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Bntared, according to act of Congreas, on the 28tli day of February, 1868, 

Bt "Wall AC a A. Bkice, 

in the Clerk's Office of the DUirict Court of the United States for 

the District of Indiana. 




Farmers of Allen County, 

Tki« Volume ii moni Kindly dedicated, 


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"Wlien I atst thoaglit to gather togetbor and arrange the material with which to 
form the Histoet of Fort Watthb, I had little comprehended the uiHgnitiide iiad 
estentoftlie field or matter thereof I and aftevreceiTing the ready and liberal assur- 
ances and aid of a large mass of the ejtiiens of Fort Wayne in substantialauhBcrip- 
tions thereto, and made known my intention to issue the work, Isoon found myself 
encnmpassnd on all aidea by a vast store of information and facts, from which to 
draw and form the material for the work. 

Though, from an early day, widely known as a point of groat intoraat and im- 
portance, both as to itsaboriginal renown, throughout the northwest, for many oon- 
saciitive years: and the whites, for nearly a century before the war of 1B13, yet, 
aside from n few short, hastily- written, and very incomplete sketohea of the place 
and adjacent localities, no one had ever ventured or been sufficiently acouBcd to the 
importance and Talue of such a vi>lume, to write and arrnngo the history of thife 
old carrying-place, and former center of Indian life, in view uf which, the French, 
the English, and the Amerioau soldiers had so long successively stood guard. 

Having procured many valuable documents, old and rare, from which tO' draw 
much of interest for the work, and received also much important information from 
those of the Pioneer fathers and mothers among us, who still survive to toll the 
story of 

rifty jsars a^n," 
I readily saw that, to do justice to so extended a body of mattev, time would not 
only be required to put it into readable form, but much care needed in the sifting 
and selection of the material ; and bo, with large perseverance and a determination 
not to sliglit or overlook any important feature of the work, during the latter part 
of May and first of June last, I began Industriously to devote myself to the task of 
writing and arranging the matter for the volume, often, during the warm montlis 
of summer, repairing to the woods in the vicinity, writing much of the work upon 
the ground, where, in former years, were to be seen many Indian lodges, and also 
contiguous to points whore the early skirmishes between the Indians and whites 
had occurred. 

Thus pushing forward, filling several hundred pa 
part of September, I found my task about complete,. a 
of the printer. 

In my efforts to obtain information, I am pleased to say that many not only 
fraely told me all the important facts thoy could call to mind, but kindly extended 
to mc the use of valuable books, papers, &c. Amijng these I may name Caafi. B> 


Prefatory Remarks. vi 

Lasselltj, Esq., of Logiiuspoi't, Ind., John P. Hedges, Esq., Hon. J. W. Borden, 
Louis Peltier, T.N. Hood, Dr. J, B. Bi-owii, J. L. Willisiiis, Esq., M.1-. J. J. Coiupareti 
Mrs. Griawold, Mrs. Laura Suttenliald, aad otliors. 

Among the historioal work^ raferred to, (ind drawn from, I have bean pnr. 
tioularly careful to "keep good company," and hare used the material of tliosg 
volumes only which have well aQstained a reputation, for accuracy, some of which 
have long since gone out of print. Among these, I may mention " The History of 
the Late War in the "Western Country," by Col. Eoht. B. M'Afee, who was her^ 
with the army during much of the war of 1812 and '14 — (this volume ia cow fifty 
years old) ; Butler's " History of Kentucky "—1336 | Drake's " Life of Black Hawk" 
— 1833 ; " The Hesperian, or "Western Monthly MiigaEine " — 1838 ; " Tho American 
Pioneer;" ""Wau-Bun, the ' Early Day' in the Northwest! " "Western Annals;" 
Sparks' " American Biography," " States and Teriitoties of the Great "West ; " Park- 
man's " History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac;" Dillon's " History of Indiana;" Judge 
Law's "Address" — 1839; etc., etc., together with a number of paperacontnining intor- 
eeting and valuable sketches. 

Much more might have been added to the work ; but the price charged for it 
would not well admit of an enlargement beyond tho number of pages presented. 
In actual amount of matter, however, the pages being " solid," it will not fall fftr 
ehort of many works uf a similar character, which, though containing a less number 
of lines on each page, are yet much more bulky and voluminous. Indeed, so es- 
tenaivB were many of the facta and matter generally from which the work has been 
drawn, that, in some instances, I have been compellad to leave out and cut short 
much matter thai I should liked to have presented in tho present issue. But all 
will "keep," very well, subject to a further" call by the public. 

In the latter part of this volume, tho reader will find, togathar with some other 
matter of interest, several sketches of early settlers cf Fort "Wayne, conspicuous 
among which will be found ;i very lengthy Biography of our late most beloved 
and lamented fellow-citizen, Hun. Samuel Hanna, from the able pen of his old 
friend and companion, one of Fort Wayne's most worthy and respected citizens, 
G. W.Wood, Esq. A short sketch of the father of Charles B. Lassella, Esq., "the 
first white man born at Ke-ki-ong-a," will be found in this part of the work ; one 
also of Mr. H.Budisili, father of our county Auditor. But all will bo read with equal 
care and interest by the reader. Thanking the citizens generally, of Fort Wayne 
and Allen county, including especially the publishers of each of our city papers, 
for the interest manifested in behalf of the work, and tho Jiheral aid extended to it, 
in the form of subscriptions, 1 trust, in return, the volume may not onlj [rove a 
source of much interest and value to all, but be successful in rescuing from a com- 
parative oblivion the historic importance to which Fort Way ne is so justly entitled. 

Fort Wa^nk, Ikd., Dec, 1867. 

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ANTHOtiy Waitne was not alone a valiant officer and soldier. He was a 
moral horo. His frontal brain was large, and the crown of his bead well 
expanded. Largely intuitive, ever thoughtful, sagacious, and resolute of 
will ; his soul was imbued with a large feeling of benificenc^ as well as de- 
termination — a high admiration of the beautifiil and picturesque in nature. 
While clinging to the sword, a^ a means of safety, he was disposed t<i invite 
bis antagonist tojoin in a ooancil of peace. Always on the look-out — 
cautious and most prudent in Ma movements — bold, intrepid, and fearless, 
when called to the field of battle, his opponents were sure, sooner or later, 
to come to defeat. He was, by nature and organization, a soldier, a tae- 
(ieian, a bero. Somewhat scholarly, he wrote not only a fliir hand, but an 
t^eeablo diction ; and was noted for his laconioism.* Born with the 
great spirit of true Freedom deeply impressed upon him, at an early age he 
became imbued with the importance of freeing his country, and making it 
an asylum for the out-growth, establishment, and perpetuation of un- 
sullied liberty, free institutions, and good government. Thus actuated 
and impelled, the name of Anthony Wayne is found among the first .to 
lead the way at the commencement of the American Revolution ; and 
when, a few years after the long struggle for Independence, the West called 
for the services of one equal to the emergency of the time, he was soon 
sent to her relief; and the country, after the lapse of a few mouths, sub- 
Befi(uent to his movement thither, was made to rejoice under a new reign 
of peace and safety. f 

The graiid-father of Wayne was an* Englishman by birth, who left bis 
native country during 1681, and removed to Ireland, where he devoted 

i'At tiia capture of Stouj Point, he adaresaed the following to Oen. Waahlngton : 

Stony Por»T, 16th Jclt, 1773, S O'clock, A. M. 
iEou iritti Col. JohDEcn nre onre. Our offlccra and 
linsd to be free. Yoara moat aincorel; 


fSce Chapter SII of t 

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EiooitAPnY OP Gen. Anthony Wayne. ix. 

himself to agriculture for a period of several years. Entering the army 
of William of Orange, againat King James, the exile, in 1690, h.e fought 
at the hattle of the Boyne, and took part in tte siege of Limerick, making 
Jiimself quite servicable to the state, for which he seems never to have been 
duly rewarded, and heooming eventually much dissatisfied with the gen- 
eral relations of his adopted country, at the age of sixty-three he left 
Ireland, and ventured upon a voyage across the Ocean, reaching Pennsyl- 
vania in 1722. With the new country he was much pleased, and soon 
purchased a. farm and settled in Chester county of that state ; and it was 
here that his grand-son and nam.e-Balce, the subject of this sketch, was 
born, on the lat of January, 1745. 

But little is known of the early life of Wayne, further than he was 
accounted a " pretty wild boy," and from his youth seelned to have had a 
greater fondness for the art and peril of war than any thing his mind eould 
be called to. For this pass-time and amusement, he forsook school, school- 
books, and gave little heed to much earnest advice. His uncle, Gilbert 
Wayne, to whom Anthony was sent as a pupil to acquire the common 
rudiments of an education, wrote to his father as follows concerning his 
nephew : 

" I really suspect," said he, "that parental affection blinds you; and 
that you have mistaken your son's capacity. What he may be best 
qualified for, I know not ; but one thing I am certain of, that he will 
never make a scholar. He may make a soldier ; he has already dis- 
tracted the brains of two-thirdsof the boys under my direction, by rehersals 
of battles, and sieges &c. They exhibit more theappearanec of Indians and 
harlequins than of, students ; this' one, decorated with a cap of many 
colors i and others, habited in coats as variegated as Joseph's of old ; 
some, laid up with broken heads, and others with black eyes. During 
noon, instead ol' the usual games aiid amusements, he has the boys em- 
ployed in throwing up redoubts, skirmishing, &c. 1 must be candid 
with you, brother Isaac ; unless Anthony pays more attention to his 
books, I shall he under the painful necessity of dismissing him from 
the school." 

The result of this was a severe lecture from his father, who threatened, 
likewise, t<i withdraw him from school and place him upon the farm at 
hard work, if failing to conduct himself difi'erently, in the future, and give 
over his sham battling, erection of redoubts, military rehearsals, and 
building of mud forts. The earnest, resolute words of his father, for 
whom he entertained a sti'ong affection and regard, were deeply impressed 
upon him ; and he resolved to return to his uncle, devote himself to his 
studies, and forsake ail that had given rise to former complaint against 
him. Thus acting and applying himself diligently to his studies for a 
period of eighteen months, his uncle was compelled to admit that he had 
not only " acquired all that his master could teach," but that " he merited 
the means of higher ind more general instruction," whioh induced his 
father at once to send him to the Philadelphia Academy, where, at the 
^e of eighteen years, he had acquired an extended knowledge of Astronomy 
and Mathematics. Returning again to hia native county, he now entered 
upon the business of land surveying. 

It was about this period that the peace between the powers of Great 
Britain and France was terminated, which placed Nova Scotia in the 

. ..Google 

X. HiSTOEX OP Fort Watnb. 

possession of the former, a.nd the British government at once bethought 
to colonize her newly acquiiQd territory; and associations soon began to 
he formed in soaie of the older provinces with a view to colonizing tliese 
newly acquired regions. Prominent among these was a company of mer- 
chants and others, from Penasylvania, embracing among their number 
Benjamin Franklin, and through the reoomendation of Franklin, young 
WAYNEitheninhis twenty -first year, was readily chosen special agent to visit 
the newly -acquired territory, to examine the soil best adapted to agricul- 
tural pursuits, and to gain information as to " the means of commercial 
facilities connected with it." Upon this important mission young Wayne 
not only soon embarked and performed the duties thereof most satis- 
factorily to all concerned, bat was continued in the trust till the year 1767, 
when the difficulties, then assuming a serious attitude between the mother 
country, and the colonial settlements of America, had the effect to 
break up the enterprise and call the attention of the colonists to matters 
of self-defense directly within the colonial settlements. 

Returning again to Pennsylvania, yoimg Wayne, in 1767, was united 
in wedlock to the daughter of a distinguished merchant in Philadelphia, 
of the name of Benjamin Penrose, whither he soon returned to Chester 
county, and again embarked in the occupation of surveying, engaging 
also in agricultural pursuits w}ien a short cessation or pause in his profes- 
sion occurred ; and in this latter vocation ho is said to have " found much 
to gratify his taste." 

Continuing to menace the colonies, and insist upon her policy of tax- 
ation, up to the period of 1774-5— to which time we find Wayne still 
engaged in the business of surveyipg and farming — Great Britain was at 
length met with a formidable front by the colonists, who had determined 
to resist the further aggressions of the king and Parliament of the British 
government, even to the sword., Indeed, matters had now assumed such a 
shape as to leave no room or hope for escape on the part of the colonial 
settlements ; and WAYNE was among the first to step forward and de- 
clare for a positive stand against the further encroachment of the 
British Crown. 

The events now surely leading to a long and severe struggle against 
the mother country, in which he was to take so active a part, had years 
before, when bnt a boy, been foreshadowed in his ardent love of military 
sports — his fondness for the erection of redoubts and mud forts, of which 
his uncle so earnestly complained ; and seeing largely the importance 
of i-eadiaess tor such a campaign, Wayne began at once to withdraw him- 
self from all political assemblies of the country, and devote himself to 
the organizatioik and instruction of military bodies. In this ho wa.s not 
only wise, but successful ; for, within the period of six weeks, he was 
able to bring together and form a company of volunteers, " having," says 
the account,* from which the foregoing was principally drawn," more the 
appearance of a veteran than of a military regiment." 

The energy and capacity of Watne had now begun to attract public 
attention ; and during the early part of January, 1776, the Continental 
Congress readily conferred upon him the title of Colonel, and gave him the 
command of " one of the four regiments required from Pennsylvania, in 
reinforcement of the northern army." In his new capacity, ho was ever 

"Prepftred by his son, laaac "Wayne, and first published in a work printed in 
PhLlitdelphia some years ago, called " Tee OAsKEr." ^ 

, . yGoo^^lc 

Bjogeapuy" of Gen. Anthony "VVayne. xi. 

noted for tis diligence and activity, and his efforta were always attended 
with marked euccess. 

The regiment under hia command having been speedily raised and 
equiped, he soon took up his line of match for Canada ; whither he arrived 
about the latter part of June, ('76,) and formed a part of Thompson's 
brigade, at the mouth of the river Sorel. Major-Ueneral Sullivan, then in 
command of the norttern army, arrived at this point about the same pe- 
riod of Wayne's arrival, and learning that the British commander had 
seat a detachment of some six hundred light infantry to the westward, as 
far as the village of Trois Rivieres, unattended by any relief corps, a plan 
was at once agreed upon for the capture of the detachment and post, 
and establishing there a formidable battery, " which, if not sufficient en- 
tirely to prevent the ascent of the British armed vessels and transports 
to Montreal, might, for a time so embarrass the navigation, aa greatly to 
retard their progress thither."* 

Accordingly, on the 3rd of July, with St. Clair's, Wayne's and Ir- 
vine's regiments, Major Sullivan dispatched Thompson to a little village on 
the south side of the St. Lawrence, called Niocolete, which stood nearly 
opposite to the village of Trois Rivieres. 

Learning " that a place called the White-house (still nearer to the as- 
saitanla thau Trois Rivieres) was oooupied by an advanced guard," and 
Thompson, a taetioian of the old sohool, being of the opinion that 
" troops acting offensively should leave no hostile post in their rear," 
began to move in the direction of the supposed position of the enemy, 
but soon found that tlie point was unoccupied. 

After the loss of much time and the encounter of many perplexities, 
besides placing his men in a fair position for a surprise and capture, 
Thompson now directed the troops to return to the place of their landing. 
Having, for some hours previous, been shielded by the night, the dawn 
now began to appear, and the enemy caught sight of the detach- 
ment, and were soon driving it from point to point, until, at lengtii, 
the troops under Thompson were oompelled to seek safety in a consider- 
able morass, " from which he had just extricated himself," where " he and 
afew others," were soon captured ; and Col. St. Clair, second in command, 
having, about the same time, been disabled in one of hia feet, the fur- 
ther directjou of the forces remaining foil upon Col. Wayne ; and 
though badly wounded, so successful was he in the conduct of the move- 
ment, that ho soon gained the western side of the river Des Loups, 
and rapidly made his " way along the northern bank of tho St. Law- 
rence, to the village of Berthior," gaining the American camp at the 
mouth of the river Sorel in safety. 

Late in -June, General Sullivan began to perceive, from the move- 
ments of the British, that his position was no longer a safe one ; and im- 
mediately issued an order for the evacuation of the fort of the Sorel, and 
a retreat upon Lake Champlain. 

In thia movement Wayne and the Pennsylvania regiments were di- 
rected to cover the rear. So close was the enemy, in this move, " that 
the boats latest getting into motion were not beyond the reach of musket 
shot, when the head of the enemy's column entered the fort." VTithout fur- 
ther molestat\on or alarm, the army, on the 17th of July, sueoeeded in 
reaching Ticonderoga, 
*St. Claii-'s narrative. 


XII. History op Poet Waynb. 

Thus wc see, in the very out-set of the struggle for Independence, how 
our hero, step by step, made himself moat aervioeable to his country and, 
laid the fonndation for lasting renown. 

The cominand of the northern troops, now devolving upon Gen. Gates, 
who, learning of the perilous condition of "Washington, " with eight regi- 
ments," marched " to the aid of the Commander-in-chief," leaving the 
post of Tieonderoga in the command of Col. Wayne, with a force of two 
thousand five hundred men — an arrangement that not only proved most 
pleasing to the troops under tiin, but highly agreeable to Congress, which 
body, in order the better to encourage and sustain the appointment, soon 
conferred upon Wayne the title of Brigadier -General, continuing him in 
command of Ticonderoga until the following spring, at which period he 
was called to the ranks of the main army under Gen. Washington, reach- 
ing headquarters on the 15th of May, 1777, where he was at once placed 
lit the head of a brigade "which," said Washington, " could not fail under 
his direction to be soon and greatly distinguished." 

We now find Wayne connected with nearly every important movement 
of the Revolution; and though, as on occasions already referred to, closely 
pursued or surrounded, he yet, sooner or later, was ever the successful 
leader or actor in every engagement. 

After the retreat of the British from Philadelphia, in June, 1777, we 
find thecorpsunder Wayne, with tiiose of Sullivan Maxwell and Morgan, 
sentin pursuit, of which, two alone (WayneN ind Morgan b) were enabled 
to follow up the retreat, of whom Washington in his leport to Congress, 
said: " They displayed great bravery and good conduct constantly ad- 
vancing on an enemy far superior to themselves in numbers and well se- 
cured by redoubts." 

At the battle of Brandywine " Wayne wai assigned tbe post of honor, 
that of leading the American attack; a service he performed with a gal- 
lantry now become habitual to himself and the division he commanded."* 

At the fiimous engagement of Stoney Point, Wayne s own escapes are 
stated as "of the hair-breadth kind."f Shortly after capturing and 
enteringthe fortification of the enemy, he was struck by amusket-bal! on 
the head, which caused hie fall ; but he immediately rallied, crying out, 
" march on, carry me into the fort; for should the wound he mortal, I will 
die at the head of the column." 

This engagement, considered " the most brilliant of the war," is said to 
have "covered the commanding general (Wayne) with laurels;" of whom 
Washington, referring to this occasion, said in his report to Congress: 
"To the encoumiums he (Wayne) has deservedly bestowed on the officers 
and men under his command, it gives me pleasure to add that his own 
conduct throughout the whole of this arduous enterprise merits the warm- 
est approbation of Congress, He improved on the plan recommended by 
me, and executed it in a manner that does honor to his judgement and 
bravery ; " and Congress tendered him a vote of thauks for his valiant 
efforts on the occasion in question. In addition to these, Wayne was the 
recipient also of many complimentary letters from men of distinction at 
the time, one of which, froin Gen. Charles Lee, will serve as illustrative, 

BSpurks' Biography, i-ol. 4. 

tSo intrepid ami darini; was he, thnt early ir 


Biography of Gen. Anthony Wayne. sin. 

perhaps, of their geaeral tenor. Said Mr. Lee; " what I am going to say 
you will not I hope eonaider as paying my court in this your hour of 
glory; for, as it is at least my present intention to leave this continent, I 
can have no interest in paying my court to any individual. What I shall 
say therefore ia dictated by the genuine feelings of my heart. I do most 
sincerely declare that your assault of Stony Point is not 6nly the moat 
brilliant in my opinion, throughout the whole course of the war on either 
aide, but that it is the most brilliant I am acquainted with in history; tte 
assault of Schweidnitz by Marshal Loudon, I think inferior to it. I wish 
you, therefore, most^sincerely, joy of the laurels you have deservedly 
acquired, and that you may long live to wear them. With respectand no 
small admiration, I remain, &c." 

If a mutjuoua spirit arose among the troops at any time there were 
none better able to quell it than Wayne. Universally beloved and admired 
by all the privates under him, he readily exerted a salutary influence over 
them. This pqwcr of Wayne was strikingly illustrated during the 
fore part of January, 1781, soon after the distribution of the army for 
winter quarters. Shortly after the ordinary feativiea of the day, " the 
whole division, with a few exceptions, was found in a state of open and 
deeidedinsurrection, disclaiming all further Obedience, and boldly avowing 
an intention of immediately abandoning the post, and of seeking, with 
arms in their hands, a redress of their grievances."* The afi'air proved a. 
^evious one. £lvery attempt to quell the movement seemed to have been 
met by blows — "wounds were inflicted and lives lost." The grievances 
complained of, were " clothing generally bad in quality, and always de- 
ficient in quantity ; wages irregularly paid, and in a currency far below 
its nominal value; and, lastly, service greatly prolonged beyond the legal 
term of enlistment," 

The eonfiict closed about half-past eleven o'clock ; and being no longer 
obstructed, the insurgents began a march toward Princeton ; and Wayne, 
then stationed in the neighborhood of Morrietown, at some risk, deter- 
mined to follow them and endeavor to bring them again to order. In a con- 
ciliatory and dignified manner, overtaking the main body at Vealtown, 
he at once began to open negotiations with some of the non-commissioned, 
officers in whom he placed moat confidence ; and it was not long before 
he succeeded in convincing them that, in order to succeed in their demands, 
a change in their course and demeanor would be of the first necessity — that 
without such a course of order on the part of the agrieved, nothing what- 
ever could be effected — urging the necessity, of organizing aboard or ap- 
pointing a committee among them to set forth the grievances, and by "a 
full and clear statement of their demands " — pledging himself to become 
a zealous advocate in their behalf, in " so far as the claims made should 
be founded injustice or equity." 

These suggestions had the desired effect; the committee was duly ap- 
pointed, and the march towards Princeton was again begun, but in a man- 
ner much more orderly than before. 

Such was the power and force of character of the good man and valiant 
soldier after whom our thriving city is named ; and may it ever emulate 
his example. 

As early as 1777-8, the British government having determined to direct 

'■Ea,v.Md's " Register of Pennajlvanift." 

-c by Google 

sir. History of Foet Wayse. 

aome formidable operations agaiast the industrial relations of the South, 
in the early part of April, 1781, Washington despatched Lafayette, " with 
twelve hundred regular infantry to Virginia ; and not long after, gave to 
the remains of the Pennsylvania line {about eleven hnudred, commanded 
by Wayne,)a similar destination. " We find Gen. Wayne engaging the Brit- 
ish at Green Spring, driving the enemy's pickets, and advancing in person 
to within some " fifty yarda of the whole British army drawn up in order of 
battle, and already pushing forward fiank-eorpa to envelope him." Deter- 
mining to make up in boldneas what he seemed to have lost or was about 
to lose in a too near approach to the enemy's lines, he made a bold and sud- 
den move upon the enemy, and then reti'eated, which gave the British com- 
mandant to infer that it was an effort to draw his forces into ambush, 
which made so decided an impression in this direction, "tliat all pursuit 
of the American corps was forbidden," 

By some this movement was deemed rash; but Washington, in a letter to 
the General, said : " I received, with the greatest pleasure, the account of the 
action at Green Spring." Gen, Greene said : " the Marquis gives you great 
giory for your conduct in the action at Jamestown ; and I am sensible that 
you merit it. that I had but had you with me a few days ago 1 Your 
glory and the public good might have been greatly advanced." 

On the first day of January following this movement, by order of Gen. 
Greene, G«n. Wayne was sent " to reinstate, as far as might be possible, 
the authority of tho Union within the limits of Gleorgia, with one hundred 
regular dragoons, three hundred undisciplined Georgia militia, and about the 
saine number of State cavalry." 

Though greatly inadequate to the end desired, yet Wayne is said to 
have uttered no complaint or objection, but resolutely moved forward on 
his mission, bringing to bear his usual boldness and wisdom, sufficient, with 
this amall force, to push " the enemy from all his interior posts," and to 
" cut oS Indian detachments marching to his aid ; " intercepted the forays 
of the enemy's main body, and on the land side, penned liim up, in a great 
degree, within the narrow limits of the town of Savannah ; and all in the 
"short space of five weeks." 

In a letter to Gen. Greene, bearing date Feb. 28, 1782, Wayne said : 
"The duty we have done in Georgia was more difficult than that im- 
posed upon the children of Isreal ; thoy had only to make bricks wifli 
Btraw, but we have had provision, fSrage, and almost every other aparatua 
of war, to procure without money; boats, bridges, &o., to build without 
material, except those taken from the stump; and, what was more difficult 
than all, to make whigs out of lories. But this we have effected, and 
wrested the country out of the hands of the enemy, with the exception 
only of the town of Savannah. How to keep it without some additional 
force, is a matter worthy of consideration."* 

The British troops having evacuated Savannah about the 12th of July, 
Wayne, by order of General Greene, with the troops under his command, wan 
recalled to South Carolina. In the lettei', addressed to General Wayne, re- 
calling him fi-om Georgia, Greene thus wrote : " I am happy at the approach- 
ing deliverance of that unfortunate country ; and what adds to my happiness. 

»In a letter to a trieEd the General saiil : " In tbe Bve weeliE we liiive besn here, not 
bh ofRoer or soldier with mo has onoe aiiaroased, excejit for the pnrpose of ohiinging his 
linen. Tho actual foi-ce of the enomj at this moment is more than three times that of 
mine. What we have bee u able to do has been done bj maneuve ng rather than byfoceo." 

I i»., Google 

BiOGEAPHY OP Gen. Anthony Wayne. 

is, that it will reSect no small honor upon you. I wish you to be- p 
that I shall do you ample justice in my public accounts to Congress and the 
Commandev-in-chief . I thiuk you have conducted your command with great 
prudence and with astonishing perserefanee ; and, in so doing, yoa liave fully 
anawei-ed the high espectatious I evei- entertained of your military abilities, 
from our earliest acquaintance." 

Soon after the evacuation of Sdvannab, Charleston whs given up by the 
British, which, after a treaty of peace, and an absence of seven years from his 
family, Wayne again returned to bis homestead in Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania, truly one of the most remaa'kable men of bis day, crowned, as be well 
deserved, with the blessings of a whole nation of free men, and noble women. 
But his well known abilities, and the high esteem in which he was held by 
bis feilow-citizena, soon brought him before the public again, but in another 
capacity from that of asoldier. He was now elected a member of the Coun- 
cil of Censors ; and soon after this event be was honered with a seat iii the 
Convention " called to revise and amend the Constitutloa of the State ; " in the 
discbarge of which duties he acquitted himself with marked ability, and 
much to the satisfaction of the people. 

' At the close of these duties, declining any further services of a civil or po- 
litical nature, prefering to lead a life of retirement ratbev than one of public 
distinction of any kind; and thus, principally employed in the puiBuiis ofan;- 
riculture, was his lime passed until, by the wish of Washington and thi; 
voice of the people, in the early part of 1792, Wayne was again ealled to the 
service of his country, and " appointed to the command of the legion and 
army of the West," tlie result of causes which the reader will find detailed in 
Chapters X, XI, and XII, of this volume. 

At the close of his labors in the west, returning to the east, " plaudits and 
thanks, public and private," were showered upon him ; and " Congress, 
then in session, unanimously adopted resolutions highly complimentary to 
the General and the whole army." 

The year following the treaty of Greenville, (1796), being? appointed sole 
commissioner to treat with the northwestern Indians, and also " receiver of 
the military posts given up by theBiitish government, General Wayne again 
returned to tlie west ; and, alter a prompt and faithful discharge of the duties 
attached to these new functions, while descending Iiake Erie from Detroit, be 
was attacked by the gout," where he soon aftei' died ; and, at his own re- 
quest, (having previously been removed to the Uock-bouse) he was buried 
at the foot of the flag-staff of the garrison, with the simple inscription of " A- 
W." upon the stone that served to remind the inmates and the stranger o£ the 
burial place of the patriot, the hero, the soldier, and the man of true courage 
and remarkable foresight, Avmojsr Wavse. 

For thirteen years the remans of Wayne continued to repose beneath this 
simple head-stone, at the foot of the old flag-staff of Erie, when, in 1 809, his 
son. Col. Isaac Wayne, desiring to remove the bones of his valiant father tO' 
the family burial place, in the cemetery of St. David's Church, in Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, the body was disinterred, etil! in a fine state of preser- 
vation, and removed as above, where a monument was raised to hie memory 
by the " Pennsylvania State Society of the Cincinnati," on which the visitant 
may still read 0)1 the north and south front thereof, the following insoription ; 
" North frost; — Major-general Ahthoby Watbe was born at Waynesbor- 
ough, in Chester county, State of Pennsylvania, A. D., 1745. After a life 
of honor and usefulness, he died in December, 1796, at a military post on the 


XVI. HisTOET OP FoE'c Watne. 

aliore of Lake Ei'io, Commander-in-ohiet'of the Army of Ihe United States. 
His military achievemeDts are coDseerated in the history of his country, aucl 
in the hearts of his countrymen. His remains are here deposi ted. 

" South frObt: — In honor of the distinguished military sei- vices of Major- 
General Anthony Wayne, and as an afiectionate tribute of respect to his 
memory, ihis stone was erected by his companions in arme, the Pennsylva- 
nia State Society of the Cincinaati, July 4tb, A. D., 1809, thirty -fourth anni- 
vei-aary of the Independence of tlie United States ; an event which consljtutea 
the most appropriate eulogium of an American soldier and patiiot." 

The accompanying portrait of General Wayne is from an old painting of 
him, and is doubtless very accurate, and will no doubt be highly prized by 
e^ery citizen of Fort Wayne and lover of bis country into whose hands it 
should chance to fall. 

Why a. monument lias not lon^ ago been ei-ected, on the site of the old 
fort, to the memory of this heroic and worthy man, including also Major 
Hinutramck, and the valiant soldiery under their command, I know not ; but 
feel that, though so long forgotten or neglected, the work will yet be per- 
formed by the people of Ae city of Fort Wayne and county of Allen ; thus 
enabling the stranger visiting the historic scenes of our city and adjacent lo- 
calities to behold, instead of the old garrison, — whose only remains jimong ua 
ctinsiatfi in a few plainly -wrought canes, in the posisession of a few of our eiti- 
eens, preserved as mementoes of the fort so long over-looking the confluence 
of the St. Mary and St. Jos^h, — a substantial and appropriate monument 
to the memoiy of Anthony WiYNB and the brave men who dared to follow 
him to this ancient stronghold, that the then infant and enfeebled settlements 
of the west might enjoy peace and safety, and onr beautiful country be ena- 
bled to march steadily on, as she has, to her present condition of growth and 

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i'l'O!!! Ilse EiirliesE Kiiovia Aocoiissis of tliis Poiiii to ilis rrcseut fpriodi, 

"I wafoli tlxecftele of theeteptial jeara, 

And 'read, fotever iii tiio etoriad page. 
One lengtlioned roll of blood and wrong nnd tear 
Oneouward stop of Tratli from age to age." 
" Tlie etsnial eurgo 
Of Time nnd tide mile on, and beais afar 
0«r bubbles ; and the old btirst — new emerge, 
tosbed from tlio foam of agaa ; wbila tlie groT^ 
Of empires heave but like soma pacing waves." 

CHAPrET I— pEcmn ai. 

^riHiriiive traces— Siti pp ra 

the re»on— The e y ta es 

*Bia Whites— Tlie Kytoth ^ hwaat— E y<n> p bytl ll E ^ 

a»d Amapieans — F esdb thhm KdM ta 

iienoa nnd aarly yby hPr Tbearo tohMss 

Settlement at V oe ies T p 

Salla'a jonpney afoo His jo 

— Early settleme ts-^App ara 

jCarly iniBflioilanea — Eff rts f th 

Jreneh trading poBta— F ra Mibsw 

libepatity— Henii pa lb rciESi 

Illinois In liiana — F nd U Iro ^ 

eqaaWft— Kastask T ado ej di'la ffeoPfi d 

tuiioiiB— French nt U* t I' i^a .? Tli E e 

fort-Tpaoed %Wy 4-A esiJi-i-B 

fO WRITE f i^ _ he 

_mi^ST^ ' the .go^od iind the ta^ue oi any time-t.. 
W^lfl^T again &e memories and relations of early d^vs, 
^teVfea tlio. _^j^ j^^b^^ ^^^ ^^^^ had marl^ed the fields and the 
i° --prints of the periods gone with gocy redneaa, and maao 
tU* nvere aad rivnlets to nui crimso:i with the blood ot th& slam— ib 
liiit to porform n. rommon dntvto ;(, H?ommon hnmnr<il-y ! 


a IllSTOKY OF FOKT "W'AYfif^, 

The primitive traces und early evidences of barKaric and ciTil- 
ized life in this part of tlio State ot Indiana are man^ and various ; 
;iiid tlie present site of the Oity of Fort Wayne, witii conliguoxis 
localities, is fully and fairly entitled to Histokic Geookd ! 
■ Situated upon a point of land, the most elevated in 'tlie Stfite^ 
li'ort Wayne is very appropriately called tbe Summit Citt, The 
general lace of tlie countTy suiTOuuding is rolling and somewhafc 
imcvoii, with here aftd there a considerable promontory, overlookinj^ 
!ho beautiful sti-eanas and valleys in the region. With strong 
impregnations of irtin and sulphur, the soil is variously compoBect 
of the most valuable elements, admirably adapted both for fai'ming 
;ind building purp'oaes, — consisting of the loamy, aandy, clayey 
i|aa3itie8. Embodying much of the iibmantic and picturesque iii 
nature, Ihe surrounding aspects and scenery of the place never fait 
10 awaken the liveliest admiration and curiosity of the stranger j 
while the general appearance of the rity, itself, at the present pe- 
riod, with its numerous imit and shade trees, handsome dwellings 
iind yai'ds — beautiful shmbbery, a,pd well cultivated gardeus, in 
seaSdne of verdure and Jlowers, is ever onfe df eSceeding pleasant^ 
iieasknd beauty, aliie to the AtciaioiHi; and the moijientary sojourner. 

From a very early period, with the Indians, it was a "glorious 
gate " " through which all the good words of" their " chiefs had to 
pass frOm the north to the south, and from tlie east to the west. "*■ 
At a later period in the history of events in America— in the strug- 
gle between barbarism and civilization — it became ' at once the 
pivotal point upon t^hich the most important relations of the 
(country turned, both for the advancing civilization of the time and 
the barbaric force against which it had to cimtcnd — the ket, in 


Early occupied as a military point of great impoi'tanee, alike to 
Ihe French, tiieEriglieh arid our own Government, each, in turn^ 
establishing' and maiatairiing a military post hero, as a means by. 
Avhich to attain and" eAerciae an extended control over the destinioK 
and resources of the new World, "questions of infinite reach, involv- 
ing dominion, race, language, law and religion, have hung npon 
*>iaipetty display of military power at the junction of these rivers,"t 
©*^4hc red man had lived, doubtless, for centuries before tht* 
firit civillSfetJ^eettlement in Amerif i hid be^un, — his h(juT,ws culti 
aUng the maad -gnd perfoiminff the common hardship'? oi litt, 
Ifhile hohuqtedthehiSrWlo andndd gimo of the foiestandprdiricj 
» latlle f urtle f T •sse L WiiUnliia Esq 

"Vptp JijiJitelfflW iriliiB }nt»li«tlii^A5rtH*„ The Colonial Eistorv of 1 juoenneB 
Tncl J psM 10 gays j ' It is n « ngular faot yBt~*w Iws tme that tlie WabosJi w»i 
^iluH'i and navigated by tlie whites long liefom ihe Okt>. -wiih known toeii st Iudi?e(l 
jll 1 bp innps— nnd I hn/* wn two hnf ^ tie ^eiv 17W-^i tlie OUio at its oonHi 
lu itl I \ D 1 lip ii'on IS obvionn Wuenmie raflrtU I i i 

til i Mississippi wag bijier bj the Illi 
itli tlia Mii<sissippi w IS nf' SHE it uEv fi 
I li oeiitnrj and Traa from, the Lake* 
Thev am ended the llnumeo eruos 



speared the fish in the beautiful Bti'cama gliding 'bj; leisurely has\<- 
%nl in the stiasbiiie; devoted Hinself to plays juid games ; liud- 
dled about the wigwam and the eamp-lire; or went forth to seouro 
^he trophies and honors of \v,ai. 
Being eitaated at the head and teniiinuaof two conBiderableati-oanis, 
(the St. Joseph and Mauftiee), the one Eowing from the region oi' 
Lake Michigan and the other into Lake. Erie, direcfcfrom atid into 
Ijoints near to and from which Jhe eAriymyageurs^mih^mmiwii^ 
and ti-adera sought bo barnestly to estend theuv offorie and disco>- 
eiies — together witli the iact, at. an early peiiod,, of a strbng rela- 
tionship * and doubtless frequent intercourse between; the tribes 
along those lakes and the Miamies of this part of their ostended 
territory, — it is not probable that this point could have long escaped 
their attention. And, as will be seen in snbsequent pages, thero 
exists the sti-ongeat evidence that the eaiiy French miasiouariee, 
explorers and traders, from Canada, had visited the junction of these 
rivers as early as 1680 to 1682-'3 — and the probability is veiy 
strong that they were here at a much earlier period; 

Judge Law, in his able Address, concerning the iirat settlement 
of Vincennea by the French, concludes it to have been about tho 
year 1710 or ifll'; and thinks it moat probable in the first of the 
two years mentioned, "inaamoch," says he, "as the Fort must have 
been built and garrisoned before an application was made for a 
missionary." Now, the advantages of navigationj, tlte nearness of 
this point to the Lakes, the extensive openings of this region,! and 
the lamp it aeems to have so long enjoyed afe a "glorious gate," give 
to it a claim^WoWtrathatof the establishment of a Post and Mieslon 
at Vincennea. And it ia not improbable, that a temporary mission 
wa^ established here before or soon after the eventful year' of IGS'2. 
In the early part of 1680-, LaSallei having penetrated the west to 
a point, which is now known as Peoria, III., whei-e he bnilt a iort, 
which he called ()reveo(But\ (Brolren Hearty) because of his former 
misfortunes, and soon finding himself without supplies and neces- 
f aiy materials for the completion of a vessel he had then beguii .■it 
the foot of Lake Peoria, in the riionth of March, of that year, deter- 
mining upon a plan to hasten the needed supplies, ■with but thre<! 
attendants^ he set out a-fo6t towafds Lake Erie, "following along the 
Water-shed, or divide, which seperatea the atreama that flow into 
the Oliio river from thoae which flow into Lake Erie," and reached 
»The Masoontfflis, Bays GallatiB, dwaOing.about Lnko Miuhigan were a braneh of 
itho Miamies. 

lThe following, from tlie"dMljr journal of Wayne's campnign," will show the aji- 
]ieariinoe of this point, on tlia aitival of the armv htrt, iiv 1794: 

"OAitp Miami Villaiies, IYth Sbpiioieiii, f794. — TJib aj-my halted on tliiBgiouiid 
fits o'oloBk, p. m., Mnfi;47 miles from Fort Defianoe and 14 from oupluBtecoampmt'nt.-. 
Wiare ara iiearfy BOO aores of cleared laud Iving in onu body on llie rivers St. Joseph, 
St. Mflfy'fl and the Miami; there are fine poiuta of land contiguora to thoso risera ad- 
joining the «!OBred land, Tho rivera are navieable for small eralts ia. the aumuier, anil 
in the ftintct' there ia watei' suffioient fof large ooats, the land adjucant fertile and well 
■■ ' --■ ' ■■ ■■ 'l9stenllllpofih(0a^«Btsettlempntslllnd.■V 

^niim■T^s"Vnthi6ef"' ""■ "" 

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bis defetination in safety ; * which mates ii; quite evicTeut, togethci' 
with the fact of his having spent the Aiitumii of 3 079 in the erection 
oi a fort at the month of the St. Joseph's river, sonnding the chan- 
nel of that stream, and estabUhsmg tliere " a depot for suppliea 
and goods," that he was by no means unacquainted, at an fearly 
pfeiiod of bis efforts, with this region of the north-we&t. 

The reputed rival ae Well as co-laborer of La Salle, Lonia Henne- 
pin, a Franciscan friar, of the Eecollect variety, and said to have 
been vbry ambitions as a discoverer, as also daring, liardy, ener- 
getic, with other peculiaritiGa closely aUicd therfeto, as early as 
l6fi3-4 Speaks of the "Hohio," and oi" a route from the Lakea 
(uortlieiTi) to the Mississippi by the Wabash, the accoaiit of whicli 
lie had lieard, and whielt was eSzplored in lfi76. In Hennepin's 
volumo of 1698, is a journaii says the best accounts, said to be that 
neiit by La Salle to Oonnt FrOnlenae, in 1 1582 or 1683, which men- 
tions the rotite by the MauTfim and Weibash as the most direct to 
the -great weiter.n river, (Mississippi ;)i" which makes it quite evi- 
dent that this region was not only early visited, but that the ronte lead- 
ing through this immediate vicinity) was oilen very early traversed 
by explorers, missionaries and i'ur-traders. And, in view of the, 
navigable streams concentrating at this point ; the vast amount of . 
fur that most annually have been accummulated here ; the 
great number of Indians dweJling at this locality, and in tlie region, 
— that these adventurous and zealous spirits should have early 
selected this as a favorable and most advantageous site, not only 
for tlie prosecution of the labors of the missionaiy and the accumu- 
lation of fur by the trader, but for the early estabhshment of 
a miHtary post, seems most reasonable indeed, and requires but 
little conjecture to arrive at a somewhat definite conclneion as to 
the, truthfulness of tJie question considered. 

Not only did the earliest of the French voyageurs and explorers 
consider this the most diroct route to tlie great western river, Missis- 
sippi, hut tliose of a later period seem to have universally regarded 
fhe route by the Miami or Oviee villages, at this point, as the best-. 
Kays J. W, Dawson, Esq., in his researches : "By reference to early 
history, we find that, in 1716^ amongthe routes of ti'avel established 
by the French, was one from the head of Lake Erie, (now Manhat- 
tan^ or its moj-e auecessfni lival^ Toledo,) up the Maumee river to 
tJie site of Fort Wayne, thfencB by portage to the bead of Littlo 
iiivCrj Jicross the marsh now crossed by the Toledo, Wabash and 
Weatei-n railroad \ thence by liittle Kiver to the Wabash, about nine 
mileahelow Huntington*, thence doWnIhe Wabash to the Ohio; and 
Thence to tiie Mississippi." And as late as 1759 tlie same route is 
favored. §ays the same researches I " The next interesting reference 
to Fort Wayne, ia in 1759, and advises us of a most distingoisJied 
espedition litted out by Mi 4'Anhry, commandant at Illinois. Tlie 
*■' Westevn Aiitials." ]infres (i3 anil (!3. 


Bust Rouie lo tiik Mibsissa'.i'i. -^ 

Ereiicli having esiiausted their auppliea in Pennsylvania, oaid unatle 
to withsf'antl the British, it wae conceived by M. d'A'nbry to rein- 
force his brethem. Accordingly, a lev«y oi" 400 men, and 200,000 
lbs. of floor was raised at Kaskaskia,* and started from there to 
Venango, Pa. Ft. Da QucEne (Pitteburgh,) was abandoned, and 
3ience the reinforcement could not go thence by the Ofaio river. 
So he proceeded with his force down to the MisaisBippi.; thence 
down that river to the mouth of the Ohio ; then np the Ohio to the 
month of "Wabash ; th^n np the Wabash, to the mouth of Little 
Eiver ; then yp tluit stream to the portage ; and then to It. Miami, 
{Ft. Wayne,) where they embarked stores and all on the Maumeo; 
then down the Maumee and along the shore of Lake Erie to Pres- 
que'lsle; then across the portage to Le Boeuff; then down Flinch 
Oreek, to VenangC, Pa." 

Fi-om the founding, by the French, of the city of Qaebec, in 
Oauadajin 1608, to 1763, for a period of more than one hundr^cd 
and fifty years, the geveruments of Fi-ance and Great Britain, 
(tlie latter having begun a settlement at Jajnestown, iu Virginia, as 
cai-ly as 1607,) were most energetic and resolute rivals in many 
civil, military, and otten sanguinaiy contests as to territorial limits 
colonel establishments, and the general trade and commerce of the 
new world of North America-t ■ 

In 1634, the missionaries, Breboeuf and Daniel, joining a party 
of Hurons, on their retiiiin from Quebec, after crossing the' Ottowa 
river, established a mission near a bay of Lake Huron, where they 
are said daily to have rang a bell, calling the natives of the region 
to prayer, and who also " performed all those kindly oiBces which 
were calculated to secure the conSd-cnce and affection of the tribes 
on the Lako shores." 

As early as 1670, Great Britain had established, at diflerept 
])ointa, between the 32d and 45th degrees of north latitude, as 
many as nine colonial settfemenfe in America; and it was not imtil 
about eighty years later that the Enghgli began to make any effort 
towards a settlement west -of the Allegfjeny mountains. 

In 1670, the French colonists in America had persevered m the 
extension of their settlements to the westward from Quebec, on the 
shores of the St. Lawrence, and the boi-ders of iakes Ontario and 
Erie; and their missionarias andtradcKS had succeeded in explor- 
ing the bordering regions of the noi-them lakes, to the west, as far as 
Lake Superior ; and stations, with a view to tlie Christianization of 
the Indians, were established at several points, among a. number of 
Indian tribes. . To give protecrtion a.Bd impetus ■ to tlie fur ti-ad'Cfl 
then coming to be very extensive in Sts operations, a number of 
»That tliU point was visited befwctliaestftWifllimeiit of settlomeiHB at KeskoaMn 
nnil Kalialds, oi- other jioLnta weetts-ai'ii, seems to bs ^iiei'ally odniitted by all tUa nioat 
uiiUienic ListuHcal n^oarehtK that the ivriter Iiss liud occaBioti to teTor to. 

tFor a inoVo ejLtcndeil Bninmary of these early periods, seo BanBroft'a History of U. 
R., Dilkm'aHietory of Indiana, Pai'kmon'u OonsjiirBey of Puntion, Spai'ka's Lifa of L» 
yiilie, Yal. 1 , no-.v s.-;'i^s, do. Lif^ of Msivjur^tte, fc. 

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(I .Ujsiukv of I'uKT Waykk. 

stockade i'orts- and trading poets were also erected at various poiols 
iest suited for such eatabiialimeuts. 

A little miuixtia as to the efforts, trials, and disappointmeuts of 
these primitive missionarieB and others, in connection with othet 
pointSj will here be of interest to the reader, aud tend to open a 
more extended view of the relations that surrounded, aud, at an 
earSy period, evidently influenced, the deatiry of the present situa- 
tion' and historic importance of the City of Fort Wayne. 

At the period I now refer, Charles II. was King of England, 
ancl'Louis !XiV,— purported to hare heen a most ambitions man, — 
was monarfch of the Fi'ench. A statesman of couaiderabie ability, 
of tlie name Of Oolbci-t, waa rninister of Finances to the latter, who 
is said to have inspirited the colonists of Canada with an arduous 
wjsh to widen tlieir domain, as well as to increase the power of the 
Fpnch monarch. Thus animated and inapeUed, with the hope ot 
eijjoy^ugtlie advantages and means of Christian civilization thought 
ndces^ary to he exerted over the various Indian tribes of the west, at 
that early period, the civil and religious authorities' of Canada were 
constrained "to engage earnestly in the support of the policy oY in- 
cteasingthe mmiberand atreugth of the forta, trading-posts and 
missionary stations in the vast regions lying on the borders of the 
rivers and lakes between Quebec and the head of Lake Sn'perior.*' 

At this early period, the French civil and ecclesiastical aiitliori- 
ties of Canada, having given considerable life to renewed action 
among lihe missionaries, "in the coarse of the years 1670, 1671 and 
1673,'' says Dillon, in his researches, " tlie miasionaries, Claude Al- 
loues and Olande Dablon, explored the easternpart of Wisconsin, 
the north-eastern portion of Illinois, and, probably visited that part 
of Indiana which lies north of the river Kankakee, In the follow- 
ing year, M. JoHet, an agent of the French colonial GoverumenC, 
and James Marquette, a good and simple-hearted missionary, who 
had his station at Mackinaw, explored the country lying abbut the 
shores of Green Bay, and on Uie borders of Fox Kiver, and the river 
"Wisconsin, as far westward as the river Mississippi, the banks of 
which they reached ou the 17th day June 1672." In the following 
month, on the l7th,many obstacles presenting themselves, they set 
out on their return to Canada, by way of the Illinois river, 'and 
arrived at Green Bay, an outlet of Lake Michigan, iu the latter 
part of the month of September, a distance of some S.SOO'mileg.— 
At a village of the Illinois Indians,* it is related," they were feasted 
in a most friendly and hospitable manner, upon the choicest food of 
the triboj consisting of roast buffalo, fish, hominy and dog meat. 

But the curiosity and desires of tho French colonists in Canada 
did not cease -with the return of the misaionaries. In the early part, 
tif 1 682, I^bert Cavalier do La Salle, with a small exploring party, 
made hia way to the Illinois, and passed down that stream lo the 
Mississippi, thence continidnf; his voyage, — with short stoppages 
here and there at (he jn'os en taliou of the fneildlj' calumet or attack 


AnCIEXT 'i'EKlilTOJll' UV TllL illAMIlCS. t 

from the shore by nil friendly liidiang, etc., — to tlie Guif of Mexico, 
where, on ihe 9th of Ajjril, 1083, they erected a colnmn and cross^ 
attaching thereto the arms of France, with the following inscription: 
"Zouis the'Great, Kvtig of France, and Wavarre, reigns — thi} '2tt 
of April', 1682," All being under arms, after chanting tlie Te 
.Deum, they' fired their mosfeeta in honor of the event, and made tJie 
air to reverberate Yith the shoatB of "Long live the King ! " at oncu 
takiiig formal possession of the entire eonntj'y, to which they i^avi' 
the name of LouisianeAii honor of their King. 

Soon alter this event. La Salle and bis party returned to Cauadn, 
whithcrhe soon after went to Framie, where he was received witli 
]noch favor by the King, and tlie'accoimt of his andtliose of Joliet 
and Marquette's discoveries were made known. And thns it was 
that Louis the 14fh of France at once laid claim to the whole of 
the soil lying between Canada and New MexicOj* disregarding all 
prior or subsequent claims set np by Spain, by reason of the dis- 
(ioveries of Jiian Ponce de Leon, in 1512, and Hei-oando do Soto, 
during the years 153S and 1542, 

ISlot long subsequent to the discovery of the mouth of tlio Mi^j- 
Kiasippi, the French government began to encourage the cstabliah- 
jnent of a line of ti-ading posts and missionary stations in the 
country west vf the Allegheny mountains, from Canada to the Gulf 
of Mexico, which policy they seem to have sustained with hjoderr 
ate success during a period of some seventy-five years. The 
greater p^rt of tljislong period of time, a few missionaries pursued 
their labora, but with no lasting or general beneficial roeulte, in so 
far, at least, as their efforts related to tlie Indians of the west. 

In 1679, the same day that La Salie completed tho erection of a 
fort at its mouth, the river St. Joseph, of Lake Michigan, received 
the name of "the Eiver Miamies," &om the Indians of that name; 
and it was on the banks of this river that the ])rincipal station foi- 
Ihe instruction of the Miaraies was founded, about that period; 
after which it was called " the' St. Joseph, of Lake Michigan.'" 

Hennepin thus gave the account ot the erection of the first 
French post within tlie ten'itoiyf of the MiamiesJ in 1C79 : 

*Atterwards, fwmany years, culled New Frakck. 

t Little Turtle, the distinguialiedohiaf ufthe MiomieB.-wlio JivKd hei^'forniuuj- jtupi 
Tfith hU tribe, and died here in 1812, at the' tSjmo* trealry of Greenville, (O.), 1791). 
tJiiia, in paH, addtessed. General Waynor^arding Hie terntopy of liispeo])lo: " Yon 
liave pointed out to iis tke boundarj' line beWeeu tha Indians and tlia ETnittd States : 
but I no\r take'llia libei'tyto infoi'm yon that th{it line cuts off from tlie Indiaiii alai^i: 
]ioHion of oonotry iFhlo'li has beeji enjojcd by my forofalJiers from time immemorial, 
■witliout mdestaliunor'dispnte. Tlio print of my ancestors' houses ura every wlioiii l.u 
hn seen inthiBpoPtioh. Ji » » • It iawollfcnown by all my tiroUiets 
iiivaent, that iny fareflkUjer kindled tlie first fire at Detroit; irom. theuuehoextaniiedhi^ 
]iDi>s tiO the lie^dYatera of Seiolo;' from thonue to its montli ; from thence to Oliicago, 
on Lake MiohigAH." Prom the earlirat period ive have of them, the Miamies have 
been a leading and most powerful tribe. 

i"Whon tiio MiiimiB were firat inviti'd by the rwneh aathorifcies at CJiiosgo, id 
1G70," says Mr. Uhas. B. LBS3eUe,in one of his iiiti'resting sketches, relating totb; carlv 
Jiisforv ot J'ort Wayne, "tliey n-ero a vei'y powerful Indian nation. A body \,f Uierii 
ssaeniblad near tJiat piaee for war against tlie powerful Iroquis, (Five NatLona), of the 
Hudson, and the otill lU-Wt^ roweffiil Sioux, c! tlie Upper Miasissippi, eonsisted^f 


8 XIliTUiii' US l''uItT "\VA\i.'i:. 

" Jnsfc at Uie mouth of the river Miamis there was an emiDence- 
with a kiiid of platform naturally; fortified. If'was pretty liigh and 
steep, of a triangular form — dei'ehded on two sides by the riyer, 
and on the other oy a deep ditch, which the fall of the water Bad 
made. We feJled th& trees that were on the top of the liill, and 
liaving cleai-ed the san^e from bnshes for about two musket shot, 
we began to bnild a redoubt of eighty feet long, and forty teet 
broad, with great square pieces of timber, laid on^ upon another ; 
and prepared a great number of stakes, of about twenty-five feet 
long, to drive into the ground to make our fort the more inaccessi- 
ble on the river side. We employed ths whole month of November 
(3768) about that work, which was veiy hard, though we had no 
other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These beasts are 
veiy common in that place, because of the great quantity of grapes 
that abound there ; hut their flesh being too fet and lusciouB,. our 
men began to be weary of it, and desired leave to go a hunting 
iind kill some "wUd goats. M, La Salle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them ; and it was but unwil- 
lingly that they continued the work. This, together with the ap- 
proach ofthe winter,, and the apprehension that M. La Salle had 
that his vessel { the GrilEn ) was lost, made him very melancholy, 
though he concealed it as much as lie could. We made a cabin 
wherein we performed .divine sei'vice every Sunday; and fatlicr 
Gabriel and 1, who preached alternately, took cai-e to take such 
texts as were snitable to our present circumstances, and fit to inspire 
us with courage) coBl::ord and brotherly love. * * * * This 
fort was at last perf^tad, and called Fort Miamis. " 

This samo missibnaiy, Hennepin, in 1680, visiting some of the 
Indian villages on t3ie lUijioiB liver, speaks tlins of tlie peeu'li&r 
ideas and manners of tho savages he met there atthat early period; 
which must give i.he reader to infer that, though the natives of tho 
Ibiest, in tlieir imiutored state, had but a poor sense of the Christi- 
anity taught by;, tho missionariea of the tinie,tliey yet' possessed a 
(iiug^plai' intelligence regacding life and th^ religious fiature of man ; 
and were, withal, strangely liberal in their views and actions toward 
Itost tlivea tioustmii, and \fere under the liead of ft ahieftain who noTer sallied forth 
liilt with a-body-tniavd of fta.'ty ■warriors. He oould afrauy time lead into tlio field itii 
;ii'niy of five thonBsiid .n?8«." Of all their villngea," sajs lie, "Ke-kj-ong-tt -wss con- 
eidoved by tlia MiaiaJB tho moat im^ortmit, as it waaiJio iiirgest and most oentrnl ot ult 
tlieir poejesaiona — beinff Bitunted near the head waler? ot lift Wabaah, the MioDii, 
( Miiumee), aud the St. Jfflepb^fLake Miohigan," Siajs Banoroft; "TheMiainiB was 
tlie moBt poweifal oontsdemoy of the west, esaeliing the S^ FationB, (Iroquaia.) 
X « !■ Their influenoe reached io the Tli88ia3i|^i, and they receive'! 
fro([nui!t ^iaitsfrom tribes heyond that river." AatUe mEBseuger of St. ulair, An- 
toiiie Gaiiieliii, itt the Bpring of ■ 1790, pwweaded from TfjnoenueB toward tliis point 
*ith a vifiwto friendly relatioStw.ith tns Indians, he -Was told'at the different villages 
'iQ his I'oate to go to So-ti-ong-r^- ''Ton Imow," sa^d Utey, "tiiat we ean terminaU'- 
iiothinRwithont theeonsent of oanhrotherBitheMiamles." "Theimpressof itsnamc," 
says Mr. WillianiH, of om- oity, "upon so uisay weeteijiriyers, showathopredomLnaDOfl 
of'tJiH tribe. The two Miamiea ot tlie Ohio, will ever nerpetiiate it. The Miaroi of 
Lake Erio (now Maumec) was lilcewiso naioed for tho Etehe. » » » « 
Our own St. Mary's was marked 'Mi amies' river,' on the rude slteletoii map, made tji 
r.jpi-.';«Qt the wti-tei'ii country at the time of Coloii'^l Boiir|.,rt''. ezpeditioa iu nw." 

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^iiose differing from them. But the Indian was a rude chilfl of 
nature — born in tho woods, with tho great spii-it of the forest deeply 
impressed upon hia soul. He had ever seen the Great li'ather 
" la clouds, ftud heard IiiiB ia the winds." 
Says Hennepin: — "There were many obstacles that hindered the 
conversion ofthe savages, hut in general the difficulty proceeds from 
the indifference they have to every thing. When one speaks to, 
them ot the creation of the world, and of the raysteriee of tlie 
■Christian rehgion, they say we have reason; and they applaud, in 
general, ai]. thatwfi say on the gi-eat afl'air of our salvation. They 
would think themselves guilty of a great incivility, if they should 
.show the least suspicion ot incredulity, in respect to what is proposed. 
But, after having approved all tkc discotq-ees upon these matters, 
thoy pretend, likewise, on their side,tliatwe ought to pay all possible 
■defference to the relations and reasonings that they may make on 
their part. And when we make ajiswertliatwhat they tell ns is false, 
tliey reply that tliey have acquiesced to all that we said ; and that it' 
is a want of judgement to interrapt a manthat speaks, and to tell 
him that he advances a false proposition. * * * The second 
obstacle which hinders their conversion, proceeds from their great 
superstition. * « * The third obstacle consists in this,— 
that they are not fixed to a place. * * * 

The traders who deal commonly with the savages, with a design to 
gain hytheir traffic, axelikewiseaoother obstacle. * * * They 
think of nothing bat cheating and lying to become rich in a short 
time. They use ail manner of stratagems to get tho lurs of the 
savages cheap. They make use of lies and cheats to gain double, 
if they can. This, withont doubt, causes an aversion against a relig- 
ion which they see accompanied, by the professors of it, with sa 
many ai-tifices and cheats. Confciiines tho same missionary, "the 
Illinois (Indians) will readily snffer us to baptise their children, and 
would not refuse it themselves; but thoy are incapable of any pre- 
vious instruction concerning the truth of the Gospel, and the efficacy 
of the sacraments. Woilld I follow the example of some other mis-- 
sionaries, I coiild have boasted of many conversions ; for I migLt 
easily have baptised all those nations, and then say, (as I am .afraid 
they do, witliottt any gronnd, ) that I had converted tliem. * * * 
Our ancient missionary recollects of Canada, and those thijt sac- 
■ceeded them in that work, have always given it for their opinion, as I 
:uow own it as mine, that the way to sacceed in converting tb,o bar- 
bariansj is to endeavor to make them men, before we go about to 
make them Christiaas. » * * America is no place to go to out of a 
desire to suffer martyrdam, taking the word in a theological sense. 
The savg,ges never put auj^ Christian" to death on the score of his 
religion. TTiey leave OTerybody at liberty in belief; thoy like the 
outwai-d ceremonies of our church, JjEt no more. * * * They 
do noi^kill people but in particnlar'quarrek, or when they are brn- 
tish or drank, or mrcvGn<.;'i!, or infatuated with a dreani, or some. 


10 liiSTOKY OF h'oKi: Wayse. 

extravagant vision. Tlieyarp incapable of taking away Rwy person's 
life out of hatred to his religion. " 

The be^t'ficconnts agree that it was through the agency and perse- 
vering exertions of missionaries, combined with the active and enter- 
prjeing movements of traders, that amicable relations and a moder- 
ate ii'ade were brought about between the colonists of Canada and the 
Miamilndiaiie— which occurred before the end of the l7th century. 

M. de la Barre, governor-general of Canada, in 1684, in a re- 
monstrance' to the English authorities, at Albany, complained that 
the Iroquois, or Five Nations, (a league of friendship between whom 
and the English, it was understood, then existed,) had been inter- 
meddling with the lights and jiroperty of French traders among 
the western tribes. To which the Ii-ocLuois, upon learaing of thiH 
vemonsti'ance, said their enemies were furnished with arms and 
ammunition by the French traders ; and, at a eubsoquent council, Held 
by M . de la Earre with the Five Nations, he accused the Iroquois, 
Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, and Mohawks, with haying 
mistreated and robbed Fi-ench fci-aders going westward. To which 
Grangula, chief of the Onondagas, replied that tliey, plundered none 
of the French, excepting those who took guns, powder, and balls 
to the Tivightwees, ( or Miami'^ ) and Chicktaghinks. " These ai-ms, " 
said he, " might have coat us our lives. • We have done leas wi'ong, " 
continued he, in a spirit of upbraiding, *' than cither the English or 
French, who have taken thelaridsof so many Indian nations." 

In tlris we have much of the true spirit and tidais of thoso times, 
which wiU be found more in detail in many of the prominent hista- 
ries relating to colonial and subsequent periods. But the intima- 
tions of the chief Grangula would seem to have been a forerunner' 
of further anil still mqrfe extended troubles between' the French and 
the Five Nations; *fqri from 1689 to the treaty ofIiyawick,ifl 1697, 
wars and conflicts,' of an almost iateiToinable natm'e, occur- 
red between the French colonists and Ihe Five Nations, which, 
it is presumed, tended, in i\ large degree, to check the ambitious 
jmd grasping policy of Louja XIV, and also to prevent and retard 
the settlement of the French colonists in the Mississippi valley. 

Some time during the years 1680 and 1700, auomber oi mission- 
aries, in succession, used strong endeavors to Christianize and other- 
wise insti'uct the Illinois tribes; and historical recoi-ds state that a 
church, consisting of a small number of French, 'witii a few Indians, 
^vn,s establfshed on the banks of tlte Iliinoia river, at oc near 
the site of a fort called St. Louis, and founded by La SaUe at an ear- 
lier period. 

The ti'aders began early to form matrimonial alliances with the 
Indian women, and arc said to have lived quite amicably with them. 

Attracted by a sense of beauty, and with a view to entierpriso in 

s A century before the sigual defeats of Harmar ond St. Clair, neur tliia pljoe, Cliaa. 
E. Lnselle, Esq., iiiliisreEeurclieBOftiia early history of Ft. WnTive, nays :" In ti ooiitEst 
Tvhioht-hey, (the Minini Indians) with theii- bindrad, tlie IlliHi>ia, waged fur ttiret;. 
'•r four yeaiB against the iiivinoiblo Iroqiici?, of Kow York, tlicsi^ ' lioiunni of Anier- 
ii^a' ( IrpquoiB ) ireie vrei'Jtvd. '' 


EakLY FiKENCH SliriTl.EMi!;NTS. 'Ji 

flic accumulation of furs, a small body of French adventurer^ ^i^om. 
the Illinois, near the close of the ITth century, moved toward and 
settled upon the borders of the Kaska«kia, a small river emptying 
into the Mississippi, about one hundred miles above the mouth of tht; 
Ohio, where they founded the little village of Kaskaskia. 

Among the first movements of the French in an effort to extend 
dominion over their western dependencies, from Canada, during 
the seventeenth century, were the establishment of small settle- 
ments at Deti'oit and Michilimackinac, while many are said to 
liave given themselves iip wholly to a life of adventure, rambling 
here and there, as their inclinations and necessities impelled them, 
among the different tribes " north-west of the river Ohio." 

Aia((ng these adventurous spirits, were to be found several quite 
intelligent, as well as enterpriein^ and ambitions men, who lived 
in daily hopes of realizing immenae" profits and advantages from the 
prosecution of the fur trade." "This trade," says Dillon, in his 
interesting researches, " was carried oh by means of men * who were 
hired to manage small vessels on the lakes, and canoes along the 
shores of the lakes, and on the rivers, and to carry burdens of mer- 
chandise from the different trading posts to the principle villages of 
the Indians who were at peace wim the French. At those places 
the iraders exchanged their wares for valuable furs, with which they 
returned to the places of deposit. The articles of merchandise used 
by the French traders in carrying on the fur trade, were, chiefly, 
coarjie bine and red cloths, hue scarlet, guns, powder, balls, knives, 
Itatchets, traps, kettles, hoes, blankets, coarse' cottons,. ribbonH, 
beads, vermilliou, tobacco, spirituous liquors, etc. The poorest class 
of fur traders sometimes carried their packs ofmerchandise, by means, 
of leather straps suspended from their shoulders, or with the 
straps rpsting against their foreheads. It is probable that some 
of the Indian villages on the borders of tho Wapash were visited by 
a few of this Class of traders before' the French founded a settle- 
ment at K^kaslda. It haa been intimated, conjecturaHy, by a learned 
writer, ( Bishop Brute ), that missionaries and traders, before the 
close of the seventeenth century, passed down from the river St. 
Joseph, ' left tlie Kankakee to the west, and visited the Tippecanoe, 
tlic Eel river, and the upper parts of the Wabash.' " 

" The Miami villages, " continues the same researches, "which 
stood at the head of the river Maumee, the "Wea villages,, which were 
situated about Ouiatenon, on tlie Wabash river,andHiePiankeshaw 
villages which stood on and about the site of Vinceunes, were, it 
seems, regarded by the early Fi-ench fur traders as suitable places 
for the establishing of trading-posts. It is probable, that, before the 
close of the year 1719, tempor^iy trading-posts were erected at tho 
sites of Ft. Wayne, Ouiatenon, and Vincennes. These points had, it 
is beheved, been often visited by traders before the yeai' 1700, " 

During the year 1733, an affi-ay havingoccun-ed "between some 
* ('allcil by l!io Freueli iioi/aje'irs, siigaji^cs, aiitl coareiirs dcs hois. 


13 HiaToitY Of I''oiiT Wayae. 

dnmken yoTing; OuiateDOns and two or three French voyagenra, m an 
affair of ti-ade," M. de Armand, ■with a smali body of militia, was 
ordered to maie an attack upon the OviiatenoDs ; but, soon after his 
aiTiyal at the Miami village here, was pereaaded to forego his 
intenlsona upon that tribe, and a friendly int«rcourae was soon 
re- established between the French and tlie Oniatenons, whose villa- 
ges were near the present site of Lafayette, in this State. 

TltelateJndgeHanna, onr esteemed fellow-citizens, Hon.J. W. 
Borden and J. L. Williams, Esq., in their interesting sketches of Fort 
Wayne, all make mention of a small French fort that was early 
erected on the south bank of the St., MaiT, not far from the canal 
acqueduct, and near the residence of Judge McCuUoch. The histor- 
ical, account of this fort is, that, as eai-ly as 1734, the famous Captain 
D. M. D'Vincennes, founder of Vincennes, Ind.j, visited this point in 
a militaiy eitpacity, and erected the fort inqneation; and Vincennes 
is said then to have referredto this locality as "the key of the west." * 
JIow long this fai-t reniained or was garrisoned by the French, it is 
HOW unknown. 

Two years later, in 1T36, by order of his saperior officer at New 
Orleans, Monsieur d'Artaguette, " c^paniandant for the King in Illi- 
nois," Captain Vincennes (or, as originally spelt, Vinsenne.) left his 
post at Vincennes with an expeditiou, against the ChicKaaaws. In a 
icharge against tliis tribe of Indians, with a small body of Ii"rencli, 
aided by about 1000 friendly Indians, Vincennes received a severe 
wound, and fellsoon after, and because of which, his Indian allies 
became disheartened and fled, lea-?;ing Vincennes, D'Artaguette, 
and the Joouit, Senat, at the mercy of the savage foe ; and on the Slst 
of May, 1736, the three prisoners were lashed to the stake and burn- 
ed by thefr wily captors. 

Vincennes had visited the Miamies at this point as early as 1705. 
M. de Vaudreuille, at that period Governor-general of Canada, in a 

«■ lIoTE.~It -will readily be seen by tlifl rPadar, tliat, at this early pci-iod of tlie histow 
nfonr country, the weat, begimiing, as we may Bo.y, with the Alitgiianies, and beyond, 
Biid extending tuilie liOrdei'sofMeiioo, waeauintei'minableforeKt, TiTOkcnoaly bylokes, 
■water -co urses, and prairie regions ; and every point, in a general aense, wasalilveapoiiil:. 
of rolationsUipandintereattotiiBothor; -wliilo liiis, more espeojally, botlitotbelndianB 
and to the wbit*!!, WBB, beyond donht, very early the key to the nortli--weat.- Aa will bo 
eeen, Bi sabseqnent puges, tbere was no Yioint looked upon with greater interest, orwtioJi 
-BBS mote beloved or oiorE resottitoly and jealously defended by the red man, againat aiiy 
cnovoflShmentof a war-like natlire, from, fiio first efforts of tlie formidable Iroquois, dt 
Viya Saticae, of the east, in the latter port of the 17th oentuiy, to the stcennouB efforts of 
HamiM-, St. Olair, Wayne, and Han'isoji; or whioh was nioreeag^rly sought to bereaohed 
-•indlield by the whites, tbaa the ancient site of tlie present populouseity of Fort Wayne. 
\n eonsidaring ite history, therefore, fropi the earliest known period, up lo the straggles 
of 1B13-14, it la found at onoe oonneeted, in. aorao -way, with every iniporiant movement 
made in tlia north.west ; and instead of forming an extensive Appendix, tlie oonneeting 
links are preservedinf'itra'Oohapterflby.Uieinterwcaving of tli« general events of tlie 
north-wiwt with those hiotb directly traliBpiriug at this point, from the' early eltbcta o]' 
IraSalie to diseoTer the Missisiippi, to tLe latest period ofwarlklro, ato., with the Indians 
*>f tlie west. And in thus blending the early and' genernl events of tlie oonntry, for a long 

LaSalie to diseoTer the Missisiippi, to tLe latest period ofwarfilro, ato., with the Indiou 
*>f tlie west. And in thus blendmg the early and' genernl events of tlie oonntry, for a Ion . 
period of yoaro, at onoe so intimately coRneoted with the history of Fort Way ne,— preserv- 
ing valualila data, an weU ns, in many instanoes, presenting the.njdst important outlines 
of sieges, mnrehes, of<?., fhe TOliroie readily asiwmra a more intevcsting and valual/)» 

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letter dated " Qnebec, I9tli October, 1705, " said he lmd"8eiil;Sieiu' 
de Viuseiiie to th© Miamis." Another letter, written by M. do 
Pontchartrain, to M. de Vaodreuille, hearing elate "Vei-sailes, 9th 
June, 1706," said; "His Majesty approves your sending Sieur 
Jonqneres to the Iroquois, because he is esteemed by them, and hag 
not the reputation of a trader ; but you ouglit not to have sent Sienr 
de Vincennee to the Miamis, nor Sienr de Louvigny to the Missili- 
maquina, as they are aR accused of carrying on contraband trade. 
Yon are aware tbat the said Sieni" de Louvigny has been punisliod 
for that ; and his Majesty desires that you cause Bieur de Viucennea 
to be severely punished — ^he having carried ou an open and undis- 
guised trade. " In a letter from M. de Vaudreuille tO'M. de Pontchar- 
train, dated Nov. 6,1712, the former sayR he, "hud again sentSieui- 
de Vincennes to the Miamis. " In 1719, M. de Vincennes was report- 
fld'to M. de Taudreuille as having died at the Miami village here ; 
but this was a mistako, or it was lanother officer of tliat name. It 
was about this period that the French made some unsuccessful efforl-s 
to induce the Miamis to remove from tlieir old homes here towards 
Lake Michigan, or" to the river St. Joseph of Lake Michigau," 

The fort that stood on the east side of the. St. Joseph, was easriy 
known as the English Poet, which was occupied by a small garrison 
of English troops subsequent to the overthrow of French role in 
Canada, in 1760, — perhaps as early as 1762 ; though the ^vriter has 
been unable to gather any positive evidence that this stockade was 
built hi/ the English. Ail the accounts I have of its early occupa- 
tion lead to the conclusion tliat it was " taken possession of by the 
English " soon after the close of the struggles in Canada in 1760. 
Gen. "IVayne traced both of these forts while here, in 1794 ; and Oo'l. 
John Johnston, a sterling patriot of the west, traced " the dim out- 
lines" of the French fort in the vicinity of the canal acqueduct as 
late as 1800. 

Having thus, with other interesting facts and data, followed the 
missionary, trader, and expIorer,in their devious windings and ambi- 
tious zeal for the redemption of savage souls on the one hand, and to 
become suddenly wealthy and famous by the accumulation of large 
quantities offnr,'and the discovery of new regions of territory and 
tribtitaay streams, to the end that they might be greatly favored by 
tlie King, on the other hand, we are readily enabled to see, with oth- 
er essential reasons, how, at an early period, these zealous and 
ambitious adventurers found their way to this point, and established 
iiei-e their mission and trading posts; and why, at a later day, tlio 
French soldiers erected here a stockade, and long stood guard in 
view of the confluence of tltese beautiful rivers. 

