. Latrobe. 





'(^^r^vv 



// 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAIL ROAD. 



CHAPTER I. 



Origin of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company. — The Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal pronounced impracticable. — Meeting of Citizens. — The Charter 
obtained. — The First Appropriation by Maryland. — Difficulties encountered in 
Grading the Road. — Failure to obtain aid from Congress. — Ceremonies of 
Laying- the First Stone. — Opening of the Road to Ellicotts' Mills. — Visitors 
from all parts of the Country and Europe to witness its operations. — The 
Sailing Car iEolus. — Its trial by Baron Krudener, the Russian Minister. — 
Interesting Anecdote. — Rapid progress of the Road. — Opening to Frederick 
and the Point of Rocks, &c. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company having been 
the first chartered and fully organized company in the United 
States for the construction of an extended line of Railway, a 
comprehensive narrative of the history of its inception, organiza- 
tion, commencement, progress, difficulties and successes, up to 
the period of the passage of the first train of cars over its rails 
from Baltimore to the banks of the Ohio River, cannot fail to 
be of very general interest; whilst by the Marylander, and the 
citizen of Baltimore especially, such a record must, at this day, 
be regarded as the brightest chapter in the history of his State, y 

During the fall of the year 1S26, PhilipE. T homa s , at 
that time President of the Mechanics' Bank of Baltimore, 
and George Brown, a Director in that institution, had frequent 
conferences in relation to the loss that Baltimore had sustained 
in consequence of a large portion of its trade with the West 
having been drawn to the Cities of Philadelphia and New 
York, by the public works of Pennsylvania and the Erie Canal ; 
and the result of their deliberations was a firm conviction 
2 



10 

that unless some early means could be devised to draw back this 
trade it would ultimately be lost to the City forever. 

The proposed Chesapeake and Ohio Canal had been gener- 
ally looked to by the citizens of Baltimore as the most available 
means by which they could hope to draw back to their City a 
portion of the Western trade, and they naturally felt a deep inte- 
rest in the progress of that work. The anticipations they had 
formed of its ultimate advantage to the City were, however, 
dissipated in the latter part of July, 1826, upon the publication 
of General Barnard's estimate of the cost, and his representations 
of the formidable difficulties that lay in its way, in the scarcity 
of water, and the high elevations it must unavoidably be carried 
over. The citizens generally were convinced, that it could 
not be relied upon as affording any adequate benefit to them, 
especially with its eastern terminus on the banks of the Po- 
tomac. Philip E. Thomas, who was a Commissioner on 
the part of the State of Maryland in the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal Company, having at this time become fully satis- 
fied that, as a practicable channel for the transportation of either 
merchandise or passengers to and from the West, it would prove 
alrortive, so far at least as any advantage could be derived from 
it by Baltimore, at once resigned hi s post , and from that 
time, in connection with George Brown, devoted his whole 
energies to the formation of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
Company. 

Previous to these conversations between Messrs. Thomas and 
Brown, no Rail Road had been constructed either in Europe or 
this country for the general conveyance of passengers or pro- 
s. duce between distant points. A few Rail Roads had been con- 
structed in England for local purposes, such as the conveyance 
of coal and other heavy articles from the mines or places of pro- 
duction to navigable water, but for general purposes of travel 
and transportation, they were regarded as an untried experiment, 
and the question had not been decided whether stationary steam 
engines or horse-power would be preferable. 

The proposal to open a Railway communication between 
Liverpool and Manchester about this time, began to attract 
attention in England, and Wi lliam Brow n, (now a member of 
Parliament from Liverpool,) forwarded to his brother, George 
Brown, of Baltimore, various documents containing mucITlm- 



11 

portant information relative to the project. Evan Thomas, of 
Baltimore, who was in England at that time, also collected and 
forwarded to his brother, Philip E. Thomas, many very valuable 
facts relative to the operations he had witnessed on the short 
Railways in the mineral districts of Great Britain, which, being 
carefully collated and compared, fully convinced both Mr. 
Thomas and Mr. Brown that a Rail Road could be opened 
between Baltimore and the Western waters, and that the future 
commercial prosperity of the City depended on its early con- 
summation. / 

It was then concluded by these enterprising and public-spirited 
citizens, to invite some twenty-five of the most influential mer- 
chants of Baltimore, with some other citizens, to meet them at 
the residence of Mr. Brown, on the 12th day of February, 1S2T, 
the call being "to take into consideration the best means of^ 
restoring to the City of Baltimore that portion of the Western 
Trade which has lately been diverted from it by the intro- 
duction of steam navigation, and by other causes. ' ' 

The meeting accordingly assembled, and was well and infiu- 
entially attended. William Patterson, Esq. was appointed 
Chairman, and David Winchester, Secretary. Various docu- 
ments and statements, illustrating the efficiency of Rail Roads 
for the conveying of articles of heavy carriage, at a small 
expense, were presented to the consideration of the meeting by 
Messrs. Thomas and Brown, and the superior advantage of this 
mode of transportation over Turnpike Roads or Canals being, 
according to these statements, satisfactorily shown, a resolution/ 
was adopted referring them to a Committee whose duty it should 
be to examine the same, together with such other facts and ex- 
periments as they might be able to collect; with instructions to 
report their opinion thereon, and recommend such course as it 
might be deemed proper to pursue. * 

The Committee, appointed in accordance with this resolution, 
consisted of Philip E. Thomas, Benjamin C. Howard, George 
Brown, Talbot Jones, Joseph W. Patterson, Evan Thomas and 
John V. L. McMahon. They were authorized to fill any va- 
cancies that might occur in their body, and a fund was contri- 
buted by those present to defray all their necessary expenses. 

The meeting adjourned to meet again on the ensuing Monday, 
the 19th of February, when a report, comprising thirty-four 



12 

closely printed pages, was presented for the consideration of the 
meeting, by Philip E. Thomas, Chairman of the Committee, 
embracing much valuable information. 

This report is a most able document, and, at this day, when 
the results then so confidently predicted, are about having their 
full consummation, reflects great honor and credit upon the far- 
seeing sagacity and wisdom of its distinguished author, and 
the founders of the road, Philip E. Thomas and George 
Brown. After alluding to the duty of Baltimore with regard to 
the completion of the Tide Water Canal, and to the securing of 
the ascending and descending trade of the Susquehanna and its 
tributaries, the report proceeds : — 

" But important as this trade is to Baltimore, it is certainly of minor con- 
sideration, when compared to the immense commerce which lies within our 
grasp to the West, provided we have the enterprise to profit by the advantages 
which our local situation gives us in reference to that trade. Baltimore lies 200 
miles nearer to the navigable waters of the West, than New York, and about 100 
miles nearer to them than Philadelphia, to which may be added the important 
fact, that the easiest, and by far the most practicable route through the ridges 
of mountains, which divide the Atlantic from the Western waters, is along the 
depression formed by the Potomac in its passage through them. Taking then 
into the estimate, the advantages which these important circumstances afford to 
Baltimore, in regard to this immense trade, we again repeat that nothing is 
wanted to secure a great portion of it to our City, but a faithful application of 
the means within our own power. 

" The only point from which we have any thing to apprehend, is New Orleans: 
with that City, it is admitted we must be content to share this trade, because 
she will always enjoy a < ertain portion of it in defiance of our efforts; but from 
a country of such vast extent, and whose productions are so various and of 
such incalculable amount, there will be a sufficient trade to sustain both New 
Orleans and Baltimore; and we may feel fully contented if we can succeed in 
securing to ourselves that portion of it which will prefer to seek a market East 
of the mountains. 

" Of the several artificial means which human ingenuity and industry have 
devised to open easy and economical communications between distant points, 
Turnpike Roads, Canals, and Rail Roads, have uncpiestionably the advantage 
over all others. When Turnpike Roads were first attempted in England, they 
were almost universally opposed by the great body of the people, a few enter- 
prising citizens however succeeded after a severe struggle, in constructing them. 
The amount of travelling was then so limited, that this means of transportation 
was found abundantly sufficient for all the exigences of the then trade of that 
country; in a little time, however, so great was the increase of commerce there, 
(and which increase in a great measure resulted from the advantages these roads 
afforded,) that even the Turnpikes in a short time were found insufficient to 
accommodate the growing trade of the country, and the substitution of Canals 
in the place of roads was the consequence, in every situation where the con- 
struction of tliem was practicable. 



13 

" It was soon ascertained, that in proportion to the increased facilities afforded 
to trade by the Canals in England, was the increase of trade itself, until even 
this means of communication was actually, in many of the more commercial 
parts of the country, found insufficient for the transportation required. 

" Rail Roads had, upon a limited scale, been used in several places in Eng- 
land and Wales for a number of years, and had, in every instance, been found 
fully to answer the purposes required, as far as the experiment had been made. 
The idea of applying them upon a more extended scale, appears however only 
recently to have been suggested in that country; but notwithstanding so little 
time has elapsed since the attempt was first made, yet we find that so decided 
have been their advantages over Turnpike Roads, and even over Canals, that 
already 2,000 miles of them are actually completed or in a train of rapid pro- 
gress, in Great Britain, and that the experiment of their construction has not 
in one case failed, nor has there been one instance in which they have not fully 
answered the most sanguine expectations of their projectors. Indeed, so com-\ 
pletely has this improvement succeeded in England, that it is the opinion of 
many judicious and practical men, there, that these roads will, for heavy trans- 
portation, supersede Canals as effectually as Canals have superseded Turnpike s 
Roads." 

The report then proceeds to show the advantage that Canals 
have in England over a similar system of transportation in this 
country, on account of the climate being milder, and there being 
nothing to fear there from the stagnation of water in the Canals, 
as might be the case in this country during the summer months; 
and also from the fact that that country having been so long and 
densely settled, there is a superior knowledge of the quantity of 
water they can depend upon from their streams, to supply their 
Canals at all seasons of the year; whilst it was even then an 
admitted fact, that many of our mountain streams were every 
year diminishing in volume, so that no one could tell to what 
point of declension they might reach thirty or forty years hence. 
Although the facts with regard to the Rail Road system, in the 
possession of the Committee, were not as extensive as they de- 
sired, they go on to state that they have "gleaned from the 
documents they have examined on the subject, enough to leave 
no doubt upon their minds that these roads are far better adapted 
to our situation and circumstances, than a Canal across the moun- 
tains would be." They therefore recommended that measures 
be taken to construct " a double Rail Road " between the City 
of Baltimore and some suitable point upon the Ohio River, by 
the most eligible and direct route, and that a Charter to incorpo- 
rate a Company to execute this work be obtained as early as x 
practicable. 



14 

The report next proceeds to detail the various facts in the 
possession of the Committee, and concludes as follows: 

" The district of country which would mainly depend upon this route for the 
conveyance of its surplus produce, it will be recollected already contains nearly 
two million of inhabitants, that is to say, about one-fifth of the whole popula- 
tion of the United States, whilst the population depending upon the New York 
Canal is not estimated to be more than about one million; and the receipts from 
the latter are stated to be as follows: 

" Receipts for the year 1824, $340,76107 

1825, 566,221 51 

1826, 765,000 00 

" There are a great variety of articles, the product of the country West of the 
Allegany Mountains, which are now of little value in those countries, on 
account of the heavy expenses unavoidably incurred in the transportation of 
them to a port whence they could be shipped to a foreign market. With the 
facilities afforded by this road many of these articles could not only bear a 
transportation to Baltimore, but while they would furnish a constant and an 
increasing supply of freight upon the proposed road, they would become a 
source of great wealth to the people of the West. 

" To illustrate the truth of this assertion, it will only be necessary to refer to 
the single article of bread-stuffs. A barrel of flour for instance, which would 
now command five dollars in Baltimore, would not, as an article of export to 
that market, be worth at Wheeling, on the Ohio River, more than one dollar; 
the cost of its transportation from that place by the present means of convey- 
ance being four dollars. Whereas upon the proposed Rail Road, the whole 
exjDense of transportation from the Ohio River to Baltimore, being estimated to 
be only at the rate of ten dollars per ton, the cost of carriage upon a barrel of 
flour would then be only one dollar; thus at once would its value, as an article 
of export, be enhanced in Ohio from one dollar to four dollars per barrel. 

" The expense of conveying cotton upon the proposed Rail Road from the 
Ohio River to Baltimore, including all charges, may be estimated at one-quarter 
of a cent per pound, certainly not more than half a cent per pound; and coal 
from the Allegany Mountains near to Cumberland, including its cost at the 
pits, could be delivered at Baltimore at from 11 to 12 cents per bushel. Let us 
then apply this calculation to the other numerous productions of the Western 
States, and we shall at once be convinced, that there is no scale by which we 
could venture to calculate the ultimate extent of the trade which would flow into 
the State of Maryland, upon the proposed Rail Road, should its results approach 
any thing near to our present expectations. 

" No part of the country, included in these estimates, lies nearer, by water, 
to New Orleans than 1,200 or perhaps 1,500 miles, (and that it should be recol- 
lected is the only market that could compete with us for this trade,) whilst a 
large portion of those districts lie 2,000 miles distant from that City. By the 
estimates here furnished, it is manifestly clear, that the produce from a large 
portion of those countries can be delivered at Baltimore, at a less expense of 
transportation than they possibly can be carried to New Orleans. 

" Admitting the Cities of New Orleans and Baltimore to stand in the same 
relative condition, as regards their claims to this trade, Baltimore, to say the 
least, might be expected to hold it,: share; but we should not lose sight of the 



X* 



important fact, that the productions of these extensive regions, excepting only- 
cotton and tobacco, being principally bread-stuffs, provisions and other perish- 
able articles, cannot be exposed to the deleterious effects of the climate of New 
Orleans, without the hazard of great injury; hence we find that considerable 
portions of the flour and provisions which go by the way of the Mississippi, 
are often so much damaged, as to be rendered unfit for exportation to a foreign 
market. Many valuable lives are also annually sacrificed to the climate, in the 
prosecution of the trade upon the Mississippi. "What then has Baltimore to 
fear from New Orleans, in a conflict on equal terms for their trader 

" To convince any one that there is no probability that the trade here esti- 
mated will be likely hereafter to decline, it will only be necessary to observe, 
that the population upon which the calculations are founded, is rapidly increas- 
ing every year, and that it must for several succeeding generations, still continue 
to increase. The country around the Chesapeake Bay was first settled by Eu- 
ropeans about the year 1632, and in the year 1800 the white population had 
barely reached as far West as the Ohio River; that is to say, in 160 years it 
had advanced Westward about 400 miles, or at the rate cf two and a half miles 
per year. There is now a dense population extending as far West as the junc- 
tion of the Osage River with the Missouri: which is about 900 miles West of 
the Ohio River at Wheeling; of course the white population has, within the 
last thirty years, travelled that distance, or more than thirty miles each year, 
and is at this time advancing with as great, if not greater impetus, than at any 
former period: and according to all probability, if not checked by some unfor- 
seen circumstances, it will, within the next thirty years reach the Rocky Moun- 
tains, or even to the Pacific Ocean. We have therefore, no reason to look for 
any falling off in this trade, but on the contrary, for an increase of it to an 
extent of which no estimate could now be formed." • 

The Report was unanimously adopted, and a large edition of 
it, in pamphlet form, ordered to be published for distribution. 
On mature consideration the following resolutions were also 
adopted by the meeting: 

"Resolved, That immediate application be made to the Legislature of Maryland, 
for an act incorporating a joint Stock Company, to be styled "The Baltimore 
and Ohio Railway Company," and clothing such Company with all the powers 
necessary to the construction of a Rail Road, with two or more sets of rails, 
from the City of Baltimore to the Ohio River. 

"Resolved, That the capital stock of said Company shall be five millions of 
dollars, but that the Company be incorporated, and jnovision shall be made by 
the said act for its organization, upon the subscription of one million of dollars 
to said stock, and that the said Company shall have power to increase the 
capital stock thereof, so far as may be necessary to effect said objects. 

" Resolved, That it is expedient and proper in said act, to permit subscriptions 
of stock to the same, to be made by the United States, by States, : Corporations, 
or individuals; and to provide that as soon as the said act shall have been 
passed by the Legislature of Maryland, subscription books shall be opened, 
subscriptions received, the Company organized, and the said road constructed, 
so far as it may lie within the limits of the State of Maryland; and that the 
assent of the Legislatures of Pennsylvania and Virginia to the said act shall be 



10 

obtained as speedily as possible, but shall be made necessary, only so far as in 
constructing the said road, it shall be found necessary to pass through their re- 
spective States." 

The following gentlemen were then appointed a Committee 
to prefer an application to the Legislature of Maryland for an 
act of incorporation: 



Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, 

William Patterson, 

Isaac McKim, 

Robert Oliver, 

Chas. Ridgely, of Hampton, 

Thomas Tenant, 

Alexander Brown, 

John McKim, Jr, 

Talbot Jones, 

James Wilson, 

Thomas Ellicott, 

George Hoffman, 

William Steuart, 



Philip E. Thomas, 
William Lorman, 
George Warner, 
Benjamin C. Howard, 
Solomon Etting, 
W. W. Taylor, 
Alexander Fridge, 
James L. Hawkins, 
John B. Morris, 
Luke Tiernan, 
Alexander McDonald, 
Solomon Birckhead. 



Of this Committee there are now living only four, viz: 
Thomas Ellicott, Philip E. Thomas, Benjamin C. Howard, 
and John B. Morris. 

The project at once awakened a feeling of general favor 
throughout the City and State, and an application to the Legis- 
lature of Maryland for a charter was drawn up by J. V. L. 
McMahon, Esq.,* and through his indefatigable exertions it was 
promptly obtained. The proposed amount of stock having been 
speedily taken, the Company was duly organized on the 24th 
day of April, 1S27, when the following gentlemen were elected 
as the first Board of Directors, by whom Philip E. Thomas 
was chosen President, and George Brown, Treasurer. 



* We have heard an anecdote connected with this period, which it may not 
be improper to repeat here. After Mr. McMahon had prepared the document 
referred to in the text, it was read by him to the Committee for their adoption. 
During the reading, as provision after provision was gone over, and the varied 
and comprehensive powers which the distinguished author had embraced in it, 
were one by one unfolded, — the venerable Robert Oliver arose, and in his pecu- 
liarly blunt and off-hand manner exclaimed, " Stop man: you're asking for more 
than the Lord's Prayer." Mr. McMahon smilingly replied, "that it was all 
necessary, and the more that they asked for, the more they would get." Mr. 
Oliver then rejoined, "Right man, go on." 



17 



FIRST BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Charles Carroll, of Carrolllon, George Hoffman. 

William Patterson, Philip E. Thomas, 

Robert Oliver, Thomas Ellicott, 

Alexander Brown, John B. Morris, 

Isaac McKim, Talbot Jones, 

William Lorman, William Steuart. 

Of this noble band of public benefactors, to whom Baltimore 
is so deeply indebted for their far-seeing enterprise, and the 
energy, perseverance and unflagging determination, with which 
they prosecuted it, devoting their united labors and means to the 
undertaking, but four now survive, viz: Philip E. Thomas and 
George Brown, (the honored originators of this great work,) 
Thomas Ellicott and John B. Morris, (two prominent members 
of the Board,) all of whom have just cause to regard the work 
finished as a magnificent legacy to the State and City, upon 
which the)^ may safely, and with great and just pride, rest their 
reputations for future generations. 

The name of the distinguished Marylander and eminent 
lawyer, John V. L. McMahon, appears in the records of the 
meeting of citizens held on the 12th of January, 1827, as one 
of the Committee who reported in favor of the construction of 
the road. He also took an active part in the first movements 
for its establishment. As a delegate from the City of Baltimore 
in the Legislature of the State, he drew up the original charter 
of the road, and succeeded in obtaining its passage. This doc- 
ument, which is the first Rail Road charter obtained in the 
United States, indicates the penetrating knowledge and fore- 
thought of the author as to the powers that would be required 
by such a corporation; and has been used as a model for most 
of the subsequent charters obtained from the legislatures of the 
various States for the construction of roads, that were started 
as soon as the practicability of the Rail Road system was fully 
demonstrated by the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company. 

Immediately after the charter was obtained, Mr. McMahon,\ 
as Chairman of the Committee on Internal Improvements, sub- \ 
mitted a most able and convincing report in favor of the road, 
as the means of securing to Baltimore the trade of the West, 
accompanied by a bill, which mainly through his efforts, was 
passed at the session of 1828, authorizing the State of Maryland 
3 



18 

to subscribe $500,000 to the stock of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road Company, which was about the first legislative aid 
ever afforded to a Rail Road corporation in the United States. 
From this report of Mr. McMahon we make the following 
extract: 

" The question before the Committee is simply, shall the State embark in an 
enterprise which, if accomplished, crowns her with everlasting glory, and be- 
stows upon her exhaustless resources, to the accomplishment of which one- 
third of the capital sum deemed necessary for its entire completion has already 
been subscribed, and to the practicability of which, every Canal survey, every 
reconnoissance, and every examination has borne testimony in the most explicit 
terms ? The progress of this work, if it does not produce entire conviction of 
its feasibility, has at least bestowed upon the design as high a degree of proba- 
bility as the State has yet arrived at, before authorizing any similar subscrip- 
tions. It will appear, from facts hereafter submitted by the Committee, that 
the same surveys which assured her of the practicability of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal, may yet be more safely applied to this mode of improvement, and 
that added to the experience of other countries, and other States of the Union, 
and the surveys actually made with a view to this work, are calculated to in-, 
spire as high a degree of confidence as any State ever yet entertained, when she 
entered upon a new and untried system of internal improvement. The course 
which has heretofore been pursued by the State, seems plainly to indicate her 
proper course on this occasion. Had her situation permitted, the execution of 
all such works by her own unaided energies, a regard for her duty, and her 
best interests would have dictated it." 

During the entire legislative career of Mr. McMahon, he stood 
by the Company as its firm and fast friend, introducing many 
of the subsequent acts passed amendatory of the charter, and for 
increasing its power. And now looks upon the completion of 
the great enterprise with all that pride and gratification felt by 
all who aided the Company in its early trials and struggles. 

Immediately after the organization of the Company, two 
eminent Engineers, Col. Stephen H. Long, and Jonathan 
Knight, were selected by the Board to make the necessaiy 
surveys of the country through which the road was to pass. 
The government of the United States, justly appreciating the 
importance of the enterprise, also extended to it a most liberal 
patronage. Several able and efficient members of the Topo- 
graphical corps were at once detailed to the service of the Com- 
pany, among whom were Captain William Gibbs McNeill, Lieu- 
tenants Joshua Barney, Isaac Trimble, (now the efficient Su- 
perintendent of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
Rail Road,) Richard E. Hazzard, William Cook, Walter 




©Ga&GSCLtES <D^SG3(D[L[L. 




%&ri 



a^r^lZ ^uLa^^^x 





19 

Gwynn, and John L. Dillahunty, of the United States Artillery, 
and William Harrison, Jr., Assistant Engineer, who proceeded 
to examine the various routes from the City of Baltimore to the 
Valley of the Potomac, and along that ravine as far as Cumber- 
land; and from thence to a general reconnoissance of the country 
between the Potomac and the Ohio River. Messrs. Long and 
Knight finally, on the 5th of April, 1828, made a detailed 
report to Philip E. Thomas, (who was ex-officio President of 
the Board of Engineers,) accompanied by the statements and 
narratives of the Topographical officers detailed by government, 
recommending what they deemed to be the most practicable 
route. 

These reports having been duly examined by the Board of 
Directors, on the 1st of October, 1828, President Thomas re- 
ported to the stockholders, that the preliminary examinations 
had resulted in a conviction of the entire practicability of a Rail 
Road from Baltimore to the Ohio River, and that they were 
convinced that of the various routes which had been suggested, 
the one along the Valley of the Patapsco, and thence in the 
direction of Bennett's Bush, or Linganore Creek, to the u Point 
of Rocks," was so decidedly preferable as to preclude any hesi- 
tation in awarding it the preference. The road was accordingly' 
promptly located along this line, and the necessary titles were 
acquired to the land upon almost the whole of that section, 
bordering on the Potomac River. The Board had scarcely 
effected this object however, when a conflict arose with the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, upon the subject of an 
alleged pre-emption right on the part of that Company, to cer- 
tain portions of the land occupied in the location of the Rail 
Road. This controversy, although supposed at the time to be 
likely to cause no delay in the construction of the work, proved 
by subsequent experience to be a barrier as difficult to over- 
overcome as the ridges of the Alleganies. 

The construction of the road was commenced on the 4th of 
of July, 1828, accompanied by one of the most magnificent pro- 
cessions of military and civic associations, trades and professions, 
ever witnessed in the United States.* The " first stone " was 
laid by the venerable Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, then over 
ninety years af age, on the south-western line of the City. 

* See Appendix for full report of Ceremonies. 



20 

After he had performed this service, addressing himself to one 
of his friends, he said, " I consider this among the most impor- 
tant acts of my life, second only to my signing the Declaration 
of Independence, if even it be second to that." To the end 
of his life he continued a firm unwavering friend of the work, 
ready at all times, upon every emergency, to sustain it. 

On the 7th day of July, three days after laying the " first 
stone," the definitive location of the road was commenced by 
Lieutenants Cook, Hazzard and Dillahunty, under the imme- 
diate direction of Captain McNeill, to whom the performance of 
this duty had been entrusted, and on the 14th day of July, 
notice was publicly given that from the 1st to the 11th day of 
August, proposals would be received for the grading and ma- 
sonry on a distance not exceeding twelve miles. The location 
having been effected, and unanimously approved by the Board 
of Engineers, contracts were, as early as possible, entered into 
for grading and masonry on the twenty-six sections, into which 
the Superintendent, had subdivided a distance of eleven and 
three-fourth miles, embracing that part of the road between the 
"first stone," and Ellicotts' Mills on the Patapsco. These 
contracts, although thought to be very low, at the time, proved 
very profitable to the contractors, (except the unexpected diffi- 
culty at the high ridge, about four miles from the City,) who 
introduced temporary Railways for the removal of earth, thus 
causing a great reduction in the anticipated cost. 

On the 1st of October, 1828, twenty months after the first 
public movement was made in Baltimore for the formation of a 
Company, President Thomas reported to the stockholders that 
the contractors had all commenced their labors, and were rapidly 
advancing with their several sections, three of which, including 
a distance of one and a half miles, were already finished for the 
reception of rails. Proposals were also at that time being re- 
ceived for grading and masonry on additional sections, which 
included about twelve miles, extending from Ellicotts' Mills 
Westward to the Forks of the Patapsco; and measures were unre- 
mittingly pursued in order to prepare for contract that section 
of the road, extending from the Forks of the Patapsco to the 
Potomac River. 

In locating the road a most favorable disposition towards the 
Company was early manifested by the proprietors of land to 



21 ' 

cede the ground necessary for the tracks; without charge, and the 
right of quarrying was also unhesitatingly granted. The pro A 
prietors of Ellicotts' Mills also made a gratuitous donation of a 
valuable tract of land, advantageously situated, for the purposes 
of a depot. 

During the year 1828, the State having made its first 
subscription to the stock of the road, to the amount of $500,000, 
and there was also a further augmentation of the stock of 
the Company, by individual subscriptions, to the amount of 
$1,500,000, the entire capital at this early day reached 
$4,000,000. An application had also been made to Congress 
for an appropriation to aid in pressing the work forward. " Wil- 
liam Patterson, George Brown, and Ross Winans (who had 
exhibited to the Board of Directors an important invention he 
had contrived for reducing the friction upon Rail Road cars, and 
to whom the country is also indebted for the invention and 
adaptation of the machinery applicable to practicable use of 
eight wheel cars,) were deputed to present to Congress the 
following memorial dated the 28th January, 1828, and give 
such explanations as were required." 

RAIL ROAD MEMORIAL. 

" To the Senate and House of Representatives 

of the United States, in Congress assembled: 

" The memorial of the President and Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road Company respectfully represents: 

"That your memoralists are engaged in the construction of a Rail Road, with 
at least two sets of tracks, from the City of Baltimore to the Ohio River, the 
entire expense of which, according to the best information founded on similar 
works in Europe, and the experience already acquired here, will not exceed^. L 
twenty thousand dollars per mile, and will involve a total expenditure of 
between six and seven millions of dollars. Of this sum, one million of dollars 
has been subscribed by the State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore, and 
three millions of dollars have been obtained by individual subscriptions; consti- 
tuting together a capital of four million of dollars. 

"The entire district between Baltimore and the Ohio River has been carefully 
examined by competent officers of the United States Corps of Topographical 
Engineers, detailed for this service; and it having been most satisfactorily as- 
certained that the immediate country affords so great facilities for the construc- 
tion of the proposed road, so as to render its completion not only certainly 
practicable, but far less difficult than was at first supposed; surveys for the 
actual location of the Eastern division were accordingly undertaken immediately, 
and about twenty-five miles of the line are now under contract, and in a rapid 
progress of completion. 



" At the time your memoralists embarked in the enterprise, they did not 
hesitate to believe that so enlightened a body as the Congress of the United 
States could fully appreciate the vast importance of the undertaking, whether 
considered in reference to its social, its commercial, or its political influence 
upon our country; provision was therefore made in the Charter of the Com- 
pany for receiving a subscription on the part of the United States. 

" The numerous Rail Roads which have been constructed in Europe, the 
immense advantages which have resulted from them, and the progressive exten- 
sion of them, both in England and on the Continent, as well as the efforts to in- 
troduce them into different parts of our own country, all assure us of the growing 
confidence in their value and importance, and indeed leave no doubt of their 
efficiency in securing a safe, economical and expeditious intercourse between 
districts remote from each other, particularly over an undulating and uneven 
surface. 

"Believing, as your memoralists do, that every section of our country has a 
deep and vital interest in this great enterprise, and that the countenance and 
support of the national legislature would essentially promote its early and suc- 
cessful completion, they respectfully ask the attention of Congress to the subject, 
and confidently hope that a subscription on the part of the United States to the 
stock of the Comjjany will be deemed for the interest of the nation. 

Charles Carroll, of Carrolllon, John B. Morris, 

Philip E. Thomas, President, William Lorman, 

William Patterson, Isaac McKim, 

Robert Oliver, Patrick Macauley, 

Alexander Brown, William Steuart, 

George Hoffman, Solomon Etting, 

Alexander Fridge, Talbot Jones." 

The Committee of the Senate to whom the memorial was 
referred, reported a bill, authorizing' a subscription of one 
million of dollars; and the Committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives made a highly flattering report, but declined reporting 
a bill or submitting any proposition on the subject at the late 
period of the session at which it was brought before them. The 
. application was renewed to the next Congress, which met in 
December, 1 829, and the Committees of both Houses respec- 
tively, recommended subscriptions to the stock of the Company, 
for the purpose of assisting in the construction of the road, as 
far as the Point of Rocks, the place of junction with the Canal 
Company, under the belief that the two works being completed 
tli us far an opportunity would be afforded to ascertain which 
was best adapted to the purpose of effecting a communication 
with the West, which failed to receive the sanction of Congress, 
principally through the opposition of the President of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal Company, who at that time was Chair- 



23 

man of the Committee of Roads and Canals of the House of 
Representatives. 

The Board of Directors of the Rail Road soon discovered 
that if they proceeded with the work it must be with their own 
resources, without any government assistance; and having full 
confidence in the practicability of the undertaking, they deter- 
mined to go on with renewed energy. This determination was 
clearly evinced by the President and several of the Directors 
who advanced $200,000, to meet an extraordinary expense, 
beyond the estimates of the Engineer, (required for the great cut 
of seventy-eight feet depth, extending one thousand three hun- 
dred yards, encountered a few miles from the City,) which, at 
first threatened a suspension of the progress of the work. The 
construction of a Rail Road being an untried experiment, they 
of course had many difficulties to encounter, but the energy ex- 
hibited by President Thomas and his Board of Directors, 
inspired all with confidence, and the Board continued to meet 
with general favor from all classes of their fellow- citizens. A 
perusal of the early reports of President Thomas will cause the 
reader to wonder that the formidable obstacles almost daily en- 
countered in its prosecution did not crush the energies of the 
Company, and induce them to abandon the work as hopeless 
and futile. 

The third annual report of the President, dated October 12, J 
1S29, details the rapid progress in grading and preparing the 
road for the rails to the mouth of the Patapsco, and the manner 
in which the operations of the Company beyond that point con- 
tinued to be retarded by the perverse course of the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal Company. That Company first obtained an 
injunction from the County Court of Washington, restraining 
the further proceedings of the Board in obtaining titles of land 
over which the Rail Road had been already located. This was 
followed by an injunction obtained by the Rail Road Company 
from the High Court of Chancery, restraining the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal Company from taking any steps in the con- 
struction or locating of the Canal, which might render unavail- 
ing a decision in favor of the road on the first injunction. As 
the owner in fee of the pass of the Potomac River through 
the Catoctin Mountain at " the Point of Rocks," the Board of 
Directors of the Rail Road still continued to prosecute their work 



24 

at that place; and in pursuance of the system adopted by them, 
had advertised for contracts and commenced the work there, 
when a second injunction was obtained, restraining the Direc- 
tors from constructing the road at all, within the limits of Fred- 
erick County, although the greater part of the road through that 
County could never, in any manner, come in collision with the 
Canal. This last injunction, however, so far as it related to 
land Eastward of "the Point of Rocks," was subsequently 
withdrawn by the Canal Company, but all attempts to settle the 
difficulty continued to prove unsuccessful. 

During the fall of the year 1829, the laying of the rails was 
commenced upon the division of the road within the City of 
• Baltimore.* In order to obtain the benefits of whatever know- 
ledge and experience works of a similar character in progress in 
England might afford, the Board had previously sent to Liver- 
pool, Jonathan Knight, Civil Engineer, and Captain William 
Gibbs McNeill, of the United States Topographical Engineers, 
with Lieutenant George W. Whistler, of the United States 
Army, who minutely examined every Rail Road of note or 
consequence in the United Kingdom. The information they 
derived was actively and usefully employed in aid of the work, 
especially in preparing the track, which progressed rapidly and 
satisfactorily. 

The first division of the road was opened for the transportation 
of passengers on the 22d of May 1830, being but a little more 
than eighteen months from the commencement of the work 
upon it ; but the preparation of the necessary cars was not 
effected until the early part of June following, from which time 
the travelling on this division,, extending to Ellicotts' Mills, con- 
tinued constant and uninterrupted; horse and mule power being 

*The first rails of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road were laid upon wooden 
sleepers at the eastern end of the Mount Clare premises, near the intersection 
with Poppleton Street, which was not then laid out. Major WHISTLER, as 
already stated in the text, Was the Superintending Engineer for establishing the 
lines and grades of the road, and John Ready was the Superintendent of its 
construction. Under their direction the first rails were laid in the middle of the 
winter of 1828-29, by Thomas McMachen, foreman, and the following carpen- 
ters : Mfred Ray, Nicholas Ridgely, Silas Ficket, and Wendel Bollman. Mr. 
Bollman, who was then a mere boy, has ever since that day been engaged in 
the employ of the Company, and has now become the "Master of the Road," 
in which position he is enabled from his long and thorough practical experi- 
ence to render very important services. 



used for drawing the cars. Locomotives at this period were in 
their infancy, and until the opening of the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Rail Road during this same year, the utmost speed in 
travel obtained by locomotives did not exceed six miles an hour, 
and the question had not even then been decided as to what 
kind of motive power would prove most advantageous for gene- 
ral use. 

During the first few months after the road was opened, the 
people of Baltimore being so devotedly attached to the enter- 
prise, continued to throng to the depot, with their wives and 
families, to try this novel mode of travel; and Ellicotts' Mills 
became as familiar to the people as if within the corporate 
limits of the City.* The number of cars was, however, very 
limited, and but one track of the road was then completed, 
notwithstanding which, the receipts up to the first of October, 
four months from the time of putting the cars on, amounted 
to $20,012.36. The merchandise and produce offered was 
ten times more than could be conveyed with all the means of 
transportation then in possession of the Company. 

There being no settled mode of propulsion fixed upon for 
travel on Rail Roads, during the first year of the opening of 
the road, Evan Thomas, Esq., had constructed, as an experi- - 
ment, a car with sails, which he called "the iEolus," which 

# The following Advertisement of the Rail Road Company is taken from the 
Baltimore American of July 17, 1830: 

RAIL ROAD NOTICE. 

" A sufficient number of Cars being now provided for the accommodation ot 
passengers, notice is hereby given, that the following arrangements for the 
arrival and departure of carriages have been adopted and will take effect on 
and after Monday Morning next the 5th inst., viz: 

" A brigade of Cars will leave the Depot on Pratt street at 6 and 10 o'clock, 
A. M., and at 3 to 4 o'clock, P. M., and will leave the Depot at Ellicotts' 
Mills at 6 and 8h o'clock, A. M., and at 12£ and 6 o'clock, P. M. 

"Way passengers will provide themselves with tickets at the Office of the 
Company in Baltimore, or at the Depots at Pratt street and Ellicotts' Mills, or 
at the Relay House near Elkridge Landing. 

" The evening Way Car for Ellicotts' Mills will continue to leave the Depot, 
Pratt street, at 6 o'clock, P. M., as usual. 

" N. B. — Positive orders have been issued to the Drivers to receive no pas- 
sengers into any of the Cars without tickets, 

" P. S. — Parties desirous to engage a Car for the day can be accommodated 
after the 5th July." 



26 

attracted much attention. The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, 
being the first road in operation in the country, and almost in 
the world for the transportation of passengers and merchandise, 
of course attracted visitors from almost every section of the 
United States, as well as from some parts of Europe. Among 
these, as detailed in a letter of a recent date, from Evan 
Thomas to George Brown, was Baron Krudener, Envoy from 
the Emperor of Russia, who made an excursion in the sail- 
ing car, managing the sail himself. On his return from 
the excursion he declared he had never before travelled so 
agreeably, and remarked that he "would send his suite from 
Washington to enjoy sailing on the Rail Road." The Presi- 
dent of the Company, to whom he had been introduced, caused 
a model sailing car to be constructed, fitted with Winans' fric- 
tion wheels, which he presented to him, with the reports that 
had been published by the Company, to be forwarded to the 
Emperor. Upon the reception of them, the following acknow- 
ledgement was made: 

"Washington, March 6th, 1830. 

" Sir: — I shall have great pleasure in submitting to his imperial majesty, the 
model of a Rail Road car, and the documents which accompanied the letter 
you did me the honor of addressing me, on the 20th February last. 

"The nature and importance of the great undertaking to which you have 
devoted your time and exertions, cannot fail of giving a high degree of interest 
to the different documents relating to its origin and progress, and I do not doubt 
but that his majesty will find them, as well as the ingeniously improved prin- 
ciple on which the Rail Road car is constructed, deserving of attention. 

" In terminating this letter, I avail myself with pleasure, of the opportunity 
thus afforded me, to tender you my sincere thanks for the polite attentions of 
which I have individually been the object on your part, as that of the other 
gentlemen connected with the direction of the Company over which you preside, 
and I request you to accept in their name and your own, the assurances of my 
high consideration. 

" I have the honor to remain, 

Your obedient servant, 

"KRUDENER." 
"To Philip E. Thomas, Esq. President, Sfc. Sfc." 

A few days after this, a letter was received from the Minis- 
ter introducing a deputation of scientific men who had been 
appointed to visit this country, and who proceeded to a minute 
examination of the Rail Road and the machinery used upon 
it, viz • 



27 



Washington, March Ylth, 1830. 



"Dear Sir: — Permit me to introduce to you Mr. Avinott, Captain of the 
Russian Navy, who will in a few days visit your city, and has expressed to 
me a strong wish of being enabled to view the part now completed of the Rail 
Road near Baltimore. The recollection of the pleasure I enjoyed in a similar 
circumstance, through your kindness, makes me desirous[of procuring the same 
satisfaction to my countryman, who will certainly participate in the high inte- 
rest which 1 felt. Captain Avinott is attended by another officer of our Navy, 
the Lieutenant Amerott, whom I take also the liberty of introducing to you. 

"Accept, my dear Sir, the expression of my sincere esteem and respect, 

"KRUDENER." 
To Philip E. Thomas, Esq., President, 8fc." 

Upon their return to Russia, the information they communi- 
cated relative to the machinery of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road, led to the appointment of a delegation to make further 
examinations, and was followed by an invitation to our skill- 
ful townsman, Ross Winans, to superintend the construction of 
machinery for the extensive Rail Roads contemplated by the 
Emperor. The success of these magnificent works of Mr. 
Winans, is a sufficient confirmation of the superiority of Ameri- 
can genius in the rapid progress made in improving the various 
departments of the Rail Road system, and there is no doubt, the 
early introduction of Rail Roads into Russia, originated in the 
disclosures made to his Court by the Baron de Krudener.* 

*In a conversation between the Baron de Krudener and the President of the 
Rail Road, relative to the effects the system would produce, Mr. Thomas is 
said to have remarked that, "should our present anticipations of the efficiency 
of Railways be realized, a total change would be produced in commercial and 
social intercourse in every country where these roads might be introduced — 
that the experiment already made, demonstrated them to be capable of affording 
to an extensive continent, the facilities of intercommunication now incident to a 
small island, and that the discovery promised greater advantages to Russia and 
the United States of America, than to any other countries." He then further 
observed that, " should the Emperor introduce Rail Roads into Russia, it 
would not be many years before a Railway would be constructed between the 
Baltic and the Black Sea, along the Rivers Dwina and Dnieper, and that such a 
road would enable Russia to encircle in her arms, not only the entire Northern, 
but also the Eastern frontier of Europe, and thus greatly extend her power and 
influence." To this the minister naively replied, "My Dear Sir, you cannot 
suppose that Russia has any ambition, that she desires either to increase her power or 
influence! On these points, she icill remain content with her present position!" 

The extended forethought of Mr. Thomas was here again conspicuously 
shown, for the present year (1853) witnesses the completion of a large portion 
of the great Railways that are rapidly stretching over the Russian continent. 



28 

During the year 1831, under authority given by the City 
Council of Baltimore, the track was laid down Pratt Street 
from Mount Clare to the Basin, and from thence to the City 
Block, running parallel with the water front of the City.* 

On the 1st of December, 1831, the opening of the Branch 
Road to Frederick was celebrated, and on the 1st of April, 1832, 
the whole line was opened to the Point of Rocks, making 73 
miles of the road then finished and in operation. Stone was at 
this time considered superior to wood for supporting the rails, 
and wherever suitable stone could be obtained it was used in 
preference, but from near the head of the Patapsco to the Point 
of Rocks, wood of the best quality had been used on account 
of the absence of stone of the description required. Subsequent 
experience, however, shewed that this preference for stone was 
not well founded. 

* The only depot or station in Baltimore, for more than a year after the com- 
pletion of the road to Ellicotts' Mills, was at the head of Pratt street near its 
intersection with Poppleton street. The road was opened to Ellicotts' Mills 
on the 24th of May, 1830, but it was not until the latter part of March, 1831, 
that the Company was empowered by the City Councils of Baltimore to lay 
their rails down Pratt street to the Basin. The application to the City authori- 
ties for this privilege met with the most determined opposition, and gave rise 
to a very warm discussion, which was participated in by all classes of the 
citizens. Pending the consideration of the subject by the City authorities, 
town meetings, conventions, ward meetings, and every other kind of assem- 
blages were of daily occurrence, while the newspapers teemed with their pro- 
ceedings, and the communications of the excited disputants. It is interesting as 
well as amusing at this day to look over the files of the American, Evening 
Gazette, and other papers of that period, and to read the effusions with which 
their readers were daily served through their correspondents. After the 
passage of the ordinance, however, the passions of the people subsided, and 
the public pulse beat free again. The work was commenced shortly afterward, 
the inner depot being then established in Charles below Pratt street. The cars 
commenced running down Pratt street in the fall of 1831. 




<z>. 




lA/taJ 



CHAPTER II. 

Progress of the Road checked at the Point of Rocks. — Charter obtained for the 
Washington Branch. — Trial of the first Locomotive, built by Phineas 
Davis. — Its entire success. — Rail Road Experiments. — Various modes of 
laying the Track. — Developement of the Resources of the Interior of the 
State. — Increase in the Trade of the Road. — Temperance necessary on a Rail 
Road. — Further Experiments with Locomotives. — The Injunction at the 
Point of Rocks. — Appeal by the Canal Company for the abandonment of 
the Road.-^-lntroduction of Steel Springs.^Compromise of the difficulty 
with the Canal. — Progress of the Washington Branch. — The Patapsco Via- 
duct. — Rapid increase of Locomotives. — Winans' Eight Wheeled Cars. — 
The Road again checked by the Canal Company at Harper's Ferry. — 
Lawyer Latrobe in the Work-Shops. — Completion of the Washington 
Branch. — Sad Death of Phineas Davis. — Withdrawal of Philip E. Thomas 
from the Presidency of the Road, &c. 

The injunction against the road obtained by the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal Company, now brought the progress of the 
work to a complete stand. It was early in 1831 that arrange- 
ments were made and a charter obtained for the construction of 
a Branch Railway to the City of Washington. Jonathan 
Knight, the Chief Engineer of the road, on the 6th of July, 
1831. appointed Benjamin H. Latrobe, (the present efficient 
Chief Engineer of the road,) and Henry J. Ranney, as his prin- 
cipal assistants, to conduct the necessary preparatory measures, 
surveys, levelings, drawings, and calculations incident to the 
location of the route of the contemplated Branch Railway. Mr. 
Knight had previously, with the assistance of B. H. Latrobe, 
made a rough survey of one route, and Mr. Latrobe was espe- 
cially instructed to take charge of the new surveys ordered on 
that line, whilst Mr. Ranney was instructed to survey another 
route that it was thought might prove more available for the 
purposes required. 

From the report of the Superintendent of Transportation, W. 
Woodville, Esq., dated October 1, 1831, it appears that the 
aggregate revenue of the preceding five months, amounted to 



30 

$31,405 24, and that the whole expenses of transportation was 
but $10,994 87. 

On the 4th of January, 1831, the Company issued an adver- 
tisement to the inventive genius and mechanical skill of the 
country, offering most liberal inducements for the production of 
locomotive steam engines. This being the first proposal ever 
issued in the United States, for locomotives, will be read with 
general interest. It was as follows: 

" Office of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, 

4th January, 1831. 

" The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company being desirous of obtaining 
a supply of Locomotive Engines of American manufacture, adapted to their 
road, the President and Directors hereby give public notice, that they will pay 
the sum of Four Thousand Dollars for the most approved Engine which shall 
be delivered for trial upon the road on or before the 1st of June, 1831 — and 
that they will also pay Three Thousand Five Hundred Dollars for the Engine 
which shall be adjudged the next best and be delivered as aforesaid, subject to 
the following conditions, to wit: — 

" 1. The Engine must burn coke or coal, and must consume its own smoke. 

" 2. The engine, when in operation, must not exceed three and one-half tons 
weight, and must, on a level road, be capable of drawing day by day, fifteen 
tons, inclusive of the weight of the w r agons, fifteen miles per hour. The Com- 
pany to furnish wagons of Winans' construction, the friction of which will not 
exceed five pounds to the ton. 

" 3. In deciding on the relative advantages of the several Engines, the Com- 
pany will take into consideration their respective weights, power and durability, 
and, all other things being equal, will adjudge a preference to the Engine weigh- 
ing the least. 

" 4. The flanges are to run on the inside of the rails. The form of the cone 
and flanges, and the tread of the wheels must be such as are now in use on the 
road. If the working parts are so connected as to work with the adhesion of 
all the four wheels, then all the wheels shall be of equal diameter not to exceed 
three feet, but if the connection be such as to work with the adhesion of two 
wheels only, then those two wheels may have a diameter not exceeding four 
feet, and the other two wheels shall be two and a half feet in diameter, and shall 
work with Winans' friction wheels, which last will be furnished upon applica- 
tion to the Company. The flanges to be four feet seven and a half inches 
apart from outside to outside. The wheels to be coupled four feet from centre 
to centre in order to suit curves of short radius. 

" 5. The pressure of the Steam not to exceed one hundred pounds to the 
square inch, and as a less pressure will be preferred, the Company in deciding 
on the advantages of the several Engines will take into consideration their rela- 
tive decrees of pressure. The Company will be at liberty to put the Boiler, 
Fire Tube, Cylinder, &c. , to the test of a pressure of Water not exceeding 
three times the pressure of the Steam intended to be worked, without being 



31 

answerable for any damage the Machine may receive in consequence of such 
test. 

" 6. There must be two safety valves, one of which must be completely out 
of the reach or control of the Engine man, and neither of which must be fas- 
tened down while the Engine is working. 

"7. The Engine and Boiler must be supported on springs and rest on four 
wheels, and the height from the ground to the top of the chimney must not 
exceed twelve feet. 

" 8. There must be a mercurial gauge affixed to the machine with an index 
rod, shewing the steam pressure above fifty pounds per square inch, and con- 
structed to blow out at one hundred and twenty pounds. 

" 9. The Engines which may appear to offer the greatest advantages will be 
subjected to the performance of thirty days regular work on the road; at the end 
of which time, if they shall have proved durable and continue to be capable of 
performing agreeably to their first exhibition, as aforesaid, they will be received 
and paid for as here stipulated. 

"P. E. THOMAS, President." 

" N. B. — The Rail Road Company will provide and will furnish a tender 
and supply of water and fuel for trial. Persons desirous of examining the road 
or of obtaining more minute information, are invited to address themselves to 
the President of the Company. The least radius of curvature of the road is 
400 feet. Competitors who arrive with their Engines before the first of June, 
will be allowed to make experiments on the road previous to that day. 

" The editors of the National Gazette, Philadelphia; Commercial Advertiser, « 
New York; and Pittsburg Statesman, will copy the above once a week for four 
weeks and forward their bills to the B. & O. R. R. Co." 

During the summer of 1831, in pursuance of this call upon 
American genius, made by the Directors, three locomotive 
steam engines were produced upon the Rail Road, only one 
of which, however, was made to answer any good purpose.* 

*In the 4th Annual Report of the President and Directors to the Stock- 
holders, (in 1831,) it is remarked that, " by the many improvements made in 
the application of moving power, an immense reduction in the cost of transpor- 
tation and velocity have been effected." 

Amongst the most valuable of these, the Report states that "the combined 
cylindrical and conical Car Wheels, invented by the Chief Engineer of the Com- 
pany, (Mr. Knight,) have been found of the utmost importance by the facili- 
ties they afford in turning curves." It is stated, that, "by the aid of this 
highly valuable improvement, every doubt is removed of our being able to 
employ locomotive engines upon the Baltimore and Ohio Road." . . . "This 
discovery is the more important to us," — the Report continues, — " inasmuch as 
from the surface of the country over which our route must be conducted, 
numerous curves in the tracks will be unavoidable; and the great advantage of 
this form of wheels consists in their so readily accommodating themselves to 
the degrees of curvature upon the road, that there scarcely appears to be any 
perceptible obstacle to the passage of the cars over them, greater than on a 



This engine, called " The York/' was built at York, Pa., by 
Phineas Davis, (or rather " Davis and Gartner,") and after 
undergoing certain modifications, was found capable of convey- 
ing fifteen tons at fifteen miles per hour, on a level portion of 
the road. It was employed on that part of the road between 
Baltimore and Ellicotts' Mills, and generally performed the trip 
to the Mills in one hour, with four cars, being a gross weight of 
about fourteen tons. This engine was mounted on wheels 
like those of the common cars, of thirty inches diameter, and the 
velocity was obtained by means of gearing with a spur-wheel and 
pinion on one of the axles of the road wheels. The curvatures 
were all travelled with great facility by this engine — its greatest 
velocity, for a short time, on straight parts of the road having 
been at the rate of 30 miles per hour, whilst it frequently 
attained that of 20 miles, and often travelled in curvatures of 
400 feet radius, at the rate of 15 miles per hour. The fuel 
used in it was anthracite coal, which answered the purpose well, 
but the engine weighing but three and a-half tons was found 
too light for advantageous use on ascending grades. 

The performance of this engine fully confirmed the Board 
and its Engineer corps, that locomotive engines might be suc- 
cessfully used on a Railway having curves of 400 feet radius, 
and from that time forward, every encouragement was given by 
the Company to the inventive genius of the country, to improve 
on the partially successful experimental engine that had been 
produced by Mr. Davis. 

On the 1st of April, 1832, the first train of cars, bearing 
produce, which had descended the Potomac to the Point of 
Rocks, arrived in Baltimore; the trade from which point con- 
tinued from that time to increase rapidly, where warehouses, 
dwelling and public houses, were erected, and quite a town 
soon formed. The travel and trade to Frederick, and the 
increasing business of that portion of the Main Stem between 
the Monocacy and the Point of Rocks, were soon found to con- 
straight line." Until this discovery it was regarded as a settled principle that 
no Railway car would travel safely on a curve of much less radius than one 
thousand feet, while with these wheels, they traversed curves of four hundred 
feet radius at a high speed. It was afterwards found that this wheel wore the 
inner edges of the rails very rapidly, and it has since been modified to prevent 
that result. 



stitute no unimportant item in the general receipts of the 
Company. 

In the construction of the road from Baltimore to the Point 
of Rocks, every mode suggested up to that time by science or 
experience had been tested, and thus the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road must be regarded as having the honor of solving 
most of the problems* which presented themselves first in con- 
nection with that great and now almost universal system of 
travel and inland transportation, — a system that has done more to 
develope the resources of the country and entwine together the 
bonds of union between the States, than all the theoretical dog- 
mas of the politicians. The granite and iron rail; the wood and ■ 
iron on stone blocks; the wood and iron on wooden sleepers, 
supported by broken stone; the same supported by longitudinal 
ground-sills, in place of broken stones; the log rail, formed of 
trunks of trees, worked to a surface on one side to receive the 
iron, and supported by wooden sleepers; and the wrought iron 
rails of the English mode; had all been laid down, and as early 
as the year 1832, formed different portions of the work. It was 

*The following extract from the American Rail Road Journal, of 1835, in 
reference to the operations of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, is 
a just acknowledgment of the obligations the people of the United States are 
under to the patriotic and public-spirited men, who fearlessly embarked their 
reputation and capital in this noble enterprise: 

" We acknowledge the favor by the President of the Company, of a copy of 
the Ninth Annual Report of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, and 
cannot refrain from here expressing our own, and we believe the thanks of the 
whole Rail R.oad community, as well in Europe as America, for the candid, 
business-like, liberal manner, in which they annually lay before the world the 
result of their experience. 

" It will not be saying too much, we are sure, to denominate them the Rail 
Road University of the United States. They have labored long, at great cost, 
and with a diligence which is worthy of all praise in the cause, and what is 
equally to their credit, they have published annually the results of their experi- 
ments, and distributed their reports with a liberal hand that the world might be 
cautioned by their errors and instructed by their discoveries. Their reports 
have in truth gone forth as a text-book, and their road and work-shops have 
been a lecture-room to thousands who are now practising and improving upon 
their experience. This country owes to the enterprise, public spirit and persever- 
ance of the citizens of Baltimore, a debt of gratitude of no ordinary magnitude, 
as will be seen from the President's report in relation to their improvements 
upon and performances with their locomotive engines, when compared with 
the performances of the most powerful engines in Europe, or rather in imagina- 
tion, in 1829, only six years ago." 

5 



34 

at this period of the history of the Company that President 
Thomas exclaimed in his annual report: 

" Speculation is no longer necessary. Facts now stand in the place of opinions — 
results in place of calculations — and upon a full and careful examination, the Board 
feel no hesitation in assuring the Stockholders that the completion of the work to its 
termination on the Ohio, upon the plan first contemplated, ivith a double track oj 
rails, is perfectly practicable within the original estimate of twenty thousand dollars 
per mile, including in the average, the greater outlay upon the first division of the 
road, and this too, withotit the sacrifice to economy of any one requisite of durability 
and excellence." 

The adaptation of the Rail Road system to general traffic — 
that point so long disputed — was thus fully and forever set at 
rest by the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, which, 
although surrounded by numerous and complicated difficulties, 
presented one of the very few undertakings of public works by 
private means, at that period in which no reasonable hope had 
been disappointed, and every expectation realized. All species 
of agricultural productions, lime, timber, lumber, fire- wood, and 
even paving stones which were before valueless to their owners, 
were daily brought to Baltimore, with profit to those using the 
road as a means of transportation for articles so bulky and so 
cheap; and in return, at an enhanced toll, but with equally 
profitable results, plaister of Paris, coal, boards, bricks, and scrap 
iron were sent into the interior. 

In the construction of the first divisions of the road, Caspar 
Wever, the Superintendent of Construction, (like William Par- 
ker, the present efficient General Superintendent,) in his annual 
reports strongly urged, and, as far as was in his power, com- 
pelled the observance of temperance and abstinence from the 
use of intoxicating drinks, by all engaged in the service of the 
Company. Even among the laborers under the different con- 
tractors, the destructive and demoralizing effects of the use of 
ardent spirits became so manifest in producing riot, and other 
flagrant disorders, that Mr. Wever, with the sanction of the 
President, determined to prohibit the use of it in all future con- 
tracts, and no contract after 1829, was made, either for gradu- 
ation or masonry, in which a clause was not inserted to that 
effect. Mr. Wever, in his report on this subject, says: 



35 

" It is believed that the work may be executed without the use of this dread- 
ful poison, more advantageously to the interests of the Company, and certainly 
much more agreeably to its officers and contractors, as well as beneficially to the 
laborers themselves. The promised good which its prohibition holds out to all 
parties, requires that the measure should be persisted in, at least until it shall 
have been proved to be an injurious one; this, it is ardently hoped, may never 
occur. It would indeed be a melancholy reflection, that a public work could 
not be carried on in a Christian country without the aid of a maddening poison 
so destructive of human life and morals as to have been utterly proscribed even 
in Mahommedan lands." 

Various ingenious experiments were made during the year 
1832, in the construction of locomotive engines, whilst the one 
built by Davis and Gartner, of York, Pa., continued in daily 
service, drawing trains on an average 80 miles per day. They 
had also put on the road a second engine of greater weight and 
power called the " Atlantic," which proved equally successful. 
Peter Cooper, of New York, who had previously introduced 
an engine on the road, continued his efforts to bring it to perfec- 
tion. George W. Johnson and Minus Ward, of Baltimore, 
T. Welsh, of Gettysburg, Pa., and Thomas James, of the 
City of New York, were also engaged in this then new and im- 
portant branch of the mechanic arts, — the diversity of talent 
employed on the subject giving the Company full assurance of 
the brilliant achievements which were afterwards obtained. 

In January, 1 832, the Court of Appeals decided the cases of ■ 
injunctions obtained by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Com- 
pany against the Rail Road Company, to prevent the latter 
from appropriating or using land for the road until the Canal 
Company should have located its work between the Point of 
Rocks and Harper's Ferry. The Canal Company asserted a 
11 prior and paramount" right of way through that region, and 
to that effect the Court of Appeals decided in favor of the 
Canal Company. The progress of the Rail Road was thus 
arrested, and it was understood that the available space in the 
district to be pre-occupied by the Canal Company was either 
too narrow to admit the parallel passage of the Canal and Rail 
Road, or would, at least be used by the Canal Company for its 
Canal at its usual extreme breadth, and thus would unavoidably 
exclude the Rail Road. This decision of the Court of Appeals 
being final, left but four alternatives open to the Board: 



36 

I. — To procure, if practicable, the permission of the Canal 
Company, for the joint construction of the two works from the 
Point of Rocks to Harper's Ferry, from which place various 
routes were open to the Rail Road. 

II. — To construct the Rail Road alongside of the Canal, 
upon such site as might remain unoccupied, after the right of 
choice had been exercised by the Canal Company. 

III. — To cross the Potomac River at the Point of Rocks, and 
ascend the Southern, or Yirginia shore. 

IV. — To tunnel through the mountain spurs. 

The importance of the work being more deeply felt than ever, 
the obstacles that were thus interposed by the Court of Appeals, 
only roused to greater industry and perseverance, the zeal of 
those entrusted with its management, and the Board hastened 
to assure the public of their still undiminished confidence in its 
success. The first of the above alternatives as the most eco- 
nomical and convenient, was considered preferable by the Rail 
Road Company, the practicability of which had been ascer- 
tained by surveys, executed by the Chief Engineers of the two 
Companies acting as Commissioners in Chancery. The in- 
creased cost of such joint construction from the Point of Rocks 
to Harper's Ferry, was estimated at $7,000 to each Company, 
the whole of which the Rail Road Company agreed to defray. 
The Canal Company, however, rejected the proposition upon 
the ground, as it was understood, that injury and inconvenience 
to the Canal was anticipated from its adoption, although they 
had previously made a similar proposition to the Rail Road 
Company, which the latter declined at the time, unless it should 
cover all the points of contact between Harper's Ferry and 
Cumberland. 

Soon after this decision of the Court of Appeals was pro- 
nounced, a resolution, proceeding- from the Committee of the 
House of Delegates, of which William Cost Johnson was 
Chairman, was by that gentleman introduced, and was passed 
by both Houses of the General Assembly, urging an accommo- 
dating spirit upon the Canal Company towards the Rail Road 
Company, and such a modification of the Canal as would 
permit the concurrent, structure of the Rail Road and the Canal 
between the Point of Rocks and Harper's Ferry — the contested 
region . 



