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HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



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HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




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A:0\- lOV ME. REGT, BRV MAJ GENL. VOLS 



© 

HI8TOKY 



■ MAINE regiment! 

In Suticb of tub Dsited States fbom Mat 3. 1861, to Jitkb 21, 1866. 

BY 

MAJ. JOHN M. OOULD. 

WITH THE 

HISTORY OF THE TENTH ME. BATTALIOK 
BY Rev. Leonakd G. Jordan. 




PORTLAND : 
STEPHEN BERRY. 



Ic. S. Sy^to, ^ y^ 




HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



I if 8-0 . \u^^ II' , 




^ 



CONTENTS. 



3«0TE. See page 659 for chronological record of all morements and important OTents. 



1*BEFACE, 11 

IXTBODUCTIOX, « 18 

I. 
OSOASIZATIOX OF FIRST MAINE REQIMESCT, 17 

AprU U to April S7, 1861. 
II. 

MCSTER-IN or FIRST MAINE, 24 

^fay 3 to May 8, 1861. 
III. 

CAMP WASHBURN, 27 

May 8 to May $5, 1861. 

IV. 

M E ASLE8. DEPARTURE. ARRIVAL IN VA8HINQT0N, 80 

May 15 to June 5, 1861. 

V. 

WASHINGTON, 88 

June 4, to June 7, 1861. 



4 CONTENTS. 

VI. 

CAMP JACKSON. MERIDIAN HILL, 43 

June 8 to June U, 1861. 

VII. 

CAMP LIFE IN WASHINGTON, 48 

June 15 to July 20, 1861. 

VIII. 

BATTLE OF BULL RUN, 55 

July SI, 1861. 

IX. 

GOING HOME, 62 

July 30 to August 3, 1861. 

X. 

ROLL OF NAMES AND RESIDENCES OF FIRST MAINE REGIMENT 6G 



TENTH MAINE REGIMENT. 
XI. 

RB-ORGANIZATION. THE TENTH MAINE REGIMENT, 80 

Aug. £4 to Oct. 5, 1861. 

XII. 

DEPARTURE. BALTIMORE. RELAY HOUSE, MD., 87 

Oct. 6 to Dec. 31, 1861. 

xin. 

WINTER. GUARDING THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO R. R., 08 

Jan, 1 to May 6, 1862, 



0ONTENT8. 5 



^ 



XIV. 

UARPEB'S FEBRY, ICiBTlirSBURO, WIirCHSSTER, • 108 

May 9 to May SS, 186€. 

XV. ' 

SKIRMISH OF COMPANIISS G AND I AT WINCHESTER, 114 

May S4, 186fS, 

XVI. 

BANKS'S BATTLE OF WINCHESTER AND RETREAT, 121 

May 26, 186S. 

xvn. 

^WILLIAXSPORT. CASUALTIES DURING BANKS'S RETREAT, 129 

May Se, 186g. 

XVIII. 

" SKEDADDLE." RECONKOISSANCE TO FALLING WATERS, 186 

May 28, 186S. 

XIX. 

ADVANCE TO CULPEPER C H., 146 

May SO to July 24, 1862. 

XX. 

THE OUTPOST OF THE ARMT, 161 

July 25 to Aug. 8, 1862. 

XXL 

BATTLE OF CEDAR MOUNTAIN, 170 

Aug. 9, 1862. 



6 CONTENTS. 

XXII. ' 

fofb's retreat, 198 

Aug. 18 to Sept, S, 186$. 

XXIIL 

McCLELLAN'S martlaxd caupaion, 221 

Sept 4 to Sept. 16, 1862. 

XXIV. 

BATTLE OF ANTIETAM, 230 

Sept. 17, 1862. 

GUARDING THE FORD AT BERLIN, MD., 262 

Sept. 19 to Nov. SO, 1862. 

XXVI. 

REJOINING THE MAIN ARMY. FAIRFAX STATION, 275 

Dec. 10 to Dec. SO, 1862. 

xxvn. 

FAIRFAX STATION, AND TO STAFFORD C H. "MUD MARCH," 288 

Jan. 1 to Jan. 2S, 186S. 

XXVIII. 

WINTER AT STAFFORD. COMPLIMENTART ORDER, 290 

Jan. 24 to April 9, 186S. 
» X XIX. 

SPRING AT STAFFORD C H. PRBPARATIOirS FOR DISCHARGE, 299 

AprU 10 to April 96, 1868. 



OONTiafTS. 



GOING HOaiE. HUSTBR-OUT OF THE TBHTH MAINE RBGIMEKT 805 

Aprat7UkM<nf 8,1863, 

XXXI. 

ROLL OF KAMES AMD RESIDENCES, AND ROLL OF THE DEAD— TENTH 

MAINE REGIMENT, 818 

TENTH MAINE BATTALION. 

xxxn. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE BATTALION. BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSTILLE, 889 

AprQ, g6 to May 6, 1863. 

XXXIII. 

OETTTSBURG AND AFTERWARDS, 851 

May 20 to Sept £3, 1863. , 

XXXIV. 

JOURNET TO TENNESSEE AND SERVICE THERE, 860 

Sept. 24> 1863, to Feb. 29, 1864. 

XXXV. 

X£ W ORLEANS. CONSOLIDATED WITH THE TWENTY-NINTH MAINE REG IMENT, 8G0 

March 3 to May S9, 1864. 



TWENTY-NINTH MAINE REGIMENT. 

XXXVI. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE TWENTT-NINTH REGIMENT, 887 

Sept. 16 to Jan, 30, 1864. 

xxxvii. • 

VOYAGE TO NEW ORLEANS. ASSIGNED TO GEN. EMORT'S DIVISION, 89<t 

Jan, 31 to March 14, '64, 



V... 



8 ootrrjBNTs. 

xxxvni. 

BED BI VEB EXPEDITION. TUB ADYANCE OK BHREySFOST, 408 

March IS to AprU B, '64- 



BATTLE OF SABINE CB088 BOADS, 411 

AprU 8, 1864- 

XL. 

BATTLE OF PLEASANT UILL, * 420 

AyrU 9, 1864^ 

XLI. 

OEAND ECOBB. BETBEAT TO ALEXANDBIA, LA. BATTLE OF CANE BIVEB 

CB088ING. BED BIVEB DAM, 4S0 

AprU IS to AprU SO, *64. 

XLII. 

PENT UP IN ALEXANDBIA. ACTION AT MAN8DBA. MOBOANZIA BEND, 444 

Maif 1 to July 4, 1864- 

xLin. 

TBANSFEBBBD NOBTH. EABLT'S BAID ON WASHINGTON. TO SNIGKBB's 

GAP AND BACK, 468 

July 6 to Aug. 9, 1864- 

XLIV. 

UP THE VALLEY AND BACK TO HABPEB'S FBBBT, 476 

Aug. 10 to Sept. 17, 1864- 

^ XLV. 

BATTLE OF OPSQUAN (SHEBIDAN'S WINCHEBTBB), 488 

S^ 19, 1864' 



< 



oasfTEaxTB. 9 

XT^VI. 

BJinLS OF FIfiHER's HILL, 606 

Sept. fSB, 1864, 

XLVII. 

rUISCIT OF EARLY AND RBTUBX TO CEDAR CREEK, 516 

Sept. 2S to Oct. 18, '64. 

XLVIII. 

BATTLE OF CEDAR CREEK, 526 

Oct. 19 y 1864. 

XLIX. 

EETIEW OF THE BATTLE OF CEDAR CREEK, 549 

L. 

TJLLL ASD WINTER. CAMPS RUSSELL AND SHERIDAN, 659 

Oct. 20, 1864, to March 31, 1865. 

LI. 

£5D OF THE WAR. WASHINGTON. THE GRAND REVIEW, 671 

April 1 to May SI, 1865. 

LII. 

GEORGIA AND SOUTH CAROLINA, 680 

June 1 to July 9, 1865. 

LIII. 

U<,"ONSTRUCTION. FREEDMEN'S BUREAU, 586 

LIV. 

brriES IN THE SOUTH. RESIGNATION AND DISCHARGE, 693 

July 12 to Dec, 81, 1865. 



10 CONTENTS. 

LV. 

niLTON HEAD. MUSTER-OUT OF THE RSOIUEKT, 602 

January 1 to June £9, 1866. 

LVI. 

ROLL OF NAMES AND RBSIDBNGB8, AMD ROLL OF THE DEAD— TWENTT-NINTH 

MAINE REGIMENT, 615 

LVII. 

LINEAL RANK OF CAPTAINS. NAMES OF BATTLES. OFFICERS' RECORD, 6i4 

LVIII. 

RECORD OF MOVEMENTS AND IMPORTANT EVENTS, 659 

LIX. 

ROLL OF HONOR OF MEN ENGAGED IN BATTLE OF CEDAR CREEK. SCRAPS, . .676 

LX. 

GEN. SHERIDAN'S REPORT OF THE SHENANDOAH CAMPAIGN, 694 




iQyg'^ Ai-^you^, 



■ ME. VET. VOLS 



11 



PREFACE. 



<•» I 



For a number of years before the war it was my custom to 

^cep for my own amusement a record of daily events, whether of 

^ general or personal nature, and it so happened that the interest 

^»i joumalizipg increased with the years of practice, until at the 

'^leaking out of the rebellion it had become habitual and easy to 

*^5ake a note of any event. The difficulties in the way of con- 

"^inuing this practice in field service were forgotten in the desire 

"^o chronicle the stirring events of war and the novelties of soldier 

life. So the diary was not abandoned ; only it was written in 

slieets in order to bo sent home every few days. These sheets of 

^iary proved so acceptable a substitute for letters among a large 

circle of relatives and friends, that at last it became a duty 

almost sacred to write it, freely, fully and promptly, for the relief 

of the anxious hearts at home. 

Coupled with the possession of such matter for reference was 
the fact that I had served in the three organizations of the regi- 
ment, and had been "present for duty" on every important 
occasion. These considerations appear to have outweighed all 
others when the choice of a historian for the regiment was made. 
It lay within the means of the Association to employ one skilled 
in letters, but the testimony of an eye witness was deemed more 
valuable. I ask, therefore, that the many defects as a literary 
production and numerous slips of the pen may be overlooked, 
and that the book may be criticized only on the question of its 
tmthfiiltiess. 



12 PREFACE. 

There are many imperfections and short-comings that the 
reader may think could have been remedied, but it was impossible 
for me to snatch time enough from engrossing business duties to 
complete the book as I wished. 

As for the style, I address my old friends, and speak in the 
familiar language of soldier comrades. I write here as I have 
written in my diary ; to change the habit of years I have had 
neither time nor desii*e. 

JOHN M. GOULD. 

Portland, August 17, 1871. 



13 



INTRODUCTION. 

(by gen. GEO. H. NYE.) 

This volume was called into existence by the unanimous request 
of the past members of one of the Maine Regiments, at their 
first Reunion, August 12, 1869, on Chebeague Island, in Casco 

Bay. 

It was found that Major Jonx M. Gould had kept a complete 
<Hary, during the entire term of service of the regiment under its 
three organizations (with the exception of the last few weeks), 
and the publication of material at once so interesting to the actors 
in the great drama of the war, and to its future historian, was 
deemed to be a duty which tlie regiment owed to itself and to 
histon\ 

Tlie original request was that Mnjor Gould should publish his 

diary in full, but, after consideration, he concluded to condense 

his material and put it into the existing form, using the diary as 

the basis of the work. To the general reader, this will account 

forthefrequent references to the diary and the somewhat pei*sonal 

character of the work ; but the members of the regiment will 

recognize in these references and personalities something which 

will remind them of many sad and many pleasant experiences 

through which they have passed in the " Great Kebellion," and 

when age shall come, haply the old soldier may thereby refresh 

his failing memory as he relates the scenes of his youth to 

his grandchildren, and "shoulders his crutch to show how fields 

were won." 

To our own members, for whom the book was prepared, we 
need to offer no explanation or apologyi but to the general public, 




(^3^^ Av'-y^^ 



ME VET VOLS 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

appear on these pages ; they ^ have buried the hatchet " and have 
assisted us materially, as will be seen, in the work of verification. 

To M. F. King) Esq^ the well known Portland photographer, 
we stand under many obligations, in furnishing, free of cost, the 
necessary photographs and copies for the lithographer.. We 
stand indebted to Mr. Benson J. Lossing, author of the popular 
history of the war,* and to his publisher, T. Belknap, Hartford, 
for the use of the wood cuts upon pages 441, 489 and 493 ; and 
to Col. Walker, author of Vermont brigade in the Shenandoah 
Valley, for the use of those on pages 511 and 532. 

the beoiment. 

The Fibst Regiment of Infantby, Maine Volunteees, 
was raised in answer to the first call of President Lincoln, for 
75,000 three-months men, and was mustered into United States 
service May 8, 1861. Upon the expiration of its term of service, 
it was mustered out, and the men having enlisted for two years 
(though under the verbal assurance and with the understanding 
that they were to serve but three months), were furloughed. 

In September, the Firat regiment was ordered into camp again, 
with a view of returning to the seat of war with its ranks 
recruited to a thousand or more. The State did not, however, 
press its claims, hence less than two hundred enlisted men of the 
First returned in the Tenth.f Two new companies of three years 
men, Co's A and D, came in at this time. The Tenth Regiment 
was mustered into the United States service Oct. 4 and 5, 1861, 
to serve two years from May 3, 1861. When that time came 
around, it was mustered out (May 7 and 8, 1863), and the 
continuous organization would have been lost, had it not been 
that nearly 300 three years men, including Go's A and D, were 
kept in the service. These were constituted the Tenth Maine 
Battalion, and were detailed as a headquarter's guard, or a 
provost guard for the 12th corps (Gen. Slocum), during the most 
of its existence, a fact which shows that it was a model command. 



•Pictorial history of the 

t See VoL 1, p. 10, A4J. Qen. Rep. Me. Number glTen ae 184. 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

• 

Some months after the muster oat of the 10th regiment, Col. 
Beal was authorized to recruit a "veteran regiment.'' Of the 
thirty-one officers, ori^nally commissioned to. sei-ve in " Col. 
BeaPs regiment of vcjterans," twenty-three had been members of 
the "1st" or "10th"; and of the one hundred and ten non- 
commissioned officers, sixty-nine had been in the " Ist " or " lOth." 
To these must be added the seven officers and thirty-seven non- 
commissioned officers of the 10th battalion, which organization 
was consolidated with "Beal's regiment," showing that about 
three-quarters of the commissioned and non-commissioned officers 
of the " 29th " Me. were members of the « 1st " and " 10th." These 
facts, with the additional one, that a large number of the privates 
of the " 29th " had been members of the old regiment, are our 
principal reasons for claiming that the four organizations are one, 
and deserve a continuous history. 

GEO. H. NYE, 
President of the l-10-29th Me. Reg't Association. 



If 

'h 



t 

E 

m 
I 



CHAPTER I. 

OBOANIZATION. 



COMRADSS: 



The thousand causes for the war in whieb yon and I were 

•oldiersy need no mention here. Few of us expected it, none 

demred it, and all were unprepared. Day by day throngb the 

winter of 1860-61 we trusted that "something would turn up'* 

to harmonize the North and South, and in this quiet trust we 

kept about our business till the staitling news of Saturday, April 

13th. Every one remembers what a day of agony and gloom that 

was. The Sabbath brought us news of the fall of Fort Sumter. 

On Monday we learned that the whole South was dancing the 

wildest jig ever known in our history. Also on Monday President 

lincoln called for 75,000 three months volunteers wherewith to 

re-possess our lost property. Then after a long bitter cry, — I 

believe we were all compelled to drop a tear at our country's sad 

coDdition, — and after wondering where so many as 75,000 men 

were to come from, we of the 1st Maine by and by settled it in 

ow minds that we should have to go oureelves. 

Now here in our good State, from which a regiment of 779* men 
ladoiBcers, was to be sent to war, under this call, public opinion 
vu united in condemning the old militia system as a public nui- 
•jce : and to join a " military company," of which there were 
«ily about twenty in the State, was almost as wrong to many 
■indg, as to neglect business, get drunk or run in debt. Hence, 
Maine was slow to start, not lacking men or the will, but the 
■achinery ; for public opinion had crushed out the military spirit, 
«ai the militia existed on paper only. There were however a 

^fatBiport A4)*tOen. of Mftlne, 1802, Appendix D, psgo 3. 
9 



18 OLD VQLUNTEEB COMPANIES. '1861. 

few ^^volanteer'^ companies as they were called, which had a 
vigorous life, and around them for a nucleus you and I formed, 
and from them, it is but candor to admit, have come the distinctive 
features of our l-10-29th regiment. 

The old " Infantry," and the " Blues," of Portland, were organ- 
ized by our fathers and grandfathers, and were known all over 
the State. The Lewiston Light Infantry and Auburn Artillery, 
(Infantry drilled), and Norway Light Infantry, or " Oxford Bears " 
as they were often called, were all old companies and favorably 
known in military circles. .The Rifle Guards and Light Guards of 
Portland, came into life under the influence of the military spirit ex- 
cited in our country during the Crimean War, and were in healthy 
existence during the winter of 1860-1. The Rifle Corps, also a 
Portland organization for fifty years, was alive when the rebellion 
broke out. 

These eight companies were our nucleus. Though the public, 
the moral and religious public at least, had formerly looked upon 
them as clubs for the encouragement of dissipation, the same 
public now looked to them with feelings of relief and confidence. 
It was felt that the wisdom to be found in these volunteer 
companies would soon put our State on a level with New York 
and Massachusetts, whose militia systems were loudly praised 
about this time throughout the North. 

One word, before we drop these old organizations. The public 
had some good grounds for its opinions. It cost too much money 
to belong to a company ; and the influence of a few members 
who were wanting in good character was not overbalanced by 
the influence of the better ones ; we had come to believe, in 
Maine, that war was impossible ; that the ^ spirit of 76 " or some 
magical influence would cause the nation to rise as one man and 
overwhelm our enemies should we ever have any, and so we 
thought every dollar paid to the militia was a dollar thrown 
away. When the day came to make up a regiment for war, 
the holiday-fellows and the weak-kneed in these volunteer com- 
panies had too much business at home, to enlist ; and finally, 
when hard service and hard fighting had weeded out the few 



18 OLD VOLUNTEEB COMPANIES. 1861. 

few "volunteer" companies as they were called, which had a 
vigorous life, and around them for a nucleus you aad I fiinned. 




', y. J^2^^^■u-,^-.JO 



LIEUT.-COL. 10'-" ME. REGT. 



18 OLD VOLUNTEEB COMPANIES. '1861. 

few "volunteer" companies as they were called, which had a 
yj^Qroos life, and around theih for a nucleus you and I formed, 



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l86l. BOUNTY. 19 

that clang to us at first, we bad nothing left of the old volunteer 
militia bat the good part of it. 

I will tell you only briefly of the office work done and orders 
issued whereby our regiment was called together. Everything 
was done in a hurry to save the Capital and stop the tide of 
rebellion, and hence there was much working and no "red tape" 
to tangle one who was willing to go to war. 

There was no bounty then, though the State gave us one of 
t22 after we were "in." State aid to wives of soldiers wa« 
anknown, and recruiting officers had not then learned how to set 
traps for the unwary. In my own company (C), and doubtless 
in others, a dozen or more above the maximum number were 
enlisted, and the poorest dozen were then got rid of in a way not 
laid down in the Regulations. 

Portland, Lewiston, Auburn and Norway have always claimed 
to have raised the first company, and you may praise either one 
you please, but on this vexed question no company was ever 
better defended than the Lewiston L. I. was by Col. Fillebrown, 
whose assertions were too positive and pei-suasively concise to be 
disputed. In fact all were accepted by the State within a few 
<^ay8 of each other, and were mustered into the U. S. service 
May 3, 1861. You remember that date — May 3d, — I suspect, 
without being reminded of it. 

But let us go back and ask the questions when, where, and how 
<Jid you enlist? The process of enlisting was that of signing a 
long roll agreeing to serve two years m or /or the State of 
Maine — we did not notice which. Why it was two years instead 
of three mouths no one knew or cared. The crowd of loafers told 
Qs that it was a " mere form," and that the State of Maine law 
required all enlistments to be made for two years and there was 
not time enough to change the law now ; but our United States 
senice would be for three months. Few of us stopped to ask 
questions, for at that day the only idea that possessed the public 
Blind was, that the North would " rise in its might " and squelch 
treason in a hurry, and you remember, my friends of the " 1st", our 
constant fear was that we should never get away from Maine till 
after the N. Y. and Mass. Militia had suppressed the rebellion. 



20 SPRINGFIELD RIFLES. 1861. 

And for this reason no man cared what kind of a roll he signed, 
or what old law he conformed to. If memory is good, that blank 
which we signed caused some of the blankest expressions ever 
seen before the summer was over. 

Our rallying points were generally in the armories of the old 
volunteer companies. Here wo learned the woudera of the Hardee 
and Scott manuals, and the bayonet exercise. Here we heard 
marvelous stories of the excellence of Springfield rifles and the 
pluck of so and so, and how easily a squad of well drilled foot 
soldiers could keep at bay a company of horsemen, and much of 
this sort. 

After a sufficient number of men had enlisted in any company, 
the formality of an election was next in order, except in those 
companies where the officers, who already held commissions from 
the Governor, signified their intention to go to war and thereby 
retained their positions by recruiting their companies up to 
standard. 

By Satm'day, April 27th, the ten companies were in and around 
Portland, the rolls full, or nearly so, the officers commissioned, 
and non-commissioned officers appointed, and the men armed but 
not uniformed. The entire regiment had the Springfield rifled 
musket; caliber -j'^fty inch, with the Maynard primer attachment, 
a contrivance never used during the war to our knowledge, and I 
believe it was left off* from all muskets manufactured after the 
first few thousand. We had our uniforms and clothing issued to 
us as fast as they could be made or bought. By reference to my 
diary I see that — 

ApRiL28th, Sandaif. The Captain, (Fessenden of Co. C), told us to "fall in," 
and we were marched to the new City Hall, where we each received a pair of 
woolen shirts, two pairs of woolen drawers, two pairs woolen stockings, and 
one pair of shoes with leather strings, the shoes being the great, wide kind 
you see in shops on the wharves, where fishermen trade. We received our 
blankets some time ago. It is understood that revolvers have arrived to arm 
the regiment. This is a piece of news which delights every one, especially 
those who have been trying a week to buy one. • • * • 

Muskets enough were taken ttom the State Arsenal to-day to give every man 
one without borrowing. 

I notice also under this date that ^we are to march Tuesday,^ 



i86k 6H0DDT. 21 

Cartridge-boxes and the other accontrements came at a ^te not 
recorded, and on April 30th — 

We receiTed our overcoats, pantaloons, haTersacks and knapsacks, — the 
last a miserable thing of painted cloth which daubs everything it touches. 
The overcoat is g^ay with the Massachusetts brass button on it, and is not a 
bad coat ; the pantaloons are of poorer stuff and made in a hurry ; color a 
mixture of g^ay, red and brown. 

The great word Shoddy, could not be found at that time in the 
latest editions of Webster's dictionary, and was unknown among 
the masses ; and hence you will observe it was not used here, nor 
does it ever occur in my diary of the 1st Maine. Had I known the 
word it would have gone in here at this time most certainly. 

Mat 9th. Our company had their under coats and rubber blankets distributed. 
This furnishes us completely, except in cartridges and caps. The coats are 
m&de of a very poor gray cloth and have the Maine button ; the overcoats 
are being altered, receiving the Maine button in place of the Mass. 

A note added a month later than this reminds me that the 
expected pistols came and were very partially distributed to the 
Colonel and all officers and non-commissioned officers, but not a 
private had one, — another evidence of the contempt in which a 
private was held by his superiors! And I see furthermore in the 
Tenth regiment's diary — 

That of all the nuisances tlie pistol is the cliief. Wortlilcss in themselves, 
from being worn out, or too small, thoy lumber up a man and tend to weaken 
liis efforts with his proper weapon, the musket. The Adjutant says he's bound 
the men shall throw them away, though as they have bouglit them this will 
be "rough." 

It is amusing to hunt over my old diary to find the date of 
acceptance by the State or of muster into the U. S. service. 
There is little about it, from the fact that we knew little of it at 
the time. I will give you the facts for history's sake and then 
add from the diary. 

ORGANIZING. 

Of ten old volunteer militia companies designated by the 
Governor to form this three months regiment, two failed from 
florae cause to respond, or to respond in season, and the Portland 



22 ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 1861. 

Rifle fjtuards recruited an extra company, and a now company 
called the Lewiston Zouaves was enlisted for the occasion.* 
Most of the men enlisted between Monday, April 22d, and Fnday, 
April 26th, though a majority of the members of the old companies 
had agreed to go before the first date. 

The companies were full by Thuraday night, and were ordered 
by Gen. Wm. Wirt Virgin of the militia, into quarters at 
Portland or Fort Preble ; so we commenced drawing pay April 
26th. The officers met in the City Council room and chose Capt. 
Nat'l J. Jackson, of the Lewiston Light Infantry, for Colonel ; 
Capt. Albion Witham, of the Portland Light Infantry, Lieut. C0I4 
and Capt. Greo. G. Bailey, of the Blues, for Major. The vacancies 
in these companies were at once filled by promotion, — the men 
choosing their officers and the Governor commissioning whomso- 
ever they selected. 

It was not till May 3d, however, that wo were accepted by the 
United States for " three months from date." How little we 
knew of, or cared for, all this may be inferred from my not thinking 
it worth while at the time to note the rumor " that a fellow named 
Jackson, belonging to the old Lewiston company, was to be 
Colonel." At that time the company was the unit; we cared 
little for the regiment, as the regiment had no existence. In 
fact we never had in the " 1st," that esprit de corps so requisite 
in any body of troops. The glory of the " 1st " is, that it was 
made out of nothing and was very good, for the times. 

ACCEPTED BY THE STATE. 

The diary of April 26, 1861, has — " Business extremely dull," 
showing that I was still at work for myself, as were some othersy 
perhaps, upon this first day of pay in the service of the State of 
Maine. 



*Qeii. Nye, who wms 2d Lient. of this Co. (K), says: " I drew ap an enlisting roll in » 
boolc Satorday, April 20th. My name was flrat on the list, John B. Cook's next, S. B. 
Osgood's next. By next day evening (Sunday), 12S names were on the list, a part of which 
my wlfo recrolted whUe I was away fh>m my house. Next Wednesday we had an 
•leeUon of oflScers, and on Thursday iirere encamped at Fort Prehlo. Co. K was there- 
fore the first new volunteer company.* 



»• 



l86l. IN QUABTER8. 28 

Hie company did nothing to-day, and in the eTcning, when we all met for 
drill and news, the Capt told us that we might be ordered on duty to-morrow 
iftemoon. 

April 27th, Fridojf. At one o'clock the company was mustered into [accepted] 
the State seryice, as they said, though I don't vouch for it. But soon after, I'll 
iwear to this, they took us down to John B. Brown's unfinished theater 
building, in Union street, where we understood we were " quartered " ; but we 
did nothing here, except to howl at the bare walls, and sing and talk, and act 
like fools. At 6 p. m. Capt. Fessenden let us go home, on our promjsing to 
return at 5 a. m., since the accommodations for sleeping were not sufficient. 
The Norway company is in the hall with us, and is made up of as tough a set 
of giants as need be. They are none of your " sallow, slenderly built boys," 

is the rebel army around Fort Sumter is described as being. They are 

tjoUy set of fellows ; we got acquainted with all of them, and one little 

wrgeant whom they call " Biigor " is the pink of the lot 




^. cfi^lZ^-^-,.-..^ 



LIEUT.-COL. lOtr ME. REGT. 



l86l. THE FIRST GROWL FOB RATIONS. 25 

ooramenced by giving a volley of '^ chaff" to the cooks as we 
marched by the kitchen to the hall. Then the waiters had to 
take a damning such as I could give you no idea of in a week's 
trial, and last of all the Quartermaster, or somebody else, had to 
take it from daylight till bed-time ; but this was too bad, for he 
had nothing to do with it. And it is only fair to say, that whether 
Mechanics' Hall fare was really good or bad, it was the best we 
ever had in the ** 1st," for regular rations. But being quartered 
around town, as we were, and eating the good things our friends 
sent us, we had no appetites. The companies quartered at Fort 
Preble also did swearing enough, I have been told, to appall Col. 
Jackson by their profanity. 

Every bodily ill we suffered was laid off to the poor rations. 
Some heavy cases of drunkenness were also charged on the same 
account : and I knew a man who on the recommendation of wise 

Mends ate pills with his meals to prevent being hurt. 

« 

During the twelve days tliat the companies were quartered in 
the Theater, Fox Block, City Hall and other places, there was 
little done by the men except to cut up every caper mentionable. 
A little drilling was done, but the ofhccrs were so occiipiod with 
outside business, that we hardly ever saw more than one at a 
time, til ough we had four lieutenants till May 3d — when the 3d 
and 4th lieutenants were thrown aside by jNIajor Gardiner. In 
our hall, I remember that boxing, wrestling and getting up fights 
»mong the Irish boys outside, constituted our chief amusement. 

At length, on Wednesday, May 8th, this good-for-nothing 
existence ended, for — 

At 4 p. M. we left City Hill, where all the companies had been assembled 
wd a great crowd of people with them, and in company with the whole 
fpgiment, our knapsacks and everything else on, we marched up Congresa 
street to State, and thence through Danforth and down town to Washington; 
then over Tukey's bridge and across the Grand Trunk Uailroad track a dozen 
fodg, and turned eastward into a field across the cove from the Marine 
Hospital. It is the most tedious thing we have done yet. I was intensely 
^tigaed, for it showered frequently on the march, and then the sun came out 
liot, and our knapsack straps cut our shoulders. But the most outrageous 
thing wjLS that after we got there, tlie officers left us all standing while they 



26 GAMP WASHBURN. 1 86 1. 

went out to the front of us and talked with the Colonel, while we ached and 
thought we should hreak down. 

The camp had been laid out and tents pitched and most of them floored 
before our arrival. The field is not long enough for the camp to be in one 
straight line, so the two wings are on lines at right angles to each other, and 
meet at the center. Each company has four large cone-shaped cotton tents 
with two slits for doors. The officers have a tent also all to themselves, 
(hough there are but three of them, while we have to pile into each tent a 
sergeant, a corporal and fourteen privates. The orderly sergeant and fourteen 
tallest men in the company, and the tallest corporal, take tent No. 1, and the 
fourth sergeant and shortest corporal, and fourteen shortest men take tent 
No. 4, and the intermediate tents go to the medium sized. The tents of each 
company are placed in the four corners of a square giving us a street to form in. 



Onard 
Marquee 


ij_ 







O 

E 

o 







O 

D 




D 








O 

A 

o 





• 


O 

H 

O 

o o 







B 

O 



Parade Ground. 



o OO oo oo oo o 

O IL ^ '^ C9 

o OO oo oo oo o 

Right Wing. 
O Colooel. 





i86i. 27 



CHAPTER III. 

CAMP LIFE AND DUTIES. 

The first night in camp is ever to be remembered. Some of 
the officers and a few of the men were passed out. Two of the 
officers ran guard, and perhaps as many hundred of the men 
followed their example, as all good soldiers will, you know. I 
ihoagbt by the noise that a few had fortified themselves against 
the night air with a little cheap liquor, but the everlasting bawl 
of the sentinels was the marvel to most of us — who had no idea 
of what it was all about. The guard line was about a half mile 
around, with thirty sentinels on duty upon it, every one of whom, 
with all the officers of the guard, wtM-e endeavoring to keep the 
men from running off". Not one sentinel had a fair idea of what 
guard duty was, but whenever he saw a man going off or coming 
back he sang out, " Officer of the Guard!" or "Officer of the 

Day! Post Number !" (we never stooped to call for corporals 

or sergeants of the guard in those days of wisdom.) Then the 
next sentinel would take up the cry and around it would go. 
How it would go ! If it started from No. 10, it generally got 
charged to No. something else by the time it reached the guard 
tent, and as likely as not the sentry at the tent sent it flying again, 
and 80 we had it all night. As often as the town clock struck, 
some wise sentinel started the cry, say " Two-of-the-clock I and- 
ill-is-well !" which ran around till it came to another wiser than 
he, who changed the termination to " all is very well." But one 
more practical than either would vary this somewhat by singing 
oat with all his voice, and all his temper, and with much profanity 



28 BATTALION DRILL. 1861. 

** Two o'clock ! Turn out that third relief or there'll be 



to pay r The cries of the guard and the uproar of those who 
were drunk or w.ere getting that way, with the novelty of camp 
life, made it a sleepless night to most of us. 

For a day or two the arrangements for cooking were poor and 
the guard continued noisy day and night, and then everything 
commenced to improve. We learned that we were a regiment 
instead of ten stray companies, and that we had a colonel as 
well as a captain. 

We liad battalion drills, which is a very different thing from 
the fancy deploying, skirmishing and bayonet exercise we had 
practiced so much as a company. Our first battalion drill, you 
remember, was little less than an order from the Colonel, a stare 
of confusion fro:n the captains, a scramble by the men and a 
hustling when the order came to dress. So much over, the 
Colonel gave us his idea of captains, which the captains bore 
with meekness, all of which the men enjoyed exceedingly. 
Nothing pleased us more than to see another company make a 
blunder, and if one company attempted to march on or to dress 
over the ground where another company was, then both companies 
joined with all their heart, soul, might and strength to push aside 
or keep back the other. These were all the pleasures we ever 
knew in regimental drilling in the 1st Maine. It did us good to 
hear "old Jacks" ask such and such a captain why he didn't 
study his book? I remember, too, the great joy we of Co. C 
experienced, in being nearly squeezed to jelly rather than that 
our company should give way to the " Blues," though we were 
entirelv in the wron^. 

Being a recruit then, I suppose I noticed more the grumbling 
and profanity of the " 1st" than of the " 10th" or " 29th", but I find 
that most of those who were in the three regiments agree with me 
that the " 1st" excelled the others in these accomplishments. Our 
worthy Chaplain, thinking that example was everything, must 
have remonstrated with our Colonel on the matter of proflinity, 
for one day at drill, after some anti-Hardee movement, the Colonel 
let loose all the swearing he had kept pent up till then, and ended 
with the soliloquy " what's the use to ask a man not to swear if 



l86l. •* PLANT HIM I" 29 

he lias to drill such officers?'' Knowing full well the sin of 
profanity, I am never able to look at it in our old Colonel in its 
moral bearing. It was always so comical, or came as an emphasis 
to his disgust, or pretended disgust, that it seemed a thing to 
laugh over, and besides, as we boys always urged in apology, he 
never swore at the men excepting when he was unable to tell a 
man from an officer. 

Another oddity of our Colonel was a way he had of watching 
the left general guide, during battalion diill. Sergt. Moody, of 
E, was the victim, and you all remember how pei-sislently the 
Colonel called to Major Bailey to " knock him down !" and "plant 
him P as often as the unfortunate Sergeant moved or was pushed 
out of place. 

Of all our officers, our worthy Adjutant Fillebrown was best 
known, after the Colonel. With his ready perception of errors 
and love of military precision, he soon put an end to a thousand 
follies that disturbed us at first, only there was never an end put 
to running guard : under May 15th, the diary states — 

After breakfast we (Co. C) were called together and ordered into town. 
We mustered only 26 men, and were obliged to call for 24 additional men 
from another company, which made the Captain mad as fury, and in his usual 
way he told us, the 26 faithful and the 24 borrowed, that if we ran guard 
again he'd put us in jail and keep us there till the regiment moved, and so on, 
till he swore himself hoarse. The Colonel and other officers, who have tents 
all to themselves a little way from ours, overheard the Captain, and clapped 
their hands. Then we poor innocents growled inaudibly, and the show moved 
on. 

M\T 25th. Alarm of fire this morning in town. The men ran off, one 
after another, making a continuous line. « « • And as it rained 
afterwards, none of them came back ; so at dress parade only 800 officers and 
men took part. 

The next day a new system was announced in ordei-s for 1st 
Maine Regiment, at dress parade, 400' being present. But what 
it was, further than the granting of more passes, is not stated. 
As we look back to our old regiment, it stands out as distinguished 
in this favorite practice of going and coming by stealth ; it was 
never cured. 



30 iS6i- 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE MEASLES. 

The measles ! ! Do you ever tliink of them and not remember 
the "Ist"? Though we enlisted to fight, bleed and die, nothing 
happened to us so serious as the measles. They sent, first and 
last, about 150 men to the hospital ; they kept us in Portland, 
sent us to camp and compelled us to loiter there more than a 
third of our term of service. Day after day as the news came 
from the South of dangers to our Capital, and loss after loss to 
the country, we were told that we could not go to Washington 
till the measles were out of our midst. The keenest grief we 
were called to endure on this account was on May 15th, when 
three companies were sent to Portland to escort the 2d Regiment 
through the city on its way to the seat of war. It was my 
misfortune to be one of the escort, and the diary of that day is 
full of complaint and lamentations. It vexed us all to think 
that we were ready to go before the 2nd had a company full. 
We summed up the whole as a " measly affair all round." 

Tuesday, May 21st, Surgeon Richardson ordered out of camp 
all who had never had the measles, and sixty to seventy marched 
with knapsacks on their backs to near the city almshouse, to what 
we called Camp Measles, a quarantine in reality. After this we 
had constant rumors that the regiment would leave for the front 
as soon as five days had elapsed without a new case breaking out 
in camp. This caused us a week of anxiety, for we knew there 
were many men still left in camp who had never had the measles. 

This takes us to the next subject, that of departure for the seat 
of war. We expected every day in April the order which should 



sS6l. BREAKma UP GAMP. 31 

t^iarry as half equipped to Washington, and when we were nearly 
»ady, the excuse talked of was a want of clothing and then the 
L^asles. The measles excuse held good for almost a month. 
^ay 29th, however, the fever for going commenced again. 

The talk this morning was, " we shall surely go to-morrow/' for to-day was 

appointed time ; but toward night the doubters had it all their way, and 

dress parade the Ac^utant's orders commenced as usual, " Reveille, 6 a. m.," 

kd that crushed us. Before we had broken ranks the Captain came in and 

the usual orders were only read for effect, but the regiment would leave 

to-morrow. Then all over the camp, for every captain had told his company 

the same, went up hurrahs, tigers and yells of all kinds. And after dark 

•oine of the companies burnt up their tables and all the wood they had. 

Mat 30th. We haverCt gone. Various reasons are given. ♦ » » 
Governor Washburn visited and reviewed us — a new movement, this reviewing. 
We blundered outrageously at it. The Governor is a little stub of a fellow, 
bat he made a cheering speech and said that to his eye we drilled like veterans ! 
Bather bad for that eye of his I should say. 
Hat 31st. The Ac^utant's orders to-night were, Reveille 4 a. m. Peas- 
vpon-a-trencher i to 5. Striking of the camp 6.16. Ready for march 5.46, 
ud the boys commenced a buzzing and all the officers and sergeants couldn't 
itop them. 

That night there was some noise and some burning up of 
needless stuff, and some drinking; and swearing in the Hard "D's" 
and other Ilards. 

June 1, 1861, Saturday, We were all up and packing by 
daylight, and precisely at 5.15 the drum tapped and every tent 
fell in an instant. It was well done, and having never seen such 
a sight before we were highly delighted. At 5.45 we marched 
to the gate, and here Chaplain Knox made a prayer, our old 
swearing Colonel saying " we will start right." We looked back 
on the field, and Camp Washburn was there no more. We 
marched to Portland, the knapsacks growing heavy but not 
galling us as when we came out. The Portland Band met us on 
the bridge, and the 5th regiment. Colonel Dunnell, at Congress 
street. The streets were full of people, who stood laughing, 
crying or indifferent. There was some hurrahing, but Portland 
is pre-eminently a town of silence when hurrahing is needed. 
At the Boston depot the crowd was large and demonstrative. 
Wife, sister, mother and sweetheart cried and kissed the soldier 



32 .NEW HAMPSiaiRE — ^BOSTON. 1861. 

in spite of orders. Our friends were bent on saying good bye, 
or kissing lis, every time they could. But at length after much 
confusion the men were got aboard the cars, and they moved off 
slowly amid a thunder of hurrahs, well put in here as if to make 
up for previous short comings. 

The whole country was alive with people who came to the 
cross-roads to shake their flags and handkerchiefs at us. At 
Portsmouth several companies of a New Hampshire regiment 
were at the depot, and we hurrahed in return to their cheers. 
All along the road out of Portsmouth, the women and children 
were at the windows and crossings waving their handkerchiefs 
and throwing us kisses. The factory girls rushed to the windows 
and received a score of rousing cheera. I remember distinctly, 
too, the slow waving of the hand by an old farmer, whose silver 
head showed that he might have seen or been one of the soldiers 
of other days. The New Hampshire people showed much more 
enthusiasm than those of our own State. At Newburyport, 
Colonel Jackson's birth-place, we were honored with a salute from 
the artillery. 

Oar regiment (except the sick and measly) arrived in Boston, at 8 p. m. 
We formed oatside the depot and received our colors,* the stars and stripes, a 
present from State of Maine men living in that city. A battalion of gentlemen- 
soldiers, called the Cadets, dressed in rich uniform, received us. Our march 
through the city caused much enthusiasm. The people filled every available 
place and hurrahed so that we couldn't march in step. A great number of 
young fellows whose zeal knew no bounds met us at every comer, and again 
and again gave cheers for their particular friends as we passed. 

Wc halted on the Common. Governor Andrew and staff walked by, and 
then we rested, during which the Boston public sent us all we wanted to eat. 
Every orange vender was bought out by these generous people and the fmit 
tumbled into our laps. After this we fell in and had a battalion drill down 
by the Public Garden. We didn't do our best for we were tired and more 
interested in the scenes around us than in our work. Then marching on 
again, we passed through State street amid general hurrahs for the regiment^ 
and a sort of side hurrahs for each company as it passed, till " Halt !" came 
suddenly, and "Order! Arms!" WonderAil to relate the twenty platooM 



*Tli« regiment had received no colon before this, bat some of the companies had had 
one or more given them, which of coarse were never seen after the regiment was 
organized. 



32 NEW HABTPSHIRE — BOSTON. 1861 



,m. -1!» --3 *^ '^ • 




.(27fel^^«^^ 



CAPT CO. C- 



32 NEW HABTPSHIRE — BOSTON. 1861 




V ME. VOLS. 



l86l. PALL RIVER — ^NEW YORK. 33 

dosed up in fine order and brought their gruns down on the solid rock suc- 
cessively in exact time.* We perspired till everything in our coat pockets was 
saturated. The knapsacks carry hard — mine weighs eighteen pounds to-day — 
and this is seven less than it weighed on our first march to camp. We 
marched to the Old Colony depot and started in a special train some time 
after sunset. All along the road it was as before, ladies with handkerchiefs, 
children with flags and old folks slowly nodding. It grew dark though, and 
we went to sleep, every man doing his best, or I may say, his worst, to get a 
good position for rest. 

At Fall River we found soldiers and factory girls out, but could only hurrah 
for the first and kiss the last, and then hurry aboard the " Bay State/' where 
we slept soundly after a day such as one experiences only once in a life time. 
What a day it has been ; full of excitement and joy, and almost without a 
reminder that we are going to war.f 

June 2, 1861, Sundatf. Wc all had a good rest and were not drummed out in 
the morning. The passage up Long Island Sound for the first time, of course 
was pleasant. We passed close to a large number of vessels, and were continu- 
ally cheering the crews of the coasters which wore going in or out of the city. 
They always saluted us in return by running up their flags, firing their g^uni 
or blowing their horns and conchs. A school of porpoises followed us a long 
distance, and as this was to most of us the first sight of the fish it interested 
us much. Fort Schuyler had a regiment of troops in it, and we each tried to 
hurrah louder than the other. Wo were all delighted with the scenery, but 
hardly a man of us knew the names of places. 

We lanileJ about noon. Uundrcds of people cheered us from the wharves 
and boats, adding to our joy of course. The *' Sons of Maine," with badges 
on the breasts, escorted us to the Astor House where they presented us with a 
flag{ and also gave the oflicers a dinner. 

We were cheered all along our line of march, especially whenever we changed 
position of arms, and this pleased us much. After this we crossed to the Park 
and formed square, the appearance of which brought out cheer after cheer from 
the New Yorkers. Then we piled our knapsacks in heaps and ate dmner all 
ready cooked at the Park Barracks — and a good dinner it was. 

It then pleased the Colonel to show the people how we could drill. Our 
company (C) had to clear out the street first as the Police didn't seem to bo 
powerful enough, and then the Captain put us through the bayonet drill. The 
regiment monopolized the street for about half an hour, and kept communication 



*It was a most perfect ezecatlon, and we have always bragged of it and wo always 
Intend to. 

t Tho Portland Band, with Chandler and Cole, wont on to Washington with as without 
oompcioution. 

t Another National flag. We bad no regimental flag in the Ist Regiment. 
3 



34 '^jm." 1861. 

open also between it and the As tor House bar, from which a quantity of ginger- 
pop or something else must have been absorbed, I judge, from the jubilee that 
followed. 

About 4 P. M. we slnng our knapsacks and marched aboard a 
large ferry boat and crossed to the New Jersey shore. Before 
leaving the Park, and while we were formed as a square, the 
Colonel delivered that famous speech which no man who heard 
will ever forget. It was entirely extempore and had the merit 
of brevity, and it made, not the orator, but the one addressed 
famous ever afterward. The Adjutant was hastening toward the 
opposite side of the square when the Colonel called him. The 
Adjutant did not hear — the only man in the regiment that did 
not, by the way. He called again and still no attention except 
from the 700 men and seven times 700 spectators who were all 
attention. Therefore he roused himself for his effort, and delivered 
the speech, which was taken down in short hand or some other 
way, and is recorded as follows : 

SPEECH OF " OLD JACKS ", 
Sunday, June 2, 1861, in Front of City IIall, New York. 

•*Jim!— Ho! JIM!!" 

Moved by his eloquence the great assemblage of soldiers and 
citizens burst into one grand responsive echo — "JIM ! " "JIM I ^ 
"JIM!" "JIM!" "JIM!" &c., which they kept up for along 
time, and indeed, as far as the soldiers were concerned, they 
haven't quite quit it yet. 

We were put into the funniest shaped cars ever seen, at Jersey City, and got 
away at about sunset. The people turned out by thousands in their Sunday 
dress, and gare us a reception that can't be described. Men, women and 
children lined the fences for miles, and they kept us hurrahing and waving our 
caps incessantly. It became tiresome to see so many people and to hurrah 
all the time. 

Newark was the scene of even more furor than Jersey City, but it is simply 
useless to attempt to describe the enthusiasm of the people. After leaving 
this place it grew dark, but we could see at every road and house we passed 



1 86 1 . PHILADELPHIA GHARIIT . 35 

a crowd waving flags and handkerchiefs, but it was too much for human 
nature, — we had to lie down or lie askew the best way we could and sleep. 

It was on the ferry boat that ammunition was first issued to us, and we were 
ordered to load, but not prime, i. e., not put on the percussion cap, thus pre- 
Tenting accidental discharge. This was preparing for Baltimore in good 
season. 

JuiTE 8, 1861, Monday. We woke up at one o'clock this morning at 
Camden, crowded aboard a ferry boat and sailed up or down river, we couldn't 
tell which, it was so dark and we were so sleepy. 

We were landed in the streets of Philadelphia by 2 a. m., when the com 
panies were marched to various places near by and a good hot breakfast given 
us by the ladies. The streets were filled with them, and Ihey were ladies 
beyond all suspicion. Think how patriotic these good women were to sit up 
for US ! One old lady who looked like the pictures of our revolutionary 
mothers, said she had been up two nights expecting us, and determined that 
we should have some of her hot cofiee. 

We were here an hour and a very large crowd of good people had gathered 
at the end of it, yet I saw no improprieties and heard of none. Everyone 
shook hands with us and many of the younger ladies were kissed, yet all was 
honest ; and what is worth noting, wc didn't swear nor use improper language 
while in their presence. * ******** 

We passed many beautiful residences, and though so early in the morning 
the folks were up and waiting to give us a shake of their flags. How they 
knew we were coining I can't imagine. Frequently tliis morning we would 
see a movement of a flag in a window a half mile oftj to which we always 
responded, and wondered how they knew us, and how they could turn out at 
that hour of the morning to shake a fla^. 

The scenery all this forenoon was charming — the little red cedars take our 
ej^e especially ; vegetati(m is about a month ahead of that in Maine. 

We had a respite from our hurrahs after leaving Pennsylvania. 
At Wilmington, Del., we saw the " everlasting nigger " in great 
numbers, or wliat looked to us then as great numbers. After 
leaving them we fell in with squads of soldiers at every switch, 
culvert, crossing and station. Arriving at Perry ville, cars and 
passengers were ferried across the Susquehanna in two loads. 
After this we passed over two very long bridges, one across 
Gunpowder creek, and one over Bush creek, both of which had 
recently been partly burned by the rebellious portion of Maryland, 
bat were now repaired. 

Wc arrived at Baltimore just before noon and saw but little 



36 ARRIVAL IN WASHmOTON. 1861. 

demonstration there, for at this time the city government had 
not passed out of rebel hands. Two or three times 9ur flag was 
cheered and small boys as often proposed " three cheers for Jeff r 
but they were not given. The police were very efficient in 
stopping all sorts of demonstrations, and it required courage for 
a man to cheer for either side in Baltimore that day. In marching 
from the President street depot to the Baltimore & Oliio Railroad 
the sweat poured from us for wc were dressed for cold weather 
and the day was very warm. We " veterans " of the " Ist " never 
ceased telling the "recri^ i^s" of the "lOth" about this ternbly 
sweaty march till Banks's retreat, since which time there has been 
much back-talk from the recruits about it. 

From Baltimore to Washington is a pleasant ride. At the Relay House — a 
place of military importance just now — the 6th Massachusetts is encamped. 
Here are the river Patapsco, a deep ravine, a ponderous stone bridge or viaduct, 
a waterfall, mills, camp and scenery over which Hudson the artist grew 
frantic. I would enlist to serve forever in such a place as this. 

This last was a good tune to sing then ; later in life we all sang, 
you remember, as we came away from this same spot, " O, ain't 
you glad to get out the wilderness?" The railroad was heavily 
guarded all the distance from Baltimore to Washington, and we 
thought then it was the very height of all pleasure that those 
sentinels were enjoying. 

At length we arrived in sight of the groat unfinished dome of 
the Capitol. Here, where one might think our patriotism woulH 
have been at boiling point, we found ourselves all tired out from 
the excesses of the past three days, and hungry as well. None 
were so anxious about the Capitol as about their dinner. There 
was no one at the depot to cheer for us, nor to care a i^g whether 
we had arrived or not, so we were split up without delay, the 
Colonel and half the regiment taking a great house near by, the 
first one on Maryland Avenue, and the other companies some 
chambers on Pennsylvania Avenue. 

We were followed by a small company of negro boys, who 
offered to " black yer boots ", " shine 'em up ", " Union shine ", all 
for three cents. Scrawny, squalid women, such as we rarely saw 



l86l. POISON AND GROUND GLASS. 37 

at home, came in by dozens with pies and lemonade, but some 
soldiers of regiments tliat had been in the city a longer time told 
us the stuff was .ill poisoned or had ground glass in it, and we 
suffered ourselves to be hoaxed a while, then hunger prevailed 
and we bought out the women. 



88 iB6i. 



CHAPTER V. 

HSBIDIAN niLL, WASHINGTON. 

The first thing we did after arriving at our quarters was to 
strip, or "peel," as the slang was, and most of us peeled down to 
•hirt and drawers and fell to work ripping out the trowsers lining. 
There was much loud talk and vigorous swearing about the heat, 
but louder and more vigorous was the cry for something to eat. 
A guard was put around our quarters at both places, and at 
Maryland Avenue at least, it required an expert at the business 
to pass out. Our first impression of Washington was summed 
up in the diary as follows : 

Washington is dead — nothing is being done that we can see or hear. 
Numbers of negroes pass by us grinning ; whole droves of hogs come to the 
very door steps and grunt for our crumbs. This is really so ; they let their 
hogs run loose as we do our dogs, and as if to prove the Darwinian theory, 
their swine have adapted themselves to this style of life, and have, as compared 
with ours, clean race-horse legs, and the longest, sharpest snouts that you ever 
Miw. What a community this must be to tolerate such a nuisance. 

The diary also shows that we complained bitterly of the water, 
and that most of us were pretty well " played out" from loss of 
sleep and long excitement, and slept all night without any 
disturbance, as there was not one man drunk in the companies on 
our floor. So it seems that after all our tears and troubles, after 
a month of impatience, and fear that the Capital would go to the 
rebels, when at length we came where we could protect it, there 
was nothing more prominent in our minds than the stupidity of 
the Washingtonians and the activity of theit hogs ; and as a 
reginient we wanted nothing more than a good square meal, and 



l86l, 8IGHT-8EEIMO. 39 

a chance to sleep in a. cool place. It is needless to remind you, 
my friends, that the square meal was not eaten that night. 

The next morning was cold and rainy. Those who had ripped 
out their trowsers linings in a hurry, wished them back again. 
We learned that Senator Douglas was dead, and noticed flags at 
half mast. Also, by way of news, we heard that the rebels, after 
the 1st Maine had gone well out of Havre-de-Grace, had attacked 
that place and captured it. This was hard, but by and by we 
were cheered by the glorious news that the Federal troops had 
rallied, and with reinforcements had re-captured the town ; and 
last of all, our Adjutant and Chaplain, who were great news men 
and rumor killers, told us that all the stories about Hayre-de-6race 
were a hoax. 

The whole of company B, and a dozen or more men from every 
other company, wore sent out under the Quartermaster's directions, 
to a place called Meridian Hill, on 14th Street, and there pitched 
all of the tents. A number of the men passed the guard and 
came back telling marvellous stories of the sights about town. 
They had been all through the Capitol, the White House, the 
Treasury building; the Patent Office, the Smithsonian Institute 
and a dozen camps. They had seen " old Scott " and the President 
and Colonel So and So, for you must know that Colonels were 
scarce and noted in those days, and that all the buildings named 
and many others were open to the soldiers then. We who were 
penned up in the houses or factory, noticed all that passed, and 
were pleased to see the Zouaves, the German Rifles (8th N. Y.) 
and a number of other flnely dressed fellows. Gray was the 
predominant color, however. The dark blue and sky blue of the 
regulars was worn only by very few regiments then, if memory 
serves rightly. The Quartermaster gave us some good home- 
made pilot bread this morning, and I infer from the diary that we 
received some meat, from the prayer there, " The Lord deliver us 
from any more of what they call ' middlings,' which is a kind of 
bacon, all fat, and disgusting enough." 

The men spent the day in setting little black boys fighting, or 
rather butting. It was rich sport for us, since we had not seen 
much of the genuine darkey before. One little fellow who was 



40 THE SLAVERY QUESTION. 1 86 1. 

whiter than we were, but who showed his negro blood nevertheless, 
was handled roughly by his blacker friends, who took great 
delight in proving to us that he was black and a slave. This 
reminds me that at this time public sentiment was for the " Union 
as it loas^'* which meant as far as slavery was concerned, that 
each State should mind its own business. In our anxiety for the 
Union, we of the North lost sight of what appeared a secondary 
matter. Tlie slavery question was crowded aside the better to 
put down the rebellion ! In the first days of the war, and until 
after the battle of Bull Run, tlie presence of the army did not 
disturb the slaves as it did in later days. Although Gen. Butler's 
famous decision* that a slave was ^^ contrabaiid'''' received a ready 
amen all through the army and the North, yet as far as we could 
judge, the policy of the government was for us to keep our hands 
off the "divine institution." But more of this by and by. 

What a treat to a man's vanity it is to see his name in print I 
Naturally enough we all bought tlie papers on our first morning 
in Washington, to see what they had about the "crack" regiment 
from Maine. We found out by one of them that the 1st Maine 
was organized in three days after the President's call, and was 
recruited principally in Androscoggin County, — a county noted 
for its beautiful women and fin'ely formed men!! 

There is nothing of note in the diary for June 5, save the 
remark that looking from the dome of the Capitol we saw — 

Camps stretching all around from Arlington Heights to Alexandria, and 
from Georgetown down as far as we could see. There are about 30,000 troops 
near by now, so the papers say. 

On that day too, most of us ran out and visited the Capitol, 
and were interested in all we saw of course ; we wished so much 
to be quartered there oui-selves, that we kept alive all day the 
very foolish rumor that Gen. Scott would order us to guard it. 
The diary states that — 

Tobacco spit stains the stairs and is all over the building, but no real act of 
▼andalism is visible. In the Senate reception room, twenty soldiers of the 



*At the Commencement exercises of Bowdoin College, 1870, Qen. [€U>vemor] 
Ohambtrlain gave Gton. Ames the credit of originatiDg this term. 






1 86 1 . CAMP JACKSON — OUR NEIOHBORS • 4 1 

German Rifles were smoking or lounging on furniture worth tliousands of 
dollars. 

For June 6lh, we had by way of news that — 

One of the " Blues " was knocked down by a brick while on guard last night 
over in the camp, and had to be carried off. The guard turned out and fired 
thirty shots at them. (Who ?) There is a secession academy very near. 

After getting worked up to fever lieat by talking about this 
and about some blue lights tliat had been seen burning at flie 
academy, we heard another version of the affair, and still another, 
and then the officers told us tliat it was a hoax ! ! 

June 7th, Friday^ was another dull day. We had not been 
over to camp before for various reasons, but after breakfast, or 
"peas-upon-a-trencher" as the Adjutant had taught us to call it, 
we formed line, stood there half an hour in knapsacks, and then 
marched around to Pennsylvania Avenue and down to the 
Treasury Building, where we turned off and marched in the mud 
to Meridian Ilill, making about two and a half miles. 

We found our tents pitched on ground tliat liad been ploughed and then 
trodden down by soldiers in drilling : and lumber near by for floors and tables. 
We had a dress parade immediately on arrival and some hard cursing. The 
heat and fatigue caused four men of our company to faint and fall down 
during the dress parade, showing how much easier it is to keep moving than 
to stand still with a knapsack on. 

The 2d Maine was in camp a few yards from our left. They 
had a beautiful old mansion, with a large grove of trees unknown 
to us in Maine, in their lines. The grounds of Columbia College 
were in our rear (east). Still farther to the rear and across 14th 
street was the 9th New York Militia, on the ground made famous 
by Major Winthrop, in his contributions to the Atlantic Monthly. 

The 27th Penn., composed of Germans, French, Italians and 
everything else, under a Colonel Einstein, was not far oflT to the 
west. Soldiers were abundant ; it did not take a day to convince 
us that Camp Jackson, as we called it, was not to be a Camp 
Washburn. We saw at a glance that we could only play second 
fiddle here. 

Straw was issued to us by the rack-full, and at the cry of "fleas " 
the Norway Co. (G) burnt up theirs before night. But this was 



42 LOYAL POWDER. 1 86 1. 

not so much after the manner of recruits as was another freak 
which older regiments than ours have played. Our muskets had 
been loaded now a week, during which much talk had been made 
about the poor powder, and the impression in some minds was 
that the taint of treason possessed the men who made it. We 
took this first opportunity to discharge the pieces to see if t> 
powder was true, and as we knew nothing then of their ten- 
dency to over-shoot, and were all untaught as to richochet balls, 
we had a lively time of it. But to say that our neighbors 
had only a lively time, would do them injustice, They stood fire 
well, and no doubt looked with pity and contempt upon " those 
Maine recruits.'' No one was shot, and after a while the fusilade 
ceased. A guard was put around the camp, and none were 
allowed outside except squads for water. To get out, however, 
was never difficult ; besides our officers passed us out to cut brush 
with which we shaded our tables and our officers' quarters, the 
last, partly out of respect to them, and partly because no company 
would let another get ahead of it in any such notions as these. 

At night a heavy guard was sent out, armed to the teeth, some 
men having two pistols, and wonderful things were done by thifl 
guard, as we all know very well. 



i86i. 43 



CHAPTER VI. 

CAMP LIFE IN WASHINGTON. 

JuKB 8th, Saturday. We were awaked on this our first 
morning in Camp Jackson, by most unearthly cries, which would 
never have been mistaken for human, had not " Murder ! " " Murder f* 
alternated with the yells. Tlie camp guard and a few of the 
companies nearest the place whence the noise issued, turned out 
with creditable promptness, and stood to arms, waiting orders, 
while the officer of the guard went out with his men, who, after 
traveling about a quarter of a mile, found a negro and his wife in 
a shanty, both drunk and fighting, besides screaming at the top 
of their voices. We had supposed that one of the picket guard 
was being murdered by the college students, and we had roused 
the'sleepers by shouting ^'pickets in trouhle^'^ a by-word in some 
of the companies till the end of their existence. When we 
learned what it was we went back to our tents very quietly and 
made no brag about how quickly we had turned out. 

In the afternoon, one of the thunder storms peculiar to the 
latitude, astonished us. We were not accustomed to such winds 
and rains, and never had seen such streams of water rush past 
our tents before. We held on to the poles of the tents, and as 
is customary with new soldiers, we yelled all the time, occasionally 
quoting the Colonel's oration, "JIM! " "JIM!" for somehow we 
all felt that this was not according to the Adjutant's " Orders 
for \8t Maine Hegiment" and for this reason we felt bound to 
call his attention to the iiTCgularity. 

JuN£ 9th was our first Sunday in Washington. We had divine 



^ 



44 HAVELOCKS — HORSEBEEP FUNERAL . 1 86 1 . 

service before noon, and as we were baked well by the sun we 
did not like it at all. 

A regiment of Germans, 5th New York Militia, Col. Scharz- 
walder, marched over to the hill in our front (west) and pitched 
their tents this forenoon. They had a fine band and a drum 
corps with eighteen brass drums, and they had a lager beer barrel 
tapped long before they had their tents pitched. "Flies are 
plenty and mosquitoes scarce"; so says the diary. 

Monday a large body of troops moved off toward the North. 
We noticed that some regiments wore their havelocks ap they 
passed along. Havelocks had been given to us by our lady 
friends, and we sometimes wore them when on guard. The 
havelock, it is said, was worn by the British army in East India, 
under the general whose name it takes. And durinsf the months 
of May and June, one could hardly lift a newspaper without 
seeing something about them and their great benefit to the wearer. 
They are simply a cap covering of white linen with a long flap 
or cape which falls to the shoulder, and will scantily cover it if 
your sweetheart has been over liberal in cutting the pattern. 
They answered for towels and handkerchiefs when we had nothing 
better, but hot as it was sometimes in the " Ist," (and we saw 
hot weather and bragged about it you know), it was always 
hotter for the head to put on these things. I do not remember 
seeing one the second summer of the war. 

June 11th was a day of unusual complaint about the rations. 
The bread from the Cnpitol bakery was not palatable, and the 
beef was tougher than the " old boss " which the sailors say came 
** from Saccarapp to Portland Pier." I believe this was the day 
that a horse's hoof or part of the leg was said to have been found 
in a barrel of beef, though few were gulled by this yarn. This 
afternoon, however, a climax was reached when some half-starved 
genius in the lefl wing mustered a funeral procession to bury their 
**oW/i05«." Man after man fell in and marched to the muffled 
drum, till the procession was nearly half as long as the camp. 
Seeing this. Lieutenant Colonel Witham, who happened to be in 
command, went out, rebuked the ringleader, explained to all the 
proper remedy for any giievance, and assured us that we should 



i86i. "masked battehy.'* 45 

be fed according to regulations ; for all of which he received 
three clieera. 

Adjutant Fillebrown to-day picked up in camp a fine looking colored boy. 
He gave his name as Jim Munroc; he says he and his mother are slaves, but 
his owner is a rebel and has ran away to Virginia. 

The Adjutant kept Jim all througli our term of service, intending 
to take him North, but failed to do so for some reason. After 
we were back at Baltimore in the "10th" the Adjutant, by this 
time Lieutenant Colonel of the " 10th," went into Washington 
one day, and learning that Jim was in the miHtary prison he 
did his best to get him back but could not. He tried first one 
officer and then another, and tried again some weeks later, but 
alTvays failed. On making a third attempt he learned that poor 
Jiin was dead. This case illustrates the policy of the government, 
or at least its action at that time. The prison where Jim was kept 
was crowded with slaves. We, who know our old Adjutant and 
lieatenant Colonel so well — who know what a rare be^Jir he 
was for us, how steadily, cleverly and persistently he worked to 
carry his point, and how he always did carry it, we know, I say, 
that if he failed in this it was because poor Jim was held with a 
mighty grip; yes, my boys, what Col. Fillebrown couldn't do in 
a case like this, could not be done. 

We heard to-day of the Big Bethel disaster and the death of 
Major Winthrop." On the 12th the rumors concerning this battle 
were too many to count, but all nirreed that our men had fired into 
each other and that the rebels opened a ^^ masked batter*/ ^^ on 
oar troops, ^^ mowing 'them down by hundreds T This was the 
fir»t important movement where the "masked battery" did so 
mach mischief. Every gun that was fired in those days was a 
^masked battery i!'' 

The time passed heavily now for some weeks. We had our 
TWial drills by company and regiment, and dress parades every 
erening all in our shirt sleeves, which was the only comfortable 
rig we had. We growled continually about our rations and had 
to bay a good deal to keep down hunger. General Mansfield 
ordered all pistols, whether public or private property, to be taken 
way from the enlisted men except when on duty needing them. 



N 



46 QUININB — ^TATTOOING. 1 86 1. 

The bands of the Germans and 3d Maine gave ns music enough, 
in fact, too much sometimes when all four regiments were having 
a dress parade at the same time. 

We ran guard continually, and those few who were in the habit 
of drinking got drunk pretty often and made much trouble. 
Our Chaplain obtained a great abundance of envelopes franked 
by "J. W. Forney, Clerk of IIo. Reps.," « Potter, M. C. from 
Michigan," and others, and distributed them freely among us. 

The weather was hot and grew more so. We did not then so 
thoroughly understand our duty in keeping a clean camp, and 
often the kitchen refuse was thrown about, and so we were over-run 
with flies, the like of which we had never seen before. Many of 
the men were taken with the scourge of the army, the diarrhcea. 
Dr. Richardson's great remedy was quinine, and he often had 
many rebellious patients. But it is to his credit that none of us 
died. It was not often that a new regiment went three months 
without a death. 

We had not been on Meridian Hill long before we had a fever 
for making bone rings. Some of the workmanship and designs 
were really good, but as the cutting grew better, you will remember 
that the designs were less and less commendable, being too often 
of an obscene character. Another mania was that of having 
India ink and vermillion pricked into the arm and breasts. At 
one time it looked as if half the regiment would be tattooed 
before our three months were out. And it is sui^prising how the 
goddesses and Venuses, and all kinds of half covered women 
predominated over the other designs in this nonsense. This 
reminds me of a funny fellow in my own company whom we 
called " Sleei)y." It happened one afternoon that he fell asleep 
while lying flat on his stomach, in our arbor where many of us 
were writing letters. We daubed a little molasses on the seat of 
his trowsers — or what there was left of a seat — and poured 
liberally also into the two holes he had worn thereabouts in the 
shoddy, and because his shirt was originally short, and had 
fihrunken and worked up, the molasses thus poured, fell, of 
necessity, upon the genuine Sleepy, and was instantly followed 
by the flies in swarms. This of course roused our chum. He 



l86l. •* FLY-TEAP." 47 

woke quickly, bat was slow to comprehend the situation. lie 
felt the flies and the trickling of the molasses, and heard and saw 
half the company laughing at him, and so knew he was the victim 
of a joke, and seeing our ink bottles on the table he blurted out, 
" dam you ! have you been trying to prick ink into me ? you keep 
your ink to homeT' Hence from that day we called him no 
more « Sleepy" but " Fly-trap." 



48 i86i. 



'*^ 



CHAPTER VII. 

A MIDXIGOT SCAKE. THE EFFECT INDESCRIBABLE. 

It was in the early morning of June 15th that our first scare 
happened. About miclniglit a tremendous racket was heard 
coming from the regiment over at the north-east of us. Volleys 
of musketry were heard occasionally, and single shots pretty 
often, cavalry with their sabres clanging, and army wagons 
rumbling along the road added to the uproar. We learned from 
our sentinels that cavalry were marching past. It soon became 
quiet, but shortly after we were awaked out of sleep by the same 
confusion, only now the sentinels of the S\ Maine were calling, 
"Turn out the guard'^'* ! ! which quickly changed to " Turn out 
the regiment " / ! Out they came, guard, regiment, drummers and 
all; the long roll was beaten, and of coui-se that insured disturb- 
ance all around. Out came the " 1st," out came the 2d Maine, 
and last but not least, the Germans over the gully came, and here 
let me state, that the turning out of a German regiment with 
eighteen brass drums at one o'clock in the morning is one of the 
noisiest things in the way of a military performance. Now at 
length we had it in full blast, four drum corps beating the long 
roll ; 2,500 to 3,000 men and officers shouting and commanding. 
Every dog in the neighborhood was ki-yi-ing of course. Cavalry- 
men and staff officers were contributing their mites by jumping 
around and rattling their sabres. Words fail to convey the 
slightest idea of the din and confusion, much less can tliey tell 
the feelings of the frightened ones. What it was all for we never 
knew, and though we had a thousand rumors in the morning to 
piok from none were worth chronicling. 



1 86 1 . TARGET PRACTICE — ^FIFER JACK . 49 

Before our first week at Camp Jackson was ended we were 
fairly settled in the ways of soldiers — as soldiers were then. 
We had target practice every moniing for a while, and some 
remarkable shooting was done. I remember we generally con- 
sidered ourselves safe if directly behind the man who was firing, 
and I must confess to an occasional nervousness when some names 
were called till the gun went off and nobody was found to be 
hurt. However, we improved wonderfully, and at last did some 
excellent shooting, though as the whole army had orders (so we 
were told) for target practice, you may readily imagine, if you 
don't remember it, that sometimes stray bullets were whizzing 
about very wide of their mark. 

The guards loaded their muskets at night, and as no fixed rule 
was observed in our regiment and vicinity for the discharge of 
the pieces,' a lively fusilade often occurred in camp. But woe 
betide the man who committed this error, if our Adjutant could 
lay hands on him ! By good fortune we all came home alive at 
last, though why a dozen of us or our neighbors were not shot is 
still a mystery. We heard and read of fatal accidents of this 
nature, and were waked up early one morning by the cry of a 
man of the 2d Maine who was accidentally shot in the leg by hb 
neighbor. 

Among the pleasant remembrances of these days on Meridian 
Hill, is the occasion when the sergeants of the regiment presented 
Adjutant Fillcbrowu with a sword. It was not a public affair, 
but we were M glad to learn that our popular Adjutant had 
been thus favored. 

Another incident which must not be lost was the drumming 
out of " Fifer Jack." His example was so bad that the Colonel 
reported him to General Mansfield, who ordered about as follows : 
" Musician of the Ist Maine Volunteers, is, on recommend- 
ation of liis officers, hereby discharged the service of the U. S." 

As this was deemed insufficient, a Coupt Martial was held in 
the Adjutant's quarters and the order of its superior was approved! I 
Jack meanwhile slept in the stable chamber and grew saucy, but 
at length he was drunmied out — thoroughly disgraced, and the 
others of us should have been terrified thereby, yet I remember 

4 



H. 



50 PEDICULUS C0BF0RI8 . 1 86 1 . 

the discussion whether Jack had not been honored after all, in 
which debate the Ayes were victors, for, said they, " did not the 
regiment turn out for him and make as much fuss as it did for 
Gk)v. Washburn?" "Could we get excused; could we move or 
turn around, or even brush off the flies ? What if Gov. Washburn 
did give us a speech, Jack gave us a grin and set us all laughing, 
and that's as much as the Governor did ! " 

JnvB 26th. The 17th N. T. came in and camped on other side of the road 
from the Germans — "S. W. of ns. We are going home July 22d, to recruit 
up to a thosuand. Col. Jackson is to be made a brigadier and will command 
all Maine troops. 

All of which was a good rumor for one day. 

June 27th, Thuradayy was a day of short rations in Company 
C. We growled and swore, and at length the ofiicers went up 
and bought some bread and syrup, after which we hurrahed for 
them of course. This same trouble and a similar remedy oc- 
curred in most of the other companies I have been told. 

JuNB 29th, Saturday. The 6th Maine regiment arrived, and went into 
camp a short distance to the north of us, and close by the 4th Maine, which 
last regiment has been here now ten or twelve days. So we have five Maine 
regiments within musket shot of each other. 

The boys from the 5th Maine came over to our camp by 
hundreds, and our boys stole out and visited them ; consequently 
a good deal of drinking was indulged in, and the picket guard 
filled every one of the guard tents full that night with the inebri- 
ated of both regiments. 

Juke 80th, Sunday. To-day one of the men of our company beckoned me 
to come away from the crowd in the streets, and I followed accordingly. His 
fkce and manner showed that he wished to confide some precious secret to me, 
and I listened with all seriousness. He whispered softly to me that he had 
taken this holy day, as was his custom at home, to wash and shift, and that he 
had found on his shirt some five or six or more lice. " Lice ? '* said I in horror, 
" you don't say lice." " Even so," said my chum. " Not the kind you find in 
your head, but the great Washington breeds — big as ants ! " 

I listened, and he con'fided for a long time, in sweetest innocence, 
never dreaming that the day was to come when we should esteem 
ihem our pets I ! But as the history of no regiment is complete 
nithont allasion to this subject — a subject of great importance at 
Min«H*4md as by common consent no regiment can be a ^ veteran ^ 



l86l. GALL FOB HEN. 51 

regiment that has not gone lousy a month running, let me say for 
the ^'Ist,'* that it was not as a regiment infested, and considering 
all the circumstances it is a wonder it was not. 

JuLT Ist, Monday. The 2d Maine marched away this after- 
noon while we were on dress parade. It rained and blew a 
hurricane as soon as they started. We got an immense deal of 
plunder from them, the enumeration of which in the diary, shows 
how delighted we were with it. The principal items were boards, 
tables, stools, tubs, barrels, boxes, pots and kettles, a stove or two, 
and a number of shanties entire. 

The 2d marched over Long Bridge and were moved about 
considerably, but never camped in our neighborhood again during 
the war. 

JiTLY 2d the water gave out at the college well, and also at the 
one in the 2d Maine's old camp. This compelled us to go a 
quarter of a mile to a spring, and as it took from an hour to all 
day to go and get back we rather liked the new order of things, 
for the liberty it gave us. 

About this time we became quite efficient, so we thought, at 
target practice at 75 and 125 yards, and commenced widening 
the distance from the target till finally the conceit was pretty well 
taken out of us. 

It was this evening that the clouds cleared away and showed 
us the comet in the height of its glory. It had not been 
announced in the papers that we had seen, and none of us had 
an idea that anything so brilliant was coming. Its career was 
brief and dazzling ; by July 7th it ceased to attract notice or to 
trouble the superstitious. 

July 4th was a day of celebration of course. The sutler of 
the 5th New York Militia must have coined money in dealing 
out liquor to our boys. Almost everyone who ever got drunk 
felt it to be his duty to do so now, and this, with running guard, 
made the day attractive. 

Next day we saw in the " extras " the President's call for 
400,000 men and $400,000,000. This fell in camp like a bomb- 
shell. The men talked absurdly as usual, and had 400,000 new 
rumors and 400,000,000 exaggerations afloat before night. In the 



s 



5 2 MOVEMENTS OF TROOPS . 1 86 1 . 

oflScers' quarters the old story was revived, that. Col. Jackson 
would be made a brigadier and numberless other promotions 
would follow. 

July 6th the 3d Maine went off. A few days before, the 4th 
Michigan came and camped in the grove where the 2d Maine 
had been originally. This evening the Pennsylvania regiment 
at the west of us got up a scare, turned out and iired a number 
of shots ; the panic spread to the 17th New York, and even a 4th 
Maine drummer commenced a " drummera' call," by reason of 
which error and the promptness of some officers there, the panic 
was staid. We and the Germans refused to be scared, having 
had enough of it before. 

July 7th, the Germans marched for Harper's Ferry, and in the 
afternoon the Mozart regiment (40th N. Y.) came and squatted on 
the 3d Maine's old ground, but moved off before night. These 
movements of troops were exceedingly interesting to us at the 
time : — ^I trust these reminders to my comrades of the " 1st " 
may awaken something of the old joy in them. 

July 9th the 4th and 5th Maine left us for Virginia, from 
whence we daily heard most wonderful stories. There were no 
maps at that date in circulation among the men of our regiment, 
and we had a very confused idea of course, of all the localities. 
Manassas Gap and Manassas Junction were spoken of as being 
the same place, and it was understood to be the most strongly 
fortified place in all the world, not excepting Gibraltar. We 
understood there were miles and miles of ^< masked batteries ^ 
there. 

July 10th. Three-fourths of the men rushed past the guard 
en masse^ following the example of the 17th New York, which 
had done the same and wore crying as they came toward us, 
" Stop that hack." The hack was stopped and the driver received 
a cowardly pummelling from the roughs of both regiments ; on 
what pretext I never knew, but it furnished something to talk 
about and swear about, and finally a half dozen fights came off 
in our camp as a natural sequel to this disturbance. 

For a week or more we furnished guard over the camp of the 
9th New York S. M. on the other side of 14th St. They gave 



1 86 1 . PAY DAY — QOLD. 53 

our sentinels bread, cheese and wine for a while, in consequence 
of which we all gladly volunteered for that duty. 

July 11th, Thursday ^ was the day of days — the long talked 
of pay-day. Paymaster Fred. Robie seated himself behind a 
table in the basement of the college, and gave us each 114.33 in 
gold and silver. Not one of the men knew why such an odd 
amount as this was given, but all willingly signed the rolls and 
took it, believing it was all right. As soon as we were paid we 
all commenced indulging in sutler-stuff, till Drs. Richardson and 
Williams had their hands full. Many bought new clothing, the 
Lewiston boys especially, who were ever foremost in every move 
of this nature, came out with blue flannel coats and white gaiters. 
It astonished me most, I remember, to see so much gambling — 
some men were "strapped " by night, others had lost half and sworn 
off. But running guard and drinking were indulged in beyond 
mention. We sober ones concluded that paying off a regiment 
was very demoralizing to it, and our conclusion was strengthened 
considerably next day by having to go on guard a day sooner 
than our turn, in order to give a dozen drunken fellows time to 
sober off. Five days later, July 16th, we received $2.20 from the 
State of Maine for six days service, from April 27th to May 2d 
inclusive. This little added fuel to the flame, and we had more 
running guard, more gambling, more drinking, more demorali- 
zation. 

That day the 36th New York Volunteers marched out to the 
old grounds of the 3d Maine and camped there. They were the 
hardest crew we ever had for neighbors. Apparently all were 
Irish and half of them under twenty-one yeai*s of age, so we never 
lacked for excitement after their arrival. On their first dress 
parade, or attempt at it, when the officers marched to the front 
to receive the colonel's instructions, the loafers around camp and 
the sentinels on duty, doubtless thinking that so many could not 
get together in one crowd without a fight, all ran and gathered 
around the officers, and staid there till the colonel dismissed 
them ! This pleased us immensely. 

Later in the war we met this regiment one day on the march, 
I forget when and where, but a great change was visible in it ; 



54 *" MORNING PAPER." 1861. 

the boys were gone with about four-lSilbs of tne original regiment. 
Tbe 200 men in tbe ranks were as fine a set as ever wore the 
blue, but it bad cost the 86th a heavy loss on paper, to free 
herself of her dross. 

On the 17th, Gen. Mansfield, who commanded the troops in 
Washington, sent orders to us to be ready to march at five minutes 
notice, and this made some commotion, but would have made more 
if half the men had not been gambling or away from camp. The 
newspapers noted every movement of the troops that the reporteiji 
could learn, and we waited impatiently for our old lame negro 
with his " morning paper^ and it is to be regretted that we 
cannot make words and letters express the odd accent of his 
morning cry. It was plain to see that rather more than half of 
the army around Washington was moving against the rebels, and 
that eventually there would be a fight. ' It was not so plain to 
tell what was truth in the hundred rumors we heard and read, 
which, while they kept us in constant expectation, served also to 
make us doubt even the truth. Hence, though we had waited 
anxiously for some days for news, when at last we heard of the 
repulse of Tyler's men, at Blackburn's Ford, it made little im- 
pression on the men of our regiment. 



i86i. 55 



CHAPTER Vin. 

TBB BATTLB OF BUIX BUK. 

A day tliat never will be forgotten by any who then suffered 
in body or soul, was Sunday, July 21, 1861. 

It wag, 80 the diary states, pleasant but not so extremely hot 
as it had been, and with a light north-east wind. We had been 
receiving all sorts of reports from the moving army for a day or 
two, and so were not much disturbed by a number of stories we 
heard tliis forenoon. The diary states — 

At twelve, noon, being on guard, I heard a repeated rumbling like thunder ; 
the whole camp seemed to hear the same noise simultaneously, and came out 
of the streets to listen. After noon the noise grew louder till 2 p. m., when 
there appeared to be something of a cessation till 5.30 p. x., when it was as 
heavy as ever. Our sutler says he was out in Virginia eight miles this morning, 
and the people he met told him that firing had been heard since 2 o'clock this 
morning. Somebody else has been in our camp and stated to Ac^utant 
Fillebrown that he actually heard the musketry. It is too plain that there is 
a battle going on and here we are on this same old Meridian Hill doing nothing 
but listen. 

7.30 p. M. The camp is in great excitement. A courier has arrived from 
the battle and told our Colonel that the Federals have taken three miles long 
of masked batteries (supposed to have been near Bull liun), and have driven 
the rebels back into their intrenchments, where they can be starved out ! ! 
Our company is falling in, whether to do service or to be " sold again," I 
cannot tell. If the company goes I shall try to get a chance. 

P. S. 9i p. M., Sunday. We have orders to take two day's rations and be 
ready to march at an instant's notice. Good bye. 

This brings to mind one of the minor griefs of the day to a 
few of us who were so unfortunate as to be on guard. "The 



5 6 QOOD AND BAD REPORTS . 1 86 1 . 

guard will remain " was the order, but it was not to be entejr- 
tained. Some of us procured substitutes from the hospital ; I 
ran for my chum, the artist Hudson, who had been sick abed two 
weeks in the hospital tent ; he was not there, but I found him at 
length in the company, and reasoned with him long and well, 
the end of it all being a stout refusal to go on guard or any where 
else except to fight. Some of us got drummers and fifers to take 
our places in the guard, and some paid $5.00 for a substitute, and 
a few who became desperate as they saw every resource fail them, 
made ready to desert the guard and go w^ith the regiment. I 
have no recollection of anything like this occurring in the " 10th ** 
or "29th." Nevertheless it must not be quoted for more than it 
is worth. 

We remember the bountiful supply of extrafine hard bread 
that was issued to us that night, and also the hankering we had 
for a little confirmation of that grand capture of the three miles 
of batteries. But we were compelled late at night to lie down 
with no further news from the front. 

Monday morning at 4^^ a. m., it was raining so hard that we 
had to turn out to break stacks and wipe the muskets. It was 
7 A. M. before the negro news man came with the morning paper. 

The diary says : — 

The news on being read turned out very differently from what we had 
expected : in short, the victory was not quite so apparent. Yet as an ofiset 
to tliis damper, a man from the city said that the people in town had been 
hurrahing all night over the victory, and that our boys had taken a good 
many prisoners. Soon after breakfast a courier rode up to tlie Colonel's tent, 
and shortly after the Adjutant came out saying, " We are whipped — whipped 
badly, boys!** This news went over camp like a flash of lightning; it killed us 
all " dead as a door nail." 

No hospital " beats " nor drummers were wanted after this. 

The first particulars of tliis bad news were that we had received a counter- 
attack from the rebels, and had been beaten as badly by them as they had 
been whipped by our troops in the morning. We had been ploughed to death 
by masked batteries, and some cavalry had cut us all to pieces. Later we 
learned that our 2d Maine had been blown all out of existence by these 
masked batteries — and not one officer was left. The Ellsworth Zouaves were 
annihilatod-M)nly seventy left by actual count. 



1 86l . " BLACK H088 CALVARY." 57 

At noon this bad news was partly modified, and we heard of a number of regi- 
ments of our acquaintance as bein^; yet alive in part. The 14th Brooklyn had 
run, they said — but the friends of the 14th Brooklyn in the city said this was a 
mistake and that it must be the 14th " Salt boilers "* and not the "Brooklyn"! 
that had run. ^ 

During the forenoon all sorts of stories of what this and that 
regiment had done were circulated. They had all been " cut to 
pieces," which was awful enough certainly to make any of us feel 
sick at heart, but if I can rightly judge, nothing was worse after 
the one sad fact of a national disaster, than the camp rumors we 
had that day, which were so wild, exaggerated and uncertain, 
that we knew nothing after wo had heard them, but had only 
added to our stock of doubts. For instance a man rushed into 
our street saying, "A man out here says the 2d Maine was 
knocked all to the bad, not an officer left — they marched right up, 
drove the rebels, and thought they were going to take 'em all 
prisoners, when all at once any quantity of masked batteries let 
drive, and the rebels turned about^ and the ' Black Hoss Calvary' 
came down from where they were hid and cut 'em all to nothing," 
&c. &c. All we had to do was to listen and we could hear all 
the particulars. In the left companies the story ran that this 
mishap befell the 3d Maine, while on the right they said it was all 
a lie, but Cni)t. Somebody of the 4th Maine had truly been bay- 
oneted after he was taken prisoner ; and this again good Chaplain 
Knox advised us not to believe till it was confirmed. 

The first living hero from the fight came in at length. We 
saw him — him that had been clear to Bull Run. He had double 
quicked to the front for two hours, thrown away his knapsack, 
fought and driven the rebels, mowed them down like sheep and 
done great things. Then came the story of a retreat being 
ordered and the " masked batteries " raining down cannon shot, 
shell, grape and canister just as it rains in these Washington 
thunder storms, you know. A great cannon ball had knocked 
his gun out of his hand, so that he couldn't find where it went to! 
The bullets had torn the hat oft* his head, hence, behold him 
hatless, and all but headless. See where another bullet had cut 

•14tb N. Y. Volunteers. 1 14th N. Y. SUte MiUtia, 7hMnr<^ ^ ♦•>vv« 40rrvr-UMjL ^ 



58 TBUTH AND LIBS. 1861. 

a button olean o^ and still another bad gone tbrougb his coat 
tail and between his legs. He had escaped only by running like 
a race horse, while hundreds of his regiment were chopped up 
by the "Black Horse" cavalry. # 

He told this story from company to company, and was finally 
treated to the boot of the officer of the guard. 

Our Dr. Richardson was engaged in caring for the wounded a 
good part of the day. He brought in their reports, they being 
almost as favorable to our side as the lies of the stragglers were 
disastrous. By night we learned that a good part of the army 
had not fired a musket, and had brought up the rear in pretty 
good shape — repelling all attacks of cavalry, and saving much 
of the baggage trains, and that our troops had been their own 
worst enemies in giving away to a panic. Sherman's battery was 
not captured, on the contrary it had done wonderful service. 
Some other batteries had been captured however. 

It may be well to add that this day there was no drilling, little 
running guard, less gambling than usual and very little drunken- 
ness. It was cold and raw, and drizzled at times and during all 
the evening. The next day we heard nothing worse, though 
very many stragglers were in camp, telling their tales of woe and 
begging a new outfit. One boy of about seventeen years, who 
had an older brother in our company, came in with only pants 
and blouse on. He had thrown away his knapsack when the 
others had, and his gun and accoutrements followed later. Then 
his hat flew off and he didn't dare stop to pick it up ; true, there 
was no enemy near, but they might have overtaken him, he said ; 
he threw away his shoes because they were so heavy, and he had 
worn out his stockings and thrown them away, and last of all he 
had pawned his shirt to get something to eat, and here he was — 
such a soldier! 

The killed, wounded and missing of different regiments were 
stated in the papei-s and by rumor, though not correctly. The 
4th Michigan came back to the old camp-ground soon after the 
battle, looking worse for wear; their band played as usual every 
night, and to this day the tunes they gave us always remind us 
of the heart-sickness and demoralization we suffered then. 



l86l. WASHINGTON AFTER THB BATTLE. 59 

We heard great stories of the fight the Zouaves made, how 
they unhorsed cavalry and fought hand to hand with them,— 
bayonet against sabre. We believed somewhat of it then, but 
have lived long enough since to know that wearing red breeches 
and being called a Zouave does not make a soldier of a rough. 

The only real joy we had in the "1st" was that of getting 
letters from home, and next to this was the pleasure of going 
into town. Regular passes were so few that not enough were 
issued to give each man two days in town during our entire stay. 
But the captains of companies managed to let us off in one way 
and another. I remember with gratitude being detailed for one 
of a guard of six, to go into town and arrest two good-for-nothings 
of our company, who had run away and been gone all night. 
This was three days atler the Bull Run battle, and such a sight 
I never had seen, heard of or dreamed about ; and I preface the 
account of this day's work by stating, that once in town with 
such sights to see, our sergeant never troubled himself about the 
runaways, but " took us around " till sunset. We talked with 
numbers who had been slightly wounded in the battle, and who 
were now lying around the doors of dwelling houses that had 
been converted into hospitals. We listened with the greatest 
credulity to their stories of double-quicking for miles, of charging 
on masked batteries, of how they might have done so and so (^ 
&c. &c., of their being ordered back when they were whipping 
the rebels and driving all before them, of the terrible Black 
Horse cavalry, of their double-quicking back again, all but dead 
though they were. Then the same sad story came always, "we 
couldn't stand it, we had to throw away everything we had.'* 
The most of those we saw that day had done this last whether 
they were wounded or not. These are points wherein nearly all 
agreed. They thought they were victorious but received the 
unexpected order to retreat, and fell back, first at a brisk walk, 
then at somethii% brisker, and finally the " Black Horse" cavalry 
finished them. If we may believe all we heard, every one had a 
sight at this cavalry and was chased for miles by it. Going 
farther into the city and past the hotels the sight was sickening, 
only we poor greenhorns then, knew so little of what was right 



60 A MOTLEY CREW. 1861. 

and wrong that we did not know enough to feel sick about it. 
Brigadiers, and even colonels, had been rather few in numbers 
around Washington before the battle, but now we had a chance 
to see everything from the general who had figured at Bull Run, 
down to the wretch with a gash in his cheek and blood all over 
him, who said he had fought a Louisiana Tiger and killed him at 
last; whereas the villian more likely had been slashed in a grog 
shop. Here were gangs of rough, dirty, gray-clad fellows ; some 
had hats, some caps ; some had lost their coats, and all had lost 
their accoutrements ; they looked as if they had not washed since 
the morning of the battle. Ask them where their regiment was, 
they would tell you it was " all cut up and not a corporal's guard 
left in any company." Then came a finely dressed fellow who 
had not yet had to sleep out of tents, and knew nothing of the 
rough side of war. Then a pack of drunken, brawling, half- 
starved, half-naked victims of the late disaster, and then a couple 
or more officers who had soiled their nice clothes surely, their 
reputations possibly, during the last week. I remember a group 
of Highlanders ; in the whole posse perhaps you might have 
picked out one complete Highland uniform, but the individuals 
were a wreck, and a sort of cross between a Highlander, a 
true blue and a " gray back." Mixed in with the crowd were 
squads with arms, such as our squad was, picking up runaways 
as we were — or weren't — and telling stragglers where their " all- 
cut-up " regiment could be found with a respectable number left 
to do mourning duty. 

All over the town the wreck of the army was strewed. Ap- 
parently a regiment of men were lounging under the shade trees 
around the Capitol. In every grog shop and low place were crowds, 
drunk, vomiting and rolling in their filth. The hotels were 
crammed with mobs of officers, as far gone from propriety as 
the other mobs were. 

It must have been a trying and sickening ^ight to the old 
army officers, to have seen these " brothers " of theirs in such a 
plight. 

Yet Bull Run was not without some small gain to our cause. 
It was a great day to weed out the trash, and my friends, there 



l86l. THE SMALL GAIN. 61 

was a deal of trash that had to be weeded out before the end 
came. It is unfair, too, to drop this subject, without saying that 
Washington was the worst side of the bad picture. Here all the 
scum had floated ; here were those who had fought little and run 
much, and those who saw more danger the farther they ran from 
it, and those with whom it was second nature to lie, to get drunk 
and " shove up " their clothing for another drink. 

I state it without fear of contradiction, that there never was 
such a mob of worthlessness in this country as this was in 
Washington city after the great Bull Run. 



62 i86i. 



CHAPTER IX, 

PRKPARATI0K8 FOR GOING HOME. 

Our term of service was now nearly out. We had many 
suspicions that we were to be kept over our time, but we heard 
of other troops receiving orders to make ready to go home, and 
we knew our turn would come. We counted the days, and in 
the morning congratulated ourselves as follows : " Ten days more 
and we'll be back at Camp Washburn. Nine days more we'll 
see those Fall River girls. Eight days more, and look out for 
Philadelphia coffee pots ! Eleven days more, and well give the 
Captain a licking ! ! " The last threat grew less and less prominent, 
however, as the days wore on. Whatever discipline there had 
been in the regiment, disappeared. If we had any drilling after 
Bull Run, it was not recorded. The Colonel took us out to march 
a number of times, which we understood as a preparation to do 
well in the streets during our homeward move. We furnished a 
heavy guard for Long Bridge, and relieved it daily. But the 
men showed more desire to get home than to do anything else, 
and a more unpleasant and unprofitable week was never spent in 
the "Ist" than this one after Bull Run. 

The day at length drew nigh for us to start. It was promised 
by rumor for " to-morrow " for a long time, but July 30th it began 
to look like it, as on that day the 6th Maine marched into our 
camp and changed muskets with us. They gave us the old fiint-lock 
smooth-bore, altered over to a percussion-lock, and understood to 
be more dangerous to the user and his right hand comrade, than 
to the enemy. 



1 86 1 . THE LAST NIGHT. 63 

We heard that all sorts of inducements were to be oflfered to 
ns to re-enlist, principally a new blue uniform and Springfield 
muskets such as we had just lost. It was no time to talk of 
re-enlisting then, and the subject was not broached in earnest. 

That night was as wild a night in camp as ever we saw. We 
commenced at sunset to burn and destroy almost everything we 
could lay our hands on. The arbors that we had made were torn 
down, and with much of our furniture were given to the flames. 
We made an effigy, really representing a 1st Maine soldier, but 
intended, I believe, as a mark of our contempt for the uniform, and 
putting it on a pole over the flames tried to bum it, but he " stood 
fire " well. All sorts of pranks were played that night ; few of 
us slept much ; those who ever drank, couldn't resist this glorious 
occasion, and though some of the officers tried to restore quiet, 
it grew worse and worse till two o'clock of the morning of July 
31st, when the drummers, unable to resist the tide, commenced 
beating the drummer's call a half hour or more before the appointed 
time. This brought out the Adjutant, and it is said that he took 
this occasion to vent all the vexation and rage he had felt for a 
week. We put the most of our stuff* in boxes and packed our 
knapsacks lightly and uniformly. Wagons were borrowed to 
haul our baggage to the depot, for we did not have ten to twenty- 
four wagons, as some regiments had then. At last we fell in and 
marched off" to the Arsenal, where our muskets and equipments 
were given up. Then marching to the depot we waited some 
hours, and tumbled into freight cars, and started. Our old friends 
the Germans (6th N. Y. S. M.J went home with us, but we caught 
the first train at Baltimore, leaving them to diink lager and 
whiskey to excess, till they got fighting with the citizens, and so 
next morning the news was, ^^ another regiment attacked in 
Baltimore^ We received more hurrahs in Baltimore, returning 
home, than we did in going on — not that the people were glad to 
have us go home, but they were now free to hurrah as much as 
they chose. We left Baltimore a little before sunset, and had a 
fine night of it in box and platform cars, especially when those on 
the latter insisted upon coming into the covered cars early in the 
morning of Aug. 1st, to get out of the rain. We had a good 



64 HOME AGAIN. 1 86 1. 

breakfast at the Cooper shop in Philadelphia, crossed the river, 
and hurrahed from one end of Jersey to the other. We reached 
New York about 5 p. m., and as the Quartermaster's Dep^t* was 
not fully organized at this time, no arrangements had been made 
for us to proceed farther ; therefore, nothing better could be done 
than to quarter in the Park barracks. The men were allowed 
the liberty of the city, and improved it. 

Next day we went aboard the Steamer "Bay State" and 
started about noon. It was a quiet sail and free from much 
enthusiasm. Early Saturday morning we arrived at Fall River 
and found a collation ready for us. This and the attentions of 
the fair ones caused me to record in the diary — 

Nothing has been so pleasing in all our trip as the pretty girls we hare seen 
in New England. They are all so clean and white and neatly dressed and 
loving — so far ahead of any we saw in Wasliington, &c. &c. 

About 2 p. M. of that day (Aug. 3d), we reached Portland and 
marched througli the city to the Grand Trunk depot, the Port- 
landers throwing their knapsacks to their friends as they went 
along. This taking off of baggage revealed the weakness of 
shoddy, and Co. C will never forget the independence of an 
"infant" named Phawkes, in whose pantaloons seat there were 
two holes, each eight inches square, inside of which there might 
have been aeon a remnant of shirt trying to "cover the law.** 
We were all of us nearly as badly off, only he was a gentleman 
of culture and fortune and of extensive acquaintance ; therefore 
we offered to pin up the holes for him, which favor he refused to 
accept. We then offered to stuff in two old hats, or even buy a 
large salt fish for him to hang over behind for a tail-piece, but he 
still refused both these projects. Two kind hearted fellows 
proposed to stuff in their overcoats and blankets if he would not 
be content with hats and fish, and I suspect they were commenc- 
ing something of this sort when he turned sharply around and 
told them, " That's Uncle Sam's property in there — hands off — 



* As the world was not made in a day, neither was the army that suppressed th6 
lebellion, nor were anj of its departments found tallj equal to the emergency. We all 
had to learn by experience, and so through many ikilures, at last became apt scholars. 



l86l. END OF FIRST MAINE. 65 

when Fm mnstercil out and Phawkes owns himself again Fll see 
he*8 taken care of." 

We ate a good lunch in the English steamers' slied and then 
dispersed. Monday we met by companies, and under the eye of 
Capt Tom Ilight of the Regulars our names were called — this 
constituted a "mustering out." We received final pay of $28.88, 
and such swearing and tlireatening we hadn't heard for a fortnight, 
and all because the clothing money was withheld. During the 
yacation and for months afterward, we heard the old accusation 
of the government having cheated us out of our clothing money, 
— yet we have lived to see that the boot is really on the other 
leg. 

So ended the 1st Maine : its birth was honorable and glorious, 
and it did all the service that was required of it. 

We believe that few other Maine regiments had so many in- 
telligent, inHucntial and talented young men in its ranks. It waa 
well drilled moreover, and as well off for discipline as most three 
months troops. Yet it was doomed to contend with nothing 
more serious than the measles; to indulge in more conceit than 
tongue can tell, and to die cursing the government for withholding 
clothini^ money, when really the government was a creditor I 

Yet I will not concede that any of the first nine regiments 
fix)m our State got further in three months toward being a regi- 
ment of soldiers than did the " 1st." Our oflicers and non- 
commissioned oflicei*s knew their duty as well as could be ex- 
pected of them under our State militia system, and after we were 
dispersed the individual members were looked upon as " veterans,** 
and a great many of the non-commissioned officers and privates 
obtained promotion in other regiments. Yet judged by tho 
European standard of what a soldier and a regiment should be, 
or judged by our own volunteer army standard of later yeai*s, we 
are compelled to admit that the " 1st" was "nowhere." But we 
did what we could — it was not our fault that we did no more. 



(i6 



i86t. 



CHAPTER X. 



^oK jof ijjt Jtrsi ^aim lament. 



■ o» ■ 



Colonel, 

lAeutenouU Colonel, 
Major, 

A^utant, 
Quartermcuter, 
Chaplain, 
Surgeon, 
AisistarU Surgeon, 



Sergeant Major, 
Q. M. Sergeant, 
Hoipitai Steward, 
Drum Major, 
Fife Major, 



FIELD AND STAFF. 

NATHANIEL J. JACKSON, 
ALBION WITHAM, 
GEORGE G. BAILEY, 

J^MBS S. FiLLEBROWH, 

William S. Dodoe, 
Gborob Knox, 
Wentwortu R. Richardson, 
A. A. C. Williams, 

NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Foster Randall, 
Stephen H. Manning, 
George J. Northrup, 
Darid Jones, 
Cyrus Freeman, 



Lewiston. 
Portland. 
Portland. 

Lewiston. 

Portland. 

Brunswick. 

Portland. 

Brunswick. 



Lewiston. 

Brunswick. 

Portland. 

Portland. 

Lewiston. 



Company A. (Portland Light Infantry,) 



CAPTAIN. 
TuKET, Gboboe W. 



Portland. 



LIEUTENANTS. 

1st, Chadwell, Georob H. Portland. 
2d, McAllistbb, Chablbs L. 



(« 



i86i. 



BOLL OF FIBST MAINE. 



67 



SSBGSANTB. 



Itt, Beal, John M. 


Portland. Bomham, Perez B. 


Portland. 


Bell, Alexander 


" Wiggin, Simeon B. 
COBPOBALS. 


it 


Chellis, Charles A. 


Portland. Berrj, James 


Portland. 


Scott, Charles H. 


•" Witham, Beiyamin T. 


It 



MUSICIANS. 
Sewell, William H. Portland. Graham, Joseph H. Fall Biver, Biass. 

PRIVATES. 



« 



tt 



n 



€€ 



Adams, Geon^e M. Westbrook. 

Barnard, John. £. Portland. 

Barry, Thomas Cape Elizabeth. 

Begg, John B. Portland. 

Bowie, John B. 

Bowker, Daris C. 

Boynton, Freeman N. C. Elizabeth. 

Chamberlain, Chas. B. " 

Collis, John F. Philadelphia. 

Coolbrook, Thad. W. Portland. 

Copp, John F. 

Ciishman, Benjamin S. 

Dyer, Edmund W. C. Elizabeth. 

Green, John 

Guptill, Stephen U. 

Hall, Henry D. 

Hall, Webb 

Hanlcy, Thomas 

Hanson, Nils A. 

Hoc^cley, Edward J. 

Holbrook, Charles L. 

Hyde, Bufas W. 

Bsley, Charles E. 

Jordan, Andrew B. C. Elizabeth. 

Jordan, George S. " 

Kennard, Frank S. Portland. 

Kennard, Mcrritt A. 

Lincoln, Edward B. 

Loveitt, James Cape Elizabeth. 

Loveitt, WiUiam 

McDonald, Angns Portland. 

McKenney, George H. 



Portland. 

Fryeburg. 

Portland. 

Cumberland. 
Portland. 

Starks. 
Portland. 
Harrison. 



« 



(( 



tt 



Portland. 

Westbrook. 

Portland. 
tt 

East Boston. 

Portland. 
C. Elizabeth. 

Portland. 



It 



It 



II 



Munsey, John H. 
Murray, Albion 
Newell, Charles H. 
Norton, Charles P. 
Osgood, Charles H. 
Pike, John B. 
Pillsbury, Tobias 2d 
Purinton, Albert H. 
Bich, Frank G. 
Boach, Edward 
Boss, George H. 
Schoonmaker, Ed. G. 
Smith, Albert W. 
Soule, Thomas W. 
Stackpole, Daniel W. 
Stevens, George L. 
Stockman, Charles W. 
Swett, Albert H. 
Swett, George W. 
Swett, John B. 
Thaxter, Geo. B. W. 
Tyrell, William 1). 
Waterhouse, Sam. 0. 
Watts, Albert S. 
Whitten, Benjamin F. 
Whitten, Oliver G. 
Willard, Henry E. Cape EUzabeth. 
Wilson, Alvan S. Portland. 

Witham, John •' 

Wormwood, Alfred B. N. Gloucester. 
Wyer, Edward P. Portland. 

8—78 



Cleyeland. 
Portland. 

n 
tt 

Westbrook. 
Portland. 

Grorham. 

Portland. 
It 

Cape Elizabeth. 

Portland. 

New Gloucester. 

Portland. 
It 



68 



BOLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



1861. 



Company B. (Portland Mechanic Blues.) 





CAPTAIN. 




Walker, Chablbs 


Portland* 






LIEUTENANTS. 




1st, 


Pennell, C11ABLR8 J. Portland. 




2d, 


Black, Jambs M. " 
BEKGEANTS. 




lit, Roberta, Charles W. Portland. 


Pennell, Woodbury 8. 


Portland. 


Turner, Alfred L 


" 


Libby, Charlee H. 


( 




C0BP0EAL8. 




Beazlej, Richard T. 


Portland. 


Colley, Charles H. Jr. 


Portland. 


Farlej, Alfred D. F. 


It 


Cushman, Cliarles H. 


It 




MUSICIANS. 




Djer, Samuel T. 


Portland. 


Waterhouse, Peter B. 


Weetbrook. 


• 


PRIVATES. 




Alexander, Reuben 


C. Elizabeth. 


Knight, Simeon 


Portland. 


Allen, Charles F. 


Portland. 


Lemont, George W. 


it 


Armsbej, George* L. 


(( 


Libby, John F. 


it 


Berrj, Charles R. 


« 


LoVeitt, Edward W. 


II 


Bowie, Augustus 


(( 


Mason, Eiwin 


Westbrook. 


Brown, Daniel H. 


« 


Mahan, George T. 


Portland. 


Buck, Cyrus W. 


it 


Marshall, James G. 


€1 


Chase, Reuel D. 


tt 


Meserye, Amos 


Westbrook. 


Collej, Charles H. 


It 


Moses, Alfred L. 


Portland. 


Cummings, Frank L. 


it 


Mountfort, Daniel E. 


It 


DeLano, Marcus 


II 


Newell, James N. 


It 


Fagan, William H. 


It 


Noble, Rufus W. 


It 


Folsom, William H. 


t€ 


Noycs, Stephen Jr. 


It 


Folsom, Samuel P. 


II 


Paine, Charles H. 


II 


Fowler, Sewell T. 


C.Elizabeth. 


Pennell, William H. 


Gray. 


Frost, Charles H. 


Portland. 


Peterson, John P. 


Portland. 


Glendenning, John Q 




Pote, Daniel M. 


« 


Goff, Lindsey 0. 


Gray. 


Quimby, Charles 0. 


(( 


Graffam, Edward W. 


Portland. 


Rines, David H. 


tt 


Green, Joseph M. 


(( 


Robie, Lincoln 


It 


Hall, Dana 


It 


Seal, John 


It 


Hall, Daniel W. 


Starks. 


Seed, Francis 


It 


Hall, Dayid N. 


Portland. 


Shaw, Edward Cape Elizabeth. 


Hall, Henry C. 


Starks. 


Thunton, George H. 


Portland. 



i86i. 



BOLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



69 



Hodgdon, Moset 8. 


Portland. 


Totman, John F. Portland 


Hoyt, Benjamin 0. 




Trowbridge, Charles I. " 


Hurd, Charles S. 


u 


Trowbridge, John " 


Haley, Enoch B. 


Westbrook. 


Verrill, Benjamin F. " 


Jones, Charles D. 


Portland. 


Waterhouse, Cyrus T. " 


Jost, Georf^ D. 


«i 


Weatcott, Richmond T. " 


Johnson, Walter 


<i 


Willey, John C. " 


Kelley, Thomas 


it 


York, James B. Cape Elizabeth 

8—74 



Company C. (Portland Light Ouarda.) 



CAPTAIN. 
Fessenden, Menzies R. 

LIEUTENANTS. 

1st, Jordan, Wiluah P. 
2d, Redlon, Benjamin M . 

SEHGEANTS. 



Portland. 



Portland. 



lst» Greely, Edward N. Portland. Clark, Daniel C. 
Grafiam, George W. " SafTord, James M. 



CORPORALS. 



Jordan, Charles E. 
Bumham, Henry A. 



Portland. 



Merrill, Simeon II. 
Howard, Charles E. 



MUSICIAN. 
Jones, David Portland. 

PinVATES. 



Berry, Osbom R. 


Portland. 


Bicknell, Edwin 


« 


Bonney, Edward W. 


(( 


Bnms, John 


(( 


Campbell, Daniel C. 


Boston. 


Colesworthy, Ilcnry R 


. Portland. 


Colley, Albert F. 


Gray. 


Colley, Orrin B. 


K 


Coffin, William II. 


Westbrook. 


Crediford, George H. 


Biddcford. 


Curran, Thomas 


Portland. 


Dodge, John M. 


u 


Dolan, Edward J. 


If 



McGinley, George 
Miller, James P. 
Mills, Joseph W. 
Mitchell, Kben M. 
Mitchell, James E. 
Monroe, Thomas 
Moore, ICdward K. 
Mosher, Marshall M. 
Plummcr, Henry A. 
Prince, Levi M. 
Reed, William H. 
Rich, Marshall H. 
Richardson, Columbus C. 



Portland. 



Portland. 



Portland. 



it 

n 
II 
(I 
(I 
ti 



Gorham. 
Portland. 



(I 



it 



u 



Dixfield. 



70 



.BOLL OF FIBST MAINE. 



1861. 



VojL, Waiiam 0. 


Portland. 


Sargent, John A. 


Portland. 


Furbish, James C. M. 


(( 


Sawyer, Frederick A. 


Westbrook. 


Gould, John M. 


(C 


Sawyer, William K. 


€t 


Groely, Rensselaer 


« 


Sawyer, George W. 


Portland. 


Harris, Alberton P. 


i* 


Smith, Frank A. 


« 


Hamilton, Charles B. 


t€ 


Smith, Henry M. 


€€ 


HamUton, WlUiara P. 


«( 


Smith, James 


■U 


Hatch, John H. 


(1 


Stoneham, Peter W . 


U 


Hiller, Edward Jr. 


tt 


Thompson, Frederick H. 


f* 


Hilton, Eben 


€t 


Trask, George F. 


tt 


Holt, George S. 


it 


Walton, Henry B. 


Peru. 


Hudson, John B. Jr. 


it 


Weeks, Robert M. 


Portland. 


Hurd, George H. 


tl 


Wetherbee, Alfred H. 


Bath. 


Kennard, Charles 0. 


tt 


Whitney, Benjamin F. 


Windham. 


Knowlton, Charles T. 


tt 


Whitney, Isaac R. 


tt 


Lamson, Charles 0. 


it 


Whitten, J. Henry 


Portland. 


Langlej, Henry East Boston. 


Wiley, John N. 


Bridgton. 


Leslie, James W. 


Portland. 


Wilson, Archibald 


Portland. 


Lowell, Albert 


Windham. 


■ 
• 


8—72 



Company D. {Portland Rifle Corps:) 



CAPTAIN. 

Mbseryb, Chablbs H. 

LIEIJTENANTS. 
1st, PeARCB, WiLLfAM A. 

2d, Bailet, Geobgb H. 



Portland. 



Portland. 



SERGEANTS. 
lat» Dayi8« William W. Portland. Fox, Augustus 
Bradford, Charles H. " Newhall, OtU O. 



Ham, George C. 
Poor, Thomas H. 

Ward. Albert P. 



Andrews, Tristram 
Atchison, John 
Babson, Washington 
-ttak«» John H. 



COBPOBALS. 
Portland. Knight, Jacob F. 
Emery, Francis E. 



ft 



MUSICIANS. 
Portland. Butler, Frank H. 

PRIVATES. 

Freeport. Harmon, SyWanus 

Portland. Hart, John H. 

" Hasty, William 

'** Hazen, John B. 



Portland. 
• tt 



PorDaiid. 
tt 



Tortland. 



tPoiHand. 
« 

'WvflDTOOK. 



i86i. 



BOLL OF FmST MAINE. 



71 



Bradish, Henry C. 


Portland. 


Brown, William H. 


Windham. 


Brine. WUliam 


Portland. 


Borchill, Richard 


(( 


Cammett, George U. 


<( 


Campbell, John 


« 


Clark, William 


Lewiston. 


Cobb, George SJ 


Biddcford. 


Cobb, Benjamin F. 


Portland. 


Conlej, George E. 


C( 


Corliss, George L. 


Yarmouth. 


€onway, John 


Portland. 


Curran, Robert 


(( 


Damren, Dostin 


u 


IModj, John H. 


a 


Downes, John W. C. 


u 


Dyer, Franklin 


Danville. 


Eustis, Leonard 


Portland. 


Eustis, Frank F. 


(( 


Famum, Charles W. 


Woodstock. 


Fellows, John C. 


Fryeburg. 


Files, William H. P. 


Gorham. 


Forsaith, George 


Portland. 


Grant, Jotham 


it 


Green, George A. 


tt 


Gribbcn, Watson R. 


ti 


Ham, William L. 


Portland. 


Hamilton, Robert 


tt 



Higgins, Alexander 
Hunt, Robert M. 
Jewell, William F. 
Jewett, George H. 
Jordan, Charles F. 
Knapp, Nathan C. 
Lee, Frank 
Littlefield, Charles 
Maloney, Patrick 
Moore, Alfired S. 
Mountfort, John £. 
McCarthy, Timothy 
McDermit, Patrick 
Newbold, Andrew D. 
Ncwcomb, Abram 
Pearson, Lewis E. 
Phelps, Henry N. 
Pillsbury, John G. 
Randall, Albert 
Rickcr, Melville 
Rlddell, Thomas C. 
Sawyer, Charles 
Sawyer, Thomdike H. 
Smellage, George W. 
Smith, Charles J. B. 
Walker, Samuel A. 
Wescott, David 
Winslow, Hiram 



Scarboro'. 
Portland. 
Hanover. 
Portland. 
N. Gloucester. 
Hanover. 
Portland. 



tt 
It 
tt 

i€ 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
H 



Biddeford. 

Freeport. 

Westbrook. 

Portland. 



tt 



Woodstock. 
Portland. 



u 
tt 
tt 



tt 

8—74 



Company E. {Portland Rifle Guards.) 



CAPTAIN. 
Shaw, William M. 



Portland. 



LIEUTENANTS. 



1st, EsTES, Albert H. 
2d, ALlbston, Joun M. 



Portland. 
Portland. 



SERGEANTS. 



lit, Latham, Cyrus 
Moody, Sylvester 



Portland. Rolfe, William 
*' Sargent, Herbert R. 



Portland. 



tt 



72 



BOLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



1861. 



Thompson, Joseph Jr. 
Cook, Hiram T. 



C0BP0BAL8. 

Portland. Gill, William L. L. 
Roberts, James S. 



(r 



Portland. 



MUSICIANS. 
Hone, Charles T. Portland. Caiy, Turner 

PBIVATES. 



Portland. 



Allen, Jesse T. 


Portland. 


Lawrence, Luther 


Pownal. 


Seal, Flavius 0. 


<« 


Libby, Samuel B. 


Portland. 


Bent, Orrin 


« 


Lombard, Theodore H. 


tt 


Blake, Charles H. 


« 


Mackin, Joseph F. 


tt 


Bonney, Alonzo G. 


« 


McClanning, William S. 


tt 


Bragdon, Charles W. M. " 


Cakes, Benjamin F. 


Kennebvnk. 


Card, George A. 


<i 


Pennell, Benjamin C. 


Portland. 


Chamberlain, George 


it 


Perley, Joseph U. 


(( 


Chaplin, John 


Naples. 


Quimby, Alonzo H. 


it 


Cloudman, Andrew C. 


Portland. 


Randall, John T. 


tt 


Coe, Cornelius B. 


it 


Bitter, John H. 


it 


Coffin, George W. 


it 


Rounds, Charles H. 


a 


Colesworthy, Joseph C 


1 tt 


Sanboni, William H. 


Bridgton. 


Coolbroth, Charles 


it 


Simpson, Henry T. 


Portland. 


Crowell, Jesse 11. 


ti 


Skillin, Charles D. 


tt 


Cummings, Samuel P. 


Gray. 


Smith, Harrison W. 


tt 


Davis, Samuel C. 


Portland. 


Smith, Ambrose G. 


Raymond. 


Bennison, John II. 


it 


Smith, Henry F. 


Portland. 


Dodge, William T. 


Westbrook. 


Smith, George A. 


« 


Dunn, Martin T. 


Portland. 


Smith, Joseph M. 


Biddeford. 


Edwards, Scwell A. 


Naples. 


Soule, George A. 


Pordand. 


Field, Edmund D. 


Portland. 


St. John, William E. 


ti 


Floyd, Appleton H. 


it 


Thurston, Lewis L. 


tt 


Frazer, William 


It 


Thompson, Edwin L. R. 


ti 


Googins, William C. 


II 


Townly, Samuel 


tt 


Green, Charles R. 


ft 


Trefethen, Clifford J. 


tt 


Haskell, William S. 


ti 


Trowbridge, Charles S. 


tt 


Harmon, Algernon S. 


Naples. 


Walton, Benjamin F. 


Pern. 


Jameson, George W. 


Westbrook. 


Webster, Chaunccy B. 


Yarmouth. 


Jones, George W. 


Port and. 


Wliitney, James 


Caaco. 


Knight, Frederick M. 


it 


Willard, Daniel 


Portland. 


Knight, Ormond W. 


Falmouth. 




&-78 



i86i. 



ROLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



78 



Company F. {Lewiston Light Infantry,) 



CAPTAIN. 

Stevens, Jesse T. 

LIEUTENANTS. 

Ist, Knowltox, William 
2d, SuAW, Elijah M. 



Lewiston. 



Lewiston. 
Lawrence. 



SERGEANTS. 



Ut, Fauncc, Isaac S. 
Ferguson, Jolm II. 

Moore, Charles II. 
Eustis, Edgar M. 

Pierce, Frederick U. 



Lewiston. 



Blood, Marvin L. 
Cook, Harrison A. 



CORPORALS. 

Lewiston. Gardner, Almon J. 
Butler, Edward S. 



it 



Abbott, George 


Lewiston. 


Annis, Augu.stus C. 


« 


Annis, Zelind W. 


« 


Baker, Hardy W. 


Auburn. 


Bangs, Gilbert V. 


Ixjwiston. 


Bartlett, Alonz > 11. 


<( 


Beals, Charles A. 


ti 


Blake, John LM 


Turner. 


Bowker, Charles II. 


Auburn. 


Brown, George \V. 


Lewiston. 


Bumham, Daniel W. 


u 


Carvill, I-ewis 


tt 


Chandler, Daniel J. 


ti 


Clark, Eli B. New Vineyard. 


Cross, lA?wis Jr. 


Solon. 


Curran, Nicholas 


Lewiston. 


Dakin, Frank B. 


(( 


Dean, Cliarles B. 


tt 


Dudley, Ilonry H. 


Lawrence. 


Durell, Abraham G. 


Lewiston. 


Emery, Joseph J. 


Palmyra. 


Farrar, Edwin 


Bethel. 


Forbes, William 


Lewiston. 


Foster, Charles R. 


« 



MUSICIANS. 
Harrison. Carman, Edward P. 

PRIVATES. 