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" 'riio Past llGui'a ill her arms t-Iie Prt'seiit ntlil the FuLuu 

^riinitive ocooiintaof tlie Hew Wprld — FeroOious iinimftls — Tlio MoBtodoiv — Fxluimahort 
of bones Qenr Hnntertown — The different tribes of InrtianB — Their niinn*~The 
Algonquin Bloelc — The Indians and eadyisettlesar^Civilizfltion eier disIiLed by 
t.Uelndiaiir-^The law of change — Derivatioa of Indjitn namee — The fotoa of bur 
barie and ciTilized influences — indian love of bis nativity — Annlgsniation — fha 
JTiamies in ITlS— The Indian race ti'aoli^Agriculture among tiie Indians — Tbu 
old cornfield — Thoold Apple-tr^e — Indian habits — Ideas of freedom — Ke-ki one ■( 
— Labors of the men — The Indian ivomen — Indian elcJq nance — The Indian mother 
— A[i inoident — Of&pritlg — Family j^vemment — li>Te of wai — FoimidBble 
fdiai-aoter of the Indians in the latter part of the past century. 

fHE MOST piimitive works relating to the New World, wfii^ 
noted forthe great credulity of their authors and highly esag- 
^i^^ei'ated acconutsof theiEhabitants — both man and beast. The 
^^ country was considered a marvelous embodiment of the wildest 

conditionsoflife, andpoeeessedof awealthas unfathomable as 

the land wa« broad, picturesque, and wild. 
Here, in the newly-dispovered regions of North America, there 
were to bo met, it was declared, a species of Lillipntiaiis and nien of 
j^gantic proportions — men not exactly without heads, wrote Lalitaii, 
but whose heads did not extend ahoyo the shoiildera-^a people 
subsisting, much as the camelion, ,upon the ak — -the blacJi man liv- 
ing a life of concealment in the ti-opical forests — and that there were 
also tribes in the more northern boundaries of the New World, who, 
not unlike the ermine, were quite white ; and it was such marvelons 
tales and exagerated accounts, in part, at least, that awakened the 
curiosity of the inhabitants of the Old World, and at length peopled 
the new continent of North Americiiwith, to it, a new order of hqman 
beings, destined to pave the way for a new and more glorioiwi sense 
of civilization in all that pertains, let us trust, to the mental and phys- 
ical welfafe of man. 

That there were gigantic animals roaming oyer the land, is a woU 
authenticated fact — the lion, the panther, the bear, the tiger, 
and, indeed, most of the wUd, ferocious aninaais known to natural 
]iistory, were, at the period referred to, and to a much later day, 
donhtless inhabitants of many parts of the New World. The elk, 
whifh did not disappear till 'about 1855, wit:' iilso cominon. Tho 


Ikutaks' AbcousT ol^' the Mastudox. i;"; 

Indiana gave aacounts* to earljtratlera hei'e and at other points of 
a huge animal they called the King of Jimsts ; and when asked 
concerning itsappearance, their answer was, that "it looked like ttie 
M'hitB mau'a hay-atack — v^ Mg " — and said that it travereed tho 
regions lying between this section of the present State of lndian;i 
and Toledo, Ohio ; and seemed to regret, when speating of it, 
that it was no longer to be seen here — tbat the white man had driyei\ 
it away. From former and recent exhnmationa of boaeef not far 
from Fort Wayne, it is evident that the accounts given to early 
traders and others, by the Indians, were not fai' from correct, at least 
in so tar as the gi'eat size of the animale were concerned. In what 
Henpe tliey bore a resemblance, in organization and general alrnc- 
tiire, to " tbe white man's hay-stack," is left for the reader to con- 
jecture. «C. Peltiei-. 

f The Foi't Wflyne GnKetto, of April 9? and Sa]>tethl>er 17, 18B7, gave tlio following 
nficouiit of tlipjexliumat.ion of boQOa in ITohle oouQty, neav tlie Allen oounty.line, und 
not far fivjin fluntertown, ia tliia oounty, (Ailen) whioh aii; evidently r^oios of the 
great animiJa deferred to years ago by tlie Indiana hei* ; 

■' iKiJtttttSTrS'ti DiBooTKBY. — Dr. J. S. Fuller, of Paity, Allen Co., Ind., nndar date of 
Apvil9U,1867iwrltes'iiB tliatUieakoletonofanelophHntwn'ifonnd afswdayea^, unUjo 
farm of Wm T^ruBh.otNoBlaco., near the Allen connty line, by some men who wev-ii 
tliggiag a ditch. The diseoverywasmade about fonrfoet below the eut-fnoo of the maiijli. 
Thu skeleton. i|i very largeiiandTasfonndstanding upr^l^^i vhieh iodicates that tlie 
^nimalhod mired in the marsh, and diediatliis posiijon., .'Thqdout^irh^ examined Uio 
head,'imder-ja\r,]iipbonee',tusks,an<) other pieces ofl^ea^elcton, nndis couTliiQed thiit 
they oretharmnainaofaa.elephantibnried tliere at leaat one hundred yeai's ago. Thu 
bones ftraatthareaidenoeofMr. Jas.Potter. 

" If the above story is trao, ( and we haye no reason)^ doubt it, as the doctor ia areliaWy 
man ) thediaioyery is one of great interest. There IrBsa tradition among the Indi^hS 
\pho inhabitefi this region that Horthecn Indiana was oaoe the home of elephants or some 
itnimal ofa similar size and appearanee. Wecommendthc ease to the aUontion of our 
seientifio nien."— Ft. Wayne GfAzsTTE, April 29, 1BG7. 

" Themastodon remains foundnear SuntCTtown prove to be more ertansive and moru 
interesting tlian at firstanCioipatfid. Part of three akeietons wwa brought to town yestof- 
ilay, a male, female, andoalf. IToonoBlcijIeton is complete, but enough, of each has been 
found to determine tho sex and age as above mantionod. The lower jaw of the ealf Wiis 
exhumed entire. The laeth, small, and little worn, are the uurnistakable signs of • venl.' 
A quantity of oldef and largerteeth, and part ofa largorjaw were found. Also five of the 
niiper bones of the fore leg, two npper bones of Uie hind leg, two tiiigli bono*/ sUouldern 
Hade, fragmanta of tustss, part of a ekall, b quantity of ribs, and many other smallei* 

" Themaatodon wosan auimal similar in size and appeAranca to the elephant, but lar- 
ger and more massive in form. It Iw longed to tlie geologiofll period inimedintelypreceed- 
ing the present, and is suppuaedtohavcneen the last large animal which became extinet 
Iwforuthcei'Cationofmau. Its average size, ae determined from examination ofromainii 
Jound in various pai-tB of tiie world , was about seventeen feet in length, and eleven feet 
iiiheieht. Hany skeletons have haan found in this country, purticulfltly in New York 
andHew Je»ey,whereUieseflrohfopthemh»abeenmorathoronKh than m other States. 

" The skeletons aboi-e alluded to were found in a eomfieldon Hiefarmof aMr. Thrush, 
abontfour miles from. Huntertown,iu what Was ones a doop miu'sh. Tn-onty or thirty 
Veare ago, thcproprietoi'says, itwmildnothave been safe tor man or beaet to unterit. 
I'he bones wete found in an area of about forty feetia diameter, from thi'ee to four feet 
below tbeeurfaoe, in a stratum of lightclay covering a layer of blue clay. The top soil 
ts a blank muok, oven now fit for coltivatioji only in dry seasons. 

" As to how they got into the mire, various theories can be framed. A friend whohna 
t^iven the subject some profound thought, suggeats that the calf was ' teething,' and crawl- 
ed into the marsh for something to eool its gams, and stieking fast, tlie old couple follow- 
ed to reaeuo it, and mot with a like fate. The last half of this theory, we guess, 

" The remains, we underet and, will bp tnkento Obipnso. fw more careful examination 


The uniformity of tliD aborigiual tidbcsoi' North Americii, in 
their primitive state,— taking OharlsToix' as among the earliest 
iind best accounts of them — ■seem at oiice evident and conclusive ; 
and their habits and customs — institutions and primitive organic 
relatione — seem to have possessed a common identity and bearing. 

In an early comparisoa of the great nnmber of dialects among 
thevftrioua ti-ibes otifche cootiEient, it was discWered that not more' 
than eight radically distinct tofi^jues wcreto be foxmd in the -whole 
tei-ritory lying east of the Mississippi river ; and but five of theso 
continue to constitute the languages' of nations yet remaining;. 
whUe, of late years, it is discoverable that but three only of theao' 
serve to remind the reader that the tiibes speaking them have well- 
iiigh become estiiiet.* 

The Algonquin,'!" or primitive Indian tong-ue, was not only con- 
sidered the most extended,- bnfc the most exhaberant in dialect. It 
■was the Algonquin which welcomed the early settlers of Plymouth 
and lloanoate ; and was heard, says Bancroft, " from the Bay of 
Gaspe to the Valley of the Cea Moines ; from Cape Fear, and, it 
maybe, from tlie Savannah, to the land of the Esquimaux; irom 
the Cumberland river of Kentucky, to the southern, banks of the 
Mississippi ; and " was spoken," continues the same writer, " though 
not exclusively, in a tei-ritory that extended tlirough sixty degrees 
of longitude, and more than twenty degrees of latitude." 

Fi'om the earliest accounts known, the Indian was ever disposed io 
shun the settlements of the white man. He loved hisDative haunts^the 
vi'oods, the hills, and the vales of America. He was indigenous to 
the soil — he knew no other land. I'rom the lirst troubles vrith the 
settlements at Jamestown and Plymouth, to those of a later period, 
springing up at other points, both east and west, the tribes seemed 
ever imbued with the belief that the white man would eventually 
overroa thier hunting-grounds, and at length pusli the red man far 
towards the setting aun. How truly thought and said the Indian, from 
one period to another, may now be most clearly seen. Such is the 
force of civilization — such the destiny of the unadvancing, unpro- 
gi-essive, uncivilized of the eai'th, e'on tJ3 the lowest kingdom of 
animal life. 

Seelrfngto find new hunting-grounds, new regions of sod. wherein 
to piant their maize and cultivate the other products common' io. 
Indian lifo, xmootraded by the white man, at Sn early period,' tKo 
tribes of the east began gradually to move westward and sonth- 
ward; while many clans very early abandoned their old hnnting- 
gi-ounds, east and northward, to follow a roving life in the deep 
forests of the south and west — fleeing from the march of eiviliaation, 
which, a few years later, followed them to their, distant and exclu- 
sive abode. But afewyeai-sago, — audthe same is probably true of 
They are at present in clini^e of Dr. W. H. Mayors nnd Mr. Simpson, of tlie Cliioogo Aend- 
enij of N'ntni'al Sciences." — Port Wayijfi Gazette, Sapt, 17,1867. 

* .\H>evt GallatinVsynopas, + T'>™ tlic rcciieli. 

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Kames op the Diffeeemt Teighs. iT 

tlic prtSeot time, — " among the tribes of Texaa, there were warriors 
who .are said to trace their liBeagc to Alg'oiiciniiis on the Atlantic ; 
and deseendanta from the New England Indians," as late as 1853, 
" roamed over ■western prairies." * 

Tlie eight primitire tribes, exhibiting a radical distinction in lan- 
guage, were : 


2. Dadcota, C, TJcnEE, 

3. HuKo^j-lEotiUois, 7. Natciikz, 
i. Catawba. ^. Mocilian, 

li'rom these sprang many branches, which, some yeajs sahsc- 
'quont to the earliest settlements in Aniei'ica, had spi'ead over a 
great parfcofthfe county, many of therti often becoming greatly 
reduced by warfare, or, fusing one tribe with another, by amalgama- 
iion, gi'adually Very materially changed, the primitive tongae. In 
this way, if not lost through the extinction of clana,t a great number 
bf dialects were developed and diffiiaed over the continent. 

The names of the various tribes and clans of late years composing 
the Algonquin family, many of whom, by jjermission of the Miam- 
ies, had early found their way into, and settled upon, the extensive 
territoiy of tliis tribe, were the 
Miamies^{3w^?ttwees)y Saes, Ottawas, 

OMppewas^ Corees, Illinois, 

Picm,heilw>mi FoiBea, S/tmoanoes, 

Zenni-Zenapes, (Ddmnares,) Moliegans^ JKnisteneaux, 

T/ie New EoiglcmA Indians, Abenakes, Monocans, 

SuspitehannoeJis, MannaJioacks, Ufaniicokas, 

I'oitawaUamieSt Winn^agoes, Mascoutens, % 

with some othter smaller independent clans, many of which wei-e 

divided into cantons and bodies, it was said," sometimoa so small 

as to alTprd only a War party." 

Thus we see, more dtstinctly, the relationship, position, and 
character of the Miamies- Of the entire Algonquin, lamijy, -there 
Were perhaps none tiiore stable, heroic and resolute than this txibe. 
* Baneroft — Dnponteenli. 

tNatnrflK evwy^ter^ ftliko oS to the iirincipla of cFrANaE-^mind, — mattar of the 
itjoBt groEB w most ittentavtod charaoter,-^^vea t6 boktiiJS, ranBio, WOTtta; dialoota, \s.-a- 
gnage,<^tfi8 finest OTd»ttfde7e]0pemeat, — Sreall aulgectfotheJawlofeliange.trananiiB- 
sionjgrcyi^ of tl'iQ Mgheet grade <^ onfbldiiieut, (x \ka opposite, to a greater otIeos 
degree, to eifineHon iffidf. 
. {Eaohxif irMoh had'some special taeaning in the tndiointoagae — as, Ottawa, Big' 
Kifiodo trader % ^aaaawXems, dwiUer^ in the ^tirie \ ManomcnieSjioeflra mm; original 
men^h expression of iHgnitj, of gfoatnoaB ofioa uaoa by tlio bravas — suoh'aa, *' I 

In ft man! " (i Mono'ifl8nie?)i foi, red eai-lh: Sbo, or Sauli, yeMovi earth — and bo. on. 
nd.tjiece were prolNib^ Wat fet? ttf these {ribes or elans tiiot did not, nt one period 
<*olJifff,'TiEit this poinii.wsend liitJier tlimt envojiBtD ait attho Oounoil Firra ofthe 
"Gl^orious Cfaite" fff ^thediSterent tri.bes, wliioli liie Miajnies "had the )iappinBS5 to 
(iwH ;" and tlieta'iS'a^ai^OHhtlMa many BOMona of liannony among t3ie Imbes gathmisd 
iicre, «Stliete 'Were iil9D periods of bitter fouda and warfare betn-een various nntioua of 
tiiec^nUnent. (2) 

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3fi IIisTOEY OF Four WAvyjfc 

TifG limits of their territory has already been quoted in the previous 
cliapter. This extensive domain had been held by their ancestors, 
said the famona Little Turtle, to General Wayne, " trom time immem- 
orial, without molestation or dispnte." And had they been a pro- 
gressive people — readily adapting themselves to the active civiliza- 
tion springing up everywhere about them a lew years after the strug- 
gles of 1812-14, very many of them might still have been dwelling 
in this region upon their old familiar hunting^'grounds, Bnt, aa a 
mass, they had, with a few exceptions, lived too long in an opposite 
i-ondition of life to readily enter into the fflOfe advanced habits of 
thonght, growth, and cultnro of the whites, then rapidly settling 
itpon their ancient domain. That the red man could long havo 
lived in the centre of a moderate civilization without feeling its pow- 
er and influence, any more than the i^hite man, dwelling aniong 
Savage tribes, in the forest, would be unable to resist, to a greater 
Or less degree, the influences surrounding him, is a matter needing 
but little consideration in pointof fact- 
Man ever assimilates, has ever assimilated, to a greater or leSH 
extent, in all ages, with that which has surrounded hira. If his sur- 
roundings are crude, wild, and inflexible, he has readily partaiien of 
tliem, Aud in just so far as ho has become familiar with the art 
of subduing and cultivating the soil — clearing the woodlands, and 
making the untamed conditions of nature to bend to his necessities — 
producing new vegetative life in the form of fruits, cereals, plants, 
and flowers, has he improved in organization and the general 
refinement of blood, brain, and nerve. And it has e^er been 
through the possession, eScerciseand application of this power and 
intelligence, however meager and incomplete, at first, the means and 
implements of cultivation, if steadily pursued, that has laid the 
gi-ound-work of sure and gradual transition from barbarism to civili- 

The great realm of nature is everywhere progressive — ever looks 
upward and aspires to a higher sense of beauty and refinement. 
The flowers of A hundred years ago were less refined in point of 
essence, and in many instances beauty also, than those of to-day. So 
also with the fruits and eVery other species of vegetative life, whero 
a proper degree of care in cultivation is observed. This principle 
is equally true of man. Give him but the necessary advantages 
and encouragement in the art of cultivating the soil or improving 
his mental powers, and he readily begins to refine. Under these 
auspices the red man, in many instances, from the days of tho 
Jesuit missionaries to the present time, has verified, most clearly 
and substantially, the trntnfulnees of this principle of growth and 
culture in the natural order of existence. And although never 
becoming truly Anglo-Saxon, in so far as the inventive and higher" 
eonse of civilization is manifest-— although never losing his tawny 
skin. Have in a sense of amalgamation, nor ceased entirely, perhaps , 
to entertain- an afieclion for the forest and its wikleat haunts— the 


stTfjams, and a love for the canop the apear the bow and arrow* or 
trusty rifle — he yet was ever a hvmg eTideti* p of the powder and influ- 
ence of civilization, as brought to be ir upon him i»t various times and 
in many ways, A rude, uncultivated child of-the forest — of nature and 
the primitive wilds — he was readily and niturallj imitative, ' and 
Boon received from the white man i knowledge of agriculture 
and the use of various implements, with which to cultivate the soil, 
cook, fisli, hunt, fell the treesj &t 

Beyond tieae evidences and facta it had been obeerved that it 
was far easier for the white man to betomi inmannera and custom, 
!ln Indian, than for the Indian to betome a '■nliite man in point of 
civilization and tiie progressive marth and -apphauces of iiffc, in 
art ahd general culture; and ths is strangely true of no otMr pfo- 
pis with tehoOi the white man hoe etei associated or oome in con- 

The Indian^ thougli naturally hospitable, by nature and custom, 
was often a nide example {)f indifference ; knowing and practicing 
but little of the common sympathetic feeling of the white race. 
They were accustomed to bewail the loss of mends and their great 
chiefs and sachems; and the women, on euchoccaaions,in the wild- 
est and most dishevelled appearance^ with garments tattered and 
dirty, their faces blackened, and Iiair streaming about their shoul- 
ders, oiten wept bitterly, it is true, visiting the, graves of the depart- 
ed for many consecutive days ; but, in the ordinary concerns ot life, 
to weep or lament were usages raoat uncommon to the red man. 
Even in the midst of the most terrible torture or aiiffering, he Was sel- 
domifeve'rknowntoshedatear or utter complaint. Such was his 
idea of bravery ; yet, if tliere was one thing more than another that 
would have had a tendency to awaken the tears and sympathy of the 
Indian, or cause him to sadly bewail his lot, was to reinove him, by 
force or otherwise, from the scenes ofhia hunting-ground and early 
associations — so ardent was hie attaeliment to his native bills and 
plains — his early home and the many relations that clustered about 
it i and in this ho was much like the rest of mankind. 

Our surroundings as natarall,y become a part of Us^ ad tlr^'alrwo 
inhale is necessary to onr health and vigor of action. Tin 'iflU we 
tread upon, bringing forth and nourishing the food We eat, ^'jSBBSBeB 
within itself the elements of mutliality and reciprocation ; a'ld every 
organic being as surely gravitates toWflrd the naturo,!, And as readviy 
commingles, in sonSe way, therewith, as the law of gravitation 
brings a falling body to the earth, or the diumalaction of the globe 
brings us the constant "shadow of the night" and " the light of 
day." And the law of sympathy is ever a,-ctiTe and carnost within 

The bleak Esquimaux, the plodding Highlander, and peasant of 
Noi-thern Russia, no l*;eg than the most favored ot the English nobiU 
ity, or the wealthiest and moat, prosperous merchant or farmer in 
America, fl,r« alU«^ Bad »ter:hed to their native homes, and \?anlii 

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aa readily take up the cudgel or draw the stvord, — ^load the canncii 
or shoBlder tlie rifle ifa defence oftheir native plains and hills aa 
■would we of America, England, Fi-ance or Germany, were we or 
they to be suddenly, or othenvise inraded. Natare never fails to 
fexprefiS herself— never fails to make a rfeply when interrogated, no 
matter how strtfng the sympathy, or whither the alliance. And 
theredipanjiri Mb primitive fastnesBes, native vales and woodlands 
of Amefica — ^wandering upon thfe hanka of her many beautiful rivers, 
chaeing tdevrild {Hiimals of the forest, Or spearing the fish in her 
sti-eams, — was no exception to the rule ; and when he saw and felt 
the first act of encroachment upon his native soiljhc arose in all the 
dignity of offended greatness, seized the tomahawk, the war-club, tho 
bowand arrow; assembled the braves; sirode vigorously through 
the war-dance ; blacltoned and painted their faces ; and, after the 
mode of Indian warfare, at once lay in wait to Strike the first blow, 
in hopes to destroy the enemy, or repel him from their bonudaries. 

And' herein is evinced a sad want of wisdom and knowledge 
on the* part of both the Indian and the white man^^tlie one to 
pass through the ordeal of an almost gradual extermination, vfhilo 
upon the other fell all the trials and dangers of an intestine and 
savage warfare, amid forest and jungle, united with the va&t hard- 
shipB and, vicissitude of the pioneer. 

As has already beeri shown, the uniformity of tho Indian dialect, 
was, in primitive times, or about the peribd of the discovery of 
America, strongly related and identical! A nd,the same was mainly^ 
true of the genferal habits and customs of the various tribes of 
the continent. 

At'an early period; as the French and English sucessively raad^ 
inroads upon the territories df the Miamiea — or, as they were early 
called by the English and the Iriquoie, ;{Ae Twightwces, — in the featab- 
liahment of stdcjjades and trading-pofita, the spirit of intermarriage 
soon became rife between the Indian women, fur-traders, adventur- 
ers, hhi Boldiera, which, up to the departure of, a large body 
of thisMbe for Kansas, several years since, had well-nigh changed 
the who. ) number remaining io " half-breeda." At that period, as 
is weK .y jderatood, but few full-blooded Indians were to be found 
throughout, the entire extent of their ancient temtory. And hence, 
of late years, looking back upon them, we see the light complexion 
of the white man clearly visible in their every feature, rather than 
the brbwnieb-red of the unniixed aboriginal. Many of them, indeed, 
wer*i quite white, with blue eyes, — though still retaining, in a 
largfi degree, the Indian featureSf— thick lips, large moutli, high 
cheek hones, and prominent nose ; and were, for the most part, still 
ynt/iaj^^cherishing, to a late day, the ancient customs of their 
fathers, in hunting, fishing, cultivating the maize, &c. 

Tho following interesting account of the Miamies was written as 
early as 1718. The writer -had made a short stay at the village here, 


XlIE MlAMlKS IN 1718 21 

find passed on tq their brethren of the Wea and ofhcr towna along 
the Wabash. Saya the .writer : 

" The -Miamies are . situated sixty leagues. li-ora Lake Erie, and 
Dumber four hundi-ed, all ■well formed men,, and well tattooed ; the 
^omsn are numerous. They are hard workiug, and raise.a species 
of maize unlike that of our Indians at Deti^'oit. It is white, of the 
same size as the other, the akin much finer, and the meal much 
^whiter. This nation is clad in deer skin.* They love plays and 
dances ; wherefore they have more occupation. The women are well 
clotl).ed, but the men use scarcely any covering, and are tattooed all 
over the body. I'rom this Miami village, there is a portage of three 
leagues to a little and very narrow sti'eam that falls, after a course 
of twenty leaeues,t into the Ohio or. the Beautiful River,, which dis- 
charges into the Oaabaehe — a fine river that falls into the Missis- 
sippi, forty leagues from Oascachias. Into the Ouabache fallb.. also 
jhe Casquinampo, which communicates with Garciliiia'; but this is 
very far off, and always up stream. 

" This river Ouabache is the one on wnich the OugatenonsJ are 
settled. They consist of five villages, which are Contiguous the ono 
to the other. One is called Ouiatanon ; the other f-'eanquinchias ; aud 
another Petitscatias ; and the fourth Lesgros. The narrje of the last 
I do not recollect ; but they are all Oujatanons, having the, same 
language as the Miamies— whose brothers they are, and properly all 
Miamies, having aU the same, customs and dress. The men are 
very numerous — fully a thousand or twelve hundred. They have a 
cus'ton^ different from all other nations ; which is, to keep their fort 
extremely clean, not allowing. a blade o£ giass to remain m it. The 
whole of the fort is sanded like the Tuilleries. * * * Their village 
iHsituqrtedonahighhill; and they have over two leagues of in^prove- 
ment, where they raise their Indian corn, pumpkins, and melons. 
Froni the summit of this elevation, nothing is visible to the eye but 
prairies full of buffalo,"' 

In stature, for the most part, the Miamies wereofmcdium height, 
well built, heads rather round than oblong — countenances . agree- 
able, ratJier than sedate or morose— swift on foot, aud excessively 
fond of racing — both on foot and hoi-se.jl There were, occasionally 
to, be seen among them some men quite tali, yet with well-pro- 
pprtioned bodies. As is intimated ii^ thg foregoing, the Twigh- 
twees or Miamies, unlike moat other tribes, were rather cleanly in 
their habits ; for which they were mostly UQted up to a very late 
period ; and wore disposed to cultivate the goil — ^i"a,isirig the maize, 
beans, squashes, cucumbers, melons, &p. .ground, arid within view 
"From Coloniiil History of Kew Y<{vk, (a Paril dooiinient,) Tol, ir, p. B91. 
f Leagne, (from Uio Franch.) tlirco mileq. tPrpifOjjnflsd as if ap«lt Wpateiiona, 

II Tlie Iiidiup raoo-lTaok, for many yoaiBj «iten<!ed. from tlie south aide of the west- 
end freoaohooi building, westward about ialfaisile. For soojaysarsbef^re tlie depart- 
uro of tliG Miamies for tho weai, wliile tlie raeing jivus kept nnovar^lj track, iiten from 
Ohio, and otlicr parts of tJio couDlry, wera nsousioraed tobcirig many fHathuriOa here, 
aud ofloii aolll tliom tg tlio Indinns ut very estruvugant ptiuts. 


of the preBent site of Ft. Wayo*, at different points, were 'several 
small patches of cleared land^ which the Indian women and chil- 
dren regularly cultivated' each year, and brought forth considerablo 
quantities of com and other products ; wliich, together with the 
game and fiah brought in by the men of the txibe, supplied them 
■with food during the winter. It is a well antlienticatea fact, how- 
ever, that, at periods, perhaps in seasons of severe drought, or more 
especially when the produeta of their fields were destroyed or over- 
run, apd their villages burned by invading armies, or through conflicts 
with formidable tribes at more remote periods, and often from neg- 
lect to prepare for the winter months, the Indians, not unfrequently, 
found thfemselvee with bat scanty supplies for the severe months of 
winter ; and, huddling themselves about their dingy wigwams, with 
a few smoking embers in the center, scarcely sufHcient to keep them 
warm, have been known to fast for many consecutive days because 
of their inability to obtain food. 

The extenftive field* and open point, just east of, and adjacent to, 
the confluence of the rivers St. MaryandSt, Joseph, in which Stands 
the historic Apple Tree,t near and about which were scattered many 
of the huts and wigwams of the Miamies to a late period in the 
present century, had been annually cultivated by this ancient tribe 
for a period of perhaps one hundred and fifty years or tnore before 
the erection of the fort at this point under the direction of General 
Wayne, in 1794, That their women had long been accustomed to 

•Ah early as 1814, Hie Indian* tlien here informed John P. Hedges, Jlsq., — wiio 
Iirw8liowbeen»reaident of PortWayneforfifty-flTeyeftrH — oomliig here withlhenrmy 
in 1812, — thiitlJiis field hud been eultiT»tedhy others iongbeforolliam; and, to quote 
their owu lungaage, — mmffeb-a-u!estoak,—l\iiij had pUnied and rained curn, beaufj, 
5c., iti IJiia fleld for laany jpears — a Ions/, ^'>i'J time. 

fChiAf Riehai'dville often told the old settlera lierethatthUold apple tree wa* t.liera 
■when he was a little boji ; and that it was then a " bearing tree ; " tliattliehutin which 
he was born ftood very near to it. The cUiefattained an ageot near eighty yeara.anddied 
inl&tl. WitJi aie»efnetoitiB presumed that, at the present time (September, 1867), 
the tree is about one hundred and thirty odd yeu-» old. From the faotofhla early 
aesociations, his birtK. 4e., being ao inUmaUly related tn this old tree and its adjaeeiit 
looallUea, Biohardyilla ever looiied opon it with the -wurmeat veneration and wgant. 
The tree in thought to tiave itpriing ffoni aaeed seoideDtly dropped or purposely planted 
hv Bume of the early French traders orniiBsionartes viBiting this point. In tJie spring of 
186S, a hea»y stonn iwept away its main trunk, karing itaa now seen in tlia op]xiait« 
enjtraving. The eireumferenee, as jneasui'od liy the writer ani] a friend, iu the month 
of June, (I!:<ST) was IS feet. The fruit is ninall, and usually ripens in the monUi ot 
Oet«b«r. Bjr the taite of the leaf of the ti'ce, there would susm to be auffieient streugtJi 
and Titalitvin it, if not other wiao jYiole*t-ed,EosurTiTe atleaat ahaltoentnry or more 
tooome. Says Mr. J, L. William' ;'■ We need not qacstion ite identity. There are 
•peeimeiiBot'tha hardier varieties in this country now beating fruit at the age of 150 to 
" Let it* memory be perpetuated by a eareful prfservation of it in future 
historic renown well entitles it to tiie e '■••■■■■•■ ..i . . .. 

years. Its historic renown well entitles it to tiie eareful attention o( the present owners 
of the ancient fiel.t of tlie whioI|it has so long lived, hlossomed, and home 
i'B fruit. Let a neat railing be placed aboiitit as a means to ite liettcr protectioii and 
oare. It was out of this \saa that an Indian^ during the seige'of 1813, was shot by one 
of the soldieiB fmmthe fort, a distaiioe of m4ny hundred yards. In an exulting spirit, 
one of the beseigers waa in the habit of olimbing the tree each day for sereral days, and, 
hrowing his arras, much like the roosf^r his wings, when erowing, would utter a noiaa 
ery lite this towl, which w«k tinsUy answered bv (he craek of a rifle from the 
vt, and the JBdi«M was seen U) full. " * , 



-c by Google 


Ke-ki-osig-a— Its Measijsw. ^3 

eifontiive agricultural pursuitB is most fully coiifirraod by all the; 
early visitantj of thia locality, and the regions adjacent. 

In a letter to the Secretary of war, General Knox, bearin;^ date 
August 14, 1794, General Wayne said: "The margin of those 
beautiful rivers, the Miamia of the lake (or Maamee) and Auglaize, 
appear like one continued village for a number of miles, both above 
and below this place (confluence of the Auglaize and JIaumee); nor 
have 1 ever beheld Buoh immense fields of corn, in aiy part of Ameri- 
ca, from Canada to Florida." 

The accounts of 1812, are of a similar character. Several Tillages 
were then located at different points, here and witliiii Si range of 
some ten miles of Ft. Wayue; the most considerable village then 
being about ten miles below tliis point, on the Maamee. A large 
amount oi corn and wheat were then destroyed, much of it purport- 
ed to have been of a very excellent quality ; showing, that, by a long 
contact with the English and French, from whom had sprung many 
of the half-breeds, then so numerous among the Miamies and other 
tribes living near and about them, these Indians had attained many 
advantages in civilized relations, in the way of agriculture, &e. ; antt 
many of the villagers were then living in very good log-cabins, 
raising annually excellent crops of both corn and wheat. Ox-teams, 
brought from Canada, were also employed among them, at that 
period, to very good advantage.* 

The Indian loved the wild fruits, and here, in the region of Fort 
AVayne, tjiere were, at an early period, an abundance of wild plums, 
haws, berries, &c, Tlie Indiana were accustomed to cherish the belief 
that for them the Great Spirit had especially caused these to come 
forth and ripen with each season ; and every species of food, from 
the roots, vegetables, and fruits, to the animals themselves, were 
alike considered as imbued with some peculiar principle iu which 
the Great Spirit had infused some special element of excellence, 
intended to impart to the red man both health and strength. Here, 
more especially, the blackberry was most abundant, and from thi« 
fact, this point was long known to tiie Indians as Ke-ki-ong-a,t 
•JtMollectiona of Mr. George Tnylor, a reBident of Plymouth, Ind., who -a-as Iiere iu ISI'2, 
a«d, by oominand of hiBBuperior officers of the army, hulped to destroy mauy of thb 
Indian Mttleincnta of this region. 

tSsys Mr. Chaa. B. Lasselte. in referring l-o this point: "The Miami name of thin 
vills^ via Ke-ki-ong-a. which, by an iufleotinn of tlie Inst eyllable, was prououncrd 
ai if writtt«Q iLe-ki-ong'a. The name iu Englisii. eignifiea blackberry patcli. whie)i, 
in its turn, paeted among the Miami«aas asjipbol of antiquity. But wiiethor thia nanm 
•KOs given it on aceount of the spot being covered with the blaokberry, ov was meant 
to represent it as the most anaitnt villaice of theic race in thia country, is not known, 
though ti'adiiion, tlieic uniiBual regard for it,,(the plaoe) and tlie tenacity with which 
tiicv 6o long dcfunded it, would iniplv, tlielkttCTBnpiiOBition. Theold colonist wrib.'iB 
speak of it as the ' Twiglitwee ' vilUge. The French, trade™ eslled it ' Al-be.' Tho 
Amerioaua oalled it ■ 0»ee.' and aometimia ' The Miami village.' It extended, priii> 
eipally, along the banks of the St. Joseph river, lint was alsoovecthe opposite side, and 
resolied to wilJiin three or four hundred yardl of tlie C&nttuenee of that river with tli-- 
St. Mnry. The inhabitants of this village anciently felonged to thm tril* of Miamies 
salicd the Twat-t-wahs, (which the early eoloniatn spelt ' 'J'wightweeg,') the n»tion 
baring consisted of tho wji-ern! lril>« of Weeha fat Wo-ali -to -tiling, ou the Wabs<4i,) Bui 

:y Google 

24 liETOitY Off FoKT Wayke. 

wlilcli, intei-pi'otecl, aignified a "blackbeiTy patcii. And tlio rcatlor. 
cs.a well imagine, in the ripeniag season, a bevy of ■wbmea and 
children, with bark baekete, gathering the rich berries of thoiv Jse-Jci- 

With the red man, to be idle, was to be happy, great, and fre6\ 
and, as we have seen in a former page, the Miamica " lovei plays 
and dances," and thus, with gaming, chanting some familiar refrain, 
perhaps learned from the medicine men — wrestling, racing, lying, 
or sitting beneath the shade ot some wide-spreading tree^ in sum- 
mer, they whiipd away their time dnring the greater part of the 
spring, summer, and fall, seldom if ever disturbing the game of the 
forest, more especially that species (the beaver, the raccoon, the 
bear, the deer, the huiialo,* ckc.,) which afforded them valuable furs 
and sSdns, until the hunting season began, which, was usually about 
the first of November of each year-. Thiswas life among tlieiliam- 
ies, acd, in fact, among every tiibe of the northwest. 

In games of chance, moccasin, tfec, in which tliey indulged a great 
deal, at a late period, more especially, they would participate, unless 
intoxicated, with the greatest good humor, often betting and losing 
every article they possessed, even to their guns, hatchets, &c., and 
never thought it amiss to cheat, whenever an opportunity presented. 
In foot and horse-racing, they as often went to as gxeat extremes 
in betting as when at a game of moccasin. 

The greatest labors of the men, in eai'lier periods, were those of 
completing palisades; constructing boats; to aid in the, building and 
repau: of their cabins ; to prepare the instrimients of warfare and 
the chase ; to paint, tattoo, and otherwise adorn their bodies. Xhe 
women of the red men were ever the toilers ; to them fell the bur- 
dens of cultivating the!fields and patches that brought forth tho vege- 
tation of spring and summer that went to ■ nourish them, in pai-t, 
the remainder of the yeai' ; and before the visit of tlie trader — wiio 
supplied them, in exchange for furs, with hoes, and other imple- 
ments of use, — how meager and indifi'erent must have been thek 
means and advantages of cultivating the soil. Some wooden im- 
plement, perhaps — some sharp bone of an animal, or tortoise sh<jll, 
doubtless seiTed for a hoe or mattock. And thus toiled the Indian 

Ilivers (nt At-lia-no-pe-kong, on EeViiver), Twol-walia, and mrhaps aiDmo others, wliose 
iiamea and existenoe, SB sepuTBta tribes, liayfl long since censed, and "hnea. mei"ged into 
llioaa of fcho nation." How, tho fact of tHe wor.l Ke-ti-ong-a rignifying a blackberry 
[jatch. warrants aati'ongsuppoiition, at laast, that, in Tiew of the fiiot ol there bainj; 
very early a large pafcU o/tliat noturo attliia point, the name Ke-ki-ong-a must primi- 
tively liavB been aorired thereflwni. 

*JIoTBmbor, 3th, 1712, Father Gabriel Marest, a. French missionary, writing from 
soriiB point perliaps along the ffab^'Sh, or, as i1ie|\ called, tha Otuibache, after gitiug 
a Bomuwhat full mill graphic aocoritit of the regions hordering on tb all. stream, said 
it was "rich in minerals, eapBcially lend and tin, and that if ospeiioneed minors 
ivero to oomo oat from Fraiico nud "irorfe tho mines, he had no ijonbt that gold 
and siWer would bo foiind in abnndanijo. !l.'hB,t fba quantity of, Iia^alo and liaar 
which was to ho found on tho banlcs of tha Wabash {Ouabaehe), .71^^ inoredible ; " 
!iuil further remarked Hiat " t!ie moat of tho bear was very daliciouii, "for," eaid ho, 
'-I have tried it,"— Judge Law's Addroas, page 11. 


Laboes of Tnj: Indian Women. 35 

wcnieii in the field, mellowed the soil, beat down tfie weeds abonfi 
tlie corn, cultivated the bean, the squash, the Indian cucumber, 
tlie pumpldn and the melon ; and she it was that routed the birds 
from the patches, gathered the maize and otlier p roducts of her 
labor; jerked and diied the deer, bear, and buffalo meat ; prepared 
the Inciian meal ; dried the winter's frait ; gathered the wood for 
the iires, and cooked the meals. And wllen a bark canoe was built, 
it was the Indian woman's work to sew the bark with some stringy 
substance, borhaps peeled from tho elm or root of some small tree,, 
and filling the seams with some adhesive 8u])stance, to prevenfcleak- 
age. When removing from one point to another, or retiring to tlieir 
hunting-grounds for the winter, to carry the luggage, and ijaaterial 
of the wigwain, if taken with tliem, it was the mission of t^^ Indian 
women to pack such upon their backs. Did the red man go in 
pursuit of game, it was the ancient custom of the faithful . Indian 
woman to follow aod carry upon her shoulder the fruits of tho chase.* 

The Indian women were indeed heroes. And when we come to 
contemplate the toilsome lives they led — their unflinching efforts in 
all kind^ of weatiier, — in every season of the year — it is not snr- 
■pi'ising that the early sons of the forest were hardy and active — 
fleet on foot and wily in the fight. Amid toil and drudgeiy — trial 
and vicissitude — the Indian woman often broughtforth the offspring 
of their masters ; (for they wero evidently nearly all, if not (juite, in 
a large degree, at least, veritable slaves to their husbancfe.) So 
liardy were they, ftom constant physical labor and ezposur© to tho 
open air, it was said of them, tl^at, "in one quarter of an horn' a 
woman would be merry in the house, and delivered, and merry 
again; and within two days, abroad; and after fonror five days, at 
viTOrk." The powerful will of the Indian women, together with their: 
]ong accustomed aversion and heroic indifference to paiij, ever rose 
superior to the momentary pangs accompanying the bii;'t& of their 
offspring. In this they possessed a sti'ong native intu^on ; and 
thus far, at least, are worthy of emulation by aU the motK,(?rs of our 
present heroic conditions of civilization and intellectual advance- 
ment What a world of health and goodness — what an ocean of 
intellectual excellence and physical beantj might have been ger- 
minated through the organism of the Indian mother, had ^he possess- 

•"When the Indiana airiTod and dopartod," flajB Mrs. Keiizie, refe^ing to very 
early timea, in the prenont century, about Green Bay, "my sense of ' womau'fi Wglita' 
v/as often ontcaged. The mRstoj' of tlia fumily, aa a general thina, ^nie loiaurely 
hearing a gun and parlmpa a lance in hia hand. The WDman, with tiie mats and poles 
of her lodge npbn her slionldera, her papoose, if she liad one. ^le kettlea. Backs of coin, 
und wi'd rice, and not nnfrequBnUy, the houseliold d<^, perched on tJie top of aU. If 
there ia a hoi^e ot pony in the list of family posaessiona, the man rides, the sgna'w 
trudges after. 'This uneqnal division of lahoris the resnltof no waEt of kind, a&iiion- 
ute ^lingon. the part ofthc husband. It is rather the instinct of tjieaex to asjierbtiieir 
Buperioiity of position and importance, when a prober oooasion offers. When out of tha 
reach of ob^vBtioQ, and in no danger of oomproniiaLng his own dignity, tbe h usbnnd 
M willing enoogh to rslievo his sponse from the burden tliat cuatom imposen on her, 
by shariu^^her labors and hardaliips." — "Early Day in the Norbhu'Cst," iiagi»35Q and 



ed the proper expansion of mind. , Even as it was, how many rare 
and Bingular exampiea of oratory came from lier. Listen to the stir- 
ring appeal of Little Turtle, (Me-che-cannah-qnah) addressing Gen. 
Wayne, and others, at the famous treaty of Greenville, July 16th, 

" Elder brother, and all presentl I am goingto say afew\v"ordB," 
said the orator, " in the name of the Pottawattamies, Weas, and Kick- 
apoos. It is well known to you all, that people aro appointed ou 
these occasions, to speak the sentiments of others; therefore am I 
appointed for those three natioHs, Eider brother: you .told your 
younger brothers, when we (irst assembled, that peace was your 
object ; you swore your interpreters before us to the faithful dis- 
charge of their duty, and told them the Great Spirit would punish 
them, did they not perform it. You told xrn that it was not you, 
but the President of the fifteen fires uf the United States who spoke 
to ns ; that whatever he should say should be firm and lasting ; that 
it was impossible he should say what was not true. Eest assured 
that your younger brothers, the Miaraies, Chippewas, Ottawas, Pot- 
tawattamies, Shawanees, Weaa, Kickapoos, Fiankeshaws, and Kas- 
kaskiaa, are well pleased with your words, and are persuaded of 
your sincerity. You have told us to consider the boundaries you 
showed ua ; your younger brothers have done so, and now pro- 
ceed to give you their answer.* 

" Elder brother : Your younger brothers do not wish to hide their 
sentiments from you. I wish them to be tlie same with those of the 
Wyandots and Delawares. , You have told us, that most of the 
reservations you proposed to us, belonged to our fathers, the French 
and, the British. Permit your younger brothers to make a few 
observations on this subject. Elder brother : We wish you to listen 
with attention to our words. You have told your younger brothers 
that the British imposed falsehoods on us, when they said the 
United States wished to take our lands from us, and that the United 
States had no such design ; You pointed out to us the boundary line, 
which ctoBsed a little below Loramie's store, and struck Fort Recov- 
ery ,and run from thence to Ohio, opposite the mouth of Kentucky riv- 
er. Elder brother : You have told us to speak our minds freely, and we 
now do it. This line takes i", the greater and best part of your 
brother's hunting ground ; therefore your younger brothers are of 
opinion you take too much of their lands away, aud confine the 
liunting of our young men within limits too contracted. Your 
brothers, the Miamis, the proprietors of those lands, and all your 
younger brothers present, wish you to run the line as you mentioned, 
to Fort Kecovery, and continue it along the road, from thence to 
I'ort Hamilton, on the Great Miami river. This is what your 
brothers request you to do, and you may rest assured of the free 

"This ippenh not only iiirgely diaplaya (he power of Iiidiwi o^alxiry,— the nativo 
intelligenea and B;ot>.lnEs» uf heart of tliis distinguiahpd Chief, but. alao curries with it, 
maDy luipoi'tftiit tiistorital f««fii relnting to the eaviy histuvy of Fort Wuyne. 

10 IK, Google 

Spekok of Little Tcetlk. -7 

navigation of that river, from tlience to its mouth, forever. Brothe r: 
Here is the road we -vvieh to bo the boundary between us. What 
lies to tlie east ive wish to be yours ; that to the west, we would 
desire to be ours. [Presenting a road belt.] 

" Elder brother : In speaking of the reservations, you saj' they 
are designed for the same purposes as those for which our fathers, 
the French and English, occupied them. Your younger brothers 
now wish to make some observations on them. Elder brother; 
Listen with attention. You told us you discovered on the Great 
Miami, traces of an old fort. Brother: it was a fort built by me. 
You perceived another at Loramie's : 'tis true a Frenchman once 
lived tliere for a year or two. The Miami villages were occupied 
as you remarked :* but, it was unknown to your younger brothers, 
until you told them, that we had sold land there to the Fj-ench or 
English. I was surprised to hear yon aay it was my forefathers 
had set the example to the other Indians, in selling their lands. 
I will inform you in what maimer the French and English occupied 
those places. Elder brother; These people were seen by our lore- 
fatliers first at Detroit ; afterwards we saw them at the Miami village 
— that glorious gate, which your younger brothers had the happiness 
to own, and through which all the good words of our chiefs had to 
pass, from the north lo the south, and from the east to the west. 
Brothers, these people never told us they wished to purchase our 
lands from us. 

"Elder brother: I now give you the true sentimeutB of your 
younger brothers, the Miamis, with reepect to the reservation at 
the Miami villages. "We thank you for kindly conti-actiag the limits 
you at first proposed. We wish you to take this six miles square 
on the side of the river where your fort now stands, as your 
younger brothers wish to inhabit that beloved spot again. You 
shall cut hay for your cattle wherever you please, and you shall 
never require in vain the assistance of your younger brothers at 
that place. Elder brother: The next place you pointed to was tho 
Little River, and said you wanted two miles square at that place. 

»Tha point he« raferred to. was the fojlowinst. (ram Ganernl Wnyna's Bpeeah, made 
five days pvevioua to the delivery of Littla Turtle's Bpe«oli, and addriased to tho 
Miamiee, Said he, 

"I will ■ - " 

foi'ts)Bnd ... 

■y your focefstiiers i w«st, at Vinoe . 

Name river ; a littU higher op that streani. &ty itre «> iw bumq ai -juikjiiod. i ui»«ovtr 
another Mrong trace at Chieago; another on the St. Joseph'scf Lake Michigan. IhuvB 
seen distiactiy the prints of a Frsnah and Brititlt poat at the Uianii villages, and of a 
Britjsh post at tho foot of tho I'apide, now in their posBesBion; jmnta. very conspiunoas, 
iii« on thu Great Miami, which were poowseed by the French lortj-liTe years ago ; and 
auothertl-uoa iavervdutinatlytobeaeenat, Sandusky. ItappFarato me, he continued. 
" that if Uie Orc^t Spirit, as you nay, charged your forefatlierg to preserve tlieir lands 
entire for their posterify, they liave paid very Uttle regard to tlie eacred Injunction : for 
Iseothev have parted with tlioso lands to vourfathern, the Preneh, and the English are 
now, or have been, in possCHaioD of them all ; therefore, ItliinktheHharBeurgecTiigainBt 
the Ol-tawas, the Cbippewaa, and other Indians eomes with a bad grace, indeed from the 
very people perhaps that set them the example. The English and French both wora 
hats; and yet, jmirforofathortB sold them, at various Hmm, rortionsof >-our Iiinds." 


28 HiSTOKY op !FoKT Wayne. 

Tliis is a request that onr fathers, the French aud British, npyci: 
made us ; it was always oiu-s. This carrying place iias heretofore 
prpved, ID a great degree, the subsistence of your younger brotli- 
crs. Tliat place has brought to us, in the course of one day, the 
amount of one hundred doilare. Let us both own this place, and 
enjoy in common the advantages it affords. Tou told us, ^t Chicago, 
the French poBsessed a fort: we have never heard of it. We thank' 
you for the trade you promised to open in our country ; and permit 
us to remark, that we hope our former traders may be continued, 
and mixed with yours. Elder brother: On the sutiject c^ hostages,' 
1 have only to observe, that I tmst all my brothers are of my opin- 
ion with regard to peace and our future happiness. I expect to be 
with you every day when you settle on your reservations; and it will 
be impossible for me or my people to withhold from you a single 
prisoner ; therefore we don't know why any of us should remain 
here. These are the sentiments of your younger brothers present, 
on these particulai-s." 

And again, at d conncil, in the valley of tlie Muskingum, in l76i, 
hear the eloquent words of a Shawanoe chief, aa he addresses the 
English commander, CoL Bouquet, then marching against the west- 
ern tribes: 

" Brother," said the chief, " with this belt of wampum, I dispel 
the black cloud that has so long hung over our heads, that tiio 
sunshine of peace may once more descend to warm and gladden 
US. I wipe the tears from yoiu- eyes, and condole with you on the 
loss' of your brethren who have perished ii^ this war. I gather 
their bones together, and cover them deep in the earth, that the 
sight of them may no longer biingsorrow to your heart; and 1 
scatter dry leayes over the spot, that it may depart forever from 

" The path ^f peace, which once ran between your dwellings and 
mine, has of iate been choked with thorns, and briars, so that ^o 
one conld pass, that way ; and we have both almost forgotten that 
such a path had ever been. I now clear away all these obstructions, 
and make a broad, smooth road, so that you and I'may freely -visit 
each other, as our fathere used to do. I kindle a great council-lire 
-whose smoke shall rise to heaven, in view of aU the nations,, while 
yoa and I shaU sit together and smoke the peace-pipe at its bla^."* 

*An Indian oounail,on solemn oeoflBionajWaB always openett ■with prelimiuary formai 
suffioientiy wearisome and tedious, liiit made indispensible by immemorial custom ; for 
tliia people ore as much bound by their oonVcntionat nsagee ae the most artifloiol children 
of ci^vilizatiun. The forms -ff^m varied, to some extent, acoordiug to the imt^inationot 
the speaker ; hut in all esaential respects Uiey were closely similar, thronghont the tribes 
of the Algonquin and IroqapiB lineage. TJieyrun. somewhat as follows, each eentsnca 
beiujj ^oiiouuoed with great solemnity, and confirmed by ike doUwry of a "Wflmpum 
belt Bi'others, with this belt I open yonr ears fliatyou may hear — I remove grief and 
sorrow ftom jom- he(lrts--7l draw trom your! feat the thorns that pierced them as yon 
jonrneved tlildiflr — I clean tba seats of theconndl-houB.', that yon may d.t at ease — I 
wobIi jou!' head and body, that yonrspJvitB tnnylw refreshed — I condole with you on. 
tliuluBa of the friends who have died since wo last met— I wipe out any blood which 


Atfection op the Indian Mothbh. 29 

Again, in 1763, at the famous conncil of Lancaster, Pa,, a dis- 
tinguished chief of the Oneidae, with singular emphasis, said : 

" In the country of the Oneidas there is a great pine-tree, so huge 
and old that half ite hranches are dead with time. I tear it up hy 
the roots, aad, looking down into the hole, I see a dark stream of 
water, flowing with a strong cnrrent, deep under ground. Into this 
stream I fling the hatchet, and the current sweeps it away, no man 
knows whither. Then I plant the tree again where it stood before^ 
and thus this war will he ended forever." 

The love of the Indian mother for hor child was most iatensei 
Thongli seldom expressed by fond caresses, yet it was ever ardent, 
free, and unextinguishahio ; and to have entrusted her babe to the 
caa'e of another to perform tlie part of mother or nurse, except 
in cases of death, Would indeed, to her, have been a wiid, barbarous 
act. Tlie cradle of the Indian child was usually constructed of 
hark and small sticks oi wood ; and was commonly adorned with 
gaudy feathers, beads, and other attractive objects, of a similar 
natm-e. A buifalo or other wai-m fnfry skin usually served as a 
bed and covering for the little nurshng,* 

Wh9njourneying,theIndiaiimother would wrap her child in furs, 
or in a blanket, and, placing its back to her own, would travel steadily 
on to her journey's end, regardless, often, of the wailings of her in- 
fant, on the way. When at work in the field or patch, she would 
often hang her tawny bud, " as spring does its blossoms, on the 
boughs of a tree, tliatit might be rocked by the breezes irom the 
land of souls, and soothed to sleep by the lullaby of the birds," 
And it often occurred, through a peculiar sense of compassion 
among the aboriginal tribes, that when the mother died, her infant, 
if very young and feeble, shared the gTave with her. 
may have been spilt bfltweemis. Thiaeai'omouy, ■whioh, by thodeliTery of bo many 
bcltfl of WRQipum, entailed do Hirnll expense, wna never llsed axeopt on the most impor- 
tant oooasioaa ; and ot tlie oounoila witli Col. Bonquet, the angry -wamors seem -wholly 
to hare dispeneed trith it. 

An Indian orat«r icas provided with a atock of metaphors, which he always made me 
offin-theespreaaion of certain ideoB. Thus, toinalcewai'wafltoraiflethehatehet ; tomake 
peaee was to take hold of theohain of fcjendahip; to deliberate was to kindle the conncil- 
fire ;toeovSrthe bonis of the dead was to moke reparation and gain forgiveneas forilio 
act of killing them. A state of war anddiaaater was typified by a blaolt eloud; a state 
of peace by origlit snnshiae, or by nn open path between tlie two naUons. 

The orator seldom epoke without careful premeditation of what he was about to say ; 
and hia memory waa refreahert bybeltsof wflmpum,which he delivered after every elanae 
in bie harangue, as a pledge of the sincerity and truth of his words. These belts were 
carefully presei'ved by the neareta, as a Bubelatnte for written records ; a use for which 
they were tlie better adapted, aathey were often woi'ked in liiert^lypliies expreaaing the 
meaning Uiey were designed to preserve. Thiia,at a treaty ot peace, the principal belt 
often oore the figure of an Indian and a white man holding a chain Mtweon tliem. 
— [I'nrkman. 

»Recolleetionsof Mrs. Griawoldffonnerly Mrs. Peltier) who, with her graridfallicrand 
grandmother, Eatis Malooh and wife, (deeeased) came from Detroit to .Port Wayne as 
early as 1807. Mr. James Peltier, her husband, who had, for some years previona, 
andsocontinned for some yeara after, been a trader at thia point, and early beoomiog 
warmly attached to the American oause„and being. mnoh liked by the Indians, waa 
long most usefnl to the gorornmont ns an interpreter and messenger, carrying measages 
ol'teu nlawatrist of life, but ahvnj-a with sueeras. 

-c by Google 

80 HlSTORT OF FosT "^^'avnk. 

Many years ago, one of the early mothers of Fort Wayne, with 
her husband, took up their reBJdenee in a little hut at the hftse of 
the hJU, just west of the bend of the Maunice, nearly under the guns 
of the o!d fort. Near their dwelling was another hut, used by her 
husband for purposes of trade wit)! the Indians. Both, becauBC of 
their many acts ot attention, and kindness, had early won the savage 
heart, and being able to speak freely with the Indians ili their natif 
tongue, were often vifiited fiild protected by the red children of the 
region. They seemed indftea to have regarded her as a kind of god- 
dess, and often looked up to her SB a Bpiritua! helper. Often, she 
says, has she joined with them in the wild dance and merry Indian 
jubilee — all regarding her with special favor on such occasions- A 
littte incident will strikingly' illustrate her relationship to them, and 
serve to exhibit the tender regard of the Indian mother for her off- 
spring. It was a pleasant period of the year, when an Indian 
woman, approaching the edge of the river, not far from the little 
huts in question, with a child in her arms, seemingly in great distress, 
suddenly observing onr pioneer mother, then but a girl of some 
sixteen or seventeen summers, cried most piteously to Mrs, P.* to 
come to fier aid. Anxious to know the cause of the woman's dis- 
tress, and feeling, as well, a desire to render her what aid she could, 
Mrs. 1'. soon stood by the side of the anxious woman in the water. 
The Indian woman's story was quickly told. She had, but a littU^ 
while before, observed that her child ft-as dying, and bad at once 
hastened to the river to afford it baptism before its little spirit 
should take its iiight. " If the little papposa die," said she, with much 
anxiety, " before it is put in the water, it can only see the spirits 
about it — it can't go up where the Great Spirit is." Readily afford- 
ing the woman the desired aid, the child was speedily baptised, and 
the motber's heart set at ease. A few moments more, and the 
spirit of the little pappoose was gone. The great Manito of the red 
man would now afl'ord it a place in his joyful household. 

One of the prime objects of the Indian mother, as, the child ad- 
vanced, was to enure it to tlie weather, that it might be strong and 
active. With this view, soon after being taken from the cradle, 
with but little covering upon their bodies, the children were permit- 
ted to rollick and iamuse themselves about the cabin, that they 
might acquire, as well, a knowledge of the use ot their limbs. Free- 
dom of will being the highest idea of go\ ernmental excellence with 
the Indian, there were no special restrainl<i of iamily government 
among the Miamies. The children were permitted to do just as 
they wished, seldom if ever being repro\ed or (hastised ; and yet, 
were unaccostomed,^as a general rule, to ai ts of special incivility 

•Mre.Pellier, (now Griswold), who informed the writflr lliat, in thoae early timM' 
uuw some fiifty-eight years ago, she woe aHea called upon to aid the Indians in this 
way. It is moat probftbl* tliat this religious rite came originally from the enrly 
Tnireionaries visiting and wgouminghsra; foe the primitive Inilian mother aeena evei' 
to have «ntertBined the helwf that tho Great Spirit liad placed near htr child a guw- 
dinii »ni»«l or »i>iiit that eouldenahle ]!'*') Mnnntint^n!] nVt«.,'!»i. Istp atnl hepe«fl*r. 


Tbaisisg ot the Vousg WiBHioa. ai 

toward any of the older mcmbere of the tribe, or the stranger 
when visiting tliom in times of peace.* Al! were alike attached to 
their young, and could not, under any circumstance 8, permit a sep- 
aration, long at a time, while living. Their own native asiiirations 
led the young Indian early to acquire a knowledge of the bow and 
arrow, the tomahawk, and the gun, and to use their limbs with dex- 
terity in running and swimming. I'rom' oft-repeated stories of the 
prowess and daring of their ancestors, related to them by the 
older members of the tribes, as they sat about the fire of the wig- 
wam, the young Indian early became imbued with heroic feelings, 
and longed to become famous by some special act of bravery and 
valorous exploit.f As with " the birth of an offspring, or the appear- 
ance of a first tooth," there Was merry-making in the Indian cabin, 
BO also the wigwam was made a scene of testivity upon the achieve- 
ment of a Jirst success in hunting. Being thus early schooled, 
dwelling in, and subsisting upon the wilds of nature, it was not 
surprising that the young Indian Boon became a " brave," longing 
for war, and to adorn his person, by the most wily means and acts 
of ferocity, il heed be, with the scalps of his red foeman and the 
pale face. Nothing was so joyous to his soul — nothing made him 
more eager forthechargo, and filled his heart with greater determin- 
ation to excel as a warrior, or to defeat and put to rout and to death 
the enemy he was to meet at a special time and place, than to cliant 
beforehand the wild war song, and dance the war-dance around the 
midnight camp-fires or through the streets of his villages. Painted 
and blackened ; with the feathers of the eagle, hawk, or other bird, 
as a crown about their heads, or, long, black, coarse hair streaming 
wildly back over their shoulders^ or cut close to their skuUs, leaving 
only a top-lock, standing forth in all their native ardor and self- 
excellence — brave, resolute, determined — knowing all the country 
around — every point of possible retreat for an army— every hollow, 
or special ravine— every deep thicket and clump of trees — every 
fording-place along the rivers, — 'the swamps of the woods — every 
point where the fallen timber was most abundant, or lay the vpen 
spaces and prairies — it Was not to be wondered the Miamies were 
often so successful in their efforts against the early pioneers and 
the armies of Harmar, St. Clair, and others, in the latter part of 
the past century. Still powerful at that period, commanding at any 
moment, a numerous alll, with the memory and prowess of their 
ancestors, and many marks of success to inspire and urge them on, 
they were not easily to be subdued or driven from the home 
of their fathers. 
•ReooIUctioDS of J. P. Hedges, Esq., who Epenks the Mikini tnngue quite fluentl}'- 
flt vaa alwaj'9 a common eoraplaint wilh the chiefs and head men of tliP different 
(ribes tliroughout tlie country ,froin an early period, that " they sonld not restrain their 
young men, " and wheu their early teaBhingn are taken into view, it iviie cotHurpmiog 

le yolinji; mon of the triliea were so oltea uiiKHt'raiiiable. 



" f IiTOilgli tlie iFoodland, tlirmrgli llio incadow, 

As III silence oft I walk, 
Softly whiapei'iag on tlio brepiea, 

beeins to ooma the red man's talk." — Bubj. S. Fnvkor. 

Indian mo'le of reokoniMgfJme—EoBpitalitv and Etiquette — The Stranger— Tho " Green, 
corn danoe," as ■^Itneeeed in 1833 — Curative powers of the Indian — Draaa of 
tiie warrior — Pnde ofBdornment — Seatraint-^Beveuge — Emblems serred for namea 
— An incident — The Miamiea aad Pottawattamies — French ' aettlements among 
tlio Hiamies — Sug^eatiojiB of Dr. Franklin — ^Chiefa and Saehflrae — Their powoi' — 
Eooorda of treatie8~-Force of olojoaenee — Indian Dpmoovaey — The ITatehez In- 
diana — The Peace-pipe — ABsembliea—McBaengera of peaoa— Clonnciis at the Miami 
TillBgas — An incident — Indian disregard of death — DeolaratloBsof war-^Daneea — 
Religions natnve of the Indian — The medioina men — Life in tiie north-west 150 
yeara ago — CiTilization here 150 years heuoe. 

^^HE MIA'MIES, like all other taibes of the primitive wilda 
raj of America, knew nothing of days, as called after the Saxoa 
ejj^gods — took no note of time, save as presented by "theretmTi 
^K^of snowor the epringing of the flowers." The flight pf the birds 
^ told them of the passage of summer, and the approach of the 
hunting season. The active instinct of the animal world about them, 
the appearance of the sky, &c., ever served, by some peculiar ex- 
pression, to remind them of the approach of storms ; and the time 
of the day was tracedbytheshadowsof the trees, and other objecte, 
as reflected by the sun. 

In times of peace, ever hospitable, the stranger, — and, especially 
those to whoni they wore attached, — were always- welcome, and 
feasted with the best his cabin afforded. The Indian has often, 
indeed, been known to go without food himself to appease tho hun- 
ger of tlie traveler or those sojourning with them. And when iie 
visited the white man, or was invited byhimtoaseatathis table, the 
red man caiTied with him his own peculiar custom, and ate heartily 
of all that was set before him. He was most' sensitive, too, at such 
times ; 'and, for any member of the family with whom he was a 
guest, to have begun to sweep the floor before the departure of 
his Indian visitor, would have been to lead the red man to infer 
that you wished to sweep him out also.* 
«A fact wull known to mnny of tlio old cili^ciisiSof Fort Wnjr.e. 

-c by Google 

lliiiiOKY OK' Fort "VVavse, 33 

At a late period in the history of tlie Indiansof this region, it was 
all ordinary^tbing for the white man to enter the cabin of the red 
man uninvited. And the same was true of the savage. Nor was 
it a custom of the Indian to question those who came to see liim as 
to their business there, or how long they intended to remain. Fond 
of dancing, their festivals were many ; at which it was a custom to 
eat^heai-tily of everything prepared for such occasions. And it was 
at such times,that they were most prodigal, and often greatly exhaust- 
ed their supplies for "the winter. 

To shoftf how^closeiy allied to ancient customs were the modern 
habits and festivitiea of the Miamies, the reader can now look in 
upon a gay crowd of dancers at one of their " frreen-Oorn " dances, 
at a payment of the Miamies in 1833, atthejanction of the Wabash 
and Little River, " There, upon onr arrival,'' runs the account,* " at 
a little silerdark,wefoundapartyofIndians — consieting of between 
two and three hundred — assembled for the pui-pose of participating 
in or mtnessing the dance. A ring was formed, surrounded by a 
large number of Indian spectators, and about fifty whites — in 
which were placed the male portion of the dancers, headed by the 
leaders. At a signal fi-om the music,, which consisted of a tap on 
the drum, of a dull, heavy tone, by one Indian, and a clatter of a 
set of deer hoofs by another, the leaders broke forth in a wild song 
of a few ejaculatory notes responded to by tlie party, and the danc- 
ing and singing commenced. The women then fell in one by one ; 
and, selecting their partners as ihey danced along, the party was 
completed. The dancers aU appeared in their veiy 'best,' and 
had attached to their ankles a profusion of small tinkhnghells. Tlie 
music consisted simply <if the repeated single taps of the said drum, 
accompanied with the continuous clatter of the deer-hoofs ; while 
the 'figure' was composed only of three short, rapid leaps upon tho 
balls of the feet, scarcely raising them from the ground, and slight- 
ly advancing at th'e same time', Occasionalljy', however, an ' extra 
touch' would be given by the dancers, in some antic or other, which 
it would be iniposeible to describe. In this way the dancing, sing- 
ing, tapi>ing (tf the drum, clattering of deer-hoofs, tinkling of bells, 
and an oceaisional yell, fortning a Wild and singular medley, 
which continued foi: about half an hour, when tlio paiiy, hav- 
ing danced around t^c circle some half d'ozen times, and having 
gon'e through tlie first 'set,' the leader stopped and raised tho yell— 
the men of tlie party responded in the same way; and the out- 
siders raised a most fmious din of yells, as congratulatory to the 
performance of the dancers. Here a 'recess' of about a quarter of 
au hour took place ; and a confused scone of congratulations, talk- 
ing, laughing and yelling, ensued. It may bo that, during the 
interval!) many gallant things were said by the grotesque and gaudy 
beaux, or many witticisms and tender sentiments expressed by tlio 
fair Miami damsels ; but of this we were not apprised. It is cei"- 

-d by Google 

iii TliE ilui.tlCISE MkX; 

tain, however, that tlio men behayed wiih a grcatdcal of gallanti-y j 
and that no drinlting or rowdying whatever occurred npon the 
occasion. After the conelaeion of the recess, the parties resumM 
their positions, and re-commenced the dance. The same music, 
dancing, singingi tinkling of bells, and yelling was repeated, as in 
the first instance ; and thus cootimiing till ahout la o'clock at 
night, the party tHen breaking up in one long and loudround of yells." 

With the red man^ disease was the result of some natural derange- 
ment, and UieMedicineMan, often strangely skilled in an nnder- 
standing of the kind^ quality, and quantity of some peculiar natural 
remedial, by the aid of his manipulative powers, at once set about 
a cure on natural principles ; and was seldom — in part because of 
the great faith of his pMient-— bafBed in his efforts of relief. Among 
these, the Mi.^mies, at different periods, as known to many early 
settlers, had sfevferal Medicine Men of remarkable ability. 

The apparel and address of the warrior ever stood as a history of 
his achievemeEts in war — his body vaiiously tattooed— often with 
objects representing difl'erent animals, &c., and irecLuently with the 
most brilliant dyes: It was a custom in theii- ordinary adornments 
to paint the end of the nose, and around the eyes, and the eye brows) 
with black or some bright colors, and the other portiofls of the face 
with termilion, with perhaps stripes running from one point of the 
face to the other. Especially — nbt altogether unlike many of the 
present civilization, — when visiting, or assembling in council, they 
resorted to great pains in the arrangement of their dress, decora- 
tion and painting of their persons ; and, what Marest wfotcj years 
ago, of the illiuois* Indians, was equally true of thfe Miamies — ^ 
they were " absolute masters of themselves, subject to no law." 
Each seemed to have been in a great degree, at least, his own pro- 
tector — and ae ofteu their owe avengers. With the Indian, when 
tiolfencfe had resulted in the death, of a kindred, at the hands of 
another and different I'ace or tribe, it was a steadfast belief that the 
spirit of the deceased could not rest in peace or feel appeased until 
a retaliation was coTasummated.f To accomplish this, it is a noted 
fact that an Indian would go a thousand miles for the purpose of 
revenge, over hills and mountains ; tlirough swamps and briars ; 
over broad lakesj rapid rivcrSj and deep creeks ; aud ail the way 
endangered by poisonous snakes; cxpoised to thoeatremeties of heat 
and coldj to hunger and thirst. In the carrying Out of this spirit, 
nationsj and families carried their feuds often to great lengths, 

* The Miitmim colled tHe Illinois &mf ctnwms. 

f It ia Well known hert td fnany oli B-ttlerathnt nn Indinn; ihiny ycartf ago, folto* - 
eS a White mmii wh()h«d tilled fiis broilierj from point to point, lor two years, befoi'O 
liuHUffteededin aVentfiDgdio AeSfk cf hi» i^latlTC; by lilting ijiemanhehudaolofis 
tiiid Ri> ogaidtioosly fdlloWed aM wAtcli^d. 

J There had long wtistod a Bpjrit of dtntoosity bctli'een the Miamies and the Pottn- 
wattitmlw; and tiie latter weru rery Bnre Wiqtflt tlis neigliborfiood of tiia former if in 
liquor. TliU may liava uriacn in part from ilie fnat tlinf, in tlie;"e(itlypiirto( ilielStU 
efnt.uiT, the Pottowattumieu had ui'Ort-deJ »he MiaOtles fwiu thuir dwelling* at Cliiea- 
£0.' '— "Sclio^lcraft. 

-c by Google 

History op Fokt Wayse. 35 

iVomivliicli a reconciliation waa only attainable Ihrongli g;il'ts of 
sniiicienfc Quantity " to cover up the graves of tlie dead." The pres- 
ents once accepted served botli to pacify the living and the dead,* 
In the relationship of families, emblems served for names. The 
iignre of a crow, the hawk, the fwrtle, &c., &c., would sei-ve as a 
distinction or name— as, among the civilized, one ia known aa the 
Brown, another the Smith family, and so on ; which, to the Indian, 
was aa rational and comprehensive, as to us of to-day is our style of 
distinction in this relation ; and in many instanctes, in so far, at least, 
as real beauty, simplicily, and convenience Was wont to b'e mani- 
fest, was quite, as intell5^ble and serviceable as the present syatem 
of civilization in this particular. 

•' The i\ise by Any other name wonld smell as «we<it." 

At a late period in their 'history, however, the Miamiea, through 
their intercoai-se mth the French and others, often adopted other 
names-^as, in the case of their chiefs, Le Gria, liichai'dville, La 
I'\Jntaine, Godfri, George Hunt, »fce., — (he flrst four being r'elatodto 
families then of distinction in France, "f 

Tlie quiet, persevering, determined nature, of the Miami'ea was 
ever a matter of singular interest. If the death of a brother waa to 
be revenged, they proceeded quietly, about the work. Patience, at 
Such a tiine, wa'fi called actively into play ; and, if heed bo, toontlm 
might roll away before a blow was struck. Aa illustrative of thif( 
fact, a few years prior to the war of 1813, a man of rather reckless 
character, and Who hated the Indian with a rancor only equalled 
by hie unyielding persistence in what h'e believed or surinised to 
he faisfe or true, regardless of contradiction or premonition by those 
best able to give them, nlCVed to this p'oint, and built himself a hut 
a few miles fi'om Fort Wayne, near Cedar Creek.j Frohi the first, 
he ia said Uever to have lost an opportunity to speak his niihd aa to 
the "raS'cWly red skins;" ftnd often used very severe language iff 


tin 1754 Gov. Mori'is, nddraasiiig the PonnBylVaniii AsKcmbly, Bnid the.Franeli wer» 
"mating a eelitlemeni, of thi'eo Imiidred fainiBeS Jii tlie leouiitagj of the Twightweefl, 
(Miamies.) It wo^ qIbo in liiin y^, that Benjamin FAinldifi piNjnoseij tlie ustablitb- 
merit of stfong Engljeh colonieB in the teiritory t»Ttli-Trei!t of the Ohio, m a mesiw Of 

Eroventing "the dreaded junction WE the li^iffli aatU^ontfeifi Cabadk Mth tliow ef 
6niaaiia," — the Doctor proposing to pliuit oae tolony !n tiie Wiley of the Bnioto; tu 
<'atabliBh small gamuins at Buffal^ Creek, on the Ohio; 'at the mob^i 'ot ^ioga, south 

Bide of Lake Ei'ie; at EnohWeking ; 'and ^t or h^ar l^o brontli of Uie 
TVabash. He presented elao iJie ejcpsdieney of loaptijrLi^ "SnildhBlty, » Preneh fort 

Luke Brie," ^nd tilso BU^geated that" all lA,e Utile l¥em9h forts souOi and west of 
the lakes, qnite to the IklissiBtippi', bo removed or taken Jind garfiaotied by the Eiigliah." 
"EVeryfort,''BAidhe, ''shoiildlmTeftBmiiUsettlotnautft»Undit; as t!io fort would 
jirdteet the ftettleiS, and the Selilera- defend tiie fiAt, fthd a«pply it 'with provisions." 
The pcopoaiti6nS thiiS |)'rrf|eilted Ky Dr, S'Btnfeih 'Were but foteshado'wiDgs, in part, at 
least, of the I'esiilta that follo'wedtiutft few jeaia later, when ihe Engliah boeamo Uiw 
tjinlporiiry masters of aWVit " all the little French, forts south snJ ■weah of the lakes.", 
^rovide^ce had not tliet\ enabled die Dootiil- to aoe the groat future that -was before liiTu, 
Vlien the ilinmiMtiwiMi of TS were to begin a new era in fortifieations and free initita- 

ifl.3 r/Ante^ hj- *hf cDw T'eltior, and t'.l<l tlic wnter Ia- Ifr. tmiis r.aiiur, mn of the 



express his antipatliy towards them. Some time subsoqueiifc to iiis 
settlement, as meiitjoned, his horae strayed away, and, after a fruil- 
less search, made bold to accuse the Miaraies of having stoieii tiie 
animal, and declared that he would kill some one of the Indians for 
it. Talking thus loudly ou one occasion, in the hearing of the 
elder Peltier, long a trader among the Indians, in this and a8ja- 
cent regions, and -who knew the Indian character well, Mr. P. thtv 
readily told him that he did not believe the Indians had taken hia 
horse, and that he would advise him not to interfere with thorn — 
tliat he would suffer for it if he did. But the man was resolute in 
'his belief and determination, and paid but little attention to the 
advice of I'eltier, and went away. Not long after this, walking along 
near tlie St. Joseph, a short distance above tlie conflnence of the St, 
Joseph and the' St. Mary, with hia gun on his shoulder, the stranger 
snddenly observed an Indian a short distance in advance of him, 
near the edge of the river, fishing. The season of verdure and 
tiweet-Sceuted flowers had come again — it wa^ spring-time, " ever 
merry May " — and the birds were again singing their sweet and joy- 
ful notes; The lost horse had not yet been found, and iiow was a 
gft'od opportunity to " kill an Injun," thought the man. Looking 
fjarefnlly about him, in every direction, and seeing no one, he took 
deliberate aim and flred. The shot proved effectual — the Indian 
rolled from liis position, and expired. Again looking carefully ■■ 
about him, to ascertain, if possible, if anyone had witnessed the act, 
and observing no one, he at once approached the body, placed some 
atones in the red man's blanket, in order to sink the carcass, then 
wTapping the blanket about tlie murdered Indian, hurled the body 
into the stream, from whence he carefully strode away, gloating 
within himself at his seeming seccess. 