37 

The Rail Road Company assented to the modification of the 
proposition by the State's agent, agreeing to construct the Canal 
themselves, of the most ample dimensions, from Harper's 
Ferry to the Point of Rocks, at the price for which it had been 
put under contract, to complete it by a fixed period, and to 
guarantee that it should stand for five years, the Rail Road 
Company to keep it in order during that time. This proposi- 
tion was, however, after much delay, virtually rejected by the 
Canal Company, which, through a Committee, whose report 
was adopted by the Stockholders, made the singularly modest 
proposition to the Rail Road Company, " to appropriate the yet 
unexpended balance of their capital to the completion of the 
Canal to Cumberland, and the abandonment , for the present, 
at least, of all idea of a Rail Road beyond the Point of Rocks. ' ' 

At the meeting of the Legislature in 1832-33, it being ascer- 
tained that the request embodied in their resolution of peace 
and harmony, had been rejected by the Canal Company, 
the Committee of the House of Delegates on Internal Improve- 
ment were in consequence directed to inspect the territory 
through which the Rail Road Company was struggling for a 
passage, and likewise there to gather testimony in order to 
ascertain whether the -joint construction of the two works was 
in that district practicable. This was done, and testimony was 
collected showing the feasibleness of the joint construction by 
contracting the dimensions of the Canal at that point, but not so 
narrowing it as to make it less convenient or useful than was 
desirable for transportation upon it. The Committee so con- 
cluded too, upon their own view of the region. The Canal 
Company also, at this session asked of the Legislature further 
pecuniary aid, and the privilege of selling the "surplus water" 
of the Potomac along the Canal's course, to be used for milling 
and manufacturing purposes. The Committee on Internal Im- 
provement of the House of Delegates, made a report at much 
length upon the conduct, which was deemed perverse, of the 
Canal Company toward the Rail Road Company, and declared 
the Canal Company unworthy of the State's favor after being 
thus heedless of the recommendation to harmony and accommo- 
dation expressed in the resolution of the Legislature. It also 
recommended legal inquiry whether the Canal Company had 
not, by various asserted abuses, and by not completing within 



38 

the limited time the first hundred miles of Canal, forfeited its 
Charter. The Committee then proposed, — after suggesting for 
the Canal Company's assent, several provisions as to the con- 
struction of its work in the district under controversy, and as to 
the duties of the Rail Road Company to prevent injury to the 
Canal Company, — that, if these provisions for effecting the 
concurrent construction of the two works in the narrow pass 
were acceded to by the latter, the procedure for forfeiting 
the Charter should not be gone into, and the privilege asked 
for as to the "surplus water" should be granted. The positive 
and indignant terms of the report were not adapted to conciliate 
the Canal Company, and, probably, embittered the relations 
between the two, so that there was no encouraging prospect 
opening for an adjustment of the difficulties which threatened to 
be fatal to the Rail Road Company. At this juncture, the Hon. 
Charles F. Mayer, in the Senate, proposed a message to the 
House of Delegates, for creating a committee of the two Houses 
for harmonizing if possible, the adverse views of the Companies, 
without, by threats of the State's severity, enforcing concessions 
from the Canal Company. The message was adopted and was 
as follows: 

" By the Senate, March 6th, 1833. 
" Gentlemen of the House of Delegates: 

" The great importance of the undertakings of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal Company, and of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, urges us 
to promote, as far as possible, such an arrangement of the conflicting views of 
the two Companies in the prosecution of their projects, as may tend to accom- 
plish the interesting objects of each. To ascertain such plan as may be practi- 
cable for such an end, and that the General Assembly may have submitted to 
it such expedients for its action as may effect the desired result, we have ap- 
pointed as a Committee upon the part of the Senate, Messrs. , 

to join such Committee as may be named by your honorable body upon the 
same subject." 

The blank for the Senate Committee was filled with the 
names of Messrs. Mayer, Pigman, and Emory — and the House 
of Delegates for its Committee named Messrs. Pratt, Dudley, 
Harding, Duvall, (of A. A.,) Miller, Nicols and Harris. The 
two Committees united as a joint body, and Mr. Mayer was the 
Chairman. Their investigations and deliberations were exten- 
sive, and assiduously pursued; but from first to last were con- 
ducted in a most pacific and liberal spirit by all, either in the 



39 

Committee or before it. Mr. Mercer was present on part of 
the Canal as the President of the Company and possessed 
of all its views, and John H. B. Latrobe zealously and most 
ably represented before the Committee the interests of the Rail 
Road Company. 

The result was a report prepared by Mr. Mayer as the Chair- 
man of the Joint Committee of the two Houses, as follows: 

" The majority of the Committee appointed by the Senate to join a Com- 
mittee of the House of Delegates in relation to the conflicting plans of opera- 
tions of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, and the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road Company, report: That under a sense of the peculiar urgency and 
moment of the task confided to them, the Committee proceeded promptly to 
the investigation of the circumstances and comparison of views connected with 
the great object desired to be effected. 

" The Committee was impressed with the deep interest of Maryland in both 
these distinguished enterprises, and the relation to each in which her patronage 
of both had placed her. They were mindful, not only of the immediate pecu- 
niary interest of the State springing from her investment in these undertakings, 
but also of the public good, and of the large accession to the general prosperity 
and welfare to be ultimately achieved by them. The Committee bore too in 
mind that the two Companies had gone through a vexed and protracted litiga- 
tion which under the decision of our own Supreme Court ended in the conclu- 
sive exposition of the Canal Company's powers, and exhibited that corpora- 
tion invested under the sanction of three sovereign authorities, with privileges 
paramount and exclusive, and fortified by a three-fold legislative compact. 

" The rights of the Canal Company thus judicially and inviolably defined, 
gave that corporation a commanding position, which, while it controlled the 
progress of the Rail Road was on the other hand unassailable by any legal 
process, and not to be affected by the dictation of any of the legislative powers, 
to whose joint auspices it owed its being. Such, as declared by our highest 
Court of Judicature, are the rights to be appealed to, and the interests which 
must yield, before a passage can be opened for the Rail Road to its essential 
points of termination, and before its utility and resources can so augment as to 
retrieve the sacrifices it has already undergone, and restore the great interests 
of the State and the stockholders, now almost paralyzed by this collision. 

" No accommodation for the Rail Road being, therefore, practicable by any 
absolute exaction of the State consistently with the dignity of the law, and 
therefore the dignity of the State, a conciliatory arrangement was the only 
course left to the Committee. And that arrangement the undersigned believed 
should assume as a principle, that the Canal Company's privileges were effec- 
tively her property, and that any surrender or relaxation of them was fairly a 
subject for her consideration, and as fairly might be a subject for difference of 
opinion but to be reconciled and decided only by dispassionate conference. 

" In a concern of asserted and vested right and discretional action, such as the 
relations of the two Companies presented, at a crisis in the affairs of the Rail 
Road so vital, called to an issue which deeply involved the great stake of the 
State and of a large number of enterprising citizens, the undersigned could not 
approach a treaty for adjustment under any excitement of supposed offence to 



40 

the dignity of Maryland in the disappointment of her wishes by the Canal 
Company. 

" With those views, and in this temper were received the proposals of 
arrangement made to the Committee by the President of the Canal Company; 
and a scheme of compromise has been finally fixed upon between the majorities 
of the Committee and the President, which will, it is confidently believed, be 
sanctioned readily by both Corporations. 

" The provisions of this adjustment are embodied in a bill agreed upon by 
the joint Committee, and has been reported by the Committee on the part of 
the House of Delegates, to that body. The undersigned would, however, 
briefly present a summary of the terms: 

" 1. — The Canal Company assents to the joint construction with the Canal, 
of the Rail Road through the passes of the Point of Rocks to Harper's Ferry. 

" 2. — When the Rail Road shall be completed to that point, the State shall 
subscribe for twenty-five hundred shares of the stock of the Canal Company. 

" 3. — The Canal Company is to be allowed to sell the water powers of the 
Canal under the conditions of the grant made by Virginia of the like privilege, 
and with the further condition that the mill-seats that may be disposed of, shall 
not be used for grist mills. 

" 4. — The Rail Road Company is to be allowed to begin the construction of 
the road at the Point of Rocks at any time after the tenth day of May. The Canal 
Company binds itself to graduate the Rail Road through the passes of the 
Point of Rocks for one hundred thousand dollars; and will bear the expense of 
any additional cost of graduation. The width of the Canal is to be maintained 
at fifty feet; but if the road be impracticable at any points in the passes with 
that width, the width may be contracted to forty feet, if the commissioners, 
hereafter to be mentioned, shall deem that necessary. The Canal Company, 
however, within a limited time itself may graduate the Rail Road, preserving a 
greater width for the Canal than forty feet, if it shall differ in opinion with the 
Commissioners. 

" 5. — The Rail Road is to have a breadth of not less than twenty feet through 
the passes of the Point of Rocks, and a curvature of not less than four hun- 
dred feet radius; and, where it deviates from a horizontal line, an elevation not 
exceeding thirty feet to a mile. 

" 6. — To determine questions as to construction of the road between the 
Companies, a Board of Commissioners is to be created, formed of three engi- 
neers, one chosen by the Canal Company, one by the Rail Road Company, 
and another by the President of the United States. These Commissioners too, 
are to determine the amount of damage payable by the Rail Road Company to 
the Canal Company for any interruption during the construction and in conse- 
quence of it, of the use of any part of the Canal. Under the direction of the 
Commissioners a fence is to be erected between the two works sufficient to 
secure the horses used on the Canal from accidents from the passage of the loco- 
motive engines. The undersigned adopted this arrangement under a persuasion 
that upon amicable adjustment alone of the differences depended the value and 
prosperity of the Rail Road; and that the aid which the terms of compromise 
extended to the Canal, could be afforded the more consistently and appropriately 
as it would promote materially the completion of the work to a productive point 
in its intended course, and would thus improve the interest already held by the 
State in the Canal. It is to be considered that the resources thus furnished to 
the Canal Company are not a mere bounty to that Corporation but devoted as 



41 

they are to be, to the construction of the Canal, an equivalent is assured to the 
State in the growth of the work and the proportional increase of its income. 
If, however, the release of the Rail Road from its suspension were the only 
consideration, it would, it is believed, amply compensate every disadvantage 
from the increased investment which the State by any possibility could ulti- 
mately encounter. It is judicious surely to adventure a sum comparatively small, 
with the assured prospect of rescuing from jeopardy interests involving vast 
amounts, and prospects of incalculable and permanent advantage to the public. 
By adopting the arrangement, we conduct the Rail Road to a point of easy 
junction with the Winchester Rail Road, running through the fertile and popu- 
lous Valley of Virginia, which with its abundant products will be tributary to 
the prosperity of not only the Winchester, but the Ohio Rail Road also. In 
the natural and. convenient progress too, of the latter road, after thus meeting 
that of Virginia, we may with confident anticipation, trace it to its ultimate 
destination in the extreme West, with the accumulated commerce and revenue 
that will thus be diverted to the East and into this State. The Canal too, will 
by this additional investment, be advanced toward a region of mineral and agri- 
cultural product, seeking the convenience of its transportation, and bringing an 
income for the expenditures of the Canal. And it is not hazarding, it is be- 
lieved, too much, to say that the augmented income from the extension of the 
Canal and Rail Road now to be secured will, notwithstanding all the interme- 
diate delays of construction, at the close of a year hence, yield more than 
enough to meet the interest of the outlay for the additional stock. 

" The undersigned are thus convinced that the arrangement detailed is highly 
advantageous in itself, and for the ulterior objects it will effect. An adjustment 
has been long and anxiously desired. The parties have been long and ardently 
contending for the vantage ground for their great enterprises. They, and the 
State of Maryland herself materially concerned in their fortunes, may be con- 
gratulated upon the opportunity now proffered of harmonizing the views of 
those two important and energetic Corporations, and of speeding each of them 
upon a useful and unimpeded course. 

CHARLES F. MAYER, 
BENE S. PIGMAN." 

A bill substantially in accordance with the terms of the report 
was then originated in the House of Delegates, and became a 
law on the 22d March, 1833. It may be proper here to remark, 
that in place of a subscription for 2,500 shares to the stock of 
the Canal Company being made by the State, that extent of 
subscription the law authorizes the Rail Road Company to 
make. Thus ended the conflict between the two Companies; 
and each has under this prompt and happy adjustment ade- 
quately and peacefully constructed its work, the Rail Road 
Company paying the Canal Company $266,000 for all claims 
under the compromise act. The successful efforts of Mr. 
Mayer in this connection, should not be forgotten, and it is due 
to Mr. Pigman, of Allegany County, of the Senate Committee, 
6 



42 

to record of him, that his endeavors were unremitting to effect the 
the compromise, and that the result is at least as much ascriba- 
ble to his judicious zeal, as to the exertion of any other one of 
the Committee. It was on consultation with Mr. Pigman that 
Mr. Mayer presented his message to the House of Delegates. 

On the 9th of May, 1S33, this long and expensive litigation, 
which had checked the progress of the Road at the Point of 
Rocks for so long a time, having been thus compromised, the 
Canal Company immediately commenced the joint construction 
of the Rail Road and Canal, and on the 1st of December, 1834, 
the road was open for travel and transportation to Harper's Ferry. 

The Corps of Engineers under the direction of Benjamin 
H. Latrobe, consisting of Henry H. Krebs, Oliver C. Morris, 
John W. Smith, George F. Dunbar, William K. Coulter, John 
Small, and Henry R. Hazlehurst, in the mean time were rapidly 
bringing their surveys for the Washington Branch to a close. 

During the year ending October 1st, 1832, the receipts of the 
road amounted to $136,937 70, and the expenses of transporta- 
tion amounted to $69,534 47. 

In September, 1832, steel springs were first placed upon the 
locomotive "York" and -tender, as an experiment, and demon- 
strated their utility in regulating the motion, and greatly dimin- 
ishing the jar and consequent injury to the road. This also 
suggested the propriety of making a further experiment by 
placing a few of the burden cars on steel springs, by which it 
was found that they admitted one-third more loading without 
any increase of damage to the road or car, and that it could be 
propelled by the same motive power that the present fixture of 
the cars and their weight or load required. 

Mr. Gillingham, the Superintendent of Machinery, under 
whose directions the experiments had been made, reported that 
the average expense per day of locomotive power, was found to 
be $16, whilst the same work done by horse power averaged 
$33 per day, showing a clear gain by locomotive power of $17 
per day, or over $500 per month. 

On the 9th of March, 1833, was passed the final act of As- 
sembly under which the Rail Road to Washington was con- 
structed. The privilege and facilities to make this road were 
not obtained without much difficulty, and a very arduous 
struggle, at no less than three sessions of the Legislature. The 



43 

enterprise was regarded as rich in prospects of profit; and an 
interest for the State was thought desirable, provided the experi- 
ment was made in the first instance by others than the State, 
and she were allowed, upon the result proving profitable, to 
assume a share (which was fixed at five-eighths) of the stock. 
The first act, of 22d February, 1S31, was moulded upon that 
policy, and at the same time allowed preferences in the stock 
subscription to the Washington and Baltimore Turnpike Com- 
pany, which Company had interfered, complaining of the pro- 
posed Rail Road as thwarting theirs and as interfering with their 
franchise. This act thus embarrassed with reservations was 
unavailing, and, in consequence, on the 14th March, 1S32, the 
second act was passed, which still secured to the State her 
idtimate five-eighths of the stock, and modified the narrowness 
of the first act, by allowing the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
to subscribe for slock not taken after a limited period, by indi- 
viduals; and, to pay for it, allowed the Company to borrow 
money on pledge of the Company's property. But there was a 
clause which allowed subscribers the enjoyment for only eight 
years of the dividends of the separate road to Washington, 
obliging them after that period to be numbered with the stock- 
holders at large of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, 
and to have their Washington Rail Road stock treated as gen- 
eral Ohio Rail Road stock. This second act, with such stinted 
and encumbered privileges remained a dead letter: and thus was 
produced the application for the final act just adverted to. This 
act authorizes a subscription not deferred (and awaiting ascer- 
tained profitableness ,) but absolute on part of the State to extent 
of $500,000 on $1,000,000 being subscribed by others, coupled 
however with an exaction (yet in force) of one-fifth to be paid 
to the State of the gross passage money of travellers, and pro- 
viding that that tribute to the State shall not in the instance of 
any passenger be less than twenty-five cents. No better terms 
could be obtained from the Legislature; although the taxation 
of one-fifth of the passage money was combated by members of 
the Legislature very earnestly and treated as an ignoble requisi- 
tion. Even this last act, with all the reservation in favor of the 
State, did not pass the Senate without strong opposition to the 
fifth section, which allows the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
to subscribe the stock for the road that might be needed bevond 



44 

the State's share; and to pledge the Company's estate for money 
to pay the subscription. This was a vital clause of the bill, and 
without it the act would probably have been inoperative. 
Mr. Mayer, in the Senate, took his stand in favor of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail Road Company's privileges under that 
section, and was alone entrusted by the friends of the bill in 
the Senate, with the defence of the Company's rights and the 
support of their interests in that critical issue. After a debate of 
nearly two days he prevailed — and the privilege was assured to 
the Company and the construction of the Washington Rail 
Road thus placed beyond doubt. 

Authority was given by this act to the City of Baltimore, and 
the Company owning the Turnpike road between Washington 
and Baltimore, to subscribe for a certain amount, if they thought 
proper, at any time within six months after the passage of the law. 
The stockholders of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road by au 
almost unanimous vote, decided to take the stock, and to make 
the pledge authorized by the law for the payment of the principal 
of the sums borrowed for the purpose, and the interest thereon. 

The bridge over the Patapsco was immediately put under 
contract, and the grading of the line of the road progressed with 
great activity. The proprietors of the land over which the road 
was to pass, generally ceded the right of way gratuitously, and 
the work progressed without any delays or litigations. 

During the summer of 1833, the Company having, by a 
series of experiments, and gradual improvements in the various 
machinery and motive power, arrived at a state of information 
sufficient to become the manufacturers of their own engines, and 
the Board having hitherto been unable to enter into satisfactory 
contracts for them, they determined to erect upon their own 
grounds suitable buildings, and provide the requisite means to 
construct all that they might require, as well as to keep them in 
a state of repair. It was thus that the extensive temples of 
industry at the Mount Clare Depot had their origin, before 
which, even the smallest repairs upon the machinery were done 
by contract. 

Whilst the construction of the Branch Road to Washington 
City was progressing, an application was made to Congress for 
aid to make the road within the district, with the intention of 
terminating it at or near the General Post Office, and a bill 



45 

granting $350,000 for the construction of the road and the 
building of depots, buildings, &c, was passed by the Senate, 
but failed in the House of Representatives. The Legislature of 
Maryland, however, came to the assistance of the road, and 
advanced at once its entire subscription of $500,000, exchanging 
also the 4| per cent, stock that was to be issued for it, by the 
terms of the original subscription, to a 5 per cent, stock, which 
could be more readily and profitably disposed of, so as to secure 
the Company the full amount, in place of obliging them to 
suffer the loss inevitable upon attempting to force a 4^ per cent, 
stock into a depreciated market. 

The magnificent granite viaduct over the Patapsco, consisting 
of eight elliptical arches of 58 feet span each, with the roadway 
66 feet from the surface of the water, was designed by Benja- 
min H. Latrobe, Esq., and was at the time the largest structure 
of the kind in the United States. In his estimate of the cost of 
this great work, Mr. Latrobe came within the actual expense of 
its construction. This was also the case with his estimates of 
the cost of the Washington Branch, the actual expense falling 
short of the original estimate. 

The obelisk erected at the northern extremity of the viaduct 
was placed there by John McCartney, (the enterprising con- 
tractor who constructed the viaduct,) at his own expense, as 
a memorial of his connection with this great work. 

Up to July, 1834, there was but three locomotives on the u 
road,— the " Atlantic," "York," and "Franklin,"— when 
four more, called the "Arabian," the "Mercury," the "Ante- 
lope," and the "American," (the last two built by Charles 
Reeder, of Baltimore,) were introduced, the Board having per- 
sisted in refusing to adopt the English locomotive, under the 
belief that it would not answer on the heavy curvatures of their 
road, and because it was unable to burn anthracite coal, or fuel, 
to the use of which the Board attached much importance. 
There were also eight more locomotives ordered and under 
contract in the fall of 1834. 

Up to this period, the cars in use upon Rail Roads were all 
of a small size, many of them being but little larger than the 
heavy stage coach. Mr. George Brown, the Treasurer of the 
Company, who was ever alive to its interests, had long enter- 
tained the idea of a car of much greater capacity, and Mr. Ross 



46 

Winans' ingenuity being brought to his aid, the large eight 
wheel cars were devised and constructed by him under the 
superintendence of Mr. Brown, and put upon the road for the 
transportation of passengers, the wheels being arranged as they 
are now in universal use on all Rail Roads; and thus, as in 
almost every other improvement in the usefulness of Rail Roads, 
the Baltimore and Ohio Company, even at this early day, stood 
before the world as the pioneer in the perfection of this great 
system of travel and transportation.* 

The further prosecution of the road beyond Harper's Ferry, 
Avas suspended in 1832, by a clause of the compromise relative to 
the " Point of Rocks " with the Canal Company, which bound 

*The road was first opened for travel to Ellicotts' Mills on the 24th of May, 
1830, when horse power was altogether used. The following rude cut will 
afford an idea of the appearance of the "brigade of cars:" 




It was not until the 30th of August, 1830, that steam power". was regularly 
used, and for a long time after that period the horses were still used, though 
more particulary for drawing freight, as it was not required that the speed 
should be so high for that purpose. The little cut below exhibits the more 
improved mode of conveyance adopted by the Company at that time: 




The Baltimore American of August 4th, 1830, says: — "A number of persons 
visited Monument Square yesterday, for the purpose of examining a very 
elegant Rail Road passenger carriage just finished by Mr. Imlay, and intended 
to be immediately placed on the road. The arrangement for the accommodation 
of passengers is, in some respects, different from any other which has yet been 
adopted. The body of the carriage will contain about twelve persons, and the 
outside seats at either end will receive six, including the driver. On the top of 
the carriage is placed a double sofa, running lengthwise, which will accommo- 
date twelve more. A wire netting rises from two sides of the top of the car- 
riage to a height which which renders the top seats perfectly secure. The 
whole is surmounted by an iron frame work with an awning to protect from 
the sun or rain. The carriage, which is named the 'Ohio,' is very hand- 
somely finished, and will, we have no doubt, be a great favorite with the visitors 
to the Rail Road, the number of whom, we are gratified to learn, continues to 
be as £rent as it was at the opening of the road." 



47 

the Rail Road Company not to attempt to ascend the banks of 
the Potomac beyond Harper's Ferry until the Canal should be 
finished to Cumberland, provided this were done within the 
time allowed by the existing charter of the Canal Company. 
The road from Winchester to Harper's Ferry was then in the 
course of construction ; and in 1834, on its probable early con- 
nection there with the road leading to Baltimore, thoughts were 
entertained of effecting a connection with the Ohio by means of 
a lateral road from Winchester to Staunton, and from Staunton 
through Jennings' Gap. In anticipating the adoption of this, 
however, as a practicable mode of establishing the desired con- 
nection with the Western waters, the Board never lost sight of 
the original route by the Potomac, and in their eighth annual 
report, dated October 6, 1834, they declare that, " they firmly 
believe that it will, one day, and that not a very remote one, 
be fully accomplished." 

Of the eminent Counsellor of the Company, J. H. B. Latrobe, 
Esq., who has been attached to it almost since the laying of the 
first rail, the Chief Engineer of the road, in his fifth annual 
report, says: "the Company has been much indebted to the 
talents and refined taste of Mr. Latrobe, for decided improve- 
ments in the external appearances generally of the new engines, 
every part being now more tastefully formed and arranged." 

The receipts of the Company during the year 1S32, were 
$205,436 58, and the expenses of transportation $132,862 41, 
being an increase over the receipts of the preceding year of 
$9,756, and a diminution in the expenses of $5,621. 

On the 20th of July, 1835, the Washington Branch road was 
opened with suitable ceremonies, from Baltimore to Bladens- 
burg, and one month after, on the 25th of August, the whole 
road to Washington City was completed and thrown open to 
trade and travel. During the first four months of the opening 
of the Branch road, the travel on it averaged 200 persons per 
day, far exceeding the most sanguine expectations of the Board. 

The original ten acres occupied by Mount Clare Depot was 
presented to the Company by the late James Carroll, Esq., but 
having been found insufficient, as early as 1 835, eleven adjoin- 
ing acres were purchased. 

On the 27th September, 1835, Phineas Davis, the distin- 
guished mechanic who first brought locomotive power to effec- 



48 

tive use on the road, met with instant death from an accident 
on the Washington Branch. Having completed a new engine 
he availed himself of the occasion of trying it, to take his nu- 
merous workmen on a visit to Washington. On his return, the 
engine striking the end of a rail, which the breaking of the iron 
chain had permitted to get out of alignment, it was thrown off 
the track, and being at the time on the tender, Mr. Davis was 
dashed forward against the engine and instantly killed. Presi- 
dent Thomas, in his ninth annual report, pays the following 
eloquent tribute to his services and memory: 

" With untiring patience he bore disappointment after disappointment; and 
the eminent and splendid results which ultimately rewarded his efforts, are 
ample testimonials of his genius, and will identify his name, most honorably, 
with that great system of internal improvement which is yet to work so many 
and such important changes in the relations of society. Of a quick and clear 
perception, in matters relating to his profession, he possessed a calm and dis- 
criminating judgment. The warmth and energy of inventive talent were tem- 
pered by a prudent foresight and great practical skill. He seldom therefore 
took a step which was not a secure one; and the success of his suggestions, 
when put into practice, gave them, from the first, almost the same weight as if 
they had been the dicta of experience. His private worth and unassuming 
manners were not less remarkable than his rare abilities. The Board deeply 
regret his loss, and hold his memory in sincere and respectful consideration." 

A new and valuable break,* invented by Evan Thomas, 
Esq., for passenger cars, was introduced on the road in the year 
1835, and proved most efficient and durable. A new form of 
blowing apparatus, combined with a contrivance for heating the 

*The Brakes in use previous to this invention, were not only inefficient, but 
they were complicated and frequently required repairs. They were not of suf- 
ficent power to control a loaded eight wheel car upon the ascents and descents 
of the road, and it is believed that, with them, those cars could not have been 
safely used. 

"The improved Brake has a horizontal iron shaft, with a lever in the middle 
and a projecting lip or lips near its ends; it is firmly fixed in iron frames se- 
cured to the frame of the car on each side. It is equi-distant from the wheels, 
(four in number) which constitute the set. A chain is attached to the lever, 
extending to the platform of the cars, where the brakesmen are placed. Two 
segments of a circle, corresponding to the curvature of the wheels, constructed 
of wood and affixed to iron plates, are suspended between the wheels, that part 
of the shaft having the projecting lips occupying the space between them. 
When the brake is to be applied, the chain is hauled forward, and the lever 
which stood vertical, now becomes horizontal, so also do the projections or lips 
on the shaft, which instantly presses powerfully against the wheels and stops 
them." 



Ill 

water before it was pumped into the boilers, invented by Ross 
Winans, was also put in successful operation. 

At the close of the year 1S35, the number of locomotives in 
use on the road was seven, passenger cars forty-four, and burthen 
cars one thousand and seventy-eight. 

B. H. Latrobe, Esq., had previous to this time been detailed 
to reconnoitre a route from Chambersburg to connect with the 
Baltimore and Ohio Road near Harper's Ferry, which duty 
he performed to the entire satisfaction of the parties concerned. 

During the summer of 1835, Jonathan Knight, Esq., Chief 
Engineer, was directed, at the instance of the people of Wheel- 
ing, to make a reconnoissance between Cumberland and the 
Western waters, and inasmuch as the Charter of the Company 
from Pennsylvania required that the road, if it entered that 
State, should be constructed to Pittsburg, the reconnoissance was 
extended to the two cities. His report proved the all-important 
fact, that the mountains between Cumberland and the Western 
waters could be passed without the use of stationary engines, 
with locomotives and their trains. The Board, on receiving his 
report, urged the importance of carrying the road to both of 
these cities simultaneously, in advocating which, President, 
Thomas, in his ninth annual report says: 

"Admirably situated as Baltimore is, at the head of the Chesapeake, and in 
closer proximity to the Valley of the Mississippi than any other of the Atlantic 
Cities, all that is necessary to secure her rapid growth in wealth, power, and 
importance, is united effort among her people, aided by the State of which she is 
the commercial capital. The Susquehanna Road from the North, the Washing- 
ton Branch from the South, the Port Deposite Rail Road from the East, and the 
Main Stem of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road from the West, may be con- 
sidered as so many great arteries, whose prolonged extension and spreading 
ramifications tend to increase and secure the healthy and vigorous growth of 
the City, which may be termed the heart of the system.'' 

Mr. Knight, in the fall of 1835, announced that B. H. La- 
trobe, one of his able assistants, having been appointed Chief 
Engineer of the Baltimore and Port Deposite Rail Road, was 
then out of the service of the Company, to whom he gives great 
credit for his ability, and also mentions that he had previously 
designed the plan of the extensive viaduct and bridge over the 
Canal and Potomac River at Harper's Ferry. 

On the 30th of June, 1836, after having been President of 
the Company for ten successive years, Mr. Thomas retired from 
7 



no 

the post he had filled with so much honor to himself and advan- 
tage to the Company. His close and unceasing application to 
the arduous duties of his position, had been at the sacrifice of 
both health and private business, which he had uniformly re- 
garded as of second importance to the prosecution of the great 
enterprise of which he, in conjunction with Mr. Brown, were the 
originators, founders, and first promoters. Having induced his 
fellow-citizens to embark their means in the construction of the 
road, and having also procured large appropriations from the 
City and State to aid in its prosecution, it may naturally be 
supposed he felt a great personal anxiety with regard to it, an 
anxiety that made the many disappointments, vexatious inter- 
ruptions, and dark forebodings of its opponents weigh heavily on 
his mind. He never, however, faltered in the confident belief 
of its ultimate success, and of the final approval of his fellow- 
citizens; and to him the completion of the road to the Western 
waters must indeed be a glorious consummation, — "long looked 
for, and anxiously hoped." Mr. Thomas and Mr. Brown are, 
happily, both still living, and the latter, when present at the 
opening ceremonies at Wheeling, seemed to have beaming from 
his eye the fire of those more youthful days, when he embarked 
so heartily in this undertaking — an undertaking that has, in its 
completion, placed his favorite Baltimore at the very threshold 
of a commercial greatness that they had so confidently predicted; 
and an enterprise that cannot fail to reach a glorious fruition if 
the present generation are as faithful to the interests of the city, 
and to their own, as were Mr. Thomas and Mr. Brown, and 
their energetic coadjutors of the early directorship. 

Mr. Thomas, as President of the road, has been censured by 
some persons of late years, on account of its location along the 
Yalley of the Patapsco, instead of taking a more direct route 
West, and striking the Patapsco at Elysville. A reference, 
however, to the early records of the Company will convince the 
most skeptical that there was no error even of judgment in this 
location, as the whole matter was then left by the Board to the 
decision of the Engineers. This corps, composed of the most 
experienced engineers of that day, surveyed both the upper 
route by way of Elysville, and the present route by the Valley 
of the Patapsco, and pronounced the Patapsco route the only 
one that was practicable for the construction of the road. The 



Elysville route, tliough about five miles shorter than that by 
way of Ellicotts', was found to require a grade that horse power 
could not advantageously overcome, and one that the specula- 
tions of the most sanguine, as to the power attainable by the 
locomotive, deemed utterly impracticable. Rail Roads were 
then in their infancy, and an almost level track was deemed a 
positive essential, 

In the second annual report of the President and Directors 
to the Stockholders, (1828,) after measures had been taken to 
ascertain the best practicable route for the proposed road from 
the City of Baltimore " to some eligible point on the Ohio 
River," they state that experimental surveys had been made, 
of the several routes indicated by the topography of the inter- 
mediate country between that City and the Potomac River at 
the Point of Rocks, which point offers the most favorable pas- 
sage of the South Mountain, and that " upon a careful con- 
sideration of the facts submitted to the Board by the very able 
and satisfactory report of the United States Topographical and 
Civil Engineers, they were convinced, that of the various routes 
which had been suggested, that along the Valley of the Pa- 
tapsco, and thence to Bennett's, Biish and Linganore Creeks 
to the Point of Rocks, was so decidedly preferable as to preclude 
any hesitation in awarding it the preference." 

This decision was arrived at upon the following results, 
reported by the Engineers appointed to make those surveys, viz : 

" First. — That the route from Baltimore, via Jones' Falls and Harmon's 
Gap to Williamsport, has no less than four summits that cannot be avoided, 
having an aggregate elevation of 2,375 feet. 

" Second. — The route via Gwynn's Falls, Sam's Creek and Harmon's Gap, 
has also four summits, whose aggregate elevation is 2,618 feet. 

" Third. — The route via Elk Ridge, Bush Creek and the Valley of the Poto- 
mac has three summits on the route surveyed, amounting to 1,065 feet. 

" Fourth. — The route by the Valley of the Patapsco, uniting with the pre- 
ceding (No. 3) at Parr's Spring, has the same number of summits, and an 
aggregate elevation of 886 feet. 

" Agreeably to the tables of graduation contained in the report, any load 
will descend spontaneously when the inclination of the road is 35.2 feet in a 
mile; hence the power required to ascend on the same road will be double of 
that required on a horizontal road, and the equated distance corresponding to 
an elevation of 35.2 feet, whatever may be the angle of inclination, will be 
equal to the length of any given section of the road increased by one mile; 
accordingly the following table containing the distances, &c., on the several 
routes above specified, will also exhibit the equated distances corresponding 
thereto, computing on the principle above mentioned: 







Height of the 


Actual Distance 






No. of the 


Route. 


Summit in feet. 


in miles. 


Equated Distance. 


1 




2,375 


95.43 




162.90 


;2 




2,518 


91.23 




165.60 


3 




1,065 


100.50 




130.77 


4 




886 


. 104.60 




129.77 



" From which it appears that the shortest route, passing through Har man's 
Gap, is equivalent to 162.90 miles of level road, whilst the shortest route by 
the Valley of the Potomac is equivalent to 129.77 miles of a level road, result- 
ing in a difference of 33.13 miles in favor of the latter, so far as regards the 
power required for transportation. 

"In regard to the routes No. 3 and 4, there is little doubt that they may be 
located in such a manner as to obviate the necessity of more than one summit 
each of about 800 feet elevation, to wit: on the ridge dividing the waters of the 
Patapsco and those of the Monocacy. On this supposition, the equated dis- 
tance on route No. 4, which was shown to be the shortest, will be 127.33 miles, 
resulting in a difference of 35.57 miles in favor of this route, compared with 
the shortest route through Harmon's Gap. This estimate is predicated on the 
principle that the friction upon Rail Roads is equal to y}^ of the entire weight 
of the load. In case any improvement shall be adopted by means of which the 
amount of friction will be reduced, it would be attended with the result of ex- 
hibiting the level route in a point of view still more favorable."' 

In addition to the advantages here reported, as a further in- 
ducement to adopt the Patapsco route, the Board saw it would 
in effect, he the construction of a Railway, about one-fourth of 
the distance to Washington; and, as the result has shown, upon 
far the most expensive part of that road. 

Ellicotts' Mills was also at that time, a place of consi- 
derable business importance, affording both freight and travel, 
and a romantic spot for pleasure excursions from the city.* 
The finishing of the road to that point thus furnished an early 
opportunity for a practical test of the great experiment; whilst 
by the other route, Frederick would have been the first resting 
place for the operations of the Company, which was not reached 
for eighteen months afterwards. On the opening of the road to 

"Travelling on the Rail Road. — Notwithstanding the great heat of the 
weather for three weeks past, the amount of weekly travel on the Rail Road 
has not diminished — the average receipts being much above one thousand 
dollars per week. In the hottest time of the hottest days, the quick motion of 
the cars causes a current of air, which renders the ride at all times agreeable. 
In many instances, strangers passing through Baltimore, or visiting it, post- 
pone their departure for a day, and sometimes longer, to enjoy the pleasure of 
an additional ride on the Rail Road. We only repeat the general sentiment, 
when we say "it is the most delightful of all kinds of travelling." 

Baltimore Evening Gazette, July 29, 1840. 



Ellicotls' those who doubted the utility of the enterprise, became 
ils advocates and supporters, the whole country was satisfied, 
and Rail Roads were commenced throughout the Eastern States 
on the faith of the Baltimore experiment. The early and satis- 
factory test of the experiment also replenished the almost empty 
coffers of the Company, and the City and State, as well as indi- 
vidual contributors, came forward nobly to the rescue, enabling 
them to push on their labors with renewed energy to its comple- 
tion to Frederick. Eighteen months were also gained in expe- 
rience relative to horse power and steam power, and in perfect- 
ing the " iron horse," as well as in knowledge relative to tracks, 
grades and curves. 

The following are the proceedings of the Board of Directors, 
on the occasion of the resignation of Mr. Thomas as President 
of the Company, and they are a conclusive tribute to his private 
worth and his eminent services to the road: 

"Office of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company. 

June 30th, 1836. 

" At a meeting this day, the following proceedings were had: Joseph W. 
Patterson was appointed President pro tern. When the Committee appointed 
to confer with Philip E. Thomas, Esq., in regard to his resignation of the 
Presidency of this Company tendered by him to the Board on that date, re- 
ported verbally, that they had held several interviews with Mr. Thomas on the 
subject, and that it had continued, against their remonstrances, to be his earnest 
wish to withdraw from his actual situation; that the Board were aware that 
such had been his desire for a long time past, and that he had only been pre- 
vented from taking the step sooner in condescension to the wishes of the Board. 
The Committee reluctantly, and with regret, were obliged to add, that in consi- 
deration of the impaired condition of Mr. Thomas' health, they believe it indis- 
pensable to its restoration, and to his comfort, that he should be relieved from 
the confinement and labor incident to the discharge of the duties of the office 
which has been so ably filled by him. 

"Whereupon on motion of Mr. Hawkins, it was 

"Resolved, That this Board accept the resignation of P. E. Thomas, Esq., 
of the Presidency of this Company, with deep and profound regret. 

"On motion of Mr. Brown, seconded by Mr. McKim, the following resolu- 
tions were unanimously adopted, viz: 

"Resolved, That the most unfeigned and cordial thanks of this Board are due 
to Mr. Thomas for the long, faithful and valuable services rendered by him to 
this Company — services which none but those associated with him in the pro- 
secution of this most arduous work are capable of appreciating, and rendered 
at an expense of private interest, which it is difficult to calculate, but which 
must be well understood by" this community: and of health which has been 
sacrificed by close and continuous application to the business of the Company. 
On the commencement of this work, of which he has been in fact, the father 



54 

and projector, every thing connected with its construction was new, crude and 
doubtful, with little to guide the way, and that derived from distant and uncer- 
tain sources; now such has been the increase of information and experience 
acquired under his auspices and direction, as to ensure the completion and 
success of the undertaking, if prosecuted with the same zeal, assiduity and in- 
tegrity which have ever marked his course. 

" Resolved further, That this Board, in taking leave of Mr. Thomas as their 
President, cannot omit the opportunity of tendering to him their respectful 
acknowledgements of the uniform, correct, urbane and friendly conduct, which 
has characterized his deportment during the time of their official intercourse, 
and of expressing to him their best wishes for the speedy restoration of his 
health, and for his future prosperity. 

" Resolved, That the President pro tern, convey to Mr. Thomas a copy of 
these proceedings, under his signature." 




£^p-~ts*-^. s6£ at^?-*^^ 



CHATTER III. 

Election of Joseph W. Patterson as President pro tern. — The Presidency- 
tendered to Hon. Louis McLane. — Completion of the Viaduct at Harper's 
Ferry. — Connection with the Winchester Road. — Surveys West of Harper's 
Ferry. — Three Millions more appropriated by the State. — Manufacture of 
Locomotives by the Company. — Military Excursion to Washington. — Hon. 
Louis McLane elected President. — Mr. Latrobe's Surveys to the Ohio. — 
Renewal of the Virginia Charter. — Monetary Difficulties. — Issue of Stock 
Certificates. — Increased Receipts of the Road. — Opening to Hancock. — Pro- 
gress of the Road towards Cumberland. — Commencement of the Coal Trade. — 
Virginia, Pennsylvania and the Right of Way. — The Connellsville Road 
Charter. — President McLane 's visits to Europe. — End of the Connellsville 
Movement. — Virginia grants the Right of Way to Wheeling. — The Road to 
Wheeling Surveyed. — Reconstruction of the Eastern Sections. — Close of 
President McLane 's Administration, &c. 

The resignation of Philip E. Thomas, Esq., as President of 
the Company, on the thirtieth of June, 1S36, having been 
contemplated by him for more than a year, the Board had 
looked long and anxiously for a competent successor — one who 
could retain the confidence of the City and State, as well as 
the good feeling with which European capitalists already viewed 
this great enterprise. At the time of the resignation of Mr. 
Thomas, the Board were in correspondence with the Hon. 
Louis McLane, to whom they had tendered the position, with 
every prospect of his ultimately accepting it. Joseph W. Pat- 
terson, Esq., (whose father had been one of the mosl efficient 
of the first Board of Directors,) was chosen President pro 
tern., and continued for several months, until Mr. McLane 
entered on his administration, to act as President, displaying 
much ability in the performance of his many and varied duties. 

The tenth annual report of the President and Board of Direc- 
tors, dated October 1, 1836, was drawn up by Mr. Patterson, 
as President, and is a document that reflects great credit on him 
as a true friend of the interests of Baltimore and the whole 
State. 

The viaduct across the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, having 
been completed in the fall of 1836, and the connection thus 
made with the Winchester Rail Road, it was, in effect, a pro- 



56 

longation of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road up the Valley 
of the Shenandoah, which immediately commenced to add to 
the trade of the city. The passenger and burden trains of the 
two Companies were then enabled to stop side by side in the 
same depot, and the transit from one to the other was effected 
promptly, and with great convenience to both trade and travel. 

In the spring of 1836, the Board deeming that the time had 
arrived for the adoption of vigorous measures towards the pro- 
secution of the road from Harper's Ferry westward, to the 
points of its original destination, an engineer force was orga- 
nized for the purpose of making detailed surveys and examina- 
tions between Harper's Ferry and the summit of the Alleganies, 
with the view of continuing them afterwards to Pittsburg and 
Wheeling. Benjamin H. Latrobe, Esq., was consequently 
appointed to the post of Engineer of Location and Construction 
on the first day of July, 1836, and took immediate charge of 
the surveys, and the direction of the several corps upon field 
duty. The rough and mountainous country over which the 
surveys had to be carried, and the importance of leaving no 
practicable route, of the many that presented themselves, unex- 
amined, rendered the labors of the engineers necessarily very 
tedious and prolonged, besides which they were all taken down 
by sickness, and compelled to suspend operations during the fall 
months. 

At the December session of the Legislature of Maryland, 
1835-6, the Board of Directors memorialized that body, pray- 
ing for aid to complete the road to Wheeling and Pittsburg, and 
at the same time a similar application was made to the Mayor 
and City Council of Baltimore. The latter, at once, and with 
great liberality, responding to the universal sentiment pervading 
the community, resolved to subscribe three millions of dollars to 
the capital stock of the Company, whenever the legal difficul- 
ties were removed, which prevented, at that time, the construc- 
tion of the road in an unbroken line West from Harper's Ferry. 
The Legislature, in the month of May following, also appro- 
priated three millions to the road, and, as before stated, removed 
the restrictions on its Westward progress, and the Canal Com- 
pany having entered into an agreement for the joint con- 
struction of their works, all again moved on harmoniously. 



m 

Six millions were thus added to the effective means of the 
Company. 

After the death of Phineas Davis, Messrs. Gillingham and 
Ross Winans took the Company's shops at Mount Clare Depot, 
and continued the manufacture of locomotives and Rail Road 
machinery commenced by Mr. Davis, but independent of the 
Company, they being bound to supply the road with locomo- 
tives and Rail Road machinery at a stipulated price, and at all 
times to give precedence to the Company's demands for work. 
They had the use of the ground and buildings, with the fixed 
machinery left by Mr. Davis, without rent, obligating them- 
selves to keep the same in repair; and return them as they 
received them . In consideration of this, they manufactured the 
Company's engines so much below the market price for them 
elsewhere, that the interest on the cost of the buildings and 
fixed machinery was deemed to be fully paid. 

The last two locomotives manufactured by Messrs. Gilling- 
ham & Winans, in the fall of 1S36, shewed a power of trac- 
tion, when the weight of the engine was but eight tons, much 
exceeding the greatest power that had. up to that time, been 
obtained oii the Liverpool and Manchester Rail Road by a twelve 
ton engine. This, in-view of the heavy mountain grades to be 
overcome, was deemed a matter of special gratulation by the 
Board of Directors. 

On the 12th of September, 1S36, the anniversary of the 
battle of North Point, a number of volunteer companies of Bal- 
timore and the adjacent counties, amounting to more than one 
thousand citizen soldiers, were conveyed to Washington and 
back by four locomotive engines, one of which conveyed three 
hundred troops, with their arms and accoutrements. Although 
the full power of the engines were by no means brought into 
play on this memorable occasion, yet the result had a very 
impressive effect on the many thousands who had witnessed it, 
and who were thus furnished with ocular demonstration of the 
new and immense facilities created by Rail Roads and locomo- 
tive engines upon them, in the transit of persons and property, 
and in fact of whole armies and their accompaniments. 

The Hon. Louis McLane entered on his duties as Presi- 
dent of the Company in April of the year 1837, the first 
annual report hearing his signature being dated on the 1st of 
8 . ■ 



58 

October, 1837, in which he states the determination of the 
Board to steadily proceed in the reconstruction rather than the 
repair of the old track, which would expose the road and the 
machinery on it to great dilapidation. 

In January, 1838, the inclined planes at Parr's Ridge, forty- 
one miles from Baltimore, which had, up to that time been 
overcome by stationary horse power, were superseded by a new 
road around the planes; and more than thirteen miles of other 
parts of the road, including important alterations in some of the 
most abrupt and difficult curves, were completed during the 
month of March, 1838. The alteration of the planes were 
found to decrease the annual expenses of the road for transpor- 
tation at this point upwards of $20,000. 

In order to render the operations of the Main Stem and of 
the Washington Branch as independent of each other as practi- 
cable, to afford the utmost facilities to the trade of each, and to 
supply the branch with the power and machinery requisite to 
authorize the charges provided by the act of 1836, four new 
engines built by William Norris, of Philadelphia, and twenty- 
eight burthen cars were placed upon that road during the year 
1838, and the Board also entered into a contract with the Post- 
master-General for the carrying of the mail for the period of 
two years between Baltimore and Washington. 

At the close of the third year the dividends on the Washing- 
ton Branch, in money and stock, valuing the stock at par, 
amounted to fourteen per cent, or four and two-thirds per cent, 
per annum — whilst it also paid to the State, in the shape of 
bonus, one-fifth of all the money received from the conveyance 
of passengers, which, to the 30th of September, 1838, amounted 
in the aggregate to $112,963-70. 

The reconnoissances and preliminary surveys from Harper's 
Ferry to the Ohio River, conducted by B. H. Latrobe, Esq., 
together with the estimate of the cost of the entire work, were 
fully prepared in the course of the year 1838. They reported 
the practicability of locating a satisfactory route to the Ohio 
River, embracing both Wheeling and Pittsburg, at the maxi- 
mum elevation of sixty-six feet to the mile; and that the cost of 
construction, with a single track of the most durable plan from 
Cumberland to both points, would not exceed nine millions and 
a half of dollars. It was found, however, that the time allowed 



50 

for the occupation of any part of the territory of Virginia ex- 
pired in the month of July in that year, and it became neces- 
sary, before attempting to proceed further with the work, to 
make an application for the renewal of the charter in that State. 
Measures were immediately taken for that purpose, and Presi- 
dent McLane, with a committee of the Directors and the Chief 
Engineer, attended at Richmond, during the session of 183S, to 
urge the application. 

In the mean time, however, new interests, less favorable to 
the extension of the work through that State had arisen, and 
that which, at an earlier day, might have been comparatively 
easy of accomplishment, had then become a task of great dif- 
ficulty. A law was finally passed, however, extending the time - 
for completing the work to five years; but it deprived the Com- 
pany of the option of selecting between the routes from Harper's 
Ferry to Cumberland, in the State of Maryland and those in 
the State of Virginia; and made it an express condition that 
the road should pass into Virginia at Harper's Ferry, be thence 
constructed through the State to about five and a half miles 
below Cumberland, and that Wheeling should be made one of 
the termini. The law also authorized an additional subscrip- 
tion of $L, 058,420 upon the part of Virginia, being two-fifths 
of the estimated cost of so much of the road as was required to 
be made in that State between Harper's Ferry and Cumberland. 

According to this condition, which was the best it was possible 
to obtain, the company was not only required to pass into Vir- 
ginia at Harper's Ferry, but was also obliged to abandon alto- 
gether the extension of the road to Wheeling, or to leave the 
limits of the State of Maryland for nearly the entire distance 
between Harper's Ferry and Cumberland. The validity of the 
act depended upon its acceptance by the Stockholders, includ- 
ing the State of Maryland; and independently of the other 
consequences involved in the condition, it first became necessary 
to ascertain the practicability of crossing at Harper's Ferry. 
The crossing at that point could only be effected by occupying 
a part of the government property, or about six miles of the 
Winchester and Potomac Rail Road, and neither could be used 
without the voluntary assent of the respective proprietors. 

The Winchester and Potomac Rail Road Company positively 
refusing their assent to the joint use of six miles of their road, 



(50 

an arrangement was finally concluded with the Secretary of 
War, by President McLane, by which permission to occupy the 
necessary parts of the public property was granted. The law 
of Virginia was then duly accepted by the Stockholders, and it 
became the duty of the Board to promptly carry out their 
decision. 

Companies of Engineers, adequate to the location of the 
entire line from Harper's Feny to Cumberland, were promptly 
organized under B. H. Latrobe, with instructions to prepare 
the road for contract early in the ensuing spring. Similar 
corps were also employed in locating the road from Wheeling 
towards the Pennsylvania line, with instructions to the same 
effect; so that the work might be prosecuted with as much dis- 
patch as the means at their command would admit of. 

On account of the difficulties in the money market during 
the years 1839 and 1840, the Board deemed it an act of proper 
precaution to suspend their operations West of Cumberland, and 
accordingly called in the corps of engineers who had been 
engaged in that part of the service. The right of way having 
been procured through Virginia from Harper's Ferry that por- 
tion of the road was placed under contract during the summer, 
and progressed with good speed under judicious and energetic 
management. 

The subscription of $3,000,000, on the part of the State of 
Maryland, was originally payable to the Company in money, 
by the State Treasurer, to be raised from the sale of currency 
bonds, bearing an interest of 6 per cent. These bonds, how- 
ever, were directed to be offered for sale first in Europe before 
they could be sold elsewhere; and in order to provide for the 
interest for a period of three years, could only be sold at a pre- 
mium of 20 per cent. These terms proving impracticable, and 
the State's commissioner in England representing that sterling 
bonds would be more saleable in the European markets, the 
Legislature substituted sterling bonds, bearing an interest of 5 
per cent., payable, principal and interest, in London. It being 
obvious, from enquiries made both at Philadelphia and New 
York, that they could not be advantageously disposed of in the 
United States, Mr. McLane, at the request of the Board, was 
induced to proceed to Europe, there to make such arrangements 
as he should deem best for their final disposition. 



By the time these bonds could be prepared and forwarded to 
London, a very unfavorable change had taken place in the Eu- 
ropean markets. American securities had accumulated there in 
an unprecedented quantity, and a general depression had taken 
place in their value, which rendered the sale of any portion of 
those belonging to the Rail Road Company — unless at prices 
prejudicial to the State, and ruinous to the interests of the 
country — absolutely impossible. 

Consulting not more the interests of the Company than the 
credit of the State, so necessary to the prosecution of all her 
public enterprises, President McLane declined disposing of any ■ 
portion of the bonds committed to him at the prices established 
by other sales, but succeeded in effecting an arrangement with 
Messrs. Baring, Brothers & Co., of London, to make a sale of 
the stocks of the Company when they should be saleable, and 
to advance such amount on them as the future necessities of the 
Company were likely to require. 

It was during this season of monetary embarrassment that 
the Board determined to offer the contractors and proprietors of 
lands, in payment for their work} and the right of way, certifi- 
cates, authorizing the transfer at par of the 6 per cent, stock of 
the City of Baltimore-, whenever presented in sums of $100 or 
upwards. Mr. McLane, after stating the conclusion come to by 
the Board in this matter, says: 

" In the success of this expedient will be found the means of prosecuting this 
great enterprise, with which the prosperity of the City and State is intimately 
interwoven, by the sale of the City stock at its par value; of maintaining the 
State bonds committed to this Company; and, so far as their management can 
effect it, the credit of the State itself, upon the secure basis upon which they 
have been placed; and, amid difficulties destructive of almost every other enter- 
prise, of pressing forward to completion, that which the whole community is 
impatiently awaiting. The experiment may not be successful, but the stake is 
too great, and the crisis too urgent to warrant the Board in leaving it untried; 
and they confidently rely upon their fellow-citizens of all parties, and of every 
class, and upon the public authorities, to sanction its adoption and encourage 
its prosecution." 

This appeal was promptly responded to by the community at 
large, as well as the contractors and other creditors of the Com- 
pany, who, during the year ending on the 30th of September, 
1S40, received in payment of the liabilities of the Company, 
stock to the amount of $515,000. The City was thus enabled, 



62 

by this master-stroke of policy, to comply with her engagements 
to the Company, without any loss or sacrifice; the credit of her 
public securities were preserved unimpaired, and this important 
work, so essential to her trade and prosperity, was enabled to 
push on with energy towards its completion to Cumberland. 

The receipts of the Main Stem to Harper's Ferry, and the 
Washington Branch, during the year ending October 1, 1841, 
amounted to .$135,458 86, being nearly three and one-half per 
cent, upon the original capital of $4,000,000, which those 
sections of the road had cost, in announcing which President 
McLane says: 

"To those who have advanced this capital, and for a series of years sub- 
mitted with unshaken fortitude to so many disheartening losses and embarrass- 
ments, the present result will be particularly gratifying. It ought also to 
awaken fresh hopes of the reasonable profit to be ultimately realized from the 
success of their undertaking, and to encourage all who desire the prosperity of 
this community, steadily to persevere in its further prosecution." 

During the monetary difficulties of 1839-40, whilst, through 
the indomitable energy of President McLane and his able Board 
of Directors, this great work was pushed forward by the appro- 
priation of City stock, at par, most of the other principal works 
of internal improvement throughout the country were partially 
or altogether suspended. The Company was thus enabled to 
promptly meet all its engagements, while its credit and resources 
remained unimpaired, and ample to discharge its obligations. 

On the 1st of June, 1842, the road was opened for travel and 
transportation from Harper's Ferry to a point opposite the town 
of Hancock, a distance of forty-one and a half miles, and soon 
began to show a large increase in the business and receipts of 
the Company. 

The work on the balance of the road to Cumberland was, in 
the mean time, pushed on with great energy, and on the 5th of 
November, 1842, a proud day for the City and State, this great 
central point of their labors was reached. The extension of the 
road west of Harper's Ferry was accomplished in a style of con- 
struction of greater permanence and superior appearance, even 
than that at first designed, and at a cost less than the original 
estimate. The entire distance from Harper's Ferry to Cumber- 
land, is ninety-seven miles, passing thirty miles through the 
Valley of Virginia, and at some distance from the Potomac. 



63 

until opposite old Fort Frederick, within twelve miles of Han- 
cock, it returns to the river. The grades throughout this dis- 
tance are forty feet to the mile, and the curves not less than one 
thousand feet radius. The work thence pursues the margin of 
the river to Cumberland, cutting off, however, the great bends 
at the Doe Gulley and the Paw Paw Ridge, and three small 
ones higher up. Six miles below Cumberland, it crosses by a 
viaduct over the North Branch from Virginia into Maryland, 
and reaches the National Road in the eastern margin of the 
town of Cumberland, at which point the Company's depot was 
located. From old Fort Frederick to Cumberland the distance 
is sixty-seven miles, in which the grades do not exceed twenty- 
six feet and a half to the mile, and the curvatures generally 
large, the least radius, and that in a single instance only, being 
637 feet. The road was graded, and the bridges built through- 
out, of the requisite width for a "double track, the wisdom of 
which, especially now that a double track is immediately re- 
quired for the accommodation of the coal trade, will be gene- 
rally admitted. 

There are three tunnels on the route from Harper's Ferry to 
Cumberland; one immediately above Haiper's Ferry, 90 feet 
long; one at the Doe Gulley 1,200 feet long, and a third at the 
Paw Paw Ridge 250 feet in length. There are also eleven 
viaducts, with stone abutments and piers, and wooden super- 
structures, on this part of the road, and of the last the average 
length is 3,690 feet. The viaduct at Bark Creek has a stone 
arch of 80 feet span, and the height of the parapet is 60 feet 
from the water. There are also 14 other arched bridges, of an 
aggregate span of 220 feet, the masonry and wood-work of the 
whole being of the most substantial character, effectually pro- 
tected from decay. The trestle work at Harper's Ferry, accord- 
ing to the requisition of the government as the consideration for 
passing over the public property, is 1,700 feet in length, sup- 
ported upon a wall and pillars of stone, and partly upon 
columns of cast iron. 

The road being now finished to Cumberland, the Board con- 
sidered that they had surmounted the most formidable impedi- 
ments to its further progress, and that the various interests 
which had been previously hostile or lukewarm, would there- 
after become auxiliarv to its advancement. It was believed 



that beyond Cumberland it would become the primary work of 
Maryland, and of Western Virginia and Pennsylvania, but these 
expectations were again subject to disappointment, with delay 
and procrastination, and almost a total suspension of operations 
for several years. The Board looked forward to the early con- 
summation of their hopes, and in the annual report for the year 
1843, after urging most eloquently and ably the duty of the 
City and State in the matter, thus predicted results that may 
now be confidently anticipated: 

"When Baltimore can communicate with St. Louis and New Orleans with 
equal certainty, at a shorter distance, and at a less cost than attend the inter- 
course from the same points with Philadelphia, New York and Boston, she 
may then, and not before, hope successfully to contend with those cities for the 
Western trade. Then, and not before, the capital and enterprise now inactive, 
or which may have sought more favored points, may be expected to return; 
then her wharves may be lined with foreign ships and steamers, and she may 
become the mart of an extensive domestic and foreign trade." 

The Charter of the Company, both in Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, by its original terms was perpetual; but, without addi- 
tional legislation the Board had no authority after the 4th of 
July, 1843, to occupy any greater extent of the territory of 
either State for the extension of the road. The Legislature of 
Maryland promptly allowed a further period of twenty years, 
but that of Virginia adjourned without taking any action towards 
removing the obstacle. In the mean time the Board were con- 
strained to limit their measures for the construction of the road, 
to further reconnoissances of the country West of Cumberland 
through the State of Virginia, in the well-founded belief thai in 
that direction, should it become advisable to seek it, a bette'r and 
cheaper route to the Ohio River might be obtained; looking for- 
ward with confidence to more auspicious legislation in both 
States the ensuing winter. 

During the year 1844, negotiations were progressing between 
the Canal Company and the Rail Road Company for some 
union of interests whereby the Cumberland coal could be con- 
veyed to tide-water, but the market for this coal not being 
deemed sufficient, the Rail Road Board deemed it advisable to 
await future developements and to engage in the business only 
when it should be demanded by the public and be profitable to 
the Company. 



(io 

In (he month of January, 1844, the Board were officially 
informed by the President of the Maryland and New York Iron 
and Coal Company, that having procured the requisite funds to 
construct a Railway from the mines to Cumberland, they were 
anxious to proceed with the work, if the charges for the trans- 
portation of iron and coal from the mines to Baltimore could be 
fixed at such rates as would warrant frhem in adopting the Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail Road for the transportation of their products. 
The same officer subsequently proposed a contract for that pur- 
pose, to continue for five years after the completion of their road, 
to furnish a freight of coal, pig iron, bar iron, fire-brick, &c, in 
quantities of 175 tons per day, for three hundred days in the 
year. The proposition was finally accepted by the Board, and 
the rate of one cent and one-third of a cent per ton per mile 
fixed as the freight. This was the commencement of the coal 
trade on the Rail Road, which has now swelled to a demand 
for means of transportation to the extent of 6,000 tons per day, 
requiring an independent track for its accommodation. 

During the winter of 1843 another application was made to 
the Legislature of Virginia to grant further time for the exten- 
sion of the road through that State, within the limits of the 
original charter, which allowed the Company to strike the Ohio 
at a point not lower than the mouth of the Little Kanawha. 
The application, however, encountered an opposition altogether 
unexpected from the authorities of that State. A bill was 
finally reported, granting the right of way between the desired 
limits, but encumbered with so many embarrassing conditions 
that the friends of the road in the Legislature refused to accept it. 