Heney, Charles W. 
Hill, Theodore V. 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jones, David 
Jones, William II. 
Lovcll, Samuel W. 
IjOw, James 
I^well, Dennis E. 
Mace, Hosea S. 
Mann, Samuel S. 
Morrill, Joseph S. 
Neal, Albion K. P. 
Oliver, Luther 
Parlin, Edwin W. 
Pearson, Chester C. 
Pratt, Reuben D. 
Preble, James G. 
Price, William 
Prindall, Edward L. 
Rankin, Abel G. 
Reed, Charles II. 
Stevens, Isaiah S. 
Stewart, Hiram S. 
Stockbridge, Joseph T. 



Lewiston. 
it 



Durham. 
Lewiston. 

Lewiston. 

Lewiston. 
<f 

(( 

(( 

Monmouth. 

Lewiston. 
tt 

Plymouth. 

Lewiston. 

tt 

Readfield. 

Lewiston. 

tt 

Weld. 

Lewiston. 

Mercer. 

Lewiston. 
tt 

It 

ti 

tt 

Auburn. 

Greene. 

Auburn. 



74 



ROLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



1861. 



Follynsbee, Frank M. 
Gay, Bei\jamin F. 
Oould, George H. 
Grafi&m, Stephen 
GroTer, Boynton 
Gurney, Bradley F. 
HaXL, Enoch L. 
Handly, John J. 
Haskell, Charles H. 



Monmouth. 

Bath. 

Lewiston. 

Bowdoin. 
Lewiston. 

Wilton. 
Lewiston. 



Storer, Samson H. 


Lewiston. 


Thayer, Robert C. 


Turner. 


Thompson, Andrew J. 


Lewiston. 


Tnifant, John A. 


fC 


Tubbs, John L. 


Paris. 


Whitney, Charles H. 


Lewiston. 


Wmter, Harrison B. 


Dizfield. 


Winter, William C. 


Freeman. 




a-76 



Company 6. {N'orway Light Infantry.) 



CAPTAIN. 

Beal, Geobob L. 

LIEUTENANTS. 

Ist, Rust, Henby Jb. 
2d, Blake, Jonathan 

SERGEANTS. 

1st, Whitraarsh, W*m W. Norway. Favor, Claudius M. 



Norway. 



Norway. 



it 



MiUett, Henry R. 



Buck, Caleb C. 
Andrews, George E. 



Hobbs, Wellingtqp 



tt 



Sholes, George W. 
CORPORALS. 

Norway. Buttcrfield, David L. 
Oxford. Fitz, John F. 

MUSICIANS. 

Norway. Webb, John T. 

PRIVATES. 



Norwflj. 



€t 



Norway. 



tt 



Bridgton. 



Bailey, Hiram P. 


Minot. 


Hicks, Alfred C. 


Oxford. 


Barrows, William A. 


Sumner. 


HiU, William F. 


Norway. 


Bean, Timothy H. 


Bethel. 


Hobbs, J. Frank 


« 


Beman, Stephen S. 


tt 


Horr, Augustus E. 


Watcrford. 


Berry, Frank L. 


Norway. 


Irish, Samuel C. 


Sumner. 


Bisbee, Eliab 


Sumner. 


Jordan, Granville P. 


Norway. 


Brann, Thomas A. 


Paris. 


Jordan, John F. 


Paris. 


Brown, William C. A. 


Gardiner. 


Judkins, Henry N. 


Greenwood. 


Buck, James M. 


Sumner. 


Littlefleld, Albert 


Stoncham. 


Cherry, Philo S. 


Norway. 


Littlefleld, James A. 


Greenwood. 


Connor, Peter C. 


Paris. 


McAllister, Stephen C. 


Stoneham. 


Oordwell, Winfield 8. 


Greenwood. 


McKeen, Henry H. 


\t 



i86i. 



ROLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



75 



Crockett, Grosyenor 


Norway. 


Mcrriam, Frederick R. 


Norway. 


Coshman, Frceland A. 


Oxford. 


Morey, Henry C. 


Oxford. 


Dolloff; Alphoo/o 


Rumford. 


Parker, Isaac 0. 


Greenwood. 


Daris, Joseph C. 


Norway. 


Pike. Darius F. 


Norway. 


Dean, Jacob 2d 


Oxford. 


Raynes, Joseph F. 


Auburn. 


Dempsej, Jere 


Norway. 


Robertson, Solon 


Bethel. 


l>nrgiii, William W. 


Stoncham. 


Seavoy, Ai E. 


Albany. 


Emery, Melvin W. 


Greenwood. 


Shaw, Francis E. 


Greenwood. 


Erans, Samuel S. 


Stoneham. 


Steams, Charles P. 


Bethel. 


Earrar, Sidney A. 


Paris. 


Stcamsf Edward P. 


« 


Farris, Rufus E. 


Hebron. 


Stephens, Lewis H. 


Woodstock. 


Field, George W.. 


Minot. 


Stevens, Danville B. 


Paris. 


Foster, Jere Jr. 


Norway. 


Stowell, Thomas N.#r. 


« 


Foster, Wallace 


« 


Thompson, Charles 


Norway. 


Foster, William H. 


Albany. 


True, Alfred M. 


Bethel. 


Gammon, C. Albert 


Norway. 


Warren, Hannibal F. 


Norway. 


Hale, William F. 


t€ 


Washburn, Watson 


Oxford. 


Hall, Rodney A. 


Paris. 


Webster, John N. 


Waterford. 


Hapgood, Andrew S. 


VVaterford. 


VVliittle, John W. 


Greenwood. 


Hersey, Albion 


Paris. 




8—78 



Company H. (Auburn ArtiUery,) 

CAPTAIN. 

Emerson, Charles S. Auburn. 

LIEUTENANTS. 



Ist, FoLSOM, James C. 
2d, Dill, Piiineas W. 



Auburn. 
tt 



Dingley, James Jr. 
Frost, Aaron T. 



Kidder, John 0. 
Thing, Charles W. 



SERGEANTS. 

Auburn. Wright, Iloraco 
" Bray, Royal A. 

CORPORALS. 

Auburn. Furbish, Albert B. 
Watervillo. Hogan, Jabez M. 



MUSICIANS. 
Philbrick, Andrew J. Palmyra. Warren, George A. 

PRIVATES. 
Anderson, Charles R. Lewiston. KimbQll, Isaiah 
Atwood, Elcazer B. Poland. Lake, Henry H. 



Auburn. 



Auburn. 
Lewiston. 

Lewiston. 

Lisbon. 
Starkfl. 



76 



BOLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



1861. 



Durham. 

Lewiston. 

Durham. 

Peru. 

Auburn. 

Lovcll. 

Lewiston. 

Auburn. 



Bailey, William W. 

Baker, James L. 

Beal, Thomas R. 

Bisbee, Elisha S. 

Bradbury, Bci\jamln M. 

Brown, Frank W. 

Cobum, George B. 

Conant, Alexander B. 

Cotton, Dennett 

Cotton, Thomas H. 

Davee, William G. 

Doyle, James T. 

DriscoU, Timoth5» 

Eaton, Daniel P. 

Edgecomb, Ozias B. 

Estes, Stephen II. 

Freeman, Albert W. 

Furbish, Henry W. 

Getchcll, Otis J. 

Gordon, William H. 

Green, Harrison B. 

Haley, George B. 

Handy, Charles E. Norridgewock. 

Harradon, George W. Auburn. 

Harradon, Washington F. 

Harradon, Charles E. 

Huntress, Henry 0. 

Joy, George F. 

Jumper, David A. 

Kidder, Uoscoe J. 



Buckfield. 
Ijewiston. 
Lewiston. 

Auburn. 

Albany. 

Lewiston. 

Minot. 

Lewiston. 

N. Portland. 

Auburn. 

Lisbon. 



« 



<t 



Bamstead. 

Lisbon. 

Lewiston. 

Turner. 



Lamarche, Alfred F. 
Little, William R. 
Lovejoy, Nathaniel Jr.. 
Luce, Sullivan 
Manning, Lemont 
Merrill, Charles S. 
Merrill, Auburn 
Miller, Charles P. 
Morton, Randall B. 
Nason, Chandler 
Noycs, Alonzo 
Parker, George H. 
Pratt, Jabez 
Royall, Andrew J. 
Savage, William M. 
Skinner, Phinehas W. 
Small, Sidney 
Smith, William B. 
Stevens, Samuel L. 
Stevens, Churchill S. 
Stone, Josiah 
Tanks, James H. 
Turner, John S. 
Turner, Nathaniel R. 
Welch, William A. 
White, Augustus 
Witham, Philip 
Wood, George H. 
Ycaton, William H. 
Young, Onslow W. 



Hebron. 

Auburn. 

Greene. 

Lisbon. 

Lewiston. 

Durham. 

Readfield. 

Auburn. 

Paris. 

Auburn. 

Canton. 

Durham. 

Greene. 

Danville. 

Auboni. 

Poland. 

Auburn. 

Hallowell. 

Auburn. 



(« 



Lewiston. 

Auburn. 

Lewiston. 



(( 



Casco. 

Auburn. 

Lewiston. 

Hartford. 

Farmingrton. 

Hebron. 

8—74 



Company I. (2d Co, Portland Bifle Guards.) 



CAPTAIN. 



QniMBT, William M. 



Portland. 



LIEUTENANTS. 

Ist, Furbish, Neiiem lAn T. Portland. 

2d, Mayuew, Hebron Westbrook. 



i86i. 



KOLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



77 



SERGEANTS. 



Ut, Simpson, John T. Portland. Wade, William 
Hutchins, Tho's H. Winthrop. Swcctscr, Frank C. 



Woetbrook. 



CORPORALS. 



Randall, Isaiah 


Wostbrook. 


Gove, Charles H. 


Westbrook. 


Foje, Charles H. 


(« 


Wescott, Enoch 


« 




MUSICIANS. 




Allen, WUUam 


Westbrook. 


Hanson, Amos H. 


Windham. 




PRIVATES. 




Adams, Irving H. 


Westbrook. 


Hodsdon, Charles A. 


Westbrook. 


Atwood, Ilczekiah 


Portland. 


Houston, John S. 


< 


Babb, Henry S. 


Westbrook. 


Houston, Ithamar 


«c 


Bacon, George Wm. 


Calais. 


Jewett, William W. ' 


(f 


Bakeman, John C. 


Portland. 


Ixjighton, David H. 


Portland. 


Barber, Lorenzo 


Westbrook. 


Lewis, George P. 


Westbrook. 


Bolton, William 


(( 


Libby, Alonzo 


« 


Boston, Nathan P. 


Bridgton. 


Mariner, Tliomas B. 


« 


Calkins, Frank A. 


Portland. 


Mulvey, John 


« 


Chaplin, Augustine 


Naples. 


Murphy, William H. 


Portland. 


Clapp, James M. 


Portland. 


Pennell, George A. 


Westbrook. 


Cluskj, Peter 


<( 


Pcnncll, John W. 


« 


Cooley, John F. L. 


Standish. 


Quimby, William A. 


« 


Davis, Alonzo A. 


Portland. 


Richardson, Albert B. 


Portland. 


Deland, Daniel Jr. 


«( 


Ripley, Nathaniel D. 


If 


Dunn, Charles T. 


(( 


Roberts, Charles H. 


Falmouth. 


Elwell, Hezekiah 


Westbrook. 


Sawyer, Albion 


Portland. 


Fellows, James L. 


<( 


Stanford, James W. 


Westbrook. 


Fitch, Edwin 


Bridgton. 


Stanford, Charles I. 


Portland. 


Fogg, Albert R. 


Westbrook. 


Stinson, Warren B. 


Albion. 


Foster, Samuel II. 


'Portland. 


Strout, George A. 


Raymond. 


Franklin, John B. 


Dover, N. H. 


Terhune, Stephen 


Portland. 


Gill, Leonard F. 


Portland. 


Thompson, James M. 


Gray. 


Goodrich, Charles H. 


Westbrook. 


Totman, William H. 


Richmond. 


GoTc, Horace 


(( 


Towle. Ared P. 


Westbrook. 


Graham, Charles C. 


it 


Varncy, Mark S. 


Windham. 


Greeley, John W. 


i€ 


Welch, William 


Portland. 


Haskell, Foster M. 


It 


Welch, Albion F. 


Westbrook. 


Hicks, Benjamin F. 


Lewiston. 


Welch, Robert B. 


« 


Hocket, Asa 


Hollia. 


Whidden, Gccrge A. 


(C 



a-70 



78 



BOLL OF FmST IfAINB. 



1861. 



Company K. (Letoiston Zouaves.) 





CAPTAIN. 




Osgood, Silas B. 


Lewiston. 






LIEUTENANTS. 




Ist, Johnson, Elijah D. Lewiaton. 




2(i, 


Nye, Gborob H. " 
SERGEANTS. 




Cook, John B. 


Lewis ton. 


Bobbins, Edwin 


Lewiston. 


Howard, Benjamin A 


>• 


Stewart, Richard W. 


tt 




CORPORALS. 




Caswell, Ethelbert C. 


Lewiston. 


Cole, Asa J. 


Lewiston. 


Layden, James 


<( 


Morrill, John R. 


tt 




MUSICIANS. 




Hanson, Albert E. 


Lewiston. 


Lovejoy, John C. 


North Anson. 




PRIVATES. 




Adams, Frank C. 


Lewiston. 


Lane, Augustus K. 


Lewiston. 


Ashton, Henry 


tt 


Mayberry, George H. 


Solon. 


Baker, Frederic N. 


tt 


McCarthy, Richard 


Auburn. 


Bickford, George W. 


tt 


Moore, William H. 


Corinna. 


Bicknell, Fayette 


Oxford. 


My rick, Frederick S. 


Lewiston. 


Bolan, Albert L. 


Lewiston. 


Nash, Jonathan 


1 

Auburn. 


Bond, Houghton 


tt 


Onias, James 


Lewiston. 


Brailey, James R. 


tt 


Osgood, James E. 


(( 


Brown, Ellsworth A. 


ft 


Patterson, Samuel 


Salem. 


Brown, Ivory 


tt 


Pettengill, Manassah 


Lewiston. 


Bubier, Andrew 


tt 


Pratt, Francis H. 


Hebron. 


Carvill, Jordan G. 


ft 


Ring, Mellen 


Gardiner. 


Chipman, Elmer 


Poland. 


Rock wood, James M. 


Belgrade. 


Churchill, Algernon H. Bridgton. 


Robinson, James D. 


St. John, N. B. 


Cord well, Hiram 


Lewiston. 


Sawyer, Llewellyn 


Lewiston. 


Denner, William W. 


Oxford. 


Smith, Charles W. 


tt 


Donnell, Samuel 


Bath. 


Smith, James 


tt 


Dyer, William H. 


Farmington. 


Stearns, Gratus B. 


Weld. 


Eaton, Bei\jamin A. 


Greene. 


Stockbridge, Cornelius D. Dixfield. 


Edgerly, George W. 


Parsonsfield. 


Stone, Levi 


Cornish. 


Ford, James B. 


Lewiston. 


Tarr, James E. 


Lewiston. 


Forsyth, Nelson S. 


WUton. 


Tarr, Philip H. 


tt 


Gass, James 


Lewiston. 


Taylor, Charles E. 


It 



i86i. 



BOLL OF FIRST MAINE. 



79 



Goss, Almon L. 

Goinej, James 

Hammond, Ambrose E. 

Hedon, James 

Jackson, Charles P. 

Jepson, Leonard 

Jumper, Charles H. 

Jumper, George E. N. C 

Kingsley, Albert E. Lewiston. 



Danyille. 


Thompson, Charles S. 


Bumham. 


Lewiston. 


Viele, Reuben 


Lewiston. 


« 


Watson, Moodj 


Hartland. 


« 


Webber, Elias S. 


Lewiston. 


Paris. 


Welch, Michael 


(( 


Lewiston. 


Witherell, John F. 


Monmouth. 


It 


WiUard, John A. 


Lewiston. 


rloucester. 


Woodcock, Melvin 


it 



8—71 



Note. Only 771 names appear on these rolls, counting David Jones bat once, though 
his name shows in the N. C. S. and in Co. C. The aggregate given on page 17 includes 
Jones and other *' repeaters*' in both positions, and also a number of men who did service 
onlj ftr the State of Maine. 



80 i86i. 



CHAPTER XI. 

RB-ORGANIZATION — TENTH MAINE. 

During tho month of August nothing was done in reference to 
our going b.nck to the scat of war until the 24t]i day. Recruiting 
all over the country had nearly come to a stand-still. The rebels 
menaced Washington, and General McClellan, who had been 
called to command tlie army, was busily engaged in bringing 
order out of confusion. 

On the day above mentioned (Aug. 24th), the diary states — 

Our company licld a meeting this afternoon in the old City Hall by order 
of Governor Washburn, anil voted upon questions proposed by him, with the 
following result : 

4 desired no change of Field Officers. 
10 desired a change of Major. 
23 desired a change of Lieutenant Colonel. 

None desired a change of Colonel. (Three cheers for "old Jacks.") 
26 desired no change of company officers. 

6 desired a change of Captain. 

1 desired a change of 1st Lieutenant. 
28 were not willing to enlist another year, making three years in all, 
and to be mustered into the U. S. service. 

8 of the 23 were undecided in this matter. 

4 were ready to go for 3 years ! I (Three times three fbr the plackj 
four ! ! ) 

We I'emark licre that this voting was the nearest approach to 
the fulfiUment of the oft repeated threat to " lick the captain 
token we were ^mistered ont.^^ The other companies went through 
this form but the result I never learned. The offieera also were 
summoned to Augusta, where they expressed to His Excellencj 



l86l. COL. JACKSON LEAVES US. 81 

their dislike of Col.' Jackson's way of teaching them the tactics 
in presence of the men. 

The next news we heard was the order for the " 1st " to go into 
camp again. 

Sept. 9, 1861. Tuesday. The companies of the old "Ist" 
rendezvoused at Camp Preble,* Cape Elizabeth, on the race- 
course grounds. It was Governor Washburn's intention, we 
understood, to have us serve our two yeara out. We heard it 
straight from our officers that if we did not go back to war we 
would be made to do duty — or " shovel dirt** as the word was — 
in Maine. Some of our men had been to Augusta for their 
discharges, but the Governor had told one of them : "It is strange 
that a man who has received a bounty of $22 and served only 
three months of the two years should expect to be discharged. 
His excuse must be very good, very good indeed." We thought 
the Governor was a tyrant then, yet he could not have done much 
better as matters stood. 

I have no means of knowing exactly how many of us marched 
over to camp that aflernoon ; the diary gives 300 to 400 as the 
number, but this was guess work and included some recruits. 

Col. Jackson had been appointed colonel of the 6th Maine^ 
and had taken our old Quartermaster Sergeant Manning to be 
quartermaster of the 5th, and Sergeant GrafTam of Co. C for his 
adjutant, his friend "Jim" declining the offer of the latter 
position. We learned of many other promotions, and saw that 
more would have to be made. The command of the camp 
devolved on Capt. Beal of the Norway company — ^since it was a 
camp of companies and not of the regiment — a distinction 
without much difference in this case. But as the Governor 
intended to re-organize us he permitted none of the old field 
officers to go on duty. 

Sept. 17th. Major Dyer of the Governor's staff presided over 
each company by turns while the enlisted men expressed their 
choice for officers. It became evident, however, before many 



• Afterward called Camp McClellan, and at thto date (1870) to oocnpied by the Portland 
BoUiDgHUla. 





82 WASTE OF INK AND PAPER. 1861. 

days, that companies A and D wonld not be filled up with recruits 
as soon as the other companies would. Old Co. C also was 
demoralized by Captain Fessenden proposing to resign, which 
he finally did, and your historian regrets to say that he (your 
historian) also resigned for a few days in the French style, and so 
lost the run of events, but on Monday, Sept. 30tb, he again 
reported for duty, and — 

Fbiind things in a rerj satisfactorj condition. Capt. Beal is now colonel, 
our good friend "Jim" is lieutenant colonel, and Capt. Walker is migor.* 
Lieutenant Jordan is acting as adjutant, though Colonel Beal told me he 
should appoint Lieutenant Shaw by and bj. 

Next day was to me one of the days the like of which a man 
never forgets who experiences its joys — the day of one's first 
promotion. The Colonel called me to his tent, and removing his 
pipe a moment, said " Mr. G. you may report to Adjutant Shaw 
for duty as sergeant major,** — and didn't I report ? t 

Oct. 4th was a day of great activity and some confusion. The 
State of Maine officials were in camp at work on the pay rolls, 
and as no one at that time had a very clear idea of the way to 
make any kind of an official document, there was a deal of ink 
shed uselessly and paper spoiled. 

One who has never been " through the mill" has no idea of the 
difficulties besetting a new regiment. Every one from the Col. 
down, is harrassed by much work and little comprehension of 
how it needs to be done. We considered ourselves " veterans," 
and really were head and shoulders above many regiments, yet 
the things we did not know would have filled a book bigger than 
this I suspect. 

Major Seth Eastman, of the U. S. A., commenced mustering in the com- 
panies to-day. A new company came in from Saco under Captain John Q. 
Adams last evening, and will be styled Co. A. A new Co. D, composed of 
Aroostook lumbermen and old British soldiers, takes the place of our old 
" Hard D." 



• Commiseioiis dated Sept. 28, 1861 . 

t Please note the change of litoation of the writer of the diary, from a company to a 
regimental position. On March 29, 1862, a fhrther promotion to 2d Uentenant of Co. E, 
and the appointment to acting atUatant, Jane 2Ut, shoold also be borne in mind. 



l86l. THE FIRST BECOMES THE TENTH. 83 

Next day, Saturday, the Major mustered in Lieut. ColoDel 
Fillebrown, Major Walker, Chandlei-'s magnificent band and the 
remaining companies, but in consequence of the deficiency of 
men in one or two of the latter, the colonel and staff were not 
mustered into U. S. service until Oct. 26th at Baltimore. 

We called ourselves the JF^irst MaiJie as long as we could, but 
the muster-in put an end to the last hope of our retaining the old 
number. We pleaded hard against being called the Tenth, and 
when we re-organized as the Twenty-ninth we begged harder still 
to keep the old name. 

Besides the officers mentioned, we carried back our old Quarter- 
master, Lieut. Dodge, and Chaplain Knox. None of the non-com- 
missioned staff returned, excepting Northrup *the hospital stew- 
ard. 

Our new Company A had three officers who had not belonged 
to the " Ist," viz : Capt. John Q. Adams, 1st Lieut. Ephraim M. 
Littlefield, and 2d Lieut. Charles E. Pierce. 

In Co. B, (Portland Mechanic Blues) after Walker's promotion, 
Lieut. Black was made captain. Roberts, who had been 1st sergt. 
in the ''1st," was made 1st lieut., and Turner, who had been a 
three-months sergeant, was made the 2d lieutenant. 

Co. C, (Portland Light Guards), was barely saved from ex- 
tinction. Capt. Fessenden did not like being "jumped" and so 
he resigned. Lieut. Jordan was offered the adjutancy and went 
on duty as such, but preferring to be a captain, the colonel 
permitted him to try his fortune once more at recruiting, and C 
was finally filled, receiving a number of recruits who intended to 
go back in old A or D. Redlon went up to the 1st lieutenancy, 
and Benj. F. Whitney, who had been a private in C of the " 1st," 
was made 2d lieut. 

The new Co. D promised well at the start. We "old ones" 
were jealous of new comers — recruits — but we had little to say 
to the old English soldiers of D, whose manual of arms we 
laughed at, though the men handled their muskets with an ease 
that astonished us. It was a superb company ; Capt. West was 
born a soldier, and for years had been connected with the military 
companies of Massachusetts, and acquainted with the English 



84 THE OFFICERS. 1861, 

garrisons of New Brunswick, from which last he so largely 
recruited his company ! His stay with us was not long ; eventually 
he became major and colonel of the 17th Maine, and brig, gen'l 
of vols. 

For 1st Lieut. D had John D. Beardsley, a gentleman from 
New Brunswick, who also lield a commission in the Provincial 
militia and had previously been an operator in lumbering. Ho 
became " one of us" and departed in 1864, after a rich experience, 
to accept promotion in the colored troops. 

Henry M. Binney, of Somerville, Mass., was appointed 2d Lieut, 
at the request of Capt. West. He had been in the military 
companies since boyhood, and was a first class drill officer, an 
accomplishment somewhat rare in those days. He was still better 
as a joker, or story teller, and imitator of Gen. Ben. Butler. He 
made friends with us all, but his career was unfortunate ; yet he 
was brave and did our country good ^service after he left us; 
therefore let this cover all his misfortunes. 

In Co. E, (Portland Rifle Guards), Capt. Shaw having taken 
the majorate of the 11th Maine, Lieut. Estes was made captain. 
1st Sergt. Latham went up to 1st lieut. on ballot, and Private 
Andrew C. Cloudman, by the same recommendation, was com- 
missioned 2d lieut. 

In Co. F, (Lewiston Light Infantry), Lieut. Knowlton was 
chosen captain. Corp'l Edward S. Butler 1st lieut., and Private 
Abel G. Rankin id lieut. These were all 1st Mainers of Co. F. 

In Co. G, (Norway Light Infantry), after Capt. Bcal's promotion, 
Lieut. Rust was made captain, and Blake became 1st lieut. 
Wm. W. Whitmarsh, 1st sergt. of the company in the 1st Maine, 
went up to the 2d lieutenancy. Capt. Rust was made lieut. col. 
of the 13th Maine, before the month was out, when Blake and 
"Whit." went up a notch, and that "redoubtable stub of a 
'Major' Millett" was sent for, and came out with his sergeant's 
chevron changed to a shoulder strap. We lost a good officer in 
Rust, but we gained another in Millett. He went through thick 
and thin with us, and by his wit and nonsense drove many a fit 
of blues away. 



l86i. 



B08TER OF TENTH MAINE. 



85 



The officers in Co. H, (Auburn Artillery), remained the same 
as in the ** 1st,'' Emerson, Folsom and Dill retaining their old 
positions. 

In I, (second company of Portland Rifle Guards), Capt. Quimby 
had been commissioned captain in the 12th XJ. S. infantry. He 
met us in the Valley, in 1862, and at Cedar Mountain was crippled 
for life. Lieuts. Furbish and Mayhcw thereupon wene com- 
missioned captain and 1st lieut. respectively, and 1st sergeant 
Simpson was made 2d lieut. 

In K, (Lewiston Zouaves), 2d Lieut. Nye was elected captain, 
and privates John F. Witherell and Fayette Bicknell were chosen 
1st and 2d lieutenants. 

Neither of our medical officers returned. Dr. Williams had en- 
tered another regiment, and Dr. Richardson the navy. For surgeon 
we had Dr. Dan'l O. Perry, who had practiced in Portland for many 
years. The assistant surgeon was Dr. Josiah F. Day, Jr., a 
Portlander also, but more recently a resident of Missouri, where 
the rebels had plundered him of all he owned. 



^ • m 



AS ORIGINALLY ORGANIZED. 



Cclanel, 


GEORGE L. BEAL, 


Norway. 


ZAeutenant Colonel, 


JAMES S. FILLEBROWN, 


Lewiston. 


Major, 


CHARLES WALKER, 


Portland. 


Adjutant, 


Elijah M. Shaw, 


Lewiston. 


Qfiortermasttr, 


William S. Dodob, 


Portland. 


Chaplain, 


George Knox, 


Brunswick 


Surgeon, 


Daniel 0. Perky, 


Portland. 


A$sistant Surgeon, 


Josiah F. Day, Jr., 


Portland. 



NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 



Sergeant Major — John M. Gould. 
Q. M. Sergeant — Charles F. King. 
Com. SergU — Charles Thompson. 



Fife Major — William Allen. 
Drum Major — Alpheus L. Greene. 
Hospital Steward — Geo. J. Northrup. 



Leader of the Band — (2d Lieut.) Daniel U. Chandler. 



86 



ROSTER OF TENTH MAINE. 



1861. 



LINE OFFICBBS. 



A. 



Captam—John Q. Adams. 

Ut £i>u<.— Ephraim M. Littlefleld. 

ad Lieut. — Charles E. Pierce. 

B. 

Captain — James M. Black. 

Igt Lieut. — Charles W. Roberts. 

£d Lieut. — Alfred L. Turner. 

c. 

Captain — William F. Jordan. 
Itt Lieut. — ^Be^jamin M. Redlon. 
Bd Lieut. — ^Beiyamin F. Whitney. 

D. 

Captain — George W. West. 
lit Lieut. — John D. Beardslej. 
iSd Lieut. — Henry M. Binney. 

E. 

Captain^Mhert H. Estes. 
Itt Lieut. — Cyrus Latham. 
gd Xteitf.— Andrew C. Cloudman. 



F. 



Captain — William Knowlton. 
Ist Lieut. — ^Edward S. Butler. 
fd Lieut. — ^Abel G. Rankin. 

G. 

Captain — Henry Rust, Jr. 

Ut Lieut. — Jonathan Blake. 

gd Li««f.— William W. Whitmarsh. 

H. 

Captain — Charles S. Emerson. 
Ist Lieut. — James C. Folsom. 
gd /^leu/.— Phineas W. Dill. 

I. 

Captain — ^Nehemiah T. Furbish. 
Ist Lieut. — Hebron Mayhew. 
fd Lieut. — John T. Simpson. 

K. 

Captain — George H. Nye. 
1st Lieut.— John F. Witherell. 
$d Lieut. — ^Fayette Bicknell. 



i86i. 87 



CHAPTER XIL 

DEPABTX7BE — ^BALTIMOBB — ^BBLAY BOUSE. 

We were hurried off in a rainstorm Sunday, Oct. 6th, by a very 
unexpected and peremptory order. We had no arms, but we 
had received accoutrements which had V. M. M. (Volunteer 
Maine Militia) instead of IT. S., on the brasses. No intimation 
of our coming had been given to the people along the route, 
hence few came out in the rain to welcome us. Rubber blankets 
had not been issued, therefore we were well drenched before 
going on the cars. There were six ladies with us, two of whom, 
Mrs. Goddard and Miss Merrill, will receive the blessings of our 
•ick boys to the end of life. Nothing of note occurred in our 
passage to Boston ; it was free from the wild enthusiasm we had 
in the " 1st," but we found warm friends everywhere, and at 
Boston they gave us a collation in the Old Colony depot. At 
Fall River the steamer State of Maine was in readiness for us, 
yet judging from the "missing" there was something more 
enticing to some of our men; at all events. Fall River was 
always noted in our regiment for its women. 

Next forenoon, (Oct. 7th), after a long night of seasickness, a 
man was discovered sitting on the guards of the steamer, just 
forward of the paddle wlieel. lie was staring at the sea, and 
paid little attention to those who beckoned for him to return. 
After many attempts to have him come back or to take a line 
which was lowered to him, he fell or jumped off. The steamer 
was stopped; Capt. Nye jumped over, and we showered the life 
preservers after him, but the cap and canteen were all that ever 



88 FIVE MINUTES UNDBB TOM. <)9HERMAN. 1 86 1. 

were saved. We learned, after an hour of donbt and rumors, 
that it was Howard S. GriflSn, from New Gloucester, belonging 
to Co. H. 

The event cast a profound gloom over the entire regiment, and 
it did not wear off till we arrived in Now York, where we saw 
the city from the boat but were not allowed to land. The Atlas 
ferryboat, came alongside, and after shifting over to her, we 
sailed at sunset for Amboy ; reached there in two hours, and after 
waiting two more we finally were whirled off to Camden, oppo- 
site Phibidelphia, and arrived at the latter place at 3 ▲. m. Here 
we received a bountiful meal at Wm. Cooper's cooper-shop, and 
the other refreshment rooms, which made Philadelphia the syno- 
nym of hospitality. 

It took nearly all of Tuesday to get from Philadelphia to 
Baltimore, and once there we passed the night in the depot. 

Col. Beal says we were originally ordered to report to Gen. 
Sherman (Thos. W.) to form a part of the Sherman expedition. 
On reporting to the General in New York City, and telling him 
of our half-equipped condition, he raved well, and ordered the 

Colonel to take his regiment to , call it Washington for 

sboit. We had seep enough of Washington in the Ist Maine, 
and so on arriving at Baltimore, the Colonel thought he 
would step over to Gen. Dix and innocently inquire for orders. 
The General telegraphed to Washington, forthwith, but it took 
some hours for the War Depj\rtment to underatand how we 
were in Baltimore, and at length the dispatch came for us to go 
to Portress Monroe. 

The officers had set their hearts on going into a camp where 
they could arm and fully equi]) and instruct their men, so the 
Colonel, with the assistance of his able lieutenant, ^^ Jim," was 
not long in convincing Gen. Dix that we ought to camp in 
Baltimore for a month or two. In the morning the order came 
to do this same thing, and we all heard it with pleasure. 

PATTBESON PARK — BALTIMORE. 

Those of us who had been members of the " 1st," and bad 
indulged in the pleasant conceit that it was the finest regiment 



1 86 1. ENFIELD RIFLES. 89 

in the service^ naturally looked for evidences of inferiority in 
this new organization, but I was forced to adroit that the men 
did not abuse the liberty they were allowed on our first evening 
and morning in Baltimore. The diary states that ^^some came 
back to t/ie depot very^ditmk and noisy ^ but most of the men 
behaved like gentlemen." 

October 9th, Wednesday, We marched from the depot to 
Patterson Park, and went into camp there. Here begnn camp 
duty in eaniest. We thought the Government stingy for not 
allowing us boards for our tent floors, or straw for our sacks. 
The last, our Lieut. Colonel, with his characteristic pereistence, 
obtained for us, after boring every quartermaster in town for it. 

Fifty-six officers and men arrived from the State of Maine, 
next day, having been left behind by permission or acci<lent, and 
on the 20th of the month eighty-three more came in under 
Captain Estes and Lieuts. Whitney and Pierce, most of them 
being recruits for Companies A and D, The companies were 
now equalized in numbers, and Colonel Beal and staff were mus- 
tered into the U. S. service Oct. 26th. 

Oct. 21st, muskets were delivered to the men, and this 
furnished another excuse for a hearty growl from the 1st 
Mainei-s. " Had we not been promised a new blue uniform and 
Springfield muskets?" To be sure we had the blue unifonii 
and a good outfit every way, "but look at these Enfield muskets," 
said tliey, " with their blued barrels and wood that no man can 
name 1" They were not a bad weapon, however, difiering little 
from the Springfield, in actual efticiency, weight, length, and 
caliber, but far behind in point of workmanship. For a while 
we kept them blued, then orders were issued to rub them bright 
and we kept them so ever after. 

Gen. Dix at this time commanded the department of Pennsyl- 
vania, which included Baltimore, but he never favored us with 
his presence. There were not many troops around the city then. 
The Seventh Maine was in a fort of their own making, a half 
mile from us, and its colonel (Thos. H. Marshall) died a fortnight 
after we arrived, just as his regiment marched past his house on 



90 ELL8W0BTH MANUAL. 1 86l . 

its way to Washington, and our regiment escorted the corpse to 
the railroad depot. 

We were kept pretty busy drilling while in Patterson Park. 
Major Walker drilled the officers, and Capt. Jordan instructed all 
the sergeants of the regiment, and thus^we ensured uniformity 
of drill, as we did not conform to the U. S. infantry manual — or 
** Hardee " as it was often called, but took up the more showy 
exercises of Ellsworth's Chicago Zouaves, which Capt. Fessenden 
of the **lst" had introduced, and for which we had no text-books. 
I believe it was on account of this care and attention to detail, 
which was shown in Patterson Park, that our final excellence in 
the manual and manoeuvre was attained. We lost a like occasion 
in the ** 29th," and never wholly made up for it. 

We were remarkably healthy as a regiment while in this camp, 
and the few sick were well cared for. Could the pie-venders 
have been kept away it would have been better still for us. 

We "old ones" of the " 1st" hailed with delight the improve- 
ment in the pass system and the punishment of offenders. We 
noticed also that though liquor could be easily obtained, there 
was scarcely any drinking as compared with what we saw on 
Meridian Hill ; in truth there was little of it done except by 
twenty or thirty hard cases. 

We were visited by the good people of Baltimore every fine 
afternoon, and many of the men made pleasant and lasting 
acquaintances. Our band was invited to spend an evening with 
a German club, and after much deliberation as to whether or not 
there was mischief brewing, it went, and never after ceased to 
refer to its hearty reception and the dinner. The small boys 
and girls that we passed in going from camp " down town " had 
learned to " hurrah for the Union " before we anived, and now 
they took up a new cry of "please give me a cent." These little 
attentions helped to make our stay in Baltimore pleasant, and 
by attending promptly to our duty we improved every day. 

Of the acquaintances we made, one circle deserves especial 
mention, as our history would be incomplete without it; Mr. 
Edwin A. Abbott's family, including the Hutchinson brothers 
who were related to the Abbotts, became our friends at an early 




MAJOR IQTH ME. VOLi 



1 86 1 . GOOD FBIENDS — ^THE ABBOTT FAMILY. 9 1 

day. All who were officers of the "10th'* at that time, know 
them too well for me to dwell long in praising them. Theirs was 
a whole-souled, christian friendship. They never lost an oppor- 
tunity to give us substantial help, and many times when we were 
far away " in the field," they attended to our errands and looked 
out for our interests unasked, and without remuneration. Corpl 
Reuben Viele, of Co. K — afterward the color sergeant of the 
Twenty-ninth, lay sick for weeks at Mr. Abbott's, and was saved 
to us iJy the careful nursing of the good ladies of the family. 
Baltimore had been overawed by rebels during the firat days of 
the rebellion, but she nobly redeemed her character afterward, for 
a more loyal city did not exist; this every soldier of the eastern 
armies knows. Cold weather came soon after our anival, and 
brought with it the problem of keeping warm at night. This 
was the first cold weather the array had experienced. There was 
an abundance of straw furnished, and by huddling together 
" spoon-fashion " there was no great trouble in any tent, except 
for the two sleeping at the end of a line. A number wound their 
clothes around them, and by hauling over the great canvas bag, 
made to protect the tent during transportation, the clothes were 
kept in place. We heard though of a strange mishap to one of 
our comrades, who woke one night from ugly dreams to worse 
realities, to repent of having tied a hard knot to his bag-string 
after taking a dose of Dr. Pen-y's physic. 

GUABDIKG THE B. & O. B. B. 

NovEMBEB 3d, Major Walker took Companies B and F, and 
went out on the Baltimore and Ohio R. R., posting B at the 
Relay House, and F at Annapolis Junction, relieving companies 
of the 4th Wisconsin. This was the first step in developing a 
plan of Gen. McClellan's to guard that important line. 

November 4th, Monday. We were up early and marched to 
the Camden St. depot, and at 10 a. m. arrived at the place called 
Relay House, on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, though the post 
office is St. Denis. We had such a quantity of baggage that it 
took an extra train to bring it, and it was late next day before all . 
the stuff had been carted or carried to the camp. 



92 RELAY HOUSE. 1 86 1. 

We relieved the 4th Wisconsin (they taking our place in 
Patterson Park), and following their example in the matter of 
duty we detailed a camp guard of seventy men, a working party 
of one hundred to finish the fort,* a guard on the bridge and 
viaduct of more than fifty, and at night sent an entire company 
out as a " picket " to protect the camp from surprise. And as 
it took another company to garrison the fort the force left to drill 
was not large. Before a week was gone the guai'ds were reduced 
in number and the folly of a picket dispensed with. 

Our stay at the Relay House was pleasant as could be. We 
had a fine camp ground and an abundance of good rations, 
including the sBrated bread. The few citizens living around the 
country and at the village of Elkridge Landing, which was across 
the Patapsco, were generally indisposed to welcome us into their 
houses, but we had some good friends both in high life and low. 
Acorns and chestnuts were ripe when we arrived, and there was 
no great difficulty in passing out to gather them. 

Regiment after regiment went by on the cars; at first we 
hurrahed back to them, but it came to be too much like work at 
last, for during November and December there was never a day 
but some regiment, battery or company passed. I had a record 
once of all the regiments that went through in the day time, but 
Gen. Stonewall Jackson came up to Winchester on a flying visit 
one fine May morning after this, you know, and wanted it so 
much that I was glad to let him have it — very glad indeed — and as 
he never returned it I can't present you with a digest of it. The 
passing of two companies of regulars amused me once so much 
that I wrote in the diary as follows : 

They all kept inside the cars, and were very civil and stupid. I don't know 
a single instance where volunteer troops have passed without the tops and 
platforms of cars being covered. These fellows never hurrahed once, 

November 9th the 60th New York came out and camped next 
to us during a heavy rain. They were a good looking set of men 
but we could not say much of all their officers. The weeding 



^FortDix, asmaU work mounting eight or ten guns, overlooking the viaduct, and 
intended to protect It. 



1 86 1 . RAILWAY BHiaADE. 93 

process finally put them on a good footing and they went through 
the war with honor. 

Next day, the first Sunday at Relay House, our regiment was 
still further split up. Co. B was brought down from ElIicott*s 
Mills and carried up on the Washington Branch five miles, to a 
place without a name. D marched over to Elkridge Landing, 
one mile. G went in the cars to Hanover switch, three miles, 
and A to Jessup's Cut, seven miles. F remained at Annapolis 
Junction, nine miles, where it had been since the 8d. The head- 
quarters and five companies of the right wing marched over to 
Elkridge Landing the Thuraday after. These movements were 
the development of the plan for guarding the railroad between 
Baltimore and Washington, a veiy necessary precaution consider- 
ing it was the only railroad to the north from Washington. The 
60th New York had the fort and viaduct and the railroad into 
Baltimore. Then we guarded nine miles to Annapolis Junction ; 
next came the 1st Michigan and after them the 1st District 
Columbia, the whole constituting the " railway brigade," com- 
manded by Col. John C. Robinson of the 1st Michigan, whose 
headquarters were with his fine regiment at Annapolis Junction. 

Every switch had a sentinel on guard over it to prevent any one 
but railroad officials meddling with it. Also for every quarter 
mDe of track there was a sentinel who traveled over the rocks 
and sleepers, ever on the lookout that the express trains did not 
run over him, though he was put there to keep the track from 
being torn up. This service was irksome after the first trial, but 
we found so much to interest us when off duty, that our days in 
the railway brigade were always looked back upon as days of 
rest and enjoyment. 

A fortnight after the first Sunday, the right wing changed with 
the left; H changed with D, E with G, K with B, C with A and 
I with F, and it was intended to cliange every fortniglit, but it 
was not possible to do so with regularity. We also moved head- ' 
quarters to our first camp Nov. 27th — the 60th N. Y. going off 
nearer Baltimore, leaving us to garrison Fort Dix again and take 
care of the viaduct. 

Nov. 13th. We learned of the success of Gen. Thos. W. 



94 PAY DAY — ^^' GREENBACKS." 1 86 1. 

Sherman's expedition to Port Royal, S. C. We had waited 
anxiously more than three weeks to hear this good news, for the 
fleet had sailed into a tremendous storm, which impressed itself 
upon us very forcibly at Patterson Park by blowing down our 
tents. Though really a naval victory this was the cause of great 
rejoicing all through the anny. 

Nov. 18th, Major Fred. Robie, Paymaster, gave us twenty* 
eight days' pay. Ho always brought good news as well, and 
plenty of it about the other Maine regiments. 

But it cannot be denied that pay is demoralizing, and I see in 
the diary that Co. D, the pattern for the regiment, so far as sol- 
dierly bearing and discipline were concerned, had several men, a 
sergeant and their English bugler, all down drunk at once. Lieut. 
Beardsley, who seemed to enjoy nothing better, collared the 
noisy ones and filled a tent full before night — and what a night 
that was I One old Englishman in particular, rebelled against 
this treatment, and kept up a steady roar from tattoo till reveille, 
singing occasionally a song which had for its refrain 

" We made the Russian bear surrender-r-r, 
And gained the heights of Almo-o-o." 

Capt. West and his lieutenant were equal to the emergency, 
and though they could not stop drunkenness entirely, they kept 
the company discipline up to its excellent standard. The liquor 
dealers in the neighborhood were treated to our Maine law till 
they learned to refuse liquor to the soldiers ; yet for all the pre- 
cautions it was never difficult to obtain all that was wanted on 
the sly. 

Congress had raised the pay of privates from $11 to $13 since 
the 1st Maine had been paid, and so hastily was the act passed 
that only the privates were thus favored. Consequently the 
corporals' pay being unchanged was still but $13, and the musi- 
cians' only $12. This also was our first payment in " greenbacks ;" 
they were the issue known as " demand notes," and were payable 
in gold. 

Nov. 21st, Thursday^ was Thanksgiving day in Maine, and as 
our friends at home had sent us a great abundance of turkeys 



1 86 1 . OUR HOSPITAL AND NUBSES • 95 

and chickens all cooked, we had a holiday too. Under that date 
the diary, besides noting the general happiness of the occasion, 
states that we had an engine (our old friend No. 31) and car 
detailed by the railroad company for our use ; also that all the 
companies have erected signs, stating their company and regi- 
ment, for the benefit of the passengers and soldiers going by. 
One company had also a request to passengers to throw them 
their newspapers, which was liberally responded to. 

About this time Gen. Dix sent an expedition down the eastern 
shore of Maryland and Virginia. The Baltimore papers were 
filled with accounts of it and of the people coming out with 
cooked meats for the soldiers. I remember that this was cheering 
news to us, and helped us forget the misery and gloom which 
came over the army and nation after Bull Run. The diary for 
November closes with— 

The month has been mild. We have had few fVosts and reiy little ice has 
formed, but the men have been quite uncomfortable from the rain. 

December 2d. Capt. Estes came on with thirty-six more 
enlisted men. Next day Ebcii A. Kimball, of Co. G, died. This 
was the third death by disease in the regiment. All were from 
the measles, and all in Co. G. Four days later Jolin S. Henly, 
also from G, followed them from a like malady. These deaths 
caused extra efforts to be made in the camp and hospital to keep 
the health and preserve life. The two lady nurses were at 
loggerheads with the medical faculty from first to last, which was 
unfortunate and un| leasant for us all. We naturally took sides 
with the women, and have always credited them for the general 
good health we were blessed with after this ; but that our feelings 
against the surgeons were too severe at this time, I think all will 
admit at this late day. Wc had good medical officers, and if the 
ladies did interfere with them, as it was alleged, they none the 
less discharged their legitimate duties with rare fidelity and 
success. Our small number of deaths seems to me to be a 
compliment to all, from Dr. Perry down to the old black auntie 
who kept things tidy at the hosi)ital. 

We had advantages in the "10th" never enjoyed in the "1st" 



98 i86z. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

OXTE FIKST WINTEB. 

Long before we were established in our barracks we had lively 
rumors that we were to go into the Bumside expedition, then 
rendezvousing at Annapolis. This rumor refused to die ; and it 
became startling one day when a man returned from a Baltimore 
hospital with a pass to Annapolis, which the surgeon in charge 
insisted upon his having, saying he had inquired at department 
headquarters and learned that the 10th Maine was at Annapolis, 
or was gobg there immediately. 

A chapter in our history might be written how our field and 
staff officers fought for the location of the " 10th.** They had 
seen in the 1st Maine enough of the inconvenience of being in a 
large army — the main army — and had steadily resisted, as far as 
subordinate officers can, all attempts to merge us in it again. 
We were well content with our position on the railroad, but 
would willingly have shifted it for a " chance " under Bumside. 
The order never came, however. 

The next thing on the programme after settling at the Relay 
House, was for the officers and a few of the men to send for their 
wives. These were quartered at the hotel and various private 
residences near by, and I am quite sure that the regiment gener- 
ally felt towards them as sailors do towards " petticoats in the 
cabin." Lieut. Whitney being unable or unwilling to obtain 
leave of absence to go home to marry, sent for his betrothed, 
who promptly came. They were to have been married quietly 
within an hour or two of her arrival, but the project leaked out, 
and the diary states that " the officers went en masse to a wedding 
this evening." 



i862. "band-box." 99 

Our Colonel never could be contented as long as there was 
anything to " draw." The question of leggins for the men was 
discussed a long time but never settled ; hence we never wore 
leggins ! But the sergeants received their swords in January, 
and the men were furnished with huge brass shoulder scales 
weighing nearly a pound. We had also drawn the regulation 
uniform coat, dark blue cloth, with nine brass buttons in front, 
and with the white gloves that we bought we were a gay-looking 
crowd ; and if we do sound our own praise it is none the less 
true that very few volunteer regiments at that time were ahead 
of us in appearance. This was conceded by many visitors, civil 
and military, who had seen the regiments around Washington. 

The mud was so deep during the month of December and 
January that most of our drilling was in the manual and bayonet 
exercise, and I believe we finally ariived as near perfection in 
handling the musket as could be expected of volunteer troops. 
In addition to guarding the railroad track we were soon required 
to put an officer and sergeant on each through train, to arrest 
deserters. This gave the couple on duty an opportunity to go 
into Washington or Baltimore, and so brought us in contact with 
the military world. We learned so many things in this way that 
it was always a desirable duty to perform, and nothing pleased us 
sergeants more than to see a good number of sergeants of other 
regiments going home to recruit, or still better, going home to 
accept a commission in new regiments. They told us also of 
officers resigning, or being sent up to the " Board " for examination, 
and failing, and having to resign in consequence, thus making a 
place for some good man. This was extra good news — was it 
not, brother sergeants? We did not arrest many deserters, 
however, but I had a day of rich experience in taking one. back 
to Washington, which so shows the glories of " red tape," as we 
called it, that I quote from the diary : 

A RED TAPE 8TORT. 

Private Cohen, of the Anderson Zouaves (62d N. Y. V.), was sent back this 
morning in charge of Capt. West. I went as sergeant, an<i the Captain 
allowed me to attend to the business, after giving me full instructions. First, 
on arriving in Washington, I got a corporars guard from the company on 



100 RED TAPE STORY. 1862. 

duty in the depot, and marched them all down to the Central guard-house, 
where I took off my cap, made a low bow to the officer in charge and told my 
story. Ue wanted to know why I brought a deserter tliere witliout an order, 
80 I showed him my R. R. pass, which read, "Pass Sergeant * Goggle' and 
prisoner to Washington &c. &c.** 

" Who is this J. S. Fillebone ? " asked the officer. 

** Fillebrown 1 " said I, correcting him. " He is our lieut. col. in command 
of the regiment during Col. Real's absence north." 

Here the Captain did some swearing, I believe, and rather sharply inquired 
if I knew of Gen. McClellan, and did this Mr. Fillebrown command Gen. 
McClcUan ? I thought best to make no reply. " You must have an order from 
Major Bumham " said he, and turned away. 

I inquired of an orderly who Major Bumham was, what he had to do about 
it, and where his office was, and he told mc all in a way that did credit to the 
good fellow. My guard had gone back to the depot and I was left to take 
care of my prisoner alone. So I once more ventured to confront the Captain, 
and state the fact that the prisoner might overpower mo and get away, and 
after a little pleading I obtained permission to leave him till I could see Maj. 
Bumham, whose office was a long way off. And this leads me to write, this is 
the way it is always, in all army business : First, you have to go to Captain 
Smith on A street, then to Major Jones, on Z street, who refers you to Colonel 
Brown on First street, who sends you to Gen. Van Blinks on 99th street, where 
you will learn that you havse not addressed the proper officer, and that you will 
have to begin again. 

Well, I went to Maj. Bumham 's, and as a large part of tlie army "is preparing 
to move,* his office was full of applicants. I waited a very long while before 
I could get a word to even a subordinate, and had just begun to tell my wants 
when he interrupted me with, " you'll have to wait a moment." 

So I waited till that crowd had pocketed their passes, and then tried again, 
and was told to ** wait" I waited and then tried it on another officer, and 
was likewise told that my case would be attended to after the officers' claims 
were, and then it dawned upon my understanding that officers and not "Jirst 
comers'* are "first served "in the army. Watching my chance I tried the 
third time with the same want of success. So I patiently waited a while and 
saw the machine work. 

There came in a chaplain who wanted to preach to somebody over the river. 
He procured a pass and vanished; the next, a captain, wanted to join his 
regiment, and he got a pass. In stalked Gen. Benham, and without waiting 
his turn he proceeded at once to the Major, took twenty minutes to transact 
his business and went off. It consoled me much to see the captains and 
lieutenants take their turn at waiting while the General was chatting with the 
Major. 



*ThiB was in March, when McClellan was embarking for the Peninsula. 



1 862. RED TAPE STORY. 101 

Then in rushed a little 2d lieutenant, not twenty years old. He pushed 
right along as Gen. Benham had, and shoved his paper into the Major's face, 
obtaining his pass by sheer impudence. This was a lesson for me, the little 
fellow had refused to wait, I thought I would try it ; wasn't a sergeant-major 
almost as high as a 2d lieutenant ? « 

I went directly to the Major this time, pushed my railroad pass under his 
nose and talked as fast as I could of the importance of speedy aAion — ^but 
alas ! the same " you must wait my good man,'' came in answer. Then I told 
him I would gladly do so if the case required a long time for consideration, or * 
if it must be referred to Gen. McClcUan, but " look, sir," and here I explained 
it all over to him refusing to hear him say ** wait a moment," till he sat down 
and dashed off what looked like a physician's prescription, but if I deciphered 
it correctly it read as follows : 

Confh prisr Cohn Cent Gud Hos 

Bumhm 

And then having been, by actual observation 55i minutes in trying, I came 
off successful. 

I wonder how long I should have waited had I obeyed orders, and sat 
quietly on the bench till the Major or his subs, could have attended lo this 
highly important case ; but if you wonder why I didn't leave the prisoner, the 
Bi^jor and all, you must know that I was obliged to have a receipt to carry 
back to Col. Fillcbrown — not a duplicate receipt, by the way, for strange as it 
may seem, while the receipt for one condemned mule must be made in dupli- 
cate, a single receipt is sufficient for a whole gang of deserters. 

It is worth a moment's attention to compare this day of wasted 
hours with a similar jaunt, about the same time, to Frederick, 
where Gen. Banks commanded. Wq had arrested two "Phila- 
delphia Zouaves" of Stone's division, with forged furloughs, 
and I begged the duty of carrying them to Frederick. When 
I arrived there I reported for orders directly to Maj. Copeland* 
who had ordered the arrest by telegraph. Pie didn't send me to 
the other end of the town nor tell me to wait, but asked me to 
warm myself at the fire, where Gen. Banks sat toasting his feet, 

while he sent his orderly to Capt. . Then telling me to 

march the prisoners to the place where his orderly would guide 
me, he put me in the way to obtain a receipt and return pass, 
without delay or inconvenience. 

Attentions like these from an officer in his position to a 



*B. Morris Ck>peUnd, Mi^lor, A. A. Q., Headquarters Banks's corps. 



102 PUNISHMENT. 1 862. 

sergeant in charge of two lousy deserters is not an every day 
occurrence, and I rejoice to be able to put bis name and his deed 
in print as a set-off against the ugly-looking order which dis- 
missed him from the service a year afterward because of some 
alleged free thinking and freer speaking. 

These«experiences, though personal, have a general likeness to 
the experiences of hundreds of others. Change the names and 
places and the story will suit your own case very well. 

January 4, 1862. Major Fred. Robie commenced paying us for 
the months of November and December ; this will remind all of us 
who worked on those rolls how we did our best to get them right 
and to have them in the Major's hands ahead of any other regi- 
ment. We succeeded, and hence were paid off so promptly ; — 
afterward, when greenbacks failed, all such efforts went for nothing. 
The diary does not note any very demoralizing effects from this 
payment, but I see that five of our worst characters ran off to 
Baltimore and never came back. 

A system of punishment had been' commenced before this 
which terrified evil doers from its certainty and severity. We 
had a good guard-house, and there were almost always confined 
in it a half dozen hard cases with a ball and chain on. These 
six pets did not make their home very agreeable to strangers, so 
the last were careful not to pay them a second visit. 

Capt. Adams had a couple or more " pet lambs " that tMed him 
well. He drilled them with loaded knapsacks but they grew fat 
on it. He made " spread eagles " of them, but this only created 
merriment in the company, and so helped the victims to bear 
their pain. But at last the Captain succeeded by driving them 
around camp all day tied together at the legs and with barrels 
labeled " Djbunken Swab " over their shoulders. 

During mid-winter our officers were continually teaching us 
and themselves the details of soldiers' duty. Among other things 
we had our morning reports and other messages sent in by the 
guard. The man of F or I on duty in the morning at Annapolis 
Junction, would take the documents at double-quick to the next 
man, who would take the papers and run his quarter mile to the 



1 862. UNEASY. 103 

Dext, and so on. The best time from F to the adjutant's quarters 
was eighty-five minutes ; distance nine miles or more. 

In December we heard of the battle of Drainsville, a very 
insignificant affair, but seized upon by Greneral McClcUan and the 
press to dispel the Bull Run gloom still remaining in the army 
and the nation. The more substantial victory in the West at 
Mill Spring, followed by the capture of Fort Henry a fortnight 
later, which also was succeeded by the important victory at Fort 
Donelson the next week, was all that was needed to make us 
uneasy. But the Burnsidc expedition disturbed us most, for it 
had rendezvoused near us and we had made up our minds to go 
in it. The news of its hard luck at sea, and in landing, and its 
successes when once ashore, stirred us up well and made trotting 
over sleepers and rock ballast, and jumping culverts irksome 
tons. 

If I have watched and judged soldiers rightly, they like an 
easy time, or a " soft thing " as we style it, as well as any one, 
but they are constitutionally unable to be satisfied with anything, 
whether good, bad or indifferent. They are not so often eager to 
be led to battle, or " spoiling for a fight " as the newspaper cor- 
respondents wrote. Yet fighting and running risk of wounds 
and death is something they expect. Sanguine individuals feel 
that they themselves will be spared even though their regiment 
or army suffers. We all crave the rough side of war, with its 
excitement and fascination, as sailors crave sea-life, hating and 
dreading it, yet having a feeling somewhat akin to instinct, that 
to fight and to go into danger are our duties. But more of this 
by and by : we all know how we felt, and if we talk or write by 
the hour we can not make others understand it as we do. 

The western victories, and Buruside's, made us feel uneasy, but 
when President Lincoln issued his memorable War Order No. 1, 
it was more than uneasiness that we felt. That order, y6u re- 
member, appointed Feb'y 22d as the day for an advance of all the 
armies and the navy. We lived in expectation after this ; tramp- 
ing over the sleepers grew more and more hateful — ^we saw 
regiments go by still, but their hurrahs sounded more like jibes 



104 FIRST LESSON IN STRATEGY. 1 862. 

than cheers. Yet under date of FeVy 22d the diary records 
nothiDg more interesting than : 

All hands in town at the great parade. * * Our regiment has 
improved lately, 1st, by many of the officers' wives going home, 2d, by the 
issue of new trowsers to all who need, and 8d, by the men purchasing a new 
cap, instead of drawing the " regulation '' article. 

We were a stylish regiment then ; new clothes, nice new cap, 
white gloves, polished brasses, and enjoying the pleasant conceit 
that there never had been and never could be anything ahead of 
us. 

February 27, 1862, Thursday. We noticed this morning 
that the trains were not running, and early in the forenoon the 
word came up from, the depot that the Government had seized 
the railroad and telegraph. Before 10 o'clock five immense 
locomotives came out from Baltimore and went on the turn out. 
The engineer of our old No. 31 said he had taken McClellan's 
private baggage up to Harper's Ferry this morning, and that a 
pontoon bridge was thrown across there in fifteen minutes. Two 
brigades had crossed when he left, and the whole of Banks's army 
was going south, at double quick I This was exciting. No 
through train passed, but at 4 p. m. we heard a whistle and saw 
a long train of box cars, with soldiers on top, coming from 
Washington, and we made a rush for the depot and found the 
cars full of horses, saddled and bridled. 

While down there a dispatch came to Col. Beal to take his five 
companies, a surgeon, two field officers, all his provisions and 
ammunition, and be prepared for a trip of four or five days ! ! It 
was done in a wink, and ad soon as the cars were ready the 
battalion went off cheering and singing every lively song we 
knew, while the band played " Bully for you ! " and other ap- 
propriate airs. Never before had we had such a day, and now 
we were ofl^ fairly started for the fight, that is, five favored 
companies were off leaving the other five to their lamentations 
and profanity. But the sequel to all this is not so brilliant. After 
going only four miles toward Harper's Ferry, Gapt. Emerson with 
' Co. H was ordered out with bag and baggage. At Ellicott's 
Mills, two miles further on, Capt. Jordan was put off with Co. 



1 862. 'changes — harper's FERRT. 105 

C. The other three companies were dropped, K at Elysville, eleven 
miles from Relay House, G at Woodstock, sixteen miles, and E 
at the Mariottsville tunnel, nineteen miles, with orders to guard 
the railway, to the intense disgust of every man, from Col. Beal 
down to the cooks. 

The censorship of the press had become a fixed fact by this time, 
and there was nothing mentioned in the papers of our move or 
the stoppage of trains, so we never knew what it all was about, 
but we all felt that it was a " sell." 

March 8th, the companies of the left wing were withdrawn 
from the Washington branch and sent up the main stem, B to 
Hood^s Mill, twenty-seven miles, I to Mt. Airey, thirty-five miles, 
A to Monrovia, forty-two miles, and F to the Monocacy Bridge, 
fifty miles from headquarters. But few changes were made in the 
disposition of the companies after this. 

Next we heard of the great Monitor and Mcrrimao fight and the 
moving of McClellan's army, he having been made commander of 
the army of the Potomac — the first clij)ping of wings he was 
doomed to. 

Marcu IStli, wc hoard cannonading all day, but ko])t quiet and 
cool. A week or more after this, Banks's trooj)s wore transported 
to Wa.sliington. Day atltT day they came, telling us their regi- 
ments and brigade as they j)asse(l, and making us hate ourselves 
and our luck. Mareli 2Gth Col. Beal succeeiled in bringing A, B, 
G and K down to headquarters (Relay House), whi(^h with IT, 
then there, and C in the fort, gave him a respectable force to drill 
and discipline. But the very next day came the order to go to 
Harper's Ferry, and a rumor that rebels had driven away the 
workmen from the railroad beyond that place. 

Col. Dixon S. Miles, that most imfortunate of men, had command 
of our brigade now, and by his order, on March '2Sth wc commenced 
moving to our new field. Finally the headquarters were established 
in Harper's Ferry, at that time, as ever afterward, the most complete 
wreck of a city that we ever camped in. The companies were 
sent all around the country, E to Halltown, G and I to Charlestown, 



106 JOE Merrill's FEAT. / 1862. 

C to Van Cleivesville, H to Duffields, K to Kearaeys>dlle, A to 
Opequan Bridge, and B to Martinsburg. 

The railroad was not guarded now by sentinels at ever}' quarter 
mile ; the " cit's " took kindly to us, as they had at our last stations, 
and we soon learned the solid worth of a true union man. But 
our duties were tame, and though we look back to those days 
with pleasure, they are not worth dwelling upon long. 

When we arrived at Harper's Ferry, a piece of halyard and a 
rag were flying from the flag-staff of the armory, and the people 
of the town said that many rebels and Yankees had tried to 
reach it by climbing, and had even tried to shoot it down. A 
few of our boys tried it, but only Joe Merrill, sergeant of F, suc- 
ceeded. He climbed up without aid of any kind, pulled out the 
old rope and put in a new one, and came safely down with cheers 
from the mob for his reward. 

Under date of April 19th, I see that from death, desertion and 
original deficiency, we were nearly a hundred men short of the 
maximum standiird of 1,048. I notice too that we had some odd 
neighbors in the 1st Maryland (Home Brigade), of whom, as 
they never harmed us, we will say nothing. But the advent of 
the 8th N. Y. cavalry was something we shall remember. They 
had " been in service eight months and never seen a horse " — a sad 
tale that. It had its sequel too, sadder still to the victims. They 
never saw a horse but they stole it. The company which was 
sent to Charleston mounted itself in three days, it was said, (but 
eat it with salt my friends), at the end of which at least forty 
"good union men" had been to see Paddy Miles, and as a conse- 
quence the horses were all retunied, and the men traveled on 
their own feet again. 

April 22d, the wooden bridge* over the Potomac was carried 
away by a freshet, with all the coal cars that had been put on it 
to hold it down. The natives could not be hired to step into the 
boats, but our Aroostook lumbermen of Co. D kept communica- 
tions open with a little punt till the water lowered. 

May 6th, seven companies were assembled at Halltown for drill. 



«The rebel! had deitroyed the iron bridge of the railroad. 



1 862. PADDY MILES'S OWN BOTS. 107 

inspection and review by Col. Miles. Co. C marched twenty- 
two miles for this purpose. We all remember the appearance of 
old " Paddy " on that occasion. At the close of the inspection 
he addressed us, saying : " Gentlemen ! I have been pleased with 
the exhibition of this afternoon. Your arms are in good order, 
you are well clothed and in good drill. You look like soldiers^ 
you are soldiers ; the regulars do not excel you." Then pausing, 
he continued : "Gentlemen, I am happy to inform yoji that York- 
town has been evacuated by the confederates, and one hundred 
and seventy guns and all their baggage have been captured." 

All of which we got enthusiastic over — much more so than 
any one will now who reads the facts about the Yorktown siege. 



108 1 862. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

GUABDIKG THE BBAB. 

May 9th. This day began another chapter in our history. 
Lieutenant Colonel Fillebrown took Co's C, E, G and I to Win- 
chester in the cars, and we who belonged to these companies then 
saw the " end of the railroad " about which there had been so 
much talk. Col. Beal established his headquarters here a few 
days later, when Lieutenant Colonel Fillebrown was made Provost 
Marshal. We were now fairly in General Banks's limits and 
heartily thankful. We relieved the 84th Penn. from duty in 
Winchester, and having left our tents behind, we quartered in 
various buildings. Co. E was honored with the Germ. Ref. Cent. 
Church, a small brick house, having about pews enough to give 
every man one. Co's C and G took possession of an unfinished 
house, and Co. I occupied a hotel which before had been used as a 
rebel hospital. We found ourselves in another atmosphere here 
in Winchester : we had already seen rebel women, but in all our 
travels we never saw any so bitter as those of Winchester. They 
were untiring in their efforts to show how they hated us. If we 
sat upon their door-steps a moment, they would send out their 
servants to wash up the spot that was supposed to be made filthy 
by our presence. A lady of one of the very " First Families " 
dropped her bible or prayer book on going to church, it was 
instantly picked up by one of our boys who stood near and handed 
to the lady, who scowled at him and refused to take it. We all 
remember the lady who lived very near the Martinsburg pike, who 
delighted to open her windows and play Dixie on her piano every 
time the regiment passed that way, when a little less hatred or a 



1 862. WINCHESTER LADIES. 109 

little more love for cleanliness would have prompted her to shut 
her window to keep out the dust. 

They would not walk under the stars and stripes, nor suffer 
their dresses to brush our clothes never so lightly, and rarely 
would they even so much as pass by us without scowling. In short, 
from the day we came till the day we went, they were untiring in 
their efforts to show how they hated us and how silly they could 
act. 

This contemptible behavior did not come from the poor whites, 
for they were our fiiends everywhere, but from women whose 
general appearance indicated that they were ladies indeed. They 
did not show the good sense and true lady-like qualities which 
the DarUngton (South Carolina) women showed to the " 29th " 
boys. These last hated us as thoroughly, but most of them knew 
enough to keep it to theiiiselvos. A word more about them by 
and by, but let tliem-pass now with the hope that years of war 
and famine may have made thom better. 

If there is a class of men more generous to womankind than 
soldiers I have yet to learn it. If the helpless were often injured 
during the war, it is certain that soldiers as a class did not sanction 
it, nor do we ebensh evil feelings against the honest individuals 
of the enemy; but out of all the many acts of those Winchester 
women, I never saw or heard of one tliat commanded our respect. 
Tliey limited themselves to petty abuse, which too often bordered 
upon indecency, and occasionally they did a little spying in which 
they were almost always perfectly safe, but this was tlieir highest 
effort. There was nothing of true womanly heroism in any of 
their acts, and nothing suggesting tliat they were mothers of the 
chivalrous, — certainlv iiothintj: that reminds one of the "women 
of '76." It was alleged of tliem that they shot our soldiers May 
2oth, and a commission of inquiry I believe estal>lished the fact, 
thoufili I know that most of the stories we heard which led to 
the inquiry were false. But we fail to see in this act anything 
but the rankest cowardice. 

Before our arrival in Winchester, the first of the five battles 
near this place had been fought. Jackson had attacked the Union 
forces at Kemstown three miles south, and attempted to get 



110 REGIMENTAL NEWSPAPER . 1 86 2 . 

between them and Winchester. This was done, if the story 'is 
true that we heard, on representation of the people at Winchester 
that nearly all of the federal troops had marched away. With- 
out stopping to inquire if these " people " were women, or " ladies " 
as they insist upon being called, it is enough to say " Stonewall " 
was misinformed, and so got whipped, after a smart fight, which 
we thought at the time was a wonderfiil one. Gen. Banks, who 
was marching towards the lower Potomac at the time of this 
battle, hastened back and pursued the rebels up the valley to 
Harrisonburg, and then had to Mi back for rations. He held Stras- 
burg and Front Royal, while we were in Winchester, and this 
backward movement, though not compelled by the enemy, caused 
the rebels much joy. Tliey were constantly telling us that Jack- 
son would soon drive us out, and we have always believed that 
the rebel women spent the week before this tlireat was fiilfilled, in 
cooking and making ready for the return of their army. I do not 
state it as a fact, this cooking, but I do remember well that the 
men of our company told me a day or two before the fight at 
Front Royal, that ** the women of the city are cooking all they 
know how, for the rebels are coming." So between rumors and 
the attentions of the ladies, we had an interesting time of it at 
Winchester. 

Co. B, at Martinsburg with Major Walker, had a very different 
reception. Though there were many rebels there, the union sen- 
timent was predominant, and you may go into the armory of the 
Blues to-day and hear the " old boys " praising the MartinsbiJrgers. 

The other companies found at their stations friends enough to 
tuake it pleasant, and rebels enough to make it lively. 

The button fever raged about this time, and we made great 
collections of rebel, state and cadet buttons, which we intended 
to keep to show to our grandchildren, — but where are they now? 

It must not be forgotten by ourselves nor the country's his- 
torian, that we started a newspaper in Winchester. Corporal 
Knight, and " Doby " (Newbold), a printer's devil, both of Co. C, 
were the leading spirits. With the assistance of one or two con- 
valescents from the general hospital, they swept up the floors of 
the Winchester Republican rooms, picked out, washed and sorted 



1 862. THE FRONT ROYAL FIGHT. Ill 

the type, and published on May 23d, No. 1 (new series), of the 
Winchester Republican — and a right good paper it was, reflecting 
credit upon every one engaged on it. But we never saw No. 2. 
That was our last day of peace, our last day of "band box" 
soldiering, although the Colonel cautioned us that night to buy a 
new supply of white gloves. Let us see what the diary has : 

Mat 23, 1862, Friday. Our pay rolls came back from the paymaster this 
eTcning, and wc commenced signing them and hurrahing for the pay which 
we are told is coming to-morrow. We were nearly done when one of the men 
came into the church saying, " There's a ' Calvaiy ' man outside who sayt 
there's just been a fight in Front Royal and our boys are all cut up," &c. The 
rolls were folded in some haste, and the caralr^'man hunted up. He said he 
was a pioneer of Gen. Banks, and had been re-building a bridge on the 
Manassas railroad, but the rebels had driven him off. A teamster just then 
came down hill on a mule and said " that's so ! he's a bridge builder, I know 
him; all the matter with him is he stole a secesh boss." Then came an 
infantry' corporal belonging to the Ist Maryland Vols. ; he was a boy and 
•omewhat excited, but said he had been captiu'ed by the rebel cavalry after 
fighting and being "all cut up;" then waiting his chance he had slipped on 
one of the horses of the captors, and the " old mare came toward this town 
right smart ! " Teamsters on mules or horses now came along singly and in 
squads, and told doleful stories. After these another group, wearing artillery 
jackets, came down mounted. One in tlie crowd recognized these, and shook 

hands witli all of thom witli great earnestness, and inquired, "By Billy, 

how'd ye git out i" The aforesaid Billy held up two queorly shaped pieces of 
iron and brass (the siglits), and remarked "all that'.s left of our No. 3 gun!" 
Wc learned that Kiiapp's Pennsylvania battery had two guns attached to 
Geary's 28th Pennsylvania regiment, and that one had been captured and the 
other abandoned on the road. 

Our boys were excited by all this news, 'and began to hurrah, but still the 
horses and mules came rattling past, some of them with harnesses on, but all 
steaming and out of breath, while the riders, especially if they were teamsters, 
said, " the rebels are right on us." A more intelligent Marylander came in, 
saying that the 1st Maryland Vol. infantry. Col. Kenly, was in the fight with 
a part of the Ist Maryland cavalry, together fighting the 1st Maryland rebels ; 
and the opposing Marylanders were equally anxious to kill each other, wanting 
no quarter and giving none. Col. Kenly was killed he said, also their surgeon. 

So I put all I have heard together as follows, sifting out the lies as well as I 
can : 

fight at Front Royal to-day began in a hurry about noon, men in swimming, 
and all over the town — surprised ! Our force was 1st Maryland Vols., say 800 
men, two companies 6th N. Y. cavalry, one or two of the 1st Md. cavalry, 



112 



BANKS COMMENCES TO BETBEAT. 



1 86 



two companies of 29th Penn. infantry, and two guns from Knapp's Penn. 
battery, barely 1,500 effectives. Those who have escaped are almost all of 
them pioneers, cooks, hostlers, artillery horse drivers, teamsters and this good 
for nothing cavalry. By and by the Col. sent us orders to put things in readi- 
ness for a fight, which brought out the usual query, " Shall we wear our white 
gloves ? *' And this cry was caught up, and answered too, by the boys, " Every 
man put on his white gloves ! *' And after having a hearty laugh over this, 
most of us " turned in " at a late hour.* 







• 


Front Royal. 






# 




o 


• 


^ 


1 






tf 




.4 


O 




a 


2 




o 






rs 





River Shenan- 



# GedarviUe. 



# Nineveh. 



tFi»her'8 
UlU. 



Strasborg. 

tCedar 
Creek. 

Middletown. 



Newtown. 

Kemstown. 

Milltown. 
Winchester. 



The rebels followed up their success, Jackson himself taking 
one column across on the road from Cedarville to Middletown, 
and sending another under Ewell toward Winchester. The first 
was evidently to prevent Banks's retreat from Strasburg, or failing 



*The above was written the evening of the 23d, on the spur of the moment— and a 
pretty sharp spur it was, yon know— and needs qaalifying. Qen, Banks says in his report, 
"our force did not exceed nine hundred men,'* and he makes no mention of the Ist 
Maryland Cavalry. The other forces are correctly stated, only that Qeary's companies 
(2Sth Penn.), mentioned on the last page, mast be understood to have marched away 
some days before the fight, leaving the section of battery behind. Most of the infantry 
named was captured, and most of the cavalry escaped, if we may judge by the swarms 
that poured in past us. The list of killed and wounded was not large. 



1 862. BANKS SAFE IN WINCHESTEB. 113 

in this to ** sandwich " him between Jackson and E well. He also 
lent a force of cavalry to stride the pike at Newtown, where quite 
a brush came off on the momiug of the 24th. 

The column marching toward Middletown met with a plucky 
resistance from a part of Banks's command, the fight of the Maine 
cavalry being especially noteworthy, for in those days it was not 
customary for cavalry to fight. 

We lived a day of suspense and excitement in Winchester. 
Wagons and stragglers came pouring in from Strasburg all the 
afternoon, and at four or five o'clock we saw the infantry troops 
of Banks, gray with dust, slowly file along the road, and go into 
line just outside the town — not sandwiched, not demoralized, not 
whipped : the worst off not so badly used up as to be unserviceable. 
We learned that the Zouave company and many straggling squads 
had been cut ofi^ though it was not certain that they had been 
captured. And so the sun went down, the loss of stores at 
Strasburg — fired to prevent the enemy from having them — some 
thirty or more wagons, and the separation of the troops named, 
being the sum total of loss for that day. 



8 



114 



1 862. 



CHAPTER XV. 



SKIBMISn OP CO S O AND I — WTNTCHESTEE. 

May 24th, Saturday, This morning, while Banks at Stras- 
burg was waiting to see what would happen next, Col. Beal, 
instead of relieving the pickets on the Front Royal pike, sent 
out Co. C entire, with some Maryland cavalry, all under Capt. 
Jordan. Later in the day, Capt. Furbish took out Co. I as a 
reinforcement, and this suggested to the cavalry commander that 
he should reinforce himself, which he did with a little valley 
whiskey, making it necessary for Capt. Jordan to have him 
relieved. Therefore Col. Beal detailed another company, or two 
of them,* from the same command, whose good behavior entitles 
them to all the credit I can give, 

A scouting party was sent out, which returned with the wof d 
that the rebels were coming. Therefore the entire force of 



BEBBL 



Rebel 

Cavalry. 



I 



k 



HOUSE.' 



PIOKBTf. 



WHITKBT. 




'I oannot learn definitely the namei ot the oayalry oflleen, nor tlie nnxnber preient. 



1 862. A CHARGE AND A RUN. 115 

Capt. Jordan was marched back, as in the opinion of the officers 
they were too far from the city (four miles), and the locality 
was not favorable for defence. The position finjiUy chosen was 
near the toll gate, about two miles out of town, and here C and 
I were placed at right angles to each other, C behind the pike 
wall and I behind another wall, faced directly to the front. The 
cavalry was ahead of them with their videttes still beyond as 
usual, and all was quiet and orderly till eight or nine o'clock, or 
late twilight, when the cracking of pistols in the far front indi- 
cated that the rebels were coming. 

The officers had previously determined to retreat, finng, if they 
should be heavily attacked. Besides this, the cavalry reserve 
was to fall behind the infantry, and the cavalry pickets were to 
come in on the run (a thing they were sure to do anyway), and 
rally behind their reserve, and when every musket and carbine 
had been fired the whole force would retire. Lieut. Redlon 
solemnly avers that he protested against this plan, and no one 
who knows "Ben" will doubt that he did. 

A cracking of pistols was heard first, then something decidedly 
like a yell, which made every man's heart thump and his knees 
shake. Then came that wild jargon of sounds so indescribable 
and terrible — the rush and clatter of horsemen. Moreover it was 
becoming quite dark now, and darkness combined with such noise 
as this is harder to face than rebels. Then with the increasing 
whir-r of the approaching mass, that most dreadful of all sensa- 
tions increased which one feels in the opening of battle. And 
at last, just when the fears of the men were excited to the 
utmost, the horses of our friends went rolling up the road, along 
the front of Co. C, with the enemy's cavalry not far behind them. 
Considering the distance they had charged, the rebel troopers 
had kept their organization quite well, and soon outlined them- 
selves against the sky as they came over the crest of the hill. 
Co. I rose at this, a little sooner than Capt. Jordan intended, 
fired its volley and dropped down again. Co. C followed just 
afterward, aiming to the right oblique. The rebels fired at the 
same time, hence it happens that the casualties are all in Co. C. 

It is a matter of regret, though not of wonder, that more than 



116 £ WELL IS COMPELLED TO HALT. 1 862. 

half of both companies having done well thus far were unable 
to stand both the shock of the enemy and the strange sound of 
their own volleys, but jumping over the wall in their rear they 
ran after the cavalry. 

But we have companions in our misery here, in the rebels, who, 
after firing, turned and went down the hill as fast as their horses 
could carry them. In justice to our boys it must be said that 
they either overheard their officers while in council or learned 
in some other way, that a retreat was contemplated, and so they 
fell back as they thought in obedience to orders, though the order 
to retreat was not given. Therefore we had rather an odd thing 
in both parties running away ! And this happened times without 
number in skirmishing during the war, but rarely has the story 
been fairly told. The distance which our boys ran was not gi'eat, 
and their absence was brief; they were soon back again, every 
man, both of the in&ntry and cavalry ; hence it was a clear union 
victory thus far, as indeed it should have been. Go's C and I now 
fired volleys by company for an hour or two from the lane which 
is a few yards in the rear of their first position, keeping up a 
great racket and the appearance of force. 

The loss in killed and wounded which they caused the rebels 
to suffer, was hardly proportionate to the rounds of ammunition 
expended, but we have learned from the rebels themselves that it 
was " respectable." The rebels probably did not notice the retreat 
of our men, since those men who remained kept up a noisy firing, 
and the commanding general of the rebels did not think it best 
to try to force his way, after seeing his cavalry tumble back so 
suddenly. Therefore a line of skirmishers ([infantry) was pushed 
up toward our two companies, whereby a great waste of gunpowder 
and lead, and of some rebel lives resulted. About midnight our 
companies ceased firing their volleys, and Lieut. Whitney de- 
ployed, a line of skirmishers in front, which the cavalry extended 
to the right and left. At one time, when it appeared that they 
were being outflanked, this line fell back, but it was speedily 
re-established and kept up a tiring all night. They had good 
cover, and the rebels had none, and for this reason it happened 
that our companies met no losses except those already noted, 

I 




y 



"■:).■ 



1 862. THE RESULT. 117 

while the rebels had a number killed and wounded. This we 
learned by our men wh6 were taken prisoners next day. 

At first dawn of day the rebel pickets became more active, and 
made it hot work for our men. Lieut. Whitney's and the cavalry 
pickets retired upon the main lino again, by order of Capt. Jordan. 
Sharp firing commenced once more, with some damage to the 
rebels, but none to us. But it was soon discovered that the rebel 
cavalry was flanking our little force, both to the right and left, 
and about 4 o'clock in the morning the report of a gun, and the 
sizzling of a rifled cannon shot along their line from right to left, 
ended the defence. Capt. Jordan ordered the two companies to 
file out to the pike, and marching steadily along this sunken road, 
they kept so well under cover that no one was hurt, though the 
rebel gunners fired at them all the way in. Something more than 
a mile of retreating brought the force inside of Col. Knipe's line. 
This gallant oflicer, whose regiment (46th Penn.) was in the 
brigade which composed the left of Banks's army, came out and 
handsomely complimented our boys and the cavalry for their 
plucky resistance, and steady march in retreat. Then marching to 
their quartera our two companies began to eat their breakfasts, 
but were hurried into the regimental line before they had finished. 

We have generally given Capt. Jordan, his subordinate officers 
and command a good deal of credit for their night's work. Its 
value lies in the fact that it was a first trial, and under very dis- 
advantageous circumstances. Scarcely anything is more difficult 
than to handle new troops in face of superior numbers, and it 
becomes extremely so when a retreat is contemplated or foreseen. 
The dashing about of cavalry in the dark is also a fearful thing 
for the nerves of new soldiers, even if the cavalry is friendly. 
There is no doubt but the gallant resistance of this battalion 
made an impression upon the rebel general, and caused him 
considerable inconvenience, delay and something of a loss. We 
consider it a splendid achievement — one that would not have 
been so well conducted, nor have terminated so favorably in nine 
cases out of ten under the same circumstances. 

Capt. Jordan, favored by darkness, kept back the entire rebel 
division, and probably misled the rebel general into the belief 



118 CASUALTIES. 1 862. 

that Banks's army was within supporting distance of him. The 
night's work is all the more commendable in that our force was 
in fact a mile and a half outside of Donelly's brigade, but not 
one of Jordan's command knew or suspected that Banks had 
retreated. Hence our picket battalion held their ground against 
what they knew to be superior numbers with the understanding 
that only three more companies of the 10th Maine could help 
them in case of emergency. 

The officers on duty in these two companies were 

Capt. Jordan, Co. C, commanding battalion. 
Lieut. Mayhew, Co. I, " Co. I. 

Lieut. Bedlon, Co. C, " Co. C. 

Lieut. Simpson, Co. I. 

Lieut. Whitney, Co. C, commanding picket line. 

Capt. Furbish, of Co. I, simply brought his company out in the afternoon 
and then returned to other duties in town. 

WOUNDED ON PICKET MAY 24, 1862, 

NEAB WINCHE8TEB, VA. 

Co. C. 

Hamilton, William P. Corporal, neck. 

He was left in the brick house and concealed from the rebels by the inmates. 



Boody, Frank G. 


Private, 


face — slight. 


Bumham, Charles 


tt 


side and leg. 


Glend^nning, Thomas M. 


tt 


leg. 


Geary, Mezerve 


tt 


leg, finger lost. 


Palmer, Charles F. 


tt 


slight. 



Bumham, Glendciining, Geary and Palmer were captured next day in the 
hospital, and were afterwards paroled. 

Boody was captured on the retreat next day, carried to Eichmond, exchanged 
in October and discharged for disability arising from ill-treatment. 

Bumham, Glendenning and Geary were discharged for disability arising 
from their wounds. 

ON THE STRASBUttG PIKE. 

Co. G, Capt. Blake, had been out on the Strasburg pike all day 
(May 24th), and gave us a few moments of excitement once, by 
sending in word that the rebel cavalry was coming. It turned 



l862. THE OTHER COMPANIES ABBIYE. 119 

out, however, that the uniform of the cavalry had deceived him 
by its being covered with dust. It proved to be a battalion of 
the Ist Michigan, which was the advance of the retreating army. 
Nothing of importance occurred for a while, except the passage 
of wagons and non-combatants, and we that day acquired our 
first knowledge of what an immense burden a train is to an 
army. Four or five hundred wagons passed through the town 
that day, mules braying and kicking, drivers swearing and spur- 
ring — the whole exhibition a sad one, and what was more, an 
indication that we should have to follow them. 

In the evening we all knew that Gen. Banks and staf^ with 
Generals Crawford and Greene, were down at Col. Beal's quar- 
ters, and that all the army was outside the city. We also knew 
of the disasters of tlie day, which magnified themselves in our 
minds more than they would have done in later years. Our own 
regimental teams were off with our quartermaster, at Harper's 
Ferry; hence there was no sending of baggage to the rear, and 
no demoralization from that source. We lay down at night and 
slept in peace, disturbed but little by the firing of the pickets. 

During the day Col. Miles tele<^raphed to the commanders of 
Co's A, D, II and K, to take tlioir commands at once to Win- 
chester by rail. They arrived during the evening, and took 
quarters in various public and unoccupied buildings. Major 
Walker, as soon as he could relieve Co. B by a company of the 
1st Maryland, Home Brip:ade,* started it at 10 o'clock p. m., to 
march to Winchester, a distance of twenty-two miles. But after 
going eleven miles the company camped, and took a very early 
start in the morning, and so did not join the regiment until it 
was a mile or two out of town. The march of this company 
requires special mention. It was a constant pull against the 
current; they faced the flood which poured along the pike, in 
the shape of wagons, stragglers, guards of cavalry, sutlers and 
negroes, till they were literally pushed off the pike and had to 
take the fields. This, of course, is nothing more nor less than 
soldiers expect, but it was new to us then, and we thought at the 



•A different organization from the lit Md. Vols, whioh fbngbt at Front Royal. 



120 ROUOH HABOH FOR 00. B. 1 862. 

time it was *' rough," as indeed it was till something rougher 
became our regular fare. 

So then, leaving B on the march, and the other nine companies 
preparing or eating breakfast^ — a rousing one of baked beans in 
almost all the companies-^we will take a look outside. 



i86s. 121 



CHAPTER XVI. 

OBN. BANKS's BATTLE OF WINCHS8TEB. 
Mat 25, Sunday. 

Col. Donnelly's brigade, in which we were afterward put, wa» 
the left one of the army, and fought on and near the Front Royal 
pike. Col. Grordon's was on the right of the Strasburg pike, and 
worked more to the right, till, if I am correctly informed, there 
was a very long interval between the two brigades, and that 
interval came in the place of all places one would suppose, at first 
thought, would have been guarded — ^the Strasburg pike. These 
two brigades composed the entire infimtry force engaged. Qen. 
Banks gives in his report the following excuse for fighting a battle, 
instead of continuing the retreat : " The strength and purpose of 
the enemy were to us unknown. * * * I determined 
to test the substance and strength of the enemy by actual collision." 
This reads queerly, now that we know so much ; but if he had 
gone on without fighting he would have been criticised even more 
than he has been for fighting against such tremendous odds. 

It took some time for the light morning mist to lift, and after 
sunrise it took the enemy, considering it was Jackson the rapid, 
a long time to feel around. Finally, however, between six and 
seven — or four hours after dawn of day — he came down Jackson- 
like upon both brigades, particularly upon Gordon's. 

We never knew why the 10th Me. was not in the fight. Every 
conjecture of the reason which we have discussed, firom first to 
last, is not worth a moment's attention here. The fact is, however, 
that whether word was sent to us or not, Col. Beal never received 
a single order about going or staying, but at 6.30 a. m. the 
appearance of crowds of wounded, the wild disorder of stragglers 



122 DEFEATED. 1 862. 

and cavalry, and the host of fugitives of every kind, all convinced 
him that he must take the ^responsibility of acting without orders. 
So we were relieved, as far as was possible, from our duties in 
town, and formed near his headquarters on a street west of the 
main street, about a third or half a mile in rear of Gordon's brigade, 
but separated from it of course by houses and gardens without 
number. The regimental formation that day was as follows : 



Left. |f|a|b[d[c||i|g|k|b|h| band, j Right. 

And with the right resting to the north, we formed to the 
music of Chandler's excellent band and waited some time to see 
it we were wanted by anybody. 

Before long the wounded and skulks from Gordon's brigade 
poured through the streets in larger numbers. Ambulances and 
a few ammunition wagons came down these various cross streets 
into ours, pell mell, and then the most tremendous volleys were 
heard coming more and more to the right, showing that the 
enemy had got well on the flank and toward the rear of Gordon. 
Not more than three or four of these heavy volleys were heard 
before the 29th Penn. and 27th Indiana, which were on the right 
of the brigade, came down, first a few stragglers, then a crowd ; 
then a mob speedily followed and mixed up with men of all the 
other regiments. We have read that the company organizations 
of the latter were generally preserved ; we do not deny it, but 
simply say that no such companies passed our way. 

For all of this fleeing there was an abundance of good cause, 
and we don't wish to sneer at any of our fellow soldiers, or pre- 
tend that we should have done much better. But we do say that 
nothing that day was more trying than standing there in the 
streets of Winchester, with that panic-stricken mob rushing past 
our front, from left to right, every one telling a different tale, but 
all saying, " They're coming " — " Right on you " — " Hurry up or 
you'll be lost," and an infinity of this. It was trying every 
way, trying in the extreme ; we had never seen a rebel in arms, 
never fired a gun, and had never been fired at ; therefore the 
deafening volleys which had been poured into Gk)rdon, terrified us 
scarcely less than they did his troops. 



1 862. A STAMPEDE. 123 

Cavalrymen went past with horses on the clean jump, their 
sabres rattling against their spurs, and their horses' hoofs striking 
the solid pavement, and so contributing not a little to the general 
terror of the scene. At length the larger part of the mob had 
gone by and left us alone, with the momentary expectation of 
seeing the enemy pop around the corner. On the main street, also, 
we could see and hear that it was growing a trifle less noisy. The 
last squad of cavalry, or some mounted officers of Gordon's 
brigade perhaps, at length came along the head of our street 
toward us ; they brought out a few shots from some rebel skirm- 
ishers who had come in near the Strasburg pike. One of our 
men, Corp. Henry N. Shaw, of A, was at this time wounded in 
the leg by a ball, which to show that it was not one of the pistol 
balls said to have been fired by the ladies, I state was caliber 79. 

At precisely 7 a. m., Col. Beal ordered us to "shoulder arms,** 
" right face " and " forward march," and tJiere was no delay in 
the execution of these commands ! We marched without music 
in good order, as if to show oif, but O ! it was hard, wasn't it my 
chums ? A stampede is contagious, and all but irresistible ; we 
had found it hard enough to resist it before, but now it was even 
more difficult, for before we were standing still, and that was all 
our duty, but now we were marching at the usual pace when all 
the mob at our side was going pell mell, and telling us to hurry 
up, and our natural impulse was also to break and run ; hence to 
take the measured cadenccd step— to keep off the heels of the man 
in front, to preserve the alignment and touch the elbow — well, you 
who know it, know it ! you who do not can never understand by 
reading it. 

In this way we passed out of the city, the officers having no 
difficulty worth noting, in preserving the line and keeping the 
timid ones in hand. It was a sad thing to know that our first 
movement in the presence of the enemy was to retreat without 
firing a gun or seeing a rebel. The loss of all our baggage, too, 
was not pleasant, and the informal turning over of clothing, camp 
and gan-ison equipage, ordnance and ordnance stores, without 
obtaining duplicate and triplicate receipts, foreboded " heaps of 
trouble" for those who had reports to make I 



124 SURROUNDED ON THREE SIDES. X862. 

We state here that the enemy completely covered three sides 
of the town before he ventured inside in force. Otherwise our 
history would have been far different. And in this connection it 
is worth knowing that the 2d lieut. of E, who to save his own 
trunk would have stolen a citizen's horse, took a squad of his 
company to back him up in his confiscations, and went out just 
back of his church-quarters to find rebel skirmishers driving our 
skirmishers toward Martinsburg, and in possession, doubtless, of 
the very horae he had spoken for. This was before E had formed 
company — a long time before the regunental line had formed and 
moved off. Hence you may know that on the east side of the 
city the rebels made no delay in working along the heights there- 
abouts. 

When fairly out of the city, and well across the table land lying 
west of the pike, we found the enemy were only a little to the 
rear of us, but further to the west. We could see to the east of 
us also, long lines of the enemy's infantry nearly abreast with us,* 
their skirmishers and a few enterpiising cavalry men ahead of us, 
but so far to the east that we didn't care for them. The fact is, 
if we had staid five minutes longer in Winchester, Gen. Banks 
would have had to mention more about the Tenth Maine than 
he did. 

We kept our guard on till the last moment, most of the men 
leaving town afler the regiment did and running the guantlet for 
a mile or more, but Corporal Hiram T. Cook, of E, and a few of 
the guard failed to get out, and Porter Latham, of E, was 
wounded but escaped. We had a number of sick in hospital 
who were abandoned of necessity, -The majority of " sick in 
quarters," I believe fared no worse than the regiment at large, 
but the very sick men had to remain and be captured. Not so 
Famum H. Small, of Co. G, who, afler a long run of measles or 
something of the kind, had nothing lefl but skin and bone, and 
under the inspiration of a stampede, astonished himself and us 
by his splendid time. With help of the wagons he went through, 



• Tb€0e were in line of battle ; we were in their rear, and on their left flank. 



1 862. OUTSIDE OF WINCHESTER. 125 

to langh and be laugbed at, and to finish up his sickneis under 
yankee attention. 

OUTSIDE OF WINCHESTER. 

As soon as our regiment was well out of town, Capt. d'Haut- 
ville, of Banks's stafl^ rode up and gave Col. Beal the order to 
march along to the west side of the pike and outside of it. We 
saw also that other regiments ahead of us were executing the 
same order, and at last noticed there were two or three regiments 
of infantry on each side of the pike, and outside of these a cav- 
alry force, but I saw no skirmishers excepting on the rebel side. 
A squadron or two of the 1st Vermont cavalry were our nearest 
neighbors, they being directly to our left in retreat — or west — 
and were without doubt ordered to march thus as a curtain to 
the flank of our army. There was no organized force between 
our Co. F and the enemy. In the hope that it will be fully as 
comprehensive and more interesting, I quote now from the diary 
of what happened next : 

I was immensely pleased and encouraged when I saw how well our boys 
kept in the ranks ; even after they had jumped over brooks and waded through 
swampy spots and became separated, they found their places and went on 
steadily without delay or confusion. We had marched in the ordinary or 
" quick time/* as it is termed, most of the way, and had waded through one 
swamp where every one wlio wore shoes had them filled with mud and water, 
before I took a good fair look straight behind. 

The fugitives were now mostly ahead of us, the pike was full of men, beasts 
and every kind of vehicle, and they were going ahead slowly, by reason of 
constant jamming. The commissar}' storehouses in the city were in flames, 
and a grand yell was arising all over the many square miles that soldiers, 
negroes and mules were stampeding upon. I saw at the very outskirts of the 
town, which were higher than the place where we were marching, a team 
hauling something, but could not tell for the dust and smoke, what it was. 
We found out presently tliat it was a battery, and a rebel one at that, for 
bang he went toward the troops on the other side of the pike, though we were 
nearest and the best mark. I heard then a shell for the first time in my life, 
and aside from the danger connected with it, it is one of the grandest things 
in the fire-works line I ever saw. We could not see the shell, but by aid of 
the sound its path could be traced. This first one went high in the air, and 
was rushing along at a rate that puzzled the eyes and ears to follow it, when, 
presto ! change, and where nothing had been seen before, a little bunch of 



126 GOOD BYE KNAPSACKS. 1 862. 

whitish blue smoke now burst out, and the sharp report soon came to our ears. 
The furious whistle or screech of the shell, its tremendous rapidity, its instant 
explosion and apparently dead stop, make it wonderfully exciting and brilliant. 

The Colonel gave us orders to double-quick, and we moved forward at that 
pace for a very few minutes. The ranks were kept in good order, and we 
made most excellent time. Many of the men had thrown away their knap- 
sacks before this, and when the first shell came into our ranks there was 
literally a knapsack shower, (but we won't copy more about this, for we don't 
pretend we did it any better than other regiments have done it before and 
since). 

I cannot remember, nor find two men who can agree about the direction and 
number of shot and shells that came next. But of the three or foiur which 
fell in our midst one struck behind us, and taught us the meaning of ** fire in the 
rear," another went to the left, and another to the right, also a few were sent 
over for our cavalry friends, who stood it in a manner that reflected credit 
upon man and horse. The shot which passed along our front (that is, to our 
left hand as we marched) was immediately followed by a shell from another 
gun which, after going over the heads of the left wing, dropped and passed 
between the rank and file, making us all jump to the left or right in the biggest 
hurry conceivable, and (as one man said) " it filled my ears with a buzz " ; and 
so they came, one after another, raking us from the left of the regiment to the 
right, and as the shells flew almost as fast as the sound, we could hear the 
heavy bang of the gun, and the tearing of the shell in our midst, almost 
simultaneously. Two shells did a deal of mischief One went into D, and 
knocking off" a cap or two, passed between one couple. It then struck a man 
on the left shoulder, and another on his right arm. Another shell, or the same 
one for all I can learn, hit Sergt. Jim. Mitchell's gun, which he held at " right 
shoulder," and cutting it in two, ripped his knapsack ofi*, tore his scalp, knocked 
him down flat, and then tore the chevrons off* Sergt. Weeks 's arm. A hundred 
knapsacks went off* before another breath, and this, though a little Bull 
Run-ish, was a good thing in the end, for wo could not have carried them 
through. We also received a little musketry fire from the infantry on the 
left (the right in retreat), but they were evidently overshots, intended for some 
one else, and were not observed by many of the men. A little more of the 
double quick brought us into a piece of woods, and here we resumed quick 
time and marched on steadily as before, to Bunker Hill, which is eight miles 
from Winchester. 

A few men gave out, and a few others managed to steal away 
from us before we reached Bunker Hill, where in crossing the 
little river larger numbers were separated. The novelty of the 
march proved too much for their powers of endurance ; and be- 
sides this, our discipline was not as perfect at this time as it was 



l862. we take the back seat. 127 

afterward. After the shelling near Winchester we- had no ftirther 
compliments from the enemy. His cavalry was in sight occasion- 
ally till we reached Bunker Hill, and we heard artillery firing, to 
which our guns replied sometimes. 

We were occasionally halted, and were made to take the ex- 
treme " back seat." Gen. Beal says these halts were ordered by 
Gen. Williams, who one day told him that whenever he saw the 
enemy preparing to dash upon the stragglers, or saw the stampede 
was becoming too furious, he would order us to halt, and with 
this large regiment in the rear of the main army something like 
confidence was kept up. 

We marched as far as Bunker Hill, through the fields and 
woods on the west side of the pike, and as before stated, lost a 
few of our numbers. We then took the pike, and after noon 
entered Martinsburg in good order, and halted there some time. 
The Colonel had received no orders except those mentioned, and 
as we were all pretty well fatigued, he permitted the organization 
to be broken so that each man might pick his way along with 
the least fatigue. We have sometimes regretted this, no one 
more than the Colonel himself, for we could have gone through 
as an organization, but it would have lost us more men. 

The enemy was said to have stopped pursuit ; this was told us 
by cavalrymen — orderlies probably — and mounted ofiicers who 
came from the extreme rear, and perhaps they really thought so, 
or they may have been ordered to say so to keep down the panic. 
So we feel that Col. Beal was justified in following the advice of 
other colonels to let the organization break up. 

Once allowed to travel separately on the pike some of us made 
good time, others got aboard wagons, and a few followed the 
soldierly instinct of laying hands on all that was good, and 
^^ coTifisticated^^ the few horses and wagons to be found in the 
stables we came to, and so kept along. We saw one or two 
wagons burning, and a good many dead or dying mules and 
horses. 

Negro men, with women and children in tow, were hurrying 
on, their expressions showing the extent of their fright. Wreck 
and ruin were visible everywhere, and as this was our first expe- 



128 GOLD, LAMB AND BLISTEBED. 1 862. 

rience in marching and retreating, it made a deep impression on 
as. But we who have lived to see the end of the war are not 
inclined now to talk much about the Winchester panic, nor the 
wreck of material, for as compared with what followed in all 
armies and upon both sides, this Winchester panic was not a bad 
one, nor was the loss of property extensive. 

One thing must not be forgotten — the goodness of the people 
fix)m Martinsburg to Williamsport. Not all of them, but some 
who came out and gave us water and food will have our blessings 
to the end of time. The most of us reached the Potomac 
opposite Williamsport, Maryland, about nine in the evening, 
having marched thirty-five miles in fourteen hours, including the 
halts. Here, following the teams and the mass of the army, half 
the regiment crossed as best it could, while the other half lay 
down before fires and tried to keep warm. Well do we remember 
our misery in this our first night in the open air. It was intensely 
cold, a few degrees only above freezing, and without overcoat, 
blanket, rubber cloth, straw or pine boughs, we baked and froze 
alternately. All of us had our feet blistered, some having even 
more blister than natural skin, but to describe the thousand aches 
and cramps we felt cannot be done. 



1 862. 129 



CHAPTER XVII. 

AFTER THE RETREAT. 

May 2Gth, Monday, Wo wlio slept in Virginia the night 
before were anxious to know whether wc should go into Maryland 
in the morning, or whether the Maryland portion would come 
over to us. It looked as if the first was to be done. So we all 
crow<ied down to the ferry boat and tried to go over, but a guard 
kept back most of the anny. This became so serious a matter 
by and by, that Gen. Banks was compelled to come to the landing, 
and once there he chose to make us a speech, which, I venture to 
say, was never excelled by any of our generals, though of course 
I cannot report it at this day, much less convey an idea of his 
eloquence, lie told us that we had been tried under the severest 
circumstances, and tliat he was more than satisfied Avith our cour- 
age and patriotism. lie said he had received a telegram statuig 
that a large army had been sent frQpri Washington to the rear of 
the enemy, " and not one of them shall escape, and not one of 
them deserves to. We have no force now to attack us, and there 
need be no fear nor hurry. If you will fall back from the landing 
and wait till the wagons have crossed, and then take your turn, 
all will be well, no life will be lost and no injury sustained." 

Tlie army or mob, or whatever you may call it, gave nine cheers 
for the General, followed him out of the gorge, scattered and 
willincjlv waited. Here was exhibited a trait in the General's 
character, and an instance of his power worth the notice of the 
general historian. Whoever has studied the nature of panics and 
stampedes has seen, that once started, it does not require much to 
keep them alive. No ordinary man, however high in position, 
9 



130 IN SfABTLAND — ^THB MISSING RETURN. 1 862. 

could have quieted what in a few minutes more would have been 
a mob past control. Some men with a small guard could have 
pushed them back, or kept them back, but excepting here, it never 
fell to our lot to see a mob moved back by a speech, and the men 
sent off contented with all anxiety quelled. 

All of our regiment were across by noon, and some had gone 
back to forage amongst the stores which had, I believed, been 
taken out of a half dozen wagons, whose mules were drowned in 
trying to cross. The companies assembled in vacant houses, 
churches and school houses about the town, and some succeeded 
in having a good meal off the stuff found in Virginia, after which 
they fell to singing and laughing as if nothing had happened. 

We listened all day to the stories of butchering the wounded, 
of women throwing hot water and firing pistols at our army in its 
retreat through Winchester, of the black flag, of the nailing up 
of the great hotel hospital, setting it on fire and then shooting 
every yankee who refused to be burnt up I We heard too, that* 
the rebels had whiskey rations issued to them just before the 
battle, and that there was gunpowder in the whiskey, and more 
of this than I could find time to write. Hurrahing was in order 
all day, especially among the other regiments, as the " missing " 
came in. This was kept up for a day or two, and the advent of 
Capt. Hampton with a section of his battery, CoUis's company 
of Zouaves and some hundi*eds of other missing ones, was the 
occasion of^one long and Ijiearty hurrah fi*om all the array. 

BULL RUN AND WINCHESTER. 

The troops which were driven out of the valley were not "raw," 
according to the meaning of the word that day. Hence the critic 
should expect more of them than of the troops which fought at 
Bull Run. But we were raw enough all of us, officei-s and men, 
and we have never ceased to feel that taken all in all it was not a 
bad performance for the remnant of the original 5th corps. The 
panic was nothing compared with that of Bull Run, wliile the 
distance of retreat was more, and took in two fights and one 
night's bivouac in presence of the enemy. (I am writing now of 
the army, not the regiment.) 



1 862. WHAT GEN. BANKS SAID OF US. 131 

A soldier who throws away his knapsack is not of necessity far 
gone towards demoralization, but one who throws away his gun 
and equipments has traveled clear there. The Bull Runners did 
this last to a shameful extent, but we neither saw nor heard any- 
thing of it in our army. Even many of the sick lugged their 
muskets through. We had more train in proportion, more negroes 
and union citizens to help stampede us ; but we confess we had 
no Washingtonians nor Congressmen in coaches as spectators. 

Time proved that the regiments which were driven out of the 
valley were among the best in the service. We were green 
enough then, and all untried in the great school of experience. 
We desire to cast no blame uj>on our superiors, but the day came 
when such a retreat, battle and panic would have been impossible 
with the same officers and troops. The day came, too, when the 
10th Maine was wanted, and received orders, and hence was not 
left standing idle when most needed.* The day came, too, when 
the regiment instinctively swung into line upon receiving a raking 
artillery fire,t but on this May 25th it seems that not a colonel 
dared to change his front, after receiving orders to march along- 
side the pike, and so tlioy may tliank the rebel gunners and their 
men's genuine ])hick tliat tlicir commands were not shattered. 

The total and final loss in our roL?iment on this retreat was three 
men killed, six wounded, one oflicor and sixty-four men captured. 
There were also a few men who kept retreating till they reached 
Maine or Canada. 

Those of the ])risoners that did not die in rebeldom, were 
confined at Belle Isle, and came back to the regiment as fast as 
they were exchanged ; but none of them arrived in season to 
participate in the fall campaign of 18G*2. 



• From Frank Mooro's Rebellion Record, Vol. 5, page 55, we quote the following 

paragraph from Ueu. Banks's report of the battle of Winchester. 

*' My own command consisted of two brigades of less than 4,000 men, all told, with 
nine hiuuirod cavalry, ten Parrott guns ami one battery of ilx-poundcrs, smooth-bore 
cannon. To this should bo added tlie Tenth Maine Regiment of infantry and five com- 
panies of Maryland cavalry, stationed at Winchester, which were i ] engaged In tho 
action. The loss of tho enemy was treble tliat of ours in kUled and wounded. In pris- 
oners, ours greatly exceeded theirs." 

It will be seen that the word not should be inserted in the brackets to conform to the 

(act«. 

t See Sept. 22, 18C4. 



132 OUR SERVICE. 1862. 

That the general reader may understand the servdce of our 
regiment, we state that the rebel infantry did not follow up the 
retreat much if any farther than to Stevenson's depot, which is 
five miles from Winchester. We brought up the rear of the army 
on the west side of the pike, during all these five miles, and for 
three miles farther, at which point the cavalry should have taken 
the rear, but they were so poorly disciplined that a respectable 
number could not be got together, and Gen. Banks probably did 
not like to leave them in the rear without infantry supports. 
Therefore the rebel cavalry, though contemptibly small in numbers, 
had it all their own way as long as they kept out of musket range. 
The march of the regiment must be understood as an extremely se- 
vere one for new troops. We were entirely unused to it, and per- 
formed the first eight miles in the fields, jumping fences and brooks 
and wetting our feet. Yet we accomplished thirty-five miles before 
sleeping. The march of Company B is extraordinary. In twenty- 
two or twenty-four hours, the men marched from Martinsburg 
nearly to Winchester, back again and on to Williamsport, fifty- 
five to fifty-seven miles in all, and this was also their first march. 
Yet their loss in prisoners is not much larger than the average. 

I have never heard that any one in the ranks, or near the 
regiment, fired a musket during the retreat, though we were the 
principal force covering the retreat of Banks that day. 



1 862. 



133 



CASUALTIES DURING BANKS'S RETREAT, 

Mat 26, 1862. 



Co. C. Hamilton, William A. 
" E. Walton, Andrew J. 
" Q. Kenney, Solomon S. 



Co. A. Shaw, Henry N. 

" C. Mitchell, James E. 

" C. Weeks, Robert M. 

D. McManus, Hugh Y. 



u 



KILLED. 

Private, 



« 



« 



At Bucklcstown. 

At Darksville. 
i( it 



WOUNDED. 



Corporal, Leg,* 

Sergt., Head, 

" Arm. 

Corporal, Hand,* 



Paroled. 
Not captured. 



(( 



« 



K 



« 



€t 



D. Hammond, Charles W. Private, Lost arm * 



Paroled. 



" E. Latham, Porter 



Day, Josiah F. 
Northrup, George J. 



tf 



Buckshot in leg. Not captured 



PRISONERS. 



Ass't. Surgeon, 
Hosp. Steward, 



In Hospital. [See p. 144.] 

Paroled. 



«( 



€t 



Benson, Henry 
Chappel, Joseph H. 
Littlehalc, Alanson M. 
Mclntire, George E. 
Smith, John 



Co. A. 
Private. 






Allen, Charles F. 
Drake, Luther H. 
Eustis, Leonard 
Harris, Joshua £. 
McGuire, Terrence 



Co. B. 

Private, 



tt 



Paroled. 



* Discharged the service in conseqaence of the wounds. 



lt)4 ^ 


CASUALTIES. 


Boberts, Daniel S. 


Private, 


Swett, John Jr. 


it 


Seed, Francis 


tt 


Small, Alonzo R. 


It 


Tewksbury, James M. 


u 


Vamey, Oliver F. 


tt 


Weeks, Joseph 


tt 



1862. 



Died in hands of enemy. 



Captured, but left behind 
by the rebels on their retreat. 
Died in hands of enemy. 





Co. C. 




Flummer, Henry A. 


Corporal. 




Boody, Francis G. 


tt 




Devine, Anthony 


Private, 


Hospital. 


Goodhue, John 


tt 


Died June 10th 


Jackson, Valentine B. 


tt 




Love, William H. 


tt 




Murch, Elbridge F. 


u 




Kewbold, Andrew D. 


tt 




Winslow, William A. 


tt 




Wiggin, George M. 


tt 




Warner, David Greeley 


Musician, 
Co. D. 


Hospital. 


Pheasant, NVilliam 


Corporal. 




Clarke, George E. 


tt 


Died in hands of enemy. 


Erwin, John 


Drummer, 


Paroled. 


Souci, Jere 


Private. 




Sebastian, Alex'r 


tt 


Paroled, Disch'd. 


White, John 


t 





Co. E. 



Cook, Hiram T. 


Corporal. 




Johnson, Thomas 


Private. 




Lowry, William 


Co. F. 




Atkinson, Charles A. 


Private. 




Burr, Charles F. 


(1 


Hospital, Paroled. 


Ellsworth, Isaac 


tt 


Died in hands of enemy. 


Howard, Fred A. 


tt 


Discharged. 



1802. 


CASUALTIES. 




Lapham, Joseph 


Private, 


Hospital, 


Libbj, Lewis F. 


tt 


tt 


Record, Edwin 


tt 




Sayage, Frank J. 


u 




Thing, Everard 


u 




Townsend, John W. 


tl 

Co. G. 




Ooddard, Edward 


Corporal, 


Discharged. 


Jordan, James 


Private. 




Nutting, Jason S. 


t€ 




Pike, WiUiam H. 


tt 


Died in ban 


Witham, Charles W. 


It 

Co. H. 


(( 


Bishop, Jesse 


Private. 




Estes, Silas 


tl 




Harris, Robert B. 


It 
Co. L 




Filch, Edwin 


Corporal. 




Grtelj, John W. 


It 




Burbank, Samuel M. 


Private. 




Cook, Beiyamin F. 


II 


# 


Golden, William P. 


tl 




Harkin, John 


tt 




Quimby, Charles H. 


It 




Turner, Moses 


tl 

• 

Co. K. 




Jepson, Leonard 


Private. 





135 



Paroled. 



tt 



tl 



tt 



136 i862. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

A NEW WORD. 

This forced battle, unavoidable defeat and precipitate retreat, 
with loss of baggage and morale^ called for a new word not found 
in the old ** Webster's Unabridged," — 

Skedaddle I 

It came into the regimental vocabulary as suddenly as the 
coming of the event. 

How well we remember its advent amongst us at Williamsport, 
when blistered, sore and discouraged we heard the events of the 
past forty-eight hours spoken of as a " skedaddle "/ 

** Skedaddle ! " " skedaddle I " we heard at every turn, and we 
contrived to put it into every other sentence we spoke. We had 
learned a word which expressed a volume in itself and as we had 
much to say we used it freely. 

Of all the slang which the war brought forth no word can rival 
this. Artemas Ward's "Secesh" was perhaps more common, 
but in the soldiers' estimation ** skedaddle " stands peerless. 

In 1864 its antithesis crept suddenly into the list of army 
slang, but it fell flat, though we needed one word fully as much 
as the other. This was Scyugle (pronounced Sy-wgle.) It 
expressed generally a movement to the front, — a pushing ahead 
into danger or uncertainty. We will let the lexicographers tell 
why it died in infancy, and go back to state that what is known 
in history as ^Banks^a retreat^ and by other names, is known in 
our regiment as the " Winchester skedaddle." 

But we had richer experiences in store in this line, and I have 



1 862. IN SEARCH OF THE ENEMY. 137 

now to narrate the doings of the day of all days which we wish 
could be blotted from our history. 

Mat 28th, Wednesday. This day has a black mark against 
it, and we give its record to the world as the poorest we have 
ever made. All excitement had died away, and the re-action 
both of body and spirits had set in. We were distrustful and our 
blisters were very painful. 

In the morning Adjt. Shaw came around with orders to march, 
which he delivered with his curt explanation, " Yes I take every 
thing ! leave no guard ! not a man ! not a thing I take all I ^ 
^pre — cisely so, d'ye see?" 

We were soon formed and started toward the river, whereupon 
we all commenced asking questions, and asked more in five 
minutes than I could tell in five weeks. Col. Beal had gone to 
Harper's Ferry with Capts. Furbish and West, so the command 
fell upon Lieut. Col. Fillebrown, who alone of all the regiment 
seemed to be pleased with the ordei^ to reconnoitre. 

That you may know at the outset what we learned after it was 
all over, I state that Gen. Banks's orders to Col. Fillebrown were 
for us to go out and observe the enemy if he could be found, but 
not to engage him. 

Besides our regiment Col. Fillebrown had two of Cothrau's 
guns and some Maryland troopers. The latter were sent ahead, 
of course, with orders to report at once all they saw. 

Grenerally the advance is inspiriting, but I have never learned 
that any one was affected that way this day. On the contrary 
we never did anything so unwillingly ; besides, a smart shower at 
the outset made things unpleasant for us. We marched five 
miles, or rather limped along like cripples, to Falling Waters * 
without incident, and then we were halted in the gorge and 
rested on the road side. The guns and the wagon were reversed 
and went back in good time, which made our hearts sink into 
our boots, for we relied on artillery in these first days of the war. 
The cavalry had found the rebel pickets posted beyond Falling 
Waters and chased them in toward Martinsburg. 



*Thi8 plAce, which was familiar to both armiei, was simplj a brook, a mill pond and 
mini of a mill, and a brick hoiue in ruins alio. All are shown on the plan. 



138 



PERHiOUS SITUATION. 



1862. 



Col. Fillebrown says this was all wrong and contrary to his 
positive orders, which were to halt on finding the enemy, and 
to report the fact to him. Instead of obeying orders they drove 
in the rebel videttes, and in turn had to fly before the main force 
not far beyond. This was a portion of the 5th Virginia cavalry, 
Capt. Mason commanding, with one rifled gun. 

We in the ranks had little idea of what was going on till we 
saw a man wearing a blue overcoat and mounted on a white 
horse, under a tree on the hill opposite. Then we noticed a four 
horse team come up and turn around, and though we understand 
now what it was, we had no knowledge then, till bang went a 
gun and the shell went raking along from Co. H to A, where it 
struck the ground. Every one then asked himself: 

" Why did I go for a soldier 1 " 

Do you remember how you all reproached yourselves for ever 
coming into such a place as this ? I confess for myself alone, 
lest you may not care to have me commit you, it was the most 
trying moment that I was ever called to endure of all the battles 
and skirmishes we were ever in. The regiment was instantly 



HUl. 



Tree. 



imi. 



Pine 
Thicket. 



r 

a 



Road to 



WOODS. 



Brookand Swamp. 



_ Co. K. 
House OB top of HiU. 



N. Y. U 



1 862. WONDERFUL ABTILLERT PRACTIOE. 139 

ordered to form again, and marched by " about face " into the 
woods at the rear, and here after going in every direction through 
the wet bushes, we halted again for some moments. In the mean 
time Capt. Nye had taken his company (K) up to the brick house 
by order of Col. Fillebrown, and the artillery commander had 
posted his guns so far to the rear that this company of ours 
appeared to him to be rebels, so he shelled it with all his might. 
This would have been a serious thing h^ the practice been better. 
As it was, none were hurt, and none very badly scared except the 
artillery men. 

But what there was in all this to terrify the rebels we fail to 
perceive, yet for some cause they couldn't stand such warfare ; so 
limbering up their gun they went off on the trot to Martinsburg ! ! 
We were told afterward that they made wonderftilly quick time 
and stopped but a moment on arriving there, but Col. Fillebrown 
desires me to correct this error by stating that there is no evidence 
of such a stampede on the part of the rebels as that which was 
reported to us. 

Before long all became quiet and we were moved back three 
miles to a cross road. Here the guns were posted on a little 
knoll, and the regiment was broken into divisions, and tlicse were 
posted all about the neighborhood. F and A, under Capt. 
Knowlton, guarded the road leading to the left or east. D and 
E, under Capt. Cloudman, were posted as a support to the bat- 
tery. K and G were sent out to the front under Capt. Nye, with 
orders to hide and remain hidden till the enemy had passed 
them, while C and I were stationed under Capt. Jordan, in the 
center, and B and H out on the right flank. But lines and types 
will give a better idea to the general reader than my description. 