But, lo ! on tlie opposite side of the stream, concealed by a thick 
underbrush, lay, unobserved, with eyes glaring upon the entire 
action of tho new-comer, a faithful squaw of the murdered Indian, 
who, though giving no warning of the danger that stood so near 
her companion, fearing lest she too might fall a victim to his work 
ot death, yet boro testimony to the whole scene, and soon gave 
warning to her Indian friends as to what had occurred. All was 
quiet — a resolution was quickly formed. " White man must die," 
tliey whispered among themselves. The shade of thefr murdered 
brother called for revenge. 

The conduct of the stranger qoickly reached the eara of Mr. P., 
who readily surmised the result, and watched the course of events. 
Time wore away — months passed — the new-comer had found his 
lioi-se — and all seemed to have been forgotten ; when !o ! one bright 
3\iorning, in the monthofOctober,the sun's march, the falling leaves 
of Autumn, and the ehUl winds, all giving token of the approach of 
■ftdnte]' — the little log-cabin of the stranger was seen to be in ruins, 
and tho inmates gone, no one knew whither, save the friends of the 
mi^rdered Indian and the Great Spirit of the red man. The revenge 


llldTUJty OF I'OET "\V"A"i>,"E. iUT 

was uomplett;!, aud tho departed spirit of thojr mordcred brother 
could now rest in peace. 

How many aimdar tragedies may have been enacted in tlio 
regions of Ke-ki-ong-a during tho period of Indian life here, we 
know not; butdoabtlees many a tragic event ofthie kind took place 
at this point, now known only in the unwiitten pages of the Past. 

As tfte Jiead of each family was its chief, so each village Itad its 
head chief or sachem ; and though the villagers were by no meanB 
restricted in their individnal relations, each family being piiTileged 
to exercise its own peculiar ideas of domestic life, &c., independent 
cf the other, if desiring, in every village, — ^yet, in a genem sense, 
the habits and customs of each village and family were mnch the 
6ame among, not only the Miamiee, but most tiibes of the north- 

The rule and power of control of a chief, sachem, medicine man, 
prophet, or indeed any member of a tribe, much as with the present 
titate of civilization in America and other part^ of the globe, depend- 
ed largely upon the amount of eloquence the speaker could bring 
to bear upon his people — a distinction for bravery, or the strongest 
will, as often gave the Indian prominence among the tribes as those 
acquiring and exercising power by hereditary descent ; and while, 
in many respects, the government of the Indian seemed to partake 
of the Monarchical, it was yet ofthe Democratic order; for no ques- 
tion of grave importance ever presented itself' for consideratiQfl', but 
tiiere was sure to follow an assemblage of the braves in' council, 
where no action would be concluded wherein " the people were 
averse." And it was at such times that the eloquent and siorii- 
willed often held sway.* 

To preserve a record of treaties, was to carefully lay by their 
wampura belts, lu cases of impoi-tant councils between nations, 
exchange of gifts and belts was mutual, by which each speaker was 
also greatly aided in memory. The holding of a bundle of small 
sticks, of a certain number, by the speaker, on such occasions waw 
also common, for each of which, the envoy from one nation to another 
would recite a message ;t and messengers were always selected with 

»" It is ot aieFatohez Indiana that the most. wonderfalialcaofdeBpotiBm mid aristo- 
«ratiu distinotions have been pramulgated. Their clLiefo, like tlioseoftlieHu cons, wen' 
eateemod daaeondants of tJie BUa, had greater powerlJian could have been established 
in the Mider regions of tlie nortfi, vhere Hie BeveriticB of njitnre cmwei the savngo ,t<i 
i^ely on liinuell and ha free ; yet, sa tlie' Hatchea, in exterior, KsBmbloa tba tribes by 
■wliioh they VoW Bnrrouuded, so their custoniB and institntioiiB -WOToliut raor* luaclted 
devolopBmeiitBoftheBameeharaoterigtaca. Everywhero at the nortli, thew wm the 
aaina distribution intij families, and tlie game order iu each eapariite towu. This affairs 
relating to the whole notion, were trftTisneted in general eounoil,find-witbsueU equality, 
and snch zeal for tho common good, that, while any one might haTe diesentud with 
impunity, tho voioa of ibe tidbo would yet bo uoanimona in it* dooiBion,"— Banocofts 
His. U. 8., vol. 3, pagea 278 and S7'J. 

tReferring to tho Indiana of the nortli, Bancroft aaj-B : " Their delight was in aaseni 
bling together, uud listening to measeiigeia from abroad. Seated in a semicirele on th 
ground, lu double or triple tows, ivitli the tnoes almost meeting the faee,— tlie paini«d 
and tattooed ehiefs (idorned with sttine and plumes, witli tlie beaks of iho red-bird, oi' 
the c-!uw=i of iJie bfor,— cneh list.'rn>r pprhaps ivill! a pipe in Uli' month, and prweci-ing 


SS TllE FKIt-S'iJl.l' Cii.L'MiiT 

a view ps well to aWlity &^ to the kuowledge of the task to he per-, 
formecl. And it is said that "often nn oratov, witliout the aid oi' 
rank as ^ chief, by the briiliancy of his eloquence, swayed the 
minds of a confederacy." 

Another interesting feature in Indian usage, was the Peacc-Pipe, 
■or IViendly Calumet, The writings concerning the oariy mission- 
aries, traders, explore]^, and miHtaiy officers, make repeated men- 
tion of it; and the beauty and simplicity of the custom niust be read- 
ily seen and admitted. The calumet, to the red man, was always 
esteemed and reverenced as the most sacred of all their emhlem- 
«tic relations a^d devices ; and no village, in earlier times, when tho 
red man held sway over the -western wilds, was without its special- 
ly omapientpd calumet,— rwhich was often adorned with the feathers 
of the ^ijid Qf liberty, the eagle, or other plumage or ornamental 
device, and always " consecrated in tho general assembly of tho 
nsition,' Thp messenger, traversing the wildest regions, on an 
errand.of friend ship,felt always aecure,by a presfcntation of the peace- 
pipe, from aU attack from ferocious or unfriendly tribes. Tho 
primitive custom of the messengers of Peace, bearing the calumet, 
>yas for the envoys to approach within a given distance of the village, 
iirst making a loud noise, tlieii seating themselves upon the ground. 
Then tlie villagers, headed by theii- principal chief, or sachem, bear- 
ing the peac^rpipe in his hand, all singing the Indian song o;f peace, 
went forth to meet them, "Appj'oaching the envoys, the latter rose 
to greet tliem, they, too, chanting a hymn, " to put away ail wars, 
and to bury all revenge, "' At once exchanging pipes, and smoking 
freely, peace was terminated, and the messengers were escorted to 
the villages where it was made known, in loud declamation, that 
the Btraugere. were friends ; and a great feast of hominy, dog, and 
bears moat, was spread out aud partaken of in honor of the messeu- 

Ag tlio ancient Twightwee (Miami) villages, located \vil:hin and 
about the present site of Fort Wayne, in tho words of their famous 
chief, Jjittlo Turtle, formed " that glorious gate which the Miamis 
had the happiness to own, and through which all the good words of 
their chiefs had to pass from the north to the south, and fi'om the 
east to the west," how many such solemn and interesting occasions 
us that of exchanging tho friendly calumet and entertaining the em- 
bassy of a distant tiibewithagreatfeast, may have made the woods 
and surrounding vales of this locality reverberate with the glad 
strains of the Indian peace song and jubilant dance of the villagers, 
uono can now tell; yet the strong supposition is that there were 
many such occasions here. 

deep Bilenoe, — they wonld elTe solomn attention to t]ia apenker, ■who, wiUi great actiou 
Hnd energy of language, delivered hU jneaeiige; and, if hia cloqt)en«e plpuned, tbey 
ost^cinod uim bb n god. Deoorain was never broken ; there were nevev two speaieca 
straggling toantiei;>»te eaeli other ; ihey did not' 6xpree8 tlieirspleen by blows; they 

iwiTOiued paaaionnto invfctive; the debate -wbb nev-i'.i: ilisti"''^"'' '— — ■ -'' 

(/fwvlcrn-?i'cinikna*-u.'--His. U.S. vol.;3, page 9™' 


The Indian, j:li,ougii liolding life as dear, perhaps, an mogt movtais, 
had, yet, withal, a singular disregard for death— a stqicalindiffereiipo 
and fortitude that rendered hira seemingly vuisusceptible of pain; 
and, as all histoiy relating to the Indiana moat fully attests, attunes, 
eonld ItiU and scalp a savage or civilized foe with as much easo 
and zest a§ ifpartaKingofapotofhominy,orfeastingupon aportion 
of roast bear. 

Some fifty years ago, a party of Indians, as was often their habit 
at that period, had cona'regated about the little trading hut of J. 
Peltier, — then conspicuous at the foot of the hill, just below the old 
fort, — a^d becoming somewhat intoxicated, two of the party, of dif- 
ferent tribes, became excited about some trivis^l matter, and one of 
them drew a knife from his belt, and cut the other across the abdo- 
men 80 severely as to let his intestines partially out.* Seating him- 
self upon the ground, the wounded Indian soon deliberately dre^ 
his own knife, cut a piece of flesh from the outer part of the stomach, 
ivnd began to eat it. 

The Indian cutting him, suddenly seeing this, proudly ejaculated 
Dd-wu-aweah/ (that's a braye man, or he is a brave man 1) And 
to show his compassion 'for the woiinded brave, he at once approach 
ed him, and, with a blow from his tomahawk, ended the further suf- 
fering of the wounded Indianf 

In the ancient songs of the red meii tiiere was always a vein of 
disregard or contempt for death ; and it was no uncommon thing 
for the chiefs to declare that " the sphitB on high would repeat their 
names." Where they wished to* exhibit a spirit of deiiaucc 
towards an antagonist, it was no unusual thing for the Indian to 
prepare a red-colored belt, a si^alL bundle of" bio ody eticks,"and 
dispatch them to the enemy. In early times, the Indians were most 
feared when they prowled about in sniall parties, laying in wait, 
here and there — suddenly bounding upon a small settlement, or 
waylaying the emigrant. Concealment and sui-prise constituted 
their highest eense of warfare. When least anticipated, they were 
upon and scalping the early settler. And sad ^as the havoc many 
times during the pioneer days of the western frontiersmen. On more 
than one occasion, as subsequent pages will attest, has the tragedy 
of an Indian massacre been enacted within tbe boundaries of the 
territory of the Miamios 

*Ciipt. Welle, who reaided nt thi^ point for many years ivitli ilie Miamies while iii 
Philadelphia with Little TqptKin 1797 m a LOineiaution with tlia diatiugiusliod 
FrenaH philosopher and trayoler Count Yolncy refening to one of tho nhiefi ot tliu 
Miamies, atold Fori Mianiis hen, known as Blue Jockj said fhie man (on one 
ooonsion) when drank, met an old enemy, to i\lio)ii ho had borne a gtailge ot twenty 
two yeura standing. Blua Jonky seized t^e opportunitj and killed l|ira Nestd>j ill 
the ftiniilT -were in anna to revenge the murder Hn oaina to the lort fiaA smd to tin 
eoramanding officer, who repeated tho tal tn L t Ih i! Hint It n I In ht 
My heart bKtrayed me, and the liqiiL i 1 I ro 

fcilimyaon, and that was not just t i 

all I have ; my two liorsm, iiiv trink<. I 

not content th»m, I will meet them ut 

for some ycara after the war of ISi 
•jther hue in theiidvuukeii:-|i to i i 1 h? ( i oil 


4U Ijjdiak Dances. 

lilvery pepple, however barb?irotis or civilized, ever had. their 
seasons of relaxation and meny-making. Among the most favor- 
ite pastimes of the Miamiea, -were their dances. 

In the spring time, as a matter of reverence to the Great Spirit 
(Much-a-te-Auceke), " the man with the tlack robe ; the good man 
or preacher," — asking him io aid in the prodnction or growth of a 
bountiful crop, they had the corn-planting dance. A great deal 
of importance was attached to this dance, which was condacted 
with au air of marked solemnity and earnestness, — all the villagers 
partaking in it.* 

It was a. time-honored custom with the Miamies and moat tiibes 
of the "West, that when a member of a family died, a meeting of 
the family and immediata villagers would take place at a certain 
time, eubseciuent to the death of the person, with a view to replac- 
ing the deceased, which was done by means of a game of chance, 
there being often a number of candidates for the place. The lucky 
one at once fell heir to all the effects of the deceased. After which 
thoy all joined in' a merry dance, called the Replacement Dance. 

The Beggar Dance was also frequent here; but was seldom if 
ever indulged in by the Miamies, The Pottawattaraie^jt who were 
frequently here, with perhaps a few others of the Shawanoe, Wyan^ 
dot, or Kickapoo nations, were the only ones who commonly indulg- 
ed in this dance. 

The object of the beggar dance was to obtain preseats, or indeed 
anything the stranger, trader, or settler might feel disposed to give 
them ; and, with no covering on their bodies, but a part of a deer 
or other skin about their waists, the rest of the body and face paint- 
ed with some bright colors, with perhaps some gay ornament or 
feathers, about their heads, often several in number, would pass 
fi'om agency to agency, in front of whose doors they would 
go through the liveliest movements of dancing, singing, ifec, whiuh, 
to the spectators, was often very amusing, and who seldom failed to 
give the rude dancers some tobacco, a loaf or two of bread, somo 
whiskey, or other aiiicle that would be pleasing to them. 

The Indians ot the Northwest had many social pastimes, and 
their complimentary dances were probably frequent. The "medi- 
cine-dance " was one of some rarity, which usually took place only 
out of respect or courtesy to the medicine-men. In the complimen-. 
fary dance, it was a custom to obtain permission of the party to " oe 
complimented to dance for him." This granted, preparations were 
made by painting the face elaborately, and mai'king the body, 
which was usually bare about the chest and shoulders. In addition 
to this, a profusion of ornaments, in the form of feathers, &c. , were 
added to the hair ; and most " happy was he, who, in virtue of hav- 
ing taken one or more scalps, was entitled to proclaim it by a cor- 
respondingnumber ofeagle's feathers. The less ibrtimate made a sub- 
stitute of the feathers of tlie wild turkey," or other game. For which 
purpose too, the fowls oftho pioneers were often closely " plucked." 
r, Jolln P. Frd^w. t'l'lio T'pttairattamlcii lived u fuw mikj north of I'i. ll'avM. . 

Hosted byVlOOgle 

ilisn)Jiv ui' i'oiiT "Wayki;. il 

The preparations for the complimentary dance being ready, the 
daricere cojigregated at somci point selected, " and then marched to 
the spot in view tor the dance, attended by the dull, coarse soand 
of the Indian drum and shee-ehee-qua, or rattle. Arranging them- 
selves in a circle, they would dance with violent contortiona and 
jesticulationa, some of them graceful, others only energetical, the 
sqnaws, who ustially stood a little apart, and mingled their discor- 
dant voices with the music of the instruments, rarely participating 
in the dance. Occasionally, however, when excit«d by the gener^ 
gaiety, a few of them would form a circle outside andpei-form a 
sort of ungraceful Up-and-down movement, which possessed no 
meri''-, save the perfect time which was kept, and for which the 
Indians seemed, without exception, to have possessed a natural ear. 
The dance finished, which was oil-en only when the ati-ength of the 
dancers was quite exhausted, a quantity of presents were brought 
and placed in the middle of the circle, by request of the party com- 
plimented. An equitable distribution of the gifts having taken 
place, and tie object of the gathering terminated, all withdrew-"* 

The medicine-^ance was mainly to celebrate the power and 'elrill 
of the Medicine Man in th^' cure of disease, and as a means of 
respect to him as a supposed interpreter of the wilt and desires of 
the Great Spirit, as related to the dii-ection of his people. 

Says Mrs. J. H. Kinzie, in her interesting narration of experien- 
ces and observations among the Indians of the North- West, during 
the early part of the present century, " a person was selected to 
join the fraternity of the 'Medicine Man' by those initiated, chiefly 
on account of some skill or sagacity that had been observed in him. 
Sometimes it happened that a person who had liad a severe illness 
which had yielded 'to the prescriptions of ono of the membei^, was 
considered a proper object of choice from a sort of claim thus 
established. When he was about to be initiated, a great feast was 
made, of course at the expense of the candidate, for in tlie most 
simple, aa in the most civilized life, the same principle of politics 
held good, and ' honors were to be paid for.' An animal was killed 
and dressed, of which the people at large partook — there were 
dances and songs and speeches in abundance. Then the chief 
Medicine Man took the candidate and privately began to instruct 
liim in all the ceremonies and knowledge necessary to make him^ 
an accomplished member of the fraternity. Sometimes the new 
member selected was yet a child. In that case, he was taken by 
the Medicine Man so soon as he reached the proper age, and quali- 
fied by instruction and example to become a creditable member of 
the fraternity, 

" Each Medicine Man usually had a bag or some receptacle in 

f The meclioine, iii 
ardtd u. 

"oooaaioiially inado offerings and. saerificcB ivhleli 
a « * He ■was also a ' prophat,' in so far as lie « 


45 Tirt; lIu:sTKG Seasun. 

which waB supposed to bo enclosed some animal to whom in the 
course of their jjow-wows, he addressed liimeelf, crying to him in 
the noto common to his imagined species, and the people seero all 
to have been pereuaded that the answers which ivero announced 
■were really conimnnications in tliis form, from the Great Spirit, 

'' The Indians appeal-," coutinneB Mra. Kenzie, " to have no idea 
of a retribution beyond this life. They have a strong appreciation 
oft]ieg;reat fundamental virtues of natural religion— the worship 
of the Great Spirit, brotherly love, parental afFectiqn, lionesty, tem- 
pemnee, and chastity. Any infringemenf. of the laws of the Great 
bpirit, by a departure from these virtues, they bpiieve will excite 
lus anger, and draw down punishment. These are their principles. 
That their practice evinces more and more," says she, " a departure 
from (hem, nnder the debasing influences of a proximity to the 
whites, is a melancholy trnth, which no one will admit with eo much 
qorrow as those who lived among them, and esteemed them a quar- 
ter of a century ago, before this signal change had taken place," 

There were many dances, however, among the Miamies, fts well 
as many periods of the year in which they indulged in sucH festiyi- 
tigs, tliroughout their villages. Evening, and oft,en tiirough the 
greater part of the night, during tho milder seasons, was the usual 
time lor such enjoyment. Their music consisted, usually, of a deer 
skin entirely free of hair, w^ich they stretched in some way, similar 
to our common drum-head, and upon which the|r " music man " 
would keep time and hum an air adapted to the Indian's style of 
dancing, it was very common on such occasions to have a largo 
]>ot of hominy cookifig over a modei'ate fire, to which the dancers 
would occasionally repair and partake, all from tho satne spoon or 
wooden ladeL 

Bufctiie red man was never entirely fixed or permanent in his 
location. Hunting ^nd flsliing occupied a very large share of his 
time. The summer months especially, were much devQtpd to fish* 
ing. Tlie fiyry animals and tho deer, from which he expected each 
season to realize a moderate income, with which tq procure ammu- 
nition, blankets, &c., for another season, were never disturbed by 
the Indiap until the period arrived for their' furs and hides to be 
fully matured for the market. Then the Indians and their familes 
(excepting there were some who, from age or iniirnaity, were unable 
to go,) leit their villages, and sought new houses in the woods, (li- 
near some large prairie, where the deer, the ottar, the raccoon, &c., 
were most abundant. And their return, to renew their old homes, 
was only hailed by the springing of the early grass, or the joyful 
song of some sweet bii-d of passage that had again, at tlie first 
tokens of Spring, ventured a return to the Northwest. And this 
was life among the Miamies here, to a late period of their iiistory, 
This was life in the primitive wjlds of the great Northwest a hun- 
dred andiiftyyears or more ago. "What a civilization may be oura 
uinj hundred and fifty years hence ! 

-c by Google 

CIlAFfEll IV, 

! jiinaLioi^ of tlieso i-ivara (the 8;^ Marj' and the St. Jostphi, may ever; 
ago iu the (inmvla of that momentous ooateet betweou JTrenoh. and fingliah 
._, i._. n. Honumism. ftod Protestuntism — whioli wm -waged with alterna- 

tiiig Buocess, and mth short intervals of repose, for more than a hundred years, t 
iiilnating, won after the fall of Quebeo, ia tho cetablishment of Anf;io-Sa\:oLl 
EHpremaov by the ti'oaty of 1763." — Extract from aleoture of J. L. Williams, Faq., 
duWwd'in Fort Wayne, Mai-eh 7. ISliU. 

Death of La Salle — A lino of stookade forte oontenijilated and tslabliihcd by tlio 
Frenoh — Progress of evanta foUowinzthia movement of the French — Movempnls of 
tho Bngliah^Tho Fronoh become orSisad— Feuds of the Old World rekindled iu 
the Few — The Frenoh nnd tlie Infttana — Washington sent as a MeBsongei' — Wap 
— Braddook's Defeat — AotiTitj of the Contending ^rmiee — Wolfe's Advance upon 
Quebee — Final trinmpli of the EnglisiL Army on the Plains of AbraLain—A new 
Era dawned upon ttio New World. 

*• IXTEEN Imiidred and. eighty-two had passed. The sliouts 
»of "vive le roi," by La Halle and Ms voyageurs, near the 

m^mouth Qf'tlic great FaUier ofWaters had long since died away 
^:? on the still air, and La Salle himself fallen a victim, on the 
"^ shores of Texas, to the treachery of his followei-s. lGi)9came, 
Lemoine d'lberville had planted a little colony on the newly-pos- 
sessed territory of Louisiane. And again years sped away. The 
little settlement upon the newly acquired dominion of the South 
grew and prospered amid the spontaneons growths of nature every- 
where about it; and the Fi'ench Goyemment had begun seiious'ly 
to contemplate the union pf her Northern and Southern extremities 
by the arrangement and establishment of a continuons line of stock- 
ade forts and settlemetits through the interminable forests and 
])rairies, along the shores of beautiful rivers, by the margin of 
dreary lakes, lowly vales, and toweling cliffs — from the river St. 
Lawrence to tlie dark blue waters of the Golf of Mexico. The mid- 
dle of the 1 8th century came, and the great enterprise was rapidly 
hastening toward a complete consummation. A fort on the strait 
of Niagara stood in full view of, and guarded the entrance to, the 
vast interior extending towards the great Southwest. A second 
sprang np at Detroit, overlooking and controlling the route from 
Lake Eric to the North. A third soon stood dcllantly forth at St, 


44 PiiouuEss Of i'ltaxtiii Settlkml;ki-!j. 

Mary's, guardiug wUi} Jealous eye all acceea to Lake Superior. A 
fourth was completed at Mlchillimackinftc, which stood guard to 
the mouth of lake Michigan. Soon a filth appeared at Greou Bay, 
find a sixth at St. Joseph, guarding the roatee to the great Father 
pfWaters, via the Wisconsin and Illinois rivers; and two more,— 
making eiglit — one, Fort Miamies, near tlje confluence of the St. 
Joseph and St. Mary's rivers, {in view of the present site of Fort 
^Vay^e,):t^le pther, T'ort Ooiatenon, on the "VVa'bash, below I^afayette, 
Small settiementa of French soon sprang up at KaskasMa, OahoMa, 
and at otlier points, some in tho territoiy of the Illinois Indians, 
along the Illinois river, while, here and there along the banks of 
the MisBissippi, were to be seen, amid the thick jungle, long pecu- 
liai' to this broad and beautiful river, an occasional efcoctade fort; 
wMle, upon reaching the present site of the city of Natchez, on the 
Mississippi, they were met by their kinsnoen of Louisiana, extending 
their settlements to meet the voyageurs from the shores of Canada. 

France was now a power in the great "Northwest. Her milits^ry 
sb-engtb was seemingly complete. The gr^at forest was here. 
She amalgamated with the wild tiibes of the land wherever she 
wentj and thus became a part of the great family of natives at every 
poiiit. This alliance grew into a warm attachment, andthe Indians 
knew the king of the French as their Great Father, and long look- 
ed up to him, through his subjects on this side of the great waters, 
as a protector and aid in time of need. From the French they early 
obtained guns, powder, and .balls, and from them soon learned their 
use in hunting, whereby the French obtained vast quantities of val- 
uable i'urs at such prices as they were pleasei^ to dictate. The 
miesionaries pursued theii- labors, and at every post were to be met 
with their crosses and symbols; many of them, in accordance with 
their peculiar school and ideas of religious zeal, were ready to 
suffer martyrdom, if need be, even at tlio hand of the savage, 

Tipe wore on. The French settlements and forts had succeeded 
but|^iiorly. They had sadly neglected agricultural pursuits. Spec- 
ulation had warped and twisted their better natures, and their for- 
mer sense of civilization had now become bo strongly interwoven 
with those of the habits and customs of the redman, that they had 
well-nigh lost that higher feeling of mental and physical growth 
upon which the white race had so long prided iteelf and sought to 

And as they were often wanting iu sobriety and civic continuity, 
eo the French Government at that period, because of its ambitious 
tendency and ardent desire for dominion and conquest, with other 
causes of a no less deleterious chai-aeter about the French court, 
was but feebly prepared to render the necessaiy aid or give that 
impetus to her colonial settlements in America that would havo 
secm-ed at least a moderate expression of prolonged and energetic 
civil culture. 

174S atlength came, and Franco was still secur.c in her posses- 
*3uE Smirti'a Hittoiy of Caunda, 1. ^1)3. 


IIlSTOF.T OF I''oHT WaYjN'C. 43 

Bions in the ITew "World. Her line of stockade forts were still main- 
taioed. A new ficheme had arisen in the mind of the somewhat 
acute Count Galissonniere* of bringing over to the New World ten 
thousand French peasants to be uetSed upon the regions bordering 
the Ohio, which, at that time, the French government was propos- 
ing to embrace within her already extensive domain. Many of 
these peasants were also to inhabit the lake borders. While thui^ 
passing their time in the castle oi'Bt. Louis, at Quebec^ — civilianij; 
soldiers, and men of State, — the English lion had been quietly 
looking about in search of prey, and now began to mdve cautious- 
ly along the beautiful valley of the Mohawk, and, soon issuing 
from the lowlands, he was heard to roar along the eastern slopes of 
the Alleghany Mountains. Hie march was still westward, and 
gradually onward ho moved, nntil at length, he saw beyond, in the 
distance, where here and there an open spot was visible, small mov- 
ing objects, and the smoke of the Canadian hut continued for a time 
to curl peacefully away amid the surrounding forest and over the 
broad blue face of the great lalies of their dominion. Forests fell 
before the westward mai-ch of the English settlements; "and 
while, on one side of the AUeghaoies, Celeron de Bienville was 
bmyiug plates of lead, engraved with the arms of France," says 
Parkman, " the ploughs and axes of Virginia woodsmen were 
enforcing a surer title on the other." The right of possession was 
soon to be tested. The two powers of the day were destined, ere 
many moons, to measure swords and sti'ugglc I'cr supremacy on the 
new Continent, 

The peculiar intimacy of the French with the Indians had long 
given them a sti-ength of no mean consideration. The opposite 
was true of the English ; and often, instead of drawing the Indians 
about them in a spirit of amity and friendship, by making them 
many little presents of trinkets, &c., as did the J^rench then and 
long before, the phlegmatic nature of the Englishman (h-ove him 
sullenly away. Ihe Jesuit nussionaries, too, still exerted a wide 
influence, in their peculiar way, over the .western tribes. The 
English had nO missionaries. They were simply agriculturalists — 
desired to tiU the soil and pursue a moderate, though sure system of 
commerce. The French were principally fiu- traders, and theiv 
government had long been actuated by, and inflated with, a spirit 
of conquest and dominion. The one was heretic to tlie other — had 
long been so; and the bitter feuds of the Old World were now 
abont to take form and action iit)on the soil of the New. England 
was stern and resolute. The "Church of England" was the Eng- 
lishman's church, and his God was not the God of his rival. The 
" Church of Kome " was the church of the Frenchman of the day ; 
and his God was not the God of the Englishman. The contest was 
destined to be a hitter one, and the vantage gTotmd seemed all on 
the side of the French. Time wore heavily on. 1749 came. The 
English had begun to make some inroads upon the French domiu- 

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iC> Liuwro EvEitTS In the J^^iiKi^csi akd L\-Liian WAk^ 

ions as traders; and it was in this year tliat La Jonquifire, theit 
gOYCrnor of Canada, made the discovery that, a number of Engiieii 
traders had come to Sanduslty,* and " were exerting a bad iiiiluence 
iipoii the Indians of that quarter." The Canadian Governor, aaya 
the account, " caused fonr of the intruders to be seized ilear the 
Ohio and sent prisoners to Canada," Events were now surely and 
successively " eastiog their shadows." The English, at that,period 
being much disaffected and broken in their govermental relations^ 
toawalrenatNewY<irk,Phi!adelphia, Virginia, and other poiutfi, a 
pohcy that woijld attract the attention 61, and draw the Indiana 
to them, seemed moSt difficult indeed. Even the powerful Iroquois 
br Five Nations, then dwelling, for the most part, in the Province 
bf New York, and :i^ho, fi-om an ill-will unthooghtedly engendered 
by Ohamplain,.in May 1609, in uniting, at Quebec, with a party of 
AIgon(^uiil( Indians against them, caiising their defeat and utter 
l-out near the rOclcy promontory ofTiconderoga, and who, therefore^ 
during many years feubsequent: were ft ^reat source Of trouble td, 
the French settlements in Canada, well-nigh, at timeS, desolating 
tlie homes and tiejdsofher interior prdVinces — even this formida- 
ble tribe, the English failed td win ov^i; to their cause. And " th(J 
cold and haughty beai-ing of the Enghsh officials," together with 
often depriving them, by unfair meSris, of their annua.1 presents 
from England; the habit of arranging negotiations with them 
through a class of rum dealers, persons iooke.d upon with but little 
regard by this powerful tribe; with other causes of complaint aris- 
ing from neglect,! &c., are said to have quite disgusted " the proud 
'chiefs" of the Iroquois.. J 

It is trae, these causes And disquietudes did not wholly apply to all 
parts of the English Provinces. , The JPriends, and some other sonlsj 
wfere exceptions, mainly in a philanthropic sense ; bat these bodies 
ivero usually small in riunibfers, and often inefEeetual in their 
effoiis. No such condition of affairs was anywhere visible among 

"His of Oanwla, 1„ 214. tMoaanohiiMto HiBtoi-icHl polleotioo, la6 series. Til, 67, 
, JAinoiig the MSS. pnpera of flie famouB Sir Wm. JoJiiison, to tlie Bonrd of Tmdei 
Loudon, dated May 34, snd IToT. 13, nG3, tvaa tlie following; "'We find tlio Indi- 
an!!, aa far back as the very aoiifused iiiafanBoript Moords in my possession, repeatedly 
ttpbrniding their province for their n_^ii^noa, their uvarice, and thoir want of asaiBt- 
jng them iit a timeiTlienit wasoectaimy in thoir power to destrry the infant colony of 
Qanndn, althoiigh sapportBd l>y many nations ; and tlii9 is likewise confeosed by tlie 
^tritings of the managei's of tJiese tiiiies," 

"I apprehend tliat it Vill ijlenrly appear to you, thttt the oolomes had, nU along i 
neglooted to Bultivatfi a proper -understahding with tiie Indians, and from a miatakeil 
hotion have greatly deBpised them, withoht consideiin^ tliat it is in theit power to lay 
waste and defltroy the frontjei^. This iiptnioii &ro^ M)m onr confidence in our scat- 
tered numbers, and the porsimony of tiur people, who,, from an error in politics, would 
iiot expend uve pounds to save twenty." Sir William was a wise manager of Indian 
affairs, and fl'om it long and clbse infimdoy witli many of Hie tribes of tlie North-Boat, 
at an early peiio3, became remarkable fnr his knew ledge of Indian ohuracter and the 
strong; infiiience he exeited over -tJiem. His hettdquartera, known as Johnson's Hall, 
^ere long at Oswfi^, K, Y. , inhere great numbers of Indians were more or Icsa always 
aboat Lim, and <ifhitlier vadotis tribes, tlirough theii' i)liie& and sachems, often repaired 
to bold thoir coaiicil flros attd trfmties. And the Indians ever knew him as their great 
father. Through hia .wency tlio Ii'oqaois. in after yenra, becamy flpm friends of thd 



the French of the time. Their relations and developemeiits were 
widely difl'ereiif.i So diligent and carefu! Were they in their atteii' 
tions to the chiefs and others of the different triheB, that often oii 
the approach of sach to their forts, the load roll of the drum or 
hooming of cannon would announce their coming ; and thia attention 

was most pleasinj^ to the red man, and made him to feel that he was 
not only a .j5ower in the land, but welcome. At the tables of the 
French olBcbrs " they were regaled" and often bribed with medala 
!\Jid (iecorattona, — scarlet nnifbmls, and French flags. Far wieer 
than tlieir rivals, the French never ruffled the self-complacent dig^ 
jlity 6f their gueste ; never insulted their religious notions ; nor ridi^ 
culed their' ancient customs. They met the savage halfway, and 
iihoWed an abundant readiness to " mould their own features alter 
his likeness."* Anditisnotedthaf'OountFrontenac himself, plum- 
ed and painted lilce an Indian chief, danced the war-dance, and 
yelled the war-song at the can,ip-ErfS of his delighted allies." Such 
Were the peculiarities of the French — such their wisdom and sense 
of harmony in so lar as related to tluo wild aborigines of the now 
continent at that early peiriod. 

As little by little, the delicious frnifc ripens, the flowers hud and 
blossom, or thb tiny acbrJi expands into tlie mighty oak of tlife 
forest, so event followed evfent; aS. the leaves of Autumn whirl upda 
the passing breeae, and at length disrobe the thick forest; 

The movements and apprehensions oftheFrenchsteadilyhecame 
more and more apparent to the English. Soon a Freucti Priest, of 
tho name, of Piquet, made bold, in the midst of his opposers, to 
open a niission at the site ot Ogdensburg, on the Sfa Lawrei3Ce,t 
mainly with a view to win the friendship of the Iroquois, in which 
ho was highly eaccesslul, having at one time gained the heart and 
attention of a verj*' large body of that famous confederacy, which 
gave the English great uneasiness. ' But Sir William Johnson sootl 
began to exert a reniarkable iniiuence over the various tribes, and 
at length succeeded in gaining tho attention of tile Iroquois; and 
act only did this tribe hcfiome friendly, to a considerable degree^ 
towai'ds the English^ bat the Delawarea, and the Mismies, dwelling 
hlong the Ohio, come to regard them with much favor.; while tlitS 
ndass of the other ti-ibeft lying to the North, West, and Southj stood 
i-fcady at the bidding of their Frencii fatlier; 

Matters now began to assmnea formidable attitudci The enmity 
of the rival colonies grow intense. ThBir Hatred liad assumed a 
flouhle aspect of religioii3 and national autipathyi Formerly thd 
Indians had been the iastruiflents of French aggreasiohs upon the 
English settlements ; and " with them," says Pai-kman, " the v^ry 
name of Canada called up horrible recollections and ghastly images; 
Ihe midnight massacre of Schenectady, And tKe desolation of many 

»A(ioounts of Aduiv, Post'8 Journal, Cciighan'a Journal, and MSS. of Sir Wm, 

tHistnvy of Ni>w Yor'^, L., i\l1. 



a New England Hamlet." A Frencli fort had been erected at 
■■Crown Point, upon English territory. -Tlie treaty of TJtretcht and 
confirmation of same at Ais la Cbapelle, had made English ground 
of Acadia ; but a doubt as to the limits of the province soon sprang 
up, and appointed commissioners, fi'om both sides, failing to agree, 
beiligerant altitudes between the soldiery of the two nations, soon 
became manifest on Acadian soil. Gist, surveyor, of the " Ohio 
Company," whieb had been organized in lTi8, ^vitli a view to the 
i'ormation of settlements west of the Alleghanies, had made his way 
to the falls of the Ohio. The Indians were stattled. The French 
soon snuffed tlie discontented air of tho red man, and before tho 
surveyor and his party had scarcely begun their operations, the 
French confronted them, and the work ceased. 

1763 came. The season of verdure had approacLed. The birds of 
the forest were already warbling their sweet notes of welcome to the 
spring. The French had made their way across Lake Brie, and 
Presque 'Isle had already become a fortification. From Presque 'lale 
they Btrode rapidly towards the Ohio. The news soon found its way 
among the middle provinces, and Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, 
began at once to look calmly about him to select an efficient envoy 
to bear a message to the invaders, ordering their immediate evacua- 
tion of the soil. George "Washikston, then in his twenty -iirst year, 
was the one selected. Months had gone by. Spring had passed. 
Another summer had ended — Autumn had left hear the trees, and the 
cold bleak of winter had come again. The winds moaned through the 
forest; and the fourth of December, 1753, saw Washington j ourney- 
ing along the banks of the Alleghany. Soon he reached the Indian 
village of Venango, at the mouth of French Creek. The advanced 
post of the French was there. The English trader, formerly at that 
point had departed, and the French flag was flying over his cabin. 
The French gave tho young messenger a fair reception and hearing, 
and bade him see the commanding officer at Le Bceuf, still above 
Venango, on French Creek, whither Washington started and soon 
arrived. Upon communicating with Ijegardeur de St. Pierre, the 
commanding officer, he was told by the latter that he Would send the 
message to the Governor- General of Canada ; that his orders were to 
hold possession of the country ; and that he would do it " to the best 
of his ability," Washington returned. The ultimatum had been 
revealed, and, at the opening of another spring, a large body of the 
backwoodsmen of Virginia had formed themselves into a company 
under 'Ih-ent, as Captain. Boon crossingthe Alleghanies, and descend- 
ing to the point where now flourishes tlie city of Pittsburg, Pa., they 
began the erection of a fort. Le Eceuf and Venango soon got scent 
of it, and, sweeping down with a large body of French and Indians, 
the fort of the backwoodsmen was soon evacuated. Then followed 
young Washington at the head of a second party. Ileacbing the 
Monongahela, he threw up a temporary fortification, and one dark^ 
stormy night, M. .Tumonviile, with a Fi-ench scouting party, was snd- 


iilSTOEY OF li'oKT WAI'SE. 41) 

'denly surprised and all taken prisoners ty Wasliington and hie 
'backwoodsmen. S6on evacuating this point, ho made another halt 
at the Great Meadows, where, hehind some former entrenchments, 
he was soon assailed by nearly a thousand French and Indians, 
Whom they fought niost valiantly, untU the French heat a truce- 
parley, and presented terms of capitulation; and "Washington and 
his men being free to move, soon began to recross the mountains. 
The IndiauB now began to wonder at these movements upon their 
soil — two foreign parties struggling for a territory that belonged to 
neither, had aroused their attention, and the red men soon -began 
to see that, as one of their sagacious chiefs suggested, a few years 
later, the French and English were^very much "lilce the two edges 
of a pair of shears," and that they, (the Indians) were " the cloth 
Which was being cut to pieces between them." 

The wai- dog now began to liowl fiercer than ever. 1755 found 
the courts of London and Versail'es still maintaining diplomatic 
Irelationsj and while yet persisting in a desire for a peaceful adjust- 
ment of aifaira, they were both arranging for a conflict of arms in 
the New World. Braddock, with a considerable English fleet, soon 
Bailed from the harbor of Cork, in Ireland ; and, a little later, a French 
fleet put to sea from Brest, under command of Baton Dieskau. 
While th.e English fieet came sa^feiy over, and landed her troops as 
designed, the French were less fortunate, and lost two of their ves- 
sels by drifting, in a fog, too hear the guns of a strong British 
fort, neai- the banks of Newfoundland, who took the vessels, after 
il short e'ontest, and made prisoners of the crew. The British now 
ordered, a general attack upon the French marine, and before the 
end of tfiis year, had captured three hundred French vessels and 
some eight thousand of her saUorsi. 

The French were discomfited, but not beaten. Biraddock became 
commahder-in-cliief of the English forces ia America. Negotiations 
weresoin broken off between the two great powers, before which, 
however*, the English ministry hM hit lipoh a plan by which they 
proposed to strike a simultaneous and gen'erd blow against the 
French on the new continent, and thusj if possible^ to sweep them 
from the land at once, as it were. The plan of attack was to move 
upon Acadia, Grown Point, Niagara, and Fort Du Quesne, (Pitts- 
burg) — Braddock, with Ma troops &om the Old World, aided by two 
regiments of provinciate-, to secure the latter point. But he was 
a newcomer in the land; and kn6w but little of the perils and difli- 
culttes to be encounteredt He Wa^ not " the right man in the right 
plaCe " for such a field of iaetiori at such a time, in so far, at least, 
■as ultimate buccsbs was concerned. Having explained, however, 
'to th© several govfimoi^ of tiie Provinces his intentions, he began, 
ina^teni) austei'c, and i-igid manner, the adjustment of Ids plans; 
Which b«ing consummated, he took up his line of march towai'd t}ie 
bordei-eof"^giaia,andHOon encamped at Fort Cumberland. Weeks 
passed away in preparation. The backwood&men knew how to 

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50 Bbaduock'b SIakcii upos Foht Da Quksssk. 

sling an ase, but were little acquainted with the close drilling and 
sterner discipline of the Eraddock school. He was often out of 
humor ■With them — ahused his contractors, fdr obtaining had horees, 
and said hard things of ihe country and its people generally. BuS 
the hour of niarch at length came. June, 1755, saw the army of 
Braddock on the move, with an immense baggage, for Fort Da 
Qnesne,^^the axemen felling the frees, and opening the way for 
the advancing forces. " Large bodies moVe slowly." The opening 
was rough, and aU was tedious. Nearly a month had passed, and 
on the eighth of Julyj an advance body of some twelve hundred 
men, with the less cumbersome baggage and artilleiy, stood upon 
the bank of thy Monongahela, about fifteen miles from Fort Da 
Quesne. A rooky barrier, and somewhat uneven ground, prevented 
a direct passage to the fort, and an order from the generii to cross 
the river with a view to finding a better path, and then to recrose 
it again a few miles still lower down, was readily entered upon, and 
the army soon made the first crossing, and rapidly flJed along the 
shore, all agiow with joy at tlie ]>rospect of a speedy ai'rival at 
the fort. 

Du Quesne was ahready in the, hands of the French. Bands of 
Indians and French scouts had spied the approach of Eraddock; 
The fortwas allalive with preparation. Ketreatwas the first thought 
of Oo'ntrecceur, its corninander. But Beanjeu, his captain, sSid 
■Rght. His suggestion was listened to and accepted ; he at once pto-f 
posed to lead a band of Indians and French to waylay and intercept 
tiie farther march of Braddock. The camps of the fierce Caaghnaw- 
ageSj Ottawas, Abenakis, O^jibwas, and Hurons, were near and 
soon reached by Beaujeu, who assembled the warriors, and at once 
threw the hatchet on the ground before them.* All was hesitancy. 
Again he appealed to them, and still they were silent. At length 
he approached them with a stern resolutioti, " I am determined to 
go," h€i shouted. " What," continued Beaujeu, "will you suflfefyour 
i'athev to go alone ? I am sure we shall conquer." He succeeded, and, 
on the morning of the ninth of July, word having reached them that 
the English were near, the chiefs collected their braves ; all painted 
their faces, greased themselves, whooped, danced, and " hung feath- 
ers in their scalp-locka." All was heroism and detennination with 
them. Great quantities of gun-powder and bullets were given them, 
aiid, with some two hundred and fifty French soldiers, to bring 
up the rear, the savages, band after band, glided wildly away to the 
forest A few miles bi'ohght them tti, a thick clump of woods, near 
a path leading to the fiter, which was close by^ and where two 
ravines formed ft most remarkable ambuscade, sufBcient in extent to 
contain and oonceitl " at least Un tJMiimnd men ; " and the eavages^ 
with Beaujeu and hia raeti, were here soon concealed, with guns 
ail ready for action. Tlie drums of the advancing array were bedt- 
jng. It was midsummer. AH Was bright and beautiful. The sun 


shone foi-th in all his splendor, and the wild flowers spangled the 
Soi-csfc at every aide, freighting the undulating cun-ents with deliciotis 
odor. On came the army of Braddock. The fated spot was at hand. 
The army filed itlong the littlfe road leading to the river, and began 
to re-croE3. j41i over, they indifferently continued their march, 
with no sconts in front or at thfe side to give token of danger. Soon 
the i'avine was neared. Upon every side there seemed a oarrier of 
some kind—thick trees, close underhrush, high grass, and heavy 
fallen timber — and their progress was Slow, while a rapid retreat, 
with such kn army, would have been utterly impossible. Lo \ a sud- 
den whoOp from the savages, a yoUey of musketry frorta behind the 
ambuscade, of the enemy, soon told the sad story. No one had seen 
the peril. The Knglish gi-enadiers wei^e confounded, and many feii. 
The survivors returned the charge. The resolute Beaujen was kill- 
ed, and the Indians wavered, biit his second, Diimas, rallied them to 
the charge, and in the front the Canadians and French poured a 
heavy volley, while the Indians did a similar execution on the right 
and left, llie whole body of the army soon felt the charge ; dismay 
and disorder took possession of the soldieiy; The advancing col'- 
umns fell back upon the raaiii body. The enemy was everywhere 
wholly or partially concealed. Few were to be seen. YoU upon 
yell resounded at fevery side. Every tree— -every log— served as a 
place of concealment, and 6very shot told its own sad tale. The grena- 
diers had never seen or heard the like before. Huddling together 
in crowds, each seemed stniggling to form a shield and barrier of the 
other. Their muskets were as ofte« fired in the air as towards the 
enemy ; and many fell at the bands of their own comrades. The 
officei's were generally brave and active. Braddock, though seeming- 
ly fearful in tlie onset, had five horses shot under him-. Tlie Virgin- 
ians, like the Indians, at length took to the trees. Braddock rallied 
them into the ranks again, and the enemy mowed them down witlt 
terrible effect ; and soon Braddock himself fell, and was borne from 
tlie field. "WMhington was there, as if taking his first great lesson 
in warfare. He rode heroically thj-ough the ranltB. Two horses 
were killed under him, and four bullets pierced his clothes, says the 
account ;* but he camo Off anhurt. Gates and Gage were tliere. 
The former was shot through the body — the latter, , badly Wounded. 
Out of eighty-six; officers-, but tw'enty-threB escaped injury. Of the 
twelve hundred who crossed the Monongahela^ seven haudred were cut 
down and wounded. The Virginians sufibred much. Their bravery 
was great. The grenadiers quailed. The open fields of the Old 
World^were notjthere. The work of death continued three hours. 
There was no relief but retre&t, and the remaining body precipitately 
turned back and crossed the Monongahela, The enemy pursued 
only to the rivSt. The i!out was complete, and the field left to the 
enemy to plunder and scalp. 
»Sm Spfti'lc's life of Wflsliinstt'in". I. ^"■ 

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f)2 jii0\-EJIEXTS A«AII«KT AuADXA, KjAliAEA, ElC, 

Braddock's defeat, and the fordiog-place becamo memorable^ 
The rout continued to Philadelphia. Meeting the rear division of 
Dunbar, the panic commnnicated to the balance of (he division^ 
and cannon, baggage, wagons, &c., wei'C destjoyed, and left behindj 
The frontier settlfemenls were paBsed and lelfc to the ravages of 
thfe savage men, who. Boon after, waged a destractive wai' upon 

The expedition against Acadia resulted in the speedy reduction 
of that point; butthreethousatidlnhabitantSi thereof, stoutly refafiin^ 
to subsccibe to the English oath of allegifiace, were speedily placed 
upon vessels and shipped to British dominions. 

The movement against Niagark failed entirely — the forces being 
unable even to reach the falls. , The one against Crown Point, in 
part, at iiret, much like Braddock, were surprised by the enemy, — ■ 
French and Indians, — in a thick. Woody ambuscade, and badly cut 
up; butaitei-wardgralliedwithsuperiorforcejand the victory on the 
beantiful borders of Lake George, under Sir William Johnson, was 
considered tolerably complete and decisive. 

Five wearisome years thus passed away — Indians', English, and 
!French waging a ceaseless warfare upon and destroying each other, 
in surprising, cannonading, and also attacks upon defenseless settle- 
mente by the savages. Great suffering necessarily awakened 
strong efforts and energy on the part of both the Prench and tliu 

lu 176S, from Cape Breton and Nova Scotia, extfending to the 
Ohio river, and along the bordering regions of Lake George, tlie 
war between the rival claimants became rife again. Lord Abor- 
crombic was in command of the English forces of America, with 
some fifty thoujiand men under him ; and with Montcalm, who had, 
about two years before, with a superior foTce of French and Indians, 
jieloeved many important victories in the capture and destruction 
of Oswego, the reduction and capture of Fort William Hetiry — the 
aspect of affairs began to assume ancrther and different shape. The 
English now began to regain lost ground and to capture otner im- 
portant pointg. The formidable fortress of Louisbnrg was taken ; 
Fort DuQuesno, {Pittsburg— lost by Braddock) — ^soon fell into Eng- 
lish hands. Bradstreet soon struck a favorable blow, and captured 
Fort Frontenac. Lord Abercrombie, with a force of some eisty 
tliousaiid men, advanced upon Ticon^eroga, and though the many 
brave Highlanders under him were badly cut up — though a retreat 
liocame necessary, from the gi-eafc disadvantage of the attack, — ^yet 
the English never lost heart, but pushed forwaini with renewed vigor . 
Cimada was to be reduced and taken. A new plan of assailing the 
provinco, from thfee sides, found a lodgement in the Britishmind — 
General JPrideaux was to mt»ve upon Niagara from the west ; Ticoo- 
deroga and Crown Point were to be reduced or captured from the 
soutli by General Amherst ; while the brave Wolfe, from the oast, 
was lu iimvo upon Quobi^r. tioiu>i';!l Fiidfniix, of tlip first, having 

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IllSTOltY OK li'ulif "WAvaE. yii 

been kijled by tlje bursting of a coliorn, tlie commaud and capture 
pi' Niagara fell upon Sir Willam Johnson, The loss of Niagara was 
eqnal to the loss pf the Province, and the French began to exhibit 
strenuous efforts to save the fort and beat back the enemy. The 
French and Indian forces then holding Detroit, Presqne'Isle,Venango 
and Le Boeuf, were speedily oi-dered to the rescne of Niagara. Sir 
William 'advanced upon the enemy. They soon fled, and for 
five miles Sir Wjlliani pursued the retreating forces. The succpfis 
of Niagara wag complete. Amherst's advancement «pou Ticon- 
deroga was the signal for its destruction, and the French blew it 
up, passing down Lake Ohaniplain to Crown Point, whither they 
soon retreated, and concentrated their forces upon Isle Aux Noii. 
Preparing formidable breast-works here, they determined to brave 
the worst, and put a stop, if possible, to the further invasion of the 
enemy. But winter came, and the armies ceased hostihties for a 

]?he rigid winter months soon passed — May liad glided into June, 
and Wolle, with an army of eight thousand men, was sailing up the St, 
Lawrence. Soon forming an encampment upon the Island of Orleans, 
Quebec, with her " churches and convents of stono ; its ramparts, 
bastions, and batteries "—high cliffs, and the noted castle of St. 
Louis, all in full view, — he began to survey tlie field of operations. 
Still beyond the rocky promontory which formed the base-work of 
tbo boasted city, presenting a continuous line of intrenchments and 
batteries for some distance along the St. Lawrence, his right rest- 
ing on Quebec and the river St. Charles, lay the army of Mont- 
calm, fourteen thousand strong. Eveiy aspect of nature seemed to 
have cpnspired against the operations of Wolfe. A thick forest 
shielded Montcalm in the rear ; opposite stood the towering promon- 
toiy of Point Levi, and to hie left appeared the cascade and gulf 
of Montniorenci. The task before "Wolfe was herculean, "I have 
this day (Dec. 1, 1758,) signified to Mr, Pitt," wrote Wolfe to Wm. 
Eickaon, "that he may dispose qf my slight carcass as he pleases, and 
that I am ready for any undertaidng within the reach and•compasl^ 
of my skill and cunning, I am in a very bad condition, both witl^ 
gravel and rheuinatisna : but I had much rather die than decline any 
kind of service that offers; if I followed my own taste, it would lead 
me into Germany ; and if my poor talent was consulted, they should 
place me to the cavalry, because nature has given me good eyes, 
and a vyarmth of temper to follow the first impressions. However, 
it is not our part to choose, but to obey." The meridian of the 
31st of July, 1759, bad passed. Wolfe had determined to move 
upon Montcalm's front, and was soon embarked with a strong i'orce, 
Heavy cannonading from his vessels, soon enabled him to gain a 
landing "just above the mouth of the Montmorenci." The ambi- 
tion of the grenadiers and Koyat Americans " o'er lea-ped itself." 
Eager for the victory, they sprang upon the shore. Illy directed 
and without Orders, with loud shouls, they rnshted over the plain 

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and began, in the face of a terrible fire of the enemy, to clambor 
up the ramparts of the French. Hundreds of their slain soon cov- 
ered the slopes. A moment of comparative etillneBS soon elapsed. 
The great volleys of smoke arising from the heavy cannonading 
had been effectual in attracting thick clouds over the ecene of ac- 
tion, and a pelting rain put a stop to the bloody contest. Night 
set in, A retreat was ordered. The surviving forces regained their 
vessels, and, as they moved away, the loud vive le roi from the 
ramparts, and the wild whoops of the Indians, as they descended 
the heights to tomahawk an^ scalp the ^iyonnded, and plunder the 
the dead, all told hoiv complete they esteemed the victory. 

Wolfe was sad. " More than four hundred of tho flower of his 
ai-myhad fallen anseless sacrifice." The vital powers of bis rather 
slender frame had been greatly overcome, and a homing and pro- 
tracted fever confined him for a period of several days to his bed ; 
and here it was, while suffering under the weight of a painful 
faver, that his soul seemed to rise above the surrounding obstacles 
of success, and enabled him to conceive the plan of future triumph. 
The scheme thus evolved was deep and daring. The army was to 
be divided into two divisions, — one, by seeming attacks, to engage 
the attention of Montcalm before Quebec — the other tq move, at 
night, above the place, on the north side, and scale the rugged 
heights of Abraham, September came, and all was readiness. 
AH worked well. The plan developed was pushed forward, and on 
the night of the 12th of September, clear and beautiful — the stars 
looking down with a glorious harmony upon the scene — noiselessly, 
the vessels of Wolfe floated down the stream to the point of em- 
barkation. ** Qui vive?" cried a sentinel of the French, as he 
caught a glipipse of the moving objects. 

" La France ! " was the word echoed back by one of tho captains 
of the fleet, 

'■'■ A quel regiment f'' enquired the French guard. '■'• De la 
Seine ? "* was the rgady response oi the captain.: 

The sentinel, thinldng no ill, and as a vessel was hourly looked 
for from Bougainville, all suspicions were hidden in the darkness 
ot the hour, and the English fleet passed on. Soon another sum- 
mons from a sentinel brought forth similar responses from tho cap- 
tain of the English vessel, and all was weU. The designated point, 
at the base of the heights, was reached, — ever after mernorable as 
"Wolfe's cove.'' The ascent was very great. Wolfe felt doubtful. 
Said he, to one of his officers, " yon can try itj but I don't think 
you'll get up. " 

Soon one Donald McDonald, the same, doubtlesa, who had just 
before so readily responded to the French sentinel, began to scale 
the heights. Again came a challenge &om a guard above. The 

''Thiairas the naiiia of a «orps iiTidap tii« I'l'enoli pommonder, Bongniaville, a faut 


HlBTOKY Oi' i-i'OET WAySE. 05 

reply was prompt aud satisfactory. He had come, said he in 
Ftench, to relieve him, (the French eentinel) and the guard was 
BJJenced, Close upon the ascent of McDonald, came a niimher of 
Highlanders, scrambling up by every available meauB— and still 
they came, until the height above swarmed with the English sol- 
^ery, A fierce resistance ensued between the guards and the 
English, Tlie guards were compelled to give way. Wolfe's idea 
and the stratagem of the Highlander had done the work. Morn- 
ing came, and with it the cjear sualight. The Plains of Abraham 
presented to the opposite ramparts oT Quebec a scene of teiTOr and 
dismay. The shining bayonets of the enemy, *' and the dark-red 
lines of the English tbrmingin an-ay of battle," readily told the 
French what was coming. The long siege had already greatly es- 
hausted the French supplies — their militia hitd withdrawn for 
want of food. Their alarm drums were beaten; and all was ex- 
citement. " They have gotten to the weak side of us at last, and 
we muBt crash them with our numbers," said Montcalm ; and the 
French soldiers began to move to the front of the English, Firing 
began, and nine o'clock saw the two armies confronting each other. 
Montcalm soon began to advance. Coming yet nearer, his troops 
opened a heavy fire upon the English. All was still in the English 
ranks. No one ventured to pull a trigger, until the army of Mont- 
calm had advanced within some forty yards of the regulars. " At 
once," runs the account, " from end to end of the British line, the 
muskets rose to the level, aa if with the sway of some great ma- 
chine, and the whole blazed forth at once in one crashing explo- 
sion." The smoke became intense, and for a time enveloped the 
soldiery in darkness. The execution of the Enghsh had been great ; 
and now, that tlie smeke had cleared away, they began to redouble 
their eflbrts — "hewing down the Frenchmen with their broadswords, 
and slaying many in the very ditch of the fortifications." The ac- 
tion was short and. rapid. The French loss was estimated at " fif- 
teen hundred men, filled, woonded, and taken." The French now 
Jlod precipitately. Wolfe had fallen, mortally wounded, and been 
conveyed to the rear, before the flight of the French began. " See 
how they mn," cried an English officer standing neai- to Wolfe, 
as he lay upon the soft turf. "Who ran?" anxiously enquired 
Wolfe, " opening hia eyes, " says the account, " like a man aroused 
from sleep. " " The eneniy, sir, " repfied the officer ; " they give way 
everywhere." "Then, " returned the dying Wolfe, "tell Colonel 
Burton to njarcli Webb's regiment down to Charles river, to cut off 
their reti-eat from the bridge. Now, God be praised, " he sofl;ly 
murmured, turning on his side, " I will die in peace ; " and his 
heroic spirit passed away. Montcalm had also received, a mortal 
wound, and was dying. " I am happy," said he, " that I shall not 
live to see the surrender of Quebec, Being interrogated as to in- 
structions, his reply was, " I ^vill give no mora orders ; I have inuoli 
bnsincsBs that musi- he attended to, fif p'oatci; iiioinout tiiflin jmf 


SU TiiK Dawn oi^ a Kkw Eka, 

j'uined garrison and tiiis wretched country;" and Montcalm, too, 
soon went out The white fiag was run up on the ramparts of Que- 
bec, and on the 18th of September, 1759, that point was forever 
■wrested from the power oi' the French. A year later, Septembei* 
8, 1T60, and the whole dominion was swept from their grasp, and 
England ever after swayed the province. A new rule began at 
once to extend itself over the north-western territory. 

A new era had dawned npon the New World, The sun-light of 
a new governmental superstructure — a broad Bemoeratic-Iiepub- 
lican basis, — wherein the great principles of " hfe, liberty, and 
the pursuit of Happiness," were to form the pillars of a beautiful 
edificG,— had already risen abore tlic hill-tops of the Futiu-e, soon' 
to penetrate the thick forests and glimmer along tliu valleys and 
hiU-sides of the fai' west. 

-c by Google 


O'er a pulse from chaos beating. 
With its inyHtie flow of pride, 

We are drifting — ever drilting, 
Aud lire floating dowa tlie tide."— 

JSumbeiB and condition of the tribca of the nortliweat at the cl(^ ofth? Fvitidi inl 
In^anwor — Tte weBtern ronte — The Shawanoes and Mijamiefl — Indian attaelv 
ment to the French— Theii' hatred of the Enplieh—Tho" Delaware Prophet— 
Briijsh oeeupanoy of forta Miami and Oniatenon— -Treaty of 1763 — The Indian 
domain — The oongpiraoy of Pontiac — Hie designs first diseoyered attthis point — 
DiaooveiT of the " bloody belt" — Council called — Holmes' letter — Office of the 
chiefe— The great council at the river EooroeB — Great speech of Pontine — Tlio 
Oiibwa giri's warning — Pontiae's visit to tlie Eort^-Hia failure — Further efforts — 
Gladwyi?B letter — Furmer efforts of Poiitiae — Visit and retention of Oampljull and 
McDougalat the campof Pontine — Captnre of the forts — The conapiraoy at this 
point— ietiayal and death of Holmes — surrender of the fort^-One hundrud and 
loiiryeaKhavepaEsed — "Pi-ogfessl Civilizutioii ! Onward! 

tT the close of the French struggle, so great had been I he 
havoc among the various tribes of tiie north- west, that, from the 
estimates of Sir Wiiham Johnson, it was presumed there were 
^' not more than ten thousand fighting men to be found in the 
■^ whole territory lying "between the Mississippi on the west, and 
the ocean on tlie east ; between the Ohio on the south, and Lake Su- 
perior on the north ;" which, according to a further estimate by Sii- 
William, in 1763, placed ihe Iroquois at 1950; tlie Delawai'es at 
aboTtt 600 ; the Shawanoes at about 300 ; the Wyandotts at about 450; 
the Miamies, with theu- neighbors, tlte Kickapooe, at about 
SOO ; while the Ottawaa, Ojibwae, and a few wandering tribes, 
northward, were lelb without any enumeration at all. At that 
period, so thin and scattered was the population," say the best ac- 
counts,* " that, even in those parte which were thought well popula- 
ted, one might sometimes jonrney for days together through the 
twilight forest, and meet no human form. Broad tracts were lett. 
in sohtude. All Kentucky was a vacant waste, a mere sMrmish- 
ing ground for hostile war-parties of the north and south. , A great 
part of Upper Canada, of Michigan, and of IlUnois, besides other, 
portions ortlie west, were tenanted by wild beasts alone. " 

"See Pavkmnn'? History of Conepivaey uf Pontiac, p 133. 

-c by Google 

58 CotJDrnoN or AFiaiBs at the Cx-obb of 'Xub War. 

The most favored route westward from the ■central colonial dis-. 
tricts, at that period, " was from Philadelphia across the Allegha-' 
flies, to the valley of the Ohio, " by way of Fort da Quesne, (after 
the war, being rebuilt by the English, called "Fort I'itt,'') where 
Pittsburg now stands. It was this route, that most of the ti-aders 
westward took, whither, from (hat point, they penetrated the inte- 
rior with their goods, upon pack-horses, to traffic with the Indians. 
An Englishman, for sometime subsequent t6 the war, became a 
ready subject for the scaiping-knife, and, consequently, was com- 
pelled to move with great precautioa. 

At this period, saya Parkman, in bis interesting researches, " the 
Shawanoes had fixed their abode Bpon the Scioto and its brandies, 
Farther towards the west, on the waters of the Wabash and the 
Maumee, dwelt the Miamies, who, less exposed, from their posi- 
tion, to the poison of the whiskey keg, and the example of de- 
bauched traders, retained their ancient character and custom in 
greater purity than their eastern neighbors, " " Fo-om Tincennes, " 
says the same T^Titer, " one might paddle Ms canoe northward up 
the "Wabash, until he reached the little wooden fort of Ouiatenon. 
Thence a path through the woods led to tlie banks of the Maumee, 
'IVo or three Canadians, or half breeds, of whom there were num- 
bers about the fort, would carry the canoe on their shoulders, or, 
for a bottle of whisky, a few Miami Indians might be bribed to 
undertake the task. On the Maumee, at the end of the path, stood 
Fort Miami, near the spot where Fort Wayne was aftei-wards built. 
From this point," continues he, " one might descend the Maumee 
to Lake Erie, and visit the neighboring Fort of Sandusky ; or, if he 
chose, steer through the strait of Detroit, and esplore the watery 
wastes of the northern lakes, finding occasional harborage at the 
little military posts which commanded their important points. 
Most of these western posts were transferred to the English during 
the autujuu of 1T60 ; bat the settlements of the Illinois (Kaskaskia, 
Oahokia, &c.,) remained," says Parkman, "several years longer 
usder French control, " 

The Indians of the northwest had lost theii- French Father, and 
witii him, for a time, their trinkets, and much besides, in the form 
of powder, balls, &c., that ihey had long annnally been accustomed 
to receive from that qua,rter. They could hardly realize, not- 
withstanding the many whisperings to tliat eifect, that their French. 
Father was forever, divested of his power in America, and that his 
rule this side of the great waters had ceased, They believed the 
oft repeated sfories of the many JiabitajkS, couveurs des hois, &c., of 
the various villages, and wandering from point to point among the 
tribes of the northwest, which -were also greatly strengthened by 
similar assurances from those of the French still holding possession 
of the territory along the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, and at 
otlier points, that their French Father "had of late years fallen 
asleep, " and thfjt his nnmerous vessels and soldiers would soon be 


HisToi:r of Ii'okt "Wayke. 59 

moTiug lip the Mississippi acd St. Lawrence, to drive tiie Eiigliali 
from their dominions, leaving (hem again in qniet possession of 
their former Ijuutsng grounds. Every means was now resorted to 
by the French thus scattered about the wilderness to arouse the 
savages, and their efforts were not in vain. The rancor of the In- 
dians was gi'eatly increased from time to time, until at length, after 
.alaspe of two years, a great sclieme was developed and put on 
foot for tlje overthrow and destruction of the English and the 
various posts so recently occupied by theni, As had been freqnent 
at other periods among the aborignies in the wilds of the Hew 
World, a great Prophet suddenly began to exert a powerful influ- 
ence among the tribes of the nortiiweet. He lield his mission un- 
der the Great Spirit, and earnestly enjoined upon the tribes to re- 
turn again to their primitive habits — to throw away tlie weapons, 
apparel, &e., obtained from the pale faces. Here, said he, is the 
starting point of success. The force of the new prophet's teachings 
were truly great, and the tribes came from long distances to hear 
hina. For the most part his suggestions were much regarded by 
the tribes ; but the weapons of the white man could not be dis- 
pensed with. These they retained. Tlie prophet was a Delaware, 
and the gi-eat leader of the niovement-, was an Ottawa chieftain, 
whose Indian name was Pontiac. Detroit was surrendered to the 
English on the 29th of November, iTfiO ; and while many prisoners 
were removed down the lake, " the Canadian inhabitants were al- 
lowed to retain their farms and houses, on condition of Swearing 
allegiance to the British crown." An officer being speedily dis- 
patched to the southwest, Fort Miami, at the confluence of the 
rivers St. Mary and St. Joseph, and Ouiatenon, below the present 
site of Lafayette, so long standing guard between the Ohio river 
and Lake ij-ie, were soon possessed by the English, and a now rule 

For over two years, forts Miami and Ouiatenon remained in com- 
parative security. No hostile movement on the part of the French 
or savages had thus far conspired to greatly ruffle the complacency 
of their guardianship. 

The tenth of February, 1763, at length arrivingj a treaty of Peace 
was cQuyened at Paris, Prance, between the two great Powers of 
Prance and England — the former surrendering to the latter all 
claims to the vast region lying east of the Mississippi, making the 
great Father of Waters the boundary line of the British possessions 
in America. 

A fe^ months later, on the Yth of October, the Englisli govern- 
ment, " proportioning out her now acquisitions into separate gov- 
ernments," set apart "the valley of the Ohio and adjacent regions 
as an Indian domain," and, by proclamation, strictly forbade " the 
intn)sion,of settlers" thereon. Each came at an impropitious pe- 
riod, The seeds of future trouble had long since been sown, and 
the little foi'tb in tlie wildcrnosis, here (Fort liiiami) and at 


i)0 A I'ltiEKDLY Admlokitioj; — Tin: BuKiiiv liy.i/r. 

OuiatGnoii, were desUrjed ere long to fepl tLe shock of "comiDg 
events." The great plot of Poutiac and the efforts of the Dejaware 
prophet for the desti'uction of the English and the recaptnre of the 
posts so recently lost to the French, were rapidly though gilently 
maturing. Intimations and sarmises were all that could be gained, 
so still and cautious were the movements qf the savages; i^nd the 
first reaUy positive asaorance (as it afterwards proved) of the efforts 
and designs of the Ottawa chieftain and his followers, was dis- 
closed at Fort Miami, opposite the present site of Fort Wayi^e. 

With the utmost vigiilance, on the one hand, and the greatest 
possible activity on the other, Pontiac was now pushing foi-ward 
his scheme of destmction against the EngUsh. War belts were 
dispatched to various tribes at a distance, inviting them to join .in 
the overthrow of the invaders and capture of the forts ; and soon 
the entu-e Algonquin race, combined with the Senecas (of the Six 
Nations) the Wyandotts, and many tribes from the valley of the 
Lower Mississippi, were allied to the gTOat scheme of destruction. 
An English officer, by the name of Holmes, was in command, with 
a small body of men, at this point, Fort Mianii;andit was throui^h 
Holmes that the first moat positive intimations were received of 
the premeditated plot of the Indians. 

One day, early m the month ofMm'ch, 1763, Holmes was startled 
by a friendly admonition. A neighboring Indian, who, through 
some acts of Idndn ess, perhaps, on the part of Holmes, had formed 
a sti'ong friendship for the ensign. The Indian told him that tho 
warriors of one of the villages near by had recently received a 
Jfloody ieltf* with. a " speech," pressing them to kiE him. (Holmes) 
and demolish the fort here, and which, whispered the friendly In- 
dian, the warriors were then mating preparations to do. The peril 
was iminent, and Holmes began at once to look about him. Soon 
summoning the neighboring Indians to a council, he made bold to 
charge them with the design, which they readily acknowledged, 
with seeming contriteness and regret, charging the whole affair 
upon a tribe at another locality in the region. Holmes obtained 
the belt, and, from a speech of one of the chiefs of the Miamies, 
was at least partially induced to entertain the belief that all would 
now be tranquil. 

A few days later, and the following letter, trom Ensign Holmes, 
at this point, was on it^ way to Major Gladwyn, commanding at 
Detroit : 

" FoET MiAMis, Mahch SQth, 1763. 

" Since my Last^Letter to You, wherein I Acquainted Yon of 
the Bloody Belt being in this village, f I have made all the search 

*|t wBE a euHtom -with many tribes in thoBO days to send belts of wtimpum nnd 
Bomtinifs tobooeo when aid waa desiietl, or ^enoe was to be made. The white belt 
denoted peaoe ; the blact or red belt wora emblaiaiitia of w 

.= b,Google 

I could about it, and have found it out to be True ; Whereon I 
Aeserfcibled all the Chiefs of this Nation,* & and after a long and 
troublesome Speli with them, I Obtained the Belt, with a Speechj 
as you will Receive Enclosed ; This Affair is very timely Stopt, 
and I liope the News of a Peace will put a Stop to any further 
Troubles with these Indians, who are tlie Principle Ones of Setting 
Mischief on Foot. I send You the Belt with this Packet, which I 
hope You will Forward to the General." 

The peculiar organization of the Indian — his habits ; the wild 
roaving life of many of the tribes — their want of military order; 
the lack of proper central governmental relations to unite and Hold 
the tribes togeiier ; their inability and want ol iudgment ill furnieh- 
ing supplies for a large body of men in time ot War; their custom 
of rapid blows to secure speedy victory ; thek native idea of indi- 
vidual and colleijtive freedom;! small producers and large eour 
sumers — subsisting mainly upon the wild animals of the forest, and 
the fish of the streams — "loose and disjointed as a whole;" scat- 
tered, for the mOat part, in small bodies over large regions of terri- 
toiy — all combinedT, at the period in question, to render it impossi- 
ble for the tribes of America long successfully to conduct a seig^ 
dr sustain themselves, — however cunning, intelligent, resolute, and 
brave fJieir chief or chiels,— "in a contest with the active civiliza- 
tion and formidable means of warfare of the English, It is true, 
that soon after the French war, the strength of the Britisli became 
greatly diminished — the ai-my which had been brought to beat 
upon Canada with such salutary effect, having soon alter been dis- 
solved, and the main body of the regulars recrossed tlie ocean to 
join their Mends again in the Old Vvorld. Yet, with small garri- 
sons, they were, to a considerable extent, still forniidablej as com- 
pared with tlie advantages possessed by the savages, unaided by 
the French. 