President McLane again visited Europe in connection with 
the financial operations of the Company during the year 1844, 
when Samuel Jones, Jr. Esq., was chosen President pro tern., 
and performed the various duties of his position for more than a 
year with signal ability. It was during this period that Ross 
YVinans' heavy engines, of twenty-two tons weight, built for 
the coal trade, were first put on the road, and proved them- 
selves of great value, burning Cumberland coal in the most 
satisfactory manner. 

At the close of the year 1845, the difficulty with the Legis- 
lature of Virginia with regard to the right of way through that 
State still continued, and prevented the commencement of the 
9 



66 

road West of Cumberland, the law passed at the previous ses- 
sion, on account of its onerous conditions having been rejected 
by the Stockholders. An effort was then made by the citizens 
of Western Pennsylvania to procure from the Legislature of that 
State a law authorizing the Company to extend its work to the 
City of Pittsburg. This movement ultimately resulted in the 
granting of the Connellsville Road charter, but not until the 
year 1 846, when the Legislature of Virginia somewhat modified 
the objective policy they had pursued, and finally passed a bill, 
compelling the road to make its terminus at Wheeling, though re- 
lieving it of many of the onerous requirements of the previous act. 

President McLane returned from Europe in October, 1846, 
and again resumed his post. In the mean time the annual 
reports show a steady increase in the transportation, both of pas- 
sengers and freight, and $60Q,00Q having been subscribed by 
the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company to the capital 
stock of the Pittsburg and Connellsville Road, that Company 
was preparing to prosecute its work to the Maryland State line 
with a great deal of energy. The charter of the Connellsville 
Road to open a way to the Maryland line met with great oppo- 
sition from Philadelphia, and was passed without the delegates 
from that city fully understanding that its object was thus to afford 
a connection between Pittsburg and Baltimore, — an opposition 
that had already prevented a satisfactory extension of the char- 
ter of the Baltimore road to connect with Pittsburg, by embar- 
rassing its provisions, and making it dependant for its vitality 
upon the failure on the part of the citizens of Philadelphia to 
subscribe the sum of $3,000,000 to a company incorporated at 
the same session to construct a road from that City to Pittsburg. 

At a meeting of the Stockholders held on the 5th of April, 
1847, relative to a conference had with the Pittsburg and Con- 
nellsville Company, President McLane read a communication 
over his own signature, stating that the Connellsville Company 
had so far changed its views that it not only refused to accept 
any further subscription from the Baltimore Company, but 
declined to treat with them unless they would, before a desig- 
nated day, consent to assume the responsibility of completing 
the entire connection with Pittsburg by their own undivided 
energies, upon such terms and by such route as prescribed; and 
that, too, without any expectation of receiving assistance from 



67 

Pittsburg. The route thus prescribed, called the " Northern 
Route," the President, proceeded to show, although the cheapest 
route to reach Pittsburg, would be the dearest route to Bal- 
timore, in view of the continuation of its road to a more 
Southern point on the Ohio River; and that it might be in fact 
the design of this condition to obstruct, if not defeat the purpose 
of Baltimore ever going further South on the Ohio, — in short, 
that their conditions meant nothing more nor less than that, 
unless Baltimore, in effect, relinquished and abandoned forever 
its purpose of ultimately going to a more Southern point on the 
Ohio, it should not form a connection with Pittsburg at all. 
This was the alternative submitted to the Company, and as a 
matter of course it was promptly and decidedly rejected, although 
at that time a connection with Pittsburg was regarded by many 
as a matter of paramount and immediate importance. 

In the early part of the ensuing year, 1847, the Legislature of 
Virginia renewed the grant of the right of way through that 
State for a period of twelve years, upon condition that the road 
shall be extended to the City of Wheeling without touching the 
Ohio River at a point lower down than the mouth of Fish 
Creek, and according to the agreement with that city, the option 
of extending the road by the latter point Was absolute. By 
accepting this Virginia law, and confirming the agreement of the 
City of Wheeling; the Stockholders at that time considered that 
they had not only consulted the interests of the several com- 
panies engaged in making the improvement on the Southern 
and Central lines of Ohio, but ensured the connection of both 
with their road. 

Ten years were thus spent by the Company, through the 
impracticable legislation of Virginia and Pennsylvania, in seek- 
ing the right to extend the road to the Ohio River. On the 1st 
of July, 1847, Benjamin H. Latrobe, the Chief Engineer of the 
road, acting also as General Superintendent, under instructions 
from the Board, proceeded with three competent corps of engi- 
neers to locate the line of the road as far Westward as the Mary- 
land and Virginia State line, on the Southern route towards the 
Ohio — the first were engaged between Cumberland and West- 
ernport, twenty-seven miles up the Valley of the North Branch — 
the second party employed in the location between Westernport 
and Backbone or Main Summit — and the third upon the easy and 



(58 

beautiful part of the route lying Westward from the Summit, 
through the Glades, for a distance of fifteen miles to the State 
line. The last party , having finished their labors, crossed into 
Virginia and proceeded to the head of Snowy Creek, whence 
the descent to the Valley of the Cheat River commences. At 
the close of the season, sixty-five miles of the route from Cum- 
berland West was fully prepared for contract. 

The last report of Mr. McLane for the year 1848, details at 
length the pecuniary difficulties of the Company, the necessity 
for a still further increase of the motive power of the road 
to the amount of $240,348, rendering it impossible that a divi- 
dend in money could be paid during that year on the capital 
stock. The Board had also deemed it necessary to proceed 
with the reconstruction of the old, imperfect, and worn-out 
road; to change the original and defective location of the track 
East of the Monocacy, and to extend a branch road to Locust 
Point, on the South side of the Basin, on which the transporta- 
tion, not intended for distribution in the City, might be done by 
steam to the water's edge, and much of the horse power in the 
streets be saved, and other serious inconveniences avoided. 

The Chief Engineer, in the mean time, had continued con- 
stantly in the field locating the road West of Cumberland. The 
difficulties of the entire country, as far as the Cheat and Tygart 
Valley Rivers, induced the Board to call in two consulting 
engineers to confer with Mr. Latrobe upon the location of this 
important section of the road. For this purpose the services of 
Jonathan Knight, of Pennsylvania, and John Child, of Massa- 
chusetts, were secured, and in the month of June, 1848, the 
Board of Engineers, thus constituted, examined the country 
described, with care, and decided upon all the lines it would be 
expedient to trace, in order to leave no room for question that 
the entire ground had been investigated with the utmost caution. 
The Engineers were fully satisfied that the construction of the 
road across this rugged country was fully practicable, with 
grades perfectly within the useful available power of the loco- 
motive engine . 




${a~sO'.JlaJ. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Resignation of Mr. McLane, and election of Thomas Swann to the Presidency 
of the Road. — First connection of Mr. Swann with the Company. — His 
Address as Chairman of a Special Committee of Directors. — Depressed con- 
dition of the Stock. — Successful Financial movement of Mr. Swann. — 
Growth of the City of Baltimore.— Bold and confident Address of the Presi- 
dent in 1849. — The whole work to be at once executed. — Its immense cost. — 
Spirited action of Mr. Brown and his associate Directors. — The Road placed 
under Contract. — Difficulty with the City of Wheeling.— Opening of the 
First Division to Piedmont, beyond Cumberland. — The Coal region. — Large 
Outlays in constructing the Road. — Sale of Bonds to obtain money. — The 
necessity and wisdom of that measure. — Opening of the Road to Fairmont 
on the Monongahela. — Speech by Mr. Swann. — Vigorous prosecution of 
the work.— Its COMPLETION to Wheeling.— The President's allusions 
thereto in his last Report. 

In October, 1849, shortly after the presentation of the twenty- 
second annual' report of the President and Board of Directors, 
Mr. McLane resigned his position, as President of the road, 
over which he had presided for eleven years, and Thomas 
Swann, Esq., for several months previous one of the most 
active, energetic, and able of the Board of Directors, was imme- 
diately chosen his successor, with a unanimity that clearly 
evinced the high estimation in which he was held by his associ- 
ates in the Board. The announcement of his appointment also 
gave general satisfaction to the City and State authorities, as 
well as to those of his fellow- citizens who were familiar with 
his character and the previous services that he had rendered the 
Company. 

The affairs of the Company having reached that crisis, when 
the privilege of forming their connection with the Ohio River, had 
been placed at their disposal, by the act of 1847, and the agree- 
ment with the City of Wheeling, the time had now arrived for 
the exercise of that indomitable energy whose vigilance is sleep- 
less, — which could face the most crushing disappointments, 
embarrassments, and trials, with a determination to conquer, 
despite the clouds of adversity that might threaten momentarily 
to check its onward course. The Board fully felt the responsi- 
bility that rested upon them, and time has already shown that, 



70 

in the selection of a successor to Mr. McLane they acted well 
and wisely. 

Among the records of the Company, the first mention of the 
services of Mr. Swann is during the year 1847, when, at the 
instance of Mr. McLane, he proceeded to Richmond to procure 
such terms as would be the most acceptable in the matter of the 
right of way to Wheeling, then pending in the Legislature of 
Virginia. He there labored with that indomitable perseverance 
that has since distinguished him as President of the Company, 
greatly contributing by his ability and his sound discretion towards 
a restoration of good feeling between the parties to the ten years 
controversy. 

Early in the year 1848, a vacancy occurring in the Board, 
Mr. Swann was unanimously elected a Director. He came in 
as a friend of the administration of Mr. McLane, and continued 
to yield to him a cordial support up to the period of his resigna- 
tion. From the time of his appointment Mr. Swann became 
identitied with every important measure of the Board, and seems 
to have been called upon by the President in every delicate 
emergency that required mole than ordinary energy and ability 
to encounter and overcome. The series of communications 
published during the year 1848, in 'the Baltimore Patriot, over 
the signature of " A large Stockholder," were understood to be 
from his pen, and attracted a large share of attention at that time. 

Shortly after the passage by the Virginia Legislature of the 
law of 1847, Mr. Swann visited the City of Wheeling in com- 
pany with President McLane, T. Parkin Scott, Samuel Hoff- 
man, Joseph W. Patterson and James Swann, to make arrange- 
ments with the authorities of that City prior to a recommence- 
ment of the road West of Cumberland. The agreement effected 
with the City, as a consequence of this visit in July, 1847, 
proved entirely satisfactory, and was afterwards fully endorsed 
by the stockholders. 

On the 4th of January, 1848, some months prior to his 
election to the Presidency of the Company, Mr. Swann, as 
Chairman of a special Committee of Directors, charged with the 
duty of co-operating with President McLane in devising means 
for the prosecution of the road West, published an able address 
to the citizens of Baltimore, announcing that the Company, 
after so many years of fruitless toil, had at length triumphed 



71 

over every obstacle, and that the City had at last open to her 
embrace an unobstructed line of communication with the resources 
of the great West, by a route well adapted to the important 
ends to which her efforts have been heretofore directed. The 
Company also, in accepting the route accorded to it by Virginia, 
had every assurance that it was within the reach of a connection 
with the Rail Road in course of construction through Central 
Ohio, as well as acceptable to a line connecting with Cincinnati 
through the Southern division of the State, by Marietta, Athens, 
and Chillicothe. The address of Mr. Swann removed all the 
doubts and fears of those who regarded the undertaking as too 
stupendous for the means and resources of the Company. 
Pennsylvania was pushing on her Central Road to Pittsburg, - 
and for Baltimore then to stop at Cumberland, he urged, would 
bring ruin, wide-spread ruin, upon our City, from which no 
power on earth would thereafter be adequate to redeem her. 
Her doom would be sealed — her working classes would be 
struck down in the midst of advantages which nature had 
thrown in her way, and which she would suffer others to come 
in and appropriate for themselves. The subject he deemed too 
vital to be treated with indifference, and the address concluded 
with the following exclamation: 

" If we falter now — if from the interference of our own State, or any other 
cause, we should be retarded in the accomplishment of our great work, the 
destiny of the City of Baltimore will be irrevocably fixed — her great interests 
will be prostrated, and all her most cherished plans of future advancement will 
be forever blasted." 

The Committee of which Mr. Swann was Chairman, con- 
sisted of Johns Hopkins, Samuel Hoffman, Jacob G. Davies, T. 
Parkin Scott, George Brown, and William Cooke; and their 
appeal to the citizens of Baltimore met with a prompt and cordial 
response from all the varied interests of the City and State. 

A letter was also addressed by President McLane to this 
Committee, urging that the crisis had arrived when it became 
the imperative duty of the Directors and Stockholders of the 
Company, promptly to adopt all the measures in their power to 
finish their enterprise without delay, " and without counting the 
inconvenience of some present privation, to invoke to their aid 
their utmost resources to accomplish their object." 



72 

The community had at this time been so long and anxiously 
awaiting the recommencement of the work, that they had almost 
abandoned the hope of ever being able to successfully accom- 
plish an end of their labors in uniting the waters of the Chesa- 
- peake and Ohio. Indeed a wide-spread distrust every where 
prevailed, but the address of Mr. Swann announcing that the 
Company was then prepared, without further delay or procras- 
tination, to enter on the prosecution of their road with good 
earnest, gave a new impulse to the hopes of the people, who 
were looking with dismay at the progress Philadelphia was 
making in the accomplishment of a similar object. The ball 
thus set in motion by Mr. Swann, was kept rolling with but 
slight intermissions, until it touched the waters of the Ohio. 

On assuming the position of President of the Company, in 
the fall of 1848, Mr. Swann briefly addressed the Board, appro- 
priately acknowledging the honor that had been done him, 
and pledged his undivided atttention to the duties that would 
devolve upon him; — a pledge that he has most religiously kept. 
From that period down to the opening of the road, he is known 
to have been engaged almost without the intermission of a day, 
disregarding all private affairs, and every other claim upon his 
time, in his efforts to secure to the City of Baltimore the con- 
summation of its long deferred hopes, and the benefit of this 
great highway to the Western waters. 

At the period of Mr. Swann 's election, we find, on consult- 
ing the sales at the Baltimore Stock Board, that the shares of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road had fallen to twenty-eight 
cents in the dollar; and its bonds, it was believed, could not be 
sold to any large amount. Mr. Swann 's first effort, in this pe- 
cuniary condition of the Company, appears to have been, to 
form an indissoluble connection with some strong and leading 
financial house abroad, which could afford substantial aid in the 
trials and emergencies that he plainly foresaw would have to be 
encountered in the line of duty he had marked out for himself, 
and in which he had every reason to believe he would be fully 
sustained by the enlightened Board of Directors over whom he 
had been called to preside. 

The sterling bonds deposited by Mr. McLane in the hands of 
Messrs. Baring & Brothers, still remained there, and the atten- 
tion of Mr. Swann was attracted to that house as likely to afford 



73 

the means of aiding in the resuscitation of the credit of his State. 
Mr. Peabody of London, formerly a citizen of Baltimore, — 
with whom he also immediately opened a correspondence on the 
subject, — referred the application to the Messrs. Baring, deem- 
ing that to be his best mode of meeting the views of the Com- 
pany. The State of Maryland had been among the suspended 
States, and its credit abroad had greatly suffered in consequence, 
so that, without the aid of a strong and friendly moneyed con- 
nection, it would have been impossible to have made available, 
for the completion of the road, any portion of her sterling bonds. 
This correspondence, comprising nearly a volume of letters, dis- 
cusses at great length, and with marked ability, the financial 
position of the State of Maryland, and proved so satisfactory and 
convincing, that it closed with a sale of ^200,000 of the five per 
cent, bonds of the State to the Messrs. Baring. In reference 
to this negotiation Mr. Swann takes occasion to remark, in the 
twenty-fourth annual report, as follows: 

" The success which has attended the negotiation for the iron, has resulted, 
in a great measure, from the financial policy adopted by the Board, soon after 
the road was announced as ready for contract. It is known to the Stock- 
holders that at no period, since the first sale of £ 5,000, were the 5 per cent, 
bonds of the State of Maryland deemed available in the prosecution of this 
work. The State of Maryland had passed through a crisis of great monetary 
depression; and like other equally solvent States* had been compelled to submit 
to a temporary suspension of interest upon her debt. The effect had been to 
impair the value of her public securities, and create distrust in the minds of 
capitalists at home and abroad. In any arrangement to realize the large 
amount of sterling bonds placed at the disposal of this Company, it was quite 
evident that tlie home market alone, could not be relied upon without prejudice, 
from the depressing influence which must have resulted, from an excess of these 
securities thrown upon the market, over the amount of capital actually seeking 
investment. 

" Nor was it with more encouraging prospects that the Board felt constrained 
to turn their attention to capitalists elsewhere. Early* however, after entering 
upon the duties of his office, the President opened a correspondence abroad, 
developing fully the position and resources of the Company, and the policy 
which had been adopted by the Board in the prosecution of their work. 

"The result of this correspondence, continued through a period of many 
months, and involving a thorough exposition of the affairs of the Company 
and the State of Maryland, was an absolute sale of .£200,000 to the Messrs. 
Baring, on terms equal to the rates then prevailing for limited amounts in the 
home market, and beyond what could have been safely anticipated at any 
former period. 

" The effect of this sale, at a time when the road was about to be let to con- 
tractors, was immediately felt in the large reduction upon the estimates of the 
Engineer, consequent upon the confidence inspired by a full treasury, in the 

10 



74 

ability of the Company to prosecute their work without interruption. But the 
primary benefit expected to result, was the identification of a powerful house 
with the credit of the State of Maryland, in a market where her securities had 
felt the shock of her temporary suspension, and its effect upon the large amount 
of sterling bonds remaining to be disposed of, in the hands of the Company, 
at some future period. 

" In negotiating the sale of the .£200, 000, the Board entertained the belief 
that the remaining bonds, instead of awaiting the effect of time, which the 
pressing wants of the Company did not justify, and the tardy restoration of 
confidence, would reach their par value, so as to make them available at such 
times as might suit the convenience of the Company in the prosecution of their 
road. This result was expected to be brought about by the efforts of a house 
commanding a large share of the public confidence, and deeply interested in 
maintaining the credit of the State and Company upon the most favored footing 
among capitalists in a distant market, where, without such countenance, any 
efforts on the part of the Company might have proved unavailing." 

During the two years in which the Company had been matur- 
ing their plans to prosecute their work to completion, the growth 
of the City of Baltimore had not been equalled at any former 
period of her history, and it was universally admitted that her 
subscription of $3,500,000, had been more than returned to her 
in the enhanced value of her real estate, to say nothing of the 
influx of population, which increased activity in trade and the 
prospect of an early connection with the West had brought 
within her limits. 

In 1849, Mr. Swann made an address to the Board of Di- 
rectors, indicating the purpose of the Board to press on with the 
work, and to compass the whole, instead of a part of the route 
between Cumberland and Wheeling, as had been originally 
proposed. This address, from the bold and confident spirit that 
pervaded it, attracted notice throughout the country, and revived 
the drooping spirits of the friends of this great work. For years 
past the subject had been one of engrossing interest and the 
public mind had become feverish under the delay which had 
attended the efforts of the Company to secure a suitable charter, 
through which they could feel justified in proceeding with the 
road. After describing this position of the affairs of the Com- 
pany, Mr. Swann urges the great importance of prompt action 
in pressing the work to completion, and adds: 

" It has seemed to me, gentlemen, in view of the critical position of the City 
of Baltimore, that whatever is proposed to be done towards securing the 
original object and purposes of this enterprise, should be done promptly and 
without further delay. The anxiety of the great interests West of the Ohio 



V5 

River, to open a continuous line of communication, with some available point 
on the sea-board, is daily becoming more and more apparent, in the plans which 
are being projected, and the efforts now making, to form a junction with this 
road. These interests once in motion, cannot be induced to pause. To 
suppose that the active and restless spirit of our Western people can be lulled 
into inactivity by deferred prospects, however flattering, when so many rivals 
are in the field striving for the mastery, with all the attractions of overweening 
capital, would be to under-estimate the progressive character of that population. 
The leading cities of the sea-board are already in motion. They cannot shut 
their eyes to the value of the stake for which they are so eagerly contending. 
Their roads are extending towards points where, by prompt action, it is hoped 
to overcome the obstacles which nature has interposed, and entice from its le- 
gitimate market, a trade which nothing but inactivity and indifference on the 
part of our own citizens can drive beyond the attraction of the City of 
Baltimore. 

" It may be well for us to consider, whether the risk is not too great to stand 
quietly by, and see this current diverted from its natural channel, in the hope 
that, at some future day, we may repair the injury, and win back the prize 
which a too tardy policy had permitted to pass into other hands. The avenues 
of trade, when once established, often become fixed and permanent, whatever 
original difficulties it may have been necessary to surmount in the effort to 
make them available." 

Mr. Swann then proceeds to allude to the immense cost of 
the undertaking, estimated at more than $6,000,000, which 
would at any time present matter for grave deliberation in a 
community already so heavily burthened by her liberal contri- 
butions to works of internal improvements, from which but par- 
tial returns had been received. But these disappointments, he 
urged, should not be permitted to involve the City in still more 
formidable sacrifices. The large amount of capital already em- 
barked in the finished road from Baltimore to Cumberland 
would but faintly express the loss which would be entailed upon 
the community by a failure to carry out the original plan of the 
projectors of the enterprise. This address concludes as follows: 

"The completion of a stupendous work, binding together two grand 
extremes of our Union, aiid promising so largely to the future advancement of 
the City of Baltimore, in every department of her industrial pursuits, and in- 
directly to the whole State of Maryland, might well excite the ambition of all 
classes and interests, — haying an eye to our common welfare and prosperity. 
Under whatever auspices it may be pressed to completion, it will ever stand as 
an enduring monument of the wisdom and foresight of its early projectors, and 
an honor to the State of Maryland, as well as those enterprising citizens by 
whose capital and publjc spirit it may be brought to a successful termination." 

Immediately on the closing of the delivery of this address to 
the Board, Mr. George BroAvn, one of the venerable founders of 



76 

the road, is said to have arisen under great, excitement, and 
moved the following resolution: 

"Resolved, That the Chief Engineer be directed to 
proceed to arrange to put the whole line to the Ohio River 
wider contract as speedily as practicable ." 

This spirited resolution was instantly and unanimously 
adopted, and the decided and confident manner in which Mr. 
Brown seconded the recommendations of the President, had its 
effect both in the Board and among the community at large. 

The following extract from a speech delivered by J. W. 
Sullivan, Esq., President of the Central Ohio Rail Road Com- 
pany, at the Banquet of the Opening Celebration at Wheeling, 
on the 12th of January, pays a just tribute to the unbounded 
energy, perseverance, and penetrating sagacity of Mr. Swann, 
as displayed in this first step towards a consummation, in the 
accomplishment of which he never hesitated or faltered for a 
moment: 

"When we view the vast expenditure of treasure, of physical labor, and of 
mental toil upon the mighty work, the completion of which we have met this 
day to celebrate, and when we speculate upon the inestimable benefits which it 
is to confer through all coming time, we cannot but admire that boldness of 
conception which originated it, and the unconquerable will, which for the last 
three years, has moved steadily towards its completion, through every difficulty. 
It was given as an explanation of the character of one of our public men, who 
had the reputation of great firmness of purpose, that he could hear more dis- 
tinctly than other men, the footsteps of coming generations. To this foreshadowing 
of responsibility to posterity, may doubtless be attributed that disregard of ease 
and present fame, which distinguish all great achievements. The man who has 
pushed this enterprise to completion, heard through the streets of this beautiful 
City, and along the slopes of the Alleganies, the tramp of coming generations." 

The policy of the Company being now fairly established, no 
effort was spared to place the road West of Cumberland under 
contract, and to press it forward with the least practicable delay. 
At the close of the year 1850, no less than 165 miles of the 
road was in various stages of advancement, and in the spring of 
1851, the laying of the rails was commenced. Whilst in this 
state of progress Mr. Swann continued to invoke the encourag- 
ing aid, not only of Baltimore, but of every interest identified 
with the common prosperity of the State at large. The Board 
had entered upon the discharge of their responsible duties, not 
without, a full appreciation of the difficulties incident to all 
similar works; nor could they expect to realize, without a cordial 



and united support, the animating prospects, which, for the 
twenty years preceding, the work had continued to be cherished 
through every species of disappointment, by the City as her 
only hope of protection against the dangerous rivalries by which 
she was surrounded. 

The President continued to regard the early completion of 
the work as essential to its completion at all, and that any delay 
which might attend its prosecution, would be seriously felt, not 
less by the State at large than the other great interests connected 
with it. In concluding his twenty-fourth report, with the cer- 
tainty before him of an early completion of the road to Wheel- 
ing, he took the ground that there are laws which regulate the 
growth of cities and the tendencies of trade, which it is not 
easy to control, and that Baltimore, with her Rail Road to 
Wheeling, would always be a point of paramount attraction, — 
that her advantageous position, added to her temperate climate 
and her contiguity to the seat of the General Government, must 
tend to place her in advance of almost any other point on the 
sea-board in most of the inducements which may be supposed to 
influence both trade and travel. 

In January, 1850, a difference of opinion having arisen 
between the Company and the City of Wheeling, relative to 
the route by which the road should enter that City, President 
Swann was compelled to visit Richmond to endeavor to coun- 
teract an application which was proposed to be made by Wheel- 
ing to the Legislature to arrest the progress of the work. At a 
general meeting of the Stockholders, held on the 1st of May, 
1851, the President explained the whole controversy, in an 
address of great length, and recommended that the law, obtained 
from the Legislature, which compelled the adoption of the 
Grave Creek route be promptly accepted, rather than sub- 
mit to further delay. A great deal of ill-feeling seems to have 
been engendered at Richmond, but Mr. Swann conducted the 
matter to a satisfactory settlement w r ith all that ability that has 
distinguished him throughout his career in connection with the 
Company. There is no doubt, however, that the course of the 
City of Wheeling with regard to the matter delayed the pro- 
gress of the road, and postponed its opening for more than five 
months. 



78 

The first division of the road West of Cumberland, to Pied- 
mont, a distance of twenty-eight miles, was opened early in 
June, 1851, with appropriate ceremonies, the Mayor and City 
Council of Baltimore, with a large number of citizens, being 
present by invitation of the Company. 

At Piedmont, the Company have erected a large and hand- 
some engine house of circular form, the walls of brick, and the 
roof of iron. It is arranged to hold sixteen engines, and was 
built at a cost of $12,000. The Company intend to concen- 
trate at Piedmont the motive power necessary at this point to 
surmount the great summit dividing the Eastern and Western 
waters. Its grounds are upon a level spot of about eight or ten 
acres, across which tracks are laid in every direction. A large 
workshop and foundry is in course of erection, with all the 
other buildings necessary for so important a station, which must 
ultimately form quite a densely populated mountain town. 

The coal trade of the richest part of the great Cumberland 
Coal Basin will concentrate at this point. The Phoenix Com- 
pany have opened their mines just across the river, on the 
Maryland side, and have finished their tracks and bridge for a 
connection with the Rail Road. The George's Creek Com- 
pany have also completed the building of their Rail Road from 
the mines and iron works at Lonaconing, eight miles distant, 
up the valley of George's Creek. 

In the fall of 1851, the disbursements of the road were over 
$200,000 per month, for construction. After a period of unpre- 
cedented ease and abundance, the Board found themselves, 
almost without warning, in the midst of a financial crisis, with 
a family of more than five thousand laborers and one thousand 
two hundred horses to be provided for, while their treasury was 
rapidly growing weaker, and with no means of replenishing it 
sufficiently for the satisfaction of the overwhelming demands 
made upon it. The crisis demanded that no timid or tempo- 
rizing policy should mark the proceedings of the Board in the 
endeavor to place themselves in a position to meet any contin- 
gency which was likely to arise, and the great financial abilities 
of Mr. Swann were again taxed to their utmost to prevent such 
a catastrophe as the suspension of operations on the unfinished 
road, which seemed to threaten them. The commercial-existence 
of the City of Baltimore depended on its prompt and success- 



79 

ful prosecution, and to have faltered at this critical juncture, 
at any hazard, however remote, of endangering the great inte- 
rests entrusted to his charge, would have been to have delib- 
erately invited the just censure of those to whom the President 
and Board held themselves responsible. In these views of Mr. 
Swann, the Board concurred, and did not hesitate for a moment 
as to the proper policy to be pursued. After repeated efforts, - 
at home and abroad, to bring their bonds to the favorable notice 
of capitalists, they finally succeeded, as a last resort, in nego- 
tiating a sale of the whole amount applicable to construction, at 
a limit of eighty per cent., deeming this sacrifice of minor 
importance to the suspension of operations on the road. 

In reviewing the financial policy of the Company, at this 
day, it is confidently believed that there is no measure which 
has contributed more to its substantial and lasting benefit than 
the sale of these coupon bonds at the time and under the cir- 
cumstances which attended the transaction. It was in fact the 
turning point in the progress and success of the road. The 
remaining $700,000 was subsequently sold at eighty-seven per 
cent.,— the discount to which the Company was exposed being 
considered to represent but faintly the more ruinous sacrifice to 
which they would have been subjected by the delay of a single 
month in the opening of their road — to say nothing of the risk 
of a financial crisis, a total suspension of their work, and the 
general withdrawal of the public confidence, consequent upon 
the postponement of the prospect which, for so long a period, 
had sustained the Board and the community in their untiring 
efforts to open a communication with the resources of the great 
West. 

To give some idea of the immense financial operations of 
the Company, and the troubles and anxieties that must have 
devolved on the President and Board in the extension of the 
road beyond Cumberland, during the twenty- four months clos- 
ing with the first of October, 1852, it is only necessary to refer 
to the exhibit of the Treasurer, which shows that the amount 
expended during that time, for the construction of the road 
West of Cumberland, was the enormous sum of seven million 
two hundred and seventy-one thousand seven hundred and 
thirty-two dollars and fifty -one cents. When to this it is recol- 
lected that Mr. Swann entered upon his duties with a debt of 



80 

more than $250,000, such a result furnishes the best comment 
upon the policy which was adopted and steadily pursued. 

On the 22d day of June, 1852, the road was formally opened 
to the town of Fairmont on the Monongahela River, from which 
time the trains ran to that point with a regularity scarcely sur- 
passed on any part of the old road between Baltimore and 
Cumberland. A splendid banquet was given at Fairmont to 
about three hundred guests of the Company, at which senti- 
ments and speeches, indicative of the joyousness of the occa- 
sion, abounded. A full account of this great opening, with the 
speeches delivered on the occasion, are too voluminous for 
insertion here. 

In reply to several complimentary sentiments to President 
Swann, which were received with unbounded enthusiasm, he 
stated that while deeply impressed with the flattering manner in 
which his name had been introduced, he thought that too much 
credit had been attributed to him. He had done no more than 
his duty as a citizen of Baltimore; and the credit of the suc- 
cess which had attended the efforts of the Board he had the 
honor to represent, was due more to the able and public-spirited 
men who had been associated with him, in directing the affairs 
of the great corporation over which he presided, than to any 
efforts of his own. Mr. Swann's remarks on this occasion, 
alluding to the many " tight places" in which they had found 
themselves, at home and abroad, in the Legislature of Virginia 
and in his own State, among rival and conflicting interests — 
from all the troubles of which they had now emerged, formid- 
able as they were — thus eloquently expressed his feelings on the 
anticipated consummation of the enterprise: 

" These embarrassments have at no time taken me by surprise; they are the 
concomitants of a bold and mighty undertaking; they are incident to all great 
works like the present; and I deem it no more than just to myself to say here, 
in the presence of this distinguished company, that had they been ten times 
more formidable than they have thus far proved, I would rather have encoun- 
tered the risk of verifying the predictions which have been so confidently 
hazarded — of burying myself in the gorges of the mountains with which we have 
triumphantly grappled — with the ruins of this splendid work as the only monu- 
ment to mark my connection with the public affairs of your State and City, 
than I would have relaxed in one single effort to give to the State of Maryland 
the benefits of this great national highway. I say, gentlemen, that I would 
have gloried in the ruins of this stupendous work, as a prouder inheritance to 
those who come after me, than all the reputation, and all the credit, and all 



81 

honor that could have been heaped upon those who would have stood in the 
way of its successful prosecution. 

" Gentlemen, a few months now will bring you to a close of your labors, 
and it will then be seen whose voice has been prophetic. I have indulged in 
no extravagant speculations. I may not be connected with this work when 
the matured fruits of your labors begin to flow in upon you. I trust, gentle- 
men, it will have passed into abler and more more competent hands. But it 
Avill always be a source of pride to me — greater than the applause of Senates — 
more to be coveted than the renown of the battle-field, that my humble name 
should have been connected with an enterprise to which the progress of internal 
improvements in this country presents no parallel, and which is destined to 
dispense its blessings to the present as well as future generations, not only in 
the State of Maryland, but throughout the Union. " 

The opening to Fairmont, was the accomplishment of what - 
for some years previous to the administration of Mr. Swann, 
was regarded as the limit of the ability of the Company, (with- 
out some intermission in its labors,) towards completing its 
connection with the Ohio River. It was here that the Company 
intended to take a breathing spell. It was deemed glory enough ■ 
for one effort to have formed a connection with the noble 
Monongahela, without looking to the more cheering prospect 
beyond it. Thus it was that the announcement of the deter- 
mination of the Board to put the whole line under contract was 
considered by manyto have been little less than madness. But 
the Company desired no breathing spell when the enemy was 
at their door and almost within their camp. They had thus far 
pressed on in the face of the most formidable embarrassments, — 
they had taken no step backward. 

In this trip to Fairmont, the highest ranges of the Alleganies 
were crossed, and those who had proclaimed the impracticability 
of working a grade of one hundred and sixteen feet to the mile, 
became satisfied that their apprehensions were groundless, and 
that the iron horse could accomplish still greater imaginary 
impracticabilities than that. The whole train on account of a 
slight accident in the Kingwood Tunnel, was conveyed over the 
mountain on a grade of over Jive hundred feet to the mile, or 
one foot to nine, showing that even at such an elevation, there 
were very few things impracticable to science, art, and the 
power of steam. 

Mr. Swann, as early as 1851, promised to stand with his guests 
of the City of Baltimore and the States of Virginia and Maryland 
on the banks of the Ohio at Wheeling on the 1st of Januarv. 
11 ' 



82 

1853, and on that day the first train passed through, fulfilling the 
prediction to the letter. The opening celebration took place 
however not until the tenth and twelfth of the same month — it 
having been postponed for a few days in order to allow time for 
the people of Wheeling to prepare for the reception of the five 
hundred guests that received her hospitalities on the auspicious 
occasion.* 

At the time of closing this sketch, (March, 1853,) the road is 
open to Wheeling, and passengers are daily carried from the 
Chesapeake to the Ohio, and from the Ohio to the Chesapeake, in 
the brief space of nineteen hours, with the prospect of reducing 
the time to sixteen hours, when the bed of the road shall become 
settled, and in condition for the reception and carriage of the 
immense stock of freight accumulating on the Ohio for trans- 
portation across the Alleganies. The closing remarks of Mr. 
Swann's last annual report, announcing the consummation of 
the great undertaking, are worthy of general perusal. They 
are as follows: 

" It is now twenty-six years since the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Com- 
pany made their first annual report to the enterprising Stockholders, by whose 
capital and public spirit this Board was called into being'. Of those who stood 
prominent in its early organization, few have survived the delay which has 
attended the progress of this road, or will be present to rejoice with us in the 
work of final completion. In the animating prospects of the future, it becomes 
us, however, not to forget what is due to those who have borne a part in the 
conception of the grand idea which it embodies. History will do justice to the 
past as well as the present. 

" After years of delay, surrounded by embarrassments, and staggering under 
the vastness of the undertaking — with a credit almost exhausted — its few 
remaining friends scattered and disheartened — a community over-taxed — and 
an oppqsitiqn rendered formidable by the honesty of the convictions under 
which they acted — this great work entered upon its extension from Cumber- 
land to the City of Wheeling, a distance of more than two hundred miles. 
Through every vicissitude of climate, obstructed by interminable rocks, or 
opposed by a sucpession qf mountain barriers, altogether without a parallel in 
the progress of similar enterprises, by day and by night, it has pressed forward 
in such a march as human labor is seldom called to encounter, sustained only 
by that determined spirit which so strongly marks the character of the age in 
which we live; until it is now within reach of the goal for which it has been so 
long striving. 

" To this noble City what a prospect it discloses! In the midst of a rivalry 
stimulated by the- importance and magnitude of the results at issue, her mighty 
destiny is already foreshadowed. The rich prize is within her grasp. The 

* A full narrative of the opening and reception, with the sentiments and 
speeches at the Banquet, will be found in the Appendix. 



83 

union of the Ohio and the Chesapeake, by the favorite highway which nature 
has indicated, is no longer among the probabilities of the future; and the City 
of Baltimore, so long retarded in her progress, may yet realize the glowing 
anticipations of that illustrious man — the first to foreshadow the results of so 
grand an undertaking — whose imposing column as it towers in her midst, when 
it reflects the parting sun as it goes down upon the empire of Western com- 
merce, will look with renewed pride upon the enterprise and public spirit of a 
people whose indomitable courage has achieved the lasting glory of binding 
together these remote extremes of our Union." 

The names of the Board of Directors, under whose auspices 
the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road was completed, (among 
whom it will be observed that George Brown is the only- 
director who, in that capacity, saw "the beginning and the 
end,") are as follow: 

THOMAS SWANN, President of the Company. 

(Elected by the Board of Directors annually in October.) 

DIRECTORS. 

ON THE PART OF THE STOCKHOLDERS: 

Benjamin Deford, Johns Hopkins, 

William McKim, John I. Donaldson, 

Columbus O'Donnell, Charles M. Keyser, 

James H. Carter, Edward Patterson, 

Fielding Lucas, Jr. Samuel W. Smith, 

James Swann, Nathan Tyson. 

REPRESENTING THE STATE OF MARYLAND: 
(Elected annually in March by the Board of Public Works.) 
GEORGE BROWN, A. B. Hanson, 

Benjamin C. Howard, James J. Lawn, 

Joshua Vansant, Dr. Howard Kennedy, 

Daniel J. Foley, Henry Garrett, 

William D. Bowie, Peter Mowell. 

REPRESENTING THE CITY OF BALTIMORE: 
(Elected annually by the City Council.) 

Jacob G. Davies, Wesley Starr, 

James A. Bruce, J. J. Turner, 

*Thomas O. Sollers, *John T. Farlow, 

*John H. Ehlen, *Mendes I. Cohen. 

J. I. ATKINSON, Secretary and Treasurer of the Company. 
(Elected by the Board of Directors annually.) 

The City Directors marked thus * being ineligible again, 
were replaced in February, 1853, by the following gentlemen: 
Hugh A. Cooper. Thomas H. Hellen, 

John Hoffman, Cyrus Gault. 



CHAPTER V. 

Benjamin H. Latrobe. — His services as Chief Engineer. — Horse track through 
the Mountains. — Mr. Swann's Exploration. — Mr. Latrobe's Speech at Fair- 
mont. — J. H. B. Latrobe's devotion to the interests of the Company. — 
Albert Fink's Bridges. — Wendel Bollman's Bridges. — Faithful Officers. — 
Mr. Latrobe and his Assistants. — Miscellaneous Matter: — The Past, Present 
and Future. — Locomotive Power. — Mr. Elgar's Switches. — Early Reminis- 
cences. — Trial of Horse Power. — Travelling Memoranda twenty years ago. — 
Obstacles encountered in obtaining the Right of "Way through the City. — 
Excitement among the Carters and Draymen, &c. 

Benjamin H. Latrobe, the Chief Engineer of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail Road Company, although now compara- 
tively a young man, has achieved — in tracking this great national 
highway through mountain gorges that were almost impene- 
trable to the foot of man — an imperishable renown. The work 
will stand through all future ages as a monument of his skill as 
an engineer, and of that indomitable perseverance which con- 
ceives nothing impossible, and that knows " no such word as 
fail." In the preceding chapters his course has been traced in 
the history of the road from its earliest days to its completion : 
first as a private in the Engineer corps, then as a subaltern, and 
finally as the General-in-Chief, leading on his army of sappers 
and miners to conquer and overcome the immense barriers of 
nature that stood frowning in his path, with their peaks pene- 
trating the clouds. 

After having cut a narrow horse path through the mountain 
declivities on which he proposed to locate a part of the road 
West of Cumberland, Mr. Latrobe invited the President, with 
a few friends, to accompany him in a trip through the line of 
operations thus marked out. President Swann, in describing 
the impression that this visit had made on the mind of himself 
and companions, says: 

" It would be impossible forme to describe to you now, the effect which this 
first impression left upon me. We had been charged in the City of Baltimore 
with attempting impossibilities, and I was almost brought to the conviction 
that our assailants were not without some ground of complaint. Such was my 
anxiety in consequence of this visit, that I deemed it important to the credit of 
the Company that the impressions made upon us, should not be permitted to 



85 

transpire. I sincerely believe, that if the people of Baltimore could have 
availed themselves of the same opportunities of witnessing what we were about 
to attempt, in the then feverish state of the public mind, the road would have 
been abandoned. Yes, sir, the Chief Engineer might have been at this time a 
prisoner in some safe hands, for attempting to impose upon the credulity; and 
as for me, it is difficult to say what disposition would have been deemed most 
appropriate for me. Instead of rejoicing with you in this great triumph of 
human labor, I might have been a shining mark in some lunatic asylum, and, 
it may be, persuaded to acquiesce in the justice of the sentence." 

A less sanguine temperament than that possessed by Mr. 
Latrobe would have shrunk from the task he saw before him, 
but its very difficulties seemed to give the work new attractions. 
He, however, had the confidence of a President and Board of 
Directors who knew his ability, who had witnessed his suc- 
cesses, and who relied on him as infallible in every thing that 
related to his profession. They all stood manfully by him, and 
were inspired with the same spirit of confidence with which he 
seemed to look to the consummation of the work, as a question 
merely of time and money. The undertaking was one of mag- 
nitude and boldness. The mountain summits — the heavy em- 
bankments, the tunnels, the bridges, and all those great physical 
developments which seemed almost to defy the power of man, 
and which fill the beholder with wonder and amazement, were 
finally overcome, one after the other, until all are rendered sub- 
servient to our wants — and this mighty undertaking presents an 
unbroken rail from the waves of the Chesapeake to the ripples 
of the Ohio. 

Mr. Latrobe is as distinguished for his modesty, urbanity and 
gentlemanly deportment, as for his eminence as an Engineer. 
When highly complimented at the Fairmont Banquet, he char- 
acteristically replied, in part, as follows: 

" The merit which has caused my name to be mentioned in this connection 
would doubtless have been exhibited to the same extent by any other profes- 
sional man who had the same opportunity of constructing a similar road over 
such a country. The general maps indicated the courses of the streams that 
were to facilitate the work — but where the mountains were to be crossed and 
tunneled, and the rivers to be spanned, was a matter of careful examination in 
which I was aided by the talent and perseverance of skillful assistants, whose 
valuable services I shall always take pleasure in acknowledging." In another 
place he says: " In crossing or tunneling the mountains and spanning the 
rivers, sometimes one plan had to be adopted and sometimes another, and I 
have been constantly surrounded by able and accomplished assistants to whom 
I take pleasure in awarding their share of whatever merit there may be found 
in the task I have accomplished." 



86 

Benjamin H. Latrobe was educated for a lawyer, but his in- 
clinations were found, after a few years practice, to run in a coun- 
ter direction, and being already an accomplished draughtsman 
and a mathematician, he first entered on his new profession under 
Jonathan Knight, who was the Chief Engineer of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Rail Road during the first fourteen years of its existence. 
J. H. B. Latrobe, Esq., the distinguished Legal Counsellor of 
the Company, and brother of the Chief Engineer, was educated 
for an engineer, but maturity brought to him a taste for meta- 
physics and law, and they have both chosen the path for which 
nature intended them as shining marks in their respective pro- 
fessions. The knowledge of law has, however, been of great 
service and value to the Company in the performance of his 
duties by the first, as an engineer > whilst the knowledge of 
engineering possessed by the other has been of equal advantage 
in protecting the varied interests of the Company from encroach- 
ment. 

It was during the first year of the Company's existence, 
that John H. B. Latrobe was retained as its legal counsellor. 
He was at that time a very young man and had just entered 
upon the practice of his profession. His manifold and impor- 
tant services, and his zealous devotion to the interests of the 
road, in whose behalf he has so fully exercised his great abilities, 
have long since established the wisdom that led to his appoint- 
ment. The clearness of his perception, the systematic precision 
of his mind, and the untiring industry and almost military dis- 
cipline with which he marches through his multifarious labors, 
have enabled him to bestow much attention to public interests 
as well as to perform his professional duties. Mr. Latrobe is 
known to possess the most varied abilities. As a lawyer, a 
mathematician, a man of liberal and enlarged views, a friend to 
public improvement, and a true philanthropist, he is every 
where met with the public recognition; and as the early friend 
of African colonization, he has grown with its growth, until he 
has now become the successor of Henry Clay as President of 
its National Society. Although constantly pressed with private 
professional pursuits, of a more general and profitable character, 
Mr. Latrobe has always seemed to regard the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road as a favored client, sharing with its originators 



87 

and founders in the pride with which they have watched its 
progress and witnessed its completion. 

Albert Fink, the principal office assistant of B. H. Latrobe, 
is highly complimented by the latter for the important aid which 
he has rendered the Company, in the design and execution in 
detail of most of the bridge structures and buildings upon the 
line West of Cumberland, and which are alike creditable to his 
skill as an engineer, and his taste as an architect. Among 
these structures is the great iron bridge across the Monongahela 
River, below the mouth of the Tygart's Valley River, which is 
one of (he largest in the world, and though of the best materials, 
is of a very cheap construction. 

The first iron suspension bridges of any length introduced on 
the road, were constructed by Wendel Bollman, the efficient 
" Master of Road," upon entirely new principles of his own in- 
vention, and which will stand as evidences of his great skill as 
a mechanic. Two of these are on the Washington Branch 
Road, and three upon the Main Stem; (at Carey Street, Balti- 
more, at Marriottsville, and at Harper's Ferry.) The bridge at 
Harper's Ferry is 124 feet in length, and has been highly 
approved. The following are the particulars of a trial made 
under the supervision'of Mr. Parker, the General Superinten- 
dent, on the 1st day of June, 1852, to test the stiffness of Mr. 
Boilman's bridge at Harper's Ferry, — known as the " Win- 
chester Span," of the Rail Road viaduct: 

" Three first class tonnage engines with three tenders, were first carefully- 
weighed, and then run upon t-he bridge, at the same time nearly covering its 
whole length, and weighing in the aggregate 273,550 lbs., or 136,775 (2,000 
lbs.) tons nett, being over a ton for each foot in length of the bridge. This 
burden was tried at about eight miles per hour, and the deflections, according 
to gauges properly set and reliable in their action, were, at centre post 1| of an 
inch, and at the first post from abutment 9-16 of an inch." 

There is probably no road in the country which can boast of 
so many able and accomplished officers, as the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road, in every branch of its service. To William 
Parker, General Superintendent; L. M. Cole, Master of Trans- 
portation; Samuel J. Hays, Master of Machinery; Wendel 
Bollman, Master of the Road, and their numerous assistants, 
the meed of praise is thus awarded by the President in his 
twenty-sixth annual report: 



88 

"The results of the transportation department show no abatement in the 
skill and promptness with which it has been conducted. It is a remarkable 
fact, that for four years past, not a fatal accident has occurred to any passenger 
travelling on this road, and the records of the Court will show a most singular 
exemption from the litigation usually attendant upon works of such magnitude. 
It has been the unceasing effort of this Company at all times, to make their 
road an accommodation to the public, and they have spared no pains in bringing 
into their service, officers of gentlemanly deportment, character, and reliability, 
who would feel the weight of their responsibility, both to this Company and 
the public. The Board take pleasure in expressing the belief that no road 
in the country presents a more complete and efficient organization." 

In his last annual report, after announcing the opening of the 
road to the Ohio, Mr. Latrobe, the Chief Engineer, thus speaks 
of those who have labored with him in the completion of his 
stupendous labors: 

"I have only in conclusion to repeat the favorable notice which most of my 
assistants have continued to deserve by the good conduct they have shown 
upon the work during the past year. The Corps of Engineers has now become 
reduced to those employed upon the sixth or final division of the road. Mr. 
James L. Randolph, of the fourth division, having recently, at the near com- 
pletion of his work, been called into the service of the Sunbury and Erie Rail 
Road Company, and Mr. George McLeod of the fifth division, and to whose 
excellence as an officer I take great pleasure in testifying, being now occupied 
in closing the accounts of his part of the line. Mr. Charles P. Manning, of the 
Wheeling division, will remain while his valuable services are necessary upon 
that important part of the work. ********* 
From Mr. William D. Burton, Superintendent of Water Stations, I have also 
received faithful and skillful assistance; and to Mr. Wendel Bollman, Master of 
Road, and his principal assistant West of Cumberland, Mr. John H. Teg- 
meyer, I am indebted for essential service, in completing the unfinished work 
of the road. Mr. James B. Jordan, of the Road Department, and his assistants 
at the Mount Clare Shops, have executed the extensive iron work of the 
Bridge Superstructures, Water Stations, &c, in an admirable manner. Mr. 
Samuel J. Hays, Master of Machinery, has contributed much excellent work 
from the foundry and shops under his charge — and Mr. P. Dickerson, Agent 
at Locust Point, and under whose direction most of the iron Las been received 
from the ships and punched and forwarded to the line, and who has been also 
of great service in engaging and sending on laboring hands to the new work, 
deserves commendatory notice. To Mr. L. M. Cole, Master of Transporta- 
tion, and the agents and officers under him, and especially to Mr. J. B. Ford, 
of the Cumberland Station, it is due that I should acknowledge their effective 
co-operation in forwarding the work committed to my charge." 

Mr. Jonathan Knight who was called into the service of the 
Company from that of the United States Government, in which 
he had been engaged upon the National Road West of Wheel- 
ing, performed good service in the scientific, researches which he 



89 

made into nearly all the subjects of interest connected with the 
location, construction, and machinery of the work. The able 
reports and elaborate analytical papers which he prepared during 
a series of years, and which appear in the annual publications of 
the Company, do him great credit as a scientific investigator. 
His reconnoissances of the several routes examined during his 
connection with the Company, which lasted from 1828 to 1842, 
were distinguished by great thoroughness and accuracy, and the 
surveys executed by his professional associates, and assistants, 
generally confirmed the conclusions to which his previous ex- 
aminations had led him. Mr. Knight also rendered important 
services at sundry times in procuring legislation in Pennsylvania 
and Virginia, which, had circumstances permitted the Company 
to avail themselves of its provisions, would have been of great 
value to them. Mr. Knight therefore deserves honorable men- 
tion in this history, although some time after he had left the 
Company's service in 1842, he acted with the Wheeling interest 
then in an opposition to the Company, which difficulty has 
since, however, been ended by a friendly and permanent 
alliance. 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTER. 

THE PAST, THE PRESENT, AND THE FUTURE. 

The last annual statement of the Treasurer and Secretary of 
the road, J. I. Atkinson, Esq., shows that the receipts of the 
Main Stem for the year ending the 30th of September, 1852, 
were $1,325,563 65, and the expenses $710,179 22, showing 
the net earnings to have been $615,3S4 43. 

The aggregate receipts of the Company from all sources, 
now that it is finished to Wheeling, it is estimated will reach 
$4,092,500 per annum. From this it will be seen that the 
Company calculate upon an immense increase of transportation 
and travel. In order to provide for this expected increase in the 
business of the road, we learn from the report of Mr. Parker, 
the General Superintendent, that the following new locomotives 
have been contracted for, or ordered to be made in the Com- 
pany's shops since 1S50, viz: 



12 



90 

" 10 Made by Rosa Winans, before October, 1851, at $9,750, $97,500 

1 Made by the Company, 9,500 

21 Since .September, 1851, by Ross Winans, at $9,750, . 204,750 

1 Made by the Company, at $9,500 9,500 

3 Made by the Company, at $9,000 27,000 

25 Contracted for and not yet delivered, by Ross Winans, 

at $9,750 243,750 

8 do. do. A. W. Denmead, at $8,500, .... 68,000 

2 do. do. Smith & Perkins, at $9,500, 19,000 

2 do. do. New Castle Manufacturing Co. at $9,500, 19,000 
1 do. do. do, do do. $8,500, 8,500 

3 Ordered in Company's Shops, at $9,500 28,500 

77 Engines in all, costing together $735,000 

" If to these we add 64, the total number of engines previously in service, we 
shall have 141 as the total locomotive power for the Main Stem, which are 
reckoned equivalent in power to more than 100 engines of the largest class. 

" Of this increased power, it is estimated that about sixty-five per cent, will 
be employed West of Cumberland." 

The number of cars belonging to the Company, including 
those contracted for, is 116 passenger and baggage cars, and 
2,290 cars appropriated to the general traffic of the road, nearly 
all of them having eight wheels. 

The cost of constructing the road from Cumberland to Wheel- 
ing is stated by the Chief Engineer to have been $6,631,721, 
which makes the whole cost for construction and repair from 
Baltimore to Wheeling, including the Locust Point Branch and 
Camden Street Station, $15,628,963 24, as follows: 

" From Baltimore to Harper's Ferry $4,000,000 00 

From Harper's Ferry to Cumberland 3,623,606 28 

From Cumberland to Wheeling 6,631,721 00 

Reconstruction East of Cumberland 962,589 02 

Extension Road to Locust Point, &c 180,205 63 

Camden Street Station 230,841 31 

$15,628,963 24" 

The above is a statement of the cost of the construction of the 
road only of the Main Stem, independent of the Washington 
Branch, the cost of locomotives, cars, &c. Had the enterpris- 
ing men who originated this great undertaking imagined it 
would have cost any thing approaching this vast amount, it 
can scarcely be supposed that they would have commenced it at 
all. Even if their energies had not been shocked by such an 
nrrav of figures, they would hardly have been able to raise funds 



91 

enough on such a stock to have carried the road beyond Elli- 
cotts' Mills. On reference to the proceedings of the meeting of 
citizens, held on the 12th February, 1827, at which it was 
resolved to apply to the Legislature for a Charter to construct 
the road, we find the views entertained at that time by its 
originators as to its cost, distance, tolls, time of transit, &c. 
stated as follows: 

" Highest estimated cost of construction $5,000,000 

Distance from Baltimore to Ohio River 290 miles. 

Annual income from tolls $750,000 

Time to pass from Baltimore to the Ohio . s . ; 62^ hours." 

It will thus be seen that while their estimates of the probable 
cost of constructing the road is less than one-third of its reality, 
the estimate of annual income, compared with the estimate 
(based upon experience) at the present day, is scarcely one-fifth 
of the expected revenue of the Company. They also fell 
nearly 100 miles short in the item of distance. These estimates 
were made, however, before the route had been surveyed, at 
a time when Rail Roads were not in existence, and therefore 
without any data upon which to base them. Their estimate of 
the time required to pass from Baltimore to the Ohio was also 
more than three-fold greater than the actual time required. To 
the few survivors of that noble band of Baltimoreans, the fact 
that their estimates have proved more favorable than they an- 
ticipated, must be as gratifying to them as their witnessing the 
completion of the great enterprise according to their original 
design, — " to the waters of the Ohio." 

President Thomas in his early reports frequently asserts what 
was then the general opinion, that — " the easiest and by far the 
most practicable route through the ridges of mountains, which 
divide the Atlantic from the Western Waters, is along the 
depression formed by the Potomac in its passage through them." 
This was, however, a great mistake of fact, since discovered. 
The Susquehanna River and its tributaries make much lower 
depressions in the Alleganies than any to be found on the Po- 
tomac waters in Maryland or Virginia. Hence the route from 
Philadelphia to Pittsburg, through Pennsylvania, crosses the 
mountains more favorably. This correction is due to the skill 



92 

of the engineers who planned the route of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road. 

In the previous chapters, in recording the improvements in the 
track, and running gear of the cars, the name of John Elgar, 
to whom much credit! is due, has been inadvertently omitted. 
The switches, turn-tables, and cast-iron chill bearings, invented 
by Mr. Elgar, are still used, and have been adopted on all 
roads in the country. They were the result of much mental 
labor and mechanical application on the part of this excellent 
mechanic, who was one of the principal assistants in the depart- 
ment of construction under the Chief Engineer, Jonathan 
Knight. His services are spoken of in high terms in the early 
history of the road, and lithographs of his inventions accompany 
Mr. Knight's reports in the year 1831. 

In the old files of the Baltimore American there are many 
interesting statements made of the early experiments on the 
road. The following is from the American of March 21, 1831 : 

" The experiment of the transportation of two hundred bairels of flour, with 
a single horse, was made on the Rail Road on Saturday with the most triumph- 
ant success. The flour was deposited in a train of eight cars, and made, 
together with the cars and the passengers who rode on them, an entire load of 
thirty tons, viz: 

" 200 barrels of flour, . . 20 tons 

8 cars, 8 " 

Passengers, ' 2 " 

30 tons. 

"The train was drawn by one horse from Ellicotts' Mills to the Relay 
House, six and a half miles, in forty-six minutes. The horse was then 
changed, and the train having again set out, reached the depot on Pratt street 
in sixty-nine minutes — thus accomplishiug the thirteen miles in one hour and 
fifty-five minutes, or at the rate of six and three-fourths of a mile an hour. The 
road between the Relay House and the depot is a perfect level, except at the 
three deep excavations where an elevation of seventeen to twenty feet per mile 
has been resorted to for the purpose of drainage. The horse, except at the 
points just alluded to, brought the train along at a moderate trot, and appa- 
rently without any extraordinary labor; he is not remarkable, and was not 
selected for any peculiar powers of draught, and had performed a regular trip 
outwards on the morning of Saturday. A numerous concourse of citizens and 
strangers witnessed the arrival of the train at the depot, and although they 
looked for the accomplishment of the experiment as a matter of course, many 
of them were, nevertheless, unable to refrain from loudly testifying their 
admiration at the ease and celerity with which it was effected. It is, we 
believe, only about a week ago that we noticed the fact of the transportation of 
seventy-five barrels of flour, by one horse, as a circumstance worthy of remark 



93 

in comparison with the number of horses required for the conveyance of a load 
of a few barrels over a Turnpike Road. The experiment which we have detailed 
above shows that on Saturday a single horse drew three times as large a load; 
and there is no doubt that horses could be found who could with the same ease 
transport a load of three hundred barrels. And if such results as these can be 
accomplished by the power of a single horse, who will undertake to calculate 
the capacity of our Rail Road, either for heavy transportation orgreat rapidity, 
or both combined, when locomotive engines of the most improved construction 
constitute the moving power?" 

In connection with the early operations of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road, and of the speed of travel in those days, as 
compared with the present, the following "Travelling Memo- 
randa," published in the New York Gazette in May, 1831, 
embraces some reminiscences of the past worthy of preservation : 

"TRAVELLING MEMORANDA." 

"Messrs. Lang, Turner 8f Co: 

" Having, last week, business in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and the city of 
Washington, I started at 6 A. M. on Monday. In order to show the facilities 
afforded at the present day, of doing much business in a short time I send you 
a sketch of my excursion. 

" Left New York at 6 A. M. on Monday — arrived at Philadelphia at 5 P.M., 
called on four persons — settled my business with them by 9 — went to bed, and 
started on Tuesday morning at 6 for Baltimore, where I arrived at 5 P. M. — 
got through with my business there at half-past nine — went to bed — started at 

4 A. M. on Wednesday, for Washington, and arrived at a little after 9 A. M. — 
dressed, called on the President, and finished my business with him — dined at 
Gadsby's — took a hack in the afternoon, rode several miles, and completed my 
business with four persons — took tea with a friend — slept at Gadsby's — started 
at four on Thursday on my return — arrived at Baltimore at 10 — visited the 

Cathedral, Washington Monument, the Water Works, &c, before dinner 

dined at Barnum's splendid Hotel — partook of a bottle of wine with three 
Albanians — at 3 mounted a car, with twenty-two passengers, on the Rail Road, 
and visited EUicotts' Mills, thirteen miles from Baltimore — returned to Balti- 
more before dark — took tea, and afterwards, in a hack, visited the venerable 
Mr. Carroll, of Carrollton — returned to Barnum's — went to bed, and started 
for Philadelphia, where I arrived at half-past 6 P. M. — made several friendly 
visits — went to bed — started on Saturday, and reached New York at half-past 

5 the same day. Was thus absent nearly six days — travelling about six hun- 
dred miles, and completing all my business, at the expense of forty dollars 
and seventy cents. 

"The observations that I made were, that Baltimore and Philadelphia are 

looking up. In both places the bustle of business reminded me of home that 

is to say New York. The Canal which connects the Delaware with the Chesa- 
peake, through which I passed in two hours, is a great and useful work. The 
Rail Road which already passes several miles beyond EUicotts 'Mills, is a most 
delightful and useful mode of conveyance — the scenery is of the most pic- 
turesque character, and when in June the locomotives are in operation, must 



94 

attract the attention of all travellers. My visit to Mr. Carroll was most inte- 
resting and gratifying — on the eve of ninety-four years of age, such good 
health, such a flow of spirits, and so much graceful suavity could not have 
been anticipated. Of this man, so well known, eulogium could not do justice. 
Travellers cannot fare better, in this route, than in putting up at the Hotel 
opposite the United States Bank in Philadelphia, at Barnum's in Baltimore, 
and at Gadsby's in Washington. 