Now any one can see that if the rebel cavalry should drive in 
our cavalry, as it was intended for them to do, and charge past 
G and K without seeing them, and bring up in a heap against 
the section of battery and the bayonets of C and I, and have the 
bullets of D and E poured into them, they would just have to 
sun'ender or die, for it was evident they could not go ahead any 
farther, while if they returned, Co's K and G would rise out of 
the ground before them, like ghosts, and Emerson and Knowlton 



140 



HOW WB WERE GOING TO DO IT. 



1862. 



SappoBdd rebels. 







t>l 












S 






S 


^1 


# 




>*l . 


■1 


1 4 


Ji 


D 


V,Y. 



II 






Md. CaT. 



o K 



B 

House. 



I z 

1 

could keep them from spreading right and leH, and to add to 
all these calamities the Marjlanders would suddenly wheel, cut, 
slash and pursue, as all cavalry will, you know. 

But perhaps it is not becoming in us to write " sarkasticul " in 
view of the strange miscarriage which happened to this fine 
programme, but we fail to see any thing else in this day's work 
to get enthusiastic over, so we always dwell with delight on the 
sweet thought of how we would have punished those rebels if 
they only had come according to the invitation. 

Strange that after all these fine preparations had been made 
and explained, the diary records : 

The boys were not pleased with the state of things, but were continually 
discussing the prospect of another BaU's Bluff affair, for they knew that any 
thing like a force of rebels could pUe us up in the Potomac. 

But after waiting some hours in vain for the enemy. Col. Fille- 
brown sent in town for rations, and shortly before sunset the 
genial face of Quartermaster Sergt. Thompson was seen in our 
midst, as he announced that a barrel of hot cofiee and some ham 
was ready for issue. We were then ordered to send our canteens 
up to the house, and to draw the cofiee and ham. 

The original order was for a dozen men from each detachment, 
but I read that sixteen men went from our company alone, so that 
there were probably 150 who reported for hot cofiee. Some of 
the men had conmienced to return^ I remember, when the grand 



l862. A WONDERTUL WHEEL. 141 

event of the day began. A company of cavalry was just then 
going out to the front, for what purpose I never learned, and it is 
not worth while to inquire, since there is no doubt that they went 
out, otherwise they never could have come back, and to this last 
fact we can all swear with both hands up. The cavalry were 
going out then ; the " shades of night were falling fast,** and 
emphatically it was " all quiet on the Potomac ; " please remember, 
too, that the evening air and the surrounding woods aided us in 
the matter of hearing. The bold cavaliers were going out, I say, 
by fours at a walk ; the hundred hoofs of their horses striking 
the limestone with a clatter almost musical, when flash and bang, 
and the show commenced. 

We learned afterward that the only disaster was the accidental 
discharge of a pistol, but in the night air, and to our anxious ears, 
it sounded more like a 20-inch columbiad. To the cavalry men 
it was a terrible surprise, and a drunken lieutenant (the same one 
that Capt. Jordan relieved May 24th) was so far carried away by 
fear that he burst out with a shriek, " By fours right wheel I ^ or 
8ome such command. Thanks to Hardee we had no such order 
in the infantry. 

What a wonderful wheel that was, though ! 

Did you ever see, or hear, or dream of such a wheel ? 

First a flash, next a bang, then the shriek from the inebriated 
lieutenant, and back they all came, hoofs clanging, spurs and 
scabbards rattling, men shouting, and officers calling " Halt " as 
fast as they could, that is allowing them time to swear between 
each " Halt." Some must have tried to leap the fences, for there 
was one mighty crash besides the volley which followed the first 
shot. 

Faster and faster rolled the wheel, deeper and louder were the 
curses of the officers, harder and quicker was the pounding on 
the paving, and the men themselves burst out in one grand yell 
as they n eared our coflee cart. 

It is quite needless to quote from the diary that the " coffee 
squads, laden with canteens and ham, came back to their compa- 
nies in great excitement and extreme haste, and that nothing 
demoralized us more than they did." But who wouldn't have run ? 



142 A NEW WAY TO " SUPPORT." 1 862. 

The first yell had hardly been heard when our battery men, 
ever keen to see and hear askew, noticed the impending crisis, 
and not waiting for the cavalry to roll over them, they limbered 
up in a flash, and vanished. Never shall we forget the suddenness 
of their exit, nor their reckless tumbling over the great corn hills. 
Quicker than I can write it they were on the pike, spumng and 
lashing their brutes into a break-neck gallop and racing with the 
cavalry for the ferry, nor did they stop till they had dashed through 
the Potomac ; such is the story told me by one of their number. 

Upon this Capt. Nye took his pipe out of his mouth, commanded 
"Attention I" and waited patiently to see what would come 
next. He denies that he performed any feat of tactical or strate- 
getical importance. 

Capt. Jordan took his two companies a few steps to the rear 
into the timber, and there they waited and did not betray the 
nervousness they felt. 

Capt. Emerson's division was so far away from the pike that 
his men escaped without feeling the full force of the panic. 

Capt. Knowlton, on the left, moved his division a few steps to 
rear " with perfect impunity and great boldness," so he reported 
in his own laughable manner. 

As for Thompson with his hay rack, citizen driver, coffee and 
ham, the way they all went off baffles description ; but if you 
want the best account of it, ask Captain " Ben " to tell you how 
Thompson dodged the hot coffee as it slopped up and over, and 
how the loose boards of that hay rack rattled. 

This was laughable, but upon D and E the brunt of the joke 
fell. This division had orders to support the battery, and I state 
upon my honor that though we tried hard enough, we failed 
utterly to get within supporting distance. I refuse to be too 
particular in details here, but after having said so much of the 
rest of you, if I am silent about the division where I had the 
honor to be fourth in rank you will call me mean. So I will 
fiiirly own that nothing in all the service of the " 10th" or " 29th" 
came so near a perfect skedaddle as the effort we made to support 
that battery I ! 

How " Cloudy " did hallo for as to halt, and how he ran after 



l863. GALL IT A JOKE I 143 

« 

118 ! (he was up by the coffee cart when the fun began) ; yet the 
panic was only momentary. He caught us at last and made us 
obey orders. 

Then we moved on quietly through the woods, following the 
sounds which came from the hay rack and artillery on the pike, 
and at last when we arrived at the ferry we found the rebels there 
ahead of us/ There was nothing to do but to form and charge 
to recapture the ferry. But while a few men went ahead to 
reconnoitre, a tremendous crashing and rattling in our rear com- 
pelled us to form " circles against cavalry." I confess the circle was 
a little flat or gibbous-like ; but after Sergt. Trowbridge and Tom 
Hofron of E had captured three of these bold riders and dis- 
covered that they were a part of the ori^nal skedaddlers — ^the 
Marylanders, — it was nicely rounded. Just then we learned that 
the troops at the ferry were not the desperate rebels we took 
them to be, but only a large crowd of friends, all very frightened ; 
we therefore refrained from charing on them, and at once marched 
back to the cross-roads with two men missing. Thus you all see 
that if the beginning was unfortunate the end was commendable. 

The cavalry and artillery dashed into Williamsport telling 
great stories. Also a regiment of infantry stationed near the 
ferry made some excellent time it is said, and went across the 
river in the ferry boat at a speed which astonished the ferrymen. 
We were told the next day that in consequence of all this there 
was a scare in Williamsport, that the long roll was beaten, and 
that a good part of Banks's army was under arms. 

About 11 p. M. the order came for Lieut. Col. Fillebrown 
to withdraw all his force, and by midnight we were back in 
Williamsport. 

Such odd adventures as these fell to the lot of almost every 
regiment. For a while we were exceedingly chagrined at our 
behavior, — but having heard of so many similar mishaps to other 
fine regiments, and having lived to prove that we could do better 
than the average, we now speak of it as a good joke — and as such 
rather more than as history, I remind you of it and present it to 
the world. 



144 OORRESFONDENGE FROM BB. DAY. 1 862. 

• 

• We insert here, in closing our record of Banks's retreat, an im- 
portant letter from Dr. Day relating to the exchange of medical 
officers captured at that time. 

My Dbab Majob : I have the honor to transmit the following 
statement in relation to the arrangement between certain federal 
officers held as prisoners of war by the confederate government, 
and certain confederate officers, whereby surgeons on either side 
were to be considered as prisoners of war. At the retreat of Gen. 
Banks from Winchester, Va., in May, 1862, 1 was taken prisoner 
with several other members of the medical staff. The rebels held 
the place about two weeks. On their retreat I was sent for by 
the commander of the post, Lieut. Col. Landon Botts, and the 
following conversation took place between us: He began by 
saying, ** Well, doctor, our forces have got to retreat, and as we 
do not wish to take you surgeons with us, I have sent for you to 
see what you all propose to do in relation to your parole." I 
said, " Colonel, I can only answer for myself. I never will sign 
any such parole as you demand, nor do I think that the other 
surgeons will." "Very well, then," he replied, " we will have to 
take you all to Richmond." I said, " Colonel, you may take me 
to Richmond or not, as you like, I never will sign it. What do 
you ask of us? We are non-combatants, we have nothing to do 
with the fighting ; our duties are to alleviate the suffering of the 
sick and wounded, and I for one will never consent to tie my 
hands by any promise written or otherwise, so that I cannot 
attend to the duties of my profession among the sick and 
wounded, until regularly exchanged, as you ask. If I sign this 
parole as you ask me to, and then meet a wounded federal soldier 
on my way to my quarters, am I to refuse to give him the neces- 
sary attention to save his life until I am regularly exchanged ? I 
never will do it; and I know that the rest of the federal surgeons 
in this place will heartily endorse what I have said." He then 
said, " Well, Doctor, go back to the hospital and talk with your 
surgeons and see what can be done ; we must dispose of you 
somehow." 

I returned to the hospital in the Union Hotel and reported to 



Jk *. 



.-« ; 






* -4 






>/i' 



/ .'. 



«« ^ 




/^a^^ 'c 



RGEON 29 1- ME. VEi^ VO LS. 
BRVT. LT. COL U.S. VOLS- 



1 862. 0ORRE8PONDENGE FROM DR. DAT. 145 

my fellow prisoners what I had said and done, and to a man they 
all endorsed my action. While we were talking about the matter 
Dr. Conrad, a rebel surgeon, came into our room and told us that 
he had been sent down by Gen. Jackson to make what arrange- 
ments he thought best. He then said to me, ^^ Doctor, I wish to 
make officially a proposition to you surgeons. My proposition 
is this: the confederate government is to release you uncon- 
ditionally, and as soon as you get back into your own lines you 

■ 

are in return to report our action in the matter to your govern- 
ment^ and endeavor to get an equal number of confederate 
surgeons and assistant surgeons released, and to establish the 
principle hereafter, that surgeons and assistant surgeons are not 
to be considered prisoners of war.** 

We drew up an agreement to this effect and he signed it ^ By 
command of Gen. Jackson," after which we signed it on the part 
of our government. When this was done I said to him, " Well 
Doctor, if our government does not see fit to ratify what we 
have done, are we to consider ourselves as prisoners of war ^ ? 

He said " No, sir, we will release you all unconditionally : we 
will give you all up for sake of establishing a precedent on our 
part." 

When we got back into the union lines two of our nimiber 
went to Washington and reported to the Secretary of War what 
we had done ; whereupon he immediately issued orders for the 
release of all confederate surgeons and assistant surgeons held at 
that time, and that thereafter surgeons were not to be considered 
as prisoners of war. 

I am very respectfully yours Ac, 

JOSIAH F. DAY, 

Late Surgeon 10th <fe 29th Maine, &o., &c. 



10 



146 1 862. 



CHAPTER XTX. * 

ADTAKCB TO CULPEPBE. 

May 80, 1862, all the cavalry went off toward Martlnsburg, 
and next day, at 6 p. m^ oar regiment started after them, the first 
of the infantry. It took as a long time to cross the river ; 
meanwhile we had the benefit of two smart showers, and you all 
know how fine a thing it is to be wet to the skin and have your 
shoes fall enough to swash. We had marched a trifle beyond 
Falling Waters, when a mounted orderly came galloping with 
orders to go back and camp on the north side of the brook. 
This was done, but with some anxiety till we saw Captain Hamp- 
ton's artillerymen unharness. It rained quite steadily ; we had 
no tents and the most of us were poorly off for clothing, conse- 
quently it was a night of misery. The next morning, Sunday 
June Ist, the 46th Penn. came along, and we marched together 
eight miles into Martinsburg, the enemy having gone off some 
days before. The union people on the road spoke kind words 
to us, and at Martinsburg they gave us a home-like greeting 
which cheered us much. The left wing was put into the Berkley 
court house and the right wing into a large building opposite. 

Monday we enjoyed peace, repose and dry clothes. Some of 
the union citizens complained bitterly that the rebel soldiers had 
gutted their stores, and it was not long before the soldiers, at 
the instigation of some worthless local characters, returned the 
compliment upon a rebel shopkeeper, who had little stock except 
straw hats ; but there were so many of these that no one lacked 
who wanted one. 

JxjJXE 3d, we had a dress parade once more, and commenced 



1 862. IN A NEW COMMAND, 147 

drawing clothing and packing our uniform coats in boxes, as they 
were too nice and too heavy for summer service in the field. 

This, and the account of some wonderful skedaddling at Har- 
per's Ferry, were the only items of importance noted for that 
day,' except that Capt. Adams went down the railroad to 
Opequan Bridge to look after his baggage, and learned that an 
old seceder had ransacked and given away the most of it ; so 
the Captain inflicted summary punishment on him to the tune of 
a $150 check, which covered half the loss. 

JiTNB 5th Maj. Alban V. Elliott paid us for March and April 
in "greenbacks." I find nothing further in the diary. 

While at Martinsburg we were assigned to the 1st brigade of 
the 1st division.* Brig. Gen. S. W. Crawford had been put in 
command of the brigade a day or two before. We knew nothing 
of him then, except that he had been an assistant surgeon in the 
"old army," and was a part of Major Anderson's garrison in Fort 
Sumter d«ring the bombardment. We became good fiiends 
after a short acquaintance, and few of us will ever know the 
favors he bestowed upon us, his " best regiment." 

Brig. Gen. A. S. Williams, who commanded the division, was 
popular with his old command. lie was familiarly known as " Old 
Pap," and in tnitli he was a fatherly old man ; — one who never 
rose to great height or fame, but who filled his position well, and 
always retained the esteem and confidence of his men. 

MARCH UP THE VALLEY. 

June 9, 1862, Monday, We marched this morning with the 
other regiments of the brigade. We took it easy, and halted 



*The Ist division at this timo, so the diary says, was composed of 

First Brigade, Brig. Gen. 8. W. Crawford: 28th N. Y., Col. Dudley Donnelly; 46th 

Penn.,Ool. Jos. F. Knipe; 6th Conn., Col. Chapman; 10th Me.,Col.Geo.L.B6al. 

Third Brigade, Brig. Gen. G. W. Greene : 2d Mass., Col. Geo. H.; Gordon ; 3d Wisconflin, 

Col. Thofl. H. Bnger ; 27th Indiana, Col. Colgrove. 

There was no 2d Brig. The 3d Brigade had been, and was again shortly after this , 

commanded by Col. Gordon of the 2d Mass ; the 29th Penn. also belonged to it. For 

cavalry there were battalions from the Ist Maine, 1st Yt., Ist Michigan, 1st Maryland, 

and 5th N. Y. The batteries were Best's, {4th U. S.) 6 guns, Cothran's, (M, Ist N. Y.)C 

guns, and Hampton's Pittsburg battery, 4 guns. 



148 OUR DEAD. 1862. 

frequently. At Darksville we stopped and had funeral services 

• 

over the grave of Andrew J. Walton, Private, Co. E. He was 
killed by Ashby himself^ the citizens told us, though likely enough 
they were in error. They said the rebel called on him to surrender, 
but he fired on the rebel instead and missed, and so paid the 
heavy penalty. We then went on, to the west side of the road, 
and had services at the grave of Solomon S. Kenney, a private of 
Co. G. At Bucklestown, still farther on, Private Wm. A. Ham- 
ilton, of Co. C, was buried. 

There is something tragic in the final record of these three 
men, and we cannot slight them. They were missing in common 
with fouiHscore others; this was all we knew, so they were 
dropped* as " missing in action." On our return to Martinsburg, 
we learned of their death, and Chaplain Knox and some other 
officers went out to investigate their case. To-day we fired a 
salute over their graves and passed on. 

Andrew J. Walton. 

The story of Walton as told by the citizens, is brief He was 
far behind the regiment, when the rebel cavalry made a dash 
upon the stragglers. Walton fired and ran into the field, thinking 
perhaps the fences would save him from pursuit. Some fine 
rider, the citizens said it was Ashby himself, followed him and 
called " Surrender ! " Walton still retreated, loading ; he was a 
stubborn, self-willed fellow ; to surrender without a fight was no 
part of his nature. The citizens gave no further account of his 
reply than that he was dogged and determined, and he said only 
" I won't surrender." 

Therefore poor Walton was shot. 

How much of this story is true we cannot tell. We know 
that Walton was killed, and we believe that a surrender would 
have saved him. Good pluck could not avail. He was sure to 
have been killed at last by some one, if not by this man whom 
the citizens called Ashby. Yet with these two combatants the 



* Later In the war the ** mining " were not dropped from the rolls, bat borne as absent. 



1 862. SOLOMON 8. KENNEY. 149 

question was not who fought the better, it was a contest of the 
revolver with the slow muzzle-loader, and the revolver won. 

^ Solomon S. I^nnex. 

Concerning Kenney there are the same doubts. He was a 
slender youth, a very intelligent fellow, and something of a 
scholar. Walton straggled because he was mad, Kenney because 
he was untried, delicate and sick. Walton was rash and incon- 
siderate, Kenney cool and calculating. We were not told that 
he emptied a saddle when he emptied his rifle, but we 
know he took good aim. He too left the road when the cavalry 
dashed on him, and ran into an orchard for safety, reloading as 
he retreated. The rebels called out, " Surrender I " and parleyed 
much with him. But our hero, with a courage tnily sublime, 
disregarded both their threats and promises. Probably he had 
nearly loaded, when the rebels were compelled for their own 
safety to fight. They galloped close up to Kenney, and again 
called out, " Surrender ! " The answer was not heard by our 
informer. Hopeless as Kenney's situation may seem, the brave 
fellow ceased loading, put his back toward a tree and came to a 
guard.* Here, again, the rebels begged him to surrender. His 
reply was not heard, though his language was fierce ; he scorned 
all their promises ; he would fight. And this one solitary boy, 
who had spent half his soldier life in the hospital, and was now 
straggling miles behind his regiment without hope of relief, not 
only refused to surrender, and determined to defend himself to 
the last, but noticing the hesitation of his enemies, advanced on 
them trusting to his bayonet alone. In another second he would 
have killed one at least, but at that moment the rebels fired ; he 
fell, and the 10th Maine lost a hero.f 



* We used in the ** 10th " to carry the bayonet on the musket and not in the scabbard 
as the tactics provide ; hence probably Kenney was saved the delay of fixing bayonet. 

t These accoants, with the details as notc<l, were given to me, and doubtless to very 
many others, by Chaplain Knox, who saw and talked with people who witnessed these 
scenes. The retreat, defence and death of Kenney wore all noticed, and the placet 
pointed out to Mr. Knox by people who appeared to be perfectly honest and reliable. 



150 WILLIAM A. HAMILTON. 1S62. 

William A. Hamilton. 

The death of Hamilton* is shrouded in complete mysterj'. He 
was found in a field near Bucklestown. He had been pierced 
with a bullet, and besides this there was a bayonet wound or some- 
thing more like a gash than the hole which a bullet makes. The 
locality shows that he was the first man of our regiment who 
was killed by the enemy. Hamilton was a young fellow, quiet, 
unobtrusive, obscure, and he was half sick that day. The men 
of his company (C), remember him and his quiet ways, and this 
seems to be about all they can recall of him. He was one of 
those men who hide themselves within themselves, and come out 
only when forced. No plausible rumor ever came to us of how he 
died. But this we know, that he might have surrendered and have 
saved his life, as hundreds of others did at that time. Why then 
was that deep gash and the fatal bullet wound upon him ? What 
weapons did the rebel troopers carry to make such a wound as 
the first ? He was far away fi-om the road-side and out of the 
range of artillery. The conclusion is inevitable. He was either 
murdered by some villain, as all his company believe, though 
few of the rebel cavalry will admit it, I imagine, or else he fought 
like the other two and refused to surrender. 

After these funeral services we again marched on and camped 
at night near Stevenson's depot, not far from what we called 
Camp Sheridan in the «' 29th." 

The diary states that — 

There was considerable straggling, although the distance was seventeen 
miles, the road good, and the halts for rest were well ordered. Our camp 
was in some woods where the rebels had eridently been OTerhauling the 
knapsacks of our 10th Maine. Blue cloth torn up and old gray worn out 
garments, suggested a rag shop blown away by a hurricane. 

Next day, June 10th, was an interesting one. The ofiicers 
were strictly enjoined to permit no one to leave the ranks while 
in Winchester. The 46th Penn. was ahead of us, and started to 
fulfill the threat it made on the march from Falling Waters to 



* Private William A. Hamilton, Ck>. G. Do not confound with Corporal Wm. P. Ham* 
^Iton of the same company, who was wounded on picket May 24th. 



1 862. RACE WITH FORTY-SIXTH PEKK. 151 

Ifartinsburg, "to run us out." It oommenced raining just as we 
started at 9 a. m., and in going through the city a couple of hourt 
later it poured down in torrents. It was truly comical, the march 
through Winchester that day. The "46th" was doing all that 
legs can do to " run us out." Chandler with his band was blowing 
his hardest ; the rain increased, and it seemed to invigorate the 
**46th," so that we had to all but jump to keep up with it. And 
in this way we went through Winchester, at a break neck pace, 
slipping and sliding along the muddy pavement, keeping time 
with Chandler as best we could, shaking our fists at the rebels, 
groaning at the silly " ladies " who sat in the windows to turn 
up their noses at us, and hurrahing for our very few union friends. 
If we could have been allowed to go out of Winchester at that 
pace the fortnight before it would have been more to our taste. 
After galloping through the city we took the Front Royal pike, 
and splashed through the mud for four or five miles, still on the 
jump all the time. But they did not run us out, and they never 
tried to again. 

The diary shows the delight of the men when they finally 
settled in camp, in knowing that they had marched as fast as the 
other regiments and had not dropped stragglers. It was a good 
thing for us, for it elevated us a notch in the estimation of the 
others, and gave us a degree of confidence in ourselves. 

The diary dwells too upon the comforts of seven tents in Com- 
pany E, though the right wing was put into a mill and sheds. I 
read, too, of the straw that our boys lugged a quarter of a mile, 
and how a spoonful of whiskey bought a tent full of straw. But 
more jolly was the mysterious whispering after dark about 
something, followed by the return to camp of six men groaning 
with the weight of honey that they had " confiscated." Another 
party had found a sheep, and another a goose or two, and after 
Ihey had seen Capt. Cloudman's jolly wink, they boldly cooked 
them in camp and sent their compliments to the officers' quarters. 

JuN£ 10th. Struck tents and were off at 11 a. m. Sun out. Fine marching 
weather. No racing, no bantering, and no rations at night. We told the 
boys to " sail in/' and an abundance of mutton and pork was the consequence. 

Our camp was at Cedaryille, which consists of a house, bam, ''cool house/' 



152 CEDARyiLLE AND FRONT BOTAL. 1 862. 

negro hat and toll hoiue. A " dirt road " leads off here toward the Straiburg 
pike. 
Our march was ten miles. Sutler Manning found us at night. 

CEDABYILLE AND FHONT BOYAL. 

We remained in this vicinity for some time ; discovered that 
we were all lousy, and after the first disgust "were rather pleased. 
We heard of some sort of " victories " that Shields and Fremont 
were having farther up the valley, but you need not be particular 
in looking into history for them. We learned of four or five men 
of our regiment who said that they had been paroled by a squad 
of rebels — the rebels being some that had straggled from Ewell's 
command — and had our boys done their duty they could have 
captured the crowd, we thought. Capt. Emerson never forgot 
those that belonged to H, and they all paid for their cowardice. 
The parole was binding at this time, but later in the war such a 
one was not recognized. 

June 15th, Sunday^ we had inspection and review. It was 
ordered for the day before, but given up on account of intense 
heat, " which caused," the diary says, " a hundred men to faint and 
fall in the ranks." The truth is, we had not been hardened, as 
all soldiers must be before they can stand rain and shine, starvation 
and feasting, lousiness and cleanliness, and other alternations. 

McDowell's array was encamped around Front Royal about 
this time, and many of us visited our friends in the 5th Me. 
battery, and the 12th and 13th Mass. reg'ts. The entire federal 
force in this vicinity was unanimous in blaming McDowell for 
failing to capture Jackson, as he easily might have done, they 
said. The Ist Penn. cavalry, Ist New Jersey cavalry and the 
Bucktail riflemen passed by to-day, from Cedar Creek. Also the 
2d and 3d Me. batteries. They had along with them the mountain 
howitzer or " Jackass " battery, which attracted much attention. 

While we lay here at Cedarville, a few of us were permitted 
to visit Winchester, and were a little surprised to learn that the 
great hospital was not burned, that the prisoners had not been 
seriously abused by the rebels, nor had their soldiers drank 
whiskey and gunpowder before going into battle. A commission 



1 862. COMPLIMENTART ORDERS. 153 

of inquiry had cstablislied the fact that citizens had shot our 
soldiers as they ran out of town, and this was about all of truth 
there was to the many hard stories we had heard. 

June 20th Lt. Col. Fillebrown took Go's A, B and K over to 
Front Royal, ^vq miles, as a garrison for the town, and an outpost 
of the army, and quartered them in two hospital buildings of the 
rebels. Co. D had been detached before this to guard and manage 
the ferry over the Shenandoali, and one day Gen. Crawford 
happening to talk with Capt. West about a bridge, the Capt. said 
he could put one over in forty-eight hours. The Gen. doubted 
his ability, but gave him permission to try. This was enough ; 
the bridge was finished sufficiently for wagons to go over before 
thirty-eight hours^ and Gen. Crawford was so pleased that he sat 
down forthwith and issued an order complimentary to D. 

June 22d, Sunday ^ the other companies moved across, leaving 
the band and baggage back at Cedarville. Col. Beal was on a 
court of inquiry at this time. 

Next day, Monday, June 23d, we received orders at 10 a.m. to 
be under arms till further notice, and to be ready for a fight at 
any moment. A company was sent out on each flank of the town, 
and got completely soaked during the thunder storm in the after- 
noon. As the clouds lifted from tlie hills after the storm, one of 
the videttcs mistook a rail fence in the distance for a cavalry 
company and reported his discovery with proper haste, creating 
alann and fright enough with us, but accomplishing a decided 
" scare " across the river in the main army. At night some cavalry 
came in, and reported no enemy this side of Luray Court House. 

Our stay in Front Royal was one of constant excitement, 
though not altogether the pleasantcst. We never passed a day 
but something of the above nature happened. 

RECONNOISANCE UP LURAY VALLEY. 

June 29th, Sunday, Gen. Crawford sent the 28th N. Y. into 
Chester Gap, and the 4Gth Penn. and 6th Conn, up the Manor 
road, and taking us with him, went up the Luray Valley on a 
reconnoisance, with the cavalry in advance, and Lt. Col. Fillebrown 



154 8BB0BANT PRATT KILLED, 1 862. 

in command of the regiment. We all agreed it was a lovely 
country, and during the halts we gathered an abundance of 
cherries and mulberries. The " 46th'' and " Sth" joined us after one 
of these halts. We saw nothing of the enemy, and the cavalry 
reported only a few guerrillas. It rained two or three times, and 
as many of us had not yet replaced the rubber cloths lost during 
the " skedaddle," we had wet clothes for a luxury. The next day 
we kept on ; the cavalry charged through Luray C. H., losing 
one man killed. Gen. Crawford having now learned that there 
was no important force in the valley, ordered us to return to 
Front Royal. 

A sad accident occurred while lying on the roadside, waiting 
for the cavalry to charge. Some one, in walking through the line, 
hit the trigger of a musket which was improperly left down upon 
the cap. The musket was discharged, and the ball passed through 
Orderly Serg't Pratt's* head, killing him instantly. This cast a 
gloom over the regiment, which made the whole expedition 
appear of doubtftil value in our eyes. 

Coming back we had another race with the 5th Conn., in which 
the 46th Penn. joined, and a dozen or more of the men of these 
regiments straggled off and were captured by guerrillas, who 
paroled them and turned them adrift again. Lt. Col. Fillebrown 
was wounded by the accidental discharge of Col. Knipe's pistol, 
on our way back. 

Under head of July 1st, I see that we had all sorts of rumors 
of the taking of Richmond, which Miss Belle Boyd, who paid us 
daily visits, " reckoned " were not true. We understood that 
Gen. Pope commanded us and that something extraordinary was 
to be done. \ 

July 3d, Co. E being on picket, had a little brush with a com- 
pany of rebel cavalry that was trying to learn if the yankees 
were still in Front Royal. One dead horse, one wounded man 
who was taken off by his friends, and two good horses were the 
net results, and these did us all a ".sight " of good. A trooper 
of the 1st Maine cavalry assisted our boys in securing the spoils. 



* Co. K. His bodj WM brought back and buried at Gedarrltle. 



1 862. GEN. POPE OONCENTBATES HIS ARlfT. 155 

July 4, 1862, we celebrated by ringing the court-house bell 
and firing a musket or two on the sly : for this last we had to 
take the reprimand of our Lieutenant Colonel, which was far 
more interesting than the other sports. Next day, Co. F, Lieut. 
Rankin commanding, captured two rebels who had furloughs and 
were trying to creep into town to see their friends. We allowed 
them to visit their sweethearts and then sent them over to Qen.* 
Crawford. This day we had orders " to march to-morrow " with 
blanket over the shoulder and knapsacks in the wagons. This 
we thought was the best order ever given, but when the time 
came to take the knapsacks out of the wagons we sang another 
tune entirely. 

6BN. POPB CONCENTBATBS HIS ABMT. 

The brigade marched, according to the intention, July 6th. 
€ren. Pope had indeed taken command, though as he was not 
here in person few of us understood it. His design was to con- 
centrate his array, to place it in position, ^ from which it could 
act promptly and to the purpose.'' 

Our regiment had but about eight miles to go, but it was all the 
march that we wanted in the sun. We halted four hours during the 
extreme heat of noon, and finally camped near some cherry trees 
in the vicinity of Sandy Hook, in Rappahannock county. You 
all remember the way that we swarmed in those great cherry 
trees and ate our fill. Next day we marched ten miles to near 
Amissville, (accent first syllable.) We struck a sandy country 
to-day for the first time, and the heat was so intense that the men 
fell out badly. We were halted early in the afternoon in a 
beautiful wood, and ordered to pitch our tents. We had at this 
time wall tents for the officers and the " Sibley " for the men, and 
we enjoyed our camp much. A field up the hill was full of 
blackberries, and that cherries were abundant may be inferred 
from the diary, where we read of them that— 

Every one in the brigade has all he wants. I saw yesterday a company 
in the regiment ahead of us marching, each man with a cherry limb OTer hii 
shoulder — it looked like a moving forest. 

There is nothing impressive in one man carrying a bough along 



156 PIC-NIC LIFE. 1862. 

the road, but when your eye firat catches the sight of a hundred 

or more in motion you are fairly startled, and the scene from 

Shakspearo is vividly recalled. 

"Let every soldier hew him down a bough 
And bear't before him; thereby shall we shadow 
The numbers of our host," — 

MACBETH, ACT Y, SCENB IT. 

Under head of next date comes the happiest record for two 
months. 

We are having a regular pic-nic life here. The forest is grand, and unlike 
anything we have at home. Every one is happy, there is no talk about 
discharge in nine months. Cherries and blackberries are so plenty that all 
who will go for them can have their fill. Rations are abundant, and by 
keeping quiet in the shade no one suffers from heat ; the woods ring con- 
tinually with a thousand laughing voices, or echo the tunes of the bands. 

One of our enterprising sergeants while here did a big business 
in selling counterfeit confederate money, and the purchasers also 
did well in buying produce of the natives, who generally refused 
greenbacks, or at least preferred a $20 confederate to the $1 or 
$2 greenback. These counterfeits were miserable wood cuts, 
published in Philadelphia, and were not " dangerous " after the 
people once knew of them. 

July 10th, Thursday. We were turned out in the middle of 
the night and formed a line in the edge of the woods ; but when 
the cannonade that some one had heard was proved to be thunder, 
we received orders to return, and did so with the usual grumbling 
and swearing. 

This afternoon we heard troops passing by, shouting out 
" Relay House ! I " " We're off the track ! " " Bully for you, Paddy 
Miles's own boys." This brought us down to the road at once, 
where we saw our old friends the 60th N. Y., of railway bng- 
ade memory. Finally two brigades passed, one commanded by 
Qen. Slough, and the other by Gen. Schlaudiker, making with 
the 4th and 6th Maine batteries and some other troops perhaps, 
the 2d division of Banks's army, under Gen. Cooper. The sight 
of this reinforcement did us good ; we had never before in the 
" 10th " been in the immediate vicinity of so many troops, and 
even now the infantry force was but four brigades. 



1 862. NEWS FROM McCLELLAN. 157 

Next day, July 11th, the army moved through a cheerless and 
devastated country to near WaiTcnton, crossing the Rappahan- 
nock or Hedgeman's river at Waterloo. Our regiment camped 
two and a half miles west of the village, without having to report 
a straggler to Gen. Crawford. Wo remained here five days, 
stealing sheep and bacon till the first were all eaten, and effective 
measures were taken to save the last. A squad of Co. D's six- 
foot giants were caught in the act of carrying off about two 
hundred weight of bacon, and were marched past our camp to the 
brigade headquarters, where they were kept under guard, and 
from which place the bacon was sent back to the original owner. 

We had many visitors while here, from the 2d division and 
firom McDowell's corps, a portion of which was camped around 
Warrenton also. We learned from them that the ladies of the 
town were very much like those of Winchester. They were con- 
tinually taunting our men with the defeat of McClellan on the 
Peninsula, which made them appear very silly to us, for at this 
time we understood that McClellan's seven days' fight was a 
piece of masterly strategy ! 

July 13th, Simday. We had divine services to-day, for 
the first time in a long while. Wo received a mail, and tbc 
letters from home were full of news of recruiting, drafting and 
the skedaddling of some peace democrats to Canada. This 
was in response to Father Abraham's call for " three hundred 
thousand more." The diary this month has many a page giving 
the state of our feelings. No curees were so loud and deep as 
those against the policy of protecting the rebels' property. We 
hailed with delight the news which straggled into camp, in 
default of the prompt arrival of the order itself, that we were to 
subsist on the country. We didn't stop to consider that it really 
meant short allowance, but thought only of eating rebel sheep, 
cattle and hogs in peace. 

July 16th, Wednesday^ the army moved again at 1 p. m. Our 
46th Penn. and 28th N. Y. regiments had gone out with cavalry 
two days before, toward Culpeper * and Madison. We took the 



*The local orthography. 



158 LITTLE WASHINGTON. 1 862. 

back track, passed over the pioneers' bridge at Waterloo and 
went on toward Araissville, were we halted and turned about 
again, and finally camped near Waterloo. A tremendous thunder 
storm wet us, and made us amiable as usual, and brought out the 
inquiry why we had not stopped here at first, which inquiry went 
the rounds. And I need not hero remind you how exasper- 
ating this counter-marching always was. We passed one spot 
four times in going from Amis'sville to Washington Court House, 
and had our orders permitted our going directly fi*om place to 
place, we should never have gone near the spot mentioned at all. 
Next day we started early and marched back past our old picnic 
oamp at Amiss ville, and at Gaines's Cross Roads turned to the 
left or south west. It rained nearly all day, and to make it more 
lovely. Gen. Sigel, the famous German, who was in camp near 
Sperry ville, had ordered his trains to Warren ton for supplies. 
The wagons straggled by, one by one, with mules kicking, braying, 
balking and splashing the mud on us for hours. 

We had had our tents reduced in number at Warrenton, so at 
night we huddled together in our wet clothes and sweltered till 
morning. We camped at noon on top of a very high hill over- 
looking Washington C. H., and the diary notes the joy we had 
in nnding some unthreshed wheat, upon which we lay our weary 
bones without pity for tlie farmer who owned it. 

We staid in this camp six days and enjoyed it much, for we 
had cherries in abundance, and found a little to subsist upon 
around the country. We could see for miles to the east and 
south, and we had for neighbors that magnificent regiment, the 
Second Massachusetts, to which was attached Capt. CoUis's 
company of Zouaves. The appearance of this company at dress 
parade always interested us, for they drilled the " Hardee," while 
the regiment held to old « Scott." The band of the " 2d " was 
one of the best in the army, in fact the only one that we ever 
met that could claim to rival ours. 

Guerrillas did not trouble our army in those days as they did 
later in the war, but a small party of them ventured near one 
evening while we were here. They were complimented with a 
shelling, and created an excitement, though neither of these things 



1 862. HX7LES AT OHUROH. 159 

would have resulted in 1864. On Sunday we had divine services, 
which some Connecticut boys disturbed by driving the loose mules 
of the train back and forth in our rear. The animals at length 
sought refuge from their tormentors by gathering near us, and 
listening attentively to the sermon. Their expressions were so 
solemn that we began to have hope for them, but when Chandler 
blew his comet to give us the key for the last hymn, and the brutes 
commenced to sing, we lost all hopes for ^ them mules." Such 
a rearing, plunging, snorting, braying, whinnying, such an unseemly 
galloping out of meeting was too much for us ; we snickered iirst, 
and then laughed outright. I fear our good parson went home 
from service with a heavy heart, but our experience with mules 
up to that time was so limited, that we could not let this fireak go 
by without more ft>tice than it deserved. So it was the great 
event of that sabbath day. 

JiTLY 22d, Tuesday. Major W. C. H. Sherman paid us for 
May and June, but as there was little to spend money for, a good 
portion of it was sent home. Co. E sent $1,500. It was notorious 
that marching orders came with pay day, and so it happened 
now, for we hui-ricd off Wednesday morning, leaving our hill by 
the light of buming straw. 

Gen. Crawford tried another mode to-day to prevent straggling. 
He marched in rear of the brigade and regulated its movements 
by the bugle, but the leading regiments could not or would not 
always hear the bugle, and he finally abandoned it; this plan of 
putting the commanding officers of companies and regiments in 
rear of their commands while marching was, if we are rightly 
informed, pretty generally, though not permanently adopted in 
the entire federal army about this time. 

We passed through the small village of Sperryville, around 
which lay SigePs " Dutchmen." We saw four brigades of them 
and had a good sight at Milroy himself, who at that time com- 
manded a brigade and enjoyed a reputation worth having. Regi- 
ment after regiment called off its number and State to us till 
we experienced a feeling that we had never enjoyed before, which 
came from knowing that we were being massed and belonged to 
a grand army. We saw our old 1st Maine friends, the 5th N. Y. 



1£0 Tini '^Wrtlwrr.WWiaLjtfjiiyirpo " «Qi:« 



■> 




BRVT. MAJ. GENL. U.S.A. 



160 THE *' FOBTY-FIVE BLENKER." 1 862. 

S. M., now become the — N.T. Vols., also the famous 45th N*.T, 
Vols., which some of its earnest Germans, you know, called the 
"Forty-five Blenker," thereby giving it an army reputation. 
Then marching on and through another little village called Wood- 
ville, we camped two or three miles beyond, having come thirteen 
miles, if we reckoned rightly. Next day, July 24th, we marched 
early through the rickety villages of Boston and Qriffinsburg, 
and at noon were camped a little to the north-east of Culpeper 
Court House, making our day's march again thirteen miles. There 
was no straggling during the last two days. Gen. Pope, so the 
diary states, insists upon having the sick carried along, which is 
hard for the sick, but good for those who wish to play sick and 
get an easy chance in the rear. 



160_ 



XH£ ^n^fiXr-OriVR RLmiffirvn " 



tQiC* 





,.,0"". 



BRVT. MAJ. GENL. U.S.A. 



1 862. 161 



CHAPTER XX. 

OUTPOST OF THB ABMT. 

• 

When we arrived in Culpeper, Gen. Hatch with seven regi- 
ments of cavalry had "gone out," as the saying was. The 
report continued that he was ordered to capture Gordonsville, 
bum bridges, and rip up the railroad track ; and for failing to do 
the same he was relieved from his command. Our 1st brigade, 
with a detachment of the 27th Indiana, comprised the infantry 
force at Culpeper, Gen. Crawford's orders were headed " Head- 
quarters U. S. Forces near Fairfax,** this last being the correct 
name of what is called Culpeper C. H, by soldier and citizen. 
We subordinates had little knowledge of the why and wherefore 
of our being in Culpeper. We understand now that McClellan 
had failed in his peninsula campaign, and Pope's army was 
thrown forward to observe and delay the enemy's advance on 
Washington. The cavalry attack on Oordonsville was a part of 
this plan to delay him, but it failed. Our brigade was the extreme 
advance of infantry, and was liable at any moment to a surprise 
from rebel cavalry. This, Gen. Crawford knew better than we- 
did, and so he kept us in camp and turned us out at night when 
some one mistook thunder for guns, and did a hundred things 
that we thought quite senseless then, though they do not appear 
80 now. 

We received our rations for a while by wagon trains from 
Warrenton, and this is equivalent to saying we were short o£ 
rations. But August 6tb, in the evening, we heard what sounded 
like the rattle of a railroad train, followed by the loud and musical 
whistle of the locomotive. The entire U. S. force near Fairfax 
11 



162 WBLOOMED 0BDEB8 FROM POPE. 1861. 

came out of tents at this, and hnrrahed till dark, interspersing 
the general horrah with cries, such as "Shoes I" " Fall in railway 
brigade ! " " Hard bread ! " Beef in a barrel I " &c. Ac. The 
last being a hit at the promised " beef on the hoof which we 
had not yet seen. This brings to mind those &mous orders of 
our new commander. 

On July 25th Gen. Pope issued an order, one paragraph of 
which called out such a hearty amen in all our corps that I must 
put it here : 

" Hereafter no guards will be placed orer private houses, or private property 
of any description whatever. * # * * Soldiers were called 
into the field to do battle against the enemy, and it is not expected that their 
force and energy shall be wasted in the protection of the private propertj of 
thoee most hostile to tiie government." 

Gen. Pope also issued orders compelling every male rebel to 
take the oath of allegiance to the U. S., or to be sent south of 
our lines, and to be shot if he yiolated this oath ; and much more 
of this nature, which gratified us exceedingly for a while. But 
Jeff Davis, not to be behind our man Pope, ordered his officers 
to put all of Pope's officers in close confinement when captured. 
Jeff's order made no stir in camp, however ; in truth few of us 
knew of the order till a year alter. 

By and by came along that perfect marvel of an address, 
which some of us know by heart. It was about a fortnight in 
reaching us, by which time* some hard stories were also in circula- 
tion about the new commander, and I remember to have heard 
two of the men discussing his merits with much warmth, about 
this time, one claiming that Pope was equal to Napoleon, and the 
other re-affirming the story he had heard that " Pope is all talk 
and no ciderP The fact of such a discussion taking place is 
enough to show that the glory of John had departed even so 
quickly. 

Washington, Monday, July 14, 1862. 
To the officers and soldiers of the Army of Virginia : 
By special assignment of the President of the United States, I have 

« 

assumed command of this army. I have spent two weeks in learning your 
whereabouts, your condition and your wants ; in preparing you for active 



1 862. THE OBDEB THAT KILLED POPE. 163 

operations, and in placing you in positions from which 70U can act promptly 
and to the purpose. 

I have come to you from the West, where we have always seen the backs 
of our enemies — from an army whose business it has been to seek the ad- 
yersary and to beat him when found, whose policy has been attack and not 
defence. 

In but one instance has the enemy been able to place our Western armief 
m a defensive attitude. I presume that I have been called here to pursue the 
same system and to lead you against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so, 
and that speedily. 

I am sure you long for an opportunity to win the distinction you are capable 
of achieving — ^that opportunity I shall endeavor to give you. 

Meantime I desire you to dismiss from your minds certain phrases which I 
am sorry to find much in vogue amongst you. 

I hear constantly of taking strong positions and holding them— of lines of 
retreat, and of bases of supplies. Let us discard such ideas. 

The strongest position a soldier should desire to occupy is one from which 
he can most easily advance against the enemy. 

Let us study the probable lines of retreat of our opponents, and leave our 
own to take care of themselves. Let us look before us and not behind. Suc- 
cess and glory are in the advance. DisasteAind shame lurk in the rear. 

Let us act on this understanding, and it is safe to predict that your banners 
shall be inscribed with many a glorious deed, and that your names will be 
dear to your countrymen forever. 

JOHN POPE, Major General Commanding. 

Of all this mess which it was our General's misfortune to have to 
eat himselfj though he cooked it for the rebels, he deserves credit 
for one paragraph which every one of us will say was well written, 

" Success and glory are in the advance. 
Disaster and shame lurk in the rear." 

No order of his was more familiar to the army and country, 
than the one wherein he announced that his headquarters would 
be in his saddle. This had been preceded by another telling us 
in effect that we could have no beans, soap, candles, vinegar or 
molasses, and tliat our meat should mostly be " beef on the hoofP 

So, starting with "Pope in the saddle" and "Beef on the hoo^" 
the army soon had the greatest variety of slang expressions 
similar to these, that you can all recollect very well if needed, but 
which are altogether too " rough " to put in print. 



164 SHELTER TENTS . 1 862. 

JtTLY 30th, the quartermaster took away our Sibley tents and 
gave us the little " shelter,"— -called also " dog tents," and men- 
tioned in orders by Gen. Crawford, who had a passion for French, 
as the " tentes d^dbriaP We looked upon them with contempt at 
first ; the giving up of our huge Sibleys for two yards square of 
heavy drilling, was a little like a come-down ; but we soon learned 
by experience that they were much the best tent for the field, all 
things considered. 

Our clothing became shabby while at Culpeper, and guard duty 
required a large detail, but the Colonel had dress parades regularly, 
and battalion drill whenever possible. We furnished the brigade 
heaquarters guard daily, and, as a gentle hint to our brigade 
commander and staff that we would like to have more clothes and 
shoes, we picked out one day for the detail, about thirty of our 
best men, their muskets cleaned, brasses polished, and other 
appointments faultless, except the clothing. Half were bare-footed 
and none were sent unless their trowsers seats were gone to the 
extent of six inches square. Never did our General have such 
prompt salutes, and perfect duty performed, but it did not hurry 
the clothing along. 

Capt. West left us Aug. Ist, to be major of the 17th Maine 
regiment, afterward to be its colonel, and finally to wear the star 
with honor. Lieut. Roberts had also received a commission as 
adjutant of that regiment, and had gone before this, and Lieuts. 
Witherell, Littlefield, Bradbury and Simpson had retired to private 
life. August 4th we understood that Burnside was at Warrenton, 
with part of what was known as the ** Burnside expedition," for 
he had brought these troops with him from North Carolina to 
Acquia Creek, and then marched them here. Sigel's corps was 
reported to have moved toward Madison C. H., and the out-mail 
was said to be stopped at Banks's headquarters. During our stay 
at Culpeper, which was full of excitement^ Gen. Crawford started 
out with the cavalry, and performed a very creditable and valuable 
service, the detaib of which he has kindly furnished us as follows : 

♦ ♦ * " On the 2d of August I moved on Orange C. H., with the Ist Vt. 
cayahry, Col. Tompkins, 5th N. T., Col. De Forest, and a squadron of Ist 
Michigan. It was twenty-five miles firom my camp, but I thought I could 



1 862. GEN. CBAWTOBD FINDS THE ENElffY. 165 

obtain valiiable infonnation and I had good reason to suppose that the enemy 
had nothing but cavalry there. It was done on my own motion. Ordering 
Bayard to hold Harnett's Ford and the bridge, I crossed at Summerville Ford 
and was in Orange Court House early in the morning. I had a fight in the streets 
of the town with the 6th and 7th Va. cavalry, part of Gen. Robinson's com- 
mand. I drove them from the town with a loss of fifteen killed and wounded, 
and seventy prisoners, as nearly as I can remember. While there I discovered 
that Jackson and Ewell were concentrating at Gordonsville and Louisa, and 
80 I reported to Banks. This should have at once put Pope on his guard. I 
returned to my camp near Culpcper, and on the 7th or 8th Pope began to 
arrive with the rest of the army." * * * * 

When the General and the cavalry returned, we learned the 
news, of course. But the best part of it all to us, in view of 
what was to follow, was the good account which the troopers 
gave of their new leader. They said that he planned and exe- 
cuted well, and not only that but he had fought with them in the 
front. We liked this news ; a soldier always likes to hear that 
his oflicers are " fighting men." 

August 6th, the 1st Maine cavalry passed by, and Gapt. 
Adams came back from Rixleyville with his company, where it 
had guarded a bridge since July 25th. Toward night Ricketts's 
division of McDowell's corps came in, consisting of sixteen regi- 
ments and four batteries, and camped to the north of us. 

MARCHING OUT TO BATTLE. 

August 8, 1862, Friday^ was an extremely hot, dry and dusty 
day. The long expected clothing had come, and was being issued, 
when orders came " to put the command in readiness to march," — 
" to march in one hour," and a multitude of other specifications. 
Every five minutes brought an orderly with fresh instnictions. 
We were so badly off for shoes and rubber blankets, that the 
entire hour was needed to furnish these and to foim the line, but 
shortly after noontime wo were on the move, leaving our camp 
standing, and the baggage behind unpacked. The brigade head- 
quarters' guard and numerous other small guards, the band and 
the sick were left behind ; and a few were also lost to us, who 
were always out of camp without permission, except when forcibly 
detained and undergoing punishment for this offence. We were 



166 ALL BEADT. l86l. 

ordered to cany rations and 100 rounds of ammnnition. Those 
who had rubber blankets took them, for by orders we were limited 
in carrying, to a blanket folded, the ends tied and the roll or ring 
thrown diagonally across the body and over the shoulder. Nearly 
all of Co. H, which was on the right, had drawn new blouses and 
rubber blankets, and folded the last with the white cloth side 
out to prerent them from slipping, which made them look like a 
company wearing regalia. Some of our officers, profiting by the 
Winchester experience, where by wearing their old clothes they 
lost their new, now put on their best. Among these we all 
remember Capt. Gloudman, in his new uniform, with feathers in 
his hat, and his gaudy shoulder-straps which ^ the boys " of E had 
g^ven him. 

Wo passed through the town, flags flying and drums beating, 
proud of our soldierly appearance and the fine marching,* which 
two qualities we believe we always excelled in. 

The other regiments of our brigade joined us, and in marching 
through the town all did their best to show off before the many 
spectators. These were the days when a brigade could be truly 
styled a "force," and our general could well be proud of his 
command. 

Qen. Strother (" Porte Crayon "), was so impressed by our good 
appearance that he writes as below, in Harper's Monthly of 
August, 1867. Nothing of the nature of congratulations and 
orders from our general officers is so complimentary as this unso- 
licited conmient of a stranger. I will say in return of him, that 
though he makes no pretension to wilting history, yet as far as I 
am able to judge, his various "Personal Recollections " which 
have appeared in Harper's are more valuable for correct state* 
ment than any book I have consulted in working up our history. 
After alluding to something of the nature of a stampede among 
the stragglers, cooks and negroes as they came into Culpeper 
Court House from the front, Tuesday noon, August 8th, he 
writes: "As we entered the streets of the village, however, we 
met a superb dramatic contrast to this sniveling crowd. This 
was Crawford's brigade moving to the front, with drums beating 



1862. A FINE GOHFLIMEirr. 167 

tnd colors flying. I recognized its gallant commander and his 
adjutant, d'Hantville, in the van, ♦ ♦ * We waited to see 
the brigade pass. It toas the moat inspiriting sight I ever 
beheld. There were four regiments of infantry and two batteries. 
The regiments were the 46th Penn., 5th Conn., 10th Maine and 
28th N. Y., with Roemer's and Knapp's batteries." 

We xmderstood we were to go to the support of the cavalry, 
for we were told that they had " run against a stump," and were 
now &lling back and recrossing the Rapidan. It is worth noting 
that the day had passed with us, when the extravagant rumors so 
peculiar to the 1st Maine could run wild and unquestioned among 
us. We all knew that there was something of the nature of a 
fight in store for us, but this knowledge did not disturb us as it 
did immediately after the retreat from Winchester. 

We had not marched a mile before men fainted jfrom the 
excessive heat ; one by one they blanched and reeled over, and 
&rther on this became a serious hindrance to the few who held 
their strength. Halts were made in the shade, but the moment 
we took up the march the brigade would spread out like a drove 
of cattle. In this way we marched six miles on the Orange road, 
and then our regiment was turned in to woods on the left side of 
the road (east), a few paces behind (north) Cedar Run. Those 
who had straggled came up in the cool of the evening, except a 
few who were " sun-struck," and a very few who, as is always 
the case, played sick and by keeping out of the way of all oflScers 
escaped the fight. Three old English soldiers of Co. D took this 
occasion to desert us forever, as they had previously deserted their 
Queen. Though these may appear to the general reader as black 
marks against us, yet I believe it is a fact to be proud of that so 
few real skulks were found in our 500 men. 

It is now an item of history that the most of Lee's army was 
marching northward, Jackson leading. There were few of us 
who had any practical knowledge of strategy and grand tactics, 
therefore, beyond the threat of the Culpeper women that we should 
be " whipped out of h'yre," we had no good reason to believe a 
large force was near us. We trusted in Gen. Banks ; and I think 
most of us either hoped or trusted that Gen. Pope in his saddle 



168 THE CALM BEFOBE THE STORM. 1 862. 

might find out how to show us the ^ backs of our enemies" if a 
fight should happen. Bat these thoughts were not prominent in 
our minds, for, as always, we were looking for something to eat 
•and drink and a chance to sleep. 

After taking our first position, Knapp's battery was planted on 
the hill across the run (south), and we were moved over and 
bivouacked behind their guns in a clover field. Here we remained 
till after 4 p. m. of the next day. We therefore had, on August 
9th, what by comparison may be called a day of rest. But this 
day was by no means an idle one, though there was little to do 
after considering the great question " what shall we eat," and 
tearing down rail fences so that the cavalry and artillery could 
run around finely. The great stress upon body and soul in such 
days as these is the suspense. 

Cavalry in squads, companies and battalions passed back and 
forth all day, but always in order. You remember this fact that 
it was a day of great excitement but free from disorder and panic. 
From the cavalry we learned that the rebel cavalry and infantry 
had crossed the Rapidan and would soon be in sight. From the 
squads that came out of the Court House we learned that Ricketts's 
division was two or three miles in rear of us, near a cross-road 
of some strategetical importance (Colvin's Tavern), and that the 
other parts of our own corps were on the road and SigeFs was 
coming. About noon the other brigades of Banks's corps began 
to arrive, tired enough, and were sent to the right and left of the 
road. Sigel's troops we did not see till after the battle and then 
they were few and scattered, for the heat had used tliem up com- 
pletely. Gen. Pope's explanation of their delay is that when he 
ordered Sigel to march from Sperryville to Culpeper, during the 
evening of the 8th, Sigel sent back to learn which road he should 
take, whereas, he (Pope) says, there is but one road. 

When a private shows a sulky disposition, and gives " back- 
talk" like this to his superiors, he receives the just punishment 
for his misdemeanors, but it seems as if Pope could do nothing 
but grin and bear the nonsense of Sigel. 

I have now, my ftiends, to lament the loss of two sheets of my 



1 862. A MAIL LOST. • 169 

diary, which were full of details of all we saw and did that mom- 
ning and afternoon. You know our man Pope had a passion for 
" studying the probable lines of retreat of our opponents and of 
leaving our own to take care of themselves," and it was on account 
of this last named care that a mail or two was lost — my two sheets 
with them. These, and a letter which was captured on Red 
River, are the only home bound ones I ever lost. 



170 • i862- 



CHAPTER XXL 

BATTLB OF CEDAB MOUNTAIN'. 

(OB BLAUOBTXB'B MOUHTAIir.) 

August 9tb, 1862, Saturday, Early in the forenoou, as we 
all remember well, we saw a few mounted men riding back and 
fortb on a ridge, at the base of Cedar Mountain, which lay in oar 
front and a half mile off. We were told that they were rebels. 
We gathered on the brow of the hill and were sent back out of 
sight, but it was of no use, we were bound to see, and see them 
we did, in one way and another, and it was no great sight either. 
We could not believe they were rebels ; one man especially said 
they "looked too natural" for that! but by and by a puff of 
smoke and the dull report of a gun convinced the doubters. 
They were shelling some cavalry, and perhaps it is needless to 
add the cavalry were not there by the time that the piece was 
loaded again. We gathered on the hill once more at this, but the 
battery commander would not have us there ; so we were ordered 
down and a guard was detailed to keep us do^vn. Then we flanked 
the battery and lay down out of sight, and watched the few we 
saw till Col. Beal ordered us to remain behind the stacks. We 
had some more cannonading by noon in the front, and about three 
o'clock, as well as I can learn, it became what Gen. Pope calls 
"desultory,"* whereby I suspect that J. P. lost his dictionary as 
well as the uniform, at Catlett's Station. Desultory, or whatever 
else it was, the cavalry had to get out of their " front seat," 
though, let us give the devil his due, they did not skedaddle. 



*Prof. Dabney (rebel), in his life of Stonewall Jackson, says : " A rapid and con- 
tinuous thunder of artiUery now began on both sides, which was prolonged for two 
hours." Page 497. 



1 862. THE BEOINNmO — ENTHUSIASM. 171 

Soon after the rebels snrprised ns, somewhat, by opening from a 
battery np the sides of Cedar Mountain. 

These guns sounded heavier, and the shot came along as if they 
had wings and were flying, and we began to see that the rebels 
had the best position for artillery, though our generals had chosen 
their own grounds. 

At 4.15 p. M. our brigade was gathered together again, on the 
right side of the main road, on the edge of C^dar Run. Oor- 
don's brigade, of our division, was some distance farther to 
the right, mostly out of view. Our old position, behind the 
battery, was in charge of Auger's division, the 2d, lately Cooper's. 
This movement of ours to the rear and right mystified us for a 
while, but shortly after the other three regiments were ordered 
fiyrward. They started across the open field at double quick and 
hurrahing. This display of enthusiasm was ill-timed, but it 
showed how they felt. They sobered into a walk at length, and 
paning into the woods, went out of sight. We were also ordered 
forward immediately after, and soon reached the woods, and there 
were ordered to halt and lie down. Our left rested near the 
road, which was here cut into the hill. Four guns of Best's 
battery (4th U. S.) of six 12-pounders or " Napoleons," were put 
in position on the roadside, and commenced shelling the enemy's 
right. Gen. Banks and others stood near. Our good Chaplain, 
whose habitual anxiety for us had led us to believe that he would 
be found in the rear in times of danger, proved his true character 
now. Best's battery had hardly fired a shot before the enemy 
returned his compliments, two for one. The General refused to 
budge from his commanding view, and our Chaplain, in the hope 
that he or his horse might be of service, staid by him and discov- 
ered a long line of rebels marching by the fiank in the woods 
upon Auger's left, and called the attention of Gen. Banks, who 
replied, " That is provided for sir, thank you ! " This force was 
Ewell's. 

The shells and solid shot came down faster and struck nearer. 
We were twice moved to the right a few yards but did not get 
out of their reach. Fragments still struck around us. Men turned 
pale. Lieut. Muhlenberg of the battery had all he could do to 



172 CRAWFORD'S CHARGE. 1 862. 

keep his gunners up to their work, and finally he hauled off, not 
being able to fire a shot without having a half dozen come back. 

Now indeed the battle was begun. Musketry by volleys and 
" at will ^ was so terrible that we did not notice the cannonading 
much. Those of us who were not in the ranks could step over 
by the battery and see the enemy plant new batteries nearer and 
nearer to us. Riderless horses were running around between the 
fires. Three or ft)ur of our batteries were over on the knoll where 
we had been all the morning, belching away as best they could 
in their unequal fight. Besides others the 2d, 4th and 6th Maine 
batteries were there, doing good service and holding their ground 
bravely. We could see the rebel skirmishers run before the 
advance of Geary's skirmishers, who were sent out in front of the 
batteries on the knoll. The sun was nearing the hill tops and the 
battle promised from the first to be short and terrible. 

And now came from our front the report of the most tremendous 
volleys we had ever heard. Crash succeeded crash ; the mighty 
thump of the shells against the forest trees was not heard for the 
din of the musketry. Rising higher and more terrible than all 
was the hurrah of the boys of our own brigade as they pushed 
back their foe. And well did they do their work, for these three 
regiments, with six companies of the 3d Wisconsin to protect 
their flank, drove back the two brigades of Taliaferro and Camp- 
bell and a part of old Jubal Early's brigade ; drove them into a 
skedaddle, and then spent their remaining strength and lost their 
organization in chasing them up. 

It is said that Gen. Banks's plan was to cut off this force, which 
he supposed was much smaller, before the other rebels could get 
into action, and without stopping to criticise what is beyond our 
power and province, we can only state that after these three 
Y regiments had chased three b rigades and some artillery a short 
distance, they ran into the fresh troops of Branch's and Winder's 
brigades. Donelly and Knipe were both down now — every field 
officer went down eventually — and the victors speedily changed 
conditions with their foe. 

But while all this wonderful fighting was going on we were 
A Iving idle in the northern edge of the woods, supporting the 



1 862. WE ARE LED TO THE SLAUGHTER. 173 

battery that needed no such support. Col. Beal permitted me to 
reconnoitre, and I went through the woods and saw part of Geary's 
brigade of Ohio troops (5th, 7th, 66th and 29th, I bcUcTe) , in the 
road advancing by ih^ flank! In my front was the wheat field, 
with its shocks standing, which you know too well, and beyond 
this another belt of woods. The firing was still further to the 
front and out of sight. I went back with this information to the 
Colonel, and met the "10th" advancing through the woods in 
line of battle. The enemy gave us a good shelling as we went, 
though how they saw us is more than I know. One shell felled 
a branch which blocked up the passage of companies D and B. 
They regained their position without confusion or delay, and the 
regiment still marched on. We came to the wheat field,— only 
six hundred yards across — and saw that the Ohio boys nearest to 
us were retreating slowly, still moving by the fiank. Those on 
their right or at the head, had a hand to hand fight, using their 
saber bayonets freely. The retreating movement of the others 
was never understood by us ; it was done in good order and did 
not appear to have been compelled. All we know is that some 
were retreating very slowly and some were fighting like devils. 
In a minute more we had too much business of our own to notice 
them. 

The Colonel now took the lead and we passed down the hill, 
then up and then down again, for the wheat field has a ridge in 
it running at right angles to the road. The remnant of our 
brigade was coming back — passing to our right as soon as they 
saw us, so as to avoid our fire if we should open. It disturbed 
us much to see this, and to know as we did that we were the only 
regiment left in that vicinity. The Colonel still in front and 
mounted, now swung his hat in his hand and called out " Give 
them three down-east cheers!" and we did give them, and how 
they rang out between those two belts of timber ! 

We saw that the lower edge of the woods (toward the road) 
was filling up with rebels ; the fugitive officers and men of our 
brigade also sang out to the Colonel that there were too many 
rebels for us to handle, and he readily perceived that he had gone 
past his position, and ordered " about face," with intention of 



174 A GREAT MISTAKE. 1862. 

taking us back to the edge of the woods we had just left, where 
we should have shelter and our enemy have none. Without 
delay we faced about, and had retreated a few steps when Major 
Pelouze, a staff officer, rode out and said that Gen. Banks forbade 
this movement, but the Colonel persisted and we kept on. The staff 
officer grew furious and appeared to be having a fist-fight with our 
Colonel, so animated were the gesticulations of the two officers. 
The Major said much that the Colonel thought was unnecessary, 
and ended with the peremptory order to halt the regiment. So 
the Colonel halted us on the northern slope of the ridge, and the 
officers dressed their companies so as to gain the slight protection 
it afforded. The men commenced to drop before we were in 
position, and Serg't Marston, of F, the left general guide, once an 
English marine and a model of all that was correct in soldierly 
deportment, was among the first. Capt. Cloudman dropped 
dead with a ball through his head before his company was aligned, 
his brilliant uniform making him a target for the rebels.* 

We waited a moment more for the last few of our First brigade 
boys to come out, and then tlie fire of the enemy became too 
severe to stand quiet under. The. sun had set, and the smoke 
had settled like a thin mist over the entire field of battle. We 
noticed the forms of men darting around among the trees, but 
could not distinguish them plainly, and for a while a flag was 
flaunted in our faces opposite our right wing. We could see, too, 
the blaze of the enemy's muskets instead of the puff of smoke 
which one observes in broad daylight. Over these dark and 
smoky woods was the bright sunset dazzling our eyes and adding 
another drop to our bucketful of disadvantages. 

The fire of the enemy, I say, became too severe for us, and one 
by one as the men came into position they fired without orders 
from the Colonel or regard to any style laid down in the tactics. 
We always had it for a joke on Lieut. Beardsley of Co. D, that 
after the first volley, he commanded ^Eighth company I ^^ — 
^^Load in niiie times I ^^ But this must go for a joke, not a fact. 

It is worth noting that counting ourselves as a re-organization 



•The beayy lOM of offleen In the 3d Mam. I think wm due to their line dresa. 



BATTLE di CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 



>^'.i^U^^K*;:vv^V^; 




1 862. THE FIBST YOLLET. 175 

of the Ist Maine, it bad been more tban one year and tbree 
months since onr first volunteering, and now at last the regiment 
as such fired its first volley. We who were in line can never 
forget the tremendous crash and echo it made. Years afterward 
Chaplain Knox, who remained behind near the battery at the 
Colonel's suggestion, used to speak of following us with his ear 
through the woods, of hearing the down-cast cheers, and at length 
after a pause which he said distressed him much, there burst out 
the thunder of this first volley. The good man's eye always 
moistened as he spoke of this, comparing it to the crash with 
which Gideon's little army burst upon the Midianites,"^ and he 
always mentioned the pride that came over him as ho felt that 
he belonged to us. 

This first volley had a marked effect on the enemy. Some of 
the more sanguine of us have always contended that if we had 
followed up with the bayonet we should have driven him out of 
the woods. But the rebels soon returned to their work, if they 
went at all, and for a few moments it was simply give and take. 
Then as regiment after regiment of them came in, their bullets 
began to fly and our line began to "w^ilt in a way none of us ever 
knew before or since. 

It is a sad thing to refer to, yet in glancing along the line the 
sight was Imlicrous in the extreme. All were excited and were 
loading and firing in every conceivable way. Some were standing, 
but most were kneeling or lying down. Some were astraddle 
their pieces and were ramming the charge totally regardless of 
the rules on that point. Many had poured their cartridges upon 
the ground, and were " peddling out " the lead with more speed 
than accuracy I fear. We all took this occasion to swear at and 
gibe our friends in gray to the best of our ability. So with the 
din of musketry and the one common yell of friend and foe, it 
seemed as if bedlam was loose. 

The behavior of those who were hit appeared most singular, 
and as there were so many of them, it looked as if we had a 
crowd of howling dervishes dancing and kicking around in our 



*Book of Judges, Chap. vii. 



176 IIURDEROUS FIRE. 1 862. 

ranks. The bullet often knocks over the man it hits, and rarely 
fails by its force alone to disturb his equilibrium. Then the 
shock, whether painful or not, causes a sudden jump or shudder. 
Now as every man, with hardly an exception, was either killed, 
wounded, hit in his clothes, hit by spent balls and stones, or 
jostled by his wounded comrades, it follows that we had a won- 
derful exhibition. Some reeled round and round, others threw up 
their arms and fell over backward, others went plunging back- 
ward trying to regain their balance ; a few fell to the front, but 
the force of the bullet generally prevented this, except where it 
struck low down and apparently knocked the soldier's feet from 
under him. Many dropped their musket and seized the wounded 
part with both hands, and a very few fell dead. 

The enemy were armed with almost every kind of rifle or 
musket, and as their front exceeded ours three times, we were 
under a cross fire almost from the first. The various tunes sung 
by their balls we shall never forget, and furthermore shall never 
confound them with any others we have heard. In a moment, 
when curiosity got the better of fear, I took notice of. this fact, 
and made record of it in my diary a day or two afterward. It was 
at a moment when probably a fresh regiment had arrived on our 
right, for the mass of missiles were coming across our line at an 
angle of forty-five degrees. The fierce " zip " of the swift Mini6 
bullet was not prominent by comparison, at that particular 
moment, though there were enough of them certainly. The 
main sound, or the air of the tune, if I may be allowed the 
expression, was produced by the singing of slow, rou;id balls and 
buck shot fired from a smooth bore, which do not cut or tear the 
air as the creased ball does. Each bullet, according to its kind, 
size, rate of speed and nearness to the ear made a different sound. 
They seeemed to be going past in sheets, all around and above 
us. 

We had not been firing a great while — how long I cannot tell, 
for every one asked has a different answer — before the skirmishers 
of the Second Massachusetts came scrambling along on the run, 
to our right, followed by the regiment, which halted in the edge 
of the woods, and were thus a little to our rear and perhaps 300 



l862. RETREAT. 177 

yards to our right. Beyond them, out of oar sight, was the 
remaining battalion of the 3d Wisconsin, and still further to the 
right the 27th Indiana.* 

One would think they would have helped us by taking the 
cross fire on our nght, and perhaps they did, but we noticed no 
change for the better. In fact, from almost the first, we were 
under a front and cross fire. I remember very distinctly of 
noticing that the path of the bullets from the upper part of the 
field was at more than a right angle to the path of those coming 
np from the Orange road, and if you will cast your eye at the 
plant you will see the very good reason why this was so. 

This leads me to notice that the Ohio boys in the road, after 
fighting awhile with their sabres, at length had to yield to 
musketry on their flank and rear, thus exposing our left. But we 
were well officered, down on our left, and the ridge was a trifle 
sharper and the shelter a little better, and so we held the ground, 
though suflering severely. The Colonel, however, seeing that in 
a few moments more there would be nothing left of us, gave the 
order — 

The carnage in our ranks during the few seconds preceding 
this order, was terrible and altogether beyond description. There 
were huge gaps in our lines — more places for bullets to go through, 
it is true — yet it seemed as if the rebels were cooling down, and 
taking deliberate aim now, and of course they were less annoyed 
from our fire, as our numbers decreased. 

Our line had not moved an inch — not for a moment had there 
been a semblance of wavering. Of course every company had 
individuals that needed the attention of the officers, and a few 
managed to skulk off, but these were too few to damage pur 
efficiency, or injure our good name. A more serious diminution 
of our numbers, came from the men helping off the wounded. 



* Authority— 0«D8. Gordon and Andrews. 

t The positions of the rebel troops are copied firam Frofl Dabney's life of StonewaU 
Jackson. 

19 



178 BE-FORHED— OAYALBT CHABGE • 1 862. 

The order to retreat was not heard aimultaneously, and as 
many staid to help off their wounded fellows, oar formation was 
broken up, but keeping generally together around the colors, one 
of which Corporal Mackin took, after Sergt. Alexander was 
wounded, we passed out of range on the run, and then, moving 
moderately through the large field, crossed Cedar Run, and 
re-formed a considerable distance ahead of McDowell's lines, near 
what I understand to be the house of a Mr. Brown. 

There was no skedaddle, according to the strict meaning of 
that word,-^though our organization was broken, the officers had 
no great trouble in keeping us together. 

But quite a number did not retreat farther than into cover of 
the woods, where they remained a few moments, and did good 
service in a small way. 

Having said many hard things against the cavalry, I am happy 
to testify to one redeeming act to their credit. Immediately on 
our retreating, the rebels sallied out of the woods, singly and in 
squads — so say those who remained behind. Our stragglers gave 
them their attention, but without doubt there would have been 
prisoners made from these same stragglers of ours, except for the 
cavalry, of which some good fellow sent a very small force into 
the hell we had just left. For this he will be criticized, though toe 
will not do it. They charged down the Orange road, and without 
stopping to say or do much, they turned about and came back, 
leaving a number of dead horses, of course, in the field. We 
never learned what company it was, nor who sent it in there to 
help us, but we have it from both rebel and friend that it was a 
singular and plucky charge. 

We kept well to the west in retreating, and when a half mile 
or more from where we fought we passed near the white house 
(Mr. Brown's) that was at once a hospital and a rallying point. 
Here we formed line again, but were ordered to move to the rear 
of McDowell's troops, to " get out of the way," to " uncover our 
front," and the like of this. It had become quite dark, and when 
the enemy after a long delay came in pursuit of our corps, the 
nnion and rebel forces got singularly mixed up, for there were no 



\ 



1 862. WHERE Mcdowell was. 179 

skirmishers thrown out in front of Ricketts,* and prisoners were 
made by both, though the balance was largely in favor of the 
enemy. •At this time Lieut. Beardsley and Sergt. Weeks were cap- 
tured, both supposing their captors were friends till it was too late 
to escape. The 'full moon came up before long and we had no 
trouble in moving about in the open fields, as often as one general 
after another sent us out of his way. We thus had quite a tramp 
and gave utterance to an excess of rage before we finally settled 
for the night. But of all the discouragements of the day the 
sight of those long lines of Ricketts's troops was the crowning 
one. To our question " Wer^ you in the fight ?" the answer came 
back from one after another as we passed them, " No I " In a 
word, Ricketts's sixteen infantry regiments and four batteries, 
almost exactly equal in strength to the entire force of Banks in 
the fight, were now taking the front and we the rear. 

We were out of rations, and as a couple of our wagons had 
been sent from camp with them, the Colonel after learning 
where they were marched us toward them. Before we reached 
the wagons the rebels planted a battery not fer from the white 
house, and then we had fire-works — and other works, didn't we ? 
Every straggler in the vicinity started on the run, followed by 
negro servants, cooks, and the innumerable horde of skulks, camp 
followers and detached men who are always prowling around the 
rear of the army. The wagons also were reversed and moved 
back to Culpeper, some of them going in true Bull Run style, 
but ours, thanks to Darius and his obedient wagoners, refused 
to be stampeded, and after going about a mile in all, the quarter- 
master in authority permitted them to halt, and here we had 
rations and rest at precisely midnight. This little breeze was 
the only thing we saw during the three days we were out of 
camp which can be called a skedaddle. Thompson's Pennsylvania 
and Hall's 2d Maine batteries (not the 5th and 2d Maine, as was 
reported) replied to the guns of the rebels, and in a very brief 
time piled up twenty or more horses and otherwise damaged the 
enemy so that they retreated, after which all was quiet. The 



•Authority, Gen. Crawford and the army at large. 



180 WHO BEAT? 1862. 

enemy thas held the ground upon which the battle was fonght, 
and secured the slightadvantage of robbing our dead and wounded 
and of changing their old fashioned muskets for our rfllee. But 
in the exhibition of pluck and hard fighting our army was 
altogether first, and we were fought by Jackfion and his best 
troops, two to one, and three to one, but never even-handed. 
Let the future historian remember this. 

Our regimental formation during this battle was as below : 
Left. |f|a|b|p|o||i|g|k|b|h| Right. 

AFTER THE BATTLE. 

m 

Next day was Sunday ; we were allowed to sleep late, and 
during the forenoon were marched across the r(xad to the woods 
on the east side and kept quiet all day. Towards night it rained 
tremendously and we all had wet beds in consequence. Chaplain 
Enox gathered us together this forenoon and spoke words of cheer, 
but the tears choked him and he ended with a prayer. These 
were divine services that we appreciated. He had been with us 
or our wounded constantly ; a gentleman and scholar by nature 
and culture, he had not shrunk from the rough practical duties in 
the field-hospital, and now a common sorrow made him a friend 
and brother to us more than ever before. 

We made up a list of the killed, wounded and missing, and 
forwarded the same. We had two field officers, four staff officers, 
twenty company officers, and four hciddrod and thirty-five men 
in the fight. Capt. Cloudman and Lieut. Folsom were killed 
outright; Lieut. Freeman lingered a fortnight; Capt. Adams 
was wounded in the leg and crippled for life ; Lieut. Sargent 
nearly lost his eye, but returned to duty in two months ; Capt. 
Nye was hit three times, but was not ofi* duty a day ; Lieut. 
Rankin was also wounded, and had to stay in the hospital in 
spite of himself for twenty days ; Lieut. Beardsley was unac- 
counted for. He had been seen after the battle, and we at length 
concluded that he must have gone back to fight the rebels hand 
to hand, for he was a great broad-swordsman, and had a sabre as 
long as a scythe. But some weeks after, when we saw in the 




? 



i 



IftA 



v\^ _«.>^ ' 



long as a scjtL 




>^ 



CAPT. CO. E. lOV ME. REGT. 



1 862. LENGTH OF TIBfE UNDEB FnUS. 181 

papers that Lieut. John D. Belolexly of Co. D^ 10th Me., was in 
Libby prison, we all knew whom it meant, and if you want a 
fine illustration of how natural it is for a man to love his 
enemies, just ask " Belolexly " and Dr. Day, who was captured a 
few days after, about their trip South. We also reported twenty 
enlisted men killed, one hundred and forty wounded, and three 
missing ; but these figures, as will be seen by the list of casual- 
ties, falls a little short of the facts. Of the remaining two 
hundred and seventy-two men, nearly all had their clothes riddled, 
or showed some '^ signs " of the battle. I remember well that I 
questioned many groups, and every man in' them showed some- 
thing damaged by the enemy's bullet^. Quite a number were 
knocked down and thought they were wounded, but failed to 
find the hole where the bullet went in. Cartridge boxes and 
blankets also '' suffered severely,'' and a number of men complained 
that they were hit and lost their equilibrium, but could find ilo 
trace of the ball. Most of the wounded were brought off. Some 
were taken prisoners, but these were mostly left behind when 
the rebels retreated, having suffered for forty-eight hours, and 
been robbed of half their clothing. 

The length of time that we were under fire was a disputed ques- 
tion, and it has never been settled yet. Col. Beal's report stated 
thirty minutes, and some think that is correct ; others are confident 
that we were there not more than five minutes, and the collateral 
evidence seems to favor the shorter time. Some of the men fired 
only five or six rounds, and I have heard of but very few that began 
with a full box who had occasion to use cartridges from the 
lower tier of their magazines.* A few men who returned to the 
regiment after carrying the wounded through the woods, say that 
they fired scarcely any after their return, and such facts as these, 
it seems to us, are of more value than any man's opinion, for it 
is impossible to note the flight of time in the heat of battle. We 
naturally claimed to have been a long time under fire, but there 
are many instances recorded where a third of the force engaged 
has been wiped out in almost a flash, and I think you will 



* The box holdf forty roandf ; 20 in each tier. 



182 EMEBSON'S AND NTE'S TISIT. 1 862. 

all agree that everything favored our speedy annihilation at 
Cedar Mountain, and therefore that we could not have been 
there long. 

Monday^ Aug. 11th, we were ordered to return to town, and 
did so, the band meeting us outside and giving us cheering music 
to march by. Our appearance was not so gay as it had been three 
days before, but the firm, imposing tread of well drilled and 
victorious troops, was remarked by the multitude of spectators. 
• Let this be remembered — we will stake all we have that Branch's 
brigade did not march back to the Rapidan as gaily as we did to 
town. Capts. Emerson and Nye were permitted to visit the 
battle ground, in the forenoon, with an ambulance. The rebel 
pickets were in the woods, about where the line of battle had 
been which opposed our regiment. They permitted our captains 
to give water to the wou^ded, and to take them off, but otherwise 
were rather severe, making a great pretence of authority, in the 
hope perhaps of giving the impression that they had a force 
behind them, whereas it seems that their army retreated on 
the night of the battle to Cedar Mountain,* and on this Monday 
night re-crossed the Rapidan with considerable haste, lea\dng 
a part of their wounded behind. Our captains, Emerson and 
Nye, brought back the sad story of our suffering wounded ones. 
Both the dead and wounded had been stripped of their valuables, 
and their shoes. Many of them had lost their trowsers, but the 
dark blue blouses, being of no use, had been taken from only a 
few. Our two captains saw many who had suffered without 
being relieved, though they had been found and robbed of every- 
thing. We have charity to believe that there were few or none 
in the enemy's ranks who committed such villanies. Stripping 
the dead can be justified by necessity, but the robbing of the 
wounded is another thing entirely. It probably was done by the 
skulks of the enemy, for Sergt. Weeks says he heard the rebel 
oflicers give orders for our Wounded to be guarded and cared for. 

While we had been out, our camp had been broken up, Jtnd 
now, on returning, it was laid out near the mansion of the Rev. 



* Oar priionen lay this. 



1 862. FEEUNG WELL. 183 



• 



Mr. Gteorge, where Gten. Crawford had his headquarters, but it 
was again pitched on the old ground, near our cool spring, a day 
or two afterward, and here we staid till Aug. 18th. 

To those of us who had the welfare of the regiment at heart 
nothing was so gratifying after the battle as to hear the conversa- 
tion of the men, for it was unlike that at Williamsport after the 
Winchester retreat. The diary has the following : — 

The men are cheerfiil and are talking oyer their adyentures as if they had been 
to a great fire or had seen a horse race. 

And again — • 

Cowardice was scarce — ^panic scarcer. 

And Aug. 12th I noted : — 

The conyersation of the men is not of a gloomy character, but is rather a 
continual rehearsal of narrow 'scapes, of their own performances and of the 
murderous fire. 

NEWSPAPER BEPOBTEBS. 

When the newspapers arrived a few days after the battle with 
accounts of the " glorious victory," we looked of course to see 
what mention was made of the Tenth Maine, but we looked in 
vain, and were simple enough to feel hurt at the slight, but this 
all passed off when we saw that the real cause lay in the scarcity 
of whiskey in our camp — hence a want of intimacy with the 
reporters, who were the hardest of hard drinkers. 

Every correspondent made out a glorious victory for our corps, 
praised Tom for Dick's deeds, and exaggerated without limit. 
They had many facts gathered from various head-quarters ; but 
every description of the details of the battle showed that they 
had all kept out of range of the big gun on Cedar Mountain . 

Amongst other chaff is the following, not worth notice in itself^ 
but good as a sample of the worthlessness of newspaper reporters 
in general. It serves also as a text for some remarks which 
follow it : — 

* Major Pelouze, Gen. Banks's adjutant general, a regular arm^ officer, ft)ok 
command of a regiment which was ordered forward in support of another 
hardly pressed, but wliich was hesitating, and the colonel of which refused to 
lead his men into such a galling fire as awaited them. It was only a leader 



184 MAj. vELomm^'s dbnial. iMa. 

they wanted, Ibr they followed Major Pelouze gallantly till he was woiuded* 
Two bullets struck him— one on the belt plate, the other entering his side and 
seyerely wounding him. He still kept his seat and went on ; but was obliged 
to gflk up from loss of blood." 

(N. Y. Tribune.) See Frank Moore's Rebellion Kecord, Vol. v, p. SSO. 

This does not mention the Tenth Maine, but we all knew it 
was intended for us, and as it is the only thing in print that we 
have ever seen bearing unfavorably upon either of the three 
regiments, I thought it best to clear it off while we were living. 
Accordingly I wrote to Major Pelouze (January 1870), that the 
reporter had done us gross injustice, and that as his name was 
coupled with it we would like to have his understanding of the 
matter. I copy a part of his reply : — 

"About 6 p. M. Gen. Banks asked why that regiment (referring to 10th 
Maine Vols.) did hot advance, and directed me to order it to advance. The 
regiment at the time was at a halt, faced toward the enemy in a wheat field 
between two belts of woods, and covered from the fire of the enemy by rising 
ground. I proceeded (mounted) to the rear of tlie regimental colors and gave 
the colonel the order to advance. A brief conversation took place in which 
the Major of the regiment took part. The colonel declined my ofier to take 
the regiment in, saying he would take it in. About this time an officer of 
Gen. Banks's stafi* rode past the rear of the regiment with orders for Gordon's 
brigade then in the woods on the right, and repeating Gen. Banks's order to 
advance, saying Sigel with reinforcements was in the rear, or was coming. 
This order I repeated in loud tones. The regiment led and commanded by 
its colonel moved forward with shouts. I moved forward with the regiment 
but a short distance, and from not having taken the precaution to dismount, 
was probably the first with the command disabled. I was with the reg^ent 
probably five minutes, and the regiment obeyed the orders which took it into 
a galling fire with the alacrity of old soldiers." 

The Major's version of the affair does not hg^monize with ours 
in all particulars, but it will be seen that the reporter is altogether 
in the wrong. Col. Beal gives the following as his recollection : 
Maj. Perkins of Banks's staff, came to him while the regiment 
was supporting Best's battery, and told him it was Gen. Banks's 
order for us to advance through the woods. This was all the 
order he received, and so he presumed he was left to enter the 
fight in such way as he deemed best, should he fail to receive 
orders from Gen. Crawford. He therefore advanced, met hiA 



1 86a. COL. bsal'0 intention. 185 

Aeting Adjutant (the writer) in the woods, and learned that the 
brigade was far ahead, and that the Ohio regiment was advancing 
also. But when our regiment had reached the wheat field, thd 
Ohio regiment was retreating in part, and in part fighting hand 
to hand down in the comer by the ^ big tree.'' At this moment 
there were few If any men of our brigade in view retreating. 
He therefore concluded that the place where we were needed 
was down by the tree — to help the Ohio boys, and so prevent the 
enemy gaining the flank and rear of our brigade. So he headed 
us for the nearest fight. This determination was hardly formed 
before the retreating men of our used up brigade commenced to 
pour into the wheat field, and by and by the Colonel saw that 
his plan could not be can'ied out, and he wisely faced us about to 
return to the shelter of the woods and fence. Then Maj. Pelouze 
met him and the controversy occurred. The Colonel does not 
recollect the exact language of Maj. Pelouze, but in some way he 
received the impression that Gen. Banks wished him (Beal) to 
know there was only a very small force of the enemy in front to 
oppose us — the exact reverse of what the Colonel had discovered 
to be the case ; and in view of which discovery the Colonel 
thought it best to disregard the order to advance. 

Gen. Banks made no report of the battle. We leam from 
Qen. Crawford that he (Banks) attributed the disaster of the 
day to Gordon's failure to advance simultaneously with Crawford. 
It appears, too,* that alter Gordon's brigade was in position on 
our right, Maj. Perkins brought it the order to charge across the 
wheat field. Gen. Gordon and Col. Andrews took the responsi- 
bility of disobeying this order, and afterwards learned that it was 
given by mistake ! The first is a serious charge against Gren. 
Gordon, but his independence in the latter case saved hifl brigade 
fi*om utter ruin. How fur a subordinate officer may modify the 
commands of his superior we cannot state. And what G«n. 
Banks's design was in pushing our single regiment against the entire 
army of a victorious enemy we cannot say. The fioict still remaiuB 



• Oen. Andrewf, at that time Colonel, commanding the 3d Man. regiment, ftuBiahaa 
mewiththii. 



186 ** OYEBFOWEBnfO." I B62. 

that it was a shockiiigly mismanaged battle, and that eyery 
man of us knows now, what Gen. Grordon and Col. Beal belieyed 
then, that the woods was our best pdUtion for the reasons already 
giyen. Bat of coarse we coald not have sayed the day ! We 
coald only have inflicted a heavier loss on the enemy, for the 
latter poared regiment after regiment apon oar line, how many 
we cannot say exactly, only that at the last, the rebel reports state, 
there were the brigades of Branch and Winder, the renmants of 
Campbell's and Taliaferro's, which had retamed to the fight, and 
the fresh brigades of Archer and Pender. 

Bat we need not discuss how many rebels were in oar front. 
They had a continuous line, from the road up to Gordon's rights 
which they overlapped so far that it would seem as if Pender^s 
brigade was out of musket range. The reports of the rebel 
generals are very full (see Vol. ix, Frank Moore's Rebellion 
Record), and from them it appears that afler their first disaster, 
they poured troops in upon us as fast as legs could bring them. 
More troops could hardly have been crowded into their line, and 
the loss in Pender's brigade (only fifteen in all), which overlapped 
and flanked Gordon's extreme right, shows how lightly it was 
engaged. The loss in Winder's brigade was also light, ten killed, 
and fifteen wounded ; its commander, Col. Ronald, attributing it 
to his having charged, instead of fighting with powder and ball. 
This, in plain English, means that the force in his front was used 
up before he (Ronald) came into the fight. 

The most amusing part of the rebel reports, is the assertion 
that they were overpowered by superior numbers in the first 
part of the battle ! The four battalions which made the charge 
under Gen. Crawford, numbered a few more than 1,573, in the 
aggregate,* an average of nearly 400 to a battalion. The forces 
which they "overpowered" were the four old regiments of 
Campbell's brigade, and three old and two new reg'ts in Taliaferro's 
brigade. Besides these all but about two of the seven regiments 
of Jubal Early, who gives his entire force as 1,700, fell back, in more 
or less disorder. Geary's brigade, however, contended with Early's 

*Seo Crawford'! report. 



1 862. WHAT JACKSON AND TALIAFERRO SAID. 187 

right. It is certain, therefore, that nine or ten rebel regiments, 
or possibly more, were pushed back by Crawford's four.. We 
admit that the rebel regiments may have averaged less men than 
ours, but it is plain to see that the " overpowering " numbers 
were not on our side. 

We add a few extracts from the rebel generals' reports. 

Stonewall Jackson says : — 

" Whilst the attack upon Early was in progress, the main body of the federal 
infantry moved down from the wood, through the com and wheat fields, and 
fell with great vigor upon our extreme left, and by the force of superior 
numbers bearing down all opposition, turned it, and poured a destructive fire 
into its rear. Campbeirs brigade fell back in disorder. The enemy pushing 
forward, and the left fian^ of Taliaferro's brigade being by these movements 
exposed to a flank fire fell back, as did the left of Early's line, the remainder 
of his command holding its position with great firmness. 

" During the advance of the enemy, the rear of the guns of Jackson's 
division becoming exposed, they were withdrawn. At this critical moment 
Branch's brigade of Hill's division, with Winder's brigade farther to the left, 
met the federal forces flushed with their temporary triumph, and drove them 
back with terrible slaughter through the wood. The fight was still maintained 
with obstinacy between the enemy and the two brigades just named, when 
Archer and Pender coming up, a general charge was made, which drove the 
enemy across the field into the opposite woods, strewing the narrow valley 
with their dead. In this charge Archer's brigade was subjected to a heavy 
fire.* At this time the federal cavalry charged upon Taliaferro's brigade with 
impetuous valor, but were met with such determined resistance by Taliaferro's 
brigade in front, and by so galling a fire from Branch's brigade in fiank, that 
it was forced rapidly ftom the field with loss and disorder." 

Rebellion Record, Vol. ix, p. 641. 

General Taliaferro, who commanded Jackson's division after 
Winder was killed, says of the 2d (Campbell's) brigade : — 

" The conflict of this command with the enemy was most severe. The 
bayonet was freely used, and a hand-to-hand fight with superior numbers 
ensued before the right of the brigade fell back." 

Gen. Archer, commanding Archer's brigade, says in his report, 
that on coming into line : — 

• • " I rode to the road about fifty yards on my right to ascertain whether 
they were our troops or the enemy's firing there. I found it was Branch's 



• This Are was flrom Qordon's brigade I Judge. J. M. Q. 



188 abohbb's and bbanoh's BBPORTS. 1 862. 

brigade, in the open field on the right* of the road and in a line e^en with 
that of my own, halted, and firing at an enemy in front." 

He then advanced to thQ edge of the wood, and reaching it he 
^ encountered the long range ' fire of the enemy, posted in the 
margin of another wood beyond a wheat field." • 

Plainly Gordon's brigade — the 2d Mass. in particular — 

" My brigade halted here and commenced a rapid fire, which it was seTeral 
minutes before I could arrest and move the brigade forward across the open 
field. In crossing this field I was exposed to a heavy fire firom the enemy, 
who from their position in the wood were comparatively safe. My loss here 
was nineteen killed and one hundred and sixteen wounded." 

He says his own force was five regiments and battalions, in all 
1,200 men. 

Oten. Branch, commanding Branch's brigade, which I judge 
fought our regiment, says in his report : — 

"I commenced meeting the men of a brigade which had preceded me, 
retreating in great disorder and closely pursued by the enemy. Opening 
ranks to permit the fugitives to pass and pressing forward in unbroken line, 
my brigade met the enemy who had already turned the flank of Taliaferro's 
brigade, which was on the right of the road. Not in the least shaken by 
the panic cries of the fugitives, and without halting, my regiments poured 
a volley into the enemy, who broke and fled precipitately through the woods 
and across the [wheat] field. On reaching the edge of the field I discovered 
the enemy in force on the opposite side, and halting my brigade in an eligible 
position, opened fire along the whole line. For a time the enemy stood their 
ground, but we were within good range across an open field, and the execution 
we were doing (clearly perceptible to the eye), compelled them to commence 
breaking. Now it was that their cavalry attempted to charge upon General 
Taliaferro's brigade in firont." * * 

The loss in Branch's brigade is not given separately, but appears 
to have been less than fifty. 

« 

One thing more remains to be noticed : Gen. Banks evidently 
had no idea of the immense number of rebels in his front. 

Jackson was preparing to attack our batteries when he himself 
was attacked. The battle was therefore a surprise to both com- 
manders. 6en. Pope was sitting quietly in his tent at Culpeper 



*There is evidently some error here. Branch says he was on the rebel left of th* 
road, and that Taliaforro's brigade was on tbe rtbel right of the road. J. H. Q. 



l862. THE ONE OBEAT 0AU8E OF DISASTER. 189 

Court House, during the early part of the battle,* and reached 
the field too late to send McDowell (Ricketts's division) to our 
assistance. He says Banks had no authority from him to fight ; 
but Banks produces the order, which seems to settle the question. 
Jackson reported his loss as 19 officers killed and 114 wounded ; 
204 men killed, 946 wounded, and 31 missing, and this is stated 
on good authority to have occurred in ten brigades, — or forty-two 
regiments and four battalions of infantry, and one of cavalry, 
with a number of batteries. Banks's loss was probably larger in 
killed and wounded than the enemy's, and Jackson claims to 
have captured 400 prisoners. His strength is stated by Pope at 
about 8,000, which must include the cavalry. . 

Gren. Crawford has favored us with the following item of 
interest : 

" There is an issue between Pope and Banks in regard to the fighting that 
battle at all. The former asserting that he did not intend a battle should 
be fought then and there ; the latter, that Pope's instructions to him, both 
verbal and written, were almost mandatory. It was evidently Pope's intention 
that the enemy should be checked until he was ready to attack, and that no 
general battle should be fought until his forces were in hand. But Jackson 
would not wait, and Banks could do no more than he did. • ♦ • « 
My positive orders were [wlien ordered out of Culpeper on the 8th], to resist 
the approach of the epemy at all hazards, and this with one brigade of 
infantry, two batteries and Bayard's cavalry. 

" You will find, too, that Gordon was much in fault.f His support amounted 
to nothing, as far as I was concerned. Instead of coming up on my flank in 
line, supporting me closely and making the attack with me, he came up 
leisurely and by the flank, and only got into position in the rear woods, and 
made no attack whatever." 

Considering the want of harmony among all of our generals, 
it is a matter of congratulation to the country that the entire 
force of Pope was not annihilated piecemeal. Darkness and 
Jackson's ignorance of the facts, and" the superb pluck of our 
soldiers alone prevented it, in our way of thinking. 



•statement of Gorp. Samuel F. Davey, Go. B, who was a clerk at Gen. Grawlbrd's 
Headquarters. 

t From the Baeord of the 2d Mass. (Gordon's old r«giment), we learn that Gordon 
was anzioosly waiting for orders daring Grawli»rd's ohacge. 



190 



1 862. 



BATTLE OF CEDAK MOUNTAIN * 



CULPEPBR COUWTT, YIROIKIA, 



August 9, 1862. 



1 



STBENGTH IN ACTION. 

Col. Beal and Mi^\ Walker, 

Surg. Perry, Ass't Surg. Daj, and Chaplain Knox, 

2d Lt. Gould, Act'g Ac^t., and Sergt. Mig. Trudeau, 

A. Capt. Adams and 2d Lieut. Pierce, 

B. Capt. Black and 2d Lieut. Turner, 

C. Capt. Jordan, Lieuts. Redlon and Whitnej, 

D. Ist Lieut. Beardsley, 

E. Capt. Cloudman and Ist Lieut. Sargent, 

F. Capt. Knowlton and 2d Lieut. Rankin, 

G. 2d Lieut. Millett, 

H. Capt. Emerson, Lieuts. Folsom and Freeman, 

I. 1st Lieut. Mayhew, 

K. Capt. Nje, Lieuts. Bicknell and Eingslej, 



Officers. 


Mei 


2 




8 




1 


1 


2 


U 


2 


86 


8 


89 


1 


48 


2 


43 


2 


86 


1 


47 


8 


46 


1 


48 


8 


52 


26 


486 



OFFICERS KILLBD. 



Cloudman, Andrew C. 
Folsom, James C. 
Freeman, Albert W. 



Captain, 


Co. E, 


Head. 




Ist Lieut., 


" H, 


Breast. 




2d Lieut., 


" H, 


I^g, 


Died 25th. 



•This lift has been corrected from the "official list" in the items of kUled <md mor- 
tally woundedf and mining. The list of slightly wounded is very nearly a copy of the 
*' official," bat so many of the wounds which appeared to be slight at the time of making 
the report, afterward proved to be of such a serious nature that the list is of little value 
as regards the nature of the wound. 



1 862. 



CASUALTIES AT CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 



191 



OFFIGBBS WOUNDED. 



Adams, John Q. 
Nye, George H. 
Sargent, Herbert R. 
Rankin, Abel G. 



Beardsley, John D. 



Captain, 


Co. A, 


Leg— crippled for life. 


tt 


" K, 


Wrist, &c. 


Ist Lieut., 


" E. 


Nose and shoulder. 


2d Lieut., 


" F, 


Arm. 



OFFICl^BS PBI80NBBS. 
1st Lieut., Co. D, Captured after the battle. 



ENLISTED MEN KILLED. 



Co. A. 


Hamlin, Zachariah L. 


Private. 




« « 


Phillips, SewaU 


« 




Leg and head. 


" B. 


Hiter, Oliver 


(1 




Bowels. 


« (( 


Pierce, Emery E. 


« 




Head. 


" C. 


Hurd, George H. 


Serg't, 




tt 


" D. 


Bean, Silas H. 


Private. 




€1 « 


Emerson, Henry C. 


tt 






l€ tt 


Knowlan, John N. 


tt 






ft tt 


Legassie, Paul 


tt 






It tt 


McNally, Patrick 


tt 






tt It 


Plummcr, Daniel 


tt 






" E. 


Merrow, Lorenzo D. 


It 




Leg and body. 


tt tt 


Whitney, Nathan F. 


tt 




Body. 


" F. 


Marston, Charles "W. 


Serg't, 




Heart. 


" G. 


Charles, Selo F. 


Private, 


Bowels. 


" n. 


Badger, John 


tt 




Breast. 


If tt 


Field, Alvin 


tt 




Bowels. 


tt tt 


Libby, Greenfield T. 


tt 




Breast. 


(t tt 


Verrill, Edward P. 


tt 




Bowels. 


" K. 


Ryerson, Charles H. 


<t 




Body. 




ENLISTED MEN MORTALLY 


WOUNDED. 


Co. A. 


Keyes, Cincinnatus, 


Corporal, 


Bowels, 


Died Aug. 18. 


tt tt 


Kcndrick, James L. 


(( 


Leg lost, 


" Aug. 16. 


" B. 


Colley, Charles H. 


1st Serg%» 


Knee, 


" Sept. 20. 


" C. 


Jordan, Arthur T. 


Private,! 




" Oct. 80. 


(( tt 


Lancaster, Charles • 


tt 




" Aug. 8. 


tt it 


Sturtevant, Thomas D. 


tt 


Body and legs, " Aug. 26. 


tt tt 


Weymouth, George 


tt 


Abdomen, ** Aug. 19. 


" D. 


Campbell, George J. 


Corporal, 


Leg, 


" Oct, 1. 


tt tt 


Law, Thomas 


Private,^ 


Leg, 


" Aug. 18. 



•Acting Lieutenant, t Taken prisoner and paroled. ^Acting Color corporaL 



192 



OASUALTllBS AT OEDAB M0I7NTAIN. 



IS62. 



Co. D. Thompson, Edwin 


Private, 


Waist, 


Died Sept. 21. 


» " E. Anderson, Charles H. 


(( 


Body, 


" Aug. 12. 


" G. Farris, RuAis E. 


Corporal, 


Leg lost, 


" Sept. 6. 


« «< Mansfield, James H. 


(( 


Groin, 


" Aug. 11. 


'' " Bartlett, Kenneth S. 


Private, 


Leg broken. 


" Aug. 21. 


" " Gray, EldenB. 


(( 


Knee, 


" Oct. 12. 


" H. Ricker, Henry J. 


Private, 


Breast, 


" Aug. 17. 


BNLI8TBD UBX SEVERELY WOUNDED. 






Co. A. 






Ayer, George S. 


Corp. (colors). 


Shoulder, 


Discharged. 


Satherland, Charles 


Private, 


ti 


t€ 


Spear, Christopher C. 


tt 


Hip, 


U 


Walker, Freeman F. 


Co. B. 


I«g, 


H 


Alexander, Reuben 


Sergt. (colors). 


Leg and foot, 


Discharged.* 


Backley, Michael 


Private, 


Finger lost. 




Kerrigan, Andrew 


« 


Arm, 


Discharged. 


Miles, Benjamin C. 


(( 


Wrist. 


Discharged.* 


Smith, Almado R. 


« 


Arm. 




Stone, John 


it 
Co. C. 


i€ 




Cobb, Barzilla S. 


Private, 


Mouth, 


Discharged. 


Mayberry, William R. 


u 


Arm and waist, " 


Plaisted, Byron G. 


(C 


Breast, 


f( 


Russell, WilUam 0. 


(( 






Tighe, Dennis 


Co. D. 


Head. 




Donnelly, Edward 


Private, 


I^g. 


Died Sept. '68. 


Hanson, Edward H. 


« 


Head, 


Discharged. 


Johnson, Freeman W. 


« 


Leg and ami 


\. 


Kelley, Amos 


(( 


Leg. 




Marston, Henry M. 


(( 


Leg broken. 




Moran, Garrett 


t< 


• 




NcNeil, Nelson 


it 


Thigh. 




MicNulty, John 


« 


Wrist, 


Discharged. 


Smith, Joseph 


« 


Arm. 




Spencer, Benjamin P. 


(( 


Face. 





•Died won after diNhArfe. 



1 862. 



CASUALTIES AT CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 



193 



Nojes, William S. 
Andrew, William 
Bornham, Charles H. 
BBU, Ivory L. 



Haskell, Charles H. 
Gonld, George H. 
Eastman, Thomas A. 
Oage, George W. 
Gordon, John H. 
Pearson, Lewis E. 
Stirk, Henry 
Tnifant, John A. 



Cummings, Joseph W. 
Estes, Nathan C. 
MerriU, WUliam B. 
Powers, Thomas 
Russell, Benjamin Jr., 
Whitney, Theodore 



Cobum, George B. 
Harradon, George W.* 
Irish, Samuel F. 
Fargo, Charles O. 
Morrill, Alonzo F. 
Stevens, Ezra F. 
True, Virgil 
Trask, William H. 
Warren, John 
Wright, Lyman H.* 



Lord, Charles J. 
Simpson, William R. 



Co. E. 

Corporal, 
Private, 



it 



It 



Shotdder. 
Leg. 
Nose &c. 



'^^Jjk^C*v^ /Lost arm,t^ « D^charged. y^ yj 



Co. F. 



1st Sergeant, 


Hand. 




Corporal, 


Leg. 




Private, 


Hip and head. 


n 


Side. 




it 


Head. 




(< 


Wrist. 




u 


Ankle, 


Discharged. 


tt 


Hip, 


Discharged. 


Co. G. 






Private, 


Hand. 




it 


Foot, 


Discharged. 


it 


Shoulder. 




It 


Leg, 


Discharged. 


It 


Leg. 




It 


Shoulder and foot. 


Co. H. 






Sergeant, 


Knee. 




Corporal, 


Side, 


Discharged. 


(( 


Thigh. 




Private, 


Leg, 


Discharged. 


It 


Bowels, 


Discharged. 


tt 


Hip. 




It 


Thigh. 




tt 


Leg. 




tt 


Ankle. 




It 


Leg and arm 


, Discharged. 


Co. I. 






Corporal, 


Jaw. 




tt 


Lungs, 


Discharged. 



* Harradon and Wright were loft in hospital and captured Aug. 19tli. Paroled and 
exchanged afterward. 

13 



194 



CASUALTIES AT OEDAB MOUNTAIN. 



1862. 



Baston, Ephraim K. 


PriTate, 


Arm. 




Batchelder, Henry A. 


it 


Under the eye. 


Bisbee, Elisha T. 


t€ 


Leg, 


Discharged. 


Bisbee, Robert 


it 


Thigh. 




Hill, Appleton D. 


tt 


Shoulder. 




Hill, BufUf N. 


U 


Leg. 


Discharged. 


Johnson, Andrew J. 


it 


Ann. 




Kerrigan, Edward 


tt 

Co. K 


Left shlder. 


Discharged. 


Nash, Jonathan 


Sergeant, 


Leg and ankle. 


BickneU, Delphinus B. 


Corporal, 


Shoulder. 




Colley, Joseph 0. 


Prirate, 


Foot. 






BUaHTLY WOUNDED. 






Co. A. 






Tarr, James F. 


Sergeant, 


Finger. 




Berwin, Joseph 


Private, 


Head. 




Higginson, John 


« 


Thigh. 




Kendrick, Qeorge W. 


«( 


Hand. 




Kowe, Daniel M. 


•< 
Co. B. 


Arm. 




Loveitt, Edward W. 


Corporal, 


Neck. 




PenneU, William H. 


« 


Side, 


Discharged. 


Delano, Theodore V. 


Private, 


Leg. 




Eustis, Frank F. 


If 


Neck. 




Powers, James 


Co. C. 


Leg. 




Annas, John G. 


Private. 






Hamilton, William P. 


Co. D. 


Shoulder. 




Libby, Chandler 


Sergeant, 


Shoulder. 




Bugbee, Thomas S. 


Private, 


Side. 




Hatchinson, Albert H. 


f< 


Arm. 




Legassie, Joseph 


tt 


Shoulder. 




Libby, EUas T. 


tt 


(( 




McBrien, Dundas 


tt 


I^g, 


Discharged. 


Moran, Allan, 


tt 


Hand and leg. 


Sibley, William 


tt 


Arm. 





1 862. 



CASUALTIES AT OEDAB HOUlTrAIN. 



195 



Smith, Joseph 
Wallace, William 



Priyate, 



WaiBt. 
Leg. 



Mackiii, Joseph F. 
Hojt, John L. 
Huff, Willam A. 
Porter, Charles C. 
Smith, Harrison W. 
Whittemore, Eben C. 



Merrill, Joseph S. 
Grant, Samuel R. 
Knight, Abel J. 
Sayago, Henry A. 



Cushman, Zebedec 

Chase, Charles 

Greenleaf, Charles F. 
Knox, Samuel Jr. 
Noble, Harrison G. 
Widber, James S. 



Emerson, Ivory W. 
Brooks, Joseph 
Foster, Ambrose A. 
Lane, Edwin A. 
Pratt, Henry C. 
Richardson, Charles 
Sawyer, Greenlicf 
Stetson, David L. 
Stevens, Samuel L. 



Co. E. 

Corp., (colors) Knee. 
Private, Arm. 



Babb, Henry S. 
Ripley, Nathaniel D. 



it 


Finger. 


n 


Hand. 


It 


Side. 


Co. F. 




Sergeant, 


Head. 


Private, 


Hand. 


« 


Leg. 


« 


Head. 


Co. Q. 


/ 


Sergeant, 


Ruptured by carrying off 
wounded on the retreat of the 
regiment. 


Private, 


Run over, trampled on and 
badly bruised by the cavalry 
after battle. 


(C 


Knee, Discharged. 


n 


Ann, Pris'r, Discharged. 


f( 


Hand, Prisoner. 


it 


Arm, 


Co.H. 




Sergeant, 


Hip. 


Private, 


Arm. 


fi 


Ear. 


it 


Leg. 


tt 


Hip. 


tt 


Hand. 


tt 


Hip. 


tt 


Foot. 


Co. I. 




Corporal, 


Side. 


tt 


Arm. 



196 



OASUALTIES AT OEDAB MOUNTAIN. 



1862. 



Cotton, Aaron D. 


Priyate, 


Temple 


Daris, Benjamin F. 


it 


Thigh. 


Hodgdon, Andrew J. 


« 


Knee. 


Roberts, Cassius C. 


f( 


Leg. 


Welch, James 


<c 


Arm. 



Co. K. 



Thorn, Thomas A. 


Corporal, 


Breast. 




Bailey, Hewitt C. 


Priyate, 


Thigh, 


Discharged. 


Bond, Houghton 


C( 


Side. 




Cobom, Horace J. 


«c 


Month. 




Coombs, Artemas 


u 


Foot. 




Frost, Alonzo G. 


t€ 


Side. 




Hodsdon, Albert P. 


U 


Head. 




Morrill, John R. 


tt 


Mouth. 




Pio, James H. 


C( 


Head. 




Wjman, George P. 


« 


Arm. 





TAKEN PBISONEBS. 



Dayis, William S. 


Sergeant, 


Co. A. 




Weeks, Robert M. 


tt 


Co. C. 




Mullen, Ozias 


Private, 


Co. C. 




Miller, John 


tt 


Co. D. 




Thorn, John 0. 


tt 
TOTAL LOSS. 


Co. L 




Officers. 


Killed and mortally wounded, 


3 




Wounded, 




4 




Prisoners, 




1 

— 8 


Enlisted men. 


Killed, 




20 




Mortally wounded, 




16 




Severely " 




66 




SUghtly 




64 




Prisoners, 




6 
— 171 




Aggregate loss. 




179 



1 862. 



CASUALTIES AT CEDAB MOUNTAIN. 



197 



STBENQTH 



of Crawfor<r» brigade at the battle of Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 186i. 



28th Regiment N. Y. Vols. Commissioned Officers, 18 



ft 



(( 



46th 


If 


Penn. 


"1 


10th 


tt 


Me. 


tt 


5th 


i€ 


Conn. 


1* 



Icei 


rs, 18 


Enlisted 


men, 889 


tt 


28 


« 


" 481 


tt 


26 


(( 


" 486 


tt 


21 


ft 


" 424 



88 



1,679 



To which must he added — officers and 267 enlisted men of the 8d Wis., 
making about 2,050 aggregate. 



LOSS. 







• 

-i 

a 

s 


1 
1 


• 

s 




• 
E 


1 


• 


• 


28th N. T. 


Officers, 


1 


6 


10 


Enlisted men. 


20 


73 


108 


218 


46th Penn. 


(( 


2 


8 


8 


(( It 


28 


94 


104 


244 


10th Me. 


It 


2 


5 


1 


It It 


22 


140 


8 


178 


5th Conn. 


tt 


3 


8 


2 


tt tt 


18 


63 


148 


287 



8 27 21 88 370 863* 

Aggregate loss in Crawford's brigade, 867 

do. do. including 80 in the 3d Wisconsin, 947 



867 



•The official report states that many of the missing may have been killed or wounded. 



198 1 862. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

POPE'S BETBBAT COMMENCES. 

Our duties in town after the battle were arduous ; we furnished 
guards for every thing and every where, and also had heavy 
details for hospital duty, so that half the regiment was always out 
of camp. We grumbled at this as usual, but it was well for us to 
be occupied, and complimentary to our discipline. Then on Aug. 
13th we had a brigade review, tedious and uninteresting as all 
such reviews are, but relieved by the sight of a brigadier in tears, 
for Gen. Crawford broke down while reciting to us the virtues of 
the dead and the valor of our deeds. 

Next, on Aug. 15th, we had a division review, and the day after. 
Major Perkins, of Banks's staff, inspected us, and found so many 
rickety muskets, that he condemned the whole lot — so the rumor 
went, at least, — and we hoped for Springfields to replace them. 
It was curious to see how many of the muskets had been wounded 
in the battle. The number of them was not taken by count, but 
I estimated them at the time to be about one-tenth ; however, all 
the wounded muskets were purposely brought out for inspection 
that the Major might see them. 

Aug. 18th, every organization of the federal army was mustered, 
and a roll of absentees was sent to the war department. That 
same afternoon we received orders to put three days cooked 
rations in our haversacks, which were supposed to have sixty 
spare rounds of cartridges in them before. By some misunder- 
standing of the order to put knapsacks in the wagons, half the 
men packed their tents, blankets and rubbers. We heard all kinds 
of rumors of our destination, and it is worth noting, as showing 
the temper of the men, that we talked of Fredericksburg and 
** the Valley," much more than we did of the Rappahannock ; now 



l862. TWENTY MILES OP MULES AND WAGONS. 199 

y this you may know, for the wish is father to the thought, how 
little a retreat, that is, a retreat forced by the enemy, was in the 
minds of the men. The next day, however, after having shivered 
all night in sight of our old camp gi'ound, and blundered along 
all day, the first symptoms appeared of that vast demoralization 
which so soon prevailed in the two federal armies in Virginia. 
I have stated that we shivered all night in sight of our camp ; 
this was on account of the delay of the wagon trains, and never 
before nor since was it our lot to see and to curse them, as it was 
now and during the whole of what is called Pope's retreat. 

These trains were moving all day of the 18th, on different 
roads around the town, but during the night the rumbling was 
not incessant, because the trains ahead were blocked, yet the 
braying of mules and oaths of the guards and teamsters made 
noise enough. The diary states that " the number of wagons 
that have passed is unmense, perfectly immense^ ahout twenty 
miles of them it is said." We marched eleven miles in nearly 
as many hours (Aug. 19th), halting continually to see the mule- 
menagerie exhibit. Only a very few broken-down wagons were 
passed, and by and by we came to the wide, open plateau on the 
south side of Rappahannock Station, afterward so familiar to both 
armies, crossed on the railroad bridge, and camped in a field of 
weeds a little down river. Here, the diary shows plainly, we felt 
blue: 

" A rebel Major (Fitzlmgh) who rode as prisoner with Gen. Williams's staff 
to-day, is reported to have said that this movement of Gen. Pope has saved 
him a fight, for Lee is at our heels." 

This was the news for the day ; we learned also that McClellan 
was leaving the Peninsula. About noon next day, we heard a 
sharp musketry over in the woods beyond the plateau, on the 
south side, then saw from the railroad bank a scampering of 
cavalry, and learned from the stragglers as they came over, that 
"the whole of Lee's army is across the river." Later in the 
afternoon, a brigade or more of cavalry formed near the river, 
and charged the rebel cavalry that had previously driven them. 
We watched them from elevated places, and witnessed, for the 
first time, a respectable cavalry charge. It was the same sight 



200 CAVALRY CHARGE. 1862. 

that poets and enthasiasts have been vainly trying to describe 
since wars began, and though many of us had read heroic verses, 
and seen many pictures of battles, yet I think no one had gathered 
the faintest idea from them of what a true charge is ; and I must 
remind you of the impression we received by seeing the sweeping 
mass of horses and men, and the great rolling cloud of dust which 
followed. They seemed to be one, and there was a life and a 
common motive which inspired the thousand actors, and rolled 
them on like a gigantic wave, till they broke the enemy's line. 
In this charge our 1st Maine cavalry, then as always among the 
very best in the service, took a prominent part. 

August 21st. Pope's retreat became now a thing evident to 
our senses. We heard that McClellan's army was coming. FitsB- 
John Porter's and Heintzelman's corps were named, but this did 
not fill our stomachs nor keep the rain off. It was rather a 
new experience to us to learn that our trains were a short distance 
ofE, and yet not allowed to come to us with clothing and rations. 
The country all around was miserably destitute. We found a 
few berries, and some of the more lucky got a piece of " beef-on- 
the-hoof." The Colonel allowed us great liberty, and we covered 
the country for twenty-four hours, but there was nothing to find 
but the leavings of other regiments. About noon we were moved 
into the woods and ordered to keep out of sight of the enemy, 
who was supposed to be in the woods on the other side of the 
river, a mile or two from us. We here built bough huts to sleep 
in, but at dusk were ordered to the river, and after going down 
two miles we slept in the road, and enjoyed another fine shower 
very much indeed I Co. E, Lieut. Bicknell of Co. K commanding, 
went on picket over the ford near by. Cannonading was heard 
occasionally all day, especially from the batteries on the hill at 
the station. 

SUPPORTING SIGEL. 

Next day (Aug. 22d) we returned to our bough huts "before 
breakfast," the diary states, though that must have been meant 
for a poor joke I think. We found a regiment occupying them, 
and a lousier set we had not seen at that time, judging from the 



1 862. " WE FIGHTS MIT SIGEL.^ 201 

"signs" on the clothing they had cast oflf. After eating that 
breakfast we were hurried off up river. Our corps was supporting 
Sigel's though we did not know it, nor did we know what a 
passion that famous German had for using artillery, and so we 
supposed there was a meaning to all the noise we heard. 

A roll call was ordered at 11 a. m., and the following was 
reported at this time, (by a brigade clerk) : 

10th Me., 287 men with muskets, Co. E being out ; 46th Penn. 
about the same ; 6th Conn, about 200 muskets ; 28th N. Y. 78 
muskets, or about 880 fighting men in the brigade. 

We had no idea where we were, only that we found and 
relieved Milroy's brigade of Sigel's corps, and heard a great deal 
of cannonading farther up but not a great way off. The " ball 
had opened " early, and was lively all day. • At 2.15 p. m. we had 
halted again, and were in a beautiful country on the roadside. 
McDowell's and Sigel's troops were said to be to the front, right 
and left, in the fields on the river bank. 

The cannonading grew furious. We could see nothing, how- 
ever, but our own brigade, as we were so far away and screened 
by woods. 

" At 3 p. M. we heard musketry directly in our front, i. e., on the riyer 
banks ; detailed a guard to keep the boys back from exposing our position/' 

Later, we learned that Gen. Bohlen — a Pole — of Sigel's com- 
mand, was killed. His troops spoke highly of him and of his 
braveiy, and added tliat he was a scholar and could speak thir- 
teen languages. The fight was unimportant, but successful to 
our side, they said. Toward niglit we had a Virginia thunder 
storm, and Heaven's artillery drowned out Sigel's. We were 
moved during the storm a quarter or a half mile nearer to the 
river, floundering around in the dark about an hour, during 
which rain water, profanity, thunder, hogs, lightning and mud 
were " mixed." The storm subsided, the mud was marched out 
of, and the hogs were killed in a wink. After we had settled for 
the night about fifty recruits came in. The luxuries of a hurrah 
and of a light to welcome our friends, were dispensed with from 
necessity. But we were very glad to see them, though they had 
neither muskets nor accoutrements. They were a part of the 



202 THE DUTGHHEN — SULPHUR SPRINGS. 1 862. 

"Three hundred thousand more" which the song says were 
" coming." 