Signs of coming trouble with tlie Indians at length became more 
apparent. They liad now begun to hang about the forts, " with 
calm, impenetrable faces, " asking " for tobacc unpowde and 
whisky. Now and then some slight intim on o n e ould 
startle the garrison from security, and an E 1 h ide o u ug 
in from the Indian villages, would report h 
and behavior, he suspected them of misch 

*Thc Miamiea. 

fit waa the office of the cMefe, aajB Pnrkman, "to c 
l>nb wUen war was deolared, they had oo power to ea 
The warriors fought if Uiey ebose to do 80 ; but if, ou. tl 
jflmain quiet, no man oouid force theiu to lift the ] 
pare it wna to Isad ttem to battle, was a mera pavtiza 

Elaita had led to distiuetioa. If ha (bought proper, he 
ia 'WH.r-danee, aud m many of the yoaa^ men aa ware disposed to follow him ^th- 
ercd amnud and antiatsd ttiemjelrw, under him. Orer these volunteers he had ni> 
Uguliiutlkority, and they Dould desert him at Any nton)9at with no other penalty 
tliOH ditgraoB. « * a Miiuf an Indiaa array, before reaehiug fiia enemy's oountry, 
hoK tjppn fenpwn to dwindle nwny until it was rediiwil tji n men' Kenlpinii pnrty." 

h i on 

n nners 


us ca- 


d k ue; 

tf. ff«t. 

h m h 

h ef whose 
b y d ex- 
'-3ong, and daneed 


G'2 Tjik Gheat Coumcii. at the BifEU EcoiiciiS. 

sionally some " half-breed would be heard boosting in his cupa 
that before the iiest summer he would have' English hair to fringe 
hie hunting-frock. "* 

By the ^7tK of Api-il, 1763, Pontiac haTing largely matured his 
plans— 'great numbers of the villages and camps of the westgrn 
tribes, including all grades and ages, women and children, of the 
tribes, having celebrated the savage rites of Var; magicians " con- 
sulted their oracles, and prepared charms to insure success;" 
many warriors, as was long the Indian custom, before gi'eat events 
in war, -withdrawing to the deep recesses of the forest, or hiding in 
caves to fast and pray, that the Great Spirit might give them vic- 
tory, — of the tribes already mentioned a gi'and council was con- 
vened at the river Ecorces, where Pontiac delivered to the vast 
throng a speech rife with both eloquence and art. 

On the monling of the great council, " several old men, heralds 
of the catap, passed to and fro among the lodges, calling the war- 
■riors, in aloud voice, to attend the meeting. In accordance with 
the snminons, they came issuing from their cabins — the tallj naked 
' fignres of the wild Ojibwae, inth quivers slnng at their backs, And 
light War-clubs resting in the hollow of their ai-ms; Ottawas, 
wrapped close ih their gaudy blankets ; Wyandotts, fluttex-ing in 
painted sldrts, their heads adorned with feathers, and their leggins 
garnished with bells. All were soon eeatffd in a wide circle upon 
file grass, row within row, — a grave and siknt assembly. Each sav- 
age countenance seemed carved in wood, and none could ■ have 
detected the deep and fii-ey passions hidden beneath that unmova- 
ble exterior. Pipes, with ornamented stems, were lighted and 
passed from hand to hand, "t 

Soon placing himself in the centre of the wild, though silent mW- 
titude, wiCh long black hair flowing about his shoulders ; stern, reso- 
lute, with an imperious, pi^eemptory bearing, "like that of a man 
accustomed to sweep away all opposition by force of his impetu- 
ous will, " plumed and painted, with a girt about his loins, Pontiac 
began at once tJD arouse his auditors by a recital of the injustice of 
the English, and by drawing a contrast between the conduct of 
the Erench and the British towards the kibes assembled; present 
ting to them the terrible consequences of English enpremacy — ■ 
persisting that it was the aim of the British to destroy and drive 
thena from the land of their fathers. Th<?y have driven away the 
Erench, he recounted, and now they seek an opportunity to remove 
us also. He told them that their Erench Eather had long been 
asleep, but that then he was awake again, and would soon return' 
in his many canoes to regain his old possessions in Canada. 

Every sentence was rounded with a fierce ejaculation; and as 
the impetuous orator proceeded, his auditory grew restless to 
spring at once into the bloody arena of battle and bury the scalping 
knife and tomahawk in the body of the enemy. Turning to the 

«Hist, Cr;iiBp. Ti.iitiap, [1 KIT. fPftTltmnn, 

-d by Google 

HisToay of Fokt Wayne. itS 

opposite sMe of eavage nature, appealing to their sense of 
the myGterioTis, in a ■somewhat mellowed tone, though still aa 
earnest in demeanor, hfe said : 

"A Delaware Indian conceived an eager desire to learn wisdom 
from the Master of Life ; hut, heing ignorant where to find him, ho 
had recourse t-o fasting, dreaming, and magical incantations. By 
these means it was revealed to Ifim, that, by moving forward in a 
straight, iindeviating course, ho wonld reach the abode of the Great 
Spirit. He told his purpose to no one, and having provided the 
eqnipments of a hunter, — gun, powder-horn, ammoniiion, and a 
kettle foT preparing his food, — he set forth on his errand. ¥ox some 
time he iournied on in high hope and confidence. Ou the eve- 
ning of the eighth day, he stopped by the side of a brook, at the 
edge of a small prairie, where he began to make ready his evening 
meal, when, looking up, he saw three large openings in the woods, 
on the opposite side oi the meadow, and three well-beaten paths 
which entered them. He was much surprised ; but his wonder in- 
creased, when, after it had grown dark, the three paths were moffl 
clearly visible than ever. Kemembering the importantobjeetof his 
jonrney-, he coald neither rest nor sleep; and leaving his fire, he 
crossed the meadow, and entered the largest of the three openings. 
He had advanced but a short distance into tlie forest, when a 
bright flame sprang out of the ground before him, and arrested his 
steps. In great amazement, he turned back, and entered the 
second path, where the same wonderful phenomenon again eu' 
countered him-; and now, in terror and bewilderment, yet still 
resolved to persevere, he pursued the last of the three paths. On 
this he journied a whole day without interruption, when, at lengthy 
emerging from the forest, he saw before him a vast mountain, of 
dazzling whiteness. So precipitous was the ascent, that the Indian 
thought it hopeless to go farther, and looked around him in despair ; 
at that moment, he saw, seated at some distance above, the figure 
of a beautiful woman arrayed in white, who arose ae he looked 
upon her,. and thus accosted Mm: 'How can yon hope, encumber- 
ed as you ai-e, to succeed in your design? Go down to the foot of 
the mountain, throw away your giin, your ammunition, yoar pro- 
visions^ and your clothing ; wash yourself ia tlie stream which fiowa 
tkere, and then you will be prepared to stand before the Master of 
Life! The indian obeyed, and then began to ascehd among the 
rocks, while the woman, seeing him still discouraged, laughed at 
his faintness of heart, and told him that, if he wished for success, he 
must climb by the aid of one hand and one foot only. After great 
toil and suffering, he at length found himself at the summit. The 
woman had disappeared, and he was left alone. A rich and beau- 
tifu! plain lay before him, and at a little distance he saw three 
great villages, far superior to the sqoallid dwellings of the Dela; 
wares. As he approached the lai-gest, and stood hesitating, wheth- 
er ho slioakl enter, a man gorgeoiraly attired, stepped forth, and. 


r>4 SiEGK 01? Dethiot — WARNi^'a OF THE OjihWa GlKl. 

taking him by the haticl, welcomed liim to the celestial abode. H^ 
then conducted him into the presence of the Great Spirit, ■where the 
Indian stood confounded at the unspeakable splendor which sur- 
rounded him. The Great Spirit bade him be seated, and thus 
addressed him: 

"'lam the maker of heaven and earth, the trees, lakes, rivers^ 
and all things else. I am the maker df mankind ; and because I 
love yon, you must do my will. The land on which you live, I 
jnade for you, and not for 6thera. Why do yon suffer the white 
man to dwell among you ? My children, you have forgotten the 
customs and tj^ditions of your fathers. Wliy do you not clothe 
yoiil'selvos in skins as they did, and nse the bows and arrows, and 
BtdnC-pointed lances, which they used ? You have bought guns, 
jinives, kettles, and blankets of the white man, imtil you can no 
longer do without them ; and what is worse, you have drunk the 
poison fire-water, wMch turns you into fools. JFling all these 
away ; live as your wise fore-fathers lived before yon. And, as 
for these English, — these dogs dressed in red, who have cbme to 
Toh you of your hunting- grounds, and drive away the game; — you 
must liit the hatchet against them, wipe them from the face of the 
earth, and then you will win my favor back again, and once more 
be happy and prosperous. The children of your great father, the 
King of France, are not like the English: Never ft^rgefc that they 
are your bretlii-en. They are very dear to me, for they love the 
red men, and understand the true mode of worshiping me 1 ' ' 

With some further admonition from the Great Spirit, of a moral 
and religious nature, says the account,* the Indian took leave of 
the Master of Life, andreturned again to terra firma; where, among 
hie people, he told alt he had seen and heard in the wonderful land 
of ^he Great Spirit, 

All was now ripe for action. Pontiac's words and the glowing 
allegory he had presented, had spread a magnetic fire among iJje 
great throng oflisteners that nothing ehoi-t of a desperate encountel- 
Or defeat would smother. The first great move was destined to 
culminate upbn Detroit. 

A beautiful Ojibwa giil, whose love for the commander, Glad- 
Avyn, seems to have been only cq^ualled by her precaution and care, 
was in the secrete Had probably attended the council, and heard 
the plan of Pontiac's movement to surprise and capture the fort ; 
and true to her sense of regard for her kind friend, Major Glad- 
wyn, on the afternoon of the 6th of May, she found occasion, {hav- 
ing made a handsome pair of moccasins for the commander,) to 
visit the fort, whither she quietly sti'ode, with anxious heai-t, in 
hopes to reveal to her lover his perilous situation, and imfoid to 

•From the Pontino MSa.; originally ia tlie liand of ona MoDouenl, who. says 
Parkman., " states that lie derived his mfonnation flnm the ludians.'*^ And farther 
says that "tliu nuthor of the Pontiiio MSS. probably ivrites on the anthoi'ity of Oaii- 
adians, some of ■whom ■were pi'mant at the council." Sec Histoiy Oonapirney of' 
Potitiiic, pp. im, IHl.iaa, IK). 

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HiSToitY OS FoKT Waykk. 65 

him the movement abotit to "be made upon the fort by Pontiac and 
hia warriors — his plan of surprise, &o. Ae ehe entered, tfladwyn 
observed that she wore a different air than on other occasions. 
Her countenance assumed the ezpreesion of one in distress. Fear 
and depression both seemed to sway her, and she could say bnt 
little, itemaining but a short time, she stepped fo^th again into 
the open air, to look about, perhaps, to sco who might chanced to 
have seen her enter the fort. Sorro* still weighed heavily upon 
her. She could not depart from the scene of her friend without 
acquainting him with the work that was fastmatnring for hia death, 
and the destruction of all within the garrison. With this feeling, 
she lingered abont the fort until qnite late, which not only attracted 
the attention of the sentinel, but Gladwyn himself, who, noticing 
her strange conduct, called her to him, and asked her what was 

fiving her trouble. Her heart beat heavily. She could not speak, 
till her friend pressed her for a response, assuring her that he 
would not, under any consideration, betray her — that, with him, 
wbafever she told would be safe— that no harm should befall her. 
Her fear was suddenly overcome, and her admiration for her 
fi^i end,- united with an irresistible determination to save him, even 
in the midst of danger, as the beautiful Pocahontas had saved the 
life of Captain Smith, she confidingly told him all. 

Said she, very sadly^ " to-morrow Pontiac with sixty of his war- 
iiors will come to the fort. All will have short guns hidden under 
their blankets — blankets close about their necfe, , so as to hide 
guns. Pontiac will want to hold peace-council, vidll make a great 
Speech-; then offer you peace-wampum. With hands on 'Short guns, 
warriors all to make a qcdck jump and fire, killing all English; offi- 
cers. Then come all Indians outside, and Mil all but French — leave 
no English alive." 

The eoui of Gladwyn suddenly loonied above the perilous hout 
that awaited him on the morrow. His uatutally courageous heart 
began to beat with renewed activity aiid determination. Bidding 
the faithful squaw* be faitbful still and fear not; to afcquaini him, 
if possibjle, with any further movements that might transpire, with 
a lighter heart, and a freer air, the Ojibwa beauty strode quietly 
but and was soon lost to the View of her lover and the peri},oua 

If the Great Spirit had inspired an Indian to desti'Oy, he had also 
superinduced one of his r&d children to save ; and thus moved, the 
Ojibwa girl had already won the victory. Acting at once upon 
the adhi'Onitibn 'Of the Lidian girl; Gladwyn aoon acquainted his 

*Or!e 5t. Peltier, iViio lived ttt Defioit dlhiog SOosi rS Qie period of the siege, and 
Who, tbOugh but 17 years Old at Uie time, remeiabefed much that then occurred, in 
iS84,in a atotflmtnt made to Gen. Ciias, said that "iio remembered that booh after tliu 
faituvo of POnlJaiJ's attempt to Sm'praft die gMrison, he punished, by severe fli^^ug, 
a woman niuned CatberiBo, acciffied of liavine beti'ayeu Hie plot." He ulao remein- 
bered " the BeTeral ef^tacliB on the armed TGeeols, by the Isdiiins, nnd iiie lititcTtiptg to 
^cl, tlicm on fire by iilPana of blflKJnjj rnite." 



oflicei-e of tlio ovent to be looked' for on the mon^ow, aiitl all was 
preparation and readiness. From mist and rain, tlie sky cleared 
away, and thti sun disappeared in a glow of brightness; Night 
came gradually on ; and while all was stillness and anxiety witbin 
the ganigon, no hostile movement intruded from without. All 
night the English eoldiei-s, without knowing why, (for the secret of 
the Ojibwa girl had not been told the privates, for pmdential 
reasons,) kept watch and paraded the ramparts with anxious and 
sleepless vigili Nothing, however, served to ruffle the air, save 
the distant bum-biim of the Indian drum, and the fierce whoop of 
tlie warriors as they mingled their hoarse voices in the wily dance 
and pushed forward their arrangements for the strategeticertbrt that 
was to begin with the dawning of another day. 

The night at length passed, and with its passing soon came the 
evidence of Pontiac's design, as told by the Ojibwa girl; Soon, in 
the distance, many canoes conkl be seen, from the palisades of the 
iov'ti slowly moving across the river, as was subsequenily learned, 
laden with Indians lying compactly in the bottom of each canoe^ 
well concealed, that a knowledge of their strength might be kept 
from the garrison. 

The open ground without the fort began gradually to fill upj 
Warriors, fancifully decorated, witli here and there many women 
and children, gathered upon the ground. I'o allay suspicion, with 
marked activity and restless anxiety, preparations were soon mak^ 
ing in front of the garrison for a great game of baggattaway. "At 
ten o'clock" says Parkman, "the great war-chief, with his treach- 
erous followers, reached the fori., and the gate-way was thronged 
with their savage faces. All *ere wrapped to the throats in col- 
ored blankets. Some were crested with hawk, eagle, or raven 
plumes ; others had shaved their heads, leaving only the fluttering 
scalp-lock on the crown ; while others, againj wore their long, black 
hair, flowing loosely at their backs, or wildly hanging about their 
brows like a lion's mane." 

The account runsj that, as Pontiac, followed by his warriors, 
stepped within the enclosure^ (the entire gamson being on duty, 
with sabers and bayonets glistening, ready 'for action at every 
]X>int, by special order of the, commaiider,) "a deep ejaculation 
half escaped from tis broad chest," The very air about him. 
seemed to whisper ; " Pontiac, your plot is known." But ho 
moved on, and soon passed into the dobltway of the coancil- 
Iioose, followed by his iierce coadjutors. The commandant, Glad- 
wyn, and his officers, with swords at their sides^ and a brace of 
pistols in their bells, all seated, in readiness for the reception of 
the wily chief and his foIlowei-B. The Indian, as a genera'l lule, 
always sat upon the groand or upon a coarse mat. Before taking 
their seats, Pontiac's perturbed spirit led him to enqiiire aa to the 
(sauee of so many of his "father's young men standing in the street 
■^.vith their gims?'' To ii-Mcii the commandant replied, through liis 


I'oNtiac's V:sn' to 'iiij.: Fokt— The CoNypiKAcr, C7 

interpreter, that " he had ordered the soldiers tinder arms for the 
sake of exercise and discipline. " Seating themselves at once upon 
the mat-ta an-anged for them wpon the floor, with ranch diecom- 
Jiture and evident mistrust, in each coont.enance,Pontiac arose hold- 
ing in one hand the peace-belt, referred to by the Ojibwa fi;irl, and 
lit once began to express to Glad^wyn his strong admiration and 
love fertile Eiiglieh^^aid that "he had come to smoke the pipe of 
peace and biighten the chain of friendship with his English broth- 
erSi" And it iseaid, that though evidently conscions of- his detec- 
tion, " he raised the belt and was about to give the fatal sig-nal," 
when, instantly, " Gladwyn wa^ed hie hand " — and, as if by magic 
— aO well matured were the the commandant, — the garrison 
drism beat a moat stunning roll', Ming the air with its reverberations, 
and startling tho warriors, both within .and without the fort, into 
sudden dismay ; while the guards in the passage to the council- 
honse suddenly made their arras to clash and rattle as they brought 
them into a position &r action; and the oiScers, with Gladwyn, 
looking stearniy upon the figures of the " tall, strong men" before 
th(tm^ had simnltaueonsly clasped their swords, in anticipation of, 
and with a view to meet, if need be, the premeditated on-slaught 
of Pontia? and his warriors. The moment was one of heroic de- 
termination on tlie part of the .little garrison of Detroit, and of , the 
utmost discomfiture and chagrin mth the savages., The plaoS' of 
the great Ottawa chieitain were foiled, and lie stood bei'otc the 
commandant and his officers like one suddenly overcome by a 
terrible shock. 

Says Gladwyn, in a letter dated May l4tli, lTfl3, " they were ko 
much surprised to see our disposition;, that they would ecarccdy 
sit down to council : However, in about half an hour, after they 
saw- their designs were discovered, they mt down, and Pontiac 
made a speech, which I ansjvered calmly, without intimating my 
suspicions of their intentions-, and after receiving somo triflitig 
presents, they went away to, their camp," 

Accompanied by t^ree X>£ his chiefs, he returned to the fort the 
next morning, with a calumet or peace-pipe, neatly ornamented 
with different colored pluhiage, which he offered to tlie comman- 
dant, witii the foliowing speech ; "My fathers, evil birds have sung 
lies in yoor earSi We that stand before you are friends of the Eng- 
lish.- We love them as our brothers, and, t-o prove our love, wo 
have come this day to smoke the pipe of peace." Presenting the 
pipe to Major Campbell, second in command, as a pledge of fiiend- 
ship, the chiefs again took their departure. 

A great game of halt was played that afternoon, and Pontiac 
strode among the viltagera arousing them to action. On the next 
day, surrounded by aa immense throng upon the grounds near the 
ibft, Pontiac stepped forth, and again approached the entrance to 
the fort, but could iiiot now gain an admission — aU was barred 
!i<rainst him. Encruirlng a;; to tfio canso of this, the commandant 

-c by Google 

(iS lIis'i'OKY OB' I'oiiT "Waiee, 

replied that the Great Chief cdiild enter, hnt none others. To 
■which Pontiac replied that "he wanted all hiswarriors to enjoy the 
fragrance of the friendly calumet." But all was of no avail. None 
could enter but the chief. Pontiac is here said to have thrown off 
the ulask ot friendship, and eihibited, in unraiatakabie action, a 
determination for vengeance against the English. His followers 
now repaired to the dwellings of two English residents near, mur- 
dered and scalped them. Pontiac repaired to the Ottawa village, 
aroused his warrioi's, and dancfed the war-dance. Two English officers 
had been waylaifed and killed by the savages near Lake St. Clair j 
and on the morning of the lOth of May (1763), all the tribes com- 
bined under Pontiac, aided by a few French engagees, by shouts, at 
least( approachbd the fort, and began an attack, wliich lasted some 
six hours. Efforts now being rdadG for a reconciliation, La Bntte, 
the intbrpreter, accompanied by two old Canadians, was sent to 
the cahip of Pontiac to ascertain the canse of Jiis action, and to 
assure him that any giibvance ho had to complain of, would he 
speedily redressed. Pontiac listened attentively, and seemed to 
assent to all proposed, and La Butte soon hastened hack to the fort 
to report progress; but shortly after, ireturniug to the camp of Pon- 
tiac, learned that he had been deceived. Pontiac, with his chiefs, 
now wished to hold an interview with tlieir Eughsh fathers them- 
Bfelveai that the peace might be the hiore complete and binding. 
Major Campbell was much Uked by many of the savages, and with 
him they wished to speak. U])on hearing of this desire from La 
Bntte and the two Canadians, Campbell unsuspectingly expressed 
a wish to visit the camp of tlie savages. Gladwyn was fearful. 
He suspected the intentions of Pontiac, But Campbell went, 
accompanied by Lieutenant McDougal, a junior officer of the garri- 
son, "La Butte, and several other Canadians." One Mr. Gouin, 
who had just made himself sufficiently well acquainted with 
the designs of the Indians in getting Campbell and McDou- 
gal into their camp, hastened to warn them of their danger; 
but all was of no avail. They went, and were taken prisoners. 
After a few houi-e parley, feeling that his fate was already sealed, 
to test his position more fully, it is stated that Campbell once arose 
to depart for the foil again, ailer finding all eilbrts for reconcilia- 
tion unavailing, when Pontiac bade him be seated, saying "My 
fathers will sleep to-night in the lodges of his red children." Their 
lives were at once eagerly sought by the savages, but Pontiac 
would not then permit tliem to be injured, though Campbell was 
subsequently destroyed by the Lidiana, while McDougal is said to 
have made his escape. 

On the 13th of May the attack was renewed, with an increased 
force and great vigor. The condition of the fort seemed most per- 
ilous, and the officers had a consultation as to what was best to do, 
in view of their garrison being but iveak itt best, and a powerful 
enemy to contend with. (From fiOO to 2,000 Indians was the esti- 


CAI'TtliB Oe U'lIK ENGLISH i'os'i's, fiQ 

mate agaiust -which the fort at thjit time had to contend.) But 
there was now no means of escape. To fight and defend were the 
only alternatives ; and for several weeks the siege continued ; during 
which time, it was told by an officer at Detroit, " no man lay down 
to slepp, except in his clothes, and with his weapons by his side." 
Pontlac strove in vain to gain the Canadians as allies. The provi- 
sions of the garrison became reduced ; and but for the timely aid 
they received from the Canadians, they would have been compelled 
to suffer defeat. But the tables, in this respect, were Boon turned, 
and the Indiana began to want for the necessaries of lii'e. Not 
being able to demolish or capture the fort, as easily as they had 
anticipated, — the Indian never accustomed to lay in stores for such 
occasions — their food became exhausted, and they too ea|led upon 
and received from the Canadians like aid. |t was about this peri- 
od that several attempts, from other points, were made to relieve 
the garrison, by additional troops and provisions j but without 
success. The actiqn of the Indians at other points, embraced in 
the great conspiracy of Pontiac, were now also becon^ing impor- 
tant. Nine Posts, held by thp English, had been jtfcluded in the 
great conspiracy and sought to be captured, viz: Detroit^ Prpsquc' 
Isle, Michillimackiuac, Miami, (at this point,) Ouiatenon", (below 
Lai'ayette, Ind.) Le Bceuf, Venango, Fort Pitt, (Pittsbui'g) and !^ort 
Sandusky. The plan of capture seems to have embodied the cun- 
ning and resolution of Pontiac at every point ; and the pretensions 
somewhat similar to those at first presented by the great head of 
the conspiracy at Detroit, were mostly manifested at every post 
essayed to be taken; and one after another, excepting Detroit 
alone,. rapidly fell into the hands of the Indians. Many were the 
bloody scenes enacted. 

On the I6th of May, Sandusky fell ; on the 1st of June, Ouiatenon 
was captni'ed ; Mi'chillimackinac on the 12th, and Presque'Isle, on 
tlie 15th of June, also fell into the hands of the wild conspirators- 
After Presque'Isle was taken, runs the narration of Parkman, 
the neighboring little pofits of Ije Bojuf and Venango shared its 
fate, while, farther sou tl; ward, at the forks of the Ohio, a boat of 
Delawai'O and 8hawnoe warriors wore gathering around Fort Pitt, 
and blood and havoc reigned along the whole frontier. 

Father Jonois, a Jesuit missionary, had reached Detroif and 
conveyed to the garrison a letter from Captain Etheringto^, at 
Michillimackiuac, giving an a'ccpunt of the capture of that post. 
Soon after, a letter from Lieut. Jejikins, at Ouiatenon, telling of the 
capture of that post, was also received by Major Gladwyb. " Close 
upon these tidings," says the account, as given by Parkman, 
" came the news that Fort Miami (at this point, Fort Wayne) was 
taken. This Post, " continues the narration, * * * * " ^as 
commanded by Ensign Holmes ; and here I cannot but remark," 
says the same writer, " on the forlorn situation of these officers, 
isolated in the wilderness, hundreds of miles, in some instances, 


'TO liibXOSir Oil' h'onT W'ayae, 

from any coujfeiiial associates, separated from every linmiiu iDcing 
except the rndo soldiers nnder their command, and the white or 
rod savages who ranged the surronnding woods." 

The Miamies at this point, had been deeply embroiled in the 
gTeat conspiracy, and the region of " Ke-ki-ong-a " resounded with 
many a savage yell of liatred towards the English. 

Stratagem ever formed a part of Indian warfare and savage 
character. By its skillful employment, the red man as readily 
looked for success in war, as, with his rifle or bow and aiTow, by 
deliberate and steady aim, he sought to bring <]owh the wild gapiu 
of the forest. 

Holmes had long suspected (he designs of the Indians, and, for 
that reason, had, for some months, been somewhat vigilant in his 
observation^ of their conduct, more eapeciaily after tlie discovery 
^n the neighborhood of the bloody belt, already referred to. But 
savage ingenuity and deception were striving hard, and Holmes, 
seemed destined to fall a victim to the perfidy of the conspirators, 
white and red, prowling about the viliage and neighborhood. 

The 27th of May had come. All nature was radiant again wJtli 
the beauties of spring: The great, expanding foliage of the foirest 
waTcd gracefully over and mainly shut out from the broad blaze 
of a vivifying sunlight, the beautiful blosoms and sweet-scented 
wild flowers that grew profnsely beneath the tall majestic oaks, 
maple, and sycamoi'es, and countless other and 'smaller ti-ees, that 
lined the margins of our beautiful rivers, and mainly covered tho 
vast regions of soil, where now, under a new reign of civilization 
and human progress, the same great sun daily reveals to the civil- 
ized eye, innumerable fields and meadows; beautiful towns and 
c'itieB; iine orchards ; and, each season, vast numbers of blooming 
and fruitful gardens. 

An Indian girl,* with whom Holmes had for some time been 
intimate, and in whom he placed mnch confidence, by compulsion 
on the part of the conspirators, came into the fort and to^d Holmes 
that there was a sick squaw lying in a wigwam not far from the 
ioTt, and expressed a desire that he shonld go and see her. The 
fatal hour had come. Unsuspectingly, and with a view to serve 
and perhaps relieve the supposed sick squaw, (knowing perhaps 
something of medicine; for it would seem, had there been a snr- 
»Mrs. ^ttenfield, one of the early mothev3 of Fort Wayne, living here sinee 1814, 
jnfoi'med lliewriter that ghe beeaiue noiniainteii witli tins ivoman in 1815 ; that she 
and he^.family lived neighbora to her for severul yearo. At the pei'iod of Mrs. S.'e 
aeqnuinfcanoe with the woutan, she liad a son, a man of some yeai'a. On one occaBJoii, 
being at tiie hnt of tho woman, the man, her son, oame in intoxicated, and somewliat 
Boiey, and the woman, by way of an apology to MtB. S,, remaclieil that ho was a lit- 
tle SQVAEBr, or drank ; and conolnded with tho remark that he was a Sabikash, (Eng- 
lish) ; and from the age of the man, the inference is drava that he was a son of 
Holmee. After leaving here, the women toolc up her residenoe at Raccoon Yillnge. 
She lived to a very old age, and Ttaa known to many of the early settlers of Ft. Waynu. 
Mva, Snttenfleld's recolleetionB of the account she received are, that the Indiaan at the 
time of the conspiracy, (probubly induced by Godefroi and his ussoeiates) forced her 
lu act as sill! did towards Holmea, which is qiiiw prabablc. 



geoh in the fort, be would liave been more likely to have at least 
beep called on by, the Ensign than for Holmes to have gone :liim- 
eelf,) preceded by the Indian girl, he was soon withoat the enclo- 
sure of the garrison, and advancing with catitions steps in the di- 
rection of tho but ■wherein lay the object of his philanthropic mis- - 
eion. Nearing a cluster of hnts, whicb are described* to liave been 
situated at the edge of an open space, " hidden from view by an 
intervening spur of the woodland," the squaiv directed him to the 
iittt wherein lay the supposed invalid. Another inataut, — a fow 
more, paces,— and the sudden crack ot two rifles from behind the 
wigwam ifl view, felled Holmes to the eartli, and echoed, over the 
Jittie garrison, atarfcliog the guards and inmates into momentary 
surprise and wonder. Amid the confusion, the sergeant nnlhought- 
edly passed without the fort to ascertain the cause of the rifie 
shots. But a few paces were gained, when, with loud, triumphant 
shouts, he was sprung upon by the savages and made a captive ; 
which, in turn, brought the soldiers within, abont nine in aU, to 
the palisades of the garrison,, who clambered up to see the move- 
ment without, when a Canadian, of tlte name of Godfroi, (or 
Godfri) accompanied by " two other white men," stepped defiantly 
ibrth, and demanded a surrender of the fort, with tlie assurance to 
the soldiers that, if at once complied with, their liyes would be 
spared ; but, refusing, they should " all be killed witjiout a^ercy."t 

The, aspect before them was now sadly embarrassing. Witjiout a 
commander— without hope, andfuU of fear, to hesitate, seemed only 
to make death the more certain, and the garrison gate soqfi swung 
back upon its hinges ; the surrender was complete, and English 
rule, at this point-, and for ^ time, at Joast, had ceased tq exercise 
jta power. 

More than a hundred and four years hayp now rolled iiway since 
this eventful hour; and the placid and beautiful St. Jo^ph, (noai- 
^vhieh the fort stood), with its high embankments and overhanging 
boughs, sweeps as noiselessly and unpretendingly by tfie scene, as 
when the fort, with its bastions and palisades, overlooked its waters, 
iind the Indian huts, with their dusky inmates, dotted the a{ljacent 
localities ; while, in the distance, appears a beautiful city, with nu- 
merous tail spires and handsome edifices, covering more than two 
thousand acres of ground, and containing nearly thirty thousand 
inhabitants, whose busy tread, mechanical industry, active pur- 
suits, and habita of thoaght, tell of a glorious, free, and happy 
Future. In sQent awe, indifferent alike of the Past, the Present, 
and the Coming Time, the long line of buildings, gazing compla- 
cently, as it were, upon the scene of the ancient garrison, and the 
^ite of the Indian village, seem to say : "Whither and why have 

"111 the MSS. of th« ■' LoBB of tlio Poats." See His. of Conap. Pontiou, pagra 344 and 

tOnc atatenieiit is, they -were alt kiikii ; bxit i. iiayo liecn unable to fiud it 


72 IfisTOiiY oTi' Four Wayhjj. 

you vanished? Where are the yeai's that have gone by? And 
■why are WE here?" And the great clock, neap tie center, (the 
Court-liouse) looking from alt sides, momentarily responds : 


-c by Google 

CHAriEK Til. 

.t and teeming Present 

B iiraat and evenf.secnl Pasf," 

W, D, I 

itliiira to lliu boleagaced gavrisoii at Detroit— Aiil hourly expected — Anxiety of Ilia 
iamates — Pontine aolioita aid from the Canudiaue — Relief appro aohee tlie fort--^ 
"Brondaide" from a schooner — Pott4»wattamie8 and Wyandotte sue for peace — A 
calm comes over the ti'oubled watere — Fight at "bloodv bridga" — New recruits 
to the army of Ponti»« — Indians l>oard the aohooner "filadwjn" — A panic — Es- 
cape of the tcshbI — The siege abandoned by the main body of tiie tribes — Pontiae 
and his tribe loft alone to carry on the eiege — Pontiao abandons the siege — Starts 
for the Mawmee — A hard ■winter — Much suffering — Great council at Uiagara — A 
iiow eampaigQ against tHe western tribes — Bradstreet relieves the besi eged fort — 
Makes a treaty — -Speech of Wasaon — Captain Morris — He arriyee at tha oamp of 
Pontiao— Roufch treatment — Escapee — Eeaohes this point — Miamiea want to TiiH 
liim — Is lodged in old fort Miami— Taken across the St. Joseph — His final release 
and return to Detroit — Bradstreet's movements— Bouquet penetrates the Indian 
country — The oaptiTca — Indians snbdued— Croghan's visit to the -westr—His cap- 
ture— Meets Pontiao — Council at Ouiatenon—Croghan's return^ Visit to this point 
— His journal — His arrival at Detroit — Holds a conooil thei'e — Tha great oonnoil 
at Oswego— Pontine atteiida — -English rule again ill the west — Pontiao visits St. 
Louis — His death. 

^^ ETURNING- again to Detroit, we find the [ndians still active 
^^in their efi'orta to capture the garrison, and all within the pal- 
>,3^isade8 of the fort anxiously expecting the arrival of vessels 
fe^ with men and provisions. Pontiac had called a council with 
tlie Canadians, aud made a strong speech, and agaiu impor- 
tuned them to join him in the overthrow of the English. The 
Canadians had refused, on the ground, that the E'rench King and 


74: ilismitY OF i'l.niT Waixe. 

tlie Eu^liali had signed a paper. stipulating certain bounds, that 
then belonged to the English ; and beiiiic under Eiiglieh rule, the 
J'rench King having told them to remain still for a time, until he 
could come to theit relief, to join the Indiana would be to bring 
the wrath of the lling upon both tlie Canadians and the Indians, 
"But, my brothers," said the Canadian speaker, at the council with 
Pontiee, "yon must first untie die knot with which our father, the 
King, has bound us ;" and, though a few Tockleea characters among 
the Canadians are said to have joined the Indians at the time, in 
compliance with Fonfciac's desire, yet tlie effort was nevertheless 
a failure. Pontiac was defeated in his designs, and was destined 
soon to meet with utter failure in his effort to captm-e the gan'isou. 
On the 19th of June, Gladwyu had received news to the effect that 
a " vessel had been seen near Turkey Island, not far distant from 
Detroit; and the anxiety for her arrival became very great. On 
the 23d the vessel began to near the point of landing, opposite the 
fort, and the Indians could be seen in the distance preparing to 
make an attack upon her; -(yhich induced Gladwyn to fire two 
cannon shots, as well to put the Indians to flight as to let the vessel 
know all was yet safe within the fort. Haviug encountered some 
resistence on the part of the Indians, and desiring to move with 
care, several days now elapsed before the vessel succeeded in 
reaching the place of landing, beside another schooner that had 
for some time previously been Ijdng at anchor there. Bringing a 
supply of provision and a number of fresh recruits, the new schoon- 
era had readily become objects of no little aversion to the wild 
ussailants. On one occasion, shortly after the arrival of the last 
vessel, thinking to assail the .Indians with a few broadsides from 
some point in the stream, "Gladwyn himself, with several of his 
officers, had embarked on board tlie smaller vessel, while a fresh 
breeze was blowing from the northwest. The Indians on the 
bank stood watching her as she tacked from shore to s.hore, and 
pressed their hands against their months, in amazement, thinking 
that magic power alone could enable her thus to make her way 
against wind and current. Making a long reach from the opposite 
shore, she came on directly towards the camp of Pontiac, her sails 
eweliiug, her masts leaning over till the black muzzles of her guns 
almost touched the river. The Indians watched her in astonish- 
ment. On she came, till their fierce hearts exulted in the idea 
that she would run ashore within their clutches, when, suddenly a 
shout of command was heard on board ; her progress was arrested ; 
she rose upright, and her sails flapped and fluttered as if tearing 
loose from their fastenings. Steadily she came round, broadside 
to the shore ; then, leaning once more to the wind, bore away gal- 
lantly on the other tack. She did not go far. The wondering 
spectators, quite at a loss to understand her movements, soon heard 
the coarse ratfJing of her cables as the anchor dragged it out, and 
saw licr i'urling her vast white «di)gs. As they looked nnsuspect- 



iufrly on, a puif of smoke was emitted from her side ; a long report 
followed ; then another, and. another ; and tlie balls, rnafiing over 
their heads, fiew through the midst of their camp, and tore wildly 
among the thick forest trees beyond. All was terror and conster- 
nation. The startled warriors' bounded away on all sides; the 
squaws §natched up their children, and fled Bcneaming ; and, with 
a general chorus ot yelle, the whole encampment scattered in such 
hapte, that little damage was done, except kaocbing to pieces their 
frail cabins of bark,"* 

This procedure being followed by similar efforts, the Indiana 
now sought to destroy their new opposers l>y means of floating 
rafts of fire ; but all to no great purpose, as the vessels always 
managed to escape their contact. And thus the besiegers, with occa- 
sional new recruits, continued, in various ways, until the middle of 
July, when some Pottawattamies and Wyandotts sued for peace, 
which, under certain considerations, being granted, but little of in- 
terest is said to have occurred until the end of July, when the g:jr- 
rison was again reihforced by the anival, afier a sharp encounter 
■vyith the Indians, (those who had recently ma,de peace), of twontj-- 
t^'o barges, with about two hundred and eighty men, including 
" several small cannon, and a fresh supply o£ provisions and ammu- 

The new body of troops, undei' com,uaand of Captain DaizeU, a 
brave officer, who was killed soon after his arrival, were not long 
idle. On the Slat of July they moved out with a view of silently 
attacking the Indians at a certain point, afterwards known as the 
" bloody bridge." The Indiana heard of the movement, and lay in 
ambush. The fight was a short but bloody one for the English, 
loosing, as they did, abont fifty-nine men, killed and wounded, their 
captain among tjie unmher ; and the Indians some tifteeu or twenty, 
■wbich gvpatly elated the latter, who sent the Tiews to the tribes in 
every direction ; and " fi'esh warriors," wrote Gladwyn, soon began 
to "arrive almost every day ;'' until "upwards of a thousand" were 
thought by him to be engaged iu the attack under Pontiac. With 
a few Rlcinnishcs, now and then, nothing of special iutorest occurred 
until the night ol Septemberthe4th, when the schooner "Gladwyn", 
rotorning to Niagara, was attacked by the Indiana, not far from the 
fort, as she lay anchored in the stream, having been detained for 
the want of sufficient wind. The Indians, some three hundred in 
number, the night being densely dark, dropped silently down with 
the current, aud were unobserved until near the vessel, when a 
broadside, with musketry, was opened upon them, of whom 
many were killed ; but they soon began to board the vessel. " The 
master of the vessel was killed ; several of the crew were disabled ; 
and the assailants were leaping over the bulwarks, when Jacobs, 
the mate, called out t^ blow up the schooner," which "saved her 
aud her crew"— some af the Wyandotts, having comprehended " the 

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tti Hi h ui i r ^'l/ 1\. l 

meaning of his woids guiag' the ilarm to thoir companions, in- 
stantly causing everv Indnn to leip oveibo id in a pinic, ind the 
■whole were seen dicing and bwimmin^ oiTm lU dit eetiona to escape 
the threatened explosion * The schoonei 1 eing thus freed, and 
the Indians feaiing to m iLe further efloit, on the following morn- 
ing she sailed for the fort ani reached Niagara in satetj 

At length,' towards the Llose ot Scptcmbei hptring that 
a large lorce was coming to relieve the ^arriflon, and being 
weary of their lihois the Indiana with the 6\oeption of Pontiac 
and his tribe, the Ottaivos began to sue for peacC) and a tmce be- 
ing gi-anted them, they soon departed from the scene of the besieg- 
ed fort, and took to the forest to provide food for their families and 
obtain the fure and hides of the animals so long left unmolested. 

The Ottawas, irith Pontiac, being now lefJ; alone to carry on the 
siege, kept up the attack till the last of October, when, learning 
from the Prench that a lasting peace had been made between the 
ICrench and the English, and that aid from their French father, the 
King, was now no longer to be hoped for, " in rage and mortifica- 
tion," he left Detroit, and, with a number of his chiefs, "re- 
]jaired to the Eiver Maumee, with the design of stirring up tlie 
Indians in that quarter, and renewing hostilities in the spring/'t 

The winter proved. a hai-d one; a.nd the Indians suffered much 
&om cold and hnnger. The siege had exhausted their ammuni- 
tion ; the fur-trade having been interfered with, left them without 
many articles they had previously' been in the habit oi enjoying. 
]3ut before the cold had spent itself, Sir William Johnson had dis- 
patched messengers to many tribes, inviting them to a great peace- 
council, at Niagara, which was readily responded to ; and some 
two thousand warriors, were soon gathered about Niagara to meet 
and talk with Sir' WiUiam. 

There were yet, however, many who were still much embittered 
in theu' feelings towards the English, and would not attend the 

The "Menomenies, Ottawas, Ojibwas, Mississaugas, from the 
north, Oaughnawas, from Canada, even Wyandotts, from Detroit, 
with a host of Iroqaoia ;" while "the Sacs, I^'oses, and the Winue- 
bagoes had sent their deputies; and also (he Osagea, a tribe I 
yond the Mississippi, had their representatives in the ; 

The attitude of many of the tribes of the northwest, had early 
snperinduced a vigorous movement on the part of the English gov- 
ernment for their chastisement. 

The plan of this campaign embraced two armies,— one to bo 
led by Colonel Bouq^uet, aQd the other by Colonel Bradstreet, the 
former to move towards Fort Pitt, and to the country of t!:^e hos- 
tile Shawanoes and Delawares, along the Scioto and Muskingum 
rivers ; while Bradstreet was to push foi"fV-ard to Detroit, 

*Pjrtc!?.n. tlbid. 

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TllK HiEOlC AliA^iDOJlsEC HI" PoiJlIAC. 71 

Bradstreet had preceeded Bouquet, and being of a moat ambi- 
tious turn of miud, or at least quite anxious to do as much of the 
■work as possible, met some of the hostile tribes, on his march who, 
to delay the action of the army, sought for peace, and he concluded 
treaties with them, on certain stipulated gromids, a matter that be? 
longed entirely to Sir William Johnson. Supposing that he had 
9one about all the work, (though the Indians were then menacing 
the frontier settlements,) sent word to Bouquet to that efl'ect; and 
"while Bradstreet's troops were advancing upon the lakes, or lying 
idle in their camps at Sandusky, another expedition (Bouquet's) 
was in progress southward, with abler conduct and a more auspi- 
cious result."* 

On the 20th of August, Bradatreet reached the long-besieged 
fort of Detroit, which was a most happy moment, to Gladwyn and 
his little coi-ps of soldiers within the garrison, who had been more 
or less beset by the beseigers up to that time, — the Indiaps, having 
resumed hostilities, in' t!ie spring, as proposed by Pontiac — a 
period of upwards of tlfteen months. 

Before quiting Sandusky, Bradstreet had commissioned and sent, 
one Captain Monis, an Englishman, accdmpanied by a number of 
Oauadiaus and friendly Inclians, as attendant-s, tdwarda the country 
<if the Illinois to treat with and bring the Indians of that portion of 
the west to friendly terms. 

Pontiac and his followers, suUen and inti-actable, had left De- 
troit, and again taken up his abode, for the time, on the Maumecj 
a few miles beloW the present site of Porf Wsiyne, whence he is 
said to have " sent a haughty defiance to the English conimander " 
at Detroit : and man)' of the Indians about Detroit had gone with 
l-*ontiac, leaving there but a few remnant tribes, who, for the most 
part, exhibiting a desire for peace, Bradati-eet sooii gave them an 
opportunity to express their sense of feeling in this reiatidn, and a 
council was held with this view, at that point, on the TtJi of Sep- 

Upon the condition, — which they are said to have happily not 
understood at all, and which, not understanding, they readily ac- 
cepted, — " that they become subjects of the King of" England," — a 
treaty of peace was concluded with them. 

At this council were present portions of the Miamics, Pottawat- 
tiimiea, Ottawas, Ojibwas, Sacs, and Wyandotts. S-iid Wsisson, 
an Ojibwa chief, to the English commander, on this occasion : 

" My Brother, last year God forsook us. God has now opened 
our eyes, and we desire to be heard. It was God's will you had 
such fine wenther to come to us. It is God's will also that there 
should be peace and trauquiHty over the face of the earth and of 
the -waters'" — openly acknowledging that "the tribes he ropre- 

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78 IIisTOKY OF I'oivr ^Vayne. 

Ronted were justly chargeable with tho war, and deeply rcgreted 
their absence." 

But let us look after Morris and his companions, who are now 
rowing, ae rapidly aa their streogth and the current will admit, up 
the beautiful Maumee. 

Ascending this stream in a canoe, runs the narrafion,* he soon 
approached the camp of'Foutiac,who, as we have seen, had with- 
drawn to the banks of this river, with his chosen warriors. While 
yet at Bome distance, Morris and his partj' were met by about two 
hundred Indiana, who treated him with great violence, while they 
oii'ered a friendly welcome to the Iroquois and Canadian attend- 
ants. Accompanied by this clamorous escort, all moved together 
towards the camp. At its outskirts stood Pontiac himself. He 
met the ambassador with a scowling brow, and refused to offer his 
hand, " The ^English are liars," was hie first fierce salntatidm He 
then displayed a letter addressed to him&elf, and pm-portingtohave 
l)eon written by the King of France^ containing, as Morris declared, 
"the grossest calumnies whicli the most ingenioos malice could 
devise, to incense the Indians against the English." The old stoiy 
had not been forgotten. "YbiJr French Father," said the writeE, 
" is neither ilead nor asleep ; he is already on liis way, ivitli sixty 
great ships, to reveiige himself on tlie English, and drive them out 
of America. It is evident, concluded the account, " that the let- 
ter had emenated from a French officer, or more probably a French 
fur-trader, who, for his own aggrandizment, sought to arouse the 
antipatl^r of the natives to the detriment and farther encroachment 
of the SnglieH ; and Bfadsti-eet, for not having brought the Indiana 
to a state of Subjection b&fore his departure Irom Sandusky, is in 
no little degree censured for the result of If orris' subsequent efforts 
and hai-sh treatnient in meeting with Pontiac; for the fact of so 
many of the Indians bSing held as prisoners by the English, at De- 
troit, even acted as a powerful check to tlie Ottawas in theii- action 
towards Morris. 

"The Indians led me," saysMorris,t "np to a person, who stood 
advanced before two slaves, (prisoners of the I'anis nation, taken 
in war and kept in slavery,) who had arms, himself holding a 
fusee, with the butt on the ground.. By his dress and the air he 
assumed, he appeared to be a French officer : I afterwards found 
he was a native of old France, had been long in the regular troops 
as a drummer, and that his war-name was St. Vincent. This fine- 
dressed, haK-French, half-Indian fignre desired me to dismount ; a 
bear-skin was spread on the ground, and St. Yincentand I sat upon 

*A9 coinnilctl from Mon'w' own statement and tho testiinonv of the Canadian and 
Indiau giii3es. See History of the Comp. of Pontiao, pages 4ii9 to 474, and in Ajjpen- 
dix F. 

tSayg Park man : "jMorris apjiearato Iiave Ueen a peifiou of atrong literary tasteB. 
His portcoit, prefixed to tlie littic volume, {containing this narratjon) exhibits n round 
Sngliah faoo and ftatires more indioatiTe of plaoid good Imnior t!iaii of iJie resolution 
whicli must have uhuraetemed Jiirn." The vohime ri-'feired to, was publialied in 
!..miion, In n;n, ill cuiiiiivtiiin wilh (.tlic matter oC n iinRw-Uaneons ebarsfitfv. 


MOKKIS AND HI9 CrL-Iims AiilUVli Heke, 79 

it, the whole Indian army, circle within circle, standing round us. 
Godefroi sat at a little distance fronius; and presently came Poa- 
diac,* and squatted himaelf, after liis fashion, opposite tO|mo. Thia 
Indian," i?ontinuea he, " has a more extensive power than ever was 
known anionic that people ;,for every chief nsed to command, his 
own tribe : but eighteen nations, by French intrigue; had been 
brought to unite, and chase this man fdr their commander, alter 
the English had conquered Canada ; having been taught to believe, 
that, aided by France, they might make a vigorous push and drive 
US out of North America," ***** "Pondiac said to 
my chief: ' If you have made peace with the English, we have no 
business to make war on them. The war-belt came from yon.' Ho 
afterwards said to Godefroi; 'Iwilllead the nations to war no more; 
let'em be at peace, if they chuse it; but I myself will never be a 
friend to the English, I shall now become a wanderer in the 
woods ; and if they eome to seek me there, while I h-Ave an arrow 
left I will shoot at them.' 

"He made a speech to the chiefs," continues Morris, "who 
wanted to put me to death; which does him honor ; and shows that 
he was acquainted with the law of nations ; ' We mnst not,' said he^ 
' kill ambassadors ; do we not send them to the Flat-heads, our 
greatest enemies, and they to us ? Yet those are always treated 
with hospitahty.' " , 

After relieving the party of all but their eanoe, clothing-, and 
arms, they were permitted toresame their coarse without further 

Quitting the inhospitable camp of Pontiac, with poles and pad- 
dles, against ,a strong current, they continued theii; eoui'se up 
the beautifnl Maumee, and, in seven days from theii- first out^set; 
in the morning, tliey arrived and made a landing, within sight oi" 
Fort Miami, (at this point) which, from the time of its capture^ 
after the death of Holmes, the previous year, had been without a 
gamsoD,itB only occupants being a few Oanadians who had erec- 
ted some huts within its enclosure^ together with a amall number 
of Indiana who made it their place of shelter for a time. The 
open points in the locality of the fort, at that time^ were princi- 
pally covered with the wigwams of the Kickapoos, qnite a large 
body of whom having but lately reached here. On the opposite 
side,"!" covered by an interv-ening sti-ip of forest, quite hideii from 
view, stood the Miami villages. 

Having brought, the canoe to a place of landing, a short distance 
below the fort^ and began the adjustment of some necessary affah-s, 
*TliefOn)lef etjlcofspolling the namo, or at least as vibiibIIv spelt by the English nt 
tUat time. 

tAt tlie pfiriod ot Morfis' amyal at tLis point, and for many juaffi after, Slie reader 
' ' infer that tlie huto of the Miainiea extended on both sideis of tbe St. Joseph, dot.- 



bis attendants strode off tlirongli the strip of woods* towards the 
village; and it is stat-ed as most fortunate that ho thus remained 
behind, for, scarcely had his attendants reached the open space be- 
yonA the woods, when they were met by a band of savages, armed 
with spears, hatchets, and bows and arrows, resolutely determining 
to destroy the Englishman, Morris.f Not yet per&eiTing him, tile 
chieife accompanying Morris, began at oiice to address them, and 
to endeavor to dissuade them from their purpose, which had the 
desired effect, at least, in so far aa taking his life was concernedi 
Coming up, in a few moments, to the point where Morris stoodj 
they at once began to threaten him and treat him very roughly, 
and took him to the fort, where he was commanded to remain, lor- 
bidding the Canadians there to permit liim to enter their huts. A 
deputation of Shawanoe and Delaware chiefs, which tribes,' the 
reader will remember, were at that time making great prepara- 
tions to move against the English, though pretending to be friendly, 
had recently come to the Miami village here, with fourteen war- 
belts, and with a vi^w of arousing the MiamieS again to ai-tns against 
the English; and it was to these that was mainly ascribed the cause 
of Morris' treatment on his arrival here, From this point they had 
proceeded westward, arousing a similar spirit among aU the 
tribes from the Mississippi to the Ohio, avoVring that they would 
neVer make friends wifh the English — that they would fight them 
as long as the sun shone ; and earnestly pressed the Illinois tribes 
to join tJiem in their terrible determinatitin. 

But Morris had not long remained at the fort, before two Miami 
warriors came to him, and, with raised tomahawks, grasped him 
by the arms, forced him without the gari'ison, and led him to the 
river. Walking foi-ward into the waier with him, Morris' first 
thought was that the Indians sought to drown him, and then take 
his scalp ; but, instead, they led him across the stream, then quite 
low, and moved towards the center of the Miami village, on the 
west side of the St. Joseph. Nearing the wigwams, the Indians 
ceased to go farther, and at once sought to undress him ; but finding 
the task rather difficult, they became {[uite angiy thereatj 
and Morris himself, " in rage and despair," "tore off his uniform." 
Then tying his arms behind him -with his own sash, the Indians 
drove him forward into the village. Speedily issuing from all 
the wigwams to see and receive the prisoner, in great numbers, 
the Indians gathered about him, "like a swai'm of augiy bees," 
giving veut to temfic yells—" sounds compared to which, the noe- 
tmTial bowlings of starved wolves are gentle and melodions."J The 
largest poi-tion of the villagers were for killing him ; but a division 
arising between thom, aa to what was best to do with him, readily 

*This point must have been near or just below tlie oon 
Si. Josepn. A visit W ami little surrey of all tlieaepoiutSi 
iiiiercflting- and fumiliui' to the thoTightliil and eurioiis. 

i-Ris, 0™sp. r.intidO, p 4'ii. trnvfcmfln, 


Houea Teeatment oc Moeeb at the Miami Villa&e. 8 1 

rlevoloped a vociferous debate ; when two of tlie Canadians, of the 
hamea of G|-odefroi and St. Vincent, who had accompanied him to 
this point, and who had now followed him to the village, came for- 
ward and began to intercede with the chiefs in behalf of their pris- 
oner. A nephew of Pontiac was among the chiefs, — who is rep- 
resented as a yonng man, possessing much of the bold epirit of liis 
uncle, and who heroically spoke against the propriety of kilHing the 
prisoner ; and Godefroi desisted, saying " that he would not see 
one of the Englishmen put to death, when so many of the Indians 
were in the hands of the army at Detroit." A Miami chief, called 
the Swan, is also represented as having protected the prisoner, and 
cut the sash binding his arms. Morris, beginning now to speak in 
his own defense, was again seized by a chjef called the White Cat, 
and bonnd to a post by the neck ; at which another chief, called the 
Pacanne, rode up on horseback, cnt the band With his hatchet, at 
once giving Morris his freedom again, exclaiming, as he did so, " I 
give this Englishman hia life. If yon want English meat, go to 
Detroit or to the lake, and you wUl find enough of it. What busi- 
ness have yon with this man, who has come to speak with us?" 

The determined will and bold words of Paeanne had the desired 
eifect. A change of feehug now readily began to show itself; and 
the prisoner, without further words or beating from any of the crowd, 
was eoan violently driven out of the village, whither he soon made 
his way to the fort. On his way, however, it is stated, an Indian 
met Mm, and, witli a stick, beat his exposed body. 

His position was now most critical ; and while the Canadians in 
the fort were disposed to protect him, they were yet loth to lay 
themselvea liable to distrast or danger ; and the same warriors who 
liad taken him to the village, were now lurking about, ready to em- 
brace the first opportunity to kill him ; while the Kickapoos, near 
by, had sent him word that, if the Miamiea did not kill him, they 
would whenever he passed their camp. Again, on the eve of set- 
ting out on his journey to the Blinoie, notwithstanding the dan- 
gers now thickening about him, and' the great distance yet before 
him, Ms Canadian and Indian attendants sti-ongly urged him not to 
proceed farther ; andj on the evening of this day, they held a coun- 
cil with the Miami chiefs, wherein it became the moro evident that 
Ms situation was moat perilous, and that any attempt to continue 
his journey would be most disastrous ; and wMle many messages 
were continually reaching him, threatening to put an end to his 
life, should he attempt to fulfill his mission, report was also con- 
veyed to him that several of the Shawanos deputies were then re- 
turning to the garrison expressly to kill him. Tinder these circum- 
stances, readily abandoning hia determinatiori to proceed iarfcher, 
he soon began to row his bark towai-ds Detroit, whither he arrived 
on the l7th of September. Not finding Bradsti-eet there, as he had 
anticipated, he having returned to Sanduslty, and Morris, now quit© 
weary and fatigued, unable to p].'OC'''ed favtbcr, from the hxdships 

(61 tlostedbyCjOOgle 


lie had undergoue,^ soon sent the former an account of his efforts, Ifl 
wliich, together with the facte already presented, was the folloTving, 
bearing date September 18 ; 

" Xhe villains have nipped our fairest hopes in.the b,ud, I trem- 
l)le for yon at Sandusky ; thongh I was pleased to find you have 
one of the veseels with you, and ai'tillery. I wish the chiefs were 
assembled on board.the vessel, and that she had a hole in her bot- 
tonii TreacheTy shoold be paid with ti-eachei'y ; and itis inore 
than ordinary pleasure to deceive those who would deceive us.*' 

Bcadstreet'e main object in returning to Sandusky, was to fiilfili 
liis promise with the Delaware and Shawauoe ambasBadors to meet 
themat that point, — about the period of Moiiis' return, — to receive 
the prisoners helA by them, and conclude a ti-eaty of peace. The 
depuCatiori not coming to time, left him much disappointed for sev- 
eral days, when a uuinber of warriors of these tribes came to Brad- 
street's camp with the plea, that, if he would not attack them, they 
would bring the prisoners the next week, which Bfadsti-eet readily 
accepted, and, removing his camp to the carrying-place of Sandus- 
ky, lay in waiting for the Indians and ■ the prisoners. Soon receiv- 
ing a letter from Genera! Gage, condemQatfljy of his course, — ^in- 
sisfcihg that his mode, of treatment with the Indians was inadequate 
to effect any good results with them, and ordering him to break en- 
gagements with them, and move upon the enemy at once, — close 
tipon the receipt of which also came the journal of Captain Morris, 
euabhng him readily to see "how' signally he had been duped ; " 
though subsequent facts proved that some good did result from 
Efadstreet's eonrse with the Indians at Detroit, as many of them 
h-id oecome more reasonable anid tranquil iu their actions. Bo- 
coming dispirited and ni>t seeing fit to comply with Gage'a 
commands, he broke up his camp at Sandusky, imd wended 
Ida way Towards Niagara, meeting with many disasters on his voy- 
nge thither. 

T.10 expedition under Booquefc, to the southwai'd, had now done 
the work. Having penetrated to the center of the Delaware towns, 
and into ilie most esteasive settleinents of the Shawantes, abont 150 
miles from Fort Pitt, to the northwest, with a large body of regular 
aiid provincial ti-oops, he soon humbled these wily and unrelenting 
irilseE, and speedily compelled them to deKver aU the prisoners in 
their possession. 

Duiing the frontier straggles^ for some years prior to Uouquet'a 
campaign, hundreda of families along the bordters had been mas- 
/iftered and many carried away to the forest by the Indians ; and 
\v\iBii Bouquet started on his expedition against the Shawanees and 
Delai^apes, in the interiar, Jealving the border settlements, he was 
eagerly joined by many wlto, years before, had lost their friends. 
Among the many prisoners iJrought into the camp of Bouquer, 
(over two huiidrfsd, in all,) white in the settlements of these tribes, 
liusbands" ionvAl fJlGlr wives, aiid parents tlieir children, from whom 

Hosted byGoOgle 

Bouquet akti TtiE CAfiivEs— EPirfXiTisG Scene. 83 

lliey Iiad h&en aeparated for years. Women, fmntic between hope 
and fear, were running hither and thifclier, looking pierciogly into 
the face of "every child, to find their own, which, perhaps, had 
died — and then such shrieks of agony I . Seme of the little captives 
shrankfrom their oWn forgotten motliers, and hid in terror in the 
blankets of the squaws that had adopted them. Some that had 
been taken away yonng, had grown tip and marriedlndiau huebands 
or Indian wives, now stood ntterly bewildered with conflicting 
emotions. A young Virginian had fonnd his wife ; bnt liia littlo 
boy, not two Jeai's old when captured, had been torn from her, and 
had been carried offno on^ knew whither. One day, a warrior canJe 
in leading a. child. No one seemed to own it. But soon the mother 
knew her offepring, and screaming with joy, folded her sou to her 
bosom. An old woman had lost her granddaughter in the French 
war, nine years before; Ail her other relatives had died nnder the 
knife, y'earching, with trembling eageraesa, in each face, ahe at 
last recognized the altered features of her child. But the girl had 
forgotten her native tongue, and returned no auswer, and made no 
sign. The old woman groaned, and complained bitterly, that the 
daughter she had so often sung to sleep on her knees, had forgotten 
her in her old ago. Soldiers and ofacers were alike overcome, 
" Sing," eaid Boucpiet to the old lady, " sing the song you used to 
sing." As the low trembling tones began to ascend, the wild girl 
gave one sudden start, then listening for a moment longer, her 
frame shaking like an ague, she burst into a passionat6 Hood of 
tears. She was indeed the lost child. All else had been effaced 
from her memory, savfe the recollection of that sweet song of her 
infancy. She had heard it in her drepms.* The t-ender sensibili- 
ties and affectionate throbhings so often manifesteij by the civil- 
ised soul under lieavy affliction, were feelings foreign, as a general 
rule, to the Indian heart His temperament was iron ; he had ever 
been niirtnredin an opposite condition of gTOWth; and, conse- 
quently, he is said to have held such expressions of the heart in con- 
tempt; but when the song of the old lady was seen by them to 
touch tlie captive's heart and bring her again to a mother's arms, 
they were overcome with emotion, and the heart of the Indian beat 
heavily nnder the weight of feeling that suddenly convulsed him 
as he gazed ■upon the strange scene then enacted. 

Many captive women who returned to the settlements with their 
friends soon after mdde their esca]ie, and wandered back to their 
Indian husbands again, so great was the change that had taken 
place in their natures. Such was the magnetic power of the Indian, 
and the mlds of the forest over the civilized soul. 

The English having now subdued the tribes of the Borthwest, 
and completed definite treaties with theifl St Niagara, began to 
contemplate a further move to the WPff and noi'tli, with a view to 
securing the country and posts ft-loHg the JlUft'^is ^"^.A Mississippi; 

' '■ Rlati;3 n.ifl Tsvdiiori^s of the WraC"" VW ''^'- >■**■■ 

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8i HiSTOEY Off FOKT WiiaE. 

of wiiich Poiifiac soon "became aware, and, leaving his placG of 
geclusipn on the Maumee, where Morris had met him and received 
such harsh treatment at the hands of hia warriors, with four jmn- 
(Ired of his chiefs, about tlie close of autumn, passed up to this 
point, (Foi-t Wayne) and, after a short stay, on to the Wahash, and 
thence to the Mississippi, arousing the tribes at every point to pre- 
pare to meet and destroy the English; and, having gained the 
French Settlements and other places where the French traders and 
Iiabitan^ were to be met, and where the flag of France was Still 
displayed, (for the French held the countrj' about the Illinois, Mis- 
sissippi, and to the southward, as far as New Orleans, for some 
time after the loss of Canada and the upper posts,) the French fiu-- 
traders and engagees, who dreaded the rivaby of the English in the 
fur-ti'ade, readily gave encooragement to Pontiae and his followers, 
stiU insisting that the King of France was again awake, and Lis 
great armies were coming; "that the bayonets of the vphite-coated 
warriors would Soon glitter amid the forests of the Mississippi." 
But Pontiae seemed doomed to disappointment and failure ; and, 
after repeated effortsj having visited ISiew Orleans, to gain the aid 
of the Frencli governor of Louisiana, he returned again to the west. 
Determining to try the.virtaes of peace proposals in advance of 
the army to the westward and southwajd, Sir William Johnson 
sent forward tvpo messengers, Lieut. Eraser and George Croghan, 
to treat with the Indians on the Mississippi and Illinois. After 
many hardships, and the loss of their stores, through the severity 
of the winter, &c., they reached Fort Pitt, where, after some delay 
j*nd the severe cold had subsided, with a few attendants. Eraser 
■•oade his way safely down the Ohio for a thousand miles, wherej 
coming to a halti he met with very rough treatment from the In- 
dians. A short time after, in the month of May, Croghan, with 
some Shawnoe and Delaware attendants, also moved down the Ohio, 
as far as the mouth of the Wabash, where, being fifed upon by a 
party of Kickapoc*, and several of the attendants killed, Crogban 
and the remainder were taken prisoners, whither they proceeded to 
Yincennes, where, finding many friendly Indians, he was well re- 
ceived, and the Kickapoos sti-ongly censured for their work. From 
this point they went to Ouiatenon, arriving there on the 23d, where 
also Croghan met a great tnauy friendly Indians. Here he began 
to make- preparations ibr a council, and was met by a large num- 
ber of Indians, who smoked the pipe of peace with him. Soon re- 
ceiving an invitation, from St. Ange, to visit Fort Ohartres, lower 
down, Croghan, accompanied by a large number of Indians, left 
Oniatenon for that point, and had not journeyed far when they met 
Pontiao and a large body of chieis and warriors. Pontiae shook 
the hand of Croghan, who at once returned with the party to Ouiate- 
ngn, where a jpreat concourse of chiefs and warriors were gathered, 
l^flRtiac complained that the French had deceived him, and 
differed fhe caJiiTnet and ppacR-bfll:, professing strong concniTenco 


Ceogiiah's Joursal. 85 

with the Ouiafcenoii cliiefe in their expressions of friendship for the 

At the conclusion of this meeting, collecting the tribes here he 
had desired to meet, he soon took up his line of march, followed 
by Pontiac and a large mimher of chiefs, and set out towards De- 
troit, crossing over to this point, Fort Miami, and the village ad- 

Having kept a regular journal of his mission, filling it up at. 
every point on the route,— from T^rbich the ibregoiiig is princi- 
pally drawn, — while here, he wrote, 

" August \st, (1765). The Twigtwee (Twighfcwee) village is sit- 
uated on both sides of a river, called Sf, Joseph? Tliis river where 
it falls into the Miami (Maumee) river, about a quarter of a mile 
irom this place, is one hundred yards wide, on the east side of 
which stands a stockade fort, somewhat ruinous.* 

" The Indian village consists of about forty or fifty cabins, be- 
sides nine or ten French houses, a runaway colony from Detroit, 
during the late Indian war ; they were concerned in it, and being 
afraidof punishment, came to this point, where ever since they 
have spirited up the Indians against the English. * * * * » 
The country is pleasant, the soil is rich and well watered. After 
several conferences with these Indians, and their delivering me up 
all the English prisoners they had, on the 6th of August we set out 
for Detroit, down the Miamis river in a canoe. 

"August yith. — In the morning we arrived at the fort, (Detroit) 
which, is a large stockade, inclosing about eighty hdnses ; It stands 
close on the north side of the river, on a high bank, commands a 
very pleasant prospect for nine miles above, and nine miles below 
the fort; the country is thickly settled with Frerjch, their plantations 
are generally laid about three or four acres in breadth on the river, 
and eighty acres in depth ; the soil is good, producing plenty of 
,grain."t Says the Canadians were both poor and idle, — some 300 
or 400 families, depending mainly upon the Indians for subsistence; 
had adopted the Indian manners and customs, r3,ising but little 
grain, and all, men, women, and children, speaking the Indian lan- 
guage perfectly well, etc. 

Many Qttawas, Pottawattamies, anij Ojibwas were now assem- 
bled, and, in the same old council hall where Pontiac, some months 
before, by stratagem, had essayed to overthrow the English,, great 
throngs of relenting warriors readily convened in obedience to the 
call of the English ambassador. The expressions among the tribes 
and deputies of tribes present, was one of mingled repentence and 
regret; and on the twenty-seventh of Ai^gi^st, Croghan addressed 
them, after their own figurative style, as follows: 

"Children, we are very glad to see so many of you here present 
*ABy one, from tliie aooount, can nt any Hme esBily naaerUiii tlie sit* of tlie olil 
Eiiglieh Sort, Miami, of mhioli the rendur ie fllrcody quite familiar. 
r WestefU 4anak," pogtfs 184 auil 18S. 

-c by Google 

86 HiSiOKY OF i'OKT WAYHi;. 

at your ancient conn oil- fli'e, wide}! fcas been neglected for some 
time past ; since then, higli winds have blown, and raised heavy 
clouds over your country. I now, by this belt, rekindle your an- 
cient fire, and tlirow <\ry wood upon it, thaf fhe blaze inay ascend 
to heaven, so tfaaj; all nations may see it, an4 know that you live . in 
peace and ti'a.uquility with yonr fathers the English. 

"By this belt I disperse all the black clouds from over your 
heads, that the sun may sbine deal on joui woman and children, 
that those unborn may enjoy the blessings of this general pe tec, 
now so happily settled between your fathers the Engiish and you, 
and all your younger bretiu'en to the buu aettm^ 

" Children, by this belt I gatlier up all the bones ol your de 
ceiwed frj^nda, and bury them deep in the ground, tbat tlte buds 
and sweet flowers of , the earth may grow over them, that wo may 
not see them any moire, 

" Ohildi'en, ;with this belt I take the Ijatchft out of yout hands, 
and pluck up a large tree, and bujy it deep, so fhat it piaj never 
be founi any more ; and I plant the tiee of peace, which all our 
children may sit under, and smoke in peace with their fathers, 

" Children, we have made a road from the sunrising to the sun- 
setting. I desire that you will .preserve that road good and pleas- 
ant to travej upon, that we may all share the blessing of this 
happy uujop." 

Closing this great peace-gathering about the last of September, 
1765, and after exacting a promise from Pontiac that be would 
visit Oswego in the spring, and, in. behalf of all the tribes he had 
so recently led gainst the English, conclude a treaty of peace and 
amity with Sir William Johnson, Croghan left the scene of his suc- 
cessful labors, and wendeij hie way towards Niagara. 

About tlio period of the first snow, the 42d regiment of High- 
lander B, a hundred strong, having moved down the Ohio, from Port' 
Pitt, commanded by Capt. SterHng, ai-rived at Fort Ohai-tres. The 
Jl&ur de lis of France was soon lowered ; and, in its stead, the Eng- 
lish planted their standard and forever desti-oyed the French 
power in America — holding, as the English then did, and for 
many years subsequent, all the western posts, &om Canada to the 
Uiinois — which left the Indians also with but little to hope for. 

When spring came, Pontiae, true to his word, with bis canoe, 
left his'oM home on the Maumee, for Oswego, whither he soon ar- 
rived, and where he made a great speech, and " sealed his submis- 
sion to the English" forever. 

His canoe laden with the presents he had received at the great 
council of Oswego, he rowed rapidly toward the' Maumee again, 
where' he ii said to have spent the IbUowing winter, living "in the 
forest with liis wives and children, and hunting like an ordinaiy 
warrioi-." In the spring of 1767, considerable discontent began 
again to manifest itsoif among the tribes " from the lakes to the 
Potomac,'' and from which eventually came the spilling of much 



blood, as at formei- periods, along the frontier, Tlie Indiaug ijad 
been disturbed in the poesesaion of their lands, and had be^on an- 
other terrible reBentment. Pontiac had now long strangely kept 
ont of the way. Whether lie had been party to the agitation along 
the border or not, was not known ; but many had their suspicions. 
For two yeaiB snbsequent to this period, Pontiac seems to have 
kept eo close, some where, that few, if any, bat his own imme- 
diate friends, perhaps, knew or heard of his whereabouts. In the 
month of April,* 1769, however, he seems again to have visited 
the Illinois, and though not kno-wing that he bad anything special 
in view, yet the English in that region were excited by his move- 
ments, From this point, he soon after started for the (then) French 
aettlement of St. Lonis, (Mo.), where he was soon after murdered. 

The account of his deaUi, as derived fi-om the most reliable 
sources, is, that he wap killed by an Illinois Indian, of the Kaskas- 
Ida tribe ; that he had been to a feast with some of the French 
Creoles of Oahokia, opposite the pcesentsito of tlie city of St. Louis, 
and became drnnk. Leaving the place of carousal, and entering 
an adjacent forest, the miyderer, stole quickly upon him and dis- 
patched him with- his tomahawk, striking him on the head; that 
the assassin had been instigated to the act by an Englishman of 
the name of WilUamson, who had agreed to give him a baiTel of 
whisky, with a promise of something besides, if he would kill tlie 
Ottawa chieftain, which he readily accepted. Says (iomn's ac- 
count : 

" From Miami (here) Pontiac went to Fort Ohartres, on the Uli- 
uoia. In a few years, the English, who had possession of the fort, 
procured an Indian of the Peoria nation to kill him. The news 
spread like lightning throngh the country. The fcdiana assembled 
in great numbers, attacked and destroyed all thp Peorias, except 
about thirty' families, which were received intd the fort." And 
the death of Pontiae was revenged. His spirit could rest in peace. 
Such was Indian usage. And thus closed the career of one of Na- 
ture's most singular and resolute types of aboriginal character ; of 
whom Croghan wrote ihhis jom-nal and sent to Gen. Gage in 17(35: 
'• Pontiac is a shrewd, sensible Indian, of few words, and com- 
ma;nds more respect among his own nation than any Indian X 
ever saw coidd do among his own tribe.'' 

*It WS6 inlliiB yanj.' that a definitive ceaaioii of the province of LouiBiiuio, — ivhioli 
liad formerly extended over' the entire temtory now known as tlie StaW of India Tia, — 
■wm terminoletl (becaqse pf the graat loases BOBtoinud at various times in its iuainteii- 
ance by tiie French government) between JJ'ranoe and Spain, Uia latter becoming, — by 
secret freaty; made some yeiviB prior, (1764) between Lonis 14th, ifud the lung of 
Spain, — «6le poasessor of the piovince. And the Hnrrender of St, Louie, by St, Ause, 
■witii the BngliBh ahi;a(ly in posaessiori of all Louisiana east of the MisBiiaippi, eloBod, 
foveva- tiiQ dominion of the Frenclt in the How World. 


CHAl'TER Yill. 

" A souna Hko a sound of thunder rolled. 
And tlio heart of ft nation stirred — 
For fao bell of Pre«dom at taidnight tolled, 
Throngli h mighty land was heard, 

It ■was heard by the fettered nnd the brave — 
It was heard in the cottj^e, and in the hall— 
And its uhiwe ffve a glorioue EnmiaonB to all." 

Wm. Ross Wallace. 

Tlie struggle for Indepondenee — Ca\iaeo that led to the Kevolulion — The men of '7G — : 
Triumph over old tonditiouB — Fiual treaty ot peace — Foreshadowinsa of former 
ages realised in. the founding of tiie New Rfdpublic. 

fS the great eaiih upon which wo live swings with a lighter 
air in its orbit as the many inharmonious conditions and the 
great forests upon its surface are cleared away and reduced 
to aahes by the necesBitiea of improvement, so the advancing 
tide of human civilisation brings^ to the circumambient air of 
human relations a less rarefied and more' brilliant atmosphere of 
intellectual strength and love of freedom. 