" The car in which I took my passage to Ellicotts' Mills, (four others in 
company) contained twenty-two passengers, drawn by one horse, and the time 
in going the thirteen miles was one hour and a quarter. By the first of July 
the locomotives will be in operation upon the Rail Road, when the same dis- 
tance will be travelled in thirty minutes. This road is finished nine miles 
beyond Ellicotts' and it is intended by the Stockholders to be carried through 
to the State of Ohio. The expense thus far has been about $40,000 a mile; 
but the residue will be finished for a much less sum. 

"Yours, &c, J. L." 

In many of the communications with which the columns of 
the Baltimore American were crowded in the spring of 1831, for 
and against the extension of the road through the City to tide 
water, an effort was made to excite the prejudices of draymen, 
laborers, and mechanics against it, on the ground that it would 
ruin their business, and deprive them of the means of liveli- 
hood. The whole City was excited on the subject, and when 
the bill came up before the City Councils for action, the City 
Hall was thronged to excess. During the final consideration of 
the bill on the 24th of March, 1831, the yeas and nays were 
taken fourteen times, but it was finally passed by a vote of 
eighteen to six, the members from the upper wards all voting 
against it. One of these numerous meetings against the road 
entering the City limits having been held in the fourth ward, 
and the name of our worthy citizen, Jacob Daley, was used, 
whereupon he published the following characteristic card in the 
American on the 17th of February, 1831: 

" Fourth Ward. — The undersigned has observed in the proceedings of the 
Fourth Ward, held on Tuesday last, that his name is announced as a member 
of the committee to further the views embraced in the resolutions adopted at 
said meeting. He begs leave to decline the appointment, and to say that it was 
made without his knowledge or concurrence. He has full confidence in the 
public spirit, intelligence and justice of the Board of Directors of the Rail Road 
Company and of the City Council, and is well satisfied to leave the arrange- 
ment of the question to them. Jacob Daley." 

The following burlesque on these town meetings appeared in 
the American a few days previous to the action of the Council, 



95 

and doubtless had a better effect than all the calm argument 
that had been brought to bear on the subject: 

" Ward Meeting. — At a meeting of the citizens of the Ward, held 

pursuant to public notice, the Honorable Frank Restless was called to the 
Chair, and the Honorable Tom Shuffleton was appointed to assist him in 
the discharge of his important functions; Peter Q,uill and Daniel Pen- 
knife were chosen Secretaries of the meeting. 

" The meeting being solemnly organized, all present assumed expressions of 
countenance of portentous dignity suitable to the importance of the occasion; 
the chairman-in-chief announced that they were ready to proceed to business. 
The Expositor of the subject to be considered rose, — a tumbler of water was 
placed beside him to add to the torrent of his eloquence; more candles were 
brought to assist him in shedding light upon the matter; and the address which 
he delivered was commensurate exactly to the grave preparations that had been 

made to assist him. The text was ' The citizens of the ward are the 

most disinterested in the community, and I am the most disinterested man 
amongst them. ' The points that followed were about as numerous as those that 
so sorely troubled the patience of Captain Dalgetty; whether they were really 
listened to more composedly has not been ascertained by the Secretary. The 
address was preliminary to the following preamble and resolutions: 

" Whereas, Having appointed two Chairmen and two Secretaries, this meet- 
ing deems itself as potent again, as any corporation or council that has but one 
of these dignitaries respectively; 

" And whereas, The prosecution of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road is an 
object of vital importance to the future commercial prosperity, nay existence, 
even, of Baltimore; 

" And whereas, The dignitaries now so luminously governing the delibera- 
tions of this meeting own among them, as it is believed, five shares of the 
Capital Stock of said Company, and of course have full right to manage the 
interest of the Stockholders of the remaining thirty -nine thousand nine hundred 
and ninety-five shares; 

" And whereas, This meeting represents the interests of the property holders 
around the present termination of the Rail Road; 

" And whereas, It will be a most capital plan to confine the immediate bene- 
fits of the road to real property, to that which we ourselves possess, to the 
exclusion of the rest of the town; 

" And whereas, A majority of our fellow-citizens are impertinent enough to 
cry out the vulgar old saw, ' fair play is a jewel,' and are setting up claims to 
their just portion of the anticipated benefits of the Rail Road; 

"And ichereas, We hold this truth to be self-evident, that the care of ' Num- 
ber One ' is man's first great duty to himself; and that in an affair of this kind 
' Number Two ' and the rest of them, are as far removed from ' Number 
One ' as is Dan from Beersheba; 

" And whereas, It is well known, that all who work for said ■ Number One ' 
would rather do so in private, and therefore it becomes us to find some cloak to 
cover the real views of this meeting; 

" And whereas, The deep interest of this meeting in the stock of the said 
Company is evident from the enumeration of five whole shares, therefore such 
interest may be made our pretence; 



96 

" Jlnd whereas, The honest carters and draymen of the City are more honest 
than wise, therefore we may gull them with the idea that we are the advocates 
of their interests, and so secure their votes for our candidates for the City 
Council; 

" Jlnd ivhereas, We had rather the whole scheme of connecting Baltimore 
with the West should be defeated, than that our portion of the town should be 
made to share equally the anticipated benefits, with the other portions; 

" Jlnd whereas, The orator of the evening says that he knows all about the 
matter; in which he has the advantage of us; and we, confiding in him, care 
but little to take the trouble to learn for ourselves; 

" Jlnd ivhereas, This meeting thinks it is too wise to play the part of the 
goose which sticks its head behind a post and thinks its body is concealed, and 
therefore there is no danger of our real motives being discovered, unless our 
neighbors, the ' Number Two ' aforesaid, can see through a mill-stone; 

" And whereas, We have no objection to be led by the nose, provided we 
think the world don't see the elongation of our respective probosces; 

" Therefore, he it Resolved, That we believe every thing that is told us by our 
disinterested advisers; that we deem the possession of stock not at all necessary 
to authorize us to abuse the Company aforesaid, and to direct its proceedings: 
That we deem the possession of real estate quite as unimportant to entitle us 
to pervert the just appreciation of the property of others; and that the interests 
of the Rail Road Company and the interests of the carters and draymen will 
form a cloak for our proceedings as large as charity; 

" Resolved, That we remount the great guns that made such prodigious noise 
on the same subject two years since; that they be assisted in the contest by all 
the small arms and pop-guns of the ward; according to their several abilities. 

" Jlnd finally, and most authoritatively, and most solemnly, be it Resolved, That if 
all other means fail and the Rail Road trade must be equally distributed through 
the town, and the City Council so decides, that then, in this perilous extremity, 
WE WILL NULLIFY. 

" Which preamble and resolutions being unanimously adopted, they were 
directed to be signed by the presiding dignitaries and published. 



FRANK RESTLESS, ) „. . ■„ 
TOM SHUFFLETON, J ^ airmen - 



«« Peter Ouill, ) Secretaries » 

Daniel Penknife, ) 

The following communication on this subject from the Ameri- 
can, is also worthy of preservation, as showing to some extent 
the excitement that prevailed on the subject: 

"To the Editors of the American — Gentlemen: — The propriety of extend- 
ing the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road to tide water appears to be so self- 
evident, that it really would be a waste of time to ^advocate the measure. 
What, shall four-fifths of the City sink for the good and benefit of one-fifth ? 
This is in fact the sum total of all the arguments brought forward by the oppo- 
nents to the extension of the road. We must swim, no matter, if ten times our 
number sink. Amongst those who have occupied the columns of your paper, 
none have amused me more than your Latin-named correspondent, 'Aut 
Cresar aut Nullus.' This gentleman is doubtless well read in nil books of note, 



97 

particularly the Dictionary of Quotation. Scripture he has at his fingers end ; 
he can tell you all about the patriarch Abraham — about Esau — Jeremiah — 
Samuel — Sampson — Dahlah — the Philistines, &c. &c, and a little about the 
Lancashire Witch, which he declares is not General Diebitisch. Wonderful ! ! 
I am not well versed in Scripture, I acknowledge, and I hope I never shall be, 
for the purpose only of advancing my own sinister views. Of Latin, I know 
nothing, and it doubtless would be much to the credit of some, if they pretended 
to know less of it. 

" The City is a Stockholder in the Rail Road, to a very large amount, and 
as we all know, has authorized the anticipation of her entire subscription, 
whenever the exigencies of the Company shall deem it necessary. We are, 
every one of us, deeply interested in the prosperity of the City, and in propor- 
tion to the enhanced value of her property in the same ratio, are we all more or 
less benefited. The indefatigable President of the road, whose thorough ac- 
quaintance with the subject enables him to speak with confidence, says in his 
communication to the Mayor and City Council, 'that the Board of Directors 
are warranted in the confident expectation, that the road will be in operation as 
far as the City of Frederick, and probably to the Point of Rocks, by the latter 
part of the current year. A large trade will pass upon it as soon as both or 
either of these objects shall have been effected, and the Board are of opinion, 
that early and active efforts will be required, in order to be prepared for the 
accommodation of this trade by the time the road will be open for its transpor- 
tation to Baltimore.' Again, Mr. Knight, in his report to the President and 
Board of Directors, says: — 'The Main line of the Rail Road terminating at 
Depot B, on Pratt Street, it is evident that a sufficient number of Branches 
must be made from the place, or from some point or points westward of it, to 
relieve the Main Line of the immense traffic and intercourse, which will pass 
upon it from the West; and also to enable it to receive that which will go upon 
it from the East. And it is evident that from the necessary delays at depots, 
and from the reduced speed of these Branches, many of them will ultimately be 
required; and that if they shall not approach the tide at one place, they will 
from necessity be made to do so from another!' — Mark that. What is the plain 
meaning of this sentence? — why, it means nothing more nor less than this — if 
you do not take the road to tide, where the City is already improved, it will 
from necessity, be made to the Spring Gardens? 

"Let this be done, and then might your correspondent quote Scripture to 
some purpose. But gentlemen, it would then be too late, we might repent in 
sackcloth and ashes, but our repentance would never bring back to us, that, 
which by our imprudence we had lost, forever lost? 

"Let us not be deceived, let us not be duped, for to use an old adage, whilst 
we are beating the bush, others may bear off the game. 

" We should make the road as reason dictates, which when done will diffuse 
its benefits through every part of the City, as now improved. We should 
beware of wolves in sheep's clothing. 

"Much is said in order to excite draymen, laborers and mechanics. Take the 
road, say they, to tide water, and these poor fellows must die of starvation. 
Why, such talk as this is nonsense. The men who preach this doctrine, do not 
themselves believe it; and well might your Scripture-quoting correspondent say 
to such, 'wo, unto you, hypocrites,' &c. &c." 

A Practical Mechanic." 
" South Street, 16th February, 1831." 

13 



98 



PERIODS OF THE VARIOUS OPENINGS OF THE 

BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAIL ROAD. 

Opened to Ellicott's Mills, 14 miles, by horse power 24th May, 1830. 

" " " " " by steam power 30th Aug. 1830. 

" " Frederick 61 " 1st December, 1831. 

" " Point of Rocks,. .... 69 " 1st April, 1832. 

" " Harper's Ferry 81 " 1st December, 1834. 

* " " Bladensburg 32 " 20th July, 1834. 

* " "Washington 40 " 25th August, 1834. 

" " Opposite Hancock,... 123 " 1st June, 1842. 

" Cumberland, 178 " 5th November, 1842. 

"Piedmont 206 " 21st July, 1851. 

" Fairmont, 302 " 22d June, 1852. 

" " Wheeling, 379 " 1st June, 1853. 

Trial of first Engine, 25th August, 1830. 

* Washington Branch. 

STATIONS AND DISTANCES 

ON THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAIL ROAD. 



BALTIMORE 

Relay, 8 

Avalon 9 

Ilchester, 12 

Ellicott's Mills, ....14 

Hollofields, 18 

Elysville, 20 

Dors ey 's Run, 22 

Woodstock 24 

Marriotts ville, 28 

Sykesville 31 

Hood's Mill, 34 

Woodbine, 37 

Plane No. 1, 40 

Mount Airy, 43 

Plane No. 4, 46 

Monrovia, 49 

Ijamsville, 53 

Monocacy, 58 

Frederick,. 61 

Lime Kiln, 60 

Buckeystown, 62 

Davis' Warehouse . .64 



Point of Rocks,,. ..69 
Catoctin Switch,... 71 

Berlin, 75 

Knoxville, 78 

Weverton, 79 

Harper's Ferry, ... .81 

Duffield's, 87 

Kearneysville, 92 

Dunnington's,.... 96 

Martinsburg 100 

Tabb's, 103 

N. Mountain, 107 

Cherry Run, 114 

Sleepy Creek, 120 

Hancock, 123 

Sir John's Run,.... 128 
Great Cacapon,.. ..132 

Orleans Road, 139 

D. Gully Tunnel, ..141 
No.l2W.Stat'n,..150 

Paw Paw, 153 

L. Cacapon, 157 

South Branch,... .162 



G. Spring Run,.... 164 
Patterson's Cr'k, ..170 

Cumberland, 178 

Brady's Mill, 185 

Bridgeford, 187 

Rawlin's, 190 

B. Oak Bottom,.. ..194 
Blackstone's Is'd . . 196 

New Creek, 201 

Piedmont, 206 

Bloomington, 208 

Frankville, 214 

Swanton, 219 

Altamont, 223 

Oaklands, 231 

Chisholm, 235 

Hutton's Switch, . .237 
Cranberry Sum't ..242 
Rodemer'sTun'1..246 

Cheat River, 254 

*Tunnelton, 260 

Simpson 's, 267 

Independence,.... 296 



Helvetia, 270 

Thornton, 274 

Parkersb'g June. 280 C< 

Fetterman, 282 

Valley R. Falh?,..288 
Nuzurn's Mill,... 290 
Benton's Ferry,.. 298 

Fairmont, 302 

Barnesville, 304 

Barracksville, 307 

Farmington, . „ . ..313 

Mannington 320 

Bee-Gum Station. 324 

Glover's Gap, 329 

Burton, 331 

Old Hundred, 333 

t Littleton, 337 

Bellton, 344 

Cameron, 351 

Roseby's Rock,... 361 

Moundsville, 368 

Wheel 'gOut.Sta..376 
WHEELING,... 379 



The Kingwood Tnnnel. 



}The Board Tree, or reltibonc Tunnel. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Description of the Line of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road from Baltimore to Wheeling. 

The Mount Clare Station of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road was established in 1829, at what was then the extreme 
western end of Pratt Street, (Baltimore,) and indeed some 
distance beyond the paved part of the street. Here, surrounded 
by some rough sheds, was planted the little box at which tickets 
were sold for an excursion to the Carrollton Viaduct, one mile 
out; this being the length of the road when business began to 
be done upon it, and a revenue to be collected from those who 
visited a Railway as an object of curiosity to be seen and felt for 
the first time. The station has since grown to be a vast area 
of some forty acres, a large proportion of it covered by buildings 
of every size and shape, and a reticulation of tracks of which it 
would puzzle the eye to pursue the numerous lines and inter- 
sections. When the track was extended into the City and 
carried through many of its principal streets by numerous 
branches, the Mount Clare (at first the only) became the 
u outer" station, and the u inner station" was located upon 
Charles Street, between Pratt and Camden Streets, and within 
a few steps of the head of the Basin. It was afterward removed 
to Pratt Street below Charles, where it remained until the open- 
ing of the road to Wheeling. It was here also for a number of 
years that the Passenger station of the Philadelphia Rail Road 
was located, the two lines meeting under a common roof. The 
Philadelphia has sometime since removed towards the eastern 
section of the City, and the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road has 
also removed its inner station to the spacious grounds recently 
purchased between Camden and Lee Streets on the North and 
South, and Howard and Eutaw Streets on the East and West. 

The new station is reached through the " Locust Point 
Branch," which leaves the original Main Stem of the road 
near the Carrollton Viaduct, at the western boundary of the 
City. The branch will henceforward become the trunk, as the 
transportation business of the Company will be chiefly concen- 
trated at the new station, and the Mount Clare will be devoted 
principally to the machinery department. 

Leaving the City we cross the Carrollton Viaduct, a fine 
bridge of dressed granite, with an arch of eighty feet span, over 
Gwynn's Falls; after which the road soon reaches the long and 



100 

deep excavation under the Washington Turnpike which is carried 
over the Rail Road by the " Jackson Bridge." Less than a 
mile farther the "deep cut" is encountered, famous for its 
difficulties in the early history of the road. It is seventy-six 
feet in extreme depth and nearly half a mile in length, and the 
traces of the slides and gulleyings of twenty odd years are to be 
seen upon its furrowed sides, tinted with various ochrous colors 
of the richest hue. Beyond this the road crosses the deep ravine 
of Robert's Run, and, skirting the ore banks of the old Balti- 
more Iron Company, now covered by a dense forest of cedar 
trees, comes to the long and deep embankment over the valley 
of Gadsby 's Run and the heavy cut through Vinegar Hill imme- 
diately following it. The "Relay House," eight miles from 
the inner station is then reached, where, as the name imports, 
there was a change of horses during the period which those 
animals furnished the motive power of the road. 

At this point the open country of sand and clay ends, and the 
region of rock begins at the entrance to the gorge of the Pa 
tapsco River. In entering this defile you have a fine view of 
the "Thomas Viaduct," (named after the first President of the 
Company,) a noble granite structure of eight elliptic arches, each 
of about sixty chord, spanning the stream at a height of sixty-six 
feet above the bed, and of a total length of some seven hundred 
feet. This bridge belongs to the Washington Branch Road, 
which departs from the Main Line at this place. The pretty 
village of Elkridge Landing is in sight, and upon the surround- 
ing heights are seen a number of country seats belonging to men 
of business who reside here during the summer, tempted by the 
beauty of the spot and the facilities of access which the Rail 
Road affords. 

The road now pursues its devious course up the river, passing 
the Avalon Iron Works a mile beyond the Relay House, and 
coming in a couple of miles farther, to the Patterson viaduct, a 
fine granite bridge of two arches of fifty-five, and two of twenty 
feet span. This bridge crosses the River at the Ilchester Mill, 
situated at a very rugged part of the ravine. The Thistle 
Cotton Factory appears immediately beyond, and soon after 
Gray's Cotton Factory, and then the well known and flourish- 
ing town of "Ellicott's Mills," fourteen miles from Baltimore, 
covering the bottom and slopes of the steep hills with dwellings 
and their tops with churches and other public edifices. The 
Frederick Turnpike road passes through the town here, and is 
crossed by the Rail Road upon the " Oliver Viaduct," a hand- 
some stone bridge of three arches of twenty feet span. Just 
beyond this bridge is the Tarpeian rock, a bold insulated mass 
of granite, between which and the body of the cliff the Rail 
Road edges jts way. Half a mile further we see the extensive 



101 

buildings of the Union Cotton Factory scattered over the oppo- 
site hill side, and from between two of the mills a fine cascade 
pouring incessantly down from the race into the river. 

The road next comes in sight of the Elysville Factory build- 
ings, where at a circuitous bend it crosses the river upon a 
viaduct of three timber arches, each of one hundred and ten 
feet span, and almost immediately recrosses it upon one of two 
arches of one hundred and fifty feet span. Thence it follows the 
windings of the stream to the " Forks," twenty-five miles from 
Baltimore, where, by a deep cut through a narrow neck, it 
turns the western branch of the river, and thus crosses its former 
channel twice without a bridge. Passing the Marriottsville 
limestone quarries, the road then crosses the Patapsco by an iron 
bridge fifty feet span, and dashes through a sharp spur of the 
hill by a tunnel four hundred feet long in mica slate rock, 
which forms a substantial roof without other support. For a 
mile or two beyond this the road runs along pretty meadow 
lands, but soon re-enters a crooked gorge, which it follows with 
many diversions of the stream from its original bed, as far as 
Sykesville, a village prettily situated at an opening in the valley 
and showing a mill and cotton factory. This point is thirty 
miles from Baltimore, and the road after leaving it encounters 
some rough cutting through points of hard rock, after which it 
again emerges upon a comparatively open country, and after 
passing one or two rocky hills at Hood's Mill, it leaves the 
granite region and enters upon the gentle slopes of the slate hills, 
among which the river meanders until we reach the foot of 
" Parr's Ridge," dividing the waters of the Patapsco from those 
of the Potomac. The road crossed this ridge at first by four 
inclined planes, (two on each side of the ridge,) intended to be 
worked by stationary power, which was however never applied , 
as before the trade of the road would have justified its use a 
new location was made in 1 83S, and a grade of eighly-two feet 
per mile with a cut of fifty feet at the summit was substituted 
for the planes, the steepest of which had upon it an inclination 
of abont three hundred and sixty feet per mile. The new road 
of about five miles in length, crosses the ridge north of the old 
and is but little longer. 

From the summit of the ridge at the Mount Airy Station, 
forty-four miles from Baltimore, is a noble view Westward 
across the Fredericktown Valley, and as far as the Catoctin 
Mountain some fifteen miles distant. The road thence descends 
the valley of Bush Creek, a stream of moderate curves and 
gentle slopes, with a few exceptions, where it breaks through 
some ranges of trap rocks, which interpose themselves anion" - 
the softer shales. The Monrovia and Ijamsville Stations are 
passed at Bush Creek. The slates terminate at the Monocacy 



102 

River, and the limestone of the Fredericktown Valley com- 
mences. That river is crossed by a bridge of three timber spans 
one hundred and ten feet each, and elevated about forty feet 
above its bed. At this point, fifty-seven miles from Baltimore, 
the Frederick Branch, of three miles in length, leaves the Main 
Road and terminates at the City of that name, the centre of 
one of the most fertile, populous, and wealthy sections of 
Maryland. 

From the Monocacy to the Point of Rocks, the road having 
escaped from the narrow winding valleys to which it has thus 
far been confined, bounds away over the beautiful champaigne 
country lying between that river and the Catoctin Mountain. 
This rolling region of rich limestone land is the garden of the 
State, and contains the celebrated Carrollton Manor. The line 
for upwards of eleven miles consists of long straight stretches 
and fine sweeping curves, and lies near the gently rolling sur- 
face of the ground with little cutting or filling. On approaching 
the "Point of Rocks," it passes by a cut of some extent 
through the ridge of breccia marble, from which the beautiful 
material of the columns in the Senate Chamber and Hall of 
Representatives of the Capitol at Washington was obtained. 

The " Point of Rocks," celebrated in the contest between the 
Rail Road and Canal Companies, is formed by the bold profile 
of the Catoctin Mountain, against the base of which the Potomac 
River runs on the Maryland side, the mountain towering up on 
the opposite, Virginia, shore, forming the other barrier of the 
pass. Here, sixty- nine miles from Baltimore and forty-eight 
from Washington, the Canal and Rail Road first came side by 
side, and a village has arisen. There is also a bridge over the 
river, which is about a quarter of a mile wide. The Rail Road 
turns the promontory by an abrupt curve, and is partly cut out 
of the rocky precipice on the right, and partly supported on the 
inner side of the Canal on the left by a stone wall of considera- 
ble length. Two miles further another cliff occurs, accompa- 
nied by more excavation and walling. From hence the ground 
becomes comparatively smooth, and the Rail Road, leaving the 
immediate margin of the river to the Canal, runs along the base 
of the gently sloping hills, passing the villages of Berlin and 
Knoxville, and reaching the "Weverton Factories" in the pass 
of the South Mountain. 

From this point to Harper's Ferry the road lies along the foot 
of a precipice for the greater part of the distance of three miles, 
the last of which is immediately under the lofty cliffs of Elk 
Mountain, forming the north side of this noted pass. The 
Shenandoah River enters the Potomac immediately below the 
bridge over the latter, and their united currents rush rapidly 
over the broad ledges of rock which stretch across their bed. 



103 

The length of the bridge is about nine hundred feet, and at its 
western end it divides into two, the left hand branch connecting 
with the Winchester and Potomac Rail Road which passes 
directly up the Shenandoah, and the right hand carrying the 
Main Road, by a strong curve in that direction, up the Potomac. 
The bridge consists of six arches of one hundred and thirty and 
one arch of about seventy-five feet span over the river, and an 
arch of about one hundred feet span over the Canal; all of 
which are of timber and iron and covered in, except the 
western arch connected with the Winchester and Potomac Rail 
Road which is entirely of iron,* excepting the floor. This 
viaduct is not so remarkable for its length as for its peculiar 
structure, the two ends of it being curved in opposite directions 
and bifurcated at the western extremity. Harper's Ferry and 
all its fine points of scenery are too well known to need descrip- 
tion here. The precipitous mountains which rise from the 
water's edge leave little level ground on the river margin, and 
all of that is occupied by the United States Armory buildings. 
Hence the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road has been obliged to 
build itself a road in the river bed for upwards of half a mile 
along the outer boundary of the Government works, upon a 
trestle work resting on the side next the river, upon an insulated 
wall of masonry, and upon the other side upon square stone 
columns placed upon the retaining wall of the Armory grounds. 
After passing the uppermost building the road runs along upon 
the outer bank of the Canal which brings the water of the 
river to the works, and soon crosses this Canal by a stone and 
timber bridge one hundred and fifty feet span. Thence the 
road passes up the river on the inner side of the Canal, and 
opposite the dam at its head, about one and three-quarters of a 
mile from the mouth of the Shenandoah, pierces a projecting 
rock by a tunnel or gallery of eighty feet in length. 

The view down the river through this perforation is singularly 
picturesque, and presents the pass through the mountain at the 
confluence of the rivers in one of its most remarkable aspects. A 
short distance above the tunnel, where the river sweeps gradually 
round to the eastward in the broad smooth sheet of water created 
by the dam, the Rail Road leaves the Potomac and passes up 
the ravine of Elk Branch which presents itself at this point in a 
favorable direction. This ravine, at first narrow and serpentine, 
becomes wider and more direct until it almost loses itself in the 
rolling table land which characterizes the " Valley of Virginia." 
The head of Elk Branch is reached in about nine miles, and 
thence the line descends gradually over an undulating cham- 
paigne country, to the crossing of the " Opequa " Creek, which 

• The "Winchester Span," (which is of iron,) is one of Bollman's Patent 
Rail Road Bridges. 



104 

it passes by a stone and timber viaduct of one hundred and fifty 
feet span and forty feet above the water surface. Beyond the 
crossing the road enters the open valley of Tuscarora Creek 
which it crosses twice and pursues to the town of Martinsburg, 
eighteen miles from Harper's Ferry. At Martinsburg the Tus- 
carora is again bridged twice, the crossing east of the town being 
made upon a viaduct of ten spans of forty-four feet each, of 
timber and iron, supported by two abutments and eighteen stone 
columns in the Doric style, and which have a very agreeable 
architectural effect. The Company have erected here large 
engine houses and workshops, and have made it one of their 
principal stations for the shelter and repair of their machinery, 
a measure that has greatly promoted the prosperity of the town, 
which like many of the old Virginia villages had previously 
been in a stagnant state for an almost immemorial period. 

Westward from Martinsburg the route for eight miles con- 
tinues its course over the open country, altenately ascending 
and descending until it strikes the foot of the North Mountain 
and crossing it by a long excavation, sixty-three feet deep, in 
slate rock, through a depression therein, passes out of the 
" Valley," having traversed its entire breadth upon a line 
twenty-six miles in length. The soil of the valley is limestone, 
with slight exceptions, and of great fertility. On leaving these 
rich and well tilled lands we enter a poor and thinly settled 
district, covered chiefly with a forest in which stunted pine pre- 
vails. The route encounters heavy excavation and embank- 
ment for four or five miles from the North Mountain, and crosses 
Back Creek upon a stone viaduct of a single arch of eighty feet 
span and fifty-four feet above the stream. The view across and 
up the Potomac Valley is magnificent as you approach this bridge, 
and extends as far as the distant mountain range of Sideling hill 
twenty -five miles to the West. The immediate margin of the 
river is reached at a point opposite Fort Frederick on the Mary- 
land side, an ancient stronghold, erected a hundred years ago 
and still in pretty good preservation. 

From this point, thirty miles from Harper's Ferry, the route 
follows the Virginia shore of the river upon bottom lands, inter- 
rupted only by the rocky bluffs opposite Licking Creek, for ten 
miles to Hancock. The only considerable stream crossed in 
this distance is Sleepy Creek, which is passed by a viaduct of 
two spans of one bundled and ten feet each. Hancock is in 
Maryland, and although a town of no great size or importance, 
makes some show when seen across the river from the station at 
the mouth of Warm Spring Run. 

The route from Hancock to Cumberland pursues the margin 
of the Potomac River, with four exceptions. The first occurs 
at Doe Gullcif, eighteen miles above Hancock, where by a tun- 



105 

nel of 1,200 feet in length a bend of the river is cut off, and a 
distance of nearly four miles saved. The second is at the Paw 
Paw Ridge, where a distance of nearly two miles is saved by a 
tunnel of 250 feet, in length. The third and fourth are within 
six miles of Cumberland, where two bends are cut across by 
the route with a considerable lessening of distance. 

In advancing westward from Hancock the line passes along 
the western base of Warm Spring Ridge, approaching within a 
couple of miles of the Berkeley Springs, which are at the east- 
ern foot of that ridge. It then sweeps around the termination 
of the Cacapon Mountain, opposite the remarkable and insu- 
lated eminence called the "Round Top." Thence the road 
proceeds to the crossing of the Great Cacapon River, nine and 
a half miles above Hancock, which is crossed by a bridge about 
300 feet in length. Within the next mile it passes dam No. 6 
of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and soon after, it enters the 
gap of Sideling Hill, that famous bug-bear of the traveller, 
which on the National Turnpike opposes such a formidable bar- 
rier to his journey, but which here is unnoticed except in the 
fine profile which it exhibits on each side of the river, as it 
declines rapidly to the water level. 

In the gap of this mountain are the coal veins which the late 
R. Caton, Esq., with that zeal which always distinguished his 
researches in this branch of practical geology, endeavored to turn 
to profitable account. The slack water of the Canal dam ex- 
tends some two miles above Sideling Hill. 

The next point of interest reached is the Tunnel at Doe 
Gulley. The approaches to this formidable work are very im- 
posing, as for several miles above and below the tunnel they 
cause the road to occupy a high level on the slopes of the river 
hills, and thus afford an extensive view of the grand mountain 
scenery around. The tunnel is, as before mentioned, about a 
quarter of a mile in length, through a compact slate rock, which 
is arched with brick to preserve it from future disintegration by 
atmospheric action. The fronts or facades of the arch are of a 
fine white sand-stone, procured from the summit of the neighbor- 
ing mountain. The width of the opening within the brick 
work of the arch is 21 feet, and the height 20^, affording room 
for two tracks. The height of the hill above the roof of the 
lunnel is 110 feet. The excavation and embankments adjacent 
are very heavy, and consist of the slate rock through which the 
tunnel is cut. 

Above this point the line pursues the very sinuous part of the 
river lying between Sideling Hill on the east, and Town Hill 
on the west. The curves are not however abrupt, but form fine 
sweeping circuits, passing sometimes along beautiful alluvial 
bottoms and again at the foot of precipitous cliffs. 
14 



10G 

The Paw Paw Ridge Tunnel is next reached, thirty miles 
from Hancock, and twenty- five miles below Cumberland. This 
tunnel is through a soft slate rock, and is curved horizontally 
with a radius of 750 feet. It is of the same sectional dimen- 
sions with the Doe Gulley Tunnel, and is completely arched 
with brick, and fronted with white sand-stone. Thence the 
route reaches Little Cacapon Creek, 21 \ miles from Cumber- 
land. At the mouth of this stream there are fine flats, and a 
beautiful view of the mountains to the eastward. 

The viaduct over the creek is 143 feet long. About five and a 
half miles further on, the south branch of the Potomac is crossed 
on a bridge 400 feet long. This is in fact the main Potomac, and 
would have been (as the story runs) so treated by the commis- 
sioners who determined the boundary of Maryland and Virginia, 
but that the north branch has the appearance, at the confluence, 
of being the larger stream. The river bottoms are here wide 
and exceedingly fertile, and the scenery very beautiful. The 
arching of the strata in the section of the South Branch Moun- 
tain, just above the junction, is most remarkable and grand. 

Some two miles above is a fine straight line, over the widely 
expanded flats opposite the ancient village of Old Town, in 
Maryland. These are the finest bottom lands on the river, and 
from the upper end of them is obtained the first view of the 
Knobly Mountain, that remarkable range which lies in a line 
with the town of Cumberland, and is so singularly diversified 
by a profile which makes it appear like a succession of artificial 
mounds. Dan's Mountain towers over it, forming a fine back 
ground <o the view. Soon after, the route passes the high cliffs 
known by the name of Kelly's Rocks, where there has been 
very heavy excavation. 

Patterson's Creek, eight miles from Cumberland, is next 
reached. Immediately below this stream is a lofty mural preci- 
pice of lime-stone and sand-stone rock, singularly perforated in 
some of the ledges by openings which look like Gothic loop 
holes. The valley of this creek is very straight and bordered 
by beautiful flats. The viaduct over the stream is 150 feet long. 
Less than two miles above, and six miles from Cumberland, the 
north branch of the Potomac is * crossed by a viaduct 700 feet 
long, and rising in a succession of steps — embracing also a cross- 
ing of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. This extensive bridge 
carries us out of Virginia and lands us once more in Old Mary- 
land, which we left at Harper's Ferry, and kept out of for a 
distance of 91 miles. 

The route thence to Cumberland is across two bends of the 
river, between which the stream of Evett's Creek is crossed by 
a viaduct of 100 feet span. 



107 

The entrance to the town of Cumberland is beautiful, and 
displays the noble amphitheatre in which it lies to great advan- 
tage — the gap of Will's Mountain, westward of the town, being 
a justly prominent feature of the view. 

The Company's depot in Cumberland is in a central position 
at the intersection of the Rail Road and National Turnpike.* 

The brick and stone viaduct over Wells' Creek at Cumber- 
land, is entitled to particular notice. It consists of fourteen 
elliptical arches of fifty feet span and thirteen feet rise, and is a 
well built and handsome structure. 

From Cumberland to Piedmont, twenty-eight miles, the 
scenery is remarkably picturesque — perhaps more so than upon 
any other section of the road of similar length. For the first 
twenty-two miles, to the mouth of New Creek, the Knobly 
Mountain bounds the valley of the North Branch of the Poto- 
mac on the left, and Wills and Dan's Mountains on the right; 
thence to Piedmout the river lies in the gap which it has cut 
through the latter mountain. 

The following points may be specially noticed: 

The general direction of the road is south-west, for twenty-two 
miles, to the mouth of new Creek. 

The cliffs which occur at intervals during the first ten miles. 

The wide bottom lands extending for the next four miles, 
with some remarkably bold and beautiful mountain peaks in 
view. 

The high rocky bluffs along Fort Hill, and the grand mural 
precipice opposite to them, on the Virginia shore, immediately 
below the et Black Oak Bottom," a celebrated farm embracing 
five hundred acres in a single plain, between mountains of great 
height. 

The " Chimney Hole Rock," at the termination of Fort Hill, 
a singular crag, through the base of which the Rail Road Com- 
pany have driven a tunnel under the road to answer the purpose 
of a bridge for several streams entering the river at that point. 

The crossing of the Potomac from the Maryland to the Vir- 
ginia shore, twenty-one miles from Cumberland, where the 
Rail Road, after passing through a long and deep excavation, 
spans the river by a bridge of timber and iron, on stone abut- 
ments and a pier. The view at this point, both up and down 

* The Baltimore American of November 5th, 1842, in its editorial notice of 
the opening of the road to Cumberland on the 3d of that month, says: 

" We cannot conclude our notice this morning without referring to the excel- 
lence of construction by which the new portion of the road (between Hancock 
and Cumberland) is distinguished. Every improvement which science has 
brought to this department of engineering, has been successfully used by the 
Chief Engineer, Benjamin H. Latrobe, Esq., under the judicious dictation of 
his own genius and well matured experience. The President and Directors ex- 
pressed the utmost satisfaction at the evidences of skill and masterly execution 
afforded throughout the whole route." 



108 

the river, is very fine. The bridge is a noble structure, roofed 
and weather-boarded. It has two spans of one hundred and 
sixty feet each, making the total length three hundred and 
twenty feet. On the west end are the words " Potomac Bridge, 
1851; Designed by B. H. Latrobe, Chief Engineer; Executed 
by A. Fink, Assistant Engineer; J. C. Davis, Carpenter." 

The " Bull's Head Rock," a mile beyond this point the Rail 
Road, having cut through the neck, has left the head standing, 
a bold block of rock breasting the river, which dashes hard 
against it. Immediately on the other side of the cut made by 
the Rail Road through the neck, rises a conical hill of great 
height. The mouth of New Creek, where there is a beautiful 
plain of a mile or more in length, and opposite to which is the 
long promontory of "Pine Hill," terminating in " Queen's 
Cliff," on the Maryland side of the river. The profile and pass 
of Dan's Mountain is seen in bold relief to the north-west, to 
which direction the road now changes its course. The road 
skirts the foot of " Thunder Hill," and winds along the river 
margin, bounded by Dan's Mountain and its steep spurs, for 
seven miles, up to Piedmont. The current of the river is much 
more rapid here than below, and islands are more frequent. 

Piedmont — a flat of limited extent, opposite the small but 
ancient village of Westernport, at the mouth of George's Creek. 
The plan of the engine house at this point was suggested by 
the Chief Engineer, Mr. Latrobe, and the design admirably 
carried out by Mr. Albert Fink, Assistant Engineer. It is 
shaped very much like a marquee and is arranged to hold six- 
teen engines, and cost between $12,000 and $13,000. 

West of Piedmont the road ascends seventeen miles by a 
grade, of which eleven miles is at the rate of one hundred and 
sixteen feet per mile, to the " Altamont " Summit. The points 
worthy of notice in this distance are: 

The stone viaduct of three arches, of fifty-six feet span, over 
the Potomac River, where the road re-crosses into Maryland. 
It is a substantial and handsome structure, and elevated fifty 
feet above the water. The road then winds, for five miles, up 
the valley of Savage River, passing the " Everett " Tunnel, of 
three hundred feet in length, and thirty-two miles from Cum- 
berland. This tunnel is secured by a brick arch. To this 
point the line was completed in July, 1851, and opened on the 
occasion of the " Piedmont " celebration. The winding of the 
road up the mountain side, along Savage River, gradually in- 
creases its elevation until it attains a height of two hundred feet 
above the water, and placing us far above the tops of the trees 
growing in the valley, or rather deep ravine, on our right, pre- 
sents a errand view. 



109 

The mouth of Crab-Tree Creek, where the road turns the 
flank of the Great Back-bone Mountain — from this point the 
view up Savage River to the north, and Crab-Tree Creek to 
the south-west, is magnificent; the latter presenting a vista of 
several miles up a deep gorge gradually growing narrower — the 
former a bird's-eye view of a deep, winding trough bounded by 
mountain ridges of great elevation. 

Three miles up Crab-Tree Creek is an excavation one hun- 
dred and eight feet deep, through a rocky spur of the mountain. 

About five miles from its mouth, Crab-Tree Creek is first 
crossed by the road on an embankment of sixty-seven feet in 
height, and after that several times at reduced elevations, until 
in two miles more the forks of the creek are reached at the 
" Swanton " level, where are the remains of an abandoned 
clearing and an old mill. Here also the old Cumberland and 
Clarksburg road crosses, the first wagon road of the country 
after the pack-horse had given place to the wheeled vehicle. 

All the way up Savage River and Crab-Tree Creek, eleven 
miles to this point, the road is hung upon the rugged and uncul- 
tivated mountain side — but from Swanton to the Altamont Sum- 
mit, three or four miles, it ascends along the flat bottom of a 
beautiful valley of gentle slopes-, passing one or two pretty farms. 

"Altamont," the culminating point of the line, at a height 
of 2,626 feet above tide water at Baltimore — the dividing ridge 
between the Potomac and Ohio waters — is passed by a long 
open cut of upwards or thirty feet in depth; The great Back- 
Bone Mountain, now passed, towers up on the left hand, and 
is seen at every opening in that direction. 

The "Glades," which reach from "Altamont" to " Cran- 
berry Summit," — nineteen miles — the "Glades " are beautiful, 
natural meadows, lying along the upper waters of the Yough- 
iogheny River, and its numerous tributaries, divided by ridges 
generally of moderate elevation and gentle slope, with fine 
ranges of mountains in the back-ground. The Glades have 
numerous arms which make charming expansions of their 
valleys, and afford beautiful vistas in many directions. Their 
verdure is peculiarly bright and fresh, and the streams watering 
them are of singular clearness and purity, and abound in fine 
trout. The forest foliage was at the date of the Fairmont open- 
ing (June 22, 1852,) still imperfectly developed, giving an idea 
of the lateness of the spring in this high country. Numerous 
herds of cattle were observed feeding on these natural pastures, 
here and there a house, at long intervals, breaking the monotony 
of the scene. 

Oaklands is a promising village fifty-four miles West of 
Cumberland. It is newly laid out, and already shows a re- 
spectable number of good frame houses. From this point a 



110 

magnificent view of the broad Glade eastward and the mou.i • 
tain beyond it is obtained. 

The crossing of the great Youghiogheny River is by a viaduct 
of timber and iron — a single arch of one hundred and eighty 
feet span resting on stone abutments. The site of this fine 
structure is wild; the river running here in a woody gorge. 

The crossing of the Maryland and Virginia boundary line is 
sixty miles from Cumberland. 

The falls of Snowy Creek, where the road after skirting a 
beautiful glade, enters a savage looking pass through a deep 
forest of hemlocks and laurel thickets, the stream dashing over 
large rocks and washing the side of the road but a few feet 
below its level. 

The forks of Snowy Creek, where three branches come to- 
gether, making a broad valley west of the pass just described. 

The Cranberry Swamp Summit, (sixty three and a-half 
miles from Cumberland,) at the head of Snowy Creek, falling 
into the Youghiogheny, also of Salt Lick Creek emptying into 
Cheat River. A village shows its beginnings here. The 
ground on the margin of the road is flat, (as its name imports,) 
yet its elevation above tide water is 2,550 feet, and but 76 feet 
lower than Altamont Summit. 

The descent, of twelve miles, to Cheat River, presents a 
rapid succession of very heavy excavations and embankments 
and two tunnels, viz: the McGuire Tunnel of five hundred, and 
the Rodemer Tunnel of four hundred feet in length, secured by 
heavy timbers preparatory to arching with brick. There is also 
a stone and iron viaduct over Salt Lick Creek fifty feet span and 
fifty feet high. The creek passes through a dense forest of fir 
trees in its approach to the the river. 

Cheat River is a dark rapid mountain stream, whose waters 
are of a curious coffee colored hue, owing, it is said, to its rising 
inforests of laurel and black spruce on the highest mountain 
levels of that country. This stream is crossed by a viaduct 
consisting of two arches one hundred and eighty and one hun- 
dred and thirty feet span, of timber and iron on stone abutments 
and pier. The masonry, built from a fine free-stone quarry 
close at hand, is remarkably substantial and well-looking. 

The ascent of the Cheat River hill comes next. This is 
decidedly the most imposing section of the whole line — the diffi- 
culties encountered in the four miles West of the crossing of the 
river being quite appalling — the road winding up the slope of 
Laurel hill and its spurs, with the river on the right hand, first 
crosses the ravine of Kyer's Run seventy-six feet deep, by a solid 
embankment, — then, after bold cutting, along a steep, rocky 
hill side, it reaches " Buckeye hollow," the depth of which is 
one hundred and eight feet below the road level, and four hun- 



Ill 

dred feet across at. that level — some more side cutting in rock en- 
sues, and the passage of two or three coves in the hill side when 
we come to " Tray Run," and cross it one hundred and fifty feet 
above its original bed by a line of trestling 600 feet long at the 
road level. Both these deep chasms have solid walls of ma- 
sonry built across them, the foundations of which are on the solid 
rock one hundred and twenty and one hundred and eighty feet 
respectively below the road height. These walls have been 
brought, at Buck-Eye hollow, to within forty-six feet, and at Tray 
Run, fifty-eight feet of the grade, and the track is for the present 
carried over them by a substantial frame of timber securely footed 
upon the walls, and bolted and braced in every way conducive 
to strength and safety. They have been tested by constant use 
with the heaviest engines and trains. They are, however, to 
be replaced by cast iron viaducts, now being built alongside — 
and which when finished will be among the most beautiful 
architectural structures of the road. They are from the designs 
of Mr. A. Fink. 

After passing these two tremendous clefts in the mountain 
side, the road winds along a precipitous slope with heavy cut- 
ing, filling and walling, to "Buckhorn Branch," a wide and 
deep cove on the western flank of the mountain. This is 
crossed by a solid embankment and retaining wall, ninety feet 
high at its most elevated point. Some half mile further, after 
more heavy cuts and fills, the road at length leaves the declivity 
of the river which, where we see it for the last time, lays five bun- 
dled feet below us, and turns westward through a low gap, which 
admits it by a moderate cutting, followed soon, however, by a deep 
and long one through Cassidy's Summit Ridge to the table land 
of the country bordering Cheat River on the west. Here, at 
eighty miles from Cumberland, we enter the great, western coal 
field, having passed out of the Cumberland field at thirty-five 
miles from that place. The intermediate space, although with- 
out coal, will be readily supplied from the adjacent coal basins. 

Descending somewhat from Cassidy's Ridge, and passing by 
a high embankment over the Brushy Fork of Pringle's Run 
the line soon reaches the Kingwood Tunnel, of 4,100 feet in 
length, the longest finished tunnel in America, and which was 
built by Messrs. Lemmon, Gorman, and Clark & McMahon 
contractors. It is through a compact slate rock, overlaid in part 
by a good limestone roof, and for the rest of its length it is sup- 
ported by timbering preliminary to brick arching. There are 
two long deep cuts at each end of the tunnel. It was worked 
from the two ends, and from three shafts fifteen by twenty feet 
square and one hundred and eighty feet deep. The Greatest 
height of the ridge over the tunnel is two hundred and twenty 
feet. The time employed on the work was about two venis and 



112 

eight months, and the number of cubic yards removed from the 
tunnel was about 90,000, together with about 110,000 yards of 
earth and rock outside of the tunnel, making some 200,000 
yards in all. The tunnel has been named from Kingwood, the 
county seat of Preston County, Virginia, which stands a few 
miles off on the same ridge. The tunnel not having been fin- 
ished in time to permit the transportation of the iron rails through 
it, a track was laid over the top of the hill, at a grade of upwards 
of five hundred feet per mile, over which the materials were 
taken by a locomotive engine, which propelled a single car at a 
time, weighing with its load thirteen tons, at a speed of ten 
miles per hour and upwards. When the track was rendered 
slippery, however, by moisture, the engine and its load occa- 
sionally slid backwards, and more than once ran in this way, 
with locked wheels, nearly half a mile down to the bottom of 
the grade — without damage however. This, we believe, is the 
most extraordinaiy display of locomotive steam power on record. 

Leaving Kingwood Tunnel, the line for five miles descends 
along a steep hill-side to the flats of Raccoon Creek, at Simp- 
son's. In this distance, it lies high above the valley, and crosses 
a branch of it with an embankment one hundred feet in eleva- 
tion. There are two other heavy fills further on. Two miles 
west of the Kingwood Tunnel, is Murray's Tunnel, two hun- 
dred and fifty feet long, a regular and beautiful semi-circular 
arch cut out of a fine solid sand-stone rock, overlaying a vein of 
coal six feet thick, which is seen on the floor of the tunnel. 

From Simpson's, westward, the route pursues the valleys of 
Raccoon and Three Forks Creeks, which present no features of 
difficulty to the mouth of the latter, one hundred and one miles 
from Cumberland, at the Ty gait's Valley River, where the 
Rail Road to Parkersburg will diverge from that to Wheeling. 
The distance to these two places (which are ninety miles apart 
on the Ohio River) will be nearly equal, being one hundred 
and four miles to the former, and ninety-nine to the latter. 

Fetterman, a promising looking village, two miles west of 
the last point, and one hundred and three and a half miles from 
Cumberland. — Here the Turnpike to Parkersburg and Marietta 
crosses the river. The route from Fetterman to Fairmont has 
but one very striking feature. — The Tygart's Valley River, 
whose margin it follows, is a beautiful and winding stream, of 
gentle current, except at the Falls, where the river descends, 
principally by three or four perpendicular pitches, some seventy 
feet in about a mile. A mile and a half above Fairmont the 
Tygart's Valley River and the West Fork Riverlunite to form the 
Monongahela — the first being the larger of the two confluents. 

A quarter of a mile below their junction, the Rail Road crosses 
(lie Monongahela, upon a viaduct six hundred and fifty feet long 



113 

and thirty-nine feet above low water surface. The lofty and 
massive abutments of this bridge support an iron superstructure 
of three arches of two hundred feet span each, and which forms 
the largest iron bridge in America. It is designed by Mr. 
Fink, whose name deserves such favorable mention in connec- 
tion with the architecture of the road, and whose works are 
alike worthy of him and his able preceptor Benjamin H. 
Latrobe. 

The road, a mile and a half below Fairmont, leaves the val- 
ley of the beautiful Monongahela and ascends the winding and 
picturesque ravine of Buffalo Creek, a stream some twenty-five 
miles in length. The creek is first crossed five miles west of 
Fairmont, and again at two* points a short distance apart, and 
about nine miles further west. The bridges are of timber 
stringers, trussed with cast-iron posts and cross-ties, and wrought 
iron bars, and, lying under the rails, make no show from the 
cars as you pass, but when examined are found to display a 
remarkable combination of lightness and strength. About eleven 
miles beyond Fairmont we pass the small hamlet of Farming- 
ton, and seven or eight miles further is the thriving village of 
"Mannington," at the mouth of Piles' Fork of Buffalo. There 
is a beautiful flat here on both sides of the stream, affording 
room for a town of some size, and surrounded by hills of a most 
agreeable aspect. Thence to the head of Piles' Fork, the road 
traverses at first a narrow and serpentine gorge, with five bridges 
at different points, after which it courses with more gentle curva- 
tures along a wider and moderately winding valley, with meadow 
land of one or two hundred yards broad on one or other margin. 
Numerous tributaries open out pretty vistas on either hand. 
This part of the valley, in its summer dress, is singularly beau- 
tiful. After reaching its head at Glover's Gap, twenty-eight 
miles beyond Fairmont, the road passes the ridge by deep cuts, 
and a tunnel three hundred and fifty feet long, of curious shape, 
forming a sort of Moorish arch in its roof. From this summit, 
(which divides the waters of the Monongahela from those of the 
Ohio,) the line descends by Church's Fork of Fish Creek, — a 
valley of the same general features with the one just passed on 
the eastern side of the ridge, g Passing the "Burton" Station, 
where there is an engine house and dwelling, and a reservoir 
dam a little way off for supplying the water-tanks in the dry 
season, the route continues down stream, and at the crossing of a 
tributary called "Cappo Fork," four miles from Glover's Gap, 
is the residence of Mr. Church, from which the creek derives 
its name. This place has been appropriately called u 01d 
Hundred," from the age of its proprietor, who has just turned 
his 102d year, and is still enjoying good health and the powers 
of locomotion. 
15 



114 

The road now becomes winding, and in the next four miles 
we cross the creek eight times by bridges of a pattern similar to 
those described above. We also pass Sole's Tunnel, one hun- 
dred and twelve feet, Eaton's Tunnel, three hundred and 
seventy feet, and Martin's Tunnel, one hundred and eighty feet 
long — the first a low browed opening, which looks as if it would 
knock off the smoke pipe of the engine; the next a regular 
arched roof, and the third a tall narrow slit in the rock, lined 
with timbers lofty enough to be taken for part of a church steeple. 

The "Littleton" Station is reached just beyond, and here 
upon a long side track are ranged the ten locomotives designed 
to carry the cars* over the Board Tree Tunnel, now close at 
hand. The road having thus fat - pursued the margin of the 
South Fork of Fish Creek, now gradually leaves itsand winds 
upwards along its steep hill, slopes for about a mile and a half, 
constantly increasing its height above the stream and crossing 
the rocky chasm of Cliff Run, upwards of fifty feet above its 
bed. Shortly after, the route turns up the ravine of " Board 
Tree Run," after passing through a high spur at its mouth by 
a formidable cut more than sixty feet deep through slate rock. 
Thence it ascends the eastern bank of the run just named, cut- 
ing and filling heavily along a precipitous hill side until it 
reaches the point forty-three miles West of Fairmont, where the 
temporary road leaves the permanent grade. You here see 
before you the latter entering the approach cut at the eastern end 
of the tunnel, while the former begins to climb the hill on the 
East side of the cut, crossing several branch ravines and rising 
every moment higher and higher on the flank of the main ravine 
until you perceive the eastern portal far below you, and pre- 
senting a yawning chasm penetrating the bowels of the moun- 
tain, over the top of which you are being lifted by the tremend- 
ous power of the engine, which pushes the two passenger cars, 
(on one of which you are standing,) up the steep incline. The 
temporary road after leaving a point opposite the mouth of the 
tunnel, turns into a hollow on the side of the ridge and soon 
reaches the first switch. Here the movement of the train is re- 
versed, the engine pulling the cars backwards instead of pushing 
them forward as before. The second switch is soon arrived at, 
and the direction of the train again reversed — and the engine, 
with its train once more ahead, advances steadily to the summit 
of the hill by a line winding around the head of the hollow just 
mentioned. There is a short level upon the summit, after 
passing which the road makes a notch in the sharp edge of the 
hill top at a little depression therein, and descends on the west- 

* This part of the description of the road was written on the occasion of the 
opening to Wheeling, (January, 1853;) at this time (April 1st, 1853,) the 
tunnel is constructed, and the mountain crossing avoided. 



115 

ern side to the third switch. The view from this summit is 
very grand, looking right down to the termination of the ap- 
proach cut at the western portal of the tunnel, into which you 
think you could leap at a single bound. 

The temporary road now run3 downwards on the West, 
backing to and fro upon the western escarpment of the ridge and 
passes in these zig-zags, the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th switches, the 
direction of the train being reversed, and the engine pulling and 
pushing alternately at each of them. The last switch being 
passed, the road descends by a very direct line along the west- 
ern side of the approach cut of the permanent grade, which it 
reaches at length in the bed of Raccoon Run, the stream falling 
into the North Fork of Fish Creek, from the western side of the 
summit. There are two switches on the East and five on the 
West side of the ridge — the latter being the most precipitous, 
and requiring therefore the most manoeuvring to descend. The 
distance over the mountain by the temporary road, is 12,000 
feet, just twice the distance through the hill by the permanent 
grade. The length of the tunnel is 2,350 feet. The ascent of 
the different planes varies from two hundred and ninety-three to 
three hundred and forty feet per mile according to the curvature, 
and their grades were so arranged as to permit the engine to 
propel two loaded cars (or twenty-five tons gross) upon them. 
At the crossing Of the mountain over the Kingwood Tunnel 
previous to the completion of that work in 1853, the grade was 
upwards of five hundred feet per mile, and but one car, or 
twelve and a half tons, was the load. The engines and car on 
this latter Grade were moreover liable to the risk of sliding 1 down 
the grade with locked wheels, an accident which could not 
happen on the Board Tree Tunnel grades. Hence, although 
the total height of the hill at the latter place is three hundred 
feet, being eighty feet more than at the other, the use of the 
switches has permitted the reduction of the grades so as to double 
the loads carried, and diminish the risk correspondingly. 

The crossing of this ridge, in the manner described, is a great 
achievement in engineering science. It was made necessary by 
the delay in the completion of the tunnel, occasioned by sundry 
causes beyond control, and has thus been the means of illustrat- 
ing a mode of surmounting ridges, which has been heretofore 
employed, but never under circumstances such as the present. 
The sight of so many locomotives toiling up the hill, one after 
another, upon the different levels, was novel and exciting in a 
high degree, and not the less so from the darkness of the night, 
(on the opening trip 11th, January, 1853,) which made their 
changing position visible only by the clouds of fire and steam 
which marked their tracks. The passage over the tunnel by 
daylight, is equally interesting. 



116 

Leaving Board Tree Tunnel, the line descends along the 
hill side of the North Fork of Fish Creek, crossing ravines and 
spurs by deep fillings and cuttings, and reaching the level of the 
flats bordering the creek at Bell's Mill; soon after which it crosses 
the creek and ascends Hart's Run and Four Mile Run to the 
Welling Tunnel, fifty miles west of Fairmont, and twenty-eight 
from Wheeling. This tunnel is 1 ,250 feet long, and pierces 
the ridge between Fish Creek and Grave Creek. It is through 
slate rock like the Board Tree Tunnel, and is substantially 
propped with timbers. 

From the Welling Tunnel the line pursues the valley of Grave 
Creek seventeen miles to its mouth at the Flats of Grave Creek 
on the Ohio River, eleven miles below Wheeling. The first 
five miles of the ravine of Grave Creek is of gentle curvature 
and open aspect, like the others already mentioned. Afterwards 
it becomes very sinuous, and the stream requires to be bridged 
eight times. There are also several deep cuts through sharp 
ridges in the bends of the creek, and one tunnel four hundred 
feet long at Sheppard's, nineteen miles from Wheeling. 

The approach to the bank of the Ohio River at the village 
of Moundsville, is very beautiful. The line emerging from the 
defile of Grave Creek, passes straight over the "flats" which 
border the river, and forming a vast rolling plain, in the middle 
of which looms up the "great Indian mound," eighty feet high 
and two hundred feet broad at its base. There is also the 
separate village of Elizabethtown, half a mile from the river 
bank, the mound standing between two towns and looking down 
upon them both. The "flats" embrace an area of some 4,000 
acres, about three-fourths of which lies on the Virginia, and the 
remaining fourth on the Ohio side of the river. The soil is 
fertile and well cultivated, and the spot possesses great interest, 
whether for its agricultural richness, its historic monuments of 
past ages, or the beauty of its shape and position as the site 
for a large city. 

About three miles up the river from Moundsville, the "flats" 
terminate, and the road passes for a mile along rocky narrows 
washed by the river, after which it runs over wide, rich and 
beautiful bottom lands all the way to Wheeling. Two and a 
half miles below Wheeling Creek the Company's "outer sta- 
tion" is located, and is graded ready for the erection of the 
required buildings. For the present an engine house and work- 
shops are being built at a suitable spot, about a mile below the 
creek, where the line reaches the immediate bank of the river 
and thence follows it along "Water street" to the "inner 
station." This last is on the north bank of Wheeling Creek as 
required by the charter. The "inner station" comprises a 
height house with four tracks, ninety-four feet wide and 310 



117 

feet long, a passenger hall of sixty feet front and forty-five feet 
depth, with a shed roof extending back over the bridge, and 
making the entire length of the passenger building 360 feet; all 
these building's being on the North side of the creek. On the 
South side of the creek and adjoining the abutments of the 
bridge, will be a house for the shelter of the passenger engines 
and cars, which will complete the establishment of this Station. 
Although well planned and ■ possessing a considerable capacity 
for business, this "inner station" is not expected to accommo- 
date the whole trade, which will be carried on at the ware- 
houses of the merchants of the City, to which tracks can be 
conveniently extended, and where the cars will be loaded and 
unloaded — thus diffusing the benefits of the road through the 
commercial part of the City, and along the full water front 
which is commanded by the Rail Road for upwards of a mile. 
The live stock seeking the Wheeling terminus for transportation 
will be received into the trains at the " outer station," where it 
can be most conveniently loaded. 

The whole length of the road to Wheeling is seventy-eight 
miles from Fairmont, two hundred and one miles from Cum- 
berland, and three hundred and eighty miles from Baltimore. 



A Synopsis of the list of Tunnels and Bridges on 
the Main Stem of the line of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road. 

TUNNELS . — Between Baltimore and Cumberland: — 

Three, of 80, 1,208, and 250 feet respectively, or in all 1,538 feet. 

Between Cumberland and Wlieeling: — 

Eleven, of 350, 500, 400, 4,100,252, 1,150, 214, 180, 2,350, 

1,250, and 410 feet respectively, or in all 11,156 feet. 

Total length of tunneling from Baltimore to Wheeling 12,694 feet. 

BRIDGES . — Between Baltimore and Cumberland: — 
Seventy-Three bridges, of spans ranging from 10 feet up to 

150 feet in the clear, of a total length of 8,085 feet. 

47 have arches of stone, and 26 superstructures of wood & iron. 

Between Cumberland and Wheeling: — 

13 arched stone bridges, 94 open bridges with superstructure be- 
low grade, and 6 open bridges with superstructures above 
grade, ranging from 12 to 205 feet span. 

One Hundred and Thirteen bridges, of an aggregate length of 7,003 feet. 

Making 186 bridges between Baltimore 8f Wieeling, of a total length of 15,088 feet. 
Aggregate tunneling and bridging between Baltimore and Wheeling 27,782 feet. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Western Connections with the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road. 