Aug. 23d, Saturday. Hot and rainy as before. Started at 
9.30 for somewhere, the best man could not guess where ; then 
we turned about and came back, took another road and by and 
by halted in a field for some hours under a blazing sun. Here 
Sigel's whole corps passed us. We were verj' much pleased 
in seeing them go past, and in noticing how patient and perse- 
vering they all seemed to be. There has been from first to last a 
disposition to " crowd " these " Dutchmen." It is true, that in 
common with some Yankees we might name, they did some hard 
running at Chancellorsville, where they were a part of the 11th 
corps under Gen. Howard, but (I am sure I speak the sentiment 
of our regiment) we respected them, and looked to them and 
their favorite leader, — Sigel — as the " fighting stock " of Pope's 
array. 

After Sigel with his Dutchmen and jackass batteries had 
passed, we followed them. We rarely saw a citizen or negro, 
after leaving Culpeper Court House, and so rarely learned where 
we were, or how far we had marched ; the distances here given 
are the mean result of guess work, particularly of Captain Nye 
and myself. We passed a guide board at length, showing JeflTer- 
son five miles (over the river), and the Springs three miles. So 
we learned that we were marching towards the famous Sulphur 
Springs. We were plodding quietly in the mud, when about 
sunset a furious cannonade commenced ahead of us, but after 
receiving orders to load, and after many moves and halts, much 
expectation and fear, all became quiet again and we marched up 
hill by light of the great torch of the signal corps, then filed 
right and went down a hill and through a ravine, and round and 
round in the wet grass, swearing and tumbling, damning every 
body, from Pope down to our cooks, who were eating up our 
rations in the wagons while we starved. We had no rations 
that day except a little green com, — very green indeed, — and the 
crumbs, bones and coffee-grounds which Sigel's men had thrown 
away. We noticed that they managed somehow to keep enough 
at all times, and we also saw with them numbers of sturdy 



1 862. ONE SPOONFUL OF MOLASSES. 203 

fellows— cook8 — groaning under the weight of mess pails and 
small rations. We learned after a while how to take care of our 
rations as well as the Germans. 

Fires were still fSrbidden, so we lay down in our wet clothes 
on the damp ground, and miseried away till morning. We owe 
our thanks to some one of our generals, who begged three-quarters 
of a barrel of hard bread for us, by which each man had two 
" rounds." We also each received two or three spoonfuls of coffee, 
and one spoonful of molasses, and the memory of it to this day 
gives us joy. Officers, who generally have the benefits which 
come from money and position, now fared no better than the men. 

Pardon me for exulting over a stomach not starved : I had 
kept a sharp lookout all day from my saddle, and found a number 
of hard tack, some in the mud, which were easily whittled clean, 
and some that had soaked in a Dutchman's haversack, till they 
tasted of tobacco, pork and matches. These I ate, but by and by 
a beautiful clean piece was found, only it proved to be buggy, and 
this was too much for a full stomach ; so I gave it to a comrade 
and thereby laid the foundation of a friendship which has grown, 
during the years that have followed, to be one of more than 
ordinary strength. 

TROUBLES GATHER. 

Aug. 24th, we heard of a strange mishap at Catlett's Station, 
caused by studying the probable lines of retreat of our opponents 
and leaving our own to take care of themselves. No particulars 
further than that the rebel cavalry had burnt up many wagons, 
and had " gone through " Pope's baggage, but the regimental 
train was too far north for the raiders to trouble it. We lay 
around till late, in the vicinity of our last night's bivouac, expecting 
every minute to march. We heard a rumor that the cannonading 
of yesterday was with a small force of rebels which had crossed 
the Rappahannock and had re-crossed again during the night, and 
any one can see by Gen. Pope's report (Frank Moore's Rebellion 
Record, Vol. v, p. 368), that we were supporting Sigel. On the 
23d (yesterday), our German friends had found the enemy on our 
side of the river, which was too much swollen to allow re-crossing. 



204 UNTOUOHT BATTLE AT SULFHUB SPRINGS. 1 862. 

Thinking they had caught the rebela in a trap, they attacked and 
drove them up river, but after crossing Great Run the enemy 
burnt the bridge and invited the Dutchmen to swim over I Our 
Qen. Pope, it seems, telegraphed to Gen. Hafteck that he would 
capture them, but I find no report of the capture. 

Wo wore profoundly ignorant of all this ; we did indeed hear 
a rumor in effect the same as the above, but thought little of it. 
It obtained a bare mention in the diary as a rumor, whereas a 
whole pnge is given to the discussion of the ration question, 
which shows plainly what we cared mostly for. Late in the 
fi)retiooti wo tnarchod back some distance and struck across the 
imuntry, no one know where, for we lost our reckoning entirely. 
A ft»w InnlMod that wo wore on the other side of the river, but 
ihwii* IIiIUmI to toll wlion and where we had crossed! Soon after 
wo hoard 11 iihiirp nrtillory fire ahead of us ; then saw a commotion 
iiiiioh^Mt tho touinstors, cavalry squads and other panic-makers ; 
iiOKt wo wortt punIkmI forward and saw half a dozen batteries in 
poMit Ion or proparing for action on the brow of the hill ahead. 
Wa Maw the enemy's shell exploding over our batteries, and 
thoiiglit that we were to have the pleasure of a fight on empty 
ntuniadiH. Wo were not rushed in however, but were filed out 
of tho road into the woods, the old iron of the rebels flying over 
our houtlH, making the flopping sound peculiar to slow, oblong 
Hliot, and giving rise to a well credited rumor, that the rebels used 
railroad iron for missiles. 

A newspaper reporter was riding with our brigade about this 
time, though reporters had been banished fl*om the army ; and a 
beautiful lady in a green riding habit also hap[5ened to be near; 
tho reporter suddenly became missing, but the lady, under charge 
of an old German staff* oflScer, rode along without even turning 
white, which is more than I can say of many in our army. We 
were told that this was SigePs wife, but whoever she was, she 
deserves honorable mention for her excellent behavior under 
fire. By and by after climbing up and down hill in the woods, 
and trying to teach our horses to walk over brooks on logs, (this 
was a failure ; not even my old acrobat could do it), we all of a 
sudden came into the open fields around the Springs and saw 



1 862. A NIOOEB IN J. P.'S UNIFORM. 205 

the great hotel buildings standing out in striking contrast with 
the poverty we had left behind us. Simultaneously with this we 
observed other troops passing ahead of us, and saw that after all 
there would be no battle. This knowledge and the scenery 
affected us favorably. We presently struck a turnpike road and 
marched up river on it, leaving the batteries pounding away 
behind us. After going two or three miles we halted near a cross 
road, waiting for orders. Here we were told by a negro woman 
that the rebel cavalry had passed this morning, with 108 (or 180) 
yankee prisoners, and that they had been down to Catlett's Station 
" and got Mister Pope's best coat out of his trunk, then had put 
it on a nigger, and paraded him all around the town" (Warrenton 
C. H.). Our cavalry had passed an hour after in pursuit. 

Late in the afternoon, we moved again, taking the left hand 
road — ^toward the river — ^leaving the Warrenton pike to the right, 
and after dark turned into an abandoned hay field, having had to 
wait, as usual, for a long train of Sigel to be dug out of the mire. 
Here, at nine o'clock, an ambulance-full of rations was issued to 
us. We were permitted to build " small fires," and followed the 
common r^le of taking an ell where an inch is given. Then 
after nine we lay down happy — I believe this was the one happy 
hour in Pope's retreat — and slept with our shoes off, and horses 
unsaddled. I have neglected to notice all the thunder storms we 
had during this week of misery. As well as I can recollect, we 
had rain eveiy day, and mud always after leaving the railroad. 
Then we were generally waiting for some of Sigel's wagons to 
get out of our way, and this waiting for the wagons is one of 
the meanest of duties. 

August 25th, Monday. Cooler. We noticed the smoke of a 
big fire down river somewhere, before starting. We continued 
marching up river this morning, and were doing well, when " halt " 
came. We were marching up Piney Mountain and could see 
across the river, among other things, a train of rebel wagons 
moving up. Then we were ordered to face about and take to 
the woods and fields. This was done, and down came our friend 
Sigel, talking German very sharply. Nils Hanson and Joe Berwin 
told us that he was swearing because we were tagging after him. 



206 •* STRATEGY." 1 862. 

We were told that be bad just called our Gen. Crawford very 
bard names for following bim, and be would now tell Gen. Banks 
tbat tbis was bis figbt — be bad all tbe troops be wanted — he 
wisbed we were in — (I didn't learn exactly wbere, and tboagb I 
think I know, I prefer not to state wbat is uncertain!). Finally, 
after waiting till 4 p. m^ dunng wbicb time we ate green com 
till we could eat no more, we continued tbe retrograde movement^ 
marched clear back to tbe Warrenton pike, wbere the negress 
had told us tbe latest news, then turned to our left toward 
Warrenton, and made fine time along tbat magnificent road. 
The diary names tbis return movement " strategy." Tbis word 
became slang after McClellan's so called strategical change of 
base on tbe peninsula, and in common with all slang terms it had 
a great range of meaning with us. 

When within two or three miles of the Court House, we 
turned off on tbe dirt road to tbe right, and bivouacked two 
miles farther on. Tbe night was chilly ; it was dusk when we 
halted, but the sight of a house, fences and bay ricks cheered us. 
The old gentleman told one of us tbat be bad never seen a 
yankee soldier before, and I fear his acquaintance with Craw- 
ford's brigade must have been au unpleasant one, for Cothran's 
battery sent every wagon and spare horse over for com and hay. 
All tbe other wagoners and ambulance drivers followed. Then 
every man wanted hay for a bed, and tbe staff horses must have 
a nibble too. Tben tbe fences all went up in smoke, so tbat tbe 
diary says ; 

It wag like what Munjoy Hill in Portland would be if every house were 
afire. * « * The recruits stand it well. We passed by some of 
McDowell's troops just before leaving the pike to turn in here. Not much 
cannonading to-day. 

WE LBAYB THE BIVER. 

The rebels had now succeeded in crossing the river, and were 
flanking Pope's right, 

August 26, 1862, Tuesday. Opened hot after a cold night. Marched at 
eight, still towards Bealeton. Passed the Maine cavalry and hurrahed for 
them. Many of our old 1st Maine boys are in this cavalry. We plodded 



1 862. POPE MASSES AT BULL BUN. 207 

along as usual, making fire miles in ten hours. The men are terribly jaded, 
literally half starred and in great want of meat. We are dirty, and are 
becoming lousy again. This constant marching and countermarching to no 
apparent purpose, is aggravating in the extreme. 

"We finally camped in woods, with Gens. Banks and Williams 
in tents on one flank, and Gen. Crawford under a fly on the 
other. We furnished guard for the latter, and he gave them 
all a breakfast in the morning, for which mercy he must be thanked. 

Aug. 27th, Wednesday. Opened hot again. We heard cannonading during 
the night toward Washington, and this morning yery sharp firing was heard 
coming firom the same location and during the forenoon also. The story goes 
that they haye got in our rear — a pleasant theme for consideration, but not 
sufficiently authenticated to worry about. 

It was well that we did not know the mischief Jackson was 
cutting up on those lines of retreat that Gen. l^ope had left to take 
care of themselves. We marched at 1 p. m. with some haste, 
passed Bcaletou Station, and kept along the railroad through a 
a vast, barren tract of wilderness, where nature and man seemed 
to have striven to outdo each other in making it worthless and 
uninhabitable. We camped a mile south of Warrenton Junction, 
in a place reeking with the filth from other troops, the air thick 
with the stench from a hundred carcasses, and no water to be 
found. This last, after what wc had gone through in the matter 
of rain water, during the past fortnight, was hard. Apparently 
it had not rained hereabouts during the summer. To give any 
idea of the completeness of our vexation and how we cursed and 
raved, I will not attempt. 

POPE MASSES AT BULL RUN — HOOKEE's FIGHT. 

Aug. 28th, Thursday. Hot — windy — dusty. We were up, and had gone 
through the motions of eating breakfast before daylight. We took a north- 
east direction and kept alongside the railroad track all day. There appeared 
to be no road but the one made by so many wagons and troops passing oyer 
the level country, from which the pioneers have removed obstructions. We 
had a tedious time of it, halting every five or ten minutes in the sun. We 
passed Catlett's Station, and saw a few remaining evidences of the raid, and 
at length crossed Kettle Run, where the rebels have lately burned the railroad 
bridge, and though it was dark when we camped, we had marched only six or 



208 jackbon's raid. 1862. 

•eyen miles dnring the day. This delay was occasioned by haring to bring 
up the rear of the wag^n train. 

There are, I should judge, about a hundred railroad cars waiting for the 
engineers to construct a bridge ; this done the cars can moye on to Washing- 
ton, with their thousands of sick, and millions of dollars' worth of ammunition 
and stores. 

The operations of the rebels here are worthy of praise. They hare 
marched a respectable force half around our army, and right. here where we 
camp, they yesterday morning fought our forces. The story goes that they 
were beaten, but certainly they have burnt two bridges, one here and another 
nearer Manassas Junction, and now this evening, we hear a Ycry spirited 
cannonading coming from the northwest, and evidently fh)m four to seven 
miles away. They say that McDowell and Sigel will take care of this raiding 
party if it tries to get out by the west, while to the right are two or three 
divisions of the army of the Potomac, which were ahead of us and in sight 
when we marched this morning, and I trust that they had an easier time in 
getting over the road than we had. t 

It did look so, but alas! my companions, there's many a slip 
'twixt the cup and the lip ! 

August 29th, Friday, Quite warm, a little windy and very dusty in our 
vicinity. It is evening now as I write, and we are all awake to the fact that a 
battle has been going on and has not yet ended. We have remained very 
quiet* all day, sunning ourselves on the top of a little knoll on the west side 
of the railroad and north of the brook. All is very quiet and orderly with us. 
A regiment of the 8d brigade has a camp-guard on, and it makes our boys 
laugh to see the poor fellows cooped up in their narrow limits. It appears 
that the fight hero was between Hooker's division, principally Sickles's brigade, 
and a larger force of rebels under Ewell. About twenty-five graves of union 
soldiers adjoin our camp, and about 150 wounded of both armies are around 
in sheds and tents and under trees. The rebel force was whipped out hand- 
somely, though the wounded boys of our army say they (the federals) were 
all out of ammunition and had at last to simply charge with empty muskets. 
The rebels have run a train of cars ofi* the track at Manassas, burned the cars 
and a bridge near there, and then retreated west by the way they came. 
Yesterday evening we heard cannonading, which seemed to be quite near us ; 
this morning it opens again and has been growing less and less distinct, but 
more and more spirited, at times being a continuous roar. McDowell is 



* While here the men of Co. H went oat one side and cast their votes for a lieutenant. 
The expression was nearly nnanimons in £avor of Granville Blake, the 4th corporal. 
The company did credit to itself by this choice. Blake borrowed a sword and went on 
duty at once, and followed the company throagh thick and thin both In the 10th and 29th 
eontribnting more than an average share towards making oar regiment what It was. 



208 JACnOK'S RAID. »•*«• 




'C^^'-7--Z''t^-€-^C''€^ 



/?/^^. 



CAPTAIN CO. H 29th ME.VET, VOLS. 
BRVT. M/U. VOLS. 



lS62. JACKSON'S BAID. 209 

supposed to hare adyanced flrom Warrenton, and Sigel to haTC gone toward 
Thoroughfare Gap, to cut off the retreat of Jackson, who heads this raid. 
That part of the army of the Potomac which was ahead of us jesterday, is 
said to he engaging the enemy now. McCall's Penn. Keserrcs are mentioned 
as haying been seen in the battle field by some one. Fitz-John Porter's teams 
hare been passing in lately. 

Toward erening a surgeon came down from Manassas Junction. He had 
seen another surgeon just from the battle ground, who reported that our right 
wing had driven the rebels' left, but our left had been in turn driven by the 
rebels. This was not altogether satisfactory, since the driving of our left was 
about equivalent to cutting off Banks's corps. A great many of the troops 
now in Pope's command had not engaged as yet, and vast numbers were on 
their way out of Washington, or moving from their late positions up and down 
the Rappahannock. Our folks were occupying the greater part of the old 
Bull Run battle field. Later came our newspaper carrier. Ward of Co. £. 
He had been as far as Centerville, but had found no newspi^iers. He said 
the fight was a terrific one, particularly over to the west Every one he met 
was confident that Jackson was trapped and would get an unmerciAil thrashing. 
Still later than this came some cavalry, saying the fight had not ended, which 
was evident, for we heard the cannonading till after 8 p. m. 

We have lain here all day without excitement or a feeling of care — ^picking 
the lice off our clothes, and washing in Kettle Run. We are indifferent 
to everything we see or hear. The fkct that we stand a good chance of being 
" gobbled up," troubles no one. As well as I can learn, it is six or eight miles 
to the left of the line of battle, which is hardly supporting distance. The 
engrineer corps have been at work all day on the bridge, but by night they had 
so little done, that by order, Capt. Knowlton took fifty men and worked all 
night. Trudeau, our Sergt. Major, has conversed with a wounded rebel, who 
says he is glad to be wounded and so to have escaped the clutches of Jackson, 
who nearly kills his men by forced marches, short rations and constant service. 
He said their division went into the fight (here at Kettle Run) expecting to be 
overpowered and whipped, and that there is a general gloom in the rebel camp. 

Tliis man, I judge, was a conscript — Jackson's soldiers generally, 
when taken prisoners, did not abuse him. So much from the 
diary written Friday, and finished early Saturday morning. Id 
brief, we were promised great things, and with good reasons, but 
the sun went down without their fulfillment. Jackson won great 
renown for what was more our weakness, than his greatness. 
Banks's entire corps lay idle, guarding the raiboad trains, and we, 
in common with the others, listened to the ominous sounds, but 
were too depressed in body and spirits to care for anything. It 
14 



210 WE REPAIB A BRIDGE. 1 862. 

is out of our province to criticize what was beyond our knowledge, 
hence we will say nothing of the policy which kept us at Kettle 
Run, but this much, which we can comment upon, we will not be 
silent about. We always have thought the repairing of the 
bridges could have been effected, and the trains have been saved. 
Major Knowlton, who worked all night as just stated, and who 
was a practical man, always asserted that he saw nothing but 
what might have been overcome, had proper attention and 
sufficient force been given. The latter was at hand, and it is 
clear that a train requiring the protection of an army corps, though 
small and depleted, should have been better attended to. These 
remarks are not intended as a criticism upon the handful of 
engineers, nor do we pretend to know where the fault lay. Our 
regiment saw nothing at Kettle Run, Broad Run and Manassas, 
that could not, in the opinion of our most intelligent officers, 
have been repaired sufficiently to have moved the trains across on, 
in the time which was allowed. As Col. Beal said at the time, 
when it was rumored that our corps was kept out of the fight to 
guard the trains, " Just tell us we may go hunting for rations 
(Washington) on that train and I'll swear we'll put it through." 
This happy thought was not conceived by any one in authority, 
and we were not the regiment to beg the favor, so the opportunity 
of doing a great thing for ourselves and the country, passed. 

Ano. 80th, Saturday. The cars crossed early this morning, and proceeded 
to Broad Run, where the bridge is also down. We marched, however, to 
Manassas Junction, and a fatigue party of one himdred men was set at work to 
clear the track of the remains of about sixty cars which the rebels burned a 
few days ago [and which ought to have been removed long before our arriyalj. 
We remained there three or four hours, and then the whole corps marched 
back again the way it came, to Broad Hun, and went into bivouac in woods 
not far east of Bristow Station, where no rebel could have found us in a week's 
hunt. 

PERSONAL RECOLLECTION — THE SECOND BULL RUN. 

While at Manassas Junction, your historian, under supposition 
that the day's march was ended, took Ward, the newspaper carrier, 
for a pilot, and started to see the battle field of the day previous. 



l862. SECOND BULL BUN. 211 

We had ridden only two oi; three miles, when we fell in with 
squads of soldiers lying in the shade. They said they were all 
"played out," and "couldn't march another inch." We passed 
more of these stragglers presently, and before another mile was 
gone over their numbers were immense. They all had that 
dogged look which skulks always wear. We came to a hill at 
length, and saw troops over on another hill, and heard the report of 
a gun. A straggler we met told us there was a fight in progress. 
This was the first suspicion we had of the proximity of rebels, 
for we thought they were whipped yesterday, and had fled 
in the night. Going still on, we came to the foot c^ the hill 
where the troops were posted. Here was a spring and a crowd 
around it. Well to the rear was a box-looking house, with the f Me^yh^ 
yellow flag flying from the chimney. We were going up the hill , 

when down came Gen. McDowell, shouting, or squealing rather, 
for his voice was like a woman's, "Join your regiments!" "Join 
your regiments ! " " Quick ! quick I they're driving us ! " In 
truth the General was doing his best, whether he knew it or not^ 
to ffet up a panic. „__.,•« a 

On the top of the hill, when we reached it, we found * 
battery of heftyy guns in reserve, and ttjbrigade of Sigel's just M %^ 
changing position on its right. The ridge appeared to extend 
as far as the eye could see in the dust and smoke— say two miles, 
and was dotted over with batteries and regiments. Down the 
hill to the front were our batteries, firing over the heads of our 
infantry, who were still farther down in the ravine and out of 
our sight. A Zouave regiment had just broken, the battery-men S y-JO 
told us, after suffering heavy loss. A trifle to our left was a 
quiet little cottage,^nd a division of our troops in the woods 
just in front of it. ^^^>L^ i^,^' 

Across the valley, a half mile away, was the rebel ground. A 
rebel regiment charged into the woods to the front — ^wilted as it 
went, disappeared and soon went back on the run, jumped over 
a bank or into a ditch, we could not tell which, and went out of ( ^-^ - 
sight. Thereupon our batteries down the hill seemed to quiet 
their tones. 



212 8E00ND BULL BT7N. 1 862. 

And now the diTision in front, of the cottt^e moves by its 
right flank, comes out on the open hill side and goes into line in 
front of the heavy guns. We are told they are the Penn. Re- 
serves. Some one says " For God's sake what's that " ? and we 
look across to the rebel hill opposite to ours^ and see coming out 
of their woods, one, two, three, four regiments in line, and behind 
them another one, two, three and four ; — yes two brigades in 
column of regiments to the relief of the rebel regiment that had 
a moment ago been driven out of the woods. The batteries 
down the hill now open again with terrible effect ; we see their 
shells ezpode and the men are blown over, so it appears, but the 
gaps are closed — all that had fallen are not hurt — many were 
only dodging. The crash of musketry comes up from the woods, 
uid from the ravine ; the leading rebel regiment withers and 
wavers, but the other seven press it along, and all disappear from 
our sight. We hear both the hurrah and the yell, and so know it 
is a terrible conflict. The batteries still belch away, and the troops 
of the second line pour down our hill to strengthen their fellows 
in the woods. Gladly would we have staid, but it came over the 
mind of both the lieutenant and the private, that Banks's corps 
could not stay long at Manassas while this thing was going on, 
and we left the field, the battle still undecided, to join our 
regiment on its march out. As we started to go down, a solid 
shot fell exactly in line with the flank of what we had been told 
was the Pennsylvania Reserves. Indeed, as far as we could judge, 
the rebels were working between Banks and the main union 
army. As long as we could see anything we noticed that the 
Penn. Reserve Corps and the cavalry were still moving to the 
right, without attempting to reply to the flank fire of the artillery. 
I cannot tell you our feelings when, on arriving at Manassas 
Junction, we saw the wrecks of the sixty cars still standing on the 
road bed — not a man at work on them — and were told that Banks's 
corps had moved south again. Doubtless it was well to guard 
the train, but Ward, if you or I with our inferior wisdom, had 
been (xeneral Pope, we would have sent Banks's corj^s, and every 
other corps into that fight, wouldn't we ? 

In hunting around for our regiment we passed through nearly 



1 862. DESTBUOTION OF BAGOAQB. 213 

every camp of oar corps, and nothing can exceed the indifference 
we saw. Few, however, had heard more than the rumor of a 
fight, and hence had little cause for alarm. When at length we 
found our camp, our story that a great battle had been fought 
was discredited, for not a gun had been heard, — but this matter 
of physical science we will not discuss here. The battle had 
been fought without us, and was lost to our side, whereas, if all 
the troops near by, and the horde of skulks had been put into 
the battle, " they say " the result would have been otherwise. 

THE END APPROACHES. 

Aug. 31st, Sunday, About midnight we were ordered to go 
out on the Gainesville road. The sleepy ones were aroused, and 
we marched in company with the 6th Conn, south across Broad 
Run, and up a road supposed to lead to Gainesville, and made 
ourselves as comfortable as possible. Co. H and I, with a portion 
of the 5th Conn., went on picket a half mile farther on. It 
began to rain, and we therefore enjoyed ourselves exceedingly, 
as all human nature will when starved,* chafed, lousy, sleepy, 
dirty, ragged, cold, and out in the rain without an umbrella. 

About seven we noticed two or three large fires on the railroad 
track, and going down to look saw that a few cars were burning 
all along the half mile of trains, indicating that all were booked 
for the flames. The batteries and troops were taking position, 
having bivouacked around in spots. Then came a sound sug- 
gestive of " thunder and guns," which proved to be the blowing 
up of a carload of ammunition. Then all along the line of cars 
we heard the sharp " spang " of exploding shells, and saw flames 
red, green, white and blue come out of the cars loaded with 



* Some kind ft-iend eyidently intended that we should be fed, for Dan. W. Stackpcle, 
of Co. G» a wagoner, was sent back from near Manassas, with a wagon full of rations. 
He thinks each regiment of our brigade had also a wagon rent back. He staid all night 
near us, and saw our regiment, and also saw his wi^^on set fire to. All of this is vouched 
for by David Moulton, whom he took into Alexandria on a mule of his team. This 
hasty burning is explained by a positive order of Pope to Banks to bum all and hurry 
on. Among other things which these flames devoured was all our regimental baggage, 
which had improperly been started for Culpeper C. H. from Baltimore and Washington 
where it had been stored. 



214 CUTOFF — ^BLACSKBURN'S FORD. 1 862. 

medical supplies. It is proverbial that " our army swore terribly 
in Flanders^'* but if it exceeded the swearing of Banks's corps 
at Bristow Station it must have been frightful indeed. Here we 
were, famished, cold and filthy for the want of the things the 
flames were devouring before our eyes. . The wounded and sick 
had crawled out of the cars, and were lying around the stores and 
houses, waiting for help that never came to many of them. Their 
muskets, which had been left in the cars, were constantly going 
off as the heat reached them, and the balls flew everywhere of 
course. 

We were hurried off immediately after the first explosion, 
leaving the pickets with orders to follow as soon as possible. 
It was my fortune, being mounted, to be sent to attend to this 
last order, and so I had the opportunity of seeing the whole corps, 
for our pickets were among the last of the infantry to retire. 
There was no panic visible among the troops, but every one was 
impressed with the need of fast walking and with the plausibility 
of the rumor that we were cut off. The road was muddy enough 
of course. We passed through Brents ville, and saw a young lady 
sitting on the piazza, scowling her best. Had her face been 
smiling and well washed, she would have been quite pretty ; as it 
was, it furnished a very pleasant episode, — and a superabundance 
of chaff from the 6,000 passers by. We did some wading, too, 
through a large brook, and crossed the railroad again about three 
miles north of the Junction. Then we marched along that 
desolate plain of Manassas, made many halts, heard that the 
rebel cavalry was on our flanks, traveled across a hundred 
military roads, saw rebel earthworks, and finally stopped all 
night at Blackburn's Ford,* though few knew where we were 
at the time. What a cheerless place and cheerless occasion that 
was! There was no dry wood, and though it had rained we 
could not find water, except in holes which teamstei-s and the 
huge army of stragglers had made filthy. Dead mules and the 
offal of slaughtered cattle lay around within good smelling 
distance. We learned that the whole army had fallen back from 



* Authority of Lieut. Zob. Giuhiiuui, who fbaght there July 18, 1861, under Tyler. 




1 862. STILL BETBEATING. 215 

the battlefield, and that certaiu generals high in rank were traitors, 
but we failed to learn when and where we should have our next 
meal. 

That was a dark day, my friends. 

Septembbb Ist, Monday. We remained in this dreary vicinity 
till about 3 p. m., when the whole corps again marched toward 
Washington. We had been reminded by General Crawford that 
" yesterday was muster-day," and I testify upon honor that during 
the three years of experience in the adjutant's office I was never 
more puzzled than on this day, when the company commanders 
called, inquiring how they should muster such and such a one. 
A memorandum was made by some of the captains, and when 
we got over in Maryland a few days afterward, the rolls were 
made out, but the monthly returns were not finished till a month 
later. 

Thousands and tens of thousands of troops were in sight, as 
we marched out again from the woods into the plain. Aroimd 
the heights of Centcrville, the ground was black with troops, or 
white with canvas. This was another novelty, though the general 
reader, if he be a citizen, may fail to see why. Yet the fact is 
that we rarely, in the " 10th," saw large bodies of troops massed 
except for reviews. 

We begged from all the troops we passed, and by picking up 
crumbs and bones we kept body and soul together. We at length 
came to the dirt road running between the railroad and the pike, 
and here all interest ceased. 

CHANTILLY. 

About 5.30 we were halted : the clouds made it rather dark for 
that hour. Apparently Gen. Williams had halted the command 
upon hearing musketry on our left as we marched. This was the 
beginning of the battle of Chantilly. Cannonading and heavy 
musketry were soon distinctly heard, and as it grew darker, the 
flashes of the guns showed upon the clouds. Soon after six a 
tremendous thunder storm burst upon us, drowning the musketry 
fire and making the artillery sound like child's play. At seven 



216 A U8ED-ITP ABMT — ^NBW SIGHT. 1862' 

the firing was more distant, and soon after ceased sufficiently to 
assure us that we were not to have " Chantilly ^ on our colors. 

It was a strange experience to us. We heard the firing and felt, 
of course, that we should be called for if there were any serious 
trouble ; the cannonading assured us of this same seiious trouble, 
yet we staid in line for more than an hour and finally bivouacked 
there for the night, and were more than happy at finding a hay 
stack not far ofl^ whereby we had dry beds and a consolation for 
man and beast. 

SBPTE3CBBR 2d, Tue$dajf. Cold night. All quiet. Marched at eight, Gen. 
Greene ahead with the 2d diylsion. Ills wagons blocked oar passage troxa 
morning till noon. So our marching was the same as it has been for a fortnight, 
slow, tedious and aggravating. We halted some time at a cross road while 
Kearney's division passed toward Fairfax Station. We learned from the 
men as they passed along, all about the fight of yesterday, in which they 
were the principal actors. Gen. Stevens was killeil, also Phil. Kearney the 
great fighter. We are told, too, that the rebels are moving toward the upper 
Potomac. • • • • • a little hard bread was issued to us. 

In the afternoon we made good time, with but little straggling 
till late, when the men gave out. We at length turned to the left 
and struck the broad pike at Annandale, and here we halted to 
allow the "menagerie" to pass. Franklin's corps was going by 
when we arrived. They said that they had not been in the fight 
at Bull Run, but had arrived in time to prevent the rebels from 
following up the retreat. After Franklin came a vast throng of cav- 
alry, mixed with ambulances, wagons, pack mules, officers' spare 
horses, cooks and negroes. There was no hurry, nor cause for it, 
and no enthusiasm ; neither was there cause for that. 

We patiently waited till sunset, hunting around the country for 
something to eat. At length came a " show " altogether novel : 
first would come a stout old horse, or a span of horses, harnessed 
and fast to a rope 500 feet long. At the other end of this rope 
would be a wagon, while spare hoi*ses were tied by the halter to 
both sides of the rope. A few such strings would have been 
interesting, but when a mile or more had gone by, and wo were 
told that as many others were coming, it became something to 
ftwear about, and my impression is that the swearing was done. 




1 862. A NIGHT OF MISERT AND SADNESS. 217 

The diary states there were two miles of these strings, and that 
they were over an hour in passing : all were fresh horses, kiolciugi 
swaying, neighing, rearing and plunging. Why they had not 
been exchanged with the cavalry for their jaded skeletons, we 
never learned. 

Between 4 and 5 p. m. our turn came to move, and we marched 
steadily, admiring the country and the road, and profoundly 
thankful for the small gain we were to make out of the country's 
loss. I refer to the prospect of having our regular rations, and a 
full pipe-bowl again. These things perhaps were more prominent 
in our minds than the sadness and humiliation of our situation- 
more prominent also than we arc willing to admit now, but the 
war, especially life in the prison pens, has shown the country that 
fiunine will destroy all that is noble in man's nature. For one 
morsel of meat many since Esau's day have followed Esau's 
example. 

Plodding along in the dark, early in the evening, we saw that 
we were approaching civilization, and in the hope of camping ere 
long, we kept well together for a while. The air had been cool, 
but now the cold " norther" was piercing mercilessly through our 
ragged clothes. We were un])repared for this, and the cold and 
wind increased every hour. 

Ten o'clock came, and no camp yet. The diary says it then 
was very cold. Now came one of those times we often saw, 
when for houra we were rushed ahead, exjiecting every minute to 
hear the welcome " halt." Regular halts for rests, such as we had 
in the " 29th " were not common in the " 10th." We marched 
from nine till twelve — three of the longest hours it was ever our 
misfortune to suifor — pulling one foot after the other, confidently 
expecting that the next moment would bring us to our night's 
camp. We had been starved till we were sick and brutish ; we 
were chafed and raw from lice and rough clothing ; we were foot- 
sore and lame ; there was hardly a man of us who was not afflicted 
with the diarrhoea; we had filled our clothes with dust and 
perspiration till they were all but rotten ; our blood was " thin " 
and heated, and now this fierce north wind searched our very 
marrow. We had been out-generaled and driven behind the 



2 1 8 THE DABKE8T HOUB. 1 86z. 

defences of Washington, we were demoralized and discouraged, 
(I cannot say disheartened). 

It was the darkest day and the darkest hxmr in our regimented 
history. 

After three hours of momentary expectation of the final " halt I" 
each of us had been through the various stages of mental agony, 
peculiar to such marches, — first a man is cheered by the prospect 
of a speedy camp, then this dies away and he reasons that the 
camp must now be near, because the prospect was good an hour 
ago, then this dies away and he rallies his strength on the positive 
certainty that he has only to endure a moment or two longer ; 
then he falls to swearing, and swears himself dry, so to speak. 
Thus he goes over and over the same course with greater or less 
regularity, till by and by if he does not fall out of the ranks he 
is seized with a desire to laugh and cry at the same time from 
sheer madness. A march like this is a terrible tax to body and 
soul, and by midnight we had suffered all the miseries described, 
and were halting on heights somewhere near Alexandria. The 
wind was blowing a gale, almost freezing-cold to our thinly clad 
bodies. Then a movement to the lefl was ordered and we went 
into line again groaning with pain, numb and shivering ; then we 
marched on once more, our course lying in half circles, — we 
thought we were marching and returning over the same ground ; 
then a long halt, then round and round and more halts. Not a 
soul of us knew where we were nor where we were going. We 
could tell by the stars and the wind, where north was, but we had 
no chart and so knew nothing after all. One o'clock and still we 
went on and on, making halts long or short, but always uncertain. 
One and a half, and still there was a regiment — it had not dwindled 
to a few officers and a color guard ; swearing and fault finding 
had ceased long since. There was not a man so foolish as to try 
to do justice to the situation by swearing. Two o'clock and a 
halt in front of a large elegant mansion ; a staff" officer rides 
up to the Colonel saying " The general directs you to place your 
men on the other side of the cedar hedge, stack arms and rest for 
the night." Arms stacked, the diary says " the men dropped as 
if they were shot." 



1 862. QUOTATIONS FBOM POPE. 219 

And so I should say that on or about 2 a. m., Sept. 3, 1862, at 
or near Fort Ward, Pope's retreat ended, so far as the 10th Maine 
was concerned. 

We had " seen the backs of our eneraies."(?) 

We had won the " distinction we were capable of achieving.''(?) 

We had "discarded strong positions and bases of supplies" — 
and many other things ! ! 

We had studied the exceedingly probable lines of retreat of 
our opponents ! and behold where we were ! 

A soldier's opinion op pope. 

During the years of the war following Pope's unfortunate 
campaign there was a general disposition to " crowd " him as we 
say. He was cited as the general who had promised everything and 
performed nothing. A reaction has resulted during the years of 
peace. We do not claim that the criticism of a common soldier 
is worth much, but it has a value of its own. And I have lately 
questioned many of the rank and file for their opinion of John 
Pope, now after years of experience under other commanders. 
The answer is variable — some still say he was a man of great 
promises with no ability to perform — others think all his failures 
were from itie " treachery of Porter and the incapacity of Mc- 
Dowell ; " some go so far as to say he was a great general, and 
not unlike Sheridan, and that he would have succeeded under 
the same circumstances. And though this may provoke a smile, 
yet our service under these two generals was somewhat similar. 

I am unwilling to admit that our opinion of General Pope was 
generally unfavorable at the time he commanded us. If I have 
sounded well among you, the general impression is that he was 
more sinned against than sinning. We were certainly glad when 
we heard that McClellan commanded us, and we judged it an 
uncalled for disgrace that Pope should be assigned to command 
an expedition of Home Guards in Minnesota against the Indians. 

It is fairly acknowledged now, that the cause ol the failure of 
Pope's campaign was jealousy. That fatal pronunciamento of 



220 A 80IJ>IEB'S VBBDIOT. 1 862. 

hiB where he said "I have come from the West where we have 
always seen the backs of our enemies,'' killed him. It was an 
anjust, ill-timed and cruel hit at all the eastern commanders. So 
when John Pope became dependent upon them for support and 
hearty co-operation, and for rations, reinforcements and supplies, 
they hit back a little harder. And so my comrades, you and I 
wandered up and down the Rappahannock with our empty 
stomachs and cheerless adventure, because some one was always 
to be found who hated and despised our commander so much that 
he must leave his duty to you and me undone. 

We never had but one good look at the general ; he then was 
trying to hurry an ambulance that blocked the way of our 
regiment, and though this act entitled him to our sympathy, I 
think the. impression made was unfavorable. Still we had a sort 
of confidence in him till the end ; and, if I have rightly understood 
your feelings, we do not now condemn him altogether. 
Fitz-John Porter, for his disobedience and worse, was disgraced ; 
^ the sentence seems to have been a righteous one, but if there 
were not a number of other generals, and an army of lesser officers, 
that sinned as much as he, I am greatly in error. 



^•^ 



PBISONBBS CAPTURED FBOM TENTH MAINE BEGIMEnI' ON POPE's 

BETBEAT. 

Ass't Surgeon Josiah F. Day, Jr., Remained at Culpepcr Hospital. 

Co. C. Knights, William W. Corporal, " " 

" " Dearborn, Tliomas Private, " " 

•' " Briggs, Luther 

" F. Jackson, Andrew 

" " Elliott, Edward F. 

" D. Brawn, John " Aug. 29th near Manassas Junction. 

H Itjit jw tvC/tu (y^fJLi t/Ca.v »vw^s* . 



1 862. 221 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

moclellan's martlakd camfaigk. 

Inasmuch as our regiment was not immediately conneciea wiih 
the lamentable state of affairs prevailing in Washington at this 
time, we gladly proceed without mentioning more than that Pope 
was relieved by McClellan, whose treatment of Pope will hardly 
be commended, I think, by after generations. Gen. Banks was 
suffering from an injury received in August, and was relieved from 
the command of our corps. Hooker took McDowell's old corps, 
into which other troops were now placed, and McClellan eventually 
started to drive Lee out of Maryland. You know that McClellan 
was not the fastest man in the army, and so while he was making 
ready, we had a few days in which we were supposed to be 
resting. 

But in looking at the defences of Washington as a haven of 
rest and peace, we made a great mistake. In the forenoon of 
Sept. 3d, we were moved two miles, halting near Fort Albany, 
and camped in a damp ravine near some haystacks. We believed 
the hay was ours, and such arguments as lame joints and raw blisters 
were convincing to us. We also understood that Gen. Crawford 
was willing for us to have it, but an aide from Gen. Banks came 
to him and forbade it, therefore Gen. Crawford ordered it to be 
returned. Somehow it happened that Banks's aide was hooted 
at or otherwise insulted, and as a punishmAt for the sin of the 
few, we were all ordered to stand to arras ten minutes, during 
which time the hay should be returned. The Colonel thought 
best to disregard the command about standing to arms, but or- 
dered the captains to return the hay, and it was quite generally 



222 NEGLIGENCE — GEORGETOWN LADIES . 1 862. 

obeyed. Gen. Crawford repeated the order and gave five minutes 
for the Colonel to execute it in ; at the end of which time a note 
came down, ordering Col. Beal to turn over the command to Lt. 
Col. Fillebrown and confine himself to his camp. But though 
we stood to arms, and carried back the hay, yet I know of a 
colonel and an acting adjutant who lay that night on this same 
hay, and their horses, "Bill" and "Rappahannock," had a nibble 
too. 

JFamiahedas toe toere^ and though in sight of the dome of 
the Capitol^ we received no rations during the entire day. There 
is no telling how such negligence discouraged the men ; but by 
wandering through the camps of the new regiments, and the cook 
houses of the forts, we managed to live on our neighbors. Those 
who had money, and fortunately most of us had a little then, 
supplied ourselves with tobacco and cakes from the sutlers ; but 
when the sun went down on our regiment, we were as thoroughly 
discouraged as ever we were. 

Septembkb 4th. Hot and pleasant. Fell in at nine, waited 
till ten, performed strategy a half hour and finally, at 10.30, we 
marched with the corps up the liver to the aqueduct bridge, and 
crossed, some one singing, "Ohl:an't you glad to get out the. 
wilderness?" This was a hot march, but the diary indicates 
improved spirits — and no wonder ; for 

We made a few halts in Georgetown, and the women and young ladies 
opened their doors and windows to give us bread and butter, meat, apples, 
peaches and preserves ! I tell you it was cheering to see their pleasant faces, 
clean, white and beautiful, after we had been so long in the Virginia wilderness, 
where the few women have ruined their faces by looking sour. The green fields, 
painted fences and luxuriant crops contrast strongly with the vast desert of 
imfenced weeds which we have left behind us. The rush upon the sutler 
wagons is frightftil ; reminding us of our swarming upon the cherry trees last 
July. We marched to Tennallytown and camped two miles beyond— eight 
miles. 9 

Next day, Sept. 5th, after sweltering all the morning, we 
marched at 2 p. m., across the fields to the right, (east) till we 
reached the Rockville turnpike, and then traveled slowly along 
it, making more exertion in one mile than was needed for three. 



1 862. CHANDLEB'8 band 18 DISCHARGED. 223 

We passed through Rockville after dark and camped two miles 
beyond, and were exceedingly fatigued. Col. Beal was released 
from arrest and went into Washington. Sumner's corps was 
behind us. We were told that the entire army of the Potomac, 
with McClellan again in command, was moving to drive Loe out 
of Maryland. 

• 

Sept. 6th, the band, which had joined us again in Georgetown, 
was started back to Washington with its muster-out rolls, by 
order of the war department, which ordered all bands of volunteer 
regiments to be discharged. Our teams joined us this day with 
knapsacks aboard. We had been nineteen nights without them, 
and with this experience we learned to keep our rubber-blankets 
with us ever after. 

Rations still scarce, but wc arc by no means starving now. 

We worked on muster-rolls during the next two days, and were 
hard at work at 11 a. m., Tuesday, Sept. 9th, when orders came 
to march at noon. One team to caiTy officers' baggage, papers 
&C., was allowed us. Then cutting across the fields and by-roads 
to the main road, we camped at Middlebrook near a sweet notato 
patch that was "all cut up" in just ten minutes after the halt. 

Tbc 124t]i, riotli and 128th Pennsylvania regiments of nine months men 
marched with us to-day, and are now a part of our brigade ; either of them 
have more men on duty than all the old brigade, and I noticed that they kept 
closed up better than we did, but they are hurrahing or yelling all the time, 
and on the march they try to out run each other as all green troops will ! 
Sumner's corps is drawn up in three lines across the road. 

This leads me to note that it was not common in the " 10th " 
as it was in the "29tli," for the corps to form at night as if for 
battle. In the "29th" it was habitual for the army and all its 
parts to go into position at the end of every march, and even 
during long halts. 

Sept. 10th, we marched at nine, Sumner behind us, and en- 
camped near Damascus, — making about eight miles. 

Next day rations were issued, and we moved twice, making a 
mile in all, and it rained hard afterwards. Gen. McClellan's 
report of this campaign states that he moved forward by easy 



224 THB PBOSFECr mPBOVING. 1862. 

mai'ches. They were anything but easy marches to ns, by reason 
of the delay and nncertainty that charaoterized every move. 
This feature of the Maryland campaign was no great improvement 
over Pope's retreat. Our rations were not bountiful, but we were 
not starved, and then the cornfields and orchards of the Maryland 
farmers helped us. The change of commanders and the evident 
harmony of all things, was as has been remarked, very favorable, 
but the climax of our happiness was in the change of locality. 
One man said of it ** We have got out of hell into heaven " — 
rather strong language one may think, but it will bear some 
inspection. The inspiration of an advance, while the memory 
of a disastrous retreat was fresh, must not be overlooked. The 
appearance of the new regiments, and of recruits which almost 
daily arrived for the old ones, also cheered our spirits, though of 
course we made fun of them. In short, this was a campaign of 
good promise. 

Sept. 12th was rainy and foggy in the morning, but we were 
up early and 'moved promptly at seven, Col. Beal in command of 
the brigade, and Col. Fillebrown of the regiment, with Lieut. 
Tumtr for regimental adjutant. Our corps marched in three 
columns — the artillery and everything on wheels had the road, 
while the infantry marched in the fields on each side, with about 
twenty pioneers ahead of each column, to knock down fences 
and to pitch rails into ditches and brooks for us. 

We marched fast and made long halts. It was a very tedious daj indeed, 
yet we marched only about twelve miles. We halted after dark within a mUe 
of Jjamsville on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, where Co. A had a squad 
stationed last spring. 

Col. Beal was in command of the brigade from Sept. 11th to 
the 14th, when Col. Knipe of the 46th Penn. returned and super- 
seded him. 

Sept. 13th. Kevcille at 3.80; marched at 7; passed over the railroad at 
Ijamsville, and then took the fields on right of the road ; noticed huts built 
by Banks's troops last fall. By and by in emerging from some woods, the 
valley of the Monocacy (pronounced Mo-iwc^a-sy) came in view. 

Did we ever see a country so beautiful? — I judge not by the 
reference which has always been made to it. We who had been 



1 862. SUNDAY IX FREDEBICK. 225 

tramping over the plains of Manassas and splashing in the mud 
of the Rappahannock, listening to the almost ceaseless thunder 
of SigePs guns, could well appreciate the loveliness and peace of 
this quiet valley. 

We saw, however, that it was not all at peace, for across in two 
of the mountain notches, or " gaps " as they call them there, we 
could see artillery firing. This was not a serious fight, and came 
from the effort of the rebels to delay the army while Jackson 
was capturing our Paddy Miles at Harper's Ferry. 

We waded through the Monocacy river, and camped outside 
of Frederick city ; the whole corps being massed together. The 
diary has a page filled with a glowing account of the beauties of 
this country. 

Sept. 14th, Sunday. Ordered to more at seven. Marched at eight, Col. 
Beal in command of regiment again. The morning bells of the churches rang 
out clearly, reminding us of home, peace and Christianity. 

We went into Frederick by the main street, and halted many times. The 
American flag swung from the roofs and windows, and every one, from the old 
women down to the babies, joined in giving us a welcome. The rebels, and 
the army which had gone ahead, had about eaten them out, but the ladies 
gave us water in glasses, and tliat was delicious, you may be assured, bat as 
I couldn't overcome a natural baslifulncss, I told Trudeau to drink for the 
adjutant's office, and lie made a tub of himself at once, but as always, he 
acted Ids part with true French grace. We thought of Watts's old hymn, 

*♦ My willing soul would stay 
In such a frame as this,'* 
but were compelled to press on, and were soon climbing up one of the moun- 
tain passes in which we had yesterday noticed the firing. 

SOUTH MOUNTAIN. ^ 

Some hours of this climbing, with many halts, brought us on 
the other side of the mountain, where we saw another lovely 
valley at our feet, and South Mountain beyond. From its two 
gaps called " Crarapton's " and *' Turner's," we could see that the 
artillery was briskly engaged, and we heard musketry occasionally. 
Rumors came, " we are driving them and have taken prisoners 
and guns." 

Afler fooling away the best part of .the day by marching a few 
rods and then haltiqg many minutes, we at length went into 
15 



226 MIDDLETON — TEDIOUS MABCH. 1 862. 

camp, but quite late in the afternoon we were hurried into line 
again, and marched off upon the left of the roadside, and went 
north, south, east and west, over the plowed land and through 
cornfields on the right of the army and in rear of Sumner, till wo 
reached a road and marched in it to a turnpike, which brought 
us to Middlcton. Then we took the road back to Frederick ! 
went a half mile, were informed of the error, and returned to 
Middleton. Here we lay down in the streets and went to sleep, 
waiting for orders, and while waiting and sleeping, Gen. McClellan 
passed down from the front with twenty or thirty staff officers 
and four companies of cavalry, the whole taking a half hour to 
pick their way through the wagons and sleepers. This was after 
dark. 

Next we marched and halted, halted and marched, filed right, filed left, and 
climbed up the foot of the mountain. Then we jumped brooks, timibled 
through cornfields, and finallj halted after midnight, in a field well up in 
Turner's Gap, haying marched, some said ten and some twentj miles. The 
men were completely played out, and straggled worse than ever they did under 
Pope. We had less than a hundred muskets to stack arms with. 

While halting a moment on our march up the mountain to- 
night, Co. G, of the First Maine cavalry, all white horses, came 
down escorting the body of Gen. Reno, who had been killed in 
the afternoon's battle, and we thus learned of our great loss amid 
the general success of the day. 

During the final charge of the union troops, in which Reno 
fell, we were two or three miles away. We saw the smoke and 
heard the sound of the muskets ; we could also hear the shells 
burst ; but besidestaarching, swearing and halting often in sight 
of the battle, we took no part. For all this we were ordered to 
put " South Mountain " on our flag, and did so, but such glory 
as this is too cheap, and we never speak of having been engaged 
there. 

Next day, Sept. 16th, you remember was eventful to us. We 
for the first time saw a battle field from which we had not been 
driven. The diary has the following : 

When we woke this morning we found about twenty wounded men of both 
sides, and about fifty rebel prisoners near us, and while waiting for orders, we 
had a long talk with many of the latter, who eTidentty had not seen a happier 



1 862. SIGHTS ON THE BATTLE FIELD. 227 

daj in a year. The wounded were those who had been able to help them- 
selves a little, and were not snfTcring very much. Passing up the " old Sharps- 
burg road'' on the left side of the ravine (the pike is on the right side), we 
met a train of ambulances and a party of men with stretchers, all bringing 
down the dead and wounded — principally the first, for the wounded had been 
taken off during the night. The few houses were full of the wounded and the 
medical officers. The adjoining yards were also full of wounded men, with 
now and then a dead one, all laid in good order and all very quiet. The 
shade trees had scores under them. Passing up farther we found the 45th 
Penn. burying the dead ; they were all union soldiers and had been brought 
down from the field. They were buried in their clothes and wrapped in 
blankets or tents, and each corpse had a grave to itself, and a head board 
made of a cracker box. 

Still farther up was the principal battle ground. Here the enemy had a 
position behind a stone wall and sunken road, and the woods were about sixty 
yards off, so they had the benefit of slieltcr while our men had little. The 
rebel dead literally lined this road for nearly half a mile, for the union dead 
had been taken out and buried, and those who had fallen in the road itself had 
been thrown up one side. All the dead had been robbed of their valuables, 
their pockets were turned, and the accoutrements were thrown about and 
haversacks emptied. So don't let us accuse rebels alone of robbing the dead. 
The rebel dead looked unlike ours, which were swollen and so appeared hale 
and hearty. Theirs were mere skeletons, and had an ashy skin against which 
the ash colored dust hardly showed. There were many old men and boys 
among them. Wc saw one little child of scarcely fourteen years ; his face 
showed a sprightly look not seen on the others. I did not see on the whole 
field one expression showing agony. 

As we did not march till about twelve, we had all the forenoon 
to nm over the battle field, and they were hard hours for nervous 
men, yet on the whole I think we were benefited, and when we 
marched beyond the field and saw the knapsacks and litter of the 
fugitive rebels, we were all the more inspired. From that hour 
we felt strong, and what is far better we felt that victory and 
battle were synonymous terms. A wonderful change had come 
over us in two weeks. 

GENERAL M^VNSFIELD. 

I 

Brig. General Joseph K. F. Mansfield, of the regular army, took 
command of our corps this morning. lie was the old commanding 
general over the 1st Maijie, and was much respected by our 1st 
Maine oflacers. We never saw another like him ; venerable, but 



228 MANSFIELD, McGLELLAK AND WILLIAMS. l86z. 

not old ; white haired, yet fresh and vigorous, his face showed 
that intelligent courage which a soldier admires rather than that 
which by distinction may be called brute courage. There was 
nothing pretentious about him, though his dress and horse equip- 
ments were new and beautiful Nor did he have either aide or 
orderly when he visited us. Our first sight of him gave us the 
impression that Ije was a fine old gentleman, an able soldier and 
our father. 

During the afternoon while marching, we heard a great cry in 
the rear, and soon General McClellan came galloping along on the 
side of the road, " followed by a brigade of single breasted and 
a battalion of double breasted officers, and a large escort of 
cavalry." We caught the hurrah and cap-tossing from the rear, 
and gave him such a cheer as was never heard on Pope's retreat. 
This was our fii*st view of the great general, and the impression 
he left was most favorable. We remember too that his staff and 
body guard all took the side of the road, and did not attempt to 
crowd us. 

At Col. Fillebrown's call for cheers for "Gen. Williams of 
Maine,"* we gave them and then marched on, happy once more. 
We then went through Boonsboro and to the left— a burnt bridge 
hindering a little — and finally bivouacked within pistol shot of 
Nicodemus's mill, after a seven miles march. The night was a warm 
one, and I believe we had rations enough. Everything to-day 
was cheering, and in our ignorance of how defeated rebels should 
be followed up (which we afterward learned from Sheridan), we 
thought everything was going right, whereas our poor Paddy 
Miles had that morning been killed after surrendering his 10,000 
troops at Harper's Ferry, our own Lieutenant Binney among 
them. We passed to-day a number of rebel prisoners, all telling 
one story — " Glad to be taken " — " Almost dead." 

ANTIETAM — BEFORE THE BATTLE. 

Sept. 16th, Tuesday. Hottest day for a month past. At eight a. m. a staff 
officer galloped up and commanded the long roll to be beaten, and M^or 
Greene set his " corpses " to work quickest. We were then moved toward 

•S«th WiUiamSi Asst Af^t. Gen., weU known as a model acJUatant and genUeman. 



1 862. DAY AND NIGHT OF SUSPENSE. 229 

Sharpsburg — ^I suppose — and rested in a vallej after going a mile ; cannonad- 
ing brisk in the front all the while, and diarrhoea more so in the rear. Shells 
exploded near the battery on top of the hill in our front, and two or three 
shots came over and fell into a pile of rations, scattering the loafers. Firing 
ceased in half an hour, but we heard it again and again afterward, and some ' 
who went a mile farther to the front, saw skirmishing. As darkness settled 
down, all became quiet and we pitched tents. Beef on the hoof was issued 
to our brigade. One of the new regiments near by couldn't kill their animal ; 
on the contrary he ran around their camp they say, with the knife in his 
throat, and bellowing loudly enough for the enemy to hear. We had a live ox, 
and were puzzled to know what to do, as the troops were massed all about us, 
and the usual custom of sliooting could not be thought of. Not a butcher, 
not an axe could be found, so Sergt. Joe Merrill carefully aimed his musket 
and fired. A flash and an ox tail were all that we saw, and the 10th Maine 
mourned for beef. Joe's patent cartridge had dropped out before firing, as 
such cartridges will sometimes. 

At half past tc:i p. m. the noise from the other regiments woke us up, and 
immediately the Colonel received the order to march forthwith. So down 
came our tents and off we marched — where we came from and where we went 
to, I have not the remotest idea,* and cannot find out, but we went around 
"Hobin Hood's barn," stopped on plowed land, dropped at once, stowed 
ourselves away between the furrows, and slept soundly, with Gen. Mansfield 
and an orderly on the otlicr side of a fence. We heard picket firing, and just 
as we were going off to sleep we heard volleys, and these seemed to disturb 
our distinguished neighbor on the other side of the fence. If I am not 
mistaken we have marclied four miles on the outer circumference of a crescent 
whose horns point toward the rebellious. 

So much of the diary was written before the battle. During 
the day I profited by the experience at Cedar Mountain and kept 
a memorandum of leading events, and also made up a list of 
killed and wounded, but wrote no diary. It was after midnight 
when we settled in the furrows and slept. We had marched 
as above conjectured, from the left of the army to the right, and 
our corps, as will be seen, reinforced Hooker's, which was the 
extreme right of the infantry forces, — and also partly filled a gap 
between Hooker's corps and the Antietam river. 



* Gen. Crawford writes that during the day we had been in rear of the third corps, 
French commanding, and that we moved to the right of the army in thd night. 



230 i862. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

BATTLE OP ANTIETAM, 
KBAB 8HABP8BUBO1 MD., SEPT. 17, 1862, WEDNESDAY. 

The battle of Antietam, tliat terrible and bloody contest, is 
eventful to us in having been the only one where we fought as a 
regiment of the Grand Army of the Potomac. To understand 
the part that we took one must know something of the battle 
field and of the battle itself; and there were so many roads, hills, 
woods, fences, cornfields and other prominent points, that I almost 
despair of making you comprehend what was done, where it was 
done, or who did it, but if you chance to have in your pocket a 
common, four-folding, twelve-inch rule, open it (and lay it upon 

the table in front of 



•liXS. 





you. Imagine that 
the chair you sit in 

^bX; jack/4^ Sharpsburg, and that 

/'-' BON. /jr~ the Potomac is some 

^//8TREET. D. H. HiLX.. /s ., 

^ f ^ miles m your rear. 

SuMXBs. MAirsFisLD. PuU toward you a 

Bvua //side, poeteb. little the first fold 

of the rule,wliich fold 
you have laid nearest your lefl hand, and then imagine yourself 
to be Gen. Lee and you will see in the rule in a very general way 
the position of the front line of the rebel army. 

The lefl end of the rule is not far from the Potomac river, which 
here makes a notable bend into Maryland; and between the 



1 862. ANTIETAM — GENERAL DESGBIFTION . 23 1 

river and the rule you -will understand Gen. Stuart had the mass 
of his rebel cavalry in hand. The first three inches of the rule, 
that is the point which you have pulled toward you, is the com- 
mand of Stonewall Jackson. He has also a number of brigades 
massed behind the front line. Next to him comes the large 
division of D . H. Ilill. In point of fact, his line was not nearly 
so straight as the rule suggests. He covers the fourth, fifth and 
sixth inch, and perhaps more of the rule, and beyond him comes 
Longstreet, who also has quite a long front. To Longstreet's aid 
came A. P. Hill's weary troops after noon, just in time to prevent 
the union general, Burnside, from accomplishing his designs. 
(I might have stated tliat Jackson's men faced toward the north- 
east, and the other rebel troops generally to the east.) McClellan's 
plan, it is said, was to crush both Longstreet and Stonewall Jack- 
son — to shut the right and left folds of the rule back upon Lee. 
He especially desired to demolish Jackson. Gen. Hooker was 
assigned the duty of attacking the latter. He had his own corps 
and Mansfield's, in which last the 10th Maine was a unit. He 
started at sunrise and made a very successful effort, and was fold- 
ing the rule quite well, when Jackson put in his reserves and 
called upon D. II. Hill to come over and help him, and Hill 
having nothing else to do did so, as we 10th Mainers know to our 
grief. 

You will have to ask some one who knows more than I, why 
Fitz-Jolm Porter, who was opposite the rebel center, was not 
sent into the hole which D. H. Ilill thus left almost open ; nor 
can I explain why Sumner had not been placed where he could 
be put into the battle at this time. But in consequence of all 
the reinforcements which McClellan pennitted Jackson to receive, 
Hooker, instead of crushing the rebels, was immediately driven 
back himself. 

Not only this, but the rebels actually advanced and captured 
ground that they had not occupied in the morning, or to keep up 
the simile, they unhinged the first fold of the rule, or Lee's left, 
and wont off to thejr front bodily with it, pulling the fourth inch 
along with them. Precisely at this stage of the battle Gen. 
Mansfield was called upon, and our regiment went in, the first of 



232 AimETAM — QlfeNERAL DE8GRIPTI0K. 1 862. 

all his corps ; and to us was assigned the duty of tearing away a 
part of this fourth inch of the rebel line. You will see, as you 
read, that Colquitt's and McRae's brigades of Hill's division came 
up to drive us away and to extend the rebel line. But Gordon's 
and Geary's brigades on our side met them with superior force, 
and drove them back to Jackson's first position and beyond. 

Before this last was accomplished Mansfield was killed, Hooker 
was wounded, and Gen. Crawford, with other brigade command- 
ers, was also wounded. Then Sumner took charge of this 
portion of the field, but in some way he failed to follow up the 
advantages gained. He did succeed in tumbling his troops into 
the fight in such a way that a superb butchery was accomplished, 
with but a small additional loss of territory to the rebels. A part 
of the ground thus gained was held, and a part was abandoned, 
and then Franklin's corps anived, and by keeping comparatively 
quiet, though they did some fighting at first, they managed to 
hold the rebels in check, and the rebels also managed to hold 
them, while Lee's best efforts were directed in driving back 
Bumside, who was giving Longstreet his hands full about this 
time. 

McClellan sums up a victory for all this, and I believe the 
army generally credits him with having done the best he 
knew, which is not a very heavy credit to be sure ; but whatever 
victory there was belonged to his subordinates, — in our way of 
thinking, — tor it was a piece-meal fight in which our troops did 
better than was fair to expect of them, but the fruit of their 
labor was all lost for want of a general. 

These opinions I believe are very generally held by those who 
are competent to judge, otherwise of course, I would not inflict 
them upon you. 

THE PART TAKEN BY THE TENTH MAINE. 

We slept quietly in the furrows till about 5 o'clock in the 
morning, and then a sharp rattle of musketry precisely like that 
which had served as a " good-night" to us, brought every man to 
his feet. Without so much as peeping into our haversacks we 



.1 



' I I 



• I 



I '11, 



, I 



. I ; ' 



V* ♦ ■ t . 



I ■' ■■. : . 



l86i. A DREARt HOUR. 233 

broke stacks and waited for orders. In a few minutes Gen. 
Crawford rode down and commanded Col. Beal to move us 
forward. It was a relief to do something; the leading division 
under Capt. Furbish, knocked over two or three lengths of fence 
in a flaih and we marched through the gap into the open field 
beyond. The volley which had been our reveille was followed 
by others and by cannonading, and even before we had marched 
the sounds told us that the enemy had given battle. 

We had slept with our 
B - left toward the enemy; hence 

I y we faced toward the rear 

of Hooker's center, though 

^ ' we knew nothing of that 

Left. D =z=r iziz= K Right. fi^<^t; then — and we were now 

^ ==^ ==: A marchinff so as to be where 

g IT ^ 

we could more promptly 
reinforce him ; hence we did 
not move directly toward the sounds, but looked over to our left 
with anxious eyes, though the tactics says "Guide right I "for 
double columns. We soon came to a post and rail fence, and pulled 
that all down by order, then fell in and moved again squarely to our 
left^ that is, toward the firing. We passed through Best's battery, 
which stood halted across our i)ath, exchanged gnns with the 
lucky rascals and went straight on. Then came the order to halt 
and lie down; we did it well! — and willingly! We remained 
here an hour by the watch, under the crest of a little knoll which 
sheltered us from a wonderfully wild and meaningless fire of 
artillery. 

Gen. Mansfield remarked very quietly to Col. Beal, "We are 
in reserve to-day, sir," and every man heard it or says he did. It 
was a dreary hour; we were not allowed to leave our places, save 
one or two who filled the canteens for all. And thou^jh the 
command was to "lie down" we could not help rising a little to 
peep over the crest and notice what was going on ahead. We 
looked up to the right, toward Joseph Poffenburger's mansion on 
the turnpike, and saw wagons and ambulances, and then to the 
front and saw only the woods with the shM from the artillery 



234 WATCHING THE GANNON BALLS. 1 862. 

sizzling and whirring through and over them toward us — ^poor 
shooting we called it. But at the left front there was activity ; 
here the woods swarmed with troops moving sullenly away from 
the battle ; these were tlfe skulks and the wounded. This day 
was in the grand old times for sneaks, when a gang of m^ could 
leave the battle to carry off a dead or wounded comrade ; so out 
of these woods there poured a current of disabled and unfaithful 
ones. 

Besides these sights, we watched the old iron as it flew over 
us. It seems rather like sport now, to remember sitting there 
under a hill and watching these odd missiles. There was the 
common round ball, and unexploded shell; we had seen them 
before, and there was another ball that sang or whistled without 
tearing the air as all the othera did, making a very interesting 
song. Then we saw oblong shot which had quit revolving on 
their proper axes and were going with a kind of heels-over-head 
motion. We believed the stories of the times and took them to 
be pieces of railroad iron, but Gen. Crawford writes that he 
thinks from my description they were the Synder projectile. 
Whatever they were, we were content to lie down while these 
great chunks went over. Excepting what is here enumerated 
we saw little, but this was enough to make us curse ourselves 
and our ill luck for ever coming to such a place. It may look 
like sport now, but it was hard aud dismal enough then. You 
remember the flight of one great solid shot, that went jumping 
along fifty yards or more at a bound, plowing up cait loads of 
dirt, and landing at last in the cornfield whose post and rail 
fence we had demolished. Some poor fellow in our midst, to 
vent his agony, called " over the fence, out ! " and then there was 
a sickly, silly grin in response, from a number who would show 
their indifference and their love of the ridiculous. But it was no 
place for mirth. 

The belt of woods, in which we saw the wounded and skulks, 
hid the sight of the battle, but at length it was evident that a 
change had taken place. We heard new yells and fresh volleys 
which indicated reinforcements. The direction of the flight of 
the cannon shot was altered, and the mob of skulks aud wounded 



i862. GEN. Mansfield's appeabance. 235 

which still poured out of the woods, now moved at something 
like speed. 

All of us did not notice these changes, and many did not even 
get up to look to the front, but we all sKw Gen. Mansfield riding 
about the field in his new, untarnished uniform, with his long, 
silvery hair flowing out behind, and we loved him. It never fell 
to our lot to have such a commander as he. Very few of us had 
ever seen him till three days before this, but he found a way to 
our hearts at once. It would be saying too much to aflSrm that 
in three days he impressed us with tlie belief that he was a great 
warrior, for the time and opportunities were too limited for this, 
but he made us feel that he was our father and would care for 
us, and you remember we needed some one high in rank to care 
for us then. We never had a corps conmiander like Mansfield in 
this respect, and I doubt if the anny at that time could have 
furnished us another general like liim. 

The General had been watching the battle from a knoll in our 
front, but soon after the change of aflfairs, he rode rapidly toward 
his command, and if we noticed correctly, he set all of his regi- 
ments in motion. For ourselves, we were the extreme right 
regiment of the corps, and were considerably in advance of and 
removed from all the others that we saw. The order was given 
to 

ADVANCE ! 

Col. Beal at once commanded "Attention!" and "Forward!" 
We then moved a few steps straight for the battle, but the Gen- 
eral ordered the Colonel to oblique to the left ; whereupon the 
Colonel shouted " Left oblique ! " and we obeyed, but did not 
gain sufficiently to the left even then to suit Gen. Mansfield, who 
still beckoned to the left, and we went hustling or sidling into a 
small cornfield, and should have been badly confused had not Col. 
Beal ordered " Left flank," &c. The men then found their places, 
and we moved through the corn into a plowed field, crossing a 
road, to do so, which leads from Hoflman's house to the Dunker 
church. 

It was almost exactly 7.30 o'clock, by my watch, when we went 



236 OEN. hooker's order. 1862. 

throngli the gap in the fences of thifl road. Just then Asst. Sar- 
geon Le knd , of the 12th Mass., was being carried out mortally 
wounded, and Gen. Hooker himself rode down and inquired of 
our field officers what regiment ours was, and told them that the 
rebels were breaking through his lines, and ^ You must hold those 
woods I ^ An order like this may not be the one most desired, 
but it is a great relief to a commander to be assigned to some 
special duty, and to have the great burden of suspense thereby 
removed. 

When a few rods inside of the field the order ** Right flank ! ** 
Sbc^ brought us to the front, and we advanced to the position 
which had been pointed out to the Colonel. Gen. Mansfield had 
followed us through part of these movements — in truth he was 
placing us in what was just then the vital point of the battle. 
He forbade our being deployed into one line, remarking to Col. 
Beal that the men could be handled better in mass, and less 
straggling would result.* 

A few stray bullets whizzed around us as we crossed the road. 
After this our march toward the enemy was down and up a very 
gentle slope. Ouce in sight of the woods again, our leading 
companies saw a picket line of rebels behind the fence which 
skirted the union edge of the woods. These fired at us but 
their bullets fell short or went over, and we pressed on, many of 
us not noticing th^m. 

I have stated that when the corps was put in motion we were 
on its right, but our march to the left had brought us now to be 
the left regiment of our brigade. We saw no union troops 
except one of the new Penn. regiments, the 128th, which was on 
the right side of the road, also advancing and in mass. 

And now came the moment of battle that tried us severely, 
not that there was a sign of hesitancy, or show of poor behavior, 
but it is terrible to march slowly into danger, and see and feel that 
each second your chance for death is surer than it was the second 
before. The desire to break loose, to run, to fire, to do something, 
no matter what, rather than to walk, is almost iiTcsistible. Men 



* The General was very severely condemned, after the battle, for moving oar brigade 
Into the musketry of the enemy in the order of doable colomns and divisions in mass 



1 862. WE FIEE. 237 

who pray, pray then ; men who never pray nerve themselves as 
best they can, but it is said that those who have been praying 
men and are not, suffer an agony that neither of the other class 
can know. 

The mention of the position of our regiment at this stage of 
the battle is enough to horrify a military man. We were under 
fire and advancing at a brisk walk closed in mass, that is ten 
ranks deep (or fifteen ranks counting the file closers). Wenvere 
almost as good a target as a bam. 

The fire of the enemy became more galling every step we took, 
and one man after another fell, so that at length Col. Beal could 
not endure to see his command so uselessly butchered, and without 
obtaining consent of the General he ordered us to deploy into 
one line, which was done at double quick and without halting. 
Possibly a sixth of our loss occurred before we halted. 

After deploying, the right companies met an obstacle in the 
road fence and a clump of bushes, and the left ones ran on a 
ragged ledge, but the men kept together finely, and we soon 
reached the rail fence from which the rebel pickets had just retired, 
and here we halted to deliver our fire at the men of the enemy 
who were running around in the woods in front of us. 

It made a good impression upon them ; one by one they dodged 
back till they reached the fiarther part of the woods, where they 
staid a while and fired back at us. 

Our general position was the fence, and F with a part of C was 
behind it. Co. F was further sheltered by the ledge. The right 
companies, with the instinct which prompts a man to face the fire 
rather than to take it in his side, jumped over the fence and then 
broke their lines by rushing behind the logs and trees; thus the 
regiment made a left quarter- wheel, and thereby unknowingly 
conformed itself to the general alignment of the union forces at 
this moment. A great many of the men worked far ahead of the 
colors, and as a consequence a very few may have been hit by the 
wild shooting of our own men in the rear.* 



* WilllAm Brine of B is menUoned as one of these, thoagh Uie proof is not posltlYe. 
The members of the 1st Maine wiU recollect him as the man of Co. D who had tuch a 
beautifuUy polished musket— the best kept iu the regiment. 



238 DUBTEE'S BRIGADE. 1 862. 

We were on low land, and although so many troops were 
engaged around us we could see only the 128th Penn. on our side. 
When we first went into the battle, and before we had fired a 
musket, we saw in -the open field away through the woods a 
group of forty or fifty men around the stars and stripes, quite near 
an abandoned gun or limber. They were falling to the rear inch 
by inch, the color sergeant waving his flag, and the officers 
shouting and beckoning for the men who had gone to the rear to 
return, which some of them did * This waving of the union 
flag upon what appeared to be rebel ground has been supposed 
by some of us to be a device of the enemy to steal upon us 
without being fired at. 

On the rebel side we saw the men we were firing into, dodging 
from tree to tree, aiming at us, yelling, shaking their fists some- 
times, and saucy generally. As well as we could tell, they were 
about as numerous as we, and it was a desperate fight we made 
of it. Indeed, as far as we and our immediate enemies were 
concerned, it partook of the character of a heavy skirmish, every 
man fighting for himself and so it happened that the advanced 
men of friend and foe were sometimes within ten or fifteen yards 
of each other. 

The majority of these bold adventurers on our side lay low and 
fired into a column of rebel troops which were passing, four abreast, 
very unconcernedly through the field beyond the woods. These 
troops were probably Colquitt's brigade, though possibly Ripley's, 
and they must have suffered somewhat at our hands. 

The fire which we received was also a very severe one, and 
despite our shelter it was very destructive to us, for the forces 
were so scattered that hardly a man could hide his front without 
exposing his side. Co. F and the othera who had the ledge for 
sheltet were more favored, but they were annoyed by some plunging 
shots for a long time before they discovered rebel sharpshooters 
in the trees, Dennis McGoverin of F, an Irish recruit, brought 



*ThiB WM the 105th N. Y.» of Dary^e'B brigade. We testify to their gallantry, for we 
know the tremendous odds they contended against. Qsn. Dory6e writes me that this 
was the left regiment of his brigade, henee it was the extreme left of Hooker's corps. 



1 862. HOW THE BEBELS FOUGHT. 239 

down one of these, Peter McClaskey of I another, and some one 
else dropped a third, who had climbing irons strapped on his legs. 

We heard no slow balls nor buck-shot that day ; nor did the 
enemy fire many bullets over our heads. On. the contrary, their 

officers were continually shouting "Aim low ! '* " Give 'em 1 " 

"Give it to the Yankee sons of 1" The last order one 

would think they had learned in infancy, by the ease and frequency 
of their giving it. 

In our regiment we had the combustible envelope cartridge,* 
which is put in the musket entire without tearing the paper. 
Consequently our fire was rapid compared with what was common 
with a muzzle-loader. The rebels also, we maintain, had an 
extraordinary cartridge or bullet that day. So many of us heard 
a snapping sound that we usually speak of the rebels having fired 
explosive balls at us, but I am not aware that any thing more 
remarkable than English cartridges with box-wood culots were 
found upon any of the rebel dead after the battle. 

Sergt. George A. Smith, of Co. E, had the side of his neck 
perfectly riddled with eighteen small bits of lead, and Jerome O. 
Sanborn of E, had a long iron slug fired into his leg, and the 
surgeon who dressed his wounds, said he had seen a number of 
othei*s wounded by similar slugs. 

Perhaps both of these came from shells. This suggestion will 
bring out a "No," from many of you, for full three-quarters of us 
are ready to testify, that except early in the morning as before 
stated, we were not under artillery fire at all till the very last 
part of our engagement. But others assert that we were com- 
plimented with a few shot or shells soon after entering the woods, 
and their testimony I suppose must be admitted as conclusive, 
for a precious little did the most of us care for a few shells just 
then. In other particulars there was not much to characterize 
the fighting we made in this battle. It was ugly work, unusually 
severe, sharp and terrible. 

• Manufactured by Johnston & Dow, Now York. We never learned why they were 
not supplied to the army afterward, nor are we aware that any considerable number of 
regiments had them this day. Some of the men say that they loaded by dropping in the 
cartridge and bringing the musket smartly to the ground, and the shock would send the 
cartridge home. 



240 BEAL WOUNDED — ^MANSFIELD KILLED. 1 862. 

Jast before our first volley the Coloners horse was struck in 
the head, catching a ball intended by some sharpshooter for the 
Colonel himself. The brute became unmanageable, reeled around, 
tried to throw the Colonel, and at length compelled him to dis- 
mount. Then h^pened that most singular incident ; this dying 
horse broke away from Colonel Beal, ran over to Lieut. Col. 
Fillebrown, who had just dismounted, turned about and planted 
his hind legs in Fillebrown's breast and stomach. 

Col. Beal was wounded in both legs at the very moment of 
dismounting; so before we had fired two rounds our Colonel and 
Lieut. Colonel were hora du combat. The command then de- 
volved upon Major Walker, who had been sick a month, but who 
still kept along with us, hoping, against hope and reason, that he 
might improve. It is no slur upon our good Major to say that 
we were now sadly disabled, for a change -of commanders is 
almost always attended with confusion and misfortune. But a 
more serious thing than all happened immediately. 

The rebel force in our fi*ont showed no colors. They ap- 
peared to be somewhat detached from and in advance of 
the main rebel line, and were about where the left of Gen. 
Dury^e's brigade might be supposed to have retreated. To Gen. 
Mansfield we appeared to be firing into Duryee's troops, there- 
fore he beckoned us to cease firing, and as this was the very last 
thing we proposed to do, the few who saw him did not understand 
what his motions meant, and so no attention was paid to him. 
He now rode down the hill from the 128th Penu., and passing 
quickly through H, A, K, E, I, G and D, ordering them to cease 
firing, he halted in front of C at the earnest remonstrances of 
Capt. Jordan and Sergt. Burnham, who asked him to see the 
gray coats of the enemy, and pointed out particular men ot 
them who were then aiming their rifles at us and at him ! The Gen- 
eral was convinced and remarked " Yes, yes, you are right," and 
was almost instantly hit. lie turned and attempted to put his 
horse over the rails, but the animal had also been severely 
wounded and could not go over. Thereupon the General dis- 
mounted, and a gust of wind blowing open his coat we saw that 
lie was wounded in the body. Sergt. Joe Merrill, Storer Knight 



iia \\ i\> V\ UUtlUCi.l 111 111^ tl\J*A} 



*JKfi f^Ki 



V \^ w ^>A . 




it'-^Mt^ 



-..,-,: ,1 ,r I- ni-y^c-:- ^^^'^^ 



1 862. THE enemy's REINFORCEMENTS. 241 

and I took the General to the rear, assisted for a while by a 
negro cook of Hooker's coips.* W e put the General into an 
ambulance in the woods in front of which we had deployed, and 
noticed that Gen. Gordon was just at that moment posting the 
107th New York in their front edge.f 

After this calamity the fire of the enemy was less severe, and 
man by man we advanced into the woods, still keeping behind 
the trees and logs. The right companies, especially, went almost 
through the woods, and fired into the brigade of the enemy before 
mentioned, which was marching by the flank along our front. 
This seemed to be a strange movement, but it was too good a 
shot to lose, as the men of II and A will testify. 

These rebel troops continued to pass at brief intervals of 
time across our front, and in rear of the force we were directly 
engaged with. Once or twice they stopped, came to the front 
and fired at us, but the distance and shelter prevented serious 
damage. At length they ceased to go past, and the last of them 
came to " Front," advanced a trifle towards us, and fired a volley 
or two. This sent a good number of us to the rear, but enough 
still held on (though yielding a little of the ground in some 
cases) to make the rebels hfilt. But the original fight between 
the 10th Me. and the rebel regiment opposing it, had nearly 
terminated before this, rather in our favor. There was not a 
quarter of our men lefl on the ground, while the position of the 
few remaining men of the enemy made it hazardous for our 
seventy to try an advance. Both sides had discovered, too, the 



* I will take no ofTonce if you do not believe thii. I would not myself bare belleyed 
tbat any sane and sober m:in would be found loafing In such a fire at that darkey was. 
Tet be watt sane, sober and sound everyway, to say n^otJiiug of a little saucineaty which 
Joe quieted with his boot,— but bis only excuse for being there was tbat he was hunting 
for Captain Somebody'sAy /Kin/— valued, I suppoao, at one dollar. 

A great deal may be said about a man*8 risking his life for a djollar, but It requires few 
words to state tbat such a risk as this can be run only once or twice before Mr. Darkey. 
will be "Jcs no darkey at all." 

t The 107th N. Y. was placed thero with orders from Oen. Hooker to " bold the woodv 
at all hazards." This onler must have been given upon the supposition that the 128th 
Pcnn. and 10th Me. would be forced out of the " thin belt of woods." But as this was not 
done the 107th N. Y. eventually marched over our track and reinforced us. Authority — 
Gen. Gordon, and M^jor Fanton, 107th N. Y. 

16 



242 FURBISH) WABB AKD BBAOKETT KILLED. 1 862. 

necessity of lying low, so there was little to be seen and little 
going on, for a few moments, till these reinforcements came to 
the enemy. 

The battle had been terribly severe to ns, engaged as we were 
at close quarters and with troops that had seen so much more 
fighting than we had. The despondency which came over us 
under Pope had not gone entirely, and the knowledge of the 
wounding of Gen. Mansfield and our two ranking field ofiicer^ 
troubled us not » little. But the well aimed bullets of the rebels 
as they went zipping past us, killing and wounding our comrades, 
and sometimes cutting spitefully through our clothes, made us 
most nervous of course. Another very serious annoyance was 
the sight of the rebel troops marching by the flank, though 
fortunately not all saw them, for many men are so constituted 
that in battle they see only what is going on under their own 
eyes, and I have talked with a number who fought till we were 
relieved, and who remember the lull and swell in the storm of 
lead, yet stoutly deny that the rebels were reinforced at all ! 

The sharpshooters dealt us mischief enough ; they took our 
Colonel and with him the Lieut. Colonel ; then Capt. Furbish 
was killed before we were fairly at work. Lieut. Turner soon 
followed the Colonel with an ounce of lead in his leg, leaving Co. 
B to the Sergeants, DeLano and Willey. Ist Sergt. Wade, of 
Co. I, acting lieutenant, a rough fearless fighter, carelessly took 
a seat on the top of the fence, sword in hand, waiting to jump at 
the fii*st man of I who should offer to run. A bullet struck him, 
— the thud of it was heard away up in Co. H, — and he dropped 
over backward, lifeless. Lieut. Mayhew was wounded soon after, 
but tied his handkerchief over the wound and kept by his 
company. Lieut. Kingsley of K was also slightly wounded, but 
refused to take a leave of absence just then. 1st Sergt. Brackett, 
of D, acting as lieutenant, was mortally wounded in the bowels, 
and we lost forever one of the bravest and most promising men 
we had. His commission as 2d lieut. arrived after he was dead. 

These losses, added to more than sixty others, took one-fourth 
of our strength, but the greatest evil of that day was the one 
which was common to our aimy at this time, and one of the 



1 862. OENS. GREENE AND GORDON REINFORCE US. 243 

» 

mightiest reasons of its inefficiency ; it was allowable for two, 
three and even four men to carry off a wounded man, and once 
out of the fight few found their way back again. Thus it 
happened that our regiment gradually wilted away, until only a 
quarter of the force was left, and this was doing rather better, I 
think, than most union regiments did that day, after suffering so 
heavy a loss as we had. 

Our colors did not go, nor our new commander, nor any of the 
line officera unless wounded, nor did the rebels materially advance 
their line or gain any advantage over the union forces generally. 
We were then in the precise condition that we had seen the 105th 
N. Y., when we entered the battle. 

At this stage of the game. Gen. Greene, commanding the 2d 
division of our corps, rode up and ordered Major Walker to get 
his men in line and charge, but while the Major was looking 
about. Gen. Gordon, commanding the 3d brigade of our division, 
came up and told him to take his men away from his (Gordon's) 
front, or they would be shot by his troops. Thereupon those 
that remained of the left companies came out of the woods in a 
hurry, running toward the road rather than to the rear; and the 
rebels, I imagine, thought they had driven them out, and some 
say they advanced a few steps on seeing us retreat ; but the 
particulars of the manner in which we were relieved we will 
insert on another page. 

BELIEVED AFTERNOON. 

The next move was for us all to fall back to very nearly where 
we had slept, and here we stacked arms and cooked our break- 
fasts. Many stragglers went back to the Antietam, and foraged 
on the neighboring gardens. These men were mostly from 
companies whose officers had all been disabled, and from them 
we learn that tlie whole country for miles in the rear of the battle, 
was overrun with thousands of stragglers and skulks. The 
surgeons of Hooker's coq)s ordered a number of- details from us, 
because we were handy to them, and they also sent out two 
ambulance parties from our ranks. Besides these, irregular 
squads went to help the wounded, and a few improved the 



/ 



244 THE BEAR — ^DEMORALIZATION. 1 862. 



• 



opportunity to rob the dead. Hence for a few hours our old 
regiment was demoralized, as were the most of those who had 
fought ne:\y that cornfield. At dusk, when the brigade was 
assembled again near its ild bivouac, and Gen. Williams called 
for a report of men present, we could only count a few less than 
a hundred muskets, showing that a few more than a hundred 
still remained on hospital duty, or had straggled off. We made 
our lists of killed and wounded, and told over the sad stories of 
how this one and that had been killed. 

Of the dead officers the case of Capt. Furbish was peculiarly 
sad. He was a wide-awake, harum-scarum fellow, full of life and 
joviality. He had been sick while at Culpeper C. H., and could . 
not march to Cedar Mountain, but on the afternoon of the battle 
he borrowed a horse and rode out. Impelled by a sense of duty, 
he took his place with his company when he saw that a battle 
was imminent, but he entirely miscalculated his powers, for he 
fainted and had to be carried off at the first physical effort he 
made. A soldier never has charity for such a mishap, and the 
Captain must have suffered the keenest mental tortures during the 
months which followed, though the bravest of men may be excused 
for a like misfortune, when as sick as Furbish was. 

Here at Antietam the opportunity presented itself of redeem- 
ing his character before his men. His was the color company, 
and hence his division was in front, and the leading one in all 
of our movements in mass. He did finely in everything, and 
when we arrived on the field of battle he huri'ied his men over 
the fence, and promptly ordered " Left dress ! " Then, without 
leaving the colors to take his proper position behind the company, 
he drew his pistol and took deliberate aim at some rebel which 
attracted his attention, but the enemy's bullet was a second too 
quick ; it killed him instantly before he had discharged his pistol. 

Death is a terrible price to pay for an honor, but the honor 
which is due to every brave man was freely given to him, and 
it was well deserved. His harshest accuser could only speak of 
him as ** poor Furbish," after he had fallen dead in the ranks of 
the color guard. 



1 862. A HARD KICK IN A TENDER PLAGE. 245 

During the afternoon we noticed a decided lull in the battl^ 
and we heard tlial largo reinforcements were arriving for our side, 
and that the rebels had been whipped all over the field, yet we 
were a sober hundred tliat stacked arms on the evening after 
Antietara. Our conversation indicated a very different state of 
feelings from that after Cedar Mountain. We felt satisfied that 
we had inflicted as heavy a loss as we had suffered ; but the 
sight of our thinned ranks and the prospect of another day of 
bloody work was sickening. There had been hardly an incident 
in the whole day's work of butchery and blood to cheer us, yet 
we repeated to each other our experiences and tried to make the 
best of a bad state of things. 

Old dog "Major" behaved well under fire, barking fiercely, and 
keepinj^ up a steady growl from the time we went in till we came 
out. lie had thus contributed his part towards the uproar which 
some consider so essential in battle. He had shown so much 
genuine pluck, moreover, that the men of H were bragging of his 
barking, and of liis biting at the sounds of the bullets, asserting 
besides that he was " tail up " all day. 

A great many incidents which appear interesting and comical 
now, had no such attraction then, but there was one event which 
even then in our sadness and misery seemed almost as ludicrous 
as it does nbw; tliis was tlie misfortune to our Lieut. Colonel. 

Of all men, he to be kicked, and at such a time, by a U. S. 
ambulance skeleton ! * Why didn't the brute kick some one else ? 
He knew better; he wanted to put his kick where it would tell — 
where it would go down to posterity with our regiment's history, 
and so he put it right into " Jim's " stomach. We must commend 
him for the promptness of his judgment and its execution. Just 
at the moment when Col. Beal was wounded, and when the 
opportunity presented itself for the lieutenant Colonel to take 
command of the "10th" and do a great thing for himself and us, 
that worthless, broken down and dying plug sent him flying end 
over end. A man may be brave, cool, keen, spoiling for a fight, 



• Col. Beal wisely rode a " public animal " tli&t day, and left " BiU " in the rear out of 
the reach of harm. 



246 PARDONABLE INDIFFERENCE. 1 862. 

ambitious and eyerything else ; but let the last kick of a horse 
be spent on his stomach, and Oh 1 how changed that man^s con- 
dition 1 Pardon me for dragging myself into this affair, but the 
debt I owe our Lieut. Colonel for selling my valuable " Rappa- 
hannock," has always kept fresh the memory of this and other 
of his horse scrapes ; but I never found language to describe the 
condition of our good friend on this occasion, until Bret Harte 
produced that simple tale of the grand smash up of " Our Society 
at Stanislaus," where he says that one Abncr Dean of Angel's, 
was just on the point of bringing himself into notice and making 
a great effort — 



-" when, 



A chunk of old red sandstone 

Took him in the ab-do-roen, 
And he smiled a sort of sicklj smile, 

And curled up on the floor. 
And the subsequent proceedings 

Interested him no more** 

WHO RELIEVED US. 

The manner in which we were relieved, what troops they were, 
and the name of the rebel regiment that wo opposed in this 
battle are questions that we were never able to answer, and I 
have found them the most difficult of any to solve. Probably 
not one of you will be prepared to receive the statements which 
follow ; nevertheless they are proved beyond all doubt. 

When Col. Beal went out of the battle, wounded, exactly at 
7.30 A. M. by his watch, which must have been slower than 
mine, he saw on the other side of the road Col. Goodrich, 60th N. 
Y., a Relay House acquaintance, who pointed out his (Goodrich's) 
brigade to him, and wi^ed our Colonel a speedy cure. This 
brigade* carried three regiments into the battle, (60th N. Y., 78th 
N. Y. and 3d Delaware), and if memory serves, they were all 
exceedingly small, probably not over 400 muskets in all. They 
were then advancing through the little cornfield where we had 



«3d brigade of the 2d division. See Frank Moore*i Rebellion Becord, Vol. y, p. 460. 



1 862. GOODRICH'S AND QORDON'8 BRIGADES. 347 

obliqued. Without doubt they moved to the right as they 
entered the battle, though possibly to the left, passing behind us 
unnoticed. No one else of our regiment, whom I can find, saw 
a man of them, and as Col. Beal saw no other troops near them, 
he naturally concluded that Gen. Greene relieved us, and this 
conclusion was strengthened by Gen. Greene's order to Maj. 
Walker. Thus it happens that the regimental report states that 
Greene relieved us.* 

But it was well known in our regiment that the 2d Mass., of 
Gordon's (3d) brigade of our division, had relieved our regiment^ 
and that Geary's brigade, the 1st of the 2d division, had marched 
very nearly over our ground. I also myselfj on my return to th© 
regiment, after putting Gen. Mansfield into an ambulance, helped 
a man of the 107th N. Y., of Gordon's brigade, who was wounded 
where our colors stood. Besides, a great many had seen " one 
of the new Pennsylvania nine-months regiments of our brigade " 
come up in our rear. 

As you will naturally infer, the enemy was easily whipped in 
this vicinity, afler we were so heavily reinforced, though he too 
was reinforced as has been stated. It was always a puzzle to us 
to explain tlie way so many union troops were handled, and this 
was made more perplexing from the fact that no one of us saw 
more than one or at the most two of tliese reinforcing bodies. 
Yet we considered that the identity of the union troops was 
proved beyond all question, because, for instance, besides the 
many who saw the 2d Mass., there were two men who fell in with 
this regiment, and fought in its ranks a long time. One of 
theset was that black-eyed Frenchman, Corporal Reuben Viele, 
of Co. K, whom you all know, whether of the "1st," "10th" or 
" 20th." He was the chief of a squad of the 2d Mass. to capture 
the colonel and adjutant of the 20th Georgia, and he turned over 
his ]>risoners to Capt. Morgan, the provost marshal. Then there 



* Soo page 74, Report of Adjt. Oen. Maine, 1862. 

t The other was Nelson R. or "Doctor " Russell, as clear-headed, truthftil and brare 
a man as we had in the regiment. When I preMed him for proof that it was the 2d 
Mass., ho wrote (Vankly that he could not remember any incident proving it, but had 
always supposed it was the 2d. 



248 A SERIES OF EBB0B8. 1 862. 

were a half dozen who had fought with the 28th Penn. and 5th 
Ohio, of Geary's brigade, and had seen Lieut. Col. Tyndale, the 
brigade commander, and talked with the men as they fought. 

The " new Penn. regiment" was seen by nearly all who remained 
till the last, and as for myself I was positive that the wounded 
man told me he was of the 107th N. Y. 

We should all have died in ignorance, I fear, had not Frank 
Moore's Record published* Gen. Toombs's (rebel) report of the 
doings of the 20 th Georgia, in opposing Burn side — three miles 
from where we fought ! I Our Frenchman Viele was thereupon 
interviewed and all the particulars learned, and after the war was 
ended and you honored me with the office of historian of our 
association, I assigned for my first work, the solution of these 
Antietam difficulties, and I am sorry to say I have not been able, 
after all the ink-slinging, to answer all these knotty questions. 

First, I wrote to and talked with about a hundred of you, till 
I learned thoroughly what we understand as the facts in the case, 
which are briefly : 

1. Goodrich's and Geary's brigades came up to our right, and 
Gordon's to our left. 

2. The 2d Mass. passed very nearly over our ground, its right 
division over-lapping our left. 

3. The " new Penn. regiment" also did the same. 

4. The 107th N. Y. dropped a wounded man upon our ground. 
(One witness only.) 

5. The 28th Penn. passed over our ground. (One witness 
only, and he backed down on cross-examination.) 

6. We fought the 20th Georgia. (Everybody so unclerstood it.) 

7. We buried the rebels that we had killed, and ascertained 
that they were of the 20th Georgia, and we so marked their 
head boards. 

8. Col. Fillebrown saw the same head boards in December, 
1863, and they had not been changed from 20th Georgia. 

9. Col. Emerson had an order from Gen. to Col. Colquitt, 

which was found upon what was supposed to be the body of Col. 



* Bebellion Record, Vol. ix, p. 683. 



1 862. ERRORS CX)RREGT£D. 249 

Colqaitt, and he had met a son of Col. Colquitt in Washington, 
who said that his father was killed at Autietam. 

10. Corporal Reuben Viele, assisted by a squad of the 2d 
Mass., captured the colonel and adjutant of the 20th Georgia. 

You will readily perceive as you read, why I made slow 
progress with such ^^ facts " as these to work upon, but after 
nearly two years of labor I believe I can state as genuine, that — 

1. The 2d Mass. was not within a quarter of a mile of us at 
any time that day. 

2. There was no new Pennsylvania regiment except the 128th, 
within a gunshot of us at any time during our engagement. 

3. The 107th N. Y. reinforced us, though not a single man of 
us knew it at the time, and but for my accidental falling upon 
the wounded man, we might never have learned it. 

4. The 28th Penn. entered the battle, going over about the same 
ground that the 128th Penn. had, and did not come so far to the 
left as to cross the road. 

5. We did not liglit the 20th Georgia regiment. I have the 
autographs of Gens. Longstreet and Toombs for this. 

6. We therefore made a mistake when we cai'ved "20th 
Geo." on those cracker-l)0x head boards. 

7. I have two or three very interesting letters from Gen. 
Colquitt, who says he is not dead. 

8. As for Reuben's two mounted "preesn'rs" with 20 on 
their caps, — I give it up. Nearly all of Colquitt's field officers 
were killed or wounded, but none were captured, and not an 
officer of McRae's brigade which was next to Colquitt's was 
captured with the exception of two of his staif. Major Ilalsey and 
Capt. Wood. ITeuben captured some one — that we feel sure of, 
for he is truthful; but he could furnish half a company with 
frenzy and fizz and have enough left then to be classed with the 
nervous temperaments. So I think we must conclude that Reuben, 
in common with a great number of others, did not pay sufficient 
attention to what took place that day. 

I am entirely unable to solve the question what regiment we 
fought, until I receive answers from twenty or thirty letters which 
have been sent into Dixie, during the last two years ; but in one 



250 GEN. COLQUITT'S LETTER. 1 86 J. 

way and another I have learned from the books, that the enemy's 
line in our vicinity was formed thus : Ripley's brigade * joined 
Walker's of Jackson's corps. Colquitt was on the (rebel) right 
of Ripley, and MoRae was for a moment on Colquitt's right. 
Rodes was well to the rear of Colquitt but could not have 
engaged us. 

Gen. Colquittt writes: — 

♦ ♦ ♦ "I could see no confederate troops immediately to my right 
after Garland's [McRae's] brigade broke. * * The 6th Georgia was, I 
think, on the right of mj brigade, and was almost enyeloped after the brigade 
of Garland gave way and left nothing to hinder the advance of the enemy to 
my right. « « x am unable to designate the troops which moved ' by 
fours ' to your right ; before entering the fight, my troops moved to your right 
by fours, then faced and moved to the front. Khodes's brigade of Alabamians 
moved also to your right and took a position some distance in my rear. His 
troops were not engaged tvH mine were driven from the field. I am inclined 
to think, from aU the circumstances, that mine was the command which your 
regiment met that day. Only one circumstance in all you have mentioned 
throws doubt upon this conclusion. You say ' we were reinforced ; simul- 
taneously, the rebel regiment that we had engaged, was reinforced.' I object 
to ' rebel,' but will not stop to make an issue with you on that. If you are 
right in supposing the ' rebel regiment ' was reinforced, then that regiment 
was no part of my command, for though I sought and sent for reinforcements 
none came. That part of the field upon which I fought , had not, I think, been the 
icene of a previous engagement, unless it was on my extreme lejl; and it was not 
afterward occupied by confederate troops." * * 

Col. D. K. McRae, commanding Garland's brigade, writes as 
below. I wish I could copy the opening page of his letter, and 
the speech he made before the Confederate Soldiers' Relief Asso- 
ciation in January, 1871. It would shame those who delight to 
call the old confederate soldiers " traitors." His account shows 
that he was sent to reinforce Colquitt, or to extend the line of 
battle to the south east — the rebel right. 

" Our march was by the left flank. « « « Our line was formed 
facing a wood, into which we were directed to advance, being cautioned by 
Gen. HiU not to fire upon Colquitt, who might be in our front. Very soon 
after we entered the woods, we encountered a fire of what appeared to be a 



•Beb. Bee. Vol. ix, p. 689. Hii regiments were 4th and 44th Georgia, 1st and 3d N. G. 
t GolqulU'B brigade was the 13th Ala., 6th, 23d, 27th and 28th Georgia. 



1 862. cx>L. moRAe's letter. 251 

slight skirmish line, when a cry went through the line that these were Col- 
quitt's troops. * * At this time my brigade was in a secure position, a 

• 

ledge of rock stretching in front along a large portion of the line. I mounted 
a rock, and looking down the slope saw a line of what I supposed was about 
ft regiment, with the U. S. flag flying. * * i ordered the brigade to fire 
and charge, but at this moment some scattering U. S. troops were discovered 
on our extreme right, and a cry started from that portion of the line, " They are 
flanking us," and in a moment the most unutterable stami>ede occurred. The 
whole line vanished, and a brigade famous for its previous and subsequent 
conduct, fled in panic from the field." 

This letter almost settled my mind that wc fought McRae's 
lefl,* the 20th N. C, but a second letter from the Colonel puts 
an end to it. He writes : 

" The picket lines which you encountered [see page 286] must have been 
from Kiplcy's brigade, and must have been overlapped by Colquitfs left or 
his left front. « « « i did not see the dismounted gun which you 
describe; it must have been farther to my left.%* * * I think the 
picket line you drove back, and the force you afterwards encountered, were 
Ripley's right, or Colquitt's left, and the troops moving by the flank must 
have been Colquitt's or Ripley's. Mine could not have gone out of ytmr iight to 
jfour right. * * * The capture of an officer with 20 on his cap bothers 
me not a little. I could easily understand how a few caps of the 20th 
N. C. might be found, but not how any men could be captured or buried. I do 
not recollect that I was called to report a single casualty in my brigade for 
that day ! * * It was one of those marvelous flights that beggar 
explanation or description. 

•' My conclusion is that you engaged portions of Ripley's and Colquitt's 
brigade. A picket force you did doubtless engage, and it was Ripley's. You 
first engaged it at the fence, supported by his line. One of his regiments you 
doubtless encountered, and this was supported or reinforced by Colquitt's 
arrival, who in turn met the reinforcements to your command, and I coming 
up, saw one of these reinforcing U. S. regiments, and ordered my brigade to 
fire, when it became stampeded. 

My force was not overlapped, but we overlapped considerably the [U. S.] 
regiment in my front. It was only a very few scattering men on my right 
flank that produced the stampede. The 20th N. C. had no oflicers captured, 
and I cannot imagine who the oflicers were with 20 on their caps." 

I cannot quote more on this subject, but I think it may be 



* His formation was 
Reb. left. I 20th N. C. | I'Mh N. C. | 23<1 N. C. | 12th N. 0. | 5Ui N. C. S."Tr| Reb. right 
The 6th was a new regiment of conscripts, the others were old vols. 



252 THE SUBJECT STILL IN DOUBT. 1862. 

safely stated that we fought either Colquitt or Ripley, but I will 
not venture to say which. The rebel wounded, that we picked 
up around our front, said they were Georgians and North " Cal- 
leenyuns," and they were a rugged set of men, too, but the dead 
which we buried were all supposed to be Georgians. 

I should have had far better success had I learned earlier that 
the supposed 2d Mass. was the 107th N. Y. Having started 
with this error, and knowing by Gordon's report that the 3d 
Wis., 27th Indiana and a battery were on the left of the 2d Mass., 
I misinformed all the ex-confederates that I wrote to, and gave 
them the impression that our line was extended to our left by 
reinforcement. But this error was not very serious, excepting in 
the matter of the battery, for the 107th being new covered nearly 
as much front as three old regiments would cover. 

In conclusion I muM say that in trying to learn what regiment 
we fought at Antietam, I have worked more hours, taken more 
pains to inform myself, learned and unlearned more "facts" — the 
facts being errors — and "bored" more friends and strangers, than 
upon any other work I have done on the book. Yet it cannot 
be decided here which of the nine regiments of Ripley and 
Colquitt we opposed. I should not be surprised if it happened 
that the most serious loss came to us from the sharpshooters. 
Indeed, some of our most intelligent men have urged that we did 
not fight a regiment, but only a large detachment of pickets, 
sharpshooter, stragglers, <fcc., and this theory is favored by the 
fact that they bore no colors, were never in an organized line, that 
all their bullets were very well aimed, and that this makes Gen. 
Colquitt's statement clear, that he fought over ground which had 
not been previously contested (by a regular organization), and 
was not himself reinforced. But we could see the men of the 
enemy, and we know that they were as numerous as we, or very 
nearly so, and it does not a])pear probable that so heavy a 
detachment would have been sent out by any rebel general ; and 
further, in explanation of the cause of good aim by the rebels, 
is the fact that we never got into such close quarters as in this 
battle. 

I consider it due to the following named enlisted men of our 



1 862. 



" stbategy/' 



253 



regiment, to state that besides performing their dnty in our ranks, 
they rendered additional voluntary service with other commands 
after we were relieved : 



A. Dyer, Stephen A. 

A. Hanson, Daniel 

A. Kenney, Dennis 

B. DeLano, Marcus 

B. Willey, John C. 

C. Irish, Nathan F. 

C. Thayer, Charles H. 

E. Smith, Henry F. 

E. Cook, David W. 

G. Charles, Daniel E. 

G. Farrington, Henry 

G. Russell, Nelson K. 

G. Wilkinson, WilUam W. 

n. Grover, Mark 

K. Viele, Reuben 



Private. 




Sergeant, 


28th Penn. 


(( 


« 


Corporal, 


(f 


Private, 


" wounded. 


Sergeant, 


tt 


Private, 


Irish brigade. 


it 


28th Penn. 



n 



tt 



ti 



Private, 



107th N. Y. (?) 
Probably killed in some 
other regiment. 



tt 



Corporal, 107th N. Y. (?) 



WHAT NEXT ? 

Sept. 18th, Thursday, We wore up at 5.45, our ranks not 
full, our Major still hanging to us, though as sick as before. It 
rained a little occasionally. We were moved at 8.45 a. m. to 
the front, and after much manoeuvring, halted and stacked arms 
just beyond where we liad fought. Very sharp picket firing was 
going on all the while. The "ball opened" after the sun was 
well up, with the booming of cannon on tlie left, but closed again 
very soon. At first we staid near our stacks, but we learned 
that there was a suspension of hostilities to enable the dead to 
be buried (how strangely this reads now to those of us who have 
fought under Sheridan!), and we scattered all over the field 
wherever it was safe to venture. I copy from the diary, written out 
a few days later, from notes taken at this time : 

The woods where we fought were very long, and extended to the right and 
left, but were only a few rods through at the place where we fought. Beyond 
the woods were pastures and cornfields. I noticed a tobacco patch very 
nearly in front of our position. In the g^eat cornfield (nearly all the fences 
were down, and the various fields were thus made into one) the dead lay in 



254 SIGHTS ON THE BATTLE FIELD. 1 862. 

hundreds. Here the battle raged back and forth all the forenoon. The com 
was spoiled, and the leaves torn off, though singular as it may seem, not half 
the stalks were trodden down flat. All the wounded had been removed from 
this field, and nearly all the union dead had been taken care of, each regiment 
looking after its own dead I suppose, so only the rebel dead were prominent. 
To the left of the cornfield in a pasture, the scene was the same. Behind 
every rock, and especially behind a ledge, the dead were thick as grass- 
hoppers. 

The number of muskets and equipments scattered around gave a better 
idea of the slaughter ; these had not been disturbed much, and representing 
the killed, and the badly wounded, gave a truer conception of the carnage. 
The sight was horrifying at first, but afterwards the sameness of the gray 
heaps failed to impress us. The everlasting gray and dirty homespun, the 
blood and dirt on every face, the same vacant and unmeaning expression, all 
tended to weary rather than disgust. I did not notice a single man who had 
been " blown to pieces " by shell or cannon shot, except one or two around 
where a caisson had exploded. Along the line of g^reatest elevation, that is, 
the line where the rebels advancing from low ground would come in sight of 
our men, the dead were thick, and the muskets and litter told plainer still of 
terrible carnage. 

A number of officers lay scattered aroun 1 with their men. One, said to be 
Col. Strong of the 6th Louisiana, was not tar from our front, but he could not 
have been killed by us. Near him lay two other field officers, and a great 
many enlisted men. The rebel regiment that fought the 10th Maine, must 
have been on the extreme right [our left] of their farthest advance in this part 
of the field, and its dead were about as numerous as ours. Our boys seemed 
to take notice of this fact, and were not a little pleased to be able to cut 
buttons from the coats of men who had fallen in their attempts to kill us. 

We were moved about considerably during the day [18th] and received 
rations, for which we were thankful, though the haversacks of the dead, and 
the neighboring cornfields had helped us somewhat. Quite early in the morning 
we were placed in proximity to troops of Franklin's corps ; Mellon Green, our 
bugler, sounded the " Halt," and forthwith an aide rode to the Major and told 
him that Gen. Franklin forbade all noise. We thus learned Franklin's 
whereabouts and went to see the famous general. He was sitting on a ledge, 
grim and determined as usual, receiving constant communications from general 
and stafi" officers, and replying to ^ them all as complacently as could be. 
Near by. Gen. Newton was talking with "Baldy" Smith. Newton was 
writhing and gesticulating in a very odd way, pointing toward the rebels, 
frowning and going through all sorts of demonstrations, and whispering to 
Smith, who sometimes nodded " Yes " and sometimes " No." Newton at length 
took his friend to Gen. Franklin and seemed to be using him as a backer for 
his remarks, laying the case down to Franklin in a way that made Smith and 



1 862. McOLELLAN'S EXOU8E8. 255 

all of us langh. It was plain that Newton belioTed in a fight and the total 
annihilation of the rebels, but Franklin sat there unmoTed ; no one could g^ess 
what he thought. 

A fact of importance to be remembered is, that though we 
remained on the defensive all the 18th, we saw no "digging'* 
except for the dead, for although the army of tlie Potomac had 
built fortifications without number, it was not until 1864 that it 
became habitual for it to throw up rude breastworks when in pres- 
ence of the enemy. For an item of regimental history, we record 
the arrival of a number of recruits on the 18th. They could easily 
have reached us fi week sooner, and some of them say they were 
actually hindered fi-om going to the front, in the fear that they 
might get hurt ! That will do for a soldier's yam, yet it does 
remind one forcibly of the strategy and mystery for which 1862 
was so famous. 

&en. McClellan's reasons for not attacking the enemy the 18th, 
are given in his report, and as few of you have this, I copy it 
here : 

moclellxn'b reasons for not attacking ox the 18tii. 

" After a night of anxious deliberation and a full and careful surrey of the 
situation and condition of our nrniy, the strength and position of the enemy, 
I conclu<lcd that the success of an attack on the 18th was not certain. I am 
aware of the fact, tliat under ordniary circumstances, a general is expected to 
risk a battle if he has a reasonable prospect of success ; but at this critical 
juncture I should have had a narrow view of the condition of the country had 
I been willing to hazard another battle with less than an absolute assurance 
of success. At that moment — Virginia lost, Washington menaced, Maryland 
invaded — the national cause could afford no risks of defeat. One battle lost, 
and almost all would have been lost. Lee's army might then have marched 
^ it pleased, on Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia or New York. It could 
have levied its supplies from a fertile and undevastated country ; extorted 
tribute from wealthy and populous cities ; and nowhere east of the Alleghanies 
was there another organized force able to arrest its march. 

" The following are among the considerations which led me to doubt the 
certainty of success in attacking before the 19th : 

(1.) "The troops were greatly overcome by the fatigue and exhaustion 
attendant upon the long continued and severely contested battle of the 17th, 
together with the long day and night marches to which they had been subjected 
during the previous three days. 



256 EXCUSES CONTINUED. 1 862. 

(2.) " The supply trains were in the rear, and many of the troops had 
suffered from hunger ; they required rest and refreshment. 

(8.) " One division of Sumner's and all of Hooker's corps, on the right, had, 
after fighting most valiantly for several hours, been overpowered by numbers, 
driven back in great disorder and much scattered, so that they were for the 
time somewhat demoralized. 

(4.) " In Hooker's corps, according to the return made by Gen. Meade, 
commanding, there were but 6,729 men present on the 18th ; whereas on the 
morning of the 22d, there were 13,098 present for duty in the same corps, 
showing that previous to, and during the battle, 6,864 men were separated 
from their command. 

(5.) (Here follows Gen. Meade's report, made about twenty hours after 
the battle, showing that his corps — Hooker's — was good for defence in their 
strong position, but not so good for an offensive movement.) 

(6.) (Here follows the assertion, that one of Sumner's divisions was so 
scattered and demoralized that Sumner thought it not worth much for an 
attack.) 

(7.) " Some of the new troops on the left, although many of them fo^kht 
well during the battle, and are entitled to great credit, were at the close of the 
action driven back and their morale impaired. 

(8.) (This paragraph relates to the weakness of Gen. Bumside's position 
on the extreme left, &c., &c.) 

(9.) "A large number of our heaviest and most efficient batteries had 
consumed all their aiumunition on the 16th and 17th, and it was impossible 
to supply them until late on the following day. 

(10.) *' Supplies of provisions and forage had to be brought up and issued, 
and infantry ammunition distributed. 

(11.) " Finally, reinforcements to the number of 14,000 — to say nothing of 
troops expected from Pennsylvania — had not arrived, but were expected 
during the day. ***** 

" Of the reinforcements. Couch's division marching with commendable 
rapidity, came up into position at a late hour in the morning, ( 18th ). 
Humphreys' division of new troops, in their anxiety to participate in the battle, 
which was raging when they received the order to march from Frederick, at 
about 8.30 p. m., of the 17th, pressed forward during the entire night, and the 
mass of the division reached the army during the following morning. Having 
marched more than 23 miles after 4.80 r. m. of the 17th, they were of course 
greatly exhausted, and needed rest and refreshment. Large reinforcements 
expected from Pennsylvania never arrived. During the 18th, orders were 
given for the renewal of the attack at daylight on the 19th. 

(Then stating that 2,700 rebel dead were buried under direction of Maj. 
Davis, and concluding that the enemy's loss exceeded ours, the General 
closes.) 



1 862. THE boys' OPK^ION. 257 

" Thirteen guns, thirty-nine colors, upwards of 15,000 stands of small arms, 
and more than six thousand prisoners were the trophies, which attest tho 
success of our army in the battles of South Mountain, Crampton's Gap and 
Antietam. Not a single gun or color was lost by our army during these 
battles/' 

The General gives the following as the union force and losses : 







• 

1 


1 
i 


• 


1 

• 

s 






s 


^ 


» 


< 


Ist Corps, Hooker, 


14,856 


848 


2,016 


255 


2,619 


2d " Sumner, 


18,813 


860 


8,801 


548 


5,209 


5th " Porter,* 


12,930 


21 


107 


2 


180 


ikh " Franklin, 


12,300 


70 


885 


88 


488 


9th " Bumside, 


13,819 


482 


1,741 


120 


2,298 


12th " Mansfield, 


10,126 


274 


1,884 


85 


1,784 


Cavalry div'n, Pleasanton, 


4,320 


5 


28 




28 


Couch's division. 


87,164 




9 




9 


^ ^^ m » m m . ■> 


2,010 


9,416 


1,048 


12,469 



•One division not arrived. 

So much for McCIellan's ideas. When we meet now and talk 
over this battle, the inevitable conchision of the whole matter is, — 
^How old JSheridan would have huHled those rebels over the 
Potomac f^"* 

That he would! — and without a second's consideration of our 
fatigue, or the exhaustion, the severe battle, the long marches, 
the absent supply trains and the needed rest and refreshment. 
He would have had no piece-meal fighting ; all would have 
gone in together and something would have cracked somewhere, 
and then all over the field would have been shouted *'^Forward 
all!'' ""Go it!'' "iVb hulting!" ''See that cavalry!" and 
much more of this sort (the cavalry would have had more than 
28 killed and wounded we think), and Gen. Humphreys, with 
Couch and the Penn. militia, could probably have brought up tho 
rations and supplies. 

And I suppose that we shall live and die in the belief that 
Sheridan would have decided the fate of the Confederacy, had he 
assumed command of the army the morning of the battle. 



17 



258 



CASUALTIES. 



1862. 



BATTLE OF ANTIETAM, 
Sharpsbcro, Md., Sept. 17, 1862. 



I <■» ■ 



STRENGTH IN ACTION. 

Col. Beal, Lt. Col. Fillebrown and Major Walker, 

Asst. Surg. Howard, 

Lt. Gould (Actg. Ac^t.), and Sergt. Maj. Tradeau, 

A. 1st Lt. Fowler, 

B. Ist Lt. Turner, 

C. Capt. Jordan and 2d Lt. Whitney, 

D. Ist Lt. Redlon, of C, and 1st Sergt. Brackctt, Actg. 2d Lt., 

E. let Sergt. Perley, Actg. 2d Lt., 

F. 2d Lt. Rankin, 

G. 2d Lt. Millett, 

H. Capt. Emerson and Lt. Blake^ (and Lt. True see below), 

I. Capt. Furbish, Ist. Lt. Mayhew and 1st. Sergt. Wade, Act'g 2d Lt., 

K. Capt. Nye and 2d Lt. Kingsley, 

Enlisted men carrying muskets. 



OFFICERS KILLED.* 



3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
2 



276 



21 277 



Furbish, Nehemiah T. Captain, Co. I, Head. 

Brackett, Edward 2d Lt. (Acting), Co. D, Bowels, Died 18th. 

Wade, William 2d Lt. (Acting), Co. I. 



Beal, George L. 
(Fillebrown, James S. 
Turner, Alfred L. 
Mayhew, Hebron 
Kingsley, Albert E. 



OFFICERS WOUNDED. 

Col., Both legs. (Horse killed.) 

Lt. Col., Disabled by kicks from Col. Beal's horse.) 
1st Lt., Co. B, Leg. 

1st Lt., Co. I, Wrist. 

2dLt., Co.K, (Slight.) 



•Brackett and Wade were sergeants in fkct, but carried swords and had been doing 
lieutenants' daty for weeks. True of H, having carried a musket the day of the battle, 
is shown among the enlisted men. See next page. 



1 862. 



CASUALTIES AT AKTIETAM. 



259 



BKLISTSD MBN KILLED AND MORTALLY WOTTNDED. 

(ThoM haying no date attached to their names were killed, or died the day of the 
battle.) 



(None.) 



Co. A. 





Co. B. 






Brine, William 


Private, 


Head. 




Forbes, Clinton 


C( 


Thigh. 


:d:#*( oct.^s 


Jordan, James E. 


If 


BoweU, 


Died 18th. 


McGinty, John 


It 


Head. 




Trowbridge, John 


It 

Co. C. 


Body. 




Bonney, Edward W. 


Private, 
Co. D. 


Heart. 




Barker, Albert E. 


Corporal, ^ 


Hip, 


Died Oct. 8. 


Campbell, Henry 


Private. 






Esty, George 


ft 


Leg 


Died Oct 21. 


Stanley, George 


tt 







Co. E. 



(None.) 





Co. F. 




Covell, James E. 


Private, 
Co. G. 


Head. 


Bartlett, Marcus C 


Private, 


Leg broken, Died Nov. 6. 


Kierstead, Luke 


tt 


Knee, Died Sept. 18. 


Mains, Solomon S. 


tt 


Leg. 


Mason, Vincent 


tt 


Head and foot. 


Pressey, Charles M. 


It 


Breast. 


Towle, Ezra 


tt 


Died Sept. 27. 


Wilkinson, William W.» 


It 

Co. H. 


Body and legs. 


True, George W. 


Sergt. (2d Lt.) 


Right side, Died 20th. 


Bailey, Marshall 


Private, 


Head, Died 28th. 



* Evidence of death not positive. He was probably wonnded in the ranks of some other 
regiment. 



260 



OASUALTIES AT ANTIBTAH. 



1862. 



Bradbury, Hugh M. 


Private, 


Head. 




Fuller, George J. 


(( 


Head. 




Wentworth, Charles H. 


« 


• 

Lungs. 






Co. I. 






Lakin, Bex\jamln C. 


Private, 
Co. K. 


Body & legs, 


Died 18th. 


Eaton, James D. 


Private, 


Head. 




Lee, John 


(( 


Groin & nock. 


Died Oct. 9. 


Martin, Lrvin G. 


tt 


Breast, 


" Jan. 28 


Beed, Asa 


II 


Head. 






ENLISTED MEN WOUNDED. 






Co. A. 






Hanson, Samuel 


Sergeant, 


Head. 




Beardon, John 

« 


Cc^poral, 
Co. B. 


Hand. 




Glendenning, John G. 


Corporal, 


Leg, 


Discharged. 


Allen, Charles 


Private, 


Face. 