But the great soul of nature is never still — never ceases to act, 
to push forward, as with some imponderable impulse, to work out 
and develop a great and beautiful Future ; and scarcely had the 
French and Indian war of 1759 and 1760 ceased its action, -when 
the colonial settlements of the New World began to exhibit a 
spirit of dissatisfaction, produced by the acts of the English par- 
liament, and King, that foreshadowed in the (then) not far distant 
future a momentous and long-protracted struggle ; ^ and the heroic 
James Otis, then advocate-general of the province of Massaclmsetts, 
replying to Gridley, advocate for the crown, readUy gave new 
strength and vigor to the foreshadowing. Said he, with great em- 
phasis, on the occasion in qnestion : " To my dying day, I will op- 
pose, with all the power and faculties God has given me, a!l snch 
mstraments {WHtg of Assistance for the collection of revenue irom 
the colonists) of slavery on one hand, and viUainy on the other." 
The same formidable power, Tpvifch colonial aid, that had crushed 



and despoiled the French in Canada, and, for a time, mainly sub- 
dued the Indians of the northwest, had now (1761) begun to pre- 
eent a rigorous front towards tlie coJonista ; and though this point, 
a £ew years subsequent to the formidable effort of Pontiac, against 
the English, had remained in comparative quiet, in bo far, at least, 
as the Mstoric accounts run, yet, as step by step the struggle for 
Independence continued, and at length the strengthened voice of 
civilization on the new continent, echoing along the ridges of the 
Alleghanies and through the massive gloom of forest towards the 
setting sun, startJing the little English garrisons at Detroit and 
other points into momentary activity, and a-wakeniug again the 
aboriginal tribes to a new consideration of their future, this again 
readily became a point of the gi-eateet importance in both a civil 
and mJHtary point of view ; and dearly was it bought by the efforts 
of the Americ^in army, as will be seen in subs eq\ient pages. 

The lirst struggle on the new continent had readily scattered the 
seed that was to bring forth a second, a third, and a fourth revolu- 
tion. And, as the accelerated action of the globe becomes less com- 
motionate and easier in its rotative movement, as the refining pro- 
cess of its surface advances,and its internal heatand compressed air 
are reduced and evolved through volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, 
and fissury expansion, so the new colonial settlements were des- 
tined only to enjoy a wider range of social and governmental Free- 
dom in proportion as they removed the barriers of the forest, and 
became earnest, efScient, and resolute in action against the further 
aggression and power of the British Crown on the new continent ; 
and, as this germ of glorious determination and advancement in 
the establishment of tree institutions seemed only destined to ex- 
pand to a fail' expression of vital force and activity through the ag- 
gressive movements of the EngKsh Government; so the latter be- 
gan to exercise an undue control over the colonies of the New 
world, by a gradual disturbance, in various ways, oi their colonial 
relations^ — at one time interfering with the charter of Connecticut ; 
at another, levying heavy duties upon certain articles of importa- 
tion into America ; and the adoption, soon after, of strenuous meas- 
ures for the collection thereof — insisting that the colonists should 
defray the expenses of the French andludian war, upon the ground 
that it had been waged in defence of the colonies. 

Intense discord and excitement rapidly arose among the colon- 
ists. The people gathered at different points. Declamation met 
declamation. Protest followed protest ; and the agitation was still 
increased by the passage of the famous " Stamp Act," by the 
English Parliament of 1766, which imposed heavy stamp duties 
upon all newspapers, almanacs, bonds, notes, etc., issued in Amer- 
ica. And again determination followed determination. Kesis- 
tance became universal and uncontrollable. The spirit of Free- 
dom had found a place in every trae colonial heart ; and resistence, 
even to the sword and bayonet, if need be, became at length a fixed 


90 HloTOItY OF FoilT V/AYNK. 

and unalterable determination throughout the coli^nies. Patrick 
Henry, araicl the crigs of " Treason ! " " Troaaon ! " in the House of 
BurgeBses, in Virginia, tjirilled the masses with a magnetic iire of 
determination t^at gave new impetus to eolonia} resentment. And 
"treason!" f treason I" as' the yellow leaf of autumn, fluttering 
for a moment tipoij, the passing breeze, falls gently to the eartli, 
was as soon drowned, by the eloquent voice of Henry ; and " give 
me liberty, or give me death!" rapidly arose Yipoh the tujnnlfcuous 
air of the colonial settlements. 

English soldiers soon making their appearance in Bostop, (Sept, 
27, 1768,) bai^h ti-eatment and imperions demands soon awakened 
lesentment A coUiBion between the citizens and soldiers, in wbieb 
three Americanj, were tilled, was thereanZt. Determining neither 
to use, nor to pay tis upon tea, three ships laden with this article, 
irnving in Boston harbor, were boarded at night by a party of 
diseuised Bc^topians, and the tea was hurled into the water. 

Failiament still sternly demanding to be regarded in her claims, 
and finding it out of the question either to bribe or- buy the patriotic 
colonjsts, soon began more strenupus measures of control. The 
colonists rapidly formed into bodies' of miUtii. '^ Minuts men," 
leady foi action at a moment's notice, sprang up ^t every hand. 
The Enghsh Parlnment had declared Maseachueetts to be in a 
state of lebellion, and moip troops came over. "Boston Neck" 
was forhhed b-\ the English and the Patriots, coneealirig their can- 
nons in lo^ds of m^inurc, and their ammunition and cartridges in 
market baskets and candle boxes, gradually passed the guards to 
a point beyond Boston, unmolested. Concord, N. H., became a 
prominent point, i\ hither the patriots gathered theii- stores and 
ammunition, etc Genenl Gage, then commanding the English 
forces, thought to loute the colonists from this point, Snd one night 
secretly dispatcbed an army ot eight hundred men tdwarde Con- 
cord for the purpose. The- Patriots heard of their coming. The 
bells of the place were rung; guns were tired, and tb,e minute men 
were in arms, " Disperse, ye rebels," cried Gage, confronting the 
colonists and dischargiiig his horSe-pistols, The Englisli soldiery 
followed with a discharge of musketry. A number feU on the 
colonial side, and, giving way, the British passed on to Concord, 
A few bonrs later; the Jlnglish, starting on their retm-n to' Boston, 
the colonists having gathered in large nunibera fronj different pointe, 
and posted themselves behind barns, trees, houses, and iences. 
opened. a terrible fire upon them from eyery sid6, arid before reach- 
irig^Bo'stoh, the former were well-nigh destroyed. 

The fii-st'bldqd was now spilled, and the acconnt of the battle of 
Lexington iai'pused, at cyeiy point, the whole colonial population 
of America., "The fanner left bis plow, and the ineclianic his 
wort-shop. Eveii old'men and boys," says the records, "hastened 
to aiih tbemseiyes" — the wife girdiflg *' the Hword aboiit her hus- 
band ;'" the mother blessing her son, and bidding him " go strike 


The Declaration of Isdepesuekoe. 91 

a blow for his cQuntry." The colonists were rippforthe sti;uggle. A 
new era wag to dawn upon the world ; and Freedom was destined to 

Aa demand calls for supply; as necessities superinduce and de- 
velops the requisites of any. great movement, go there soon ap- 
peared upon the colonial stage a Franjilin, a Washington, a Jay, 
a Jefferson, a Hancock, an Adaois, a Monroe, a Kandolph, a 
Thompson, a Lee, an Otis, a Wayne, a Hemy, a Hamilton, a Knox, 
a Olintou, a Mifflin, a Pickens, a Morgan, a Green, a Morris, a Lin- 
coln, a Marion, a Sumpter, a Tarleton, a Sullivan, a Jones, a Hop- 
Idns, a Kntledge, a Gates, a Putnam, a TrnmhnU, a Wm. Wasliing- 
ton, a Bainbridge, a Schuyler, a Warren, etc. 

Ticonderoga, had' now, (May. 10th, 1T65,) i'allep into the hands 
of the Americana;. the Continential Congress, for the second time, 
was in session i^t Philadelphia ; Gkoege Wasqington became coni- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial army; gfeat qiiantities of paper 
cm-rency were iesned; the great battle ol Bunker Hill was soon 
fought; and the waj' for, AmerjcaiH Independence Iiad begun with 
an earnestness find detemiinatJon. only equalled by. the glorious 
spirit that gave birth and impetus to t^e struggle. 

Atlengl£ the 4fch of,Ju]y, 1776, camp, the Ct^ntinental Con- 
gress had received, eonsidered,. and, oij this hallowed and ever- 
memorable day, adopted a ' Declaeation of Indefiskdencie. The 
great old bell of Independence Hall soon rang out upon the still 
air the glorious consummation ; and every where the heart of the 
colonist thrilled with joy. In the midst of discord, and under 
heavy travail, the new continent had given birth to a rare and 
beautiful child of Freedom and Progress, destined to live and be- 
come more glorious, happy, free, and beautiful as time rolled on. 

As before this eventful and happy hour, — with now a victory ; 
now retreat and momentary defeat ; now sofferinp with cold and 
hunger ; annon enconntejiiig the savages of the forest, pnshed on by 
British, influence, for seven years the war continued ; during which 
period, the American forces had been joined by many brave and 
patriotic men from the Old World, whose souls had caught the 
spirit of the hour, and whose great love of Freedom brought them 
to the rescue of the struggling cause on the new eontincnt; amoug 
whom were Lafayette, Kosciusko, De Kalb, Pulaski, Baron Steu- 
ben, and France herself, but a few years before defeated by the 
British in Canada, and at other points, also became an ally of the 
Americans, and rendered valuable aid in the cause of Freedom. 

Effecting a final treaty of peace with Ihe British September 3, 
178S ; and from that time forward rapidly gaining strength and 
recovering from the gi-eat pressure so long hanging over tliem, 
on the 4tli of March the old Continental Congress ceased to be, and 
the main elements of the present Fbdebal CoKSTrrnnoN, under 
which otir Republic has for so many years existed, and, nnder every 
adversity, maintained its primitive spirit of independence, became 


92 HisTOKY OP FoBT Wayne. 

the organic basis .of the new governmental superstructure of 
America. A glorious era in the World's History had now begun. 

A month and two days later, (April 6th, 1789,) by the unani- 
mous voice of the electors, the surveyor, the hero, and the sol- 
dier; the statesman and the philanthropist; the lover of Truth and 
Goodneas ; the successful leader of the colonial army, and the man 
of Progress in Governmental Freedom " and the pursuit of Happi- 
ness" — GaoEGE Washington, of Virginia, became first President, 
and the good and patriotic Johh Adams, of Massachusetts, first 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The beautiful germ of the Ideal Eepublic of Plato, cast upon 
the soil of the World's necessities n;ore than two thousand years 
before ; the great principles of civil and reHgions liberty, involv- 
ing at once " the inalienable rights of man "and the fandamental 
truths and necessities of continued progression in all that pertained 
to his V7elfare in mental and physical growth, as the only safe and 
sure road to ultimate happiness and good government, seen, 
acknowledged, and declared years prior to the departure of Col- 
umbus on his great voyage of discovery ; and which " had shaken 
thrones and overturned dynasties " long before the regicidal fate of 
Charles the First, had now, within the wild domain of the New 
World, begun to bear their first fruits, and to give promise of a 
continued and still more glorious fruitage in the years to come. 

-c by Google 


" Where ai* the hardy yeomen 
Who battled for this land. 
And trode these lionT old forests, 
Abrave and gallant bond ? 

They knew no dread of danger. 

When rose the Indian's yell ; 
Sight gallantly tliey strug-glcd. 

Bight gallantly they fell," — Cuaele* A. Jones, 

Peaceful attitude ni affairs M the close of the great oouaeil at Oawoga — A desire for 
mure room — Moveinenta of small parties westward — How they lived — Their dia- 
lilieof extensive aettlelhentn— The English colonists — Habits and vicissitud.* of 
the early pioneers — Their appearance, houses, furnitura. etc, — "Tomahawk rights" 
— The oabinfl often too "oluss" — Dangers and hardshipa — Eftorts of Patrick 
Henry — Appoiutiaenjof George Rogers Clark — His movement down the Ohio — 
Beaches LouisTille, Ky, — Starts for Kaskaakia — Takes the plafle by storm-'-Tho 
"Long Knives" — The atrata^em — Fright of thevillagera — Father Gibanlt and 
others viait Clack — The inhahitanta permitted to attend church — Espeot to he 
eeparated — E«Tisit of Fatiar Gibault and paity — Clark's response — Joy cf tlie 
■villagers — An expedition against Cahoiia — Capture of that place and Vineennes 
— AppointmenteTjy Clark— "Big Door" — A"talk" — Big Door deulares lor the 
Long Knives — Clark organizes a oompany of French — Moves against the Indians 
— Brings th§m to terms — His movementa reach the English at Detroit — Hamiltfln, 
the English Governor, movefi against Vinoennes, -with a view to recapture the 
lost post*— Vineennes retaken by the Bcitish^-Clack hears of the event, and soon 
oaptures tlie fort again — Hamilton and others eent to Vii^nlo — No further 
troubles from the English — La Balme's expedition to this point—Flight ol the In- 
diana—La Balme ivithdrawa — Puraued by the Indians, linder Little Turtle, and 
the whole party destroyed. 

^OT THE CLOSE of the great treaty of Sir Wimam Johnson 
'^/with the different tribes of the north-west, at Oswego, in the 
'^,-&f spring of 1766, at which Fontiac himself appeared and con- 
^ eluded a final reconciiiation in behalf of all the ti-ibes formerly 
banded under his leadership, it was generally thonght by the 
colonists and those settlements along the AUeghenies and at other 
points westward, that furtlier danger from the tribes was at an end. 
The English flag was now waving over all the posts from Niagara 
to the Mississippi ; and while the settlements along the borders* 
and beyond were yet sparse and scattering, there arose a strong 
*Whieh, at that period, extended but little westwavd of the Alleghany mountains. 


94 HiiTOEV OF Foin Wayse. 

tSesire ibr more room among the settlers, and hundreds of resolute 
men were soon on the march seeking new homes in the wildeniesa 
■of the west. After so much warfare, the peaceful quietudes of the 
h9rder and more easterly settlements were more than they could 
abide, aud the wild scenes of the distant forest afforded a fair in- 
terchange for the foraier excitement and vicissitudes of war, 

Stai-ting out in small parties, the adventurous settlers would 
Inove westward far interiom'ard, then separating, tliey would trav- 
erse large extents of country, and at length, each selecting a site 
for himself, would settle down in the primeval forest, far from any 
scenes of civiliaation or civilized associates, aud living much like 
the Indians, they soon became as reckless and indifferent ao the 
most savage of the red men aroond them. It is related of those 
early times that one of those pioneer settlers left: his clearing and 
started for the forests of the west,' for the reason that another had 
■settled so near, to him that he conld hear the report of his rifle ; 
^vhiIe yet another, seeing from the valley of his location, smoke 
curling in the distance, is said to have gone fifteen miles to dis- 
cover its emanation, and finding new-comers there, " quit the conn- 
try in disgust." More" elbow-roonl" was wonted, buch were at 
least some of the extreme expressions of the time. 

The English colonists were hardy, daring, self-reliant men. Un- 
like, former periods in, the old world, when one nation was often 
suddenly overmn by another, both in their military and migratory 
movements, they pushed gradui^lly forward ; and while many were 
destroyed, they yet,. on the one hand, succeeded in reducing the 
Indians to a state of submission, through fear of extermination, 
while, on the other,the pioneer,reIying entirely on his own bravery 
and prowess, with what aid each, could render the other, iij times 
of attack upon tlie settlements, &c., long held possession of a large 
region of countiy, and thtis aided inlaying the basic structm-e of 
future greatness. Long accustomed to the exposure and tlie vicis' 
situdes of a 'life on the frontier and in the wiidernessj it is not sur- 
prising that thesfi hardy men became daring and implacable, often 
restless for the achievement of some momentary victory or re- 

Adventurous men now soon began to crowd upon the Indians ; their 
lands were being overrun by fJie colonists ; and while the Indiana 
were disposed to present, for the most part, a friendly fronttowarda 
the British, they^yefc cutdown, the settlers, add, through the Eng- 
lish, readily made, war upon the colonial settlements during the 
Kevolntion. Born and bred a.mid scenes of liardship, these early 
pioneers were naturally hardy aud active, often earing but little 
for the common comforts of life o'r the roughest weather. "Wild 
as untamed nature, they could scream with the panther, howl with 
the wolf, whoop with the Indian, and fight all creation." It is re- 
lated of one of these strangely rough adventurers in the history of 
the west, that, !i!iving " been tomahawked, and ins scalp started. 


Eaeta' Pionkees— TtlEifi Hamts, Appearance, Etc. 95 

lie miglit yet be tilled sometime, as the lightning had tried liim on 
once, and ■would have done the iDuaicess up for him, if he hadn't 
dodged.'' Oonetantly associating with tlie Indians, Many'ofthein 
not only. hecame demi-eavags in appearance, but '" frequently as- 
sumed the whole savage character. 

A little description of their appearance, ordinary costumes, hab- 
its of life, houses; etc;., will be of interest to the present generation. 
A coonsMn cap, with the tail Wangling at the back of the necb, 
and the snout drooping upon the forehead ; long biicfeskin. leggins, 
sewed with a wide, fringed welt, down the outside of the legs'; a 
long, narrow strip of coarse cloth, passing around the hips and be- 
tween the thighs, was brought up before and behind under tlie 
belt, and hung down flapping as tiiey walked; a loose deerskin 
frock, open in firont^ and lapping once and a half round the body, 
was belted at the middle, forming convenient wallets on each side 
for chunks of hbecake, tow, jerked venison, screw-driver, and 
other fixings ; and a pair of Indian moccasins completed the primi- 
tive liunters most unique apparel. Over the whole was slung a. 
bullet-pouch and, powder-horn. From behind the .left hip dangled 
a scalping-knife ; from the right protruded the handle of ahalchet; 
both weapons stuck in leathern cases. .Every hunter carried an 
awl, a roll ot bucbBhin, and strings of liide, called " whangS," for 
tliiead. In the wintei: loose deer-hair was stuffed into the mocca- 
sins to keep the fpfet Wai'm. The pioneers lived id rude log^hOUseSj 
covered, generally, with pieces of timber, about three feet in Ifeilgtli 
and six inches m width, called "shakes," arid laid over thei-oof 
instead of shiugleb. , They had neither aiaila, glass, saws, nor brick. 
Thia houses had huge slab doois, pinned togethfcr with wooden 
pins. The light came down the chimney, or through a hole in the 
logs, covered with a greased cloth. A scraggy hemloefc sap- 
ling, the knots left a foot long, served for a stairway to the npper 
story. Their furniture consisted of tamarack bedsteads, framed 
into the walls, and a lew shelves supported on long wooden pins ; 
sometimes a chair or two, but more often, a piece split off a ti-ee, 
and so trimmed, that the branches sei-vecl for legs. Their utensils 
were very simple ; generally nothing but a skillet) Which served 
for baking, boiling, roasting, washing dishes, malting mush, scald- 
ing turkeys, cooking sassafras tea, and making soap. A Johnj'- 
cake board, instead of a dripping-pan, .hung on a peg in every 
house. The corn was cracked into s coarse meal, by pounding it 
in a wppdeii mortar. As soon as swine could be kept away from 
the bears, or, rather, the beara away from them, the pioneers in- 
dulged in a dish of pork and com, boiled together, and known 
among them as " hog and liominy." Fiied pork they called " Old 

Quite tlie opposite of the early Fi-ench settl'ers, who formed 
themselves into small communities, and tended their fields in com- 

^" Stafs atiil Tevrilories of Uif Gxi?nt Wtsfc," poj^s 14^, 143, 144, 143. 


96 Hbtoey OB' .FoET Wayne. 

moE, the yankee pioneer " went the whole length for individual 
'property," each settler claiming for himself three hundred acres ol 
land, and the privilege of taking a thousand more, contiguous to 
liis clearing ; each muBing out his own lines for himself, chipping 
the bark off the trees, and cutting his name in the wood ; which 
claims, thus loosely asserted, were then called " tomahawk rights," 
and were readUy regarded by each emigrant. The first work that 
claimed the attention of the settler was that of felling the trees 
about him in order to make an opening and to prepare his house- 
logs, for the erection of a cabin, " 'sleeping, meanwhile, imder a 
bark cover, raised on crotches, or under a tree." A story is related 
of one of these pioneers, that, after the completion of^ his cabin, 
"he could hardly stomach it." The logs were unchinked, the door- 
way open, the chimney gaping widely above him, but he com- 
plained that the air was yet too " cluss," and that he was compelled 
to sleep outside for a night or so in order " to get used to it." 

Such, runs the record, " were the people, and such their modes 
of living, that began to spread themselves throughout the west, 
between the close of Pontiac'a war and the commencement of the 
Revolution. Then, when that struggle came on, new ditEcUlties 
gathered thicMy around the scattered settlements. The reduction 
of the wilderness was a huge task of itself, even with every encour- 
agement, and without opposition of any sort. But the Anglo Sftxon 
seemed to have had everything arrayed against him. Not only 
the forest, and the wild beasts, and untold privations, stood in the 
way of his progress, but the French first tried to crowd him out ; 
then the Indians sought to kill him; and, last)y, the Biitish turned 
against their own ilesh and blood, and bribed the savages to take 
his life. While. the armies of England were roving over and waHt- 
ing the whole Atlantic coast, from Massachusetts to Georgia, the 
British Governor at Detroit,and his agents at the forts on the Wa- 
bash, and Maumee rivers, (including the fort at this point,) and at 
Tr__i._.._j_ 1 — :i ~-jed in mciting the Indians to deeds of 

rapine and murder on the western frontier. The teiiible scenes of 
the old French war, and of Pontiac's war, were oit^a re-enacted, 
The pioneers, however, were a different class of men from those 
who had previously suffered in Virginia and Pennsylvania, and 
who frequently precipitately , fled from their burning dwellings. 
There was an iron will and temper in these later settlers that pre- 
sented a front far different from those who, some years before, liad 
fled before the combined forces of the savages and French. Not 
waiting to be smoked or burnt out, or have their skulls opened with 
the tomahawk ; their throats cut or scalps taken, the yankee pio- 
neers met their assailants ■ and took a ready hand in the game of 
fight ; and no sooner was it understood that the British were en- 
gaged in inciting the Indiana against the American settlers, than It 
was resolved to push the war into the very forest itself — to the very 
threshold of the enemy. Patrick Henry, then (rovernor of Vir- 


Movements op Geok&e Robices Claek. 51 

ginia, soon snuffed the air of the pioneer settlements. He siiv/ the 
situation. His soul arose equal to the enaergency, und was amoiio- 
the first to propose a plan of relief for these Bafferers of the torest. 
On the 2d of January, 1778, lie issued instructioHs to the farmers, and 
directed the heroic Lt.-Col. Geo. Rog'ers Clark, of Aibermarle coun- 
ty, Virgioia, to " proceed with all convenient speed to raise seven 
companies of soldiers, to consist of fifty men each, officered in iho 
usual manner, and armed most properly for the enterprisp, ftcd 
with that force to attack the British lort at Kaskaskia;" charging 
him, moat explicitly, as follows: '* During the whole transattion, 
you are to take especial caie to keep the trno destination of your 
toice secret; — its success depends on thii," The sagatiious iore- 
&ight of Henry knew the man for the woik. 

Clark set about the task with a will. He was born a hi-ro, and 
was said to be one of the finest looking men of his day, and would 
readily " have attracted attention among a thousand." Conscious 
dignity is said to have sat gracefully upon Iiim. Agreeable in 
temper; manly in depottmeht; iateUigent in conversation; largely 
competent as an officer ; vivacious and bold of spirit, Col, Glin-kc; 
was the man for the occasion. ■ 

His captains having feached Fort Fitt in the montli of June,* 
with less than six lines, in companies, with boats in readiness, 
Clark and his little army v?ere soon aboard, and floating down 
the Ohio, whither they descended to the falls, in view of the pres- 
ent site of Louisyille, jK.y., where they encamped, hoping to obtain 
additional force from Kentucky stations ; but, after some considera- 
tion touching these posts, deeming it unwise to redtice thoir 
strengh, with one hundred and fiity-tliree men, Col. Clark, armed 
ailer the Indian style, continued his conrse to the mouth of tho 
Tennessee river. Obtaining important information at this point 
relative to the British posts on the Upper Mississippi, and sinking 
his boats to prevent discovery, he started overland to sui-prise and 
capture Kaskaskia. JSach man carrying his own baggage and ra- 
tions, through inarshes and forests, for a distance of one liundred 
and twenty miles, ,oft«n knee-deep in water, with their apparel 
dirty and ragged, beards unshaven for three weeks, presenting alto- 

f ether a wild, frightful aspect, on the evening of the Fourth of 
uly, 1778, Clark and his men approached Kaskaskia, and con- 
cealed themselves about the hills east of the Kaskaskia river. 
Sending oot spies to watch the inhabitants,- soon after night-fall, he 
was again in motion, and took possession of a house, in which a 
family resided, about three-quarters of a mile from the town, which 
contained about two hundred and fifty dwellings. Finding boats 
and cauoes at this point, Clark divided his troops into three par- 

-d by Google 

98 History of Foet Wayne. 

ties— two to cross the river, wliile the other, -vvith Clark himself^ 
moved forward and took command of the fort. 

The iDdiaas and Fnench had long known tlie New Englanders ty 
Uie a'ppellation of "^ Bostonias," and the Virginians by that of 
"Long-Knives." Mffny strange and fearful stories had long gone 
forth among tlife French of thee* posts concerning the Long-Knives.- 
English ofBcers visiting the Kaakaskians, had told them that the 
Long- Knives ■would not only take their property, "bnt were so bru- 
tal and ferocious that they " would butcher, in the most horrible 
manner, meii^ Women, and children ! " — a fact that had previonsly 
reached the eSr of Clark, and in pretension, at least, as the most 
salutary means of effecting h>a purpose, he determined to carry 
out (he idea and take the inhabitants by storm ; and, accordingly, 
persons who coold speak th© French language, were directed to 
pass through the sti-eetfe of the town and warn the inhabitants to 
keep witliin their dwellings, " under penalty of being shot down in 
the sti'eets." 

Crossing the river, the two parties sti-ode into the yet " quiet and 
unsuspecting village at both extremes, yelling in the most funons 
manner, while those who made the proclamation in French, ordered 
the people into their houses on pain of instant death."* The word 
vras out. The little tillage of Kaskaslda ' was in an uproar. All 
wae consternation, fear, and trembling, Meuj women, and chil" 
dren ran for dear life^ and " Les lonp coutmux ! — les long cou- 
ieaux!" — the Long- Knives ! — the Long- Knives S rapidly arose upoft 
the theretofore quiet air of Kaskaskia, and the inhabitants precipi- 
tately betook themselves to their dvrellinga to escape the ven^ 
geatice of the intruders. The victory was short and decisive. No 
l>ioi)d had been shed ; and tivo hours later, the inhabitants of the 
village had all BuiTendered and delivered up their firearms. ■ All 
consummated after the best style of a commander' Well adapted to 
the occasion, and who Ithew just how to carry ont the plan of ac- 
tion to the best advantage,— a movement termed by the Frenclji 
ro^tse de guerre, — the poficy of war; and. to render the movement 
the more earnest and effectual in its character^ the French Gover-' 
nor, M. .Rocheblavcj was taken prisoner in his own chamber, and 
the night was passed by the Virginia soldiers in patroling the 
streets with whoops and yells after the manner of the Indians, 
which gave the inhabitants great uneasiness, but was all tamed to 
the best acconiit by Ool. Clark. The inhabitants were now fully 
puTSuaded that all they had previously heai-d concerning the Long- 
Knivee was too tnie. Clark had even carried his plan- so far as to 
prohibit intercourse witih eacli other or his men ; andfor live days 
they were thus held in suspense within their cottages. His troops 
now, (the lifth day) being removed to the outsldrts of. the village, 
the inhaditants were privileged again to walk the sti-eets ; but soon 
observing ihem convemng wilh eacli other, without giving any 
rause therefor, or permitting a word to be ssiid in aclf-defente, 
•■'WcGtein Aimule/' puges 2G8, 3(i!t. ,-, , 

The Kaskaskians Cosfek with Clahk. S9 

Clark ordered several of the officers of the place to he put in irons, 
Not that he wished to "be cruel or despotic, but that his strategetic 
plan might prove more elTectnal and certain in its operations ; and 
the wild, recKless, indifferent, dirty, ragged appearance and manner 
of Clark and his men, gave the greater awe and force to hia plan 
of action. 

At length, M. Gibault, the parish priest, accompanied hy "five 
or six elderly gentlemen," by permission, called upon Col, Clark. 
All looking alikfe dirty, and bat httle different in their general ap- 
pearance, the deputation were greatly at a loss to know with whom 
to confer as commandant, and thus some moments elapsed before 
they were able to speak. But, very Bubmissively, the priest, after. 
a short interval, began to make known their mission. He said " the 
inhabitants expected to be separated, perhaps never to meet again, 
and they begged through him, as a great favor from their conqueFor, 
to be permitted to assemble in the church, offer up their prayers to 
God for their souls, and take leave of each other." 

To this 01 ark, with an air of seeming carelessness, replied that " the 
Americans did not trouble themselves about the religion of others, 
but left every man to worship God as he pleased ; " and readily 
granted the privilege desired, but charged them on no account to 
attempt to leave the place ; and no further conversation was per- 
mitted with the deputation. 

The little church was soon open, and the people rapidly crowded 
into it. .As though the last opportunity they would have thus to 
assemble, all mournfully chanted their prayers, and bid each other 
adieu,little presuming that they would ever meet again in this 
life ; and so great did they esteem the privilege granted them, that, 
at the close of the exercises, the priest^ and deputation repaired 
again to the quarters of Clark, and, on behalf of tne people of the 
village, graciously thanked him for the indulgence granted them. 
Eegging leave to say a word regarding their separation and their 
lives, they asserted that they knew nothing of the troubles between 
Great Britain and the eoloniste ; that all that they had done was in 
subjection to the English commandants ; and that while they were 
willing to abide by the fate of war in the lose of their properly, 
they prayed that they might not be separated from their families ; 
and that " clothes and provisions might be allowed them, barely 
sufficient for their present necessities." 

The stratagem was now complete. Fear had lapsed into resig- 
nation ; and ttie spirit of hope in the Kaskaskians had fallen below 
the common ebb of even partial security. The achievement of 
Clai-k's plan was complete, and, with an air of surprise, he 
abruptly responded : " Do you mistake us for savages? lam al- 
most certain that you do from your language 1 Do you think that 
Americans intend to strip women and children, or take the bread 
out of their mouths ?" " My countiymen," continued he, " disdain 
to make war upon liclplcsa iimoceuce. It was to prevent the hor- 



I'Ors of Indian bntcliery upon our own wives and cliildren tliat vr& 
have taken aiina and penetrated into this remote sti'onghold ot 
British and Indian barbarity, and not the despicable prospect of 
plunder. That now tlie King of France had anited his powerful 
arms with that of America, the war would notj in all probability, 
continue long ; but the inhabitants of Kaskaskia were at liberty to 
take which side they pleased, without the least danger to either 
their property or families. Nor would their religion be any source 
of disagTeement, as all religions were regarded with equal t'espect 
in the eye of thr> American law, and that any insult offered it would 
be immediately punished. And now, to prove my sincerity, yori 
■will please inform yonr feUow-citizens that they are quite at liberty 
to conduct themselves as usual, without the least apprehension. I 
am now convinced, from what I have learned since my an-ival 
among you, that you have been misinformed and prejudiced 
against us by British officers ; and your friends who are in confine-' 
ment shall immediately be released," 

The utterances of Clark were soon conveyed to the people ; and 
from fear and apprehension all was changed to joy and praise. The 
bells rang, and ie deums were sung. All tlio night long the villa- 
gers made meiry. All the privileges they could have desired were 
granted them, and t)oI, Clark was readily acknowledged ''the 
commandant of the country." 

Soon planning an expedition against Cahohia, in which the Kas-- 
kasUiana themselves took part, that place was taken with but littls 
trouble and no bloodshed. Close upon the achievement of this 
success, through the aid and friendship of M. Gibault, the priest of 
Kaskaakia, Vincennes was also soon ciiptured, with but Uttie ef- 
fort, and the American flag displayed from the garrison. Capt. 
Williams was now appointed commandant at Kaskaskia ; Capl* 
Bowman at Oahokia, and Capt. Helm at Vincennes.* The French 
at tbese points were now ali fast friends of the Americans, and re- 
joiced at the change that had been made i'rora British to Ameri- 
can rule ; and Clark proceeded to re-organize the civil government 
among th^n, appointing influential and prominent French resi- 
denta to fill the ofiices. 

At this period a Fiankeshaw chief, of great influence among his 
tribe, known as the " Big Gate," or " Big Door," and called by tlie 
Indians " The Grand Door to the Wabash," from the fact that, much 
as with the famous Ponfiac and the Delaware Prophet, farther to 
the eastward, with whom the reader is already familiar, nothing 
could be accomplished by the Indian confederation on the Wabash 
at that period, withoot his approbation, Keceiving "a spirited 
comptimGRS" from father Gibault, (who was much liked by the 
Indians,) throngh his father, known as " Old Tobae," Big Door rt - 
turned it, which was soon followed with a " great talk" and a belt 
Cif wampum. Th^e Indians, under British inSnence, had provi- 
*l'lie font at. VinfiOTinee wus enH.^I Tort Tatvlfil: Hsmu-i-, Eift«f ita capture I15 Clovt. 

Hosted byGoOgle 

The WABiBH liCDUKs Declare fob. the LoNG-KxiVEe. 101 

ously doue much " mischief to the fj-ontier eettlements." Capt. Helm 
now soon sent a "talk" and wampum to the "Big Door." The 
chief was very much elated, and sent a message to Helm, stating 
that he waa glad to see one of the Big Knife chiefs in town; that 
here he joined the English against the Big Knives, hat he long 
thought they " looked a little gloomy ; " that he must consult his 
connselors ; take time to deliberate, as was the Indian custom ; and 
hoped the Captain of the Big Knives would be patient. After sev- 
eral days, Old Tobac iavited Captain Helm to a couDcil; and it is 
said Tobac played quite a snhoMiuate to his son (Big Door) in the 
proceedings thereof.* 

After some display of eloquence in reference to the sky having 
been dark, and tJie cloada now having been brushed away, the 
Grand Door announced " that his ideas were much changed; and 
that "the Big Knives was in the light;" " that he would tel! aU the 
j-ed people on the ^VabasIl to bloody the hand no more for the 
English;" and jumping up, striking his breast, said he was "a man 
and a warrior ; " " Ihat he was now a Big Knife," and shook the 
hand of Capt. Helm, his example being followed by all present ; ajid 
soon all the ti'ibes along the Wabash, as high as Ouiatenon, canje 
flocking to Vincennes to welcpme the Big Kuives. The intevegts 
of the British are now said to h^ive lost ground in all the villages 
sooth of Lake Michigan, 

A few months later, and the jiirisdjction of Virginia was exten- 
ded over the settlements of the Wabash and the Upper Missis- 
sippi, through the organization- of the "County of Blinois," over 
■which Col. Jolm Todd had been made civil commander. 

On the first of September, the time of enlistment of the troops 
under Clark having expired, and seventy of his men already re- 
turned home, to take their peaces, Clark at once organized a com- 
pany of the inhabitants of Kaskaskia and Cahokia, commanded by 
their own officers, and soon started a formidable and rapid move- 
ment against the Indians, with whom he made no treaties or gave 
any quarters. His idea and spirit was to reduce tiiem to terms, 
■\7ith0ut any parley; and scon the name of Clark became a tprror 
among the tribes of the northwest. Before the close of December, 
(1778) these hostilities had nearly ceased, aud everything wore a 
li-iendly air among the P'rench settlers. 

The news of Clark's success having at length reached Detroit, by 
way of this point, Iiamilton,t the British Governor, at onco determ- 
ined to recapture the posts again, and accordingly with eighty reg- 
«" Weatern AnnalB," pagraI73, 174. 

tThe following passport, issued liy GkiTBrnor HamiMon, nt Dulroif., will couvev a 
li'Mly asnsB of the condition of nHiura, and epirit of the iiortiiwfsl. at this emly [Wffpd ; 
"By Henry Hamilton, Esq,, Lient; Oovernoi-und Snpeniitendent of Detrojt and Dp- 
pendsno!*a,ito., 4a. "DatrehSt,, No. 354. It ia peimitted to John Bte. Ouboia gad 
Amabie Deliale, emplc^ed by Hr. iUncleod, to dejiarC from this post and go to St. 
TiueenneB ; — they liaviug been -posted , tnien the -nsunloalh, and' that of fidelity, uno 
given bond in tho pcnnity of Tivo iinndrcd and Fifty Pounda, Now Yorfc CTti-renoy, by 
wlii«li lliBy bind timjiisclscfi Llist thoy ivill ucit sell riini, wiiio, tidei-, or other Btioji'g 


102 History or Fokt AVaynb. 

ulai-s, a large number of Canadian militia, and sixhinidi-ed Indians, 
he ascended the Maumee, to this point, crossed overto the Wabash, 
and made a rapid movement upon Vincennes, thinking to take tbe 
fort by stonn, and destroy all within the garrison. Thns they moved 
forward. Helm was not to be dismayed. Fall of confidence, and 
with an air that served to signify that the fort was full of soldiers, 
he leaped upon the bastion, near a cannon, and, swinging his 
lighted match, shouted with great force, as the advancing column 
approached, "Halt! or I will blow you to atoms!" At which the 
Indians precipitately toot to the "woods, and the Canadians fell 
back out of range of the cannon. Fearing that the fort was well 
manned, and that a desperate encounter would ensue, Hamilton 
tbonght best to offer a parley. Capt. Helm declaring that he would 
fight as long as a man was left to bear arms, unless permitted to 
march out with the full honors of war, which were at length agreed 
upon, and the garrison thrown open, Helm and five men, aU told, 
marching out, to the utmost astonishment of the British commander. 
But Helm was afterwards detained in the fort as a prisoner. 

The season now being late and nnfavof able, Hamilton determin- 
ed to take DO farther steps toward a capture of the other posts till 
spring. But in the meantime Clark, towards the last of January, 
1779, received word as to the loss of Yincennes, and on the seventh 
of February, with one hundred and thirty men, he took up hjs line 
of march through the forest for Vincennes, a distance of one hun- 
dred and fifty miles, ordering Captain Kogers, with forty anen, on 
board a large keel-boat, with two four-ponndere and four swivels, 
to ascend the "Wabash within a few miles of the mouth of "White 
Eiver — there to await further orders.* The march through the 
wilderness was one of peril and hardship — the river bottoms were 
inundated ; and, as they moved through tliese lowlands, the sol- 
diers were oiten, while having to fcei for the tx-ail with their feet, 
compelled to hold their guns and amunition above" their heads. 
Their food on the march was parched corn and jerked beef. At 

liquore to the ludians, 4ireetly oriadiceotly, nor ftUon' tJja satqeto be done by any one 
in their employ ; that they wUl damean themselvts an good nud faitliful eabjeets ; that 
they -will, exhibit their passport, on, arriving at the Miamis {this point) and at the 
yfeas. (Omateuon, below Ijafayette) to those who are inTested with authority ; and 
tliey bind themaelTefl, under thepoinB of eevecflpnniahmeut, not to aid, assist, or cor- 
respond with the enemies of his Hajealy ; an<l *&t> that they will giva information, as 
Eoon. as possible, tothe governors or omcerscommanding the nearest forts or posts, of 
those who yiolats any of the proTiMons above mentionaS. And if any one shoald ss- 
oape from any ottha posta dependent to this Goveinmaat, thay shail immediatoly give 
notice thereof to tha Lieut. Goveraoi'. 

Giren at Detroit, nndernxy hand and seal, House of the King, the !7th of Jnne, 
1778. HENRY HAMILTdH, l. s. By order of the Lieut. Governor, P. DEJEAN." 

•Col. Clai'k seems to have had his attention long filed U])oii tbi« point, bat was 
doubtless govei'ned by a fair sense of wisdom in all bis movements, li) n letter t» one 
Major Boseron, of Vincennes, bearing date, " Louisville, Feb. 28,1780," 01»rt said : 

" I learn that there is a report of annmber of savages colleoted at Omi (tlie Miami 
village at this point) with an intention to disturb the settlement of St. Vincents.' I 
hope it is grounilleBS ; if not, I could only wish thai; they would keep olf for a few 
weeks, and I tJiiuk lliey would be more stnsible of tli e'lr jntprest." 


La Bacme'8 Expedition. 103 

iength, after some del^y,' oc the evening of the 23d of February, 
arriving upon aji emioence within eight of the fort, Olark ordered 
Ms. men ou p;u-ade, near the summit of the hill, ovfirlookiHg the 
fort, .'keeping tijem marching for some time, in a manner that seem- 
ed to the Englifih commander as if there was a large aruij ap- 
proaching — at least a thousand men, he thought, -with colors plain- 
fy visible. During the night a deep ditch was dug to within rifle- 
shot of the fort, and before day-break, a number of men w^re sta- 
tioned therein " to pick off the garrison." It wa.s a snccess ; eyery 
gunner attempting to show hia head along the cannon of th.e fort, 
or peer through a loop-hole was shot; and on the 25th of Febj'aary 
the fort . was surrendered, and Hamilton, Major Hay, and a few 
others, as instigators in the incitement of Indian murders on the 
frontiers, accompanied by a strong guard, were sent to Virginja'to 
answer for the crimes charged upon, them, and where they were 
put in irons and held for a time in close confinement in refcaiiajjon 
for the masBacces that had occurred ; but were finally rejeased at 
the suggestion of General Washington. 

This achievement on the part of Clark and his brave comrades, 
left them, — wi& no fuiiher attempts of the English to regain 
the lost forts, ou the Wabash and Upper Mississippi, — in posses- 
sion of all the lower portion of the West until the close ofthe Eev- 
olntion, when, at the treaty of peace with the English in 1783, on 
the b^tsis of its having been conquered and held by Col. Clark, 
Great Britain conceded that all of this extended region of territory 
belonged to the United States. 

In the fall of the year (1780) following this signal success of 
Clark at Vincennes, a Frenchman, by the name of La Balme* form- 
ed a plan at Kaskaskia for the capture of Ke-ki-ong-a, (this point) 
then held by the British. 

" This village," says the »cconnt,t " was sitijated on the banks 
of the St. Joseph river, commencing about a quarter of a.mile 
above its confluence with the St. Mary, which forms the Miami, 
(Maumee) apd ivaa near the present city of Fort Wayne. , It hsid 
been a principal town of the Miami Indians for at least sixty years 
before the Ilevolntiou, and had been oecupied by the French be- 
fore the fall of Canada, who had erected a fort at the confluence of 
the rivers, on the ;ea8tern side of the StfJoseph. At the period of 
the Sevolufcion," continues the account, " it had become a place of 
much importance, in a trading and military point of view, and as 
such, ranked, in the norih-wesfc, next to Detroit and Vincennes. It 
was, accordiijgly, occupied as a post or seat of an ofiicial for In- 
dian afftfire, by the British in the beginning of the war. Col, Clark, 
on :tiie .ea.ptiire of Vincennes, had meditated an expedition against 
this place, as well as against Detroit ; and though he seems never 

sproaounoed bj tfca French Hettlera of tbo time La Sal. 


104 IIis'ioKY oi- FoBT Watme. 

to iiave abandoned tlie idea, yet he could not succeed in hia ar- 
rangements to attempt its execution. But wliile the Bnbject was 
still fresh in the mind of Clark and tlie inhabitants of the Lower 
Wabash, another individual made his appearance to undertake 
what even the daring Clark, with gi-eater resources, did not deem 
prudent to venture upon. This was La Balue. But of him and 
hie expedition, it may be here stated, very little information of nn 
entirely authentic shape, is within our reach. Eseepting about a 
dozen Jines in Mr, Dillon's Historical Notes, no published account 
whatever of thi% expedition has over appeared. Whatever may 
be given in this brief sketch, has been obtained mostly from same 
of those who were in part eye-witnesses to the events, and from tra- 
dition as handed down by the old inhabitants. La Balme was a na- 
tive of France, and had come to this country as some kind of an 
olEcer, with the Frencli troops, under LaFayette, in 1779. We are 
not apprised whether he came to the west on hia own responsibility, 
or whether he was directed by some authority; bnt we find him, in 
the summer of 1780, in Kaakaskia, raising volunteers to form an 
expedition against the post of Ke-ki-ong-a, with the ulterior view, 
in case of success, of extending his Operations against the fort and 
towns of Detroit. At Kaskaslaa he succeeded in obtaining only 
between twenty and thirty men. With these he proceeded to VIut 
cennes, where h*" opened a recruiting establishment fo: the pur- 
pose of raising the number necessary for his object.* But lie does 
not seem to have met here with the favor and encouragement of 
the principal inhabitants, or to have had much success iA his en- 
listment. His expedition was looked upon as one of doubtful pro- 
priety, both as to its meanb and objects, and it met with the en- 
<;ouragement, generally, of only the less considerate. Indeed, irom 
the fragment of an old fiong,t as sung at the time by the maidens 
of Vinceunes on the subject of La Balme and his expedition, pre- 
served by the ■writer, it would seem that plunder and fame were a^ 
much its objects, as that of eonqnesfc for the general good, Injus- 
tice may have been done him, in this respect ; bnt it is quite cer- 
tain, fi-om all accounts, that though a generons and gallant man, 
well calculated to be of service in his proper sphere, yet he was too 
reckless and inconsiderate to lead such an expedition How long 
he remained at Vinccnnes, wc have not now, perhaps, any means 
of knowing. But sometime in tbo tall of that year — 1780 — with, as 
is supposed, between fifty and sixty men, he proceeded up the Wa 
bash On his adventure. 
" He conducted bis march with such caution md celerit-y , th it 

"Thisestaliliahineiit.BftyBMf. Lassellc, iaanote, wflflBitujf* on lot Ni ll)b n«Br 
IliecQvnecofMarktt amlThJcdBtreabi.iii what hod U n eallid the Old leUe-w 

fTiio follovrinj' ia tliu beginning of the song refcrrei] to as enng In the inhabitunta 
of Vineennesi, July, ITTB," in the lanausjto of Mr. Laa«.lle when the pcieBt M 
Gibnult, ^on IJiciIi to tjie Amecicnn side :" 

" Kotre bon cure, plln lirare qif Dctsiix 
A pib Kotre villnge sdiib lamboui dm] cai 



lie appeared at the village (here) hefore even the watchful inhabi- 
tants had apprehended his approach. The sudden appearance oi » 
foe, nnknown as to character, Diimbers, and designs, threw them 
into the greatest alarm, and they' fled on all sides. La Balm© took 
possession of the place without resistence. It was, probably, his 
intention, in imitation of Clark's capture of Kaskaskia, to take the 
village and its inhabitants by surprise, and then by acts and pro- 
fessions of Idndness and friendship, to win them over to the Amer- 
ican cause ; but the inhabitants, including some sis or eight French 
traders, totally eluded his grasp. His occupation of the village 
was not of long duration. After remaining a short time, and ma^ 
king plunder of the goods of some of the French traders and Inr 
dians, he retired to near the Aboite Creek* and encamped. The 
Indians having soon ascertained the number and character of La 
Balme's forces, and learning that they were Frenchmen, were not 
disposed at Erst to avenge the attack. Bat of the traders living 
there, (here), there were two, named Beaubienf and La Fontaino.J 
who, nettled and injured by the invasion and plunder of the place, 
were not disposed to let the invaders off without a blow. These 
men having incited the Indians to follow and attack La Balme, 
they soon rallied their warriors of the village and vicinity nnder 
the lead of their war chief, the Little Turtle, and falling npon them 
in the night time, massacred the entire party. Not one is said to 
have survived to relate the sad story of the expedition. 

" Such," says Mr. Lasseile, " is a brief and imperfect acconnt of 
La Balme's expedition, of which so little is known. It may," con- 
tinues he, " not have been impelled by the most patriotic motives, 
nor guided by wise counsels, nor attended with results especially 
beneficial to the country ; yet, as an interesting event, connected 
with the early history of tlie country, it should be rescued from the 
oblivion which rests npon it."]| 

*Abont the point where the Wiibaah and Erie Canal orosMB this stream. 

tSuys a note to this ueoount; "Beaubien. married t]iu chiefOBS, widow oF Joseph 
Drouet da ElohilrdvillB, and -mother of the lata chief of the uatioji, John B. Ricluini- 

iFatber of the l»t* Miami chief, La Fontaine. 

HA. abort neeoaist of La Balme's expedition inflv also bo fuund In "4"ii.ii^ of Uia 
We»t," pages ai8, 313. 

-c by Google 


"like the dim traditions, liosr 
Ofoup loT«d and ^ixtive dim 

Lilce some liolf-forgotttn stoi'V. 
Read Of heard in olden time' 

Emigration westward — Organizatiou of a territorial goTemment — Settlements 
cinnuli (LosantiTille) and North Bend — Emigrant boats — Movamanta fii 
WsBhin^n, to this point — Spanish and iDdians — Disaolntion — Snggtstii 

cinnuli (LosantiTille) and North Bend — Emigrant boats — Movamanta from For 
Washington, to this point — Spanish and iDdians — Disaolntion — Snggtstious o 
General Washington — His letter to Eioliard Henry Lee — The importance of the 

tillage— -Treatiea and oeesiona — Congi'eas and Indian lands — Indian baais 
ot oompliuiit^Ooiineil of 1783— Indian spfleoh— Fnrthar tronbles— What tlie In- 
diarn iJionght woold be the result — Miamies, noder tittla Turtle, lead a confed- 
eracj — Depredations — Report of Gen. Knox — Tlie Wabash Indians — Letter (f 
Gov. 3t. Clair-^The President of the U. S. empowared to call foilih the militia of 
the States— Washington's instruotions to Got. St. Clair — Gov. St. Ciair proceeds 
to the Illinois — Lossntiville changed to Oincinnati — Sppechae to the Wabash Iii- 
diaiiB — Antoina Gnnielin delivers the messages — R«Hches this point-^Garoolin's 
journal — The man-eating sooiety at this point — Gen. Oosa' address, &a. — St. 
Clair's return — Movement aaninat the Indians — British commandant at Detroit 
notified — British aid to the Indians — Militia arrive at Oinoinnati — Organization 
of SiB amiy under Gau Harmar, and movement upon tlia Mipmi village here — 
The army reach the village and find it deserted — Disorder of the troops — A de- 
taohmeut — Return of the pcoqia — An owler — Another scout — Fires of the Indians 
discovered — Indians discovered — Detachment moves forward. — Indians oonoealed 
—-An attack — Detachment ])ut to flight — Village destroyed — iHai'mar moves down 
the Moumee — Issues more orders — Starts for Fort Waehingtnn — Eacampmant — 
Col. Hardin desires to return to the village — His desire granted — Indians discov- 
ered — Some disordar — An att.ack— An necount of one ot the wonnded — Indians 
again vietcrious^Retreat — Army "tarts again for Fort WHS^ingtoll, whei'e it ar- 
rives in safety — Names of tlie tilled — EspediUon of Major Eamli'iimct — Anotlier 
dreary winter. 

^ XIT A FEW TEAKS had elapsed, after the straggle for Inde- 
1^^ pecdenee, when a tide of emigration hegan to eet in to the 
'.DGwweBtward again, and a territorial government, with a small 

f settlement, was established at Campus Martius, now Mari- 
etta. Ohio, in Jnly, 1788. The officers of the govemment were 
General Arthur St. Clair, Governor ; Winthrop Sargent, Secretary ; 
and three judges for the executive council. Campus Martius was 
of square form, one hundred and eighty feet each way. Small 
steeples extended from the top of each block house, which wore 
bnllet-proof, and served as sentry-boxes ; while tlic square was en- 
compassed by a strong palisade, some ten feet in height, and the 


Eakly Sk'i'tlememts in the Noethwest. 107 

buildiuge, all within the enclosure, wore consti-ucted of whip-sawod 
timber, about four inches thick, dove-tailed at the corners, and cov- 
ered with shingle roofs, each room of which had fire-places and 
bricfc chircneyB, The towers and bastions were bright with wliite- 

For the most part, the settlers of the Northwestern Territory 
were men who had spent a large part of their lives, as well as 
fortunes, in the Revolutionary War. Such was the character of a 
party of emigrants, under the leadership of General Rufus Putnam, 
who left New England in 1787, and, descending the Ohio, to a 
point beiow Marietta, began the settlement of Belpre, bringing 
thither with them, and establishing there, many of the primi- 
tive habits and cnstoms of their ancestors. First erecting substan- 
tial buildings for their families, they set about the erection 
and organization of a ehurch and school, toward which all {ire said 
to have contributed " with a right good will ;" and these were the 
first institutions of the kind established jn the Northwestern Ter- 

Two years later, in 1789, the first settlement was formed at or 
near the present site of Cincinnati, Ohio, by some twenty persons, 
under the lead of Israel Ludlow and Eobert Patterson, and then 
called LosantiTiIle. The original appearance of the present Cin- 
cinnati, as at the time of its first settlement, is described as " a 
beautiful woodland bottom, on the hank of the river, sixty feet 
above low-water mark, and extending back three hundred yards to 
the base of a second bank, which rose forty feet higher, and then 
sloped gently more than a half mile to the foot of the bluff; the 
bottom being covered with a heavy grovrth of sycamore, maple, 
and black-walnut ; the second with beech, oak, and hickory tim- 
ber." In January of this year, another party moved down the 
Ohio, and began a settlement at North Bend. The craft or boats 
in which these early settlers descended the river, to the present 
generation, would indeed seem novel. They usually consisted of a 
frame-work of logs, covered with green oak planks, and caulked 
with rags, Bnugly ensconsed in these, men, women, and children 
floated down the rivers to their destination, unexposed to the at- 
tacks of the Indians, who often fired upon tbeqa from the river 

For some years, a spirit of rivalry existed between the settle- 
ments of Cincinnati (Losantiville) and North Bend as to the best 
point for the establishment of a military post, and for a time North 
Bend, from its natural security against the attacks of the Indians, 
seemed destined to become the most advantageous and permanent 
point, andmany emigrants came flocking thitherward. But at length, 
the commanding ofBcer becoming enamored with a beanliful wo- 
man at the Bend, the wife of one of the settiers, the husband bo- 
came alarmed or jealous, and removed to Losantiville,* so runs 

"A soliool-tcacher, hy lliH name of I'ilsoji, beine; onlled cin to camo the settlement 


108 lIlSTOKY OF FojiT "VVayjse, 

the record ; and North Bend at once began to decline in the a.i>pre- 
ciation of the commanding officer, aa the most available military 
point for the protection of the northwest territory, and the troops 
were soon removed to Losantiville, which post was called Fort 
Washington. It was from this point that the first movement, nn- 
der Gen. Harmar, who was then commandant at Fort Washington, 
was made against the Indiana at the present site of Fort Wayne, 
under the administration of Gen. Washington, in October, 1790. 
It was also from these points, which, at an early peried here, were 
Icnojpn as "the settlements,"-that came most of the earlier so- 
Jonrners and settlers of Fort Wayne ; then still known as the Miami 
Vniage or Omi;* not only Harmar's, bat the subsequent expedi- 
tions of Gens. St. Clair and Wayne, started from Fort Washington 
for this point. 

During 1780, 1781, to 1785-0, difficulties had arisen between the 
colonial government and the Spanish on the Lower Mississippi, as 
to the navigation of that river, and the possession of a large part 
of the western territory, together with much tronblo ■with the In- 
diana of the west, more especially along the Ohio, which continued 
to give the settlements great tronble for some time subsequent, and 
also greatly to disturb the internal relations of the connti-y gener- 
ally. In addition to, and effects arising mainly from, fcliese causes, 
ICentucty, at an early day durino; the foregoing period, began and 
continued for sonie yearw to manifest, witli other parts of the south- 
west, considerable dissatisfaction. The government had permitted 
tjie Spaniards of the south to control the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi ; many privafions had come upon the people of the wesc in 
consequence, and a spirit of distrust had gradually given rise to a 
spirit of dissolution,t especially in Kentucky, which, at ttiat period, 
and for some years later, yet formed a part of "Virginia. Washing- 
liere bap^Jiii ORlled it "Losnnliville," tlio inlerpretation ofuliioEi ron safollows- 
VilU, Ihe towu ; onli. opposite to; oe, the moiitli; L, of Licking river ; wfiioli, at tio 
time, xas oonsidoreJ, mc believe, fine effort; ontliepmrtof Mr. PiIbod, 

*" A Gornipt. ortliogvephy ond abridgement of the Frenoli train An, or Ani Miamis ; 
OB Au Cfls b ft con'uptiop. ot Au KflskHfikius, to KnaliKsMa." — Eiatoiy oE Konteoty. 

tApewon, tlioiigVittohtitei)«en ainanliy tbe name of Green, of Loimville, Ken- 
tiicliy, lyriting to Bome person in New En gland, under dote of December 4, ntU, 
said : " Our aitnotion i» ob bad hb it poMibly oiin be, therefnra orery exertion to re- 
tiieve onr oircumstoiioeBniint bo manly, eligible and jnst. We can raise twenty thou- 
Bund troops thie side of tlie Allegheny dnd Apnkchian Monntains, Knd the annual id- 
eresFoof them by enjigratjon from other paLla, is from two to four thousand. 

"WehaTe taken, air the goods belonfjing to tlia Spanish merchants of Post Tin- 
KsennesandUioIllinoia, nndare determined they sholj not trade np the river, ]iro«ded 
tlieywill notle.tMa ts^dodownit. PreparationB-are now being made here (if neoessarj) 
to drive the Span) aiida from tlieir BCttlements, at the mouth oflJioMisaiseippi. In ease 
wearenotoouotonanped and Bnecoredby HieUBifsd Stntca, (if we need it) our alle- 
giance will be thrown off, and aome other power applied to. 

" Great Britain Btanda lendy with open arms to receive and Buppoili lis. They have 
already offiirad to open thoir resourooa for ourBupplios. When onoe re-united to them, 
' farewell, a long farewell to allyora' hoaetcd greatneaa.' The province of Canada and 
the iiilialdtantH of these waters, of t^iemselveB, in time, wiU be able to ponqner you. 
You are na ignonint of this country as Great Britain was of America. These are hints, 
(vhieli, if rightlv improved, may be of servict ; if not, blame you reel ves for tlie negleet." 


SoGQEs'noNa OF Gen. Washington. 109 

ton had felt the pressure^ and soon presented important BUgges* 
tione, as he !li!id done before the revolution, relative to the 
Organization of commercial and navigation companies, as the 
best trieans of protecting and cementing the interests uf the East 
and West. 

In a letter to Governor Harrison in this year, (178i) lie strenu- 
ously urged the importance of binding together all parts of the Union, 
and especially the West and East, with the indissoluble bonds of 
interest, vi^th a vieW to firevGnt the formation of commercial, ahd, 
in conseqaeuce, political connections with either the Spaniards on 
iJie South, or the EnfiUsh on tlie North; and recommended the 
Speedy survey of the Potomac and James rivers ; Of the portage to 
Ihe waters of tlio Ohio ; of the Muskingnni ; and the portage from 
that river to the Cuyahoga ; fof the purpose of opening a water 
coramnnication for the eommerde of the Ohio and the lakes, to tile 
seaboard, and denominated it »s an object of great political and 
commercial importance. 

To Richard Henry Lee, in the same year, Washington wrote l 
" Would it not be worthy of the ■Wisdom and attention of Congress 
toliave the western waters well explored, the navigation of tiiem 
fally ascertained and accurately laid down, and a complete and 
perfect map made of the country, at least as far westerly as the 
Miamis, running into the Ohio, and Lafee Erie, and to sec ho\V tlie 
watei-s of these communicate with the river St. Joseph, which emp- 
ties into Lake ]\Jichigan, and with the Wabash ? for I crninot for- 
bear oiservinni that tfiB Miami village* points to a very important 
postfor the'tfnionr 

The Indian, though usually called a savage, and doubtless, as a 
general rule in earlier days, properly so, yet possessed, with all, a 
ftingular intelligence. From the first dealings of the colonists of 
Yirginia with the famous Powhattans ; the Pilgrims, at Plymouth ; 
with Massasoifc and his son Metacomet, (King Phillip) of the Wam- 
panoage, about Montlt Sope, to the later settlements of the West 
and the various tribes of the southwest, they ever exhibited a 
peculiar knowledge of etiquette, and seldom ibfgot this sense of 
regard even for their enemies or the most presumptive intruders, 
where the chiefs and sachems could exercise a voice. 

It was not a custom with the French, at any time at any of tho 
points of their settlements in the West, to make large purchases of 
lands from the Indians ; small tracts about their settlements invari- 
ably served to supply their wants; and at the treaty of Paris, in 
1763, these small grants, about the forts of Detroit, Viiicennes, 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia, &c., were all that they ceded to the English. 

»At ttiia point. I have itnlioised this part of WBshington'fl letter ti 
the importanoB then attaohed totha pivsontBita of i<'ort Wayne. Had diesolntion heea 
attempted at any time (iTiringtJia above pei'ioJ, and the Bcitisii oalled to the jtid of 
HioWesC, thia would have boon auadniimble 1io8e for tiis operations of the colonial 
anny, oiioe having fortified themselves and jirapared for a ai-ga — \ laot "niiiuli Wasli- 
iiigtoii ei^uins most fully to have bfien awuivj of. 


llO HisTOET OF FoET Wayke. 

following close upou this treaty came tho war and tho defeat of 
Pontiae ; and in 1768, a grant by the Ii-oqcois or Six Nations, at 
Fort Stanwix, or the land south of the Ohio, which grant was not 
respected by those hunting on the gronnds thna conveyed. Dun- 
more'e War, of 1774, was conelnded withont any transfer of lands 
to the whites ; and, at the close of the revolution, in 1783, when 
Great Britain transferred her western claims to the United States, 
she conveyed nothing but what she had previously received from 
France, excepting the guarantee of the Six Nations and the south- 
ern tribes to a part oftJieland stnt^Aof the Ohio; while none of the 
territory claimed by the Miamies, western Delawares, Shawahoes, 
Wyandotts or Hurons, and some other tribes still to the west and 
north, was ceded to the United States by this treaty. 

But a different view was taken of the matter by Congress at this 
period ; and concluding that the ti'eaty guaranteed to the United 
Btatea the full right to all territory then transferred, and, at the same 
time, considering the right of the Indians to the territory as forfeit- 
ed by acts of warfare against the colonial government during the 
struggle for Independence, made no movement towards a purchase 
■of the lands from the Indians, but began to form treaties of peace 
with them, and to suggest its own boundary lines. 

It was in this way, in October, 1784, at the second treaty of 
Stanwix, that the United States obtaiued the right possessed by the 
Iroquois to the western territory, north and south of the Ohio ; and 
though publicly and honorably concluded, its Ifegality was J'et 
questioned by many of the Ii-oquois, the basis of their opposition 
resting upon the fact that that treaty was with only a part of the 
Indian tribes ; and that it was the desire of the tribes that the Uni- 
ted States Government should treat with them as a body, inclndiilg 
flU the Indians bordering upon the lakes of the north. 

The provisions of October, 1783, had ananged for one great 
council of all the tribes ; but in the month of March following, 1784, 
this provision was changed to that of holding councils with each 
separate tribe or nation ; and the commissioners appointed by the 
Government to superintend these affairs, refusing to pay further 
attention to the subject of a general council with the northern tribes, 
in October, 1784, as against the wishes of Eed Jacket, Brant, and 
other chiefs, of the Iroquois, terminated the treaty of Fort Stanwix, 

After which, in January, of the following year, (1785), a treaty 
Was concluded wiih the Wyandotts, Delawares, Ohipewas, and Ot- 
tawas ; but the legality of the former treaty seema not then to have 
been questioned, by the Wyandotts and Delawares, at least ; and 
yet it was asserted at a general council of some sixteen tribes of 
northwestern Indians, in 179S, that the treaties of Forts Stanwix, 
Mcintosh, and Finney, (the latter at the mouth of the Great Mi- 
ami,) were the result of intimidation, and held only with single 
tribes, at which, they asserted that the Indians had been invited to 

, , , Cookie 

Indian TBEATiiiia — CAtrsBs or CompIAint. Ill 

forin treaties of peace, but, instead, forced to make cessions of 

Iq January, l786, a third ti-eaty was held ty the United States^ 
at Fort Finney, -witlt the ShawaiioSs ; and the Wabash iTibes being 
invited to be presentj would not go. In 1789, confirnaatory of pre* 
ceding treaties, the iburth and fifth treaties were held at iort Har- 
mar, one with the Six Nations ; the other with the Wyandotts, Dela- 
wares, Ottawaa, Chippewas, PottawattamieB, and Sacs ; and it 
seems, from speeches made at a subsequent council of the confed' 
erated tribes, more particularly df the lake, (17i)3) that they would 
hot accept those treaties as at all binding upon them. Said one of 
the chiefs at this latter council : 

" Brothers : We ai'e in possession of the speeches and letters 
which passed on that occasion, (council convened by Governor 
Arthur 8t. Clair, iri 1788,) between those .deputied by the confed- 
erate Indians, and Gov. St. Clair, the commissioner of tJie United 
States. Thtese papers prove that your said commissioner, in tho 
beginning of the year 1789, ailer having been informed by the 
general council of the preceding fall that no bargain or sale of any 
part bf these lands would be considered as Yalid or binding, unless 
agreed to by a general council, nevertheless persisted in collecting 
together a few chiefs of two or three nations only, and with thejn 
held a treaty, for the cession of an immense cduntry^ in which they 
were nO more interested, than as a branch of the general confeder- 
acy, and who were in no manner authorized to make any grant or 
cession whatever. 

" Brothers : How then was it possible for you to expect to enjoy 
peace, and quietly to hold these lands, when your commissioner 
was informed, long before he held the treaty of Fort Harmar, that 
the consent of a general council was absolutely necessary for the 
sale of any part of these lands to the United States."* 

From these facts, in part, at least, it will be seen why the expe- 
ditions of 1790-'91, and 1793-'4, with the efforts of 18ll-'12 and 
'13, met with such stubborn and relentless resistence fi-om the Mi- 
amies and other tribesi, as detailed iti subsequent pages. The im^ 
pression that they would, -writhoot remuneration or mercy be des- 
poiled of their lands and at length driven away, seems to havo 
gained possession of the tribes generally of the northWeSt before 
and during the early campaigns of Harmar, St. Clair, and Wayne | 
and the Miamies, — thoughi, as it would seem from Gamelin'sjour- 
nal, a strong spirit of unity did not prevail among the difierent 
tribes, before and during 1780,— 'led the way under the lead of Lit- 
tie Turtle, with formidable effect. 

With a feeling of bitterness and reVongo toWal-ds the United 
States, small bands of Indians had begun, in the S])ring of 1789 to 
attack the settlements along the western borders of "Virginia and 

'■• Wtstwn /,i,iiiils," pagis 593, .^23, .SS4. ^^ . 



The Secretary of War of tlie period, General Knox^ in a report 
to tlte President, 15th of June, 1780, presented tltis subject as 
follows : 

" By information from Brigd'r-Geneval Harmar, fhc commanding 
officer of the troops on the frontier, it appears that several murders 
liaVG been lately committed on the inhabitants, by small parties of 
Indians, probably from the Wabash country. Some of the said 
mui-Uere having been perpetrated on the south side of the Ohio, 
the inhabitants on the waters of that river arc exceedingly alarm- 
ed, for tlie extent of six or seven hundred miles along the same. 
It is to be observed that the United States have not formed any 
ti-eaties witli tlie Wabash Indiana ; on the contrary, since the con- 
clusion of the war with Great Britain, hostilities have almost con- 
Btantiy existed between the people of Kentucky and tbe said In- 
dians. The injuries and murders have been so recipa-ocal that it 
would be a point of cntical investigation to know on which side 
they have been the greatest. Some of the inhabitants of Kentucky 
during tiie past year, roused by recent injuries, made an incursion 
into tiie Wabash country, and possessing an equal aversiou to ail 
beaiingthe the name of Indians, they destroyed a number of peace- 
able Piankeshaws* who prided themselves in their attachment to 
tlie United States. Things being thus cii-eumstanced, it is greatly 
to be apprehended that hostilities may be so far extended as to in- 
volve the Indian tribes with whom the United States have recently 
made treaties. It is well known how strong the passion for war exists 
in the mind of a young savage, and how easily it may be inflamed, 
so as to disregard every precept of the older and wiser part of the 
tribes who may have a more just opinion of the force of a treaty. 
Hence, it results that unless some decisive measares are immedi- 
ately adopted to terminate those mutual hostilities, they will proba- 
bly become general among all the Indians northwest of the Ohio. 

" In examining the question iiow the disturbances on the fron- 
tiers are to be quieted, two modes present themselves by which the 
object might perhaps be effected— the first of which is by raising 
an army and extii-pating the refractory tiibea eutu-ely ; or, secondly, 
by forming ti'oaties of peace with them in which their rights and 
limits should be explicitly defined, and the treaties observed on 
the part of the United States with the most rigid justice, by pun- 
ishing the whites who should violate the same. 

" In considering the first mode, an inquiry would arise, wheilwr, 
under the existing oircumstcmces oj. affairs, the United States have 
a olearright, eonsistentlp wiih the principles of Justice and tJie 
laws of nature, toproceed to the destruction or expulsion of the 
savages on the Wabash, sV'pposing the force for that object easily 
aUa^nahle. Ifc is presumable that a nation solicitous of establish- 
ing its character on the broad basis'ot justice, would not only besi. 

'»TlieBame,(loiibl.ltsg,uiul'Tthelea(loft1ve"l5randCoor,"w!io gnvo ho Jiearty a 
■\v<'komBtoOrt|it. Holm, fltVinecnntB, afWi't!iocaptHTC(ift.liatp«afiLyCol. Clavt, 

-d by Google 

Rrpokt of Seoeei'Aey Ksox. 113 

tate at but reject every proposition to benefit itself by tho injuiy 
of any neighboring community, however contemptible and weak 
it may be, either with respect to its maimeis or power. When it 
shall be cynsidered that the Indians derive their subsistence chiefly 
by hunting, and that) according to fixed principles, their popula- 
tion is in proportion to the facility with which they procure their 
food, it would most probably be found that the expolsion or 
destruction ofthe Indian tribes have nearly theeame effect; for if 
they lil-e removed from their usual hunting-grounds, they must 
necessarily encroach on the hunting-groands^ of.another tribe, who 
will not suffer the encroachment with impunity — hence they de- 
stroy each other. The Indians, being the prior occnpants, possess 
the right of the soil. It can not be taken from them unless by their 
free consent, or by the light of conquest in case of a just war. To 
dispossess them on any other principle, would be a ^ross violation 
ofthe fundamental laws of nature, and of that distiibutive jnstico 
which is the giory of a nation. But if it should be decided, on an 
abstract view of the question, to be just to remove by force the 
"Wabafih Indians from tlie territory they occupy, the finances of the 
United States would not at present admit of the operation. 

" By the best and latest information, it appears that on the Wa- 
bash and its communications, there are from fifteen hundred to two 
thousand warriors. An expedition against them, with a view of 
extirpating them, or destroying their towns, could not be under- 
taken, with a probabiiity of success, with less than an army of two 
thousand five hundred men. The regular troops ofthe United States 
on the frontiers are less than six hundred:* of tfiat number not 
more than four hundred could be collected from the posts for the 
pnrijose of the expedition. To raise, pay, feed, arm, and equip one 
tiiousand Bine hundred additional men, with the necessary officers, 
for sis months, and to provide every thing in the hospital and quar- 
termaster's line, would require the sum of two hundred thousand 
doUars, a sum fiar exceeding the ability of the United States to ad- 
vance, consistently with a due regard to other indispensable objects." 

On the 26tli of August, 1789, about two hundred mounted vol- 
unteers, , uader the command of Colonel John Hardin, marched 
from the Falls of the Ohio to attack some of the Indian towns on 
the Wabash. This expedition returned to the Falls on the 38th of 
September, widiout the loss of a man — having killed six Indians, 
plundered and burnt one deserted village, and destroyed a consid- 
erable quantity of corn.t 

In a letter, addressed to President Washington, bearing date 
"September, 14, 1789," Governor St,01air said: 

"Xlie constant- hostilities between the Indians who live upon 
the river Wabash and the people of Kentucky, must necessarily be 
attended with such embarrassing circumstances to the government 

*DetaolimentB of regulat troops were Btnrioneii at Fort Pitt, Fort Harivmr, Fort Waali- 
ington, Fovt Steuben, (nt the Falls of tlie Ohio,) and at PosL Viiioeniici,— Hia. IniJ. 

tDLlloi!. {b} 

. .yGooglc 

Il4 History oir Foet Wavhe. 

o£ the northwestern territory, that I am induced to request yon will 
"be pleased to take the matter into consideration, and give me the 
orders' you may think proper. It i8 cpt to be expected, sir, that 
the Kentucky people will or can submit patiently to fehe cruelties 
and depredations of those savages. They are in the habit of retali- 
ation, perhaps -without attending precisely to the nations from 
%vhieh the injuries are received. They wiJI continue to retaliate, or 
they will apply to the governor of the northwestern territory 
(through which the Indiana mnat -pasa to attack them) for redress. 
If he can not redress them, (and in the present circumstances he 
cannot,) they also will march through that country to redress them- 
selves, and the government will be laid prostrate. ■ The United 
State, on the other hand, are at peace with several of the nations, 
and should the resentment of these people [the KentucMans] fall 
upon any of them, which it is likely enough to happen, very bad 
consequences may follow. For it must appear to them f tlie Indians] 
[hat the United States either pay no regard to their treaties, or that 
they are unable or unwilling to carry their engagement into effect. 
* * * They willunite with tlie hostile nations, -prudenEly pre- 
ferring open war to a delusive and uncertain peace." 