The President and Board of Directors, as well as all who 
take an interest in the prosperity and future commercial great- 
ness of Baltimore continue to watch with unabated interest the 
progress of the works already projected and going forward West 
of the Ohio River, in view of their speedy connection with the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road at Wheeling and at Parkersburg. 

The Central Ohio Rail Road, reaching from Wheeling 
through Zanesville and Newark to Columbus, and thence 
through Xenia to Cincinnati, is partly finished and in opera- 
tion, and the remainder under contract with a prospect of speedy 
completion. The importance of this line to the City of Balti- 
more is very great, as it may give her the earliest Railway con- 
nection with Cincinnati. 

The North- Western, or Parkersburg Road, branching from 
the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road at Three Forks, (two hun- 
dred and eighty miles from Baltimore, and ninety-nine miles 
from Wheeling,) and striking the Ohio ninety miles by the 
river below Wheeling, is under contract, and rapidly progressing, 
with .^3,000,000 of available funds, under the superintendence 
of B. H. Latrobe, as Chief Engineer. When completed it will 
give Baltimore a connection with the Ohio River at this more 
southern point of Virginia, by a road three hundred and eighty- 
five miles in length, and only five miles longer than that to 
Wheeling, while the distance from Parkersburg to Cincinnati 
by the Hillsborough line of Rail Road will be but one hundred 
and seventy-eight miles — making the total from Baltimore to 
Cincinnati by this route but five hundred and sixty three miles, 
without any of the reductions of distance by future improve- 
ments in the location of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road at 
and East of Cumberland that may hereafter be made. 

On the completion of the road to Parkersburg, and thence 
via Hillsborough to Cincinnati, which may be expected early 
in 1855, passengers will be conveyed to Cincinnati in twenty- 
six hours — while those who prefer the slower but perhaps more 
agreeable water conveyance from Parkersburg to Cincinnati, 
can take the alternative by losing twelve or fourteen hours of 
time. The steady perseverance with which the corporate au- 



119 

thorities of Baltimore have sustained the Charter of the North- 
western Road to Parkersburg, by extending - her aid to the 
amount of $1,500,000, whilst the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
has subscribed $1,000,000, and our citizens about $500,000, 
shows that a just estimation is placed on the importance of this 
great connection. It is believed that no step has heretofore 
been taken in reference to the internal improvement system of 
the State of Maryland, which has excited more interest both 
East and West of the Ohio River, or created more alarm among 
the rival and conflicting interests of northern cities. In the lan- 
guage of the last Annual Report of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road Company: 

e( It places the City of Baltimore in a position from which 
she may look with indifference upon all future efforts to retard 
her growth and prosperity. With her great arms stretching to 
the North and South, she will have done all that, the enterprise 
of her citizens could suggest to appropriate to herself the trade 
of that vast region to which her attention has been so long and 
anxiously directed." 

The North- Western Road connecting at Parkersburg with 
the Great Southern line of Ohio, via Jackson and Hillsborough, 
and through that channel with Cincinnati, and also through 
Maysville with the cities in Kentucky and Tennessee, and by a 
continuation- of the " air line " through Cincinnati to St. Louis, 
and from thence to the Pacific, must command, in connection 
with the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, most of the through 
travel destined for any point upon the sea-board North of Rich- 
mond. A careful comparison of the various lines, would show 
that Baltimore by this route will have the advantage in proximity 
to the commercial centre of the West by at least eighty-eio-ht 
miles in distance over Philadelphia by her shortest route; about 
three hundred and five miles over New York by the New York 
and Erie Rail Road, and three hundred and ninety miles over 
Boston by the Albany and Buffalo Road, and must always be a 
point in the most advantageous line of approach to any of these 
cities; and of this advantage no rivalry can ever deprive her as 
it is the necessary result of her superior geographical position in 
relation to the Mississippi Valley. 

The Central lines through Ohio before adverted to, will also 
place the City of Baltimore in connection with the trade and 
travel of the vast and fertile region of Central Ohio throuo-h 
which it passes, including Zanesville, Newark, and Columbus 
from which places various connections are made with other 
roads now in operation through all that section of the State to 
Lake Erie. 

Other connections with the Railway system of Ohio and the 
States West and North of it, will shortly be made, and will o-i ve 



120 

to Baltimore her fair share of the increasing traffic of that 
populous country. 

Thus it will be seen, that the anticipations of Messrs. Thomas 
and Brown, the originators and founders of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road, are being verified to the letter, even during 
their own times (notwithstanding the vexatious delays that have 
impeded its onward course) when they asserted to their fellow 
citizens that "nothing is now wanting to secure a great portion 
of the immense trade of the West to Baltimore, but the avail- 
ing ourselves of the natural advantages which we possess, and 
the faithful application of the means within our power " by the 
construction of a Rail Road across the Alleganies to the West- 
ern waters. 



APPENDIX. 



1828 and 1853. 
%\t beginning attfo Cjre (to. 



16 



aaaa 



THE LAYING OF THE COKNER-STONE. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company being formed, its Charter 
obtained, the right of way through Virginia and Pennsylvania secured, and 
sufficient stock subscribed to warrant its commencement, it was determined in 
the spring of 1828, that the beginning of the work should be inaugurated with 
becoming ceremonies. Accordingly the Fourth op July ensuing — the fifty- 
second anniversary of American Independence — was fixed upon as the most 
fitting day upon which to lay the corner-stone of so vast a structure) and 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the only surviving signer of the Declaration 
made upon that memorable day in 1776, was selected as the man by whose 
hand the work was to be begun. As soon as the time was thus so appropri- 
ately appointed, preparations were made for the event, which it Was resolved 
should be signalized in the most imposing manner. A grand Civic Procession 
was agreed upon, and for three months every kind of preparatory arrangement 
seems to have been in progress for the occasion. 

The Board of Directors of the Company responding to the public desire for 
a grand display, appointed a Committee of arrangement with power to confer 
with the citizens. That Committee issued the following card in the American 
of the 4th June: 

" The Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company have re- 
solved, that the road shall be commenced on the Fourth of July next. It is the 
desire of the Committee of arrangement appointed by the Board, to have an 
opportunity to confer with the Masonic fraternity — the members of the learned 
professions — the different trades of the City — the officers of the Third Division, 
(Maryland Volunteers,) — the Corporation, and all such other public bodies as 
are disposed to unite in digesting such arrangements as will be appropriate for 
the occasion. For the foregoing object; it is respectfully suggested to the 
several associations before alluded to, that they should each send their represen- 
tatives to meet in the Chamber of the First Branch of the City Council on 
Monday evening next, the 9th inst. at half past seven o'clock. 

"George Hoffman, ) Commiu j John B. Morr.s, 
Alexander Brown, ) '(Patrick Macauley. 

In pursuance with this invitation delegates from the different associations 
assembled, forming quite a large, as well as influential meeting. Col. Samuel 
Moore was appointed Chairman, and Thomas Phenix, Secretary. The fol- 
lowing persons appeared as representatives: — on the part of the Rail Road 
Company, Messrs. Hoffman, Brown, Morris and Macauley; — Masonic Frater- 
nity, Col. Benjamin C. Howard, Dr. M. S. Baer, J. K. Stapleton; — Third Divi- 
sion of Maryland Militia, Major-Gen. McDonald, Brigadier-Gen. Robinson, Col. 
Edes, Col. Stiles, Major Stirling; — Corporation of the City of Baltimore, Colonel 



124 

Samuel Moore, Philip Lawrenson; — Masons and Bricklayers, Col. James Mosher, 
Edward Green, William Reside, James Hines; — Tailors, John Patterson, Abra- 
ham Sellers, J. N. Fury, J. D. Fisher; — Saddlers, Coach, and Harness Makers, 
Daniel McPhail, Joseph Eaverson, Jacob Craft; — Tobacconists, William Heald, 
Abraham Pike, Daniel B. Walker; — Weavers, Jonathan Nisbit, William 
Rhoades, David Pogue, Richard Whitworth, Mathias Dwinn, John Duff, 
James Nesbit, Jr., John Wilson, Thomas MacElroy; — Blacksmiths, David 
Whitson, Robert Bush, Martin Mettee; — Cedar Coopers, John F. Robinson, 
William Hall, Henry Barrickman; — Hatters, George Rogers, Joseph Branson, 
Joshua Vansant; — Watch Makers, Jewellers, and Silver Smiths, William G. 
Cook, James H. Warfield, John M. Johannes; — Tanners, Curriers, and Morocco 
Dressers, William Jenkins, Richard H. Jones, Levis Kalbfus, Jr., John Q,. 
Hewlett; — Painters, John Hays; — Victuallers, William Bush, George Myers, 
John Weir, James Slater, Thomas Kelso; — Coopers, Robert Taylor, John 
Durham, John Titus; — Shipwrights, James Beacham; — Carpenters, Daniel Metz- 
ger, James W. Collins, John Young, John Green, Joseph Jamison; — Printers, 
H. Niles, Thomas Murphy, Richard J. Matchett, John N. Millington, A. I. 
W. Jackson, E. H. Deaver; — Cordwainers, Joseph Sewell, Andrew Dayhuff, 
William Carmichael; — Book-Binders, N. Hickman, J. Wright, N. Hazzard; — 
Jefferson Association, Charles F. Cloud, Washington Wolfe, Leonard C. Mc- 
Phail; — Jackson Juvenile Association; — William Bryson, Lemuel Stansbury, 
John B. Seidenstricker; — Washington Association, Augustus B. Webb; — Franklin 
Association, George Frailey, William St. John, George C. Stiles. 

On motion of Mr. Morris the following resolution was adopted: 

" Resolved, That this meeting feel disposed to co-operate with the President 
and Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, in celebrating 
the commencement of the Rail Road on the ensuing Fourth of July." 

Mr. Niles, (Editor of Niles' Register,) offered the following, which were 
concurred in. 

"Resolved, That the order of the Procession which took place on the Fourth 
of July, 1809, be adopted by this Committee, as far as applicable for the com- 
ing occasion. 

" Resolved, That the Chairman appoint one person from each trade and asso- 
ciation to form the order of procession, and to act in conjunction with the Com- 
mittee on the part of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company and Ma- 
sonic fraternity." 



The following is the Plan of Proceedings and Order of Procession finally 
adopted for the occasion, of which the American of 21st June, 1828, says: 

"The magnitude and importance of the enterprise in question — the first 
breaking of the ground by the venerable Carroll, the only survivi7ig Signer — 
the novelty, elegance and diversity of the Procession — and the many thousands 
who will throng its ranks — will all combine to render the occasion of the most 
imposing and attractive character. At sunrise a grand national salute is to be 
fired from Federal Hill, at the same time the ringing of bells will commence, 
and flags will be displayed on the shipping in the harbor and public places. 
All who propose to join the procession will immediately repair to their respec- 
tive places of meeting. At six o'clock, three guns will be the signal for the 
different associations to march to their respective places in line. The line, 
commencing with the Agricultural Society, will be formed in Baltimore street, 
with the right resting on Lloyd street, at the corner of the Second Presbyterian 
Church, facing to the north. Each association will take place in the line, 
according to its number, under the direction of the Marshals of tiie day, ex- 



125 

tending to the west. The procession will commence from the Exchange pre- 
cisely at seven o'clock. 

"Order of Procession.— Troop of Horse. Pioneers or Laborers with 
their implements of labor. Grand Lodge of Maryland.— Grand Marshal and 
Aids. A deputation from the Association of Blacksmiths, bearing the pick, 
spade, stone-hammer and trowel, presented by them to the Rail Road Com- 
pany, with which to commence the work. A Barouche, drawn by four horses, 
containing the venerable Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, the last surviving 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and a Director of the Rail Road — 
supported by General Samuel Smith, Senator of Maryland, in Congress. 
The Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company. The Military, 
and Civil Engineers in their employ. The Cincinnati and surviving Soldiers 
of the Revolutionary Army. 1. Band of Music. 2. Agricultural Society. 
3. Farmers and Planters. 4. Gardeners. 5. Plough Makers and Makers of 
other Agricultural Implements. 6. Millers and Inspectors of Flour. 7. Bakers. 
8. Victuallers. 9. Brewers and Distillers. 10. Tailors. 11. Blacksmiths and 
Whitesmiths. 12. Steam Engine Makers and Rollers of Copper and Iron. 

13. Weavers, Bleachers and Dyers, and Manufacturers of Cotton and Wool. 

14. Carpenters and Joiners, Lumber Merchants and Plane Makers. 15. Stone 
Cutters. 16. Masons and Bricklayers. 17. Painters and Glaziers. 18. Plas- 
terers. 19. Cabinet Makers. 20. Upholsterers. 21. Fancy and Windsor 
Chair Makers. 22. Ornamental Chair Painters. 23. Tanners, Curriers and 
Morocco Dressers. 24. Cordwainers and Journeymen. 25. Hatters and 
Journeymen. 26. Turners and Machine Makers. 27. Coopers. 28. Saddle 
and Harness Makers. 29. Coach Makers. 30. Cedar Coopers. 31. Brass 
Founders, Copper Smiths, and Tin-plate Workers. 32. Printers, Type 
Founders, Paper Makers, Book-Binders and Booksellers. 33. Tobacconists. 
34. Potters. 35. Sugar Refiners. 36. Watchmakers, Jewellers and Silver- 
smiths. 37. Engravers. 38. Glass Cutters. 39. Ship Carpenters, Ship 
Joiners, Block and Pump Makers. 40. Boat Builders. 41. Rope Makers. 
42. Riggers. 43. Sail Makers. 44. Pilots. 45. Ship Captains and Mates. 
46. Seamen. 47. Draymen and Cartmen. Music. Juvenile Associations, 
according to seniority. The Governor and Executive Council of the State. 
The Mayor and City Council and Officers of the Corporation. Foreign Min- 
isters and Consuls. Senators and Members of Congress. Senators and 
Members of the State Legislature. The President and Directors of the Balti- 
more and Susquehanna Rail Road Company and their Engineers and Officers. 
The Officers of the Army and Navy. The Major-General and Officers of the 
3d Division Maryland Militia. The Clergy of all denominations. The Med- 
ical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland. The Trustees and Faculty of the 
University of Maryland. The Collector and Officers of the Customs. The 
Marshal of the United States, and High Sheriff of Baltimore County and 
Officers. The Chancellor and Judges of the Court of Appeals. Judges and 
Members of the Bar and Officers. Justices of the Peace. Public Teachers. 
Students of Divinity, Law and Physic. Merchants and Traders. Clerks and 
Accountants. Citizens, Mechanics, and Artizans not included in the above 
arrangement. Constables of the City. Troop of Horse. The ceremonies of 
commencing the Rail Road being over, a salute will be fired by the Artillery; 
after which the line of March will again be taken up, and the Procession will 
return into the City and be discharged in Baltimore street. All the Orders, 
Associations, &c. &c, included in above order of Procession, are hereby re- 
spectfully invited to join the Procession on the morning of the Fourth of 
July next. SAMUEL MOORE, Chairman. 

"Thomas Phenix, Secretary." 



The following is from the American of June 26th, 1828: 

" The preparations connected with the formal commencement of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail Road, on the approaching anniversary, are advancing with 
great zeal, particularly among the different branches of the Mechanic Arts. 
All the trades and professions will be distinguished by their appropriate bna- 
ners, badges, or other suitable devices; and many of them have determined to 
introduce travelling platforms or cars, on which it is intended to exhibit tht 



126 



practical operations of their respective trades. Among some ef the associa- 
tions, we learn, it has been resolved to provide casks of claret and water for 
their refreshment during the Procession. The heat which has prevailed for 
some days past, leaves no room to doubt the excellence of the notion, and we 
presume it will be adopted in all cases where the arrangement can be suitably- 
made. The Masonic fraternity from all parts of the State will attend the Pro- 
cession; and the entire spectacle promises to be one of the most gratifying and 
imposing which has ever been witnessed. 



From the American of July 7th, 1828. 
FOURTH OF JULY— FOUNDATION OF THE RAIL ROAD. 

The celebration of the Fourth of July, and the ceremonies attending the 
commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, brought to town a great 
concourse of strangers a day or two before the celebration. On the afternoon 
and evening immediately preceding, all the roads to town were thronged with 
passengers, while in the city itself, the lively and incessant crowds in Baltimore 
street; the movement of various cars, banners, and other decorations of the 
Traders, to their several points of destination; the erections of scaffolds, and 
he removal of window-sashes; gave so many "notes of preparation " for the 
ensuing fete. Fortunately, the morning of the Fourth rose not only bright 
but cool, to the great comfort of the immense throng of spectators that, from 
a very early hourj filled every window in Baltimore street, and the pavement 
below, from beyond Bond street on the east, far west on Baltimore street 
extended, a distance of about two miles. What the numbers were, we have 
no means of ascertaining; fifty thousand spectators j at least, must have been 
present, among the whole of which, we are happy to say, we witnessed a quiet- 
ness and good order seldom seen in so immense a multitude. With the excep- 
tion of one or two lost children, we know of no accident that disturbed the 
festivity of the scene in the city.* 

The Procession left Bond street a little before eight o'clock, and moved up 
Baltimore street in the order previously arranged and published. The "good 
ship," the "Union," completely rigged on Fell's Point, was on the extreme 
left of the line, and as the various Bands of Music, Trades, and other bodies 
in the procession, passed before it, it was evident, from their greetings, that 
they regarded this combined symbol of our confederacy and navy with espe- 
cial approbation. The thick of the crowd, too, was immediately around her. 
About ten o'clock, the procession reached the spot on which the Foundation 
Stone of the Rail Road was to be placed, in a field two miles and a quarter 
from town, south of the Frederick Turnpike road, and near Carroll's upper 
mills, on Gwynn's Falls. — Through the middle of this field runs, from north 
to south, a ridge of an elevation of perhaps thirty feet; in the centre, and on the 
summit of which, was erected a pavilion for the reception of Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, the President and Directors of the Rail Road Company, the 
Engineers, the Mayor and City Council, and the orator of the day. Among 
the guests in the Pavilion were also the speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives of the United States, Gov. Coles of Indiana, the members of Congress 
and the Legislature, the Cincinnati and Revolutionary Soldiers, Col. Grenier, 
and Gen. Devereux. On either side of the Pavilion, and along the line of the 
ridge, was ranged the cavalry. In front of it towards the east, and on the 
brow of this ridge, was the excavation for the reception of the foundation 
stone, beneath which, and parallel with the ridge, lay a long and level plain, 

*The following little communication from the American of July 2d, 1828, is worthy of being 
copied here as showing the caution exercised in those days. The conservatism that would 
offer such prudent suggestions in this fast age, would entitle its possessor to the popular epithet 
of "an old Fogy." 

" Messrs. Editors The observance on the Fourth of July of the following hints may be 

of some service, and they are accordingly transmitted: As the crowd, will be thick and press- 
ing, parents should not allow their children to move from under their inspection and care. As 
in s'uch a confused mass, persons are apt to miss sundry valuables, they had better leave them 
at home. A hardened and expert criminal in our penitentiary, remarked, that, ' were he out, 
lie would not take ,f 5,000 lor his liberty just for that day.' Persons riding or driving horses, 
should pay particular attention to their progress, lest in their course sonic life may be lost — 
often the painful consequenee of a joyous multitude. Caution." 



127 

in which the procession formed on its arrival, facing towards the pavilion . 
The cars were drawn up in a body on the left, and inclining towards the rear 
of the pavilion. The Masonic bodies formed a large hollow square round the 
First Stone. The spectacle presented from the pavilion, was gay and splendid 
in a very high degree. 

The ceremonies were commenced by a Prayer by the Rev. Dr. Wyatt, 
Masonic Grand Chaplain, the vast audience uncovering their heads; when Mr. 
Upton S. Heath, after an eloquent preface, read the Declarartion of Indepen- 
dence. The Carrollton March, composed by Mr. Clifton, being then performed, 
Mr. John B. Morris, (one of the Rail Road committee of arangements,) de- 
delivered the following Address from the President and Directors of the 
Company: 

" Fellow-Citizens. — The occasion which has assembled us, is one of great 
and momentous interest. We have met to celebrate the laying of the first stone 
of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, and if there be any thing which could 
render the day we have have chosen more interesting in our eyes, than it already 
seems, it is that we now commence the construction of a work which is to 
raise our native city to that rank which the advantages of her situation and 
the enterprise of her citizens entitle her to hold. The result of our labors 
will be felt, not only by ourselves, but also by posterity, — not only by 
Baltimore, but also by Maryland and by the United States. We are about 
opening the channel through which the commerce of the mighty country 
beyond the Allegany must seek the ocean — we are about affording facilities of 
intercourse between the East and the West, which will bind the one more 
closely to the other, beyond the power of an increased population or sectional 
differences to disunite. We are in fact commencing a new era in our history; 
for there are none present who even doubt the great and beneficial influence 
which the intended Road will have in promoting the Agriculture, Manufactures 
and Inland Commerce of our country. It is but a few years since the introduc- 
tion of Steamboats effected powerful changes, and made those neighbors, who 
were before far distant from each other. Of a similar and equally important 
effect will be the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. While the one will have 
stemmed the torrent of the Mississippi, the other will have surmounted and 
reduced the heights of the Allegany: and those obstacles, before considered 
insuperable, will have ceased to be so, as the ingenuity and industry of man 
shall have been exerted to overcome them. 

"Fully impressed with the magnitude of the undertaking committed to their 
charge, the Board of Directors have used every means to insure success. The 
best talent of the country is employed in their service: — the General Govern- 
ment has lent As officers to assist in what is justly considered a work of Na- 
tional importance: — much valuable information has been acquired, and with 
abundant resources at their command, the Board of Directors find themselves 
within little more than a year after the incorporation of the Company, fully 
prepared to commence the construction of the GREAT ROAD. 

" It is not in mortals to comjpnand success; but if a determination to yield to 
no obstacle which human exertion can overcome; an enthusiastic devotion to 
the cause; a firm belief that the completion of the magnificent work will confer 
the most important benefits upon our country; and a thorough conviction that 
it is practicable; — if all these, urging to action, can ensure success — success 
shall be ours. 

" This day fifty-two years since, two millions of people, (the population of the 
Provinces of Great Britain,) proclaimed themselves Independent States, and 
commenced the task of self-government. Our native city was then an incon- 
siderable village, with few and difficult means of communication with the 
interior, and with a scanty and slowly increasing commerce. The inhabitants 
of these States now number ten millions ! and Baltimore has increased in her 
full proportion of population. Wide avenues now radiate in every direc- 
tion through the surrounding country: — she has risen to the rank of the third 
city of the Union, and there are but few sections of the world where her com- 
mercial enterprise has not made her known. Fifty-two years since, he, who 
is this day to lay the first stone of the Great Road, was one among a band of fear- 
less and noble spirits who resolved and declared that freedom which has been 
transmitted unimpaired to us. 



128 

;< The existence which he contributed to give to the United States on the 
Fourth of July, 1776, on the Fourth of July, 1828, he perpetuates. Ninety- 
one summers have passed over him. Those who stood with him in the Had 
of Independence, have left him solitary upon earth — ' the father of his coun- 
try.' In the full possession of his powers; with his feelings and affections 
stdl buoyant and warm, he now declares that the proudest act of his life and the 
most important in its consequences to his country, was the signature of Inde- 
pendence; the next, the laying of the First Stone of the work which is to 
perpetuate the union of the American States; to make the East and West as 
one household in the facilities of intercourse, and the feelings of mutual affec- 
tion. Long may he live, cherished and beloved by his country, a noble relic 
of the past, a bright example of the present time. 

On the conclusion of the address, two boys dressed as Mercuries, advanced 
to the canopy, and prayed that the Printers might be fnrnished with a copy of 
the remarks and address just delivered, that they might be printed and dis- 
tributed to the people. 

The Deputation from the Blacksmiths' Association next advancing, pre- 
sented Mr. Carroll the Pick, Spade, Stone-Hammer and Trowel, prepared by 
them for the occasion, and made the following address: 

" Venerated Sir: — As the representative of the Association of Black and 
Whitesmiths, I am directed to present to you these implements made and borne 
to this place by freemen, consisting of a Pick to break the soil, the Spade to re- 
remove it, the Hammer to break off rough corners, and the Trowel to lay the 
cement which is to unite the East to the West, for the commencement of this 
great work, which will commemorate an epoch in the history of the internal 
improvements of our beloved country, and that too, on this illustrious day, 
which is celebrated as the day that tried the souls of men — the day that gave 
birth to a nation of freemen — the day, venerated sir, with which you are so 
conspicuously identified — the day that shall be the polar star to future ages, 
advertising them, that men dare declare themselves a free and sovereign people, 
that republics can exist, that neither require the royal diadem nor military 
rule to direct the great helm of of State in safety. 

" And now, sir, thai the present age may bless the men that touched the 
spring that put in motion this great national work, and that future ages may 
bless the memory of our beloved Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, is the prayer of 
those freemen that surround you." 

The Deputation from the Stone Cutters now came forward, and the car 
containing the Foundation Stone was driven to the spot. While the stone was 
preparing, Mr. Carroll, accompanied by the Grand Marshal of the day, and 
by Mr. John B. Morris, and bearing in his hand the spade just presented, de- 
scended from the pavilion and advanced to the spot selected for the reception 
of the Foundation Stone, in order to strike the spade into the ground. He 
walked with a firm step, and used the instrument with a steady hand, verifying 
the prediction of our correspondent, in the song published on the morning of 
the Fourth: 

" The hand that held the pen, 
Never falters, but again 
Is employed with the spade, to assist his fellow-men." 

The stone was then dexterously removed from the wagon in which it had 
been conveyed to the ground, and placed in its bed. The Grand Master of 
Maryland then remarked, that before applying the test of his instruments to 
the Stone, for the purpose of ascertaining its'correctness, with the assistance of 
the Grand Masters of the States of Pennsylvania and Virginia, it might not be 
amiss to add one to the numerous congratulations then expressed, that Mary- 
land had at last determined to engage in honorable competition with her sister 
States, in the great work of Internal Improvement. He hailed the presence of 
the Grand Masters of these States as a propitious omen. On the one hand was 
Pennsylvania, the first to penetrate the defiles of her mountains with her roads, 
and who had been ever since employed with ceaseless assiduity, in further de- 
veloping the resources of her domestic trade. On the other hand was Virginia, 
who had been for years studiously engaged in creating and preserving a Board, 
with competent funds, for the promotion of the same great end; manfully 



129 

struggling against those difficulties which even her energy had hitherto been in- 
sufficient to surmount, and therefore doubtless awaiting anxiously the result of 
our expereriment, in order to avail herself of this mode of extended communi- 
cation. It was only, he said, to notice the countenance of the representatives 
of a numerous fraternity in these two powerful and neighboring States, and to 
express in the name of the body whom he represented, their thanks for the 
kind feelings which had prompted the acceptance of the invitation to join in the 
ceremonies of the day, — that he had allowed himself to interrupt the usual order 
with a single remark. 

The G. Master, attended by the P. G. Chaplain of Maryland, and by the 
G. Masters of Pennsylvania and Virginia, then applied his instruments to the 
Stone, and after handing them for the same purpose to the other G. Masters, 
and receiving their favorable report, pronounced it to be " well formed, true and 
trusty. " The G. Chaplain invoked the benediction of Heaven upon the success 
of the enterprise, the prosperity of the City, and the future life of the venerable 
man who had assisted in laying the Stone. The ceremony was concluded in the 
usual manner, by pouring wine and oil, and scattering corn, upon the Stone, with 
a correspondent invocation and response, followed by the grand Masonic honors. 

The following is the Inscription: "This Stone, presented by the Stone- 
cutters of Baltimore, in commemoration of the commencement of the Bal- 
timore and Ohio R.ail Road, was here placed on - the Fourth of July, 
1828, by the Grand Lodge of Maryland, assisted by Charles Carroll, 
of Carollton, the last surviving Signer of the Declaration of American Inde- 
pendence, and under the direction of the President and Directors of the Rail 
Road Company." On each side of the Stone was this inscription: 

/ "First Stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road." 

In the cavity of the Stone was deposited a glass cylinder, hermetically sealed, 
containing a copy of the Charter of the Company, as granted and confirmed by 
the States of Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania, — and the newspapers of 
the day, together with a scroll containing these words: 

"This Stone is deposited in commemoration of the commencement of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. A work of deep and vital interest to the 
American people. Its accomplishment will confer the most important benefits 
upon this nation, by facilitating its commerce, diffusing and extending its social 
intercourse, and perpetuating the happy Union of these Confederated States. The 
first general meeting of the citizens of Baltimore to confer upon the adoption of 
proper measures for undertaking this magnificent work, was on the second day 
of February 1827. An act of Incorporation, by the State of Maryland, was 
granted February, 28th, 1827, and was confirmed by the State of Virginia, 
March 8th, 1827. Stock was subscribed, to provide funds for its execution, 
April 1st, 1827. The first Board of Directors was elected April 23d, 1827. 
The Company was organized 24th April, 1827. An examination of the 
country was commenced under the direction of Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen H. 
Long and Captain William G. McNeill, United States Topographical Engi- 
neers, and William Howard, United States Civil Engineer, assisted by Lieu- 
tenants Barney, Trimble, and Dillahunty, of the United States Artillery, and 
Mr. Harrison, July 2d, 1827, The actual surveys to determine the route, 
were begun by the same officers, with the additional assistance of Lieutenants 
Cook, Gwynn, Hazzard, Fessenden and Thompson, and Mr. Guion, Novem- 
ber 20th, 1827, The Charter of the Company was confirmed by the State of 
Pennsylvania, February 22d, 1828. The State of Maryland became a Stock- 
holder in the Company, by subscribing for half a million dollars of its stock 
March 6th, 1829. And the construction of the Road was commenced July 4th, 
1828, under the management of the following named Board of Directors; 
Philip Evan Thomas, President, William Lorman, 

Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, George Hoffman, 

William Patterson, John B. Morris, 

Robert Oliver, Talbot Jones, 

Alexander Brown, William Steuart, 

Isaac McKim, Splo^on Etting, 

Gf.orgf. Brown, Treasurer. Patrick Muuii.kv, 

17 



130 

"The Engineers and Assistant Engineers in the service of the Company are: 
Philip Evan Thomas, President, Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen Harryman Long, 
Jonathan Knight, Board of Engineers. Captain William Gibbs McNeil, U. S. 
Topographical Engineer. Lieutenants William Cook, Joshua Barney, Walter 
Gwynn, Isaac Trimble, Richard Edward Hazzard, John N. Diliahunty of the 
U. S. Artillery. Casper Willis Wever, Superintendent of Construction." 

A National Salute was then fired by the Artillery, stationed on a neighbor- 
ing hill to the north. 

The Deputation of Hatters then presented a beautiful beaver hat to Mr. 
Carroll, and another of like beauty to General Smith, both made by Mr. 
Joseph Branson, at the request of the association. Mr. Branson was attended 
by Messrs. George Rogers and W. Leaman, and the Committee of Arrange- 
ments. The Weavers and Tailors likewise presented to Mr. Carroll a coat 
made on the way. The Engineers' Report, bound in the most splendid man- 
ner, was then presented to him by the Book-Binders, who, through Mr. J. J. 
Harrod, made him an address in the following words: 

"Revered Sire and Patriot — Do the favor to accept from the Book-Binders of 
the City of Baltimore, this copy of the Engineers' Report of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road Surveys, as a small tribute of their profound respect for your 
amiable character and patriotic services. 

" More than half a century has elapsed since you recorded your name on the 
memorable charter of our country's independence: An instrument which sur- 
prized the civilized world by the boldness and novelty of its sublime maxims 
on the interesting subject of Human Freedom. 

"And now, this fifty-second Anniversary of American Independence finds 
you in the plain, but dignified character of a private citizen, mingling with your 
fellow-citizens, and by their unanimous wish, sustaining a conspicuous part 
in commencing the magnificent enterprise of 'the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road,' 
which, when completed, will doubtless, materially subserve to an immense 
extent, the commercial interests, of this prospering and spreading empire. 

" We cannot forbear to unite our voices with those of the great multitude that 
surrounds you, in expressing the high sense of admiration we entertain, whilst 
contemplating these two acts of your life; and in invoking for your welfare the 
perpetual blessings and protection of an overruling Providence." 

A deputation was now received from Capt. Gardner, of the ship "Union," 
inviting Mr. Carroll and the Directors of the Rail Road Company, to visit the 
ship. They complied with this request, accompanied by General Smith, the 
Grand Marshal and his aids, and partook of refreshments on board of this 
miniature vessel. After leaving her, Mr. Carroll visited the Cars of the dif- 
ferent Trades, and was received and cheered by them with the utmost enthu- 
siasm. — During the whole ceremony, the venerable patriot preserved a vivacity 
and spirit remarkable indeed at his advanced age. 

The ceremonies on the ground were concluded about twelve o'clock, and the 
procession being formed again, returned to town, by the indicated route and 
was dismissed in Baltimore street, at half past one o'clock. 

The procession, on its return to the city, was headed by two handsome Cars 
from the Union Manufacturing Company's Works, which added greatly to the 
interest of the occasion. One of these huge carriages contained sixty, and the 
other forty-two females, belonging to the above factory. On the sides of the cars, 
which were fancifully decorated by the females themselves, was painted "UNION 
FACTORY." Messrs. Joseph White and Richard Partington rode in the cars 
as protectors. They subsequently passed through several of the streets. 

Between four and five in the afternoon, the Knights Templar marched in 
procession from the Masonic Lodge, to the Globe Inn, where they dined in 
their encampment, a handsome pavilion prepared in the court of that Inn. A 
number of associations dined together, with the usual ceremonies observed on 
these occasions, and at night a display of Fire-Works took place on Federal 
Hill, immediately opposite the city. The day concluded with more decorum 
and quiet, than we remember to have seen on any like occasion. — No small 
part of this is due to the happy arrangement, and superintendence of the Mar- 
shals of the day, who have giyen in the result, the best and most flattering evi- 
dence of their competence to the laborious and delicate task assigned to them. 



131 

The following Song from the American of July 4th, exhibits the spirit with 
which the people entered upon the celebration, and the feeling entertained 
toward the proposed Rail Road: 

SONG FOR THE DAY. 

Tune — " We're a' a noddin." 

Chorus.— O we're all full of life, fun and jollity, 
We're all crazy here in Baltimore. 

Here's a road to be made 
With the Pick and the Spade, 
'Tis to reach to Ohio, for the benefit of trade; 
Here are mountains to be level'd, 
Here are valleys to be filled, 
Here are rocks to be blown, and bridges too to build. 
And we're all hopping, skipping, jumping, 
And we're all crazy here in Baltimore. 

See the crowd of men and boys, 
What a bustle! what a noise! 
Sure all the world is here to partake of our joys ; 
Here's the matron and the prude, 
" Oh boys you're very rude," — 
And here's old Paul Pry, with his " hope I do'nt intrude." 
For we're all prying, peeping, looking, 
For we're all gaping here in Baltimore. 

Come, come along with me, 
And you'll see the Committee, 
And the venerable Carroll, the friend of liberty; 
The hand that held the pen 
Never falters, but again 
Is employed with the spade, to assist his fellow-men. 
For they're all digging, blowing, blasting, 
For they're all working here in Baltimore. 

Here's the Mayor and the Council, 
And the Judges of the Court, 
Here's the Sheriff, and the Marshal, and Collector of the Port; 
Here's the Pulpit and the Bar, 
Here are strangers from afar, 
And here's what remains of the mighty men of war. 
Who are all going one after t'other, 
There's very few left us here in Baltimore. 

Here's the Brotherhood so true, 
All in purple and in blue, 
With their badges, and their tools, all ready for the work, 
See there's the Royal Arch, 
How beautiful they march, 
And the Knights of the Temple to protect us from the Turk. 
For they're all cutting, slashing yonder. 
But we do'nt fear them here in Baltimore. 

Here's the Trades with their banners, 
Coopers, Curriers and Tanners, 
With the Carpenters and Saddlers, and Hatters not a few, 
Here's the Butchers with their cleavers, 
Painters, Plasterers and Weavers, 
And Pat with the shovel, and drop of whiskey loo. 
For we're all drinking, toasting, tippling, 
For we're all tipsy here in Baltimore. 

Here's the Tailors ! what a sight ! 
And the Smiths, black and white, 
And here come the Shoemakers, who fit us left and right ; 
Here's the men who cut the glass, 
And those who work in brass, 
f And the Printers with the Devil, stand by and let 'em pass. 
For they're all busy printing verses 
On the grand show we have in Baltimore. 



132 



Here's tlic Captains and the Mutes, 
With the Ship United States; 
Here's the Builders and Riggers, with the Makers of the Ropes: 
Here's the Pilots with their compass. 
Carters, Draymen — what a rumpus! 
With the Juvenile Associations marshal'd all in groupes. 

For we're all marching, march, march, marching 
For we're all marching here in Baltimore. 

Now halt the parade, 
While the Corner-Stone is laid, 
And the prayer ascends to Heaven to aid the enterprise ; 
See Roundtree with his Band, 
Takes an elevated stand, 
And the CarrolUon Mareh re-echoes to the skies. 

We shall all play it, whistle it, and sing it, 
We shall all play it here in Baltimore. 

And when the Road is made 
With the Pick and the Spade, 
In the Locomotive Engine, they will put a little tire, 
And while the kettle boils, 
We may ride three hundred miles 
Or go to bed in Baltimore, and breakfast in Ohio ! 

Where they're all waiting, hoping, praying, 
For a quick way to come to Baltimore. 



THK GRAND CIVIC PROCESSION, 

At the Laying of the Corner-Stone of the Rail Road, 

on the Fourth of July, 1828. 

The Procession was headed by Captain Cox's troop, the First Baltimore 
Hussars. The Pioneers with the implements of labor on their shoulders, fol- 
lowed next. Then came the Masonic Fraternity, decorated with the various 
insignia of their order; the Junior Lodges in front, and the Grand Lodge of 
Maryland bringing up the rear. In the ranks of the Grand Lodge were 
Officers of the Grand Lodges of Pennsylvania and Virginia, who visited Balti- 
more for the special purpose of assisting in the ceremonies of the day. The 
Grand Marshal of the day, Mr. Samuel Sterett, followed, attended by his aids, 
Messrs. Henry Thompson, Samuel Moore and John Thomas. In an elegant 
landaulet and four, were seated] the venerable Charles Carroll, of Carroll- 
Ion, the only surviving Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and General 
Samuel Smith, Senator of Maryland in Congress. A barouche and four suc- 
ceeded, in which were Col. U. S. Heath, the Orator of the day, Mr. William 
Patterson, Hon. Andrew Stevenson, Speaker of the House of Representatives 
of the United States, and Governor Coles, of Indiana. Two other barouches 
followed, in the first of which were seated Col. Grenier, aid to General La 
Fayette at the surrender of Cornwallis, and General William McDonald; and in 
the latter, Col. Thomas Tennant and General Devereux. Then followed, on 
foot, in double files, the Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Com- 
pany; the Military and Civil Engineers of the Company; the Order of Cincin- 
nati, and Soldiers of the Revolution. A Band of Music came next; and then 
followed, in order, the several Associations, Trades, &c, as here described: 

Farmers and Planters. — At the head of this body, on horseback, and 
in double files, were seen twenty-four aged and respectable Farmers, correspond- 
ing with the number of the States of the Union. One of these carried a banner 
on which was inscribed, — "The icilderness and the solitary place shall he glad, and 
the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose." Then followed a Stage or 
platform, bearing a plough guided by Gen. Tobias E. Stansbury, and driven 
by Mr. George Harryman. In front the stage was ornamented with two 
living mulberry trees, bearing numbers of the cocoon of the silkworm; and in 
the rear were seen growing stalks of corn, &c. On the right of the stage was 
displayed the flag of the Union, and on the left a start' surmounted by a Liberty 
Cap, on one side of which was the motto "Epluribus tmu;;i,"and on the other, 



133 

" Where Liberty dwells, there is my country." In the centre or the stage was a 
banner with this motto, — "Our swords are beaten into plough-shares, and our s})ears 
into pruning-hooks." Then followed Col. Nicholas M. Bosley, the Seedsman, 
on horseback, dressed in homespun. His shoulders were ornamented with 
epaulets of the heads of timothy grass and wheat, and from his shoulders was 
suspended a bag of grain, which he sowed as he passed along. In his hand he 
held a banner with this inscription, — " He ivho soweth good seed shall reap abun- 
dantly." A Second Stage succeeded, on which was a Harrow, held by Mr. 
John Scott. In front was a flag with the motto, — "Paul may plant, and Apollos 
water, but God giveth the increase." A Third Stage followed, containing sheaves 
of wheat and rye, and farmers engaged in the business of havesting. The 
Farmers on this stage were Mr. William Jessop, reaper; Mr. Lee Tipton, 
cradler; and Mr. Nicholas Gatch, raker and binder. The banner contained the 
following motto. — ' Behold the day is come. Put ye in the sickle and reap, for the 
harvest is ripe." In the Fourth were seen Messrs. Elias Brown and James 
Turner, threshing wheat and rye. At the other end were a wheat fan and a 
straw cutter, both of which were kept busily in operation. The winnowers 
were Messrs. William Scharf and James W. M'Culloch; the straw cutter was 
Mr. Upton Reid; the feeder, Mr. John J. Bayley; and the clearer, Master 
John H. Scharf. On the banner was inscribed this motto — "He thresheth in 
hope, and is a partaker of his hope." Over the wheat fan was this motto— '//e 
will gather the wheal into his garner, and the chaff he will burn." The Fifth Stage 
closed the procession of the farmers. On it was a handsome apple tree, with 
a living grape-vine growing among its branches. Under the tree was a fine 
milch cow, with a person employed in milking. At one end of the stage was 
a pen with pigs. Mr. Noah Underwood was on the stage, engaged at the 
churn. On a banner over the vine, was this motto — "Every man may sit under 
his own vine and fig tree, and none shall make him afraid." Over the cow floated 
a banner with this motto — "Jl land flowing with milk and honey." It is but just 
to add that this stage was furnished and arranged at the sole expense of Mr. 
Underwood, the proprietor of the justly celebrated dairy at Orange farm. 

Gardeners. — This association, to the number of 60 or 70, was preceded by 
its Banner, containing on one side an appropriate device to represent the anti- 
quity of the profession. _The motto was, "God is our trust." On the reverse 
was a cornucopias, and the serpent beguiling Eve. The members were all 
clothed in white jackets, vests and pantaloons; and each wore in his breast a 
bouquet of beautiful flowers. Principal marshal, Robert Dower. 

Millers and Flour Inspectors. — At the head of this association was 
carried a Banner of white silk, containing on one side a representation of a 
mill, fall of water, &c. On the other, the representation of a crane, with 
two mill-stones suspended. Motto — " The Millers of Maryland." Each miller 
wore a silk'badge on his vest, with a device of the tools of his profession, and 
a sketch of a Rail Road. The marshals and banner bearer were dressed in 
white, with blue sashes. The Cart of the Flour Inspectors came next, in 
which where the furnace and branding irons — the whole overshadowed by a 
beautiful oleander still in full bloom. The Inspectors, in drab coats, white 
hats, vests and pantaloons brought up the rear, each having his scoop under 
his arm. The principal marshals of this body were David Rickets and R. 
Purnell. Standard bearer James Powers, supported by William Durham and 
Isaac Walmsley. 

Bakers. — Two of the oldest bakers of Baltimore, Messrs. B. Struthoff and 
John Soper, were in front of this association. Next came the master bakers, 
in sections of five, with a sub-marshal on the right of sections. — Then fol- 
lowed the Banner, borne by Mr. Geo. M. Blensinger; it represented a baker 
in the act of drawing bread from the oven; motto — ' Equal rights, and a perse- 
cuted branch; approved Feb. 21, 1828." The bearer was flanked by the com- 
mittee of arrangement, wearing blue sashes, peels, and Rail Road badges. A 
band of music succeeded, flanked by three loaf bread, and three biscuit bakers, 
each carrying a peel painted blue. The journeymen and apprentices followed. 
The association were uniformly dressed in white, and numbered from 80 to 
100 men. The principal marshal was Mr. John McFerran, Jr. aided by the 
following sub-marshals — C. A. Medin°;er, Fleetwood Francis, Fred. Klier, 
R. Care, Col. John Smith, Jr. Conrad Bendeman, and Henry Finckman. 



134 

Victuallers. — This numerous association appeared in a uniform dress 
of white roundabout, vest and pantaloons. A blue ribbon was passed over 
the right shoulder, and under the left arm of each member, to which a Steel 
was attached. The aprons were white, and the badge contained a likeness of 
Carroll, of Carrollton. The banner was carried by Mr. Thomas J. Rusk, 
supported by Mr. Wm. Blockley and Mr. Harry Turner, one of whom bore 
a pole axe, and the other a cleaver. It contained the Victuallers' coat of 
arms, surmounted iby an Eagle bearing the words, "Jtily 4, 1828." Beneath 
was the motto — "Our country's prosperity — Internal Improvements." Mr. 
Alexander Gould acted as principal marshal, assisted by Messrs. John "Wier, 
John Rusk, James Elmore, Daniel Crook, and Charles Myers. 

Tailors. — A stage drawn by four bay horses, with drivers in fancy uni- 
form, preceded this association. Upon the stage, which was a neat represen- 
tation of a shop, was Mr Abraham Sellers, the master tailor, and six journey- 
men at work. This was succeeded by the banner, representing Adam and 
Eve, sewing leaves together. Below was the motto — "Jlnd they sewed Jig leaves 
together." On the other side was the Tailors' coat of arms and motto. Then 
followed the members, uniformly dressed in dark coats, white pantaloons, and 
and white gloves. Around the neck of each was suspended a badge of white 
ribbon, ornamented with a blue frisette, and containing portraits of Washing- 
ton and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. When the procession had proceeded a 
short distance, a piece of shambray, woven at the Weavers' loom, was sent to 
the Tailors, and by the latter made into a coat as the procession passed along. 
Upon the ground, it was presented by a deputation to Mr. Carroll. This body 
was under the direction of four sub-marshals, viz: Joshua Dryden, J. N. Fury, 
Henry W. Tilyard, James Jones. 

Blacksmiths and Whitesmiths. — First came the deputation from this 
body of artisans, distinguished by blue ribbons, and bearing the implements 
with which to commence the Road, viz: — a Pick, a Spade, a Stone-hammer 
and a Trowel, all specially made for the occasion. Immediately succeeding 
these, came the car or stage, drawn by four grey horses, with a driver and 
assistant to each horse. The car represented a Smith 's-shop, with furnace, 
bellows, &c in full operation. There were four hands at work, viz. Hugh 
Devallin, John Tensfield, John Burnes, and Tully Wise. The master work- 
men of the shop were Mr. Jeremiah Warmingham and Col. Henry Amy. 
On each side of the car was seen the motto — "United Sons of Vulcan." The 
association of Blacksmiths followed, with the Apprentices in front — each mem- 
ber wearing a white apron, ornamented with the device of an anvil, and ham- 
mer and hand. — A badge was also worn, containing the likeness of Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton, and otherwise appropriately ornamented. The banner 
was borne by a master workman; it contained the Blacksmiths' coat of arms — 
on one side the motto, "By Hammer and Hand all Jlrts do stand," on the reverse 
the motto was, "Jimerican Manufactures — Internal Improvements." The num- 
ber of this body was about one hundred and sixty, under command of Mr. 
William Baer, principal marshal — aided by deputy marshals M. Mettee, Robt. 
Buck, Robt. Hitchcock and Jesse Haslup. 

Steam Engine Makers, Rollers of Copper and Iron, and Mill- 
wrights. — The banner which preceded this association contained various 
emblems, surmounted by an eagle bearing this motto: 

" We join like brothers, hand in hand, 
Called by the world a Millwright band." 

Underneath the emblems was this motto, 

"Millwrights do their work prepare, 
By water power, steam or air." 

The members followed, clad with aprons and badges, containing appropriate 
emblems. 

Weavers, Bleachers, Dters, and Manufacturers of Cotton and 
Wool. — This was a numerous association. In front was seen a stage drawn 
by four horses, on which was erected a Loom with weavers at work; and a 
boy winding bobbins. Mr. A. M'Donald, (the weaver in the procession of 
1809) was superintendent of the operatives. The stage was covered and hand- 
somely festooned with white domestic muslins, bordered with fringe and tas- 



135 

sels of domestic manufacture. A company of Weavers followed, dressed in a 
uniform of white domestic jean trowsers, vest and roundabout; on the left 
breast of each was affixed a badge of light blue satin, with an appropriate 
device and inscription. The banner came next, borne by a standard bearer 
with two supporters in white dresses and blue sashes. It was surmounted by 
a golden shuttle; and represented the Weavers' coat of arms, surmounted by 
an Eagle bearing a scroll, with the inscription — " Ye were naked, and ice clothed 
ye." Beneath the arms was this inscription — " Encourage your Manufactures, 
they will support Agriculture and Commerce, and produce real Independence." On 
the reverse of the banner was painted a symbolic device, in the centre of which 
was a circle of gold, surrounding this motto — " The Shuttle, the Sheaf and the 
Ship." On the right of the circle, Britannia was represented by a female figure, 
in an attitude of grief — the setting sun in the distance. On the left hand Colum- 
bia is represented by a female figure, grasping a staff surmounted with the 
liberty cap. She is stretching forward to receive from her Eagle the golden 
treasure which the latter is bearing across the ocean from the Eastern to the 
Western hemisphere. Underneath is this motto — ll Jl wise and just distribution 
of labor and its reward, is the foundation of national prosperity." A numerous 
company of Weavers followed, wearing badges on their breast. The whole 
was attended by sixteen sub-marshals. 

Carpenters, Lumber Merchants and Plane Makers. — This association 
was headed by Mr. John Mowton, as principal Marshal, followed by the Car- 
penters over fifty years of age. After these, on a car drawn by four white 
horses, came the Temple, a very beautiful miniature structure, which excited 
general and very deserved admiration. The Temple was a correct specimen of 
the Doric order of architecture, with porticos on the east and west front, sup- 
ported by four fluted columns. The ascent to the portico was by a flight of 
five steps. The exact dimensions of the Temple are — 7 feet 8 inches front, 7 
feet 5 inches depth; the height from the ground to the top of the entablature, 
5 feet 11 inches, and to the top of the pediment, 7 feet 1 inch. The Temple 
was accompanied by the Building Committee, and the hands employed in its 
construction, each bearing some implement of the trade. The elegant Banner 
of the association came next, borne by Mr. James Brown, and supported by 
Thomas Hassard and Thomas Murril. In the foreground of the Banner was 
seen a Doric arcade, and a Rail Road Depot, warehouses, &c. Through the 
centre arch of the arcade was seen the representation of a Rail Road, and a loco- 
motive engine approaching the depot. On the arcade was this inscription, 

"Rail Road to the Ohio, July 4, 1828." A wreath of oak leaves ran round the 
borders of the banner, on the fillet of which was this inscription, — " Public 
prosperity, private good." On the reverse was the Carpenters' coat of arms, 
with this motto, — " In cordia, salus et robur." The staff of the Banner was 
surmounted by a beautiful Gothic architectural emblem, executed by Mr. James 
Curley. Immediately after, came the association with their apprentices, all 
wearing appropriate badges. The whole was under the conduct of a principal 
and sixteen sub-marshals. 

Stone-Cutters. — In the centre of a handsome car, drawn by four white 
horses, with drivers in white, was a plinth, covered with green baize, on which 
was placed the First Stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. It was of 
marble, and on the top was the following inscription: — "This Stone, pre- 
sented by the Stone-Cutters of Baltimore, in commemoration of the com 
mencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, was here placed on the Fourth 
of July, 1828, by the Grand Lodge of Maryland, assisted by Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton, the last surviving Sig7ier of the Declaration of .imcrican 
Independence, and under the direction of the President and Directors of the Rail 
Road Company." On each side of the Stone was this inscription: — "First 
Stone of the. Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road." In the centre of the Stone was 
a cavity for the reception of the glass case containing the Charter of the Com- 
pany, newspapers of the day, &c. After the car was borne the banner, repre- 
senting a temple of the Tuscan order, surmounted by an engle bearing a scroll 
with this motto, — " Under my icings the .irts shall flourish."^ Under the temple 
was inscribed, — " The Stone-Cutters of the City of Baltimore " The dress of the 
members was a blue coat, white pantaloons, and a handsomely decorated apron 
of white satin. At the breast of each, an appropriate badge was worn. Prin- 



136 

cipal marshal, Frederick Baughman, aided by sub-marshals Nicohlas Hitzel- 
berger, H. B. Griffith, Alexander Gaddess and Edward Mead. Principal 
standard bearer, Robert St. J. Steuart, supported by six guards. The banner 
used in the procession of 1809, was also displayed. 

Masons and Bricklayers. — This association was distinguished by three 
Banners, the principal one representing a house partly built, men at work, &c. 
At the top was the inscription: — " Masons and Bricklayers of Baltimore, united 
July, 4, 1828." Underneath was the motto, — " Liberty throughout the world." 
The members wore aprons ornamented with the emblems of their profession; 
their badges had on them a trowel, and a representation of a Rail Road. At the 
head of the association was Col. James Mosher as principal marshal, aided by 
Wm. Reside, E. Greene, J. Dickerson, E. Stansbury, J. Wolfe, Wm. Davis, 
and J. Allen, as sub-marshals. The bearers of the banners were Edward Fre- 
derick, John Ratteau, and Wm. Townsend. 

Painters. — The car which preceded this association was designed and orna- 
mented with much taste. It was attended by six guards, the two first carrying 
pallet and pencils, and the others ornamented brushes. On the car was placed 
a pyramid, on which was inscribed the date of commencement of the Rail Road 
&c. A master painter, Mr. L. O'Laughlin, was seated on the car, engaged in 
finishing a portrait, and at the other end was a boy preparing colors. [We re- 
gret that we have not materials for a more detailed description of the car.] The 
president and officers of the association came next, each carrying a small staff; 
they were followed by the members, all of whom were dressed in white jackets, 
vests and pantaloons, wearing at their breast the Carrollton badge. The elegant 
banner of the association was in the centre, borne by a member, and support- 
ed by guards carrying pallets and pencils. It represented the Painters' coat of 
arms, with the motto, " Jlmor et obediential' On the flank of each platoon, 
was a sub-marshal bearing an ornamented brush. James M'Donald, principal 
marshal, and sub-marshals John Burns, Bolton, William Sederberg. 

Cabinet Makers. — The car or stage of the Cabinet Makers was ingeniously 
contrived to represent a bedstead of curled maple. It was eight feet wide, and 
twelve feet long, the bed-posts forming the upright sides of the car. It had a 
handsome fancy head-board and cornice, with drapery of pink and blue, taiste- 
f ully festooned, and tester complete. On the car were seen a Cabinet Maker 
and Carver at work, the former engaged in finishing a patent rocker cradle. 
The members and apprentices of the trade followed, each wearing a badge of 
white silk, on which was the impression of a Grecian sofa. In the centre was 
borne the banner, representing a cabinet, surmounted by this motto — " May there 
be union in our cabinet." The whole was under the direction of John Williams, 
principal marshal, and sub-marshals, James Williams, Robert Dutton, William 
M'Cardle, Samuel Bevan, William Meeks, Lambert Thomas, Wm. M'Colm, 
and Levin P. Clark. — Cabinet Maker on the stage, Joshua Miller; Carver, 
William M'Graw. The cradle was finished, and the workmen rocked it on 
their way home. 

Chair Makers and Ornamental Chair Painters. — The banner at the 
head of this association represented the Chair Makers' coat of arms, over 
which was a Windsor chair, surmounted by wreaths of roses. The motto was, 
"An emblem we display." The members wore a highly ornamented while 
satin apron, emblematic of the trade, and a white sash with appropriate devices. 
The principal marshal was Samuel Mason, aided by four sub-marshals, George 
Arnold,William Chesnut, James S. Carnighan, and John Stigars. 

Tanners and Curriers. — Mr. Wm. Jenkins, as principal marshal, was at 
the head of this numerous association. A handsome banner was borne in the 
centre, containing the coat of arms of the trade, and the motto "Try what you 
will there 's nothing like Leather. ' ' Each member wore a light leather sash , orna- 
mented at the breast with a blue rose, encircling a brilliant spangle. Sub-mar- 
shals, R. H Jones, John Dillehunt, Thos. Sewell, Benjamin Comegys, Daniel 
Kalbfus, J. Joyce, Thomas Watts. 

Cordwainers. — At the head of the Cordwainers was carried a beautiful silk 
bannei with the coat of arms of the craft. Beneath was the motto, "Our coun- 
try right or wrong." On the reverse was a representation of St. Crispin and St. 
Crispiana, with the Latin motto, "Mi nulli, invertiture ordo." Then followed a 
stage, drawn by four black horses, with black drivers dressed in white. Upon 



137 

it were two master workmen, two journeymen) and two apprentices, engaged 
at work upon a pair of green morocco slippers which were finished during the 
procession, and presented to Mr. Carroll on the ground, The slippers were 
very neatly made, and the linings were ornamented with a view of the Rail 
Road. A pair of beautiful white satin lady's shoes was also made during the 
procession. The numerous association of Cordwainers now passed on, each 
member wearing a white apron trimmed with blue ribbon, and stamped with 
the coat of arms. An appropriate badge of white satin was also worn on the 
breast on each member. The master workmen on the stage were — James Ack- 
land, on the part of the boot and shoemakers, and John Wright on the part 
of the ladies' shoemakers. The whole was under the direction of eight sub- 
marshals. 

Hatters. — The Hatters were preceded by a handsome Stage, drawn by 
four horses. It was decorated with flags, one of which bore the portrait of the 
founder of the trade, M. Clement, who introduced the art into Paris in 1404. 
The car was the representation of a complete hat factory, with hands busily 
employed in all the various operations of the trade, viz: pulling, cutting, bow- 
ing, felting, napping, blocking, finishing, and knocking down, when the work 
deserved it. The car was followed by Messrs. Cox and Clapp, who headed 
the association. Next followed a banner, displaying on one side a Beaver, 
with the motto, " With the industry of the Beaver, we maintain our rights." On 
the other was depicted an assortment of hats, with the motto, " We assist each 
other." The banner was supported on either side by an elegant white hat, 
borne by boys. These hats were made, at the request of the association, by 
Mr. Joseph Branson, the one designed for Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, the 
other for General Samuel Smith. The arrow surmounting the banner, bore 
the inscription, " We cover all;" and in accordance with this motto, the Hatters 
not only "covered" him who by his wisdom declared us free, but also him who 
by his bravery defended and secured it to us. Next followed the master Hat- 
ters, journeymen and apprentices, in number about two hundred, all wearing 
white aprons and black morocco badges. 

Turners and Machine Makers. — Upon a handsomely designed Stag-e 
drawn by four horses, was erected an elegant lathe, with a turner and filer 
busily engaged at work. The members all wore white aprons trimmed with 
blue, and ornamented with appropriate devices; the motto upon the stage was — 
"By faith I obtain." The badges were of white satin, with a device emblematic 
of the profession. This association adopted a rather novel, but not unpleasing 
mode of testifying their satisfaction upon the occasion, a place being allotted on 
the stage to a Piper, who performed a number of national airs, &c. Marshals, 
Conrad Keller and Samuel Johnston. The workmen on the stage were Henry 
T. Diffenderffer, turner; John P. Earheart, filer; James Arnold, piper; William 
Dawson, chopper. 

Coopers. — A Stage drawn by six black horses, was arranged so as to rep- 
resent a complete Cooper's shop, containing a master workman, four journey- 
men, and a boy, all busily engaged at work. The banner, carried by Charles 
Miller, contained the representation of a barrel in the first truss, with a man at 
work on it. The motto was — 

" Wood to wood, and neatly bound, 
The neatest art that ever was found." 

Immediately succeeding the stage came the three marshals, John Durham, 
Robert Taylor, and Robinson Woolen. These were followed by about 160 or 
170 of the profession, with aprons and badges appropriate to the occasion. 

Saddlers and Harness Makers. — This association was preceded by four 
beautiful horses, each led by a groom clad in the Arabian costume. The two 
first horses were caparisoned with elegant Saddles and Bridles, and the latter 
two with sets of Harness of the finest workmanship. The two marshals, 
Messrs. Edward Jenkins and Philip Uhler, followed; they were succeeded by 
the members, wearing an appropriate badge. The banner was of white silk, 
containing the Saddlers' coat of arms, and the motto — "Holdfast — ride sure." 
Beneath was the date, "July 4, 1828." 

Coach-Makers, Coach-Trimmers, Coach-Painters and Wheelwrights. 
— This association was headed by a very elegant Barouche, of Baltimore make, 
drawn by four beautiful grey horses, with postilions in rich blue livery. Mr. 

18 



138 

Joseph Eaverson, principal marshal to the association, rode in the barouche. 
The association followed, having in their centre two banners with the coat of 
arms of their profession. The first was borne by James DeBaufre, supported 
by Alexander Chase and George Craft. The second, which was the banner 
used in 1809, was borne by George Bartol, supported by John Howser, Sr. 
and Alex. Boyd. The sub-marshals were Thomas D. Greene, Samuel H. 
Howser, William Peers, Philip Trusil and William Dashiell. 