Blackwood, Benjamin 


II 


Legs. 




Bond, Robert D. 


It 


Wrist. 




Harris, Charles 


n 


Ana, 3»«*-ti 


Discharged. 


Mayberry, Thomas L. 


11 


Foot. 




Verrill, Edward P. 


II 

Co. C. 


Hand. 




Smith, Henry M. 


Sergeant, 


Knee, 


Discharged. 


Doody, John H. 


Private, 


Head (slight) 


• 


Farr, David M. 


It 


Leg. 




Hanson, Nils A. 


II 


It 




McFaden, Gorham P. 


K 


Shoulder. 




Thayer, Charles H. 


It 

Co. D. 


Leg. 




Corson, Charles H. 


Private, 


Ankle. 




Hutchinson, Albert H. 


It 


Hip. 




Legassie, Joseph 


II 


Leg. 




Somers, Nicholas 


It 


It 


Discharged. 


WaddeU, William 


11 


Shoulder, 


Discharged. 



1 862. 



CASUALTIES AT ANTIETAH. 



261 





Co. E. 




Oakes, Benjamin F. 
Smith, George A. 
Warren, Edward P. 
MUliken, Charles 0. 
Sanborn, Jerome 0. 


Sergeant, 
It 

Corporal, 
PriTate, 

Co. F. 


Leg. 

Neck. 

Groin. 

Head, (slight). 

Leg, (amp'd), Discharged. 


McGlinchy, Hugh 


Private, 
Co. G. 


Breast. 


Floyd, Osgood F. 
Knight, Joseph 
Merrill, James L. 
Smith, LoweU B. 


Private, 

l€ 
l€ 
• ( 

Co. H. 


Leg. 

" Discharged. 
Foot. 


Webb, Isaac 


Private. 


Both legs. Discharged. 



Co. I. 



Johnson, Albert H. 
Cluskoy, Peter 
Murphy, Thomas 


1st Sergeant, 

Corporal, 

Private, 


Head. 

Side. 

Foot, 


Discharged. 




Co. K. 








Chipman, Elmer 
Robertson, Ephraim T. 


Private, 


Arm. 
Neck, 


Discharged. 




TOTAL LOSS. 




• 




Officers. 


Killed and mortally 
Wounded, 


wounded, 


3 

4 


7 


Enlisted men. 


Killed and mortally wounded, 

Wounded, 

Prisoners, 


28 

86 




64 
71 



NoTB. The killed and wounded of the corps which did the heavy fighting (1st, ad, 9th 
and 12tb), were 18 4-5 per cent, of the numbers engaged, while in our regiment the loss 
was nearly 24 Mr cent. 



262 1 862. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

A PBBIOD OF BEPOSE. . 

Sept. 19th, Friday, The death-like stillness upon all parts 
of the field this morning confirmed the reports of the pickets that 
the enemy had returned to Virginia. We were moved to the 
front again after breakfast, and without so much as halting, went 
back to where we started from, with the usual grumbling that all 
such " strategy " calls out. Then we were moved away to the 
right, and waited three hours in the blazing sun, near the dead 
and putrefying horses of Hooker's batteries. There were also 
near us dead cattle and sheep, swollen and boiling, making a 
fine nosegay. From this spot we were marched to the center of 
the field, where Sumner fought, and halted to the leeward of a 
field that his troops were using as a sink, in which also a number 
of dead bodies lay unburied, and a very few minutes of life in 
this vicinity convinced us that rotten horses and cattle are prefer- 
able to the smell that the living and dead of Sumner can kick 
up when they try. 

After changing positions again a number of times, a very heavy 
detail was made from us to bury the bodies, but before the men 
were fairly at work the order came to march, and passing to the 
front we struck the pike at Dunker Church and halted awhile, but 
were soon crawling along toward Sharpsburg. While halting, 
all took a peep at the wreck on the knoll in front of the church. 
Here a rebel caisson had exploded, and the piling up of its 
fhigments with the dead bodies of horse and man, was one of 
the most hideous sights our regiment ever beheld. ^ 



1 862. SHOBT OUT TO habpeb's febbt. 263 

Shortly after noon we went through Sharpsburg, which is not 
a large town and was less battered than we supposed it would be, 
though the diary says that 

Nearly every house, bam and pig sty had a trace of cannon shot in it. 
Farther on we crossed the Antietam, upon the bridge which Bumside carried. 

We had been told that we were going to Harper's Ferry, but 
the farther we went, the farther the natives told us it was. We 
crossed the mountain again after dark, and during the same hour 
saw the north star ahead of us, to the left and in the rear. We 
passed through Rohersville, and made a long halt about 9 p. m., 
during which two-weeks' mail came. Farther on we had more 
halts and rapid marching, with orders to close up; then, with the 
nsual swearing and grumbling, we asked the very sensible question, 
why we should have lain idle all day if " they " were in such a 
huiTy. Finally, at one at night we were told to tumble down on 
the road-side in the outskirts of Brownsville, having marched 
thirteen miles in as many hours, straggling badly all the time. 

Next day we had it for rumor and excuse for our hurry, that 
the rebels and ourselves were racing for Harper's Ferry, wliich 
discouraged us, for we knew that we could not get there first, 
after having gone thirteen miles to find ourselves no nearer than 
when we started ! We climbed up Solomon's (?) Gap amid a 
great deal of grumbling and inquiring the need of crossing the 
same mountain so many times. But once up we were ordered 
to go down again and help pull up a battery of artillery ! This 
was the last straw. The regiment had straggled considerably, 
but now it vanished, and the few whom Major Walker took back 
with him received, I am informed, as thorough a damning from 
the battery commander as ever it fell to their lot to take. After 
"playing horse" awhile in helping this battery up the hill, the 
order came for all to return to the valley again, and down we 
went. It was now our turn to swear, and I fear the battery man 
came out second best at the game. We then continued our 
march along Pleasant Valley and camped early in the afternoon, 
before reaching the Potomac at Sandy Hook. 

It fell to my lot to straggle ahead of the regiment with a 



264 SETTLED— PLEASANT VALLEY. 1 862. 

squad, and to climb along the top of Maryland Heights, for 
wherever nature had not interposed a bamer, the troops, 
whether rebel or union none could tell, had slashed the timber 
so that it was nothing but jump and climb for about three miles. 
We heard and saw the fight on the other side of the river near 
Sheperdstown, of which the less that is said the better for Little 
Mao and his friend Fitz-John. We saw also the field of the 
battle by which the rebels had gained the Heights seven days 
before. Evidences of sharp fighting were abundant on both 
sides, and it looked to us, as it docs to the world now, that there 
was where Miles should have been, and where he could have 
held the rebels till they were gray-haired. 

The diary closes in a way that shows we were not exhilarated 
by the "glorious victory," and "successful termination of the 
campaign." The blunders were too many and too frightful to be 
covered up by the poor consolation that the rebels were out of 
Maryland — a consolation indeed to the country at large, but to 
us it foreboded a return to the deserts of Virginia, more 
" strategy," more starvation and thirst. 

Sept. 2l8t. We marched only a short distance to find abetter 
camping ground. The wagons came up, the officers' tents were 
pitched, and the men made themselves at home. Lieut. Col. 
Fillebrown returned to duty. 

With the unpacking of papers and writing desks, came a 
month's unfinished work of reports. The one on the next page 
being the simplest was made first, and is about as valuable as any 
I can copy here. 

Next day, Sept. 22d, we marched around the mountain by 
way of Sandy Hook, and up the front of Maryland Heights, 
opposite Harper's Ferry, and camped on the hillside very near 
the siege guns which the rebels had spiked or dismounted. We 
heard from the signal station that the rebels were advancing in 
force on Bolivar Heights, opposite, and looking over we saw the 
puffs of smoke from our guns there, but nothing of importance 
transpired. Then for some days it was "all quiet on the 
Potomac" once more. 



i862. 



WAITINO rOR SHOE STRINGS. 



265 



Report of IOtu Me., Sept. 21, 1862. 

Present fur duty and special duty. Enlisted men, 
Absent — prisoners of war, 

sick, 

wounded, 

with leave, 

without leave,* 

detached, nurses, 20 

wagoners, 25 

with ambulances, 16 

other duties, 20 



It 
It 
It 
It 
It 
It 
It 



ti 
It 
It 



Officers present, 
" absent. 
Recruits arrived Sept. 18th — present, 



Aggregate, 



Aggregate before battle. 
Recruits received. 

Killed and died of wounds, 



822 
40 

8C2 
21 



208 

80 

160 

126 

122 



80 
14 
17 
40 



841 



841 



Sept. 2Gth, McClellan came up the Heights, and ordered the 
Biegc guns to be put in order, and our cauip to bo changed to a 
less exposed place. Then there was the usual growling and 
questioning whether there wouldn't be time to move after the 
en6my liad cleaned out the force on Bolivar, but the order to 
change camp did not reach us till the tiSth, when we marched 
down the hill again, and around to Pleasant Valley to a spot 
near the one wo had left the 22d. We did not have a super- 
abundance of rations at any time this month, and it has passed 
into history that the army was suffering for shoes, (or shoe-strings 
as "Porte Crayon" says). But Lieut. Col. Fill ebrown was an 
expert in drawing, and we did not suffer. 

The newspapers came with something like regularity, and 
provoked much mirth by the exnggerations of their army corres- 
pondents, particularly by the plan of " bagging " the rebels after 



*Tliis item included a narober of men who were really sick, and also a number who 
had been prewed by the sargoona for duty in the field hoBpitali around Antletam. 



266 BEBLIN — ON PBOVOST DUTY. 1 862. 

the battle, and of driving them into the river, to drown, where 
there was not water enough to float a quarter of the pontoon 
boats. 

Sept. 25th, Co. K marched to Knoxville, Md., to do provost 
duty, and on Oct. 3d the other nine companies marched down 
river five miles to Berlin Station, and camped alongside the 
railroad track. We were now alone and thankful for it. The 
much-needed rest was given us, but the diaiThea still clung to 
us for various reasons, chiefest of which was our run-down condi- 
tion and want of properly cooked food. 

New troops go by on the cars every day. It seems impossible that we were 
ever so green as they. They all hurrah as they pass, and some of them fire 
their muskets as a salute, and the bullets, or ramrods for aught I know, come 
whizzing into camp or go over our heads. 

The headquarters tent was daily overrun with refugees from 
Virginia, inquiring for " Mister Brown," to whom (Col. Fille- 
brown) they told their pitiful stories, and received his advice to 
return home and shoot every guerrilla that they saw. 

Oct. 8th. An officer of Gen. Geary's staff was sent to inspect us for Gen. 
McClellan's information. He complimented us on our neat grounds, our good 
police arrangements, the general neat and soldierly appearance of the men 
under the circumstances, and particularly upon the condition of our arms and 
equipments. Our clothing is very bad, and the men are still lousy for want 
of a change of clothes, which last item was not reported to McClellan. 

But the record on paper was not very liiittering, though it was as 
good or better than the average of McClellan's old regiments. 

16 officers on duty. 

855 men " " (including wagoners, cooks and servants.) 
90 " present, sick, (mostly with diarrhea.) 
54 " absent with leave, without leave and detached. 

801 '* absent, sick and wounded. 

Total, present and absent, SO officers and 800 enlisted. 

We are 9 officers and 186 men short on the rolls, and we have more absent 
lick than present armed. ' 

Next day (Oct. 9th) Capt. Knowlton returned after a few weeks 
of hospital life. Lieut. Sargent returned also with his wounds 
healed. With them came a lot of recruits, convalescents and ex- 
changed prisoners, and we hurrahed and shook hands for some 



i862. Stuart's RAID. 267 

time. The sight of them did ns good, and their clean clothes 
and unburnt faces called forth many comments.* The day 
following (Oct. 10th), Capt. Knowltou took his company, F, to 
Petersville, and remained till the Slst, when he brought them 
back to Berlin and went over to Lovettsville, in Virginia, where 
he kept them about two weeks. Oct. 12th we heard the report 
of guns down river. Capts. Emerson and Whitmarsh rode down 
to Point of Rocks and learned that Stuart's cavalry, which had 
been raiding around McClellan's army, had found a hole in their 
bag and gone back to Virginia. Burnside or sopae of his subor- 
dinates was censured by the newspaper correspondents for this, 
but the diary says 

If he (Stuart) had not escaped down there, he would have perhaps tried the 
ford at Berlin, and how the 300 efTcctiye men of the 10th Maine would have 
skedaddled before his battery and 2500 troopers ! 

This leads me to notice attain the worthlessness of the statements 
of newspaper correspondents. Some papers gave accounts of 
the fords and of the troops guarding them, and nearly all that 
we saw stated that the rebels carried off a thousand horses; 
whereas, in truth, the Potomac could be crossed almost any where, 
if the difficulty of high banks is not reckoned. I have been told, 
too, by at least half a dozen rebel cavalrymen, of different 
regiments, that they lost horseflesh by the raid, though they 
exchanged everywhere they could. Oct. 16th we heard a good 



* The paroled prisoners who arrived this day and the 22d, had all been clothed in 
condemned goods, as the gorernment was short of uniforms. They had beenin"tha 
Libby " a while, but most of the time on Belle Isle, and they told us the hardest stories 
that we had ever heard up to that date relative to prisoners, though they are no novelties 
now that Andersonville, Millen, Salisbury and Florence have become at once names his- 
torical and damnable. The lion of all the returned men was that marvel of traders, Jossa 
Bishop of Co. H. He was captured on the Winchester retreat with about $150 in gold. 
This he managed to save and to trade off for confederate scrip, and not only made money, 
but actually kept a pretty f^ill stomach on Belle l9le. He sold the shirt off his back 
rather than refuse a good bargain, made fVisnds with everybody, helped oar 10th 
Me. boys in many ways, and charged them for it,— payment to be made next pay day I 
He was a genuine Yankee trader, as you know very well; neither disaster, sickness, 
friend or rebel could keep him from trading; and with the exception of buying sorns 
dried coffee grounds I never heard of his making a bad trade— bat even these he sold 
again to the natives said so made money at last. 



268 COMPANIES H AND E MAKE A RAID. 1 862. 

deal of cannonadiDg from beyond Harper's Feny. The diary 
states : 

It is pleasant I tell you, this evening, to be in a dry bed, under a wall tent, 
while 20,000 poor fellows are out in the cold piercing wind and rainstorm ! 

No doubt about that my friends, is thftre ? This movement 
was only a reconnoissance of Gen. Hancock. The diary states 
also, that we had then on the hill back of us an observatory, 
where three men were sent daily with the Colonel's glass, to keep 
an eye on Virginia. 

Oct. 19th. Tliis evening Col. Fillebrown sent E and H, seventy- 
five muskets, under Capts. Emerson and Sargent, across the river 
into Loudon County, Virginia, with two union men for guides, to 
"bag" some guerrillas. We should perhaps have dont more had 
we been better informed, but after lying on the top of Short 
Hills all day, Oct. 20th, we had ambuscaded only two old market 
women, one pretty girl and one idiotic old woman; while an 
attempt to capture an officer who was visiting his home near by, 
failed, for our squad reached the house an hour too late. At night 
we marched down to Bohlen's or Bohlenton, surrounded the one 
house and barn composing the village, and captured three of the 
rebel cavalry pickets ; the fouilh escaped in the darkness, by our 
boys mistaking him for one of themselves. Captain Sargent 
attempted to capture two videttes but failed, and with the escape 
of these three we abandoned all hopes of surprising the main 
body of rebels, numbering 150, and said to have been camped a 
mile farther on. So we returned home, passing through Lovetts- 
ville, and narrowly escaped capture, ourselves, having left the 
stacks to accept a treat from one of the union men of the village. 
During this festivity, the rebel cavalry whose outposts we had 
alarmed, came in sight of our pickets, and were preparing to 
charge, but seeing us they thought better of it. After waiting 
some time for them to come on, we charged them, when they 
wheeled around and trotted off. This ended the raid, and we 
had for trophies three men and four horses. 

During the absence of these companies the camp had been in 
trouble over the reported advance of a brigade of rebel infantry. 



1 862. THE AKMT ENTERS VIRGINIA AGAIN. 269 

Capt. Emerson had heard this same story from the people through 
his guides, and so came home earlier than was intended. 

This insignificant affair is worth a moment's attention. Had 
the sides in the case been changed to rebel infantry and union 
cavalry, there would have been different results, I think. These 
Loudon people were at least half of them union we were told, 
and would tell us the truth, and were more anxious to have ub 
kill these guerrillas than all the other rebels. Yet though they 
knew we were on their side of the river, they dared not do a 
thing to help us. If a half dozen could have been found to act 
as spies for us, which they easily could have done with but little 
risk, we might have bagged the whole squadron, or at least have 
had a fight for it. But the rebels were so cruel in their punish- 
ment of "treason to the South," as they called it, that the 
unionists dared do nothing. 

I have said the raid ended with the retreat of the rebels. We 
were pleased to hear next day that Gen. Geary, with a brigade of 
infantry and some cavalry, had really " bagged " these same rebels 
a few hours after we Jiad parted with them, but as usual in these 
bagging operations, all but thirty or forty escaped. 

Oct. 23d, our knapsacks which had been stored in Washington 
after Pope's retreat, amved. How many were really missing 
never was learned, but there could not have been more dissatisfac- 
tion and grumbling if they had all been lost. 

Oct. 24th. Some companies of the 50th N. Y. laid a pontoon 
bridge across the Potomac, and Cos. H, A, E and D enjoyed the 
pleasure of lying out in the wind over the river, to guard the 
Virginia end. Roemer's battery (L 2d N. Y.) came down to 
reinforce us, and camped on our parade grounds. Whipple's 
division, which I believe had been attached to our 12th corps, 
also came down during the night, and camped all around us. 
They fairly covered our grounds with their filth, and burned up the 
fences that our Lieutenant Colonel had so carefully presei-ved. All 
that we saw were new troops. Next evening the trains of our 
neighbors came in during a driving rain storm ; and the wagoners 
drove into our camp and began feeding their mules in the space 



270 NEW DUTIE8. 1862. 

between tlie officers' and men's tents. Lieut. Col. Fillebrown 
sent them word to leave our camp, but the head wagoner returned 




CZ^^j(-e^^,^^/^ 



ADJUTANT. 291" ME. VET. 
BRVT. MAJ. VOLS. 



■' 



r 



270 NEW DUTIES. 1862. 

between the officers' and men's tents. Lient. CoL Fillebrown 
sent them word to leave our camp, but the head wagoner returned 
a saacy answer, and soon after repented of it, I suspect ! 

Whipple's division had crossed daring the afternoon, and the 
wagons followed in the morning. Next day, the 27th, two or 
three brigades of Barnside's command, nearly all of them new 
troops, crossed; Gen. McClellan came down and pitched his 
quadrangular camp near by. It was very cold, and we had a great 
deal of work to do in unloading cars and guarding the stuff. On 
the 28th we saw so many troops that we kept no account of them. 
The 16th Maine, a new re^ment then, camped near us, and was 
said to be without tent, blanket or overcoat. 

This movement of troops was not a pleasant occurrence to us ; 
it promised to end in an order for the 10th Me. regiment to 
follow, and we felt that we ought to go with " the army," but the 
starting out in the cold and rain was not agreeable. Before 
many days we saw that our corps was not to advance, and before 
the pontoon was raised, we had settle vl down in the belief that 
we were in winter quarters. 

While the army was crossing, the wagoners of one of Burn 
side's trains mutinied — or perhaps I should say "struck," for they 
were citizens — and the quartermaster in charge went to Lieut. 
Col. Fillebrown for help : he wanted to " borrow " seventy men 
for duty as wagoners, cooks and pioneers. This was most too 
heavy a detail, but the Lieut. Col. called for volunteers and per- 
mitted about fifty to go with the train, without saying a word 
about it to any one above him. It was a month before they were 
all relieved, and I suspect our Lt. Col. enjoyed himself all the 
while in thinking over what he should say in reply to the daily 
expected call for a written report stating why he had pennitted 
his men to leave the limits of the department without the proper 
authority. 

About this time Major Greene refitted his drummers, and from 
that day till the end of our service we had the most magnificent 
drum corps that we ever saw in the field. There were twenty in 
all, and Maj. Greene was indefatigable in his efforts to render 



r 



270 



NEW DUTIES. 



1862. 



between tlie officers' and men's tents. Lieut. Col. Fillebrown 
sent them word to leave our carap, but the head wagoner retunicd 



■ ( 





ADJUTANT. 29T- ME. VET. VOLS. 
BRVT. MAJ. VOLS. 



I 



l862. OUB DBT7M OOBPS. 271 

their practice perfect, and to keep the drums in good order. The 
music was mostly obtained from Kesselhuth, Drum Major of the 
2d Mass., and was altogether unlike the tin-pan or ^ continental " 
style of drumming in vogue among the other regiments. The 
excellence of the corps was the result of the pride and care we 
manifested for it, the dollars which the officers paid to equip it, 
and last and chiefly the energy and accomplishments of its leader. 
Later in the war, we occasionally saw regiments having excellent 
corps that played modem music, with drums, fifes and bugles, 
but ours had only drums, and if any corps in the army of the 
Potomac exceeded ours in size, proficiency, and what is more 
than all in field service, in cojistant efficiency^ we did not see it. 
After the grand array had moved away, we settled down again 
to the peace of camp life. Every week a few convalescents 
returned to duty. From the 17th to the 21st of "Get., Co. F was 
off with Capt. Knowlton hunting over the fields of South Moun- 
tain and Antietam for U. S. property. They brought back a 
wagon load containing 150 muskets and much other stufi^ mostly 
taken from the neighboring houses. 

Oct. 30th, Capt. Nye's company (K) came from Knoxville, and 
Nov. 2d marched down the tow path to Point of Rocks, eleven 
miles. Among the pleasant acquaintances which the men made 
there, John B. Dutton, an honest old Virginia quaker, will never be 
forgotten. Had there been a few more of his stamp in Virginia 
when secession was talked of, it had been well for her. On the 
18th, Co. G was sent to Knoxville, Md., three miles, and on Dec. 
4th, Co. H marched to Adamstown, 13 miles, under Lieut. 
Granville Blake. 

The order numbering our corps 12th,* was promulgated by the 
war department months before, and Gen. Hen. W. Slocum 
had been assigned to its command soon afterward, but these things 
interested us little at the time. 

Nov. 21st, Capt. Grubb, with a lieutenant and orderlies, all 
belonging^) the Loudon guerrillas, appeared at the ferry landing 



* Banki'g corps wai the 5th, in the spring of thii year, and the *' 2d corps of the Anny 
of Virginia " under Pope. 



272 CO. r SAVES two guns. 1862. 

opposite, with a white flag and a note from Gen. " Stonewall " 
Jackson, dated a day or two previous, at Berryville, requesting 
permission to send two ladies to Baltimore ! We have always 
understood this as a blind, but whether it was or not, Grubbs's 
men were robbing a store in Lovettsville, while the oflicers were 
parleying with us. The army was about ten days in crossing, 
counting from the day that Whipple's division went over, to the 
day that McClellan himself followed. Nov. 3d and 4th we had 
our hands full picking up the mob of stragglers and sick of the 
grand army. Cannonading, which liad been frequent for three or 
four days, became more distant. We heard all kinds of rumors 
of cavalry fights and captures by guerrillas. Nov. 7th we had 
orders to permit no one to cross the pontoon with a view of 
joining McClellan's army, and Capt. Knowlton's company, F, 
which had been sent from Petersville, in Maryland, to Lovettsville, 
in Virginia as before noted, now had ordere to guard against 
surprise. That day a Rhode Island captain of artillery, who was 
trying to join his battery, came back, having been menaced by 
guerrillas, and next day Capt. Knowlton sent part of his company 
to guard two Napoleon guns which had been abandoned, and 
were now, for want of horses, being hauled back toward Maryland, 
piece by piece, till Lt. Col. Fillebrown heard of it, when a team 
was sent to hurry all over. 

Nov. 9th, Col. Beal returned to duty, also Captains Blake and 
Beardsley, with our late Capt. West, then major of the 17th Me., 
who came up on a visit. Nov. 14th, the pontoon was taken up. 
The battery men had gone before, but not till one of them had 
killed a comrade during a drunken row. 

Nov. 24th, Monday, Capt. Knowlton took fifty men and 
laid out a camp for us, on land near the house of Mr. John G. 
Phillips. Our new home was a half mile from our old camp, and 
about the same distance from the river bank. Nov, 27th was 
Thanksgiving in the State of Maine. We had received only 
about a dozen boxes from home all on private account, and there- 
fore only a few of us celebrated. 
While in Berlin, "Carle ton," the famous correspondent of the 



1 862. "" C ABLETON*8" PUFT. 273 

Boston Journal visited us. To those who know him it is hardly 
necessary to say that our poor opinion of correspondents does 
not apply to him. On his return from a rapid ride in Virginia, 
Sunday, Nov. 2d, he heard singing in our camp, which evidently 
impressed him favorably. We copy the following from the 
Journal of Nov. 5, 1862. 

"Berlin, Md. — Evening: * * The tents of the 10th Maine — Provost 
Guard of this place — were lighted, presenting the appearance of a distant 
city. The friends of Col. Fillebrown will bo glad to know that himself and 
command are in good condition, either for service in the field or as guards of 
this important position. 

" Riding through the encampment I hoard voices singing the old familiar 
hymn — 

My soul be on thy guard. 

Ten thousand foes arise ; 
The hosts of sin are pressing hard 
To draw thee from the skies. 
" It was the sweetest sound of the day — the most welcome — a pleasing- 
contrast to the dull booming of the cannonade — the ceaseless rumble of the 
teams — the curses, the oaths of the wagoners. It was a little of Heaven upon 
earth — a glimmer of peace in war — a foretaste of the eternal rest — the endless 
peace which lies sweet, serene and fair down the distant future. 



>* 



" Carleton " had a few days before this returned from a trip to the 
West, and needing a horse very much, he inquired of Col. Fille- 
brown if he knew where he could buy one. It would have sorely 
grieved our Col. "Jim," to have sent off so popular a man as 
" Carleton " unmounted, so he promptly replied "Yes sir — ' Here's 
your mule,'" and in a moment more he produced — what? His 
spare horse ? a public animal ? or a stray beast ? Neither one, but 
my celebrated cliarger, the well known " Rappahannock." Now 
observe what followed. 

"What is the price?" inquired "Carleton." 

"Jim" made one of those gracious bows of his, and replied, 
" Try him, and give whatever you think he is worth." 

The correspondent thereupon mounted, crossed the pontoon 

and galloped through Loudon county and back again before night. 

He then mentioned "Forty dollars?" rather inquiringly, and 

" Jim " re-echoed " Forty dollars ! " with such a neat deflection to 

18 



274 A JOKE, 80 GALLED. 1 862. 

his voice, that there was nothing more to do but to pay and 
receive the $40. 

I meanwhile was so overburdened with work, that I knew 
nothing and cared nothing of the correspondent or the brute. 

Fillebrown, after waiting some time for me to discover that the 
horse had gone, was unable to "hold in " any longer. He laughed 
from reveille till " roast beef," and then haw-hawed and coughed 
all the afternoon, so that I was compelled to go and see him. He 
said he was only laughing at his thoughts, and that it was one of 
his happy days. Just as I was leaving he asked me if I would 
not like to sell my horse, seeing that Shaw would soon be coming 
back. " Yes^— yes " said I, " I'll sell him at cost." Upon this 
Col. Fillebrown lay down upon the grass and rolled and laughed 
till he was purple, but when at length he became sober, he pulled 
from his wallet fifteen dollars in greenbacks and handed them to 
me, saying " That's what he cost, isn't it ? " 

It is quite unnecessary to state how magnanimous I thought 
him to be for saving me from loss on the horse, but I was so 
delighted with receiving fifteen dollars at such a time, that I fell in 
with him and laughed, and he laughed, and we both laughed — 
Oh I how we laughed ! 

Now, this goes in our regiment for a joke, and they say that the 
joke is on me ! ! but I was never able to see it in that light myself. 

To me it seems far above a joke, for our Lieutenant Colonel 
made it "lovely all round." He turned ray horse into money, when 
money was everything and horse nothing, and risky at that. He 
made $25 clear for himself. He made the regiment believe he 
had played a joke on "Goggle," and made me believe tliat he had 
not. He pleased " Carleton " and really aided him. He got a puff 
in the Boston Journal, and finally here, he now goes down to 
posterity. 

Call that a j oke ? Never ! ! 

That's genius. 



1 862. 275 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE TWELFTH CORPS JOIXS THE ABMY. 
WINTER-QUARTERS. 

December 1st, our new camp had assumed a form. The huti 
were ordered to be built of logs, three feet high, and then to be 
covered with A-tents, which had been drawn for the purpose. On 
the 5th it snowed all day, and next day it was cold and very 
windy. On the 7th it was so blustering and extremely cold that 
little work was done except on the camp. On the 8th the diary 
says "we shall move in to-morrow"; this refers to the adjutant's 
department. The weather was so severe upon us that Col. Beal 
permitted the men to move as fjist as they finished their quarters, 
thinking it better to save the men than to keep the regiment 
together. 

And now comes a day of grief, for the diary shows that on — 

Dec. 9th, Tuesday. Trudeau [scrgt. major], Greene [drum major], and 
I worked like dogs all the morning, moving our stuff. At noon we heard the 
rattling of the sabre and spurs of a brigade orderly as he came up our hill. 
" Quit that/' he said to our boys as he rode along, and we knew at once that 
he brought trouble in the envelope under his belt. I followed him into the 
Colonel's cosy hut, [the Colonel had only slept one night in it], saw our 
commander tear open the envelope and read that our regiment would march 
at 3 A. M. to-morrow. " Carry the order around ! " he said, and I started to do 
so. A minute before, every axe, hatchet and hammer had been in use, but as 
I stepped out of the Colonel's door the silence was like that of midnight, while 
every man was out waiting to hear the thunder-clap. I spoke to Trudeau to 
carry the order through the left wing. **E8t'Ce possible f" (is it possible) ex- 
claimed the horror stricken Frenchman, too much overcome to speak in 
English. "Yaw! c' est possible I " replied Greene, who thinks he is learning 
French, and who will suffer all things to tease Trudeau 



276 UNFINISHED HUTS. 1862. 

But not upon the Frenchman alone did the blow fall so heavily. 
I believe it is not exaggeration to say that we never received an 
order so thoroughly disappointing as this. More than half the 
huts had not been slept in ; they were the first we had made, and 
no civilian can comprehend the joy that a soldier experiences 
when about to move into a seven-by-nine house, all new and of 
his own making. Then the weather of the past week had been 
80 severe ! It was *' rough " — our only consolation was in making 
fun of each other, and that, my friends, is very poor consolation 
indeed. 

McClellan had been relieved Nov. 7th, by Bumside, and the 
two hostile armies were facing each other at Fredericksburg. 
Our 12th corps was now to move down to assist the new com- 
mander. Why we had not been sent somewhere to help 
McClellan, others must explain. We always felt that we should 
have followed him — ^but by no means were we anxious to go. 

ON THE &(ABCH AGAIN. 

Deo. 10, 1862. Reveille at 2 a. m. Company H, by marching 
all night, reached us in good season. Co. K also marched up 
from Point of Rocks, and G filed in at Knoxville, through which 
we passed, shortly after daybreak. We altered the regimental 
formation again to-day, to conform to the changes that we had 
undergone in captains, since marching out to the field of Cedar 
Mountain. 

Our new formation was — 

Left. | y|D|B|c|E||K|i|A|G|n| Right. 

It was cold ; the ground was frozen and the breath froze to our 
beards; but the sky was clear and the march pleasant. The 
gloom of the day before disappeared. We reported in Harper's 
Ferry at 7.45 a. m., — a quarter of an hour ahead of time, and 
learned that the 2d division would precede us. So we stacked 
arms on the familiar ground behind the annory, and strolled 
around in the vicinity, interesting ourselves by watching the 
" show" pass. Then after many short marches and long halts, 
having first crossed the Shenandoah on a pontoon bridge, we 



l862. niLLSBORO, WHEATLAND AND LEE8BURG. 277 

halted in tbe valley between the Blue Ridge and Short Hills, a 
little before dark, and gathering around blazing fires (pity the 
poor fanner) we forgot entirely our misery of yesterday. Gen. 
Williams still commanded the division, and Col. Knipe our 
brigade. We were rather gratified on the whole, when night 
came, to see the camp fires of our corps and hear the tattoo of 
twenty or more regiments and batteries, with their bass drums 
and bugles. It was not music but it was refreshing to our 
memory; nothing more so than the inimitable "Assembly of the 
buglers," blown by the one old veteran in the 28th N. Y., who 
was once considerably incensed when our Major Greene asked 
hira"IIowcan one buglers assemble?" The days march from 
Berlin was about eight miles and a half. 

Next day, Dec. 11th, we had a pleasant and well conducted 
march, starting at 9 a. m., and being in the rear of the corps. 
We complimented the Ilillsboro people by marching in step to 
our drums, but they gave us in return only sour and scornfUl 
looks. At sunset, having marched ten and a half miles, we 
camped near Wheatland, on a spot made desolate some weeks 
previous by the army of the Potomac. 

Dec. I'ith. Reveille at 3.30. Marched at 6 a. m., and a march 
it was. We went six miles without a halt, and at a break neck 
pace, howling and cheering, at everything, and delivering a great 
deal of chaff at the many stragglers of the 128th Penn. "We 
went through Leesburg at noon, — a much larger village than the 
othei*s we had gone through, and bitterly " secesh." We marched 
sixteen miles — so said the miller — and camped on the northern 
side of Goose Creek, after sunset. 

Gen. Williams placed a guard on some wheat stacks near by, 
but quantities of it leaked out and soon a rush was made on the 
stacks, guard or no guard. Col. Knipe now appeared with a 
pistol drawn and protected one side while the crowd went round 
and stole from the other, till a new guard finished our sport. 
The Colonel, however, was euchred in the morning by some one 
touching a match to the wheat while the men on guard were not 
looking. We were short of rations when night came, and did so 



278 GEN. Stewart's ESTATE. i86a. 

much shouting ** Hard bread ! " that our new quartermaster flew 
around and drew for us. 

Dec. 13th. We marched at seven as rear guard of our brigade, 
with the usual orders to pick up all stragglers. The road was 
rough, and the country became more and more desolate. We 
went through Gum Springs, a hard looking town, and about noon 
struck the Little River pike, after which our wagons kept up with 
the troops ahead, and thereby made marching less tedious for us. 
About sunset, having marched thirteen miles (if the old miller's 
distances were given correctly), we camped on the farm of Gen. 
Stewart — once of the TJ. S. army, but at this time a commissary 
or quaitennaster in rebeldom. His place was magnificent once ; 
the old mansion suggested days when Virginia was proud of the 
union that she had helped to create ; the road near his house had 
resembled our State street in Portland, in the length and beauty 
of its rows of shade trees. But war had finished the grand old 
place; every tree was cut down and all wood outside of the 
house had been carried off. The house had been abandoned and 
gutted, though one of our brigade staff officers found some 
valuable autographs of revolutionary heroes in the attic. The 
abandoned huts of Sigel's troops were scattered all over the 
country near here, and we learned that Sigel also was moving, as 
well as ourselves. 

The next day was Sunday, Dec. 14th, but there was no rest 
that day. We marched at 9.30, saw the battle-field of Chantilly, 
but did not comprehend it; saw an innumerable number of 
abandoned camps; saw also Fairf\ix C. II. and passed through 
the outskirts of it, and aflerward halted a long time at Fairfax 
Station. Here a new regiment was on guard over the commissary 
stores, and our 1st brigade showed them how easy it is, when a 
new man is on guard inside of a house, for an old soldier to rip off 
the boards of the house from the outside, and carry off a cord of 
fresh loaves before the new man, or the captain A. C. S., discovers 
that the bread pile has caved in. Some trouble came of this, I 
believe, but the 1st brigade swore it off on the 2d, and the 2d on 
the 3d, and so on. We camped at dark a mile south of the 
station, in an open field that we afterward learned by heart. 



1 862. THE QUN8 OF FREDEBI0KSBX7RG . 279 

The brigade was drawn up in line of battle ; this being, as has 
been stated before, an unusual formation for the night's camp 
while we were in the ** 10th." We heard for rumors that Sigel 
has been captured by guerrillas, and that the rear of his corps 
went by the station yesterday. Only the last was true. 

Dec. 15th, Monday, We were up and ready before daylight, 
and waited patiently for the order to march. The roads, or 
whatever we marched on, were very muddy, and the country 
fairly God-forsaken. We crossed the Occoquan at Wolf Run 
Shoals, halted awhile in the rebel earthworks on the south side, 
and camped in the woods two miles farther on, at one o'clock, 
after a march of seven miles. We heard the cannonading of 
the battle of Fredericksburg, but knew nothing of its meaning 
then. Those who are wise can perhaps tell us wherein it was 
better lor the country that we should have been thirty odd miles 
away from that battle than to have been in the fight itself. I 
presume no one of us is grieved to think he was not there, but 
the fact is worth noting, that wo heard the guns and halted at 
1 p. M., from which we have naturally concluded that Gen. 
Slocum's orders did not require us to be in the fight. 

Dec. IGth, Tuesday, Rain awoke us at 3 o'clock and we 
marched at day light. If possible the country was more barren 
the fartlier we went. The sun came out at 10, and then a cold 
north wind blew us dry. We had mud and mired teams to con- 
tend with all day. We halted at noon near the shanty of a poor 
old union man, who said there were many unionists " about hyere," 
all poor like himself; not very complimentary to our cause we 
thought, as we looked at him. We camped about sunset on the 
north bank of the Naebsco (pronounced iVajt?-si-co by the union 
man), and were happy at finding a stack of straw near by. Our 
march was six miles and we heard Burnside's cannon all day. 
We did not hear the bad news this night, though we knew before 
bed-time that we were to return in the morning. To those alone 
who can explain the many wondeiful movements of 1862, this 
march and countermarch of our corps will look clear. 

Dec. 17th, we were ready at sunrise; but having to guard the 



280 ** herb's YOUR MULB.^ 1 862. 

ordnance train of our divsion, we started later. Now males and 
negroes are curiosities to Maine boys, and though we saw a great 
many of both, yet to the end of our service they never ceased to 
be interesting, and somewhat novel to us. I will not attempt to 
describe the pranks played by the mules of this ordnance train, 
but you can all remember that the misery of our existence was 
mitigated by the comical exhibition going on all around us. 
Mules kicking, rearing, plunging and braying — mules down in 
the mud — ^mules pulled up again by their tails and noses — ^mules 
two " off" and no " near," then vice versa immediately after — mules 
with hind legs up in the wagon — mules with front legs down out of 
sight in ruts — mules turned out to die, and finally, the dead mule 
himself — the genuine " mile post " — all these were the sights of 
this day of trouble and gloom. These roads had been used com- 
paratively little; but each train had contributed its mite of labor 
in corduroying and duplicating, till there were two roads nearly 
all the distance, and one or both were corduroyed in very bad 
places. We re-crossed the Occoquan and camped a mile north, 
depressed in spirits by the sad news from our army at Fredericks- 
burg. The day's march was nine miles, but the day's work, of 
course, was another thing. The next day, we finished the return 
movement by leisurely marching to the open plain that we had 
left on the morning of the 15th. Here we remained till tlie 20th, 
passing the time in grumbling and crying over smoky fires. Then 
on the 20th, the whole brigade began to boi*e (if this is a right 
word) into a very dense thicket of pines close by. This was eas- 
ily done, but not quickly, for axes were scarce, and dull; but in 
the course of two or three days, we were in winter quarters again, 
this time, though, with the slielter tents over the huts, instead of 
the A-tents, which did not arrive till the 26th. 

FAIRFAX STATION. 

Our stay here at Fairfax Station was in every particular 
unpleasant. The depressing influence of the defeat at Fredericks- 
burg was felt even by us. The rations were wretchedly poor and 
insufticient, though some of the food was prepared by the company 
cooks. Although we were only a mile from Fairfax Station, and 



i862. Stuart's said. 281 

were reckoned in the army for defence of the capit«i1, yet all 
attempts to remedy this evil proved futile. Those who used 
tobacco suffered for want of it — the dearth of the article during 
Pope's retreat was not more severe than it was during our 
first week here. We were constantly told that we should stay 
here only a few days. This came from good authority, and with a 
thousand rumors of orders to go here and there, no one felt disposed 
to do much to improve his lot. 

Convalescents and paroled men continued to come in ; among 
them on the 19th, Capt. (late Lieut.) Beardsley returned with 
twenty men, via Harper's Ferry and Acquia Creek. These, you 
see, went through the " regular channels," and their having been 
sent to Acquia Creek, looks as if Slocum's corps had been booked 
for that place. 

On Christmas we had neither ceremony nor presents; perhaps 
our pork barrel- and col)-work chimneys frightened Santa Claus, 
as well they might. 

The next item of excitement was Stuart's raid around our 
army, though it amounted to but little gain to him or loss to our 
people. We heard cannonading in the direction of the main 
army on Dec. 27th, but this did not prevent a battalion drill in 
the nt\ernoon. Then we received orders to march with sixty 
rounds, and to carry three days' rations and the blankets only. 
Nevertheless we slept in peace and woke up at the usual hour in 
pei-fect indifference. 

At 10 o'clock of the 28th we followed Kane's brigade, — the 
2d, composed of new troojis entirely — on the familiar road to 
Wolf Run Shoals, which we reached at 2 p. m. The 3d brigade 
crossed the Occoquan, but wo staid on the north bank, setting 
fire to grass an<l killing rabbits for amusement. By and by a 
cavalryman came from Fairfax Station, saying that the very rebels 
which we had come out to catch had dashed on our camp, 
captured and paroled all the stragglers and sick, ransacked the 
officers' baggage, set fire to the huts, and that he had escaped 
from his company which had been all cut up! 

"The first brigade will return" was the next order, and it was 
executed promptly, but was afterward changed to " Send the 



282 8ETTINO A TRAP. 1 862. 

10th Me. and 46th Penn. ! '* This was done ; Lieut. Col. Selfridge 
of the " 46th " commanding. We threw out skirmishers, of course, 
to warn us of our approach to the enenty, and you may perhaps 
conceive the feelings of those who were left in camp, when after 
a day of great anxiety and constant fear, they discovered at dusk 
two regiments marching in line upon them with skirmishers in 
advance. However, the sight of the flag quieted them, and the 
sight of our camp quieted ua. Our day's march was ten miles. 

But all this did not end the "strategy;" for next morning we 
were ordered up at four o'clock, this being two hours before 
daylight, and were marched across the field to the Union Mills 
road and put behind or in front, I forgot which, of some rifle pits. 
Co. D felled a number of trees across the road behind us, but 
everything else was done in the greatest silence, and we were 
ordered to be careful about firing till we knew whether rebels or 
fiiends were attacking us, and then to wait till we could see the 
" whites of their eyes." This last part of the order we did not 
forget for some days. The fools of rebels actually refused to 
oome into the trap, however. But after we had shivered till broad 
daylight in utmost quiet, a battery with four companies of new 
troops for support came along and had a sort of brigade drill in 
front of us, with all the shouting of superfluous orders peculiar to 
new troops. Then the Garibaldi Guard (39th N. Y.) came 
through the obstructions in our rear and passed to the front, and 
by nine o'clock we learned that all was quiet around Fairfax, 
whereupon we returned to camp. The division returned on the 
30th from the Occoquan. 

Dec. 3l8t, we had the usual bi-monthly muster, and there were 
many doleful faces when Lieut. Col. Fillebrown told the men they 
must pay for the knapsacks they had thrown away. 

Good bye, 1862 — another such year and the confederacy had 
been a fact. 



1 863. 283 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

FAIRFAX STATION TO STAFFORD C. O. — THE MUD MARCH. 

The new year (1863) cime in without excitement. Officers 
and men returned from the hospitals and the prison every week. 
Company and battalion drills were frequent whenever the weather 
and ground permitted. 

January 4th, Sunday. Gen. Slocum reviewed our division, 
after a preliminary one for practice on the day before. There 
were three brigades, composed of thirteen regiments of infantry, 

and batteries, to say nothing of Col. Knipe's bob-tailed 

horse, and a dog that yapped at everything it saw ; these last I 
mention, since they were the chief attractions to you and me. 
True, wo had never been in so large a review before, and never 
were so proud of our soldierly bearing, and never were so pleased 
in seeing the superiority of our drum corps. But after a soldier 
has stood all the morning with a knapsack on, and held his 
musket steadily at "shoulder," fifteen or twenty minutes, he 
loses all love for "soldierly bearing," and comes to appreciate 
the ludicrous all the more. 

After we had marched around and returned to our position, 
we watched the re<?iments of the other bri<?ades with some inter- 
est, and saw no rivals except the 2d Mass. and 3d Wis. These 
regiments still adhered to the Scott manual, carrying their 
muskets, the butt in the left hand, and barrel to the front, so that 
the sun struck the polished barrels and gave an appearance per- 
fectly indescribable. 

The day following, the 2d division was reviewed on our 



284 PAY-DAY — ^THE FRONT AND REAR. 1 863. 

grounds, and we noticed our old 1st Maine friend, Col. Jackson, 
wearing a star and commanding one of the brigades. 

Col. Beal went into Washington a number of times during 
our stay near Fairfiix [Station, and always brought the latest 
news about the future of the two-years and the nine-months 
regiments, and besides this we had two rumors constantly com- 
ing and going ; the first that we could be surely sent home on or 
before May 3d ; the second that " they " would hold us, as the 
rebel government had held its one-year men. Then about the 
middle of January wo had rumors that we were to go back to 
Frederick, Md.! and another report sent us to Mount Jackson 
in the Shenandoah Valley. These rumors were not silenced at 
all by the orders to keep the men properly clothed and ready 
for Immediate service at all times, and to have eight days' rations 
in the wagons besides three in the haversacks. 

As early as New Year's day we had a promise of the pay- 
master — it came through the regular channels and was therefore 
believed — and surely enough, on Friday, Jan. 16th, the paymas- 
ter's chest was seen by somebody at Gen. ^'s headquarters, 

and our rolls were returned to us for signature. Then, on that 
ever memorable January 17th, Maj. W. C. H. Sherman paid us 
on the October rolls for July, August, September and October, 
deducting sutler's bills to Dec. 31st, and settling the clothing 
account. This was our first payment since July 22<1, when two 
months' pay had been given us. The entire army in the field 
had suffered this same delay, but it aggravated us beyond meas- 
ure to hear that the men in the hospitals and convalescent 
camps, the clerks and the great army of detached men, loafers, 
pets and stragglers around Washington, had been paid while we 
suffered for want of it. Much of what we heard I believe was 
not true, but one of the minor causes of the demoralization of 
our army at that time was this unjust distinction made against 
"the front" in favor of "the rear." After pay the diary states 
that 

Sutlers came from somewhere (we had hardly seen one before in four 
months) with tobacco and smuggled whiskey, and the squalid natives (we had 
not seen them before cither) crawled out with sheet iron pies and doughnuts 



1863. HARCHIXQ. AGAnS — DUMFRIES. 285 

with apple-sauce spread inside tticm. * * * I have not been more 

disgusted lately than to-night down at Gen. 's quarters, where I saw 

a dozen officers signing pay papers, drinking whiskey and damning the 
government. 

TVe went to bed with orders to march in the morning, but at 
midnight the command was received postponing the move for 
twenty-four hours. Next day, Sunday, we passed uneasily in camp. 
Chaplain Knox addressed us previous to dress parade, and 
encouraged by the soberness of our officers and men, he spoke 
well, and did good. 

Jan. 19th, Monday, We marched at 9 a.m. Col. Beal and Capt. 
Adams were still unable to endure the rigors of campaigning, and 
with Capt. Emeraon, who was on the sick list, they were permitted 
by Gen. Slocum to go to Acquia Creek by rail and steamer. This 
gave Lt. Col. Fillebrown the command again. We marched once 
more down to Wolf Run Shoals, but as the ground was frozen 
we did it easily, and halted for the night in the same field as on 
the night ol December 15th, having gone seven miles. On the 
second day (Jan. 20th), our brigade led and we had a pleasant 
march over the frozen ground, but this time we took the main or 
telegraph road, as the natives called it. It was none the less a 
poverty stricken country. Enrly in the afternoon we approached 
the much talked of village of Dumfries,* and saw salt water once 
more. A strange town was this Dumfries; old, ruined, abandoned, 
worthless, hopeless and filthy. We crossed Quantico Creek and 
camped in thick woods, pitching tents as best we could, and lying 
down quite happy after we had received our rations. We 
marched ten miles by the map, though our best authorities say 
they marched fourteen. 

Late at night it rained, then thawed and blew, pulling up the 
tent pins which had not been forced far into the frozen earth. At 
length morning came, and with it the order for our regiment to 
guard Lieut. Augustine's fifly-seven wagons from capture by the 
gueirillas which infested this country. So we packed up and sent 
our baggage off on our own wagons, and remained to guai'd these 



* Pronoanced 2>uin-friz by tho people of Loudon countx, Duiq/Veef by the natiTet 
themtelves, and Damn-flreeze by the ■oldien. 



286 HIGH WORDS WITH A KANAANITE. 1 863. 

of the ordnance department, while the troops moved on. It 
rained and drizzled alternately all day. The road was like 
pudding, and the wagons were continually being mired. Shortly 
afler starting we came to a long reach, where all the rails, logs 
and brush that we could find foiled to make a bottom for the 

s 

wheels to rest on, and in this vicinity we staid the remainder of 
the day and the night. . Wagon after wagon was helped along ; 
some were unloaded and the boxes of musket and gun ammuni- 
tion were carried by us through the slough. It was a great day 
for us ; perhaps you may like to be reminded of the way we put 
that train through. 

We were doing our best when an officer of Kane's brigade came 
along on the road, which led into ours, and began to order Lieut. 
Augustine's darkey to get out of his way, while he (the officer) 
took his train by. Our Col. "Jim" had evidently been waiting 
for somebody to vent his vexation upon, and gave this officer such 
a blessing that for the moment we forgot the rain and mud. But 
after the Kane man had shown himself adroit at back talk, and 
after each officer had threatened to put the other in an*est, and 
each had learned, to his surprise, that i!:c other was a lieutenant- 
colonel, as well as himself, the battle of words subsided — a sort 
of drawn battle it was, and the only one, by the way, in which our 
Col. "Jim" failed to come out overwhelmingly victorious. Each 
of the two lieutenant colonels now resolved to push his own teams 
ahead — to take the road from the other — but we clearly had the 
lead in this game in the shape of a six-mule team stuck in the 
mud exactly in the middle of the road. The Kane man saw this and 
very wisely held his team and his tongue. 

It is only a question of time to pull out a mired wagon. We 
brought rails, logs and boughs by the cord, but they floated in 
the salve-like mud and served only to trip the mules, till more 
were brought. This done, we formed aline all around the teams 
to push, pull, pry and lift the wagon, and to whip, club and swear 
at the mules. The darkey driver also spurred and jerked his one 
rein to perfection, singing out all the time, "Yea-wa-ha mule!" 
which is the command prescribed in mule tactics for " forward 
march I " But all this failed to move the team, so the men and 



1863. MULE TACTICS. 287 

mules one by one ceased their labors ; but the whippers and club- 
bers on the near side kept on with their pounding after those on 
the off side had stopped, therefore the mules countermarched by 
file right, and doubled up on the wagon, in a way which perhaps 
is laid down in those mule tactics, but is unknown in ^ Hardee." 
This squeezed the off pole-mule fii-st up into the wagon-front and 
finally down into the mud, and here he kicked till the near mule 
went down, and the way that brush and rails and mud flew then 
was frightful. At this point the Kane man inquired of our 
commander in a bitterly sarcastic tone, " How do you like mules f^^ 

More brush, and more mules from another team, and the wagon 
was pulled out and the next came on. The Kane man also pushed 
in one or two of his teams, remarking as they went quietly along, 
that there was nothing like horses. (His teams were mostly 
four-horse.) Presently though, one of the Kane wagons mired ; 
the white horses went down in the mud and came up sorrel ; 
chains broke, the horses kicked, the gallant chief of the opposition 
was bedaubed, the yell of the 10th Maniacs was deafening, and 
at the end of it all, our Col., "Jim," rode over to the Kane man, 
and O ! so mildly inquired, " How do you like horses, ^^^ 

Thus it was till 5 p. m., when Lieut. Augustine tried to encour- 
age us by saying there were only twenty-one more wagons and 
that we should have some whiskey when we got the train in. 

The officers thought they had done a very smart thing in the 
morning when they put their entire kits aboard the wagons, 
supposing of course that we should come up to them by night, 
but when night came they and a good number of the men were 
shelterless. Three Sibley tents had been thrown away by some 
wagoners ; these sheltered a goodly number, but a good many 
more fared hardly, never much worse. We had thrown all the 
firewood to the mules, and so had to dispense with fires, and 
accept a greenwood smoke instead. We had rain in torrents, 
and wind from all quarters in the night ; cramps seized us, and 
in fact we endured almost every misery which comes from such 
exposure. The diary ends thus : 

If all this had happened during Pope's retreat, I should have felt very blue, 
but " glory and success are in the advance " you know. ♦ » ♦ ♦ 



288 ''STiDDral" 1863. 

We threw oat no pickets ! the teamsters let their mules stand all night in tli« 
mud, for which they should be punished. We have moved ahead to-daj one 
quarter of a mile. 

Cos. G and H were detailed to go ahead and guard the wagons 
which had passed. They had a rich experience in paddling about 
in the mud, but not very unlike that of the other companies. 

The next day we began in earnest, half unloading all the 
wagons and carrying the boxes of ammunition on our shoulders 
an eighth of a mile to "hard bottom," and then waded or slid 
along toward Stafford C. H. In places the road was sandy, but 
near Chopawamsic Creek for a mile there was no dodging the 
mud ; every step was made into the pudding. Another regiment 
got mixed with ours somewliat, and Capt. Jonathan Blake (so 
tradition has it, though tradition is as unreliable in army stories 
as it is in theology) here made that famous harangue to his men, 

"Steady! G! 
I'll stick to you ! ! 
You stick by me ! ! " 

The parodies on this simple jingle would fill a chapter, but 
"Stiddy G" will never die till you and I have gone. 

We had been relieved from further care of the ordnance train, 
and so marched to overtake the brigade. We found them at 
4 p. M., halted and camped in a second growth thicket of pine. 

The diary states that it rained — 

Not so much as yesterday. Our boys and the 28th N. Y., have been singing 
out to each other " Only three months longer." • • ♦ i want to see 
Gen. Ilallcck, the great advocate of winter campaigns, or rather I want him 
to see me. We have made seven miles to-day. 

The fifth day out we sent back our wagons empty, to the 
supply train, to help it along, but at noon they returned unable 
to find even the leading wagon. We then marched on, wading 
through Acquia Creek, and just before arriving at Stafford C. H. 
we filed to the right around and over hills, and camped at last 
on top of a hill in the forest — an old growth of pine and hard 
wood, having marched four miles, and on the day following it 
was understood that we were to remain there awhile. 

For a better understanding of the reason of this march you 




1863. ART OF WAR ILLUSTRATED. 289 

must know that Gen. Burnside had determined upon attacking 
Lee at Fredericksburg once more, but the rain coming bis efforts 
ended with the famous " mud march." 

By comparing dates you will see that we left Fairfax in time 
to have reached Fredericksburg soon after the battle, the 
importance of which (to Gen. Lee) is obvious. 



19 



890 1863. 



CHAPTER XXVm. 

WINTBB AT STAFFORD C. H. 

We arriyed at Stafford C. H. Jan. 23d, and left nine weeks 
afterward, on April 27th. We laid out camp, impressed with 
the idea that nine days, instead of nine weeks, would bring the 
order to march again. The grounds were well situated for health 
and comfort, but were poor enough otherwise. We abandoned at 
the outset all attempts to follow the regulations in laying out the 
camp, and went to work making huts for the third time. 

For a few days, trees were falling on the top of our hill from 
daylight till dark, and some sharp dodging was occasionally 
needed, but at length Private Lapham of G was injured by a 
falling tree. Fortunately no bones were broken ; in truth, he wag 
little hurt, but his company took him for half dead and put him 
to bed under a shelter tent. Later in the day a huge pine fell 
upon the tent smashing it flat, and to all appearances flattening 
out poor Lapham too. We all rushed to help him and were 
astonished to learn that he was not even bruised. This led some 
bright philosopher to remark, " I tell you boys, falling trees on a 
man may not kill him outright, but 'twill wear him out in the 
long run ! " 

We were then in the "grand division of the reserves," Gen. 
Sigel commanding, but the grand divisions were abolished shortly 
after our arrival at Stafford. 

Jan. 28th, Hooker relieved Burnside of the command of the 
army of the Potomac. Burnside was a very popular man in his 



1863. HOOKER IN COMMAND. 291 

own corps, but failed every way as commander of the army. 
Hooker put life into everything — a very much needed life it was 
too — and his most important act, in a soldier's estimation, was the 
providing of an abundance of good rations. We never lived better 
than while under Joe Hooker. We will hurrah for him forever 
for the glorious reform he instituted in the commissary department. 

Although we were miles from the main army, and out of its 
direct influence, yet from our first arrival in Stafford C. H., we 
began to improve in every way. We had drills and dress parades 
as often as the weather w^ould permit. Inspections by general and 
staff officers were made more frequently than ever before ; and when 
they saw anything worth complimenting they did it in writing. 

It is out of our province and knowledge to write much of the 
extensive changes for the better which Hooker wrought. Much 
praise was due McClellan for his success with raw troops after 
Bull Run, but Hooker taught old soldiers, and made a hundred 
improveipents upon an army which had come to believe that it 
knew everything. 

Hooker fed his men. Hooker's broom swept clean. 

We had many callers from the 1st Maine cavalry, the 17th Me., 
5th Me. and other regiments, and were allowed to return them, 
though we were seven or eight miles apart. 

Maj. Walker had been unable to recover his health, and at length , 
after winter had set in, he was compelled to apply for a leave ol 
absence, and once home, his wife and friends wisely insisted that 
he should not go back to waste the little strength remaining and 
to die. So he handed in his resignation* and we saw him no more. 
His case gives me the occasion to remark, that many officers oi 
our army and many men as well, like our Major, felt keenly the 
results of their physical inability to endure the hardships of soldier- 
life. In the fear that they should not accomplish all their duty 
they nerved themselves for efforts far beyond their strength. 
Many died in consequence, and as I write these lines, the Major 
lies on his bed, suffering from his plucky, but useless attempt . 



* Accepted JanoAry 26, 1863. 



292 ORDERED TO MARYLAND — ORDER REVOKED. 1 863. 

seven years ago to do duty when he should have been in the 
hospital. 

Lieut. Perley was another example. He was weak in body, 
but strong in will. He refused to be sick as long as there were 
trials and dangers for him to suffer, but when we arrived at Berlin, 
and all excitement ceased, he was compelled to succumb and 
return to Maine where he died. Perhaps no officer was more 
loved by his men than Perley was. He was little known outside 
of his own company (E) ; but we who belonged there can testify 
that his faithfulness and gallantry were of no common kind. 

Col. BeaPs wound still troubled him so that he could not "take 
the field." In view of the near approach of May 3d, and the 
probability that the army would not be sent into battle before 
that day, the Colonel was anxious to have us taken to a locality 
more favorable for drill and discipline, and one where he could be 
with us. He tried hard while off duty in Washington to have the 
war department do this, and almost succeeded. Lt. Col. Fille- 
brown also tried his best, and was aided by Gens. Knipe, Williams 
and Slocum. The project was for us all to go to the rear, perfect our 
drill, dress and " style," and then go home with all the eclat 
possible, re-enlist the old men, furlough the three-years men for a 
few weeks, recruit to maximum and return to the brigade. 

Feb. 11th, Lt. Col. F'illebrown left the regiment in charge of 
Capt. Knowlton, and started with Capt. Skeels of Gen. Williams's 
staff to visit Gen. Schenck and the war department. Gen. Hooker 
had signified his willingness to change regiments with Gen. 
Schenck, who also favored the proposal. The regiment was 
designated which should change duty with us, and everything 
was arranged, and the promise to make out the order was obtained 
from the proper officer at the war department, and it would have 
been issued, but a number of other regiments, some of them 
having two years to serve, were trying at the same time to change 
with regiments in the rear. 

The case of the 10th Me. was presented and argued well by Col. 
Beal and Lt. Col. Fillebrown, both doing their best, but, for the 
reasons stated, after the order was made for the exchange, it was 



1863. A NOTEWORTHY INSPECTION. 293 

rescinded by the war department ; for which we are more thankful 
now than we were then. 

Wlien I read this now, I confess to a fear, that some may think it 
was unbecoming in us to seek the rear so pei-sisteutly. It was 
not done, as has been seen, except by the approval and the desire 
of the four general officers over us. Later in the war, this would 
have been a project for a huge shirk, but at this stage we thought 
that no good could come if tlie government should hold on to us 
up to the last moment, and without doubt, all of our generals thought 
BO too. It happened that the battle of ChancellorsWUe was fought 
May 2d and 3d, so wo might have been kept for service there; 
but during February it was supposed, by all with whom we 
conversed, that the roads would not be permanently dry enough 
to admit of a general movement till after the 3d of May. 

In the "1st" and "29th," the prospect of going home very 
seriously demoralized us. But in the " 10th," though the excite- 
ment was as intense, the efficiency and morale of the regiment 
increased up to the last moment, and this was so, probably, 
because tlie majority of the officers and men expected simply to 
go liomc on furlough, to rc-organize and return. 

As has been before stated, we learned a hundred things while 
at Stafford C. II. under Joe Hooker. Our camping ground was 
so irregular and the adjoining country so muddy, that it was the 
middle of February before we could have dress parade, and then 
we formed in the interval between the quarters of the officers 
and men. Hut a hundred little things were looked after, and we 
drilled a good deal in the manual, loadings and bayonet exercise. 

It was a great time for inspections, too, and they were thorough 
ones. The most noted of all these was a general inspection of 
all the troops in Hooker's army, by officers, generally "regulars," 
designated for the purpose. It was the most searching inspection 
we ever had, and probably it was equally severe upon the other 
organizations of the army. Col. Ross, of the 20th Conn., a 
captain of regulars, was the officer who inspected us. He did 
not trouble us much with the usual forms, for which so much 
preparation is always made. But he visited our camp a number 
of times without notifying us that he was coming. On these 



294 A HIGH HONOR CONFEBRED ON us. l86C. 

visits he rode through the streets, observed the appearance of the 
men and their good behavior, prompt salutes and ready reply to 
his questions. His formal inspection was February 2d, ten days 
after our arrival, at a time when our camp was not completed. 
The Colonel was not an acquaintance of ours ; he belonged in 
the 2d brigade, and if he had any prejudices it is probable they 
were against us by reason of a controversy that he had had with 
a number of our officers, who appealed from his decision as 
mustering officer. He looked us all over, rear and front, officers 
and men, saw that we were making the very best of our means, 
and saw no drunkenness nor rowdyism. Whether he was in- 
structed to inspect us in this way, I cannot say, but you all know 
that such an inspection is the most thorough and critical. We 
had not been as fast in cutting up stumps and leveling the grounds 
as we might, and did not know how important it was for us to do 
our best. Hence Col. Ross found us just as we were every day. 

On the 5th of March, we received General Orders No. 8, of 
the army of the Potomac, giving the results of these inspections 
of Hooker's army, which was composed of perhaps three hun- 
dred regiments and batteries. The order reprimanded twenty- 
five regiments and eleven batteries by name for loose discipline, 
^nd ordered all officers on furlough from those commands to 
return immediately. There was but one New England regiment 
on this black list. The order then named eleven regiments and 
fourteen batteries that had " earned high commendation " Soc. &c. 

• 

That was a genuine delight indeed, which we experienced 
when we found 

^tnt\i Paine 

amons: the honored eleven ! ! 

That was a compliment which honored us. 

If we say it ourselves it is no less true, we deserved it and had 
"earned" it as the order said. The 19th Maine and the 6th 
battery were the other Maine organizations named flavorably, 
and our good neighbors, the 2d Mass. and 3d Wisconsin, were 
also of the eleven, as well as the 111th Penn. of the 2d division. 
Our coi*ps thus had four regiments praised, which was doing well 



1863. DAILTLIFE — AXMAN8HIF. 295 

in an army composed of seven corps. It is worthy of remark, too, 
that the three regiments in our division had suffered the most 
from killed and wounded, and the least from "missing*^ of 
those engaged at Cedar Mountain, in which terrible slaughter 
Banks's corps was supposed by Gen. Pope to have been demor- 
alized and rendered nearly useless. But in justice to the army 
of the Potomac, to which we were only lent, it must be stated 
that we (12th corps) had not fought and been demoralized at 
the battle of Fredericksburg. The order, besides praising us so 
highly, allowed us to have one more officer on leave, and one 
man more per hundred on furlough. 

Our stay at Stafford was full of interest and life, yet I find 
comparatively few things in the diary worth mentioning. We 
had a great way of stopping up our neighbors* chimneys or 
throwing cartridges down them, but this " played out " after a 
while. , We also dug laurel root and made pipes and rings of it. 

Under date of March 11th, the diary has — 

Lieut. Bickncll of K took the job of making the roadt about ten days ago. 
He worked our boys two days at lugging logs and digging, but the Dutchmen 
in the 46th and 12Sth Penn. beat us at it, for tliey work more steadily and 
willingly. On the third day it came the 10th Maine's turn to use the axes, 
:nd they went at tliis with more heart. They cut down so many trees in one 
day that they were out of siglit of the Dutchies by night, and the colonel, 
who has charge of the party, liked this so well that he told " Bick " to keep 
the axes. 

This same day (March 11th) we heard cannonading; and 
learned that the rebel cavalry was making a raid again. That 
night Kane's brigade turned out to music of the long roll, and 
must have enjoyed it, I think, by the noise they made. Our 
brigade was required by previous order to turn out at dawn of 
day and form comj)anies. We heard more cannonading on the 
17th, but never knew nor cared what it was for. 



• I make this Btatement fV-om memory— baring noticed the fkct, In looking oyer the 
retums of killed and wounded soon after the Iwttle. I may be wrong in stating that 
these three suffered least in "missing," but if so have not-gonefkr firom the truth. 
Excepting the 7th Ohio, wliich lost 63 per cent, in killed and wounded, I think these 
remarks will also apply to the 2d division. 

tThis was a short cut corduroy road from Stafford C. H. to the railroad. 



296 BBVIEW BY HOOKEB. 1 863. 

Next forenoon (18th) we were ordered in a great hurry to a 
review of the division, and marched a half mile to a field suitable 
for the purpose. Gen. Slocum reviewed us, or tried to, but 
his horse and Gen. Williams's became frightened at ^ Present 
arms," and went jumping all around the field, scattering the 
Btaffii and orderlies to the four winds. This made the review 
interesting to us, but we enjoyed it more when a small dog came 
running down to bite the heels of Slocum's horse. Lieut. Pitt- 
man drew his sabre and slashed at the cur, and then followed 
up with a charge, but the dog flanked him and ran back to 
Slocum, leaving the lieutenant to charge on. Gen. Slocuiji 
managed to ride around the lines though, and we were dismissed 
at 2 p. M. with fine appetites for dinner. 

This was preliminary to a review of the division by Gen. 
Hooker, which came off next day at noon, (March 19th). We 
were ordered out in a huny as before. By order we appeared in 
blouses, with the blanket rolled and hung over the shoulder, and 
thus the poverty of the division in knapsacks and overcoats was not 
shown. Somehow it is almost impossible to keep troops supplied 
with these things. Enough throw them away or lose them to 
break up the uniformity. Hence in the field few regiments can 
present a good appearance at inspection and review. 

After long waiting we heard the bugle sound " Attention !" and 
saw Gen. Hooker coming on the field. It was an inspiriting 
sight. This was our first good look at the great " fighting man." 
His figure and his position in the saddle were matchless, and he 
dashed along the front on a great white horse, leaving staff and 
escort spread out like a comet's tail. 

Gen. Hooker, afler receiving the " Present," returned the 
salute and galloped to our right, then passing at a brisk trot 
through the prescribed route returned on the clean run to his 
post. This was cheering. Hooker stock went up. 

We then marched in review, Maj. Greene's drums drowning all 
the other trash around us. The General eyed our drum corps 
sharply and made Greene and his " corpses " happy thereby, but 
those who had set their hearts on going home were not pleased at 
the compliment he paid Lieut. Col. Fillebrown (Col. Beal com- 



1863. SNOWBALLING APRIL FOOLS. 297 

mandcd the brigade a week about this time), " Can't spare such a 
regiment, Colonel ! Fd rather have that regiment six weeks than 
a new one three years!" The most of us were too much de- 
lighted with our new chief and his compliments to feel tliis 
damper. 

March 28th brought the circular of the war department, 
announcing that the regiments which had petitioned for a change 
in position could not have their request granted. This ended the 
matter. For consolation three clerks from division and brigade 
headquaitera, all well comed, came over after taps* and serenaded 
our Lieutenant Colonel, to the great delight (?) of companies 
I and E, bat I believe the Lieutenant Colonel did not enjoy it. 

March went out with one of the cold storms of snow, sleet and 
rain for which it was noted. We that day (Slst) sent our 
baggage to the rear, by order, under "Mnjor" Greene, wlio was 
in fact a civilian at this time, and the only one of us who could 
obtain a furlough. That evening the 28lh N. Y. and 5th Conn, 
had a snow ball fight, in which the 128th Penn. joined, supposing 
it was a free fight. The 28th and 5th then made friends and 
united against the 128th, and were speedily reinforced by the 
46th Penn. Col. Matthews of the 128th tried to stop it and was 
hit by some stray (?) balls. He sent for Gen. Knipe, who suffered 
the same fate but quelU'd the disturbance. The "10th" had no 
part in the matter, but witnessed it with considerable interest. 

April Ist. Cold and windy. An orderly rode into camp at 5 o'clock this 
morninf( with written orders to turn out the regiment, as the enemy was in 
large force in front of the 3d corps. 

This was a poor joke we thought, and think so still. The order 
was obeyed of course. 

We had some grand games of ball about this time, though the 
grounds were small, and on April 3d, the diary states : — 

The right wing (Lieut. Col. Fillebrown, with F, D, C, B and A), challenged 
the left (Major Emerson, with I, G, A, E and K), to a game of ball, the losing 



* I am warned b}' a good citizen ft-iend that If I do not define this word, the on- 
military reader will conclude that " taps " are tome sort of a drink; and as I should hate 
to convey so great an error as that, I write that at a stated time— usually a quarter of an 
hour— after tattoo has been beaten by the drummers, three top«are beaten as a signal to 
put out lights and to keep quiet. 



.• 



298 UNDRESS PARADE. 1 863. 

party to pay for the apples. The left wing came oat ahead, and at erenmg 
the officers assembled and ate the apples in Capt. Knowlton's quarters. 
Dress parade in camp ; — too windy outside. 

The day after, the diary records, was the windiest in our 
remembrance, and we had the heaviest fall of snow of the season 
during the following night. 

April 6th, we tried undress parade, copying from the 2d Mass. ; 
it became an every day affair to us after a while, but was a novelty 
then.* 

April 9th, we find the following in the diary: — 

Col. Fillebrown thought it was time to have guard mounting once more, 
according to regulations. During the winter, by reason of the mud and cold 
weather, we have contented ourselves with inspection only, and so have got 
oat of practice. We made blunders enough, as all the officers and half the 
non-commissioned officers have been promoted to their present grade since we 
had guard mounting last. 

Hooker has organized the medical department so that every surgeon has a 
particular duty. Dr. Day is to go on the field during an engagement (not 
much use to order liim to keep off, by the way), and Dr. Howard will establish 
the hospital in the rear. 

An ambulance corps has been formed; there are drivers and stretcher 
bearers ; all who are enlisted men, wear a grcoii stripe on the left arm ; and 
ten men to a regiment, each wearing a green badge on the breast, will be 
permitted to go to the rear with wounded, and they alone. This is an excellent 
idea, and if it can only be carried out, it will be better than reinforcements 
in time of battle. 



* The olject of undress parade was to ftxmish an exercise daring inclement weather, 
which shoald iceep up Uie discipline for which the dress parade was instituted. Tha 
companies were brought out under their Ist sergeants without arms or equipments ; our 
line was formed in the interval between the ofBcers' and men's quarters, and sometimes 
in firont of the regiment; the companies then successively came to position of ''parade- 
rest,'* and the drummers beat the "troop," standing on the right; the adjutant then 
commanded " Attention," read the orders and dismisMd the parade. We sought to have 
the whole ceremony pass off with the utmost promptness and to publLsh the orders to 
ths enlisted men. No other officer bat the adU atant took part. 



i86v 299 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

SPRING — STAFFORD C. H. 

April 10, 1863, Friday. This was* an eventful day. The 
diary records " DUSTY," in big letters, and adds "the mud has 
finally dried up " This probably did not apply to the clayey 
ground. We were mustered, and rolls sent to the Provost 
Marshal General, to show him how many men were needed to fill 
up the regiment to the standanl. I believe this muster was 
general in the army, and was for the information of the war 
department, which was then preparing for the draft.* 

After the muster the 12th corps was reviewed by the President — " Old Abe." 
We waited a long time, having arrived on the ground at 10.30, and not leaving 
till 4 r. M., so you may know there were about ten thousand hungry men, 
which is synonymous to saying there were ten thousand growlers. 

The ground was very uneven ; to tell the truth there are not many places in 
Virginia, or in Maine either, where an army corps can be deployed and be seen. 
We were formed in column of regimental divisions in mass on the center. 
After waiting five hours, consoling ourselves all the while with the reflection 
that it Avas only twenty-three days longer, we were glad to hear the cannon 
fire the salute announcing the arrival of the President. 

We were so far to the right that we could not see him, but about 4 p. m., 
after the usual preliminaries, along came the venerable Abraham himself, 
with Gens. Hooker and Slocum, and a tail of brigadiers, colonels, majors, and 
many others of lower rank. The President wore an immense stove pipe hat, 
the first one we had seen in three months, and cut a very comical figure. We 
held our faces and laughed " to ourselves " as boys do in meeting, till some- 
body in one of the center divisions whispered aloud, " There's a deserter from 
a comic almanac,"' and this was too much for us. It really did seem to us aa 
if he had been gotten up to imitate the cartoons we had seen in Ilarper's and 



*The Conscription bill wu paiied by Congress March 3, 1863. 



300 EIGHT days' RATIONS — IRONCLAD MULE. 1 863. 

Frank Leslie's, rather than that they were made to represent him. He passed 
on smiling, and left a good impression behind. We have never been reviewed 
by a man who has a better right to the title of '* honest " than he. 

The corps next marched in review, our regiment leading, with the combined 
drum corps of the brigade under charge of our Maj. Greene. None marched 
better than we. As we passed the flag I cast my eyes along the front of the 
leading division. It was straight as a rule ; every man was doing just right. 
When a few paces past we took full distance at double-quick, and marched for 
our camp at once. 

On March 24th we had again changed the order of companies, 
Capt. Emerson's promotion* having affected the rank of the other 
nine commanders. The companies still kej)t their old quarters, 
however, so the change was observable only when the regimental 
line was formed. This new arrangement was retained till we 
left Stafford C. H. 

Left. I K I E I H I o I 1 II A I It I c I I) I F I Right. 

April 11th we were furnished with an extract from the report 

m 

of a recent inspection. 

" TENTH MAINE VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, 

EXCELLENT IN THE MANUAL OP ARM8 AND THE PERFORMANCE OF GUARD DUTY." 

Nearly every day, in this month of April, we had a new order 
about preparing to take the field. Among others we were told 
that we sliould carry eight days' rations in the knaj)sack and 
haversack, and a circular was issued from Hooker's headquar- 
ters, showing how it could be done. This circular also proposed 
that one or two pack mules should be allowed to e:ich regiment, 
to carry their mess kettles to the number, I believe, of about 
twenty kettles to a mule. 

I read this circular at dress parade^ and why did you all laugh 
aloud and refuse to quit when I called "Steady!"? Did you 
picture the 10th Maine mule on the stampede with twenty sheet 
iron kettles rattling on his back ? Or did you only laugh because 
Col. Fillebrowndid? 

We never drew our mule, and never heard of any regiment 
that did. 



* Capt. Emerson was promoted to the Tacancy made hj the discharge of Jdaj. Walker. 
His master-in dated March 17th. 



300 



EIGHT DATs' RATIONS — IRONCLAD HULE. 1 863. 





^^^^^ 



LieUT COL. 29T!' MC. VET. VOLS. 



300 EIGHT DATS' RATIOSS IROX CLAD MULE. 1 863. 




S--1 p 



/^^,!t. 



LI CUT. COL. 29 tt ME. VET. VOLS. 



1863. RAIN AND A OALE — MARCHING ORDERS. 301 

We had been expecting Gen. Crawford to return all the win- 
ter, with a guard of five or six men of our regiment, which he 
had taken with him to his home in Pennsylvania. The men 
came buck at length with the news that the General was still 
suffering, and could not take the field. This squad told great 
stories of the hospitality of the Pennsylvanians and the pride 
the General had taken in them during their stay at his house, 
and the General has written me lately that the neighbors always 
remember and inquire about the 10th Maine men whenever he 
returns home, although both the union and rebel armies have 
passed there since to enlighten them in the ways of soldiers. 
We never met our old commander afler Antietam. 

April 13th, Paymaster W. C. II. Sherman arrived. He paid 
us off next day (April 14th), in a hurry, for ©ct., Nov., Dec. and 
Jan.,.and we spent the day in preparing for the march. We were 
ordered to take sixty rounds of cartridges and eight days' rations 
on our persons. This was the greatest quantity of rations we 
had ever been ordered to carry about us. Gen. Hooker proposed 
to march against Lee in the morning, but the Lord disposed 
otherwise. . 

The diary sheet closes thus: — 

The camp is alivo [in tlie evening of April 14th]. Money enough and 
nobody knows what to do witli it. Don't want to go into battle with it. 
Don't ilaro to put it in the mail, as it will surely be stolen.* We're off in the 
morning. Where ? Some say " Fredericksburg," " Culpeper," " Valley," 
and " Not going at all." The sick remain. The extra clothing is to be stored 
as it was last fall, and lost eventually. Wo hear all sorts of rumor.**, among 
others that (len. Foster is in a tight place down in North Carolina; and that 
we are to pounce on Lee, while part of his army is down there. 

But about midnight there set in a furious gale with rain. 

The shelter tents of the boys and the old worn tents of the officers leaked 
like sieves. The rain beat through the upright wall of the office-tent — I never 
saw this done before. 

Tlie rain has swollen the brooks into rivers ; a little stream that yesterday 
had hardly water enough to water the horses in, is to-day swollen so that I had 



* 1 took the money of the men (of Co. E mostly), who desired it and bought a check 
of the paymaster for $2,155. 



302 THE OO-HOME FEVER. 1 863. 

to eroM on a log— couldn't jump acrou ! This beats all the rains we have 
had this winter. . 

April 16th. I sent home $1,464 more, mostly for C and B, and Capt. N/e 
tent 93,680 for Co. K. No orders to cook rations. Hence the go-home faction 
are jubilant and croaking over the fact that the " clock is running down." 

More surplus baggage was boxed and sent to Acquia Landing to-day. 

Afril 17th. Brigade drill ; nothing indicates a move. Some of the 17th 
Midne officers visited us. The 8th N. Y., Blenkcr's old regiment, has received 
orders to return to New York for muster-out. They go home on U. S. thiM. 
They are in Howard's corps, late Sigel's. 

This item has been run through with a pen and " Hoax" added, 
but we all believed it at the time. 

April 18th. Orders for preparation to march come in every hour. "We 
hear nothing positive from the cavalry which is ** out," but we learn by way 
of rumor, that Jackson is in the Valley again and Milroy is fighting him. It 
would sound more like truth if it were not for the yam "Jackson is 
surrounded." 

Next day was Sunday, and so mild that our good Chaplain preached to us 
once more. His text was, " I have fought a good fight." This we liked and 
we listened attentively to his brief remarks wherein he compared us to St. 
Paul. 

April 23d. The army is busy in putting badges on their caps. Our 12th 
corps badge is a five-pointed star, an incli and a half in diameter. Red 
indicates the first division, white the second and blue the third. 

On the 24th of April, amid another heavy rainstorm, we sent 
over to Gen. Slocum, by order, a roll of all the recmits, and the 
next day he sent for the original muster-in rolls, which seemed to 
imply that all the tliree-years men were " stuck," and possibly 
every body but the old First Mainers. Therefore the fever ran 
high this day. 

Besides this Gen. Slocum had called for the names of all the 
oflUcers who wished to remain in the service, to which only the 
three officers of Co. D, Lieut. Haskell of F, and Dr. Howard 
responded. The officers of Co. A had decided to remain with 
their company whether it went home or staid, but as this inquiry 
was not qualified they did not respond. Gen. Slocum kej)t the 
rolls through the 25th, during which we received the same orders 
that we had received before, to keep eight days' rations and sixty 
rounds of ammunition on IiauiL and be ready to march at short 



1865. PREPARATIONS FOR THE SPRING CAMPAIGN. 303 

notice. The dry north-west wind did wonders, for by night, so 
the diary notes, there was " no mud even in the worst places.'* 
During tliese two days, therefore, we were in a state of mind 
not easily described, but certainly it was far from being pleasant. 

During the 25th, also, the three-years recruits began to feel that 
their case was a hopeless one, and so siding with the A and D 
boys they began to gibe the two-years' recruits on the prospect of 
their staying till October. Every orderly was watched by us 
from the moment he left the brigade headquarters, till he scratched 
the Colonel's tent — instead of knocking, Avhich you can't well do 
on canvas. A civility natural to w^ell trained soldiers kept us 
from gathering too near headquarters, but we anxiously looked 
to see if Trudeau, the Sergt. Major, had a smile or a frown on his 
face as he came out of the Colonel's tent, carrying the order from 
the Colonel to the captains. Now this Frenchman Trudeau was 
the veriest go-home chap we had, and his expression was as 
changeable and sensitive as a thermometer. But his temper this 
day was kept within that safe limit where he could speak his 
mind in English — in other words we received no notice either 
one way or the other as to our destiny. 

We saw the 9tli N. Y. cavalry (dismounted) throwing up rifle 
pits west of us, but could learn notliing beyond the fact that it 
was a continuation of a line around the entire-nrmy. We learned, 
too, that tlie 2(\ Mass. was cooking rations, expecting to march to 
the front Monday, and we did not knoAV whether this was good 
news or bad. 

ApRiT/26th. Great excitement. Orders received this morning 
to be ready to move at daylight to-morroAV. This set us all at 
work again prej)aring for the march. But the excitement increased 
when Special Order No. 100 of the 12th corps* was received, 
ordering A and D with the three-years men to march over to 
Qqu. Slocuni's, and to be a provost guard. This rather pleased 
the three-years men — at least it ended their suspense. They had 
the laugh on the rest of us now. They proposed that we should 
march and fight till midnight of May 2d, while they did guard 

* Seo CliAiiter xxzii 



804 DEPARTURE OF THE THREE-YEARS HEN. 1 863. 

duty over the^corps train and stragglers. There was no huiTahing, 
but much forced laugliing from both sides. * 

At 4 p. M., the mail brought a letter from Capt. Shaw — ^late Adjutant — who 
is in Washington on business, stating that the regiment was " booked " at the 
war department for service till October. This bad news went through the 
regiment like wildfire. The men flocked to their captains to learn the truth, 
bat heard only the simple report as above. Tiien the three-years men were 
up, and the " old " men down. The order finally came for the three-years' 
men to leave. Col. Beal had gone down to Gen. Howard's to learn what he 
was doing with the two-years' troops in his corps, and Col. "Jim" made the 
parting speech, in which the dropping of brine from many eyes was the most 
noticeable event. 

They moved off at length, and with them go a thousand good wislies and a 
thousand hopes that their future may be as pleasant and honorable as it now 
promises. 



1863. 305 



CHAPTER XXX. 



• 



GOING HOME — MUSTERED OUT. 

April 27, 1863. I got abed late last evening, and as orders stated, reveille 8.S0 
A. M., I was considerably vexed at being waked at one this morning by hearing 
the Colonel, Lieut. Colonel and others laughing, shouting and disturbing the 
camp. They presently came to my " sclibang," ripped off Greene's rubber 
(the door), kicked over the barrels (chimney) and tumbled in a heap upon 
three of the maddest men in camp. Trudeau, especially, who slept in the 
middle, was so exasperated that he could not even speak French ; but on 
learning that it was orders to go home, and not whiskey, that caused all this 
commotion, Frenchy mollified and remarked, " Well, he is a gentleman — I 
always did say so — to come and tell us of it ! " and became thenceforward the 
jollicst, happiest and softest little Frenchman that ever you saw. 

As whiskey is here alluded to, I break in to remark that there 
was not a drop in carap* this night; had there been, it has been 
surmised, there would have been a spree the like of which was 
never seen nor heard of in our day. 

The order was not carried around, but long before reveille the men were 
up, kicking over chimneys or throwing cartridges down them, rousing up the 
sleepers and playing pranks innumerable. The marching orders to the army 
forbade unusual noise and expressly prohibited all bonfires, but the boys 
couldn't be restrained and a few shanties were burned in spite of our efforts tO' 
prevent it or to put them out. The same was done in most of the other camps. 

We were to march on the departure of the division, and started 
at 10 A. M. for Acquia Landing, having ransacked the neighboring 
camps and noticed the enormous quantities of rags, old clothing 
&c. We found the roads blocked with troops of the 2d division 
moving toward Stafford C. II., to follow our division which had 



* Stated by three who ought to know. 
20 



306 JOLLY GOOD FELLOWS. 1863 

gone toward Culpeper. The day was very warm ; and being all 
out of practice we were fatigued somewhat from lieat, dust and 
sore feet, though the distance was only seven miles. We were 
delayed in turning over the quartermaster stores and ordnance. 
But at 7.30 p. M. we marched aboard the steamer, each captain 
passing in his own men to prevent deserters going with us. 
When we found that we were going to Wasliington and not 
to New York, our eight days' rations were put overboard in a very 
short time. 

The passage up Chesapeake Bay and the river' was dark and 
uninteresting. We arrived in Washington at midnight, and 
marched at once to the Soldiers' Rest, near the Baltimore depot. 

On Tuesday, the 28th of April, we were all up early and strolling 
around tiie city, though a cold rain storm had set in. Cols. Beal 
and Fillebrown went to the war department and learned that our 
term of service was out May 3d, and that the usual jtlOO bounty* 
was due us ; and that the men were entitled to an extra issue of 
frock coats to replace those burned at Bristow Station. 

By noon the boys were ** numerously drunk," though few were " dead." It 
seemed as if half the rcghnent had been indulging in ale, punches and other light 
drinks, and were made jolly and uproarious by what they considered a small dose. 
However, only one man was dead drunk when the time came for moving. 

Col. Bendix's famous Zouave regiment — 10th N. Y. — was in the next barracks 
waiting like ourselves to go home. They were also one of the eleven 
commended in Hooker's General Order No. 8, and had likewise made the same 
error of judgment as to their capacity of carrying Washington grog, therefore 
we had a fine opinion of them on short acquaintance. 

By 4 p. M. we had collected all the baggage which had been stored a few 
weeks before, and the convalescents from the hospitals, and were on our way 
home. 

The officers presented Lieut. Col. Fillebrown with a beautiful sword, while 
in the city, as a token of tlieir friendship and respect. 

We arrived in Baltimore at 8 p. m., and marched across from the depot to 
the Soldiers* Rest, where after talking to the men in a sensible and fatherly way, 
the Colonel dismissed them, and off they went to see the sights. 



**! shoald have stated before that the Ist Maine men who returned in the Tenth did not 
receive a sUte bounty additional to the $22 paid them in the " 1st,'* but all of the 
" original recruits," i. #., those who enlisted in September and October 1861, received the $22 
bounty from the state. Of the recmitt who enlisted still later, some received the $22 
booiity from the statd,— th« three-years men $55. 



1863. A PLEASANT EVENING AT MR. ABBOTT'S. 307 

The officers met by previous arrangement at the house of our 
good friend E. A. Abbott, Esq., at 10 p. m., and presented him and 
Mrs. Abbott with a silver pitcher and goblet. So much over, 
Chaplain Knox brought out a sword, sash and belt which the 
officers had purchased to present to Col. Beal. The family and 
the Colonel were entirely taken by surprise at their presents, and 
the evening passed off in the happiest manner. 

After we had reached our home in Maine we forwarded to the 
Hutchinson brothers a beautiful buggy, which we had ordered to 
be made expressly for them, in remembrance of their whole-souled 
generosity to us. 

In the morning (April 29th) we fonned line at the Washington 
depot and lanrched through the city to Mr. Abbott's house, where 
we received the two flags that we had kept there, and listened 

to some remarks from Rev. Dr. Rockwell. 

• 

We then took cars to Philadelphia. The day had passed 
in Baltimore when the movement of troops excited notice. Be- 
sides, it rained a little, and so the crowd which followed us bore 
no comparison to that in other cities. We arrived in Philadelphia 
about 2 p. M. ; ate dinner in the Cooper Shop and Soldiers' Rest; 
crossed over in the ferry boat as we had done in the 1st Maine, 
left Camden about 6. p. m., and were landed, shortly after midnight, 
in New York, where we were quartered in the Park barracks. It 
rained or was misty all day, and there was nothing of interest 
transpiring aside from what one may see any day. 

April 3()th. We learned in the morning that the boat would 
not be ready till noon, and so looked around New York all the 
forenoon. We enjoyed this freedom, and a good many drank too 
much, but considering all the circumstances we were not badly 
off, — no worse, certainly, than other regiments. At noon we went 
aboard the Commodore and sailed at once. We arrived outside 
of Providence before daylight, waited for dawn of day, then 
steamed up to the city and quickly tfansferred our stuff into the 
cars and were off without delay. Arrived in Boston after 9 o'clock 
and marched to Faneuil Hall, where many of our military friends 
and citizens visited us. But the -day for such enthusiasm as we 



308 HOME AGAIN — CITIZENS. 1 863. 

saw in the << 1st ^ had passed. We left Boston about 1 p. m.^ and 
arrived in Portland at 6.30. 

The diary says — . 

The crowd at the depot was immense. Uere was something like a welcome 
in sober old Portland. Never daring the term of the Tenth have we had such 
a hand-shaking and kissing. I can't describe the scenes that followed as we 
marched up State street and through the city. Wives and sweethearts rushed 
into the arms of the men (principally of the Portland companies), till the 
ranks were doubled up, or screened with petticoats. We formed regimental 
divisions at the City Hall and listened to a few words of welcome from 
Mayor McLellan and Hon. Josiah H. l3rummond, after which a lunch was 
provided at various eating houses and hotels. Wc then broke ranks, and 
those who had neither home nor friends in town quartered in the Old City Hall. 

Mat 2d, Saturday. The men were furloughcd (verbal) till Tuesday by 
Col. Beal. We have no orders to be mustered out yet. 

The officers enjoyed this liberty the least of all; they had 
master rolls to make, and a dozen final accounts to render in 
duplicate or tiiplicate. 

But on the 7th, Capt. Thomas J. C. Bailey, of the 17th U. S. 
infantry, mustered out B, F, I and K, and the next day C, E, G 
and H. Then'Major James Mann paid us off, and that was the 
end of the Tenth Maine regiment. 

The diary closes this eighth day of May 1863 : 

And here ends the Tenth Maine regiment of infantry volunteers. What 
a history we have made ! What a school for a young man ! What a noble 
thought that you have served your country and offered your life ! But here 
it ends ! Glory and success still remain for those who will strive for it. 

THE TENTH ; WHAT IT WAS, AND WAS NOT. 

The Tenth regiment was unlike the majority of those which 
composed our army, in many particulars ; its history, also, is an 
odd one, I think. I claim for it that it had in its ranks the greatest 
number of good soldiers and the fewest of poor ones of all the 
Maine regiments. In this fespect it differed widely from the 
First and Twenty-ninth. In the ranks of the First there were 
many, who, by nature and education, thought themselves better 
fitted to command men than to be in the ranks themselves, and 



1865. THE DEAD LIST. 309 

there was also a strong rowdy element in it, and au old militia 
wisdom that the " 10th " Avas remarkably free from. 

In the " 29th " we were burdened at first with a large number 
who had been attracted by the bounty. The "10th" had the 
minimum number of this class of men ; but it is not correct to 
say that the men of the " 10th" were picked. 

We lived in the day of misfortune, and our duties in the field 
were therefore generally unpleasant and our efforts were almost 
fruitless, but we claim the more credit in that we kept up good 
discipline during adversity, and good spirits in hard times. 

Considering the opportunities of the year of our active existence 
(1862), I think all will concede that Ave made a splendid record, 
— far above the average of regiments. 

We were in but two battles where wc? could fire our muskets. 
Yet in these two we lost more men in killed and wounded than 
any other Maine regiment had lost up to the day Ave left the seat 
of war to return home. On the contrary, deaths by disease were 
few, but for want of statistics of other regiments, we can make 
no comparison. We lost seventy-three officers and men killed 
and died of wounds, and but forty-eiglit from disease,* completely 
reversing the usual results, which have become proverbial — that 
exposure kills more men than the bullet. 

We always had the good will and confidence of the generals 
over us, but we fortunately escaped being the "pet" of any of 
them, and so kept the good Avill of the other troops of our 
brigade. 

How well we stood at home may be inferred from the report 
of Gen. Ilodsdon, the Adjutant General of our State. He paid 
us the highest compliment he could, by inserting the regimental 
(Col. Beal's) report in full, and adding the following tribute as a 
part of his report : 

" Justice to the officers of the 10th regiment makes it imperative upon me 
to record, that in tlie regularity, fullness and accuracy of their monthly and 
quarterly returns, as well as the prompt, intelligent and concise form in which 
all requisitions upon them from this office for information, have been responded 



*The deaths by disease are still farther lessoned, if we can be allowed to subtract the 



fix who were btarved to death in Southern prisons. 



310 GEN. hodsdok's beport. 1863. 

to, thej are excelled bj no regiment or corps in the service. Although 
making no allotments (with the exception of a few members of Co. £), [F], it 
is believed that they have sent home a comps^ratively greater amount of 
money than any regiment from this State." 

Then follows a testimonial of the valuable services of A^jt. Shaw during 
the six months he was on duty in Augusta. 

If you will glance through the Report for 1862, you will see 
no such praise for any other regiment. Undoubtedly the Gen- 
eral's good opinion of us was largely due to the " prompt, intelli- 
gent and concise form" of our answers to his letters, but in 1862 
it waa no mean accomplishment to be thus able to answer all 
that he asked. So the General only did us justice when he said 
three and four times as much of us as of the other regiments. 
We kept up our good* reputation in the ^ 29th,'' but we 'had 
learned our duty then, and so had all the army ; hence to the 
Tenth must stand the credit of having most deserved tlie praise. 
In this connection it must bo remembered, that on Banks's 
retreat every company lost a part of its books, and some lost all 
of them. Added to this was the derangement resulting from 
the loss of six captains and eleven other officers in 1862, and the 
literal "wiping out" of the orderly sergeants, not one of 
whom went through the year at the head of iiis company. 

■ 

Adjutant Shaw also was absent six months, but he lell his 
official desk in such good order that your historian, who took his 
place meanwhile, had no difficulty in folloAving out tlie Adjutant's 
plans. 

The faithful and efficient services in this office of Sergt. Mnj. 
Trudeau, a gentleman of education and capacity far above Avhat 
his grade calls for, must not he overlooked, nor the neat and 
beautiful penmanship of Private John O. Hayes, who copied the 
Colonel's report for Gen. Hodsdon's office. 

We point also to that undeniable honor, the General Order 
No. 8, mentioned on page 294. We have purposely refrained 
from alluding to many other favorable mentions, whicii may be 
reckoned as cheap glory, but Ave wish to display this Order, for 
it is the evidence of our excellence as a body of soldiers. Per 



1863. HARMONY AND TEMPERANCE. 311 

haps some deserving commands were not mentioned in No. 8, 
bat no undeserving one was noted ; that is sure ! 

It is not doing justice to the Tenth tjo repeat the well known 
truism, that officers make or spoil a regiment. No other such a 
command as tlie Tenth could have been made without just such 
another fine body of enlisted men to have made it from. 

As for the officers, if you will tolerate an opinion of my own, 
they succeeded so much better than those of other regiments, 
not because they were more intelligent, brave or honorable, but 
because of the harmony which prevailed in our midst. We have 
seen some regiments carried to a high state of discipline by the 
efforts of one man of genius; ours was not perfected thus; there 
was not on our roster the name of one who had risen much above 
the level of the "average Amgrican," not one "public man," nor 
one who sliowed great military genius. But all felt deep inter- 
est in and worked earnestly for the good of the regiment — for 
the good of all. 

In very many regiments there was a constant and serious 
discord among the officers; there were parties or cliques which 
all but ruined them. We had almost nothing of this kind in our 
midst. Another great evil which we avoided was intemperance. 
Although a number of the otlicers drank occasionally, none were 
habitual and hard drinkers. It was not considered a virtue to be 
intemperate. Our camp was not overrun with profligate visitors, 
we were not often invited to drunken carousals, and we were not 
miserable when the " commissary " ran low. I never saw an 
officer of the " 10th " intoxicated, and in looking over the roster 
I can count more than half who were strict tee-totallers. The 
regiment was largely benefited by this feature ih the general 
character of the officers. 

• 

Of the religious character of the Tenth there is little that can 
be said. There was a little band of Christians who sometimes 
met with Mr. Knox for conference and prayer. Our Sunday 
service was, I think, more regularly ordered than in most regi- 
ments, and it received the encouragement of the field and line 
officers. 



312 CHAPLAIN KNOX — RELIGION — PROFANITY. 1 863. 

If but little can be said of the visible work of our Chnstian 
brothers, it is because they were so few. Chaplain Knox was a 
man wonderfully well fitted for his position — the most difficult, I 
should say, of any regimental office to fill. The war showed us 
that there are but very few men whose physical, moral and 
social qualities are so developed that they can succeed as 
Chaplains. But Mr. Knox was a rare good man, and was loved 
and respected by all from fii*st to last. His daily life was con- 
sistent, his influence good, his judgment sound, and his advice 
was always given in such a way that none could take oflence. 

A good citizen friend who has read the proof sheets up to this 
page, says that the general reader will probably infer that the 
** 10th " was famous for swearing and grumbling. We are com- 
pelled to admit that the army swore terribly, and that we did our 
part. * 

I do not want the task of defending profanity, but I will state 
that it did not seem to be the sin in the army that it is at home, 
and as it prevailed everywhere and formed an important feature 
of our own history, I have not hesitated to write of it. What 
would a soldier be if he could not swear and grumble ? A better 
man and as good a soldier no doubt; but not such a soldier as 
those who went through the war of the rebellion. 

Much can be said on this subject, but we will close with this. 
If we had not sworn so much I should not have written so much 
about it, and though you may think that we were more profane 
than the average of regiments, I am very sure that we were not. 

And here I close the record of the glorious old Tenth. We 
lived in the " dark days," and we glory in that we Avere faithful 
in adversity. If to us it were given to bear the burden and the 
heat, but to eat none of the bread of our to'.l, still to us there 
is honor and gratitude from every heart that loved our cause. 



1863. 



313 



CnAPTER XXXI. 



|loII of i^t ^mi^ ^ain^ Regiment.* 



FIELD AND STAFF. 

COLONEL. 
GEORGE L. BEAL, 

LIEUT. COLOiTeL. 
JAMES S. FILLEBKOWN, 

MAJORS. 
CHARLES WALKER, 
CHARLES S. EMERSON, 



ADJUTANT. 



Elijah M. Shaw, 



QUARTERMASTERS. 



William S. Dod(jk, 
Charles Thomtson, 



CHAPLAIN. 



Gk^koe Knox, 



SURGEONS. 



Daniel O. Perry, 
Daniel S. Tilvcy, 
JosiAH F. Day, Jr., 



Norway. 

Lewiston. 

Portland. 
Auburn. 

Lewiston. 

Westbrook. 
Norway. 

Brunswick. 

Portland. 
Portland. 



ASSISTANT SURGEON. 
Horatio N. Howard, Abbott. 



*On these rolls ovory officer and man shows in the highest grade he ever attained in 
the organization where his name npitears. 

On mustering in an<I equalizing the companies, there wore many transfers of enlisted 
men that are not noted here. These men are shown only in the company to which they 
wore transferred. 

But those individuals who served any considerable length qf time in one organization, 
and were then transferred or promoted to anotheri are borne vpon both rolls. 



3U 



BOLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



1863. 



NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

SERGEANTS MAJOR. 
John M. Gould, Portland. 

Napoleon Trudeau, Montreal, C. £. 

QITARTERMASTBB SERGEANTS. 
Charles F. King, Portland. 

Dana Hall, 



(( 



COMMISSARY SERGEANTS. 
William E. Davis, * Portland. 

Robert M. Weeks, 



<c 



HOSPITAL STEWARD. 
George J. Northrup, Portland. 

PRINCIPAL MUSICIANS. 
WiUiam Allen (Fife Major), Gray. 

Alpheus L. Greene tDnim Major), Portland. 

REGIMENTAL BAND. 
LEADER. 

Chandler, Daniel H. (2d Lieut.) Portland. 



Johnson, Horace N. 
Hall, Rodney N. 
Bailey, Richard T. 
Fitz, Andrew G. 
Coleman, Charles £. 
Davis, Daniel 
Webb, Osgood B. 
Dow, Sewall L. 
Newell, Joshua B. 
Thomas. Walter H. 
Warren, Charles O. 
Webb, Edward C. 



Auburn. 


Bailey, Gilbert H. 


Lewiston. 


Paris. 


Blanchard, David L. 


Cumberland. 


Bridgton. 


Gott, Elisha 


Lewiston. 


Durham. 


Crafts, Adoniram B. 


Auburn. 


Lewiston. 


Crafts, Moses 


« 


Auburn. 


Edgccomb, Thomas B. 


Lewiston. 


Bridgton. 


Farrar, Sidney A. 


Paris. 


Biddeford. 


Ilall, Cyrus 


Auburn. 


Lewiston. 


Hill, Justin E. 


*< 


Portland. 


Littlcficld, Augustus L. 


€t 


Lewiston. 


Webb, John T. 


Bridgton. 


Bridgton. 




18—82 



Company A. (Saco,) 



CAPTAIN. 

Adams, Joun Q. 

LIEUTENANTS. 
1st, LiTTLEFIELD, EPHKAIM M. 

Ist, FowLEK, Edwin W. 

2d, PlKRCE, CUA&LEB £. 



Saco. 



Saco. 



1865. 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



315 



SERGEANTS. 
Ist, Tarr, James F. Biddefonl. Berry, Horace C. 
Walker, NathM K. Portland. Hanson, Samuel 



, oami 
, Geor 



Davi3, William S. Biddeford. Fcmald, George P. 

CORPORALS. 



Makepeace, Charles 


Saco. 


Hunt, Frank 


<i 


Bragdon, Ed. P. M. 


Biddeford. 


Ayer, George S. 


it 


Shaw, Henry N. 


%t 



Woodstock. 

Biddeford. 

Saco. 

Saco. 

Rumford. 

Biddeford. 
« 



Brackett, George H. 


Saco. 


Hickey, Patrick Jr. 


Biddeford. 




WAGONER. 




Shapleigh, Henry U. Ix^banon. 






PRIVATES. 

• 




Benson, Henry 


Biddeford. 


Littlefield, Nahum 


Kennebunk. 


Berwin, Joseph 


Eastport. 


Littlehale, Alanson M. 


Newry. 


Brady, Joseph 


Bidddeford. 


Marshall, George 


E. Machias. 


Brady, Michael 


ti 


Marshall, Richard 


Saco. 


Carlton, William H. Haverhill, Ms. 


McDougall, Archibald , 


P. E. Island. 


Chandler, Moao3 S. 


Saco. 


Mclntire, George E. 


Dayton. 


Chappell, Joseph H. 


(< 


McKenney, Wilbur W. 


Saco. 


Cole, Edwin 


<i 


Milliken. Kth&M sLj^l^-f 


Saco. 


Cole, Henry F. 




Moody, John 


Kennebunk. 


Cullum, Alfred 


Saco. 


Moore, Moses T. 


Biddeford. 


CuUum, John Jr. 


* i< 


Nixon, Thomas 


Liverpool. 


Cross, Thaddcus 


t< 


Peabody, William 


Dixmont. 


Davis, John 1). Milton Plant'n. 


Phillips, Sewall 


HoUis. 


Deshon, John A. Kennebunkport. 


Rawson, Charles C. 


Whitneyville. 


Dobson, Wm. Bridge water, Mass. 


Roberts, Charles F. 


Biddeford. 


Donovan, Jeremiah 


Biddeford. 


Roberts, Lewis 


Saco. 


Dunn, John 


It 


Ross, George H. 


Biddeford. 


Dyer, Thomas Jr. 


Saco. 


Rowe, Daniel M, 


Saco. 


Fletcher, Sidney W. 


Biddeford. 


Sargent, William 0. 


HoUif. 


Gore, Alexander 


Scarboro. 


Skillings, Almon L. 


Biddeford. 


Gould, Joseph 


Saco. 


Smith, Emerson 


Kennebunk. 


Green, Lewis A. 


Kennebunk. 


Smith, John 


Biddeford. 


Hamlin, Zachariah L 


Saco. 


Snowdale, Albion 


Saqo. 


Hanson, Daniel 


n 


Spear, Christopher C. 


« 


Hanson, James B. 


Biddeford. 


Staples, James Jr. 


Biddeford. 


Hatch, George W. 


Kennebunk. 


Stevens, Frederick 


Kennebunk. 



816 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



Biddeford. 



l€ 



t€ 



tl 



Higginson, John 

Hopping, William 

Jefiera, Nicholas 

Jennings, James 

Keighloy, William 

Kendrick, George W. 

Kenney, Dennis 

Knight, Josiah " 

Lee, Edward Magaguadavic, N. B. 

Leighton, Ivan Biddeford. 

Leighton, Moses Saco. 

Littleflcld, Joseph Kennebunk. 



Saco. 
Biddeford. 



SteTens, Thomas 
Stevens, Osgood W. 
Sutherland, Charles 
Taylor, Lewis B. 
Towle, David B. 
Towle, Samuel T. 
Walker, Freeman F. 
Warren, Franklin 
Wentworth, George F. 
Wormell, Ellas O. 
Wormell, Hiram 



1863. 

Saco. 
it 

Biddeford. 

N. Berwick. 

Saco. 

Rockland. 

Saco. 

Weld. 

Dayton. 

Saco. 
« 

4—93 



Company B. {Portland Mechanic Blues.) 



CAPTAINS. 

Black, James M. 
Turner, Alfred L. 

LIEUTENANTS. 

1st, Roberts, Charles W. 
Ist, Whitney, Benjamin F. 
2d, Alexander, Reuben 
2d, CoLLEY, Charles IL 
2d, DeLano, ^L^RCUS 

SEK6EANTS. 



Portland. 
Portland. 



Portland. 
Windham. 
Cape Elizabeth. 
Gray. 
Damariscotta. 



Ist, Colley, Cha's H. Jr. Portland. Loveitt, Edward W. 

1st, Willey, John C. " Colley, William II. 

Cushman, Charles H. " Eustis, Leonard 

Noyes, Stephen Jr. 



« 



Portland. 

Gray. 

Portland. 





CORPORALS. 


Seed, FranciR 


Portland. 


Carey, Peter W. Port! 


Pennell, William H. 


Gray. 


Varney, Oliver F. ' 


Davee, William G. 


Buckfield. 


Mahan, George T. * 


Hall, David N. 


Portland. 


Hoyt, Benjamin G. ' 


M^untfort, Daniel E. 


*( 


Wescott, Richmond T. * 


Glendcnning, John G. 


it 


Blackwood, Beixjamin L. * 


Davey, Samuel F. 


t€ 


Eustis, Frank F. * 


Jewett, Noah 


Readfield. 





1863. 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



817 



Green, Henry N. 
Hersey, Charles A. 



MUSICIANS. 

Portland. Hersey, Henry A. 
Paris. Waterhouse, Peter B. 



WAGONER. 



Meserve, Amos 



Raymond. 



PRIVATES. 



Paris. 
Portland. 



Allen, Charles F. 


Portland. 


Kerrigan, Andrew 


Portland. 


Allen, Charles 


Cornish. 


Knight, Edward P. 


Falmouth. 


Bean, William XL 


Wayne. 


Knight, Storer S. 


Portland. 


Blake, Henry G. 


Readfield. 


Loring, William H. H. 


(( 


Bodge, William 


Portland. 


Loveitt, Simon A. 


tt 


Bond, Robert D. 


Biddeford. 


Mason, Edwin 


Westbrook. 


Brett, John F. 


Portland. 


Mayberry, Thomas L. 


Biddefdird. 


Brine, William 


it 


McGinty, John 


Portland. 


Buckley, Michael 


Saco. 


McGuire, Terrence 


tt 


Bumell, Edward A. 


Portland. 


McKenzie, William 


tt 


Buzzell, George F. 
'Campbell, Ro£ert II. 


it 


Merrill, Moses P. 
Miles, Benjamin C. 


Turner. 
Portland. 


Chipman, George W. 


4t 


Milligan, James 


tt 


Cobb, Marston L. 


tt 


Moores, Samuel 0. 


Saco. 


Colley, Albert F. 


Gray. 


Ncal, Ansel 


Portland. 


Cushman, Benjamin S. 


Portland. 


Newell, James N. 


tt 


Davee, Josepli E. 


Buckfield. 


O'llara, William 


tt 


Delano, Tlieodore V. 


« 


Parker, Nathaniel W. 


tt 


Dinsmorc, John 


i( 


Penney, Augustus 


tt 


Downes, Joseph S. 


it 


Pierce, Emery E. 


Mt. Desert. 


Drake, Luther U. 


Biddeford. 


Plummer, Arthur 


Portland. 


Emerson, Bradbury 


(< 


Powers, James 


tt 


Emerson, Stillman 


tt 


Rand, George U. 


tt 


Emery, Nahura 


Hampden. 


Roberts, Daniel S. 


tt 


Emery, David 


Portland. 


Ryan, John 


tt 


Fariey, Alfred D. F. 


(( 


Sawyer, Thomdike H. 


it 


Flanders, Daniel 


it 


Sawyer, Edward H. 


tt • 


Flinn, John 


t( 


Shaw, Edward 


Cape Elizabeth. 


Fobes, Clinton 


Buckfield. 


Small, Alonzo R. 


Biddeford. 


Foss, David C. 


Portland. 


Smith, Almado R. 


Portland. 


Foster, Thomas 


n 


Smith, Charles G. 


tt 


Gammon, Levi 


Buckfield. 


Spaulding, Albert S. 


tt 


Gill, George U. 


Portland. 


Stewart, Huram S. 


• tt 


Graffam, Edwin W. 


<< 


Stone, John 


tt 


Graffam, Francis A. 


it 


Sweetser, Richmond 


tt 


Griffin, Thomas 


tt 


Swett, James W. 


tt 



318 



BOLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



1863. 



Hall, Georgo W. 


Cumberland. 


Swett, John Jr. 


Portland. 


Hall, Dana 


Portland. 


Tewksbury, James M. 


« 


Hanlej, Thomas 


Cumberland. 


Trainer, James 


M 


Hanson, Ezekiel H. 


Portland. 


Traak, Cliarles H. 


It 


Harris, Charles 


Saco. 


Trask, George F. 


(( 


Harris, Josh. Edwin 


it 


Trowbridge, John 


(( 


Hiter, Oliver 


Mt. Desert. 


Verrill, Benjamin F. 


(( 


Hoyt, George H. 


Portland. 


Verrill, Edward P. 


Westbrook. 


Ilslej, Enoch B. 


• 


Weeks, Joseph 


Portland. 


Johnson, Alexander 


(( 


Wells. John F. 


4( 


Jones, Olirer 


(( 


Winslow, Hiram 




Jordan, James E. 


(( 




7— 12» 

• 

* 



Company C. (Portla?id Light Guard.) 

CAPTAIN. 
Jordan, William P. Portland. 



LIEUTENANTS. 
1st, Kbdlon, Benjamin M. 
2d, Whitney, Benjamin F. 

SERGEANTS. 



Portland. 
Windliam. 



Ist, Jordan, Charles E. Portland. Weeks, liobcrt M. 

Uurd, George II. " Smith, Henry M. 

Burnham, Henry A. " Plummer, Henry A. 

Mitchell, James E. Yannouth. Riley, Reuben M. 

CORPORALS. 



Hamilton, William P. Portland. 
Coffin, William H. Westbrook. 
Sargent, Henry Mt. Vernon. 

Merrill, Edward B. Winslow. 

Jackson, Valentino R. Portland. 
Knight, WilUam W. 
Rider, Mark 



(( 



(( 



Irish, Nathan F. 
Boody, Francis G. 
Kniglit, George E. 
Smcliage, Charles E. 
Taylor, William II. 
Briggs, Luther 
Atcherson, John 



MUSICIANS. 
Stone, Frederi(Jc W. Portland. Chapman, Joseph T. 
Warner, David Greely 



(I 



WAGONER. 



Portland. 



11 



Harrison. 



Bridgton. 
Portland. 

Winslow. 

Woodstock. 

Portland. 



Bethel. 



WUey, John N. 



Bridgton. 



1863. 



ROLL OF TENTH MAIHE. 



319 



PRIVATES. 



Auburn. 
it 



Limington. 
Lewiston. 
Portland. 



(( 



(( 



t€ 



It 



f( 



Allen, Calmon II. 

Annas, John G. 

Atkinson, Nathaniel 

Baker, James 

Ballou, Adin 

Bonney, Edward W. 

Boodj, Leonard G. 

Buck, Daniel F. 

Buckman, Amos < 

Bumham, Charles 

Campbell, Daniel E. Boston, Mass. 

Carver, George B. Freeport. 

Chickering, Sabine C. Portland. 

Cobb, Benjamin F. " 

Cobb, Barzilla S. 

Conway, John Portland. 

Coy, Oliver B. Welchville. 

Cummings, Wallace Y,. Poland. 

Cumey, Josepli Ncw.Gloucestcr. 

Dammon, George W. Paris. 

Dearborn, Thomas Biildeford. 

Devine, Anthony 

Dootly, John II. 

Downcs, John W. C 

Elbridge, Louis 

Farr, David M. 

Ferrell, William E. 

Garey, Mezorve Eaton, N. 11. 

Glendenning, Thos. M. Portland. 

Goodhue, John 

Goodwin, .Josh. Bailey 

Green, Charles A, 

Gumey, Dexter 

Hamilton, William A. 

Uanfion, Nils A. 

Ilayes, William 

Irish, William II. 

Jonlan, Arthur T. 

Jordan, Leonard G. 

Keyes, William T. 

Lancaster, Charles 

Libby, William S. 

Love, William H. 



Portland. 



€( 



It 



Canaan. 
Portland. 



(( 



(I 



Auburn. 
Portland. 

■ Kittery. 

Scarboro. 

Fayette. 

Denmark. 

Portland. 

Lewiston. 
Bridgton. 
Portland. 



Mayberry, Lorenzo 
Mayberry, William R. 
McFaden, Gorham P. 
Moore, Edward K. 
Morse, William 
Morton, Levi Q. 
Mullen, Ozias 
Murch. Elbridge F. 
Nado, John 
Nutter, Alonzo 
Newbold, Andrew D. 
Palmer, Charles F. 
Pennell, Edwin W. 
Plaisted, Byron G. 
Rider, Albert S. 
Bobbins, Charles S. 
Ross, William B. 
Russell, WiUiam O. 
Sheridan, James 
Simpson, Josiah 
Small, Joseph W. 
Small, Joseph B. 
Soulc, George A. 
Spring, Frederick A. 
Spring, William G. J. 
Stackpole, Daniel W. 
Stanorth, John A. 
Stevens, Charles W. 
Stevens, David H. 
Stevens, George L. 
Sturtevant, Thomas D. 
Thayer, Charies II. 
Tighe, Dennis 
Weymouth, George 
Weymouth, Samuel 
Wiggin, George M. 
Wight, D. Webster 
Williams, Charles 11. 
Williams, John A. 
Wilson, Alanson L. 
Winslow, William A. 

Wright, James M. 



Minot. 

Windham. 

Lewiston. 

Portland. 



« 



Westbrook. 

Embden. 

Paris. 

Albion. 

Biddeford. 

Portland. 

Fayette. 

Portland. 

Limington. 

Portland. 

Norway. 

Portland. 



it 



•< 



York. 

Upton. 

Portland. 
it 

tt 

<< 

(( 

« 

Auburn. 

Westbrook. 

Lewiston. 

Turner. 

Portland. 

Bridgton. 
tt 

China. 

Portland. 

Readfield. 

Portland. 

Anson. 

Portland. 

Mt. Vernon 

8—111 



320 



BOLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



1863. 



Company D. (Aroostook Co.) 



CAPTAINS. 
West, Geobob W. 
Bbardslet, John D. 

LIBUTENANTS. 
let, Binney, Henry M. 
Ist, Kino, Charles F. 
2d, Brackbtt, Edward 
2d, LiBBY, Chandler A. 

SERGEANTS. 



Somerrille, Mass. 
Grand Falls, N. B. 

Somerrille, Mass. 
Portland. 
Boston, Mass. 
Limostone. 



1st, Kallock, Henry H. Ashland. Stinson, James English Armj. 

Miller, John C. Fort Kent. Gillespie, James ' Fort Kent. 

Randall, Ezra " Anderson, Charles Limestone Plant'n. 

CORPORALS. 



lifcDonald, Gieorge ' Ashland. 
McB([aniis,HughF. G. Falls, N.B. 
Pheasant, William English Army. 
Hamilton, Geo. A. G. Falls, N. B. 
O'Connor, John W. Fort Kent. 
Clarke, George E. Ashland. 



Barker, Albert E. Frederickton, N. B. 
Hayes, Maurice Houlton. 

Campbell, Geo. J. Limestone Plant'n. 
Brown, Joseph G. Portage Lake. 

Corson, Charles H. Houlton. 



Erwin, John 



MUSICIANS. 
English Army. Kchoe, Charles 



Portland. 



WAGONER. 
Canncy, Charles B. 



Bangor. 



PRIVATES. 



Ashland. 

Masardis. 

Maysville. 



tt 



II 



<( 



Albert,* Francis 

Baker, Joseph C. 

Bean, Charles B. 

Bean, Silas H. 

Bean, Oscar F. 

Brawn, John 

Bryant, Charles F. 

Buck, Thomas J. Jr. 

Bugbee, Thomas S. 

Campbell, Henry English Army. 

Casey, Wm. Castle IIUl Plant'n. 

Crane, Joseph English Array. 

Day, Vinal J. Ashland. 



Presque Isle. 

Enfield. 

Washburn. 



McKenzic, John 
McNally, Patrick 
McNeil, Nelson 
McNulty, John 
Messer, I^vi D. 

Michaud (or Missou), 

• 

Miller, John 
Millikcn, Wallace 
Montreuil, Firman 
Moran, Allan 
Moran, Garrett 
Murphy, Hugh 
Plummer, Daniel 



Fort Kent. 