Being empowered, by an act of Congress of the 29th of Septem- 
ber, 1789, to call out the miHtia of the several States for the pro- 
tection of the frontier settlementSjPresident "Washington, on the 
t)th fjf'Oct., 1789, addressed Governor St. Clair olHcially as follows : 

" It is higlily necessary that I should, as soon as possible, possess 
full information whether the Wabash and Illinois Indians are most 
inclined for war or peace. If for the former, it is proper that 1 
should be informed of the means which will most probably induce 
them to peace. If a peace can be established with the said Indians 
on reasonable terms, the interests of the United States dictate, thaS 
it should be effected as soon as possible. You wiU, therefore, in- 
form the said Indians of the disposition of the general government 
on this subject, and of their reasonable desire that there should be 
a cessation of hostHities as 3 prelude to a treaty. 

" If, however, notwithstanding your intimations to tliem, they 
should contimie their hostilities, or meditate any incursion against 
the frontiers of Virginia and Fennsylvania, or against any of the 
troops or posts of the United States, and it should appear to you 
that the time of execufiou would be so near as to forbid your trans- 
mitting the information to me, and receiving my orders thereon, 
then you are hereby authorized and empowered, in my name, to 
call on the lieutenants of the nearest counties of Virginia and Penn' 
sylvania for such detaclmients of militia as you may judge propei', 
not exceeding, however, one thousand from Virginia and five hun- 
dred froKi Peimaylvania. * *' * The said militia to act in cou- 
junctioB with the Federal troops in such operations, offensive or 
defensive, ae yon and the commanding officer of the troops, con- 
jointly, shall judge ne^'essnry for thp pnbli<^ wrvJce, and the pro- 

be .yGoOglc 

Wasiiikgtos's IssTRucTioSa to Gov. St, Clair. 115 

tectioii of 'the inhabitants and the posts. Tlie said militia, while in 
actual serviccj to be on the coufcinental establishment of pay and 
rations; they are to arm a.nd equip themaelvcs, but to be furnished 
"with public ammiimtion if Decenary; and no charge for the pay of 
said Jiiiiifcia will be valid unless Bnpporfced by regular musters made 
by a field or other officer of the Federal troops. 

" I would have it observed, forcibly, that a war with the Wabash 
Indians onght to be aYoided by all means eonsistentiy with the se- 
curity of the troops and the national dignity. In the exercise of the 
])resent indiscriminate hostilities, it is extremely difficult, if not im- 
j)Osatble,to say that a War witliout further measures would be just 
on the part of the United States. But if, after manifesting clearly 
to the Indians the disposition of the general government for the 
preservationof peace and the extension of a just protection to the 
Baid Indians, they should continue their incnrsious, the United States 
will be constrained to punish them with severity. 

" You will also proceed, as soon as you can, with safety, to exe- 
cute the orders of the late Congress, respecting the inhabitants at 
Post Vincennes, and at the Kaskaskias, and the other villages on 
the Mississippi. It is a circumstance of some importance, that the 
said inhabitants should, as soon as possible, possess the lands to 
which they are entitled, by some known and fixed principles." 

The last paragraph of the foregoing instnictions was based upon 
the resolutions of Congress, of the 2i)th June and 2&th August, 
1788,* By these resolutions, provisions were made for confirming 
in their possessions and titiee the French and Canadian inhabitants, 
and otliei- settlers, about Kaskaskia and post Yincennes, who, on or 
before the yeai' 1783, had professed themselves citizens of the 
United States, or any of them. By the same resolutions, a tract of 
four hundred acres of land was donated to each head of a family of 
this description of settlers-f 

About the 1st of January, 1790, Governor St. Clair, with the 
judges of the supreme court of the territory, descended the river 
Ohio, from Marietta to Fort Washington, at Losantivilie. At this 
place the governor laid out the county of Hamilton, appointed 
magistrates and otlier civil officers for the administration of justice 
in £at county, and induced the proprietors of the little village to 
change its name from Losantivilie to Cincinnati. On the 8th of 
January, lT90, St* Clair and Winthrop Sargent, secretary of the 
territory, arrived at ClarksviUe, whence they proceeded to the Illi- 
nois country, to organise the government in that quarter, and to 
carry into eHect the resolutions of Congress relative to the lands 
and settlers abont Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. Before the 
governor left Clarksville, however, he sent to Major Hamtramck, 
the commanding officer at Post Viucenues, dispatches containing 
speeches which were addressed to the Indian tribes on the Wa- 

by Google 


HaTing received tlie instvuctioiis of Gov. St, Ciair, after the 
neceesary preparatioiia, Major Hamtramck, then commanding at 
Post Tincennes, on the 15th of April, despatched Antoine Game- 
lin from that point with the speeches of St. Clair to the tribes of 
the Wabash, Reaching the Indian settlements, Mr. Galnelin de- 
livered t.he speeches at all the tillages bordering this stream, and 
came aa iar' eastward as the Miami village, opposite the present 
site of Fott Wayne. The following is the journal of Gamelin, much 
of which relates to his conference at the Miami village here; and 
will give the imaginative reader quite a fair view of tlie spirit of 
the Miamies at this point at that peiiod. Says the journal of Gam- 

" The first I arrived to, is called Kika.pouguoi. The name 
of the chief of this village is called Les Jamb(3a Oroclies. Him 
and his tribe have a good heart, and accepted the speech. . The 
second village is at the river du Vermillion, called Piankeshaws. 
The first chief and all his warriors, were well -pleased witli the 
speeches concerning the peace : but they said they conld not give 
presently a proper answer, before they consult the Miami nation, 
their eldest brethren. They desired me to proceed to the Miami 
town, (Ke-ki-ong-gay,) and, by coming back, to let them know 
what reception I got from them. The said head chief told me that 
lie thought the nations of the lake had a bad heart, and were ill 
disposed for the Americans: that the speeches would not be re- 
ceived, particularly by the Shawuees at Miamitown. * *' The 
11th of April, I reached a tribe of Kickapooa. Tlie head chief and 
all the warriors being assembled, I gave them two branches of 
white wampum, with the speeches of liis excellency Arthur St. 
Clair, and those of Major Hamtramck. It must be observed that 
the speeches have been in anotlier hand before me. The messen- 
ger coaid not pi'oceed further than the Vermillion, on account of 
some private wrangling between the interpreter and some chief 
menofthe ti'ibe. Moreover, something in the speech, displeased 
them! very much, which is included in the third article, which says, 
"• I do now mdkti you tlie offer of peace : aocejpt it, or repeat it, as 
you please? These words appeared to displease all the tribes to 
whom the first messenger was sent. They told me they were men- 
acing ;, and finding that it might have a bad efi'ect, I took upon my- 
BP.lf to exclude them; and,. after making some apology, they an- 
swered that he and his tribe were pleased with my speech, and that 
I could go up without danger, but they could not presently give 
me an answer, having some warriors absent, and without consult- 
ing the Guiatenons, being the owners of their lands. They desired 
me to stop at Quitepiconnte, [Tippecanoe,] that they would have 
the chiefs and warriors of Ouiatenons and those of their nation 
assembled there, and would receive a proper answer. They said 
that they expected by me a draught of raiik from the great chief, 
and the commaudirg oflicer of the post, for to put the old people 


in good !mmor ; also some powder and ball for the young men for 
hunting, and to get some good broth for their ■women and chifdren: 
that I should know a bearer of speeches should never be with 
empty hamds. They promised me to keep their young men from 
stealing, and to send speeches to their nations in the prairies for to 
do the same. 

"The 14th April the Ouiatenons and the Kickapoos were assem- 
bled. Alter my speech, one of the head chiefs got up and told me 
' Yon, Gameiin, ray friend and son-in-law, we are pleased to see 
jn oui' village, and t-o hoar by your mouth, the good words of the 
great chief. We thought to receive a few words from the French 
people ; but I see the contrary. None but the Big Kuifo is sending 
iipeeches to us. You know that we can terminate nothing without 
the consent of our. brethren the Miamis. I invite you to proceed 
16 their village, and to speak to them. There is one thing in your 
speech I do not like : I ■will not tell of it : even was I drunk, I would 
perceive it : but our eider brethren will certainly take notice of it in 
your speech. You invite ns to stop our young men. It is impos- 
sible to do it, being constantly encouraged by the British,' An- 
other chief got up and said — 'The Americans are very flattering in 
tlieir speeches; many times our nation went to their rendezvous. I 
was ouce mysell. Some of om" chiefs died on the route ; and we 
always came back ail naked : and you, Gameiin, you come witli 
speech, with empty hands.' Another chief got up and said to his 
young men, ' If we are poor, and dressed in deer skins, it is onr 
own fanlt. Oar French ti-aders are leaving ua and om- villages, 
because you plunder them every day; and it is time for us to have 
another conduct.' Another chief got up and said—-' Know ye that 
the village of Ouiatenon is the sepulcher of alE our ancestors. The 
cliief of America invites us to go to him if we are for peace. He 
has not his leg broke, having been able to go as far as the lilinois. 
He might come here himself; and we should be glad to- see him 
at our village. We confess that we accepted the ax, but it is by 
tiie reproach we continually receive from the English and other na- 
tions, which received the ax first, calling us women: at the present 
time they invite our young men to war. As to the old people, they 
are wishing for peace.' They could not give me an answer before 
they receive advice from the Miamia, their elder brethren. 

"The l8th April I arrived at the river al'Anguille, [Eel river.] 
Tlie chief of the ^'illage,* and those of war were not present. I ex- 
plained the speeches to some of the tribe. They said they were 
well pleased ; but they could not give me an answer, their chief 
men being absent. They desired me to stop at thfeir village com- 
ing back; and they sent with me one of their moii for to hear the 
answer of their eldest brethi'en. 

"The 2Sd April I arrived at the Miami town.f The next day I 

»The site of this yillnge in on l!ie iiortli side of Eel river, bIk miles above the point 
of the junction of tlila sli-(?aiu ivitli tlic AV abash. iAt Ihia point. 

-c by Google 

got the Miami nation, the Shawanees, and Delawarcs all a 
1 gave to each nation two branches ot- wampum, and began ttie 
epeechea, before the French and English traders, being iuvited by 
the chiefs to be present, having told tliem myself I wonld he giad 
to have them present, having nothing to say against any body. Af- 
ter the speech, I showed them the treaty concluded at Muskingum, 
|_Fort Harmar,] between his excellency, Governor St. Clair, and 
sundry nations, which displeased them. I told them that the pur- 
pose of this present time was not to submit them to any condition, 
but to offer them the peace, which made disappear their displeas- 
ure. The great chief told me that ho was pleased with the speech; 
that he would soon give me an answer. In a private discourse with 
the great chief, he told me not to mind what the Shawanees would 
tell me, having a bad heart, and being the pertabators of all the na- 
tions. Ho said the Miamis had a bad name, on account of the mis- 
chief done on the river Ohio ; but be told me, it was not occasioned 
by his young men, but by the Shawanees; his young men going 
out only for to hunt. 

"'Xhe 25th of April, Blue Jacket, chief wamor of the Shawanees, 
invited me to go to his house, and told me — ' My friend, by the 
name and consent of the Shawanees and Delawares, I will speak to 
yoiT. We are all sensible of your speech, and pleased with it; 
but, after consultation, we can not give an answer without hearing 
irom- our father at Detroit ; and we are determined to give yon back 
the two branches of wampum, and to send you to Detroit to see and 
heai' the chief, or to siay here twenty nights for to receive his an- 
swer. From all quarters we receive speeches from the Americans, 
and not one is alike. We suppose that they intend to deceive us. 
Then take back your branches of wampum.' 

" The 26th, five Pott-awattamies arrived here with two negro 
men, which they sold to English traders. The next day I went to 
the great chief of the Miamis, called Le Gris. His chief wai-rior 
was present. I told him how I had been served by the Shawan- 
ees. He answered me that he had heard of it: that the said nations 
behaved conti'ary to his intentions. He desired me not to mind 
those strangers, and that he would soon give me a poddve answer. 
"The 28th of April, the great chief desired m'e to call at the 
French trader's and receive his answer. ' Don't take bad,' said he , 
' of what I,am to tell you. You may go back when you please. We 
can not give you a positive answer. We must send your speeches 
to all our neighbors, and to the lake nations. A¥e can not give a defi- 
nitive answer without consulting the commandant at Detroit.' And 
he desired me to render him the two branches ot wampum refused 
by the Shawanees ; also a copy of speeches in wiitiug. He prom- 
ised me that, in thirty nights, he would. send an answer to Post Yin- 
cennes by a yoang man of each nation. He was well pleased with 
the speeches, and said to be woi-thy of attention, and should bo 
communicated to all their confederates, leaving resolved am.ojKj 


CrAllliLm'K J'uUKMAL. 119 

tlisw. not do anyilting without a unanimous consent. I agreed to 
hia requisitions, and rendered him tlie two branches of wampum 
and 3 copy of the speech. Aftei-ward he told me that the Five Na- 
tions, so caUed, or Iroquois, were training something; that five of 
them, and three Wyandotts, were in tliis village with branches pf 
wampnm. He could not tell me presently their pm'poae, but he said 
I would know of it very soon. 

" The same day Blue Jacket, chief of the Shawaneea, invited me 
to hia house for supper ; and, before tlie other chiefs, told mo that, 
after another deliberation, they thought necessary that I should go 
myself to. Detroit for to see tii9 commandant, who would get all hia 
cliildren assembled to hear my speech. I told them I would not 
answer them in the night; that I was not ashamed to apeak before 
the sun. 

" The 20tb of April I got them all assembled. I told them that I 
was not to go to Detroit ; that the speeches were directed to the na- 
tions of the river Wabash and the Miami; and that, for to prove the 
sincerity of the speech, and the heart of Governor St. Clair, I have 
■willingly given a copy cii the speeches to be shown to the com- 
mandant of Detroit ; and, according to a letter wJOte by the com- 
mandant of Detroit to the Miamis, Shawanees, and Delawares, men- 
tioning to you to be peaceable with the Americans, I would go to 
him very willingly, if it was in my directions, being sensible of his 
sentiments. I told them I bad nothing to say to the commandant ; 
neither bim to me. Ton must imuiediately resolve, if you intend 
to take me to Detroit, or else I am to go back as soon as possible. 
Blue Jacket got up and told me, ' My friend, we arc well pleased 
with what you say. Our intention is not to force you to go to De- 
troit. It is only a proposal, thinking it for the best. Our answer 
is the same as the Miamis. We will send, in thirty nights, a full 
and positive answer by a young man of each nation by writing to 
Post Vincennes.' In the evening, Elue Jacket, chief of the Shaw- 
anees, having taken me to supper witli bim, told me, in a private 
manner, that the Shawanee nation was in doubt of the sincerity of 
the Big Knives, so called, having been already deceived by them. 
That they bad first desti-oyed their lands, put out their tire, and 
sent away their young men, being a hunting, without a moathful 
of meat; also had taken away their wom^n — wherefore, many of 
them would, with a great deal of pain, forget these affronts. More- 
ever, that some other nations were appreh((nding that ofiers of 
peace would, may be, tend to take away, by degrees, their lands, 
and -would serve tbem as tliey did before : a certain proof that they 
intend to encroach on oiir lands, istheir new settlement on the Ohio. 
If they don't keep this side [of the Ohio] clear, it will never be. a 
proper reconcileinent with tlic nations Shawpnees, Iroquois, Wy- 
andotts, and perhaps many othera.. Le Gria, chief of the Miamis, 
aeked me, in a private discourse, what chiefs 'had made a treatj' 
with tbc Americans at Muskingdu:ii [Fort Harmar]? I answered 



him that their names were mentioned in the treaty. He told me 
he hadheard of it Bome timeago; but they are not chiefs, neither 
delegates, who made that treaty — they are only young men who, 
without aathority and iustructione from their chiefs, have con- 
cluded, that treaty, which will not be approyed. They went to the 
treaty clandestinely, and they intend to make mention of it in the 
next council to be held. 

"The 2d of May I came hack to the rivera I'Anguille. One of 
the chief men of the tribe being witness of the council at Miami 
town, repeated the whole to them ; and whereas, the first chief was 
absent, they said they could not for the present time give answer, 
but they were willing to join their speech to those of their eldest 
brethren. ' To give you proof of an open heart, we let you know 
ihat one of our chiefs is gone to war on the Americans ; but it was 
before we heard of yon, for certain they would not have been gone 
thither.' They also told me tliat a few days after I passed their vil- 
lage seventy warriors, Chippewaa and Ottawaa, from Michilimaci- 
nac, arrived there. Some of them were Pottawattamies, who, meet- 
ing in their roufe^the Cliippewas and Ottawas, joined them. ' We 
toid them what we heard by you ; that your speech is fair and true. 
We could not stop them from going to war. The I'ottawattamies 
told lis that, as tho Ohippewaa and Ottawas were more numerous 
than them, they were forced fo follow them.' 

"The 3d of May I got to the Weas. They told me that they 
were waiting for an answer from their eldest brethren, 'We ap- 
prove veiy mnch our brethren for not to give a definitive answer, 
without informing of it all the lake Nations; Ihat Detroit was the 
place where the fire was lighted ; then it ought first to be put out 
there ; tliat the English comma.ndant is their father, since he threw 
down our French fathen. They could do nothing without his ap- 

" The 4th of May I arrived at the village of the Kjckapoos, The 
cliief, presenting me two branches of wampum, black and white, 
said : ' My son, wo can not stop our young men from going to war. 
Every day.eome set off clandestinely for that purpose. After such 
behavior from- om- young nien, we are ashamed to say to the great 
chief at the Illinois and 6i tlie Post Vincennnes, that we are busy 
about some good affairs for the reconcilement ; but be , persuaded 
that we will speak to them continually concerning the peace ; and 
that, when our eldest bretliren will have sent their answer, we will 
join ours to it.' 

"Tbe 6th of May I arrived at Vermillion, I found nobody but 
two chiefs ; all the rest were gone a hunting. They told me tliey 
had nothing else to say but what I was told going up." 

Gov. St. Clair being at Kaskaskia, in Uie fore part of the month 
of June of tills year, (IT90) received from Major Hamtmmck the 
foUowine, bearing date, " Post Vincennes, May 22d, 1780:" "I 
now inclose the proceedings of Mr, (iaraelin, by which your excel- 

I l.ooyGoO^^IC 

The Man-Eatxng Sociii'iT — Foksytu's Accou^■T. 121 

lency can have no great hopes of bringing the Indians to a peace 
with' the United States. The 8th of May, Gamelin arrived, and on 
tliQ l!th some merchants arrived and informed me that, as soon aa 
Gamelin had passed their villages on his return, ail the Indians 
had gone to war ; that a large party of Indians from Michilemac- 
inac, and some Potta-watta.mies, had gone to Kentucky; and that 
three days after Gamelin had left the Miami (village — here) an 
American was brought there and burnt."* 
• Aceotding to the Etatomcnt of cliief Rkhardville, Mr. Peltier, anil others, aays Mr.!Breaear(' " ■■ "^-—---' °'-''-'— '"--■"-— ■■■—'--'--■- 

Chuvoh of Fort Wftyne," " 

Joseph, uow BO attractive in , 

pliico for bHrning priaonera." Some years ago, cliief Hi olmrd villa also pointed oui. a. 
epot.toan old citizen of Fort Wnyoe, lying near Mr. J. 8. Maaon'sline, a fewTOda Croin a 

E rave- yard on the west side of the Bliiffton Pknk Road, where he aaid a Eentnokiait 
ad be«Q burned by the Indians sometime dfiring 1812. This, aa the reader is already 
aware, being long a familiar and Ijalovad spot, not only with the Miamies, btit many 
other friendly tribes, to hold and maintain it, they aeem to have early deviaed many- 
plans and means of Reoarity, both figainBt their enemiea of other savage tribes and 
the whites, at different periods. At a very early time, the Miamies were eallsd and 
familiarly known among the ti'ibes of the eounti'y as " Likkeways, " or" Minsk ways," 
which, ai wiUi the name MnyouENiEa, signified Me^r. As a means of terror to their 
enemies, the Minneways or Miamies had early formed here what was ooinmonly 
known as a "man-eaticc society," which, to make it the more fearful to their oppo- 
nenta, was firmly established on a hereditary ba^is, eotilined to one family alone, whose 
deaeendants oontinned to exereiee, by right sf descent, Hie savage rites and duties iif 
the man-eating family. One Major Tliomos Forsytli, who Uvea for n period of raore 
tlian twenty yeava amongthe Saiiks and Fox Indians, in a written narration of theae 
two ti'ibea, fiwt published in Drake's " Life of Black Hawk," as . early as 183S, said : 
"More^than a century ago, all. the oonntry, commencing above Book river, and run- 
ning down the Miffliesippi to the mouth of the Ohio, np that river to the mouth of the 
IVoEaah, thence np thai river to Fort "Wayne, thence down the Miami of the Iial!rt 
some diatflucc, Uienee north to the St, Joseph's and Chioago ; alao the country lying 
Bonth of the Des Moinea, down perhaps, to the Miasissippi, wa* inhabited hy a numer- 
ous nation of Indians, who oalled themaetvea Linneway, and were called hy others. 
Minneway, signifying "men." Thia great uation wna dividedintoaeveral bands, nnd 
inhabited different parts of this extensive region, as folloivs : The Michigamiea, tlio 
oonntry soath of, the Des Moinea ; flie Oahokias tliateaat of Hio present viliago of Ca- 
hokiam Illinois; the fiaakaekiaij that east of the town of that name ; tlie 'Tatnarois 
had their villi^ nearly central between OahokiaandKasltaakia ; the Piankeshnws near 
Yincennes ; the Weaa up the Wabash ; the Miamies on the head watera of the Miami 
of tlie Lakes, OB St. Joaenh's river and at Ohicago. The Pmnkeahaws, Weas and Ml- 
nraies, must at tliis time hare hunted aovith towards and on the Ohio. The Peoriaa, 
another band of the same nstion, lived andhnnted on tlie Illinois river : The M,iBeo.i 
or Mascontins, called by the Fj'ench sens dEs TaABiES, lived and hunted on the great 
prairies, between the Wabnsh and Illiuoia riveia. All these different bands of tho 
Minneway nation, epoke the langnage of the present Miamiea, and the whole consid- 
ered themselvea as one and the same people ; yet from their local Eituation, and having 
no standard to go by, their language became broken up into diff^nt dialeots. Theso 
Indiana, the Minneways, w;ereattaoked by ageuemlconfederacTof other nationa, siiah 
»s the Sanks and Foxes, resident at Qreen Bay and on the Ouiaoonsin'; the Sionx, 
whose frontiers extended Bonth to the river dea Moinea ; the Ohippeways, Ohtowaya, 
and Potawatimies from the lakes, and alao tlie Oherokeesand Chootnwa from the south. 
The war oontinned for a great many yeara and until that preat nation the Minneways 
were destroyed, exoept a few Miamiea and Weaa on tlie Wabaah, and ft few who are 
Eoatl^l'ed among strangem. Of the Kaskaakias, owing to their wai's and their fondness 
for spiiituouB liquors, there now (1825) I'emain but thirty or forty souls r — of the Peo- 
rias neai' St. Genevieve ten or fifteen ; of the Piaukeshaws forty or fifty. The Miam- 
ies are the most numerous ; a few years ago they consisted of abont four hundred souls. 
There do not exist at the present day (l^Sj more than five hnndred souls of the onoo 
great and powerful Minneway or Illini nation. Thiaa Indians, the Minneways, are 
said to hare been vciy cruel to their priatiners, not uufrequeiitly burning tliem. I have 

, Google 

132 His'j'OKY u¥ KoiiT WiYwa. 

Being readily induced to believe, from the dispatches received, 
frortt Hamtramck, that there was oo possibility of forming a treaty 
of peace with the Miamie Indiane and other tribes banded with 
them, Governor St. CiaJr determined to return to Fort Waahington 
(Cincinnati,) with a view of consulting with General Harmar as to 
the expediency of an expedition against the hostile tribes; and, 
accordmgly, on the 11th of June, he quit Kaehaslda, and by water, 
reached Fort Washing-ton on the 13th of July. 

Having consulted with General Harmar, and concluding to send 
a formidable force against the Indians about the head waters of the 
Wabash, by authority of President Washington, on the 15th of 
July (1790,) he addressed cii-cular letters to a number of Lieuten- 
ants of the western coanties (of Virginia, of which Kentucky was 
then a part) and Pennsylvania, for the purpose of raising one thou- 
sand militia in the former, and five hundred in the latter. The regu- 
lar troops then in service in the west General Harmar estimated, 
at about fonr hnndred efficient men, with whom the militia v/ere to 
operate as follows : Of the Virginia militia, 800 were to rendez- 
vous at Port Steuben, and, with a garrison at that poet, to proceed 
to Vincennes, to join Major Hamti-amck, who had orders to call to 
his aid the militia of that place. From thence to move up the Wa- 
bash, with a view of attacking such points among the Indian vil- 
lages along that river as his force might seem adequate; The twelve 
iinndred militia remaining were to join the regular ti-oops, under 
General Harmar, at Fort Washington. That the British command- 
ant at Detroit might know the true cause and course of the move- 
ment, on the l9thof September, Gov. St. Clair addressed aletterto 
him, which he sent bya private conveyance, assuring the said com- 
Leardof n certnin family among tlie Miamiea wliowpra ealledmofi-eatera.Kstbey weivj 
aootiBtomed to make a fiiiiBt of Iniman fleeJi when o prisoner was Mllad. For tK'.'seeDpr- 
mitiea, the Banka and Poxea, when tliey tadk any of the Minneivoja prisoners, gare 
themutt to til air '\romeii Co be bnffeted to lieatU. They speak also of the Hasoontins' 
'n'ith abhorrence, on account of their oruelties. Tlie Saulis and Foxes have a historical 
legoed of a severe battle having lioan Yought opposite the montli of tie Iowa river, 
about fifty or sixty miles above the mouth of RoA rivejT The Sauts .and Foies de- 
scended the MissisBippi in canofs, and landing attLe plaoa above draoribed, started 
east, towards tho enaray : they had not gone far before they wera' attacked by a liarty 
of Uie Maeooiitiiis. TTie baltle oontinned nearly all day ; the Saiikfl and Fos^, for 
want of nniniiinition, finally gave way and. led in their canoes: the Mascontins Jinr- 
Bliod them and fonffht desperately, and left but few of the Sanks and Foses to carry 
home tho slory tf their defeat. Soma forfy or fifty vears a^o, the Sauks and Foxsa at- 
tooked asmali village of Peorias, about a mile halow St. Louia and werg, tliere defeated. 
At a place on the ifliuOia river, called Little Bock, thero were formerly killed by the 
Ohippaways and Ottowas, a namberof men, woman and cMldreii of tlia Minneway 
nation. In ItJOO tlie Kiel apoos made a great slnnijhtei of tlia Kaskaekia Indians 'fh'a 
Main-Poaua, orPotawatimiejugglH in 1801 killed a gienlmany ot flii- Piankfshawfi 
on the Wabash." 

In proof of tlie foregoing ifilatire to the society of man eatera amon^ the Indians at 
this point. General Lewis OflSB in a apet^li htre aelutr 1 itflic iirinl lebmtiun it 
July 4th :B43, in "Swinney d Grove near the site of tli ' ry said 

'"Formanyyeara danngthe frontier histoiyof thi | I I of jom 

canal was a bloodywar path whiohhasseenmany a 1 i peateful 

town haa had ita Moloch and (he records of hum jn i i i terrible 

esamplea of cruelty than were offered at his Bhrine II ili i i 1 iir prado. 

oessors in tlia oaenpation cf this distiiot lial a !■ iiiV in UUiU ii "'iL-a ti j,lii and 


Rhea's Account' — Gbis'. Cass' Audicsss. 12^ 

mandant that the purposes of the (Jnited States were pacific in so 
far as their relations to Great Britain were concerned ; that the ex- 
pedition was to quell the vindictive and intolerable spirit of the In- 
diana towards the settlements, whither and agaiuet whom they had 
BO long, so inhumanly, and destructively carried theic savage ■war- 

That the English, towards Late Erie, notwithstanding tliis spirit 
of candor and courtesy on the part of St, Clair, gave aid to the 
Indians in their efforts against the United States dnring 1'790-'91, 
the evidence is clear enough; hut to what extent, was not fully 
known. The following paragraplis from a certificate of one Thomas 
Rhea, taken in the early part, of 1790, will give some clue, at 
least, as to the aid then and subsequently rendered tho Indians by 
the British : 

" At this place, the Miami" eaid Khea, in his account, " were Col- 
onels Brant* and McKee, with his son Thomas ; and Captaius Bun- 
bnry and Silvie, of the British troops. These officers, <&e., were 
ail encamped on the south side of the Miami or Ottawa river, at 
the rapids above- Lake Erie, abouteightecn miles; .they had clever 
houses, built chiefly by the Po'tawattatnies and other Indians; in 
these tiiey had stores of goods, with arms, ammunition and provis- 
ion, which they issued to the Indians in great abundance, viz; corn, 
pork, peas, &c. 

* Brniit -WRB a Mohawk chieftain, of ooiiaideiiible intelligence, edncnted at PliiUilGl- 
phia ; a fflvoritoof Sir Wiiliam Joliuaon, and ever greatly flttnohed to tlie BwtiKli. — 
After the strnegles of these pwioda, he took up liis rtsidenceiii Caiiuda, whece he died 
in 1807. 

objeot have Cieea loat iti the darl:ao?j of aboviginal history, but which was oontianed 
to u late period, and whose opgiea ivere Jield upon the very spot where we now are. It 
was called the m bh- eating Boeiety, and it was the duty of ila osaoeiatea to eat auoh pris- 
oners DB were presert'ed and delivered to them tor that pqrposa. The nierabere of this 
KooietyibeloQged to a particular family, and the dreadfiil inheritonoe desoanded to all 
the ohildreii, male and famalo.' The datiea it imposed could not he avdded, and tlio 
aanotions of religion were added to the obligtriionB of immemorial usage. Tho feast 
was a solemn aeremony, at which the whole tribe was oollected as aetore or speetutois. 
The miserable Tictim was hound to a stake, and burned at a slow fira, with all the i^- 
finemente of oruel^, whicli savage ingenuity ooald invent. There was a trnditioniry 
ritual, whioli regalatad with revoltingpreoiaion, the whole oourse of prooedure at tiifsa 
oeremoniee Latterly the authority and obligations of Wie institution had deaUtifid, 
and I presume it has now wholly disappeatad. Bntlhavoaeen and converaad with 
the head of the family, the ohiet of the society, whoao name was Wliit« Skin — with 
what feeling of disgust, I need not attempt to dweribe. I well knew an intelligent 
Oanadian, who was present at oue of the last aaerifioes made at this horj'iblo institution. 
The victim was a young American eaptiued in Kentaoky, towards the olo«8 of our 
Revolutionary War. Here wlieire we are now assembled, in peace and securiry, celebra- 
ting the triumph of art and industry, within tho memory of the present geuoratiou, 
our oountiymen have bcHK thns tortured, and mui'dered, and devoured. But, thank 
God, tliat coanoil-fire is eitinguislied. The impious feast is over ; the war-rianoe if 
ended ; tie war-aong ie sung : the war-drum is silent, and tho Indian has departed to 
find, I hope, in the distant West, a oomfoi'tablo residence, and I hope also to find, un- 
der the protection, and, it need be, under tlie power of the United States, a radio^il 
change in the inatitutio^s and general improvement in his morale and. condition. A 
feeble remnant of tiie once powerful tribe, which formerly won their way to ilie do- 
minion of this region, by blood, and by blood maintained it, liave tx>-day appeared 
among ua like passing sliadovrs, flitting round tlie places that know them no more. 
Theirresniwetion,if Imay sospeat,ianottliolea^timpi-e8sivea|)eotacle,whiohmarkstlie 
progreseof tliisim j'Osing ceremony. They aiL' t!ie broten column which connect us ' ' 


124 HisTOKY or Fokt "Waynk. 

"The Indians came to this place in parties of ono, two, tliroo, 
four and live hundred at a time, from different quarters, and re- 
ceived from Mr, McKec aad the Indian officers, clothing,arme, am- 
rannition, provisions, &c., and set out immediately for the upper 
Miami towns, where they undei^stood the forces of (ho United States 
were bending their course, and in order to supply the Indians from 
other quarters collected there, pirogues, loaded with the above- 
mentioned articles, were sent up the Miami (Mauniee) river, wrougiit 
by French Canadians," 

About the middle of September, the Virginia militia began to 
gatlier about the mouth of Licking river, opposite Cincinnati, all 
of whom were, for the most part, badly armed and lacked for camp- 
ketUes and ases ; but were readily organized by General Harmar, 
and soon formed into three battalions, nnder Majors Hall, McMul- 
len, and Eay, with Trotter, as Lieutenant-Colonel to lead them. 
About the 24th of September, came the militia of Pennsylvania to 
Fort Washington, who were also badly equipped, and many of 
whom were substitutes— "old, infirm men, and young boys." 
These were formed into one battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Truby 
and Major Paul; while four battalions of militia, subject to Gen- 
eral Harmar's command, were commanded by Ool. John Hardin. 
Majors John Plasgrave Wylles, and John Doughty commanded the 
regular troops, in two sm^l battalions. The artilery corps, with 
but three pieces of ordinance, was under the command of Captain 
William Ferguson ; while under James Fontaine was placed a 
Mnall battalion of light troops or mounted militia — amounting in- 
all to about 1,453 regular and raw militia troops. 

The militia under Col. Hardin, on the SStli of September, ad- 
vanced from Fort Washington into the country, for the double pur- 
pose of opening a road for the artillery and to obtain feed for their 
cattle. On the 30th of September, the regular troops marched, 
commanded by General Harniar ; and on the 3d day of October 
joined the militia. 

A journal of the daily movements of the army was regularly 
kept by Captain John Armstrong, of the regulars, up to its arrival 
at the Miami village, at this point. 

After an uninterrupted march of sixteen days, on the afternoon 
of the 15th of October, Colonel Hardin, with an advanced detach- 
ment, reached this point, and stole in upon the Miami village, only 
Uia pwt- The edifice is in niina.iiGdtJiegiaiit vegetation, wliieli covered and protected 
it, bes as loTiiB the once mighty Btinoture, ■which was slielvedin ite iBoeseea. They 
hBTeoome to wititces tiie fimt ^at act of peace in onir frontier history, as' their pre»enca 
heraja tb« laetin their own. The cereraouieB npon tthioh yon heretofore gaaed with 
interest, will never again lie Been- bv the white man, in thb Beat of their former power. 
Bnt thanks to our asoendaney, these reprpaenlations are but apngemt ;■ buta theatrienl 
exhibition. whiQh, wichbarbarouBmotionB, and aoanda and cant^rtione, sliew how tbeir 
oDoestors conquered their enemies, and how tliey glutted their rsvetiga jo. blood. To- 
day, this last of the rooo is here — to-morrow tliey -will eommenoe tlieir jSurney towarda 
the setting Bnn,whera their fathoiB, agreeable to their rude faith, have pveoeilcd thtfiii, 
and where the red mou wi}l flud reat imd eiifety." 

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fco find it deserted by men, woroen and cliildreu. A few cows, some 
vegetables, and about twenty thousand bushels of corn in the ear, 
save the wigwams, huts, and surrounding scenery, were all that 
greeted them ; and the niilltia, in much disorder, soon began to 
move about in search of plunder. 

On the l7th, about one o'clock, the main body of the army camo 
up and crossed tlie Maumee to the village. 

Major McMidlen, of Ool, Hardin's command, having discovered 
the tracks of Vi'omen and children leading in a north-westerly di- 
rection, and so reported to General Harmar on his arrival, the lat- 
ter determinedat once upon an effort to discover their place of ren- 
oegvousi and, to that end, on the morning of the l8th, detailed Col. 
Trotter, Major Hali, Major Eay, and Major' McMullen, with three 
liundred men, among whom wore thirty regulars, forty ligbt-horse, 
arid two hundred and thirty active riflemen. Furnished With three 
days' provision, theywere ordered to reconfloiter the country around 
file ri!la;fo. About one mile from the encampment, an Indian on 
hoi-sebacK was discovered, pursued, and' killed, by a part of the 
detachment, under Trotter ; and before returning to the main body 
of the party, another Indian was seen, "when the four field officers 
left their commands, and pursued him, leaving the troops for the 
space of about half an hottr without any direction whatever." Bb- 
ing intercepted by the light-horsemen, one of which party he had 
wounded, the Indian was at length killed. Changing the route of 
his detatchment, and moving in different directions, till night, Col. 
Trotter again, unexpectedly to, and without the approbation of Gen- 
eral Harmar, returned, to the Miami village. 

In consequence of the disorderly coarse of the mihtia on their 
arrival at the village, in their desire for plunder, General Harmar 
ordered cannon to be fired for the purpose of calling them to theii' 
ranks, and also liarangued the ofScera on the bad results liable to 
follow such indifference. On the l8th he issued the following gen- 
eral order : 

" Camp at the Miami Village, Oct, 18, 1790. 

" The general is much mortiiied at the unsoidier-like behavior of 
many of the men in the ai'my, who make it a practice to straggle 
from the camp in search of plunder. He, in the most positive 
terms, forbids this practice in future, and the guards will be an- 
swerable to prevent it. No party is to go beyond the line of senti- 
nels without a commissioned oflicer, who, if of the railitaa, wiU ap- 
ply to Colonel Hardin for his orders. The regular troops will ap- 
ply to the general. AU the plunder that may be hereafter collec- 
ted, will be equally distributed among the army. The kettles, and 
every other article already taken, are to be collected by the com- 
manding officers of batalioas, and to be delivered to-morrow morn- 
ing to Mr. Belli, the qua rteiiti aster, that a fair distribution may take 
place. The rolls are to be called at b-oop and retreat beating, and 

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every man atsent is to be reported. The general expects tliat tlieaft 
orders will be poiiitedly attended to : they ai'e to be read to the troops 
this evening, l-'he army ie to march to-raorrow moriiina; early for 
their Hew encampment at ChiUicothe,* about two miles from hence. 


Ool. Hardin, having asleep for the command 01 the ti-oopa returned 
to camp under Trotter, fot the remaining two days, Gen. Harmar 
readily complied; and on the next day, (19th) Col. Hardin led the de- 
tachment along ail Indian trail to the northwest, in the direction of 
the Kickapoo villages. Coming to a point, near a morass, some five 
miles distant from "the confluence of the St. Mary and St. Joseph 
riveps, wherO) on the preceding day, there had teen an Indian en^ 
campment, the detachment came to a halt, and were soon stationed 
at different points, In rfaadinesB for an attack, should the enemy 
still be near. A half hour passed, and lio sign of the enemy. The 
order now being given to the companies in the front to advance, 
the company under Fanlkner, not having received the order of 
march, a neglect on the part of Ool. Hardin, was left behind. Hav- 
ing advanced some three miles, two Indians afoot, with packs, were 
discovered ; but, the brush being thick, and suddenly throwing 
aside their burdens at the sight of the detachment, were soon lost 
sight of and escaped. The absence of FauUtner at this time be- 
coming apparent, Major Fontaine, with a portion of the cavalry, 
was at once sent in pm«nit of him, with the supposition that he was 

The report of a gun, in front of the detachment, soon fell upon 
the attentive ear of Captain Armstrong, in command of the regu- 
lars — an alarm gun,. perhaps, suggested he. He had discovered the 
" tracks of a horse that had come down the road and returned." 
These facts were readily conveyed to the ear of Colonel Hardin. 
Captain' Armstrong now observed the fires of the Indians — they 
were only discornible in the dist^ance. Caution was large in the 
soul of Annstrong. Havdin thought the Indians would not fight, 
and moved foi-ward, in the direction of the fires, neither giving or- 
ders or preparing for an attack. The little army of three hundred 
were now strangely separated — 'they were in the forest, several 
miles from camp. The enemy were in ambush— were numerousf 
—and Me-che-cannah-quah, — Little Turtle— was their leader, Har- 
din continued to advance, and the columns moved forward in obe- 
dience to orders. Behind the fires lay the red men, hidden from 
view, with guns leveled. Steadily the broken detachment moved 
forward, under the intrepid control of their commander ; and no 
sooner liad they approached the fires than a terrible volley was 
opened upon them from behind the smoking entrenchments. The 
shock was sudden — the colaraus were unprepared for it. The mi- 

*A SbftWitnoe villoge. 

tThought. by aome to have been as mnny Off aeven hundred— 'by otlietB only nlioutone 
}nmdre(!. The locality of this engagement was near Eel Rirer, abont tbo point -wben? 
llieGwUm Statu Sond oi'osies this sti'eani, now known «s"none-'a Cofnera." /^^„„I„ 

Hosted by VjOOQie 

Dei'bat opa BetAchmest — Miami Village Desteoyed. 127 

litia were panic stricken, and all but nine broke the ranks and T)e- 
gan a precipitate flight for the camp of Gen. Harmar, Hardin had 
retreated with them, and in vain strove to rally them. The reso- 
lute regnlare braveiy faced the enemy, and returned the flre. The 
nine remaining militia were pierced by the balls of the enemy, and 
twenty-two of the regulars fell, while Captain Armstrong, Ensign 
Hartshorn, and some five or six privates, alone made their escape, 
and reached the camp again at the village. The victory was with 
the Indians, and the retreating columna ail reached the camp of 
Harmer without further loss. 

Having, after the departure of Hardin and the detachment in 
the morning, destroyed the Miami village, Harmar, in the mean- 
tinie, had moved about two miles down the Maumee, to the Shaw- 
anoe village, Icriown as Chillicothe, and' on the 20th issued the 
following orders : 

" Oasip at OhiiXIoothe, one of the Skawane^e towns, ) 
on the> Omee [Mcmmeej river, Oct, 20th, 1790. J 

" The party under command of Captain Strong is ordered to 
burn and desti'oy every house and wigwam in this village, together 
wth all the corn, etc., which he can collect. A party of one him- 
dred men (militia), properly officered, under the command of Col. 
Hardin, ia to burn and aestroy effectually, this afternoon, the Pick- 
away town,* with all tlie corn, etc., which he can find in it and its 

" The cause of the detaEchment being woi'sted yesterday, was en- 
tirely owing to the shameful, cowardly conduct of the militia, who 
r^n away, and threw down their arms, without firing scarcely a 
single gun. In returning to Fort Washington, if any officer or men 
presume to quit the ranks, or not to, march in; the form that they 
are ordered, the general will most assuredly order the artillery to 
fire on them. He hopes the check they received yesterday will 
make them in future obedient to orders." 

" JOSIAH HAEMAE, Bbiqadibe-Geneeal." 

From the scene of the yet smoking and charred remains of the 
Indian village of Chilli cothe,'!' at ten o'clock on the morning of the 
21st. the army under Hai^martook up its line of march towards Fort 
Washingten, and proceeded about seven miles, when a haU, was 
made, and the army encamped for the night. 

The evening was clear and beautiful — one of those glorious 
nights in the month of October, when the stars, all in harmony, with 
no clouds intervening between the earth and the etherial blue to 

*A Shawanoc village. 

tl'hfl BOene of tiia villaga, somajtwo railee bfilow^ Fort IVayne, on tlie Maumee, was 
ttbuut tha aito of iJia residsnoo «f Mrs. Pbelpe. Sajh Mr. J. W. Dn wBon, in iiia reseiiceh 
es, ootioei'uing tha history of FoctWuyiie, "from Judge Colnun, who Battled oa the 
fawu now bivaed 'hy Mra, Phelpe, in 16S7, we leara tliat every iridenoeof former onl- 
tivalaon of the ground there, ■was seen ;. there being no timber growing, cvidoooes of 
nnuient building, of gnrdeniug.Buohns naparaguB, &o,; and oW there found many 
bayonets, gnn-bKi'tela, knives, piick-Siidillo fvaiiien, <fee." 


128 IIlSTOKl' OF FOKT "WAi-NI!, 

shut out their joyous example, Beem to twinkle a heavenly anthem 
to the sombre hues and waueing aspects of Autumn. No stealtliy 
tread was heard — no savage form was to be seen— the whoo-wlioo, 
wh-o-o of the night-owl ; the careful movement of the sentinel ; the 
mingled voices of the soldiery, and tiie falling leaves, rustling 
through the branches to the earth, were all the sounds that feil 
upon tlie attentive ears of Harmar and his army. 

Looking thus out upon the stillness and beauty of the night, a 
thought had stolen upon the mind of Colonel Hardin, Hia am- 
bition — his desire for the chastisement of the Indian — was by no 
means appeased. Tlie Miamies had perhaps returned to the village 
immediately after the departure of the army, thought he; and a 
most propitious opportunity was presented to return and " steal a 
march upon them.' Thus imbued, he readily imparted his feelings 
(o G eneral Harmar — urging " that, as he had been unfortunate the 
other day, he wished to have it in his power to pick the militia and 
tiy it again," He sought to explain the cause of the militia not 
meeting the Indians on the 19th; and insisted that he then wished 
to retrieve their course. The earnest demeanor of Hardin prevailed. 
Ilarmer gave his consent. The commanding general was anxious 
that the Indians should bo as well subdued as possible, that they 
might not give the army trouble on its return march to Fort Wash- 
ington ; and, as the night advanced, amid the stillness of the scene 
about them, with a body of three haodred and forty militia, and 
sixty regulars under Major Wyllys, with a view of advancing upon 
the Miami village before daylight, and thus be enabled the more 
effectaally to surprise the Indians, the force took up its line of 
march in three columns, the regulars in the centre, and the militia 
to the right and left. Captain Joseph Ashton moved at the head 
of the regulars, while Major WyUys an'd Colonel Hardin were in 
his front. Contraiy to expectations, some delay having occurred 
by the halting of the militia, the banks of the Maumee were not 
gained till after sunrise, Indiana were now soon discovered by the 
spies, at the announcement of which, Major Wyllys called the reg- 
ulars to a halt, and ordered the militia on to a point in front, and 
presented his plan of attack to the commanding officei-s of the de- 
tachment. Major Wyllys reeervingto himself the command of the 
i-egalars, Major Hall was directed, with his battalion, to move cir- 
cuitously round the bend of the Maumee, crossing the St. Maiy^s 
and, in the rear of the Indians, to halt until an attack should be 
made "by Major McMuileu's battalion. Major Fontaine's cavalry, 
and the regular troops under Major Wyllys, who were all ordered 
to cross the Maumee at and near the common fording place, which 
was about opposite the residence of Mr. J. J". Oomparet,* Hardin 
•Among tbo wounded in thifl engagement, tliere waB a raan by tlie name of John 
Smith, ■who, daring tbo engagement, witli seveml others fell ia tfin river. He liad re- 
ceived a severe wonuii, and, bb a means of Bafotj, had remained qviiefc until all had 
lett, when he crawled to the banfe of tlie riviir and concealed himself imtil some time 
linrhig the nipht. Wlien ull S'^emed atill, hy. eautioMsly left !hs liiddiiig plnce, moved 


BuKiAL Plage Off Majoss "Wyllys, Fontaihe, and otuers. 129 

and Wyllys had aimed to surround the Indians in their encamp- 
ment; but Major Hall, having reached hia position unobserved, 
disregarded the orders given by firing upon a single Indian that 
appeared in sight before the general attack was made. The report 
from the point of Hail's battalion had startled the Indians, and 
small sc[uads of them were seen hurrying away in many directions, 
rapidly pursued, contrary to ordera, by the , militia under McMul- 
len, and the cavalry under Fontaine, leaving Wyllys, at the head 
ofthe regulars, without snppoi-t, and who, crossing the Manmee, 
were attacked by a superior bocly of Indians, under the lead of Lit- 
tle .-Cui-tle, and at length, after the fall of Wyllys and the largest 
portionof the regular troops, were forced to retreat. Major ]fon- 
taine, at the head of the mounted militia, in a charge upon a small 
body of Indiana, with anumber of his men were killed," while the 
remainder sought safety in refci-eat. In the meantime, while the 
regulars were engaged with the party nnder Little Turtle, the mili- 
tia under Hall and McMullen, at the .confluence of the St. Mary 
and St. Joseph, were briskly engaged in combating small parties 
of Indians ; but soon retreated after the defeat of the regulars, hav- 
ing killed and wounded many of the red men, who made no at^ 
tempt to follow them, in their rapid march towards the main body 
uuder Harmar. A single horseman having reached the camp of 
the main army, about 11 o'clock, a. m,, Harmar at once, upon learn- 
ing the news of the defeat of the detachment, ordered Major Eay, 
with his battalion, to advance to the aid of the retreating forces. 
But the effect of the panic on the militia was too great — but thirty 
men could be prevailed on to advance to the rescue under Major 
Eay, who had advanced but a short distance, when they were met 
by Hardin and the retreating forces under him. Gaining the en- 
campment. Colonel Hardin, flushed with excitement, and still en- 
tertaining a strong desire to carry his point against tho Indians, 
urged Harmar to set out at once, with the entire iorce, for the Mi- 
"The remainsof Majors Wyllys and Fontaine, with some eight other officers and val- 
imit men who fell on the oceaBion, were bnried in some trenches, ne.iv th^ bants of tho 
Mftumee, soma twenty rods helowthe reflideBoe of J. J. Comparet, Esc[. The inden- 
tations on either side of the Manmee, just below Mr. Oomparet'B dwelling, atiliexhihita 
to the atranger the fatal ford where bo m»ny braTe man fall, and whose blood reddened 
the stream. 

down the Mnumee a short distnnee, and made his Paoape, reaching Fort Waahington 
in safety, and racoverad from hia wounds. When Wayne's army eame here, this man 
Smith oame with it, and ever after lived, and, some years ago, diyd here, Mre. Sntten- 
fiald, whose name is already familiar to tlie reader, iaformed ttia writer that Smifh 
Hredfor two yeaiB in her family, andmany times heardhim relate hia adventnres and 
narrow escape from the Indians on the oeoasion in quesdon. The ludians being in 
amhush, along tlie banta of the Maumee, both above and below, at the time Harmar's 
man began to move orer the river, a cross Are was opened upon them by tJie luiltuns, 
and a large number fall in the rivar, rendering the water, which was not then dfe]> 
enongh to oovar the bodies, quite Woody, BO much so, that Smith, though very dry, 
would not drink it. When it grew dar^, the Indians, none of whom had pursued the 
retreating forces, came to the river, and beg^n to strip ths bodies, exulting greatly 
o»ar fheic victory. lu deseribinj the noise they made while thna engaged, Smilh who 
was still aonceated, said their voioes "sgHndedllTio the ohattarlng of a poi'eol of block 
Ijirds." (S) 

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ami village again. But Harmar wOLild not venture a return. Said 
lie: "You see the aitaation of the army : wo aro now scarcely aWo 
to move our baggage: it will take up three days to go and return 
to this place : we have no more forage for our horses : the Indians 
have got a very good scourging ; and I will keep the army in per- 
fect readineas to receive them, should they think proper to follow."* 

The militia had now become little better than wooden men in 
the eyes of'General Harmar. He had lost all faith in them, and 
began at once to narrow the bounds of the camp. A second defeat 
and retreat were complete ; and without further attempt to move 
upon the Indians, on the morning of the 23d of October, after a loss 
of one hundred and eighty-three killed, and thirty-one wounded, the 
army again took up its line of march for Fort Washington, whither 
it arrived on the 4ch of November, having met with no further at^ 
tack or trouble with the Indians after the movement of the 22d, 
about and near the ruina of the Miami village. 

Among the names of the killed during thfe efforts of the army 
in this campaign, were Major Wyllys and Lieutenant Ebenezer 
Frothingham, of the regulars; Major Fontaine, Captains Thorp, 
McMnrtrey, and Scott, Lieutenants Clark and Rogers, and Ensi^'na 
Bridges, Sweet, Higgins, aiid Thielkeld, of the militia. The loss 
on the part of the Indiana was thought to be about equa.1 that of 
the forces under Harmar. 

Turning our attention to the expedition of Major Hamtratock, 
who, as tlie reader will remember, had moved from Vincennea up 
the Wabash, we find that while Harmar was moving upon the 
Miami village at this point, and destroying the villages, corn, etc., 
of the Indiana in the region, the former had proceeded with 
his command to the mouth of Vermillion river, and laid waste 
several deserted villages, returning again to Vincennea, uninter- 
rupted in his efforts. 

The campaigns of 1790, against fhe Indians of the Northwest, 
were now closed, and the chilling blasts of another long, dreary 
winter, with its anxieties, its hardshipa, and its perils, had begun 
to set in about the sparse and lonely settlements of the west. 

•Depoeition' of Hardin, Sept. U, 1791. 

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Tho^e ■ftestera Pioneers an impiiise fcit, 

Wliioh their less lisrdy sons sosrce ooxnpreliend ; 
Alone, in llature'B wilAust Bceuea they dwelt ; 

lion to theMililia — Petition of the aetttecB — Inorease of Wie regular army — Ap- 
pointment of Gen. St. Clair — PreparatioDs for another moTement against the Mi- 
niai TfilllKS here — InstcuotionB of the Secretaryof War — Expedition of Gen. Scott 
' — A. second eipedition from Kentucky— ^en. Wilkinson 'a aooonnt of the same-— 
Kffeot of these wipediljons — What the Indians helieved—Organiiation of an In- 
dian oonfederaey — British influencs — Simon Girty — Mrs. Suttenlield's reoollee- 
^ons— Treaty of 17S3— Bfitish disregard of U>^Army under St. Clair move foi- 
this poiat^— UnfavoraHe ireather. ■to.^'The army reach the site of the pi'eaent 
town of Sort ReiwTery — Approach of winter— 'The army enoainp for the night — 
Indians on the alert — Preparations for an early move noit morning — Sudden and 
furious sttaek by the Indians— 'Militia giTe Way — Great oansternation — St. Clair's 

oount^-'A new wder of tbioga tiie only hope ol 

fHE INDIANS, though much effecledby the campaign of Ilar- 
mar, both in the destruction of their villages and the loss of 
fconsidorable numbers of their braves in the skirmishes with 
the troops at this poiat and near Eel river, were yet muck 
" elated at the departure of Harmar, and so much did they og- 
Seem it a success oh theif part, that they renewed their attacks 
on the frontier with increased force and ferocity. Meetings were 
called to devise means for defending the settlements. The policy 
of employing regular ofiicers to command militia was denounced, 
and petitions Were extensively circulated, praying the President to 
employ militia only in defence of the frontier, ^nd offering to raise 
a sufficient force to carry tJi§ w&i' immediately into the Indian 

ihe grayer of the^ petitioners, however, was not granted, but the 
■>"' Amci'icisn PiornSiV," p. 305. 


133 HisTOEY 01 FoBT "Wayne, 

President readily favored the increase of the regular army on the 
fronlier,aQd. appointed Geoeral St. Clair to the command. Ener- 
getic measures were adopted to furnish him with arms, stores, &c,, 
for an early campaign ; but the difficnlties and delays infiident to 
furnishing an army, so far removed from miUtary depots, with can- 
non, ammunition, provisions, and the means of transportation, were 
so great, that much time was lost before General St. Clair was able 
to move his army from Fort Washington ; and then it was said to 
be in obedience to express orders, and against his own judgment, 
as he was neither provided with sufficient force, nor the means of 

It was on the 3d of March, 1791, that Congress passed the " act 
for raising and adding another regiment to the militia establish- 
ment of the United States, and for mabihg further provision for the 
protection of the frontier," An army of some three thousand 
troops was proposed to be placed under the command of General 
Ai'thur St. Clair. On the 2 1st of March, ('91), the following in- 
structions were addressed, by the Secretary of War, Gen. Henry 
Knox, to General St. Clair ; which shows with what importance the 
possession of this point was still held, and in which President 
Washington, doubtless, wielded a large share of influence. Said 
the Secretary ; " While you are making use of such desultory oper- 
ations as in your judgment tho occasion may require,'you will pro- 
ceed vigorously, in every preparation in your power, for the pur- 
pose of the main expedition ; and having assembled your force, and 
all things being in readiness, if no decisive indications of peace 
should have been produced, either by the messengers or by the 
desultory operations, you will commence your march for the Mi- 
ami village, in order to eet-ablish a strong and permanent military 
post at that place, tn your advance you will establish such posts 
of communication with Fort Washington, on the Ohio, as you may 
judge proper. The poet at the Miami villagers intended for awing 
and curbing the Indians in that quarter, and as the only preventive 
of future hostilities. It ought, tnerefore, to be rendered secure 
against all attempts and insults of the Indians. The garrison which 
should be stationed tliere ought not only to be sufficient for the de- 
fense of the place, but always to afford a detachment of five or six 
hundred men, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile 
Indians, or to secure any convoy of provisions. The establishment 
of said post is considered as an important object of the campaign, 
and is to take place in all events. In case of a previous treaty, the 
Indians are to be conciliated upon this point if possible ; and it is 
presumed good arguments may be offered to induce their acquies- 
cence. * * * Having commenced your march uj>on the main 
expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use every 
possible exertion to mal:e tbem feel the effects of yom- superiority; 
and, after having arrived at the Miami village, and pat your works 
IP a (Icfeiisible stete, you will seek the enemy with the whole of 


Score's Expedition agaisst the Wea Towns. 133 

your remaining force, and endeavor, by kU possible meaoa to strike 
them with great severity. * * * In order to avoid future wars, 
it might be proper to make the Wabash, and thence oveir to the 
Maamee, and down the same to ita month at lake Erie, ihe bonnd- 
ary [between the people of the United States »nd the Indians], ex- 
cepting BO far as the same should relate to the Wyandota and Dela- 
wares, on the snpposilion of their continuing faithful to the treat- 
ies. Butif they should join in the war against the United States, 
and your army De victorious, the said tiibes ought to be removed 
without the boundary mentioned." 

On the 9th of March, some days before instructions were ad- 
dressed to General St, Olair, General Knox, had communicated 
similar instructions to Brigadier-General Scott, of Kentucky, to 
move, with a sufficient body, against the Wea ot Ouiatenon towns* 
on the Wabash. Accordingly on the 2ad of May,following, " with 
a force of about eight hundred mounted and armed raen," Scott 
" crossed the Ohio, at the mouth of the Kentucky river," and took 
up hie line of march for Ouiatenon, and on the afternoon of the first 
of June, after a most disagreeable march of over ] 50 miles, through 
rain and storm, and the encounter of many obstacles, they succeed- 
ed in reaching and surprising the village of Ouiatenon, which, with 
other towns, thegrowing corn, &c., in the region, were soon after 
destroyed, and thirty Indians, mostly warriors, killed, and fifty- 
eight taken prisoners ; from whence, without the loss of a man, and 
but six wounded, on the l4th of June, they started on their re- 
turn march for the rapids of the Ohio. On the 4th of the month, 
while at the Ouiatenon towns, Scott gave the Indians a written 
speech, in which he assured them of the pacific and humane 
feelings of the United States government towards them, in view oi 
their becoming peaceable and quiet in their future relations with 
the government and people of the country. 

Scarcely had Gen. Scott and his corps of mounted men returned 
to Kentucky, when General St. Clair addressed a letterto the board 
of war of the district of Kentucky, authorizing them to send a sec- 
ond expedition of five hundred men up the Wabash. Readily com- 
plying with this request, on the 5th of July, at Danville, Brigadier- 
General James Wilkinson was appointed to the command of the 
second expedition, and ordered to be in readiness at Fort Washing- 
ton by the 20th of July with the number of men specified, "well 
mounted on horseback, well armed, and provided with thirty days' 
provisions." Accordingly, on the first of August, with five hun- 
dred and twenty-flvG men, Wilkinson left Fort Washington, moving, 
by way of feint , in the direction of the Miami village, at this point, 
and soon brought up at the Indian town of Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua, on 
the north bank of Eel river, about six miles from the present town 
of Logansport. After cutting up the corn, then in tlie milk, and 
*Sll.iiatBd on theaoiitli aiile of thsriver, about eight milue below the present site of 
Lafayetts. The site of tli^ old riilage of Ouiatenoa is now known as " Wen rioine," 


134 HfflTOKY OF FoKT "VYatkk. 

burniug the cabins the next moroing, set out for tlie Indian towns 
beyond. Sbiking the village of Tippecanoe on the route, it in turn, 
■with the growing corn, was destroyed ; and advancing to one of tho 
Kickapoo towns, it too with considerable com, were burned and 
cut dow.n. Moving on, tho same day, to the town of Ouiatenon, the 
same* deeti'oyed by General Scott in June, and where the eoru had 
been replanted, andvi'hicb had now gained considerable growth, 
was cut down again ; and from here, Striking the trail of Scott, 
they took np tlie line of march for the rapids of the Ohio, where 
they arrived on the 21st of August, after a march of some four 
hundred and fifty-one miles, " without any mateiial incident." 

In his report, General Wilkinson said : " The volunteers of Ken- 
tucky have, on this occasion, acquitted themeelves with their usual 
good conduct.; but, as no opportunity offered for individual distinc- 
tion, it would be unjust to give one the plaudits to which they all 
have an equal title, 's * * * But^ sir, when yoa reflect on 
the causes which checked my career and blasted my designs, I flat- 
ter myself yon will believe every thing has been done which could 
be done in my circumstances.* I have destroyed the cbief town of 
tho Ouiatenon nation, and made prisoners of the sons and sisters of 
the King : I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut 
down at least four hundred and thii-ty acres of corn, chiefly in the 
milk. The Ouiatenone, (Weas) left without houses, home, or pro- 
visions, must cease to war, and will find active employ to subsist 
their squaws and children during the impending winter." 

The principal design of the campaigns of Generals Scott and 
Wilkinson was that of weakening the strength of the Indians of the 
AVabash counti-y, with a view to giving material aid to General St. 
Clair in his approaching campaign against the Miamies of Ke-ki- 
on-ga and the region here ; but ari opposite effect was the result. 
]?rom formerly having entertained the belief that tite Americans 
designed to d!espoil them of their lands, and destroy the whole In- 
dian race, after these and the fomier efforts of Generid Harmar, 
the Indians of the northwest, still instigated by the English, began 
now most fully to believe that such was U-uly their design ; and in- 
stead of slackening their efforts or ceasing to make war upon tlie 
Americans, the MiamieB and Shawanoes, more espesciaUy, began 
to call to tlieir aid a numerous body of warriors from the sorrouud- 
ing tribes of the Pottawattamies, Kickapoos, Delawares, Ottawaa, 
Wyandotts, and other tribes of the northwest ; " and while Gen. St. 
Olair was making preparations to ostablish a military post at the 
Miami village, the Miami chief, Little Turtle, the Shawanoe chief, 
Elae Jacket, and the Delaware chief, Buck-ong-a-helas, were ac- 
tively engaged in an effort to organize a confederacy of tribes sufii- 
ciently powerful to drive the white settlers from the teriitory lying 

•Tho <liffioult ranrclnis tUwugli 
poiiio two hundred und ^I'veaty Ti< 
cult to tokc farther acLIoii. 


Tkbaty of 1783 — Simon Giett. 135 

on the iiorfhwestern Bide of the river Ohio" — receiving aid and 
counsel " from Simon Girty,* Alexander McKee, Mathew Elliott, 
(the latter two the sab-ageuts in the British Indian department), 
and from a number of British, French, and American traders who 
generally resided among the Indians, and supplied them with arms 
and ammunition, in exchange for furs and peltries," 

It will here he proper to notice that although, at the definitive 
treaty of 1783, between the colonial goTernment of America and 
Great Britain, it was declared in the seventh article of that docu- 
ment that the King of the latter would, " with all convenient speed, 
and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any negroes 
or property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces 
garrisons, and' fleets, from the United States, and from every post, 
place, and hai'bor, within the same,"t y^ti at tbe time of Harmar's, 
St. Clair's, and Wayne's campaigns, the British Government still 
held and garrisoned thepOsts ofNiagara, Detroit, and Michilmaoi- 
nac; and fromtheso points, under the plea that that part of the 
treatyj of 1783, relating to the collection and payment of all debts|| 
theretofore contracted with and due to the King's subjects, had 
not been faithfully complied with by the Americans, much to the 
detriment of the former, the English Government persisted in hold- 

»TliU man aceni'i to have b^en a noted eliaraeter tiroufU most of tha eni'ly struggles 
in theuorth and west, from Dnnmore'a waf, in 1774, till after tUa war of 1813, He 
vasoneeadaptedbythe SendRfts.tlisaimiJjQavttiat hfljoLned L 1 D m 
paign : but BnJiaiiqiiantlT allis I hinut^ tha Wyaadolta, and I g ft« 1 d 
IBS, eovaga life among ms Indians of i.he nncthwest, uauaUy tea 1 Ih m to b ttl 
orinatignting tbemto deedpof feroeiW Bgiiinst tbe AmmoBng, d B t h mj! j 
or enooaragenieat. Ha was of Iriab desoen t, and said to bare b 1 w Id t d 

TnoatreoklL-esof the family. He bad three brotliers — Tbomaa Qe g 1 J moa 

Ure. Siitwnfield informed tbe writer tbat she learne 1 Bome time q q 1 1 th 
rival of bersulf and hnsbRnd at ticeFbrt here, ill 1314, tbat Sim d J mts G H} 

liad lived for sonie time, prior to the war of 1313, nenr t)(B bend f th M mee bo t 
two milee below Fort Waviie- At the oapitutation of Detroit, in 1812 Mm 8 d h 
husband being thers, saw Simon Girty, and deeoribed him aaahth yt gl 
looking clmrftetfir, ■with grey_ hair. 'When he had last risitod D tro aom y rs p 
lie had eaused h ja horse to'jnmp off a conaiijevable embankment tl ) 

thenawamberovei' the same. "Here's old Simon Qirty again on Amerjoan eoiiJ he 
exo'aimed.aa he approaflhM a crowd gatlicred at a prominent point in tlie place, at 
tlie time Mrj. 8. and her husband saw him at Detroit. "WhatdidTou dowith that 
black mare you jumped int<i the riser when Wayne was after you 1 enquired one of 
tlie crowd. " 0, she's dead, and I bnried her witli tlie honors of war," replied Girty. 
TTotwi til standing his peculiar organisation and the many unfortunate traits ofohnr- 
acber asoribed to him, lie is said to have possessed soine redeeming points — waestrong 
in his friendship toworda those lie became attacbed , aQd, in many respects, was some- 
■whflt honorable. He was often at tbe Miami village here, and doubtlesEi had much to 
do, at tH,i'iou8 times, with CKOiting the IndiaiiB to warfara against the Americans, 
against whom, with Uiclndians, he fouirbt tit St. Clair's defeat. Genflrally attnred in 
the Indian costume, it was. of course diffioult to distinguish him, except when beapoitn 
the EnglisTi language. He is said to liove lived to tbe ago of near n hundred yonrs, 
and died in Oanadn. some years anhseqtiPnt to the war of 1812. Intsresting acoootita 
of him will 1)0 found ill " Annals of the ''VeBt," beginning oil pagu 2Sil, and in the 
" American Pioneer," beginning on pago 282. 

-fLiiws U. S., i, 2U5. {Article 4, U, S. Laws 

IjSomeoftiieStuiJ^abad passed laws, soon, atfe'r tie treaty of 1T83, tenSing to pievent 
■ J - ,. , jgf^.^^1 

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136 HisTOEY OF FoHT ATatnb. 

ing these posts, (more especialiy to retain the fur trade) and con- 
tinued, from time to time, to giye aid and comfort to tlie Indians 
and others in open warfare and attacks upon tli'e U. S. forces and 
the settlements along the Ohio, and other points in the -west. 

With tlie advantages presented by the fur trade, carried on by 
tbe English and Canadians, (the latter being then subjects of the 
King of England) and withal not a Httie jealous of the United 
States in her efforts to extend lier dominion over the tribes and ter- 
ritory north of the Ohio, to relinquish her hold upon the country 
and leave the tribes to the control and inflaeneo of the Americans, 
were points not easily to be set aside by the British Government. 
And accordingly, while Gen. St Clair was preparing to march up- 
on the Miami village, at the junction of the St. Mai-y and St. Jo- 
seph, the English, at Niagara, Detroit, and Michilimacinac were 
using what means they could to defeat the purposes of the United 
States Government ; and but a small insight as to their movements, 
at that time, in league with the Indians and others, would doubt- 
less have been sufficient to have convinced St. Olair and his oiHcers 
of the utter futility of any effort to capture the Miami village, or 
establish a military post at this point, as then being pushed for- 
ward. But the effort seemed destined to be made ; and after much 
delay and many impeding and perplexing circumstances, in the 
early partof the month of September, l79l, the main body of St. 
Clair's army, under General Butler, took up its line of march from 
the vicinity of Fort Washington, and, moving northward some 
. twenty-five miles, on the eastern bank of the Great Miami, erected 
a post, which they called Foi-t Hamilton. On the 4th of October, 
Ii"ort Hamilton being completed, the army began its further march 
for the Miami village. Having advanced forty-two miles from Fort 
Hamilton, they erected another gamson, calling it Fort Jefterson, 
six miles south of Greenville, Ohio. The season was now far ad- 
vanced ; and the 24th of October had arrived before the army was 
again on its move for the village. 

After a march of nine days, during which time a number of the 
militia deserted ; heavy rains fell ; provisions became short ; a re- 
connoitering party from the main army, was'fired upon, two killed, 
and one sapposed to have been taken prisouer ; and St. Clak sick 
much of the way, on the 3d of November the main army reached 
the site of the present town of Fort Recovery, Ohio, and encamj ' 
at the head waters of the Wabash, in view of several small cre< 
about fifteen miles from the Miami village here. 

The chill of winter now begun to be perceptibly felt — snow had 
abeady fallen, and the earth was white therewith. Some Indians 
were here seen, but they fled as soon as observed. 

The advance and general movement of St. Ciair was sufficiently 

well known* to the confederated tribes and their allies to inspire 

"Tha newa of St. Clair's moroli upon Uio Miami villages Iiaviiig reached the Indians 

iliiriiif; tlio oiiUiiiia of 1791, the famous Shawanoes ehief, Tceumseh, says tlie life of 


Attack upon the Army of St. Claie, 137 

them with great courage and determination, and had already be- 
gun a resort to sti-ategem to draw the army into their clutches ; and 
had even advanced to within a few miles of the main body of the 
army, where, under the lead of the famous Little Turtle, Buck-oog- 
a-helas, Blue Jacket, Simon Girty, and several other' white men, 
lay — in readiness to meet the advancing columns of St. Glair — some 
twelve hundred warriors. 

The army was now some fifteen miles from the Miami village. 
With a view to a place of safety for the knapsacks of the soldiers, 
St. Clair, with Major Fergnson, had, on the evening of the arrival 
of the army at its present encampment, concluded " to throw up a 
slight work," and then, with the regiment yet back, to move on to 
attack the enemy. But neither were consummated; and before the 
Bun had sent his rays over the western wilds — between that hour 
which the adage has accounted the darkest jnst before day, and 
the full twihghfcof the morning — the Indian whoop and wild yell of 
the enemy startled the army of St. Clair, already under arms, into 
the wildest commotion, and at once began a furious attack upon 
the militia, which soon gave way, and pell-mell, came rushing into 
the midst of the camp, through Major Butler's battalion, creating 
the wildest disorder on every aide, and closely pursued by the In- 
diana. " The fire, however, of the front line cheeked them ; but al- 
most instantly a very heavy attack began upon that line ; and in a 
few minutes it was extended to the second likewise. The great 
weight of it was directed against the center of each, where the ar- 
tillery was placed, and from which the men were repeatedly driven 
with great slaughter."* Soon perceiving but little effect from the 
fire of the artillery, a bayonet charge was ordered, led by Lieut.- 
Colonel Darke, which drove the Indians back some distance,' but, 
for the want of sufficient force, they soon moved forward to the at- 
tack again, and the troops of Darke were, in turn, compelled to give 
way ; while, at the same time, the enemy had pushed their way 
into camp by the left flank, and the troops there also wore giving 
way. Kepeafced and effectual charges were now made by Butler 
and Clarke's battalhons, but with great loss ; many officers fell, 
leaving the raw troops without direction — Major Butter himself be- 
ing dangerously wounded. In the second regiment every officer 
had fallen, except three, and ohe of these had been shot through 
the body. 

The " artillery being now silenced, and all the officers killed, ex- 
cept Captain Ford, who was very badly wounded and more than 

•St. Clair's report, 
that chief, -was BOOQ placed attheiiead of a small party ofspiesoreoouta, -with inatrao- 
tionato watch and report the ad vanoament of St. Clair ; and he is said to have done 
hi» wol'k most faitJitulIy, for, while concealed near a small tributary of the Oreat Mi- 
ami, ho and hla party saw St. Clnir and hia army pass on their way to Green^'ill*. 
Though prerentied from talcing part in the hostile movenienta that followed, yet. it is 
evident fchatttia efforts of Teoiimseh and his little band, ■whose report soon reached tJie 
head eliiefs in action agaiaatSt. Clair, had nraoh to do with the subsequtut defeat and 
Mutof the army. 



half of the army fallen, being cut off from the road, it became nec- 
essary to attempt the regaining of it, and to make a retreat, if pos- 
sible. For this purpose the remains of the army were formed, as 
well as circumstances would admit, towards the right of the en- 
campment, from which, by the way of the second line, another 
charge was made upon t!ie enemy, as if with the design to turn, 
their right flank, but in fact to gain the road. Tliis was effected, 
and as soon as it was open, the militia took along it, followed by 
the troops; Major Clarke, with his battalion covering the rear."* 
Everything was now precipitate. The panic had assumed a terri- 
ble flight. The canjp and artillery were all abandoned — not a horse 
was left alive to remove the cannon ; and the soMieiy threw away 
their arms and accoutermcnts as they ran, strewing the road for 
miles with them. The retreat began about half-past nine o'clock, 
and continued a distance of twenty-nine miles, to Fort Jefferfeon, 
where they arrived soon after sunset, having lost tiiirty-nine officers, 
killed, and five hundred and niaety-three men Idlied and missing ; 
twenty-two officers, and two hundred and forty-two men wounded ; 
with a loss to the public, in stores and other valuable property, to 
the amoant of some thirty-two thousand eight hundred aca ten 
dollars and seventy-five cents.t 

The following were the Jiaines of the officers who fell on this 
memorable occasion; Major-general Richard Butler, Lieutenant- 
colonel Oldham, of the Kentucky militia; Majors Ferguson, Clarke, 
and Hart; Captains Bradford, Phelon, Kirkwood, Price, Van 
Swearingen, Tipton, Smith, Purdy, Piatt, Guthrie, Cribbs, and New- 
man; Lieutenants Spear, Warren, Boyd, McMath, Bead, Burgess, 
Kelso, Little, Hopper, and Lickens ; Ensigns Balch, Cobb, Chase, 
TVrner, Wilson, Brooks, Beatty, and Purdy ; Quartermasters Key- 
nolds and Ward; Adjutant Anderson; and Doctor Qrasson. The 
oiHcei's wounded were : — Lieutenant-colonels Gibson, Darke, and 
Sargent, (adjutant-general;) Major Butler; Captains Doyle, True- 
man, Ford, Buchanan, Darke, and Hough; Lieutenants Greaton, 
Davidson, De Butts, Price, Morgan, McCroa, Lysle, and Thomson ; 
Ensign Bines ; Adjutants Whisler and Crawford ; and the Viscount 
Malartie, volunteer aid-de-camp to the commander-in-chief. 