Cedar Coopers. — At the head of this association was a Stage drawn by 
four horses, eighteen feet long and eight wide, tastefully ornamented with cedar 
bushes. A master workman and several journeymen were upon it, employed 
in making tubs, baskets, &c. Among the articles finished in the course of the 
procession was a Barrel Churn, in which was made a quantity of butter. The 
members wore white aprons, ornamented with a cedar tree, churn and tub; the 
motto, "Every tub stands on its own bottom." This body was under the conduct 
of two sub-marshals, viz: William Hall and William Bayner. The workmen 
on the stage were, John T. Robertson, master; George Zimmerman, Jacob 
Barrickman, Leonard Waddle, and two boys; Captain S. H. Moore, churning. 
The Cedar Coopers made two churns, two tubs and two buckets — churned five 
gallons cream, ate the butter, drank the butter-milk, &c. &c. 

Copper-Smiths, Brass-Pounders and Tin-Plate Workers. — A neat plat- 
form or stage nine feet wide and seventeen feet long, drawn by four horses, 
preceded this association. Upon it were seen two Copper-Smiths, each making 
a still; two Brass-Founders, one of whom was turning a pair of andirons, and 
the other finishing a set of stair-rods; and two Tin-Plate Workers, one employed 
in making wash-basins, and the other in making tin tumblers, which he threw 
to the spectators as the procession passed. In the centre of the association was 
borne a handsomely decorated white silk aanner, with a coat of arms emble- 
matic af the three different branches. Upon the front the motto was, "God is 
the only Founder." The apron worn by the Copper-Smiths was decorated with 
the representation of a still, and the badge with a hammer. The aprons of the 
Brass- Founders were distinguished by a bell, and their badges by a file. Upon 
the aprons of the Tin-Plate Workers, was the representation of an urn and two 
tumblers, and upon their badges, that of a mallet. This association numbered 
upwards of one hundred. Marshals: Joseph W. Stewart, John Potter, Ebe- 
nezer Hubball, Wampler. The workmen on the stage were George Wil- 
son, master, George Foss, Francis Elder, Shinneman, Daniel Stall, Wil- 
liam Ives, George Meyer, and a boy. 

Printers. — The Printers (for the following description of whose decorations 
we are indebted to the polite attention of Mr. Niles) had a highly finished and 
fully furnished car, sixteen feet long and nine wide, drawn by four very stout 
and handsome bay horses. The wheels were concealed by white cloth sus- 
pended from the car, relieved by rich festoons of glazed blue muslin. The 
posts and railing were tastefully ornamented with oak leaves, (devoted to civic 
purposes,) wreathed with flowers. In the front were portraits of Washington 
and Franklin; on the right side, of Jefferson, Carroll and Howard; on the left, of 
Decatur, Perry and Armistead — all good paintings, and kindly loaned for the 
occasion. The following mottoes were painted on the railing — in the front and 
rear, "Printing" — on the left, "The Art preservative of all Arts;" — on the right, 
"Truth is a victor without violence;" — on the front base, "The standing place of 
Archimedes, from whence to move the moral world;" — on the rear base, " We appeal 
to reason." On the car was placed an improved iron printing press, (richly deco- 
rated and surmounted by an eagle,) with its bank, &c, two stands with cases and 
type, a half hogshead of claret, labelled "Summer ink," and a hogshead marked 
" Washing icater," with specimens of type from the much improved foundry of 
Mr. Spalding, and the new and vigorous establishment of Mr. Carter, both of 
this city. The following persons were on the car: Hezekiah Niles, as employer; 
Thomas Murphy, foreman; Peter Edes, proof-reader; Robert Neilson, composi- 
tor; Abraham Lefever and John F. Cook, pressmen; E. Mosher, fly; and two 
fine youths, dressed as Mercuries, in tight flesh colored clothing, with winged 
helmets, with two small boys, grandsons of Messrs. Edes and Niles; and 
Thomas Barrett, steward of the chapel, to whose zeal and attention the associa- 
tion is much indebted. John D. Toy was cashier and clerk. The body of the 
craft was under charge of W. W. Moore, E. K. Deaver and John N. Milling- 



139 

ton, Marshals, and the great standard, placed in the centre, was borne alter- 
nately by Messrs. Holliday, Clayton and Abbot. The association, including the 
apprentices, amounted to about ninety persons. On the standard was painted 
a press— over which a spread eagle, bearing, a scroll— "Franklin our guide;" 
near the bottom the regular motto, "Printing, the art ■preservative of all aits." 
The Mercuries excited much attention. With long poles they distributed the 
Declaration of Independence, and an ode, printed during the procession, to ladies 
at the windows of the houses, or cast them among the mighty mass of popu- 
lation which filled the side-walks. After Mr. Morris had delivered the address 
on behalf of the Rail Road Company, they, escorted by two marshals, proceeded 
to the pavilion, and in the presence of the venerable and delighted Carroll, 
having presented the compliments of Mr. Niles, on behalf of the Printers' asso- 
ciation, requested of Mr. Morris a copy of the address, that it might be imme- 
diately published, and spread among the people. It was politely handed to the 
Mercuries, and, in about an hour afterwards, the same messengers returned, 
and delivered to Mr. Carroll and Mr. Morris printed copies of the address, with 
the respects of the craft. One of the Mercuries was also despatched to the 
valued and venerable commander of the Union, Admiral Gardner, with a glass 
of wine, who received it, and drank with Mr. Niles, the head employer of the 
Printers, each standing in his place. Previous to the movement of the proces- 
sion, when the Printers' car was passing east, to take its station in line, Captain 
Kelly, first officer of the Union, hailed with •« Whence came you?" Mr. Niles 
replied, "From Port Public Spirit." "Where bound?" "To Port Independence.' 
" What news?" "Carroll is about to lay another corner-stone." On which copies 
of the Declaration of Independence were thrown into the ship, and the officers 
and crew, with the whole body of Seamen, &c, gave three hearty cheers, which 
were cordially returned. As the whole happened without previous concert, the 
effect was highly interesting to the parties. And on the return of the proces- 
sion to the city, the Printers would have accompanied their friends, the ship- 
wrights, Boat-Builders, Riggers, Seamen, &c. to the Point, had not their car been 
squabbled, and shown indications of going into pie. It was therefore halted near 
the Centre Market, and the model of the frigate, the boat and the ship passed, 
the association being silent and uncovered— when three cheers being given by 
the craft, they were returned with great interest by the other party. It may be 
remarked that, on all occasions of this kind, the Seamen and Printers have been 
hearty friends; and, after the lapse of nineteen years, it is worthy of note, that, 
as in 1809, Captain Gardner commanded the ship— so Mr. Niles presided over 
the stage which the Printers exhibited. 

ODE, 

Written for the Fourth of July, 1828, at the request of the Typographical Association. 

BY RUFUS DAWES. 

Let the voice of the Nation go forth ! 

Let the roar of your cannon proclaim 
From the East and the West, from the South and the North, 

The pride of Columbia's name ! 
The chain of Oppression was yours, 

And Tyranny marked you her slaves— 
But O ! while an oak in the forest endures, 

Or a pine on the mountain-top waves, 
The birth-day of Freedom shall ring round the land, 
And millions of hearts shall for Liberty stand. 

Let the trumpet awake with its breath, 

Where the star-spangled banner unfurled— m 

'Tis the voice that once summon'd your fathers to death, 

When the lightnings of vengeance were hurled : 
O ne'er let the war-cry, that burst 

From the brave, when they rush'd to the fight, 
Die away on the shore, where the thunderbolt first 

Broke the cloud of our Liberty's light- 
When the Throne of Oppression was rent by the blast, 
As the hurricane-shout of our victory past. 



140 

Remember that ages unborn, 

Will look through the vista of time — 
And the spirit that welcomes this glorious mom, 

Shall never be tarnished with crime ! 
While Commerce has wings for the sea, 

While Wealth opens channels for trade : 
While the heart of our country beats nobly and free, 

Not a star of its glory shall fade — 
Then swear to be just, while a Carroll remains 
To gaze on the giant that broke from his chains ! 

Ye are free ! — let your gratitude rise — 

Ye are great ! — be ye true to your trust ; — 
Your greatness descended alone from the skies, 

Whence, the strength of your Liberty must : 
Then swear by your patriot sires, 

By the blood that was spilt for this day, 
That ne'er while your hearts burn with Liberty's fires, 

Will you barter your birth-rights away! 
That Washington's spirit may witness the deed, 
And smile that his children were fit to be freed. 

Book-Binders. — In front of the Book-Binders, was borne by eight appren- 
tices, a Stage, upon which were laid two books — one a beautiful bound ledger, 
and the other the Report of the Engineers of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
Company. The latter book was splendidly bound in morocco, and finished in 
a style which would do credit to any country. On one cover was the following 
inscription — " Presented by the Book-Binders of Baltimore to Charles Carroll, of 
Carrollton, on the 4th July, 1828," — and on the other, the name — " Hon. Charles 
Carroll." After the procession arrived on the ground, the latter book was 
presented to Mr. Carroll by Mr. John J. Harrod, accompanied with an address, 
which will be found in another part of this description. While on parade, 
the Book-Binders resolved unanimously, that an apron and badge be presented to 
Mr. Skinner, for the purpose of being transmitted to General LaFayette. 

Watch-Makers, Jewellers, Silver-Smiths and Engravers, — At the head 
of this association was Col. Standish Barry, as principal marshal. He was 
followed by Col. Peter Little, our representative in Congress, supported by 
Capt. John Lynch, and Mr. James Ninde. Then followed a banner used in 
the procession of 1809, borne by Andrew E. Warner. The device was a figure 
of Time, with this inscription: "J transmit thee to posterity." Below this 
figure, on the right hand side, was seen a Gold Urn; on the left, one of Silver; 
in the centre of the whole was seen a Clock; above the figure of Time was this 
inscription: "Carried by Captain Thomas Warner in 1809." The banner was 
supported by a member from each branch, viz: James C. Ninde, from the 
Watch-Makers; George Webb, from the Jewellers; John N. Green, from the 
Silver-Smiths; and William Bannerman, from the Engravers. Next came an 
Octagonal Pyramid, borne on the shoulders of assistants, in the front ofwhich 
was placed a splendid clock. Around the base, and on the second tier of the 
pyramid, were placed superb specimens of richly chased silver-ware, such as 
tea and coffee pots, bowls, goblets, &c, all the production of the Silver-Smiths 
of Baltimore. On the upper tier were placed rich specimens of jewelry, as 
chains, seals, and a variety of valuable trinkets, so arranged as to display that 
branch of American manufacture to the best advantage. The pyramid was 
surmounted by a large silver urn, richly chased and burnished. This beautiful 
piece of workmanship weighed about 120 ounces, and we are pleased to say, 
was also made in Baltimore. The association followed in the following order: 
Watch-Makers, Jewellers, Silver-Smiths, Engravers. The sub-marshals were 
William G. Cook, Samuel Kirk, John M. Johannes, John Lynch and J. H. 
Warfield. The silver-ware was loaned for the occasion by the maker, Mr. 
Samuel Kirk; and the jewelry by Mr. Wm. G. Cook. 

Glass-Cutters. — This association, headed by Mr. Henry Tingle, numbered 
about fourteen members. Each of these bore in his hand a piece of Baltimore 
cut-glass, the beauty and richness ofwhich elicited general admiration. 

Ship-Carpenters, SHip-Joiners, Block and Pump-Makers. — Messrs. Wm. 
Price and George Gardner, two of the oldest Shipwrights, rode in a barouche 
at the head of thip body of artisans. Immediately after came the large and 
elegant banner, representing- a ship on the stocks, ready for launching. Above 



141 

was the American eagle with extended wings, bearing in a scroll the name of 
the ship, "Charles Carroll, of Carrollton." Four platoons of Shipwrights with 
their assistant marshals followed; and after these, on a car drawn by six horses, 
an elegantly finished model representing the frame of a sixty-four gun 
ship, the Baltimore, decorated with flags. The remainder of the body brought 
up the rear. The members all wore blue sashes ornamented with the device of 
Noah 's Ark, and the Rail Road. The whole was under the conduct of marshals 
James Beacham, Samuel Trimble, William Gardner and James Price. 

Boat-Builders. — On a Stage drawn by two horses, was the model of a boat 
in frame, very handsomely finished; on her stern the name Ohio was inscribed. 
The dress of the members was uniformly a dark coat, white pantaloons and 
vest, and black cravat. The badge was formed by a white satin sash sus- 
pended from the neck, containing on one side a representation of the Rail Road, 
&c, and on the other, portraits of Washington and Carroll of Carrollton, and 
the arms of the Union. Appended to the badge was the representation of a 
boat in frame, with this motto — " A ship afloat, requires a boat." 

Rope-Makers. — In front of this trade was a Stage drawn by four horses, 
upon which was an apparatus for making rope, and five or six hands employed 
in its manufacture, which was performed with much dexterity. Master work- 
man, James Neale. 

The Riggers, Sail-Makers, and Pilots — came next in order, the former 
distinguished by their white frocks. Chief marshal, Mr. John Jillard. 

Ship-Captains, Mates and Seamen. — This association of our fellow-citi- 
zens came next, preceded by the elegant "Ship Union," completely rigged 
and found for her voyage of discovery. Perhaps no single object in the whole 
of this novel and splendid procession, attracted more attention, or afforded 
greater satisfaction than this beautiful ship, with her sails set, colors flying, 
and crew bustling about at the orders of her officers, and the shrill whistle of 
her boatswain. The Union is about twenty-seven feet long, and six feet beam; 
her colors, as we have already mentioned, were of silk, and made for the 
occasion by the ladies of the Point. Besides these, the Union carried three 
flags with the following mottoes: at the fore "Do'nt give up the ship;" at the 
main, " Free trade and sailor's rights;" at the mizen, " Success to the Rail Road.' 
Her crew was composed entirely of masters of vessels, (with the exception of 
the steward, a boy,) and were as follows: Timothy Gardner, master; Matthew 
Kelly, 1st officer; William H. Conckling, 2d officer; George F. De La Roche, 3d 
officer; Wm. Baartscheer, boatswain; William Philips, Michael McDonald, John 
A. Conklin, Richard Edwards, James M'Guire, Ray S. Clarke, seamen; Ed- 
ward Carrington, steward; E. W. R. Sink, pilot. The seamen were all 
dressed alike, in proper costume; and the jolly dogs seemed so happy in their 
voyage, that the smiles of the ladies, and the cheers of the men greeted them 
on all sides as they sailed along. After the ship came the Masters, Mates and 
Seamen on foot, and in their rear several carriages with aged Masters of the 
port. 

At the commencement of the procession, when the venerable Carroll was pass- 
ing along the line and had come opposite to the ship Union, riding at anchor in 
front of this office, he was saluted by all hands with three hearty cheers. After 
he had passed, the following dialogue took place between Mr. Henry Thomp- 
son, aid to the Grand Marshal, and Captain Gardner of the Union, which was 
listened to with much interest by a large concourse of people. Aid. — Ship 
ahoy ! Capt. G. — Hollo ! Jlid. — What is the name of that ship, and by whom 
commanded ? Capt. G. — The Union, Captain Gardner. Jlid. — From whence 
came you, and where bound? Capt. G. — From Baltimore, bound to the Ohio. 
Aid. — How will you get over the mountains? Capt. G. — We've engaged a 
passage by the Rail Road, The question now came from the Ship:— What 
fleet is that ahead ? Aid. — The Rail Road Pioneers, commanded by Admiral 
Carroll, Ship. — We'll try and overhaul them! Aid. — I wish you success — a 
good voyage to you? The Union was accordingly soon after got underway, 
and succeeded in overhauling the Pioneers on the Rail Road ground. [Want 
of room only prevents us from publishing to-day, a long and very interesting 
account of the voyage of the Union, taken from her log-book.] 

The following Song was sung by the Crew of the Union, whilst Charles Car- 
roll, of Carrollton, was breaking ground (on the Fourth of July, 1828.) 



142 



Tone.— Hail to the Chief. 

Hail to the road which triumphant commences, 

Still closer t'unite the East and the West; 
Hail to the hope in our vision that glances, 
With prosperous commerce again to be blest; 

Cheer, loudly cheer, the patriotic sage, 

Who first of all tugs in spite of his age ; 
Then cheerily together our efforts uniting, 
Let's help this great work in advancing. 

O dear and glorious be the day, 

Which causes all this grand display: 

O long remember'd may it be, 

Through Baltimore's prosperity. 

Draymen. — This association was headed by Mr. John M 'Allister, the oldest 
member. In front was a horse and dray — upon the latter a pipe, handsomely 
painted, upon each head of which was inscribed — "Commerce, the supporter of 
all nations." The American flag, displayed from a staff planted in front of the 
pipe, surmounted the whole.. The members were all in their shirt sleeves, with 
white vests, aprons and pantaloons; and each wore at his left breast, a beauti- 
ful blue silk badge, containing a representation of the Rail Road, and the fol- 
lowing inscriptions: — "The ceremony of breaking the ground, performed by 
the venerable Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, in his 92d year — the only surviving 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence. In commemoration of laying the 
foundation stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, July 4, 1828." 

Captain Walter's fine band of music now followed, and then came the 

Juvenile Associations, in the following order, under the conduct of Joseph 
Branson, chief marshal. 

Jefferson Association. — L. C. M'Phail, principal marshal; deputy mar- 
shal and standard bearers in white, with blue sashes and appropriate badges. 
Members seventy in number, with blue coats, white vests and pantaloons, and 
blue sashes and appropriate badges. The first banner represented the Genius 
of Liberty, bearing in her hand a scroll on which was inscribed the works of 
Jefferson, viz: The Declaration of Independence, Notes on Virginia, &c. The 
whole festooned with the star spangled banner; motto, "Great and Glorious 
Day." The second banner represented the tomb of Jefferson, surrounded by 
wreaths of laurel and cypress. 

Juvenile Jackson Association. — Distinguished by a banner, with the title 
of the association, and containing also the representation of two cornucopia, 
with this motto, "Industry the means, Plenty the result." David Lefevre, prin- 
cipal marshal. Standard bearer and marshals in white, with blue sashes and 
badges, emblematic of the Rail Road. Members about seventy in number, 
dressed in blue coats, white vest sand pantaloons. Two other handsome ban- 
ners were borne in the ranks of this association. 

Franklin Association. — William Kimmel, marshal; deputy marshals and 
standard bearers in white, with blue sashes, and white badges containing like- 
nesses of Benjamin Franklin and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Upon the 
banner was a portrait of Benjamin Franklin; on the reverse, an eagle with a 
scroll on which was inscribed — "Franklin Association, July 4, 1828." Members 
in black jackets, white pantaloons and blue sashes, about seventy in number. 

Carrollton Association. — Thomas J. Brown, marshal; deputy marshals 
and standard bearers in white, with white sashes, and badges bearing the like- 
ness of Mr. Carroll. The members were sixty-five in number, dressed in black 
jackets, white pantaloons, blue sashes, and Carrollton badges. On their banner 
was the name of "Carroll," surrounded by a wreath, and rays of glory. 

Schools. — Associated under the charge of Mr. Denboer, decorated with 
badges and breast-knots. They were distinguished by a banner on which were 
displayed the letters of the Alphabet, and this motto — 

"Large streams from little fountains flow, 
Tall oaks from little acorns grow." 

Clinton Association. — J. R. Baxley, marshal; deputy marshals and stan- 
dard bearers in white, with white sashes bearing the likeness of Carroll of Car- 
rollton. Members sixty in number, dressed in black jackets, white vests and 



143 

pantaloons, and blue sashes. Their standard bore a wreath of cypress and 
laurel, surrounding; the word "Gratitude." It was supported on one side by 
the secretary, bearing a spade, emblematic of Clinton's exertions in behalf of 
Canals, and on the other by the treasurer, bearing the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, printed on white satin. 

Washington Association. — James Law, marshal. This association was 
composed of a large number of young men between the ages of eighteen and 
twenty-three years, dressed in blue coats, white vests and pantaloons, blue 
sashes decorated with white badges on which were the portraits of Washington 
and Carroll. On the principal banner was depicted the portrait of him who 
was "First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen," sur- 
rounded by rays of glory. The other banner was that borne on the occasion 
of the visit of La Fayette in 1824. 

After the Juvenile Associations, came the Mayor and City Council, and the 
officers of the Corporation. To these succeeded citizens on horseback and in 
carriagee, and Captain Kennedy's troop of horse closed this long and magnifi- 
cent line of procession. 



Thousands of persons, (continues the American,) and they not beyond mid- 
dle age, who thus beheld an array of between five and six thousand artists ex- 
ercising their respective trades within the limits of the city; who witnessed this 
display amidst a concourse of more than fifty, perhaps seventy thousand per- 
sons; and saw long lines of streets extending on every side; could remember 
a period little more than thirty years distant, when the "Town of Baltimore" 
and its environs offered a very different spectacle. 

We have before us a plan of the town in 1792, when it contained about four- 
teen thousand people: the present population (1828) is probably seventy-three 
thousand. At that period, the intersection of Bond and East Baltimore streets, 
whence the procession started, was an open common. Between that point and 
Christ Church bridge, a distance of half a mile, there were but two small blocks 
of buildings on the south side of York, now East Baltimore street: on the 
north, the buildings extended to Green street, now Exeter. There were no 
buildings west of Eutaw street, and none south of Conway street; and in South 
Sharp street not more than half a dozen houses; so that those extensive dis- 
tricts of the city, the Western precincts and Federal Hill, had no existence. 
South Charles street bounded on the head of the Basin, to which it was open 
from Conway street, south, as Pratt street is now between Light and South. 
The site of Light street wharf was entirely covered by water. Water street 
was bounded easterly by Frederick street, between which and George street on 
the other side of Jones' Falls, it was continued by a causeway running along 
the line of high water. Marsh Market, immediately above, was what its name 
imports; Dugan's and McElderry's wharves were not commenced till the fol- 
lowing year; and between Jones 'Falls and Fell's Point there were perhaps four 
squares that had houses on them. North of Baltimore street, Calvert street 
ran no farther than the present site of the Baltimore Monument, where, till a 
much later period, stood the old Court House, on the brink of a precipice 
whose base was washed by a branch of Jones' Falls, which, as Hotspur says, 
"came cranking in," cutting from the ground plot of the town, "a huge half 
moon, a monstrous cantle out." We have since, like that hero, "had the cur- 
rent in his place damm'd up," so that it no longer "winds with such a deep 
indent." This is the Meadow, a name ill-descriptive of the ugliest and most 
ragged part of the city. But to go on with our topography. West of this 
meadow, and overhanging it, was a huge sandy hill, occupied by old St. Paul's 
Church and grave-yard, and by a grave-yard belonging to the Presbyterian 
congregation. This hill is now occupied by Courtland, St. Paul's and North 
Charles streets, with the cross streets, Church, Saratoga, Pleasant, Mulberry 
and Franklin. On North Charles street there were no buildings, except a clus- 
ter of houses at its north-west intersection with Baltimore street, and a few on 
its west side, between Conewago and Saratoga. There was a haunted house at 
the corner of the latter street, in which, however, many urchins have since 
been inducted into the mysteries of the alphabet. 



144 

The delineation of the limits of the town at that time, gives of course a fee- 
ble idea of the changes wrought since. A great part of our readers remember 
the straggling and unsightly edifices by which these restricted limits were occu- 
pied. The change in the style of building, and general comfort of the streets, 
is still greater than in their extent.* Of its foreign trade and domestic manufac- 
tures, we say nothing. The prodigious amount of human labor that has been 
expended in giving to our State emporium its present aspect, can be estimated 
only by those who remember the former appearance of its site, picturesque in- 
deed, but rugged and unpropitious in a high degree, and presenting every obsta- 
cle of precipice and marsh, of shallow waters requiring wharves for the conve- 
nience of commerce, and winding estuaries that were to be filled up, for the 
purposes of health. Such as it is, we think we have some reason to be proud 
of it, as an example of what may be done by the enterprise of individuals, 
animated by an active and intelligent spirit. The undertaking just commenced, 
is of a magnitude and cost that, as the phrase runs, are worthy of emperors. 
To speak in a language more appropriate and more just, they are worthy of the illu- 
mination, practical sense, and irresistible enterprise, of free States. That they should 
be fearlessly encountered by a single city, of so small a comparative size, unassisted, 
in the first instance , from any other quarter, is, as Jar as we know, unparalleled, and 
deserves success, if it does not command it. But it will command it; and we take 
our leave of this subject so naturally interesting to -use, by wishing, with all 
our heart, an indefatigable prosecution, and a triumphant completion, to the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. 

* To afford an idea of the wonderful changes wrought among us since the period of 1828, it 
may be statf d that the spot npon which the Eutaw House now stands, was then upon the west- 
ern limits of the crowded part of the city, and that it was a sloping hill-side covered with grass. 
Upon the celebration day, it was occupied by a great number of persons, many of whom were 
seated upon rude benches erected for their accommodation, in witnessing the procession as it 
passed by. 



Final Opening of the Road to Wheeling. 

tf ♦ — — 

THE EXCURSION. 

On Christmas Eve, the 24th day of December, 1852, the last of the links of 
iron that bind the Cities of Baltimore and Wheeling was laid, and upon the 
first day of January, 1853, seven days thereafter, the first locomotive (with its 
train of cars,) that had yet crossed the Alleganies from the shores of the 
Chesapeake, reached the Ohio River and entered the streets of Wheeling. Thus 
were the predictions of the President and his Engineers fully verified, and the 
long deferred hopes of the people of Baltimore finally realized. 

The period of the completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road had been 
anxiously looked forward to, as a fit occasion for a marked demonstration of 
the public gratification, and the Company accordingly determined to celebrate 
it with due ceremonies. Relying upon the certainty of the readiness of the 
road for their journey over its entire length, and feeling a just pride in fulfill- 
ing to the strictest letter their previous assurances to that effect, they had com- 
pleted their arrangements for the formal opening on the 1st day of January, 
1853. At the instance of the authorities of Wheeling however — who were not 
yet prepared to extend the public reception to their guests which they had so 
cordially tendered, — the Ceremonies of opening the road in form were delayed 
until the tenth of the same month. 

The arrangements for this significant event— the inauguration of the road — 
were upon a scale of liberality in keeping with the importance of the occasion, 
and such as were calculated to afford the greatest satisfaction to the numerous 
and distinguished guests of the Company, who had been invited to unite with 
them in the celebration. 

The Governors of Maryland and Virginia, and the Legislatures of both 
States; the Municipal Authorities of Baltimore; former Officers of the Com- 
pany; the Maryland Representatives in Congress; the most prominent Stock- 
holders of the Corporation, and a number of the representatives of the Mary- 
land and Virginia press, were among those who were invited. The Legisla- 
ture of Maryland, in order to give the highest evidence of their interest in the 
event, resolved to adjourn over from the 8th to the 17th of January, and to 
attend the opening in a body. 

It was on Monday morning, the tenth of January, 1853, that the President, 
Directors and Chief Officers of the Company, with their invited guests, started 
from the New Station, (fronting on Camden Street, Baltimore,) for the Ohio 
River. Although mid-winter, the day was beautiful, the sky being clear and the 
atmosphere as balmy as in the heyday of spring. Perhaps there never was a 
company convened for an occasion of the same character that embraced four hun- 
dred more joyous men than those who left Baltimore upon this trip. The fol- 
lowing copy of the circular of the Committee charged with the arrangements, will 
show the completeness with which every thins- had been provided for the occasion 

19 



14G 

Regulations adopted by the Committee of Arrangements on the Completion of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road to Wheeling, January 10, 1853. 

The Excursion Party on the completion of the Road to Wheeling, 379 miles 
West of Baltimore, will be under the charge of the undersigned Committee of 
Arrangements of the Directors of the Rail Road Company; and to enable them 
to promote the comfort and safety of the party, it is respectfully requested that 
the following directions and arrangements may be promptly and implicitly com- 
plied with. The general management of the Excursion will be conducted 
through the special orders of the Committee, under the directions of the Presi- 
dent of the Company. Gentlemen are requested to preserve their tickets of 
invitation, that they may be shown whenever required by the Conductor. 
They have been issued to all who are expected to join the party. It is particu- 
larly requested that no one will stand on the platforms of the cars, when they 
are in motion. On all occasions when the Company shall leave the cars, they 
are requested to return to their seats immediately on the signal being given by 
the Conductor. The company will dine in the cars going, and sup at Cumber- 
land immediately on the arrival of the Train; and proceed with as little delay 
as possible. On the arrival of the Train at Wheeling, the company will be 
escorted to the quarters provided for them by the Committee of Wheeling, in 
procession, by the Mayor, City Council, Military, &c. The Governors and 
their Suites, Treasurer, Comptroller, Judges, Board of Public Works, and other 
Official Guests, will be under the immediate charge of the President of the Com- 
pany. The Members of the Legislature of Virginia, under the special charge 
of Major Keyser. The Members of the Maryland Legislature and Band, 
under special charge of Mr. J. Vansant. The Mayor and City Council, old 
and new, under special charge of Mr. J. J. Turner. The Directors of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, old and new, and their invited guests, under 
special charge of Mr. B. Deford. The President and Directors of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail Road Company, with their invited friends, on the arrival 
of the Train, will become the guests of the City of Wheeling, whose Com- 
mittee of Arrangements will take charge of them. The Committee having 
every desire to render the Excursion comfortable and agreeable to the party, 
beg that gentlemen will call on them at all times, for whatever they may desire. 
The cars will leave the New Camden Street Station on Monday morning at 9 
o'clock. Returning, will leave Wheeling on Thursday morning, the 13th. 

Jacob G. Davies, Chairman, C. M. Keyser, 

Benj. Deford, J. J. Turner, 

Joshua Vansant, Committee of Arrangements, 

There were two trains of cars, one following the other at a short distance. 
They each consisted of six passenger cars, a refreshment car and a baggage 
car, under the management of Conductors Owens and Rawlings, with most 
efficient engineers and brakesmen. The first train contained the Legislatures of 
Maryland and Virginia, the Governors of Virginia and Maryland, with Suites, 
Judges of the Ctmrts, Members of the Press, and the Independent Blues' Band. 

The second train contained the Members of the present and last City Coun- 
cil of Baltimore, the Directors (present and preceding,) of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road, the Directors and Officers of the Internal Improvement Com- 
panies of Maryland and Virginia, with the other invited guests. All the cars 
were decorated with flags which streamed gaily in the wind as they sped along. 

The Virginia and Maryland Press, the fast friends of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road and other works of internal improvement, were fully represented. 

Among the officers of the Company, the following were in the trains: John 
H. B. Latrobe, Legal Counsellor; Wm. Parker, General Superintendent; 
J. I. Atkinson, Treasurer; William S. Woodside, Pay Master; Louis M. 
Cole, Master of Transportation; Samuel J. Hates, Master of Machinery; 
Wendel Bollman, Master of Road; Dr. Thomas C. Atkinson, Assistant 
Master of Road; Joseph Brown, Supervisor of Trains. 



147 

The Independent Blues' Band, under Professor Holland, occupied a promi- 
nent position in the front of the first train, and added much to the pleasure of 
the company by their excellent music. 

The refreshment cars were each fitted up with tables running through the 
centre, with servants in attendance to supply the wants of the throng of 
visitors with the abundance of inner comforts, provided by the jtroprietors of 
the United States Hotel, to whose special care the commissary department of 
the whole excursion was entrusted. The cars were new, and of the most com- 
fortable construction. 

Amid the acclamations of thousands upon thousands of citizens who had 
assembled to witness their departure, and the spirit-stirring strains of the Band, 
the trains left the Station and proceeded on their Westward journey. 

The sides of the road from the depot as far around as the Locust Point junc- 
tion, were crowded by spectators, and at the Mount Clare junction the workmen 
employed in the machine shops of the Rail Road Company turned out a thou- 
sand strong and greeted the departing trains with the waving of flags and enthu- 
siastic cheers, which met a hearty response from the excursionists. At all the 
towns and stopping places on the route, large numbers of people had congre- 
gated about the track, and welcomed the company with cheers. 

At six o'clock, P. M., the trains arrived at Cumberland, where a very large 
assemblage of the people awaited them. Some two or three hours were spent in 
viewing the town and in obtaining refreshments, when the whistles of the loco- 
motives summoned the excursionists to the cars again. After a leisure trip, 
the cars arrived at Fairmont on the Monongahela (302 miles from Baltimore 
and 77 from Wheeling) at about nine o'clock, A. M., on Tuesday morning. 
Proceeding thence upon their journey, it was their expectation to have reached 
Wheeling at three or four o'clock in the afternoon. A slight accident however 
(the breaking of the axle of one of the tenders) occurred a few miles from 
Fairmont, which delayed them for five or six hours. 

The greatest apparent difficulty of the trip was yet to be encountered before 
reaching their destination, and the detention caused by the accident ren- 
dered it necessary that it should be overcome by night, without the advantage 
of daylight to aid them. This was the crossing of the mountain over the 
Board-Tree, or " Pettibone " Tunnel, which is 340 miles from Baltimore, and 
39 miles from Wheeling. One of the company thus describes the scene: 

" Pettibone is the name of the first contractor to cut this famous tunnel. He 
gave his name to the place, and failed in his contract. Including the deep cut 
at each end, with the tunnel itself, it is little less than a mile through the body 
of the mountain. For the present, in order to pass the mountain barrier here, 
the Rail Road, a temporary structure, absolutely ascends the mountain on one 
side, attaining the elevation of 2,500 feet above tide-water, and descends on the 
other, the distance being nearly four miles by the zig-zag course of the road. 

" We arrived at the tunnel a little after sun down, and in view of the lofty 
range to be surmounted, the necessary preparations were made, for the appall- 
ing enterprise of transporting five hundred human beings, fastened up in rail 
road cars, right over the summits of old Allegany. 

" The train was divided into ten sections, each drawn and pushed by a huge 
black, unearthly looking machine, ten of which (besides the two with the 
trains) were found waiting for us with steam on, at the foot of the eastern slope. 

" The ascent and descent of this mountain range, is accomplished by a most 
masterly piece of civil engineering. The Rail Road is laid in the form of 
the letter [h , many times repeated on the sides of the mountain. Thus the 
cars ascend the main stem of the >h , in an oblique direction along the moun- 
tain side, and running off into the tail of the £m , change direction and ascend 



14S 

the oblique arm of the letter; then taking the main stein of the second [h , and 
proceeding in the same manner, ascending all the time on one side of the moun- 
tain, or descending all the time on the other. Never can I forget the scenes 
and circumstances of this memorable night. When crawling up the sides of 
the mountains, crossing the frightful gorges, mounted up on the highest sum- 
mits amid the clouds, in a Rail Road car, I was so full of admiration, there was 
no room for fear. The laborers in the tunnel have fixed their rude huts in the 
dingles and ravines of the mountains, and as the cars were passing, each, with 
a phantom looking torch, stood out in the valleys and along the mountain 
sides, giving to the scene the appearance of magic." 

Another writer thus alludes to the same event: — 

"Yesterday was a day — and especially the night — of great excitement and 
interest, more particularly as connected with the passing of the Pettibone moun- 
tain. Here the great tunnel is being cut through the deep bowels of one of the 
most romantic of mountains. It will be (inclusive of the heavy end cuts) from 
seven-eighths to a mile long. The tunnel not being finished, the mountain is 
scaled to the very summit, in despite of its rugged frowning sides, by means of 
a track laid over it. This feature of the road is stupendous in its conception 
and wonderful in its execution. The summit is gained by a series of counter, 
or (as they are termed ) ^ movements, from their resemblance to that letter. 
Of course the grades are steep, and requiring great locomotive power, one of 
the largest class of engines being required to carry up two of our cars. But 
the scene was grand. We were composed of nine or ten caravans, each at- 
tached to one of the most powerful engines. I was in the third, and night was 
settling on the broad landscape as we began the ascent. Before us were two 
parties slowly climbing their zig-zag way far above us, upon different elevations, 
and their panting iron horses, as if angry with their load, spit out volumes of 
black smoke and sparks against the blackened sky, as from the crater of a deep 
volcano. The summit gained, we halted for a short time, which gave us an 
opportunity of surveying the picture. What a magnificent scene ! Around 
and beneath us were stupendous hills, far as the lurid shadows of evening 
could be pierced, while far down the mountain side, from terrace upon terrace, 
the upheaving locomotives glowed, and then away in the deep valley, a hun- 
dred torches gleamed from the hands of workmen leaving their allotted task in 
the depths of the tunnel below. 

" We now descended the western slope of the mountain, which is more pre- 
cipitous than the eastern. Below us gleamed the serpentine ways, and, in our 
turn, we looked up to those behind us. It seemed as if the chddren of Babel 
Avere winding down from the huge mountain pile. The locomotive screamed, 
to us, an unmeaning sound, while the deep dells below threw it back in echo- 
ing mockery. But skillful and careful were our pilots, as we seemed to swim 
along the mountain sides, and a few hours landed us without a scratch on a 
solid rail below. Many of our party were in ecstasies of delight and enjoy- 
ment, but others more fearful walked the crooked way; while some who re- 
mained on the cars trembled like the aspen leaf." 

The delays at the accident, and the caution required in going over the moun- 
tain at the tunnel in the night, made it after midnight before the company 
entered the City of Wheeling. The rain was pouring down heavily at the 
time, and instead of meeting the public reception that had awaited them during 
the afternoon and evening, the tired visitors were escorted quietly to their com- 
fortable quarters at the large new hotel called the M'Lure House, which had 
been reserved exclusively for their accommodation by the city authorities. 

In anticipation of the trains from Baltimore, the people of Wheeling had made 
the most extensive preparations for a grand military and civic procession, in 
which they were aided by many visitors from Ohio and the surrounding parts 
of Virginia and Pennsylvania. An immense concourse of citizens and strangers, 
including the military from Steubenville, &c, were in waiting at the depot, and 
were much disappointed in having to forego the procession and other arrange- 
ments that thej' had planned for the reception. The more formal ceremonies 
of the reception were therefore postponed until the following day. 



The Formal Reception at Wheeling. 



At 12 o'clock on "Wednesday, January 12, 1853, a procession was formed in 
front of the M'Lure House, consisting of the invited guests and a large number 
of citizens, under the command of Col. J. S. Wheat, Chief Marshal, and his 
aids, which proceeded to the Court House, where they were met by the Mayor 
and Councils of Wheeling. The building was crowded to its utmost capa- 
city, the galleries being thronged with ladies, whose bright eyes and beaming 
countenances greatly enhanced the pleasure of the occasion. The platform was 
occupied by the chief authorities of the City of Wheeling; by their Excellen- 
cies the Governors of Virginia and Maryland; Thomas Swann, Esq., President, 
and the Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company; Benjamin 
H. Latrobe, Esq., Chief Engineer, John H. B. Latrobe, Esq., Counsellor of 
the Company, Hon. Thos. Yates Walsh, of Maryland, the Editors, proprietors 
and reporters of the Press, and others of the invited guests. After music by 
both the Baltimore and Wheeling Bands, his Honor Morgan Nelson, Mayor 
of the City, arose and addressed Mr. Swann, President of the Company, and 
through him the guests of the City as follows." 

MAYOR NELSON'S SPEECH OF WELCOME. 

On behalf of the City of Wheeling, and in their name, permit me 
to bid you and your respective guests welcome to our City, and to con- 
gratulate you on the auspicious consummation of the enterprise which 
you have carried forward with so much zeal, and with such signal 
ability. In ancient times a Carthagenian Captain immortalized his 
name, by successfully leading his army across the Alps, in the prosecu- 
tion of his schemes of aggression and war; and within the memory of 
some now living, another soldier, perhaps the greatest of modern times, 
emulated the like renown, not, indeed, by conducting his army across, 
but around the Alps, for the like purposes of aggression and conquest. 

You, Sir, and the Company over which you preside, without bring- 
ing in your train the calamities of carnage and war, have accomplished 
a work, which, although it strike not men's minds with such sudden 
surprise and admiration as deeds of arms, is to be esteemed more glorious, 
because more beneficial to our country, and to mankind. You have 
constructed, across a chain of mountains, which, to our fathers, seemed 
hardly less formidable than the Alps, a highway bringing your beau- 
tiful and growing City into close proximity to the Valley of the 
Ohio; whereby the products of our fields and of our workshops, which 
used to find their way to your City by a tedious and circuitous voyage, 
extending to the verge of the Torrid Zone, will now be transported 
thither in a single day. Goods from the East, too, will be received with 
despatch, instead of being subjected, as heretofore, to the delays and 
disappointments, incident to numerous transhipments. For most prac- 
tical purposes we shall be brought nearer to your City, than were many 
places, a few years ago, which are situated thirty or forty miles from you. 



150 

But who, Sir, can estimate the social, moral and national advantages 
to be derived from this great highway 1 How largely the facilities for 
trade and travel thus opened are to contribute to the dissemination of 
knowledge, to the promotion of a more extensive, and better acquain- 
tance between our fellow-citizens of the East and of the West? and 
above all, to strengthen the ties of good will and attachment between the 
East and the West, by furnishing the means of more speedy and con- 
venient intercommunication, and of exchanges of whatever those of one 
section may desire to procure from another! 

The opening of your road cannot fail to attract to it other similar 
works, as well as such new lines of steamboats, stages, wagons, 8tc, 
as the business of the surrounding country, stimulated as it will be by 
your work, shall require, thus largely increasing and extending the 
business of the country. As auxiliary to your great work, the line of 
new and beautiful steamers about being organized to ply between Wheel- 
ing and Louisville is deemed important. This enterprise is under the 
management of men of experience, skill and character,— and I trust will 
fulfill the expectations of the public. 

It is right, Sir, that your city, which first projected and has chiefly con- 
tributed to the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, should 
most largely share the fruits and honors of the work. In this, I trust 
you are not to be disappointed. Butj Sir, were you so selfish (which I 
am sure is not the case) as to desire to monopolize the fruits of the 
achievement, such monopoly would be found as impossible as it is for 
the rich and powerful of earth to monopolize the pleasures of vision, of 
hearing, of vital air, and of the bounties which a kind Providence be- 
stows aiike upon all men. As works of charity and benevolence confer 
happiness upon the giver as well as upon the recipient, so the growth 
and prosperity of your city must serve to enrich the country around it, 
and to benefit the West, by affording us a better market for our surplus 
products, as well as a more convenient one, in which to make our 
purchases. 

I trust, Sir, that the increased intercourse which is to take place be- 
tween your citizens and ours, will prove as mutually agreeable, as 1 am 
sure it must be favorable to their business and prosperity. We are happy 
in being honored with the attendance of so many distinguished guests 
from various parts of the country, and especially by that of the Gover- 
nors of the States of Virginia and Maryland, and of so many of the mem- 
bers of the Legislatures of those States. It is most gratifying to us that 
they have consented to encounter the fatigues of so long a journey at 
this season, for the purpose of honoring us with their presence on this 
occasion. 

Again, gentlemen, permit me to welcome you to our city. 

His Honor the Mayor having concluded, cries for Mr. Swann arose from all 
parts of the house. After music by an excellent Brass Band belonging to 
Wheeling, Mr. Swann advanced, and in his own effective manner responded. 

MR. SWANN'S REPLY: 

He scarcely knew how to thank his Honor for the very complimentary 
manner in which he had referred to his humble services. He claimed 
no credit that was not fully shared by those who had been associated 
with him in his management of this great work, whose opening they 
were there to celebrate. 



151 

On behalf of the Board of Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road Company, and the distinguished guests who had done them the 
honor to be present on the occasion, he returned his most sincere thanks 
for the very cordial manner in which his Honor had extended to them 
the hospitalities of the City of Wheeling. 

We are here, Mr. Mayor, [said President Swann,] to bring you glad 
tidings of great joy— we are here to announce to the City of Wheeling 
and to the great West beyond you, that the mountain barriers which 
have so long intervened between you and us, now no longer exist; and 
that an unbroken line of Railway communication stretches from the 
banks of the Ohio River where we are now standing, to the far off waters 
of the Chesapeake. (Jlpplause.) 

The accomplishment of this great enterprise is a subject for mutual 
congratulation. Nearly a quarter of a century ago the work was 
commenced : it has struggled on through difficulties and embarrassments 
which it might be deemed romance to attempt to enumerate, until 
we are now permitted to rejoice together in the ceremony of final 
completion. To your State and mine, Mr. Mayor, who shall undertake 
to form an estimate of the benefits it is destined to dispense in all 
future time? 

[The President said that he was upon the soil of a State to which he 
owed his birth, and in which he had spent a large portion of his life, and 
it was a source of unmingled pleasure to him that in his untiring efforts 
for four years past, to serve his own Slate and her great commercial cen- 
tre, the City of Baltimore, he had been enabled to make some contribu- 
tion to that neglected portion of the State of Virginia lying west of the 
mountains, which for so long a time, had been retarded in its growth by 
the absence of facilities which he trusted would now be afforded in the 
line of communication which had just been opened.] 

I reciprocate, [said Mr. Swann.] to the fullest extent, the kind feelings 
you have expressed for'us. The impression of this visit will be long 
remembered ; and I sincerely trust that the opening of this road may make 
Wheeling and Baltimore as one city, in the future. May it be the com- 
mencement of a new epoch in our social as well as commercial relations, 
and may your prosperity in the futnre, Mr. Mayor, be not surpassed by 
the generous hospitality which we are this day called to witness. 

Mr. Swann sat down amidst the loud applause of the audience. 

Gov. Johnson, of Virginia, was now loudly called for, and being introduced 
to the assembly by Mayor Nelson, was received with that cordiality to which 
his age and position richly entitle him. He spoke as follows: 

GOV. JOHNSON'S SPEECH. 

I do not rise for the purpose of making a speech, but to return thanks 
to you, Mr. Mayor, and this large concourse of your citizens and city's 
guests, for the courteous and cordial reception with which I have been 
greeted on this interesting occasion. 

It has afforded me much pleasure to meet in the City of Wheeling, a 
number of gentlemen, whose acquaintance and friendship I enjoyed in 
former years; and when I contrast the scenes on the spot twenty years 
ago, with those in your city to-day, I cannot but share with you in the 
emotions of pride and exultation which you must feel on this, the com- 
memoration of the great improvement which has to day been consum- 
mated within the borders of our old and beloved Commonwealth, already 
renowned for so many glorious achievements, and consecrated in our 



152 

hearts by so many endearing associations. Permit me to say, Mr. Mayor, 
that I shall bear to Richmond testimonials of the important position 
which your city now occupies in the State, and the immeasurable bene- 
fits which must flow from this great and mighty work — a work which 
is to link together the most productive portion of our country, and to 
pour a perpetual stream of commerce anil wealth through its very heart 
— a work for all coming time — a work which is to benefit, and enrich 
and bless all ! (Jlpplause.) 

We are a progressive people, and we live in a day of progress, when 
Rail Roads and the most gigantic projects spring up as by the hand of 
magic, and penetrate regions before thought inaccessible to the marches 
of science and art. But where, in all this broad land, is there a work 
that will surpass this in the grandeur of its conception, in the grandeur 
of its execution, and in the grandeur of its destiny? Who can contem- 
plate the scenes through which we have passed on our journey from 
Baltimore to this city, without feelings of unutterable awe and amaze- 
ment? Neither the snow-capped summits of the Alleganies, the yawn- 
ing abysses below, nor the frowning terrors of deep declivities, could for 
a moment impede the eagle flight of those cumbrous cars, nor arrest the 
tread of that mighty " Iron Horse ;" nor did they falter in their speed till 
the shrill scream of the whistle announced their triumphant arrival at 
the placid waters of your beautiful Ohio. (Cheers.) When I contem- 
plate the rugged mountains and the deep valleys over which, and through 
which I was passing with almost lightning speed, I might well inquire, 
was it not a scene of enchantment? To one of my age, accustomed to 
encounter such different scenes in the same mountains and valleys, it 
seemed more like enchantment than reality. But a few days ago, as it 
were, the same journey was a toilsome work of weeks. It was a jour- 
ney anticipated by many days' preparation, and then the traveller in 
starting felt that he was entering on a dangerous and hazardous under- 
taking. When I contrast those by-gone scenes with the same journey 
now accomplished in fifteen hours, while the scenes of yesterday and 
the present moment are vividly before me, I feel indeed, that no eulo- 
gium, however highly wrought, has exaggerated the genius, the skill, 
the dauntless intrepidity and the indomitable energy of our people. I 
rejoice that I live in such an age and in such a country, and that I have 
the inestimable privilege of claiming birth-right and citizenship among a 
people who have stamped the age in which they live with a substantial 
greatness which pales the proudest glories of ancient times. I join 
heartily, with you, Mr. Mayor, and fellow-citizens, in the congratula- 
tions of the present hour, on the mighty achievement which we this day 
behold. I thank you, once again, for the cordial reception with which 
you have honored me, and shall carry with me, to my latest hour, the 
most grateful remembrances of your kindness and hospitality. 

Governor Johnson sat down amidst the most hearty applause. 

Governor Lowe of Maryland, was then loudly called for, and being intro- 
duced to the meeting by the Mayor of Wheeling, said: 

GOVERNOR LOWE'S SPEECH. 

He had come to Wheeling as a looker on and a listener, and had not 
intended to make a speech. He was not very old, but had long lost his 
taste for speech-making; and preferred to learn rather than to teach. 
He had left home, not only that he might enjoy a favorable opportunity 
to form the acquaintance of the hospitable and intelligent people of 



153 

Wheeling, and the distinguished Governor and Representatives of the 
State of Virginia, but that he might witness the wonderful triumph 
which the art and genius of man had achieved over rugged nature, in 
subduing the wild cliffs of the Alleganies to the wants and purposes of 
civilization. 

No flight of imagination was so daring, or fancy so bold as to conceive 
of such an undertaking when he was a boy. Then Rail Roads were 
regarded as suited only to level countries. Who then dreamed of the 
Cyclopean labor that could penetrate the earth, bridge the dizzy ravine, 
and conquer the mountain heights, which it wearies the wing of the 
eagle to surmount. It was a brilliant conception-^-a sublime idea — a 
great design — thus to draw together by iron bands the wealth of the 
Ohio Valley and the enterprise of the East, between which a stern 
nature had seemed to interpose insurmountable barriers. It had been 
accomplished by the intelligent appreciation of Virginia, and the in- 
flexible will of Maryland. It had been accomplished, too, without im- 
posing upon the people of Maryland the slightest burden. The Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail Road Company had never failed to pay the interest 
on the loan made by the State to its use, and had therefore never been 
the cause of the levying of one dollar of taxation. That Company had 
asked only for the temporary use of the State's credit to a limited 
amount, for which it was now about to make, in substantial and lasting 
benefits, a most liberal return. The Company, alone but self-reliant, 
had borne its own burdens for twenty-five years, overcoming obstacles 
and averting dangers, of which the public have never had more than a 
very indistinct idea. At many critical junctures, it would have been 
fatal to the work, had the real difficulties, by which it was surrounded, 
been generally known to the community. Whilst often secretly strug- 
gling to maintain its ground, it never failed to hold fast to the confi- 
dence of its friends. When the other works of Maryland were envel- 
oped in gloom, and when the voice of repudiation was heard in the 
State, this great Company did not compromise a jot of its honor, nor in 
the least abate the ardor of its early ambition. It is right and becoming 
that credit should be here publicly given to the distinguished President 
(Mr. Swann,) for his great services in the accomplishment of this enter- 
prise. On this question we have known no partisan, — politics do not 
and cannot divide us, in our efforts to build up the power and wealth of 
Virginia and Maryland, — and, therefore, a Democratic Governor, repre- 
senting seventy-five thousand votes, feels justified in saying here to-day 
that the Whig President of a great Company has most faithfully discharged 
the difficult duties of his office, and merits the approbation of an enlightened 
public. 

[Gov. Lowe then referred to the brave efforts made in Baltimore City ; 
and spoke with much pride of her rapid expansion in wealth and popu- 
lation.] She could now say to New York and Philadelphia, " I am pre- 
paring for the race, beat me if you can !" A new life was infused into, 
and a new era had commenced for Baltimore City ! She now stretches 
out one arm to the Ohio, and shakes hands with Wheeling ; and she 
will soon stretch the other through Pennsylvania, and offer a friendly 
grasp to the Lakes. She will become the sea-board terminus to a vast 
net-work of Railways; and, at no distant day, must be the Atlantic cor- 
respondent of the great emporium of the Pacific. Through Cmcintiau 
and St. Louis her march to San Francisco may be traced by an air line 
on the map. Who can measure her destiny"? 



20 



154 

And yet, these results, vast as they are, bear but a small relation to the 
other consequences which must flow from this great system of Railways, 
of which Baltimore is to become the ruling spirit. 

Such considerations as I have presented, however, after all are 
purely material, looking only to the chances of wealth and physical 
developements ; which is, in the end, a question merely of food and 
raiment. But, there is a far more vital and controlling idea con- 
nected with these great enterprises. The hopes of this nation, and of 
unborn millions of men of every clime, are bound by mysterious links 
to these highways of commerce. Whilst the rushing car shall convey 
iron, coal or wheat, it shall also be the unconscious messenger of fra- 
ternal love and peace between the people and the States of this confede- 
racy. The blows of fanaticism shall fall harmlessly upon a Union thus 
held together by the iron ties of interest, as well as by the more sacred 
bonds of affection and a common nationality. In this manner, Provi- 
dence converts the weaknesses of men into elements of strength. Their 
rivalries originate great public enterprises; their self-interest produces 
the relations of commerce ; and all unite to bind them fast together, and 
to induce their co-operation in the great cause of human progress. 

[Gov. Lowe expressed the hope and belief that the Union of these 
States would be as indissoluble and permanent as the everlasting hills, 
over which many of his audience had just been wafted by the wings ot 
steam. He hoped that commercial intercourse and mutual interchanges 
of civility would become daily more frequent, and that the remote sec- 
tions of the country would be brought closer together by the Railway 
and the Telegraph, until there would be, in moral fact, "no North, no 
South, no East, no West," but only one vast and united empire of free- 
dom, common to all, loved by all, and protecting all. The Governor 
concluded with a warm tribute to the memory of Jefferson and Wash- 
ington, and a high eulogy upon the services and character of the states- 
men and people of Virginia.] 

Gov. Lowe was warmly applauded throughout his long and eloquent speech, 
and closed amid loud cheering. Between the speeches the Blues' Band 
played, with fine effect, some of their choicest selections. 

When Gov. Lowe had concluded, the vast assemblage adjourned, and re 
tired to their respective hotels, to prepare for the banquet in the evening. 



THE BANQUET 



At six o'clock upon Wednesday, (the 12th January, 1853,) the authorities 
of Wheeling and their invited guests, to the number of nearly one thousand, 
proceeded to Washington Hall, (a large new building at the corner of Monroe 
and Market streets,) to partake of a dinner provided by the city for the occasion. 

The second and third stories of the building were just large enough to ac- 
commodate pleasantly the great number that were to participate in the festival, — 
and had been arranged and fitted up by the Committee, in a very appropriate 
style. The tables were spread with much elegance, richness and taste, under 
the charge of the Messrs. Guy, of Baltimore. There were five tables in each 
saloon, running the entire length of the building. A band of music was sta- 
tioned in each room, and in the lower hall behind the raised platform on which 
the more distinguished guests were seated, the large flag of the new steamer (of 
the Union Line) "Thomas Swann" was hung, with her name upon it in bold 
letters. The dinner consisted of every delicacy that the palate could desire. 

His Honor, the Mayor of Wheeling, presided at the table in the Hall be- 
low, (assisted by the following Vice-Presidents, Messrs. John Goshorn, M. C. 
Good, A. S. Todd, P. Yarnall, John M'Lure, S. Neil, W. Paxton, J. Knote, 
A. Paull, J. R. Baker, S. P.. Hullihen, Wm. F. Peterson, E. B. Swearingen, 
W. B. Buchanan, J. S. Shriver, T. Johnson, S. McClellan and J. H. For- 
sythe.) Upon the right of the chairman, Thomas Swann, the President of 
the Rail Road Company, was placed, as the chief guest of the city, and next 
to him Benj. H. Latrobe, the Chief Engineer, and Benj. Deford, one of 
the oldest of the Directors, and on the left was seated Governor Johnson of 
Virginia, George Brown, Esq., one of the originators of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road, — and other distinguished guests. 

At the table, in the upper hall, S. Brady, Esq., Chairman of the Rail Road 
Committee, presided, (assisted by Messrs. D. Lamb, E. M. Norton, W. W. 
Jimeson, T. Hornbrook, H. Echols, Geo. Hardman, Wm. Fleming, J. H. 
Stout, A. T. Laidly, Thos. Sweeney, J. W. Gill, James Bodly, J. K. Botts- 
ford, Henry Hubbard, J. Osbun, A. Caldwell, W. W. Shriver, L. Steenrod, 
and A. Rogers.) 

In this Saloon on the right of the President, the Governor of Maryland was 
seated, with J. H. B. Latrobe, Hon. Andrew Hunter of Va., Gen. Sullivan, 
President of the Ohio Central Road, and others of the City's most prominent 
guests. The Legislatures of the two States, and the Councils of Baltimore 
were equally divided in the two Saloons, — the company being apportioned 
or distributed with much judgment. 

After due attention to the feast, the sentiments prepared for the occasion, 
were read by the Mayor in the Lower Hall, assisted by Mr. Wharton, and 
by Mr. Brady in the Upper Hall, assisted by Mr. Gally: 



156 



THE REGULAR TOASTS. 

I. The occasion of our Festivity and Rejoicings: The completion of our 
great icork, the consummation of a hope long deferred, the result of far-distant fore- 
casting, skillful toil and wise councils. May its twenty-Jive years of preparation have 
a corresponding greatness of success, — an ever growing and unending prosperity. 

II. Our Guests: Welcome and honor to them, from hearts filled with joy and 
gratulation. They have eaten of our salt — so may our friendship be sacred, and our 
future intercourse be frequent and happy. 

III. The Union of the States: Its true foundation consists in commercial in- 
tercourse, and a wide extended and well connected system of national improvements, 
stretching from ocean to ocean. 

IV. The President of the United States: Our country's Chief Executive 
Magistrate; the only sovereign on earth whose subjects permit him to be their servant: 
all honor to the office and to him ivho is so faithful to its duties. 

V. Thomas Swann: Standing upon the banks of the Ohio, and looking back 
upon the mighty peaks of the Alleganies, surmounted by his efforts, he can proudly 
exclaim — " Veni, vidi, vici." 

The applause that followed the reading of this toast was very long continued 
and enthusiastic, amid which Mr. Swann arose, and bowed his acknowledg- 
ments. After silence had been restored, he spoke as follows: — 

MR. SWANN'S SPEECH. 

[Mr. Swann commenced by saying, that he could scarcely find 
language to thank his friends for the distinguished compliment 
which had been paid him.] 

In responding to the sentiment which had just been drank, he 
should do violence to his feelings, if he should attempt to disguise 
the embarrassment in which he had been placed on this most in- 
teresting occasion. In his connection with the great work, whose 
completion they were here to celebrate, he claimed no more of 
merit than was shared by those who had been associated with him 
in the administration of the affairs of the Company. 

I am here, [said Mr. Swann,] upon the soil of the Old Dominion, 
a State to which I owe my birth, and with which I am connected 
by some of the most cherished associations of my early life; and 
I can truly say, that in those untiring efforts in which, for four 
years past, I have been engaged with the Directors of this Com- 
pany, in endeavors to advance the prosperity of the State of Mary- 
land and her great commercial centre, it is not among the least of 
the pleasures which the occasion affords, that I have been enabled 
to make some contribution to the State of Virginia, through whose 
territory this road has traversed a distance of more than two hun- 
dred and fifty miles in reaching the point where we now stand. 
Within the limits of this good Old Dominion — among Virginians — 
I can never feel that I am a stranger. (Cheers from the Virginians.) 



157 

The occasion is one in which I feel much pride. When I look 
back upon the stupendous line of road over which we have passed — 
a line three hundred and eighty miles in extent — binding together 
the waters of the Ohio and Chesapeake; when I reflect that°it has 
involved an outlay of more than seventeen millions of capital; 
when I contemplate the difficulties with which it has had to con- 
tend at almost every stage of its progress — a work unsurpassed in 
its engineering features and the boldness of its original concep- 
tion, by any similar work in this country — may I not add, in any 
country — I cannot conceal the proud satisfaction with which I 
stand before you, as the representative of that public-spirited State, 
by the zeal and energy of whose citizens, we have been enabled 
to accomplish these mighty results. (Applause.) 