Portland. 

Fort Fairfield. 

Portland. 

Lincoln. 

Peter 

Fort Kent. 
Castle Hill. 

Maysville. 

Castle Hill. 

Fort Kent, 

Portland. 



•Also written Herbert. 



1863. 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



321 



Donnelly, Edward Washburn. 
Dow, Alexander Ashland. 

Duran, Benjamin Westbrook. 

Emerson, Henry C. Limestone PI. 
Esty, George W. Ashland. 

Femald, Hercules S. Lowell. 

Giberson, Simon Sarsfield. 

Grady, John Eaton Grant. 

Hammond, Charles W. Sarsfield. 
Hanson, Edward H. Ft. Fairfield. 
Hutchinson, Albert H. Tremont. 
Johnson, Freeman W. Limestone. 
Kelley, Amos Lyndon. 

Kendall, Henry £. Ashland. 

Knowlan, John N. Masardis. 

Law, Thomas English Army. 

Legassie, Jos. Limestone Plant'n. 
Legassie, Paul " 

Libby, Elias T. Ashland. 

Marshall, John D. Castle Hill. 
Marston, Henry M. Limestone PI. 
McBrien, Dundas Fort Kent. 

McDonald, Daniel 
McDonald, William D. 
McGowan, Michael Portland. 

McKenney, Daniel B. Lincoln. 
McLarren, John Washburn. 



<( 



(( 



Pratt, Daniel Fort Kent. 

Randall, James Castle Hill Plant'n. 
Ross, Edward Eaton Grant Plant'n. 



Sears, Hiram 
Sebastian, Alexander 
Shehan, James R. 
Shorey, Joshua R. 
Sibley, William 
Smith, James 
Smith, Jefferson 
Smith, Joseph 
Somers, Nicholas 
Souci, Jerry 
Spencer, Benjamin I*. 
Stanley, George 
Taggart, Howard 
Theriault, William 
Thompson, Edwin 
Twist, Joseph 
Waddell, William 
Wait, Thomas 
Wallace, William 
Ward, David 
Wescott, John 
White, Jolin 
Weitzler, Ephraim 



Fort Kent. 



« 



Ashland. 

Enfield. 

Lowell. 

Portland. 

Ashland. 

English Army. 

Presque Isle. 

Ashland. 

Lincoln. 

English Army. 

Portage Lake. 

Presque Isle. 

Fort Kent. 

Mapleton. 



(( 



English Army. 

Ashland. 

Fort Kent. 

Masardis. 

Fort Kent. 

Peru. 

a— 99 



Company E. (Portland Rifle Guard.) 



CAPTAINS. 

EsTES, Albert H. 
L\THAM, Cyrus 
Cloudman, Andrew C. 
Sargent, Herbert R. 

LIEUTENANTS. 

Ist, Gould, John M. 

2d, Perlet, Joseph H. Jr. 

2d, Smith, Henry F. 



Portland. 



tt 
tt 

u 



Portland. 



« 



21 



322 



BOLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



1863. 



SEBGEAKTS. 



let, Smith, Qeorge A. Portland. Linscott, Joseph P. 

Trowbridge, Cha'g S. " Cook, Hiram T. 

Lombard, Theodore H. " Douglass, Jeremiah S. 
Oakes, Bei\j. F. Kemiebunk. 



Saco. 
Portland. 



4< 



COBPOBALS. 



Coz, Asa S. Portland. 

Noyes, Wm 8. No. Yarmouth. 
Morton, James H. Buxton. 

Hodgdon, Amos K. Windham. 
Mackin, Joseph F. Portland. 

Warren, Edward B. Standish. 



Smith, Harrison W. 
Porter, Nchcmiah 
Milliken, Charies 0. 
Trefethen, Clifford J. 
Libby, Henry 



Portland. 

No. Yarmouth. 

Saco. 

Portland. 

Limington. 



Gary, Tomer 



MUSICIANS. 
Portland. Green, Mellen 



Naples. 



WAGONEB. 



King, Joshua R. 



Portland 



PRIVATES. 



Abbott, Abgah U. 
Aldrich, William C. 
Anderson, Charles H. 
Andrew, William 
Barbour, Josepli H. 
Barstow, Samuel R. 
Bartlett, Lysander 
Benson, Joseph 
Bragdon, Cha's W. M. 
Brown, Frank E. 
Bryant, Rufus 
Bumham, Charles H. 
Bumham, James H. 
Caldwell, Charies B. 
Caldwell, Isaiah A. 
Cash, Nathaniel 
Chaplin, John 
Chase, Edward E. 
Chase, Samuel R. 
Chase, Wilbur F. 
Cook, David W. 
Coolbroth, William 
Damren, Dusten 
Davis, WiUiam E. 



Buxton. 


Huff, William A. 


Buxton. 


Paris. 


Hyde, WiUiam A. 


Livermore. 


Limington. 


Johnson, Thomas 


Portland. 


Rumford. 


Keone, William H. 


Otisfleld. 


Portland. 


Knight, George H. 


tt 


(( 


Latham, Porter 


Gray. 


Hartford. 


Libby, John 


Limington. 


Rockland. 


Lowry, William 


Portland. 


Portland. 


Manson, Charles H. 


Buxton. 


Limington. 


Maxficld, Josiah C. 


Naples. 


Hartford. 


Mcrrow, Lorenzo D. 


Harrison. 


Bridgton. 


Morse, Benjamin F. 


Norway. 


« 


Noyes, Clinton 


No. Yarmouth. 


Otisficld. 


Paine, Junius D. 


Pownal. 


(< 


Parsons, Albert L. 


No. Yarmouth. 


Naples. 


Porter, Charles C. 


(( tt 


(( 


Putnam, John A. 


Franklin Plant'n. 


Portland. 


Rider, Moses A. 


Pownal. 


it 


Roach, Edward E. 


Portland. 


tt 


Robbins, Amosia B. 


Paris. 


tt 


Sally, Elisha F. 


Saco. 


n 


Sanborn, William H. 


Bridgton. 


<l 


Sanborn, Jerome 0. 


Bethel. 


« 


Simpson, George W. 


Portland. 



1863-. 



BOLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



823 



Daj, Willuun 
Garcclon, Levi M. 
Gilbert, James M. 
Gk>old, Josiah 
Green, Charles R. 
Gurncy, Michael 
Gumey, Stillman 
Harmon, Benjamin ] 
Hartshome, Frederic 
Haskell, WiUiam T. 
Hayes, John O. 
Hefiron, Thomas 
Hlggins, Charles E. 
Higgins, Sumner C. 
Hill, Ivory L. 
Hodsdon, David T. 
Hone, James R. 
Howard, Simeon 
Hoyt, John L. 



Westbrook. 


Skillin, James P. 


Westbrook. 


Livermore. 


Slowman, Charles A. 


Saco. 


Fownal. 


Snell, John E. 


Pownal. 


Portland 


Snow, Israel T. 


Jackson 


« 


Stevens, James E. 


Naples. 


Hartford. 


St. John, WiUiam £. 


Portland. 


€t 


Stone, Charles H. 


Saco. 


Buxton. 


Stone, Shirley M. 


(( 


cA. Portl'd. 


Thurston, George H. 


Portland. 


(( 


Tibbets, Charles A. 


C. Elizabeth. 


f< 


Tibbets, Ira Frank. 


« it 


i< 


WalU, Franklin 


• 


Buxton. 


Walton, Andrew J. 


E. Livermore. 


« 


Ward, William H. 


StAndith. 


a 


Wedge, Louis 


Augnita. 


Bethel. 


Whitney, Henry C. 


Naplee. 


Portland. 


Whitney, Nathan F. 


Standish. 


Westbrook. 


Whittemore, Eben G. 


E. Livermore. 


S. Livermore. 


Wmg, Samuel F. 


Rumford. 
7—107 



Company F. (Zewiston Light Infantry.) 



CAPTAIX. 

Knowlton, William 

LIEUTENANTS. 
Ist, Butler, Edward S. 
2d, Rankin, Abkl G. 
2d, Uaskell, Charles H. 



Lcwiston. 



Lewis ton. 



t€ 



Pownal. 



SERGEANTS. 
Ist, Merrill, Joseph S. Readfleld. Marston, Charles W. 
Stevens, Isaiah S. Yarmouth. Pratt, Reuben D. 
Gushing, Samuel E. Pownal. Fitzgerald, Daniel S. 
Baker, Hardy N. Lewislon. Gould, George II. 



Roberts, Alfred 
Lovell, Samuel W. 
Savage, Frank J. 
Winter, Harrison B. 
Low, James 
Heney, Charles W. 



CORI'ORALS. 
Durham. Morse, Joseph W. 
Thing, Everanl 
Gray, Wesley 
Williams, Charles B. 
Pearson, Lewis E. 
Davis, Isaac P. 



Yarmouth. 

Anson. 

Dixfield. 

Lewiston. 

Lewiston. 



Lewiston. 

Mercer. 

Lewiston. 



<< 



Andover. 
Mt. Vernon. 

Embden. 
Mt. Vernon. 

Portland. 
Auburn. 



324 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



1863, 



MUSICIANS. 



Sewell, William W. 


Portland. 


Given, William H. 


Lewiston. 




WAGONER. 




Knowlton, Isaac K. 


Lewiston. 






PRIVATES. 




Allen, Nicholas I. 


Lewiston. 


Lane, Sullivan 


Anson. 


Atkinson, Charles A. 


Mercer. 


Lapham, Joseph 


Rumford. 


Beal, Thomas R. 


Durham. 


Libby, Elijah 


Greenwood. 


Reals, Jonathan 


Anson. 


Libby, Lewis F. 


Pownal. 


Rack, John A. 


Greenwood. 


Lovejoy, Charles 


Saco. 


Rorke, William 


Lewiston. 


McDonald, Roderick 


Thomaston. 


Rorr, Charles F. 


PownaL 


McGlinchy, Hugh 


Lewiston. 


Rntler, Thomas M. 


Hancock. 


McGoverin, Dennis 


Portland. 


Cleaveland, Beigamin 


F. Anson. 


Nichols, Alva E. 


Lewiston. 


Cole, Consider 


Greenwood. 


O'Neil, Lanty 


Portland. 


Corbett, George A. 


Wold. 


Pearson, William H. 


Greenwood. 


Covell, James E. 


Durham. 


Plummer, Alpheus 


Bridgton. 


Daggett, Obed W. 


Anson. 


Pote, Isaac I. 


Portland. 


Davis, Lorenzo T. 


Carmel. 


Prindall, Edward L. 


f( 


Dockham, George A. 


Poland. 


Prindall, William 


Brunswick. 


Dwelly, Gustavus A. 


Lewiston. 


Pullcn, Omar 


Anson. 


Eames, Martin 


Embdcn. 


Pyor, William A. 


Lewiston. 


Eastman, Thomas A. 


Lewiston. 


Record, Edwin 


Turner. 


Elliott, Edward F. 


Rumford. 


Robbing, Samuel S. 


Anson, 


Ellsworth, Isaac 


Salem. 


Savage, Henry A. 


n 


Foster, Nicholas L. 


Lewiston. 


Sawyer, Joseph W. 


Pownal. 


Frost, Isaac C. 


Weld. 


Sidney, Phillip 


Portland. 


Gage, George W. 


Otisflcld. 


Smellage, George W. 


it 


Gaitley, Martin 


Portland. 


Smith, Josiah 11. 


Lewiston. 


Gordon, John H. 


Mt. Vernon. 


Smith, Kennedy 


Salem. 


Grant, Amaziah 


Durham. 


Stevens, Enos H. 


Auburn. 


Grant, Samuel R. 


<( 


Stirk, Henry 


Turner. 


HaU, Daniel E. 


Naples. 


Thompson, Andrew J. 


Fannington. 


Hail, Enoch L. 


Lewiston. 


Townsend, John W. 


Auburn. 


Hodsdon, Sam. K. Milton Plant'n. 


Tripp, Harrison A. 


Sedgwick. 


Howard, Frederick A 


Anson. 


True, Rueben E. 


Freeport. 


Hutchinson, Benj. F. 


Rockland. 


Trufant, John A. 


Augusta. 


Jackson, Andrew 


Ijcwiston. 


Turner, John F. 


Portland. 


Jewell, Levi D. 


Woodstock. 


Tuttle, Albion 


Pownal. 


Johnson, George W. 


Freeport. 


Veazie, Edwin B. 


Portland. 


Jones, Henry H. 


Yarmouth. 


Walker, Frederick L. 


Woolwich. 



1863. 



ROIX OF TENTH MAINE. 



325 



Jordan, Henry F. Andovcr. 

Kennison, Charles H. Lewiston. 
Kineaid, John A. " 

Knight, Abel J. Kennebunkport. 
KnighU, Freeman J. Pownal. 



Welch, Benjamin A. 
West, Lewis F. 
Whitney, James H. 
Yoimg, Eleazer K. 



Minot. 

Pownal. 

Chesterville. 

Yarmouth. 

4—104 



Company G. {Norway Light Infantry,) 

CAPTAINS. 



Norway. 



tt 



Rust, Henry Jr. 
Blake, Jonathan 

LIEUTENANTS. 
. 
l8t, WniTMARfiii, William W. 

2d, MiLLETT, Henry R. 

SERGEANTS. 
1st, Raynes, J. Franklin Auburn. McKeen, Henry H. 



Norway. 



ti 



Fitz, John F. 
Jonlan, John F. 



Farris, Rufus E. 
Goodenow, Jason S. 
Matthews, Augustus W. 
Mansfield, James H. 



Murphy, Robert II. 
Noble, Harrison G. 



Norway. Hale, William F. 
I^aris. Cushman, Zebedee M. 

CORPORALS. 

Hebron. Goddard, Edward 

Newry. Dempsey, Jere 

Paris. Thayer, lildmund P. 

Lovcll. Bartlett, Lucius J. 

MUSICIANS. 

Portland. Burke, Edward 
Norway. 



Allen, Henry H. 
Andrews, William W. 
Barker, Ebenezer H. 
Bartlett, Kenneth S. 
Bartlett, Marcus C. 
Black, Josiah S. 
Bradbury, Frank J. 
Bridges, John C. 



WAGONER. 
Yates, Samuel S. Norway. 

PRIVATES. 
Watcrford. Kniglit, George M. 



Otisfield. 


Knight, Joseph 


Newry. 


Knox, Samuel Jr. 


Norway. 


Lapham, Charles L. 


n 


I^pham, Isaac F. 


Hanover. 


Littlefield, Albert 


Norway. 


Littleield, John S. 


Porter. 


Mains, Solomon 



Stoneham. 

Norway. 

Oxford. 



Bethel. 
Norway. 

Oxford. 
Norway. 



Albany. 



Waterford, 

Otisfield- 

Chatham, N. H. 

Bethel. 

Woodstock. 

Stoneham. 
tt 

Gorham. 



326 



BOLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



1863. 



Briggs, AlfVed H. 
Brown, George H. 
Brown, Josiah A. 
Bryant, Amos S. 



Woodstock. 

Mason. 

Bethel. 
Woodstock. 



Chandler, WiUiam P. Stowe. 

Charles, Daniel E. LovcU. 

Charles, Selo F. Stowe. 

Chase, Charles Milton Plant'n. 

Cook, Joseph B. Porter. 

Crockett, James 2d Norway. 

Commings, Jos. W. Woodstock. 

Cushman, Freeland A. Oxford. 

Daris, George H. Perry. 

Dinsmore, Charles M. Norway. 

Dresser, Horace Lovell. 

Eastman, John C. Stowe. 

Ela, Charles C. Brownfield. 

Ela, John C. 

Ellis, Charles A. Sweden. 

Emery, Sewall B. Poland. 

Estes, Nathan C. Bethel. 

Fftrrington, Henry L. Sweden. 

Floyd, Osgood F. Porter. 

Fox, George H. 

Fox, William W. 

Fuller, Alpheus Woodstock. 

Fuller, William H. 

Gordon, William H. Franklin PI. 

Gray, Elden B. Lovell. 

Grecnleaf, Charles F. Norway. 

Grccnlcaf, Solomon 

Hall, Charles 

Harriden, James Chatham, N. H. 

Henley, John S. Otisfleld. 

Henley, Pliny B. 

Hicks, Alfred C. Oxford. 

Hill, Leonard C. Sweden. 

Hill, Willard B. 

Johnson, William Stowe. 

Jordan, James Bridgton. 

Kenney, Solomon S. Paris. 

Kierstead, Luke Portlan^. 

KunbaU, Eben A. Hamlin Grant PI. 



it 



it 



it 



it 



Mason, Vincent 
Matthews, Charles 
Meader, Calvin 
Merrill, James L. 
Merrill, William B. 
Merrill, William H. H. 
Millett, Charles F. 
Morse, David 
Morse, Seward P. 
Nichols, John A. 
Nutting, Jason S. 
Perhani, James L. 
Pike, Darius T. 
Pike, William H. 
Pingree, Hczckiah S. 
]?ower8, Thomas 
Prescott, John B. 
Pressey, Charles M. 
Ripley, George K. 
Russell, Benjamin Jr. 
Russell, Nelson R. 
Sargent, George W. 
Seavey, Lafayette 
Small, Farnham H. 
Smith, Jonathan 
Smith, Lowell B. 
Smith, Nathan 
Stanley, William S. 



Albany. 

Norway. 

Chatham, N. H. 

Norway. 



« 



Hebron. 

Norway. 

Paris. 

Andover. 

Chatham, N. H. 

Andover. 

Woodstock. 

Norway. 

Harrison. 

Norway. 

Newry. 

Lovell. 

Norway. 

Paris. 

Greenwood. 
it 

Oxford. 

Waterford. 

Boston, Mass. 

Otisfield. 

Peru. 

Otisfield. 

Porter. 



Stevens, Elmer L. Chatham, N. H. 
Stowell, Edward N. 

Swan, Fessenden Woodstock. 

Towle, Ezra Porter. 

Upton, John A. Otisfield. 

Warren, Nathaniel E. Weld. 

Wentworth, Ephraim Porter. 

Whitney, Theodore Harrison. 

Widber, James S. Newry. 

Wilbur, Henry Albany. 

Wilkinson, John W. Portland. 
Wilkinson, William W. 

Witham, Charles W. Minot. 

Wood, William E. Oxford. 

4—119 



1863. 



ROLL OF TENTH HAIKE. 



827 



Company H. (Auburn Artillery.) 

CAPTAINS. 



Emersoit, Chables S. 


Auburn. 


Shaw, Elijah M. 


Lewiston. 


LIEUTENANTS. 




Ist, FoLSOM, James C. 


Auburn. 


Ist, True, George \V. 




Ist, Blake, Granville 


it 


2d, Dill, Phineas W. 


€€ 


2d, Bradbury, Benjamin M. 


• < 


2d, Freeman, Albert W. 


Mlnot. 


2d, Wright, Horace 


Auburn. 



SERGEANTS. 



Iflt, Conant, Alexander B. Auburn. Jumper, David A. 

Anderson, Charles R. Lew'n. Coburn, George B. 

Emerson, Ivory W. Auburn. Richardson, Oliver B. 
Lamarche, Alfred F. Hebron. 



it 



It 



Harradon, George W. 

Given, Benjamin L. 

Wliite, Augustus 

Estes, Steplicn R. 

French, Nathaniel F. 

Green, George A. N. Gloucester. 

Webber, Samuel Lewiston. 



CORPORALS. 

Auburn. Irish, Samuel F. 
Pratt, Henry C. 
Wood, Cyrus D. 
Kidder, Roscoe J. 
Stevens, Samuel L. 
Wright, Winfield S. 



Lewiston. 
Bradford. 



Harmon, William S. 
Perry, Isaac J. 



MUSICIANS. 
Harrison. Townsend, Cyrus B. 
Auburn. 



Lewiston. 



t* 



Hebron. 



Peru. 
Carthage. 
Auburn. 
Sumner. 
Auburn. 
Greene. 



Auburn. 





WAGONER. 




Green, 


, Flarrison B. 


Weld. 






PRIVATES. 




Allen, Francis M. 


Auburn. 


Lunt, M. William 


New Gloucester. 


Badger, Jolm 


Canaan. 


Magill, Andrew J. 


Carthage. 


Bailey, George H. 


Bridgton. 


Harden, Charles F. 


Danville. 


Bailey, Marshall 


ft 


Marston, James H. 


Minot. 


Bates, Lewis 


Auburn. 


Martin, Xaveri 


Peru. 


Benson, Ephraim C. 


Peru. 


Metcalf, Charles A. 


Lisbon. 


Berry, Albion K. P. 


Carthage. 


Mitchell, Arthur S. 


Carthage. 


Berry, Elbridge G. 


it 


Mitchell, Winslow 


« 



328 



ROLL OF TBNTH MAINE. 



1863. 



Bishop, Jesse Peru. 

Bonney, Gladden Turner. 
Brackett, William H. ChcstcrviUe. 

Bradbury, Hugh M. Auburn. 

Bradeen, William H. Waterboro. 

Brooks, Joseph Lewiston. 

Cobb, Edwin A. Bridgton. 

Cobum, Jefferson L. Carthage. 

Cobum, John G. " 

Davis, Charles H. Auburn. 
Dawes, Alvin N. Gloucester. 

Dearth, William Auburn. 

Dillingham, Isaac R. " 

Donihue, George L. Froeport. 

Estes, Silas Lewiston. 

Fargo, Charles 0. Turner. 

Field, Alym Portland. 

Foster, Ambrose A. Bristol. 

Fuller, George J. Minot. 

Galusha, Joseph Richmond. 

Gillis, Edward Calais. 
Griffin, Howard S. N. Gloucester. 

Green, Nathaniel Carthage. 

Grover, Mark Lewiston. 

Harris, Robert B. Auburn. 

Herrick, Oliver " 

Hibbard, Azro C. Lewiston. 
Holman, Emery A. N. Gloucester. 

Howard, David Weld. 

Irish, Benjamin R. Peru. 

Judkins, Asaph Carthage. 

Judkins, Eastman Weld. 

Judkins, Orville " 

Judkins, Willard W. Carthage. 

Keen, Charles M. Turner. 

Kimball, Isaiah Lisbon. 

Kneeland, Ira A. Harrison. 

Knowles, John Greene. 

Lane, Edwin A. Peru. 

Lan^, Solomon Bristol. 

Libby, Greenfield T. Danville. 

Lowell, Gideon P. Greene. 



Auburn. 

Bethel. 

Pern. 

Durham. 

Carthage. 

Minot. 

Freeport. 

N. Gloucester. 

Auburn. 

^linot. 

Greene. 

Auburn. 

Lewiston. 

Danville. 

New Gloucester. 



(( 



Morrill, Alonzo F. 
Nutting, James 
Oldham, John 
Parker, George H. 
Perkins, Orren 
Perry, Nelson C. 
Pinkliani, George L. 
Plant, Charles F. 
Reed, Adolphus S. 
Rice, Oilman 
Richardson, Charles 
Ricker, Henry J. 
Sanborn, Dudley F. 
Sawyer, Greenlief 
Smith, Albert P. 
Smith, Ix)uville 
Stephens, Ezra F. Turner. 

Stetson, David L. Auburn. 

Stlnchfield, Samuel E. N. Gloucester. 
Taber, George W. Vassalboro. 

Thorn, Israel New Gloucester. 

Trask, William H. Peru. 

Trudeau, Napoleon Montreal, C. E. 
True, Virgil Auburn. 

Usher, Joshua Scbago. 

Verrill, Edward K. Minot. 

Verrill, Edward P. 

Verrill, Daniel L. Auburn. 

Vickery, Augustus M. Danville. 

Vickcry, Isaiah H. Auburn. 

Warren, George W. Peru. 

Warren, Lewis Auburn. 

Warren, John ** 

Webb, Isaac Bridgton. 

Weutworth, Charles II. Lewiston. 

Wcntworth, William II. Auburn. 

Whitman, George E. N. Gloucester. 
Wilson, Stillman Freeport. 

Witham, Asaph H. Lisbon. 

Wright, Lyman H. Auburn. 

Wyman, Thomas Peru. 

Young, Henry Byron. 

9—124 



1863. 



BOIX OF TENTH MAENE. 



329 



Co. I. (2d Co. Portland Rifle Guard.) 

CAPTAINS. 



Furbish, Nehemiah T. 
Mayuew, Hebron 

LIEUTENANTS. 
Ist, Johnson, Albert U. 
2d, Simpson, John T. 
2d, Wade, William 
2d, Graham, Charles C. 



Portland. 
Westbrook. 

• 

Westbrook. 

Portland. 

Westbrook. 
tt 



SERGEANTS. 
Ist, Atwood, Ilczcklah Portland. Babb, Ilenry S. 
Witham, Benjamin T. " Fitch, Edwin 

Mariner, Tliomas B. Scba[:;o. Quimby, William A. 



Fellows, James L. 
Ripley, Nathaniel D. 
Greeley, John W. 
Simpson, William R. 
Lord, Cyrus J. 



CORPORALS. 
Westbrook. Cluskey, Peter 



Portland. 

Westbrook. 

Gray. 

Naples. 



Roberts, Cassius C. 
Murphy, William II. 
Keen, Seth M. 
Burbank, Samuel M. 



Westbrook. 

Bridgton. 

Westbrook. 

Portland. 
Gray. 
Portland. 
Harrison. 
Newfield. 



Westbrook. 



MUSICIANS. 
Hammond, Jacob J. Ossipee, N. II. Towle, Andrew J. 

WAGONER. 
Bodge, Erastus Parsonsfleld. 

PRIVATES. 
Westbrook. Kerrigan, Edward Fall River, Mass. 



Adams, Irving D. 
* Arnold, William 
Ballard, Samuel F. 
Baston, Kphraim K. 
Batchelder, Ilenry A. 
Bisbee, Klisha T. 
Bisbce, Robert 
Chute, Edward P. 
Cobb, Charles 
Cook, Benjamin F. 



Portland. 

Naples. 

Albany. 

Lew is ton. 

Sumner. 

Bridgton. 

Naj)les. 

Portland. 

Sebago. 

Woodstock. 



Cotton, Aaron D. 

Davis, Benjamin F. C. Elizabeth. 

Deland, Daniel Jr. Portland. 

Dunn, Charles F. " 

El well, Uczekiah Westbrook. 

Fitch, Ansel S. Bridgton. 



Lakin, Benjamin C. 

Little, Moses 

Littlefield, Charles 

Littlefield, Horace P. 

Mariner, William 

Mariner, Greenleaf T. 

Merrill, Loren L. 

Moulton, Matthias 

Murch, Albert W. 

Murphy, James 

Murphy, Thomas 

Northrup, Charles E. Steubcnville, O. 

Paine, Frank O. Windham. 

Pennell, John W. Westbrook. 

Pitts, Charles H. Naples. 



Naples. 

Windham. 

Portland. 

Wells. 

Boston, Mass. 

Sebago. 

Dover. 

Portland. 

Bridgton. 

Portland. 



tt 



330 



ROLL OP TENTH BfAINE. 



1863. 



Fletcher, George C. 
FoUett, WUliam 
F0S8, Ambrose 
Foster, Samuel H. 
Gammon, Mark 
Gearey, Patrick 
Gilbert, George 
Golden, William P. 
Goodridge, Lewis E. 
Harkin, John 
Haskell, Foster M. 
Higg^ns, Rufus N. 
HiU, Appleton D. 
Hill, Francis J. 



Falmouth. 

Bridgton. 

Sebago. 

Portland. 

Falmouth. 

C. Elizabeth. 

Gray. 

Portland. 

Naples. 

Scarboro. 

Westbrook. 

C. Elizabeth. 

Naples. 



<( 



Harrison. 



<< 



« 



Hill, George B. A. 

Hodgdon, Andrew J. "Westbrook. 

Hodsdon, Charles A. 

Jewett, WiUiam Willis 

Johnson, Alvah 

Johnson, Andrew J. 

Johnson, Daniel C. 

Jones, Edwin W. 

Jordan, George A. 

Jordan, Pascal M. 

Jordan, Peter 



Bridgton. 
Portland. 
Bridgton. 
Westbrook. 
Andover. 
Naples. 
Harrison. 



Quimbj, Alonzo H. 
Quimby, Charles Q. 
Quimby, Orrin 
Roach, Jeremiah P. W. 
Roberts, Charles H. 
Rolfe, Benjamin F. 
Scammon, Isaac W. 
Shaw, John F. 
Shorey, Henry P. 
Simpson, Samuel F. 
Smith, George W. 
Strout, George A. 
Swett, Alonzo F. 
Tcrhune, Stephen 
Thorn, John O. 
Turner, Moses 
Walker, Ferdinand F. 
Warren, William H. 
Webb, Eli 
Welch, Alvin F.* 
Welch, James 
Went worth, Henry L. 
Wetherbv, William 
Wheeler, William H. H. 



Portland. 

Casco. 

Naples. 

Windham. 

Falmouth. 

Portland. 



« 



Naples. 

Wella. 

Gray. 

Scarboro. 

Raymond. 

Falmouth. 

Portland. 

Bridgton. 

Portland. 



« 



Boston, Mass. 
Westbrook. 



(( 



Biddeford. 

Denmark. 

Naples . 

Gorham. 

G— 100 



Company K. {Leiciston Zouaves.) 

CAPTAIN. 

Nte, George H. 



LIKUTEXAXTS. 
Ist, WiTHERELL, JoHN F. 

1st, BicKNELL, Fayette 
2d, KixGSLET, Albert E. 



Lewiston. 

Monmouth. 

Oxford. 

Lewiston. 



Itt, Prmtt, Francis H. 

Itt, G088, Aimon L. 
Layden, James 
Donnell, Samuel 



SERGEANTS. 
Lewiston. Rockwood, James M. 
Danville. Jumper, Charles H. 
Lewiston. Nash, Jonathan 
Bath. 



Belgrade. 

Lewiston. 

Auburn. 




as Wakh, Albii F.» pafls T7. 



1863. 



ROLL OP TENTH MAINE. 



331 



Osgood, James E. 
Fox, Martin 
Viele, Reuben 
Thorn, Thomas A. 
AshtoD, Henry H. 



CORPORALS. 

Lcwiston. Logan, James M. 

Auburn. Bicknell, Delphinus B. 

Farmington. Willard, John A. 

Lewiston. Morrill, John R. 



Waldo. 

Oxford, 

Lewiston. 



a 



MUSICIANS. 
Hanson, Albert E. Lewiston. Thing, Chester H. 



Lewiston. 



WAGONER. 
Woodcock, Melvin 

PRIVATES. 



Lewiston. 



Adams, Frank C. Lewiston. 

Alien, Ethan Turner. 

Bailey, Hewitt C. Minot. 

Bickford, Merrill W. Parsonsfleld. 

Blackstonc, Stephen C. Auburn. 

Bond, Houghton 

Bond, Stillman 

Chipman, Elmer 

Clark, Erasmus D. 

Coburn, Horace J. 

Coburn, Charles F. 

CoUey, Joseph O. 

Coombs, Arteinas 

Dodge, William T. 

Doughty, Alvin S. 

Dunn, Albert N. 

Duston, William H. 

Eaton, James D. 

Edwards, Abial H. 

Ellery, David H. 

Ereleth, Edwin Ne 

Frost, Alonzo G. 

Frost, Henry T. 

Getchell, Andrew J. 

Getchell, Edwin A. 

Getchell, (Jtis H. 

Getchell, William T. 

Getchell, Edwin F. 



Lewiston. 



i( 



Larrabee, Emery E. 

Lee, John 

Magner, James E. Auburn. 

Martin, Irvin G. Rumford. 

Merchant, Franklin A. N. Gloucester. 



Lewiston. 


Merrill, John H. 


Lewiston. 


Greene. 


Morrill, George B. 


i< 


Poland. 


Morse, Stillman 


Andover. 


lewiston. 


McLaughlin, Tyler H. 


Weld. 


Turner. 


Nash, David J. 


Auburn. 


Weld. 


Newman, Albert A. 


Weld. 


Vienna. 


Penney, Henry J. 


lewiston. 


-^arsonsficld. 


Pio, James H. 


Portland. 


Wcstbrook. 


Pray, Benjamin F. 


Lewiston. 


Topsham. 


Preble, James G. 


II 


Andover. 


Quimby, John F. 


Turner. 


Westbrook. 


Kanco, Joseph 


Waterville. 


Portland. 


Raymond, Charles S. 


Auburn. 


Casco. 


Reed, Asa 


Danville. 


Ilallowell. 


Reynold^, George W. 


Portland. 


Gloucester. 


Robertson, Ephraim T, 


Weld. 


Lisbon. 


Royal, Augustus 


Danville. 


Greene. 


Royal, Samuel N. 


Wales. 


Augusta. 


Russell, James A. 


Weld. 


(( 


Russell, William M. 


II 


Monmouth. 


Ryerson, Charles H. 


Paris. 


Augusta. 


Simonds, Aaron A. 


Turner. 


Vassalboro. 


Smith, Charles W. 


Roxbury, Mass. 


^ Gloucester. 


Smith, Charles 


Grandell, Vt. 



332 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE. 



1863. 



Guinej, James 
Hall, William M. 
Hammond, Ambrose E. 
Herrick, Greenlief C. 
Herrick, Nathan 
Hodges, Thomas B. 
Hodsdon, Albert P. 
Hodsdon, Isaac W. 
Holt, WiUiam 
Hutchinson, Benjamin 
Jepson, Leonard 
Johnson, Levi B. 
Jones, Albert N. 
Jones, Gustavus W. 
Joy, Marquis F. 
Jumper, Samuel H. N. 
King, WilUam H. 



Lewis ton. 


Smith, David B. 


Avon 


(( 


Smith, Henry H. 


Lewiston 


(( 


Smith, James 


(« 


Gray. 


Smith, Joseph B. 


(( 


Poland. 


Stevens, Alonzo 


« 


Lewiston. 


Stiles, Merritt W. 


Westbrook 


Wales. 


Stockbridge, Cornelius D. 


Byron 


Byron. 


Tarr, David D. 


Lewiston 


Weld. 


Taylor, Thomas 


n 


Auburn. 


Thurston, James H. 


Danville 


Lewiston. 


Tobie, Leroy H. 


Lewiston. 


u 


Webber, EUas S. 


(( 


Weld. 


Welch, Stephen E. 


Sanford. 


« 


Whittum, George D. 


Lewiston. 


Lewiston. 


Williams, Kandall B. 


Athens. 


iloucester. 


Witham, Phineas C. 


Sanford. 


Oxford. 


Wyman, George P. 


Auburn. 
4—111 



UNASSIGNED. 

NoTB. These names appear on page 872 of the AcUutant General's Report for 1862 as 

belonging to oar regiment. 

Hodsdon Charles G. Saco. Wilson, Samuel (Deserter,) Rockland. 

Hays, WiUiam (Deserter.) Waterbouse,* Cyrus T. Portland. 

Series, Henry " 

* Wa.s kept in Maine on general recruiting service during the entire term of service 
of the " lOtb." 



/ 



Note. 67 ofHcers and 1,127 men appear on these rolls, making 1,194 aggregate, but 
after deducting nine names wbicb sbovir twice, and t!ie five unassigned that were never 
really connecte<l with the regiment, we have 64 officers and 1,116 men, making 1,180 ag- 
gregate, as the actual number of men in our regiment. 

The number stated as the aggregate of our regiment, in Vol. 1, page 35, Adjt. Qen. 
Report of 18G4-5, is 1,324. This large difl'erence probably arises froui the Adjt. Gkn. 
having counted the transferred and promoted twice. 



1863. 



BOLL OF THE DEAD. 



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884 



BOLL OF IHB JOUS. 



1863, 



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336 



BOLL OF THE DEAD. 



1863. 



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336 



ROLL OF THE DEAD. 



1863. 




'^■^An,9/tf/dZ-u 



'-^4^/1 



CAPT, CO. E. 10',- ME REGT. 



o 



HISTORY 



OF THB 



^jtnih ^\^int K|atiHli0n, 



BY THE REV. LEONARD 6. JORDAN, 



(iATE A PKIVATE OF CO. D.) 



22 



I 

i 



«•'! 

* 
^ 



i««3- 339 



CHAPl'ER XXXII. 

OSGAinZATIOK — BATTLB OF CHAKCELL0B8TILLE. 

Early on Sunday morning April 26, 1863, there was received 
at the headquarters of the 10th Me. Vols., the following order: 

(copy.) 

Hbadquabters 12th Corps, Armt of the Potomac, 
Stafford Court HouBe, Va., April 26, 1868. 

* 

Spxcial Ordeb, Ko. 100. 

[Extract.] 
««««««««« 
The enlisted men of the Tenth Maine Volunteers, whose term of serrice 
extends to three years or during the war, will be marched to these head- 
quarters in charge of the following named officers : Capt. J. D. Beardslej, 
Lieut. Charles F. King, Lieut. Chandler Libby, Lieut. Charles H. Haskell and 
Assistant Surgeon U. N. Howard. 

These men will be constituted a provost guard, relieving the three companies 
of the Second Massachusetts Volunteers, now on duty at these headquarters. 
They will be allowed to retain their full proportion of camp and garrison 
tquipage. By command of 

MAJOR GENERAL SLOCUM. 
(Signed,) H. C. Rodgbrs, Assistant Adjutant General. 

Great diaappointment and almost consternation were felt by 
many of the regiment on the promulgation of this order. The 
enlisted men referred to in it had for the most part, even up t^ 
this time, indulged the hope that they would cither be discharged 
with the regiment, or granted a furlough, which would enable 
them to visit Maine with the returning regiment. 

These men constituted Cos. A and D, which were mus- 
tered in with the regiment in 1861, but for three years instead 



840 FAITHLE8BNEBB OF THE GOYERNMENT. 1 863. 

of two, they having been raised for other organizations, and many 
recruits scattered through the regiment. No representations were 
made to the officers or men of the two companies that they would 
be discharged with the regiment ; though in view of later occur- 
rences, many of them had come to expect it. But the recruits 
were distinctly told by enlisting officers, and in some cases by XJ. 
S. mustering officers, that they would be allowed to retura with 
their regiment, in consideration of their enlistment into commands 
already in the field, they thereby foregoing the chances of pro- 
motion possible in new organizations. It was declared that 
the Secretary of War had given this assurance ; a statement which 
was confirmed by General Slocum's remarks to the battalion on 
parting with it in 1864. 

The want of good faith on the part of the general government, 
herein manifested, though in itself a matter of regret, resulted 
in happy experience for those most nearly concerned. It is 
generally admitted that the pleasantest part of the service of 
most of the battalion was experienced while connected with it. 
But at first the disappointment was hard to bear. In soldier 
fashion, many harsh things were said of the government at Wash- 
ington, and of all the officers supposed to have any influence in 
the matter (except General Slocum), even to the colonel and 
others of the regiment. There is official evidence, however, that 
Col. Beal tried hard to secure the discharge of the men, and failing 
in that, to obtain for them a furlough of thirty days. But soldiers 
were too much needed in the army of the Potomac at that time 
to permit the discharge, and the furlough was not given because 
Gen. Hooker feared the men would desert. 

From official reports we learn that upon the date of the order 
quoted above, the aggregate of Co. A was fifty-five (55) men ; 
of Co. D fifty-four (54) men. There were also one hundred 
thirty-seven (137) of the " recruits " who had joined the Tenth 
mostly within a twelve-month. The total number retained in 
service was therefore two hundred and forty-six (246).* All of 
these who were present, under command of the officers named in 



*Soiue time afterward* there were also aasigiicd to the battalion ten (10) three-years men 
from the 38th N. Y. Inf., which regiment, Ulce the 10th M«., was a two-years organization. 



1 863. ORGANIZATION — ^ROSTER. 34 1 

the order, reported for duty at corps headquarters Sunday fore- 
noon. 

ft 

The detachment was organized into a battalion of three com- 
pi^ies. Companies A and D retained their original form, with 
the addition to Co. A of the recruits from K, and a part of those 
from H of the old regiment, and to Co. D those late of F and C. 
The remainder of the recruits, namely, those late of companies 
B, E, G and I, and the rest from H were constituted the third 
company, B, of the battalion, and Lieut. C. H. Haskell, formerly 
of Co. F, was assigned to its command. 

Later in the day Lieut. E. W. Fowler, of Co. A, reported for 
duty. 

The following is the 

^obUx of i)jt §attali;0it C^ittj^ Uaim Jnfantrff* 

April 26, 1868. 



-«••• 



COMMANDING OFFICER AND STAFF OFFICERS. 

John D. Bbardsley, Cnpt. Co. Z), Commanding Battalion. 

Horatio N. Howard, Assistant Surgeon. 

Samuel Hanson, Sergeant Major. 

Thomas S. Bugree, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

John McLarren, Hospital Steward. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

John Q. Adams, Capt. Co. A. (Absent.) 

Edwin W. Fowler, 1st. Lieut. Co. A, Commanding Co. 

Charles E. Pierce, Sd Lieut. Co. A. (Absent.) 

Charles H. Haskell, Sd Lieut. Co. B, Commanding Co. 

John D. Beardslet, Capt. Co. D. 

Charles F. Kino, 1st Lieut. " Acting Q/Aartetmrntter.. 

Chandler Li iiBY, Sd Liextt. " Commanding Co. 

The battalion was assigned to the quarters vacated by the 
detachment of the Second Massachusetts Infantry. 

Early next morning, Monday, April 27th, many visits were 
interchanged between the members of the battalion and those of 
the regiment. Little time was afforded for this, however, as the 



342 THE MABCH — SPIRIT OF THB ABMT. 1 863. 

re^ment goon started for Maine, and the battalion, in company 
with the rest of the corps, began the march to Chancellorsville. 

The spirit with which Gen. Hooker had assumed command oi 
the army had filled the soldiers with enthasiasm, in which those of 
the battalion participated. The latter set out from Stafford Court 
House with far greater cheeifulness than might have been ex- 
pected of them, in view of their recent disappointment. All 
felt that a master hand was guiding them. Two or three circum- 
stances evidently contributed to cause this. In the first place, 
the cavalry of the army of the Potomac had lately shown much 
pluck, and hereafter we were no more to hear the taunt, " Who ever 
saw a dead cavalry-man ? " Nor was a squad of cavalry galloping 
to the rear past infisintry on the march to be assailed with the cry, 
" Look out for fun ahead boys, cavalry to the rear ! " Secondly, 
orders had been issued to distribute eight days' rations, whereas, 
five days' had been the extent of previous issues ; and, besides, 
the articles of clothing which each man was to carry were minutely 
specified. It was evident that in the move about to be made 
wagon trains were to be kept out of the way of capture. The 
soldiers likewise gained the impression that more attention was 
being paid to the details of their necessities, and that their 
commanders knew just how much ought to be expected of them. 

On the morning of April 29th, the battalion crossed the Rappa- 
hannock river at Kelley's Ford (the scene of the recent conflict 
between the union and rebel cavalry), and in the evening of the 
same day reached Germania Ford, on the Rapidan river, having 
in charge about eighty prisoners captured by the cori)s during 
the march. There was a fine bridge in process of construction at 
this point. The workmen were fallen upou so suddenly that they 
had no time to escape or even to destroy their work. The bridge 
was not so near completion as to admit of crossing upon it ; hence 
the river, though nearly breast deep, was forded by the advance 
of the corps. By the time the battalion reached the place, a 
temporary foot bridge had been laid at the base of the main 
structure, upon which it crossed in the light of bonfires on the 
bank, and encamped for the night on the south side. 

On the morrow, April 30th, we pressed on and soon struck the 



1863. CHANCELLOBSYILLE — TIBBT GUNS. 343 

famoug plank road to Fredericksburg, via Chancellorsville. We 
reached the latter place on the afternoon of that day, and foand 
it, like many southern villages with imposing names, to consist 
of but two or three houses. One of brick, owned and occupied 
by the Chancellor family, at the intersection of two or three pikes, 
and a few of wood within the circuit of a mile. We encamped 
for the night in an open field just across the road from the front 
of the brick house. 

During the day Gen. Hooker issued an address congratulating 
the army upon having gained so important a position without a 
struggle, which address, however, was not read to the battalion. 

The next day, Friday, May Ist, at noon precisely, we heard the 
first guns of the battle, and saw in the distance, over the tops of 
the trees, the smoke of the bursting shells. Soon, troops in our 
immediate vicinity were ordered to load and advance. Before 
long they fell back again, and the ambulances came in bearing 
the wounded. In the field where we were encamped, and at 
some distance from us, herdsmen (including some of our own 
number) were busy slaying and dressing beeves for our eorps. 
But while in the midst of their work, rebel shells bega%to drop 
and explode about them, and they were obliged to abandon the 
carcasses of the beasts as they lay. 

Union batteries to the south (or front) and east of the brick 
house, opened fire, and then came the order for the battalion to 
retreat. There was notliing to guard at the time, hence our 
place was at the rear. We fell back a mile or so north, towards 
United States Ford, on the Rappahannock, and waited anxiously 
for news from the front. At dusk, however, as we were about to 
select a camping ground, and while in the midst of a wagon 
train, the rebels, no doubt attracted by the camp fires, threw a 
few shells into an adjoining field, which caused the battalion 
hurriedly to seek another resting place. 

We awoke next morning, May 2d, to find ourselves but a few 
rods in the rear of a union battery of 32 pounders. Capt. 
Beardsley left us quite early in company with his brother, a 
civilian, visiting the army, to reconnoitre. Our arms were stacked 
and we were strolling about at will, or lying under the trees, 



344 THB FIGHT OF SATURDAY. 1 863. 

enjoying the delightful air and sunshine, when the battery before 
us was furiously assailed by a rebel battery opposite, and as 
vigorously replied. The battalion was at once assembled, arms 
were seized and a retreat effected on the double quick, through 
the woods behind our camp. One of our number, Asaph Judkins, 
of Co. B, while sitting on a bank at the edge of the woods, 
was severely wounded in the foot by a fragment of one of the 
shells that were bursting over head and around us. Two men 
remained with him until he was taken in charge by some surgeon.* 

We had rushed along but a short distance when a cry came, 
" Halt that battalion ! " The voice few recognized at first. Some 
feared it was that of a rebel officer demanding a surrender. A 
stand was made, and Capt. Beardsley came up with us. We 
then continued the retreat in a somewhat less precipitate manner. 

During the day twelve men were detailed from the battalion 
for duty at the brick house, which had now become the head- 
quarters of Qen. Hooker and several corps commanders. Towards 
night a squad of like number, in charge of Sergt. Bragdon, of 
Co. A, was ordered up to relieve them. Orders had been given 
to the Stergeant to remain at the post as long as Hooker did, 
unless sooner relieved. Two or three men had been posted, and 
the remainder were lounging about the yard at the rear of the 
house, when a lively cannonade was opened from the extreme 
right of the rebel line. The shells and solid shot flew thickly 
about the house and some entered the building. Attention 
was soon called to a still more vigorous artillery fire on our 
right, where lay the 11th corps and our own, the 12th. Soon 
the continuous rattle of musketry was heard, and it became 
evident that the attack upon the union lefl was only a feint to 
divert attention from this new movement. Fiercer and fiercer 
grew the fight, until it seemed as if the whole line was to be 
engaged. But after a time there came a lull in the murderous 
storm, with only an occasional volley. Then a movement in the 
troops at the rear of the brick house was noticed, and suddenly 



•From lonie eaaie, Jadklna did not receive Bafficiently prompt or careM treatment, 
and he died in consequence in the hospital at Acqoia Creek, after the corps had taken 
ap it! old poaltion at StaiXbrd 0. H. 



1863. ROUT OP THE ELEVENTH CORPS. 345 

Gen. Berry's division of the Third corps was seen advancing on 
the double quick. Passing along for some distance on a line 
parallel with the road to United States Ford, it suddenly filed 
to the right, and with loud cheers rushed into the breach. Then 
the battle raged again with redoubled fury. Volley after volley 
of musketry poured in, and then again came the heavier booming 
of the cannon. Nothing like this had yet occurred in the 
fight. Meanwhile the battalion took an active part in the affair. 
The assault was that of Stonewall Jackson upon the 11th 
corps, and as is known to every one, it resulted in the complete 
rout of that body. The battalion was ordered up to assist in 
stopping the fugitives and in forming the line of battle anew. 
All its energies were called into play, for officers and men alike 
of the 11th corps seemed to be seized with an irresistible panic. 
Away they rushed pell-mell, throwing off arms and clothing; 
nor did some of them, who succeeded in evading the guard, stop 
until they had crossed the Rappahannock at United States Ford, 
four miles distant, having done their best to spread the news of 
a terrible disaster. 

After no more service was required of the battalion at this 
point, it withdrew about half a mile to the rear and encamped. 

Firing was kept up at intervals nearly all night. Every one 
felt that to-morrow was to witness a great conflict, and there 
was little sleep at the brick house. Besides, there were prisoners 
to guard, and a post in front of the kouse to occupy. Some of 
the prisoners were sick, many wounded, and all hungry and out 
of food. The little squad of the battalion gladly shared it» 
rations with the prisoners. Coffee and tea were especially grateful 
to the latter, as they had not even seen any for months. 

About four o'clock Sunday morning. May 3d, the battle began 
in earnest. The brick house became the centre of a furious 
cannonade, for battery after battery, union and rebel, from nght 
to left, opened fire. Soon, too, the musketry joined in. The 
principal fire was concentrated on the union right. The battalion 
was placed on guard at the rear to prevent the escape of strag- 
glers. It was not then under fire. The little handful at the 
brick house, however, was exposed to a most awful storm of solid 



346 iNOiDEirrs of Sunday's battlb. 1863. 

■hot and shell, and even canister and musket balls. Many a 
missile pierced the walls ; some stuck in the brick work ; shells 
exploded in the upper rooms; the chimneys were demolished 
and their fragments rained down upon the wounded, who had 
crawled as if for shelter near to the walls of the building. All 
this time the women and children (including some slaves) of the 
Chancellor family were in the cellar, which seemed to afford the 
only escape from the battlers fury. 

Few private soldiers have such an opportunity to witness the 
details of a battle, as was afforded those who were stationed at 
headquarters. Their position was but a little to the rear of the 
scene of the fiercest fighting. Many an awful spectacle presented 
itself to their sight. 

More pitiable than the state of any of the multitudes of 
wounded men, was that of a young surgeon, or hospital steward, 
half dead with fright. He was binding up the wounds of the 
men who lay in the yard behind the house as well as his intense 
fear would allow; but his hands trembled so violently, and his 
eyes were so constantly directed to the front that he made little 
progress, and very imperfect work. He appealed to Private 
Emerson, of Co. B, wlio was on guard at the door, to be allowed to 
come into tlie building. But Emerson refused him admittance, 
and in no very gentle terms bade him attend to his duty. 

What a refreshing contrast to this was afforded by the bravery 
of some of the men and omcers about the house, and especially 
of Qen. Hooker himself who was now on horseback, riding 
A)wn into the very heaviest of the leaden rain ; now on foot, 
coolly walking about from point to point, constantly under fire ! 

The union line was gradually beaten back until at one time 
it was very near to the' house. The danger of capture by the 
rebels seemed so imminent that the surgeons in the building gave 
orders not to resist if any appeared armed and determined to 
enter. But just thep fair range was afforded for the union 
batteries, which went hotly to work and soon drove back the rebel 
forces. 

Not long after this in the afternoon (the writer has no means 



1863. BUBNINO OF THE BRICK HOUSE. 347 

of knowing precisely when), a man belonging to a battery sta- 
tioned on a line with the house and not far from the east side of 
it, was seen to make frantic motions as if some terrible calamity 
threatened the building and its occupants. The roar of the battle 
was so loud and constant that what he said at a distance of only 
a few yards could not be distinguished. At last he ran nearer 
and gave us to understand that the house was in flames! A 
partial effort was made to ascertain if this were so, and it was 
decided that the alarm was false. But in the course of a half 
hour it was found that it was certainly true, for the smoke poured 
down the stairways and out of the windows in heavy volumes. 
Active preparations were at once begun to remove the wounded 
and prisoners. But while the guard was engaged in this work, 
a staff officer entered, and in a most excited manner ordered the 
building to be cleared at once ! As fast as he came to a man, 
out he sent him, without allowing him more time than to pick 
up his musket and accoutrements. Thus many helpless sufferers 
were left to perish. 1\ rhaps this could not have been j^revented, 
but the guard would huve made an attempt at a rescue, had it 
been permitted. 

The only avenue of escape that presented itself was the road 
leading to United States Ford. For a considerable distance (to 
those who hud to travel it, almost interminable), the patli extended 
through a large open fieUl, and then entered the woods. Across 
this field the deadly missiles of the rebels were sweeping. One 
by one, those who had been at the house, and who were able to 
do so, including the women and children, ran the gauntlet of 
this fire and reached the forest beyond. Not all, however, un- 
harmed. Private David Emery, of Co. B, was mortally wounded 
in the knee by a Minio ball. Privates Joseph B. Cook and Charles 
W. Dinsmore became in some degree bewildered, ran into the 
rebel lines and were captured. Cook, however, soon escaped and 
rejoined the battalion. Dinsmore was exchanged some time 
afterward. 

Just at the edge of the woods a corps of union troops lay on 
the ground, awaiting the order to advance to the battle. Among 
them some of the battalion as they hurried by recognized the 



848 A KAKBOW ESCAPE FOB GEN. HOOEEB. 1 863. 

Seventeenth Maine Infantry. The battalion was found at last 
deployed in guard line half a mile to the rear. Comparatively 
little of the fight could be known at this point, and glad enough 
were those who had been at the front to find such a place of rest 
and safety. It was like home to the traveler just returned from 
dangers of shipwreck or worse calamity. 

The following incident of this day's battle may interest some. 

Early in the morning, say about six or seven o'clock, the writer 
was on guard in front of the main door of the house, at the foot 
of some steps leading up to a piazza. Some of Oen. Hooker's 
staff were watching the progress of the fight from the verandah, 
and the General himself frequently passed in and out. After a 
time he mounted his magnificent gray and remained near a 
fence enclosing the small front yard. While here there came a 
shell from the rebel right in direct range with the house, and in 
a few moments another, both which buried themselves haimlessly 
in the ground not far from the west end of the house. A third 
shell passed directly over Oen. Hooker's head and bui*st scarcely 
twenty feet from him. Some small fragments, or perhaps the 
noise of the explosion, caused his horse violently to rear and 
plunge ; but Hooker reined him in, and then galloped off to the 
front. At Gettysburg, the writer met with a captured lieutenant 
of a North Carolina rebel regiment, who in the course of con- 
versation avowed that he knew the shots above mentioned to have 
been fired by the rebel cavalry general, Stuart. The lieutenant's 
regiment was at the time supporting the battery from which 
the shells were thrown, and many members of it saw General 
Hooker's horse and knew that its rider must be an officer of rank. 
Gen. Stuart dismounted and aimed a gun with the express 
intention to dislodge the officer, with what result has been shown. 
So that Gan, Hooker, if he never knew before, when he reads this, 
if he does, (?) will learn to whom he is indebted for the compliment 
of at least three shells, one of which pretty nearly put an end 
to his military career. 

During this day's campaign Lieuts. King and Libby were at 
Fredericksburg, having been sent of^ the former Thursday night. 



1863. THE OBAND BETBEAT. 349 

the latter Saturday afternoon previous, in charge of prisoners. 
Lient. King witnessed the grand charge of the Sixth corps (in 
which the Sixth Maine took such a noble part) at the storming 
and capture of the heights of Fredericksburg. 

The fighting of Sunday, which resulted in a lamentable defeat 
of the union army, virtually ended the battle. There were 
skirmishes and a few severe encounters with the enemy for two 
days longer, but no general engagement. Strange enough it is 
that heavy as the fight had been, there was nearly a third of the 
union army which had not been to any* extent engaged. 

The battalion remained until Tuesday afternoon, May 5th, where 
it had been on guard. Meanwhile Licuts. King and Libby 
rejoined it. On the afternoon just mentioned, a move was made 
in a heavy rain towards United States Ford. We did not proceed 
very far before we encamped, expecting, however, soon to resume 
the march. We lay down to catch such snatches of sleep as we 
could, and at nine o'clock p. m. were ordered to " fall in." This 
having been accomplished, we wended our way in the pitchy 
darkness and the wet to the Ford, which we reached at ten o'clock. 
Here we foimd a large mass of troops crossing or waiting to cross 
the Rappahannock. Most of the battalion and of the army then 
believed that we were retreating, whipped ; a fact which did not 
greatly cheer and encourage us. Some, however, persisted in 
regarding this as a flank movement of great importance, even 
until we took up our old quarters at Stafford C. II. ! 

At first there had been three pontoon bridges across the river, 
but the heavy rain so swelled the stream that the third was 
broken up to lengthen out the other two. At about 2 o'clock a. m., 
May 6th, the battalion crossed the river, and found on the oppo- 
site shore a steep and muddy, slippery hill to climb by a narrow 
wagon road, which was blockaded by ambulances and other 
teams. By scraml)ling and crawling and dragging, holding on 
to trees and bushes for support, we managed to reach the summit. 
Here with skill and energy characteristic of soldiers, and in spite 
of the pouring rain, a good fire was soon kindled, and by means 
of it blankets were warmed and partially dried so that they 
afforded very comfortable beds. We got a few hours sleep 



850 ^ ON tHB OLD OAHP GROUIO) /* 1 863 . 

nnder the trees, and in it forgot how tired and hungry, and rain- 
soaked we were. 

Supplies for the army had been brought up on the backs of 
mules, but there was no great abundance of food in our haven- 
saoks, when, at daybreak we resumed the march. However, we 
managed before we fell in to get a dish of coffee and to eat some 
hard-tack, and then, discouraged, exhausted and straggling, 
made a forced march of twenty-five miles to our old quarters at 
Stafford C. H. 



1863 851 



CHAPTER XXXm. 

GETTYSBURG AND AFTEBWABD. 

The fine weather of spring in Virginia soon restored our 
spirits, aided as it was by our comfortable quarters, and the 
wholesome rations we received. Our time was spent in drill, 
And in gaining strength for the rest of the season's campaign. 

About the 20th of May the location of headquarters was 
changed to Brook's Station. 

On May 30th, Capt. Adams and Lieut. Pierce returned to 
daty, and Capt. Adams, by virtue of seniority of rank, took 
command of the battalion. 

Affairs were very quiet in the battalion for nejirly a month. 
On the 5th of June, Lieut. King received leave of absence for thirty 
days, and at once proceeded homeward. He had hardly started, 
however, when an order was issued by General Hooker, revoking 
the leaves which had been granted, in every case but one, in 
which the officer had not already gone beyond the lines. Many 
a disappointed man turned back to his command. The Lieuten- 
ant kept on, and as he stepped on board the steamer at Acquia 
Creek, was told that he was the only man who could go, his 
name having been expressly excepted in the order of detention. 
The reason for tliis proved to be that he had volunteered to 
remain with the battalion when tlie Tenth regiment went home 
— a fact which had been mentioned by Gen. Slocum in his 
approval of the Lieutenant's application for a leave of absence.* 

June 10th Capt. Adams was appointed provost marshal of 



* Lieut. Haskell also Tolanteered to remain with the battalion. 



852 



THE MARCH TO LEESBURO. 



1863. 



on Gen. Slocum's staff. The command of the battalion, 




CAPTAIN 29« Mt. VET. VOLS, 



352 THE KARGH TO LEESBURO. 1 863. 

the corps, on Oen. Slocum's staffl The command of the battalion, 
therefore, again devolved upon Capt. Beardsley. 

On Saturday, June 13th, orders suddenly came to be in read- 
iness to move at an hour's notice. At seven p. m. we were ready, 
and at nine started. We marched all night and halted in the 
morning at Dumfries. The battalion remained at this poinl for 
some hours, and having resumed the march, passed the night of 
the 14th on the road, but not in motion. The next day, June 
15th, we had a hard march of twenty-five miles to Fairfax, which 
we reached before sunset. Here we got one day's rest. 

On the 17th, at seven a. m., we again set out, and crossed the 
l iooofitt P g and Alexandria R. R. at noon. We continued two or 
three days on the road, and arrived at Leesburg in a heavy storm 
of rain during the afternoon of the 21st. The headquarters tents 
were immediately pitched in the spacious court yard. The 
battalion found quarters in a church, and the corps in general 
made itself comfortable in the public and private buildings, or in 
usual camp fashion. 

The following anecdote may amuse the members of the bat- 
talion, if no others. 

On the morning of the departure from Brook's Station, some 
kettles of beans had been buried in the ovens of the battiilion to 
bake. The order to march lefl no time to unearth them. But 
two years afterward, Private William T. Dodge, of Co. A, then 
promoted to a lieutenancy in the Sixteenth Maine Volunteers, 
was on the spot and remembered the circumstance. He seized 
a shovel and soon brought to light the long neglected kettles, 

but their contents were rather over done I 

June 22d, the day after the battalion reached Leesburg, Lieut. 
King rejoined it, bringing with him many letters and other pack- 
ets from fiiends in Maine. 

Leesburg was filled with rebel families, nearly every one of which 
was represented in the rebel army. Yet the people were glad to 
dispose of bread, milk and so forth, for our " green-backs." The 
soldiers quartered in town would walk into the parlors at evening, 
where young ladies were gathered, and join in the conversation 



352 THE KARGH TO LEESBURO. 1 863. 

the corps, on Oen. Slocum's staff. The command of the battalion, 




CAPTAIN 29 Tj MC.VET.VOL9 



1863. OEN. HOOKEB SUPERSEDED. 353 

with the greatest freedom. Tet searcely a case was reported in 
which there was otherwise disrespectful behavior, if this could 
be so called. The ladies mildly avenged these acts by singing 
in the ears of passers-by various rebel airs, as ^ The Bonnie Blue 
Flag " and " Maryland, My Maryland.'* 

June 26th, after a rest of five days, we turned our backs upon 
Leesburg and crossed the Potomac at Edwards' Ferry. The 
next day's march was a hard one. We started at eight o'clock 
in the morning and continued till ten at night, when we camped 
at Knoxville, Md. We were off again on the 28th, and at night 
halted near Frederick, Md, On the morrow, June 29th, we 
passed through the latter city, and saw on the outskirts of 
the town the bodies of two rebel spies, suspended from a branch 
of a huge tree. 

It was at this time that we learned that Gen. Hooker had 
l^een superseded in command of the army of the Potomac by 
Gen. Meade of the 6th corps. The tidings produced but little 
sensation, except that many were somewhat disappointed that 
Hooker should be denied the chance to redeem himself in another 
battle. Gen. Meade was comparatively unknown to the rank 
and file of the army. But all were ready and willing to follow 
him. 

It now began to be generally believed that a heavy engagement 
would soon take place. But the fact that it was to be on our own 
soil inspired the army with great enthusiasm. Most of the battles 
of the army of the Potomac had been fought, to the disadvantage 
of the union arms, in the enemy's country. 

The few hours spent in Frederick sufficed to pour out whiskey 
in great abundance, and the army of the Potomac was probably 
never more generally drunk than at that time. It is well that 
the disgusting scene was never repeated. 

About four o'clock p. m. of June 30th the battalion encamped 
at Littletown, Pa., and at eight a. m. next morning, July 1st, mov^d 
to a point not far distant from Gettysburg, 

The battalion was not under fire during this great battle, 
except from shells which occasionally flew overhead. lis princi- 
23 • 



854 BAlTIiB Ol* OKTTTSBUBO* 1863. 

pd duty was to guard prisoners as they came in. Singular to 
relatei some of those who fell into its hands were a part of those 
oaptored by the 12th oorps at Chaneellorsvilley and carried to 
Falmonth by Lieat. King of the battalion. They had in the 
meantime been exchanged, and were now recaptnred by the yery 
men who took them before. They had been kindly treated by 
the battalion, and had shown themselyes to be good fellows. 
The regret was mutual when they were turned over to the 
FroTOst Marshal General of the army. 

The battalion was near enough to the line of battle to witness 
a good deal of the conflict, but was rather pasnve on the whole. 
The men knew of the fall of Gen. Reynolds of the Ist corps, 
▼ery soon after it occurred. Some of them saw Gen. Sickles, 
after his leg was shot of^ lying in an ambulance coolly smoking a 
oigar. 

But though the battle itself was not taken part in by the bat- 
tslion, the latter shared all the hardships of the long march of th^ 
army. It is stated in the official report to the Acy utant General 
of the State of Midne, that between June 18th and July 27th, 
the battalion had marched in heavy marching order over five 
hundred miles, at an average for each day actually spent on the 
road, of more than twenty miles. 

The members of the battalion have good reason to remember 
the heavy shower that came up on the afternoon of July 4th, 
while they were roaming about the battlefield, for most of them 
got a thorough soaking in it. Such a down-pouring is seldom 
witnessed in the Northern States. Whether it was caused by 
the heavy cannonade, it remains for the savants to determine. 

On the 6th of July the battalion returned to littletown, where 
it remained for two days. Meanwhile many of the men had 
been detailed for fatigue duty, or to act as nurses and in other 
capacities at the field hospitals. Some of them did not rejoin the 
battalion for several months. 

The rain was very heavy on the 6th and 6th of July, but on 
the 7th a move was made in all the mud. The summer sun soon 
dried the roads, and before long they were even dusty again. 



r863. A COSTLY BREAKFAST. 355 

The battalion passed through Rohersville and Fairplay, Md., 
on to Pleasant Valley, where it lay encamped several days. 

While on the way thither, Capt. Beardsley and Lieat. King 
narrowly escaped capture. They had left the command to seek 
breakfast at a private house, and as they were seated at the table 
saw a squad of rebel cavalry dismount at a house but a short 
distance away. They had just time to mount and ride off before 
they were discovered. On the way back they met an officer of 
a New York regiment accompanied by an orderly or two riding 
to the house they had but just left. They warned him of the 
danger, but he was determined to get a breakfast, and was 
accordingly captured and sent to Richmond and Anderson ville 
before his exchange. 

On the 14th of July the rebel army re-crossed the Potomac. For 
several days previous an engagement had been almost hourly 
expected by most of the troops, and they would have been as 
glad to enter one then as at any time since the first days of the 
war. It would be folly to say that the soldiers desired a battle. 
They had been in too many fights for that, but the victory at 
Gettysburg had given them great courage, amounting almost to 
enthusiasm. 

July 17th, Lieut. Chandler Libby, of Co. D, resigned his 
commission, was mustered out of service and at once left for 
home. 

July 19th, the battalion crossed the Potomac at Harper's 
Ferry, and proceeded via Fairfax to Warrenton Junction, where 
it halted after a march of four days. There was at this point a 
fine large summer mansion, which was occupied by many of the 
battalion. Two montlis later, as we passed through the place 
by rail, there was nothing of the house to be seen but a few 
blackened timbers and a ruined cliimney. 

While resting here, on the 26th of July, Captain Adams, 
Lieutenants Fowler and King, with Sergeants Horace C. Berry, 
of Co. A, James Gillespie and Henry H. Kalloch, of Co. D, and 
Jeremiah P. W. Roach, of Co. B, Corporal Stephen IL Dyer, of 
Co, A, and Private George W. Sargent, of Co. B, were detailed 



356 THE BATTALION NOT TO BE ENLABGED. 1 863. 

for Rpecial service and ordered to Maine to raise recruits or secure 
conscripts to carry tjie battalion up to the full size of a regiment. 

It will be proper here to state that this project failed of 
accomplishment. The officers and men above mentioned returned 
to the battalion at various times in charge of recruits and con- 
scripts for the army in general, or on other duty, or as soon as 
they were relieved from duty assigned them in Maine subsequent 
to the failure of their original mission. A goodly proportion of 
the men of the battalion would at this time have rejoiced in the 
organization of a new regiment about the nucleus of the battalion. 
But there were also some who preferred to be assigned to the re- 
organized Tenth regiment, to secure which object an effort was 
then being made in Maine. This latter movement defeated the 
former plan. 

The weather at this time was very fine indeed, and in consequence 
the health of the battalion became very good. During the cam- 
paign in Maryland and Pennsylvania, the men had fared well 
upon home-made bread, milk, fresh beef and pies, which could be 
begged, bouglit or stolen (as in a few instances) in considerable 
quantities. The Pennsylvanians were not by any means as 
liberal as they might justly have been expected to be, but there 
were some notable instances of generosity. In Taneytown, many 
of the inhabitants (principally females, as the men had joined the 
militia) came out and supplied the troops as they marched through 
with substantial and wholesome food. It seemed more natural 
to be upon Virginian soil again, though by no means as pleasant, 
on account of the terrible desolation. 

On the 2d of August the march was resumed and continued 
to Kelley's Ford, on the Rappahannock, a place with which all 
were familiar. 

Here fine summer quarters were erected, so comfortable and 
enjoyable that they merit a word of desci-iption. The " cottages " 
were arranged to accommodate a mess of four each, and there 
were two rows of them bordering each company street. They 
were thus constructed : Four stout comer posts were driven 
into the ground a foot or eighteen inches, and allowed to project 
above ground nearly two feet. Near the tops of these a hori- 




1863. CAMP LIFE AT KELLET'S FORD. 357 

jBontal framework of poles, aboat six feet sqnare, was fastened. 
Upon this a floor of slender poles was laid, the poles being 
secured by nails or twigs at each end. In some cases long 
flexible rods or twigs were interwoven with the poles in such a 
manner as to form a very close and elastic plane. Branches and 
boughs were strewn upon this basework, and over them wa« 
spread a woolen blanket. This made a very comfortable bed. 
The roof was constructed of the four shelter tents of the mess, 
buttoned together, stretched over the ridge-pole and fastened at 
the sides. The ridge pole was supported at each end, either by 
a peaked frame or by a crotch ed stake. Rubber blankets stopped 
up the ends of this cottage in rainy weather, and made it as snug 
and comfortable as could be desired by soldiers in the field. 

The space beneath the floor affbrded a convenient storeroom 
for such "traps" as were not useful in the "bed-chamber.** The 
muskets were kept at the foot of the bed. 

Pretty arbors were constructed in front of some of the cottages, 
and at the officers' quarters. Thus the camp possessed a very 
picturesque and attractive appearance. 

In consequence of the inactivity and tlie regular payments which 
gave the men a plenty of money, gambling became fearfully 
common. The summer days were not long enough for the sport, 
but if candles could be procured, the night was often spent by 
some in this dangerous occupation. Nor were the enlisted men 
alone guilty in this matter. Some of the officers, if possible, 
exceeded them in the zeal with which they entered into the 
exciting games, and in the persistency with which they kept them 
up. 

With this exception, the conduct of the battalion was without 
reproach. It should also be remarked that there were many 
who did not yield to the fascinations of the games of chance. 
Nor are all those who did succumb wholly without excuse. The 
incident is mentioned only to illustrate a phase of army life, — to 
show that many temptations beset a man there, — a certain license 
is experienced — which induce liim sometimes to do what he would 
scorn at home. Many were no worse there than in civil life; 



358 ^ o 1 18L0KY ! you're a hunky boy I ** 1 863. 

although they often committed acts of which they would not 
have been guilty at home ; acts of wanton waste and often cruelty ; 
thefts, drunkenness and worse things. But ^^ no one is strong 
until he is tried." Let none, therefore, of those who remained at 
home; let not the mothers, sisters, wives and sweethearts of 
those who seemed to grow worse from their experience in the 
army suppose that they actually became so in every case. On 
the contrary they may have acquired strength ; so that, if they 
were called upon to pass through similar scenes and encounter 
similar trials again, they would be far better able to resist their 
evil allurements. 

During the stay at Kelley's Ford a paper was signed by 
seventy-three men, in which it was agreed that the signers would 
re-enlist for three years if they could have thirty days' furlough 
in which to visit Maine. Later in the war the government at 
Washington held out just such an inducement to secure re-cn- 
listments in the field, but had not yet come to see the expediency 
of the aiTangcment, and so refused to enter into it with the 
members of the battalion. 

It was on the 10th of August that notice was received from 
Lieut. King of the failure of the project before mentioned,* to 
rfdse the battalion up to the full size of a regiment. 

From about this time for two montlis there were many execu- 
tions for desertion in the corps. The men of the battalion 
witnessed a large number of them. Then came the pardons of 
the kind-hearted President, and there was an end to what had 
seemed a necessary, though terrible remedy for a dangerous evil. 

About the middle of September the battalion broke camp and 
moved to the Rapidan river near Raccoon Ford. While on this 
march an incident occurred which afforded much merriment for 
the officers and men attached to headquarters. Gen. Slocum 

and staff had halted at a certain spot for lunch, when Lieut. 

of the — th U. S. Artillery, slightly intoxicated, rode up to Gen. 
Slocum, dismounted, threw his arms about the General's neck 
and exclainaed, "O! SlokyI You're a hunky boy!" Such a 



•On pages 356 and 306. 



i863« DiflOiFLim. 859 

fareaoh of milittry disdpline woald not haye been yery remark- 
able in some of the armies^ but was an ahnost onheard of aflSur 
for the army of the Potomac It is needless to say that it was 
promptly punished, by keeping the offending officer in arrest 
until he amply apologized. The Lieutenant furnished the bat- 
talion with a phrase which the men delighted to repeat, not so 
much for the fun of the thing as for the completeness with which 
it expressed their feeling towards the Qenerali though at a little 
distance. 



860 1863. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

SBBYICE IN TENNESSEE. 

The defeat of the union arms at Chickamauga occurred on the 
loth and 20th of September, 1863. It was decided to reinforce 
the army of the Cumberland from the army of the Potomac. 
The Eleventh and Twelfth corps were detached for this purpose 
and at once ordered to Tennessee, under command of Gen. 
Hooker. 

On the 24th of September, the battalion received marching 
orders and proceeded to Brandy Station on the Orange and 
Alexandria railroad. After spending about a day at this point, 
during which the Eleventh and a part of the Twelfth corps 
embarked on the cars, the battalion went aboard the same and 
proceeded to Washington, D. C. As was usual in moving large 
bodies of troops by rail, the cars furnished were ordinary baggage 
orfreight cars, fitted up for the most part with rough pine benches ; 
and into them were packed as many men as could lie on the 
floor, and in some cases a few over. Though treated for the 
most part like cattle in the stowing, there was one relief which 
the poor cattle thus transported do not experience, namely, we 
could and did ride on top with great comfort and enjoyment. 
Ordinary travelers, or these same soldiers journeying as such, 
would not have dared to do this, but soldiers develop a wonderful 
recklessness with a very little experience in the field. A private 
soldier generally feels that he belongs, body and almost soul, to 
the government; that he is but little else than a machine. It is 
interesting to note that the feeling of self-responsibility returns, 
in great degree, at the moment of discharge from service. 



b865« « DELIGHTFUL SCENERT. 361 

After a halt of a few hoars in Washington, on Sept. 27th, and 
a change of cars, we harried on, via the Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R, to a point on the Ohio ahout foar miles above Wheeling, Va, 
where that beautiful river was crossed to Bellaire, Ohio. 

The trip thus far was as pleasant as could be conceived of 
tinder such circumstances. The scenery along the course of the 
railroad is of the finest. It consists of a constant succession of 
hills and valleys ; and the trains speeded on, now around the hills 
in serpent-like path, and now straight through the heart of them. 
Occasionally we would rush over some slender trestle, higher 
than the tops of the tallest trees, at the foot of which, far, far 
below, a mountain stream could be seen dashing and foaming on 
its hurned course to the sea. Again the train would wind along 
the siile of a mountain on a narrow ledge just wide enough for 
the track, and wc could look down a steep and awful precipice oa 
one side, and straight up the other to the sky, along a rocky 
height which raised its head more than a hundred feet above us. 

At convenient points the road bed suddenly widened and 
afforded room for the humble dwelling of some switch-tender or 
other employe of the rnihoad coni]>any. And even the towns 
and villages tlirough whicli we passed seemed but enlargements 
of such places, so sliut in were they by the lofty hills and moun- 
tains. 

We could never tire while davliccht lasted with viewinfj the 
grand, picturesque and romantic scenery; nor did our interest in 
the long tunnels abate until we had passed through over twenty, 
which comprise nearly all. There was much to feed the soldier's 
love of excitement in these tunnels, so long were they, so abruptly 
come upon as a curve was rounded, and so close to their ceiling 
we lay. Yet in spite of all the dangers of the passage (and in 
some places we were obliged suddenly to throw ourselves flat on 
the car toj)s, to avoid being swept away by a tunnel lower than 
common) we journeyed the entire distance with no serious 
mishap. When it is known that most of the battalion had con- 
siderable money on hand, and that whiskey could easily be 
procured at the various stopping places, this will be considered 
highly creditable. It is true that one, somewhat intoxicated, 



362 AUIOST A SUICIDE. , 1863. 

rolled oat of a car near Washington, D. C^ bnt soon after rejoined 
the battalion unhurt by his fall, and that several others lay for 
some time in drunken sleep on the car roofs. These latter, 
however, were generally watched by their sober and more careful 
comrades. 

One man had a narrow escape from a serious accident. He 
was perhnps the tallest member of the battalion, and a queer fellow 
indeed as the story will demonstrate. He one day desired to 
enjoy a nap in the warm sun on top of his car, but was thoughtful 
enough to attempt to secure himself from rolling off. He 
buckled one blanket strap around the center-board laid along 
the roof of the car for the brakcman to walk upon, and attached 
to it his other strap which he had previously fastened about his 
neckt (or at least it .was found there when he was discovered 
by some of his company.) How long he lay so is not known, but 
at last he was espied by some comrades fast asleep, the strap 
around his neck drawn tight, .and his long legs from the knees 
downward dangling over the edge of the car, every jolt serving 
to settle him a little lower on the sloping roof at the imminent 
risk of strangling him. 

There was a short delay at Bellaire, and then we moved on 
again via Zanesville, Xenia and Dayton, Ohio, and Richmond, 
Indianapolis and Jefferson vil I e, Indiana. Most of us reached 
the latter place on Sunday, yet were not hindered by this fact 
from " seeing the elephant." He was confined in a circus tent 
near by and we had the privilege of viewing him "without cost, 
as also of inspecting a cage of monkeys and some other interesting 
natural curiosities, a part of a menagerie attached to the circus ; 
all of which excited profound admiration ! 

That afternoon we again crossecj the Ohio to Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, and re-embarked on the cars for Nashville, Tenn. The 
latter place was reached without noteworthy incident, on the 5th 
of October, thus making the entire journey of about ten days 
duration. 

Many circumstances combined to render this a very pleasant 
trip for most of the men. Besides those already referred to, it 



1863. HOSPITALITY IN OHIO AND INDIANA. 363 

is important to mention the abundant kindness and hospitality 
of the citizens of Ohio and Indiana, whoso sons we were on the 
way to reinforce. They met us at many points where the trains 
were detained for wood and water, or other necessity, and sup- 
plied us most bountifully with coffee and tea, well sugared and 
milked, cold corned beef, tongue, chicken and turkey, and home- 
made bread with sweet butter, and pies and cakes without 
number. The provisions were brought literally by the cai*t-load. 
One enthusiastic old gentlemj^n stood, with a young girl, at a 
cross road where the train slowed but did not stop, and alternated 
between swinging his hat and cheering, and tossing apples at ua 
by the handful from barrels at his side. At Centerville, Indiana, 
where there was a young ladies' seminary, a bevy of the fair 
pupils stood on the platform of the station, and gave many songs, 
or cheered us by pleasant words, and even in some cases by 
much warmer testimonials of their affection, (perhaps for their 
brothers' sakes ! ) 

Such demonstrations greatly encouraged us and revived our 
patriotism. The people of Ohio and Indiana will ever be 
remembered with gratitude and affection by every member of 
the battalion. All honor to them for their generous treatment 
of the troops of the Eleventh and Twelfth army corps. 

On the 8th of October we moved by rail thirty (30) miles, 
from Nashville to Murfreesboro, and camped not far distant 
from the scene of Rosecrans's plucky engagement at Stone river. 
Abundant evidence was afforded at the latter j)oint of the severity 
of the conflict, in bullet holes in the trees and similar marks. 

About October 15th, the battalion marched to Shelbyville, 
situated twenty-five miles from Murfreesboro, on a branch of the 
Nashville and Chattanooga rail road. After a short stay at that place, 
we proceeded to Wartrace, a small town on the main road, fifly- 
three (53) miles from Nashville. Here good quarters wore erected, 
and it was supposed they would be occuj)ied by us the greater 
part of the season, but in about a month we were obliged to give 
them up. Not long before this there was a considerable "scare" 
one night at the rumored approach of the rebel cavalry general, 



864 SERVICB PERFORMED IN TENNESSEE. 1 863. 

Forest, with 10,000 men. Bat nothing more alarming occurred 
than the hooting of owls. This was dismal enough to many 
who were expecting a night attack. 

On the 11th of November the battalion returned to Mur- 
freesboro, and after a stay of a week, on the 18th proceeded 
to Tullahoma, another devastated village on the main road, sixty- 
seven (67) miles from Nashville. Here Co. A of the battalion 
went into winter quarters. Companies B and D were ordered to 
Shelbyville, whither they went November 25th, Capt. Beardsley 
accompanying them. 

A small detachment had been selected from the battalion, 
to be constantly at corps headquarters, and placed under command 
of Corporal Maurice Hayes of Co. D. The duties devolving upon 
it were various. On the march it accompanied the headquarters 
baggage and had charge of the officers' tents. At Tullahoma its 
principal work was to provide fuel for the general and his staff; 
a duty which the sturdy lumbermen of D were especially well 
able to fulfil]. 

Company A performed guard duty when required, especially 
over prisoners. (The battalion never had a camp guard ; a f:\ct 
which will indicate to many who read this, how little the men felt 
the usual restraints of the army.) Companies B and D, in addition 
to such work, occasionally went out into the surrounding country 
to forage or in search of guerrillas. Some fame was secured to 
Lieut. Haskell of Co. B, and a squad under his command, by 
the arrest by them of one Capt. Mosely, a bushwhacker of 
notoriety in the vicinity of headquarters. It is somewhat to the 
discredit of the battalion, however, that Mosely subsequently 
escaped. He had kindly been permitted by Capt. Beardsley on 
giving liis parole of honor not to attempt to escape, to sleep at the 
house of a friend in Shelbyville, rather than in prisoners' quar- 
ters. A man from Co. D (whose name we forbear to mention) was 
detailed to sleep in the same room, and ordered to shoot liini if 
any effort should be made to get him off. The man most effectually 
carried out his instructions to aieep^ for one night Mosely arose 
took the revolver from his guard's pillow, found bis way to the 



l863- LrVTNO HIGH — FREE FIGHT. 365 

door and mounting a horse provided there rode off! When the 
guard awoke in the morning he for the first time knew of the 
occuiTence. It should be added that* this was the only loss of 
a prisoner that ever happened to the battalion. 

It may properly be mentioned that three enlisted men of the 
battalion served on special duty at corps headquarters for a large 
part of the time of its connection with the same. 

Privates Charles F. Coburn, of Co. A, and Storer S. Knight, of 
Co. B, were special orderlies of Gen. Slocum, they alternating in 
daily attendance. Their duty was to convey despatches to 
greater or less distances. The prompt and faithful manner in 
which these men performed the work assigned them contributed 
not a little to the good reputation of the battalion. 

The writer of this record was detailed as a clerk for one of 
the staff officers. 

The markets of TuUahoraa and Shelby ville were tolerably well 
supplied for towns through which two large and opposing armies 
had recently passed. There were also several sutlers whose 
prices were quite reasonable. Butter cost only about eighty cents 
per pound; cheese fifty to seventy-five cents. The payments to 
the troops were then quite regular and very good rations were 
issued, which, in part at least, could be exchanged with the 
niarketwomen for meats. On these accounts the men fared very 
well indeed. More than one mess dined occasionally on roast 
pork, beef and even turkey. 

Very little of importance occuiTed in either of the towns 
mentioned. There was, however, at one time a prospect of a 
serious difficulty at Shelbyville. 

There was also attached to headquarters a guard of the 4th 
Tennessee cavalry volunteers. A more undisciplined or pug- 
nacious set of men could seldom be found in the union ranks. 
Two sergeants of Co. D of the battalion were one night at a dance 
where some of these Tennesseans were also present. Some harsh 
words were exchanged, and then, as is graphically if not elegantly 
related by one knowing the facts, one of the sergeants "pitched 
in and cleaned out the company." As the sergeants were leaving 



866 PREFAKING TO MOUNT. 1863. 

the place two shots were fired at them, but without taking effect. 
They returned to camp and related their experience, the news of 
which quickly spread fron» tent to tent, and though most of the 
men had lain down, an excited crowd soon gathered, armed with 
their muskets and determined to avenge the shots. But Lieut. 
King hearing the disturbance went out and soon restored quiet. 

From all the evidence obtained it seems pretty clear that the 
sergeants alluded to were not much to blame. At least that they 
did not originate the quarrel, and that they bore many insults 
before making any reply. 

At Tullahoma an agent of the Christian Commission, by name 
S. Fletcher, established a soldiers' reading room and organized a 
debating society, which included among its members (^evoral of 
the battalion. Many pleasant evenings were passed at the room. 

On the 24th of November Lieut. King returned from Maine, 
and on the 12th of December Capt. Adams and Lieut. Fowler 
made their appearance. 

The habits of the battalion and the manner in which it per- 
formed the duties assigned it, gave great and continually increasing 
satisfaction to Gen. Slocum and his staff. On the other hand, 
much soldierly affection was felt by the members of the battalion 
for the General and some of his officers. The desire was to a 
great extent mutual that the battalion might remain at head- 
quarters as long as its term of service would permit. The Tenth 
Maine was re-organizing and had assumed the number " 29." Just 
previous to the failure of the scheme to make a regiment of the 
battalion, the war department had promised to assign the latter 
to the 29th Maine whenever it should take the field.* 

It seemed inevitable that the battalion would go into the 
regiment as ordered, unless a total change should be made in its 



•Injiutlce to Col. B«al, of the 29th Me., it shoald be stated that he represents, with 
erldant truth, that when he learned that the battalion was so pleasantly situated, 
he rtquested the AdJL Qen. at Washington to permit him to raise a full regiment in 
Maine, instead of haring the battalion assigned to his command. His application was 
■trongly approred by the Governor and Adjt. Qen. of Maine, also by prominent 
WMhington officials, bat was revised. All this was preyions to Capt. Adams's effort to 
oMaiarcoucrtpts or r«eraits, and ftilly ezplaini why that elTort (kiled. 



1864. VETERAN BE-ENLISTMENTS. 367 

character. Accordingly Gen. Slocum inquired how many of 
the battalion would like to be mounted and become his body- 
guard. A large majority was so disposed. He then petitioned 
the war department to grant this, but his request was refused 
because of the order which had already been promulgated, assign- 
ing the battalion to the 29th Maine.* 

On the 27th of December, 1863, Go's B and D returned from 
Shelby ville. It was on the 30th of the same month that an 
answer was received to Gen. Slocum's proposition. 

Through the month of December re-enlistments in the field 
became quite prevalent. Those who thus renewed their term 
of service were styled " Veterans," and were granted a furlough 
of thirty days. They were also transported home and back at 
government expense. Whole regiments entered into this 
arrangement. Some of the battalion caught the infection. Out 
of ninety-four (94) eligible to re-enlistment, thirty-seven (37) 
availed themselves of the honor. February 16th, 1864, their 
furloughs were received, but they did not immediately leave 
for Maine. 

About two weeks r.fler this the following order was received 
at the battalion headcjuarters. 

(copy.) 

Headquarters 12th Corps, Army of the Cumberland, 

Tullahoma, Tenn., Feb. 29, 18C4. 
Special Order, No. 46. 

[Extract.] 

The Tenth Maine Battalion is hereby relieved from duty with this corps, 
and will proceed at once to New Orleans, and join the 20th Maine Volunteers, 
to which it has been assigned. Co. D, on the expiration of the furlough to 
which it is entitled by Special Orders No. 46, Ileadquarters Department of 
the Cumberland, will proceed direct to New Orleans. 

The enlisted men of this battalion joined the 10th Maine Volunteers, after 
the organization of that regiment. They were, however, retained in service, 
and entered upon their duties at these headquarters on the day their old com- 
panies left for their homes. The disappointment which they experienced has 
not induced one of them to falter in the faithful discharge of his duty. The 



* See Special Order, War Dept., No. 375, Par. 20, Aug 22, 1863. 



368 OEK. slocum's fabewell. 1864. 

uniform good conduct and Boldierly bearing of the offlcen and men of this 
battalion, is worthy of the highest praise, and the Major General commanding 
parts with them with deep regret, but with the hope that the new field upon 
which they are about to enter will be one of usefulness to the goTemment 
and honor to themselTcs. B7 command of 

MAJOR GENERAL H. W. SLOCUM. 
(Signed,) H. C. Rodoess, Auistant Adjutant General. 

In pursuance of this order, on the i2d of March the battalion 
packed up and marched to the front of Gen. Slocum's quarters to 
hear his parting words. The General said in substance that when 
the men came to his headquarters he knew how they had been 
enlisted and expected nothing but trouble. But instead of this 
he had found uniformly good behavior and soldierly bearing. It 
was unparalleled that he had had such a body at his hea<lquarters 
for nearly a year without being obliged to put a single man under 
arrest. He had himself as colonel, enlisted men under an oral 
promise from the Secretary of War that they should be discharged 
with the rest of his regiment, and they like the members of the 
battalion had been detained in service. He expressed a kind 
interest in our wel&re and said that it was with much regret 
that he parted from us. 

The men then gave three rousing cheers for the General, after 
which they marched to the cars and embarked. As the train 
moved off they loudly cheered Col. Rodgers, Gen. Slocum's 
Asst. Adjt. Gen., who, with other members of the staff, had come 
down to see them off. 

No officer of the whole army was or is regarded by those wlio 
served in the battalion with greater affection and esteem than 
Gen. Slocum. By his accessibility and Iiis gentlemanly treatment 
of them he secured that faithfulness and good behavior which hv 
80 commended.* 



*It is proper to state that Gapt. (afterward Col.) Beardsley has in his posMssion an 
aatograph letter ftom Qen. Slocum, addressed to the Secretary of War, asking as a 
special favor that Capt. B. be authorized to recruit a mounted battalion to be armed with 
Spencer rifles and attached to his (the Oeneral'b) headquarters. The letter was written 
while Gen. S. was at Savannah commanding the left wing of Sherman's army. 




MAJ.r-TIN.H.W SLOCI'M 




j.ran.H.W. SLOCUM. 



ri 



1864 869 



CHAPTEU XXXV. 

KEW ORLEANS AND THE END. 

March 3d was spent in Nashville. Most of the men improved 
the opportunity here presented to attend the theaters, an nnusnal 
enjoyment for soldiers in the field. Next morning (the 4th) at 
six o'clock we were en route for Louisville, Ky., at which point 
we arrived at dusk. Here we remained until Tuesday the 8th, 
being quartered in a large warehouse. 

On the Sabbath some agents of the Christian Commission 
came in and held pleasant conversation with many of the 
battalion. 

At this place, also, the theaters were well patronized. At one 
of them some of us had the pleasure of seeing Qen. Grant for the 
first time. He was on his way to assume command of all the 
armies with headquarters at the Potomac. He was enthusi- 
astically cheered and called for by the assemblage, none joining 
more heartily in the demonstration than the soldiers present, of 
whom there were many. With accustomed modesty the General 
failed to respond. When the noise became too great, he quietly 
withdrew. 

Some of us remember with peculiar enjoyment the impression 
made upon us by the ladies of this city, and in some degree 
by those of Nashville. They seemed a superior race, almost 
angelic. Not that they are really more remarkable for personal 
beauty or winning grace of manner than those of many American 
cities. But for some months we had seen only sallow, slab- 
sided, 8nufi*-chewing and whiskey-drinking country women of 
24 



870 VETERAN FURLOUGH — CAIRO. 1 864. 

Tennessee, and had almost forgotten the appearance of the truly 
refined. 

March 7th the " Veterans " of the battalion left for Maine on 
their furloughs, under the command of Lieut. Eang. 

On the 8th the battalion marched three miles, crossed the Ohio 
at New Albany, and proceeded thence by rail over the Louisville, 
New Albany and Chicago road to Mitchell Station ; thence via 
the Ohio and Miss, railroad to Sandoval Junction, and from that 
point over the Illinois Central to Cairo, at the confluence of the 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers, where we arrived about midnight of 
March 9th. 

We slept la the cars till morning. At seven a. m. we got a very 
good breakfast at the rooms of the Christian Commission, after 
whioh we proceeded to some barracks situated just outside the 
town near the Mississippi levee. These were our quarters as 
long as we remained in the city 

Much space need not be devoted to a description of Cairo. 
Those who have never seen it may be told that it was ori^nally 
a swamp, over idiich the Ohio and Mississippi rivers flowed at 
every freshet. A landing was needed at that point for the steam- 
boats that ply the rivers, and it became necessary to protect the 
inland country from the floods of springtime. Accordingly high 
embankments or levees were constructed along the margins of 
the streams, which levees meet at an angle. Upon and between 
these levees the city is built, its streets like railway embankments 
generally raised above the original level. Where they are not, 
the sidewalks are elevated on trestle work fifteen feet above the 
road in some cases. After every rain a steam pump is required 
to remove the accumulated water, which otherwise would become 
a small lake, and perhs^s finally overflow the levees. The prin- 
cipal business is transacted upon the Ohio levee, where there are 
some fine buildings. As a terminus of the great railway artery 
of Illinois, Cairo has some importance, which is enhanced by the 
tribute of the two great rivers which flow by its doors. Tet its 
importance by no means equaled the reasonable expectations 
founded upon a knowledge of those circumstances. The mass of 



1864. JOINING THE TWENTT-NINTH. 371 

the buildings indicated anything but wealth or business prosperity. 
But it must be remembered that it was near to the seat of war. 

The Swiss Bell Ringers were at a public hall, and some of the 
battalion heard them. The only other entertainment was that of 
a local theater. The building occupied as such, howeyer, more 
resembled a second rate stable than anything else, with its 
whitewashed walls, the latter of nine feet stud, though the 
room was considerably higher in the center. A very simple 
comedy was enacted. The heroine was a tall, round-shouldered, 
plain-featured girl, and the hero very short, with a weak voice 
and an obscure articulation. The scenery was of a most in- 
expensive character, and the stage small and not over brilliantly 
illuminated by the foot-lights of tallow candles. The affair 
afforded more amusement than was contemplated in the bills. 
Patrons of the establishment were taxed fifty cents per head for 
admittance. 

The battalion here distinguished itself by the consumption of 
inordinate quantities of " pop," a species of bottled soda water. 
It was a favorite diversion to sit in the third tier of bunks at the 
barracks, and suddenly removing the wires from the stoppers 
to shoot the latter across the room with a pop ! by the force of the 
released gas ; and then to guzzle down the liquid contents of the 
bottle without a gasp. 

On the 12th of March there came along the steamer Luminary, 
bound for New Orleans. The battalion embarked on board of 
her, and in the evening started down the river. 

The weather became so severe in wind and rain that it was 
necessary to lie by all night not far below Cairo. 

The situation of most of the men was uncomfortable in the 
extreme. The boat was sufficiently loaded with freight and 
passengers before we went aboard. We were therefore obliged 
to sleep on the hurricane deck or in a few odd comers below. 
On the deck we were exposed to the full fury of the wind and 
rain. Or, if the latter ceased to fall, our clothing was burnt with 
sparks from the tall smoke-stacks. Some of the blankets were 
riddled through and through in this way. 



872 THE POINTS OF INTEREST. 1864, 

To add to the discomfort of the trip it was very diflScult to 
cook any food. The stokers or firemen were negroes and very 
kindly disposed ; they would pall out burning coals from the 
furnaces to enable us to boil our pint of coffee or fry our bit of 
bacon. But the number of those who could be accommodated 
at one time was very small. Accordingly the process of cooking 
was continually going on, aud meals were being served on the 
European plan at all hours. Though even then many were 
obliged to content themselves with but one a day. Then too, the 
furnaces required such constant replenishing that our vessels 
were almost sure to receive besides their proper contents, a 
handful or so of coals, which if they did not hinder the cooking 
certainly did not improve the food. 

With the exceptions just enumerated, and the fact that the cold 
increased as we neared New Orleans, the incidents of the sail 
down the river were very pleasant. The scenery was not particu- 
larly beautiful until we had almost reached New Orleans. On the 
contrary it was monotonous, yet it possessed an interest by virtue 
of association with certain events of the war, which rendered it far 
from tiresome. There were many points which excited lively 
emotions, as island No. 10, Fort Pillow, Memphis, Vicksburg, 
"Natchez under the hill" and Baton RoiiGce. At most of these 
places we stopped long enough for some to step ashore and view 
them well. At Vicksburg we inspected the fortifications, rebel 
and union, went into some of the caves occupied by the inhabitants 
during the siege, viewed the marks of the bombardment in many 
houses, and as we returned to the boat witnessed the burning of 
a large freight depot. We were also greatly interested in the. 
famous canal projected by Grant to cut off the river from flowing 
by Vicksburg, but into which the water would not run. 

We also took advantage of every " wooding up " to go ashore 
and stretch our legs. The operation of wooding up was of itself 
a novelty and a source of interest, especially when performed at 
night. A wide platform was laid from the boat to the shore, and 
on one side of it the long file of negro boat-hands would march 
empty handed to the wood-pile, and come back on the other side 
to the boat, with from three to five four-feet sticks of very light 



1864. AHRIVAL AT NEW ORLEANS. 873 

wood ; and so on, until, in some oases, more than fifty cords had 
been taken in. At night the scene was made most picturesque, 
by the ruddy glare shed abroad upon the landscape by the burning 
of huge lumps of bituminous coal or splinters and knots of pitch- 
wood, in iron cage-like vessels suspended over the water. 

At nine a. m. of March 18th, we caught the first glimpse of 
the Crescent City. At three in the afternoon we landed there, 
having been on ship board six days and six nights. The bat- 
talion marched two miles to the Louisiana Cotton Press, where 
there was established a Camp of Distribution, to await transpor- 
tation to the Twenty-ninth Maine. There proved to be some 
delay in this, and the camp above mentioned became the home 
of the battalion for two months. 

Gen. Banks was then concentrating his troops at Alexandria, 
preparatory to the disastrous Red River campaign. The 29th 
Me. had left New Orleans only a short time before our own 
arrival there, but we were too late to be forwarded. 

The camp of distiibution was a general rendezvous for small 
bodies of troops or individual soldiers from furlough, special duty, 
hospital or the prisons of the enemy. The officer in charge was 
Maj. B. F. Schermerhorn, of the Indiana infantry ; a gentle- 
man of pleasant manners and respected by all who dealt with 
him. It was his duty to obtain a knowledge of the situation 
of the various commands, and to forward men to them by such 
conveyances as he could find. He also had power to detail 
for his aid any whom he chose of those who came into camp, 
whether officers or enlisted men. Major Schermerhorn was pleased 
with the appearance of the battalion and soon detailed h for the 
guard duty of the camp. Tliis the men liked very well, as it 
secured them comfortable quarters, good rations and considerable 
liberty. 

Before referring more particularly to the duty performed by 
the battalion, it will be well to describe the camp. 

The latter consisted of two cotton presses, ** Louisiana," men- 
tioned before, and situated upon Terpsichore and Robin streets ; 
and " Factors," located a block or so away on Tchoupitoulas street. 



874 LITE IN THE OAMP OF DISTRIBUTION. 1 864. 

Theae ^ Presses " were simply briok sheds enclosing a hollow 
sqoare, a hundred feet long each way, open inwards, but closed 
towards the street on each side. There were on one side apart- 
ments containing the machinery for pressing and baling cotton, 
and the necessary offices of the press. The remainder of the 
apace in each press was formerly appropriated to the storing of 
the cotton. The soldiers were there provided with bunks. There 
were large doors cut in the walls at various points, through 
which cotton had been received and delivered ; but for camp use 
only one was left open. 

The officers of the camp consisted of the major commanding, 
his adjutant, a captain commanding in each press, a quartermaster, 
surgeon and an ordnance officer. 

The number of men in camp was constantly changing. There 
were sometimes as many as twelve hundred in the two presses. 

The battalion furnished sentinels at the entrances, and con- 
ducted squads of men returning to their commands to the cars 
or boats, and even much farther at times. 

The duty was very light indeed. The weather was too hot 
for diills, and the calls in other directions were by no means 
numerous. Passes about town were freely granted and much 
enjoyed. 

The rations issued were of an excellent character. Flour, fresh 
fish, vegetables and dried fruit were common. On at least one 
occasion oysters were provided. The men were paid while 
here, and their frequent visits to town enabled them to piocure 
many additional goodies. In Louisiana Press, for a part of the 
time there was a sutler ; a man formerly of Portland, Me., but 
for a long time then a resident of New Orleans. His name was 
William M. Hyde. From him many articles of food could be 
obtained at reasonable rates. 

Sergt. George P. Fernald, of Co. A, was sent to Vicksburg in 
charge of some men to be delivered to their regiments. There 
he found a board of officera examining candidates for commissions 
in colored regiments. He presented himself as a candidate, was 
examined, passed, and commissioned as 2d lieutenant. 



1864. ARRIVALS AND DBPABTURI8. 875 

About the first week in April Capt. Beardsley i^eoeived a leave 
of absence for thirty days, and at once went home to Maine. 

On the 14th of the same month came news of the fight at 
Red River, and the report that Lieut. Col. Emerson of the 
Twenty-ninth was wounded.* 

April 20th the band of the Twenty-ninth, under the leadership 
of D. H. Chandler, arrived trom Portland in the steamer DeMolay. 
There were also along some recruits for the regiment. 

On the 30th, news was received of the retreat of Qen. Banks 
to Alexandria, a circumstance which greatly dampened our 
enthusiasm. 

On the 14th of May we were gratified to see again the 
" veterans ^ of the battalion, returned under command of Lieut. 
King. Capt. Beardsley accompanied them from his leave of 
absence. 

May 20th Co. D of the battalion moved up river under charge 
of Lieut. King, and accompanied by some recruits and conscripts. 
No incidents of note occurred, with one trifling exception. While 
the steamboat was wooding up at a certain point, a conscript 
jumped into the water and hid himself under a wharf, with the 
intention to come out after the boat had gone and desert. Lieut. 
King in some way learned of the affair, and quietly asked the 
captain of the steamer to give him notice when the boat should 
be about ready to leave. This was done. Then, after the man 
had been in the water twenty minutes or more, Lieut. King pro- 
cured a boat and sent it for him with the message that it was 
now time to come aboard again. The fellow appeared, wet and 
chopfallen. 

Some of those who remained in New Orleans, had an oppor- 
tunity to witness a most disastrous conflagration, which occurred 
on the night of the 27th of May. Eight fine large river steam- 
boats were burned to the water's edge as they lay at the levee, 
and two schooners also. Several of the steamers were loaded 
with government supplies of all kinds, and exclusive of their 



•This proTed to be a mistake. It was a Col. Emerson of tbe 13th army corps that 
was meant. 



376 Ein> OF THE BATTALION. 1 864. 

contents were worth from 150,000 to 200,000 dollars each. An 
immense crowd of civilians gathered to the scene. The greatest 
panic arose among them on the explosion of some ammunition in 
one of the vessels. The manner in -which they rushed over 
molasses hogsheads and other obstacles with which the levee was 
strewn, afforded much amusement to the soldiers present. 

May 28, 1864, the remainder of the battalion (with the exception 
of one or two in hospital, and the writer, who was detailed as 
clerk in Maj. Schermerhom's office) embarked for ** up river.** 
On the evening of the 29th, they reached Morganzia Bend, 
where the Twenty-ninth Maine was stationed; which regiment 
they immediately joined and thereby terminated the existence of 
the 

TENTH MAINE BATTALION. 



1864. 



877 



gall of i^t ^tni^ Paint iatialion; 



<•> 



(No field officers.) 



ASSISTANT SUBQEON. 
Horatio N. Howard, 



Abbott 



NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Samuel Hanson, Sergeant Major, 

Thomas S. Bugbee, Q. M. Sergeant, 
John McLarren, Hospital Steward, 



Biddeford. 
Washburn. 



tt 



Company A. 



CAPTAIN. 



Adam9, John Q. 



LIEUTENANTS. 



Ist, Fowler, Edwin W. 
2d, Pierce, Charles E. 



Saco. 



Saco. 
it 



SERGEANTS. 

Ist, Tarr, James F. Biddefonl. Bragdon, Edward P. M. 
Beny, Horace C. Woodstock. Reardon, John 
Fernald, George P. Saco. 



Biddeford. 



* See first paragraph of note on page 313. 



378 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE BATTALION. 



1864. 





COBPORALS. 




Dyer, Stephen H. 


Biddeford. 


Jennings, James 


Biddeford 


Cole, Henry F. 


Woodstock. 


Littlefield, Joseph 


Kennebunk 


Fletcher, Sydney W. 


Saco. 


Eenney, Dennis 


Biddeford 


CoUum, John Jr. 


« 


Leighton, Ivan 


(« 


Cross, Thaddeus 


t€ 


Gould, Joseph 


Saco. 


Hopping, William 


Biddeford. 


Benson, Ephraim C. 


Peru 


Jeffers, Nicholas 


Biddeford. 







Brackett, George H. 



MUSICIANS. 
Saco. Hickey, Patrick Jr. 



Biddeford. 



WAGONXE. 
Shaplelgh, Henry H. 

PRIVATES. 



Lebanon. 



Bridgton. 

Carthage. 

Eastport. 

Biddeford. 



Bailey, George H. 
Berry, Elbridge G. 
Berwin, Joseph 
Brady, Joseph 
Brady, Michael 

BumeU, Frank (28)* Lockp't, N.Y. 
Carlton, Wm. H. Haverhill, Ms. 
Chappell, Joseph H. Saco. 

Cobb, Edwin A. Bridgton. 

Cobum, Charles F. Weld. 

Cole, Edwin Saco. 

Davis, John D. Milton Plant'n. 
Davis, William S. Biddeford. 

Dobson, Wm. Bridgewater, Mass. 
Dodge, William T. Westbrook. 
Donihuc, George L. Freeport. 
Donovan, Jeremiah Biddeford. 
Dunn, John " 

Oaffeney, John (28) Lockp't, N. Y. 
Galusha, Joseph Richmond. 

Gero,t Alexander Scarboro. 

Gillis, Edward Miramichi, N. B. 
Guiney, James Lewiston. 

Hanson, Daniel Saco. 



Keighley, William Biddeford. 

Kendrick, George W. Saco. 

Larrabee, Emery E. Lewiston. 

Lee, Edward Magagoadavic, N. B. 



Leighton, Moses 
Littlehale, Alanson M. 
Makepiece, Charles 
McDougall, Archibald 
Mclntiro, George E. 
McLaughlin, Tyler H. 
Moore, Moses T. 
Newman, Albert A. 
Nixon, Thomas 
Preble, James G. 
Rawson, Charles C. 
Roberts, Charles F. 
Rowe, Daniel M. 
Royal, Samuel N. 
Russell, James A. 
RusseU, Willard M. 
Smith, David B. 
Staples, James Jr. 
Stevens, Frederick 
Stockbridgo, Cornelius D. 



Saco. 

Newry. 

Saco. 

P. E. Island. 

Dayton. 

Weld. 

Biddeford. 

Weld. 

Liverpool. 

Lewiston. 

Whitneyville. 

Biddeford. 

Saco. 

Wales. 

Weld. 



« 



tt 



Biddeford. 

Kennebunk. 

Byron. 



*The figures (28) indicate the men who were transferred from the 28th N. Y. See 
page 840. 

t Brroneoosly written Qore on page 316. 




1864. 



ROLL OF TENTH HAINE BATTALIOK. 



379 



Hatch, George W. Kennebunk. 
Higg^nson, John Biddeford. 

Hodsdon, Isaac W.' Byron. 

Holman, Emerj A. N. Glouccflter. 
Irving. Robert (28) Lockp't, N. Y. 
Jepson, Leonard Lewiston. 

Jones, Albert N. Weld. 

Jones, Gustavus W. Weld. 



Taylor, Lewis B. North Berwick. 

Taylor, Leonard B. (28) N. Y. 

Thurston, James H. 
Towle, Samuel T. 
Warren, Franklin 
Welch, Stephen E. 
Witham, Phineas C. 
Young, Oliver B. (28) Lockport, N. Y. 

8—86 



Danville. 

Rockland. 

Weld. 

Sanford. 

Weld. 



Company B. 



SECOND LIEUTENANT. 
Haskell, Charlbs U. Pownal. 

SERGEANTS. 
1st, McKenney, Wilbur W. Saco. Smith, Albert P. 
Jones, Oliver B. Portland. Burnell, Edward A. 
Roach, Jeremiah P. W. 



New Gloucester. 
Portland. 



it 



Wells, John F. 
Wilson^ Stillman 
Foster, Thomas 
CoUey, Albert F. 



COBPORALS. 

Portland. Allen, Charles 

Freeport. Judkins, Willard W. 

Bristol. Verrill, Edward P. 

Gray. Vickery, Isaiah H. 



Biddeford. 

Carthage. 

Raymond.* 

Auburn. 



MUSICIANS. 
Hersey, Charles A. South Paris. Ilersey, Henry A. 



Andrews, William W. 
Ballard, Samuel F. 
Bodge, William 
Brett, John F. 
Brown, George H. 
Brown, Jusiah A. 
Caldwell, Isaiah A. 
Cash, Nathaniel 
diaries, Daniel E. 



South Paris. 



PRIVATES. 




Otisfield. 


Judkins, Orville 


Weld. 


Fryeburg. 


Kidder, William (28) 


Lockport, N. Y. 


Windham. 


Knight, Storer S. 


Portland. 


Portland. 


Mariner, Grecnleaf T. 


Sebago. 


Mason. 


Mayberry, Thomas L. 


Biddeford. 


Bethel. 


McGuire, Terrence 


Portland. 


Otisfield. 


Mitchell, Arthur S. 


Carthage. 


Naples. 


Moulton, Matliias 


Portland. 


Lovell. 


Neal, Ansel 


« 



' Besideace Westbrook on page 318. 



880 



ROLL OF TEKTH MAINE BATTALION. 



1864. 



Cobb, Manton L. 


Portland. 


Cook, Joseph B. 


Porter. 


DetIb, George H. 


Perrj. 


Dinsmore, Charles W. 


Norway. 


Dinsmore, John 


Buckfield. 


Ela, Charles C. 


Brownflcld. 


Emerson, Stillman U. 


Biddeford. 


Emery, David 


Portland. 


Flanders, Daniel 


« 


Flinn, John 


« 


Floyd, Osgood F. 


Porter. 


Foss, David C. 


Portland. 


Fdx, George H. 


Porter. 


Gilbert James M. 


Pownal. 


Goodridge, Lewis £. 


Naples. 


Gordon, VVilUam H. 


Livermore. 


Greenleaf, Solomon 


Norway. 


Hall, Alanson A. (28) Lockp't, N. Y. 


Hanson, Ezekiel H. 


Portland. 


Howard, David 


Weld. 


Howard, Simeon 


Westbrook. 


Hoyt, George H. 


Portland. 


Irish, Benjamin R. 


Sumner. 


Judkins, Asaph 


Carthage. 


Judkins, Eastman 


*t 



Nutting, James 
O'Hara, WilUam 
Paine, Frank O. 
Perkins, Orren 
Pingree, Hezckiah S. 
Plant, Charles F. 
Putnam, John A. 
Ripley, George K. 
Sanborn, Dudley F. 
Sargent, George W. 
Sawyer, Edward H. 
Shaw, John F. 
Smith, George W. 
Smith, Louville 
Snow, Israel T. 
Stanley, William S. 



Bethel. 

Portland. 

Windham. 

Carthage. 

Norway. 

New Gloucester. 

Franklm Plant'n. 

Paris. 

Lewiston. 

Oxford. 

Portland. 

Naples. 

Scarboro. 

New Gloucester.* 

Jackson. 

Porter. 



Stinchfield, Samuel E. New Gloucester. 



Taber, George W. 
Thurston, George H. 
Usher, Joshua L. 
Wentworth, Ephraim 
Wetherby, William 
Wilkinson, John W. 
Wilkinson,* William W. 
Wing, Samuel F. 



Vassalboro. 

Portland. 

Sebago. 

Porter. 

Naples. 

Portland. 



it 



Kumford. 
1—88 



Company D. 

CAPTAIN. 
BeARDSLET. 1 OHN D. 

LIEUTENANTS. 
Ist, King, Charles F. 
2d, Libbt, Chandler A. 



Grand Falls, N. B. 

Portland. 

Limestone Plantation. 



*See note to page 250. 

The name of Isaac Webb, formerlj of Co. H, 10th Me., was for a while borne on the 
roll of Co. B, though it does not show on any of the Adjutant Generars yearly reports. 
Webb was wounded at Antietara and discharged from general hospital April 20, 1863, 
before Go. B was organized, but the notice of liis discharge did not reach the regiment in 
season to strilce his name off the rolls of Go. H. 

The name of Joseph Camp appears in the record of monthly changes, as " discharged ex- 
piration term of service,'* June\), 1863. 

Neithtr of these two men are Included in the aggregate stated on page 382. 



i864* 



ROLL OF TENTH MAINE BATTALION. 



381 



SERGEANTS. 
Ist, Kallock, Henry H. Ashland. Anderson, Charles H. Smyrna. 

Stinson, James Fort Kent. McDonald, George Ashland. 

Qillespie, James " Brown, Joseph G. Portage Lake Fl'n. 



CORPORALS. 

Pheasant, William Woodst'k, N. B. Taggart, Howard 



O'Connor, John W. 
Hayes, Maurice 
Corson, Charles H. 



Fort Kent. Coy, Oliver B. 
Houlton. Prindall, Edward L. 
Bangor. 



WAGONER. 



Canney, Charles B. 



Bangor. 



Portage Lake. 

Welchville. 

Portland. 



PRIVATES. 



Albert, Francis 


Ashland. 


Moore, Edward K. 


Portland. 


Ballou, Adin 


Portland. 


Montreuil, Firman 




Boody, Leonard G. 


tt 


Moran, Garrett Castle Hill Plantation. 


Brady, VV'm H. (28) : 


Batavia, N. Y. 


Nearst, Augustus (28) Lockport, N. Y. 


Bryant, Charles F. 


l^resque Isle. 


Nutter, Alonzo 


Freeport. 


Buck, Daniel F. 




Pratt, Daniel 


Fort Kent. 


Bucknam, Amos 


Portland. 


Prindall, William 


Brunswick. 


Butler, Thomas M. 


II:il)COck. 


llandall, James L. Castle Hill Plant'n. 


Cammett, George H. 


Portland. 


Roach, William (28) 


Lockport, N. Y. 


Casey, William Castle Hill Pl'n. 


Savage, Henry A. 


Anson. 


Chapman, Joseph T. 


Bethel. 


Sears, Hiram 


Fort Kent. 


Day, Vinal J. 


Ashland. 


Sheridan, James 


Portland. 


Donnelly, Edward 


Washburn. 


Shorey, Joshua R. ' 


Enfield. 


Doody, John H. 


Portland. 


Sibley, William 


Lowell. 


Dow, Alexander 


Anhland. 


Simpson, Josiah 


York. 


Duran, Benjamin 


Westbrook. 


Small, Joseph B.* 


Portland. 


Ferrell, William E. 


Portland. 


Small, Joseph W. 


Upton. 


Gaitley, Martin 


<i 


Smith, Jefferson 


Ashland. 


Giberson, Simon 


Sarsficld. 


Smith, Joseph 


Fort Kent. 


Green, Charles A. 


Portland. 


Smith, Josiah H. 


Biddeford. 


Johnson, Freeman W 


. Limest'e PI. 


Souci, Jerry 


Ashland. 


Jordan, Leonard G. 


Portland. 


Spencer, Benjamin P. 


Lincoln. 


Kehoe, Charles 


(C 


Spring, William G. J. 


Portland. 


Kelley, Amos 


Lyndon. 


Stackpole, Daniel VV. 


«( 


Keyes, William T. 




Stanorth, John A. 


« 



* Joseph B. Small was discharged for disability flrom Co. C, 10th Me. regiment, April 
27, 1863, the day after the organization of the 10th battalion. After bearing him on th« 
rolls of Co. D for more than a year, without knowing of his discharge, Capt. Beardsley 
dropped him as a deserter. 



382 



BOLL OF TENTH MAINE BATTALION. 



1864. 



LegasBie, Joseph Limestone Pl'n. 
Libby, Elias T. Ashland. 

ACanton, Henry M. Limestone PI. 
McGoverin, Dennis Portland. 

McGowan, Michael " 

McKenney, Daniel B. Lincoln. 
ICcNeil, Nelson Fort Fairfield. 
Michaud, Peter 

BUller, John Fort Kent 

milikin, WalUce Castle Hill Pl'n. 



Tmei Reuben E. 
Turner, John F. 
Twist, Joseph 
Wait, Thomas 
Wallace, William 
Ward, David 
Wescott, John 
White, John 
Wight, Daniel W. 



Freeport. 

Portland. 

Mapleton. 

Fort Kent 

Ashland. 
Fort Kent 

Masardis. 
Fort Kent. 

Portland. 

8—88 



lloll 0f l&t itab, ^mi^ Paint gattalbn. 



B. 


Emery, Darid 


Wounds, 


June 2, 1868 


B. 


Perkins, Orren 


Disease, 


July 10, " 


B. 


Judkins, Asaph 


Wounds, 


July 14, " 


B. 


Gordon, William H. 


Typhoid fever. 


July 27, " 


D. 


Donnelly, Edward 


Disease and wounds. 


Sept. 



NOTB. There are no " repeaters *' on the battalion rolls, for there were no promotions 
or transfer! fVoni one company to another after the battalion was once organiied. 

The aggregate number of names here shown is 8 officers and 264 enlisted men. 

The flgares given by Mr. Jordan on page 340 are those of the " official " statement on 
the first day of the battalion's existence. After a very carefUl comparison of all the 
rolls I find that ttom first to last the battalion received 



From the old company A, 
" " other companies and staff. 



Cf 



" 28th N.Y. regiment, 
Aggregate (including J. B. Small), 



3 officers, 
3 " 
2 «« 

8 



65 men. 
61 " 
138 " 



244 
10 
— Ml J. M. G. 



fi 



'1 

Jl • 



r-..J, 

••• 
• '.I 

• * 



•!■ 



• ■ 
It 

•9 



■I 



.. I 





COLONEL^291'ME.VET.VOL9. 
BRCV! MAJ. GENi U.5.VOL9. 



'. > I ) 









\ 




vv \ 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



^ii'cttlji-tiiiiHi, 




RliiGIMENT. 



BY JOHN M. GOULD, 



(LATE AN OFFICER OF TUK REGIMENT.) 



25 



•I- 

,i %■ 
! 

• ilk 

i; 






'ill* 

1. 

I . ■ 

•I 



■I- t 



1863. 387 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

ORGANIZATION AND DEPARTURE OP TDK TWENTY-NINTH. 

We were barely out of the service* before we wished oureelves 
back again. It would be stretching the truth to say we wished 
to "be carried back to old Virgin ny," for the disastrous and 
unexpected news of Chancel lorsville was not of the kind to invite 
us there. 