Many womenj had followed the army of St. Clair in its march 
towards the Miami village, prefering to be with their husbands than 
to remain behind, most of whom were destroyed; and "after the 
flight of the remnant of the army, the Indians began to avenge 
their own real and imaginary wrongs by perpetrating, the most hor- 
rible acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the whiles, 
for many years, made war merely to act|uire land, the Indians 

*St. Claii''s report. tBeport. of Secretnry of 'War, Dee. 11, 1792. 

f'Hiatory ofOlilo," [>y Atwnter, aoys 350 ; Dil!oa, in Ma His: of Ind., anya " more 
than one huadrcd." 


Van Clbve's Naekationof St. Claik's Defeat. 130 

crammed clay and sand into the eyes Jind down the throats of the 
dying and the doad."* 

E. Van Cleve, who was in the quarternaaster-general's depart- 
ment, of the army of St. Olair, says : f On the fourth [of November] 
at daybreak, I hegan to prepare for returning [to Fort Washing- 
ton,]! and had got about half my luggage on my horse, when the 
firing commenced. We were encamped j net within the lines, on 
the right. The attack was made on the Kentucky militia. Almost 
instantaneonsly, the small remnant of them that escaped broke 
through the line near us, and this line gave away. Followed by a 
tremendous Are from the enemy, they passed me. I threw my 
bridle over a stump, from which a tent pole had been cut, and fol- 
lowed a short distance, when finding the troops had halted, I re- 
tained and brought my torse a little further. I was now between 
the fii-es, and finding the troops giving away again, was obliged to 
leave him a second time. As I quitted him he was shot down, and 
I felt rather glad of it, as I concluded that now I shall be at liberty 
to share in the engagement. My inexperience prompted me to 
calculate on our forces being far superior to any that the savages 
could assemble, and that we should soon have the pleasure of driv- 
ing them. Not more than five minutes had yet elapsed, when a 
soldier near me had his arm swinging with a wound. I requested 
his arms and accoutrements, as he was unable to use them, promis- 
ing to return them to him, and commenced firing. The smoke was 
settled down to within about three feet of the ground, bat I gener- 
ally put one knee to the ground and with a rest from behind a tree, 
waited the appearance of an Indian's head from behind hie cover, 
or for one to run and change his position. Betbre I was convinced 
of my mistaken calculations, the battle was half over and I had be- 
come familiarised to the scene. Hearing the firing at one time 
unusually brisk near the rear of the left wing, I crossed the encamp- 
ment. Two levy officers were just ordering a charge. I had fired 
away my ammunition and some of the bands of my musket had 
fiown off. I picked op another, and a cartridge bos nearly fall, 
and pushed forward with about thirty others. The Indiana ran to 

*Dillon'8 His. Ind., p. 983. From a letter to General St. Clair, dated Fort Washing- 
ton, Fehruary 13. 1793, writtan by Capt. Robert Bunti, who had previously acoompn- 
iiied Qen. James Wilkinson with a small detachment of mounted men to the. scene of 
St. Clair'a defeat, the following extract is made : " We left ForS Jefferson about nine 
o'cloolc on tlieSlst (of January), with the volunteers, andamyed within eight milesof 
the field of battle that evenmg, and nest day we arrived at the ground about ten 
o'oloob. The Boene waa truly meUnoholy. In mj opinion those nntortunate men who 
fell into the enemy'shands, with life, were used with the greatest torture — having tlveir 
limba torn'olf ; and tlie women have been treated with the most indecent crueltv, hav- 
ing stakes as thiek as a person's arm, drove through their bodies. The first, I aoserved 
whoti brn'ryinft the dead ; and the latter was discovered by Oolonel Sargent and Dr. 
Urown." Pila being dug, ii\l the bodies found were burned by the detachment under 
■Wilkinson. The Indians aeldom if ever buried tliose they killed in battle, or other- 

fAs pubiisbed fromtlie manuscript of Van Cleve iu the " American Pioneer," 1843, 
tSavs a now lo tiiis aooount ; " Ee was in the quirtermaater-generHl'a service ; lo 
that h"e ' fcjught on his owu hifk.' " 

-d by Google 

140' History of Fokt Wayne. 

tlie right, wh^re there was a small ravine filled with Jogs. I bent 
my course after them, and on looking ronnd, found I was with only 
Eeven or eight men, the others having kept straight forward and 
halted about thirty yards ofi". We halted also, and heing so near 
to where the savages lay concealed, the second fire from them left 
me standing alone. My cover was a small sugar tree or beach, 
scarcely large enough to hide me. I fired away all my ammuni- 
tion ; I am uncertain whether with any effect or not. I then looked 
for the party near me, and saw them reti-eafing and half way hack 
to the lines. I followed them, running my best, and was soon in. 
By this time our artillery had been talien, I do not know whether 
the first or second time, and our troops had just retaken it, and 
were charging the enemy across the creek in front ; and some per- 
son tohl me to look at an Indian running with one of our kegs of 
powder, but I did not see him. There were about thirty of our 
men and officers lying scalped around the pieces of artillery. It 
appeared that the Indians had not been in a hurry, for their hair 
was all skinned ofT.'' 

" Daniel Bonham, a young man raised by my uncle and brought 
up with me, and whom I regarded as a brother, had by this time 
received a shot through his hips, and was unable to walk. I pro- 
cured a horse and got him on. My uncle had received a ball near 
his wrist that lodged near his elbow. The ground was literally 
covered with dead and dying men, and the commander gave orders 
to take the way — perhaps they had been given more explicitly. 
Happening to sec my uncle, ho told me a retreat was ordered, and 
that I must do the best I could, and take care of myself. Bonham 
insisted that he had a better chance of escaping than I had, and 
urged me to look to my own safety alone. I found the troops pressing 
like a drove of bullocks to the right. I saw an ofiicer, whom I took 
to bo lieut. Morgan, an aid to general Eutler, with six or eight men, 
start oil a run a little to the left of where I was. 1 immediately ran 
and fell in with them. In a short distance we were so suddenly 
amongthe Indians, who were not apprised of our object, that they 
opened to us, and ran to the right and left without firing. T think 
about two hundred of our men passed through them before they 
fired, except a chance shot. When we had proceeded about two 
miles, most of those mounted had passed me. A boy had been 
thrown or fell off a horse, and begged my assistance. I ran, pull- 
ing him along, about two miles further, until I had become nearly 
exhausted. Of the last two horses in the rear, one carried two men, 
and the other three. I made an exertion ^nd threw him on behind 
the two men. The Indians followed but about half a mile further. 
The boy was thrown off some time afterwards, but escaped and 
got in safely. My friend Bonham I did not see on the retreat, but 
imderstood he was thrown off about this place, and lay on the left 
of the trace, where .he was found in the winter and was buried. I 
took the cramp violently in my thighs, and could scarcely walk, 


Vah Ci-eve's Naeeatios. 141 

until I got within a hmidred yards of the rear, where the Indiana 
were tomahawking the old and wounded men ; and I stopped here 
to tie my pocket handkerchief around a man's woimded knee. I 
saw the Indians close in pnreuit at this time, and for a moment my 
spirits sank, and I felt in despair for my safety. I considered 
whether I should leave the road, or whether I was capable of any 
farther exertion. If I left the road, the Indians were m plain sight 
a'nd could easily overtake me. I threw the shoes off my feet and 
the coolness of the ground seemed to revive me. I again began a 
trot, and recollect that, when a bend in the road oiFered, and I got 
before half a dozen persons, I thought it would occupy some time 
for the enemy to massacre them, before my turn would come. By 
the time I had got to Stillwater, about eleven miles, I had gained 
the centre of the flying troops, and, like them, came to a walk, I 
fell in with lieutenant IShaumburg, who, I think, was the only oificer 
of artillery that got away unhnrt, with corporal Mott, and a woman 
who was called red-headed 'Nance. The latter two were both cry- 
ing. Mott was lamenting the loss of his wife, and Nanee tliat of 
an infant child. Shaumbnrg was nearly exhausted, and hung on 
Mott's arm. I carried bis fusee and accoutrements, and led Nance ; 
and in this sociable way we arrived at Fort Jefferson, a little after 

"The commander-in-chief had ordered Co!. Darke to press for- 
ward to the convoys of provisions, and hurry them on to the army- 
Major Truman, captain Sedan and my uncle were setting forward 
witli him. A number of soldiers, and packhorsemen on foot, and 
myself among them, joined them. We came on a few miles, when 
all, overcome with fatigue, agreed to a halt. Darius Curtns Orcutt,* 
a packhorse master, had stolen at Jefferson, one pocket full of flour 
and the other full of beef. One of the men had a kettle, and one 
Jacob Fowler and myself groped about in the dark, until we found 
some water, where a tree had been blown out of root. We made a 
kettle of soup, of which I got a small portion among the many. It 
was then concluded, as there was a bend in the road a few miles 
further on, that the Indians might undertake to intercept ns there, 
and we decamped and traveled about four or five miles further. I 
had got a rifle and ammunition at Jefl'erson, from a wounded mili- 
tiaman, an old acquaintance, to bring in, A sentinel was set, and 
we laid down and slept, until the governor came up a few hom^a af- 
terward. I think I never slept so profoundly. I could hardly get 
awake after I was on my feet. On the day before the defeat, the ■ 
ground was covered with snow. The flats were now filled with wa- 
ter frozen over, the ice as thick as a knife-blade. I was worn out 
with fatigue, with my feet knocked to pieces against the roots in 
the night, and splashing through the ice without shoes. In the 

«Oreutt'B pnokhorsps were branded D. C. O,, and itivnaastalidinstjolte, when any one 
liated what the brnnd meant, to an» wee fliat D.C. stood for Dwbj Oarey,und the toimd 
O for his wife.— iWestern Pioneer. 


143 HlSTOKY OF i'^OBT "WayNE. 

morning we got to a camp of packhorsemen, and amongst them I 
got a doughboy or water-dumpling, and proceeded. We gotwiUiin 
seven miies of Hamilton on this day, and arrived there soon on the 
morning of the sixth." 

The efforts against the Miami village were, for a time, at least, 
brought to a close. A new order of things now became necessary, 
if success was to be attained in any further movement towards this 

-c by Google 


Test of the high-born soul, 

And lofty aim ; 
The test in History's eocoll 

Of every honored name ! 
B'one but the brsTO shall wii 

>w Waahington wne efE^oted by the defeat of St. Clair— Frontifr settlemenia exposed 
to the ravages of the Indians — Appoiatmeat of General Wayne to the com- 
mand of the western army — Relief of the frontiei' settlements — Party spirit — Ef- 
forts of the go rernwcnt W form treaties with the Indians— Qeneral Wayne ad- 
van ees towards this point — Establishes his headijuan ers at Foit Greenville — Eroots 
a fortiScation on the site of St. Olair's defeat — Indiani begin to be fearful of sno- 
oe«i — Sond General Wayne a speech — Can't accept the terms of Wayne — They 
Htill hope for British aid — The Spanish of the Lower MiBsiesippi — Detachment 
sent to Fort Massae — Fieroe attack upon Fort Recofeiy— Tlie army starts for the 
Miami Tillage— EreotiOn of Fort Adams — Array reaches month of the Auglaize 
and Meumee-^Ereofion there of Fort Defiance — Wayne's report to the Sec^tary of 
War— Distrost of the Indians— Oapt. William Wells and Little Tnptle— Wells 
quilH t!ie Miamies and joins Wayne — Council of the tribes — Speech of Little Turtle 
— Movements of tile aimy — Attaek by the Indiana— The wisdom of Little Turtle 
■—Anthony Shane's aeoonnt of Teanmseii — Report of Qeneral Wayne — Return to 
Fort Defiance— -Destmotion of corn-fields and villagea — General Wayne and the 
British commander at the Rapids of the Manmee— -Repairs upon Fort Defiance — 
ArmymoT>-s again for tJie village here — Its arrival — Selection of the site for the 
erectionof a fort-journal of the army — Completion of tiie fort — Lient.-Ool Ham- 
tramel; assumes command, and names it Fort Watnk— Main body of the army, 
under Wayne, starts for Fort Greenville — Glnrious eff«et of Wayne's victory 
thronehoutthe country — Indiana invited to hold a treaty of peace — effoits of the 
Britaah Indian agenia — A£[peeable adjustment of affairs with Great Britain — In- 
dians diapirltod thereby — -^fhey begin to visit Wajne at Greenville — Letters of 

(^ HE NEWS of the defeat of Gen. St. Clair fel! heavily upon 
TOjthe mind of WasMcgton, lie had long looked upon the cap- 

ftare of thia locality and the estabhahment here of formidable 
foi-tifi cations witli the highest degree of interest and concern ; 
and to learn of the defeat of an army like that under St. Clair 
— a defeat greater than that of Eraddock in his movement against 
Fort Dii Quesne, in 1755 — was to he most Rsvorely felfc by liim. 


144 History of Fort Wayne. 

He had hoped for speedy relief to the sparse and greatly exposed 
settlements of the west, and had relied largely upon General St. 
Clair to carry his designs and those of the government to a suc- 
cessful termination ; and while, in the main, Gen. St. Clair was but 
little if any to blame for the terrible defeat that impeded Iiia march 
to the Miami village, yet Washington couldbut feel it most sorely. 
Hia feelings are eaid suddenly to have overcome him ; and though 
most unlike the man of courage, hope, pereoverance, and usual 
calm, self-comphicency, when told of St, Glair's ill success, his bet- 
ter feelings suddenly gave way to those of the most intense discom- 
fitare. " It's ail over 1 " he exclaimed ; " St. Olair is defeated 1 
routed!" His private secretary, according to the account, was the 
only one present, and he is said to have lieen " awed into breathless 
silence by the appalling tones in which the torrent of invective 
was poured forth by Washington. But his composure was as soon 
restored, and new resolution as readily formed in the plastic mind 
of the President. 

The defeat of St. Clair's force was doubly embarrassing. Be- 
sides disappointing and perplexing the government, it had " ex- 
posed the whole range of the frontier settlements on the Ohio to the 
fury of the Indians," againsfe which they made the best arrange- 
ments in their power for their own defence ; while the government 
took measures for recruiting, as soon as possible, the Western army. 
Among the mihtary commandants of the time, General Wayne 
was a great favorite with the people of the west, and he readily 
received the appointment to the command of the western troops ; 
though " a factious opposition in Congress, at that time, to the mil- 
iary and financial plans of the administration, delayed the equip- 
ment of the army for nearly two years;" and thus, "while General 
Wayne was preparing to penetrate the Indian country in the sum- 
mer of 1794, the attention of the Indians was drawn to their own 
defence, and the frontiers were relieved from their attacta."* Party 
spirit now ran high. The west felt sorely agrieved, and every act 
of the general government tending towards conciHation with the 
British, who were charged with inciting the Indiana on the frontier, 
was looked upon in the most disapprobative feeling ; and while 
General Wayne, from 1792 to August, 1793, was gathering his 
forces for the renewal of efforts against the Indians of this point, 
the government of the United States used strenuous efforts to estab- 
lish ti'oaties of peace and good-will among the tribes hostile to the 
Americana in the nerthwestem territory, by sending out messen- 
gers with speeches: On the 7th of April, 1792,Brig.-General Wil- 
kinson dispatched such messengers (Freeman and Gerrard) from 
Fort Washington to the Indians on the Maumee ;t hut who were 
captured, and being taken for spies, were murdered some where 
near the rapids of this river ; and the efforts of the government re- 
sulted in but little success, in so far as the direct desire for peace 

*" AiiicrUao Pionoep," p, 206, tDiHon'B Hia. Ind. pp. S87, 389, 

IK, Google 

Wayne's Movement fkom Fort "Washimgtok. 145 

was coucernod. The strong arm of war seemed the only means left 
to bring the tribes to a true sense of regard for the government and 
its real purposes towards the Indians of the western oonntry. Thus 
Htood matters from the time of the last efforts of the United States, 
on tbe part of its last commissioners to the Indians, (Benjamin 
Lincoln, Beverley Randolph, and Timothy Pickering) in August, 
1793, with some activity on the part of the Indians, and mueii hope 
and anxiety on the part of the settlements of Marietta and other 
points in the west, till Wayne had advanced from his headqiiarters, 
at " Hobson's Choice," near Fort Washington, ou the Cth of Octo- 
ber, 1793, to the southwest branch of the Great Miami, within sis 
miles of Fort Jefferaon, and, about a month subsequently, estab- 
lished hJ8 headquarters at Fort Greenville,* wliich was built by him 
about the period of his arrival at that point. On the 23d of Decem- 
ber, of this year, from this fort, he gave orders for the erection of 
a fort on the site of St. Clair's defeat, in '91, and for that purpose 
ordered Major Henry Burbeck, with eight companies of infantry, 
and a detacbmeht of artilierj', to proceed to the grouud, whither 
the soldiers arrived, executed the order of General Wayne, and the 
fortiiication was appropriately called "Fort Kecoveiy." At tliis 
bold procedure, the Indians began to exhibit signs of uneasiness, 
and soon sent General Wayne a " speech," desiring to present over- 
tures of peace with the United States ; but the terms presented by 
Wayne were not then agreeable to the Indians, who had, about the 
time of Wayne's proposition, much as in the case of the French, at 
the time of the Pontiac struggle against the British, been led to hope 
that early in the coming year ('94), Great Britain would render 
them sufficient aid to enable them to expel and destroy the Amer- 
icansettlers situated on the territory northwest of the Ohio.f 

Matters now agitating the general mind, and, to a considerable 
extent, calling away the attention of the Government, relative to a 
proposed expedition against the Spaniards of the Lower Mississippi, 
and to oppose which. General Wayne was ordered by President 
Washington to send a detachment to Fort Massac, on the Ohio, 
about eight miles below the TenneS'See river, there "to erect a 
strong redoubt and blockhouse, with some suitable cannon from 
Fort Washington," the expedition of Wayne remained in compara- 
tive quiet at the difierent posts, (Jefferson, Greenville, Recovery, 
&c.,) till the morning of the 30th of June, '94 when Major 

*Whioh formei'ly stood in the yicinity of irhat is now tho towji of Greenrilla, Dirke 
comity, Ohio, 

fin Fubrnary, 1731, Lord Dorolieater, then Goveraor-genewl of Oanida, at a oouiioil 
of cliieft HtQuobee, told the Indians "thai, lie Bhf.uld nrit twHurpriaed if Great Britain 
!ind tho UQitcd Stntoa were at Wiir in coafse of tho yeal'." Hence tliBir onoouri^^nieiit 
iiipai't, at least. It iTiis about this period also that fraoos was eiperienting much 
trouble of a revolutionary "uaiuro, and liiivt Genet, tho Franoh Miniatep in this eouritry. 
haii sought to raise abndy of tmons. Ao., tjiraovo against the Spaniards of yiopldimiid 
Louisiana. Lord COToboJtat, dottbtlees infering that saeH « movement, aided by tiii 
UuiwdStatCB, would WHin |irrfCii>ita1«the,twftaoiittf|iiai into a var again, Wtia rainl^ 
probably led to eneouragethfllndiaais by th^remarfc quoted sbore, A proolnmstion 
■w^ is^Mrtl \iy Wa^hiDijtoti umm tiff ni'ranmie, M»ivii P.i. 1794. (10) 

-d by Google 

146 HigTOKY OS FoKT Wayne. 

McMahon, commanding, with an escort of ninety riflemen and fifty 
drrtffooiia, was fiercely assailed by a body of some fifteen bnndred 
Indians "under the walls of Fort BecoTery," Assisted, as was 
thonght, by a " number of British agents and a few French Cana- 
dian voinnteers," the Indians, during a period of about tweu- 
ty-iour houre, made several sallies upon this fort, hot finding their 
efforts unavailable, retired. The loss, bowoverj to the garrison was 
by no means trifling — tweuty-two men being feilled, and thirty 
■wounded, and three were missing ; two hundred and twenty-one 
horses were also killed, wounded and missing. The Indians hav- 
ing been ensjaged in carrying away their dead during the night, 
but eight or ten of their warriors were found dead near the fort. 
Major McMahon, Captain riartahorno, Lieutenant Craig, and Cor- 
Bet Torr;', fell on this occasion. 

Major-General Scott, ■with some sixteen hundred mounted volutj- 
teeis, having an-ived at Fort Greenville, on the 26th of July, ('94), 
and joined the regulars nnder Oenera! Wayne, on the 28th of July, 
the army began iis march upon the Indian villages along the Mau- 
mee. Un this march, some twenty-four miles to the north of Fort 
Recovery, Wayne had built and garrisoned a small Post, which he 
called Fort Adams. From this point, on the 4th of August, the 
army moved toward the confluence of the AugJaize and Mauuiee 
rivcTs, where they arrived on the 8th of August, At this point, " a 
strong stockade fort, with four gocrd etackhousea, by ■way of bas- 
tions,'' was soon concluded, which was called by Gen. Wayne Kort 
Defiance. On the 14th of August, General Wayne ■wrote as fol- 
lows to the Secretary of War : " 1 have," said he, " the honor to in- 
form you that the army under my command look possession of 
this very important post on the morning of the 8th instant — the ene- 
my, on the preceding evening, having abandoned all their settle- 
ments, towns, and villages, with such appaj-ent marks of surprise 
and precipitation, as lo amQunt to a positive proof that our ap- 
proach was not discerned by them until the ari'ival of a Mr. New- 
man, of the quartermaster-general's department, ■who deserted from 
the army near the St. Mary's. * * * I Jiad made such demon- 
Etrations, for a length of time previously to taking up our line of 
march, as to induce the savages to expect our advance by the route 
of the Miami villages, to the left, or toward Roche de Bout, by the 
right-— which feints appear to have produced the desired elfect, by 
drawing- the attention of the enemy to those points, and gave an 
opening for the army to approach undiscovered by a devious, i. e., 
ill a central direction. Thus, sir, we have gained poBsession of the 
grand emporium of the hosiile IndiaCS of the west, without loss of 
bltfod. * « « Everything is now prepared for a forward 
move to-morrow morning lo'Wanl Roche de Boute, or foot of the 
rapids. * * * Yet I have thought proper b oifer the enemy 
a last overture of peace ; and as they have everything that is dear 
find interesting now at staks, I have reason to expect that they will 


Wayne's Efforts foe Peace— "\Tm. Weli^. 147 

listen to file proposition mentioned in the enclosed copy of an ad- 
dress, diBpatched yesterday by a special flag (Ohmtopher Miller,) 
who I sent under circumstances that will insure his safe return, and 
which may eventually spare the effusion of much human blood. 
But should war be their choice, that blood bo upon their own heads. 
America shall no longer be insnlted with impunity. To an all- 
powerful and just God I therefore commit myself aud gallant 

In his address to the Indians, as dispatched by Miller " to the 
Delewares, Shawanees, Miamia, and Wyandots, and to each and 
every of them ; and to all other nations of Indians northwest of the 
Ohio, whom it may concera," said General Wayne : " Brothers — 
Be no longer deceived or led astray fey the false promises and lan- 
guage of the bad white men at the foot of the rapids: they have 
neither the power nor inclination to pi-otect you. No longer shut 
yoar eyes to yom- true interest and happiness, nor your ears to tliis 
last overture of peace. Bat, in pity to your innocent women and 
children, come and prevent the further effusion oi'youi- blood. Let 
them experience the kindness and friendship of the United States of 
America, and the invaluable blessings of peace and tranquility." 
He urged them also — " each and every hostile tiibe of Indians to 
appoint deputies " to assemble without delay at the junction of the 
Auglaiae and foot of the rapids, "in order to settle the prelimina- 
ries of a lasting peace." The answer brought by Miller on his re- 
turn, on the 16th, was, " that if he (General Wayne) waited where 
he was ten days, and then sent Miller for them, they would treat 
with him; but that if- he advanced, they would give him battle." 

The slow movement of Wayne towards the Miami village had 
caused many of the Indians to feel no little distrust as to their abili- 
ty to defeat the great chief* of the Americana who was creeping 
BO cautiously upon their strongholds. 

A man by the name of Wells, already referred to in a previous 
chapter, who, at the age of twelve years, had been captured in Ken- 
tucky and adopted by the Miamies, anil who had lived to manhood 
and raised a family among them, just prior to the advance of the 
army towards the rapids, began to feel a new awakening in his 
mind. He had fought by the side of Little Tnrtle against both 
llarmar and St. Ciair ; and it was said of him, that " afterwards, in 
the times of calm reflection, with dim memories still of his child- 
hood home, of brothers and playmates, he seemed to have been 
harrowed with the thought that amougst the slain, by his own hand, 
may have been his kindred." He had resolved to break his at- 
tachmeat to the tribe, even to his wife and children. In this state 
of mind, with much of the Indian characteristics, inviting the war 
chief of the Miamies — Little Turtle — to accompany him to a point 
on the Maumee, about two miles east of Fort Wayne, at- what was 
long known as the " Big Elm," whither they at once repaired. Wella 

"ii'i'uni ills ^'r«;tt vigHunw, ffiiyiut wni ciiUe,! by tlic Iiidiims the Bliielc Sniikt, 


liS HiSTOEY OF Fort Wa'yme. 

readily told the cbief his purpose. "I now leave your nation," 
said he, " for my own people. We have long been friends. We 
are friends yet, until the eun reaches a certain height, (which was 
mentioned). From that time we are enemies. Then if yon wish to 
kill me, you may. If I want to kill you, I may." When the 'time 
indicated had come, Oapt. Wells crossed the river, and wag ■soon 
lost to the view of hia old friend and chieftain, Little Turtle, Mov- 
ing io an easterly course, with ayiew to striiting the trail of ffayne'a 
forces, he was siiccessful in obtaining ah interview with the Gen- 
eral, and ever thereafter proved the fast friend of the Americans.* 
The resolute movement of Wells was a severe blow upon the Miam- 
sea. To Turtle's mind it seemed to have been an unmistakable 
foreboding of sure and speedy defeat to the confederated tribes of 
the northwest, as already refeiTed to. 

■ In accordance with previous arrangements, on the 15fh of Au- 
gust, General "Wayne moved with his forces towards the foot of tho 
rapids, and came to a halt a few miles above that point, on 
the 18th, and, the next day began tJie erection of a temporary 
garrison, more especially for the reception of stores, baggage, and 
the better to reconnoitre the enemy's ground, which lay " behind a 
thick, bushy wood, and the British lbrt."t This post v/as called 
" J^'ort Deposit." 

The Miamies were now undecided as to the policy of attacking 
GeueralWayne, notwithstanding the fact that they, with the aid of 
other tj-ibes, and through the influence of the British, had succeeded, 
in defeating the former expeditions of Harmar and St. Clair. At a 
general council of the confederated tjibes,held on the 19th of An- 
gust, Little Turtle was most earnest in his endeavors to pursuade a 
peace with general Wayne. Said he, " we have beaten the enemy 
twice under different commanders. We cannot expect the same 
good fortune to aitend us always. The Americans are DoW;led by 
a chief who never sleeps. The nights and the days are alike to him, 
and during all the time that he has been marching on our villages, 
notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we have never 
been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There is something 
whispers me, it would be prudent to listen to his offers of peace." 
But his words of wisdom were but little regarded. One of the chiefs 
of the council even went so far as to charge him with cowardice, 
which he readily enough spurned, for there were none braver or 

*After the ntrival liei* of the army ondar Wnyne, Wells was made enptain of thft 
Spies, nnd EfettlingattJie'-OliiOiubnrd," aahoit dietonoe teota the confloenoeof the 
St. Mary and St. Jcseph, oQtiie banks of a little stream there, Hftenrorda called "Spv 
RuQ," and wiiioUatillbeais tbat imiDe, tliB gosei'nnient aubs«iutiitlr griiutid him a 
pre-emption of some three hundred and twenty aorta of land thei^eabout, inoluding hia 
improvement thereon, the old oreliurd, ete. Wells afterwards, also beoame. by ap- 
pointment of the Qoverninent, Indian Ageot here, in wiiiili tupucilj ha aerveil foe sev- 
eral yeaia. 

fThisfort, at thefoot oftiic Rnpids, called Fw't Mkmi, was obotit seren miles from 
Furt Dep<eLt, and stood od the Qoi'thwestern bank of the Manmee, near where Maunu« 
City ugiT slaiifis. 


GaHEBAL Wayne's Eepobt to Skceetaky Kkox. li& 

more ready to act where victory was to "be won or a defense re- 
quired, than Little Turtle, and bo, without further parley, the coun- 
cil broke up, and Turtle, at tlte head of hie bravea, took his stand to 
meet and give battle to the advancing army. 

" At eight o'cloclr," says Wayne, in hie report to Secretary Knos, 
on the SSth of August, l794,"otithe momingof the 20th, the acuiy 
again advanced in columns, agreeably to the standing order of 
march : the legion on ttie right, its flank covered by the Maamee : 
onobng;ade of moanted volunt«ere on the left, under Brigadier-gen- 
eral Todd, and the other in the rear, under Brigadier-general Bar- 
hee. A select battalliou of mounted volunteers moved in front of 
the legion, eommanded'by Major Price, who was directed to keep 
fiufflciently advanced, so as to give timely notice for tke ti'oops to 
ibvm in case of action, it being yet undetermined whether the In- 
dians would decide ior peace or war. 
, " After advancing about five miies," continued the report, " Ma- 
jor Price's corps received so severe a fire from the enemy, who were 
secreted in the woods and high grass, as to compel them to retreat. 
The legion was immediately foj-med in two lines, principally in a 
close, thick wood, which extended for miies on our left, and for a 
very considerable distance in front, the ground being covered with 
old fallen timber, probably occasioned by a tornado, which ren- 
dered it impracticable for the cavalry to act with eflect, and afford- 
ed the enemy the most favorable covert for their mode of warfare. 
The savages were formed in three lines, within supporting distance 
of each' other, and extending for near two miles, at right angles with 
the river. I soon discovered, from the weight of the fire and ex- 
tent of their linos, that the enemy were in full force in front, in pos- 
session of their favorite ground, and endeavoring to turn our left 
flank. . I therefore gave orders for the second line to advance and 
support the iirst ; and directed Major-general Scott to gain and turn 
ciie right flank of the savages, with the whole of the mounted vol- 
unteers, by a circuitous route; at the same time I ordered the front 
line to advance and charge with trailed arms, and rouse the Indians 
from their coverts. at the point. of the bayonet, and when up, to de- 
liver a close and well-directed fire on their backs, followed by a 
brisk charge, so as not to give them time to load again. 

" I also ordered Captain Mis Campbell, who commanded the leg- 
ionary cavalry, to turn the left flank of the enemy next the river, 
and which afforded a favorable field for that corps to act in. All 
these orders v^ere obeyed with spirit and promptitude ; but such 
wa« the impetnosity of the charge by tlvefii^t line of infantry, that 
the Indians and Canadian militia and volunteera were drove from 
all their coverts in so short a time, that, although every possible ex- 
ertion was used by the ofScera of the second line of the legion, and 
by Generals Scott, Todd, and Barbee, of the mounted volunteers, to 
gain their proper positions, but part of each could get up in season 
to pai-ticipate in the action ; the enemy being drove, in the coura^ 



of one iiour, more than two miles through the thick woods already 
mentioned by lese than one-half their numbers. From every ac- 
count, the enemy amounted to two thousand combatants. The 
troops actually engaged against them were short of nine hundred.* 
This horde of savages, with their allies, abandoned themselves to 
flight, and dispersed with teiTor and dismay, leaving our victorious 
army in full and quiet possession of the field of battle, which term- 
inated under the influence of the guns of the British garrison." 

The wisdom, foresight and valor of Little Turtle were now no 
longer to be questioned. At the Indian council, on the night be- 
fore the attack, he clearly saw the end of all their eflorts against 
the army of Wayne; and the Indians soon began to feel and realize 
that their main hold upon the northwest was broken forever. 

Though it is not positively known whether Tecumseh was at the 
council or not, the night before the battle, yet it is authentically 
recorded, in the life of this chief, in accordance with the following 
account by Anthony Shane, that he led a party of Sbawanoes in 
the attack upon the army of General Wayne. And it was in this 
engag-ement that he iirst encountered the white chief. Gen. Harri- 
son, then a Lieutenant, with whom, a few years later, he had so much 
deaJing. Says the account of Shane : He occupied an advanced 
position in the battle, and while attempting to load his rifle, he put 
iii a bullet before the powder, and was thus unable to use his gun. 
Being at this moment pressed in front by some infantry, he fell 
back with his party, till thej' met another detachment of Indians, 
Tecnmseh urged them to. stand fast and tight, saying if any one 
would lend him a gun, he would show them how to use it. A fowl- 
ing-piece was handed to liim, with which he lought for some time, 
till the Indians were again compelled to give ground. While fail- 
ing back, he met another party of Shawanoes ; and, although the 
whites were pi-essing on them, he rallied the Indians, and induced 
them to make a stand in a thicket. When the infantiy pressed 
close upon them, and had discharged their muskets into the bushes, 
Tecumseh and his party returned the fire, and then retreated til! 
they had joined the main body of thelndians below the rapids of 
the Maumee. 

As presented in the foregoing report, "the bravery and conduct 
of every officer belonging to the army, from the generals down to 
the ensign," merited the " highest approbation. There were, how- 
ever, some," says Wayne, "whose rank and situation placed their 
conduct in a very conspicuous point of view, and which I observed 
witli pleasure, and the most lively gratitude. Among whom, I 
must beg leave to mention Brigadier-general WilkiTison, and Col. 

•The exael number of Indians engaged in fliis aetion, against Wayne's army haa 
never been aaoBrtainad, Tlieii) were, liowevei', about 450 Delawaraa, 176 Miamiea, 375 
Shawanees, 225 Ottawas,375 Wyandotts, and a Binail number of Senecas, F'ottawaUa- 
mies, and Cliippewus. The nnniljarof white men who fought in defense of the Indians 
in thia engagement, was about savanty, including a oorps of yolunteers from Detroit, 
under the commaud of 'Japlain Caldwell, — Hie. Ind. 


Wayne's Viotoky at ■ma Rapids— Killed, Wounded, &c. 151 

Hamtramck, tliefiommandtiiite of the right and left wings of the 
legion, whose brave example inspired the troops. To those I 
must add," said he, ." the names of my faithful and gallant aids-de- 
camp. Captain De Bntt and T. Lewis ; and Lieutenant Harrison, 
who, with the adj utant^general, Major Mills, rendered the most es- 
sential service by commimicating my orders ia every direction, and 
by their conduct and bravery exciting the troops to presa for vic- 
tory. Lieutenant Covington, apon whom the command of the cav- 
alry now devolved, cut down two savages with his owa hand ; and 
Lieutenant Webb one, in turning the enemy's left flank. The 
"wounds received by Captains Slough and Prior, and Lieutenant 
Campbell Smith, an extra aid-de-camp to General Wilkinson, of the 
legionary infantry, and Captain Van Keneselear, of the dragoons, 
Captain Rawlins, Lieutenant McKcnny, and Ensign Dnncan, of the 
moanted volunteers, bear honorable testimony of their bravery and 

" Captains H. Lewis and Brock, M'ith their companies of light 
infantry, had to sustain. an unequal fire for Some time, which they 
supported with fortitude. In fact, every oificev and soldier, who 
had an opportunity to come into action, displayed that true bravery 
■which will always ensure success. And here permit me to declare, 
that I never discovered more true spirit and anxiety for action, than 
appeared to pervade the whole of the mounted volunteers ; and I 
am well persuaded that, had the enemy maintained their favorite 
ground for one-half hour longer, they would have most severely 
felt the prowess of that corps. But, while I pay this tribute to the 
living, I must not neglect the gallant dead, among whom we have 
to lament the early death of those worthy and brave officers, Cap- 
tain Mis Campbell, of the dragoons, and Lieutenant Towles, of the 
light infantry, of the legion, who fell in the first charge." 

Of the killed and woanded, in this engagement, according to the 
report of General Wayne, the regular troops, lost twenty-six killed, 
and eighty-seven wounded. Of the Kentucky volunteers, seven 
were killed and thirteen were wounded ; and nine regulars and two 
volunteers died of their wqunds before the 28th of the month. The 
loss of the enemy was more than twice that of the army nnder 
Wayne; and "the woods were sti-ewn fora considerable distance 
with the dead bodies of Indians." 

Wayne's victory was now complete. It was short and decisive ; 
and after remaining " three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time alt the 
houses and cornfields (of the enemy) were consumed and destroyed 
for a considerable distance both above and below Fort Miami, as 
well as within pistol shot of the garrison, who were compelled to 
remain tacit spectators to this general devastation and conilagra- 
tion ; among which were the houses, stores, and pro])erty of Col- 
onel McKee, the British Indian agent, and principal stimulator of 
the war now existing between the United States and the sav- 



ages,"* on tlie 2Tth, the army started upon its return mareli for 
Fort Defiance, laying; waste, as ifc moved, villages and eorntlelda for 
a distance of some fifty railea along the Maiimee. 

If, will be proper here to mention, that while the Americsm forces 
occnpied their position within range of the 'British ibrtt at the rap- 
ids, from the a.ttcrnoon of the 20th to the forenoon of the :^3d, five 
letters passed between the British commander (Major Campbell) 
and General Wayne; the first coming from the British command- 
ant, enqniring the cause of the army of ihe United States approach- 
ing so near his majesty's fort — that he knew " of no war existing 
between Great Britain and America," etc. I'o which Gen. Wayne 
replied; " Without questioning the authority or the propriety, sir, 
oi your interrogatoiy, I think I may, without breach of decornm, 
observe to you, tliat, were you entitled to an answer, the most full 
and satisfactory one was announced to you from the muzzles of uiy 
small arms, yesterday morning, in the action against the horde of 
savages in the vicinity of your post, which terminated gloriously to 
the American arms ; but, had it continued until the Indians, etc., 
were driven under the iniluence of the post and guns you mention, 
they would not have much impeded the progress of the victorious, 
army under my command, as no such post was established at the 
commencement of the present war between the Indians and the 
United States." To which, in turn, the British commandant, having 
taken the rejoinder of Wayne as an insult to the British flag, threat- 
ened to open his batteries upon the American forces, should they 
continue to approach his post "in the threatening manner" they 
were then doing, etc. Wayne's reply was this time to the eifect 
that he also knew of no war then existing between Great Britain and 
America — reminding him of the definitive treaty of 178ii — showing 
him tliat Great Eritjiin was then and there maintaining a post be- 
■ yond the limits and stipulations of that treaty ; and ordering him to 
retire peacefully within the limits (?£ the British lines. To which 
the British commandant replied that he certainly would, not aban- 
don the post at the summons of any power whatever, until he re- 
ceived orders to that effect from those, he had the honor to serve 
under, or the fortunes of war should oblige him so to act ; and still 
firmly adhered to his previous proposition, or threat. And thus 
the controversy ended. 

Beaching Fort Defiance again, the ai-my soon began repairs upon 
the fort, in order to render it the more substantial in its general 
etructare; and here the anny remained till tho morning of the 14th 
of September, 1794, when "the legion began their march for the 
Miami village," (this point) whither they arrived at 5 o'edock, 
P. M., on the l7tfi of September, and on the following day, tho 

"Wajne'fl report. 

fAt the period ofWayna'senstngsiBent near the rapi'1s,tlnTe were nboiit 251) rPgu- 
Inre and 210 militia iu tills fort, with " four nine-poiinfleL's, two Inrgo howitzera, »nd 
six six-|-'0!inik'i'a uiouiiMd in the foi t, and two swiyeb." — AiQCTicin Stat* papers. 

I IK, Google 

JOCKSAL OF Wayn!i;"s GaiII'jIION, iud 

troops I'orti lied tlieir camps, while "the comuiaiider-iii-cliiot' re- 
connoitercd the ground and determined. on the spot to build a gar- 

The history of events, from the time of t!ie arrival of Wayne and 
hia army at the Miami village, on, the afternoon of the 17th, to the 
completion of the fort, will bo partially seen, at least, from the lol- 
lowing dates at the Miami village, as»preseuted in the daily journal 
of Wayne's campaign : 

Camp Xiami VUlagei, Ifilh Sip. 'i79i.--* » » « Four deserters friiiii 
tho Ilritidli c^ime to us this dii; ; the<f brinji; Mie itilbrmiition that the iuiiiiiua ure an- 
oamped 8 loiles below the Eriti»!i ion cu ihe nmnber of 16Ui). 

aOth Sep.—Uiii night it rained Tiolertly nnil thowind blew from llio N. W. harder 
thiLU I iinew hr-retofore. Oea. ^urber with his crDmniaad iirrivcd in cnmp uboiit 
a'ulock this niui'ninK with 6G8 kegaof Hour, e^ioh contuining 100 pounds. 

mantion tliHt tljaliidi]Lu.i still embodieaoa the Miami, <J miUe bslon tlie ISridsii 
fort ; that they are aouiowhat dlridud ia opiuiou, tioais ure l\)r peaoe and others for 

■Mlh Sep. — This day the work oonimenoBd on (he garrison, which T am upprohcn- 
aive will take some Lime to complete it, A keg of wliisby ooiilainiug ten gallons, 
was purchased this day for uighty dollaris, a slieep for ten dollars ; liivoe dollars was 
oSarod for one pint of aalt. but it uould not bu obtained for leas than six. 

25lA Stp. — Lieutenant Blue, of tho dragoons, wait Ibis day arrested by ensign 
JohQEOu, of the 4th S. L., but a number of their friends interfering, the dinpttte wus 
settled upon lieutenant Blue asking Johnson's pardon. 

2,6th Sep. — M'Clelatirt, one of our apiei", with a small party came in this evening 
from Fort Deflauce, who brings inrormation that the ensmy are troublesome abont 
the garrison, auJ that they have kitted some of our men under the walls of tho fort. 
Sixteen Indiaae were seen to-day near this pbce ; a small party wem. in pursuit of 
them. I linve uotlieard what liisooyeries they hive made. 

SOtkS^ip. — Salt and whisky were drawn by tho troops ihia day, and a number of 
the aoldiary beoame aiMoh intoxicated, they bavitig stolen a quantity of liquor from 
the quartermaster. 

4(4 Oct. — 'Cliis morning wu had the hardest frost I ever saw in the miridio of Dh- 
oembar, it was like a small snow ; there was ice in our oarap..kettlea J of ;in inch 
thick; tho fatigues go on with lelocity, considoring the rations the troops aroobliged 

5(A Oc(.— The weallier e: 
thing quiet nnd nothing bu 

6lh Oil. — Plenty and quietness the same as yesterday; tiie volunteers rugagoJ lo 
work on the garrison, for wtiich they aro lo re ooiye three gills of wliialiy per man per 
day; their employment is digging the ditch and filling up tiie parapet. 

8tA Off.— The it'oops drew but half rations of 11»ur this day. The cavalry and 
ottisr liorues die very fast, not less than four or Sre per day. 

9lh Oct. - The voluntoorB have agreed to build a blook-hoase in front of tie gar- 

lltk Oct. — A Canadian (Kojelie)wilh aflag arrived -tliia oToning; his busiiiess 
was to deliver up three tirisonera in eschange for his broibar, who was talcen onthe 
20ih August: he brines information that tho rndiaaaare in oonncil with Girty and 
M'Kee neav the fort of Detroit, that all the tribea are for peaoe except tlie Shawan- 
eaa. who nve determined to (irosecnto the wai". 

IGtJi 05(. —No thing new, weatiiar wet, and ccM, wind from K. W. The troops 
hea''hy in general. 

17( i Oct. — This day Unptain Gibson ari'ived with a large quantity of flour, beef, 
and sheep. 

19M Ovi. — This day (he troops wore not ordered forlalior, being the first day for 
four weets, and accordingly attended divine Kervioe. 

'DiilyjOTiriial Wt.yae\ conipnigH- 

-c by Google 

154 HiBToity or Fokt Wayne. 

20(S Oct. — An eipre's arrJTed tliia day with dispatehca to the ciiDimftiidci--iii- 
chief ; th« contents aro kept, aeerel. 

A ooiirt-mnrlinl to ait this dny foi; tho Irinl of Chdrles Hyde. 
31s' Oci. — TJiJs day were rtad the prooeedingB of a gener«l court morlinl. htsld nti 
lieutenmt Charles Hyde, (y est en lay) was found not guilty of the charges exhibited 
against liim, and was thcTu:nre acquitted. 

' On the morriiig of the 22(1 of October, l79i, the garrison was 
in readiness, and Lieuteiiant-colouel Hamtramck asBumed com- 
mand of tho I'ost, with the following sub-legione : Capt-ain Kings- 
bury's 1st; Captain Greaton's 2d; Captains Spark's and Heed's iid; 
Captain Preston's 4th; and Captain Porter's of artillery; and after 
firing fifteen rounds of cannon, Colonel Hamtramck gave it the 
name of Fokt Waysb. 

And here was the starting-point of a new era in civiiization in 
the gi"eat northwest ! 

On the 28th of October, having completed his work at the point 
now bearing Ms name, General Wayne, with the main body of the 
regularsj took up his line of march for Fort Greenviile, anivihg at 
that point on the 2d oi November. 

Early in September the news of Wayne's victory had spread over 
a large part of the country, and operated most favorably for the 
government. It not only removed the diesatisfactiou to which the 
great delays attending the campaign had given rise, but it was the 
best possible illustration of the benefits to be derived from the pro- 
tection of the general government, which had been greatly under- 
rated. As a permanent peace with the Indians was now consid- 
ered certain, this increased the desire for tranquility at home. And 
tiie troubles which, but a short period before, had threatened to in- 
volve the government in much trouble, through the desire of Genet 
and his followers to move upon the Spaniards of the Lower Mis- 
sissippi, began greatly to dispirit the insurgents; and by the first 
of October, ('94) tranquility and good order were in a great meas- 
ure restored throughout the country.* 

After the close of the engagement of the 20cli of August, Wayne 
continued to invite the Indians to a friendly meeting, with a view 
to permanent peace between the tribes and the Unitod States. But 
the Indians, for some time, seemed to be balancing between a de- 
sire alill for the overthrow of the Americans and the hope of " ef- 
fectual support from the British," on the one hand, and the fear of ulti- 
mate defeat on the otJier,let tlieir own strength or aid from the English 
be HS formidable as it might ; and while ^Vayne was inviting them to 
meet him at Greenville to conclude a treaty with him there, " Lieu- 
tenant-general Siraeoe, Col. McKee, and other officers of the British 
Indian department, persuaded Little Turtle, Blue Jacket, Buck-ong- 
a-helas, and other distinguished chiefs, to agree to hold an Indian 
council at the mouth of Detroit river. '"t 

The troubles with England, which had, but a few mouths before, 
threatened to break out into warfare again, were now, through the 
* American Pionesi'. fDiUun'a Hia- lod. 




LiiTKEa OF Ooi. Hamtkamck. 155 

wiBdom ofWaeliington, in a great measure, and tlie admirable ef- 
forta of John Jay, as envoy extraordinary from this country to tbe 
court of St. James, amicably adjiisted in the conclusion of" a treaty 
of amity, commerce, and navigation, between the United Statea 
and Great Britain." This ti-eaty was concluded on the J 9th of No- 
vember ; and one of its main stipulations was that of a withdrawal, 
" on or before the first day of June, 1796, all (of the Kings) troops 
and garrisons, from all posts and places within the boundry lines 
assigned to the United States by the treaty of peace of 1783." 

The news of this treaty having reached America, the Indians 
soon felt their last hope of aid from the English fading away, and 
began seriously to think of peace ; and during the months of Decena- 
ber and January, 179i-5, small parties of Miamies, Ottawas, Chip- 
pewas, Pottawattamies, Sacs, Delawares, and Shawanoes began to 
visit General Wayne at his headquarters at Greenville, signing re- 
spectively, preliminary articles of peace, and agreeing " to meet 
Wayne at Greenville on or about the 15th of June, 1795, with all 
the sachems and war-chiefs of their nations," with a view of arrang- 
ing a final treaty of peace and amity between the United St-ates and 
the Indians of the northwestern territory. 

Daring the period that elapsed between the departure (28th of 
October,) of Wayne for Fort Greenville from the newly completed 
garrison bearing his name here, until the 17th of May 1796, Col. 
Hamtramck remained in command at Fort Wayne ; and though 
nothing of a very important nature transpired during that time, yet 
there is much of interest to be gathered from the niaoy letters* of 
Ool. H., written I'rom the fort here, and addressed to generals Wayne 
and Wilkinson. 

On the 5th December, '9i, he wrote to Gen. Wayne; 

" It is wilh a gi-c»t degree of mortification that I am obliged to inform jour os- 
oolloaoy of tha great propensity many of the soldiera bare lo Inrceny. I have 
flogged tbeia till. I am tired. The e^iononiio aUoiritnca of one hundred laslioa, nl- 
lowsd by goTei'niaent, does not iipiiear' a sufficient iuduccment for a rnsoiil to act 
the part of an honest man. I have now a number In continement and in irons fur 
baving stolen fnur quarters ofbeef on the nigbt of the Srd instunL I could wisli 
them to be tried bj a geueval court- martial, ii\ order to make ati example of some 
of them. 1 sball kesp them coufined until tlie pleasure oFyoiir excellency is knonn." 
"Fort JTfljfnc, jDecCTiiw 29, 1TB4. 

" Sill — Yesterday a number of chiefs of the Chippewaya, Ottawaa, Saclta, and 
Fottairattamies arrived here with the tiro I.assells.f It appears that the Shnwan- 
ees, Delawares, and Miamies remain stitl under tlie inSuence ofMciiee; but Las- 
ae)|: thinks the; willbecompelled to cnmoinlo the mrasurea oftho olber Indiana. 
Aftior the clitefs hare rested a day or tiro, L will send I hem to hand -quarters " 
"Fori Waj/ne, Decanber 29, 1791. 

Sin — Since my last letter to your excellency of the preuent date, two war-chiefs 
bava arrived from the Miami DDtion, and inform me that their nation will be here 
in a few days, from wlionoe they will proceed to GreenTilIe. They also bring in- 
telligence of the remaining tribes of savages acceding to the prevalent wish forpoactt, 
and collecting for tlie purpose the chiefs of their nations, who, it is expected, will 
make their appearance at this post about the same time the Miamies may come fur- 

*Publiahed from the manueiMipt of Col Hamt^^mck in the "American Pioneer, 1843. 
t Jueques and Antoine Lasaelle. JJacquo LasBelle 

, Google 

lo6 IllS'KIKl" OK' h'oil'l WAi'HE. 

'■December IS, 1T95 

'■ Tho issues 10 tl]« IndiMiBWouM be verv inconaidei-jible lliis winter, i( it was 
not fornboHt uinotyolil women and childran witlisomo very old men, wlio live near 
us (inil liavo ni oilier mode of suhsisi ting but- by g.irrison. I have repeatedly tried 
to (tet oleitr of tliem,but -willKiut eucocsfl. 

" Jamianj 13, 17!)6. 

■'Abontninotjf old wometi and childrou liiivo been viofualled by the KtnT'son. I 
hiive, y«aterday, given them five dnys' provision, i.nd told fbem it whb llio lost, 
t2iey should liuve until spring. I irus obliged to tlo so becnuss. rriim oiiicululinn. I 
IjKTe no more flour thin will last me until spring. But, sir, if other 3ii |>p1ie!i conU 
he pot by land, I consider itpoliiio lo feed xiieso poor orafttures, uho TTillHufrervBry 
mnoli for want of aubsistcuco," 

[T-> Gma-al Mltujaoii] ■' J/'i!j'ei23, 17Hi). 

'■I urii ont of wiiinpuni. I willbeTery mnoli ohligedto yon tn seUd me ennie, for 
Bpeakirigto Jin Indian without it is like consulting a lavfjei- without 'a fee." 

{To General Wilkinson ] ' April 5, 1706. 

'' Little Turtle arrlvad I delivored youv moasngo, H"b answer 
Tvae, to proseui Ms oonipiimentB to you, thai he was very glnd of Ihe invilatiun, as 
he wished varj miioli to see genernl WlUciason, but it was impoasibte for bim to go 
to OreeiiTille at present, as he h&d ordered all his joung men (o repair tn n rendez- 
voui, in order, when assembled, to ohnse a place for their permanent rcBitlence; (hat, 
as Boon aa that object shall be acoomplished. he would go to see jon,. which, he said, 
would be by the time he hearn form yon again." 

[7b Goicrai Wilkinson.-] "April 18, 1708. 

" The hearer is captain Blue Jaoket, who. nt. jour roquost, is now going lo Green- 
ville. ItlUB Jaakntis atind to good company atii is alwaya treated with more atten- 
tion than other Indians. Ho appears to be very well dispo.wd, and I believe him 

Ti-ue to their promise, in the early part of Jnoe, 1795, dftpnta- 
tioHs from tbe different tribes of the uorthweat began to arrive at 
Greenville with a view to the consiimmation of the treaty already 
refori'ed to. This ti-eaty, which was one of much interest through- 
out, lasted from the 16th of June, to the 10th of August, (17^5) 
many of the principal chiefs making eti-oug speeches, and each na- 
tion openly and separately assenting to the articles and stipulations 
of the treaty. At the conchision of his speech to deputies on the 
lOth of August, at the termination of the treaty. General Wayne 
addressed tbe assemblage as follows : *' I now fervently pray to the 
Great Spirit, that the peace now established may be permanent, 
and that it may hold us together in the bonds of friendship, until 
time shall be no more. I also pray that tlje Great Spirit above may 
enlighten your minds, and open your eyes to your true happiness, 
that your children may learn to cultivate the earth, and enjoy the 
fruite of peace and indnetry. As it is probable, my children, that 
we shall not soon meet again in public council, I take this opportu- 
nity of bidding you all an affectionate farewell, and wishing you a 
safis and happy return to your respective homes and families." 

A general feeling of rejoicing soon pervaded the country at the 
liappy termination of this treaty ;* and it was as pleasing and acccjj- 

* Tlio bouiidry lines established at this treaty, between tiie iiortliwastem Indians 
and Wie U. S., stoured to tlie Indians all tlie territoiT within t3io present limits of tlie 
State of Indiana, ezeepCing, li'irdli : — One tract of land, six mileB squam, at the Don- 
flnenee of theSt. Mary and St. Joseph livers. Second ly;-^One truot of land, two 
miles square, on the Wabash river, at the end of the portage, from tbe head of the rivei' 
Jlonmee. and about eight miles westward from Fort Wayne. 'Thirdly ; — One tract of 
laud, sis Diilet Sqimio, at OniiitsnoD, or llitf old Wcii town ou tlic river Wiihash. 


Ubgiitsikg of a New Eea in the Qeeat West. 


table to the GoverDment, as it was agreeable to the Indians. With 
these pacific relations came tlie cry oC " Westward, ho ! " and soon 
a tide of emigration began to set in from the eaateni States, 
many selecting sites aloug the Ohio, the Sciota, and Muskingum 
rivers ; and others again selected and began settlements along the 
fertile regions lying between the two Miami rivere, and at other 

Soiuta westward. And thus had begun a new life and a new free- 
om in the wide domain of the northwest, 

Fouithly;— The tract of one liiiiidrari nnd fifty tliouaand acres, near tbe falls of the 
Ohio ; -which truce was oallad Wie " IlUnoU Grant," or " OUrt's Grant," Fifthly :— 
Thatownof VinoeniKS, oil thopivPV Wabaih, and the adjacent lands to whioh l.ha 
Indian title had been extingnisliBd ; nnd all aimilar lands, at other ]>laopB, in poBsession 
oft'io French people, or otber whiti^ aettlers arnoiig them. And, sixthly; — The strip of 

land Ij-iiiffeaetoj'olin ~ - . .. . =- - - 

leet the River Oiiio at 

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■" Ali olor" the windirg i-ivpr 
And sJown the aliady alfii. 
On the hill and in the vallyy," 
TliB voice of war reaounda again 

EmigrolioQ w««lwnT5 — The Shawaooea Prophet — Enactmenta of laws — Treaty between 
the XJ S. iind Spain— Efforts to diesolve the Uiiion'^Col. Hamtromuk leaves Fort 
Woyne—Britisli evacuate Fort Miami — Death of (Jeaeral Wayne — General Wilk- 
inson aeeuraei command of tlie weltevii l'ov<!*e — Movements of Baron Carondeiet 
— Failureof the Spanish and French sohenie— Treaty of peace with FniBce — ces- 
Bion of Louisiana to Fiance — Cefsionofsamefothe ^. S. — Legislative session at Cin- 
cinnati — Wm. Heery Hnnison ohoaeti repreaentjitiva in Congresa — Diviaioa of ter- 
ritory—Harrison appointed Governor — Principai erects from 1800 to 1610 — Effbrto 
of Governor Han'ison toinduce the Indians to engBBe in agriciiltnral pursuits — 
Extiugaiahmentof Indian olaims— Treaty at Fort Wayne in 1KU3— -PeaoeaWe re- 
lations between the Indians and the U. S. — Beginning of new troubles — Shoit 
aooount of the Shawanoee — Indians put to death by oruerof the Pmphet — Speeeh 
of Qov. HarrisoB — Capt. Wm. Wells, Indian agent here — Sends a tneaaafte to Te- 
cumseh by Anthony IShane — SEiane'a reception— Tecum sell 'a reply — Wells Kfusca 
to comply with Tccumseh'B request — Shane again sent to Tecumseli — Second re- 
ply of Teoumaeh — Indians continue to aaaemwe at Greenville— Many about Fort 
Wayne — Great alarm of the settle™ — Governor of Ohio tends a deputation to 
Greenville — Address of the commiasictiei's — Speech of Bins Jacket — Tecumsehand 
otliers return witli the commiasioneta — Further alarm — A wLito man killed — Mi- 
litia called out — Investigation of the murder — Settleis still uneosy — Speech of 
Gov. Hnrtison — Protestations of the Prophet — He removes to Tippecanoe — War- 
like spoi'ta begun — Settlers again alarmed — The Prophet visits Gov. Harrison — His 
Speecli— Horriaon testa him— Secret movements of Teeumaeh and the Prophet™ 
Many of their followers leave them— Militia orennized — Alarm suhsidea— Treaty 
otFort Wayne, IBUO— Fuvtlier movements of Tsoomseh and the Prophet-Gf.v. 
Harrison prejiares for tlie safety of the frontier. 

ff^g^ IIE TIDE of emigration westward, that had begtin soon after 
^jthe treaty of Greenville, steadily continued for a number of 
years, and the peace of the country was not materially inter- 
rupted till some time during the year 18]0, when the famous 
Shawanoe Prophet, EUs-kwata-wa, through a singular and 
somewhat powerful influence, began to exert a wide control over 
many tribes of the northwest, thus creating mnuh alarm among the 
western settlements, which, in tnrn, much impeded the influx of 
emigrants to the Indiana Tei-ritory. 

The moBt important events that transpired from 1795 to ISIO, 


Teisaty bktwkes the U. S. and Spain. 150 

were the meeting of Governor St.Clair,with John Oleves SymmeB and 
George Tamer, the latter as judges of the northwestern territory, 
Cincinnati, May 29th, 1795, wherein they adopted and madethirty" 
eight laws for the better regulation and government of the territory. 

On the 27th of October of this year ('05) a treaty of " friendship, 
limits, and navigation, between the United States of America and 
the King of Spain," yfaa concluded, at the eourt of Spain, between 
ThoB. Pinckney, envoy exWaordianary of the United States, and the 
Duke of Alcudia, which extended from the eoathern boundry of the 
tJ. S. to " the northernmost post of the thii-ty-first degree of latitude 
north of the equator," which was to extend " due east to the mid- 
dle of the river Apalaciiicola or Catahoueha, thence along' the 
middle thereof, to its junction with the Flint; thence straight to the 
head of St. Mary's river, and thenoe down the middle thereof, to the 
Atlantic Ocean ;" and was ratified on the 3d of March, 175)6. 

In Jnly of 1796, the French Executive Directoiy, because of this 
treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation between the United 
States and Spain, charged the American government with " a breach 
of friendship and abandonment of neutrality, and a violation of tacit 
engagements;" and during 1796 and 1797, as in keeping with a 
similar spirit exhibited in 1795, before the Spanish garrisons on the 
eastern side of the Missiasipppi were surrendered to the United 
States, strong efforts were made, on the part of Frenchand Spanish 
agents, to persuade the inhabitants of the western country to 
withdraw their connection from the American Union, and, with 
those governments, to form a separate and independent government, 
extending westward from the Allegheny Mountains. But tbe in- 
ducements were of no avail, a.Dd the scheme failed. 

Before the end of July, (1796) the English had withdrawn 
from all "the posts within the bonndry of the United States north- 
west of the Ohio; " and about the 17th of May of this year, Oolonel 
Haratramck had left Fort Wayne, passing down the Maumee to 
Fort Deposit, where the famous engagement of Wayne had but a 
few months before oecnred, and on the llth of July the British 
fort, Miami, at the foot of the rapids, was evacuated, Capt. Moses 
Porter soon taking command. On the 13th of July, Colonel Ham- 
tramck took possession of the Post at Detroit. 

In December of this year, '96, General Wayne died, and General 
James Wilkinson was put in command of the western army of the 
United States, and a small detachment still contiuaed at Fort 
Way no. 

In the month of June 1797, some feeling still existing on the part 
of Spain as well as France, the two governments being somewhat 
allied in their motives against the United States, the governor of 
Louisiana (Baron de Oarondelet) sent a request to General Wilkin- 
son to delay the movement of the United States troops that were to 
occupy the posts on the Mbsiseippi river until such time as the ad- 
justments of certain questions then pending between the American 

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and Spauish goveriiments could be adjusted. But the true object 
of Oaroiidelet, through his agent (Thomas Power,) seeras to have 
been only to ascertain the ti-ue feeling of the western people ree-ard: 
iiig a dissolution of the Union. Power lianng passed through the 
western territory as far as Detroit, in the month of Angust, '97, 
he met General Wilkinson, and explained the object of his mission, 
which the general readily concluded to be "a chimerical project, 
which it was impossible to execute, that the inhabitants of the west- 
ern states, having obtained by treaty all they desired, would not 
wish to form any other political or commercial alliance." Because 
of these intrigues on the part of Spain, and the conduct of France, 
in December, 1796,* in refusing to receive Minister Monroe, at 
Paris, on the ground of complaiiits already mentioned, relative to 
the treaty with Spain, and becaiise of the depredation of French 
vessels against Ameiican commerce, the United States government, 
during 1798, impelled the latter to adopt and enforce strenuous 
measures of retaliation ; the fii-st of which was that of " an act au- 
thorizing the President of the U. S. to raise a provisional army." 
The second, " to suspend the commercial intercourse between the 
U. S. and France and the dependencies thereof." The third, " to 
authorize the defense of the merchant vessels of the U. S. against 
French depredations;" and fourth, "an act concerning alien ene- 

The Spaniads had hoped for aid, by way of Canada, from the 
English, in 1798. But they were doomed to disappointment, and 
having reluctantly evacuated the posts on the Mississippi during the 
Bumuier of 17SJ8, in the Ml of tliat year Gen. Wilkinson moved 
down that river and took up his headquarters at Loftus' Heights, 
where he soon erected Fort Adaips. In September of this year, 
France having exhibited a desire for peaceable relations with the 
United Stat-cs, subsequent negotiations were had at Paris, and on 
the SOth of September, l800, a "treaty of peace and commerce" 
was consummated between the United States and FrFiUce. 

In October of this year, (1800), by the conclusion of a treatjy at 
St. Ildefonso, Spain retroceded to France the province of Louisiana, 
embracing the original lines of territory as when before held by 
France ; and under Jefl'erson's administration, three years later, 
(SOth of April, 1803,) the French government "sold and ceded 
Louisiana, in its greatest extent, to the United States, for a sum 
about equal to filteen millions of dollars," 

On the 23d of April, 1798, a legislative session was convened at 
Cincinnati, which closed on the 7th of May, same year, Winthrop 
Sargent, actins' governor, and John Cleves Symmes, Joseph GiJ- 
man, and Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., territorial judges. On tlie 
29th of October of this year, (iov. St. Ulair is.sued i proriam itioi , 

*ltwii3in September of this ynar thiit WaeUirgUin, tlifn soon tn vacate the Pien - 
dential ohair for Jolin Adams, who, that jeor, wai eleotsd Preeidant and Thomas 

ii„i.,b, Google 

Division op tiie NoitTHWEaTEKS Tekeitoey. IGl 

" directipK the qualified voters of the Northwestern Territory to 
hold elections in their respective conndea on the third Monday of 
Docemberj" with a view to electing representatives to a general as- 
Bombly, to convene at Cincinnati on the 2'2d of Januaiy, 1799. The 
representatives having met at the appointed place, incompliance 
with the ordinance of 1787, for the establishment of legislative 
councils, ten persons were chosen as nominees, and their names 
forwarded to the President ot the United States, who, onthe second 
of March, 1799, selected therefrom, the names of Jacob Burnett, 
James Findlay, Henry Vanderburs'^, Robert Oliver, and David 
Yance, as suitable persons to form the legislative council of tlio ter- 
ritory of the United States, lying northwest of the Ohio river, which 
names were, on the following day, confirmed by the U. S, Senate. 
This body met at Cincinnati on the 16th day of September, and 
■were fully organized on the 35th of that month, 1799, of which 
Heni-y Vanderburgh was elected President, and William C, Schenk, 
Secretary. The following counties were represented: Hamilton, 
Ross, Wayne, Adams, Knox, Jefferson, and Washington ; sending 
nineteen membera. 

On the third of October, of this year, the names of two candi- 
dates (Wm. H. Harrison and Arthur St. Clair, Jr.,) to represent the 
Northwestern Territory in Congress, being presented to that body, 
Harrison was chosen-^the one receiving eleven votes, and the other 

In 180O, a division of the territory northwest of the Ohio river 
having occurred, on the 13th of May of that year, Wm. Henry 
Harrison was appointed governor of the Indiana Territory. The seat, 
of government for the Territory was established at Vincennes, where, 
with the judge of the same, the governor met on Monday, 12th of 
January, 18U1, with a view of adopting and issuing "such laws as 
the exegencies of the times" might call for, and likewise for the 
"performance of other acts conformable to the ordinances and laws 
of Congress (1787) for the government of the Teiritory." 

From the period of the forination of the new territory to 1810, 
the principal subject-s of attention and interest to the people therein, 
"were land speculations, the adjustment of land titles, the qaesiion 
of negro slavery, the purchase of Indian lands by treaties, the or- 
ganization of territorial legislatures, the extension of the right of 
snfirage, the division of the Indiana Territory, the movements of 
Aaron Bnrr, and the hostile views and proceedings of the Shaw- 
anoe chief, Teeumseh, and his brother, the Prophet"t 

With a view* to peace and good-will between the United States 
and the Indians of the northwest, through certain laws and regula- 
tions of the government, Gov. Harrison, at an early period of his 
administration, made, efforts to induce the different tribes to engage 
in agricultnral and other purauits of a civilized nature, to the end 
that they might be more a.greeably situated and live more in har- 

^ nUlnn's HU. In<l„ pcgo 30^, fibi.], pag^' i[\9 (11) 

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163 HiSTOET Off Poet Wayne. 

niony with the advancing civilization of the time. Being also in- 
vested with powers authorizing him to negotiate treaties between 
the U. S. government and the different tribes of the Indiana Terri- 
toly, and also to extinguish, hy such treaties^ the Indian title to 
lands situate within the said territory. Between the fore partofl802 
and 1 805, the governor was moat actively employed in the discharge 
of these duties. 

On the iTth day of September, 1802, at a conference held at 
Vincennes, certain ehiefe and head men of the Pottawattamie, Eel 
River, Piankeshaw, "Wea, Kaskaslda, and Kickapoo tribes ap- 
pointed the Miami chiefs, Little Turtle and Riehardville, and also 
the Pottawattamie chiefs, Wine-mac and To-pin-e-pik to adjust, hy 
treaty, the extinguishment of certain Indian claims to lands on the 
Wabash, near Vincennes. And on the 7th of June, the year fol- 
lowing, /1803,) Gov. Harrison held a treaty at Fort Wayne, with 
certain chiefs and head men of the Delaware, Shawanoe, Potta- 
wattamie, EelEiver, Kickapoo, Piankeshaw, and Kaskaslda tribes, 
wherein was ceded to the United States about one million sis hun- 
dred thousand acres of land,*" 

For a period of sixteen years, subsequent to the treaty of Grcen- 
vil!ej(1795 to 1811) agreeable relations were maintained, by the U. 
S., between the Miamies and some other tribes represented at that 
famous treaty. During this time the Indians seemed mainly to 
have betaken themselves to the forest and priaries in pursuit of 
game; and the result was that a considerable traffic was steadily 
" can-ied on with the Indians, by fur-tradere of Fort Wayne, and 
Vincennes, and at different small ti-ading posts which were estab- 
lished on the borders of the Wabash river and its tributaries. The 
fiirs and peltries which were oteined from the Indians, were gen- 
erally transported to Detroit, ^he skins were dried, compressed, 
and secured in packs. Each pack weighed about one hundred 
pounds. A pirogue, or boat, that was sufBciently large to carry 
forty packs, required the labor of four men to manage it on its voy- 
age. . In favorable stages of the Wabash river, such a vessel, under 
the management of skillful boatmen, was propelled fifteen or twenty 
miles a day, against the current. After ascending the river Wa- 
bash and the Little River to the portage near Fort Wayne, the tra- 
ders carried their packs over the portage, to the head of the river 
Maumee, where they were again placed in pirogues, or in keel- 
boats, to be transportated to Detroit. At this place the furs and 
skins were exchanged for blankets, guns, knives, powder, bullets,t 
intoxicating liquors, etc., with which the traders returned to their 
several poste. According to the records of the customhouse at Que- 
bec, the value of the furs and peltries exported from Canada, in the 
year 1786, was estimated at the sum of two hundred and twenty- 
five thousand nine liundred and seventy-seven pounds sterling," 
« Dillon's Hia. Iiid. 

t'i'he biilleta, wIiidiiTcre made to fltHieguna in iiac among tJie Indians, wera Talued 
(it tirar dollars pee liundred. Powder, at odu doilai- per pint. 


Tub 8hawanoe8. 163 

But the volcanic fire of rerolution had ah'eady begun its up- 
heaveh. The past had witnessed many periodical struggles in the 
new world, and the hour for another was near at hand. The Indians 
of the northwest, for the most part, began to grow restive. The game 
of the forest had now long been hunted and killed for their hides, 
fur, and meat, while many of -the traders had grown wealthy upon 
the profits yielded therefrom. The life of the hunter seemed too 
monotinous for the Indian, and he sought, as at other periods, and, 
in many relations, for good reasons, as he had thought, to change it 
for one of war; and aa the larger flah of the ocean are said to de- 
vour the lesser ones, so it would seem that, by continued irritation, 
brought on through the efforts of both the white and red man. Civil- 
ization, with its strange and active impulse, was at length destined 
to supplant the early and endearing homes and soil of the red 
children of the norliiwest with new and more advanced human and 
physical relations. 

As the reader has already seen, the Shawanoes played a conspicu- 
oue . part at various times during the early efforts of the English 
and Americans to gain possession of the western frontier. Col. 
Bouquet's expedition was directed mainly against them, at wjiich 
time they dwelt principally about the Sciota river, some miles to 
the southeast of the Miami viUagea. 

Not unUke most Indian tribes, the origin of the Shawanoes is en- 
veloped in much obscurity. Many tribes, it is true, can he traced 
back for many centuries j but beyond that, all is conjecfcnre or so 
wrapped in legendary-accounts, that it is moat difficult indeed to 
trace them further. 

The Lenni-Lenape, or Delawares, have long received the first 
claim to attention as an activQ and war-like branch of the Algonquin 
family ; but the Shawanoes are evidently, in so far, at least,, as their 
chiefs and the spirit of war ia concerned, entitled to a first considera- 
tion, while the Miamies, evidently, were early the superiors, in 
many essential respects, of most of the Algonquin tribes of the 

The French knew the Shawanoes as the Chaouanous, and were 
often called the Massawomees. The famous Iroquois called thehi 
the Satanas ; and the name was often spelt Shawanees, Shawaneus, 
Sawanos, Shawanos, and Shawanoes, The latter style of spelling 
the name is the one adppted in these pages. 

Mr. Jefferson, in his "Notes on Virginia," speaks of a savage 
warfare between several tribes, one of which was the Shawanoe, 
at the period of Capt. John Smiths's advent in America. In 1632, 
by another historian, the Shawanoes were dwelling upon one of the 
banks of the Delaware ; and it is variously conceded that this tribe 
participated in the treaty with "W"m.Penn,in 1682. Accounts a^ee 
that " they were a jnarauding, adventurous tribe," while " their 
numerous wanderings and appearances in different parts .of the 
continent, almost place research at defiance," To Become em- 



broiled with neighlDoring tribes, wherever they dwelt, seems to have 
"been their fate ; and to save themselves from ntter destruction as a 
tiibe, it is told that they had more than once been obliged to fly 
for other and more secure parts of the country. 

Parkman is of opinion that the Five Nations (Iroquois) OYOrcame 
them about the year 1672, and that a large portion of them sought 
safety in the Carolinas and Florida ; where thay soon again be- 
came involved in trouble, and the Mobilians sought to eistermjnate 
them, Keturning northward, with others, they settled in what, is 
now the Ohio valley. Galladn, who is well versed in the aborigi- 
nal tongues, is of opinion that this tribe was of the Lenni-Lenape 
branch of the Algonquin family, and thinfes that their dispersion 
took place about 1732. The Snwanee. river, in the southern part 
of the United States, takes its name from this tribe, whither they 
had wandered before settling in the northwest. Says Heckwelder, 
referring to this tribe before their settlement upon the Ohio, they 
" sent me^engers to their elder 'broiher^ the Mohicans, requesting 
them to intercede forthem with their grandfather, the Lenni-Lenape, 
to take them under his protection. This the Mohicans willingly 
did, and even sent a body of their own people to conduct their 
younger brothei- into the country of the Delawares. The- Shawan- 
oes, finding themBelves safe under the protection of their grand- 
father, did not choose to proceed to the eastward, hut many of 
them remained on the Ohio, some of whom settled as far up that 
riv" 18 the Long Island, above which the Freneh afterward built 
Fort Duquesne, -m the spot where Pittsbiirgh now stands. . Those 
who proceeded i Tther, were accompanied by their chief, Gach- 
gawatschiqua, and settled principally at and about 'the forks of the 
Delaware, betwtan that and the confluence of the Delaware and 
SchHylldll rivers; and some, even on the spot where Philadelphia 
•ir^w stands ; others were conducted by the Mohicans into their own 
country, where they intermarried with them and became one peo- 
ple. When those who settled near the Delaivare had multiplied, 
they returned to "Wyoming, on the Susquehanna, where they resided 
for a great number of years." 