And why are we surrounded by the large and distinguished 
company who have done us the honor to unite with us in this 
jubilee? Why do I see here the representatives of States other 
than those immediately interested in the results of this work? Is 
there any thing Motional in the claims of this great enterprise? 
Does it bind together important extremes of our glorious Union — 
cementing in all future time the proud fabric on which our hopes, 
as a people, must always so mainly depend? Why are we hon- 
ored on this occasion by the presence of his Excellency the Gov- 
ernor, and Legislature of the State of Maryland, and the Munici- 
pal authorities of the City of Baltimore ? Has the prospect which 
it reveals in the tempting trade of the West brought them to unite 
with us in this common jubilee ? Why, sir, do I see here his Ex- 
cellency the Governor-, and Legislature of your own State, and the 
Municipal body which you so ably represent? Does it give assu- 
rance of increased prosperity in the future to that neglected por- 
tion of Virginia which has been so long paralyzed by the absence 
of facilities, which you are now permitted to enjoy? I am almost 
forced to the conviction, from what I see here to-night, that in the 
completion of this important chain of communication, we have 
contributed something, not only to your State and to mine — to the 
State of Virginia and the State of Maryland, but to the Whole 
Union. (Great applause.) 

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road was the pioneer work of this 
country. Before that expanded system of Internal Improvement 
which now encircles within its grasp, the length and breadth of 
the whole country, had given evidence of the results which we 
have been since called to witness, this mighty work had entered 
upon its westward progress. The idea of a connection between 
the Ohio and Chesapeake had been foreshadowed as far back as 
1784. But the credit of the original charter under which this 
Company was organized, was due to citizens of the State of Mary- 
land. In the active struggle which has since sprung up, other 
States have preceded us. New York has stretched her iron arms 
into the very heart of that productive region, to which our atten- 
tion has been so long directed, and Pennsylvania is even now 



158 

exulting in the achievement of a similar triumph, in the comple- 
tion of her Central Road, in the same noble race. 

The State of Maryland comprises a population of little more 
than half a million of inhabitants. By the side of New York and 
Pennsylvania, she is a mere speck upon the map. But in the face 
of all the disadvantages under which she has labored from her 
limited capital and still more limited population, you find her 
standing foremost in the early developement of that great system 
of Internal Improvement, which has since contributed so largely 
to the advancement and prosperity of the whole country. With 
the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road complete, the State of Mary- 
land will have invested in her works of Internal Improvement, 
within her limits and beyond her limits — more than forty millions 
of capital ! It is with feelings of pride, as a Marylander, that I 
have it in my power to refer to a fact so creditable to her energy 
and public spirit. (Jlpplause.) 

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road was commenced on the 
fourth of July, 1828. There are those present who witnessed 
the enthusiasm which attended the laying of the first stone by the 
illustrious Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, clarum et venerabile nomen. 
[Mr. Swann here produced the trowel which had been used by 
Mr. Carroll and preserved by the Company, with this memorandum: 
"This trowel was used by Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, to lay the 
first stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, July 4, 1828."] 
Mr. John B. Morris, who delivered the address of the President 
and Directors of the Company, took occasion to remark of Mr. 
Carroll in connection with this interesting event: 

" In the full possession of his powers, with his feelings and 
affections still buoyant and warm, he now declares that the proud- 
est act of his life, and the most important in its consequences to 
his country, was the signature of Independence ; the next, the lay- 
ing of the first stone of the work which is to perpetuate the union of 
the American States : and to make the East and West as one house- 
hold in the facilities of intercourse and the feelings of mutual affec- 
tion." 

The estimate which had been formed at that early day, of the 
character and results of the enterprise, may be gathered from the 
closing remarks of the editors of the American, in their report of 
the proceedings: 

"The undertaking just commenced is of a magnitude and cost 
that, as the phrase runs, are worthy of an emperor. To speak in 
a language more appropriate and more just, they are worthy of the 
illumination, practical sense, and irresistible enterprise, of free 
States. That they should be fearlessly encountered by a single 
city, of so small a comparative size, unassisted in the first instance 
from any other quarter, is, as far as we know, unparalleled, and 
deserves success, if it does not command it, and we take our leave 
of this subject, so naturally interesting to us, by wishing with all 
our hearts, an indefatigable prosecution and a triumphant comple- 
tion to the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road." 



159 

How many of the distinguished men who participated in these 
ceremonies, have sunk into the grave ! Of the Board of Directors, 
consisting of Philip E. Thomas, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
William Patterson, Robert Oliver, Alexander Brown, Isaac McKim, 
William Turner, George Hoffman, John B. Morris, Talbot Jones, 
William Steuart, Solomon Etting, and Patrick Macauley, but three 
only survive. The venerable President of the Company, Mr. 
Thomas, whom I had hoped to have greeted on this occasion ; Mr. 
John B. Morris, who is also absent, and my venerable friend on the 
right, Mr. George Brown, who was the first Treasurer of the Com- 
pany, and who has been its fast friend, through good and evil re- 
port, from that period down to the present. May we not forget 
on an occasion like the present, what is due to the memory of the 
early patrons and pioneers of the Internal Improvements of our 
country. (Loud applause.) 

In 1842 this road was extended to the town of Cumberland in 
the State of Maryland, under the auspices of my immediate pre- 
decessor, (Hon. Louis McLane,) after a delay of many years, and 
under embarrassments which I shall not pause here to enumerate. 
I deem it due, however, to that eminent man to say, that he labored 
always with a single eye to the advancement of the important inte- 
rests entrusted to his charge, and the ultimate success of an enter- 
prise, which he deemed not unworthy the distinguished reputation 
which he brought into the administration of its affairs. In 1847, 
with that able officer and a committee of the Company, I visited the 
City of Wheeling to make arrangements for the commencement of 
the work. At that early period, I had had but a short acquaint- 
ance with the affairs of the Company, and had taken no part what- 
ever in its former management. The opinions formed during that 
visit, are those which have governed the policy of the road down 
to the present moment. I have seen no occasion to vary to the 
right or the left. 

The commencement of the work West of Cumberland was en- 
tered ppon in 1849. My first visit to the line of the road was im- 
mediately succeeding the letting of about sixty miles from Cum- 
berland Westward. In company with a few friends and the Chief 
Engineer, I traversed the narrow horse-path which had been con- 
structed, to open a way for the inspection of the line. It would 
be impossible for me to describe to you now, the effect which this 
first impression left upon me. We had been charged in the City 
of Baltimore, with attempting impossibilities, and I was almost 
brought to the conviction, that our assailants were not without 
some ground of complaint. Such was my anxiety, in conse- 
quence of this visit, that I deemed it important to the credit of 
the Company, that the impressions made upon us should not be 
permitted to transpire. I sincerely believe that if the people of 
Baltimore could have availed themselves of the opportunities of 
witnessing what we were about to attempt, in the then feverish 
state of the public mind, the road would have been abandoned. 
Yes, Sir, the Chief Engineer might have been at this time, a 



160 

prisoner in some safe hands, for attempting to impose upon the 
public credulity, and as for me, it is difficult to say what disposi- 
tion would have been deemed most appropriate for me. Instead 
of rejoicing with you in this great triumph of human labor, I might 
have been a shining mark in some lunatic asylum, and it may be, 
persuaded to acquiesce in the justice of their sentence. These 
are reminiscences to which I refer, as part of the history of this 
great work, now that the storm and the whirlwind have ceased to 
beat upon its path. (Great applause.) 

The next most interesting epoch in the history of this road, was 
the working of the high grade of 116 feet. We were told the 
story of a man who had built a mill, without first ascertaining 
where he was to get the water to put it in motion. A road was 
being constructed at a cost of millions, and we were yet to satisfy 
the public that we could make it available for locomotive power. 

This road was opened to Piedmont in 1851, when it was thought 
expedient to test this great problem. There are those present 
who will not forget that interesting occasion. We left Baltimore 
with a large company of our municipal authorities, and the leading 
dignitaries of our City. Both the Chief Engineer and myself, 
thought it advisable, if we were doomed to fail in this last effort, 
that it should be in good company. The train having reached the 
foot of the heavy grade, it was agreed that the Chief Engineer 
should take his stand upon the engine, where, in the event of dis- 
comfiture, be might conceal his shame in the smoke, in which he 
would soon be enveloped, I, on the other hand, who was most 
likely to be held responsible, from the position which I occupied, 
deemed it convenient to take my stand at an open door of the car, 
with a view to a more ready access to the woods. [Laughter and 
cheers.) 

In this situation we commenced the ascent of this heavy grade. 
It was a moment of intense anxiety — not as to the result, Mr. 
Mayor, for we knew full well what that result would be; but as to 
the effect of any casual mishap, from whatever cause, upon those 
who were so anxiously awaiting the issue. As good luck would 
have it, however, the iron horse did his duty without faltering — the 
summit was reached ; and the hurras of the multitude proclaimed 
that this last triumph was complete. [Great applause.) 

As to the power of overcoming high grades, Mr. Mayor, we 
claim to have taught a lesson to the world. During the whole of 
the past summer, this Company carried the United States Mail 
over a grade of 530 feet to the mile, without the aid of assistant 
power ; and every bar of iron which was laid upon the track, 
between the Kingwood Tunnel and Fairmont — was passed over 
the same summit. The fact is, Mr. Mayor, I had serious inten- 
tions, at one time, of prenseting the Chief Engineer of this Com- 
pany, for uselessly involving us in the construction of tunnels, 
miles in extent, when he has shown by actual experiment, that he 
could overcome grades with so little apparent inconvenience. 



161 

If time permitted, I would make some allusion to the financial 
department of our labors; but I have presumed already too long 
upon your indulgence. {Cries of "go on," ''go on") When the 
extension of this road was entered upon three years ago, it was 
often asked how it was expected to accomplish a capital of seven 
millions of dollars, in a community limited as the City of Baltimore 
was known to be and with the securities which the Company 
would have it in their power to hold out, as a temptation to capi- 
talists from abroad. It was a difficult question to be answered. 
But when I looked, Mr. Mayor, upon the glittering spires of the 
noble City we have left behind us — marking the prosperity of a 
by-gone day, when by those natural avenues which the pack-horse 
had opened to her embrace, she had the control of the whole trade 
of the West, almost without a rival — when I saw her streets de- 
serted — her warehouses vacant — her population disheartened ; — 
when I saw her occupying a position upon the sea-board, second 
to none in commercial and manufacturing facilities, I could not 
persuade myself, that in the effort to redeem her from a ruin 
which was becoming every day more and more apparent, we 
should want for adequate support. At all events, there were those 
who were willing to take the chances of success, and as I 
had occasion to remark on the opening of the second division of 
this road, on a jubilee similar to the present, I would have run the 
risk of breaking down in those mountain ranges with which we 
have so successfully grappled, rather than I would have relaxed 
in my efforts, to give to the State of Maryland, aye Sir ! and the 
State of Virginia, the benefit of this great National Highway, and 
here we are, Mr. Mayor, upon the banks of this beautiful river — 
redeeming to the fullest extent our pledges to the public — and 
pointing to a monument in which the State of Maryland has just 
cause to feel proud in all time to come. [Tremendous applause.) 

The future, Mr. Mayor, is not without hope. There are three 
roads looking to the trade of the Great Valley, whose navigable 
waters may be said to head here at the City of Wheeling. New 
York, and Philadelphia and Baltimore are all striving for the mas- 
tery of this trade. I sincerely believe that there will be work 
enough — and more than enough — for all. We claim no exclusive 
advantage ; but we do claim to hold out inducements, not sur- 
passed by those of any other road.' Baltimore is the most south- 
ern harbor upon the sea-board. Her advantages in this respect 
must always place her in advance of her more northern rivals at 
those periods of the year, when the rigors of a colder latitude, may 
be supposed to exercise some influence upon the movements of 
trade, Baltimore can no longer remain a mere place of transit: 
she must become an original market. For the cotton — the flour — 
the provisions, and the tobacco of the great region beyond you, 
she will offer in return, a choice of the markets of the world. 
This is the sort of sympathy which she expects to create in the 
South and West — a sympathy which shall grow out of a sound and 

21 



162 

healthy condition of trade, and a direct appeal to the pockets of 
her customers. 

Before taking my seat, Mr. Mayor, I will detain you but a mo- 
ment longer. I have said that I claim no more of merit, than is 
shared by every member of this Board who have been associated 
with me in the management of this road. It is with pride, I say 
here, that during my whole connection with this Company, there 
has been no single occasion, where any division has taken place 
in our councils. In a Board of thirty gentlemen, differences of 
opinion might be expected to arise; but it has never been our 
misfortune to present a divided front, in any measure which it was 
our purpose to accomplish. 

To the Chief Engineer, I should not feel that I had done my 
duty if I did not return my acknowledgements. At times when I 
would have sunk under the embarrassments with which I have 
been surrounded — when I could have sought the uttermost parts 
of the earth that I might beat rest, — that gentleman has sustained 
me by his support, and often furnished me with the weapons by 
which I have been enabled to successfully combat the fierce as- 
sailants by whom our path has been obstructed. I make this 
acknowledgement in justice to an officer whose unpretending 
modesty has been surpassed only by his purity as a man, and his 
skill and genius as a professional engineer. (Great applause, fol- 
lowed by repeated cheers, and waving of handkerchiefs.) 

To the subordinate officers of the Company one and all, I feel 
under obligations which it gives me pleasure to recognize in this 
public manner. 

Permit me in conclusion, Mr. Mayor, to congratulate you upon 
the glorious future which is soon to be revealed. To your State 
and to mine, who can estimate its results ! May it prove the 
commencement of a new era in our social and commercial rela-* 
tions, and may it dispense its blessings in all future time. 

Mr. Swann sat down amidst tremendous applause — and three times three 
cheers were called for and given him with a hearty will by the whole company. 

The sixth regular toast was then read : 

VI. The Directory of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company: 
Their highest eulogy is written in the accomplishment of their great enterprise. 

This was responded to by Mr. George Brown, the oldest living Director, 
and one of the originators of the Company, in the following appropriate words: 

MR. BROWN'S SPEECH, 

Mr. President: — I rise here to give you and the respectable company 
now assembled, some account of the circumstances under which was 
originated the great work, the completion of which we are this day met 
to celebrate. I deem the present a suitable occasion to make some ref- 
erence to these circumstances while they are still within the memory of 
some of us. 



163 

Before the idea of opening a communication by a Rail Road between 
the Chesapeake Bay and the navigable rivers of the West, had been 
conceived, the proposed Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was looked to by 
the citizens of Baltimore as the only available means by which they 
could hope to draw back to their city a portion of their Western trade 
which had been abstracted from them by the public works of New York 
and Pennsylvania: and they naturally felt a deep interest in the success 
of that work. The anticipations they had formed of its benefits were 
dissipated upon the publication of Gen. Bernard's estimates of its cost; 
and his representations of the formidable difficulties that lay in its way 
in the scarcity of water and the high elevations which it must be una- 
voidably carried over: these satisfied the people of Baltimore that it 
could not be relied upon as affording any benefit to them. 

Previous to this no Rail Road had been constructed either in Europe 
or in this country for the general conveyance of passengers or produce 
between distant points. A few Rail Roads had been constructed in 
England for local purposes, such as the conveyance of coal and other 
heavy articles from the mines or places of production to navigable wa- 
ter; and until the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Rail Road 
in the year 1830, the utmost speed in travel attained by locomotives, did 
not exceed six miles an hour, while the question had not been decided, 
whether stationary steam engines, or horse power, would be prefefable. 

In the latter part of July, 1826, when the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
began to be considered a failure as an efficient means of connectrng the 
trade of the Atlantic with the West, Philip E. Thomas, in connection 
with myself, with the assistance of William Brown, of Liverpool, (now 
M. P.,) and Evan Thomas, of the City of Baltimore, who was at that 
time in England, obtained much information as to the operation of the 
Rail Roads in that country. It was then concluded to invite twenty-five 
of the most influential- Merchants and Capitalists of the City of Balti- 
more, with some other citizens, to meet at my house on the 12th of 
February, 1827. The information obtained by us Was laid before this 
meeting, and, after much discussion, it was concluded to refer the facts 
thus communicated for further investigation, and Philip E. Thomas, 
Benjamin C. Howard, George Brown, Talbot Jones, Joseph W. Patter- 
son, Evan Thomas and John V. L. McMahon, were appointed a com- 
mittee to obtain all the information in their power and report as soon as 
practicable. 

The report of the committee being submitted to a succeeding meeting, 
was unanimously adopted, and a large edition of it in pamphlet form, 
was published for distribution. The pamphlet was entitled : ''Proceed- 
ings of sundry citizens of Baltimore, convened for the purpose of devis- 
ing the most efficient means of improving the intercourse between the 
City and the Western States." 

On mature consideration of the subject, it was resolved that measures 
be taken to construct a Rail Road, with double track, between the City 
of Baltimore and some suitable point on the Ohio River, by the most 
eligible route; and that a charter incorporating a company to execute 
the work, be obtained as early as possible. A feeling of general favor 
towards the measure was at once awakened, and an application to the 
Legislature of Maryland for a charter was drawn up by J. V. L. McMa- 
hon, Esq., and mainly through his exertions a charter was promptly 
granted. The proposed amount of stock having been taken, the Com- 
pany was organized, and Engineers were engaged to examine the coun- 
try over which the Road should pass. These Engineers having made 
the necessary surveys, reported a route which they represented to be the 



164 

best, and the grading and construction of the road Were commenced on 
the 4th of July, 1828. And had it not been delayed by the obstacles 
thrown in its way by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, it 
would have been completed in less than ten vears from the time of ii3 
commencement. {Jlpplause.) 

It should not be forgotten that to the citizens of Baltimore belongs the 
credit ot being the first in the Union to organize an association for the pur- 
pose of building a Rail Road adapted for general trade and transportation. 
The Company being organized, and considering the undertaking in 
which they were about to embark as one of great national importance, 
applied to Congress for an appropriation to aid it in pressing the work 
forward- William Patterson, myself, and Ross Winans, (who had ex- 
hibited to the Board of Directors an important invention he had con- 
trived for reducing the friction upon Rail Road cars, and to whom the 
country is also indebted for the invention and adaptation of the machi- 
nery applicable to the practticable use of eight wheel-cars :) were deputed 
to present a Memorial dated the 28th January, 1828, (which I now 
hold in my hand,) and give such explanations as were required. The 
scheme being considered by many of the members of Congress as vision- 
ary and impracticable, no aid was granted, and the Company soon dis- 
covered that if they proceeded with the work, it must be by their own 
resources and without any additional assistance, and this thev deter- 
mined to do. 

In oiider to obtain every possible information that misrht be useful, Alex- 
ander Brown, Philip E. Thomas and Thomas Ellicott were appointed a 
committee to examine two short Railways that had been projected in 
Massachusetts and Pennsylvania for the transportation of Coal and Stone 
to the tide- water. On their return they reported that they had no doubt 
an efficient Rail Road could be constructed from Baltimore to the Ohio 
River; and they were confident that sufficient science and skill could be 
found in our country for its successful location and construction. And 
the American Engineer, Benjamin H. Latrobe, a native of Baltimore, is 
now present, under whose superintendence these anticipations have 
been realized. {Loud applause.) 

Having completed the reconnoissance and surveys necessary, and as- 
certained the practicability of the undertaking, the Board proceeded to 
determine on its location as far as the Point of Rocks on the Potomac 
River, at which place they were stopped for several years by an Injunc- 
tion obtained by the President and Directors of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal Company. 

The graduation of the Road was commenced on the 4th of July, 
1828, when the corner-stone was laid on the South-Western line of the 
city by the venerable Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, then over ninety 
years of age. After he had performed this service, addressing himself 
to one of his friends, — he said: "I consider this among the most im- 
portant acts of my life, second only to my signing the Declaration of 
Independence, if even it be second to that," and to the end of his life he 
continued a firm unwavering friend of the work, — ready at all times, 
upon every emergency to sustain it. From this time the work proceeded 
with great energy and industry. It was, as respecting our country an 
untried undertaking, and many difficulties soon began to oppose its pro- 
gress. Before we had passed four miles from the city we encountered a 
high dividing ridge which required to be cut down fifty-four feet through 
a hard indurated clay, and involved an expense far beyond the estimates 
furnished by our Engineers. The funds provided for its execution, con- 
sequently were wholly inadequate, and the further progress of the work 



165 

was about to be suspended, at a moment, when such a measure would 
have been fatal to it. To avoid such a calamity, the President and sev- 
eral of the Directors advanced $20,000 each, making in all $200,000 — 
which met the difficulty, and the Road was completed to the Pnint of 
Rocks. 

Arrested by an injunction at a point where this road could not be ap- 
proached or have any communication beyond its actual termination, the 
Directors perceived «the necessity, in order to prevent the discourage- 
ments that might follow, to open a Branch Railway between Baltimore 
and the City of Washington, which would form a connecting link in 
the great line of travel between the Eastern and Southern States, and 
afford a practical demonstration of the system and ils profits. A charter 
was therefore obtained for that work, and it was as early as possible put 
under contract. 

The funds for the making of this Branch Road were obtained, first, by 
an advance on the part of the State of its stock to the amount of $500,000, 
bearing an interest of 5 per cent., and by authorizing the Company to 
borrow one million of dollars, making $1,500,000, estimated to be suffi- 
cient for the purpose. The State stock was readily disposed of at par, 
but when it became necessary to negotiate the million loan, the condition 
of the money market had greatly changed, and it was found not practi- 
cable to dispose of it, except at a discount. In this emergency, the 
President and some of the Directors came forward and took the whole 
amount at par, and the matter was closed without further publicity. 
Five hundred thousand dollars were sent to Brown, Shipley & Co. in 
Liverpool, and they were the first Rail Road securities sent from tliis side 
of the water to Europe. (Jlpplause.) 

Mr. Thomas having been the President of the Company from the 
commencement of the undertaking up to the 30th of June, 1836, I deem 
it due to him to adver-t to the following circumstance. As I have 
already here stated, Mr. Thomas and myself were the originators of this 
work. Like all public benefactors, he has been much censured for 
some of his acts, and especially in reference to the location of the road 
along the valley of the Patapsco. But associated with him as I was 
most intimately, during the ten years he presided so ably over this ar- 
duous undertaking, and sensible of the great personal sacrifices he made, 
I can solemnly declare that a more faithful, devoted and upright person 
never discharged a public trust. He exercised no influence in the loca- 
tion of the road. That matter was committed to a Board of Engineers, 
and was decided on by the whole Board of Directors. As a further 
tribute to his worth and services, I will here read to this assembled mul- 
titude the proceedings of the Board of Directors upon his resignation: 

" Office of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company* 

June 30, 1836. 
"At a meeting this day the following proceedings were had: Joseph W. Pat- 
terson, Esq., was appointed President pro tern. When the Committee ap- 
pointed on the 7th inst. to confer with Philip E. Thomas, Esq., in regard to 
his resignation of the Presidency of this Company, tendered by him to the 
Board on that date, reported verbally, that they had held several interviews 
with Mr. Thomas on the subject, and that it had continued, against their re- 
monstrances, to be his earnest wish to withdraw from his actual situation) and 
that he had only been prevented from taking the step sooner in condescension 
to the wishes of the Board. The Committee reluctantly, and with regret, 
were obliged to add, that in consideration of the impaired condition of Mr. 
Thomas' health, they believe it indispensable to its restoration, and to his com- 
fort, that he should be relieved from the confinement and labor incident to the 
discharge of the duties of the office which has been so ably filled by him. 



166 

"Whereupon on motion of Mr. Hawkins it was resolved, that this Board 
accept the resignation of P. E. Thomas, Esq., of the Presidency of this Com- 
pany with deep and profound regret. 

" On motion of Mr. Brown, seconded by Mr. McKim, the following resolu- 
tions were unanimosly adopted, viz: Resolved, that the most unfeigned and cor- 
dial thanks of this Board are due to Mr. Thomas for the long, faithful and valu- 
able services rendered by him to this Company — services which none but those 
associated with him in the prosecution of this most arduous work are capable 
of appreciating, and rendered at an expense of private interest, which it is diffi- 
cult to calculate, but which must be well understood by this community; and 
of health which has been sacrificed by close and continuous application to the 
business of the Company. On the commencement of this work, of which he 
has been in fact, the father and projector; every thing connected with its con- 
struction was new, crude and doubtful, with little to guide the way, and that 
derived from distant and uncertain sources; now such has been the increase of 
information and experience acquired under his auspices and direction, as to 
ensure the completion and success of the undertaking; if prosecuted with the 
same zeal, assiduity and integrity which have ever marked his course. 

"Resolved further, That this Board in taking leave of Mr. Thomas as their 
President, cannot omit the opportunity of tendering to him their respectful 
acknowledgements of the uniform, correct, urbane and friendly conduct, which 
has characterized his deportment during the time of their official intercourse, 
and of expressing to him their best wishes for the speedy restoration of his 
health, and for his future prosperity; 

*' Resolved, That the President pro tern, convey to Mr. Thomas a copy of 
these proceedings, under his signature." 

Upon the resignation of Mr. Thomas the Hon. Louis M'Lane was 
appointed his successor, and it is but justice to say of him, that he dis- 
charged the duties of his office with strict fidelity ; and when sent to 
England to negotiate the Maryland Bonds of the Company for the 
Western extension, he protected its interests by refusing to dispose of 
its securities when the credit of the State was under great depression. 
He can bear testimony to the fiscal aid he received from some of the 
Directors on various occasions, when the means of the Company were 
inadequate to its necessities. 

As regards the official conduct of our present able and efficient Presi- 
dent, who was elected in the year 1848, I need only say, that the uni- 
versal approbation of his administration of the affairs of the Company, 
and the triumphant completion of the road through the many obstacles 
he has had to encounter, are sufficient proofs of his ability and services. 
He has justly earned the honor which is this day conferred upon him — . 
a lasting monument more durable than marble. 

Of the projectors of this great work only four now remain, and of 
these none are present except myself. My early colleague and friend 
Mr. Thomas would have been present, but he is prevented by indisposi- 
tion. His absence is deeply regretted by me, as I am sure it must be 
by all. I have been identified with this work from its commencement, 
and fwithout pecuniary compensation have acted as its Treasurer. I 
have been a Director near a quarter of a century, — and this I am proud 
to say, through all the fluctuations of party. I thank God that he has 
spared me to see this great work completed, as I have long looked for- 
ward to the pleasure, which no words can convey, of meeting our 
Western friends on the banks of the Ohio. 

Before sitting down, I beg leave to read a note from my friend Evan 
Thomas presenting a flag which was used on a sailing car on the Rail 
Road, it as follows : 



167 

" Esteemed Friend: — I present for your acceptance the original flag displayed 
on the sailing car jEoIus, which was run on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
soon after it was opened. That car was constructed for me as an experiment; 
it bore the flag of the Union which I now present to you, and which I think 
will be a peculiarly appropriate emblem on the occasion of the completion of 
this great work, which will do more to sustain and perpetuate this Union than 
any circumstance since the foundation of the general government. 
"Very respectfully, your friend, 

EVAN THOMAS." 
M Baltimore, January 8th, 1853." 

(The Flag was then held aloft, and the company viewed it with curiosity.) 
Mr. Brown's interesting remarks were listened to with deep attention, and 
were frequently applauded with warmth in the course of their delivery. 

VII. The State of Maryland: Ever faithful to the Union, she was the first 
to discover that Internal Improvements were the surest means of preserving and 
making it perpetual, 

Governor Lowe eloquently but briefly acknowledged this toast in the Upper 
Hall, while in the Lower Hall John H. Done, Esq., of the Maryland Senate, 
responded: 

MR. DONE'S SPEECH. 

Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen : — On this occasion an humble indi- 
vidual like me might well be silent, but in obedience to the command of 
my fellows, I respond to the toast just announced. 

"The State of Maryland."*— Mosi appropriately is she remembered on 
this joyous occasion — most meet the reference to her name. The great 
work whose completion this magnificent banquet consummates, is her 
work, It was planned by her sons ; it has been by them prosecuted 
through obstacles the most disheartening; by them sustained through 
evil report, as well as good— in days of darkness, as well as of promise 
and hope. The corporation that has made this work, is the creation of 
her sovereignty, and to the aid of that corporation she has contributed 
her means by millions; under no circumstances has she forgotten or 
forsaken this her offspring. 

But, Mr. Mayor, if Maryland be the parent, Virginia has been the 
foster-mother of this enterprise. With a generosity her greatness could 
well afford, your State has taken up and cherished it — has opened to it 
the way through her mountains and her valleys; and now that the goal 
is reached, the end attained, her sons are joined with those of her sister 
Maryland to celebrate the event. (Applause.) 

The republics of old, Mr. Mayor, envious of each other's greatness, 
sought to impede or to destroy the means of each other's advancement. 
Unlike these, the Mother of Statesmen and of States has aided in the 
work of building up her neighbor. In this, no doubt, as in other cases, 
it will one day appear that the policy was far-seeing and true, that in 
contributing to build up a mart of commerce within her borders, she will 
have developed her resources and increased her strength in a greater 
ratio — that in this case, too, "blessing, you shall be blessed." 

But, Mr. Mayor, Virginia has done yet more. She has furnished to 
us the man by whose exertions has been brought about the event we 
this night celebrate. Mr. Swann, to whom you have referred in terms 
of well deserved praise, has informed you that he is a son of your Com- 
monwealth. A son of Maryland projected and commenced this work — 
a son of Virginia has completed it. (Loud applause.) 

I have spoken of days of darkness in the history of this work. Such 
there have been, long and deeply dark; but they are gone — their gloom 



168 

has vanished, and the sunshine has succeeded. This day on which we 
meet, in its earlier hours, gloomy and beset with cloud and storm, has 
issued here, in joy and splendor. Fit emblem of the history of this 
work. The man whom your Commonwealth produced, whom ours 
adopted, has led it on from darkness to the sunshine — from the gloom to 
the joy and splendor. By him is now 

" the winter of our discontent 
Made glorious sunshine." 

VIII. Our own Virginia: Her name is history. In return for her beneficent 
protection we pay to her a loyal and affectionate allegiance. 

In the Lower Hall Gov. Johnson, of Virginia, briefly acknowledged this 
toast in appropriate remarks, at the conclusion of which he offered the follow- 
ing sentiment: 

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road: Uniting by a strong and unbroken chain, 
the two points suggested by its name, it binds together more closely than ever, 
the two sister States of Maryland and Virginia. 

In the Upper Hall Dr. George T. Yerby, of the Virginia House of Dele- 
gates, from Northampton County, responded to the eighth regular toast as 
follows: 

DR. YERBY'S SPEECH. 

Mr. President : You can imagine my surprise, when a few moments 
since, I was informed that a call would be made upon me to respond to 
the sentiment you have just announced in compliment to Virginia. 
With no expectation of such a demand, and of course without previous 
preparation ; unfitted too by nature or education for such a task, I must 
ask your indulgence, whilst I imperfectly perform the duty assigned me. 

I can account for this unsought and unexpected honor in no other 
way, Mr. President, than in the rather extraordinary relation I hold to 
you, Sir, and the large and enlightened assembly I now address. Away 
off yonder in the East, on the shores of the Chesapeake and the Atlan- 
tic, is my home. Near it and around it, are many hallowed associa- 
tions, — it was in that neighborhood the Indian's scalping knife and tom- 
ahawk first bathed itself in the while man's blood. It was there. Sir, 
that were enacted scenes, that gave immortality to the names of Pow- 
hatan and Pocahontas, and Smith and Rolfe. Here in the West, at this 
place, on the banks of the beautiful Ohio, at a later period of our history, 
similar scenes were re-enacted. Jamestown and Wheeling are associ- 
ated in the history of Indian warfare. Near this spot and behind the 
lofty hills which overlook your city, were built the first fortresses of the 
North-Western emigrants. History and tradition tell a tale filled with 
kindred incidents of the dangers, difficulties and hardships which at- 
tended the first settlers of Eastern and Western Virginia. The achieve- 
ments of Bacon in the East, (whose rebellion occurred in my neighbor- 
hood, and was the beginning of that resistance to British tyranny which 
resulted in American Independence,) and of McCulloch in the West, 
(one of whose miraculous feats in yonder mountain, startles even cre- 
dulity itself,) are names associated in the Indian wars of Virginia which 
brighten the pages of her history. 

This is the first time, Mr. President, I have stood on the Western 
slope of the Alleganies. I had heard of your towering mountains and 
productive valleys — I had heard of your mineral, your agricultural and 



169 

your manufacturing resources, and had long desired to see them. That 
wish has been gratified in the important excursion I have taken. To 
say that I am pleased, would be but an imperfect expression of my feel- 
ings. Great as I had expected to find them, they have more than real- 
ized my anticipations. When I contemplate what nature has done for 
you, and see what art is perfecting, — I am filled with admiration at the 
bright destiny that inevitably awaits you. On one side of you is that 
magnificent stream, whose navigable waters empty into the Atlantic ; 
on the other is a series of Rail Roads, whose Briarean arms reach to 
every portion of the country — through them is conveyed to the distant 
corners of the earth the exhaustless productions of the great Mississippi 
Valley, returning to you a wealth which human speculation is unable to 
calculate. 

And here, Mr. President, I take occasion to express my unqualified 
admiration of your improvement. Adverse as I have ever been to that 
State Legislation which squanders the public money so indiscrimi- 
nately, and too often so unprofitably ; or taxes one portion of the State 
to construct improvements for the benefit of another; — I am yet not ad- 
verse to the system itself, conducted upon the principles on which was 
reared the improvement that connects you with Baltimore. The energy 
and skill every where displayed in its construction, is a proud monument 
to the genius of the Chief Engineer, (B. H. Latrobe, Esq.,) as to the 
energy and public spirit, and financial skill of the able President and 
Directors of the Company. I claim to be a sincere and fast friend of 
this great enterprise. Who does not foresee that this improvement must 
augment the wealth and population, and strengthen the union of the 
sections between which these visits are made? 

And confidently do we anticipate this result in the relations of Mary- 
land and Virginia. Identified in interest, one in geographical position, 
they should be one in sentiment and feeling. The iron trunk that con- 
nects the Ohio on one side with the Chesapeake on the other, will doubt- 
less bind these States in an indissoluble social and commercial inter- 
course. When we add, too, the fact that Maryland capital has improved 
Virginia soil, and in return for which, Maryland commerce has been 
incalculably enhanced by Virginia legislation, thus enabling her to 
compete for the rich trade of the far West. These mutual benefits must 
create a common sympathy, which should unite us in a common 
destiny. 

And, Sir, in our own domestic relations, we see in the future the rich 
fruits of this Rail Road connection. The local jealousies, the unkind 
feelings, and conflicting interests of the East and the West, which have 
so long distracted the harmony of Virginia, must yield to the intimate 
associations which will necessarily exist hereafter between the two ex- 
tremes. A few more interviews like the one we now enjoy, which 
makes us familiar with your hospitality and your liberality, will excite, 
as a consequence, our affections and our regard; — we must become a 
united, as well as a prosperous people. 

But, Mr. President, I have trespassed too long on your patience. I 
arose merely to acknowledge the honor due our beloved commonwealth 
in the toast just given. Permit me, Sir, in conclusion, to offer you the 
following sentiment: 

Ttie East and the West: May they be as united in sympathy and feeling, as 
they are in a common interest and a common destiny. 



22 



170 

IX. Virginia and Maryland: May their grand Commercial Union, which we 
this day celebrate, be as enduring as their interests and Institutions are identical. 

The Hon. Thomas Yates Walsh, in answer to the spontaneous call of the 
company, responded to this toast in the following language: 

MR. WALSH'S SPEECH. 

Mr. President: — The friends around me insist that I shall reply to 
the sentiment just uttered. I hardly know what it is. I believe it refers 
to the two great States of the confederacy, through whose domains, is 
extended the great national highway, the completion of which we this 
day celebrate. I say, Sir, I believe the reference is to these two great 
sovereignties, for I have been placed so far beloio the salt, that I cannot 
in this particular speak with any degree of accuracy. I find that as 
a member of the National Legislature I am here of no account. Those 
who have had the charge of the arrangements here, seem to have the 
same sort of sympathy that belonged to an old family servant of a dis- 
tinguished member of that department, who regretted that his master 
had lost caste, by being compelled to follow Congress for a living. Sir, I 
am not sorry for this. Seven towns of ancient Greece contended for 
their respective localities as the birth-place of Homer, and it is said that 
each inhabitant of these conflicting villages, regarded it as a higher 
honor to be born on the same spot as Homer, than to have a share in 
the national military achievements of the ancient empire. 

There can be no doubt, Mr. President, where the enterprise whose grand 
results we this day acknowledge had its illustrious origin. It was born, 
Sir, in the City which gives the lofty column to her defenders, and a sol- 
dier's grave even to her invaders. Deptford Hundred, Gallows Hill, Old 
Town and New Town, have all contributed in ample proportions to the 
realization of the mighty scheme. And, Sir, as these names are recalled, 
they wake up the music of old memories, and stir to their inmost depths 
the sources of human emotions. I thank you then, Sir, most heartily 
that there is no appreciation at this board of my position in the councils 
of the country. I gladly joined a Baltimore constituency, willing with 
them to forego a Union in the general exultations and to sound aloud the 
glories of the Toion, which is ready to repel the advances of an invading 
foe, or out of her own resources bind together in the bonds of peace and 
love, the members of the American confederacy. 

Sir, if I ever cease to be national, there is honor enough under such 
auspices in claiming to be loGal. 

But, Mr. President, there are things to be remembered beyond the 
sudden suggestions which I have thrown before you. Twenty-five 
years ago a statesman of signal genius and science, was making his 
way from the City of Washington to his home in Kentucky. He was 
a man familiar with sorrows, the object of assault from the hands of 
personal and political foes, but, yet beyond all mortals that time has 
ever known, — capable of suppressing all emotions which could interfere 
with devotion to the public good. His friends in Greenfield County, 
Virginia, offered him the assurances of their undiminished confidence in 
his personal and political loyality. He thanked them for the cordiality 
of their affections, and gave this memorable sentiment. 

" The Turnpike Road which passes through Lewistown, and success to the 
cause of Internal Improvement under all auspices. 

Mr. President, the force of that sentiment has been felt every where 
throughout the wide limils of this republic. The blessing upon an 



171 

humble Turnpike Road has been indeed seed cast upon good ground' 
bringing forth more than a thousand fold. This is not the time, Sir, to 
set forth the triumphs of that system, which Henry Clay recommended 
to his countrymen in the toast just recited. The Government of the 
United States for a period withdrew its sanction from this mode of de- 
veloping the vast resources of the nation. Sir, it is awakening from its 
lethargy, and is now applying itself to an enterprise which shall have 
more about it even than Venetian glory. It is that which is to consum- 
mate the nuptials between the Atlantic and the Pacific, by the erection 
of the Great Pacific Rail Road. 

Sir, it has been said that peace has its triumphs as well as war ; and 
it will be indeed a glorious triumph when peace takes from war its 
glories and appropriates them to herself. And yet such is to be the 
result when this great highway of human intercourse between the two 
oceans shall be completed. 

The United States is bound by solemn treaties to guarantee the Mexi- 
can people from Indian excursions. Claims for enormous sums of 
money have been presented for damages to Mexican property in conse- 
quence of a disregard of these treaty stipulations. It is proposed now, 
instead of sending large masses of soldiery at an enormous expense into 
the wilderness, there to endure every hardship and to be maintained at an 
immense expense, to locate and erect a Rail Road, so that it shall extend 
from sea to sea. So that in its trail shall at once follow the advances of 
a high civilization — settlement after settlement of cultivated men and 
women shall be established along the line of the improvement. And 
the Gospel of peace and mercy shall take the place of the sabre and the 
cannon. Mr. President, it may not be presumptuous to say that God is 
still with his people, with this difference, that no cloud is to be over them 
in the wilderness, but the pillar of fire is to be their guide by night and 
by day. It needs not, Sir, the dreams of the visionary to anticipate 
these results. The future is pregnant with them. Sir, it may be said 
to the credit of the National Legislature, that these suggestions will 
furnish the fullest guarantee of the completion of that electric chain, which 
is to be more successful than that of the ancient monarch, who failed to 
subdue even one mighty ocean in its Wealth, for it shall bind in silken 
cords the waves of the Atlantic and the Pacific. Mr. President, I think 
I said something at the commencement of my remarks, of only partici- 
pating in the local exultation which I am entitled to as a citizen of Bal- 
timore 

"To claim kindred there, and have my claims allowed." 

But as I have progressed in spite of myself I find that these limited 
influences are forgotten: 

I feel to the rising bosom's inmost core, 
Its hopes awaken and its spirit soar. 

Looking to the developments which are now before us, and to others 
which are in no remote future, when the wilderness shall be no longer 
the exclusive domain of the Savage, but shall be illuminated by the 
light of an expanding civilization, we may indeed indulge the liveliest 
and the loftiest hopes of the ultimate destiny of mankind. Sir, the wil- 
derness shall indeed be made to blossom as the rose, but characterized 
by none of its fading and unsubstantial glories. It shall have about it 
no evanescent bloom. Its fragrance shall reach the skies and be in- 
tended for eternity. The school and the church shall rise in close prox- 
imity — and the dense forests for ages only disturbed by the yells of the 
Savage or the roar of wild beasts, shall at least be made "vocal with the 



172 

Maker's praise." Mr. President, I see at this table some old citizens of 
my native town, who know from actual observation what I only have 
as a matter of tradition. 

Upon the extension of the National Road to Wheeling, the vast 
products of the mighty valleys of the West, were poured out in rich pro- 
lusion into the lap of Baltimore. It is within my own memory, that 
from superior connections, opened with other marts upon the sea-board, 
this flow of riches has been stopped. 

Grass has grown in the streets of Padua, was said by one who read 
her history on her pavement: and a similar record might be pro- 
nounced within a few years past upon the broad highways of the Mon- 
umental City. But thank God! it is now to be obliterated. The 
scenes of active business life and stirring manhood, shall every where 
within her broad limits take the place of idleness and despair. The 
waters of the Ohio have baptized her and she is indeed born again. 

Mr. President, I should have claimed for the originators of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Rail Road the right to insist upon the glory of the ex- 
tension to the Pacific. But I prefer for many reasons of a national 
character that this grand result should be achieved by the authorities of 
the General Government. I object to the thing being done under the 
auspices of that Company, because it has already authorized the bridal 
of the Chesapeake and the Ohio. They must not countenance polyga- 
my, all further unions Westward properly belong to the Federal Head, 
and I trust will be perfected by Uncle Sam providing portions for the 
Husband and the Bride. 

Mr. President, I have trespassed too far upon this festive occasion, and 
indeed as a. festive occasion has it not lasted quite long enough. 

The spirit of fierce debauchery is hardly consistent with a grateful 
sense of God's providence over the nation which is common to us all. 
I therefore give you, Mr. President, as perfectly pertinent to the occasion 
this sentiment: 

" The Union of the Waters, and the Union of all Cold Water Men the 
Wide World over." 

E. M. Braxton, Esq., (King and GLueen County,) of the Virginia Senate, 
on behalf of his State, also responded to the ninth toast: 

MR. BRAXTON'S SPEECH. 

We, Sir, members of the Virginia Legislature, are here, not in our 
legislative capacity, but as Virginians, feeling a deep interest in all that 
concerns her welfare, as well as in all that contributes to the prosperity 
of a sister State. We have accepted the generous invitation given us, 
to be present on an occasion so well deserving a celebration; and, Sir, 
after the Swan(n)-K/cc trip that has brought us from the falls of the James 
to the banks of the Ohio, passing through States and Cities, crossing 
plains, valleys and mountains; after the cordial and whole-souled wel- 
come of the citizens of Wheeling, we were disposed to think that all 
that could be, had been done to please and gratify. But, Sir, the kind 
mention made of our venerable and much loved commonwealth, in the 
sentiment just proposed, has added a feeling of pride to those of gratifi- 
cation and delight. It is true, Mr. President, that Virginia has done but 
little for herself; it is true, Sir, that her political power has diminished, 
and that of late years she has contributed little to the renown and pros- 
perity of our Republic; but, Sir, is it not equally true that in times gone 
by, Virginia acted the part of a wise and fond mother towards the infant 



173 

States of this Union, and, that much of the prosperity now enjoyed hy 
many, may be attributed to her early teachings. I will not, however, 
Sir, recur to past deeds, the dazzling glory of which has too long blinded 
tbe sons of Virginia to the employment of the means necessary to pro- 
mote her commercial advancement and thus to maintain her proper rank 
among the States of this confederacy. The event that has brought us 
together is one too recent, and a source of too much joy that I should 
mar the pleasure of any by reminding them of what Virginia was and 
what she ought to be. I will simply say, Sir, that Virginia has the 
means to regain her lost greatness, and that under her new political or- 
ganization, her people will form new opinions, that will soon lead to the 
display of her immense treasures. 

I congratulate you, Mr. President, I congratulate the citizens of 
Wheeling and of Baltimore, I congratulate my fellow-members that we 
have here assembled under circumstances so agreeable and auspicious. 
We have not come to the shores of the Ohio as did the unhappy Mrs. 
Blannerhassett, to weep over the treasure of an American citizen. We 
have not come in military attire to maintain the rights of a sovereign 
State by defending the magnificent structure that spans yon noble river, 
but as witnesses to testify to the truth of science, and to pay homage to 
the successful enterprise of a sister State. The happy results that are to 
flow from the completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, I am 
disposed to think, Sir, will not be confined to the Company that pro- 
jected and completed it, nor to the Cities of Wheeling and Baltimore ; for 
unless I am greatly at fault, Eastern and Western Virginia by means of 
this mighty work, will be brought to a proper understanding of the true 
interests of their State, and the feelings of her citizens. I believe, Sir, 
sectional jealousies will be, by an interchange of sentiment, banished 
from her limits and her people will, with one voice, demand the position 
that her age, her wealth and her renown entitle her to. Sir, I am also 
inclined to the opinion that the improvement just finished will go far to 
bind Maryland to Virginia. Holding property alike, co-partners in the 
great Chesapeake Bay ; with no conflicting interest, why, I ask, should 
not their prosperity depend upon the same causes, and their destiny be 
a common one? I believe, Sir, a union of feeling and of interest be- 
tween the States of Maryland and Virginia will serve to strengthen our 
Federal Union. Maryland on the North, stands ready and willing to 
resist and stay the mad folly of the fanatic, while Virginia enjoying the 
confidence of the whole South, will be headed by the discreet, and the 
madcaps will receive nought but rebukes. 

For these reasons, Mr. President, I rejoice at the completion of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road; but, Sir, I must confess that I have 
brought one regret along with me to this board of feasting and rejoicing. 
Sir, how came we of the East here? Did not the State of Maryland 
bring us? Did she not build the great work over which we have 
passed? Did she not blast our rocks, and bridge our rivers in order to 
reach this point? And where, I ask, is to be found a son of Virginia 
whose cheek does not tinge with the blush of shame when he remem- 
bers that Virginia's means Were ample to the accomplishment of all 
that has been done by others, and that she by a different policy might 
have retained that which is now swelling the coffers of the State of 
Maryland ! 

Sir, I come from a district opposed to improvements, and knowing 
that fact, I shall continue to reflect the opinions of my constituents in 
the votes I may give in the Senate of Virginia. But, Sir, should those 
who have confided in me once, choose to do so again, it will be with a 



174 

perfect knowledge, that I am in favor of a speedy completion of the 
leading works in Virginia, and if elected Will vote money for that 
purpose. 

I will not trouble this large and respectable audience longer, but will 
conclude by offering the following sentiment: 

Maryland and Virginia: Twin sisters by birth, in feeling and in interest. 
The blow that is aimed at the prosperity of one, will be resisted by both. 

X. The Legislatures of Maryland and Virginia: Their united wisdom 
has ruled the destiny of the great work this day inaugurated; may they ever foster 
and protect it. 

In the Upper Saloon E. F. Crout, Esq., member of the Maryland House of 
Delegates, from Carroll County, also responded to the tenth toast. 

MR. CROUPS SPEECH. 

After thanks for the compliment he remarked, that he regarded the 
completion of the road as a great victory, achieved by the Company in 
the battle that humanity always has waged and is still waging with the 
earth to compel her to yield to man her hidden treasures. By it there 
would be poured into the great heart (Baltimore) of a little State, a 
stream of wealth as constant and enduring in its flow as are the waters 
of the noble river upon the banks of which we now celebrate this glo- 
rious triumph. All we can offer to send back will be the gathering of 
the stars and stripes from all waters of the earth. 

He would feign speak of Virginia, but at the mention of her name 
the mind is overwhelmed with the magnitude of her noble deeds and 
nobler sons. She has not only given empire to the world, as has been 
said, but she has given liberty, civil and religious, to humanity. She 
has written the Declaration of Independence, and then maintained it by 
him whom " Providence had left childless that he might be the father of 
his country." Her sympathies and co-operation had sustained Mary- 
land in the dark hours of her trials since this work had been commenced. 
Maryland is a small spot, [he continued;,] but a green one, and now that 
she was watered by the Ohio, she would bloom with endless richness 
and beauty. It had been said that Maryland and Virginia were bound 
together with bars of iron, but they were bound together by a stronger 
tie. They were one in their love of country — one in their laws and 
institutions — one in their strong love for the American Union. The 
iron bars may be corroded, rusted, and worn away by time, — but their 
love for the Union, like the love of a noble family of sons for their 
mother, — age can but strengthen, and time but increase. It is the pledge 
of our immortality as a nation. It is that which is incorruptible and 
that fadeth not away. 

It was a constant exclamation of the guests as they passed on their 
way under and over the mountains, how it was possible that the Com- 
pany had ever found their way through such a desolate and rugged 
region. A factious friend remarked, however, that it was not very 
remarkable, that a Swan(n) should fold a ivay to the river. Maryland had 
shown herself capable of great things, and strange to say she had com- 
pleted her greatest work, when the head of her Executive Department 
was Lo«)(c). In conclusion he could only offer to the Company, to 
Wheeling and Virginia, the best thanks of the true hearts of the sons 
of the Old Maryland Line. 



175 

XI. Baltimore: The Monumental City; she has no nobler monument than the 
great work whose completion we now celebrate. 

XII. Baltimore and Wheeling: Their wooing has been rather coquettish — 
united now by the strongest bonds of reciprocal interests, may their union be life-long 
and fruitful. 

XIII. Benjamin H. Latrobe: The Chief Engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road Company: His professional skill is only rivalled by his fidelity to his pro- 
fessional duties. 

This toast called out a loud and enthusiastic burst of feeling; after it had sub- 
sided, Mr. B. H. Latrobe spoke substantially as follows: 

BENJ. H. LATROBE'S SPEECH. 

Mr. President: — I might better have prepared myself to make a 
suitable acknowledgment of the compliment which has been paid to me, 
had I not been occupied to the last moment in preparing the road which 
has brought you here. I need not say that I am grateful for the praise 
I have received ; for no professional man can be insensible to commen- 
dation : it is one of the proper fruits of his labors, and perhaps the most 
palatable of them all, especially if seasoned by a consciousness of desert. 
I wish I felt this more strongly — but let that pass — I could have done 
little of what you give me credit for, had I not been assisted and sus- 
tained by the liberal aid and generous confidence of the Board of Direc- 
tors, and the eminent gentleman at their head, who has so handsomely 
referred to me in his eloquent address. 

But the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road is at length finished, and what 
has been the hope of my life for the twenty-two years I have spent in its 
service, has become a substantial reality, and its results will soon be an 
actual fruition. It is enough for me to have been partly instrumental 
in bringing this great event to pass; and if my professional life were 
now to end, I should have accomplished a career in my association with 
this one mighty work. I have been commended for the success of the 
grades, and for the tunnels and the bridges of this road; but there is a 
source of pride more grateful to me just now, in that I have been ena- 
bled to complete the line at the precise time I had promised. No days of 
grace, such as men grant each other in the commercial transactions of 
life, were allowed me, and none happily were wanted. The last rail 
was laid on Christmas eve — the tired men who laid it had their Christ- 
mas holiday unbroken (and it was to them a day of rest as well as of 
enjoyment) and on the first day of January, 1853, true to the time ap- 
pointed two years before, the first passenger train from Baltimore arrived 
upon the bank of Wheeling Creek, in your city. There was no contriv- 
ance of mine in this; it was but the final consequence of a series of 
exertions with few parallels, perhaps, in the history of such works. 
We did our best to accomplish it a month earlier — a week earlier — a 
day earlier — all would not do — the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road was, 
it seems, to be finished on the first of January, 1853, as promised; and 
it was so finished in fact. I have not, however, a right to call it 
finished. No Rail Road, indeed, is finished while the trade for whicl 
it was constructed continues to grow ; and progress is the genius ol 
our people. But this road is unfinished in a stricter sense. You have 
witnessed the expedients by which its incomplete parts have been 



176 

made temporarily to perform their intended purposes; and I am 
consoled for the necessity of their use by the development of the valua- 
ble principles of engineering science which they have been the means of 
illustrating, not only in the road which has been built, but in the noble 
machines which give it life. It only remains for me to replace them by 
the permanent works which are to succeed them; and then I shall feel 
that I have more fully performed my duly, and entitled myself to an 
honorable dismission from a service which will need me no longer. I 
respectfully oifer the following toast: 

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road — begun in 1827 — completed in 1852. Its 
infancy was feeble and prolonged; its youth vigorous, but struggling with 
adversity; its manhood will be powerful and glorious; — its age, may it be the 
perpetuation of its manhood. 

XIV. J. V. L. M'Mahon, of Baltimore: Twenty-five years ago, hereported 
to the people of Baltimore, the inception of the project of connecting the Jitlantic icilh 
the Ohio at Wlieeling. We noio report to him the completion of that mighty work. 

Mr. M'Mahon not being present, loud calls were made for Neilson Poe, 
Esq., of Baltimore, who, after some hesitation, arose and returned thanks in 
Mr. M'Mahon 's name. 

MR. POE'S SPEECH. 

He expressed his sincere regret that the eminent personage who had 
been honored by the special notice of the Committee was not himself 
present, that those who had seen the entrepot of his unrivalled powers 
might have an opportunity of appreciating that affluence of diction, that 
profound vigor and cogency of argumentation, that impetuous torrent of 
Demosthenean elocution, which, in the judgment of those who were 
familiar with the exhibition, place him first among the orators of his 
time. Mr. Poe proceeded to refer to some of the incidents in Mr. 
M'Mahon's life which were connected with the cause of Internal Im- 
provement, and particularly in the State Convention which was held in 
Baltimore in the year 1825. He spoke particularly of the extraordinary 
character of that Convention for eminence of talent. Amongst its 
number were the present illustrious Chief Justice of the United States, 
and several persons who have been Governors of the State, several have 
been Cabinet Ministers; indeed, the present Secretary of the Navy and 
the late Attorney General, John Nelson, and others, conspicuous in 
various stations for their capacity and character. Charles Carroll, of 
Carrollton, clarum et venerabile notnen, indeed, was in the chair. He 
had attained far beyond the limit assigned by the Psalmist to the life of 
man. His eye was dim and his natural force all abated — all save the 
inextinguishable love of his country, which had led him, fifty years 
before, to peril his life and his princely fortune in the cause of liberty 
and human rights. There was a striking contrast between this relic of 
the past aud the speaker upon the floor. A young man — so young 
indeed as to render it strange that he should be a recognized leader in 
that " muster of various talents," that assemblage of men of wisdom, 
experience and age — is addressing the chair. It is like the genius of 
Modern Prophecy speaking to Antiquity. It is like the Nineteenth 
Century holding converse with the Ages that are past. And the theme 
is worthy of the occasion, the orator and the men in whose immortal 
presence he speaks. No narrow discussion of the aggrandizement of a 



177 

State or a City — no local, sectional, partisan question. No topic less 
comprehensive than the commerce of the new empire that is rising 
beyond the mountains, and the political, local and commercial relations 
of a whole hemisphere. And there the trumpet tones of John V. L. 
M'Mahon, then nearly a third of a century ago, announced the pre- 
diction that within the lives of actors at that meeting, the waters of the 
Ohio, and the waters of the Chesapeake would be united in spite of 
mountains to be pierced and rivers to be crossed; they who heard him, 
however incredulous, felt that the prediction would prove true, as if 
they were stirred by the voice and inspiration of a prophet. 

As further evidence of the value and importance of Mr. M'Mahon's 
services to the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, and the cause 
of Internal Improvement generally, Mr. Poe referred briefly to the facts 
that Mr. M'Mahon was the author of the Act passed in 1827, incorpo- 
rating the Company; that in 1828, when a member of the House o( 
Delegates, he made a report in favor of the State's subscription to the 
work — the first subscription in the United Slates by a State to a Rail 
Road — and that in 1836, he drafted the powerful report of the Committee 
of the House of Delegates, in favor of confirming the disposition made by 
the Commissioners of the Bonds of the State, issued in favor of the 
Company — a vital measure, essential to the success of the work. 

Mr. Poe repeated his regret at Mr. M'Mahon's absence, and referring 
briefly to the Board of Directors of 1828, and expressing his belief that 
if Mr. M'Mahon were present, he would be foremost in acknowledging 
the obligations of the public to those members of that Board who are no 
longer living, concluded by offering the following sentiment. 

The deceased members of the Board of 1828.— They are dead. But their works 
have rendered their names and their memories immortal. 

XV. The Marriage, of the Atlantic with the Ohio : May their first 
daughter be a " Lady of the Lake." 

James A. Briggs, Esq., of Cleveland, Ohio, being called upon to respond, 
spoke as follows : 

MR. BRIGGS' SPEECH. 

Mr. President : — This is an occasion of no common interest. The 
men of Maryland and Virginia, and Ohio, and Pennsylvania, have met 
here to commemorate the completion of one of the great lines of trade 
and travel between the Atlantic Ocean and the Ohio River. This line 
of Rail Road, Sir, is a great work. It was originated by men who had 
the capacity to conceive great designs and the courage to execute them. 
The work is finished. The iron horse has travelled on his iron pathway 
from the Monumental City over the Alleganies to this, not long since, 
frontier settlement, but now flourishing city on the Ohio River. Here, 
Sir, in this room, are men who have heard the war-whoop of the Indian 
on this very spot, and to-day they have heard the shrill whistle of the 
locomotive. How wonderful that such changes have come within the 
memory of those who still live. And this is a change which tells not 
of war and carnage — not of cities desolated, and villages ruined, and 
fields laid waste, but of the Progress of the Arts of Peace; of the ad- 
vancement of a high order of civilization, and of the onward course of 
the car of Christianity, freighted with innumerable blessings for the 
whole world-wide family of man. And here, Sir, let me say, that with- 
out the redeeming and upbuilding influences of Christianity, all your 
vast lines of internal improvements — all your Rail Roads and Canals, 
will be of little worth to our country. 

23 



178 

I do most cordially congratulate the people of Maryland and Virginia 
upon the completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. It is one 
link in the chain which binds us together as a Nation. While I am 
now speaking, the Locomotive, who drinks and smokes, and is a " fast 
fellow," is thundering along on his iron track from the " Q.ueen City" 
of Ohio, and from the far off prairies of Illinois, heading long trains 
freighted with men and the products of the rich fields of the West, to 
Eastern markets. 

As I stood last evening on the bank of the Ohio, looking at the beau- 
tiful and magnificent Iron Bridge which spans the River like a bow, 
and gemmed and sparkling as it was with a thousand lights, I could but 
believe that the tall pipes of the majestic steamers would in all coming 
time bow as they passed, to the grand work of the Genius of man. 

Last March, a goodly number of the people of Cleveland and the Re- 
serve were here to celebrate the completion of the Rail Road from the 
Lake to Wellsville. We are here to-night to rejoice over the advent of 
the Iron Horse from Baltimore to Wheeling. — And, Sir, before this year 
shall have passed away, to be numbered with the years that have gone, 
we hope the last link in the line of Rail Road between Baltimore and 
Cleveland will be finished — and then in return for your energies and en- 
terprise, and hospitality, we trust you may be invited to partake of true 
and genuine Yankee hospitality in the " Forest City," " the City upon 
the Lake Shore," and although the season may make it winter without, 
we can assure you, sir, and all, that the warmth of the heart shall 
make it summer within. 

XVI. John H. B. Latrobe : The early advocate and friend of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Rail Road Company : His labors identify him with the success of the great 
work ichose completion we now celebrate. 

Amid the lengthened applause that followed the reading of this toast, Mr. 
Latrobe arose, and after returning thanks for the honor that had been done to 
him, proceeded in his remarks as follows : 

JOHN H. B. LATROBE'S SPEECH. 

With your permission, Mr. President, I will read as a text for what I 
propose to say, the following extract from the Virginia Gazette, a work 
published in 1836. 

"The Baltimore and Ohio Wagon Company, with a capital of 
$200,000 (one-fourth of which is paid in) transport goods and produce 
between Wheeling and Baltimore. One wagon departs and arrives 
daily from each of these places with a load weighing from 21 to 2| tons, 
and occupying eight days upon the road ; and arrangements are in pro- 
gress to increase the number of daily arrivals and departures from one 
to three wagons, and eventually to five." 

Were a new edition now to be prepared of the work referred to, and 
the paragraphs relating to the intercourse of the two cities to be placed 
side by side, how modest would appear to have been the anticipations of 
the author only sixteen years ago! 

The arrangements to which he refers, carried out by a different com- 
pany, it is true, but still, the arrangements uniting Baltimore and 
Wheeling have resulted in the existence of a company, with a capital of 
$12,000,000, all of which has been paid in, having in charge a work, 
which, when completed and stocked, as it is intended that it shall be, 
will represent a capital of about $20,000,000 ; and whose preparations, 



179 

so soon as the delays attending the first use of all great public works 
shall have been surmounted, will ensure the daily transportation be- 
tween the Ohio and Baltimore ofl,000 tons of goods and produce in the 
space of thirty-six hours, now — and who can tell how much faster, ere 
a few years have been added to the quarter of a century that has been 
more than once referred to. 