Early in June Colonel Beal went to Washington and visited the 
officials at the war department. They proposed to offer a bounty 
of $50, and have us re-enlist for three years with no promises as to 
where we should be sent. Tiicy blamed the Colonel, too, for 
working so hard to have the men of the " 10th " who were not 1st 
Mainers discharged in May instead of October. 

The Colonel returned afler a week of futile endeavors and went 
to Augusta to see Governor Coburn, and this done he went home 
in distrust. 

He succeeded, while in Washington, in having the order issued 
for the payment of a bounty of JlOO to all of the Tenth Maine 
men who had just been mustered out. Consequently, on the 18th 
of June, 1863, nearly all who had been mustered out of the " 10th " 
assembled at Portland to receive it. 

This was while Lee was raiding through Pennsylvania, and these 
days were among the darkest our country experienced. We read 
the army news with feelings that no civilian can undei-stand ; 
and as the majority of those of us who finally went back were 
ready to go from the first, we read of the movements of the 12th 
coi-ps, in which our battalion was provost guard, with the keenest 



* The reader will plewe andentand that the narratiye la resumed from page 908. 



388 TRYING TO SERVE THE COUNTRY. 1 863. 

interest. Letters from the battalion were received by many of 
us, and contributed so much the more to our uneasiness. 

The officers made pilgrimages to Augusta to see Gen. Hodsdon 
and the Governor. The General was powerless to help us to re- 
organize, and tlie Governor, though he received us well and told 
us some little story, seemed to be waiting for orders from 
Washington. 

On June 25, 1863, the war department issued General Order No. 
191, authorizing the raising of " veteran " regiments. This was 
followed July 10th, by General Order No. 10, from the Adjutant 
General's office of the State of Maine, announcing the conditions 
under which the Maine veterans could enlist, and on the 29th of 
July, General Order No. 13 of the State authorized Col. Beal to 
raise one of these veteran regiments forthwith. 

War Department, Adjutant GeDeral's Office, 

Washington, June 25, 1868. 

GsMSRAL Orders, No. 191. 

In order to increase the armies now in the field, volunteer infantry, 
cavalry and artillery may be enlisted at any time within ninety days from this 
date in the respective States, under reg^ulations hereinafter mentioned. The 
volunteers so enlisted, and such of the three-years' troops now in the field as 
may re-enlist in accordance with the provisions of this order will constitute a 
force to he designated '* Veteran Volunteers.** The regulations for enlisting 
this force are as follows : 

I. The period of service for enlistments or re-enlistments above men- 
tioned, shall be for three years or during the war. 

II. All able bodied men between the ages of 18 and 45 years, who have 
heretofore been enlisted and have served for not less than nine months and 
can pass the examination required by the mustering regulations of the U. S., 
may be enlisted under t^is order as veteran volunteers in accordance with the 
provisions hereinafter set forth. 

III. Every volunteer enlisted and mustered into service as a veteran, under 
this order, shall be entitled to receive from the U. 8. one month's pay in 
advance, and a bounty and premium of §40*2, to be paid as follows : 

1st, Upon being mustered into service he shall be paid one month's pay in 
advance, $13 ; first installment of bounty, $25 ; premium of §2; total payment 
on muster 840. 2d, at the first regular pay day, or two months af\er mustei^ 
in, an additional installment of bounty will be paid of $50. 8d, at the first 
regular pay day after six months' service, he shall be paid an additional 
installment of bounty $50. 4th, at the first regular pay day after the end of 
the first year's service, an additional installment of bounty will be paid $50. 
6tli, at the first regular pay day after eighteen months* service, an additional 
installment of bounty will be paid, $50. 6th, at the first regular pay day utter 
two years* service, an additional installment of bounty will be paid §00. 7th, 
at the first regular pay day after 2i year's service, an additional installment of 
bounty will be paid, $50. 8th, at the expiration of three years' service, the 
remainder of the bounty will be paid $75. 

IV. If the government shall not require these troops for the full period of 
three years, and they shall be mustered honorably out of service betbre 
the expiration of their term of enlistment, they shall receive upon being 



1 863. ** THE TENTH ** NO LONGER. 389 

mastered out the whole amount of bounty remaining unpaid, the 8ame as if 
the full term had been served. The legal heirs of Tolunteers who die in 
service shall be entitled to receive the whole bounty remaining unpaid at the 
time of the soldier's death. 

V. Veteran Volunteers enlisted under this order will be permitted at their 
option to enter old regiments now in the field ; but their service will continue 
for the full terra of their own enlistment, notwithstanding the expiration of 
the term for which the regiment was originally enlisted. New organizations 
will be officered only by persons who have been in service and have shown 
themselves properly qualified for command. As a badge of honorable dis- 
tinction '• service chevrons " will be furnished by the war department, to be 
worn by the veteran volunteers.* 

VI. Officers of regiments wliose terms have expired will be authorized, on 
proper application and approval of their respective Governors, to raise com- 
panies and regiments within the period of sixty days, and if the company or 
regiment authorized to be raised shall be filletl up and mustered into service 
within the said period of sixty days, the officers may be re-commissioned of 
the date of their original commissions, and for the time engaged in recruiting 
they will be entitled to receive the pay belonging to their rank. 

VII. Volunteers or militia now in the service, whose term of service will 
expire within ninety days, and who shall then have been in service at least 
nine months, shall be entitled to the aforesaid bounty and premium of $402, 
provided they re-enlist before tlie expiration of their present term, for three 
years or the war, and said bounty and premium shall be paid in the manner 
herein provided for other troops re-entering the service. The new term will 
commence from date of re-enlistment. 

VIII. After the expiration of ninety days from this date, volunteers serving 
in three years' organizations, who may re-enlint for three years or the war, 
shall be entitled to the aforesaid bounty and premium of ^02, to be paid in 
the manner herein providetl for other troops re-entering the service. Tne new 
term will commence from date of re enlistment. 

IX. Officers in service whose regiments or companies may re-enlist in 
accordance with the provisions of this order before the expiration of their 
present term, sliall have their conmiissions continued so as to preserve their 
date of rank, as fixed by their original muster into U. S. service. 

X. As soon after tlie expiration of tlieir original term of enlistment as the 
exigencies of the service will permit, a furlough of thirty days will he granted 
to men who may re-enlist in accordance with the provisions of this order. 

XI. Volunteers cnlistcil under this order will be credited as three-years 
men in the quotas of their respective States. Instructions for the appointment 
of recruiting officers and for enlisting veteran volunteers will be immediately 
issued to the Governors of States. 

By order of the Secretary of War. 

E D. TOWNSEND. Ass't Adj't Gen." 

The title " Veteran," as conferred by tlie general order, did not 
properly belong to us, by reason of our non-fulfillment of its 
conditions, but we were designated as " Beal's Veteran Regiment " 
for the first two months, after wliich the number Twenty-nine 
was given to us, and " Veteran ^ retained. We implored our 
good friend Gen. Ilodsdon to allow us to keep our old number 
— Tenth — but he wisely refused, and we can see now that it 
was best that he did. 



•These chevrons were never fUmlshed to us and were little worn in the army. 



890 THH BBOIMNIKG — OAXP B. P. KBTE8. 1863. 

Under the oommiflBion before noted, Col, Beal gave written 
■nd verbal authority to many of the old Tenth's officers to recrnit, 
and on the 16th of September, the Colonel, with Thompson and 
the writer, whom he had determined to keep for his quartermaster 
and adjutant respectively, went down to Augusta, to arrange for 
the companies which had been ordered to report next day. 

damp Eeyes was on a high hill behind the city of Augusta and 
jnst beyond its outskirts, nearly a mile from the Kennebec. 
There wore barracks for three re^ments and a camp commander. 
These had been built and occupied in 1862. The Colonel chose 
those nearest the city for us. Captains Knowlton, Nye and 
Jordan reported in the afternoon of Sept. 17th, with the larger 
part of the men they had recruited, numbering ^ about one hun- 
dred." Capt. Jordan brought his own and Capt. BeaPs recruits. 

I may as well confess what will be evident enough if I do not, 
that the first six weeks after this date brought little order out of 
the vast oonfuaon which prevailed. The diary, whidi is meagre 
and dry, states under date of Sept. 19th, that — 

Thompson and I receiTod our commissions and were mastered in by Lieut. 
Crosman of the 17th Regulars ; they date bacic to the time of our commissions 
in the old re^ment. [These were the first two cases of muster into the 29th.] 
The regiment is a grand disorganization. The hundred men here have neither 
uniforms, arms or equipments. Tliey have the liberty of the town and keep 
their own hours. Only four non-commissioned officers pretend to be here» 
and there is no attempt made to do anything more than to feed and keep the 
men warmi 

The officers were continually coming with recruits, and returning 
immediately for moi*e. Camp Keyes was considered as a boarding 
place. The nucleus of Co. H came into camp about a week after 
this with that of Co. G : and Capt Pray brought in the first squad 
of Go. I at a still later date. 

Oct. 13th, Qen. Hodsdon sent up a note, the opening sentence 
of which is too important to be lost. 

** Adjutant Gould. Your men are behaving the worst of any 
men that have ever yet entered the State's service.^' The Gen- 
eral proceeded to authorize Capt. Jordan to command Camp 
Keyes, which command he retained till Dec. 8th. This was the 



1863. COMPANIES r AND E MUSTERED IN. 891 

first step toward organization, and though no better man could 
have been found for this duty, of course there was nothing like 
an organization till the Colonel and other officers came down and 
made it. In the meanwhile the "veterans" were the terror of 
all Augusta. The 30th Maine regiment rendezvoused in Camp 
Keyes at the same time as ourselves, though their first squads 
came in about seven weeks after ours. Between us both the 
police officers of Augusta had their hands full. The 30th boys 
usually swore oft' their tricks upon us, and our boys did the same 
in return, and I should be an unfaithful historian if I failed to 
acknowledge that the 30th thereby got the worst of their own 
game. 

Besides the 80th, the recruits for Baker's District of Columbia 
cavalry came and went during September, but we hardly knew 
of their presence, they kept so quiet. 

November 13th, Friday^ Capt. Bailey, of the 17th XJ. S., 
mustered in Co. F with the minimum number of enlisted men. 
Capt. Knowltoii received a " vetcM-an " commission, i. e, one bearing 
even date with his 1 'ili Me. commission. This was of no real 
value, however, to hiiii, and by being mustered in first he became 
the ranking captain. 

Lieut. Rankin, wlio had resigned his position in the " 10th," 
was mustered as the 1st lieutenant of F, and Levi W. Harmon 
as 2d lieutenant. The latter was a new acquaintance, but soon 
became " one of us." He had been in the service in an Illinois 
company. 

Companies K and E were mustered in on the same day, both 
with the minimum number of enlisted men. Co. K had its old 
commander, Capt. Nye, who also received a " veteran " commission. 
Lieut. Kingsley, who had been mustered in during September as 
" 2(1 lieutenant and mustering officer," now became 1st lieutenant ; 
and William Bagnall, who had been a sergeant in the 23d Me. — 
a nine-months regiment — became 2d lieutenant. 

Co. E had for its captain John M. Beal, who was known to us 
as the Ist sergeant of Co. A in the 1st Maine. He had also 
been a lieutenant in the 11th Me., in which regiment he had seen 



392 COMPAXIES I, G AND H. 1 863. 

service on the Peninsula. Graham, formerly color sergeant, and 
2d lieutenant in the " 10th," became Ist lieutenant, and Cyrus T. 
Waterhouse, who had been a private in the "Ist" and had done 
extensive recruiting service, was 2d lieutenant. 

Four weeks later, on December 12th, Capt. Pray, who had 
been captain in the 23d Maine, had his company ready and was 
mustered in, with about the minimum number of men, by Lieut. J. 
A. Fessenden, of the 5th U. S. artillery. The company was lettered 
I. The 1st lieutenant was John O. Kidder, who had been a 
corporal in the 1st Maine, and 1st sergeant in the 23d, dunng 
their terms of service. Lieut. Kidder entered our regiment with 
the prejudices of the majority of the old Tenth officers against 
him. He therefore suffered somewhat for a while from them, 
but by good conduct under opposition, and on the battle-field, he 
gradually won respect and continued to the end to deserve it. 

The 2d lieutenant was John L. Hoyt, who, as a private in the 
Tenth, had shown good phick, and had received a wound at 
Cedar Mountain, afler which he begged off from going to the hos- 
pital and kept with the regiment till he was nearly dead. He 
was honest and brave — a Ciiristian who honored his profession 
from the day he entered the service till he fell at Cedar Creek. 

On the 16th of December G and II were ready, and were 
mustered in by Lieut. Fessenden. William W. Whitmarsh, who 
had been 1st lieutenant in old G, was captain, and "Major" 
Millett, whose jolly phiz everybody knows, put a bar in his 2d 
lieutenant's straj), and called out " here " as grandly as ever. For 
2d lieutenant Co. G had Sylvester W. Cummings. He had 
served in the 39th Indiana, was in the battle of Shiloh, and had 
seen hard service in the Western army. 

In H, our 10th Maine lieutenant^ Granville Blake, was mustered 
in as captain. George B. Coburn, formerly sergeant of H, 10th 
Maine, was 1st lieutenant, and Hartwell S. French, who had 
been a private in the 23d Maine, was 2d lieutenant. 

On the next day, Dec. 17th, exactly three months from the 
arrival of the first party in Camp Keyes, Capt. Jordan, who had 
been in command of the camp and was therefore unable to attend 
to recmiting, received men enough from the other companies to 




1863. CO. — ^FIELD OFFIOERS-— OOOD BYE ** JIM.** 393 

fill up his rolls to the minimam, and was mustered in by Capt. 
Bailey as seventh in rank, whereas he would have been second, 
after Knowlton's promotion, had the " veteran " rank been allowed 
him. This change of relative rank was a serious thing to the 
parties concerned, an4 the fact that Captains Adams and Beards- 
ley, of the 10th battalion, ranked all our " 29th " captains, by the 
TJ. S. army regulations, promised to n»ake still further trouble. 
But peace and harmony were kept, and no ill-feeling was ever 
shown from the change, which I desire to place to the credit of 
the officers so reduced. 

Ist Lieut. Red! on, of C, 10th Me., was mustered again in 
his old position, and Charles B. Fillebrown as 2d lieutenant. 
He had been in the 24th Me. during the Port Hudson siege, 
first as private, then acting as adjutant by his colonel's order, till 
he received a staff appointment under Gen. Berry. But the 
General having been killed at Chancellorsville, the lieutenant 
was unpleasantly ^tuated for a while. 

After Co. C was in, we had seven companies in Augusta, 
and three in "the field,"* upon which Col. Beal was mustered in 
again on this same day (Dec. 17th), his rank and pay not com- 
mencing until then by reason of our inability to conform to the 
provisions of General Order No. 191. 

Emerson, the old major of the " lOth,** had been mustered 
in November 30th, as lieutenant colonel, and Capt. KnowHoo as 
major. 

It will thus be seen that our esteemed friend, Lieut. CoL 
Fillebrown, did not return in the '' 29th." After waiting some 
days in Maine, and becoming rather more disgusted than the 
others of us at the slow motions and indifference of the officials 
at the war department, he went back to Maryland and engaged 
in business there. 

The non-commissioned staff were mustered in December 22d. 
Trudeau having received an appointment in Gen. Ilodsdon's office, 
concluded not to re-enlist, and "Major" Greene was put in for 
sergeant major, and he not only attended to the duties qf his office, 
but kept the drum corps in running order as he had done in the 



* See pages 366 and 367. 



394 PROMOTIONS — THE DOCTORS — BOUNTY. I 864. 

Tenth. Cornelius D. Maynard, who had seen service in North 
Carolina as a private of the 43d Maas^ was made quartermaster 
sergeant, and Charles H. Pettengill was taken out of Co. I for 
commissary sergeant. 

Upon the promotion of Capt. Knowlton, 9^pt. Turner, formerly 
of B, 10th Me., was put into Co. F, and on the 29th of December 
Lieut. Redlon was made ^aptain of a new company, lettered B, 
with Samuel E. Hunt for 1st lieutenant. Hunt had been 2d 
lieutenant in the 26th Me. during the siege of Port Hudson. For 
second lieutenant B had Lorenzo D. Stacy, who had been a Ist 
sergeant in the 23d Maine. Moses N. Stanley, who had been 
captain in the 23d Me., accepted the appointment of 1st lieutenant 
of C, and filled the vacancy made by Redlon's promotion. 

Dr. Day had received a" veteran " commission and been mustered 
in during September, and Henry C. Cotton, who had been a 
sergeant in the 31st New Jersey was made assistant surgeon in 
January of 1864. 

We thus had a corps of experienced officers, and lime proved 
that they were very well selected. 

Recruiting for the " 29th " was a different business from that for 
the "1st" and "10th." Besides the U. S. bounty of 8300 and 
$400,* the State gave an advance bounty of $100, and the towns 
also gave an advance of §200 to *400. But with all these induce- 
ments the men came slowly, and probably in our generation, if our 
rulers profit by our experience, we shall see no more bounty-giving, 
no matter how many men are wanted next time. Almost any day 
there was a town agent or treasurer in camp paying off the men 
who were credited on their quota, so the question, " WhAt quota ? " 
was common amongst us. Portland and Lewiston did a good 
business with the aid of our cai>tains, in robbing the country 
towns, but Bingham alone went into fame. " Bingham," I have 
been told, was a by-word in other regiments than ours. 

Major James Mann gave us our first regular pay, Jan. 19th. 
Afler this, on Jan. 27th, came the $60 U. S. advance l>ounty 
from Capt. Bailey, and the $100 from the State Treasurer, and this 



* $400 to yeterans and $300 to recruits. 



1 864. UNIFORM — ^MUSKETS . 395 

being clone, we had about twenty cases of desertion, to our great 
relief. 

For uniform we had the sky bhie pants and dark blue frock 
coat, sky bhie overcoat and the fatigue cap. The men bought a 
patent knapsack witli their own money, and made liberal sub- 
scriptions to the band fund, raising $2,764. 

We had the 1863 pattern of Springfield rifled musket, muzzle 
loading, as almost all of the arms of the infantiy were, and 
differing from those we had in the 1st Maine in a number of small 
points, having among other things heavier bands, and uo Maynard 
primer. It was the best musket that we ever had. 

We were able to drill a little in-dooi-s, but occasionally, when 
the snow was not too deep, the Colonel took us out, at which 
times it was evident that we had not forgotten how to flounder 
about, nor to grumble and swear. 

The funeral of Capt. Furbish, in Portland, whose body was 
sent home this winter from the Antietam battle-field, was the 
occasion for another military exercise, for which nearly all of the 
old 10th Maine men were detailed. 

Our life in Augusta was otherwise very dull. There is hardly 
a pleasant event to record, except a Thanksgiving dinner of pies, 
which two young ladies* of the city brought up and gave to the 
few of us who staid in camp that day. These pies were orig- 
inally mince and apple, but the generosity of the fair solicitors in 
piling the pastry into a wagon ten-pie deep was better than their 
judgment, and they were compelled to deliver the pies to us as 
squash. Nevertheless we will always hurrah for the ladies and 
their good deed. 



•Miss Huldah McArthur (now Mrs. Cbas. F. Potter) and Mist Mary C. Sayward (Mrs. 
Capt. E. C. Pierce). 



896 1864. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

TOTAQB TO 2fSW OBLBAKS. 

The order for oar regiment and the 80th Me. to go to New 
Orleans by steamer, was received in season to allow us fall prep- 
aration. We left Camp Keyes on Sunday, Jan. 81, 1864, and 
went aboard the oars with a promptness that was remarked, and 
started at the hour proposed*^10 a. m. The railroad officials 
Mad they could not famish cars enough on other days, therefore 
we went Sunday. The baggago and horses had gone the day 
before. We arrived in Portland at 1^0 p. i£. The depot at that 
time was on the "Dump,** but we were marched around town 
for show, and then were put into various rooms and passageways in 
the City Hall, and kept there " without mtions or whiskey," (so 
states the diary) till 3 p. m. of the next day, Feb. 1st. 

There was leaa dnmkennesB than at any time before, and there was little 
enthusiasm and hurrahing as compared with our experience in the " Ist " and 
" 10th." But the boys appear to be in good spirits and glad to be away fVom the 
dutches of the Augusta sharpers. 

We went aboard the steamer in the afternoon, and the most 
of us. were passed out at night. On Feb. 2d we assembled 
aboard the steamer, the De Molay, or De Roll-ay as we sometimes 
called her, for she rolled incessantly from the Bug light to South- 
west Pass. All were aboard by 10 a. m., except a few stragglers, 
and at 1.50 p. m., the flood tide having turned the ship, we staited. 

The majority of us were not sea-sick during the voyage. The 
officibrs^ accommodations were very fine ; those for the men were 
not pleasant ; they were put into bunks three tiers high, in which 
they slept four-in-a-bed. 



1864. AT SEA — GROWING SALT. 397 

The horses were in stalls on deck, forward, but the vessel rolled 
and pitched so that they had to be slung, but the Major's horse died 
on the voyage, and the Quartermaster's soon after landing. 

The voyage was full of interest to us, — I refer to the majority 
and not to the few whose misery made the others all the jollier. 

Feb. 3d, Wednesday. This moniing we sailed through Martha's 
Vineyard Sound. At noon we were out at sea again, and rolling. 
Next day we had a head wind once more. Passed five stdls, saw 
porpoises and a whale. 

Feb. 6th, Friday. We were off Hatteras, but nothing new 
transpired, except that in the cabin the seasick kept abed all day, 
and Dr. Day played the well known selection from " Caraival of 
Venice " upon his fiddle from sunrise to sunset with variations 
after Camilla Urso. 

Feb. 6th, Saturday, A gunboat spoke us this morning, and the 
boys, following the example set them, were ship-ahoying all day 
with wonderful resnlts. We averaged only eight knots to-day. 

Feb. 7th, Sunday, Wind fair, the sails . set and the sea-sick 
improving. Singing in the evening was our Sabbath exercise. 

Feb. 8th, Monday, Misty. No land and no sails in sight. 
Wind fair and sails set all day. Dr. Day and Capt. Turner played 
chess with the assistance of all the other officers, many of whom 
could not tell a " boss " from a pawn. Turner at length mated the 
Doctor, at which the entire mob of spectators claimed to be on 
Turner's side and joined in a crow of exultation. We were off the 
northern coast of Florida this day. 

Feb. 9th, Tuesday, Pleasant and hot. Made land at Jupiter 
Inlet, and then sailed close in shore all day. We saw a fin-back 
whale, a man-o-war hawk, a pelican, porpoise, flying fish and 
horse mackerel. But the singular foliage skirting the Floi-^da 
beach was the most interesting. The medical officers discovered 
a case of small pox in Co. F. 

Feb. 10th, Wednesday, Spied a light-house at 9 a. m. after a 
thunder storm had cleared off. We did not sail so near the shore 



398 KEY WEST — A NEW COUNTRY. 1 864. 

to-day but we saw many new sights, but nothing so beautiful as 
the Portuguese man-o-war. 

A pilot came aboard at noon and took us into Key West, a 
place full of interest to us, looking at first view like a huge raft 
at sea. Steamers, sailing vessels and fishing boats were going 
and coming ; everything was new, lively and inspiriting to us. 
The health officer and post quartermaster boarded us ; also a 
man with fish to sell, who told us a hundred things about Key 
West, in answer to a hundred thousand questions. A second 
case of small pox had broken out, and in consequence of this all 
further communication with the land was prohibited. But we 
borrowed the boats of the steamer, went in swimming, fed the 
gulls, which were numerous Jind ravenous, and went off hunting 
for sponge on the reefs near by. 

We staid here till Friday noon, when having taken in coal 
enough we sailed for New Orleans, and stopped suddenly on a 
mud bar near the South Pass of the Mississippi, at dayliglit of 
Monday the 15th. After much delay, and having been directed 
by the officers of a gunboat who discovered us, to go around to 
South-west Pass, we took in a pilot and sailed into the river, 
and anchored off Pilot Town, seeing gunboats with their prizes, 
tugs, smacks, scows and everything else, all of which kej)t us 
interested and called out a hearty " Yea," to the oft-repeated 
question, " Aren't you glad you went for a soldier?" 

Feb. 16th, Tuesday, We started up river at 4.30 a. m. The 
sights we saw were too numerous to mention, but the low land, 
and the odd looking trees which were covered with hanging 
moss, attracted special attention. Water fowls were frightened 
up at every turn of the river, and it required the authority of 
the officers to prevent the men from shooting them. At length 
we came to Forts Jackson and St. Philip, when a gun brought us 
to; an officer in charge of some colored troops examined us, 
after which we passed on, and soon saw the remains of the 
Varuna which had gone down so gloriously. 

Five miles farther on we stopped at the quarantine, where we 
put out our two small pox patients, and waited for further orders 
by telegraph. The surgeon in charge of the hos2)ital, who was a 



1864. NEW ORLEANS — ALGIERS — ^FRANKLIN. 399 

right good fellow, by the way, piloted our boats across the river 
to an orange grove where the boats were filled. 

We soon started again, and were astonished at the size and 
magnificence of the sugar plantations on the banks, though but 
few of them were under cultivation. The negroes and poor 
whites gave us a good welcome from the levee, especially the 
colored girls, who threw kisses at us ! 

Those of us who had revolvers, shot at all the dogs and an alliga- 
tor, till the Colonel put a stop to it. We hurrahed for the crew 
of every passing craft, and by ten at night reached the wharf at 
New Orleans, when Col. Beal at once reported his arrival to his 
old friend, Gen. George F. Shepley. 

The next day the steamer landed us across the river, at 
Algiers, and we quartered in the Belleville Iron Works, having 
had a very pleasant voyage, and been aboard ship fourteen days. 

On Feb. 18th it snowed a very little, and we suffered more from 
cold that day and the next than at any time we had been in Camp 
Keyes. We visited New Orleans and noticed the civility of the 
people, especially the women who had been treated to that famous 
order of Gen. Butler, which so horrified the enemy and neutrals. 
Then on the 20th we took cai*s at 4 p. m., and passing through a 
country of swamps and ditches, the like of which we never saw 
before, we reached Brashear city (pronounced by the army the 
same as Brazier) about 10 p. m. — 82 miles from Algiers. 

Then tlie Starlight, — a steamer four or five stories high, — took 
us after some hours delay to Franklin in St. Mary's county, during 
ther, night. In common with the nation at large we had little 
knowledge of the country and of the troops which were in it, 
and as few had maps we were all the more mystified with what 
we heard and read ; nor were our friends at home enlightened 
when they read in the papers that the 29th and 30th Maine had 
been sent into the Attakaj)as country (corruptly pronounced 'tuck- 
SL-paw,)* 

We landed at 6 a. m., and the Colonel and staff reported at once 



* Wo give the prouanclation whicb we heard and spoke. The tcholar will notloe that 
in almost ev&cy instance it is corrupted. 



400 QEK8. EMOBT AKD HoMILLAK — 119 CAMP. 1864. 

to Gen. William H. Emory for orders. His was a new name, and 
all his troops were new to us. The General received us in good 
style — he made a fine impression upon first acquaintance. He 
was an old cavalry officer of reputation, he had scoured the plains, 
fought Indians and lived an eventful life before the rebellion. 
He ordered us to report to Gen. McMillan, in whose brigade we 
were thenceforward to be. Gen. McMillan said that he was glad 
to see us. He sent a staff officer to show us a camp ground, and 
by night we had a well arranged camp. 

In Algiers we had drawn the shelter tent for the men, an A- 
tent for each officer, and seven wall tents for the field and staff. 

The diary sums up the situation as follows : 

The land is rich and black, musquitoes tliick as can be ; native products few ; 
ths wafer of the bayoa is muddy, filthy, warm and vile enough, yet the troops 
drink nothing else, and say it is hcalthfiil. I do not wonder that the men are 
80 sickly, and the regiments so small in numbers. 

The 22d was Washington's birth-day. We turned out by order 
with the other regiments of the brigade, to present arms to Gen. 
McMillan — ^and then to return to camp. 

We changed camp on the 24th to a place farther out of town, 
and more roomy. Cypress boards were issued to us to floor the 
tents with, and the men made walls out of hanging moss and 
stakes. The 26th Mass. rcGriment went home on veteran furlough* 
the next day, and gave our boys their furniture. Everything 
moved smoothly and pleasantly enough. For the first time in 
the "29th" we had what could fairlv be called a battalion diill. 
We strove diligently to acquire the reputation we had earned in 
the Tenth, but the time was too short, and furthermore the 
standard for volunteers had been raised. I pretend to s])eak my 
own convictions only, when I say that we necessarily fell short 
of the perfection to which the "10th" attained in drill and 
camp duty. The circumstances under which we were recruited 
and hurried into the field, were unfavorable. The glory of 
the "29th" is in its fighting record. I am proud of the excellent 
discipline of " 10th," but I am prouder far to have belonged to 
the " 29th " — the fighting regiment of the three. 



*S«e Par. z, O. O. 191, page 3S9, for explanation of this term. 




-<>».. v.* J» ' 



1 



^•- ■^.HHHFI' 



1 



•See Par. i, O. O. 191, pai^u 3t^l^ for cx]'lunatiuii of lliis tciiu. 




Mat, Gen ,W. h , kmory^ 



^ 



1864. A NEW OOUNTRr AND NEW ACQUAINTANCES. 401 

There is a certain ^cination in leaving home to go into an 
unknown country, and of course it possessed us in Camp Keyes, 
when we learned of our destination, but once in the new country 
we found many things to bring us back to our senses, for besides 
the vile water and mosquitoes, we had heavy rainsj the water 
standing in the rows meanwhile — for our camp was in an old com 
or cane field. The sun was scorching hot by day, and the dews 
cold and very heavy at night. The mails were delayed, the 
newspapers unreliable, and the truth came over us that we were 
out of the world. Besides all these we found that we were 
looked upon as green troops, and this was all the harder to bear 
because there were a few good grounds for our being so considered. 

Feb. 29th, we were mustered for pay by Lieut. Col. Emerson. 

March 1st. A part of the 47th Penn. regiment camped on 
our parade ground. This regiment, though ** veteran," had 150 
men over their maximum number. They had a fine band, and a 
great passion for tossing up men in blankets, an operation that 
frightens both the victim and spectator at first. 

March 7th. The 8th Vermont started for home on veteran 
furlough, and our brigade escorted them to the landing. We 
• received orders to reduce baggage, pack it and send to New 
Orleans. The next day the 13th and 15th Me. regiments came in 
from Texas with what was called the 13th corps, being in fact 
thirteen very small regiments from that command, under Brigadier 
General Hansom, a much loved oflicer. Then for a week we had 
inspections and preparations for the Red River campaign. The 
diary says, under date of March 12th : 

The aides from division and brigade headquarters, who visited us to-day, 
speak confidently of going up Ked River. We never had the programme 
announced so positively in " the Potomac." 

At length, on the 14th, the cavalry moved out. We had seen 
some cavalry in Virginia that was worth swearing about, but we 
concluded this was not worth even that, and time haa not 
changed our opinion. 

As well as we could tell, half of it was mounted infantry, 
poor infantry wonse mounted. Marching orders came that day, 
26 



402 



Emory's division. 



1864. 



and on the next, Tuesday, March 15, 1864, we started on the 
Red River expedition. 

The organization of the force starting from Franklin, as far as 
I could learn by observation and inquiry, was as follows : 

{Commanding 19tli army corps and the 
forces moving from Franklin. 



Maj. Gen. Wm. B. Franklin, 
Brio. Gen. Wm. H. Emqrt. 



IST DlVlSIOIf OF THE 19tH ARMT CORPS. 



Ist brigade ; commanded by Col- Love. 



116th N. Y., Col. Love, 
114th N.Y., " Per Lee, 
168d N. Y., " E. P. Davis, 
16l8t N. Y., Lt. Col. Kinsey. 

47th Penn., Col. Good, 
160th N. Y., " C. C. Dwight, 
13th Maine, " Henry Rust, ^ 2d brigade ; commanded by 
16th *' " Dyer, " ~ " 

29th " " Beal, 

162d N. Y., Col. Lewis Benedict, 
178d N. Y. 



Brig. Gen. Jas. W. McMillan. 



(< 



8d brigade ; commanded by 
Col. Benedict. 



80th Maine, " Fessenden, 
165th N.Y. battalion of zouaves, 
Lt. Col. 

Battery L, Ist U. S. artillery. 
26th N. Y. battery. 
1st Vermont battery. 

Gen. N. P. Banks, who commanded the department and all 
the forces therein, went up the river with the fleet, and we first 
saw him at Alexandria. 

Emory's division and thirteen regiments under Ransom, and 
the cavalry under Brig. Gen. A. L. Lee, with their batteries, 
comprised all that we saw south of Alexandria. 



1864. 408 



CHAPTER XXXVin. 

RED BIYER EXPEDITION — TOE BEGINNliN^G. 

March 15th, Tuesday, We marched at 8 a. m., weather clear 
and cool. The trees were green and grass was starting. We 
marched in the road, which was hard and a little dusty; halts 
came regularly every hour, and the marching was quite brisk. 
We were not blocked by wagons, and had none of the go-a-step- 
and-halt-an-hour " strategy," so common in the " 10th." In short-, 
everything denoted that we were well commanded. 

We passed Ransom's men in camp a few miles out of town, 
and at 2.30 p. m., after a march of fourteen miles, we went into 
camp on Madame Graffinburg's plantation, near a little village 
called Jeanerets. This being our first march for a year it came 
hard to us, though everything was favorable. We saw Louisiana 
to-day with its negroes and its slave system, and learned the 
truth that very many of us had been slow to believe, that 

*' Slavery is the sum of all villainies." 

These sugar plantations, with miles of cultivated land and 
hundreds of ignorant blacks upon them, were a great curiosity 
to us, but we were too weary and foot-sore to visit them in their 
homes that day. 

Marcu 16th, Wednesday, Cool night and warm day. A man 
who suggested that it was good sap weather at home received 
sneers not deserved. Passing by Madame Graffinburg's mansion 
in the morning, we saw the luxury of the one and the poverty of the 
many. We passed through New Iberia, a queer, foreign-looking 
village, and camped after a day of much fatigue, for we were all 



404 MARGHINO INLAND — GOOD DISCIPLINE. 1 864. 

out of marching trim, and the regiments ahead were racing the 
most of the time. Yet very little straggling was attempted, as 
the orders were very emphatic on that point. A provost guard 
marched in rear of the troops, and did its duty well. Cavalry 
guards were posted at every plantation, and no one was allowed 
to enter the enclosure. We marched seventeen miles and camped 
early on the shores of Lake Tassc, in a place called Camp 
Pratt by Banks's old troops. 

Mabch 17th, Thursday, Pleasant and cool. Eight or ten of 
the sick were sent to the rear. Ice made in our canteens last 
night. We were told to fill them this morning as we should pass 
no water during the day. Once started, our aching limbs grew 
better, and I believe we felt better at night than in the morning. 
The country changed from a dead level to a series of gentle 
undulations, and we saw the cabins of a number of " poor whites," 
wretchedly poor they were too — both the cabins and the whites. 
Heretofore we had noticed the plantations of the wealtliy only. 
We were in camp before three o'clock, after seventeen miles' march, 
the most of the distance having been traveled on the road -side 
to avoid dust. At night we were on Vermillion Bayou, where 
the year before Banks's army had had a little fight. 

March 18th, Friday, We had another fine day, and a well 
conducted march of seventeen miles. It came our turn to lead 
the brigade and we took it easy. We went through the village 
of Vermillion — a settlement full of Frenchmen and French- 
speaking blacks. The country was rather desolate, but the road 
was good, and the day's march pleasant. We camped beyond 
Carrion Crow Bayou, on the ground where the union troops under 
Gen. Burbridge had been sui'j)rised and defeated the November 
previous. A cavalry battalion fired off their carbines while we 
were eating supper. The old regiments broke stacks at hearing 
this, as we should have done had we seen service in Louisiana as 
long as they had. 

March 19th, Saturday, Warmer. More straggling in con- 
sequence. We pasvsed through Opelousas this forenoon. Here 
we saw a Roman Catholic establishment of some importance. The 



1864. OPELOUSA8 — ^A FUNERAL POSTPONED. 405 

sisters of charity brought out the little children to see us pass, 
for which they must be thanked. Their clean white faces and 
garments contrasted favorably with the squalor and filth in the 
town. Across the road was a church or cathedral, which a black 
man said was " mighty old." The priests had arranged for a 
funeral, and had the hearse before the door. One of our officers 
took a fancy to the driver, and asked him if he would like to 
come along. "Come if you do 1". said he to the hesitating 
darkey. The darkey came; and some one in a rear regiment 
fancying the horse, took him, and whether any one took the hearse 
I never learned, though it is said that in the campaign of 1863, 
every thing on wheels, from a coach to a hearse, was pressed by 
the stragglers to carry them, they were so foot-sore and weary. 

We noticed many able bodied white men in the town, and 
learned that they escaped army service by being "black" in the 
eye of the law ; — the law's eye is sharper than ours, that is sure. 
We also went through the village of Washington, crossed the 
bayou and camped on its high banks, after eighteen miles of 
marching. 

MvVRCH 20th, Sunday, "Rest!" is the order. Franklin stock 
is up. We needed the rest and profited by it. Gen. Emory 
ordered a guard to be placed along the bayou, to prevent washing 
and swimming till afternoon, when both were permitted. We 
had now reached another country ; the bayou banks were thirty 
or forty instead of three to eight feet high. Gen. Ransom's troops 
passed by this afternoon and went into camp farther up the bayou. 
After this we had an old fashioned thunder storm, so that from 
first to last we had quite an exciting day of it. 

March 21st, Monday. We started at seven o'clock. Marched 
thirteen miles, a part of the way in the mud, and camped at 2 p. m. 
in an old cane field near the sugar mill of one Shields, having 
followed Bayou Boeuf all day. 

This bayou struck us as being more like a canal than a natural 
water course, and the diary makes no mention of the water, which 
shows that it was no better nor worse than before. After we 
were encamped it commenced raining again, and rained till eight 
next morning. 



406 8nOAB<^ALEXANDRIA — GUNBOATS • 1 864. 

March 22cI, Tuesday. We had a bard inarch in the mud, 
wading and pnlling ourselves along till 3 p. m^ when we crossed 
the bayoa near Holmesville for a camp, having marched eleven 
miles. Just before going into camp, some of the troops ahead 
of us ^ flanked ^ the guard on a sugar mill, and forthwith about a 
thousand men followed suit, despite all the guards and provost 
marshals. This was the first thing of the kind on our march, 
and I cannot say it was a bad thing for us. Our boys got more 
sugar than they could conveniently carry, therefore quantities 
were left on the ground next morning. 

March 23d, Wednesday, Pleasant and fine weather every 
way. Frost lay on the ground this morning. We left Holmesville 
at 6.15, and arrived in sight of the church at Cheneyville at 1.30 
p. M., having marched about fifteen miles. The colored girls told 
us that " Massa and the men hands have gone up to the Piney lands.** 

March 24th, Thursday, Marched at 5, and camped about 
noon. We left Bayou Boeuf the last hour, and turning to the 
east, crossed another bayou just before camping. It rained tre- 
mendously as we filed into the field, an<l we had a wet and muddy 
camp, near nowhere in particular, but fourteen miles from Alex- 
andria. We passed many sugar mills during our sixteen miles 
march to-day, and were peraiitted to take what little sugar and 
syrup we wanted, and we can do no better now than to say that 
we found the best to-day of any on our march up. 

March 25tb, Friday, We trotted off our fourteen miles, and 
after marching in front of Gen. Banks's quarters and hurrahing, 
we went into camp in the outskirts of Alexandria, and here ended 
the first period of the Red River campaign. The troops under 
Gen. Andrew Jackson Smith, and the gunboats under Admiral 
D. D. Porter, had captured Fort De Russey and were now waiting 
for us to join them. 

The diary says : 

Alexandria appears to have a population of 1000 or 1500, but the present 
residents are few. Soldiers from the army of the Cumberland throng the 
streets. Wagons, horses, mules and negroes are also in the town by thousands. 
If you want to see life and confusion don't go to New York or London, where 



1864. IN THE FIRST BRIGADE — OEN. DWIOHT. 407 

there is room and regularity, but come here, where 8,000 people can do very 
well, and see the efforts of 80,000 to be in town all at once. 

The next day we had no reveille, in order that the men might 
finish their naps. 

During the fortnight's march we had neither seen a rebel, nor 
heard of one being near us. Our rations were abundant, especially 
sugar and fresh beef. We had all we could eat of the latter, 
and threw away a gi*eat quantity besides. The sick list of the 
regiment did not increase much; on the contrary, the diaiy 
states that the diarrhea became less prevalent. 

Our stay at Alexandria wiis short and pleasant. There were 
sights enougli for the curious in the rams, iron-clads, tin-clads and 
the hundred steamers along the levee. Sunday evening, after a 
very orderly^day, we received marching orders. With these came 
an order transferring our regiment to the 1st brigade, over which 
Gen. Wm. D wight had, within a few days, assumed command. 
The General was a West Pointer, but was a civilian when 
the rebellion broke out, and had entered the volunteer service in 
1861. He had served on the Peninsula under McClellan, and 
also at Port Hudson and other places in " the Gulf" before our 
arrival in the department. 

We were sorry to leave our friends of the 13th and 15th 
Maine, but it was better for us in the end. In the 1st brigade 
were the 114th, 116th and the 161st New York, all old regiments, 
1. e, they came to Louisiana with Gen. Butler, or soon afterward, 
and were the " crack " regiments of the division. The 116th N.Y. 
was mentioned as a very superior regiment, and justice to the 
majority of its officers and men compels us to admit that it was. 
Of the exceedingly small minority we will say nothing worse 
here than that they kept the two regiments in constant discord. 

The 153d N, Y. had lately come from Washington, where it 
had been drilled and disciplined to perfection. All of these old 
regiments sneered at us, besides under-rating the value of our 
title "veteran," and were continually reminding us of our bounty 
by singing out, " Seven hundred dollars and a c-a-ow." The 
bounty troubled them ^uch and their sneers troubled us for 
a while. 



408 KILLING HOQ6 — ^HENDERSON'S HILL. 1 864. 

March 28th, Monday. We started this morning during a 
thunder stonn, after a rest of three days. We waded in mud 
all the morning, and kicked up the dust afterward. Gen. A. J. 
Smith's forces were ahead of us. We observ^ed that the country 
was less inhabited, that the land was higher, and timt sugar 
estates were fewer than those devoted to cotton. We saw, too, 
that all the cotton sheds had been recently burned. 

We marched all day along the high banks of Bayou Rapides 
(pronounced Rar-/>ecc^, and went into camp at 6 o'clock, after a 
tedious march of eighteen miles. Our new commander arranged 
his brigade in line behind Bayou Cocodre, and having stacked 
arms a number of us " went for " a drove of hogs, following the 
examples set by men of the other regiments. It had been con- 
trary to ordera to steal hogs, and while under Gqn, McMillan 
none had been slaughtered by us. On account of the standing 
order, few of us troubled the drove, and it ran down the bayou 
to Gen. Dwight's headquartere, from whence, to our surprise, there 
was no mounting of the staff with orders to aiTcst the pig stealers. 
We soon discovered the neutrality of our General, and such a 
squealing of pigs you never heard as there was for five minutes 
under the bluff where his flag flow. This may be a worthless 
item of history, nevertheless, any general will do well to sacrifice 
the pigs of the enemy to gain tlie good will of his troops.* 

March 29th, Tuesday, Very windy and dusty. Started as 
late as 10 a. m., in anticipation of delay of the trains ahead, and 
in one hour we came up to the wagons — mired. After this we 
had halts, long and short, and marched only about six miles, 
though some said ten, and halted on Henderson's Hill. To-day 
we saw a hill and pebble stones for the first time in Louisiana. 
Tlje 13th Maine boys said they had not seen such a siglit for two 
years. 

On this same Henderson's Hill there had been an engagement, 
with the capture of a gun and prisoners from the enemy, eight 
days before — so the books say, but we saw and heard nothing 
of it then. Our left wing, under Major Knowlton, was put on 



• « So say W0 all of us. 



>f 



1864. A DUSTY MARCH — ^BURNING COTTON. 409 

picket to-night, and the black troops with pontoons were four 
houi*s in crawling by 11s. This, and the falling of burning trees 
with a crash louder than artillery, kept us awake a good part of 
the night. 

March 30th, Wednesday, Pleasant; warm; dry. Cold 
morning. On account of some trouble in the crossing at Cane 
River we were not moved until noon, and then marched six miles 
very pleasantly, when we came up to the rear of the trains and 
halted for the night in the pine woods. 

March 31st, Thursday, Pleasant and warm. Marched at 7, 
went four miles and halted at Cane River to allow the ordnance 
train to cross. We understood that we were the rear guard of 
the army. The monthly report showed 651 present — a falling 
off of a hundred by death, sickness, details, Ac, since arriving in 
the department. We crossed Cane River (apparently an old 
bed of the Red) on a pontoon and log bridge, made by the negro 
troops, and then traveled up the island iis fast as we could go. 
This racing w:is usekss and senseless, but the old troops did no 
better than the new, lliat I could see, though our stragglers had 
to take all the taunts. We never traveled in such a dust l>efore 
nor since. The wind blew a gale down river, and the dust, or 
earth, pelted and blinded us as snow will in heavy storms. 
All the cotton houses had been burnt ; at Lecompte {)lantation, 
the fire which was five days old, was still blazing. We could 
not learn precisely the cause of all this destruction, but we had 
rumors that it was done by the rebels — the cavalry — the " niggers" 
— and the Western men laid it to " Banks, the cotton thief." We 
understand now that the rebel cavalry did it. We marched that 
day eighteen miles, went through Cloutierville and halted at the 
upper end of the island before sunset. 

April 1st, Friday, Cool. A furious north wind kept the air 
filled with dust as before. The 116th N. Y. took the lead, and 
commenced running the brigade. After an hour of it we saw 
their surgeon attending to a man who was dying from the effects 
of racing. Then we asked ourselves : " Who pays for that man's 
life ? " We heard that 300 rebels had been seen by our cavalry, 



410 NATGHITOCHES — ROQUE'S HIGHWAY. 1 864. 

bat this was hardly startling news. The day^s march was eight- 
een miles. 

Apbil 2d, Saturday. Cool, windy and dusty as before. Tlie 
regiment marched in rear of the division train, and having only 
six miles to go did it easily. This brouglit us into Natchitoches 
(pronounced Nackitosh), a village, or city perhaps, with a history. 
Though settled by the French in 1717, it received a considerable 
Spanish population afterward, and when ceded to the United 
States, of course the American clement came in and it became at 
length a rendezvous for outlaws, who could easily slip over into 
Texas when necessary. We were not a little interested in the 
foreign aspect of everything in the town ; among other things 
there was an ancient guide-board, and upon it was *^ marked the 
old way which wicked men have trodden," 

*®ft 50 MILES TO TEXAS. 

Our men foraged considerably this day, and six were picked np 
by Captain York, the provost marshal, who punished them 
severely and then turned them over to Col. Seal to court martial, 
which was done. 

We remained on the banks of the river four days till the 6th 
inst., and received a mail with the supplies from Grand Ecore. 

While here the ^^ JVatchitoc/ies Unio)^^ newsi)aper was publish- 
ed by the 13th corps, but the demand exceeded the supply. 

On Tuesday Gen. Banks rode through the camps of his command 
on a tour of informal inspection, thereby giving us another 
opportunity to see our old commander. His presence was indica- 
ted by cheera, for wherever he went, in our hearing, the regiments 
greeted liim with an enthusiasm that must have cheered his heart. 

Excepting this, there was nothing of note besides the dust, no 
longer black and earthlike, but an invisible grit, which penetrated 
everything, even to the inside of watches. 



1864. 411 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

SABIXE CROSS ROADS — THE FIRST BATTLE OF THE TWENTT-NTNTH. 

The next move of tlic army was to leave the river and aim for 
Shreveport. At 9 A. m. April 6, 1864, we gladly marched out of 
Natchitoches for a less dusty country. The X3th corps was on a 
road starting farther down nver,but the two roads met about twelve 
miles out, and as we had to wait for them to pass with their trains, 
we did not camp till after dark, and then tumbled about in the 
woods (or " swamp ^ as the natives would call it) near what I 
understand to be the Oatcheewash River, tripping over vines and 
swearing with a will at " that fool," but calling no names. The 

day's march was fifteen miles. 

April 7th, Thursday. We moved at 8. The 13th corps train 
was put in the rear for our benefit. Upon leaving Red River we 
had gone into another country. The plantations were very few 
and poor ; the soil w:is different ; the country, besides being hilly 
for a wonder, was covered with lofty southern pines, and the roads 
were poor, in consequence of which the trains were delayed. It 
was quite hot in the forenoon, and marching became tedious, but 
a thunder shower at noon laid the dust for us. We heard of 
cavalry fights ahead, and also that the 87th Illinois (mounted in- 
fantry) had been ambuscaded and had lost nearly fifty men in killed 
and wounded, by one volley from the rebels, who ran like hounds as 
soon as they had fired. About 5 p. m. we marched into the little 
village of Pleasant Hill, and pitched our tents in the rain — the 
oflficers whistling till nine o'clock, when the wagons came up with 
their tents and valises. We marched this day twenty miles,— or 
thirty-five by the guide board, in two days. 



412 SOUNDS FROM THE FRONT. 1 864. 

April 8th, Friday. Morning found us pretty well rested and with good 
appetites. Capt. Sibley, division commissary, begged a breakfast of liard bread 
for us from the 13th corps, as our trains were behind a broken bridge. We 
left camp about 8 or 9 o'clo(|fc. Artillery firing had been heard before starting, 
and we judged from the distant sounds that the rebs were still making good 
time at retreating. The country is the same as we have seen the last two days, 
a forest with one narrow road cut through it. Therefore it is not possible to 
march this army as McClellan marched in Maryland, three or four columns 
abreast. 

We got ahead rather slowly till one p. m., and then went into camp on the 
baiiks of a sluggish stream, having first crossed it.* [A branch of Bayou 
St. Patric's, I believe.] We were then on the ground which this morning Gen. 
Ransom, with his fragmentary conmand took from the rebels, after a sharp 
fight ; infantry and artillery being used on our side. It astonished me that our 
day's march should bo only eight miles, but we pitched our tents under the 
pines and hunted for rations, finding bacon and meal, which the overladen 
rebels had dropped as'lthey fled. In trying to head oflT a hog for the boys, I 
came upon a house where lay a number of dead and wounded. I was learning 
a few things about their fight, when the drums and bugles sounded " Assembly," 
and I hurried back, feeling in my bones that, though late, the 19th corps had 
been called to do something before midnight. I found the regiment all ready 
to start ; but a delay was made to issue rations [which had not been done in 
the morning], for the men were out of food, and, by order, the teams could 
follow no longer. About 6 p. m. we marched ; cannonading lively up ahead, 
and the prospect of a figlit consitlered good by all of us. The evening air 
was cool and bracing and the ground wjis hard and damp. So we made a 
very rapid march, and the *^five tulles to the front,'' which was the story at first, 
was speedily reduced to "four," " thee " and ** two," after which we inquired 
but little. An hour's trot brouglit us to the trains of the 13th corps, parked 
in a clearing. Thenceforward all was excitement and wildness, as it always 
is in the rear. 

" Ninis has lost two f^uns," was the first positively bad news we heard. *' The 
cavalrif is hadly cut up," was the next report. We old 10th Mainers, who had seen 
"cut-up " cavalry before, explained to the recruits that this was the way they 
expressed themselves when they had skedaddled. Then we saw a few wounded 
men who confirmed the news about Nims and the disorganization of the cavalry, 
and added that the rebels had been trcmemhmJy reinforced. So we went on, 
running about half the time, making we judge four and a half or five miles an 
hour, which is extraordinary speed for foot soldiers to march at steadily. No 
one could tell how the general battle was going, and though the scene in the 
rear was an ugly one, yet we thought it was no indication of serious disaster 



• This Is the place which la known as the " saw mill " in the army, and is so mentioned 
in Qen. Dwight's report 



1864. ^ TERRIBLE PANIC — WRONG WAT TO TEXAS. 413 

in tlie front. Mind, there was one road only, and that through the dense pine 
forest. To send a hody of troops through the woods and preserve their 
formation was impossible. 

The musketry sounded very loud in the evening air, and every noise was 
made more frightful by its echo through the woods. A little after six o*clock, 
the bands of our brigade, which was the leading brigade of Emory's division, 
commenced playing, and as they took their time from our step it was lively 
music of necessity. On hearing this we commenced cheering and kept it up 
some time. The retreating cavalry now came in large numbers, breaking 
through the under brush and tearing through the woods, creating such a din 
as I have not heard in many a month. The sound of musketry grew more 
distinct, and as we marched up a long hill we all knew that on the top we 
should see something, and so we did. 

As we hurried up the narrow path, the rush of fugitives became perfectly 
awful. There were servants on officers* horses, negroes on mules, cavalry and 
mounted infantry, but worse than these there were foot soldiers of the 18th 
corp9, and all came piling down hill upon us, or streaming through the woods, 
sought to pass through our ranks, — ^}'clling, swearing and smashing as fugitives 
only can. As well as I can remember now, the road passes by a man's garden 
and front yard at the top of the hill, and then descends the hill again to the 
west or north-west. Our regiment was fourth and last in the brigade, as the 
153d N. Y. had been left behind at the saw mill with the trains, and when we 
had reached the garden fence the fugitives were pouring through the woods in 
vast crowds, shouting for ua to run away too. One little fellow who had thrown 
away evcrytiiing belonging to Uncle Sam, and his hat besides, was screaming 
and dancing up and down, imploring us " Don't go there ! " " It's awful ! " 
" You can't live a minute ! " — *' It's worse than Champion Ilills." He was but 
one ; the most of them were speechless, but were flying for dear life, crouching 
to avoid the bullets which were now unpleasantly numerous and spiteful. 

Besides the infantry, there were cavalry horses and mules with traces 
dangling, and artillery horses without their guns, all going the wrong way for 
Texas. Many ran through the intervals between regiments ; a few crowded 
through our ranks, but the Colohel sang out " Close up ! Don't let a man 
through," and then the boys pushed their bayonets toward the fugitives and 
kept the flood flowing along the road side and in the woods. 

The regiment now marched over the fence into the yard, came to the front* 



*Tho movements of our regiraont as here given do not agree with the recollection of 
many that I h;ive questioned, but as nothing definite has been learned I have not changed 
the diary. 

To correct tlie common impression amongst us I here state upon authority of Qen. 
Banl(B'H report, tliat the 19th corps fought at a place called by Banks Pleasant Orov0. 
Sabine Cross Roadft, ft-om which the battle took its name, was two or three miles ahead of 
us, and is near where the cavalry and 13th corpa commenced tlie battle. 



414 THE SITUATION — FIRST VOLLEY. 1 864. 

(west), and advanced directly toward the enemy. We had now, besides the 
panic-stricken mob, to contend against logs, wood-piles and the litter of 
the farm-yard. We had also to knock over a very high fence, and to look 
out that the various generals, their stafis and orderlies, did not run over us. 
It is a wonder how we pushed through it all in such excellent order, for it was 
trying to the men's nerves, and the musketry of tlie enemy was becoming 
more and more severe each minute. 

The 161st N. Y., the leading regiment of the brigade, had been pushed down 
the hill (west) — sacrificed — to clear the front and give the brigade time to form. 
Seconds of time were worth more than men's lives just then. The 116th and 
114th N. Y. were posted behind a rail fence running north, and were therefore 
upon the " 29th's " right For ourselves, when once we had halted we had no 
protection, but stood on the brow of the hill at the crossing of the roads. 

While wc were thus forming line there were coming up the Mansfield 
(western) road the last remnants of the 13th corps, and a few horses, whose 
red saddle-blankets and dangling traces told the sad story that they had left 
their guns behind. 

The Colonel permittted me to run ahead of the regiment, as we had no 
skirmishers out, to see how '* things were going,** as he said, meaning evidently 
" coming" for we had a clear understanding of what was going. Below us, 
tliat is down the hill, to the north and west, were a few of the enemy scattered 
in all parts of the open field, but no organized masses could be seen. An 
abundance of Minid balls were coining from somewhere. Generals Banks and 
Franklin were out on the hill-side with their escorts. Beyond the ravine at 
the foot of tlie hill were woods, both to the front and right, and these were 
filled with rebels, but the smoke which hung over the whole battle field pre- 
vented my discerning them. 

The fire grew sharper and sharper. The 16Ist N. Y. was retreating in 
splendid order, having been commanded to return, the color sergeants waving 
their flags defiantly, and Lieut. Col. Kinsey still mounted, and enjoying the 
honor bestowed upon him. 

The two generals and everyone else came in from the front and I returned 
to the Colonel. Soon after, the enemy opened a scattering fire directly upon 
our brigade, which became so severe that the men could not be restrained, and 
as soon as the 161st N.' Y. had come in on our right, one after another of the 
boys fired, the officers permitting it rather than ordering it. 

So we all opened at about the same moment. The sun had set and the 
damp night air made the reports of the muskets and the yells of the rebels 
sound harshly enough to our ears. The absence of artillery from both sides 
also made this an odd-sounding battle. 

Our boys stood the fire well. I saw only one in all the right wing that 
needed to be looked after, and he only ran a few steps to the rear, behind a 
tree, whereas, if he was so anxious for shelter, he should have lain down 



1864. THE VITAL POINT — DISTINGUISHED SPECTATORS. 415 

behind his knapsack as the most of us did at last. We lay so low that we 
had but few woanded ; these were carried to Dr. Day, and the men then 
returned to the ranks. 

* What pleased me most was the perfect steadiness of our line. There was 
no wavering or hesitancy, no idle crouching under cover nor dodging to the 
rear. Everything went right with us, and behind our line were Gen. Banks 
and his staff, Gen. Franklin, Emory and Dwight, and their staffs, and other 
generals whom I did not know, and also the flag bearers and escorts, making 
a small regiment of them in all. All were looking at us and over us, to see 
if the rebels would ** break through " this last line of the army. 

Probably we did not realize so fully as did these general 
officers, that we held the fate of the Red River expedition in our 
hands. 

The enemy was checked by the fire of our brigade. 

In five or ten minutes, more or less (one cannot calculate time in battle), they 
tried to fiank us and* the bullets came raking along our line, from right to left, 
annoying us exceedingly, and all but driving our 116th N. Y., who bore the 
brunt of this attack, and who, I am told, would have stood it better had there 
been less whiskey there. 

The 47 til Penn. and IStli Me. of McMillan's brigade, having 
been first deployed in rear of our brigade, were afterward sent to 
protect tlic right tlank of tlie division, and Avhcn this attack was 
made on them, all of the 47lh Penn. but a few brave souls went 
to the rear in a hurry. It was this rout of their neighbors and 
the whiskey in high j)liices that caused the 116th its trouble. 
They were able, however, to prevent the rebel advance. 

Tiie enemy next tried the left, where the 3d brigade, in which was the 30th 
Maine, had been posted on the prolongation of our line. It was a moment of 
suspentse to us when we heard the rebel yell rising with the sound of tlieir 
fire, and the returning volley of our friends. We waited to hear if the yeU 
would continue and increase, or would the Northern hurrah take its place. 
When, therefore, above the din of musketry we heard the lusty cheer rising 
and Kweiling, I tell you, my friends at home, it was a happy moment 1 Wo 
had plainly checked them at all points, and the night had now put an end to 
all further charging by the enemy. 

So we stood there, many of us three years old in the service, 
and now for the first time victorious beyond all question, for we 
ought not to claim that our 10th regiment drove the opposing 
force entirely out of the fight at Antietam. 



416 ENTHUSIASM — AN INCIDENT OF NOTE. '^ 

We were elated and joyful. It was a battle ijaJi " " 
though it was a terrible trial to our courai^ 
first to last. We were proud in tb** 
done far better than "welU' 
regiment was posted at the 
held it. How good it did see 
the vain slaughter at Cedar M\ 
Pope, and the mystery at An tie 
rebels run ! 

Notliing contributed to the enthusiasm o 
act of Gen. Banks himself. When we firt 
fought, lie rode past our front in going from i 
up his horse to say (as well as I can remembe 
You can stop these rascals where they are I " and in 
us we could renew or ruin our reputation, just a 
must have noticed that he addressed the " 29th,'' \ 
Ibth Maine. 

The boys did not stop to hear him out, but tossed u, 
him vociferously, and he started to leave u:*, but wht 
boys sang out ** Shenandoah ! " " Winchester ! " " Cedai 
Mountain!" "Cedar Mountain 1" he stopped again, t 
bowed to U3 as only a great man can. He knew now what 
road with, and the sequel shows that he was satisfied. 

I am liappy to mention this inci lent, also, because we were 
of us for the first time, and I would also remind you, tliat tlie i 
13th corps was about as heavy a damper to one's enthusiasm as 
can name. 

A very exciting incident occurred after our first volley. Our 
ceased firing then, and what appeared to be a company of cavah 
the field in front of the llltii N. Y., whose men for some reason u 
till they were within a few yanls. Then tlie entire regiment let jjo 
and the rebels,* instead of running back, galloped along the fron 
regiment, till it came in range of our Cos. K ami (i. How a man o 
escaped instant death is wonderful. Two of the troopers, from ignora* 
fright, ran directly against the fence on the Mansfield road — in front o. 
K — and some young lads of the llkli N. V., who had climbed iiilo the to 
the shed there and knocked a hole through the roof, fired at them and tl 
knocked a hole through the other side of the roof, and announced to us w 
a childish delight, " We've plugged 'em ! " 



*Dr. Beecher'6 Rocord of the 114th N. Y. Rogt. states that among these woa 
Moutoii, who was killed by that regiment's fire. 



416 ENTHUSIASM — AN INCIDENT OF NOTE. 1 864. 

We were elated and joyful. It was a battle full of enthusiasm, 
though it was a terrible trial to our courage and discipline from 
first to last. We were proud in the consciousness that we had 
done far better than "well." We were aware, too, that oul* 
regiment was posted at the vital point — the road; and we had 
held it. How good it did seem after our flight from the Valley, 
the vain slaughter at Cedar Mountain, the blasted hopes under 
Pope, and the mystery at Antietam, to stand firm and see the 
rebels run ! 

Nothing contributed to the enthusiasm of the evening more than one little 
act of Gen. Banks himself. When we first went on to the line where we 
fought, he rode past our front in going from the field to the garden, and drew 
up Ills horse to say (as well as I can remember), " iVen! All depends on you!! 
You can stop these rascals where they are ! " and in a brief, stirring way, he told 
us we could renew or ruin our reputation, just as we shquld determine. He 
must have noticed that he addressed the " 29th/' which he knew was his old 
Ibth Maine. 

The boys did not stop to hear him out, but tossed up their caps and cheered 
him vociferously, and he started to leave us, but when our old 10th Maine 
boys sang out " Shenandoah ! " " Winchester ! " " Cedar Mountain ! " " Cedar 
Mountain ! " " Cedar Mountain ! " he stopped again, took off his cap and 
bowed to us as only a great man can. He knew now what he had to hold the 
road with, and tlie sequel shows tliat he was satisfied. 

I am liappy to mention this incident, also, because we were under fire, many 
of us for the first time, and I would also remind you, that the condition of the 
18th corps was about as heavy a damper to one's enthusiasm as anything you 
can name. 

A very exciting incident occurred after our first volley. Our brigade had 
ceased firing tiien, and what appeared to be a company of cavalry came up 
the field in front of the 114th N. Y., whose men for some reason did not fire 
till they were within a few yards. Then the entire regiment let go at tliera, 
and the rebels,* instead of running back, galloped along the front of the 
regiment, till it came in range of our Cos. K and G. How a man or horse 
escaped instant death is wonderful. Two of the troopers, from ignorance or 
fright, ran directly against the fence on the Mansfield road — in front of Co. 
K — and some young lads of the 114th N. Y., who liad climbed into tiie top of 
the shed there and knocked a hole through the roof, fired at them and then 
knocked a hole through the other side of the roof, and announced to us with 
a childish delight, " We've plugged 'em ! " 



*Dr. Beeclier's Record of the 114th N. Y. Rogt. states that among these was Qen. 
Moutoii, who was killed by that regiment's fire. 




." ^/^/ 



> VOLS 




Ul-n- -. 





9V! MC VET. VOLS. 
MAJ. U.S. VOLS. 



Ilk 

I ** 

I"* 

VK 



!.;: I 



'h 



1864. 



COS. AND E ON PICKET. 



417 



The fight was ended and the moon had been down sometime before 
skirmishers were ordered out. Squads of the enemy's cavalry and sharp- 
shooters continually came up to observe us — but after the first check in our 
front we were not seriously attacked, and we fired only one or two volleys. 
On this account, and because of the nature of our position behind the brow of 
the hill, whereby we could easily take good aim at the rebels, while their shots 
would either go over or strike far in front of us, our casualties were light — 
very much less than the loss of the enemy by our fire. The boys used their . 
knapsacks at first, for protection, and after this we brought rails and made a 
barricade two or three feet high, whicli protected us from the few sharpshooters. 



Rebels in Woods. 



WOODS. 



Rebels in Woods. 



OPBN FISLD. 



29 ME. 114 116 



3<1 Brio. 



190 ir. V. X 



10 



li 



WOODS. 




Pleasant 



J 47 Penn. 

J 13 Me. 

WOODS. 



Qbovx. 



It was about 9 p. m. when Capt. Jordan, who had been selected by Col. Beal, 
took his company (C) and thirty men of E, with Lieuts. Graham, Millett and 
Stanley, and went crawling noiselessly through the woods in our front, for 
about a hundred yards. He arrived there just as the commander of the rebel 
pickets was trying to unite two lines of his own. Capt. Jordan, with his usual 
grace, undertook to help, and whispered to them, " Come this way." By this 
ruse, one after another of the rebel pickets and stragglers, both officers and 
men, were captured. 

Besides these there were also one or two ambulance tenders, whom of 
course we had to keep after they had once seen us. Among others, I pitied 
none more than an old farmer, just from Texas, on a *' sorry " old mule» 
He had been three or four days trying to find his son, and at last learned that 
he had gone on picket, and was very happy when he found Capt. Jordan, who 
told him to " come this way " and see his boy. 

A few also stumbled upon the pickets of the other regiments, which, I 
suppose, were out in the open field, but somehow they turned them over to us 
27 



418 THE TUNB THAT THE OLD cow DIED ON. 1 864. 

and we got the credit of capturing about all that were taken, perhaps twenty- 
fire in all. B7 ten o'clock all was quiet ; the wounded had been taken care 
ofy and no more rebels could be trapped by our pickets. 

The next thing was an order for regimental commanders to report to Gen. 
Dwight. He gKve instructions to remove the troops silently ; but the most 
encouraging thing to us was his order for the li6th to go ahead,* and after 
giving this he said to our Colonel, in presence of all the other commanders, 
" Col* BecUf ywi may cover the retreat of the army. 1 assign you this duty because 
you have done so well in battle. lean depend upon your regiment because it has shown 
itself to be capable of any duty." 

A little befoi^e midnight we moved back in peifect quiet, and 
as at Winchester, we covered the retreat of Banks's army. This 
time, however, we were not aided and were not followed, and it 
did not fall to our lot by accident. I need not remind you of 
the pride we felt when we saw all the old regiments file past us, 
and go down the hill again. The duties of the rear guard are 
unpleasant and tedious, but we accepted them gladly that night, 
for the honor accompanying. 

At length, after the army was well ahead, we marched once 
more, — ^honored with the highest duty our general could give us. 
We forgot for the moment such things as our supperless stomachs 
and our tired limbs, and commenced in earnest our dutv of 
rousing the sleeping stragglers, of whom there were some thousands 
lying along the roadside, and didn't we stir them up ? Had we 
not been abused and taunted every day since our arrival in the 
department by these same sleepers? How could we help paying 
them back again? I tell you we did our duty to them that 
night, and if they appeared to be the " old ones," we kicked and 
cuffed them without mercy. 

Hence, although the army had met with disaster, and we were 
compelled to march all night in retreat, we were happy at our 
glorious promotion, and our complete success as a regiment. 

After this day we were respected and trusted. Our recruits 
were not insulted, we heard no more sneers about the " veterans," 
nor the old story of " seven hundred dollars and a c-a-owP 

" Sabine Cross Roads " was " The tune that the old cow diedonr 



•Thelineofflcenandmenor the 116th were thus punished for the whiskey-drinking 
of their superiors. We irere very glad of it at the time, bat it seems harsh now. 



1864. THE SPOILS — ** MAJOR." 419 

Capt Jordan, with his company (C), had captured a number of 
fine horses and mules: enough to mount seven of us, after 
turning over the poor ones to the proper officers, which we did 
next day. Among others was a horse belonging to Col. Taylor, 
commanding a rebel brigade, so the prisoners captured at Pleasant 
Hill next day told us, and they added that he was worth $3,000 in 
confederate money. Col. Emerson bought him and kept him till 
the end of our service. It was* daybreak when we reached the 
saw mill again. We had marched to the front in less than an 
hour and a half, but the delay in driving the mob made us nearly 
five hours in returning. We rested here but a little while, and 
then continued with the army to retrace our steps toward the 
MississippL 

"major." ' 

A word about our dog "Major" mtist be inserted. He was 
always a dog of singular behavior, but never acted so strangely 
as in his last fight. While in camp at the saw mill he was much 
disturbed at hearing the sound of the battle, and appeared to know 
that we should have to, or oxight to go to the front. He barked 
wildly at every cavalry-man we met on the march — he seemed 
to know a straggler and skulk, and knew, too, that it was safe to 
bark at them. We never shall forget 4iis actions at the top of the 
hill where we fought. As before stated, we came at that point 
upon almost a solid mass of fugitives, and here, too, we firat heard 
tlie bullets whistle. The dog seemed to comprehend the situation, 
and bracing himself against the torrent, he gave one long, loud 
howl that rose above all other sounds, and then went on again. 
He ran wildly around the field, always keeping in our front, and 
biting at the little clouds of dust raised by the enemy's balls. 
At our first volley he jumped into the air, howled and bit at the 
flying bullets, and was going through strange capers when the 
fatal bullet struck him. He died like a hero, far in the front of 
the line, and had he been human we should not have felt his loss 
more keenly. 



420 1864. 



CHAPTER XL. 

BATTLE OF PLEASANT HILL. 

April 9th, Satxirday, At the saw mill, the 158d N. Y. relieved 
us of the duty of rear guard, and we marched on quietly till about 
eight o'clock a. m., when we came in sight of the clearings around 
Pleasant Hill. Here, all at once, a crowd of stragglers, cavalry- 
men, negroes and a drove of beef cattle, which by some mishap 
had got between us and the 153d, came screaming and tumbling 
pell mell upon us. Words cannot convey the terror which such 
an onslaught produces. A small portion of the 153d, led by one 
of its officers (who was afterward permitted to resign in conse- 
quence of this and other " disabilities "), came running through 
us with the other mob, so that in an incredibly short time the 
organization of the rear companies was somewhat broken. The 
panic was instantly stayed in the two rear regiments by Cols. 
Davis and Beal swinging their commands across the road, but I 
believe there was a pretty extensive scare created farther in town 
by the rush of the cattle, spare horses, stragglers and skulks, 
which had so nearly run us off. We remained in line about live 
minutes, when Col. Davis reported that only a few cavalry had 
been seen, and Gen. D wight ordered us to move on. We found 
the fields full of the troops of Smith, and noticed as we filed in 
their rear that picket firing had begun. 

We understand now from various sources, that the enemy 
shelled our position at Pleasant Grove at dawn of day, and 
receiving no response sent the cavalry galloping after us, and 
those that fell upon our rear were the advance ; but they were 
too late. 



1864. WATCHING AND WAITING. , 421 

We first halted in rear of some rifle pits on the left (west) 
portion of the field, then after much shifting about, which we 
did not like very well, we remained for some hours in the Voods 
on the right and front of the field, and threw out company K as 
skirmishers. These were not attacked, though the picket firing 
in other parts of the field was very sharp and incessant all day, 
especially in the front (toward Sabine Cross Roads), and although 
the most of us slept from exhaustion we did it with one eye open, 
being continually in expectation of an attack. 

Late in the afternoon, Major Knowlton and myself were com- 
paring the time of our watches, wondering whether the increased 
picket firing indicated any thing of importance to the 29th Maine 
regiment, and doubting if the rebels would try to press us; for it 
was well understood in our army, — in our brigade at least — that 
the infantry would follow the trains, which had already started 
for Grand Ecore, as soon as the road was clear. I ventured to 
congratulate the Major that the enemy had only two hours of 
daylight left him. The Major smiled and remarked something 
about Cedar Mountain. Just as the watch was pocketed — ^time 
5.2 p. M. — a shell came whizzing over the regiment, fired from a 
gun on the enemy's center, a long distance awfiy. We had more 
of them presently. They cut off branches from the trees near 
us, and then went plunging through the woods beyond. The 
most unpleasant thing about them was the fact of their coming 
from the direction of our left rear. A cross fire is always annoy- 
ing, and the prospect of an attack in our front while our rear 
Wiis being raked with artillery, disturbed us considerably. 

We waited here fifteen or thirty minutes (none of us timed 
this battle), listening to the musketry in our rear and to the left;, 
which was very sharp. We know now that some of this noise 
was made by the 30th Maine, but we were in perfect ignorance 
then of everything going on around us. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP THE BATTLE. 

Banks's army was posted in a semi-circular line. We were on 
the right part of the arc ; the rebel attack here was only a feint. 



42i BSNSDIOT AXD SHAW FORCED BACK. 1 864. 

indeed I have no data upon which to state that there was one at 
all. The main attack was upon the union left, where it was 
impethous and saccessfhl. Col. Benedict, commanding the 8d 
brigadei was stationed on the extreme left of the infantry, a mile 
from us» and had posted his skirmishers in a' ditch* where they 
ooold do little service, being so few in number, yet they prevented 
the main line from firing in good season. Consequently the rebels 
jumped over the skirmishers, and set the entire brigade flying, 
after a very short and one-sided engagement. Then, pushing 
rapidly along the cleared space they made a huge gap in the 
original semi-circle. In truth they cut off the retreat by the 
road, of our other two brigades and part of Smith's troops. 

Between our brigade and Benedict's there was Col. Shaw's brig- 
ade of the Ist division, 16th corps, posted at right angles to us, and 
holding the road from Sabine Cross Roads. He also was attacked 
at the same time that Benedict was, and sent to Gen. Dwight to 
oome over and help him, which Gen. Dwight declined to do 
without orders.t Consequently the rebels sent Shaw a flying to 
the rear after flghting him a little while. 

TJp to this time we had done nothing except to move a few 
steps down hill for shelter from the artillery fire and stray musket 
balls. The ground upon which the battle was fought was hilly 
and covered with every species of natural obstacles. Wc could 
see nothing of the fight, but we heard the shouts and yells of 
the victors and the fresh volleys which they poured in, and 
thought by the direction and nearness of this firing that some- 
thing must be going wrong. It was a very unpleasant half hour 
that we spent there. 

Just before Shaw's brigade broke, our brigade was ordered 
toward the center of the field, and how the other regiments went 
there we cannot tell, but ours came by the right face and filed 
to the right,— our late rear, — and in that order (four abreast) 
went jumping over logs and brushing through the bushes, but 
whether it was north, south, east or west, who can tell? 

We had not gone far before we saw the men of Shaw's brigade 

•SOtli Me. men itote thii. 
t Dwight*! report. 



1864. THU TWBNTT-NINTH UNDEB FIRE. 423 

coming on the run from our right hand. These men went to their 
i*ear, generally passing in front and behind us, but one entire 
regiment, which had managed to keep its formation, broke through 
an interval, which had opened between our right and left wings,' 
and Major Knowlton, not dreaming of these fellows, took them 
to be our right wing and followed them a few moments before he 
discovered his mistake. He was fortunately found by Gen. D wight 
or some of his staf^ and his wing brought back before it was 
missed by the Colonel. 

After Shaw's troops had gone through us we continued to march 
as before with our flank to the unseen enemy. All this happened 
in a half cleared field, where from the abundance of bushes we 
could not see far in any direction ; hence we had the least possible 
knowledge of what was going on around us. 

Presently we came to the road, and here we found a landmark 
in a Napoleon gun which had been abandoned, and a dead zouave 
lying at full length in the sand. We had been under a very light 
musketry fire all this while, but upon nearing and crossing the 
road, the bullets came with considerable vim from the direction 
a little to the right of that we were marching in. This was a 
little mysterious and unpleasant, and you remember that dodging 
thil^ugh the bushes with sounds of musketry coming from all 
quarters was unpleasant too. 

Company K crossed the road, and the regiment by order of 
Col. Beal began the tactical movement of " on the right by file 
into line," for our front rank was where our rear rank should be 
if we were to face the front which Shaw had just abandoned. 
But with that instinct which makes .a company of men face the 
fire, instead of receiving it on the flank, the companies as they 
came up bent a little to the rear. This gave us a semi-circular 
line, which Col. Beal tried to straighten out by throwing the left 
forward. We performed this manoeuvre in a pine thicket, which 
was about as fine a place to mauceuvre in as a State of Maine alder 
swamp is. In many places we could not see ten feet in any 
direction ; but before the line was deployed Gen. Dwight signified 
to the Colonel that he wanted us to face exactly the other way ! 
— that is toward the army's rear. 



4S4 OBDXB OUT OF CONFUSION. 1 864. 

It is a wonder that the xegiment did not go to pieces under 
sach a oonfiiBion of orders. Oapt. Nye was looking up the road, 
toward Tezasi to see if the rebels who had overpowered Shaw 
were coming. He could easily understand Col. Beal's order, in- 
deed none other seemed plausible, if the road was to be held and 
the Napoleon gun saved. 

Whitmarsh, who came next in line, had just seen a stray rebel 
out on the left and front of K, and had gone and seized him by 
the seat of his trowsers and was hurrying him back before the 
"29th'* should open fire. He of course understood that the 
rebels were in that direction. 

Capt. Fray's company was bent back stiU more than 6, so 
that it fiieed the fire of the enemy, nnd the Captain was doing his 
best to keep his men firom returning the fire — ^for we had been 
porittvely ordered not to fire in th.it direction, as our own troops 
were there. (These were probably the ll^th, 116th and 158d 
N.T.) 

Redlon was clear and cool as ever. His eyes were full of 
bark dust it is true, for a bullet had hit a tree jnst before thisi, 
instead of Ben.'s head, and filled his eyes with the dust and 
splinters, but he knew where " front " was without eyes. 

The other companies were coming in under Knowlton, wken 
they were halted, and placed in their proper position by Gen. 
Dwight. 

Now what actually happened next, it is impossible to say. 
If there is no error of statement in what has already been said, 
it is fortunate. 

It is sure that three antagonistic orders were being executed. 
First, the original order of Col. Bcnl to file into line on the right, 
fiicing toward Sabine Cross Roads. Second, the orders of the 
captains, who supposed they were carrying out the Colonel's 
order by fiicing their men toward the firing; and lastly, Gen. 
Dwight's order to face what was properly the rear. Somehow, 
we got into the last position, I believe, but it was the blindest 
move of the war to us at the moment of its execution. 

It is all plain now why we were thus ordered. We were sur- 
rounded on the three most important sides. Other regiments 



1864. VICTORY AT LAST. 425 

were guarding the other two fronts and we were to take care of 
the tliird. But as soon as Gen. Smithes troops had slain a 
thousand rebels at one volley!* and had driven them back over 
the ground where Benedict's brigade had retreated, we were no 
longer surrounded and so we were again moved. This time we 
filed around in some way which no one can remember, and after 
passing one of Smith's brigades, the men of which said they had 
not yet fired a gun, we re-crossed the road and went back to a 
spot which must have been near the place where we were at 5 
p. M. And here we listened to the wildest bowlings and bawlings, 
mingled with good square cheers, till it was pitch dark. 

This comprehends the whole of Pleasant Hill, as we remember 
it. The cartridges with which we charged our muskets before 
the battle, were all drawn out three days later at Grand Ecore, 
hence none of us are credited with having assisted to kill a 
thousand rebels at one volley. Nor do I know exactly where to 
go for a special honor, for we did little but push around in 
the bushes and pine saplings, gaping at each other and wondering 
what was wanted of us. But let no man think this was easy 
work. Fortunately it required only a very small sacrifice of 
blood, and for tliis we arc thankful, but it did take all our courage 
and our best efforts. 

One of our ofiicers writes of this battle : " I know nothing about 
where we went nor what we were trying to do, but I know I never 
worked so hard in any battle to keep the men in line." 

After the battle we waited in the bottom of a ravine, hearing 
the hurrahs of our comrades all over the field. We assisted a 
little in this when we were told that a victory had really been 
gained. But we softened our cheers when a few shells commenced 
to explode around us, and still once more grew noisy when the 
good news was brought that the guns that fired those very same 
shells had been captured. 

We were then permitted to sleep without fires, but it was a 
bitter cold night and many of us had lost our knapsacks during 
the excitement of the past forty-eight hours, and these unlucky 



*See the reports of the battle In the newspapers of the period. 



426 A NIGHT OF MISERY. 1 864. 

ones kept the others of us awake. At 11.30 p. m. we were ordered 
to pack up and make ready to start, and after waiting till 2 a. m. 
of the 10th, the order finally came to move, and away we hobbled, 
stifl^ sore, and weary enough. 

We took the road back to Red River, although we had whipped 
the rebels and might have followed them into Texas. General 
Banks's reasons for not following them are given in his report in 
substance as follows : (1.) The river was lowering and he understood 
that the fleet would be unable to reach Shrevepoit. (2.) Emory's 
command was without rations. (3.) The forces designated for 
the expedition numbered 42,000, but only one-half were actually 
available ; and lastly, the time that he could use Smith's troops 
was limited and he was compelled to return them. It is creditable 
to Gen. Grant that one of his first acts on .taking the reins from 
Halleck, was to extend the time allowed to Banks, but this order 
failed to reach our department till the expedition was about over. 

About daylight Gen. Banks passed us covered with a private's 
overcoat. We hurrahed for him with a will, Scrgt. John Fitz 
starting us with " Hurrah for old Sh€7ia7idoah^'' and we gave 
him as hearty a welcome as any general could wish for. 

Sunday noon we reached the camp that we vacated Thursday 
morning, the 7th, and here we were j)ennitted to slcej) in ])eace, 
and did so, having marched forty-eight miles since Friday morning, 
and with but very little sleep. 

April 11th, Monday. We made a very orderly march of 
seventeen miles to what is called Grand Ecoro, the port or land- 
ing of Natchitoches; for the last named place, after acquiring 
some commercial importance, was left as good as six miles inland 
by a freak of Red River. This river has a way, we were told, of 
changing its bed every now and then, to the total discomfiture of 
real estate owners. One old brick house was pointed out to us 
as having been built on the other side, but was now surely on ours. 
We did not fall in love with this country ; we IMaine men can 
stand the fall freshet which carries away our punij)kins and our 
neighbor's saw mill, but this carrying your town six miles off and 



1864. A FAMOUS 80N0 — SIX DATS* WORK. 427 

putting your fiirm on " t'other side " without providing ferry boats 
is distasteful. 

Our retreat to this place gave rise to that famous parody which 
the " 29th " boys can sing with a vim to the tune of " Johnny 
conies marching home." 

In eighteen hundred sixty-one, 
(Semi Chorufl.) Hurrah! Htfrrah! 

We all skedaddled to Washington, 
(Semi Chorus.) Hurrah ! Hurrah ! 

In eighteen hundred and sixty-four, 

We all skedaddled to Grand Ecore,* 
(Full Chorus.) And we'll all drink ! stone I blind ! 

Johnny fill up the bowl I 

The six days'* work, counting from the day we left Natchitoches 
till we returned to Grand Ecore, although not remarkably severe, 
is wortli a moment's attention. As far as our regiment is 
concerned it i.s briefly as follows: 

Wednesday, marched fifteen miles ; not easy, and not very 
hard. 

Thursday, marched twenty miles to Pleasant Hill, soaked by a 
thunder storm. 

Friday, marched eight miles to the saw mill and camped. 
Later, we marched five or six miles, half of it at double-quick, 
and fought till dark; then kept awake till 11 p. m., and finally 
retreated all night to Pleasant Hill. 

Moved about all of Saturday; were in the fight an hour or 
more ; waited for orders to follow the enemy another couple of 
hours ; froze, lying down, two houra more (no fires permitted) ; 
then packe<l up at 11 p. m., and froze standing in line till 2 a. m. 
Sunday, and at last marched twenty miles. On this Sunday 
afternoon and night we slept the fii*st good sleep (the only sleep 
to one-half of us) since Thursday night. 

Monday we finished the trip by marching seventeen miles to 



*This was a pootic license, or else it refers to the 13th corps and caralrj. Th« 
remaiuUer of the army was not demoralized at all. 



428 



6ABn«E AND PLEASANT HILL CASUALTIES. 



1864. 



Grand Ecore. In all, two battles and a march of one hundred 
miles (possibly only ninety-eight). 

Oar casualties for the six days were as follows : 



Sabinb Cboss Roads, Apbil 8, 1864. 



Co. Name. 

G. Greeley, John W. 

G. Header, Calvin 

I. Wyman, Henry A. 

B. Allen, Jedcdiah 

C. Nichols, WilUam A. 
E. Sloman, Charles A. 
E. Garcelon, Levi M. 
E. Pearson, Charles H. 
B. Hill, Alonzo 

P. Stevens, Enos H. 

P. Murray, Joseph W. 

G. Littleficld, Albert 

G. Bicknell, Ichabod W. 

G. Bozzell, Stephen 

G. Burnell, Calvin B. 

G. Holmes, Otis S. 

H. Maguire, William E. 

H. Stevens, John C. 

I. Hayes, Levi 

L Stewart, John 

K. Clear, John 

K. Tiffany, Frederick A. 



Rank. 


Where hit 


• 

Corporal. 


Bowels. Killed. 


(( 


Head, (mortally wounded.) 


Private, 


Died of wounds May 12, Prisoner 


« 


Head. 


(( 


Leg.* 


Corporal, 


Stomach. 


Private, 


Foot. 


ti 


Eye, (slight). • 


n 


Shoulder. 


u 


Arm. 


it 


Shoulder. 


Corporal, 


Knee. 


TrtMAte 


Leg, (slight). 


i< 


Side. 


ti 


Arm. 


Private, 


Finger, (slight). 


(( 


Head, (slight). 


<( 


Ann, (slight). 


(( 


Hand, (slight). 


(( 


Side, (slight). 


(( 


Cheek, (slight). 


it 


Finger shot off. 



Pleasant Hill, Afril 9, 1864. 



C. Murray, Thomas 

F. Eaton, George W. 

G. Ricker, George F. 

L Philbrook, Charles C. 

K. Dunn, Albert N. 



Private, 



Ankle, 
Finger. 

Head, (slight). 
Foot. 
Corporal, Thigh, 



<( 



(( 



it 



Prisoner. 



Prisoner. 



The organization of the regiment during the entire campaign was- 
Left. 



L 



B 



I " I 



I 



n 



« 



I 



K 



Right. 



* Also stepped on by cavalry horse. 



1864. STRENGTH IN ACTION. 429 

There were present in these two battles the following officers of our 
ref^ment : 

Col. Beal, Lieut. Col. Emerson, M^or Knowlton, 3 

Surgeon Day, Asst. Surgeon Cotton, Ac^t. Gould^ 8 

B. Capt. Hedlon and 1st Lieut. Hunt,' 2 

C. Capt. Jordan and Ist Lt. Stanley (and 2d Lt. Fillebrown 

on Dwight's staff). 2 

E. Capt. Beal, Lieuts. Graham and Waterhouse, 8 

E. Capt. Turner, Lieuts. Rankin and Harmon, 8 

G. Capt. Whitmarsli and 1st Lieut. Millett, 2 

H. Capt. Blake, Lieuts. Cobum and French, 8 

I. Capt. Pray and 2d Lieut. Hoyt, 2 

K. Capt Nye and 2d Lieut. Bagnall, 2 

26 

The number of enlisted men engaged cannot be accurately 
stated. A " roll of honor " was prepared at Grand Ecore, but no 
copy of it has been saved by private parties, and the " rules of 
the department'" are such that a document may as well be in the 
bottom of the sea as in the office of the adjutant general of the 
army. Fortunately the original reports of three companies were 
saved, and these show 66 muskets in Co. B, 63 in Co. G and 67 
in I at the battle of Sabine Cross Roads. 

Estimating the other five companies as well as we can at this 
date, we may say that 534 armed men, including Sergt. Major 
Greene, were carried into that battle. From this number deduct 
about forty killed, wounrled and straggled, and the number 
present at Pleasant Hill will be found. And these figures are 
more reliable than any report which I can find. 

Although we were fatigued and felt something of the disappoint- 
ment prevalent in the army, yet on arriving at Grand Ecore we 
were quite enthusiastic and happy over the week's work. We 
felt that whatever ills had befallen the army, the 29th Maine had 

made a fine debut. 

** Kings may be blest, but Tarn was glorious, 
O'er a' the ills 0' life victorious.'' 



430 1864. 



CHAPTER XLI. 

GRAND ECORE — RETREAT TO ALEXANDRIA. 

April 12th, Tuesday. Under this date the diary says : 
The only noticeable event of the day was the " trotting out " of our strag- 
glers for the public gaze. During the two battles, or just previous to entering 
them, about thirty men skulked. The character of the fights and march 
was favorable to this, and perhaps under different circumstances the most of 
the thirty would not have thought of a thing so mean. Col. Beal wisely 
determined to punish them very severely. First, the battalion line was formed 
by order of Gen. Dwight, who came over and complimented us for our good 
behavior in the campaign generally, and during the battles in particular. Ailer 
this, and hurrahs for D wight, the Colonel ordered to the front the sergeants 
and corporals, who for antf reason had absented themselves from the rej^iment 
without orders at any time during the 8lh or 9th. He then reprimanded 
them for their wrong doing, and told them there was one way only to re- 
deem their cliaracter, which way was to strive to do better than the regiment 
generally in tlie next battle. The corporals and privates who had been 
appointed to their places were now ordered forward, and ripped off their 
chevrons and stripes. The recreant privates had also been brought to the 
front, and all of the party were now notified by the Colonel that they should 
perform all the dirty work and police duty of the camp for the present, and 
they have been bringing water, sweeping up camp, &c., ever since, wliile the 
regiment is teasing them in every way, especially inquiring '• Aren't you glad 
you went for a soldier?" and if they appreciate their ** chance to tmvel and 
the free medical attendance." 

This last query, besides being a familiar quotation, was a 
reminder also that they could not play sick and so escape their 
torment, for Dr. Day had threatened, or else the men took it for 
granted, which is perhaps more likely, to " put through " any oi 
these skulks who came to him with a long face, and the rawest 
recruit, or even "Bingham's quota," knew that he could do it. 
The diary has also: 



1864. GUERRILLAS — ** VETERAN " OOHHISSION. 431 

The men of our regiment are in excellent spirits : the horror of fighting, 
which we always had in the Potomac army, is entirely absent with us. The 
constant inquiry is, " How far is it to Shreveport by the river V* which indicates 
the desire, or willingness, to try again with gun-boats and rations to help us. 
I like this question much better than the one we had under John Pope, ** How 
far to Washington ? '' The wounded have been sent to New Orleans. Mail 
arrived to-day. A large foraging party went out. 

* 

Next day, 13th, our pickets were attacked, the eavaliy videttes 
coining in witli some precipitancy. 

On the 14t]i it was recorded : " River still falling as if the 
bottom had dropped out." 

April 15th, the regiment went on picket, or rather went outside 
of the army camp a sliort distance, and remained near its stacks 
all day and night, ready to fight at a moment's notice. The 
cavalry was four miles farther out. 

All of our out-post duty in Lousiana was unlike that in Virginia, 
as will be seen hereafter. The enemy's cavalry, or the guemllas 
as we called them, were continually bushwhacking our out-posts 
and often, by creepijiLC around, they fired a shot into camp. We 
have some res2)ect fur an enemy who hazards his own safety to 
injure us, and so we give tliese gueriillas credit for deeds which 
stand a peg higher than the mule-shooting bravery of Moseby 
and his men. 

By the 16th all the transports which the rebels thought they 
had "bagged" were down again. Our sutler was on hand, too, 
with butter at 75 cents and cheese at 50. No pies nor cakes. 

The "veteran" commission of our Colonel has been alluded to 
already. It really had no force under Gen. Order No. 191, but 
our good behaviour at Sabine Cross Roads, and Gen. Banks's 
previous acquaintance with us and our Colonel, led Gens. Dwight 
and Banks to devise a means for the end they had in view. Gen. 
Banks had selected Dwight for his chief of stafi^ and our Colonel 
received a hint that his claim for veteran rank would be allowed. 
So he made it on April 17th, and Gen. Dwight endorsed it "Res- 
pectfully approved. Col. Beal gave evidence in the actions of the 
8th and 9th that he was an oflicer of experience and capacity." 
On April 19th, the order came for Col. Beal, as the ranking officer 



48S OOL. BBAXi TAKES OOIUAND OF FIRST BBIOADE. 1864. 

€(f the briffodsj to take eonmumd of it. He did bo and never re- 
turned to the oommsnd of the regiment again. He took Quarter- 
maater Thompson to act as Aaat. Quartermaster, and Adjutant 
Gould for AflBt. Adjt. General, which will account to the general 
reader for the change in the character of the diary jBrom this date 
till winter.* 

On this same day the army received orders to ** prepare to 
move against the enemy." The gunboats and transports of deep 
draught had all gone down river before this, and we heard from 
undoubted authority that there was still a division of the enemy 
which had not been engaged with our army, so that our force 
was 6,000 less than the enemy. We did not hear definitely, 
however, whether the mass of rebels was near us or had gone 
to flight Gen. Steele in Arkansas, but the rumors came both ways. 
In point of fact, the infantry and artillery had gone to overpower 
Steele, and they of course succeeded in driving him back and 
oovering themselves with glory, at the expense of the man in 
Washington who planned these two campaigns. We will not try 
to belittle the fkme of the rebel general— Dick Taylor, — nor cast 
a dur upon the rebel army, but we will remind the reader that 
Gten. Grant, on taking command of the TJ. S. army, put an end 
to such nonsense as the starting of two small armies from opposite 
points to crush one large one. 

SETBSAT DOWN BBD RIVBB. 

The reasons which Gen. Banks gives for retreating are, as 
already noted, an unusually low river, and the consequent inability 
of the gunboats to help us; the depletion of his command by the 
return of a portion of it, and the expiration of the time when all 
the borrowed troops. Smith's, should be sent back. 

If I rightly observed the officers and men of our division, they 

* W« Iniert here an extamet from Oen. I>wlght*8 report of the iMttlei of the 8th and 
9Ui: 

•< At I pMHied frequentlj along the line I had occasion to note aocarately the oondact 
of an the regiment!, and too moeh praise cannot be awarded to them for their flrraneaa 
Md good conduct, but eepecial pralae is due to the officers and soldiers of the 29th Me. 
VolonteerSf whose conduct left nothing to be desired. * * * I would moat 
reapectAillf call the attention of the brigadier General commanding division to Ck>l. 
Seal of tha SOth Ma., and hit paeoUar fltneas i^ a higher command." 



1 864. A VERT LONG MARCH. 433 

expected to go to Shreveport in spite of the disaster on the first 
trial. This certainly was the sentiment of our regiment The 
command of A. J. Smith had ideas of their own, and from their 
great chief down to the " nigger *' servant they all regarded Banks 
with contempt. 

We waited all the 20th, expecting hourly to i*eceive orders to 
move ; then on the 2l8t the regiment went on picket again, and 
was taken oft after midnight. 

At 1.30 A. M., April 22d, the brigade moved and halted shortly 
after, then moved again and halted in the old fashioned Virginia 
way. We crossed Cane River, a mere brook at that time, though 
it ran through a bed wider and deeper than the Kennebec at 
Aujjusta. We were then on the island where we had been half 
suftbcatcd from dust in coming up, and were now again choked 
with it after we were once out of the woods. 

Few, if any of us, had an hour's sleep that night, and the men's 
step showed that they were fatigued, by daylight. The hourly 
rests were irregular, and we were frequently stopped from unknown 
causes, and halted till we got asleep, after which it was no fun to 
wake up and start. 

It is hardly an exaggeration to say that our path was lighted 
by the fires of burning cotton. Every plantation cotton shed 
was burning us we passed, and the " bummers," who ventured 
out on the intersecting roads, reported everything ablaze as far 
as they could see. The incendiary was never discovered. A 
reward of a thousand dollars failed to bring him to justice or 
prevent the mischief. We understood that it was done by the 
" niggers," who were running away by thousands or possibly tens 
of thousands. 

About 11 A. M. we halted near a plantation whose mansion 
house had been burned months before, and rested till 3 p. m., 
many of us sleeping meanwhile. We watched the negroes go 
past us, and a comical sight it was, and sad as well. At dusk 
we halted for a short time again, and the anny went into lines of 
battle, facing up river while the teams went on. Then at 7 we 
started once more, went through Cloutiervillo and halted two 
miles south at 11.40 p. M., having marched forty miles (or possibly 
38 



484 IN 8BAB0H OF LEBBBTT. 1864. 

bat thiity-MTeii) dnring the last twenty-two honrs. No language 
which I can command can convey to one not there an idea of the 
rain and confhaion that we saw. The anny was well *^ in hand."' 
I speak of ruin in connection with the planters' property, and of 
tun\fUsian in refi^rence to the negroes. The blacks followed ns 
in droves, mostly afoot; bat thousands of them were mounted 
on mules which they had stolen, and thousands more, espedally 
the fiit old aunties and the little pickaninnies, were piled in wagona. 
The last three or four miles of our march was alongside of the 
''contrabands^ train," which was doubled up, turned out of the 
road, parked or jumbled together in a very unmllitary manner. 
There was no telling the breadth of this bunch of wagons, and we 
began to despair of ever seeing the end of it, but after about two 
hours of patient tramping we saw the last old uncle quietly wait- 
ing and looking right and left for ^ liberty." 

The day had been cloudy, and not very warm ; the dust had 
caused much suflbring, yet the diary states that the men (of the 
brigade) did not straggle but were in good spirits after their 
extraordinary nmrch, and I remember that they received the or- 
der ** on the right by file into line " (for bivouac) with a yell, 
which must be understood as a burst of exultation over " the 
general " who had not succeeded in ^^ playing " them out. 

BATTLK OP CANS BIVEB CROSSING (mONET's BLUFF). 

Saturday, April 28, 1864. 

In the morning we were aroused at 4.20, not feeling very fresh. 
The rebels were in the front (south) to dispute our rc-crossing 
Cane River. Another force was understood to be following after 
us— on the road we had traveled the day before. This troubled 
us but little, since we knew that the force must be cavalry and 
vastly inferior to us. We resumed the march down river, halted 
frequently, and observed some sharp skirmishing on the right 
bank. The current of the river was almost imperceptible, the 
banks were very high and the water deep, though there appeared to 
be numerous fording places. 

Gen. Banks was in the rear with Gen. Smith. Gen. Franklin 



1864. FIRE AND WATER — QUICK WORK. 435 

was laid up with the wound he had received behind our regiment 
at Sabine Cross Roads, consequently the command in our front, 
the southera one, devolved upon ** Old Brick-top," as the boys 
familiarly called Gen. Emory. 

We had little knowledge of what was transpiring. The guns 
of Smith, behind us, and those of Birge over the river, indicated 
plainly that the rebels were watching us sharply. 

The force across the river was the fragment called the 13th 
corps, under Gen. Cameron, the Third brigade of our division, 
under Col. Frank Fessenden, a brigade of Grover's division which 
had come up to Grand Ecore on transports, and some cavalry, 
— all under Gen. Birge, who received his orders from Gen. Emory. 

Our brigade followed McMillan's in its march down the left 
(east) bank, and halted while Birge's force crossed and skirmished 
with the enemy. The soldiers of the rebels were very good 
skirmishers, and we could see them dodging about from one 
shelter to another, as they fell back slowly before the superior 
numbers opposed to them. 

2\t length the enemy made a stand on the opposite side, and we 
were now at nine o'clock, taken from the road and formed in line, 
about a mile from where the road crossed the river. We remained 
here waiting for the next move, having very little understanding 
of this one, as far as we were concerned, till a few cannon balls 
came falling in our vicinity. 

The 116th N. Y. and two companies of the 153d N. Y. were 
sent into a swamp ahead of our line to reconnoitre, and after 
wading in water up to their waists for about half a mile, they sent 
back word that there was no force on our side. By and by we 
heard the volleys from the troops on the other side, with yells 
and shouts, and the usual racket attending a battle. The aitillery 
on our side of the river now unmasked and took the rebels in 
flank. Soon after this we were moved forward in the mud and 
water. A rebel battery at the crossing shelled us as well as they 
could as we advanced through the woods, but the battle was 
brief, though sharp, and it ended over the river with a tremendous 
Imrrahing, while on our side we fired not a musket; but our 
artillery put a shell into the right spot, and four horses and the 



486 THS OLD MAN IN GOOD HUMOB. 1864^ 



rebel driver were killed. This ended the battle of Cane 
GroBung. 

For oar part in the action, we were ordered to inscribe the 
name on our flag, and hj the cnstom in such cases it belongs 
there; yet we will not daim anjof the honor or glory which 
belongs to those who really fought the battle on the right bank. 

To see the ^old man^ after his success in ^getting up a 
skedaddle in IXzie," as he styled it, was a rich treat. He was 
happy, good-natured and a little talkative. W e were unacquainted 
with him then, and our Colonel was not a little puzsled when he 
heard him shouting at the top of his voice ^ Col. Beal 1 1 Col. 
Beal ! ! I come here sir^ — ^youVe almost ruined us ! " The Colonel 
bq[ged to know what terrible mistake he had made. 

" I liked to have lost this battie by you sir ! ^ said the GeneraL 

The Colonel was speechless. 

*^Yoa must have your name changed, sirl^ The Colonel 
nodded assent. 

<* Why sir! I ordered you forward on the trot — ^I should have 
told the stupid fellow * double-quick' — and that ass of an orderly 
— I had not a single aide at hand sir — galloped to Capt. Neilj and 
told him to trot his battery to the front, and bless my soul, sir, 
he was almost into the enemy's lines before I could halt him ! 
You must change your name sir I" 

This joke went the rounds and made us feel well, for the " old 
man^s " good humor was contagious, and you know that there is 
no time when a man can chuckle and appreciate a joke better 
than when after a day of expectation of a fight he discovers that 
his services will not be needed. 

We next moved down to the river ; Major Knowlton and Sergt. 
Major Greene began to rebuild the bridge with companies H and 
E, while the rest of us cooked supper and went to sleep. Before 
long the colored engineers came with their pontoons, and in a 
very short time made a good crossing for the army. We then 
received orders to go over, which surprised and vexed us, for wo 
believed we were to chase cavalry by starlight — a duty altogether 
devoid of interest. But the order directed us to march at once, 
and we did so^ starting at nine o'clock in the evening. We soon 



1864. INGENDI ART FIRES. 437 

came to our cavalry out-posts and were told that the rebels had 
fled into the interior, which proved to be true, and wo saw no 
more of them for a while. 

We marched on with spirit and in excellent order till midnight, 
when we halted in the vicinity of the camp that we had left 
March 31st. Our day's march, or rather the distance by the road 
from point to point, was nearly nine miles. 

April 24th, Sunday, We were up at five and marched at six, 
our brigade leading as before. We took the wrong road and reached 
Red River before Col. Chi-ysler, of the 2d N. Y. veteran cavalry, 
discovered the error. We then turned back, but Gen. Emory sent 
us word to go on and we would come out right at last. We thus 
saw the gun-boat Lexington and filled our canteens. Cavalry 
stragglers troubled us much to-day, and not only cotton-sheds but 
the mansion-houses and out-buildings of the plantations were fired 
by the incendiaries. It is enough to know that Gen. Emory 
could not stop this mischief, though I can witness that he tried 
to, and drew his sword on a citizen camp-follower, who had stolen 
bacon and appeared to have done other mischief. 

The diary notes at length a queer discussion which came up 
wlien the brigade clerk brought in the regular " Sunday morning 
field return" for signature, dated Monday, April 25th. He was 
sure the date was right ; the regimental returns were so dated, 
he said, and I could see myself, for we had left Grand Ecore 
Friday morning, and h;id we been only two days on the move ? 
This was a stunner! We discussed it at headquarters till the 
question was raised if it were not Tuesday y when I left in disgust 
for the regiment, where Emerson, Knowlton, Nye and other clear 
lieads confirmed me that it was Sunday. Such a mixing of day 
and night we never had. 

We inarched alongside of a bayou nearly all day, and camped 
at night within a half mile of Roberts's plantation, where we had 
killed so many hogs on our march up — March 28th. 

Next day, April 25th, Monday^ we marched into Alexandria. 
It was very hot, and now that all excitement had ceased it became 
very tedious and debilitating. By order of Gen. Emory, we 



488 AUEXAKDiOA — 8I0KNS88 — J^AD WATER. 1864. 

■ 

airested every dTahy-maa; tlii0^withotherprecaution8,preTented 
many incendiary fires to-day. The men of Grovel's division came 
out of their camps to meet us, and their dean clothes and polished 
braases reminded as of a brighter side in soldiering than what we 
had been haying. We marched into the city, turned up river, 
oroflsed Bayou R^ides again, and camped two miles out of town 
on the river's side. The gunboats were under the bank waiting 
for more water to get over the rapids or *^ falls,'' as the dtizens 
called them. 

The next day the sun came out hot ; a great change seemed to 
have come suddenly over the army and especially upon our regi- 
ment, which had so many men unused to hard service. The 
diary states: — 

They [the new men of the ** 29th "] move around like liTing corpses, their 
cheeks sanken and their eyes dull ; they can hardly walk, and they go back 
and finth from their sunny camp to the shady woods with their under jaws 
ii^Tiglng down— a sure sign of a " played-out " man. 

We remained quietly in camp two days, the sick list increasing 
rapidly. This, I suppose the doctors will say, was caused by the 
heat, and by the past over work, and also by the Red River water, 
which is fall of alkalies, muddy, unpalatable and lukewarm. 

About noon time, April 28th, we came very near having a scare, 
for the rebels made a demonstration on our entire lines to see 
what we were about. We were hastily formed and were posted 
behind a ditch. This country is a net work of ditches, bayous 
and levees, so that we never had to go far to find a ready-made 
breastworks 

There is nothing in Maine that will pass for a bayou ; the 
nearest to it in appearance is a canal with its steep bed and high 
embankments, but the comparison ends there. The land in Lou- 
isiana is flat, and the water flows first upstream! — pardon mc 
— and then down, according to the stage of the Mississippi and 
Red. Now Red River water is muddy, brick-colored and soapy, 
about like dish water; that of the Mississippi, though generally 
good and of an even quality, is sometimes almost as vile as the 
Red, and varies according to the quantity of water received from 
its many feeders. When there is a freshet in the Red and the 



1864. ON THE ALERT. 439 

Mississippi is low, then one-third of Louisiana is drenched with its 
bricky alkalies, but when the Red gets low and the " Father of 
Waters " is high, then the Mississippi water backs up the Red and 

its bayous, and goes flowing all over the country. It is very 

* 

much as if the Atlantic should send its salt water up every river, 
brook and ditch in Maine, and fill Moosehead to boot. There 
seem to be few brooks in this flat country. The bayous are of all 
widths and depths^ and are all connected with each other, there- 
fore the only way to keep the water from overflowing the entire 
country during*the freshets, is to build these high banks called 
levees. They arc a breastwork of firat quality. 

We waited an hour or more, during which we heard musketry 
in addition to cannonading. Then Gen. Emory took the whole 
division down to the city at a very brisk pace, and con- 
stantly urged more speed, the cannonading and musketry in- 
creasing all the while — or perhaps we heard it better the nearer 
we approached it. 

I was sent to the corps headquarters to inquire what street would take us 
into the Opelousas road, and learned that our movement was unknown at 
corps lieadquarters. Then trotting over to Banks's headquarters, I learned 
that the General-in-cliief was also ignorant of our movement. In truth our 
"old man " is a wide awake and cautious old fellow, and I suspect that after 
observing tlie littleness of the force which had attacked his outposts, and 
hearing the artillery fire down river, he concluded that it was best to place 
himself where he could reinforce the main army, or be reinforced by it without 
delay. "VVe all swore with a will when we saw the quietness of the town — 
" our army swore terribly in Flanders," you know ; make Flanders Louisiana, 
and you liave it as true as it was in Uncle Toby's day. 

Simultaneously with, or soon after our movement down one 
bank of the bayou, the 13th corps came in on the other, burning 
a sugar mill and cotton shed as they came ; the last was full of 
rations, and a sorry error it was too. We. slept on our arms that 
night, and the next day all the army appeared to be waiting for 
an attack, but the rebels had only been feeling our strength, and 
in the morning they were gone. 

April 30th, our regiment was ordered to report to Lieut. Col. 
Bailey across Red River, and to work upon the dam which he 
had projected. So we crossed on the pontoon to Pineyville, 



440 AT WORK ON bailey's DAM, 1 864. 

marched up the river, and camped in the woods on its banks. 
At that time very little preparation had been made for the 
construction of the dam. 



THE BED BIVEE DAM. 

• As a large majority of our men were familiar with the use of 
the ax, we were divided into squads and sent^into the woods to 
cut trees. This was almost s])ort to many of the men. It was 
decidedly a "sofl thing" compared with working night and day 
in the water. Those who were not ax-men 'were sent- up river 
to get out rocks, a sort of hardened sand, and a very few worked 
upon the dam itself. Our principal duty was to fell the trees 
near the dam and chop off the branches. They were then dragged 
to the river by mules and the dam was made in the following 
manner : 

The trees were hauled to the river bed, which was partially dry 
by reason of the low water, and placed fifteen or twenty abreast 
pointed toward the opposite bank. On top of these, but lying 
crosswise to the first, others were rolled and packed as snuo^ly as 
possible. The tops of tlic trees of tliis second tier were left on, 
and served as a mattin2: for tlie sand and rocks tliat were thrown 
on them to rest against. Tlie third tier of loo:s pointed toward 
the opposite bank, and the fourth up river, and so on. In this 
way tlie dam was first extende<l into the river toward the Alex- 
andria si<le, and then heiG:htene(l. It was made tiolit by throwinsr 
brush upon the up-river side, and upon tliis brush and uj)on all 
the dam, rocks and bricks were thrown from boats, an<l sand was 
hauled in wagons, until a good roadway was made on top of the 
dam. 

As nearly all the trees sank of their own weight, being green, it 
was not difficult, where the water wns shoni, to pusli the dam out 
into the river log after log. But in a few days deeper water was 
reached, and the current increased, of course, the farther the dam 
was carried, and then it became a slower and more tedious task 
to plant the bottom tiers. This was done by the men — all of 
them belonging to other regiments, 2)rincipally western men and 



1364- FIMSUIKO THE DAU. 441 

the bJncks, — stepping upon the log after it was once placecl, 
and hoMing it there till others were brought on to confine it. 
But wlicn the dam liad been thus carried abont half across the 
river the water was so deep and swift that it could not be bailt 
any faither in this manner. Anticipating this, Col. Bailey had 
ordered tho constniction of cribs, and Capt. Redlon, of the " ZQtli," 
being a carpenter, had been detailed to boss a gang of western 
men, whose former overseer could not do this worlt of building 
cribs. When finished they wure floated, separately, to the end 
of tho d:im, wliero tlicy were moored and stayed with ropes till 
brush, stones and earth enough had been pnt in to sink them. 

The cliannel ran so near to the Alexandria bank, that the short 
(lam on th.it shore was made almost entirely of cribs. The lum- 
ber to make these cribs was obtained principally from a large 
mill a short dist.ince up rlvei-, and tho duty of pnlling down the 
mill and floating the stuff to Capt. Keillon's gang and others fell 
to the lot of Capt, Jordan and Lieut. Stanley, of Co. C, and to 
the men of our regiment who could not use axes, and Brown, of 
Co. C, was drowned while floating a stick out of the mill-pond 
into the rivei 




BAlLKT'a BED Bim DHL 

(As <CCD friim liic Alexandria bnnk, looking up river.) 

When the dam was carried out sonic yards faither by these 

cribs the surge of (lie w.tter threatened to break or carry them 

away if more should be put in, therefore the next step was to 



442 THE FLEET SAVED, 1 864. 

supplant crib-work with a more substantial article — the cotton 
barge. These the sailors of the navy helped to put in position, 
and the soldiers sunk them one after another, till, if we remember 
rightly, the two wings were only about one hundred feet apart. 
Through this gap the water rushed as it does over our State 
of Maine falls, a speed not often attained in the sluggish streams 
of the South. 

Hopes had been entertained in some minds* that this small 
passage way would not be sufficient to pass the entire current, 
and that the river would rise and the water flow over the dam. 
The river did not rise so high as these men hoped, and a large 
cotton barge was run across the mouth of the passage way and 
filled with water. Its bottom was thtfs within a few feet of the 
riverbed and the river then rose finely. This gate-barge was so 
fastened that it could be drawn aside to let a gunboat out and 
pulled back as soon as it had shot through. 

On Sunday, the 8th of May, the dam was about finished, and 
the Osage and Hindman, two not very heavy boats, came down 
to the dam in the evening amid the most tremendous cheering and 
howling til at was heard during the campaign. For the next we 
copy Gen. Banks's report: 

"A little after five o'clock on tlio moniinp of the ninth, I saw a part of the 
dam swept away. The four hoats that had passed the rapids the afternoon 
before, were able to pass below throuji:h the opening which the waters liad 
made. (.)nly one of the vessels above tlie falls, the ' Lexington,' was ready to 
move when the dam pave way, and that can^i down after the break, and 
passed the dam safely, with all the vessels that were below the rapids. Had 
the others been ready to move, all wouhl have passed the rapids and the dam 
safely on Monday. Until after the dam had been carried away, no eflbrt had 
been made to lessen the draught of the imprisoned vessels by lightening them 
of cargo, arm.imcnt or plating. Before the second series of dams was com- 
pleted, a portion of the armament and the plating, materially lessening their 
draught and the depth of water required to float them, was Vemoved. Lieut. 
William S. Beebe, of the ordnance department, U. 8. A., superintended the 
removal of the heavy naval guns from above the rapids to a point below the 
dam by land, assisted by otttcers and soldiers of the army. 

** The army immediately commenced the reconstruction of the dam. 
Finding it impossible entirely to resist the current of the river, the openin^j 
made by the flood was only partially closed, and eight or ten wing dams were 



• In Romo way I got the impression that Gon. Bailey expected this and I wrote (1870) to 
Inquire if this were so. but more particularly to ask if ho could tell whether the dam 
leaked much— a point about which I find there is a great variety of belief in the " 29th.*' 

The answer came back that Gen. Bailey was murdered in Missouri soon after the war, 
while performing his duty as sheriff. 



1864. QUESTIONS FOR THE CURIOUS. 443 

constnicteti on the right and left bank of the river, in accordance with the 
orijfinal plan, turning the current of water directly upon the channel, and 
raising it at the different points sufficiently to allow the vessels to pass. This 
new work was completed on the twelfth of May, and on the afternoon of that 
day all tlie boats i)assed below the rapids to the dam. At six o'clock in the 
evening the 'Mound City' and 'Carondelet' passed the dam. The other 
boats remained above until the morning of the thirteenth. The water upon 
the dam was steadily falling, but at- nine o'clock on the tliirteenth all the boats 
had safely passed." 

I have not made very extensive inquiry about the " eight or 
ten wing dams," but all of the tliirty or forty officers and men 
that I have asked or written to about it are confident there were 
no dams except the main dam and the one which was begun but 
abandoned. They say they never saw nor heard of such things! 
This shows how difficult it is to know the whole truth of what 
is transpiring under one's very nose. 

I am confident that no regiment did more faithful service than 
ours. From various tiiistworthy reports, it appeai-s that the river 
was 748 feet wide where the dam was built, and that about 3,000 
men and 1,000 animals were employed in its construction. Lt. 
Col. Bailey was rewarded by Congress for it, and the country 
considers it a great engineering feat, but Col. Dyer, of the 15th 
Maine, did not consider it such a marvelous production, when tes- 
tifying before the congressional committee, and his opinion is 
valuable. I wish they had asked the Colonel if it was much of 
a feat for a lieutenant colonel of western volunteers to persuade 
all the wise men of the army and navy that the dam could be 
built, and if it was easy to work two weeks on one plan without 
interference. I suspect the Colonel would have agreed with the 
rest of us on that question. 



444 1864- 



CHAPTER XLH. 

PENT UP IN ALBXANDBIA. 

Mat 2d, Mandoj/. Oar band arrived, with a namber of men un- 
der Lt. Stacy, also the Paymaster, Major J. W. Brigden, who paid 
xm that eyening and daring the next forenoon for Jan'y and Feb'y 
and one installment of bonnty. Their boat had been fired into 
on the way ap, and one man killed and one woanded. Regimen- 
tal bands could not be mastered in as they had been in 1861. 
Bat before we left Aagasta, a oontribation was made by the men 
and officers of the re^ment and a fund raised as before stated. 

Our old Mend Chandler, the veteran musician of our state, was 
employed to raise and lead the band. Mr. II. N. Johnson, leader 
of the Lewiston Band, was second in ours, and when Mr. Chandler 
retired he took the leadership. All but Mr. Chandler wore 
enlisted men, and the band was a good one, though it was not sp 
large as the one belonging to the Tenth, and its opportunities for 
practice were not so favorable. 

May 4th, Wedjiesdai/. We were startled by learning that a 
transport which was bringing the 120th Ohio up river, had been 
fired into and disabled, and the regiment nearly all captured. 
That day (or about then) Gen. Banks issued an order that all 
pablic animals should receive but two-thirds of their allowance 
of forage, but I believe that none of the 1st brigade mules suffered. 
Then the truth came over us that we were blockaded and could 
not remedy the matter. 

The force of rebels in our part of the state consisted, so wo 
were told, of twenty-one regiments and battalions of cavalry or 



1864. SICKNESS AND DEATH. 445 

mounted infantry, with artillery. As well as could be learned 
by our informera, they had planted a battery of heavy guns (32- 
pounders, the report was) behind the levee, and easily knocked 
our transports to pieces. And when, on May 6th, we learned that 
two " tin-clads " and another transport with troops aboard had 
been captured, it made us all feel a little blue. 

The diary teems with complaints and lamentations about this 
time. The sick list of our regiment was very large and we were 
without hospital supplies. Quite a number died,* and the living 
complained that their strength had gone. But a bright day came 
at last, though it began in sorrow. 

May 8th, Sunday. This morning it vvas bright and cloudless, so we got no 
rain after all. Two more poor fellows died at our regimental hospital last 
night, and another one died while we were burying them. 

Orders came to reduce the rations to two-thirds, except the ftcsh beef 
allow^ce. 

Also received onlers to be ready after to-morrow noon to march on two 
hours' notice. Sparc wagons are being taken to pieces and shipped aboard the 
transports, of which there are some miles here (I can't estimate them by 
hundreds). Tlie mules thus relieved will be put on other wagons, making six 
mule teams. This, and other things we hear, indicate a rapid march in 
prospect. 