Why, Mr. President, the weight of the tonnage engine alone, used by 
this Rail Road Company, almost equals the weight of the five loads that 
limited the hopes of the wagon company, teams, wagons, and all; and 
behind this engine there rolls at the uniform speed of twelve miles an 
hour, 300 tons of gross weight, one-half of which is the exchange 
which the Western valleys send to the cities of the Atlantic border. We 
talk, Mr. President, of the course of empire. Its type is the locomotive 
and its train, whose tread is the tread of a giant, from hill top to hill top. 
We speak of the array of a conqueror; where is there a conqueror like 
steam? Its panoply, too, is of iron ; man has made it; not less than 
mortal, like the image of Frankenstein, but more than mortal, as it per- 
forms the work of one hundred thousand of men's hands, and as it 
as, impatient of delay, it rushes through and through the bosom of the 
hills, its white and feathery plume is the ensign of a daring, a eourage, 
threads its way through the forest — as it climbs the side of the mountain, 
and a power, which, while it may find its comparative in the crest of 
Henry, at Ivry, is the precursor of the triumphs, not of war, but of peace, 
as they build up the fame, not of heroes but of the people. (Applause.) 

It is almost too trite to repeat, that the age is one of progress ; though 
place side by side the paragraphs of 1836 and 1853, already spoken of, 
and what a tale do they not tell. But, perhaps after all, Mr. President, 
that has been said about "a quarter of a century," it may appear that 
any allusion to progress comes with an ill-grace from one who, during 
all this period, has been connected with the company that is honored by 
this day's festivities; and yet it must not be forgotten, that if we were 
the first to begin a connection between the Ohio and the Atlantic by a 
continuous line of Rail Road, we have also been the first to complete 
it. True it is, that for some brief time past, the journey from Phila- 
delphia to Pittsburg has been made in the same Rail Road Cars, but the 
stationary power of the portage Rail Road has been made use of— a 
work existing of old, in connection with the Pennsylvania Canals, as 
part of an amphibious system, and facilitating, so far, the labors of our 
friends, in our sister and rival city. But on this day the Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail Road is the only road in the United States on which, without 
the aid of stationary engines, a locomotive can draw its own train of 
cars from one to the other slope of the Alleganies. This is said in no 
spirit of boasting; but rather as showing that, where Philadelphia, with 
her great resources, wealth and energy, has failed to do the work which 
she, too, commenced nearly a quarter of a century ago, we may be held 
excusable, if it has taken us even this length of time to accomplish it. 
There have been difficulties in the way, Mr. President, which no dili- 
gence could overcome; and it was necessary to wait until there came 
around that fitness of lime upon which the labors of Philadelphia and 
Baltimore were alike dependent. 

But, Mr. President, the work is done at last; and recently, the only- 
effect of age upon it seems to have been, that those who completed it 
lost sight of its commencement, overlooked the incidents of its progress, 
and determining that procrastination should have an end, absorbed all 
other dates in the first of January, 1853, and at last, realizing the hope 
of so many years, fixed the fleeting abatement (to use a Rail Road 



180 

technical) of the Rainbow's Arch at Wheeling, and grasping it firmly, 
are revelling here to-night in the brilliancy of expectations, differing, in 
their variety, from the rainbow's hues^ only in this, that they may be 
seized and held. (Loud Applause.) 

That the fruition of these hopes will disappoint no reasonable expec- 
tations, but surpass them all, which of us can doubt? The West built 
up Baltimore— ^firsi with the pack-saddle — then with the county road — 
then with the turnpike — and is now about to employ the greatest agent 
of modern times to realize for us the destiny appointed by Providence 
when the waters of the fountains of the Potomac are made to flow from 
the same hills that sent their tribute to the Ohio. (Great applause.) 1 
offer, Mr. President, the following toast : 

The Sister Cities of the Ohio — " The beautiful river" that unites them is 
" the silver cord " that will be " loosed," and the broad valley through which 
it flows, " the golden bowl " that never will be " broken." 

XVII. The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company and the City of 
Wheeling : A fair fight and an honorable peace ; the alliance shall be as hearty, 
cordial and sincere, as the fight was manly and fearless. 

To this toast Mr. T. M. Gally, of Wheeling, made along and eloquent 
response, at the close of which he called up Andrew Hunter, Esq., of Jef- 
ferson Co., Va., who delivered a humorous speech. 



LETTERS FROM INVITED GUESTS. 

Among the many letters received by the Wheeling Authorities and the Rail 
Road Committee, were the following: 

From the President of the United States. 

Washington, D. C, January 4, 1853. 
Sir, — I am in receipt of your favor of the 30th ult., inviting me to be present 
at the formal opening of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road on the 11th inst.. 
and regret to say in reply that my official engagements in this city, are such as 
will necessarily deprive me of the pleasure of attending on that occasion. 
With many thanks for this kind remembrance of me, I remain, 

Very truly yours, 

MILLARD FILLMORE 
James Tanner, Wheeling, Va. 



From the First President of the Baltimore &f Ohio R. R. Co. 

To the President and Directors of the B. &0. R. R. 

Gentlemen, — I have received your friendly invitation to join the company, 
who on the 10th of this month will proceed formally to open a direct Rail Road 
communication between Baltimore and the Ohio River, by running a train of 
cars from this city to Wheeling, and regret that the state of my health renders 
it altogether out of my power to join the party on that interesting occasion. 

The successful completion of this great national work, after the many una- 
voidable delays it has encountered, is to me, and must be to our citizens gener- 
ally, a most gratifying triumph. It brings our city into immediate social and 



181 

commercial intercourse with the rich and populous South-Western and Western 
States, and promises advantages to both, that cannot now be estimated. To. 
the citizens of Baltimore belongs the honor of being the first in the Union to 
organize an association, and obtain a charter, for the construction of a Rail 
Road adapted to general travel and transportation. At that time little was 
known, either as regarded the construction of railways, or the application of 
moving power upon them, and we had everything to learn, with but few lights 
to guide us. It was therefore foreseen at the very commencement of this 
work, that its progress would be retarded by many difficulties; these have 
however been overcome, and there is no doubt the most sanguine anticipations 
of its projectors will be more than realized. For its completion at this time 
the City of Baltimore is indebted to the energy and judicious management of 
the President and Directors. 

Assuring you of my esteem, 

I am, respectfully, your friend, 

Baltimore. P. E, THOMAS. 



Hon. Louis M^Lane, late President of the Company. 

Mr. M'Lane acknowledges the note of the President and Directors of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, requesting his presence on the occa- 
sion of running a train of cars through from Baltimore to Wheeling on the 
11th inst.; and, sharing in the pleasure that all must feel at the extension of 
the road to the Ohio River, he regrets that he cannot accept the invitation the 
President and Directors have tendered him. 

Baltimore, January 1, 1853. 



From one of the early Director's of the Company. 

Avondale, December 29, 1852. 
To the President and Directors of the B. & 0. R. R. 

Gentlemen, — Please accept my thanks for your invitation to accompany you, 
from Baltimore to Wheeling, on the 10th of January next. Having in some 
degree participated in the organization of your company, and in commencing 
the stupendous enterprise which, with so much prudence and energy, you have 
now completed to the Ohio River, it would have given me much satisfaction to 
participate in the ceremony of opening the road for the travel and commerce of 
the Valley of the Mississippi, an enterprise for which Baltimore, Maryland, 
and indeed the whole country will owe a lasting debt of gratitude to those citi- 
zens whose toil and treasure have been so abundantly poured out in its accom- 
plishment. 

The inclement season of the year precludes the hope of my joining you, on 
an occasion, which under other circumstances would have been highly grati- 
fying. Your sincere friend, 

THOS. ELLICOTT. 



To the President and Directors of the B. & 0. R. R. 

Gentlemen. — I respectfully tender you thanks for your polite invitation to 
accompany the party who will open the Ra\J Road from Baltimore to Wheel- 
ing on the 10th inst., and regret that it will not be in my power to participate 
in the high gratification this most important occasion will afford. 

Very respectfully, your friend, 

EVAN THOMAS. 
Baltimore, January 7, 1853. 



182 

From the President of the Harper's Ferry and Winchester 
Rail Road Company. 

Winchester, Va., January 7, 1853. 

To Thos. Swann, Esq., Pres. B. & 0. R. R. Co. 

Dear Sir, — I regret I am compelled to decline the invitation of the President 
and Board of Directors, to attend the celebration of the completion of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road to the Ohio River. Sickness so severe that I 
can with difficulty walk across my room, is my apology, and I regret this the 
more not only on account of the honor of the invitation, but because of the 
kind terms in which it was pressed upon me by yourself, as well as other 
friends in your city. Permit me to congratulate you, Sir, upon the final tri- 
umph of this great undertaking. You have established a fame, the only fame 
that can endure, which rests upon utility, and your name must ever be associ- 
ated with this great work, nor can the work ever be separated from the name. 
I congratulate every member of your Board, and especially such members as 
were present at the conception of this great undertaking, and now after the lapse 
of a quarter of a century witness its execution. I congratulate your engineer 
corps who have presented on the line of this road some of the proudest monu- 
ments which that department of science can boast of; and I congratulate the 
City of Wheeling, who like Ellen in the Lady of the Lake, beholds a chain of 
golden links o'er Malcolm's neck, and holds the clasp in her own hand. With 
sentiments of kind regard, Your friend and servant, 

W. L. CLARKE. 



From a Member of the Virginia Legislature. 

House or Delegates, 
Richmond, January 8, 1853. 
M. Nelson, Esq., Mayor of Wheeling: 

Dear Sir, — As my duties here will prevent me from joining in the festivities 
which will attend the opening of the Rail Road between Baltimore and Wheel- 
ing, I desire through you to congratulate our fellow-citizens upon an event so 
auspicious for them. Unless the bright hopes of prosperity which they have 
cherished through so many years and so many discouragements, have been 
delusive, they are now to be realized. 

No one can contemplate the stupendous work which has just been completed, 
without admiration and even wonder. Its grandeur, the obstacles surmounted, 
the enterprise and skill displayed in its construction and its prospective effects, 
all mark it as one of the marvellous achievements of this age. Let me con- 
gratulate you, too, that it lies chiefly within our own State, and entirely within 
it and a sister State, bound to us by a similarity of institutions and many 
friendly ties. But even your Maryland guests would not blame me for the 
expression of a regret that it is not wholly Virginian. I am confident, however, 
that by the energy and intelligence of the citizens of Wheeling, this road will 
be made the instrument of creating a great store of wealth within the State, 
and that their loyalty will cheerfully devote it at all times to the promotion of 
her prosperity. I subjoin a sentiment, which I beg you to offer for me on the 
occasion of your celebration. 

1 am, dear Sir, very truly yours, 

CHARLES W. RUSSELL. 

Virginia : With prudent progress she advances in wealth and power, without 
leaving behind her the virtues of her Golden Age. May she flourish forever. 



Mr. Ellet, the distinguished Engineer, made the following remark in his 
letter: 

"I regret that I cannot attend your festival and witness the triumph of Mr. 
Latrobe. He has well deserved his honors; long may he live to enjoy them." 



183 

J. A. Woodward, Esq., of Washington, D. C, an invited guest, sent the 
following sentiment: 

" The Cities of Baltimore and Wheeling : The first city, with characteristic 
enterprise and energy, has opened a new line of commerce and intercourse with 
the great West; the second, by her magnificent Wire Bridge across the Ohio, 
has afforded the people west of that river, the means of Wheeling into line." 

S. M. Felton, President of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Rail 
Road, who was prevented from attending, sent a letter with the following 
toast: 

"The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road and the City of Baltimore: May the for- 
mer be to the latter a great highway to increased wealth, prosperity and happi- 
ness; and may the latter embrace, in good will and affection as well as in its 
Iron Arms, not only the West, but the East, the North and the South, and 
thus bind together by mutual ties, stronger than iron bars, all the parts of our 
glorious Union." 

A telegraphic despatch was received during the evening from a Committee at 
Louisville, inviting the company there; but it was necessarily declined by the 
Directors of the Company. 



VOLUNTEER TOASTS AND RESPONSES. 

Among the interesting proceedings of the banquet should be embraced the 
volunteer toasts, and the .excellent speeches which some of them elicited. All 
the sentiments offered that could be obtained are presented, with the remarks 
of several of the gentlemen who were called upon to respond. 

By Mr. Callow of Baltimore : — Fielding Lucas, Esq., Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Transportation of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. The energy, de- 
votion and intelligence 4 with which he performs his office, entitle him to our 
remembrance. 

In the absence of Mr. Lucas, Benjamin Deford, Esq., of the Board of 
Directors, and a member of the Committee on Transportation, was loudly 
called upon to acknowledge the toast. 

MR. DEFORD'S SPEECH. 

la obedience (said Mr. D.,) to what seemed the universal wish, he 
arose to answer the call made upon him. He made no pretensions to 
public speaking, and preferred rather to be regarded as a plain matter of 
fact man of business and of figures, than to shine as a man of words, 
and a mere dealer in the figures of rhetoric. He had been much grati- 
fied at the kind manner in which the name of his friend, Fielding Lucas, 
had been received by the large and intelligent company. It was but a 
proper tribute to his efficient services in the Board of Directors. Mr. 
Lucas had always shown an enlarged capacity for the varied and com- 
plex requirements of his position at the head of this Committee, and as 
one of the members of that body, he (Mr. Deford) was glad to have an 
opportunity to bear this willing testimony to his worth and abilities. 



184 

In connection with the matter of transportation, he might be pardoned 
for alluding to the new toll sheet recently put forth by the Company. 
That tariff of rates had been objected to by some persons, but time, he 
thought, would show the wisdom that led to its adoption. He had heard 
a great many eloquent speeches in his life upon Internal Improvements 
and business affairs generally, and none perhaps were more beautiful 
than some of those which the present occasion had called forth. Much 
was said about building great roads, and binding all sections of the 
Union in one universal embrace ; this was very fine, (continued Mr. D.) 
but there is a plain little question connected with the subject that must 
not be lost sight of while sojourning in the pleasant regions of eloquence 
and imagination. It was the question, whether or not they ivill pay. 
Unless these roads were so conducted as to pay the Stockholders a fair 
return for their investments, they could not be long conducted at all, and 
they would not pay, particularly where there was direct rivalry, unless 
they offered inducements for travel and freight to pass over them. In 
order to induce the people to patronize the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road, the Company should make it their interest to do so. Unless it 
was to their interest to become the friends of the road, business men 
were not likely to favor it—mere admiration of the greatness that has 
been developed in constructing it, was not sufficient to induce people to 
do business with it without it was to their advantage. This principle 
was of universal application, and it was recognized by the Committee in 
arranging the toll alluded to — they wished to make it the interest of the 
producers and merchants of the great West to come direct to Baltimore 
with their goods, and they determined to make them the friends of Bal- 
timore through that governing and controlling power — self-interest. 

Mr. Deford dwelt upon this topic at some length, and gave a familiar 
and telling illustration of the doctrine so forcibly advocated by him. 
He made a decided impression upon his audience by the sound reasoning 
and practical sense that pervaded his appropriate speech, which was re- 
ceived with the most lively marks of approbation. 

Mr E. M. Norton gave the following sentiment : 

The President and Directors of the Central Ohio Rail Road Company : — The 
rapid progress of their work is an evidence of their ability and faithfulness. 
May their hopes of an early completion of the Road to the city of Wheeling 
be realized — when we may join with the East and the West in hearty congrat- 
ulations on the completion of a continuous Rail Road connection between the 
Atlantic and Pacific. 

To which Col. J. H. Sullivan, President of the Central Ohio Rail Road 
Company, responded in the following beautiful remarks : 

COL. SULLIVAN'S SPEECH. 

Mr. President: — The sentiment embodied in the toast just read, 
compels a response from one who makes no pretensions of ability to in- 
terest you. The road which I have the honor to represent, is partly 
in successful operation, and the remainder in rapid progress of construc- 
tion. By next week we shall have an unbroken line of Railway between 
the Cities of Zanesville and Columbus, a distance of fifty-eight miles. 
At the latter place we connect with the whole Railway system of the 
West — having outlet by Railway to Cleveland, Sandusky, Chicago, 
Dayton, Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Terre Haute. East of Zanesville 
the whole line to the Ohio in the vicinity of this city, and in si^ht of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, is in the hands of contractors— some of 



185 

the sections already graded, and the balance in a position for a com- 
pletion of the entire line within eighteen months. By the 4th of July, 
1854, at farthest — we hope earlier, we expect to ask you to rejoice with 
us over the completion of another chain that shall bind the interests of 
extremes together, and add another assurance to the already secured 
prosperity of our city. (Jlpplause.) 

Permit me, Sirs, in this connection to suggest that notwithstanding the 
interest in the Central Ohio Rail Road which has just been expressed, 
the citizens of Wheeling have not fully appreciated the importance of 
this Road to their welfare. Whilst I most cheerfully concede to the 
Road that is how engaging your enthusiasm, and to the several other 
Railways which the Baltimore Road is attracting to your borders, all the 
value as great commercial avenues which their friends claim for them, I 
hope I shall not be charged with arrogance in assuming that the Central 
Ohio Road is more essential to the prosperity of your city than either — 
perhaps, than aM of the others. With them your relation will be prin- 
cipally as the medium of transfer; with this your business relations have 
been and still are intimate — complete — I had almost said, dependent. 
The region of country bordering upon and penetrated by the Central 
Ohio Road has done more to build up and sustain your manufactures 
than all of the balance of the country together. You have heretofore 
had the control of this trade. How will you continue to control if? 
Only through the Central Ohio Road. There is a significance in this 
prospect which I fear the people of Wheeling, generally, have not realized. 

How is this to be accounted for? Delicacy, perhaps, forbids refer- 
ing to a misunderstanding which occurred between your Rail Road 
Committee and our Directory, but the gentlemen who composed that 
Committee will forgive a slight remind, if what I say in all kindness shall 
be productive of a better understanding and a better feeling hereafter. 

In their conclusion, in-the case, we think these gentlemen mistook the 
true interests of the city ; but we must concede them the ability to judge 
of that better than ourselves. We know however, that they not only mis- 
conceived our motives, but wholly misapprehended our position. Had 
we been the representatives of a close corporation which it was admissible 
to use for the promotion of special or local interests, we could have 
made the question of route one of negotiation and contract; but such 
powers were not entrusted to us. We were the agents of State for the 
promotion of a great public utility. Through our Charter we are en- 
dowed with one of the highest and most sacred attributes of Sovereignty, 
the Right of Eminent Domain, which would never have been conceded 
except as a sacred trust to be used for great public ends, and for such 
purposes only. The geographical position of our line — its relation to the 
commerce of the great central belt, stretching from Wheeling to St. 
Louis, through which that artery of the West, the National Road, had 
throbbed the pulsations of travel for the last twenty years — its position 
as a great trunk line — all inspired a consciousness of our responsibility 
from which we dared not shrink. 

The line of our location brings us into the ravine of the Ohio about 
three miles below your city; but as since the final adoption of the present 
route of the Baltimore and Ohio Road, our Company have not faltered for 
a moment in their desire or design to make their terminus at Wheeling, 
we have paused at the mouth of M'Mahon's Creek for the purpose of se- 
lecting the best line and mode of approach to the accomplishment of that 
object, Between the place of our entrance into the ravine of the river 
and this city, two or three sites available for the passage of the stream 
by a Rail Road bridge at an ample elevation to avoid interference to na- 
24 



ISC 

vigation, give unmistakable indication of what mode of transit would be 
best both for our Road and this city. But to accomplish this we had no 
legislation from your State recognizing our corporate powers, and giving 
the necessary authority. This might be done with such guards as shall 
protect from any imaginable unfavorable result, and in asking our con- 
currence. You can have the terminus of our Road in the heart of your 
city if you will. Do you so wish it? 

But gentlemen, although I had more to say, I am conscious of having 
already exhausted your patience, and I will close. I cannot, however, do 
it without joining in congratulations upon the event which has brought 
this great crowd of people together. Not yet taught what continuous 
effort could do, when the people of the West were told, a quarter of a 
century since, that Baltimore had determined to unite herself with the 
Great Valley, by an unbroken Railway, the matter was looked upon as 
a chimera, about which, pleasant speculations might be indulged, but 
from which could flow no substantial results. The then theory of Rail- 
ways was, that lines nearly level and straight, were indispensable to suc- 
cess. That such lines could be obtained through the narrow and preci- 
pitious defiles of even the approaches to the Alleganies, was known to 
be impossible; and how those lofty ranges themselves, were to be sur- 
mounted, was a difficulty from which even speculation fatigued with 
vagaries, turned away listlessly. But with an unflagging purpose — 
through years of gloom, of sacrifice, of labor, of patient effort, the sub- 
lime conception moved on to its accomplishment. Valleys were filled 
up — hills were laid low — rivers spanned — precipices scaled — mountains 
mined through, and here at last — afar from its starting place at the tide 
water sweeps the mystic train into this fair Valley of the West. (Cheers.) 

When we view the vast expenditure of treasure, of physical labor, 
and of mental toil upon the mighty work, the completion of which we 
have met this day to celebrate, and when we speculate upon the inesti- 
mable benefits which it is to confer through all coming time, we cannot 
but admire that boldness of conception which originated it, and the un- 
conquerable will, which for the last three years has moved steadily to- 
wards its completion, through every difficulty. It was given as an 
explanation of the character of one of our public men, who had the 
reputation of great firmness of purpose, that he could hear more distinctly 
than other men, the footsteps of coming generations. To this foreshadowing 
of responsibility to posterity, may doubtless be attributed that disregard 
of ease and present fame which distinguish all great achievements. 
The man who has pushed this enterprise to completion, heard through the 
streets of his beautiful city, and along the slopes of the Alleganies, the tramp 
of coming generations. (Great Cheering.) 

Mr. Sullivan concluded his highly eloquent and beautiful remarks, by of- 
fering the following sentiment : 

The City of WJieeling : With one great Railway resting its terminus in her 
lap, and four others moving with iron steps towards her, she may rest herself 
in the consciousness of a secured destiny. 

By L. W. Gosnell: The twenty-five years travail has this day, by the magic 
power of the "Iron Horse," brought forth twin sisters — Baltimore and Wheel- 
ing. On the 4th of July next, the West will marry one and the South the 
other, and join together, in bands of steel, their future destiny. 

By A. S. Todd: The B. $r 0. R. Road — The jugular vein between the 
Chesapeake and Ohio. 



187 

By H. N. Gallaher, of the "Virginia Free Press:" The people of Wheel- 
ing — Patience and perseverance — their steadiness of purpose has ensured them 
a glorious triumph. They well deserve success. 

By W. B. Buchanan: Baltimore and Wheeling — Linked together as they 
now are, by bonds of iron, may their motto, and their experience ever lie, 
"Junct a Juvant." 

By a Bachelor: The Ladies of Wheeling and Baltimore. 

By H. N. Gallaher: Virginia — Our good old mother has shown her skill 
in housewifery, by taking a strong hold upon the "Pan Handle." 

By Col. M. I. Cohen: The Cities of Wheeling and Baltimore — May the Lake 
shores of the North-West, the Pacific shores of the West, and the Gulf shores 
of the South -West, throw an uninterrupted stream of commerce over the first 
Rail Road connecting the Ohio River with the Atlantic Ocean. 

By J. W. Gill: The speedy connection of Wheeling with the Rail Roads of 
North- Western Ohio by way of Bridgeport, Cadiz and Uricksville. 

By Major W. Bradshaw: Inasmuch as Maryland, Virginia and Ohio have 
this day published to the world a bond of union, feeling and interest, for the 
sake of the Union, let no unhallowed tongue forbid the banns. 

By John M'Lure: Philip E. Thomas, the 1st President, and Jonathan 
Knight, the 1st Chief Engineer; Thomas Swannj the present President, and 
B. H. Latrobe, the present Chief Engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
Company — May they long live and receive the just reward for their persever- 
ance in the commencement, and their determination to complete the work to 
the Ohio River, where the cars have successfully passed over the entire road 
from Baltimore to Wheeling. 

By E. B. Swearingen: The memory of Henry Clay — The patriot and states- 
man, the unrivalled advocate of Internal Improvements, alike the friend of 
Rail Roads, as he was of Turnpikes and Canals; the man this city loved to 
honor, while living, and whose memory she reveres when no more. 

By T. Sweeney: Kentucky — The Pioneer in the settlement and civilization 
of the West, she was also first and foremost in the great work of constructing 
Turnpikes and Rail Roads. Her position and relations midway between all 
the great sections of the country, point to her as a Rail Road State, in the 
future, for connections with which every other quarter will honorably struggle. 

[Col. Stevenson, President of the Maysville and Big Sandy Rail Road 
Company, eloquently acknowledged this toast.] 

By a Stranger: Mr. Roseby Carr — The man who laid the rails and his army 
of sappers and miners: The latter assisted at the courtship, and the former acted 
as parson at the nuptials of the Ohio and the Chesapeake. 

Mr. Carr responded in the following characteristic speech: 

"Mr. President, I am no speaker. Let the long link of road I have laid 
in so short a time, and under so many difficulties, speak for me. But 
let me say, three cheers for Benjamin H. Latrobe, Esq." 

Three cheers were given him as he concluded, and three for Mr. Latrobe. 



188 

By Oliver I. Taylor: Baltimore and Wheeling — Having spent twenty-five 
years in courting, may their vigorous offspring show that marriages are "better 
late than never." 

By Col. Anthony Kimmel, of Linganore, Maryland: The Plough and the 
Rail Road— "The 'Subdue™' of the Earth." 

In reply to toasts, and in response to the calls of the company, eloquent and 
interesting speeches were made by Col. Tickles, of Ohio, Mr. Forde, of Ohio, 
Mr. Moran, of Philadelphia, Z. Collins Lee, Esq., of Baltimore, Mr. Miller, 
of Virginia, Capt. J. C. Marriott, and others. 

The company dispersed at a late hour, long to remember the celebration of 
the opening of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road at Wheeling. 



A PARODY 



The following appropriate impromptu verses, read at the Banquet, are 
attributed to a distinguished lawyer of Baltimore, and we present them as 
worthy the occasion: 

Air — "Young Lochenvar." 

Oh! proud was the day when out of the North, 
On her swift Iron steed came Young Lochenvar forth; 
He crossed the Cheat River, tho' ford it had none, 
With no watchword but Union — no herald but Swann. 

So faithful in love for his far Western bride, 
There never was Knight who could ride by his side; 
He staid not for mountain, or torrent, or glen, 
But onward and Westward he cheered on his men. 

And brightly his Star Spangled Banners did fly,* 
And the breath of his proud steed now brightens the sky 
'Mid the darkness of night, his trumpet blasts shrill, 
Re-echoes his triumph o'er valley and hill. 

So boldly he entered his bride's stately hall 

Among bridesmen, and kinsmen, and brothers and all, 

That none could his title or valor dispute, 

But rejoicing in wonder, stood startled and mute. 

Till proclaiming his triumph of love, not of war, 
They all hailed and welcomed the Young Lochenvar; 
Love swells like the Ohio, and ebbs like its tide, 
But ne'er shall his charge towards his beautiful bride. 

To lead but one measure, drink one glass of wine, 
Then around her forever his strong arms entwine, 
So daring in love, so dauntless in war, 
When heard ye of one like this young Lochenvar. 

Now sweetly with garlands of peace on her brow, 
Forth stepp d the far West, looking lovelier now, 
Gave her heart and her hand with a kiss of delight 
In token of love for this gallant Young Knight. 

* The cars were decorated with innumerable flags and the engines blazed with fire. 



189 



THE RAIL ROAD CHIEF. 

A PARODY. 

Respectfully Dedicated to the Guests at the Banquet. 

Oh ! the great Rail Road Chief has come from the East, 

To Wheeling's proud bridal — her gay marriage feast — 

But, save his fierce road-steed, all peaceful his train, 

His object is union — his weapon, champagne — 

For never was chieftain so bent to unite 

The East with the West, as this spruce, gallant knight. 

He stopped not for mountain, he stayed not for stream, 

His pathway was iron — his impulse was steam; 

He crossed the broad rivers, where bridge was unknown, 

Till he bade them be spanned, and lo! it was done; 

But when he alighted at Wheeling's wide gate, 

The bride was still doubting — the Hempfield came late — 

For a laggard in action, a craven in schemes, 

Had been wooing the belle of our western streams. 

So boldly he entered the city's great hall, 

Where guests were assembled — mayor, council and all — 

Then spaks the bride's guardian, the town's civil lord, 

For the poor, timid suitor, said never a word — 

" Oh ! come you in mirth here, or come you to rue 

The loss of the maiden we destined for you?" 

" Once pledged to your daughter — my suit not denied— 
I dallied so long, others claim her for bride; 
And now, am I come, with this first love of mine, 
To partake of her feast — drink deep of her wine; 
There are belles of the river, and one, not afar, 
Now waiting the whistle of my iron car." 

The bride spread the banquet, the knight ate his fill, 
He drank off the wine, and he drank with a will — 
She led to her bridge, and, blushing, began 
To tell of her boat she had christened "Tom Swann;" 
He took her fair hand, ere his rival could bar, 
"Let us show them a trick, a la young Lochenvar." 

So wily his accents, so tempting her dower, 
One glance was enough, and the contract secure; 
While the neighbors did fret, and the suitors turned pale, 
And the poor would-be bridegroom did nothing but quail; 
And the brides-maidens whispered each other aside, 
" Tis plain this bold stranger will lead off the bride." 

One speech to the mayor — one toast, at the feast — 
He has ordered his car, and is off the East, 
But the bride had no fears, as she bade him adieu, 
For she knew his embrace, not more ardent than true, 
And she holds him, besides, in a strong iron chain, 
And has high pressure steam, to restore him again. 

There was wonder and sadness on more than one brow; 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, oh! where are ye now? 
Poor Pittsburg is flung — for her steamboats no more 
Can whistle, in scorn, as they pass Wheeling's shore. 



190 



No chimneys to lower — no action to bring — 

For a flat-boat, she'll find, will soon be the thing; 

She may war on all bridges — save one, for herself, 

But her trade, with the river, is laid on the shelf. 

So daring in effort, so prompt with the fair, 

Have ye e'er heard of knight who with this may compare? 

W. B. B. 



THE RETURN FROM WHEELING. 

The Rail Road excursion party from Baltimore spent the day at Wheeling, 
on Thursday, in examining the many objects of interest about the city, such 
as the great Suspension Bridge, the Boats of the Union Line, Commercial and 
Forwarding Houses, Iron and Glass Manufactories, &c. At night many of 
them attended the splendid Ball at Washington Hall, where the beauty and 
fashion of Wheeling had congregated; and on the following morning, with 
many regrets of having to leave behind so many newly made friends, but with 
a high sense of their warm hospitality and kind treatment, they prepared to 
take their departure in the cars for their homes, in the "City of Monuments." 
The correspondent of the Baltimore papers thus describes their departure, the 
trip back, and the arrival home on Sunday morning, January 16. 

" At half past eight o'clock we were comfortably seated in the cars, which 
were, as on the outward passage, divided into two trains, of six cars each ; the 
first train in charge of the conductor, Captain Owens, contained Gov. Johnson, 
of Virginia; Gov. Lowe, of Maryland, and suite; the members of the Legis- 
latures of both States — President Swann and the Directors of the Road. The 
second train, in charge of Captain Rawlings, contained other invited guests, 
as well as Messrs. Parker, Cole, and other officers of the Company. 

"Our number had been reduced by the formation and secession of two parties. 
The first, desirous of seeing the country, had gone, to the number of twenty 
or thirty, to Pittsburg, and thence home by Harrisburg, in Pennsylvania — and 
the other, amounting to thirty or forty, had left the night before, on an excur- 
sion to Cincinnati, to return next week, and still others had tarried behind with 
friends. 

"The farewell scene was most exciting and enthusiastic. Crowds lined the 
road between the inner and outer depots. Cheer after cheer mingled with hearty 
shouts of 'good by, Baltimoreans,' went up to the welkin, from the multi- 
tude. Hats waved high, and some who had in hurry come to the ground 
without that appendage of comfort, pulled off their coats, and whirled them in 
the air. The ladies, too, peered out of casements, from piazzas, and even the 
sidewalks, waving their handkerchiefs as we moved slowly on our way. 
* * * * * * # # 

"It was night, deep black night, as we thundered on amidst the sublimity of 
the Alleganies. The world of wondrous grandeur around us was shut out. 
We could not gaze upon the works of the Almighty, as, like " Alp on Alp,' 
the upheaved mountain mass loomed up to heaven. We could not see the 
work of man, in cleaving or boring the mountain, filling up and bridging the 
chasm, and making a highway where, erewhile, the bird of Jove sat on the 
storm-beat rock, or the forest beast had his unmolested lair. But we had good 
fellowship and good cheer within our moving world. Hearing the strains of 
music as Morpheus was beginning to 'steep my senses in forgetfulness,' I 
repaired into one of the other cars, and the fleet hours of night went by 
amidst 'mirth, and song, and glee.' There were many prominent men, of 
both the legislatures of Virginia and Maryland. Speeches expressive of fra- 
ternal union between the two States were made, and amusing anecdotes related, 
sentimental songs sung, till beyond ' the witching hour of night.' 

****** 

"The journey was full of exciting and pleasurable incident. But it is passed, 
and we separate to meet no more in festive hall, or amid scenes of cheerful in- 



191 

tercourse along the way. But ties of friendship have been knit, and chords of 
sympathy attuned to chime responsively in future life. Every thing was done 
on the part of the President, Directors, and other officers to make us happy, 
and the journey safe and agreeable, and I am sure there was not a man regretted 
having undertaken it. Mr. Swann was every where dispensing information rel- 
ative to the road, and by his easy, agreeable manners, and intelligent conver- 
sation won the esteem of all. Messrs. Parker and Cole were watchful as the lynx, 
to guard us safely on, while the engineers, Berry and Becket, skilled and care- 
ful men, discharged their duties well, and deserve a mention in this report. 

" But among the number of gentlemen connected with the excursion, it was 
the universal sentiment that none contributed more largely to our stock of en- 
joyment than Mr. Joshua Vansant, one of the Directors, who, by his unremit- 
ing care for their comfort, seemed only desirous that all should be gratified." 



TRIBUTES TO THE RAIL ROAD COMPANY AND OFFICERS. 

A meeting of the guests invited by the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Com- 
pany to be present at the opening of the road to Wheeling, was held on Satur- 
day evening, in the cars, when the Hon. John Lee, of Frederick county, was 
appointed chairman, and Moor N. Falls, Esq., of Baltimore, secretary. On 
motion of the Hon. Mr. Roberts, of dueen Anne's county, the chair was 
directed to select a committee of five persons, who were instructed to prepare 
and publish a suitable acknowledgment to the city and inhabitants of Wheeling, 
the officers of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, and others who 
had contributed by their kind and hospitable treatment, to enhance the plea- 
sures of the occasion. 

The following gentlemen were accordingly named by the chair: Hon. Mr. 
Roberts, of Queen Anne's; Mr. Davis, Mr. Webb, Mr. Ridgely and Mr. Poe, 
of Baltimore, who reported the following card, which was unanimously adopted 
and ordered to be published. 

A CARD. 

The Committee, speaking on behalf of the guests of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road Company and the City of Wheeling, beg leave to acknowledge the 
uniform kindness and munificent hospitality with which they were treated. 

The corporate authorities and the citizens of Wheeling had prepared for the 
reception of their visitors all the eclat which could be imparted to the occasion 
by military display, illuminations, public banquets, and private entertainments. 
The unfortunate and unexpected accident which delayed the arrival of the cars, 
frustrated some of these arrangements, but nothing was left undone which the 
most refined sense of hospitality could suggest. Where all strove to please, it 
would be unjust and invidious to discriminate, and the Committee, therefore, 
content themselves with the expression of the unfeigned thanks of all their 
constituents to the corporate authorities and the individual citizens of that city, 
which, now united to Baltimore by iron bands, has so unequivocally manifested 
its desire to cultivate the closest social and commercial relations. The efforts 
of the City Authorities were ably seconded by Mr. Carroll, the host of the 
M 'Lure House, who has ensured the return to his Hotel of every one of us 
who may ever again visit Wheeling. 

This acknowledgment would be incomplete if we were to omit to return our 
thanks to Mr. Swann, the President of the Company, and to Col. Davies, Mr. 
Deford, Mr. Vansant and Mr. Turner, of the Committee of Arrangements, 
who, with constant assiduity and the most perfect success, supplied and strove 
to anticipate every want of their guests. The various officers having the ex- 
tensive trains in charge, acquitted themselves of their arduous trusts in the 
most meritorious manner, and are nobly entitled to the thanks of those whom 
they carried, with safety and comfort, over nearly eight hundred miles of road, 
much of it new to them, and, of course, requiring the exercise of unusual skill 
and caution. 

Saturday evening, Jan. 15, 1853. 



19^ 

At a meeting of the invited guests from the State of Virginia, attending 
the recent celebration of the completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road 
Company, held on their return from Wheeling, the company was called to 
order by Dr. Yerby, of Northampton, and, on his motion, Gov. Johnson 
was requested to take the Chair, and Mr. H. Robertson, of Norfolk, to 
act as Secretary. The Chair having stated the object of the meeting, on the 
motion of Mr. Semple, of Fredericksburg, after eloquent and fitting addresses 
from several gentlemen, 

Resolved, That a Committee of five be appointed by the Chair to prepare 
resolutions expressive of the sense entertained by this meeting, of the hospi- 
talities received from the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, and the 
City of Wheeling ; also of the courtesy of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and 
Potomac Rail Road Company in extending to the Virginia delegation, a free 
passage over their line. 

The Chair appointed the following gentlemen to compose the committee, viz: 
Messrs. Miller, of Botetourt; Tabb, of Norfolk; Semple, of Fredericksburg; 
Braxton, of Richmond County ; and W. F. Ritchie, of Richmond City. 

On motion, the Committee was enlarged by the addition of Gov. Johnson and 
Mr. Andrew Hunter, of Jefferson, to their number. 

After some time, the Committee reported the following resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted, viz : 

Resolved, That we, the delegation from Viiginia, have experienced the high- 
est gratification in the excursion to the City of Wheeling, on the occasion of 
the opening of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road. 

Resolved, That we tender our warmest acknowledgments to the President and 
Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, their Committee of 
arrangements and officers who were present on the excursion ; to the city 
authorities and citizens of Wheeling — and to Mr. J. Carroll, of the M'Lure 
House, at Wheeling, for the generous and uniform kindness and hospitality 
which we have received at their hands. 

Resolved, That we return our sincere thanks to the President and Directors of 
the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Rail Road Company, for their 
liberal invitation to use the facilities of their line in making the excursion to 
Wheeling. 

On motion, it was further Resolved, That the Secretary of this meeting be 
requested to forward copies of its proceedings to the President and Directors 
of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, and of the Richmond, Fredericksburg 
and Potomac Rail Road; and to the authorities of the City of Wheeling, and 
to such other persons as the Committee on Resolutions may direct. 

And the meeting then adjourned sine die. 

(Signed,) JOSEPH JOHNSON, Chairman. 

Harrison Robertson, Secretary. 



£E^*The following is from the Richmond Enquirer, edited by William F. 
Ritchie, Esq., who was one of the guests of the Rail Road Company and the 
City of Wheeling: 

"Among the many objects of great interest at Wheeling is the 'Thomas 
Swann,' a splendid boat of the new 'Union Line' between Wheeling and 
Louisville, very nearly completed. It has a cabin of 270 feet in length, with 
pure white and gilt Gothic state-rooms and every possible convenience. We 
are here reminded of the gentleman whose name this boat so worthily bears — 
we refer to Thomas Swann, Esq., the President of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road Company. He is one of the most elegant gentlemen we have ever 
known — intelligent, courteous, far-seeing, indomitable. With a princely pri- 
vate fortune, he has devoted all his time and energies to the success of this great 
work — and he has won undying honor and lasting fame. His speeches are 
always in fine taste, full of information, and happy in every respect. But his 
proudest merit in our eyes is that Mr. Swann, amidst all his distinction, ever 
remembers that he is a son of Virginia, and does justice to his native State." 



SUPPLEMENT. 

Retirement of Mr. Swann from, the Presidency of 
the Company — His closing statement of the con- 
dition and prospects of the Road. — Election of 
William G. Harrison as his Successor. 

It was generally understood when Mr. Swann accepted the 
Presidency of the Road in 1848, that his object was mainly to 
build it from Cumberland, (where it had languished since 1842,) 
to Wheeling — that is, to finish it for its entire length, and 
to thus permanently connect the Ohio and the Chesapeake. 
Although the impression thus rested upon the public mind, that 
upon its completion, he would retire from his honorable and 
arduous labors, — yet, it was with universal regret that the com- 
munity learned, on the 12th April, that he adhered to his inten- 
tion, and was still determined to resign. The following article 
from the Baltimore Sun, of that date, shows the state of the 
general feeling upon the subject: 

" It was currently reported through the city yesterday, that Mr. Swann 
would, at the meeting of the Board of Directors on Wednesday, resign his 
position as President of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company. Mr. S. 
has made a good officer, and although the reported resignation was not unex- 
pected, it will be regretted by his numerous friends. A number of gentlemen 
have already been mentioned as candidates to succeed Mr. Swann, among 
whom we have heard the names of Messrs. Vansant, Harrison and Tiffany.* 
The completion of our great road is an achievement accomplished under Mr. 
Swann's auspices, and having stood up to the discharge of the important duties 
devolving upon him in that connection, until all the main difficulties incident to 
so great an enterprise are finally overcome, he will retire only when its rich 
fruits have been fully secured to the Company and the community that he has 
so long served." 

At the monthly meeting of the Board of Directors of the 
Company, held on the 13th April, Mr. Swann presented the 
following statement of the excellent and promising condition in 
which his energy, intelligence, and skillful management had 
placed the concerns of Company: 

* Thomas Winans and James Murray, Esqs., were also among those who 
were named for the Presidency. 

25 



194 

Gentlemen: As it has not been the habit of this Company heretofore to 
present to the Stockholders a semi-annual Report of their proceedings, I must 
claim the privilege of so far deviating from this rule as to ask your indulgence in 
a few remarks, which the report of the Committee on Finance, and my past 
relations with the Company would seem to call for on the present occasion. 

The total receipts from passengers, mails and merchandise, for the six months 
ending on the 31st of March, have been $814,584 84. The expense of the 
road during the same period, $534,940 07. 

The interest on the capital invested in the construction of the road, West of 
Cumberland, has been charged to capital, the road not having been reported as 
in a state for active business until the opening of the "Board Tree" Tunnel on 
the first of April. 

The Board have declared a dividend in stock of three per cent., in accordance 
with the plan heretofore detailed, payable on and after the 31st ult. 

The earnings of the Washington Branch have been $201,473 79, and the 
net revenue, after deducting the State's bonus (say $32,891 55) for the half 
year, amounted to $117,723 49. A dividend of five per cent, has been de- 
clared on the Washington Branch, and a surplus of $54,128 49 carried to the 
account of the next half year. 

The total expenses of the Branch have been $50,858 75. 

The aggregate receipts for the month of March, from both roads, amounted 
to the large sum of $270,420 39 — a more satisfactory result than has ever been 
realized since the road went into operation. 

I cannot too strongly invite the attention of the Board to the importance 
of urging upon the Legislature to make some relaxation in the heavy bonus 
charged on passengers, which would enable the Company to reduce the fare 
on the Washington Branch. I am assured that every disposition exists, and 
has always existed in the Board, to meet the public expectation in this par- 
ticular. At present the whole odium of the high rates charged upon that road, 
falls upon the Company. 

The road was opened to Wheeling, as the Board are aware, on the 10th of 
January last, under embarrassments which it may be unnecessary to refer to in 
this place. The Chief Engineer announced his readiness to receive the trains 
on that day, and the Board deemed it best to make the attempt at the earliest 
practicable moment. The primary object which they had in view, was to pre- 
pare for the spring trade, and it was evident that without some effort this could 
not be accomplished. A road requires to be worked for a few months before it 
can be brought into successful use; and if the opening had been delayed to the 
first of April, and no trains permitted to pass over it, the same contingencies 
with which we have been contending for two months past, and which are now 
in the main subdued, would have been still obstructing our path. 

These obstacles, however, including the " Board Tree" Tunnel, have not been 
greater, if indeed as great, as those of the Erie or Pennsylvania roads during 
the first months of their operations. The Chief Engineer estimated that five 
hundred tons per day could be passed over the " Board Tree" Tunnel from the 
period of the opening; but the General Superintendent did not deem it expe- 
dient to transport freight at all until some six weeks had elapsed after the pas- 
senger trains had been run through. Had the Board awaited the opening of 
the tunnel before the laying down of the rails between that point and Wheeling, 
the road would have been still unfinished. 



195 

Great allowance is to be made for a new road, traversing such a country aa 
that through which this road passes. The permanent adjustment of the track 
is a work of time. An increased force is indispensable to be kept constantly 
on hand to remove slips and clear the way for the daily passage of the trains. 
Those who may be disposed to cast censure upon the officers of the Company 
for a failure to meet the public expectation in all particulars, must recollect 
that there is a limit to human power in these matters. 

The preparation of the ground for the passenger and tonnage operations of 
the road, between Howard and Eutaw streets, has been attended with consi- 
derable expense. This, it is hoped, will cease in the course of the present 
month, as it would not be advisable for the Company to do any thing towards 
the new station on Camden street until the receipts of the road justify a further 
expenditure. What has been done already could not well have been dispensed 
with. 

At the Wheeling station some expenditure is also being incurred. 

While these outlays have been large, no more it is believed has been under- 
taken than was absolutely indispensable for the convenience of the road. The 
track in Cecil alley has been a source of vexatious expenditure, owing to the 
impracticable spirit evinced by persons binding on said alley. The bed of 
Howard street, it was early discovered, would have failed to answer the pur- 
poses of the road, from liability to ice and inundations, and the necessity for 
more than one track to meet the pressing wants of the service. 

Expenditures will have to be incurred, without delay, for temporary build- 
ings at various points along the extended line of the road. 

In the Annual Report of the Chief Engineer, the third revised estimate of the 
total cost of the road was stated by him in detail at $8,075,277. Up to this 
time the expenditures chargeable to construction, as reported by the Treasurer, 
have exceeded this last amount by $239,303. The final report of this officer 
has been promised at an early day. My habit has been, as the Annual Re- 
ports will show, to invite the Chief Engineer to make his own statement of 
matters over which the Board can exercise but a partial control, and that 
only in checking wasteful expenditure, which it is believed are nowhere charge- 
able upon the line of this road. Additional cost may have been sometimes in- 
curred in giving to their bridge masonry and other structures a permanent and 
durable character; but the experience of the road East of Cumberland shows 
that the policy which has been adopted is one of true economy in the end. No 
road in this country has been more securely or substantially built. 

The irregularities which prevailed for some time in the working departments 
of this road, owing to causes over which the President of this Company 
could exercise no control, are now happily removed, and the trains are run- 
ing with a regularity which may be said to compare favorably with any for- 
mer period in the history of this work. A system has been adopted for run- 
ing the engines daily, which will add greatly to the capacity of the road to 
accommodate the trade during the deficiency of power at present complained of. 

It is much to be regretted that the effect of the late "strike" has been to 
suspend the contracts heretofore made for the supply of the machinery and cars 
for the increased demands of the road on the opening of the tunnel. On the 
1st of April the deficiency of power was severely felt, and this must continue 
to be the case for some time to come. The Board found themselves in such a 
situation that they could do nothing to protect the Company against these un- 
looked for delays; and they were compelled to await a re-commencement of the 
work in the various shops having contracts to fill, 



196 

The pecuniary loss entailed upon the Company by the effect of the late 
" strike," has been more serious than the Board might be led to believe. But 
for this a dividend of at least 3| per cent, might have been declared. 

The machinery heretofore contracted for is now in a state of advancement. 
Large additions have been made since my estimate of October, to that already 
ordered. The road is now well supplied with cars, and with the engines still to 
be delivered, will present a power as great, it is believed, as that of any other 
road in the country, and must be competent to do a large business. 

The Treasurer's exhibit, herewith annexed, marked A, after deducting pay 
rolls for the month of March, the July interest on the sterling bonds, payable 
in England, say $100,400, and the dividend due on the Washington branch, 
will leave a balance in the treasury of $573,175 05. 

The floating debt applicable to construction, falling due from the 1st of May 
to the 31st of December, for which the notes of the Company have been given, 
is $366,353 44. Of this amount $221,311 27 was incurred for the purchase of 
iron for sidings, including the five miles near Ellicott's Mills now being finished, 
renewal of old rails, &c. &c, much of which still remains upon the line of the 
road to be laid down hereafter. 

The cost of the iron which has been recently purchased for second track, 
three thousand tons of which are stipulated to be paid for in the coupon bonds 
of the Company, as well as the cost of laying down the track, will be a tax 
upon the bonds authorized to be issued for that purpose. 

The committee on " construction and repairs" have also contracted for seven 
hundred cars applicable to the Coal Trade, in addition to their present supply, 
two hundred of which will be appropriated to the Cumberland Coal and Iron 
Company, under the agreement with them. Two hundred of these cars are to 
be paid for in cash on delivery, and the balance in November next — allowing 
full time for the negotiation of the bonds. 

The engines yet to be provided, with a view to the Coal Trade^ say thirty of 
the first class, should be contracted for at an early day, now that the shops are 
again in operation. These it was intended to pay for in the Bonds of the 
Company. The situation of the Company will stand thus: 

Amount on hand after deducting July interest in sterling bonds, say $573,175 05 
Bonds on hand applicable to construction, second track, and coal 

trade, now selling at a limit of 91 per cent 1,250,000 00 

Total available funds „ $1,823,175 05 

The disposition to be made of the above is as follows: 
Floating debt on construction account, for which notes have been 

given, due from the 1st of May to the 31st December $366,353 44 

Amount due on last purchase of iron, payable monthly at the 

rate of about 500 tons, $250,000 in bonds, and the balance in cash, 400,000 00 
Cost of laying second track, including cross-ties, ballast, &c. &c. . 150,000 00 
Seven hundred cars for coal trade, 200 to be paid for in cash on 

delivery, and the balance in November 350,000 00 

Additional engines not yet contracted for, applicable to coal trade, 

say 30 300,000 00 

$1,566,353 44 

Deduct this amount from available funds, will leave a surplus of $256,821 61. 

The notes outstanding for engines and cars, falling due in one, two and three 

years, from the 1st of January, 1853, may be funded as they severally mature, 

having been classed among the debts of the Company, to be so disposed of, in 

case the revenues of the road should be inadequate to meet them. 



197 

During the progress of the road heretofore, I have endeavored to mature its 
financial plans, without too much dependence on the receipts from revenue. If 
we are to be guided by the flattering exhibit of the past month, this caution 
may not be found to be necessary. All estimates based upon revenue must be 
more or less speculative; but having the past before us as a standard, it is now 
reasonable to presume that the aggregate receipts from the Main Stem cannot 
fall short of $2,400,000; it is also more than probable that they will exceed 
$3,000,000; and it is by no means extravagant to suppose that they will touch, 
if not go beyond, the limits assumed by the General Superintendent in his cal- 
culation of $4,000,000. 

With such a basis of credit, then, and the ordinary financial tact that must 
always be supposed to attach to the head of such a corporation as this, the 
power cannot be wanting, with the confidence which this road every where in- 
spires, to accomplish all the aid that may be needed from time to time to supply 
the casual wants of the Company, and to place the road in the most advanta- 
geous position for the accommodation of the largest amount of trade. 

If the wants of the road should be great, as they no doubt will be, its reve- 
nues will be correspondingly large, and the increase of capital from time to time 
should be met with a liberal hand, whenever it may be necessary to augment 
the capacity or extend the profits of the road. The increase of capital, how- 
ever, while it should be sanctioned with a view to greater capacity and useful- 
ness, should not be permitted, at any time) to interfere with or in any manner 
control the net revenue which may be earned, and which of right belongs to the 
stockholders. 

The President then submitted the following exhibit of the 
Treasurer: 

A. 

Statement of the Affairs of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Co., April 12th, 1853. 

Cost of road West of Cumberland, exclusive of interest, machi- 
nery, &c, to the above date inclusive, $6,969,620 71 

Add for oustanding bills payable on account of 

contractors, $71,883 00 

Bridge Superstructures, 14,919 17 

Right of Way,.. 3,240 00 

C. P. Manning, Division Engineer, j . 55,000 00 

145,042 17 

$7,114,662 88 

Due for Coupon Bonds of 1885,. $363,009 93 

Due by cash on special deposit at interest, . < . . 120,000 00 

Due by Merchants 'Bank, 138,077 49 

Due by revenue in Wheeling, including outstanding debts there,. . . 49,620 09 
Due by outstanding revenue due by Post Office Department and « 

individuals in Baltimore,. ; 59,467 55 

$730,175 05 
Deduct dividend on Washington Branch Rail Road, $56,600 00 
Due for interest to be remitted to England on Mary- 
land Sterling Bonds, 100,400 00 

157,000 00 

$573,175,05 
Jipril 12, 1853. J. I. ATKINSON, Treasurer. 



198 

The foregoing lucid and satisfactory papers having been read, 
Mr. Swann called Mr. George Brown to the chair, and, after 
handing to the Secretary the following letter, retired: 

Office of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, 

Jipril 13, 1853. 
To the Board of Directors of the Bait. 8f Ohio R. R. Co.: 

Gentlemen, — In accepting the office of President of this Company, 
more than four years ago, I announced to the Board, that my services 
could not be extended beyond the period when an uninterrupted line of 
communication would be opened from the Chesapeake to the Ohio. 

From that time to the present, I have been discharging the duties 
which have devolved upon me, as your presiding officer, to the almost 
total neglect of every other claim upon my time. Stimulated by the 
magnitude and importance of the undertaking, and its anticipated results 
to the City of Baltimore, and the State at large, I have been encouraged 
to encounter the many sacrifices, both of a domestic and pecuniary cha- 
racter, which the situation has imposed. 

While there was occasion for sacrifices on my part, I was willing to 
forego every other consideration in the effort to make myself useful to 
the public. The period has now arrived when these influences have 
ceased to operate, having remained with you until the last obstacle has 
been removed, towards placing the whole line of your great work from 
Baltimore to Wheeling in successful operation. 

The duty of re-organizing and working the road must now devolve 
upon other and more competent hands, and I have deemed it due to 
myself, that I should tender to you my resignation of this office. 

In thus severing a connection which has existed since my appointment 
to this place — a connection which has been marked by a unanimity sel- 
dom witnessed in transactions of so complicated and varied a character — 
I cannot permit the opportunity to pass, without expressing my most 
sincere and grateful acknowledgments for the uniform kindness and for- 
bearance with which I have been supported by every member of the 
Board, in all the leading measures of my administration ; and I would 
farther add, that without that cordial and united support, I should, on 
more than one occasion, have sunk under the embarrassments with 
which I have often found myself surrounded. 

Assuring you, gentlemen, of my interest now, and at all times, in the 
success of the great enterprise entrusted to your charge, and thanking 
you for your uniform kindness, I remain, with the highest regard, 

Your obedient servant, THOMAS SWANN. 

The letter having been read, and the resignation accepted by 
the Board, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That the Board have learned with deep regret, by the communica- 
tion of the President just read, his determination to resign the Presidency of this 
Company, but as they feel they have no right to require of him any further 
services, after the faithful manner in which he has already devoted himself to 
the Company, when it is his desire to be relieved from the duties and labors of 



199 

the office, they cannot refuse his request, and therefore respectfully accept his 
resignation. 

Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed to communicate to Mr. 
Swann, in behalf of this Board, their deep-felt thanks for the able, faithful, 
energetic, and devoted manner in which he has administered the affairs of this 
Company for the last four years, and accomplished the great enterprise in 
which they have so long labored— and express to him the sentiments of high 
respect, regard and esteem entertained toward him by the members of this 
Board, and their sincere wishes for his continued prosperity and happiness. 

The Committee appointed in pursuance of the above resolution 
were Gen. B. C. Howard, Gen. C. O'Donnell, and H. S. Garrett, 
Esq. They subsequently waited on Mr. Swann, and presented 
to him a copy of the resolutions together with the following letter: 

Baltimore, April 13, 1853. 
Thomas Swann, Esq.: 

Sir, — The enclosed resolutions express so fully the feelings of the Di- 
rectors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company upon the subject 
of your resignation as President, that it may appear superfluous for the 
undersigned to say any thing in addition. 

Nevertheless, the Committee would but imperfectly discharge their 
duty, if they did not add their individual and personal testimony to the 
great value of the services which you have rendered to the Company, 
whilst surrounded by every species of difficulty, — physical, political and 
pecuniary. At length the great object is accomplished. Man has tri- 
umphed over the mountains whose lofty summits and deep chasms 
appeared to forbid every species of transit. The little streams which 
meandered through the deep gorges of the Allegany, seemed to be the 
only moving things allowed by nature to interrupt her profound silence, 
until human skill and boldness, under your decisive management, pierced 
the hills and spanned the ravines. 

Of all the monuments which the ancient Romans erected, those only 
remain which led, by durable roads, from the capital to the circumfer- 
ence; showing that the wisdom of making such lasting structures was 
fully appreciated at an early day, and has received the commendations 
of twenty successive centuries. How long is the road to last, which you 
have had such an active participation in building? Will twenty centu- 
ries continue to praise the sagacity which planned, and the firmness of 
purpose which executed it? 

Whatever may be the answer to these questions, it is quite certain, 
that this road rises into an object of national importance, knitting together 
States and districts of country by imperishable ties. In looking back 
upon the history of the past four years, we find in every part of it, abun- 
dant evidences of your intelligence and firmness, and repeat the expres- 
sion made by the Directors, of the profound regret with which our offi- 
cial connection has ceased to exist. Wishing you health and happiness, 
We are, respectfully, BENJ. C. HOWARD, ~) 

COLUMBUS O'DONNELL, )> Committee. 
HENRY S. GARRETT, 3 



200 

Much as Mr. Swarm's resignation is to be regretted, it must 
be admitted that he has left the Company at the moment of its 
great success, and greater prospective prosperity, — and after its 
almost insurmountable difficulties and embarrassments had been 
grappled with and overcome. 

The official returns of the business of the road for the past 
month, (March, 1 853,) as communicated to the Board, confirm 
the gratifying prospects held out by Mr. Swann. As compared 
with the month of March, 1852, these returns show the following 
results: 

Main Stem. 1853. 1852. 

Passengers $46,372 58 $25,489 54 

Freight .169,894 79 93,608 72 

$216,265 37 $110,098 26 

This gives an increase for March, 1853, over March of 1852, of $76,286 07 
for freights, and $20,883 04 for passengers, making the total increase of receipts 
on the Main Stem of $97,169 11. 

Washington Branch. 1853. 1852. 

Passengers $45,711 61 $23,939 97 

Freight 8,44141 7,198 35 

$54,153 02 $31,138 32 

This shows that the increase on the Washington Branch was $21,771 64 for 
passengers, $1,243 06 for freight — making a total of $22,014 70. 

The total receipts on the two roads (the Main Stem and the Washington 
Branch) were as follows:— March, 1853, $270,420 39: March, 1852, $150,236 
58;— Making a total increase of $120,183 81. 

The transportation Eastwardly over the road into the City of Baltimore, on 
some of the principal staples, during the month of March, was as follows: 

Bark, 36 tons; 314 bales cotton; 13,151 tons coal; 212 tons fire brick; 60,122 
bbls. flour; 907 tons grain; 580 do. granite; 500 do. iron; 631 do. iron-ore and 
manganese; 160 do. lard and butter; 133 do. leather. Live stock, viz: 4,409 
hogs — 354 tons; 1,890 sheep — 128 tons; 650 horses and mules — 315 tons; 1,405 
horned cattle — 712 tons; meal and shorts, 202 tons; pork and bacon, 524 do.; 
tobacco, 167 hhds.; whiskey, 627 bbls.; wool, 66 bales; lime, 51 tons; miscel- 
laneous, 301 tons. Washington Br'h — Flour received during March, 2,292 bbls. 

After accepting Mr. Swann's resignation, the Board held an 
election for his successor, when WILLIAM G. HARRISON 
was unanimously chosen for the Presidency of the Company, 
the other candidates severally withdrawing their names. 

Mr. Harrison has been for many years a prominent merchant 
of Baltimore. He is a man of clear and quick perception, with 
an active and inquiring mind, and is greatly respected for his 
integrity and uprightness of character. He has a thorough 
familiarity with the details of business, and exercises great 
energy and firmness of purpose in his application to whatever 
claims his attention. With these valuable qualifications, to fit 
him for the arduous labors before him, it may not be going too 
far to say, that in William G. Harrison, Mr. Swann has a 
worthy and excellent successor. May his administration, which 
opens so flatteringly to himself and the Company, redound both 
to his own credit, and to its continued success!