The dam is completed ; toward niglit we heard hurrahing all over town 
l>ecausc of the safe passage of the first gunboat over the falls. Lieut. Col. 
Bailey is said to be the happiest man on Red River, and Gen. Banks the next 
happiest. We are told that the dam will remain many years though built 
for temporary use only. A number of prisoners and citizens have been brought 
in while we have been here, who say that the citizens, one and all, laugh at 
the idea of damming Red River, which they say will niake a new channel 
any day, and will undcnnine and wash away all the dams the yankees 
ever dreamed oflT. 

Of course we neither received nor sent a mail for some days, 
while we were blockaded. One down mail was captured. May 
5th, and one or two coming up met the same fate. Gen. Banks 
communicated with the outside world by sending couriera with 



* Daring oar twenty weoks* service in Louisiana there wore eighty-one men who "died 
of disease,'* against forty-eight men who died daring oar entire two years of the First 
and Tenth regiments' service. If we include those who died in Louisiana after the reg- 
iment left that State, there were 109 deaths fh)m disease alone as the resolt of our twenty 
weelis* service there. 



446 OFF AT LAST — GUERRILLAS. 1 864, 

escorts around the rebel force. I am not aware that any serious 
misfortune befel the " 29th " in consequence of this blockade ; the 
order to cut down the rations for the troops and forage for the 
animals caused but few empty stomachs. But our hospital was 
poorly supplied, and there was no way to send the very sick to 
the general hospital as would have been done otherwise. There 
is no denying our aggravation at being blockaded by an inferior 
force ; still we understood the nature of the case and knew that 
we could brush away our enemy the moment wo had relieved 
our friends. 

May 10th, Tuesday. The diary comments to-day upon a 

blessing in the shape of a thunder storm, which gave us a 

moment's relief from the dustiest of dusts. It also states that 

'* enlistments into the navy have been stopped." Banks's force 

had been ordered to be bled to the extent of two hundred to fill 

# 

up the navy. Wo lost five men out of the " 29th," by this, and 
temper beside. Also on this May 10th came the order to march. 

The next day we received notice that " the knapsacks of the 
men will be shipped if desired." It was desired by many in the 
army, but I judge that many more preferred throwing away their 
stuff to making it a sure spoil for tlie thieves. At length — May 
12th, — all the gunboats were over tlic fills, and we marched 
across the pontoon at G p. si. to the Alexandria side. In the 
morning (May 13th), afler many false starts we got away between 
8 and 10 o'clock, and made a very easy march down river, and 
rested in the shade for two hours at noon. After this we marched 
slowly, still in the river road, and camped when twelve miles 
away from Alexandria. The enemy was upon our right flank 
during the afternoon, firing occasionally at the line of infantry 
flankers, and running off instantly if the fire was returned or chase 
given to them. 

We always called these forces of the enemy "guerrillas;" they 
were as great an aggravation to us by day as the mosquitoes 
were at night, and we cared for them about as much. They 
prevented straggling, and as Gen. Sheridan said of the Virginia 
guerrillas, they kept the trains closed up and did as good service 



/ 



1864. THE LOST MAIL. 447 

for Us as two re^ments of cavalry. We met a battalion of the 
2d Maine cavalry to-day and exchanged compliments with them. 

Our camp was on Osborne's plantation. "The general" (we 
never inquired who) .commanded that Osborne's sugar should be 
issued to the troops, and the " 29th" received a hogshead and a half. 
Fires, music and loud noise were prohibited for the night, w^hich 
made us laugh, for the "guerrillas" were sitting on their horses 
and winking at us when we camped, and knew more about our 
position than any man in the union army. 

May 14th, Saturday, Pleasant and warm, but not very hard 
marching. Ordered to march at 5 a. m., which was changed at 
3.15 to "immediately." Waited an hour, then filed into the road 
and waited two more for Grover's division to get up and take 
the lead. We had an idea this morning that we should see a 
fight before night. At 10 a. m. the gunboats and transports 
passed us, and we heard the cavalry sj^innishing all day, but 
though this constant expectation is a strain on the nen'ous system, 
we passed the day without groat disturbance to either body or 
mind. 

In the aflernoon we came to the bend in the river, where the 
rebels had sunk the Warner and the " tin clads." As we ajy- 
proached this spot Gen. Emory brought several brigades of his 
infantry well to the front, ourselves amongst them, and we could 
see the cavalry charge into the rebel ground, and shortly afler 
discovered by the cessation of skirmish firing, and the exceeding 
joy of our " old man," that the rebels had vanished. We heard 
from the negi'oes that they had gone down river farther, to a pl^e 
not accessible by gunboats, but when we came to this we found 
them still indisposed to stand, as of coui*so any sensible general 
would have been with so small a force at his command. So we 
felt quite jubilant, and happening to pass a sugar shed where 
there was a barrel full of corn beer or some other home made 
decoction, many of the boys invited themselves in to drink, and 
were nearly " knocked over " in consequence. 

We camped at night near Choctaw Bayou, and here we found 
a great quantity of mail matter torn up. The trees also bore 



448 THE ENEMY DECLINES TO FIGHT. I 864. 

evidence of having been shelled by our gunboats which had been 
firing all the afternoon. 

May 15th, Sunday. Ordered to march at 7, but did not move 
till 9, and then only a short distance down river, where we found 
another lot of mail matter. We had great sport reading the love 
letters of our friends and their sweethearts, for there was both the 
up and down mail here. 

The western troops wrote very discouraging letters indeed, and 
called Gen. Banks hard names. Besides reading the letters, we 
pelted every negro that passed by, and this was always highly 
interesting. 

When the bridge over Choctaw Bayou was finished we marched 
into the woods — a dry swamp — and were thankful to come out 
at last without a fight, upon what I believe is called " Prairie 
Avoyelle." Why the rebels did not attack us in the woods wliere 
their bushwhacking way of fighting would have made them equal 
to us, I do not understand. Much less did we comprehend the 
meaning of the stand they made on the plain or prairie, where 
we could manoeuvre to perfection and see for miles by standing 
on top of a fence or w^agon. It is true that the prairie was the 
best place for them to manoeuvre, since tlieir force was all of 
cavalry and mounted batteries, but there was no hope for them 
unless they could fall u])on the head of our column and destroy 
it before the main body came u]>, which possibly the rebel 
commander was watching to see if he could safely try. On 
this vast plain, near the village of Marksville, the advance of the 
a«ny, consisting of two brigades of cavalry and the 19th corp 8 
was fonned as if for battle, an<l marched, two and three brigades 
abreast, at deploying distance, tlic regiments of each brigade 
being in line, at full distance from each other. We were thus 
all ready to back up the cavalry instantly should they need our 
help; but after moving in this order perhaps a mile, the firing 
ceased, and we saw our cavalry going at full gallop for the re- 
treating rebs. The regiments of infantry now came by " right 
flank file left," and so proceeded in this easy order of march, 
the brigades still keeping at deploying distance. 



1864. PILLAGING THE FBENOU. 449* 

We camped just before reaching Marksville, drove the hogs 
out of the wallow, and made coffee of the mud. There was an 
abundance of soft water at the houses, which many of us " went 
for," and witnessed a great deal of plundering. This had been be- 
gun by the enemy and was being finished by the invaders. Incen- 
diaries did not abound on this march, but the pillagers made up for 
it. Wherever the people ran away, their houses were thoroughly 
cleaned out, and I presume, from all we heard, that before all of 
tlie rebel and union army had passed, every house, whether occu- 
pied or not, was entered, the people abused, insulted and robbed, 
and everything eatable carried off. Nearly all the people were 
of French origin, and though they generally were in good 
circumstances they appeared to be stupid and illiterate; the 
southerp sun and slavery had made a different people of them 
from the Canadian French — so, at least, it appeared to us. 

MANSUBA. 

May 16th, Monday. To-day occurred what is called tlie battle, 
or action, of Mansura Plains. These plains are a continuation 
of the prairie we entered yesterday. They are for the most part 
free from extensive growths of timber, or at least this was the 
case where we traveled, and to our northern eyes they appear 
flat as a board floor, though they are not strictly level. The 
diary account is probably as correct and interesting* as any I can 
give now. 

It is a queer sensation to wake up feeling* that a fight moA come off in Trhich 
you mast take a part and perhaps be killed, but a man marcliing to the front 
with the confidence of success does not suffer mentally as much as the man 
in the rear, who remains in suspense and doubt with a »hell bursting near him 
occasionally. 

We were lying in profound slumber this morning at 4 o'clock, when Capt. 
Pollard, belonging to the staff of the division commander (McMillan to-day), 
came riding down, shouting with a voice not gentle, " Col. Beal ! Col. Beal ! " 
We all jumped to our feet in an instant, but learned nothing more dreadful than 
orders to move immediately. So there was mounting in hot haste, with great 
stir at regimental headquarters, and in fifteen minutes our brigade was in line 
and waiting for orders. 

This under the circomstanceB was good time, but we could 
29 



'450 AN IMPOSING SIGHT. 1864. 

have knocked off about fourteen minutes and thirty seconds of it 
if a volley of musketry had been fired at us. 

Then there was waiting for somebody and somebody's teams [and some 
swearing, though the diary does not say so]. At dawn we were moving to the 
front, and for some reason we all had to march through the dusty town of 
Marksville, which took a long time, for the artillery, infantry and the wagons 
of Smith's command obstructed us. We here filled our canteens with cistern 
water — an item of too much importance to forget. Our cavalry had held the 
place during the night, and were now drawn up on the outside of the town, 
with their skirmishers busily engaged. 

As soon as it came out of the street, the brigade deployed and formed 
column of regiments ; the other troops came through and deployed likewise 
on our left and right. Then as the sun cleared up the mist and smoke, we 
saw for the first time the Army of the Gulf arrayed for battle.* 

There is a depth of meaning in that old Song of Solomon, 

"Terrible as an army with banners." 

But a more imposing sight came with the order to move. We heard a faint 
call from a bugle on the right, and " March ! ** from a hundred throats ; then 
all at once, like magic, the whole army moved. 

We were on Marksville hill ; the land fell away gently towards a brook 
{not a bayou) which proved an o1:istac]e to the artillery. It then rose again, 
and at tlie crest of this rising land was a nunnery and other buildings belonging 
to the Catholics. Still farther along the plain was what looked like another 
village [Mansura]. Our brigade, which was near the left of the army, 
obliqued to the left and marched toward the nunnery. The cavalry was 
already engaged, and the prospect of a fight was considered good, but as we 
cast our eyes about and saw the steady tread of the advancing masses, a 
burst of admiration came up from all parts of the field. Every one was 
pointing and giving expression to his feelings in audible tones ; there was an 
inspiration about tliis mighty wave of humanity. It affected us as strangely 
as if we were seeing the hills in motion. The infantry moved straight on, 
quietly and irresistibly; each man jumped the ditch in his way, and whole 
regiments filed around obstacles, while the artillery was compelled sometimes 
to make long detours, and did so at the trot or gallop ; intervals were opened 
and closed, so there was a sort of writhing motion amongst this great mass, 
yet it moved on like one huge wave. 

But the movement of the cavalry was another thing. They were in our 
front and on the fianks. Their lines and the dust that followed after them 



*Nothingased to mystify our friends at home more than such statements as these. 
They seemed to take it for granted that the army was always together, and that it was an 
over J day oocorrenco to see large masses of troops, as in this instance. 



1864. A RUNNING FIGHT. 451 

looked like a wave combing over, onlj it rolled and rolled and did not break 
as the surf does. 

We halted a moment near the nunnery, and some of the elderly sisters came 
out and beckoned to us (Col. Beal and staff). Always willing to answer the 
call of such neat appearing ladies, and hoping to see some that were younger 
and fairer, we all rode over, though the artillery was opening now, and every- 
thing betokened immediate action. The good women began by requesting us 
to return their blind mule ! The rest of their conversation was not reported. 
We noticed a graveyard near by, which looked as if the corpses were placed 
on the ground and the eartli piled high about them. Tliis reminds me that 
the first graves wcdug in Louisiana filled with water in a few hours. 

As far as we could see to the front (possibly a mile) the cavalry was in 
position waiting for us. The rebels were opening on them with artillery, and 
our first line was retiring in excellent order. Before our batteries could silence 
theirs, we had marched into the range of a battery of heavy guns, and its shot 
rlcochetted around and over us, making many of us dodge wonderMly. Our 
brigade was ordered to attack the enemy's right with vigor, and we wheeled 
ofi* to the left and then to tike front, and came up with the cavalry-men who 
had gone as far as they could with prudence. 

The rebels saw us, and ran across our front out of musket range of the IClst 
N. Y. which led. Col. Beal then ordered the lieutenant of the battery to let go 
at them, but he was slow, and his men managed to put the shot into one gun be- 
fore the powder, at which Col. Beal told the lieutenant to go to the rear, and 
sent for another section. Presently another lieutenant of the same battery 
came galloping to us in greatest haste, with his two piecdls and caissons. 
Wheeling them about, he loaded and discharged at the last lingering rebel, 
quicker than you can say Jack Hobinson, and I am happy to say that he did 
tremendous execution, killing outright— one small heifer. Thus the golden 
opportunity was lost. 

We pressed on, and our skirmishers, a company from each regiment (ours 
was Co. K), were under fire the most of the forenoon, but it was too quick 
work on both sides for damage, and besides a man or two wounded in the 
regiment of Kinsey the impetuous (161st N. Y.), there were no casualties in 
our brigade. In our rear we could see the army marching to our support. 
It was a sight full of inspiration, but I cannot describe it. Beyond the village 
we came to a clump of woods. Maj. Enowlton, who now commanded the 
skirmishers (and enjoyed the sport too J, having no cavalry to reconnoitre with, 
dashed in his whole line, and being already ahead of Smith's advance, on the 
right of the road, he soon worked so far to the front, that Gen. Smith's gunners 
mistook Knowlton's men emerging from the other side of the woods for rebels, 
and gave them a smart shelling, but fortunately no one was htlrt. 

This was the last stand of the enemy, and we have seen that 
his best efforts caused but little damage to us. They did 



452 DEMOBALIZATION AND TILLAINT. 1 864. 

amount to a good deal to the people of Marksville and Mansura, 
for by halting the army of thijBves which followed us, the two 
villages were thoroughly ruined. I believe they were not set fire 
to, but there was no end to the stories we heard that night of 
furniture pitched out of the window, of "niggers" dressed in 
lace curtains, of "niggers" dancing on the wires of pianos after 
ripping off the tops ; of libraries and paintings trodden under foot, 
and an infinity of this. 

We have always laid these .wrong doings to " the niggers," to 
the cavalry and to the western troops, or rather to Smith's 
command. Capt Chitty, of Col. Beal's staff, barely escaped being 
knocked down by a gang of these pillagers, but happening to spy 
our regiment, Capt. Chitty took Capt. Jordan with his company (C), 
surrounded the rascals and marched them under guard afoot, 
while the foot-sore of Co. C rode their horses. 

I have said the affair of the day ended with the shelling of 
Maj. Enowlton's line, but that related to the army; the Major 
himself, with his line of skirmishers, pushed straight for the rebels 
on the right hand road, while the army took the one to the left. 
His movements were so brisk that little firing was done by either 
side, and when they had gone about three miles they came to a 
bayou with the bridge destroyed, and rebel earthworks beyond. 
' The enemy was not in sight, so the Major sent back for orders, 
and joined us while we were halting at Bayou le Glace (pronoun- 
ced glaze by the people near where we halted). Grover took the 
front at the bayou, and after two hours' work at improvising a 
bridge, we crossed both bayou and swamp and passed into another 
sort of country ; then following Bayou le Glace we halted at 
night on Howard's plantation, having marched sixteen miles from 
point to point, but really traveling much more. The water of 
this bayou was running up hill, as our " Hibernians " said. In fact, 
there was a freshet, or high water, on the Mississippi, which 
was backing up all the lied River streams. It nearly filled the 
bayou, and we noticed that, but for the levee, we should have had 
a wet time of it. The water was cool and comparatively clear — 
a great blessing to us and to our poor brutes, who could hardly 
drink enough. We beard to-day of Grant's fighting in the 



1864. SMITH '' ON THE BAMPAGE.'' 453 

Wilderness. The next day wo mai'obed eight miles, to Semmes- 
port, without opposition or incident, exoept that the guerrillas 
fired across the bayou and killed a negro, but the day afler (May 
18th), while we were waiting for orders and quietly reading our 
newspapers, and discussing the new system of military divisions 
by which a strange man named E. R. S. Canby was put over our 
General Banks, we heard that our friend Smith was being attacked, 
two or three miles back at Yellow Bayou, by the cavalrj' (dis- 
mounted I suppose), and we listened to his guns all the forenoon, 
and learned from the wounded who were brought in, that Smith 
was having quite a fight. 

Two batteries were sent out, and the boys* say Gen. Smith came in to town 
and gave Emory, who now commands the 19th corps, a sound scolding for not X 
coming out to his relief. A large crowd of enlisted men witnessed this perform- 
ance until they were driven off by Emory's guard. Those that saw Gen. Smith 
say he acted like a crazy man, and swore enough to shame a private. The boys 
of our corps cheer him now when he passes, for ti. fighting man is always popular. 
At dark the cannonading ceased, and we understood that Smith had driven off 
the rebels and taken prisoners. 

May 19, 1864, Thursday. Pleasant. Rained a little last night, and a 
miserable time we had of it. The order of the day is to move to Smith's 
support, if he is attacked. The men were therefore kept near their stacks, 
and we had a forenoon of expectation and uncertainty. Every tap on a bass 
drum, or the slamming of the doors in Semmcsport hotel (which constitutes 
Semmesport) came to our ears like the order " March ! " % 

But as the enemy had retired, we were ordered to cross the 
river. Now the Atchafalaya (pronunciation corrupted into Chaf- 
fal-/i-ar) was very much too widef for our pontoon bridge, so Col. 
Bailey put a dozen or more steamboats abreast of each other, and 
some of our regiment wont over on this bridge, and the others 
were fenied over in the steamer Marmora. After crossing we 
marched two miles and went into camp near Captain Semmes', 
and rested there for 24 hours. 

At seven p. m. of the 20th, after watching one transport after 
another go i)ast, till we thought there was no end of them, we 



•I have those statements froiu a number of the most reliable men in the regiment, and 
all of as saw, or might have seen, the old fellow contending with the men along the levee. 

1 600 yards or more. 

\ C " 1 " " 



pyJj' 



454 A soldier's CRITICISM. 1864. 

marched again easily and without even one guemlla for company. 
About midnight we came to the Mississippi, and we are compelled 
to confess that it was a pleasant sight — vastly more so than it 
appeared to us when we first came to it from the sea. In truth, 
we hurrahed a little at it. 

On Saturday^ May 21st, we marched thirteen miles along the 
"false rivers," or "old beds," through Williarasport, and suffered 
from heat. 

And finally, on Sunday, which was a very hot day, we marched 
three miles and came to Morganzia Bend, and here the whole 
army camped along the side of the levee, and here too we received 
a mail once more. 

The opinions noted in the diary are, I think, the general opinions 
of the 19th A. C, so I give them. 

We may safely say now that the Red River expedition is ended. It does me 
good to read that the congressional committee is to investigate the matter. 
As I wrote once before, I think they will conclude that the chief error was 
the plan of the campaign. This sending of two inferior forces (Banks from 
the south and Steele from the north) against tlie enemy for him to whip in 
detail, has ruined us too many times. Wo have had to fight the rebels and 
also to contend against natural obstacles. Wo were bound to be unsuccessful ! 
The western army may call Banks all the liard names they can think of, and 
that is no mean number, but the fact remains that the rebels wisely deferred 
fightii^ till they could oppose us with a larger army in a half settled country. 
We all want at the next trial to have our three armies from Texas, Louisiana 
and Arkansas united, if we are to fight these three of the rebels, and we would 
like to have Gen. Grant improve upon Gen. Halleck's usual plan, and unite us 
before wo start. We are thankful that Smith's whole command has gone up 
river ; a greater gang of thieves and braggarts we have never met in all our 
travels. They have been wonderfully lucky in this campaign ; all the cream 
has fallen to them and the newspapers are full of accounts of their deeds of 
valor. It is always nice to be in reserve and finish up a half whipped enemy, 
and this has lately been their good fortune. But all troops are unreliable till 
the officers have learned to command and the men to obey. We noticed this 
defect in Smith's command the first time we saw it. They are a fine set of 
men, good fellows and plucky enough, yet but few of their regiments could 
have marched with their backs to the enemy as steadily as the IGlst N. Y. did 
at Sabine Cross Roads. 

But enough of them. I object to their stealing all the glory of this cam- 
paign, for there is not much of it at best. They did not kill a thousand men 



1 864. TOO MANT COOKS. 455 

at one volley, as every newspaper avers, and they did not do anything 
else wonderfhl. To tell the truth there has not been any fighting by any of 
us that compares for a moment with Cedar Mountain and Antietam. 

You may be interested to know that the plan and cxecation of 
the Red River expedition is condemned by nearly all who write 
about it now. But we did our duty, and therefore we claim cred- 
it for it. We saw strange things but we were not responsible for 
them, and could not better them. We have read in the western 
papers that Banks was drunk and that the expedition was a grand 
cotton raid of his, but both of these charges must have been 
prompted by malice and ignorance. The navy will have to 
account for a bale where the army will for a pound. 

I cannot overcome the temptation to put down here a private 
opinion of mine, for wJiich I will not charge the 29th Maine as 
responsible, — The Red River expedition failed for the good old 
reason that 

" Too many cooks spoil the broth.*' 

And then behold what cooks were these. How could you 
expect harmony in such a crowd ? 

1st. Cook Hal leek. He ordei-s a broth to be made at Shreve- 
port. He sends his meat from the gulf, his vegetables from 
Arkansas, and calculates to have a little seasoning dropped in 
from Texas. 

2(1. Cook Banks. Why was he compelled to stir this stew 
against his will ? 

3d. Cook Franklin. He was sent to us as punishment for 
spoiling Pope's and Burnside's soups. 

4th. Cook Smith (not John Smith but Andrew Jackson, 
Napoleon, Caesar, Alexander Smith, you know). He was afflicted 
with the idea that his part was to furnish brains and pluck for his 
supefibrs. 

Then there were a dozen or twenty more who hoped to rise to 
" stars" in the steam of the broth — but " Vere ish dat barty now ?" 

MOKOAXZIA. 

We staid at Morganzia Bend from May 22d to July 2d, exactly 
six weeks. A long, aimless and unhappy time it was, too, though 



456 THE TENTH BATTALION JOINS US. 1 864. 

it was not devoid of novelty and excitement. This great bend 
in the Mississippi was ten or fifteen miles above Port Hudson, and 
its convexity was toward the west. Our brigade was in about 
the center of the array, which was here camped along the river 
banks a distance of three or four miles. There was no force of 
the enemy near us, but we kept at home from fear of guerrillas 
and the fact that there was nowhere to go to. The weather grew 
hot and hotter, till all our previous experience of hot weather 
was eclipsed. Our numbers were continually reduced by sickness 
and death. 

There was, however, one bright side to our stay here. This was 
the joining of the 10th battalion with us. The day of our arrival 
at Morganzia we found Capt. Beardsley, with Co. D, aboard a 
steamer waiting for us. We had a happy day of it, recognizing 
our old fiiends and admiring their soldierly appearance. On the 
30th, Go's A and B came up ; and as we had eleven companies 
in the regiment, Lieut. Haskell's company, B, was now broken up 
and the men assigned, according to their own desires as far as 
possible, among the other ten companies. The battalion increased 
our strength on paper seven officers and two hundred and six 
enlisted men, and it was a great gain to tlie regiment to liave so 
fine a body of men assigned to us. 

On the 7th of June, we received the long promised and much 
needed clothing, and on the 10th, Maj. J. W. Carpenter paid us 
for March and April — two months' pay without bounty, and with 
no corrections of previous errors or omissions. 

On the 17th, the 161st N. Y., of our brigade, was sent with 
other troops to Vicksburg, under Col. Bailey of " dam " notoriety. 
The sick and wounded captured on Red River, went down this 
evening — paroled. Those of us wlio saw our comrades aboard 
the steamer, learned that they had been very kindly treated by 
the rebel soldiers and the ladies of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill, 
but an independent company of home-guards had robbed them 
of about everything. These had not been sent to Tyler to starve, 
as prisoners generally were. 

On the 18th, we buried Lieut. Cummings, the first of our 



1 864. TWO OFFICERS STABBED IK THE BACK. 457 

officer to die ; and on the evening of the next day we saw troops 
fromGrover's division going aboard transports, and were told 
that the rebels had planted batteries near Tunica Bend, and were 
firing into everything that passed. They returned in three days 
without much news to communicate. That same day a man of 
the 114th N. Y., whose regiment was camped next above us, was 
drowned while bathing in the river, and all the experts at swim- 
ming fi'om both regiments, dived for the body. Death &ced us 
on every side — our men dropped off suddenly, and our sick list 
increased in spite of our light duties and the well provided hospital, 
the steamer Laurel Hill. • 

JEALOUSY AND SPITE. 

We have mentioned before, that many of the men recruited 
for the " 29th " were tempted by the bounties, and were not always 
able bodied. On our first marcli they broke down by dozens and 
were sent to New Orleans. Therefore an assistant surgeon in the 
regular army, in the largeness of his heart, made a report of 
the fiict to the war department, and wo suspect that he wrote 
some things that were not facts. On June 20th we were surprised 
by an order dismissing Surgeon J. F. Day and Lieut. A. E. 
Kingsley " for passing and mustering Edward Brannan, of Co. E, 
manifestly unfit for military duty at time of enlistment." This 
was a " big thing " as the boys say. Brannan was to all appear- 
ances as promising a recruit as we had. He had " played it " on the 
New Orleans doctor, received his discharge, gone home and was 
restored to full health before the order was issued. The blow 
fell heavily upon Kingsley, whom we all pitied, but the doctor, 
as on all occasions of trouble, sought relief in his fiddle, and gave 
the officers a soiree (and a drop of Spiritus Frumenti to boot) 
before saying good bye ; then buying a part interest from a sutler 
in the negro brigade, he made more money in a week (so they 
say) than his pay would have brought him in a month. 

Both ofiicere established their innocence and were re-instated 
a few months afterward. As a set-off to this record of petty 
6j)ite, we are happy to annex the following gratuitous contribution 
from that model officer and gentleman, Capt. Sibley, the com- 



458 



OAFT. siBunr'k Lmm; 



1864. 




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1864. AN ODD REVIEW — NEW COXH ANDERS. 459 

thunder storm, by seeing the rain spatter on the " brick-top " of 
our " old man" during the march in review. 

The detachment of the 13th corps was to have led, but its 
commander had assembled all the music in front, and the twenty 
fifes, forty snare drums and dozen bass drums made such a racket, 
that a large drove of mules, beef cattle and horses started up and 
went braying, lowing and neighing in solemn procession past our 
commander. Then the rain set the western fellows to yelling 
about that time, and altogether it was quite interesting. This 
was preliminary to the review on the 14th by Gen. Sickles, 
whose presence in our department suggested something — we could 
not guess precisely what. 

On the 25th, Gen J. J. Reynolds reviewed us. He had lately 
taken command of the " XJ. S. Forces at Morganzia," and this 
was our first and also our last public exhibition before him. 
Gen. Roberts, whom we knew as Gen. Pope's chief of staff in 
Virginia, was ordered to the command of our division, and 
Gen. Emory to command the coi'ps, which was now re-organized, 
and the fragment called the 13th corj)s added as the 3d division. 
I copy the new organization of our division, with the regiments 
arranged according to the rank of their colonels. 

1st division IOth army corps, Brio. Gen. B. S. Roberts, Commanding. 



29th Maine, Col. Geo. L. Beal, 
30th Mass., " N. A. M. Dudley, 
lo8d N. Y.,» " Edwin P. Davis, 
114th N.Y., " S. R. PcrLee, 
116th N. Y., " Geo. M. Love, 



Ist brigade ; 
Col. Beal commanding. 



2d brigade ; 



47th Penn., Col. T. H. Good, 
8th Vt., " Stephen Tliomas, 
13th Maine, " Henry Rust, Jr., 

15th Maine, " Isaac Dyer, ( Brig. Gen. J. W. McMillan com'dg. 

12th Conn., " Ledyard Colbum, 






183d N. Y., Col. L. D. H. Currie. 
160th N. Y., ( " C. C. Dwight de- 
tached). Lt. Col. J. B. Van Petten, 
30th Maine, Col. Thos. H. Hubbard, 
162d N. Y., Lt. Col. J. H. Blanchard. 
165th N. Y., Lt. Col. G. Carr (zouave 

))attalion), 
173 N. Y., (no field officers). 



3d brigade ; 
Col. Currie commanding. 



*Thoi;>3d was not included in the original order bnt never was really ontof onr 
brigade. The 90th N. Y., Lieat. Col. Shawman, was assigned July 2d. 



460 SUDDEN ORDERS TO EMBARK. 1 864. 

We looked with suspicion upon the change of our division 
commander, but the diary gave Gen. Roberts one good mark on 
the next day, as follows : 

Capt. Jordan is now prorost marshal of the division, and has fifty men of 
the " 29th " under him at division headquarters. The General forbade their 
making a brush screen in front of* his tent, because it was Simdaj. He said 
they must rest to-day. 

The weather continued to grow hotter. The old Tenth boys 
used to gather in knots and talk for hours about the great rock- 
bound springs of " the Valley," with their " cool houses " and the 
crocks full of cool, rich milk. Orders came to build ovens and 
make bread ; leaves of absence to visit New Orleans were granted 
the officers ; the black troops still labored on their fort, in front of 
the left of our regiment, when on July Ist, at 5.30 p. m., Col. Beal 
received an order to at once put his command in readiness to 
move at a moment's notice. 

This order, unexplained, generally conveys the impression that 
the enemy is coming in a hurry and in force. A camp changes 
Its appearance wonderfully when such an order is received. The 
swimmers come out of the river, and the men " rally " on the 
commissary and sutler for rations and luxuries. The professional 
shirks put on long faces and tell doleful stories to Dr. Cotton, 
who " haw-haws," as only Cotton can, and tells them that a little 
exercise will do them good ! Everybody asks " What's up ?" 

The diary states : — 

We had only a very few moments to wait before anollier order came [to 
brigade headquarters] for the 153d N. Y. to embark immediately aboard the 
Crescent, a sea going craft, for New Orleans, and shortly after the 114th N. Y. 
was named to follow immediately. It was nearly nine, however, before the 
two regiments and their baggage, and Gen. Emory liimself were off. The 
Colonel went down to the boat to see what was the matter, but learned nothing. 

The "old man" is swearing and damning everything and everybody about 
the delay — literally foaming and sizzling like a pot of boiling suds. All sorts 
of orders came during the night, but we got no hint of our destiny. " Mobile " 
is the word, and a few who are thoroughly miserable in this hot climate say 
" Potomac." 

The next day, July 2d, was of course a very busy one. The 
116th N. Y. and part of the 30th Mass. crowded aboard the Col. 



1 864* NEW ORLEANS — GILMORE'S BAND. 461 

Cowles, and were off at 2 p. m. Soon after, the 90th N. Y., which 
had to-day been transferred to our brigade from Grover's division, 
with seven companies of the 30th Mass., the 13th Maine and 
ourselves went aboard the Henry Ames, a very large and mag- 
nificent steamer, and pushed off at 5 p. m. We passed Port 
Hudson about 7 p. m., and enjoyed the sail very much, and also 
the singing of Capt. de Parturelle — a Frenchman belonging to the 
90th N. Y. 

The next morning, after putting a coal barge over to Algiers, 
the Ames landed Cols. Beal and Emerson at Canal street, and 
then after a long season of waiting, we sailed up river again to 
Bull's Head, disembarked in the evening and slept in the Alabama 
cotton press — four immense one-storied brick store-houses, ar- 
ranged in a square with the sides of the buildings open toward 
the enclosure — as fine a place to quarter troops as could be found, 
although no one appreciated it. 

The 153d N. Y. sailed in the Crescent, during the night, under 
sealed ordere with rations and water for fifteen days. 

We spent Monday, the 4th of July, quietly around Bull's Head. 
The diary makes uo mention of drunkenness in any of the 
regiments, though it has a long account of the liquor saloons and 
the anti-puritan aspect of all things and beings. We heard 
nothinc: reliable about our destination. Those who strolled down 
town heard Gilraore play the Star Spangled Banner with artillery 
accompaniment. This last was a novelty at that time, but with 
all the crash of a hundred instruments and batteiy of guns very 
few native citizens were seen to applaud. And I very much fear 
that all of our national airs will be despised for years to come by 
the southern people, for we taught them how to hate them during 
the war. 

July 5th, Tuesday^ was also spent in and around the press. 
We growled mightily at the haste and delay, but were told we 
must wait for ocean steamers. 

Finally, at 5 p. m. we went aboard the Clinton, with 270 of the 
13th Maine and brigade headquarters. We were ordered to take 
ten days' rations only, to leave behind all the government 



462 BOUND TO THE POTOMAC. 1 864 

horses, and to return the cavalry-men who acted as orderliea. 
These orders showed that we were going where a landing was 
sure and speedy, and furthermore that it was out of the depart- 
ment, so "Mobile" was reluctantly dropped and "Charleston" 
taken up. We started at 7.15 p. m., and after putting the pilot 
0% Col. Beal opened his orders and announced " Potomac " to the 
few who were awake. This news was graciously received in the 
morning, and though it is customary for soldiers to growl at their 
present lot and wish themselves back to somewhere, I never 
heard a man of the " 29th " wish, himself back to the furnace of 
Morganzia or to any other pait of Louisiana. It was the most 
uncomfortable existence we ever experienced. We did not have 
the starvation and anxiety of the John Pope campaign, but the 
misery from heat, vile water and mosquitoes, were enough to 
make ud remember them as long as we shall our troubles under 
J.P, 



1864. 463 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

BABLY^S EAID ON WASHINGTON — SNICKEB's GAP. 

Our sea voyage nortli was pleasant every way. The steamer 
was well ventilated, but the men preferred to live on the decks 
night and day. We passed Tortugas the night of July 7th, and 
saw Sombrero Key light and sailing craft without number the 
next day. During the whole voyage the sea was quite smooth, 
and our side-wheel steamer was steady and fast. 

July 11th, Monday^ a saucy looking gunboat brought us to, off 
Ilatteras, and we there ran into cooler air and were thankful. 
The stopping of the engines early Tuesday morning, July 12th, 
woke us all up. We passed the Corinthian, a coffin-like craft, 
with the 114th N. Y. aboard, and soon after this a pilot boarded 
us. We were greedy for news, and he told us in a rough way, 
" Grant's falling back from Richmond. Rebels raiding in Maryland. 
'Fraid of Baltimore and Washington. Gov. Seymour of New 
York 's turned traitor and ordered out the New York militia to 
resist Uncle Sam. Pirate Florida off the coast now, and the 
Alabama 's sunk ! " Three cheers and a tiger for the last. 

He said the Crescent had arrived and gone to Washington ; so 
we knew that we should go too. We stopped at Fortress 
Monroe for orders, learned that the pilot had exaggerated about 
Grant and Seymour, and that Gen. Emory had not arrived. The 
men were not allowed ashore, and we soon started again and 
sailed up Chesapeake Bay into the Potomac as far as was possible 
in the night, and on the first streak of day, July 13th, started 
again, enjoying the sail, the sights and the bracing air, though it 



464 WASHINGTON — COLD WATER. 1864, 

was very hot. We landed about noon, marched up 6th Srcet and 
out to camp Barry (north of the Capitol), thence on toward 
Bladensburg, till we reached the line of forts. Here we received 
orders to follow the 153d N. Y., and did so, going by the military 
road up and down, round and round, and inasmuch as we were 
in the poorest condition imaginable to march, we were exceedingly 
weary before night, and it was nine o'clock when we halted. 

We then were at Tennallytown, a quarter of a mile from the 
toll-house toward the city. The day's march I entered on the reg- 
imental records as eight miles, having been led so wide of the 
mark by ignorant informers. We really traveled nearly twice 
the distance, and were very much fatigued thereby. The staff 
officer sent by Gen. Gillmore to guide us out of town, became 
slightly intoxicated before reaching us and probably thought he 
was taking us to Tennallytown by the shortest cut. 

The rebel general, Jubal A. Early, hr.d neglected his possibility 
to capture Washington, and was now retreating toward the fords 
of the Potomac with the Sixth coq^s at his heels. We were 
ordered to follow the Sixth. 

We had neither rations, nor teams, and no love for tlie old 
Virginia style of marching. This last was sickening — it reminded 
us of Pope and McClellan. But the redeeming feature of the 
day was the water that we found running in the cool, shady woods, 
or tumbling over stones clear as crystal. We drank and drank, 
and talked about it more like children than men. We had lived 
four months on the bayou and river filth, and during our last days 
at Morganzia, the Red River freshet had filled the Mississippi 
with its muddy stuff, and the ship's water casks, in consequence, 
had the Red River water in them. This was so bad that the 
captain of the ship gave us water from the condenser, but it was 
blood warm and tasted of the boiler. We were all like one of the 
boys, who said, while buryuig his head in the brook, " Pve got a 
mouth for cold water to-day." A man who has not suffered thus 
from heat and impure drink, cannot conceive the misery we had 
suffered, nor the joy that we now experienced. 

The morning of Thursday^ Jjtly 14th, found us in an odd 



1864. CONTUSION — FOLLOWING EABLT. 465 

plight. Gen. Roberts, our division commander, had remained in 
Louisiana. Col. Beal had stopped in Washington for orders, and 
of Gens. Emorj' and Dwight we knew nothing. Col. Davis heard 
that Gen. Gillmore was endeavoring to obtain command of the 
corps, and ho was requested not to be too hasty to join him. I do 
not know from whom the request came. At 7 a. m. an orderly, 
dusty, woe-begone, and so weary that he couldn't swear, spied 
our blue, white and blue brigade flag, and handed an order to Col. 
Davis, addressed by Gen. Gillmore " to the commander of the 
detachment of the 19th corps," directing him to come to Orfutt's 
Cross Roads as soon after daylight as possible I The orderly said 
he had been hunting a long time for somebody who would take 
the order. 

So Col. Davis concluded to assume command of all he could 
find, and shortly after his staff reported that they had found parts 
of ten regiments, in all 192 officers and 2,987 men, and also 
battery L, 1st Ohio. I am happy to state that no regiment 
excepting Davis's own, the 153d N. Y., was in better condition 
than ours. The wagons came along soon after this ; three had 
upset, and the boss-wagoner said they were all borrowed, and 
must go back to town. Col. Davis therefore seized all the forage 
in the train and assigned two wagons to each regiment, and let 
the others return. Wo then marched " pell-mell," as the diaiy 
states, 1. e. the first regiment ready took the lead, and long before 
dark we were halted by orders from the fi'ont to bivouac when 
the men appeared to need it, after a march of ten miles. We 
camped on Rattlesnake Hill upon ground familiar to the old 
23d Maine boys in our regiment as the site of an old camp of 
the 23d. These two days were hard ones for us ; we had short 
rations and foraging was prohibited. Col. Beal and other mounted 
officers joined us before Thursday noon. Gen. Dwight came up 
in the evening and went on to the front ; so at last order came 
out of confusion. But the commissary and quartermaster de- 
partments had been so disorganized by the change, that we still 
suffered for rations and transportation, 

July 16th, Friday^ we had another hot and dusty march of 
eleven miles. The 6th corps men straggled badly, and ours 
30 



466 LEESBUBG -^snicker's GAP. 1864. 

followed the example. We halted in a blackberry field near 
Poolesville, Md. The rebels dashed over the river to-day and 
captured a few prisoners from the grand army of stragglers — 
among them George Gilbert of E * 

Jfly 16th, Saturday. We moved at 11 a. m. Went through 
Poolesville and saw the gallows, where a traitor had met his end, 
with a new grave underneath. " Served him right " and " Good," 
were the sentiments. 

We crossed the Potomac at White's Ford, after waiting from 
noon till 3 p. m. for the 6th corps train to pass. The men enjoyed 
their wading and cheered for an old negress who managed her 
petticoats surprisingly well. Once across, there was more delay, 
and having to march till nine in the evening, there was more 
growling than usual. We finally camped near Leesburg, after 
thirteen miles of travel. 

July 17th, Sunday^ was a day of rest, but we changed camp, 
marching one mile to the outskirts of Leesburg. No rations and 

no rebels near. 

• 

July 18th, Monday, We were routed out before 4 o'clock in 
a great hurry — and after marching around Leesburg, we went out 
of it by the same road that the 10th Maine went into it Dec. 
1862. Then going through the little villages of Hamilton and 
Purcellvillo, and craAvling up the Blue Ridge, we camped at nine 
o'clock in Snicker's Gap, having been seventeen hours in going 
eighteen miles. 

The regular Valley garrison (if I may be permitted to speak 
ironically), under Crook— or Hunter, as we were told at the time, 
had joined our army, and taking the lead they crossed the 
Shenandoah at Snicker's Ferry, and were pushed back with loss 

•After being nearly starred to death, Gilbert took advantage of the game the rebels 
were then playing on our government. This waa to send to Canada those of our 
prisoners who wished to desert. They had regular routes by which they forwarded them ; 
of course in the loyal States they were aided by disloyal men ; but a good many were 
sent safely through before the trick was discovered. Gilbert happened to bo one of a 
party that was sent north with a union spy who was learning the rebel game, and for 
a while he was confined in the prison hospital at City Point, with the assurancfe that be 
should be shot for desertion as soon as he got well enough. But one of our officers was 
■ent to City Point and obtained his releai«. 



l864* lUBBEL WEAKNESS. 467 

during the afternoon. Artillery firing was going on when we 
bivouacked, but we were too fatigued and heated to care about 
it, though we had a word of pity for the wounded whom we saw 
lying in a house near us. 

Some rebel reports which may never see light if not inserted 
here show the weakness of portions of the rebel army at this 
time. They were picked up in a rebel camp near Charlestown in 
September following, but evidently they are the first report made 
after this engagement near Snicker's Ferry. 

Report of 60th Virginia, July 19, 1864. 

Officers, 2 

N. C. Staff, 8 

Muskets, 29 

Sick, 7 

Amb. Corps, 2 

Total, 41 

Agg., 48 

The names of five missing and one wounded from four companies are given. 
The report is signed by " M. F. Baker, Lieut, com'dg 60th Ya. Begt." 

On another slip of paper, found at the same time and place, is a list of the 
"disabled men of the 42d Va." (no date). Eleven men fVom five companies 
are named. On the other side of the slip is a report of the strength present, 
viz: 

Officers, 4 

N. C. Staff, 8 

Muskets, 64 

Musicians, 4 

Ambulance, 2 

Unarmed, 9 

Sick, 6 

Aggregate, 81 

Extra duty, 2 teamsters ; missing, 1 officer and 6 men ; wounded, 1 officer 
and 1 man. 

The following is the " report of strength of Jones' brigade," dated July 18, 
1864: 





• 


GQ 


• 

§ 


i 






1 




o 

B 


• 
• 


1 


1 


• 

c 


t 


1 




o 


^ 


s 


s 


GQ 


^ 


25th, 


2 


3 


1 


18 


2 


22 


24 


42d, 


6 


8 


4 


60 


8 


86 


91 


44th, 


2 


2 




7 




10 


12 


48th, 


3 


2 


18 


28 


1 


44 


47 


60th, 


2 


3 




88 


6 


44 


46 



16 18 18 186 17 206 220 



468 F0RDU90 THE SHENANDOAH. 1 864. 

The States of the regiments are not given, but I think they were all from a 
part of Virginia where recruits could not be obtained. It will be seen that 
this report and the two above it tally verj nearly, and that there are 21 men 
unaccounted for. 

Another document picked up after the battle of Cedar Creek, is a " report 
of the arms, &c., of the 67th N. C. Vol., for week ending Sept. 6, 1864." It 
shows in " hands of the men " 168 muskets, 2 bayonets, 160 cartridge boxes. 
127 cart, box belts, 160 waist belts, 160 haversacks and 18 knapsacks, and an 
average of 42 rounds per man. 

(Signed,) " M. H. Hunter, Capt. commanding 67th N. C. Troop." 

July 19th, Tuesday. Ordered to stand to arms at dawn of day, 8.80 a. m ., 
being in the presence of the enemy. The forenoon was spent in drawing 
rations from the wagons which had come up during the night. Mosby, the 
guerrilla, is slashing at our rear. The view down the mountain and over the 
valley is beautiful enough, but it has been a tax to us to keep near the stacks 
all day, constantly expecting something to turn up. 

About 8 p. M. we made two false starts and returned each time 
to our old place and bivouacked ; tlio men swearing and growling 
their best all the while. That night, Major Sizer, of Emory's 
staff, planted two guns in position on a hill down the mountain, 
and gave us a midnight entertainment. No reply from the 
Johnnies. In the morning of the 20th, cavalry (few in numbers 
at this time) crossed with Mulligan's brigade of Crook's command. 
Our corps started at 10 a. m., waded through the Shenandoah and 
went into line two miles beyond at noon. The Sixth corps also 
crossed. We lay quietly in the woods and under booths lately 
constructed by the rebels of Rodes's and Breckenridge's com- 
mands. Nothing of importance occurred here to us, except that 
we were visited by a tremendous thunder storm, which made us 
yell like recruits. 

A page of the diary here has some things in it of interest to 
the general historian. 

Since Early left our front, we have been told that he has gone toward 
Harper's Ferry, but the reconnoissance to-day proves that he has gone south 
instead.* So this chase (?) has ended. Wo have never moved to such great 
disadvantage, as regards equipment and organization. The mules are weak, 
or " green," as the drivers call them, and almost worthless. The drivers are 
worse still, and no wonder, for they were *' presssed " in the streets of Wash- 
ington, under plea of necessity, whereas many of them say they arc boot-blacks 
and house servants, and know nothing of mules. Nearly all of the general 



•This last was also an error into which all the army fell, m wiU be seen directly. 



1864. DISADVANTAGES — RETURN TO WASHINGTON. 469 

staff officers are away from their proper positions, so that forage and rations 
are minus, and everything goes wrong. We have not yet become acquainted 
in the 6th and 8th corps (so called), and about a half of the regiments in our corps 
have some companies absent. The men are all battered up by the privation, 
heat and hard work, which was imposed on us too soon after coming from 
our long rest and the sea voyage. Straggling is more prevalent than ever 
before ; there was nothing on Red River nor in Pope's retreat like this. 

At sunset we had orders to return, and at once the calls were sounded. 
The men were cautioned against straggling ; a detachment of cavalry was 
sent to each division commander and posted in rear of his command to arrest 
the stragglers, and at 8 p. m. we were off. We marched and halted after the 
custom of this wretched Virginia campaigning, till 11 A.M. of the 2tit . ♦ ♦ 

It looks queer to see an army that has been marching fifteen hours, tumble 
down on the sides of the road at the sound of a bugle, and go to snoring. * * 

The Sixth corps seems to be confident of its own strength. The men hold 
their crosses (the badge of the 6th) with something like idolatry. The rebel 
army is said to idolize Lee, but the Sixth corps boys that I have talked with 
seem to believe in themselves — the " Bloody Sixth," and not in their generals. 

The two days' movements foot up 6 miles in advance, and 25 in 
return. We reached Leesburg at 9 a. m., by the same road that 
we had gone up on, and halted at Goose Creek, where we slept 
during the heat of the day. Then at 5 p. m. July 21st,* we 
started to cross over Goose Creek, but having to wait till the 6th 
cori)s was over, it was nearly 9 o'clock before our turn came. 
We then crossed on the rocks and timbers that had been thsown 
into the creek and slept quietly all night. 

July 22d, Friday. Marched at nine a. m., teams starting at 
daylight. We had heat, dust and uncertain halts. We passed 
through Drainsville about 6 p. m., made a flank movement around 
a bridge, swearing meanwhile, then marched and halted all the 
evening, till 11 o'clock, by which time we had accomplished 

seventeen miles, and had arrived at Mr. ^'s house near . 

If you cannot tell by this where you were that night, you may 



* This evening we buried Joseph Flood of Co. K, an old man, i. e. old for a soldier, 
who had died saddenly in the ambulance. 

While the Sixth corps was passing, we saw a man in a beary artUlery regiment with a 
box-knapsack on his back marked E, 42, Tenth Maine. That knapsack has a history. 
Thrown away at Winchester May 25, 1862, it was rebel property for two years, when the 
"Johnny" who wore it was captured at "the Slaughter-pen," and now the "heaTlea" 
had it. 



470 CHAIN BRIDGE — DEFENSES OF WASHINGTON. I W4. 

remember that all the evening yon yelled as badly as the rebels 
and western men ever thought of doing, and lay down at last, 
without the hai*d bread you cried for so loudly and so long. 

July 23d, Saturday, At eight a. m., after a cool night, we 
began our twelve-mile march ; took a cross cut to Lewinsville, 
and there waited for the 6th corps to get ahead of us. By and 
by we came to the camp of the Invalid Corps, or " Condemned 
Yankees," as the rebels named them, — a good hit that. About 
4 p. M. we went over Chain Bridge (there were many inquiries 
" Where's the chain ? "), and camped on the. hill overlooking the 
bridge, dusty, hungry, cross, bruised, battered and torn — swearing 
at everything and everybody. 

It is not easy to state why all this swearing and ill-feeling could 
not have been expressed as well some earlier day, but here we 
were back in Washington again and nothing visible had been 
done toward suppressing the rebellion since we had come from 
Louisiana. All our hard marches and lost sleep had gone for 
nothing. It is true, that our weary limbs and blistered feet were 
things we had been promised on enlistment under the head of " a 
chance to travel," but soldiers expect to see either good results 
0^ bad come from all their efforts, and this marching up and back 
again without any excitement always brings out a storm of 
profanity at the foot of the hill. 

ANOTHBB CHASE AFTER JUBAL EARLY. 

We received a mail once more while at Chain Bridge, and were 
a little cheered on Monday, July 25th, by — 

Col. Bears return from Washington at night with the news that he had seen 
the order assigning that portion of the 19tli corps present, to the Defenses of 
Washington ! ♦ ♦ * Two hours later came the order to issue clothing 
immediately and to march with eight days' rations (in the wagons) to-morrow 
morning. 

This last came in consequence of the fact that old Jubal Early 
had gone to Winchester instead of south, and after falling upon 
the small force at Winchester, and driving it out of the valley 
once more with heavy loss, there was nothing to prevent his 



1864. MORE STRATEGY — ^MONOOACSr BATTLE FIELD. 471 

going into Maryland and Pennsylvania. So yon will see that we 
were wanted, and the campaign which followed began much after 
the style of the one that we had just ended. 

JcLT 26th, Tuesday. The camps of the two corps were alive all night. Eren 
I, who had no clothing to issue, was up till 12, and thankful that it was no 
worse. Yet in the early<noming no orders came. At 9 a. m. we were told 
" The 19th corps will march in rear of the 6th at noon ; '' and this was hardly 
delivered before " March immediately " came ; and such a rushing, tumbling 
and grumbling is not witnessed everj day, and after all, when 11 o'clock came 
we had not moved out of sight of the camp. Then crawling along the military 
roads we halted an hour ; and halted again another Ml hour, though there 
were no teams ahead. Our brigade jloubled up on Eenly's Maryland brigade, 
and became so mixed, that at night the three rear regiments filed into a field 
and waited till the staff had found them. At midnight one-half of the brigade 
was behind its stacks, anl the other half straggled all along the country. 
The day's march was nineteen miles through Tennallytown and Rockville, to 
a place four miles beyond the latter on the Frederick pike. 

In 1862, the « 10th " took the Poolesville pike at Rockville, as 
did a portion of the 6th corps to-day. 

JuLT 27th, Wednesday. The men were pulled on to their feet at 8 a. m., 
and as our brif^ade was to take the lead, cofifee was not made. But having the 
front we made an easy march with regular halts, and after going through Forest 
Oak, Clarksburg, Leesboro and Hyattstown, we camped beyond the last 
named place at 1 p. m., having marched fifteen miles and lost none by straggling. 
On arriving in camp, many dropped like dead men and slept in the sun without 
dinner or bed. 

July 28th, Thursday. We had the lead again to-day, and were off at 5 a. m. 
Col. Beal went back to Washington last evening, and Col. Davis took command 
of the brigade. This reminds me that Gen. Emory is still down at Petersburg 
[Deep Bottom], with our 2(1 division and a part of the 1st. We went through 
Urbana and bivouacked * at Monocacy Junction, on the field where recently 
[July 9th] Lew. Wallace, with a part of Ricketts's division of the 6th corps 
and other troops were whipped by Early, and driven into Baltimore, leaving 
Washington defenseless. But we had not many tents pitched when the 6th 
corps commenced fording the Monocacy, and orders came for us to go up river 



•The words bivouac and camp occur in tho diary in the sense In which they were ased 
by the army, or the unlettered portion of it at least. They were nearly nynonymous but the 
" Mpou<u; " of the dictionary was none the less a " camp " in the army. A regimental 
commander often ga?e commands like these : " Stack arms I— Bivouac I " but the men 
were never heard to ask " Where is our bivouac? " but always " Where's our camp ? 
even if there was not a tent pitched. 



« 



47 2 FREDERICK — ^HARFER'S FERRY — HALLTOWN. 1 864. 

and ford at the place where the " 10th " went oyer m 1862. In consequence of 
this we went through Frederick, and the town was out to see and welcome us. 
The ladies and children in their clean dresses and white faces are beautiftil 
sights to us, and no one complained of the extra march that carried us into 
their midst 

Then moving toward Harper's Ferry, we ran into the Gth corps, which was 
marching poorly to-day, and so had to take our taun^ for their laziness. This 
and the '* back-talk " made the afternoon interesting. We finally bivouacked 

four miles beyond Frederick^lay's march 13 miles. 

• 

JuLT 29th, Friday. Hot and but little wind. Started at about eight o'clock 
-»the stragglers of the Gth corps literally lined the road. Our division, or at 
least the portion ahead of us, straggled but little till we reached Harper's 
Ferry. We went through Jefferson and other little villages, and waited long 
at Sandy Hook for^e jam to break. By 8 p. m. we were in bivouac jiear 
Halltown, after a tiresome day's march of nineteen miles. 

Our late marches have been ratlier peculiar. We have thrown out no 
pickets at night ; we have no news of the enemy, there is no straggling cavalry 
(little here to straggle, they say), there is no pillaging, except of apples and 
fruit,* and there is a general we're-glad-to-see-you expression upon every face 
we see. The citizens also travel on the broad pike undisturbed. Wagons 
and carriages go and come without questioning or inconvenience. Even 
gentlemen and ladies ride out occasionally, and all without insult or trouble. 

« « « « The men are weary, foot-sore, cross, hungry and dis- 
gusted enough. 

The questions " Why are we here ? " " Where are the rebels ? " 
and "What next?" puzzled us to answer that night. But our 
commander hearing of rebel cavalry in Maryland, and having no 
cavalry to pursue, turned us about next day in hopes, I suppose, 
that being only fifty miles behind, he might overtake the rebel 
horses after a while ! 

THE IIKTURN TO FREDERICK AND RE-RETURX TO HARPER's FERRY. 

July 80th, Saturday. We received the expected orders this noon to march 
immediately, and in a half hour took the road back to Harper's Ferry. Crook's 
command started out before us ; the 0th con>s doubled up on the right, and 
our second brigade on the left ; thus we were in four parallel columns, and 
of course, on arriving at Bolivar, three had to halt. It was 7 p." m. before we 
were through Sandy Hook and marching without obstructions. The sun had 
been excessively hot — a dozen cases of sun-stroke (so called) were reported 



• This applies to the men in the ranks. What was done by the stragglers and camp 
followers is not known. 



1864. HEAT — SUN-STROKE — ^A BAD EXAMPLE. 473 

in Crook's command as the result of their hurry and the heat. The straggling 
was worse than ever. We saw at one time a light looming up ahead, pre- 
senting the appearance of a camp, and so we became happy in beliering that 
Crook had gone into bivouac. It proved to be a gang of stragglers, who had 
stopped near good water to make coffee. Gen. Dwight sent orders to stop 
our men from leaving by every means, and also circulated the rumor that 
Mosby was in our rear and Early's cavalry in our front and flank, and would 
capture all stragglers. Had he sent a gun or two off on the flank with orders 
to shell the mob he would have been still more successful. We crossed the 
Kittoctan, and halted at last in an open field near a dry brook, and bitterly 
bewailed our ill luck. The day's march was thirteen miles, and the halt was 
made near Jefferson on or about 1 ▲. h. of the 81st. 

JcLT Slst, Sunday. Up at 5 ; off at 6. The sun beat down without mercy, 
and the dust was like Bay of Fundy fog, thick enough to cut with a knife. 
Col. Davis tried his best to make the marches as easy and the halts as favorable 
as could be, but many fell out, and a number were " sun-struck " as they call 
it, that is, exhausted, faint and senseless. We turned out of the road at noon 
and halted till the 6th corps came in sight. Then marched through Frederick 
once more, and as ever enjoyed the welcome and the good looks of the people. 
We went into bivouac on the Emmetsburg pike two miles out of town, having 
marched to-day thirteen miles. 

The next day wo lay quietly massed in the woods, enjoying a 
much needed rest and sleep, till about noon, when a fusillade 
opened suddenly in our rear. We at once jumped behind the 
stacks without orders, and Col. Beal, who had returned a few 
hours before, marched the brigade promptly toward the firing, 

and was laughed at by Gen. for being so easily alarmed ! 

I am sorry that I did not note the name of the general, so as 
to be able to state it surely, but my impression is that he was 
finally surprised and taken to Richmond — a calamity which rarely 
befel any of Gen. Emory's subordinates. 

The diary states, that "to-day is the first opportunity the men 
have had to wash their clothes since leaving Morganzia." The 
rebel raid into Pennsylvania had ended, and General Emory had 
brought the remnants of the 1st division to Monocacy Junction, 
from Deep Bottom and vicinity, to which place we should all 
have gone, had it not been for Early's raid. So Aug. 2d, we 
marched five miles to Monocacy, passing through only the outskirts 
of Frederick, forded at the same place as before, and camped 



474 A HSW OBMBSAIi HAHBD SBSBXDAX. tSfif. 

Agftin on Lew. Wallace's battle ground. Here the anny noted 
two dajii — the 90th N. Y. went home on thdr long promiaed 
reteran fbrloogh : the 18th and 16th Maine did the same. 

About this time Oen. Grant came up from Peterabnig to aee 
Hnnteri who generooalj gare up his game to Sheridan. We 
heaid of this Angoat 6th, at wUch time the diary has a line or 
two on the subject. 

Chm 8h«ridan Is to oomnuuid our foroet. He is here (Halltown) snrdj, end 
a man with three itue is aroimd» and has been teen. That most be Gnoit^ 
ibr only he wean three itan. 

So it seems that we knew oi^ or cared little for, Sheridan, and 
the writer was only denrous to fix a date and make -a sore 
Statement when he chronicled it. 

About dark, Thursday, Aug. 4th, we again crossed the riyer 
and slept tUL the cars came; then went aboard them at 11 p. ic, 
and stuted at 2 ▲. x. with a little, and but little, grumbling by 
aome who were put into cattle cars. Soon after sunrise of the 
6th we were all up on Maryland Heights, opposite Harper's Ferty, 
at a point we had not been on before, and here we waited for our 
teams. Finally, on the 6th, we marched to Halltown again and 
camped on the same old spot, and wondered what next. 

On the evening of the 8th — 

A Urge body of cavalrj came out ; they have ju8t arriyed from Grant's 
army. I never saw one line (about three miles) of horses so long as this, yet 
they all marched well. There were no openings in the column, nor crowding, 
nor straggling, nor insubordination of any kind. It is a diferent caralry at 
any man can see from the rag-tag-and-bob-tail calamity which we had up Red 
Birer. The rest we are having now is a great blessing, and the privileges of 
washing, cooking and sleeping to our hearts' content, show themselves in the 
fkces of the men. 

Aug. 9th we received a large mail which had been sent to New 
Orleans, and learned that one other had been captured by the 
Florida from the Electric Spark. That same day came orders to 
put three days' rations, excepting meat, into our haversacks, and 
be ready to go. The trains were sent back to Bolivar, and parked 
there. The tone of the diary shows that rest, rations and rein- 
forcements had wonderfully improved our spirits in a very short 



1 864. A GREAT CHANGE FOB THE BETTER. 475 

time. A feeling possessed us that something was to be done. 
We were cheered by the return from Deep Bottom of Gen. 
Emory with the fragments of our division, for we knew that on 
the next march some of the follies of the last ones would be dis- 
pensed with. 

It is difficult now to analyze our thoughts of that period, but I 
am quite sure that the rest, the cooler weather, the reinforcements 
to the cavalry, and the cessation of useless marching, produced 
this impression, rather than the presence of Grant or the change 
of commanders. 



476 iB64- 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

tJP THB YAIXST XrKDSB 8HBBIDAN. 

AuauBT 10|1864, Wednesday. We were now startiDg out 
under Sheridan. We were told that he had done well as a cavalry 
leader, and moreover that he was a ^fighting man." 

We had changed commanders so many times that we had 
ceased to be curious; hence the stories we heard of Sheridan fell 
flat. I think that some of us were a little fearful of him for two 
reasons — ^he was cavalryman, and ^had come from the west 
where we have always seen the backs of our enemies;" not that 
the east was jealous of the west, but we believed that the 
western rebel army was worthless, and because a general had 
been victorious over that army, it was no sign to us that he would 
succeed in the east. But we were now to see what he could do. 
We were up at 5 ; impatient at 6 ; and at 7 fairly started, with 
Crook and the 6th corps ahead, and the enemy reported to be at 
Stevenson's Station. We had a good pike road all day, but 
marched when possible by its side to avoid the dust and heat. 
Many signs of thrift were still visible in this *< ruined " valley. 
We marched through Charlestown as usual to the tune of ^ John 
Brown," and as was also customary everything that could make 
music was put into service of course. Toward night we halted 
in sight of Berryville, after a march of fifteen miles. No 
cannonading was heard nor skirmishing reported. The day was 
hot but the march was well conducted, — when we marched we 
marched, and when not marching we halted; there was no 
uncertainty and indecision. 



1864. CEDAR CREEK — A PETITION FOR MEAT. 477 

Aug. 11th, Thursday. Hot and hard marching; Reveille at 
4 ; started at 6, our brigade still in rear of all. Beyond Berryville 
we fonned line of battle to the distress of the faint-hearted. 
Then each regiment filed to the front, and so marched for two or 
three hours, preserving the alignment and distances as well as 
possible. The army was thus in position to fight without being 
seriously hindered in marching. No one could tell where we 
were going, but we bivouacked after dark near White Post, 
having marched in the fields and woods all day, ten miles — perhaps 
fifteen, with cannonading in our front a good part of the time. 

August 12th, Friday, ' Not so hot. Marched at 5, our brigade 
leading the division, but in rear of Crook. We still kept the fields, 
till we came to Nineveh, on the Front Royal pike, and then 
marched in a narrow, rocky road to Middletown, and camped at 
sunset a little north of the mansion house, where Sheridan made 
his headquarters in the October following. The day's march was 
thirteen miles or more. 

The rebels are across Cedar Creek, too strong for caralry to dislodge. 
Picket firing is now very sharp, and we hear it distinctly. Breckenridge left 
Newtown this morning, and turned over a part of his wheat train* to our 
cavalry without exchanging receipts and invoices. The bets arc even on a 
fight in the morning, and the natives say that Longstreet is coming to drive 
us back "right smart" in a day or two. 

The next day all was quiet in front, though we stood to arms 
at dawn of day. 

About a week before, our senior captain — ^Beardsley — had drawn 
up a memorial or complaint, addressed to Gen. Hunter's A. A. G., 
supposing that he was the proper officer, stating that his men 
were suffering for the want of their meat rations, and adding a few 
plain facts in the case. The other company commanders signed 
it, and it was forwarded. Col. Beal endorsed on it that the 
statements were correct, but that he could not say where the fault 
lay. Gen. D wight forwarded it, and Gen. Emory boiled over 
when he saw it. He first gave Gen. Dwight a lecture, and then 
gave Col. Beal another, and to-day he sent an order to have the 



• Early's army was coUecUng wheat to feed Lee's with— so we were told. 



478 MUTINY AND MEAT. 1 864. 

^ 29th Maine under arms immediately," and mounting his horse 
he rode so fast that he arrived ahead of the order, and fell upon 
Col. Emerson like a thunder clap. 

** Have the regiment under arms instantly sir, and bring the 
company commanders to the front ; especially that Captain Beards- 
ley I where is Captain Beardsley?" 

"Here sir! Here I am!" said the Captain. 

The Captain is a ready debater, and the General is not slow 
with his tongue, but it is no easy task to reprimand a dozen officers 
in such a way that they will feel their punishment, and so that 
the regiment will not take it as a good joke. The General 
succeeded in setting the entire regiment on a growl, whether 
commissioned or enlisted. Furthermore, we were much surprised 
when he told us that the conduct of our officers was mutinous, 
for it was meat, and meat only, that the petition was intended to 
produce. 

This incident serves to show the odd nature of our general. 
No officer ever had the welfare of his troops more at heart than 
he, and probably no one was trying harder to correct the error in 
the commissary department, which grew out of having a part of 
his command in Louisiana, a part in the Valley and a part down at 
Deep Bottom. His nature was such that he could not overlook 
an offence like this against good discipline, and so he boiled over. 
But as showing how little real wrath there was in his heart, I 
must not neglect to state that he ordered that day an extra ration 
of meat to be issued to his entire command ; after which, all was 
quiet on Meadow Run, until evening, when the trains came up, 
minus a few which the guerrillas had burned, and three days' 
rations were issued to last four. This would have caused much 
grumbling, but for the explanation that the couiitry would make 
up the deficiency. 

On the 14th and 15th we did nothing. A reconnoissance was 

tmade toward Fisher's Hill on the 15th, by the troops ahead of 

us, and we listened to the advancing and receding musketry and 

the artillery fire with considerable interest. After dark came 

the order to "move promptly at 11 f. m. — no fires nor calls aft^er 



1864. NIGHT MARCH TO WINCHESTER. 479 

taps." While guessing what the move was to be, a >thunder 
storm broke upon us, but this only laid the dust and made our 
backward march easier. We marched the thirteen miles to 
Winchester in Louisiana style — that is at a smart step, with ten 
minutes halt every hour, and were consequently in Winchester 
at 6 A. M. of the 16th. 

Our brigade camped on Senator Mason's grounds (of Mason and Slidell 
memory). The old mansion house which Co. F, 10th Maine, quartered in, is 
now in ruins ; even the bricks have been carried away to make chimneys and 
orens for the troops. The natives say we must " get out of h'yere " or Lo6g- 
street will capture us. They admit, too, that every able-bodied man is now in 
their service, and those that we kill can't be replaced. They have nothing to 
sell us, but they are baking bread for their own soldiers who are expected 
immediately. Longstreet they say was in Culpeper C. H. a few days ago. 

Aug. 17th, Wednesdai/. Up at 2.40 and off at 4.20 — a little 
late, and so we were hurried out of Winchester to gain our proper 
position, to the great delight of the ladies, who thought it was 
the beginning of another " skedaddle.** After this we marched 
rather steadily and easily with regular halts for breakfast, dinner 
and rest, and were in bivouac before noon near Berryville, at 
which place our pickets joined us having been relieved irregularly, 
but in season to escape capture. 

Aug. 18th, Thursday, Roused up in a hurry and started 
immediately at 4.20 for Clifton, which consists of one or two 
houses and a small stream running through a swamp. Beyond 
this we filed into woods and faced about. We drew>rations, ate 
breakfast and waited there till 4 p. m. It rained a little, but we 
were allowed fires, and so cooked the green com of the neigh- 
boring fields. We thought from the massing of troops that the 
army was to make a stand here. 

Grover's division from Bermuda Hundred and vicinity, via 
Alexandria, Leesburg and Snicker's Gap, joined us in these 
woods. With them came about twenty of our " convalescents "* 
from New Orleans. Late in the afternoon the army moved again. 



• In the army we caUed a man a convaleicent who wMjSdly recoTered from sieknMs 
and ready to return to duty, or who was on his way from the general hospital or con- 
valMcent camp to his regiment. 



480 LIVING ON THE COUNTRY — ^HARPOONING HOGS. 1 864. 

and when within three miles of Charlestown, we baited and went 
into bivouac on a high ridge. Here we chased hogs before 
halting. " Three days' rations to last four " was the blind which 
covered the eyes of all the officers, except Gen. McMillan, who 
robbed our boys of a beautiful hog. Another great porker was 
assaulted by the mounted orderlies of the brigade with their 
swords, while we looked over the fence, but he would have 
escaped had not a Twenty-ninther harpooned him with a fixed 
bayonet. The brute, with the musket dangling behind him, 
dashed under the white horse of Gen. Emory, who was trying to 
show Gen. Dwight where to put his division, but the death-squeal 
of the hog and the kicking of the horse compelled him to ask 
our man in his usual way " What is all this ? W?icU is ail this f*^ 
To which our Twenty-ninther could only reply, " It's a hog, sir, 
— and he's run under your horse — and Ae'« got my bayonet 1 1 " 

"Take the hog and the bayonet, and away with them — d'you 
hear?" said the General. The "veteran" heard and obeyed, 
and with this magnificent indulgence nnd with fresh pork for 
supper, we all forgot the censure that tlic " old man " gave our 
officers a few days before. 

The diary states that — 

The Second division is directly in our rear. The old 13th corps' regiments 
in it are great "yellers," and came into line to-night singing out " Hard bread " 
and " Halt," which is not a very unusual cry in our midst. Then they took to 
braying like mules, and such a noise you cannot conceive. It is very funny, 
but the old lAh corps, as well as ourselves, think our friends in the rear are 
making asses of themselves. * 

We staid in this position all the next day, during which John 
Kincaid of Co. F, and Mr. Beardsley (a citizen brother of our 
Capt. Beardsley) were captured by guerrillas, only tliree-quarters 
of a mile from camp. Beanlsley escaped, but Ivincaid was 
carried to Salisbury, N. C, where they staned him to death. 

The day after (Aug. 20th), the diary mentions Sheridan's name 
for the second time, and as it is about the mind of all of us, I 
quote : — 

This strikes me as a queer position^ne I believe that none of our other 
generals have ever taken for defense. Sheridan has the appearance of being 



1864. "HARtER'S WEEKLY." 481 

a smart man. He is young, and ray own opinion is that if he is not hampered 
by the " chief of staff" he will do as well as can be done. Gen. Emory is 
fussing about the pig killing which he hears, probably not on account of the 
pigs, but because of firing of muskets. He let us sleep this morning, which is 
conclusive evidence that there is not a rebel to demonstrate on our line. 

— Which was a wrong conclusion, for the very next morning we 
heard the cavalry skirmishing and were warned to be on the alert. 
Cannonading was heard also all the forenoon on our right, and 
at 2 p. M. we marched in a hurry, though it was quite hot, through 
Charlestown and out on the Leesville road a mile to the extreme 
right of the army, and then went into line some distance in rear 
of the 6th corps and on the right of it, Duffie's cavalry being a 
little in.our front. A portion of the 6th corps was heavily engaged 
all this while on the skinnish line ; and by ordei-s we threw up 
rail defenses, which we covered with corn stalks and were happy 
in the knowledge that we were well protected, but at 11 o'clock, 
after everybody was asleep, with bootees and equipments on, we 
were ordered to march, and fell back once morc with the entire 
army to Halltown, which the general reader will understand is 
only four miles out of Harper's Ferry. So when we saw in 
the papers that Slieridan's army was the " Harper's Weekly," we 
thought it was a good joke and took no offence. 

HALLTOWX — BEHIND THE BREASTWORKS. 

The rebels followed us up promptly and picket firing began 
before we were fairly awake, and cannonading about seven o'clock. 
Our brigade was on the same hill that it had camped on twice 
before within a month, but the change that had come over us was 
remarkable. The confidence which McClellan put into Pope's 
shattered army was much more noticeable, it is true, for the good 
reason that Pope's army was demoralized and discouraged^ which 
Hunter's army was not. But these few things even the stupidest 
could see. We had started in search of the rebels, and after a 
fine march had sent them running up the Valley. We had seen 
the rebels behind their impregnable position, and we had not been 
foolishly sent to dash our heads against the rocks. We had heard 
of the rebels' reinforcements, and had retired in good season ; had 
31 



482 A WEMOME SIEGE. 1864. 

baited with impunity, and given them a chance to try our breast- 
works, and then fell back to still further security. We had seen 
a train of wagons go out for green corn for the troops, had eaten 
an extra ration of meat and seen a drove of hogs slaughtered 
under the nose of our commander. This was inspiriting, it touched 
us in the right spot, — the tenderest spot of the soldier — ^his 
stomach. We knew little of Sheridan then, but we knew that 
he had done just right every time during the past fortnight. We 
were in good spirits, for we felt that everything was going right. 
Our brigade was in the second line, where there was little 
excitement and little duty, but we were kept near our stacks all 
the time of our stay here. The orders allowed but three of a 
company to be absent at any one moment. The first day in 
Halltown (Aug. 22d) picket firing was kept up incessantly, with 
some cannonading — the 2d division doing all the work for the 
19th corps. The second day (Aug. 23d) of this willing siege, the 
trains came out from Bolivar, but we were kept in close quarters 
still and heard the sharp picket filing all day. The third day 
(Aug. 24th) the firing was as sharp as ever, and a decidedly brisk 
engagement came off over on the left, out of our sight, without 
material gain — but we were made happy by learning that our 
troops did all that they intended to do. The fourth day (Aug. 
25th) we heard the attack of Gen. Torbert upon the rebels at 
Kearneysville during the afternoon. A heavy thunder storm only 
seemed to increase the noise. We learned, too, that this had 
resulted favorably, although our cavalry fought rebel infantry. 
We began this day to build breastworks on the hill where we 
were camped. The fifth day (Aug. 26th) it was all quiet in our 
front for the first time, but at 5 p. m. another vigorous musketry 
and cannonade opened, a long way up on the right, which was 
kept up till dark ; this, the diary says, was by Crook, though 
neither Sheridan nor Early mention the action at all. Our in- 
trenching tools were returned that night and we had orders to be 
ready to march at a moment's notice — a good order to issue, but 
in truth we had been kept for a week ready to march or to do 
anything else at a moment's notice, and the best of it all was, tliat 
though held so closely it was not, as is usually the case, a strain 



1864. DIGGING AND SKIHMISHING. 483 

upon body and soul all the time. On the morning of the sixth 
day (27th), Col. Beal took a portion of the brigade out on a 
reconnoissance, but found no enemy and returned according to 
orders. Lt. Col. Emerson was sent north to-day by the medical 
officers, who pronounced him too sick for duty. In consequence 
of this the command of the regiment fell upon Maj. Knowlton. 

August 28th, Sunday. We were up at 4, ready at 5.30, and 
moved slowly at 7 toward Charlestown, which we reached at 10, 
and halted outside till 2 p. m. We then passed through the town 
and took the " dirt road " toward Winchester (?) and camped aj 
dusk two miles out, near Prospect Hill and upon Claymount 
plantation, on the left of the road. The 2d brigade was on our 
left, the 2d division on the right of the road, and the Sixth corps 
still beyond on the Sraithfield pike. 

Gen. Emory sent orders to throw up breastworks, and taking rails for a 
backing and borrowing sixty shovels and picks for the brigade, we had a 
pretty substantial line before midnight. Even the pickets were made to protect 
themselves by rails and by digging, instead of seeking natural protections as 
we were tauglit to do before we saw rebel soldiers. The ground we have 
traveled over to-day is all dotted with these rail-pens, rock lieaps and 
occasionally something stronger. Tliis year of the war has developed this 
sort of fighting. The Sixth corps boys say they never halted five minutes 
in the Wilderness campaign without digging, and the rebels learned to sing 
out to them, " Dig ! you devils, dig ! " It lias come to be a very serious thing 
now to be the attacking party they say, for the rebels dig as well as ourselves. 

August 29th, Monday. We kept on the alert all day, heanng 
the rebels drive in our cavalry from Smithfield and retreat in 
turn before Rickett's division of the Sixth corps. This driving 
about of one side by the other was generally at long range and 
was not sanguinary ; but it was exciting, we were told, and 
although so much of it was done, it never fell to the lot of our 
regiment to be detailed for the duty. 

CoL Beal was brevetted brigadier general of volunteers August 
22d, and received his commission while here. 

August 31st, Wednesday, The teams came up in the afternoon, 
and the officers and clerks worked nearly all night on the muster- 
rolls. The diary makes mention of cool nights, and of the fact 



484 



crook's fight near berryville. 



1864. 



that the strength of the brigade was daily increasing by the arrival 
of convalescents and recruits. 

Sept. 2d, Friday, With orders to march came the telegram 
announcing the fall of Atlanta. This was a new idea and was 
well followed up. Every victory in any army was telegraphed to 
and published in every other army thenceforward till the end. 
In the morning (Sept. 3d) we were up early, got wet by rain, 
but marched promptly across lots to the Berryville pike, in rear 
of the 2d division, and passed by our camp of Aug. 18-21. We 
occasionally saw the 6th corps on the right and Crook's ou the 
left, and so knew that the move was general. We halted three 
or four hours within two miles of Berryville at the junction of the 
Summit Point pike, and while waiting here about dusk we heard 
sharp musketry firing, which increased and was accompanied with 
artillery firing and yells. We were moved toward it a little, but 
presently we heard fresh volleys open, and then the yankee 
hurrah supplanted the yell, after which, as we were not wanted 
in that fight, we were marched a half mile to the right, along the 
Summit Point pike, and there went into camp again. 

We insert here two valuable quotations concerning this combat : 



Gex. Sheridan. 

** Torbert had been ordered to White 
Post early in the day and tlic enemy 
supposing he could cut hhn off, pushed 
across the Opequan toward Berryville 
with Kersliaw's division in advance ; 
but this division, not expecting in- 
fanlpy, blundered on to Crook's lines 
about dark and was vigorously at- 
tacked, and driven with heavy loss 
back towards the Opequan. This 
engagement, which was alter niglitfall, 
was very spirited and our own and the 
enemy's casualties severe." 

The General then gives the position 
of his troops during the next fortnight 
and adds : 

" The difference of strength [this 
fortnight] between the two opposing 
forces was but little. As I learned 
beyond doubt from my scouts that 
Kershaw's division, which consisted 
of four brigades, was to be ordered 
back to Kichmond, I had for two 
weeks patiently waited its withdrawal 
before attacking." 

Sheridan's report of the campaign. 



Gen. Early. 

First stating that he had determined 
to return Kersliaw's division (Anderson 
commanding) to Petersburg, as Lee 
had requeste<l it, Gen. Early says ; 

** (5en. Anderson determined to cross 
Blue llidge with that division and Fitz- 
lA'e's cavalry. On the 3d he moved 
towards Berryville, for the purpose of 
crossing the mountain at Ashby's 
Gap, and I was to have moved toward 
Charlestown next day to occupy the 
enemy's attention during Anderson'a 
movement. Sheridan, however, had 
started two divisions of cavalry through 
Berryville and White Post, on a raid 
in our rear, and his main force had 
moved towards Berryville. Anderson 
encountered Crook's corps at the latter 
place, and after a sharp engagement 
drove it back on the main l>ody." 

Then commenting upon the " extreme 
audacity " of Anderson in holding liia 
ground all night (a very dark one by 
the way) he proceeds to show how 
timid Sheridan was for a fortnight. 
Last year of the war, page 76. 



1864. INTRENCHED AGAIN— 8KIBMISHE8. 485 

As Jubal says his book is certain trutb, and since bis publisber 
re-echoes that " nobody who knows J. A. E. as we know him 
will question liis veracity," we must understand that all the 
hurrahing on that evening, and the excessive good nature of 
Crook's men the next morning, was from some other cause. 

Sept. 4th, Sunday. We were up at dawn, of course, and 
receiving orders to intrench, we did so at once. The line was 
then changed to the hill in front, and this being the key to the 
position we built very substantial works. Capt. Beardsley took 
particular pains to have the left wing's better than the right's. 
At 3 p. M. a large gang of hostlers and men that we call " bummers" 
and " dog-robbers," came rushing in from the front where they 
had been foraging, together with the aide of the field officer of 
the day (the commander of the picket line), who reported four 
lines of rebels advancing. This brought us all into our positions, 
but only a line of skirmishers came in sight, and Capt. Taft, of the 
battery, advised Gen. Dwight not to waste powder on them. 

Sept. 5th, ]\£onday. It rained and drizzled. The " old man " 
turned us out very early this morning, but all was quiet. Gen. 
Beal took the 47th Penn. regiment (a similar but independent 
force started out from the 2d division at the same time), found 
the rebel skirmishers and drove them cautiously back upon their 
line — said to be Kershaw's division — and then slowly retired 
before the reinforced enemy, who in turn retreated again in the 
afternoon before a still heavier force of ours. This skinnishing, 
though sharp, was not very sanguinary (seven wounded in the 
47 th).* 

Except a heavy rain all was quiet the 6th. 

* " Skirmishing, as it became reduced to a science, depended on two general niles : 
every man must keep concealed as much as possible, behind trees, logs, fences, buildings 
or what not, and ejich party must run upon the approach of its opponent with anything 
like determination. If a skirmisher should show himself unnecessarily, he stood a 
great chance of getting hit, and if he waited until the enemy came within forty or fifty 
yards, it was exceedingly dangerous either getting away or staying. The skirmish line 
was conducted on principles that looked to personal safety in a great degree, and was the 
favorite iwsition of the experienced soldier. If, however, the holding of the position 
was essential, which was seldom the case, the men knew it intuitively, and the skirmish 
line required a battle to drive it."— Vermont Brigade in Shenandoah Valley— Col. A. F, 
Walker. Pub. by Free Press Assoc, Burlington, Vt. 



486 A QUEER THANKSGIVING — CHEERFUL. 1864. 

Molineaux'a brigade of the 2(1 division went out on the 7tb, 
but found nothing in our front. 

Sept. 11th, Sunday^ was set apart by President Lincoln, as a 
day of Thanksgiving for the victories at Atlanta and Mobile, and 
Gen. Dwiorht ordered all his recjiments under arms at 10 a. m. to 
hear the proclamation and a " prayer of the Church " read to 
them. But no copy of the prayer could be produced by the 
General, so the regiments which had neither chaplains nor christian 
officere, were in difficulty. We heard of one regiment whose 
colonel was bound not to be "cwcArecZ," as he said, and so ho 
selected the 2d, 3d and 4th Articles of War, as being the most 
pious things that he could find, and made his adjutant read them. 
These articles relate to improper conduct at church, profanity and 
the fines which can be imposed upon chaplains ! The story ends, 
" the men broke ranks, swearing like pirates, and asking " WTiat 
kind of a Thanksgiving is thisf'*'* 

Sfirx. 13th, Tuesday. (Being still near Berry ville.) Clothing was issued to 
the troops and more sent for. Tlie 2d division, 6th corps, went out on a recon- 
noissancc. We heard their guns pounding away all day. In the afternoon 
there was such a lively musketry, that we jumped up on the breast works to 
see the skirmish, but it was too far off. At sunset official notice was sent that 
the Gth corps division had found and driven the rebels towards Winchester, 
and that the cavalry had captured the 8tli South Carolina regunent * entire. 
Tliis wa^ inspiriting, and the whole army hurrahed and made all kinds of 
demonstrations of joy till after dark. 

Nearly every day the diary notes the cheerful condition of the 
men, and Sept. 6th it reads : — 

The story that the rebels fight better than we, which was often heard in 
1862, does not go around now. Besides, Jackson is dead, and we all believe 
that Grant and Sheridan arc good for anything that the rebs have left to 
tliem now. 

There was no serious complaint for want of food, though there 
was much foraging needed to piece out the rations which were 
purposely issued short. 

•This regiment was raised near Darlington, S. C, whore we were afterward stationed, 
and there we were able to see the men who were taken prisoners at this time. They bitterly 
denounced their general for leaving them on picket without notifying them wheu ho 
retired. 



1864. OEN. GRANT VISITS SHEBEDAN. 487 

For about a week preceding the battle, we had company drills. 
Every train brought squads of recruits and convalescents to the 
army, and I noticed that the brigade returns showed a constant 
net gain of Present for duty. 

Sept. 17th, Saturday. We heard that Grant was visiting 
Sheridan, and after that we were impatient for the " next thing,** 
knowing well that something was coming. 



488 >864- 



CHAPTER XLV. 

BATTLE OF OPEQUAN, 

Near Winchester, Va., Sei»t. 19, 18G4, Monday. 

Sept. 18th, Sufiday. The trains came in from Harper^s Ferry, 
unloaded and went back at once, tlie regimental wagons with 
them, leaving the officers in shelters as well as the men. At 4 P. m. 
we received orders to move immediately, but before the brigade 
line was formed the order was countennanded. You will see by 
Sheridan's report that at first he contemplated moving over to 
Newtown, but hearing that Early had sent part of his army to 
Martinsburg, he decided to catch the force remaining at Win- 
chester and Stevenson's. Two questions arise here. Did Early, 
who says he " expected an early move," hear of this 4 o'clock 
start that night ? And if not, as his book suggests, were his 
scouts as effective as Jackson's used to be, or even Sheridan's 
then were ? 

It rained in the night, and at 1 a. m., when the corps was aroused, 
it was dark, cold and cheerless. Grover's division took the lead 
at 3 A. M., and we followed, passing through Berryvillo and 
along the road to Winchester. We made good time, but halted 
an hour — a precious hour — near a house, whose inmates said it 
was eight miles from Winchester. This delay was occasioned 
by the 6th corps, which took possession of a narrow road and 
crossing that permitted the passage of but one line at a time. 
So we did not leave the house si»oken of till 8.25 a. m., when 
ordere came from Gen. Emory to hurry to the front, regardless ot 
teamy, water, defiles and all other obstacles. So by and by we 
came to the heights overlooking the river Opequan (pronounced 



IS64. 



APPROACH TO THE BATTLE FIELD. 



489 



O-peck-un), halted igiin 1 little wliile, saw tlie wounded of tlie 
cavalry, and leunedthit they In 1 diiveii the rebel cavalry and 
intiintry out of the piss, — 1 simit morning's work to all 




Oi-EijUAX FoKD — Looting ioaard D'i'ncAeifer. 

appearances. Then descending we rushed through the water at 
double quick, having been denied the privilege of taking off our 
shoes aud stockings, and inarched at a very lively pace up the 
other gide, through tlic cool, dimip woods, all of which reminded 
us somewhat of our march to Sabine Cross Roads. 

The road is tortuous and very narrow for about a mile, and the 
woods on cither side were filled with skulks of the troops which 
had preceded us, who were "all used up" and "couldn't find their 
i-egiment," " excused by tho doctor," &c. At length wc came to 
an open field, a mile or more long, and found that the Cth corps 
was already fonned in the leit portion of it. Our corps filed off 
to (he right, and after dodging cannon shot for a while our brigade 
came in sight of a brick house, and a mill with weeping willows 
growing around it. We halted befoi-e arriving at the mill. 

A detail was made from all the regiments of the division, and 
sent under Lieut. Col. Strain, of the 153d K Y., across the brook 
and some distance out on the right to protect that flank. The 
detail from the " 29th "was undercharge of Lieut. McKeen. 



490 



THE POSITIONS. 



1864. 



The entire 9th Conn, regiment was sent from the 2d division, and 
without doubt it was intended that these large detachments should 
be posted in two lines, and advance "with the army. 

Troops continued to pour out of the gorge and form on our 
left, 80 that we had a rest of about three-quarters of an hour, 
though under the circumstances it wjis not much of a rest. We 
saw that we were the extreme right of the infantry of the army, 
leaving out of account the flanking parties just named, and our 
position was about like this : 

It will be seen that 

«, , . , Woods. 

our 3d brigade was 3d»«-=«» ==» = «- ist 

absent — they were 
kept as a guard on 
the trains during the 
Valley campaign. 

The duty of Gen. 
Seal's brigade was 
explained to be to fol- 
low the movements 
of the brigade in our front. Tliis was the Fourth brigade of 
Grover's, and wo were told that they were all Indiana troops and 
lately of the 13th corps. Ordinarily they were a noisy crew, but 
we noticed that they were as quiet as the rest of us for once. 



Left. 



OBOTEB'B DIVISION. 

« 114 K. T. 

Bears » 153 V. T. 
Brig. «= 116 N. T. 

B 29 MB. 

= 30 MS. 

DWIQHT*S DIVISION, 



McMUlan*8 Brig. 



i 



Bight. 



MUL 



"forward" THE FIGHT OF THE SECOND DIVISIOX. 

At 11.55 A. M., by my watch, the Indiana boys moved, guided 
by the brigade in their front, which guided on the brigade at its 
left, which last took its cue from the 6th cor])s, and they, I believe, 
moved to the sound of a buckle. 

This was marching to battle. 

We saw that we were in reserve, and that if the 2d division 
could whip the rebels we should not have much of a fight. We 
soon heard the fire of the skirmishers, and about the same time 
lost sight of the Indiana boys in the woods, though we marched 
steadily and regularly. Gen. Beal perceived by the sound that 
we were working too far to the right, and so ordered " Left oblique." 



1864. A HARD LOOKING FIELD. 491 

Soon after the skirmishers' fire had opened we heard the 
volleys of friend and foe, and the shouts and all the horrid din 
of battle. So we knew now that the rebels had given fight, and 
were not going to run this time unless whipped. Then came 
over us that feeling peculiar to the first moments of battle, and 
that wondering why bounties, promotion, the union or anjirhing 
else had induced us to come to such a hell. 

" Halt ! " It was only for a few seconds, to wheel the regiments 
to the left a little, and off wo went again. Then came shells that 
were meant for us all, and at last one went through the headquarters 
group, struck under Col. Per Lee's fiery little pony and exploded, 
but fortunately it hurt only the horse. 

We could not tell positively what had become of the Indiana 
brigade. The distance through tno woods was not more than 
half a mile, and when we came out of them into the clearing 
beyond, we judged that the Indiana troops could not be far off, 
but we saw none that we could believe were they. A fight was 
going on in our front. Grover's first line had charged with a 
fury that nothing could withstand, but being unsupported it was 
outflanked and was falling back. It seemed incredible that 
Grover could have worked so far ahead of us in the very short 
time he had been out of our sight — much more strange that a 
fight should have been begun and decided against him so quickly. 
We were now in a sort of bay, open toward the enemy, and with 
woods on the other three sides. The fight was going on about a 
quarter of a mile in front. Grover's first line was falling back 
on the run, emerging from a thin belt of open woods with rebels 
at their heels, both parties badly scattered. The second line was 
still advancing ; in this was the Indiana brigade, but we did not 
know it then. 

I have not heard of any one who timed the second line, and 
so I cannot state the moments that it fought. But before our 
briga<le was fairly in the field, this second line had ceased 
advancing and had turned about. Even before the center had 
halted, the men on the right flank commenced to fall and leave 
the line at such a rate, that it looked as if a hurricane had struck 
it and was blowing man after man to the rear. 



49S THE ONB HUNDRED AND FOURTEENTH K. T. 1 864. 

I am hq>p7 that tlie task of explaining why the 2d divinofi 
was 10 x>oori7 handled does not belong to mo. Two fiusta, however, 
ibonld be mentioned. Birge's brigade, the Ist, received the order 
to ohaif;e from a staff officer, who had no authority to give it ; 
and the commander of the Indiana brigade, which sapported 
Bixgi^ was not competent to command a brigade in battle. 
Neither of these calamities could have been foreseen by Gens. 
Emory or Grover, but in consequence of them, I have been told 
by thoi|^ who know, the 2d division was forced back. 

It should also be borne in mind that Grover's division had 
seen very little hard field fighting, and on the score of experience 
in this line they were not a match for their rebel opponents. 

Gton. Beal, with his staf^ h|d ridden aliead of the brigade for 
observation and orders, and before the ^2^h'' was out of the 
woods, Gtens. Emory and Dwight were found at the point where 
the 114th N. T. afterward fought. From Gen. Emory he received 
the order ^ Have this thing stopped I " This running back of 
Grover's divirion— ^e center battalions of the second line having 
fired, it seemed to ue^ not even one volley — ^troubled the Greneral 
(Emory) very much. From Dwight, to whom the above command 
was properly given, came the order " Send one regiment to the 
front!" The 114th was the nearest, and it was at once pushed 
rapidly out to the end of the projecting wood which formed the 
left side of the bay, to the place designated to Gen, Beal by his 
superiors. Here this magnificent regiment was all but annihilated, 
as its position was in advance of the brigade line and entirely 
unsheltered ; yet they never moved back till they were ordered. 

THE FIRST BRIGADE. 

" What will you have me do with the brigade ? " asks our 
General. 

"Deploy it to the right ! " said Gen. Dwight, and never were 
four battalions handled so cleverly as were these. Before this 
we were massed, and the bullets were every moment comin«' 
thicker. They gave emphasis to the order and speed to our feet. 
The regiments moved at double quick, and as they uncovered, 



1864. 



STEMMING THE STORM. 



493 



they came to the front and advanced with ehoiits. Wc were 
noiv stumming the storm of lead, and what was a hunflre<l tinies 
more difficult, we were pushing aside Grover's pnnic-Htricken men, 
who had received such an overwhelming fire that they were 
unable to hold together, and were tumbling against ns in terrible 
confusion. 

The brigade halted at a rail fence, threw it down for a sliclter 
ancT opened fire. The effect of the first volley was marked. 
Ilegiment after regiment of an came on the line, checking the 
bravest of the enemy, dropping the most advanced and sending 
back the timid ones. 

Our 2d brigade got lost in the woods, but before a great while 
was found and posted out of onr sight on the left. 




Between us all the check to tlie rebels was as firm and decisive 
IB even Gen. Emory could ask for, and the General was not very 

•TLe bluck •qujkiu (lenots tbe oncmj't uvalrf. 



494 ENTHUSIASM. 1864. 



well satisfied with the way that most of his commands were 
ezecnted that day. 

As we are oompelled to sound oar own pnuses, for there were 
no newspaper correspondents or idle spectators of any kind to 
see our '^sidenshow" and write of its gallant deeds, let mo qnote 
a little fiom the diary here, concerning this deployment and charge* 
After having received the order from Qen, Dwight to deploy, the 
diaiysays: 

We tGen. Beal and staff) now went toward the brigade, and jadging from 
the loose groups of the enemj, which were miming for the point of woods 
on the right, that our ri|^t flank would soon be attacked, the General sent me 
there to reconnoitre. 

In following the moTement of the 114th N. Y. to the front, just before this, 
I had lost sight of the other regiments which had been ordered to deploy to 
the xi^t* of the llith, and I tell yon my heart went down into my boots 
when, after haying left the llith in position, I saw crowds of men wearing 
hati, mixed up with the mob of 2d dirision fhgitiTes. It was trying to see 
two such fine regiments as the 114th and 16Sdt carried off by a mob, bnt sudi 
tilings happen hi battle. Just then I heard a tremendous huirahing back hi 
the field where I had last seen our brigade, and looking I saw four regiments^ 
some runnmg to the front and others to the right It was the most inspu^thig 
sight of the day. The men were shaking their fists, waving their hats or 
wliirling them around on the muzzles of their muskets, and screaming at the 
tops of their voices. The old flags, all- tattered and riddled, were flying never 
so proudly before. Could I believe my eyes, it was Davis with his 153d ! 
Yes, and Love, furious and AiU of gestures, just uncovering the " 116th ** and 
starting it on a charge with a flreman's yell. And Knowlton was calmly and 
seriously waiting for the " 29th " to gain its distance. How like the man this 
was. Neither the danger ahead nor the enthusiasm around him swerved him 
a hair. His whole aim was to deploy the '* 29th " just as it should be done. 

Still beyond the "29th,'' the dOth Mass. was running on its long journey to 
complete the deployment. Casting my eyes back I saw by the smoke that 
the 114th had not budged an inch. I had been deceived by the hats — the 1st 
brigade had not run to the rear. 

Had there boon another brigade at band, it seemed to us that 



* To save time, to reinforce the 114th as soon as possible, tlila deplojrment was "by 
Inversion ; " that is the right (front) regiment in the column became the left in line, and 
tiie left (rear) regiment in colomn became the right of the line. Hod the deployment 
been made as it more frequently is, the "29th " would have occupied the ground held by 
the" 116th » 

t These two reghnents wore hats at this time, instead of cape, which the othen had. 



1864. MAJ. KNOWLTON MORTALLY WOUNDED. 495 

the counter charge could have been successfully kept up, but as it 
was, nothing more was attempted than to hold our position. 

It fell to the lot of the " 29th" to have something of a shelter, and 
as the left regiments furnished a better mark for the rebels, we 
did not suffer in proportion to the others, and probably we injured 
the enemy considerably more than we ourselves were damaged. 

Shortly after opening fire, and when it was fully shown that the 
rebels were checked, they were reinforced by a long line of 
infantry and some guns. This force came from the woods, beyond 
which Grovcr's fii*st line had been so roughly handled, and 
advanced as far as the fence, where the most of the enemy had 
previously taken refuge, and for a while their fire was extremely 
galling. It was just after this reinforcement that Major Knowlton 
was shot. He noticed the long line and told us to fire at it, and 
was almost instantly hit himself, his half raised body being a 
better target than the majority of the men.. 

But though so heavily reinforced the enemy could not drive 
us, and after awhile they themselves fell back to the woods from 
whence they came, and a sort of lull occurred in the battle. But 
just as we had shown ourselves masters of this part of the field, 
a rebel battery was planted on the other side of the brook upon 
which our right rested, and opened an enfilading fire on us. All 
the regiments suffered from this, and it is a credit to the brigade 
that they stood the fire an hour, or perhaps longer.* Every shell 
came screeching over our heads or burst in our ranks, and on one 
occasion the men of Co. B were burnt by the explosion. If the 
shell missed us of the " 29th," it annoyed us scarcely less from 
our exj)ecting it, and passing by us it was sure to make trouble 
in the 116th or 153d. 

From some information which our superiors received, and from 
the suggestion of Gen. Beal that his right should be protected, 
the 47th Penn., which had lost itself in the woods and had 



* I Judge ft'om Oen. Dw1ght*8 report, that it was momentarily expected that the large 
force of flankers and skirmishers on our right would drive these guns away. Col. Strain 
says he believes that he could have done it with only his detail, and Lieut. McKecn con- 
Arms him in this opinion, but Strain says that he understood Oen. Dwight to forbid his 
trying it with his smaU command. It happened that the 2d diyision detaU got lost or 
separated and did not co-operate with Col. Strain in this duty. 



496 THE KEBEL BATTERY. 1 864. 

Straggled into our midst, was ordered to report to Gen. Beal, and 
was posted on the banks of the brook at right angles to our 
brigade and retired from it. Three or more companies of the 
30th Mass., with some picked men of our regiment, waded through 
the brook and tried to pick off the rebel gunners, but they had 
their hands full in taking care of the rebel skirmishers, and it was 
not till Lieut. Col. Strain's skirmishers had come up, and one of 
Crook's brigades had gone over the brook, that the battery ceased 
working mischief with us. The firing of the rebel gunners was 
very creditable to them ; * they guided only by sound and the 
rising smoke, for the intervening woods hid us from their sight. 
They at last got such excellent range on the brigade that Col. 
Davis, who commanded this front, for Gen. Beal had been ordered 
by Gen. Dwight to attend personally to the posting of the 30th 
Mass. and 47th Penn., ordered the line to retire to the woods in 
the rear, and here we remained a while in comparative quiet, for 
there were only sharpshooters and skirmishers in our front at this 
moment. 

This falling back was not compelled at all; it would hardly 
have been attem]>ted had the rebel infantry been active at that 
moment. As it was, we were very soon ordered to go back again, 
and both moves were unimportant except to us the actors. 

To us they were a little ludicrous. Sergt. Reuben Viele, the 
color bearer, in common with half the men, did not hear the order 
to retreat, and soeinix some fall back ho tliouijht their couraixe 
had fjiiled, whereui)on he danced up and down in a paroxism of 
•indignation and rage. After jumping over the fence two or three 
times and exposing himself freely by way of good example, he 
was made to understand that the movement was only for a better 
shelter, and that his place was back in the woods. 

A LULL. 

A cry now went up for more ammunition. The General sent 
me for some, and I cannot forbear to record a pleasing little episode 

•I have been unable to learn what battery this was, flirther than that it was a section 
of light artillery with cavalry supports. I Judge ft-om reading Gen. Early's *' Last Year 
of the War," that It belonged to Fitz-Lee's cavalry division. 



1864. SOME WORDS WITH SHERIDAN. 497 

at this point. Please remember, as you read, that Sheridan was 
still something of a stranger to us. 

I could find none in the woods ; there was one wagon indeed with a few 
boxe%lefl in it, but the officer in charge said his orders were to get to the rear, 
and he was obeying it most faithfully ! Without stopping to parley with a 
skulk, who out-ranked me, I urged my nag into a gallop and was soon in the 
great field where the army had formed. And in coming out I ran directly upon 
Sheridan himself, who was crossing over to the riglit, and supposing that I had 
word for him, he said sharply : " Well ! what is it ? " I told him briefly our 
position and tliat my special errand was for ammunition, and I then ventured 
meekly to offer my opinion that it was " too bad'* that a wagon now in there, 
but belonging to another command, should have been sent out when our 
brigade was in such need. I hadn't finished my sentence when he broke in 
with an oath that made me shiver from bugle to spur. Pointing to the 
ammunition train near by, which I had not noticed, though he seemed to know 
all about it, he continued swearing and ordering something after this fashion" 
(the blanks represent the language for which he may be fined $1 according 
to the 3d Article of War): 

" take that 

wagon to the front quicker than . quick I say . 

If the driver wont go, you seize it . Get tliat ammunition in there, and 

quick too ! " Encouraged by this, I soon piloted the train as fiar as the 

mules could be driven, and we were supplied. Now this is nice ; here is 
actually a commander of an army, who thinks that a soldier is worth more 
than a six-mule team, and who isn't afraid to risk even a half dozen wagon 
loads of powder and lead rather than let his men go short. This is good, 
yet not so much what he said as the energy of his expression encouraged me. 

Although appeai*ancos indicated a movement against our right, 
no attack of consequence was made, and I suppose it was because 
we were strictly on the defensive tliat the rebel battery was 
permitted to remain as long as it did witlKmt more demonstration 
on our part. 

I judge that it was after two o'clock when Gieneral Crook came 
up in our rear, and leaving a force about as large a& our brigade 
to relieve us, he took another brigade or two across- the brook to 
our right, and sending Lt. Col. Strain's line of skirmishers ahead 
of his line, he advanced and crushed the rebel left. In this 
movement against the battery, our "29th'' detail, under Lt. 
McKeen, took a prominent part. 

32 



498 crook's attack. i 864. 

Upon being relieved by Crook's troops, our brigade formed in 
the left comer of the bay where we had fought, the firing upon 
that point having ceased entirely. Then for an hour we remained 
quietly waiting behind our stacks. 

VICTORY. 

It was about three o'clock when Crook's troops moved to the 
front to drive the enemy out of the woods where he had rallied. 

Soon we heard the cracking of his rifles and the shouts of the 
victors. The fight was all one way this time ; not an inch once 
gained was lost. A few of us who left the ranks a moment and 
ran out toward the fight, saw a sight on this Winchester soil that 
we shall tell our children with joy. Crook was literally " sailing 
in " with colors flying. A heavy artillery regiment — the right of 
the 6th corps, alone of all the troops that we saw, was having a 
very hard time, and their fighting could not be improved. At 
length a hurrah was started — something different from the constant 
howl we hear in battle — the second line of the 6th corps rose, 
and bent forward at double quick, the front line inched ahead in 
places but would not be pressed, the second line still pushed on 
and nearly closed itself on the " heavies," when they felt its 
momentum and started into a crawl. This developed into an 
imcertain waving motion, and finally they started one after anotlier 
into a double quick for the rebels. We saw the enemy retreating, 
heard our own bugle sound "Attention!" and away we went in 
support of Crook, who was not a great many rods to the right of 
this heavy artillery regiment. 

Except a little stray musketry and some poor artillery firing, 
we received nothing more from the enemy. It was all j)leasure — 
this final charge — laying aside the sad scenes around us. We 
firet passed over the field where Grover had retreated ; the 
rebel dead here were very few, and there were fewer still of their 
wounded. The union dead and severely wounded from Grover's 
and Crook's commands were very many — so many, in fact, that in 
our limited knowledge of what else took place, we have bee» apt 
to believe that the union dead exceeded that of the rebels. 



1864. THE CAVALRY WALK IN. 499 

SHSRIDAN. 

In advancing to support Crook, we saw Sheridan with a few 
of his staff ridmg to the right, and the diary has a line of interest 
here: 

We (Gen. Beal and gtafE) were almost into the woods which the rebels had 
just left, when we saw Gen. Sheridan and others. Curiosity prompted us 
to hurry toward him, and just as we came up with him, a captain with yellow 
trimmings (a cavalry aide) came from the right and front and reported 
the compliments of Gen. Somebody — he had just come in on the right — ^had been 
driving in the rebels from the north somewhere all day and now wished fhrthcr 
orders. 

" Tell him to charge in there !" pointing pretty well to the right of the field. 

The captain begged to state that his general wished Gen. Sheridan to 
know that he had *' been out a week " — " been fighting night and day " — 
" horses are galled, have cast their shoes and are lame " — " they are completely 
exhausted and cannot be spurred out of it walk — " 

Sheridan cut him short with a terrible oath. " tell him to 

charge ! — ^tell him I say charge ! ! We've got the rebels on the hip— we've 
wliipped them on the left and front, and he must charge the right, and do it 

quick. I don't care a for horse flesh to-day ! " And away went 

the cavalry aide at a break-neck pace. It seemed hardly five minutes, when 
the cavalry, which we at first took to be rebels, started from the old forts on the 
Martinsburg pike and swept down at a wonderfully lively walk, (?) yelling, 
howling, slashing, kicking up great clouds of dust and rolling into the last 
line of rebel infantry, where they " bagged " many and sent the others flying 
tlirough the town. 

Perhaps in consequence of this we were ordered to wheel to 
the left, for Crook and the cavalry had driven the enemy nearest 
lis, and so we marched along on the east of the town, but 
pretty well outside of it. Before us were the earth works and 
rifle pits made in the early part of the war. The rebels shelled 
the troops in our front from an old fort, but it disturbed us none. 
It did disturb us a moment afterward to see so many troops in 
the fort and rifle pits, and also near the railroad depot, but as we 
approached we learned that they were union forces. After 
considerable manoeuvring we halted at the fort and here saw a 
bronze gxin which the enemy had been compelled to drop. It 
was a U. S. " Napoleon," and had it been gold instead of bronze 
we could not have been more happy at seeing it. We were 



500 TEUB mro — jollification. 1864. 

content then with one re-captured gun ! There were four other 
pieces taken in other places. 

We followed the battle out of town with our eara only, and 
Chandler and Johnson never gave us such cheering music as that. 
We could hear the sharp snaps of the carbines and pistols of the 
cavalry mingling with the confused yell of victor and enemy. 
Then at sunset we moved along, still on the eastern side of the 
town, toward the place where Cos. C and 1, 10th Me., bad fought 
80 gallantly May 24, 1862, and bivouacked before reaching it, 
perhaps a mile away. 

" HURRAH ! " 

Then the news came in : " The cavalry has captured 700 to 
1,000 prisoners, a lot of flags and some guns." We hurrahed till 
we were tired, and the Winchester people will tell you we made 
night hideous. 

"Gen. Rodes is killed." "Bully for you!" for there is no 
sympathy for a rebel general. 

" Four other rebel generals killed or wounded." "Still more 
prisoners and more generals kors de combat^ Fatigued as we 
were we had to keep up to cheer such glorious news. Was not 
all this in Winchester? -Winchester of the "Valley of Humilia- 
tion ? " Had not our array been whipped out of this same town 
times without number ? Had we old 10th Mainers forgotten our 
grief, our blisters, our knapsackSy that we should lose this glorious 
opportunity to crow ? If ever revenge was sweet and a victory 
precious, it was this last battle of Winchester. Here where we 
had flrat seen the enemy and suflered our first defeat, we had come 
back once more after years of patient waiting, to win our first clean 
victory. We gathered together in groups around the fires and 
tried to explain to each other how glorious it was, but we couldn't 
do it ; so we gave vent to our joy in cheers, and I tell you, having 
waited since May 3, 1861, for this very occasion, we did our 
cheering with a will. 

All the news was not pleasant, however. To us nothing was 
half so sad as the death of Msyor Knowlton — for though he 




MAJ. 29'^r ME- VET. VOLS. 



t . 



I 



Itiii-vM 



1 864. MAJOR KNOWLTON. 501 

lingered till the next day, we knew that his wound was mortal. 
He had been in command of us only three weeks, but had 
grown steadily in favor with the officers and men of our regiment, 
and had been recognized outside as an officer of superior merit.* 
He had reached that stage of popularity when nothing but praise 
could be accorded to him, and his death, therefore, was a tre- 
mendous blow to us. 

I am indebted to Capt. Whitmarsh for the following item of 
interest concerning our gallant commander. While the regiment 
was halting near the mill the Captain noticed that the Major 
looked dejected, and as he was usually so thoroughly " at home '* 
in battle, he asked the Major if he was sick, and received "No," 
for an answer. Shortly after the Major called Capts. Turner and 
Whitmarsh, the two ranking captains present, Jind told them that 
he felt that this would be his last battle, and that he wanted them 
to keep their eyes on the regiment, and not be too much absorbed 
with their particular companies. The two captains tried to cheer 
the Major's spirits, but did not succeed. This premonition did 
not affect his judgment nor his action. He was cool and calm 
as ever ; neither disturbed by the rout of the 2d division nor 
elated at the success of the 1st. Whatever grief the prospect of 
death may have occasioned within himself, nothing came to the 
surface for the men to see. 

The Majir had been " one of us " from the first. Before the 
war he was an officer of the Lewiston Light Infantry, and he loved 
the military profession. He was a man of rare good sense, and 
to his excellent judgment we must attribute much of the excel- 
lence of our three regiments. I trust that none will take offence 
if I state the conviction of my own mind, that he was the finest 
officer, all things considered, that our regiment ever produced. 

OUR SERVICES. 

On account of our having been strictly on the defensive with 
the advantage of a slight shelter and the privilege of lying down. 



* In the death of Col. Peck, of the 12th Conn., and Mbjot Knowlton, of the 29th Maine, 
the division loit two of its moft gallant and efficient commanderf .— Gen. D wight*f report. 



502 LOSS IN THE BRIGADE. 1864. 

our brigade, excepting the 114tli N. Y., did not suffer very 
severely. The " 29th " had also the additional advantage of being 
on the right, which was not quite so hardly pressed as the left. 
The conduct of the men was very gratifying to the officers. The 
regiment was handled with ease, both by Major Knowlton and by 
Capt. Turner, who succeeded to the command when the Major 
was wounded. The following " Field Return," made two days 
after the battle, is very nearly correct, and is all that I have been 
able to obtain. The regiments are arranged in the same order 
that the brigade line Wiis formed, beginning on the left, which 
suffered the most, as will be seen. 

There were no prisoners taken from the brigade. 





Offlcen. 




Men. 






« 


KiUed. 


Wounded. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Aggregate. 


114th N.Y., 





8 


20 




160 


188* 


153d N. Y., 





4 


10 




58 


67 


116th N. Y., 








9 




88 


47 


20th Me., 


1 





3 




22 


26 


dOth Mass., 


1 





1 




9 


11 




2 


12 


43 




282 


889 



I have no means of leaniing now the muskets taken into the 
battle. For a rough guess I should say 400. iri ^^ 9 

The regimental formation at this battle was the same as that 
adopted at Morganzia upon the joining of the 10th Battalion. 
This formation was kept, Major Greene assures me, until the 
departure of Capt. Adams' Co. A, from Harrisonburg, Va., Oct. 
5, 1864. 

Left. |k|h|d|i|c| || |e|b|f|q|a| Right. 



* Except two wounded men, this loss occurred In nine companies ; Co. I, Lieut. Schem- 
merhorn, was the brigade pioneer comi>any by regular detail, and did not take its place 
in the line till the fighting was nearly over. The historian of the regiment says that the 
loss was '* three-fifths of the entire number taken into action. No other regiment in the 
army suffered to such an extent as this/* See Dr. Beecher's History, 114th N. T., page 
428. 



1864. 



CASUALTIES. 



503 



Battue of Opbquan, Sept. 19, 1864, 



NEAB WINCHESTER, YA. 







MORTALLY WOUNDED. 






Ck>. 


Name. 


Bank. 


Where hit 




• 




Knowlton, William 


Major, 


tCnr-*' 




Died 20th. 


H. 


French, Nathaniel F. 


1st Sergt., 


Lungs, 




Died 29th. 


C. 


Rose, Edmund 


IMvate, 


Heart, 




Died 20th. 


F. 


Brooks, Ora M. 


*t 


Bowtb, 




Died 20th. 






WOUNDED. 








Hanson, Samuel 


Sergt. Maj., 


Head. 






A. 


Kenney, Dennis 


Private, 


tt 






B. 


Gilchrest, William H. 


Corporal, 


Hand. 






B. 


Bickford, Henry A. 


Private, 


i«g. 






B. 


Gordon, Truman H. 


(( 


Hand. 






B. 


Vanner, William 


tt 


Shoulder. 






C. 


Livingston, John L. 


<t 


Mouth, 


(slight). 




D. 


Hayes, Maurice 


Corporal, 


Shoulder, 


(( 




D. 


Bucknam, Amos 


Private, 


Face, 


(( 




D. 


Green, Charles A. 


ti 


Thumb. 






D. 


Simpson, Josiah 


tt 


Shoulder, 


tt 




D. 


Spring, William G. J. 


tt 

9 


Wrist and jaw. 




F. 


Plummer, Spaulding 


tt 


Arm, 


tt 

• 




G. 


Parker, Joseph W. 


Corporal, 


Elbow. 






G. 


Kincaid, Hiram 


Private, 


Thigh. 






G. 


Lovejoy, John H. 


tt 




(( 




G. 


McAllister, Weeman 


tt 


Leg. 


tt 




G. 


Russell, Nelson R. 


tt 




tt 




H. 


Pratt, Henry C. 


Sergt., 


Head. 






H. 


Brown, George H. 


Private, 


Side, 


tt 




I. 


Quint, Samuel T. 


Corporal, 


Side. 







L Townsend, Cyrus B. Private, Two fingers. 

Total, 1 officer and 8 men mortally wounded, and 22 men wounded. 



504 A YILE SLANDER. 1 864. 

If there is anything aggravating in war, it is to have your glory 
stolen from you by a newspaper reporter, and I shall not attempt 
to describe our anger, when the papers reached us with accounts 
of the " Delay of the 19th corps," and of " A battle almost lost by 
the tardiness of Emory." 

Strange stories leaked out from corps headquarters. We heard 
that the " old man " was the very impersonification of rage, and 
that he had caught one reporter and made him " eat his lie," but 
that the chief villain had not been seen since the fight. The 
error was finally corrected, but too late to repair the mischief. 

Gen. Emory has kindly furnished us with a few facts, which I 
have not seen in print and so insert them here : 

" * * • ♦ The evening of the 18th, then in camp near Berry ville on 
the south side of the Opequan, we were ordered to move at two o'clock in 
the morning in the following order : — 1st, tlie 6th corps, followed by its train, — 
2d, the 19th corps, followed b^ its train, — 3d, tlie eighth corps. Ihc whole of 
the infantry to be moved under tlie orders of Gen. Wright. At 2 a. m. of the 
19th, the 19th army corps moved precisely on time. I, with my staff, at the 
head of the column, was not long in striking the Berryville pike leading to the 
crossing of the Opequan. It was yet dark, and I could not see whether the 6th 
corps had passed or was marching on our flank. I therefore continued on, but 
it was not long before an A. D. C of Gen. Wright overhauled me, and gare 
me a peremptory order to halt. Soon Gen. Wriglit himself came up with his 
staff, and we all halted in the road for the 6th corps to come up, which wa» 
not until early dawn. I called Gen. Wright's attention to the onler allowing 
the train of his corps (the 6th) to pass in front of the 19th. He stated that 
was the order, and it must be obeyed. It was not until the sun was up, that 
I was permitted under my orders to move, and then my command was constantly 
stopped by Wright's wagons. In the mean time the firing of small arms in front 
became very lively, with occasional salvos of artillery ; and it was evident that 
the cavalry, which was in front under Gen. Sheridan himself, had encountered 
serious opposition in the defile leading from the creek to the plains around 
Winchester. 

" I sent staff oflScer after staff oflScer to Gen. Wright to ask that the order 
of march might be changed, and his wagons turned out of the road to let the 
19th A. C. pass to the front, and finally, about 9 o'clock, I gave the order to 
Grover to pass the wagons with the head of his column composed of the 2d 
division, but it was necessarily slow, as the train master of the 6th, having 
received no orders from competent authority, rctiised to yield an inch or give 
any facilities for the passage of the troops through the narrow defiles leading 
to and from the creek. At the same time I told Grover to feel his way alonsr 
by side paths. 1 rode rapidly to the front with my escort and what remained 
of my staff. It was not until I reached the crossing, where I found the rear 
of the 6th corps still engaged in crossing, that I met my A. D. C, French, 
returning with the message that I might stop the wagons. But the road wa« 
now badly blocked with wagons, in great confusion, and some of tliem capsized. 
Orders were dispatched to the commanders of the 2<1 and 1st divisions to hurry 
along as fast as possible, and I rode directly to Gen. Sheridan for orders as to 
my positicm in line of battle. I found him with a division of the 6th corps 
hotly engaged, and received from him my orders what to do, but in consequence 
of the road being so blocked up with wagons, the head of the 19th army corps 
did not emerge from the defile until about 11 o'clock. Yet it was on the field 



1864. 



GEN. Emory's letter. 505 



almost simultaneously with the arrival of the rear of the 6th corps. At this 
stage of the battle let us pause to. consider the charge of tardiness in the 
movement of the 19th A. C. in getting on the field. 

" Ist. It is evident that it was on the pike two hours in advance of the 6th 
corps, and of time. 

*' 2d. The delay was by the positive command of a superior officer. 

" 3d. But for the command and the interposition of the wagons of the 6th 
corps, the 19th A. C. would have been on the field at daybreak. 

** 4th. The general order of march preceding the battle, allowing the wagon 
trains to be interposed between the corps, shows that a general battle could 
not have been contemplated that morning, for the character of the crossings 
and the narrowness of the defiles were well known to that master of the art 
of war, — Gen. Philip H. Sheridan. 

" 6th. The newspaper accounts to which you refer were derived from cowards 
who ran to the rear as far as Harper's Ferry, at the first fire, and only saw the 
19th struggling to get by the wagons. 

"6th. When these accounts came back to the army a note was ad- 
dressed to Gen. Wright, caUi