In 1754, during the French and English war, the Shawanoes took 
part with the French. The Wyoming branch, through tlie efforts 
of the missionary Zingendorf, through this period, remained quiet, 
taking no part in the struggle. A few years later, however, a trivial 
dispute having arisen between this tribe and the Delawarea as to 
the possession of a grasshopper, a bloody conflict ensued between 
them, wherein about one-half of the Shawanoe warriors were de- 
stroyed, while the remainder removed to the Ohio, where they 
dwelt for several years, during all the period of those desolating 
struggles of the early fi'Ontier settlements, referred to in former 
chapters, during the latter part of the past and the first of the pres- 
ent century. In wliat is now the State of Ohio, they had many con- 
siderable towns. Tecuinseh was born at one of these, known as 



Piqua, whicli etande upon Mad Eiver, a few miles below Spring- 
field. Tliia village was destroyed by the Kentuckiaos, under Clark, 
in liSO. 

Aiter their defeat by Col. Bouqiiet, in 1764, and the treaty of Sir 
■William Johnson, they soon became embroiled in a difficulty with 
the Cherokees, maintaining the struggle until 1768, when they 
were forced to suo for peace. Hemaining comparatively quiet for 
SGvei-.ll years, but little is known of them, of a war-like nature, un- 
til 1774, soon after the breaking out of the " Daiimore War." But 
for the results that brought them into this struggle, it is said the 
Shawanoes were in no wise responsible. A report having gained 
credence among the whites that the Indians had stolen several of 
their horses, a couple of Shawanoes were taken and put to death by 
them, without knowing whether thoy were the guilty ones or 
not; and on tJie same day, the whites fired upon and killed several 
of the Shawanoes, the latter returning the lire antl severely wound- 
ing one of the whites. Cresap also killed the famous Logan family 
about this period. An old Delaware sachem, known as "Bald 
Eagle," for many years the friend of the whites, was murdered, and 
the famous chief of the Shawanoes, one much beloved by tJiafc tribe, 
known as " Silver Heels," was fatally wounded, while returning in 
a canoe from Albafiy, where he had accompanied some white tra- 
ders seeldng safety. When found by his friends, " Bald Eagle " 
was floating in his canoe, in an upright position, and scalped. The 
Indians were now exasperated to a high degree ; Logan, at the mer- 
ciless death of his wife and children, — and a sanguinarv v'-"'''waa 
the I'esult. It was in the month of October of tb"' year in question 
that occured the famous battle of Point Pleasani ■ in which Colonel 
Lewis was killed, with some fifty odd other white men, with abont 
a hundred wounded. The Indians were defealedj'but tlie defeat was 
dearly bought. 

After this, t!ie Shawanoes allied themselves to the English,' '^'^^d 
became the implacable foe of the colonists in the struggle for In- 
dependence ; and even after peace was declared, in 1783, they re- 
fused to be friendly, and continued to wage war upon tlie whites, 
obstinately opposing the advancing army to the west. Several 
small expeditions were sent against them after the revolution, which 
they strongly opposed — Clark's, in l780 and l783 ; Loe-an's in 1786 ; 
Edward's in 1787 ; Todd's in 1788 ; and the reader ia already famil- 
iar with their efforts, combined with other tribes, against the expe- 
ditions oi'Harmar, St Clair, and Wayne. 

In the spring of 180a, Captain Thomas Herrod, living a short 
distance from Chilicothe, was murdered and scalped near his own 
house. A party ot hunters coming upon the body, recognized it, 
and, from the ap.pearance, were convinced that it had been done 
by Indians. The treaty of Greenville up to this time had suffered 
no violation, and the settlers now believed hostilities were about to 
commence. Who committed this deed has never been ascertained, 



but there was strong suspicions among the immediate .neighbors 
against a white man who had been a rival candidate with Hei-rod 
for a captaincy in the Ohio militia. There being no tangible evi- 
dence against the man, he was allowed to remain unmolested, while 
those who suspected the Indians most cowardly retaliated upon 
them. The account of the death, as if borne on the wings of the 
wind, epcead with great rapidity all over the Sciota valley, and the 
excitement and alarm prodnced among the citizens was most in- 
tense. "Whole families, from five to iifteen miles apart, flocked to- 
gether for purposes of self-defense. In some places block-houses 
were run up, and preparations for war made in every direction. 
The citizens of Chilicothe, though in the center of population, col- 
lected together for the purpose of fortifying the town. The inhabi- 
tants living on the north fork of Paint Creek were all collected at 
Old Town, now Frankfort, and among others was David Wolf, an 
old hunter, a man of wealth and some influence. He had settled 
on the north fork, twenty miles above Old Town, After remaining 
in the town several days, he employed two men, Williams and Fer- 
guson, to go with him to his farm, with the view of examining into 
the condition of his stock. When they had proceeded about six 
miles, and were passing across a prairie, they saw an Indian ap- 
proaching them in the distance, and.walking in the same path over 
which they were traveling. On a nearer approach, it was found to 
he the Shawanoe chief, Waw-wil-a-way, the old and faithful hunter of 
General Massie during his surveying tours, and an unwavering 
frien9 of the white men. He was a sober, brave, intelligent man, 
well known to most of the settlers in the country, and beloved by 
all for his frank and generous demeanor. He had a wife and two 
sons, who were also much respected by their white neighbors 
where they resided, neat the falls oi' Paint Creek. 

Waw-wil-a-way was frequently engaged in taking wild game and 
skins to Old Town, for the purpose of exchanging them for such 
articles as he needed. He had left home this morning on foot with 
his gan, for the purpose of visiting Frankfort, and meeting the com- 
pany named, he approached them in that frank and friendly man- 
ner which always characterized his intercourse with his white breth- 
ren. After shaldng hands with them most cordially, he inquired 
of the health of each and their families. The salutation being over, 
Wolf asked him to trade guns with him, and the chief assenting, 
an exchange was made for the purpose of examining previous to 
concluding the bargain. While this was going on. Wolf, being on 
horseback, unperceived by Waw-wil-a-way, opened the pan, and 
threw out the priming, and, handing it back, said he believed .he 
would not trade with him. 

Wolf and Williams then dismounted, and asked the chief whether 
the Indians had commenced war. He replied :" No, no! the In- 
dians and white men are now all one, all brothers." 



Wolf then asked whether he had heard that the Indiana had 
killed Captain Herrod. 

The chief, mnch stH-priaed at the intenigence, replied that he had 
not heard it, and seemed to doubt its correctness. Wolf affirmed 
that it -was true. Waw-toil-a-way remarked that perhaps some bad 
white man had done it, and afier a few more words, the parties 
separated, each going his own way. 

Hhe chief had walked about ten steps, when Wolf, taking delib- 
erate aim, shot him through the body. Waw-wil-a-way did not 
fail, although he felt his wound was mortal, nor did he consent to 
die as most men would have done under similar circumstances. 

Bringing his unerring rifle to his shoulder, he leveled it at Wil- 
liams, who, in his efforts to keep his horse between himself and the 
Indian, so iiighfcened him that his body was exposed, and when 
the rifle was discharged, he dropped dead near his animal. Ken- 
dered desperate by his wounds, the Indian then clubbed his gun, 
and dealing Wolf a fearful blow, brought him to the earth. Eecov- 
ering, and being strong and active, he closed upon the Indian, and 
made an efibrfc to seize him by the long tuft of hair on the crown of 
his head. A shawl was tied around the Indian's head in the fomi 
of a turban, and this being seized by Wolf, instead of the hair, he 
gave a violentjert for the purpose of bringing him to the ground. 
The shawl gave way, and Wolf fell upon his back. At this, the In- 
dian drew his scalping-knife, and made a thrusr at Wolf, who, see- 
ing his danger, and throwing up bis feet to ward off the blow, re- 
ceived the blade of the knife in his thigh. In the scufle the handle 
broke off, and left the blade fast in the wound. At the same time, 
Wolf made a stroke at the Indian, the blade of his knife entering 
the breast-bone. Just then Ferguson came to Wolf's assistance; 
but the Indian, taking up Wolf's gun, struck him on the head a ter- 
rible blow, and brought him to the ground, laying bare his skull 
from the crown to the ear. Here the sanguinary conflict ended, and 
it all occurred in less time then it has taken the reader to peruse 
this account of it. 

When the deadly strife ended, the foes of Waw-wil-a-way were 
all lying at his feet, and had he been able to follow up his blows, 
he would have dispatched them, for they were completely within 
his power. But his strength failed him, and perhaps his sight, for 
he must have been in the agonies of death during the whole con- 
flict. It may be that the poor Indian relented, and that forgiveness 
played Hke sunshine around his genei'ous heart. He cast one 
glance upon his fallen foes; then turning away, he walked out into 
the gi-ass, and fell upon his face amid the wild-llowers of the prairie, 
where his heart at once and forever was still. 

During the entire engagement he never spoke a word. Silently 
he acted his part in the fearful drama, as though moved by an in- 
visible agency. The course of Wolf and his comrades was most 
unwise indeed, and should never have been encouraged by any one. 

-c by Google 

I6S Hisi'OBT OF FoET Waywe. 

They first attempted to diaariri him by throwing the priming out oC 
his gun, and then talking with him and parting under the mask of 
friendship. Had Wolf and hie companions supposed him to be ac- 
cessory to (he death of Herrodin any way, he would have gone 
with them cheerfully to Old Town or Chilioothe, and given himself 
up to an investigation. But Wolf was determined on murder, and 
the hiood of Waw-wil-a-way rests upon his head;* 

Williams, when found, was stone dead, but Ferguson and Wolf 
subsequently recovered. The surgeon who examined Waw-wil-a- 
way stated that every one of his ■vvouuds was mortal, and those of 
the two whites were so severe that it was many months — and they 
imderwfent gi-eat suffering — before they were themselves again. 

This occurrence added fuel to the excitement. The Indiana fieil 
in one direction and the whites in another, each party undecided 
what course to pursue.. Several of the pi'ominent citizens of Chili- 
oothe went into the Indian country, where they found Tecumseh 
and a number of his people. These disavowed all connection with 
the murder of Herrod, and affirmed that it was their intention to 
remain true to the Greenville treaty. To quell the apprehension, 
Tecumseh returned with the deputation to give them personal as- 
surance of his intentions. The people were called together, and 
through an interpreter, Tecumseh delivered a speech of which 
a Hstener said : " When he rose to speak, as he cast his gaze over 
the vast multitude, which the interesting occasion had di-awn to- 
gether, he appeared one of the most dignified men I ever beheld, 
while this orator of nature was speaking, the vast crowd preserved 
the most profound silence. From the confident manner iu which 
he spoke of the intention of the Indians to adhere to the treaty of 
Greenville, and live in peace and friendship with their white breth- 
ren, he dispelled, as if by magic, the apprehensions of the wiiites— 
the settlers returned to tlieir deserted farms, and business generally 
was resumed throughout that region." As Drake remarks, the 
declaration of no other Indian would have dissipated the fears ef a 
border man which then pei-vaded the settlement.! 

The maternal history of the PrOphct and Tecumseh is, that their 
mother gave birth, about 1770, to three children at one time, who 
■were subsequently named Tecumseh (meaning a ccuger croucMiiy 
for his prey) : Ellekwatawa, \an open dom'):, and Kumskaka. The 
latter seems, however, never to have created any special attention 
among the tribes. During the earlyperiodofthe life of the Prophet 
(Ellskwatawa), he is said to have given himself up almost wholly 
to a life of intoxication ; and it was notimtil about 1804 that he be- 
gan to abandon hia old habit of driinkenness. A sudden change 
then came over him. One day, in his wigwam, while fighting his 
pipe, the account runs, " he fell back in a trance upon his bed, and 
continued a long time motionless, and without any signs of life," 
Supposing him to be dead, his friends immediately began to pre- 
' J. B. Finlcy. + Life of Tecuraseb, bj Hilward S; Ellis. 


AoDodNT OK Ei^kwATA\vA, 'nii: Peophet. 161t 

pare for his burial. Agreeably to Indian cuetom, tli« head men o£ 
the U'ibe at once gathered about the body, and were in the act of 
removing it, when, to their great aatoniehment, Etlskwatawa, (the 
Prophet) suddenly awoke, and began to address those about him as 
follows; "Be not alarmed," said he; "I have seen heaven. Call 
the tribe together, that I may reveal to them the whole of my vis- 
ion," . His request was readily complied with, and he at once began 
to Bpeak, He said " two beautiful yonng men had been sent from 
Heaven by the Great Spirit," who spoke to Mm thus : " The Great 
Spirit ie angry with you, and will destroy all the red men, unless 
you abandon drmikenness, lying, and stealing, If you will not do 
this, and tnrn yourselves to him, you shall never enter the beautiful 
place which we will now show yon." Whereupon, he affirmed, he 
was " conducted to the gates of Heaven," aqd saw " all the glories, 
but was not permitted to enter. Thus viewing the beauties of the 
other world, witliout being permitted to enter, he was told to return 
to the earth again, and acquaint the Indians with what he had seen, 
and to persuade them to repent of their vices, saying that then 
" they would visit him again." After this. EUskawatawa assumed 
the powers and title of " Prophet," establishing himself at Green- 
ville, near the point where General Wayne had held the famous 
treaty with the tribes in 1795 ; and so famous did he become, that 
"immense throngs ofmen, women, and children from the tribes on 
the Upper Mississippi, and Lake Superior" visited him, and "the 
most extravagant tales were told and believed by the Indians of 
hia power to perfom miracles." Indeed, " no fatigue or suffering 
■was considered too great to be endured for a sight of him." Like 
the famous Delaware Prophet, at the period of Pontiac's move- 
ments, he proclaimed that " the Great Spirit who had made the red 
men, was not the same that made the white men ; " and urged that 
the misfortones of the Indians were owing to their having aban- 
doned their old modes of living, and adopted many o,f the customs 
and usages of the pale faces, in the use of their guns, blankets, 
whisky, etc. — all of which must be thrown away, and the red men 
again return to their primitive cnstomsj clothing themselves in 
skins, etc. His followers were now numerous, and the frontier settle- 
ments gradually became alarmed at his movements and those of 
his brother, Tecumseh.* 

In 1805, the Shawanoes had wandered from their old hunting 
grounds and places ot abode, and an effort was then made to bring 
the tribe together again. Tecumseh and his party had settled upon 
White river, and othere of the tribe had begun to settle upon an- 
other tributary stream of the Wabash. Tecumseh and some others 
of the Shawanoes, from different points, having some time in 
1805, started for the Auglaize towns, met at Greenville, the site of 
the old Wayne treaty ground, and there finding his brother, EUskwa- 
tawa, the Prophet, Tecumseh and the other party, through the per- 
" " FamoUB Indians," pog!« 355, 956, and 257, 



Buasione of the Prophet, conchided to proceed no farther, and afc 
once "began to establish themselves at the old treaty ground of 

Here, says Drake, the Prophet Commenced the piactice of those 
sorceries and incantations hy which he gained such notoriety. In 
the antumn, he assembled a large number of Shawanoee, Delawares. 
Wyandotts, Pottawattamies, Ottawas, Kickapoos, Chippewas and 
Senecaa, upon the Auglaize river, where he made known to them 
the sacred character he had taken upon himself. He harangued 
them at considerable length, denouncing, it is said, the behef and 
practice of witchcraft common among them, and declaiming against 
drnnkenness with great eloquence and success. He advocated 
many practices which were really virtuous, and, ended by affirming 
with great solemity that power was given him by the Great Spirit, 
to cure alt diseases, to confound his enemies, and to stay the arm of 
death, in sickness, or on the battle-field.* 

These assertions of the Prophet had great weight with the people 
— and so much confidence was placed in him, that ho did not hesi- 
tate to put to death those who in the least disputed his peculiar 
claims. Hia plan, when he desired the death of any one, was 
to denounce him as guilty of witchcraft, ^nd then to call in the help 
of others in putting him ont of the way. Several prominent men 
of the tribe, who were unfortnnate enough to possess more common 
a6nee then the others, were put to torture. Among these was a, well 
known Delaware chief, named Teteboxti, who calmly assisted in 
making his own funeral pile. Others of his family were doomed to 
death, ami the sacrifices at last grew so numerous that Governor 
Harrison sent a special messenger to the Delawaree with the fol- 
lowing speech : 

" My Childeen : — My heart is filled with grief, and my eyes zre 
dissolved in tears, at the news which has reached me. You have 
been celebrated for yonr wisdom above all the tribes of red people 
who inhabit this great island. Your fame as warriors has extended 
to the remotest nations, and.the wisdom of your chiefs has gained 
foryou the appellation oi gfandfaih&rs, from all the neighboring 
tribes. From what cause, then, does it proceed, that you have de- 
parted from the wise counsel of your fathers, and covered your- 
selves with guilt ? My children, tread back the steps you have 
taken, arid endeavor to regain the straight road which you have 
abandoned. The dark, crooked and thorny one which you are now 
pursuing, will certainly lead to endless woe and misery. But who 
is this pretended prophet, who dares to speak in the name of the 
Great Creator? Examine him. Is he more wise or virtuous than 
you are yourselves, that he should be selected to convey to yoK the 
orders of your God? Demand of him some proofs at least, of his 
being the messenger of the Deity. If God has really employed 
him, he has doubtless authorized him to perform miracles, that he 

* Drake. 

-c by Google 

Addkess of Gov. Hakbison. 171 

may be known and received as a prophet. If he is reaily a prophet, 
ask of him to cause the sun to stand still — the moon to alter its 
course — the rivers to cease to flow — or the dead to rise from their 
graves. If he does these things, you may then believe that he has 
heen sent from God, He toils you the Great Spirit commands you 
to punish vrith death those who deal in magic ; and that he is au- 
thorized to point such out. Wretched delusion I Is then the Mas- 
ter of Life obliged to employ mortal man to punish those who of- 
fend him ? Has he not the thunder and all the powers of nature at 
hie command ?— -and could he not sweep away Jrom the earth a 
whole nation with one motion of his arm? My children, do not be- 
lieve that the great and goo'd Creator of mankind has directed you 
to destroy your own flesh; and do not doubt but that,rif you pm-sue 
this abominable wickedness, his vengeance will overtake and crush 

" The above is addressed to you in the name of the Seventeen 
Fires.* I now speak to you from myself, as a fripnd who wishes 
nothing more sincerely than to see you prosperous and happy. 
Clear your eyes, X beseech yon, from the mist which surrounds 
them. No longer be imposed upon by the arts of an impostor. 
Drive him from your town, and let peace and harmony once more 
prevail among you. Let youc poor old men and women sleep in 
quietness, and banish from their minds the dreadful idea of being 
burnt alive by their own friends and countrymen. I charge you to 
stop your bloody career ; and, if you value the friendship ot your 
great father, the President — if you wish to preserve the good opin- 
ion of the Seventeen Fires, lot me hear by the return of the bearer, 
that you have determined to follow my advice," 

The effect of this speech was very great, both with the Deiawares 
and the Shawanoes, for the governor was a man much beloved by 
the Indians of the northwest. For a time the influence of the prophet 
was greatly checked, though the Kickapoos, with some smaller 
tribes, who were still inclined to acknowledge and encourage the 
claims of the prophet, put the greatest trust in him. And it was 
about this period, that a Wyandott chief, from Lower Sandusky, a 
Christian preacher,licensed by the Methodist denomination, visited 
the Prophet, with a view of gaining some clue as to his noted power. 
After a year's sojourn with him, ihe ."Wyandott chief, returned to 
his people, fully persuaded that the Prophet was an impostor. 

Hearing, sometime before its occurrence, that an eclipse of the 
sun was to take place at a certain time, during the year 1806, the 
Prophet announced to his people that, on a certain day, the sun 
would hide his face, and the earth be veiled in darkness for a time. 
Coming to pass, as he had told them, the occurrenc<S of this phe- 
nomenon had the effect to greatly strengthen his influence again 
over the tribes. Nothing of special h'ote, ' however, oceuiTed until 
the spring of 1807, when it was made known that Tecumseh and 

* The seventeou States than composing the Union. 


173 HjeTOJtir ow Foiit "Wayne. 

his brother, tbe Prophet, had assembled eeveral huudred of then- 
people at Greenville, where, through their harangi-ics, thoy had 
succeeded in working them up to the highest state of excitement, 
with a view to make their control the stronger, and t-o prepare the 
way for a confederacy of the Indian tribes of the northwest. At 
these demonstrations, the people of the weet became alarmed, and 
soon began to make strenuous efforts to ascertain the meaning of 
such movement* on the part of Tecumseh and the Prophet, biit 
without success for a time. 

Some time snljsequeiit to the capture of this point by Wayne and 
the treaty of Greenville, Oapt. "Wells, with whom the reader is al- 
ready acquainted, as having bid his old friend, Little Turtle, good 
bye, and left his old home hero to join Wayne's army, then on its 
march thitherward, received the appointment by the government 
as Indian agent here, in which capacity'he acted for several years 

Having received a letter £rom the President, through the Secre- 
tary of Y/'ar, addressed to the Indians, and reminding them that 
they were assembled within the government purchase, and desiring 
them to remove to some other point, where the government would 
render them all the aid they needed in settling anew upon territory 
not held by the government, Captain Wells sent one Antliony 
Shane, a haif-breed Shawafioe, with a message to Tecumseh, invit- 
ing the latter, with his brother and tv^o other chiefs, to visit him at 
Fort Wayne. 

Shane had long been intimately acquainted with the Shawanoes, 
and they of course knew him well, bat seem not to have regarded 
Shane very highly. Having made known the substance of the 
communication, Shane was met by Tecumseh with this reply : " Go 
back," said he, " to Fort Wayne, and tell Captain Wells that my 
fire is kindled on the spot appointed hj the Great Spirit alone; and 
if he has anything to communicate to me, 7ie must come here ; and 
I shall expect him six days from this time." 

But Wells did not comply with Tecumaeh's requestr- He sent 
Shane again, instead, at the appointed time, with the letter of the 
President, through the Secretary of War, which was readily com- 
monicated to Tecumseh, who was by no means pleased that Wells 
himselfhad not complied with his desire in waiting upon him in 
person. Having delivered an eloquent and glowing speech to the 
council, he told Shane to return to Captain Wells and tell him he 
would hold no further communication with him ; and farther, that if 
the President of the Seventeen li'irea had anything else to say to 
him, he must send it by a man of more importance than Shane. 
And thus, instead of dispersing, the Indians continued to assemble 
at Greenville. Fully fifteen hundred had passed and repassed Fort 
Wayne, in their visits to tRe Prophet, before the summer of this 
year (1807) had fairly set in. Messengers and runners passed from 
tribe to tribe, and were greatly aided by British agents in carrying 


CoSIMISSIOTraEB SENT TO Gkeehtille. 173 

out til eir plans, wliich were always carefully concealed from such 
as were known to be i'rieadiy to the United States. 

At the close of summer, reliable witnesses bore te'stimony that 
about a thousand Indians, iu possession of new rifles, were at Fort 
Wayne and Greenville, all under the control of the Piophet. 

The alarm had noiv become so general, that the governor of 
Ohio, in the month of September, sent a deputation to, Greenville to 
ascertain the meaning of the movement. Arriving at Greenville, 
the commissioners were well received by the Indians — a council 
■was called, and the governor's message read to the assemblage ; 
at the close of which, one of the commissioners' addressed them in 
explanation of their relatiotiBhip to the United States government, 
urging them to desist from all aggressions and lemain neutral, 
should a war with England ensue. Having heard the commis- 
sioner attentively, according to Indian usage, they asked to be per- 
mitted to meditate opon the matter until the next day. In the 
rafeantime the famous chief, Elne Jacket, had been appointed to 
deliver to the commissioners tlie sentiments of the council ; and at 
its re-assembling. Blue Jacket, through the interpreter, said: 

" Beethren : — We are seated who heard you yeste/day. Ton 
will get a true relation, eo far as our connections can give it, who 
are as follows : Shawnees, Wyandots, Pottawatamies, Tawas, Ohip- 
pewas; Winnepans, Malominese, Malockeso, Lecawgoes, and one 
more from the north of the Ohippewas. Brethren, you see all these 
men sitting before yon, who now speak to you. 

" About eleven days ago we had a council, at which the tribe of 
Wyandots, (the elder brother of the red people) spoke and said 
God had kindled a fire, and all eat around it. In this council we 
talked over the treaties with the French and the Americans. The 
Wyandot said, the French formerly marked a line along the Alte- 
gliany mountains, southerly, to Charleston, (S. 0.) No man "was to 
pass it from either side. when. the Americans came to settle over 
the line, the English told the Indians to unite and drive off the 
French, until the war came on between the British and the Ameri- 
cans, when it was told them that king George, hy his ofEcore, di- 
rected them to unite and drive the Americans back. 

" After the treaty of peace between the English and the Ameri- 
cans, the summer iDefore Wayne's army came out, the English held 
a council with the Indians, and told them if they would turn out 
and unite as one man, they might surround the Americans like 
deor in a ring of lire, and destroy them all. The Wyandot spoke 
■ further in the council. We see, said he, there is like to be war be- 
tween the English and our white brethren, the Americans. Let us 
unite and consider the sufferings we have undergone, from intei-- 
fereing in the wars of the English. They have often promised to 
help U9, and at last, when we could not withstand the army that 
came against us, and went to the English fort for refuge, tho Eng- 
lish told us, ' I can not let you in ; you are painted too much, my 

I bcvGooglc 

174 History of I'oet Wayne. 

children.' It was then we saw tho British deal treacherously with 
VIS. Wenowsee^themgoingto war again. We do not know what 
they are going to light for. Let ub, my brethren, not interfere, was 
the speech of the Wyandot. 

" Further, the Wyandot said, I speak to you, my little brother, 
the Shawanoes at Greenville, and to you oui- little brothers all 
around. You appear to be at Greenville to serve the Supreme Ru- 
ler of the universe. Now send forth your speeches to all our breth- 
ren fat around us, aiid let us unite to seek for that which shall be 
for our eternal welfare, and unite ourselves in a band of perpetual 
brotherhood. These, brethren, are the sentiments of all the men 
who sit around yon; they. all adhere to what the elder brother, the 
Wyandot, has said, and these are their sentiments. It is not that 
they are afraid of their white brothers, but that they desire peace 
and harmony, and not that their white bretliren could put them to 
great necessity, for their former arms were bows and arrows, by 
which they get their living." 

At the conclusion of this speech, the Commissioners made some 
explanation, whereupon the Frophet, who seemed determined to 
make every occasion advance his own importauce, took upon him- 
self the dnty of informing the whites why his people had settled, 
upon Greenville. 

" ATiout nine years since," said he, " I became convinced of the 
errors of my ways, and that I would be destroyed from the face of 
the earth if I did not amend them. Soon after I was told what I 
must do to be right. From that time I have continually preached 
to my red brethren, telling them the miserable situation they are 
in by nature, and striving to convince them that they must change 
their lives, live honestly and be just in all their dealings, kind to 
one other and also to their white brethren ; affectionate in their fami- 
lies, put away lying and slandering, and serve the Great Spirit in 
the way I have pointed out ; they must never think of war again ; 
the tomahawk was not given them to go at war with one another. 
The Shawnees at Tawa town could not listen to me, but persecuted 
me. This made a division in tlie nation; those who adhered to me 
removed to this place, where I have constantly preached to them. 
They did not select this place because it looked fine or was valu- 
able, for it was neither ; but because it was revealed to me that this 
is the proper place where 1 must establish my doctrines. I mean 
to adhere to them while I live, for they are not mine but those of 
the Great Euler of the world, and my future life shall prove to the 
whites the sincerity of my professions. In conclusion, my breth- 
ren, our six chiefs shall go with you to Chilicothe." 

Tecumseh, Eoundhead, Blue Jacket and Panther, returned with 
the Commissioners to Chilicothe, where a council was called, and 
in which they gave the governor positive assurances that they en- 
tertained none but peaceful intentions toward the whites. A speech 
which Tecumseh delivered at the time occupied between three and 


Alaem among the Settlements — Council at Speisgfield. I7i 

four hoars in its delivery. It was eloquent and masterly, and 
showed that he possessed a thorough kuowlodgo of alL the treaties 
■which had been made for years. While he expressed his pacific 
intentions if fairly treated, he told the governor to his face that 
every aggression or settlement upon thek lands would be resisted, 
and that no pretended ti'eaties would insure the squatter's safety. 
Stephen Euddell (who, with Anthony Shane, has given to the world 
nearly all that has been learned of Tecumseh) acted as interpreter 
apon the occasion. Other of the chiefs spoke, but Tecumseh, it 
was evident, was the leader, and every word that he uttered was 
received with attention and its full importance attached to it. 

The council terminated pleasantly, and the governor, convinced 
that no instant danger was threatened from the gatherings of the 
Indians at Greenville and Fort Wayne, disbanded the militia which 
he had called into service. The chiefs returned to their people, 
and for a short time the settlers were free from alarm and appre- 

Not long after this event the settlements were again thrown into 
still greater excitement by the murder of a man, by the name of 
Myers, who was killed by the Indians, near where ia now the town 
of Urbana, Ohio; and many of the settlere returned to Kentucky, 
where they had previouslj' lived, where the alarm arose to such a 
height as to make it necessary to call into action a large body of 
militia. Being demanded to deliver up the niurderei-s, Tecumseh 
and his brother, the Prophet, disclaimed any knowledge of them — 
said they were not of their people. A council being finally held at 
Springfield, Tecumseh, Blackfiah, and other chiefs, with two sepa- 
rate and distinct parties of Indians, one from the North, the other 
from Fort Wayne, under Tecumseh, were in attendance. Being 
embittered against each other, each were quite anxious that the 
other should receive the blame for the murder. Says Drake, the 
party from the North, at the request of the Commissioners, left their 
arms a'few miles behind them, but Tecumseh would not consent to 
attend unless his followers were allowed to keep theirs about them, 
adding that his tomahawk was his pipe, and he might wiph to use 
it. At this a tall, lank-sided Pensylvanian, who was standing among 
the spectators, and M'ho, perhaps, had no love for the glittering 
tomahawk of the self-willed chief, cautiously stepped up, and 
handed him a greasy, long-stemmed clay pipe, respectfully intima- 
ting.thatif he would only deliver up his dreadful tomahawk, he 
might use that article. The chief took it between his thumb and 
finger, held it up, looked at it a few seconds, then at the owner, 
who ail the time was gradually backing away from him, and in- 
stantly threw it, with a contemptuous sneer, over his head into the 
bashes. The commissioners being compelled to wave, the point, 
the council proceeded ; and the result was, that the murder was an 
individual affair, sanctioned by neither party — which brought the 


176 HisTOEY OF FoET Watne 

coancil to a close, with a reconciliation of both, parties, and to tho 
acceptance of the settlers. 

But the air ivaa still rife with trouble. The protestations of Te- 
cumseh and the Prophet could not allay the nneaeiness of the set- 
tleoiente ; and before the end of the fall months of this year, (1807) 
Governor Harrison sent the following speech, by an Indian agent, 
to the Shawanoes: 

" Mt Children :— Listen to roe ; I speak in the name of your 
father, the great chief of the Seventeen Fires. 

"My children, it is now twelve years since the tomahawk, wliieh 
yon had seized by the advice of your father, the king of Great 
Britain, was buried at Greenville, in the presence of that great war- 
rior, General Wayne. 

" My children, you then promised, and the Great Spirit heard it, 
that you would in future live in peace and friendship with yonr 
brothers, the Americans, Ton made a treaty with your father, and 
one that contained a number of good things, equally beneficial to 
all the tribes of the red people, who were parties to it, 

" My children, you promised in that treaty to acknowledge no 
other father than the chief of the Seventeen Mres ; and never to 
listen to the proposition of any foreign nation. You promisea never 
to lift up the tomahawk against any of your father's children, and 
to give him notice of any other tribe that intended it ; your father 
also promised to do something for you, particulary to deliver to 
you every year a certain quantity of goods; to prevent any white 
man from settling on your lands without your consent, or'to do you 
any personal injiiry. He promised to run a line between your land 
and hie, so that you might know your own ; and you were to be per- 
mitted to live and hunt upon your father's land, as long as you be- 
haved yourselves well. My children, which of these articles haa 
your father broken? Youknow that he hasobserved them all with 
the utmost good faith. But, my children, have you done bo ? Have 
you not always had your ears open to receive bad advice from the 
white people beyond the lakes ? 

" My children, let ua look back to times that are past, Ithas been 
a long time since you called the king of Great Britain father. You 
know that it is the duty of a father to watch over his children, to 
give thi3m good advice, and to do every thing in hie power to make 
them happy. What has this father of yours done for you, during 
the long time that you have looked up to him for protection and 
advice ? Are you wiser and happier than you were before you 
knew him, or is your nation stronger or more respectable? No, my 
children, he took you by the hand when yon were a powerful tribe; 
you held him fast, supposing he was year friend, and he conducted 
you through paths filled with thorns and briers, which' tore your 
ilesh and shed yonr blood. Your strength was exhausted, arid you 
could no longer follow him. Did he stay by you in your distress, 
and assist and comfort you? No, he led you into danger and then 


Techmskh ahd the Peophet at Tipfeoanob. 177 

abandoned you. Ho aaw your blood flowing and he would give 
you no bandage to tie np your wounds. This wae tbe coadiict of 
the man who called himaelf your father. The Great Spirit opened 
yoar eyes ; you heard tho voice of the chief of the Seventeen Fiies 
speaking the words of peace. ■ He called you to follow him; yon 
came to him, and he once more put you on the right way, on the 
broad, smooth road that would have led to happiness. But the 
voice of your deceiver is again heard; and, forgetml of your former 
Buiferings, yoU are again listening to him. My children, shut your 
ears and mind him not, or he will lead you to ruin and misery. 

" My children, I have heard bad news. The sacred spot whore 
the great council-fire was kindled, around which the Seventeen 
Fires and ten tribes of their children smoked the pipe of peaee-^— 
that very spot where the Great Spirit saw his red and white child- 
ren encircle themselves with the chain of fi:iendship — that place 
has been selected for dark and bloody councils. My childien, thia 
business must be stopped. You have called in a number of men 
from the most distant tribes, to listen to a fool, who spake not tho 
words of the Great Spirit, hut those of the devil, and of the British 
agents. My children, yom- conduct has much alarmed the white 
settlers near you. They desire that you -will send away those peo- 
ple, and if they wish to have the impostor with them, they can 
caiTy him. Let him go to the lakes ; ho can hear the British more 

The Prophet's reply was, that evil birds had sung in the Govern- 
or's ears ; and he denied any correspondence with the British, pro- 
testing that he had no intentions whatever of disturbing the adjoin- 
ing settlements. It soon'became evident, however, that the assem- 
blages of the Prophet could not be dispersed without a resoi-fc to 
arms on the part of the government; and Gov, Harrison, strongly 
disposed to think that no barm was intended by the Indians towards 
the settlements, let the matter rest, and the assemblages continued, 
large bodies of Indiana coming down from the- lakes in the early 
part of the following year (1808), where, as their supply of provis- 
ions became reduced or exhausted, they received fresh supplies 
from Fort Wayne, 

But a change of base was contemplated, and the Pottawattamiea 
having granted them a portion of land, Tecumseh and the Prophet, 
in the spring of this year, removed with the tribe to Tippecanoe, 
where large bodies were soon collected, and, among other exer- 
cises, war-like sports became frequent among tliem. Again the 
settlements were in a high state of uneasiness, and many were 
ready to declare that they knew from the first that the Indians were 
but preparing for the consummation of some treacherous scheme. 
Many of the Indians among them were from the north. The Miam- 
ies and Delawares, being friendly to tbe whites, were greatly op- 
posed to their coming, and even sent a delpgtition to the Prophet 

. .vGoogle 

178 HisTOKY OF FoET Wayne. 

to atop them. Bnt Tecumaeh and his brother, the Prophet, ia le - 
ceiving them, eaid they were not to be thwarted in tlieirpiirposee to 
ameliorate the condition of their brethren ; and the Miami and 
Delaware delegation returned fully ot the belief that the aettlementa 
\Vere not without the sti'ongeet grounds for the apprehensions they 
had so long manifested. 

Aug'uat had come. The Prophet, accompanied by several of his 
followers, had visited Governor HeiitIsod, at Vinceunes, protesting, 
as formerly, that his purposes were peaceable. Said he, to Gov. 
Harrieon : 

" Fathbe :— It is three years since I first began with that system 
of religion which I now practice. The white people and some of 
the Indians were against me ; but I, had no other intention but to 
introdu<;e among thejindiaoa, those good principles of reUgion 
which the white people profess. I was spoken badly of by the 
white people, who reproached me with misleading the Indians ; but 
I defy them to say I did anything amiss. 

" Father, I was told that yoti intended to hang me. When I 
heard this, I intended to remember it, aud tell my father, when 1 
went to see him, and relate the truth. 

" I heard, when I settled- on the Wabash, that my father, the Gov- 
ernor, had declared that all the land betv^'een Vincennfis ami Fort 
"Wayne, was the properly of tlie Seventeen Fires. I also heard 
that you wanted to know, my father, whether Iwas God or man; 
and that you^said if I was the former, I should not steal horses. I 
heard this from Mr. Wells, but I believed it originated with himself. 

'' The Great Spirit told me to teU the Indians tliat he had made 
them, and made the world— that he had placed them on it to do 
good and not eviL 

" 1 told ail the red-skins, that the way they were in was not good, 
and that they onght to abandon it. 

" That we ought to consider ourselves as one man ; but we ought 
to live agreeably to our several cnstoras, the red people after their 
mode,and the white people after theirs ; pai'ticulariy, that they should 
not drink whiskey ; that it was not made for them, but the white 
people, who alone knew how to use it; and (hat it is the cause of 
all tlie mischiefs which the Indiana suffer ; and tha.t they Djust al- 
ways follow the directions of the Great Spirit, and we must liaten 
to him, as it was He that made us ; determine to listen to nothing 
that is bad ^ do not take up the tomahawk, should it be offered by 
■the British, or by the Long-Knives ; do not meddle with any thing 
that does not belong to you, but mind your own business, and culti- 
vate the ground, that your women and your children may have 
enough to live on. 

" I now inform you that it is our intention to live in peace with 
Dm father aud his people forever, 

" My father, I have informed you what we mean to do, and I call 
the Great Spirit to witness the truth of my declaration. The religion 


Gov, Habeibon Tbsts the Peophet. 179 

wliich I have eetablished for the last three years, has lieen attended 
to by the different tribes of Indians in this part of the world. These 
Indians were once different people ; they are now but one; they 
are all determined to practice what I have commnnicated to them, 
that has come immediately from the Great Spirit throngh me. 

" Brother, I speak to you as a warrior. You are one. But let ub 
lay aside this Character, and attend to the care of our children, that 
they may live in comfort and peace. We desire that yon will join 
US for the preservation of both red and white people. Formerly, 
when we lived in ignorance, we were foolish ; bat now, since we 
listen to the voice of the Great Spirit, we are happy. 

"I hare listened to what you have said to us. You have prom- 
ised to assist ns. I now request you, in behalf of all the red peo- 
ple, to use yonr exertions to prevent the sale of liquor to us. We 
are all well pleased to hear yon say that you will endeavor to pro- 
mote our happiness. We ^ve you every assurance that we will 
follow the dictates of the Great Spirit, 

" We are all well pleased with the attention you have showed 
us ; also with the good intentions of our father, the President. If 
you give us a few articles, such as needles, fiints, hoes, powder, etc., 
we will take the animals that afford us meat, with powder and ball." 
Savs Drake, to test the influence of the Prophet over his follow- 
ers, Gov. Harrison held conversations with and offered them spir- 
its, but they always refused, and he became almost convinced tliat 
ho was really sincere in his professions, and had no higher ambi- 
tion than to ameliorate the condition of his race. 

Thus matters rested or rather continued ; and during the follow- 
ing year Tecnmseh and the Prophet sought qnietiy to add 
strength to their movement. Both were engaged in a deep game ; 
and while the Prophet seemed the leading spirit, Tecumseh was 
yet the prime mover ; and the Prophet attempted but little without 
iirst getting the advice of the former, if in reach, though it is evi- 
dent he was most headstrong in much that he undertook. 

In the spring of 1809, reports having reached the ear of Gov. 
Harrison that many of the Indians were leaving the Prophet be- 
cause of his persistency iu requiring them to become party to a 
scheme he had in view for the massacre of the inhabitants of Vin- 
cennes, he began the organization of two companies of volunteer 
militia, with a view to garrisoning a post some two miles from Vin- 
cenues. But the Prophet's followers having dispersed before tlie 
eloae of the summer, the alarm among the settlements became 
placid again, and so continued until th« early part of ISIO. 

Up to 1809 Governor Hai-rison continued his efforts in the estiu- 
guisliment of Indian claims toJands within the Indiana Territory; 
and on the 30th of September of that year concluded another treaty 
at Fort Wayne, in whioii the chiefs and head men of the Delaware, 
Pottawattamie, Miami, and Eel River tribes participated. Accord- 
ing to the rojiQi-t of this treaty, the Indians sold and ceded to the 


ISO Hbtoey op JFoET Watjse. 

United States about two million nine hundred thotisand acres of 
land, principally situated on the southeastern side of the river Wa- 
bash, and below the mouth of Raccoon Creek, a little stream -which 
empties into the Wabaeh, near what is now the boundaries of Parke 
county, in this State. The chiefs and head men of the Wea tribe, 
in the following month, (26th of October) having met Gov. Harrison 
at Vincennes, acknowledged the legality of this treaty; and by a 
treaty held at Vincennes on the 9th of December following, the 
sachems and war-chiefs of the Kickapoo tribe also confirmed the 
treaty of Fort Wayne. Up to this time, the whole amount of land 
ceded to the United States by treaty stioulatione between Governor 
Harrison and the different tribes of the Indiana Territory, accord- 
ing to the records, was 2!),719,530 acres- 
Having received, through what he believed a rehable source, 
certain facts regarding the conduct of Tecumseh and the Prophet 
in an effort to incite the Indians against the settlements of the west; 
and that those who had previously left the ranks of the Prophet 
had again returned to his support ; and further, that the British had 
their agents quietly at work among the tribes tiins banded ; that the 
Indians were boasting to American traders that tliey were getting 
their ammunition — powder and balls — without cost ; Gov. Harrison, 
through instmctions from the Secretary of War, in July, 1810, ber 
gan at once to prepare for the better safety of the frontier eetcle- 

-c by Google 


*' At length Disoord, tlie Fury, came, 
Waving lipi- mm'derous Utreh of flame, 
And kindled that intestdue fire. 

Jufthei' movcmentfl of Teeumeeh and tiiB Prophet — The "Doomed Warrior" — Letter 
of Got. Hori'ison — IMath of Tarhe— Disooveiy of tha plot to massacre Fort Waysa, 
&c. — Efforts of Tecumaeli to obtain the aid of the tribes along the MiBsisBippi — In- 
fl.nenoe of BritJeh ageuta— Agents ore diapalfihed to Teeumseh and the Prophet — 
The Prophet oomplainfl tliat Hie Indiaca had beau cheated — Gor. Hamson writeB 
to the Secretary of War — Ha a!ao aeods an address to TecumBeh and the Prophet — 
Teeumseh's viait to Vincennea — Tlie oonferencf^Eloquenoe of TetniuBSh — Hii 
contempt for the proffer of the gorarnment— Pareonal appearanoa of Tecumseh — 
HbohJHCtJonBtothetreatyof Fort "Wayne — Sands wampum belts to the different 
tribes — Got. Harrieon'a address to the legislature — Statement of a Xiakapoo chief 
— Assurances of Hie Got. of Misfloiiri — Seizure of salt by tlie Prophet — Goramoi" 
Harrison demands further aid from theffovemment-^Vincennefl to be tha first placa 
of attack — Teooioaeli again visits GSot. Harrison — His departure for the South — 
Hiseiforts among the CreeU Indians — Hie return northward — Hie charges to the 
Prophet — alarm of the aettleiH — Arrival of aid — Gov. Hairiaon determins to bring 
matters to a crisie — Pesueful proteatations of tha Prophet — Gov. Hamaon groita 
more determined^ — Praparee for a march upon the Prophet's town — The army met 
by a deputation from the Prophet — A ccnfereuoe agreed upon — The army en- 
camps for the night — An attack expected — The night dark and cloudy — Indians 
ontiie alert — DiseoTered by the sentry — An attack— The Prophet tells the Indians 
tha bullets of the white men will not hurt them—Fieroa atraggle— Indians rouUd — 
The battle of Tippecanoe a success for the American arms — Anger of TecumE ' 
He visits FortWayae; and the Prophet retires to '^ " "'" ' — " "" 

^%^ S THE summer of 1810 advaiiced it became more and more 
^r evident to Gov. Hari-ison that the true ])Brposes of Tecumseh 
v^ty^and the Prophet were war apon the whites. Having accueed 
®^-a Wyandott chief, by the name of LeatherUps, known as the 
" Doomed Wanior," with witchcraft, it was thought that the 
Prophet and Tecnmeeh were instrumental in his subsequent mur- 
der ; though it was asserted by a Mr. Thatcher that a Wyandott 
chief, of the Porcupine clan, known as Tarhe or Crane, was the 
principal agent in the deed. But Gov. Harrison, in a letter ad- 
dressed to the editor of the " Hesperian," 1838, said of Tarhe : " I 
have often said I never knew a better man, and am confident he 


183 iJ'isxoKY uF EoKT Wayne. 

would not have been concerned in such a transactioa as is ascribed 
to him. In s^ipporfc of this opinion I offer the following leaaous : 
The execution of the ' Doomed AVyandott Chief is attributed, and 
no doubt correctly, to the Shawnee Prophet and hia brother Tecum- 
seh. To my knowledge, Tarhe was always the opponent of these 
men, and coiUd not have been their agent in the matter. 'Hhe ac- 
cusation of witchcraft was brought by these Shawnee brothers, and 
the accased were exclnsiveJy those who were friendly to the United 
States, and who had been parties to treaties by which the Indian 
titles to lauds had been extinguished. In both these respects, 
Tarhe had rendered himself obnoxious to the former. Tarhe was 
uot ouly the Grand Sachem of his tribe, but the acknowledged head 
of all the tribes who were engaged in the war vjith the United 
States, which was terminated by the treaty of Greenville ; and in 
that character the duplicate of the original treaty, engrossed on 
parchment, was committed to his custody, as had been the grand 
calumet which was the symbol of peace. Tarhe united with his 
hiend, Black- Hoof, the head chief of the Shawnees, in denying the 
rank of chief either to the Prophet or Tecamseh; and, of conrse,he 
would not have received it of them. If the ' Doomed Warrior ' had 
been snetenced by a council of his own nation, Tarhe would not 
have directed the execution, but, as was invariably the custom, it 
wonld have been committed to one of the war-chiefs. The party 
sent to put the old chief to death, no doubt, came immediately from 
Tippecanoe ; and if it was commanded by a Wyandot, the proba- 
bility is that it was Round- Head, who was a Captain of the band of 
Wyandots who resided with the Prophet, and was, to a great extent, 
under his influence." 

Kev. J. B. Finley, a missionary to the tribe of Tai'he, and for some 
years most intimately acquainted with Tarhe, said that Mr. Thatcher 
and his informant were whoUy mistaken in the conclusions regard- 
ing the accusation against Tai'he ; and added that a better and truer 
Indian than he never lived. 

Finding the " Doomed Warrior" at his home, some twelve miles 
north of Oolumbiis, he was made acquainted with the sentence 
passed upon him, and calmly preparea to meet the fate which lie 
ielt inevitable. A number of white men present, sought to inter- 
fere in his behalf, but without success; and when the fatal hour 
came, he is said to have " turned from his wigwam, and, with a 
voice of surpassing strength and melody, commenced the chant of 
his death-song. He was followed slowly by- the Wyandott warriors, 
all timing, with their slow and measured' march, the music of his 
wild and melancholy dirge. The whites were likewise all silent 
followers in that strange procession." 

Having been led to his own grave, he knelt calmly, resolutely 
down, and offered a prayer to the Great Spirit, at the conclusion of 
which, still in a kneeling posture, one of the Wyandotts gave him a 
heavy blow upon the head with a tomahawk, breaking his skull. 



After a few moments more, ceasing to etir, the unfortunate victim 
of tfie Shawanoe conspirators and revolutioners, with all liia ap- 
parel and decorations, waa consigned to the earth and hidden from 

A few weeks later, and Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with 
a plot that was matmingfor the surprise 'and massacre of Fort 
Wayne, Detroit, Chicago, Yincennes, and St. Louis. Tecumseh 
and the Prophet were moving as with the slow but sure action of a 
volcanoe ; and the internal heat of their efforts was continually made 
the more appai-ent by the rising cinders cast up in the endeavor 
here and there secretly to draw the different trines of the west and 
south within their circle, and by other means, equally wily and 
sereptitious, to bring their plans to bear for the overthrow of the 
whites of the norShweat. 

At the conclusion of the struggle for Independence, the opinion 
is said to have prevailed with many in England that the American 
colonies were not wholly lost to the mother country ; and the hope 
was entertained by such, that, at some favorable hour the English 
government would be able to regain its former hold upon the coun- 
tiy; in which anticipations, it was thotight the British Ministry 
most earnestly and hopefully united. From anticipations and de- 
sires of this nature, together with the discomfiture felt at the failure 
of their arms, may have arisen the many hostile acts of interferance 
on the part of English agents, commandants, and others in their 
employ along the interior frontiers of the northwest, and also the 
bestowal of fteqnent large supplies of ammunition upon the various 
tiibes within range of the Canadae, 

After the discovery of the plot to massacre the forts^ it was as- 
certained that sti'ong efforts were being made to persuade the tiibes 
along the Mississippi to unite with Tecumseh and th& Prophet in 
their efforts, but up to the period in question, had met with no great 
degree of success ; while the most influential chiefs among the Dela- 
wares, Miamies, and Bhawaiioes were much opposed to the reck- 
less schemes and efforts of Tecumseh and the Prophet. Besides 
these facta, about this period, Governor Harrison learned from a 
friendly Indian that a British agent hadrecently visited the Prophet, 
who had encouraged the latter to continue in his efforts^ to unite 
the tribes, and to await a signal from the British authorities before 
carrying out. their designs against the Americans, 

Finding now th^t the most constant watchfulness was necessary, 
and being determined to obtain all the information possible regard- 
ing their plans. Governor Harrison dispatched two agents to Te- 
cumseh and his brother with a view of ascertaining more folly and 
certainly, if possible, their real desigris and plans. Receiring the 
agents veiy courteously, in reply to the inquiries made, the Prophet 
told the agents that the assembling of the Indians upon that spot 
was by the explicit command of the Great Spirit. 

Having heard the Prophet, the agents told him that his move- 

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1 84 Hejtoky of Foe'i Wayme. 

menta had excited so mtich alarm that the troops of K'entucky and 
Indiana were being calleii out, and etrong preparations were being 
made in anticipation of tronble with the tribes. 

In answer to the questions of the agents as to the cause of his 
coinplaints against the United States, the Prophet replied that his 
people had been cheated of their lands. Insisting that his- com- 
plaints would readily be liairened to by laying them before Gov. 
Hamson, at Yineennes, the Prophet refused to go, saying that, 
while there, upon a former occasion, he was badly treated. 

Receiving this information, the Governor at once wrote to the 
Secretaiy, stating the cause, and telling him that all this caviling 
was merely a pretext on the part of Tecumseh and the Prophet to 
gather strength in the fui*theranc6 of their designs; thathe had been 
as liberal in the cronclusion of treaties as his understanding of the 
views and opinions of the government would permit, and that none 
of the tribes had just cause for complaint. 

Having heard, in the month of July, that the Sacs and Foxes had 
formed an^alliance with the Prophet, and were ready and willing 
to strike the Americans at any time, Governor Harrison set about 
the preparation of the following address, which he forwarded to the 
Prophet by a confidential interpreter: 

" William Henry Haiiison, Governor and Oommander-in-chief of 
the Territory of Indiana, to the Shawanoe chief and the Indians as- 
sembled at Tippecanoe: 

" Noth withstanding the improper language which you have used 
toward me, I will endeavor to open your eyes to yoiir true interests. 
Notwithstanding what bad white men have told you, I am not your 

fersonal enemy. You ought to know this from the manner in which 
received and treated yon on your visit to this place. 
"Although I must say, that you are an enemy to the Seventeen 
Fires, .and that you have used tlie greatest exertions with other tribes 
to lead them asti'ay. In this, you have been in some measure suc- 
ceasful ; as I am told they ace ready to raise the tomahawk against 
their father ; yet then- father, notwithstanding his anger at their folly, 
is full of goodness, and is always ready t-o receive into his arms 
those of his children who are willing to repent, acknowledge their 
fault, and aek for hia forgiveness. 

" 'ITiere is yet but little harm done, which may easily be repaired. 
The chain of friendship which united the whites with the Indians 
may be renewed, and be as strong as ever. A great deal of that 
work depends upon you — the destiny of those who are under yon, 
depends upon the choice you may make of the two roads which ai'e 
before you. The one is lai ge, open and pleasant, and leads to peace, 
security and liappiness; the other, on the contrary, is narrow and 
crooked, and leads to misery and ruin. Don't deceive yourselves ; 
do not believe that all the nations of Indians united are able to re- 
sist the force of the Seventeen Fires. I know yom- warriors are 
brave, but oars are not less so ; but what can a few brave warriore 

. .yGooglc 

TECDMSEu'd Yisrs: tu Vkcehnes. 185 

do against the inmimerable warriors of the Seventeen Fires? Oar 
blue-coats are more nnmerous thanyoa can count; oar hantei's are 
lilce the leaves of the forest, or the grains of sand on the "Wabash. 

" Do not think that the led-coate can protect you ; they are not 
able to protect themselves. They do not think of going to war with 
us. If they did, yoa -would, in a few months, see oar flag wave 
over all the forts of Canada, 

" What reason have you to complain of the Seventeen Fires? Have 
they taken any thing from you ? Have they ever violated the treat- 
ies made with the red-men? You say that they have purchased 
lands firom them who had no right to sell them : show that this is 
true, and the land will be instantly restored. Show us the rightful 
owners of those lands which have been purchased — let them pre- 
sent themselves. The ears of youv father mil be opened to your 
complaints, and if the lands have been purchased of those who did 
not own them, they will be restored to their rightful owners, I have 
fall power to arrange this business ; but if you would rather carry 
your complaints before your great father, the President, you shall 
be indulged, I wiU immediately take means to send you, with 
those chiefs which yoa may choose, to the city where your father 
lives. Every thing necessary shall he prepared for your journey, 
and means taken for year safe return." 

Afler hearing this speech, the Prophet told the interpreter that, 
as his brother intended to pay Governor Harrison a visit in a few 
weeks, he wonld let Mm carry the reply to the Governor's message. 
Keceiving this information, Governor Harrison sent a message to 
Tecamseb, I'equesting him to bring but a small body of his follow- 
ers, as it was inconvenient for him to receive many ; to which Te- 
cumseh paid little or no regard, and on the 12th of Augast, I81O, 
with four hundred wamors, all armed with tomahawks, war-clabs, 
and " painted in the jnost terrific manner," he began to descend the 
Wabash for Vincennes. Arriving near Vinconnes, and encamping 
on the Wabash, on the morning of the 15th, attended by about fit- 
teen or twenty of his warriors, Tecumseh approached the house of 
the Governor, who, in company with the judges of the Supreme 
Court, several army officers, a sergeant and a dozen men, besides 
a large number of citizens, waited upon the portico of his own house 
to receive the chief and his followers.* 

Dming the milder season of the year, to hold a council other 
than in a grove or woody place, with logs or a clear, grassy spot 
of gTOund to set upon, was to invite the Indian to do an act very 
much to his distaste ; and to the invitation to come forward and take 
seats ixpon the portico, he objected, signifying that it was not a fit 
place to hold a council, and expressed a desire that the meeting 
might be held beneath a grove of trees near, which was readily as- 
sented to, and soon the Governor, with his attendants was seated be- 
neath a grove of trees in the open lawn, before the house, 

• Ellis' lAla of TeciiiOBeh, 


186 History of Fokt Wayne. 

" With a firm and elastic step," says Judgx* La.w,* and " witli a 
proud and somewhsit defiant look, he advanced to the place where 
the Governor and those who had heen invited to attend the- confei'- 
auce were sitting'. This place had been fenced in, with a view of 
preventing the crowd from encroaching npon the council during it& 
ilelibe rations. As he stepped forward, ho seemed to scan the pre- 
parations which had been made for his reception, particularly the 
military part oi it, -with SLXt eye of suspicion — by no means, how- 
ever, with fear. Aa he came in front of the dias, an elevated por- 
tion of the place upon which the Governor and the officers of the 
Territory were seated, the G-overnor invited him, through the inter- 
preter, to come forward and take a seat with him and his counsellors, 
premisins; the invitation hy saying: That it was tlie wish of their- 
' Great Faibek,' the President of the United States, that he should 
do so." Pausing for a moment, at the utterance of these words by 
the interpreter, and extending iiis tall figure to its greatest height, 
he looked scanningly upon the troops and then upon the crowd 
about him. Thus, for a moment, with keen, piercing eyes fixed 
upon Governor Harrison, and then upward to the sky, and " his sin- 
ewy arm pointing towai-ds the heaven," with a tone and gesture ex- 
pressive of " supreme contempt for the paternity assign-ed him," in 
a clear, loud, fuU voice, which reverberated again upon tlie mo- 
mentaiy stillness that his stoHd demeanor had produced, with all 
eyes fixed upon him, he exclaimed : 

"My Falher? — The sua is my father — tJie ea.rth is my mother — 
and on her bosom I will recline." Having finished, says Judge 
Law, he stretched himself with his warriors on the green sward ; 
and the efi"eet is. said to have been electrical — for some moments 
there was a perfect silence throughout tlie assembly. 

Governor Harrison having now begun to refer to the subject of 
the council, said toTecumseh, through the interpreter, '■ that he had 
understood he had complaints to make, and redress to ask for cer- 
tain wrongs which he, Tecumseh, supposed had been done his tribe, 
as well as the others ; that he feSt disposed to listen to the one, and 
make satisfaction for the other, if it was proper he should do so. 
That in all his intercourse- and negotiations with the Indians, he had 
endeavored to act justly and honorably with them, and believed he 
had done so, and had heard of no complaint of hie conduct until he 
Jeamed that Tecumseh was endeavoring to create dissatisfaction 
towards the Government, not only among the Shawanoes, bat 
among the other tribes dwelling on the Wabash and Illinois; and 
had, in so doing, produced a great deal o-f mischief and trouble be- 
tween them and the whites, by averring that the tribes, whose land 
the Government had lately purchased, had no right ro sell, nor their 
chiefs any autlioriUf to convey. That he, the Governor, had invited 
him to attend the Council, with a view of learning from his own 
lips, whether tJiere was any truth in tlie repoi'ts which he had heard, 

•^Judjie Law's AiWwis.pagi^ea. 

-c by Google 

Teoumseh's Objeotions to tub Tkeaty ok Foet Wayne. IST 

and to learn from himself whether be, or his fiihe, had ^ny cause 
of complaint against the whites ; and if so, as a man and a wanior, 
openly and boldly to avow it. That, as between himself and as 
great a warrior as Tecumseh, there should be no concealment — all 
should be done by them under a clear sky, and in an open path, 
and with these feelings on his own part, he was glad to meet him 
in cOTiiicil." 

In appearance, Tecomseh was accounted " one of the most splen- 
did specimens of his tribe — celebrated for their physical propor- 
tions and fine forms, even among the nations surrounding the Shaw- 
anoes. Tall, athletic, and manly, dignified but graceful, he seemed 
the iecm ideal of an Indian chietiain. ■ In a voice, at first low, but 
with all its indistinctness,"* Tecumseh replied by " stating, at length, 
his objections to the treaty of Fort Wayne, made by Grov. Harrison 
in the previous year ; and in the coarse of of his speech," says Ben- 
jamin Drake, " boldly avowed the principle of his party to be, that 
of resistance to every cession of land, unless made by all the tribes, 
who, he contended, formed but one nation. He admitted that lie 
threatened to kill the chiefs who signed the treaty of Fort Wayne ; 
and that it was his fixed determination not to permit the village 
chiefs, in future, to manage their affairs, hut to place the power with 
which they had been heretofore invested, in the hands of the war- 
chiefs. The Americans, he said, had driven the Indians from the 
sea-coast, and would soon push them into the lakes ; and, while he 
disclaimed all intention of making war upon the United States, he 
declared it to be bis unalterable resolution to take a stand, and reso- 
lutely oppose the further intrusion of the whites upon the Indian 
lands. He concluded, by making a brief but impassioned recital 
of the various wrongs and aggressions inflicted upon the Indians 
by the white men, from the commencement of the Revolutionary 
war down to the period of that council ; all of which was calcula- 
ted to arouse and influence the minds of such of his followers as 
were present. 

" The Governor rose in reply, and in examining the right of Te- 
cumseh and his party to make objections to the treaty of Fort Wayne, 
took occasion to say, that the Indians were not one nation, having 
a common property .in the lands. The Miamis, he contended, were 
the real owners of the tract on the Wabash, ceded hy the late treaty, 
and the Shawnees had do right to interfere in the case ; that upon 
the arrival of tlie whites on this continent, they had found the Mi- 
amis in possession of this land, the Shawnees being then residents 
of Georgia, from wliich they had been driven by the Creeks, and 
that it was ridicnlous to assert that the red men constituted but one 
nation ; for, if such had been the intention of the Great Spirit, he 
would not have put different tongues in their heads, but have taught 
them all to speak the same language. 

" The Governor having taken his seat, the intei-preter commenced 
"Judge Law's Address, paga B5, 



explaining the speech to Tecumaeh, who, after listening to a por- 
tion of it, sprung to his feet, and began to speak wjth great vehem- 
ence of manner. 

" The Governor was surprised at his violent gestures, bnt as ho 
did not understand him, thotighfc he was making eome explanation, 
and suffered his attention to he drawn toward wiiinemac, a friendly 
Indian lying on the gi'ass before him, who was renewing tlie prim- 
ing of hie pistol, which he had kept concealed from the other In- 
dians, but in full view of the Governor. His attention, however, 
was again attracted toward Tecnmaeh, by hearing General Gibson, 
who was intimately acquainted witli the Shawnee language, say to 
Lieutenant Jennings, ' Those fellows intend mischief; you had bet- 
ter bring up the guard.' At that moment, the followers of Tecum- 
seh seized theii- tomahawks and war-clubs, and sprang upon their 
feet, their eyes turned upon the Governor. As soon as he couid 
dieeogage himself from the arm-chair in which he sat, he rose, drew 
a small sword which he hn,d by his side, and stood on the defensive. 
Captain G. R. Floyd, of the aj.-my,who stood near him, drew a dirk, 
and the chief Winnemac cocked hia pistoL The citizens present 
were more numerous than the Indiana, but were unarmed ; some of 
them procured clubs and brick-bats, and also stood on the defen- 
sive. The Bev. Mr. Winans, of tlie Methodist church, ran to the 
Governor's house, got a gun, and posted himself at the door to de- 
feud the family. During this singular scene, no one spoke, until 
the guard came running up, and appearing to be in the act of flr- 
ingjthe Governor ordered them not to do so. He then demanded 
of the interpreter ail explanation of what had happened, who re- 
plied that Tecumseh had interrupted him, declaring that all the 
GoveiTior had said was false ; and that he and the Seventeen Fires 
had cheated and imposed on the Indians. 

" The Governor then told Teeumseh that he was a bad man, and 
that he would hold no furt.her communication with him ; that as he 
had come to Yincennea under the protection of a council-fire, he 
might return in safety, but he must immediately leave the village. 
Here the council terminated. During the night, two companies of 
militia were brought in from the country, and that belonging to the 
town was also embodied. Next morning Teeumseh requsted the 
Governor to afford him an opportunity of explaining his conduct on 
the previous day— declaring that he did not intend to attack the 
Governor, and that he had acted under the advice of some of the 
white people, ■ The Governor consented to have another interview, 
it being understood that each party should have the same armed 
force as on the previous day. On this occasion the deportment of 
Tecumeeh was respectful and dignified. He again denied having 
any intention to make an attack upon the Governor, and declared 
that he had been stimulated to the course he had taken, by two 
white men, who assured him that one half the citizens were op- 
posed to the Governor, and willing to restore the land in question ; 



that the Governor would aobn he put out of office, and a good man 
Bent to fill hie place, who would give up the land to the Indians. 
When asked by the Governor whether he intended to resist the sur- 
vey of theae lands, Tecumseh replied that he and his followers were 
resolutely deternuned to insist upon the old boundary. When he 
had taken his seat, chiefs from the Wyaadots, Kiekapoos, Pottawat- 
amies, Ottawas and Wimiebagoes, spoke in succession, and dis- 
tinctly avowed that they had entered into the Shawnee confederacy, 
and were determined to support the principles laid down by their 
leader. The Governor, in conclusion, st-ated that he would make 
known to the President the claims of Tecumseb and his pai-ty, to the 
land in question ; but that he was satisfied the Government would 
never admit that the lands on the Wabaab were the property of any 
other tribes than those who occupied them when the white people 
fii-st arrived in America; and, as the title to these lands had been 
derived by purchase from those tribes, he might rest assured that 
the right of the United States would be sustained by the sword. 
Here the council adjourned, 

" On the following day, Governor Hariison visited Tecumseh in 
his camp, attended only by the interpreter, and was politely re- 
ceived. A'long conversation ensued, in which Tecumseh again de- 
clared that his intentions were really such as he had avowed them 
to he in the council; that the policy which the United States pur- 
sued, of purchasing land from the Indians, he viewed as mighty 
water, ready to overflow Ms people ; and that the confederacy which 
he was forming among the tribes to prevent any individual tribe 
from selling without the consent oi the others, was the dam be was 
erecting to resist this mighty water. He stated further, that he 
ehonld be reluctantly drawn into war with the United States ; and 
that if he, the Governor, would induce the President to give up the 
lands lately purchased, and agree never to make another treaty 
without the consent of all the' tribes, be would be their faithful ally, 
and assist them in the war, which he knew wag about to take place 
with England ; that he preferred being the ally of the Seventeen 
Fires, but if they did not comply with his request, he would be com- 
pelled to unite with the British. The Governor replied, that he 
would make known his views to the President, but that there was 
no probability of its being agreed to. ' Wei!,' said Tecumseh, ' as 
the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great Spirit 
will put sense enough into his head to induce him to give up this 
land ; it is tiiie, he is so far off, he wid not be injured by the war ; 
he may sit still in his town and drink his wine, while yoa and I will 
have to fight it out.' This prophecy, it will be seen, was literally 
fulfilled ; and the great chieftain who uttered it, attested that fulfill- 
ment with his blood. The governor, in conclusion, proposed to Te- 
cumseh, that in the event of hostilities between the Indians and the 
United States, he should use his influence to put an end to the cruel 
mode of wai"fai'e which the Indians were accustomed to wage upon 


190 History op Foet Wayne. 

women and cliildren, or upon prisoners. To this he oheerfoUy as- 
sented ; and it is due to the memory of Tccumseh to add^ that be 
faithfuliy kept his promise down to the period of hJs death." 

Not long sahsequent to the termination of this council, a Winne- 
bago chief, who had heen employed by Governor Harrison to watch 
the proceedings of Tectimseh, brought word to Gov. Harrison that 
the tormer was sending to each of the tribes a large wampum belt, 
■with a view of uniting them in one great confederation; and that, 
upon a retnrn of the belt, he saw a British agent fairly dance with 
ioy — adding, with tears in his eyes, that he and all the village cjiiefa 
had been deprived of their power, and that the control of every- 
thing was in the hands of the warriors, who were greatly opposed 
to the United States. 

Speaking of the Prophet, in his address to the legislature of this 
year, Gov. Harrison said : " His charitcter m a Prophet would noS, 
however, have given him any very dangerous influence, if he had 
not been assisted by the intrigues and advice of foreigTi agents, and 
other disaifected persons, who have for many years omitted no op- 
portunity of counteracting the measures of the government with 
regard to the Indians, and filling their naturally jealous minds with 
suspicions of the justice and integrity of our views against them." 

During the autumn of 1810, a Kickapoo chief visited Governor 
Harrison, and assured him that the peaceful assurances of the 
Prophet and Tecumseh were merely to cover up their real inten- 
tions against the United States ; and about the same period, the 
Governor of Missouri sent word that the Sac Indians had allied 
themselves to the Tecumseh confederacy; that Tecumseh himself 
was then doing all in bis power to induce the tribes west of the 
Mississippi to join him ; to which were added the reports of differ- 
ent Indian agents, who were generally of opinion that the period 
for a war with the Indians vfonld soon arrive. And thus passed the 
year I8IO. 

Early in iSll, as a part of the annuity to tho Indians, Governor 
Harrison sent a boat load of salt up the Wabash, a portion of which 
was to be given to tho Prophet for the Shawanoes and Kickapoos ; 
but, upon the arrival of the boat at the point where the Prophet had 
his lodges, he made bold to seize the entire cargo, alleging for so 
doing that he had two thousand men to feed, who had been with- 
out that commodity for two years. Upon the receipt of this pro- 
ceedure, Governor Harrison felt fully justified in demanding imme- 
diate aid from the government, and accordingly made appUcation 
to the Secretary of War to have Colonel Boyd's regiment, then at 
Pittsburg, sent immediately to him, for the better safety of Vin- 
cennes, requesting, at the same time, to receive authority to act on 
the offensivG as soon as it was known that the Indians were aiTayed 
in actual liostility against the United States. The Governor's ap- 
prehensions were well founded, and it soon became an acknwol- 
edged fact, thst A^incennea was to be the first point of attack. Tlie 


Segokd Council with Teotjmskh at VmcENNES. 191 

place was most accessible, and Tecnraaeh was fully aware of its 
Bituation. He could have made a descent upon it in a very short 
space of time, and then retreated into the unexplored country be- 
hind it, " where it would have been nest to impossible for any cav- 
alry to have penetrated " afc that period. And so earnest was Gov- 
ernor Harrison upon the subject, that he notified the Secretary of 
War, that, should troops not be immeihately sent to his relief, he 
would at -oitce take the matter in his own hands. 

Accompanied by three hundi-ed warriors,* on the 27th of July of 
this year, Tecuinseh again visited Vincennes ; and on the 30th of 
this month, in an arbor near, attended by about two hundred of his 
WM-riora, another council was held. Opening the occasion by pre- 
senting the fact of several murders having been committed by In- 
dians in IlhnoJs, Governor Harrison expressed a desire that Tectira- 
seh should pay a visit to the Presid«nt with a view of laying before 
him what complaints he had to offer, assuring him that he should 
receive the fullest justice at the chief magistrate's hands ; and con- 
cluded by demanding an explanati'on of the conduct of the Prophet 
in the seizure of the salt sent up the "Wabash sometime before, to 
be divided among the tj-ibes. Replying to the latter, Tecumseh 
remarked that he was not at home at the time of tlie seizure of the 
salt, and said nothing fuither than, tliat Governor Harrison seemed 
very hard to please, he having complained sometime before that 
theyrefusedto take the salt, and that now he was not pleased be- 
cause they had taken it. With but little further business of import- 
ahce, the council adjourned to meet again on the following day. 

Iteassembiing, says the acconnt,-f ■on the afternoon of the next 
day, the council was continued far into the fiight. There being a full 
moon and a clear sky, the members were distinctly revealed to 
each other. It must have been a picturesque scene—those one 
hundred and seventy warriorft seated in grim silence, Hstening, 
spell-booad, to the eloquence of the wonderful Tecumseh, occasion- 
ally signifying their approbation by theii- odd grunts ; or, taking in 
the words of the noble Harrison, as he strove by every means at 
his command to convince them that what he urged was for their 
own welfare and interest. 

Still manifesting his well known self-will and independence, Te- 
cumseh cooly admitted that be was still endeavoring to establish a 
union of the different tribes. And "why do you complain?" hs 
enquired ; " hav'nt yBu formed a confederacy of your different fires ? 
AVe have raised no voice against that, and what right have you to 
prevent us doing the same? So soon as the council ends, 1 shall 
go south and seekto bring the Creeks and Choctaws into our con- 
federacy ;" repeating that his designs were peaceful, and that the 
whites were causelessly alarmed ; while his reply regarding the Illi- 
nois murders is said to have been not only "justified by facts," but 

• Ellis' Lite of TeonmBfih., page 48. 

t ABprinoipally pifeentcd bj Bunjnmin Drnke, 


192 History oif Fort Wayne. 

waa "catting and pointed." Governor Harrison had previously 
stated, in a letter to the war department, " that it was impossible, in 
many instances, for the Indians to receive justice. Were one of 
their number murdered by a white man, no jury of settlers woaid 
convict him, and, many of the latter seemed to think the savage 
fit for nothing but insults and kicks," " As to the murderers, they 
are not in my town," was substantially Tecumseh's response ; " and 
if they were, I would not give them up. "We have set the whites 
an example of /or^m^jf injuries, which they should follow;" and 
added that he wished no settlera to come upon the new purchase, 
near Tippecanoe before his return from the south, as the Indians 
would require it as a hunting ground, and that if they found cattle 
or hogs there, they would be apt to treat them as lawful game.* 

In a brief but earnest response, Governor Harrison said "the 
moon above them should fall to the earth before the President 
would allow his people to be massacred with impunity; and that 
no land would be yielded which had been honorably and fairJy 
bought of the Indians." And here the council terminated, from 
whence, as he had stated, with great pomp, accompanied by some 
twenty of his warriors, Tecumseh was soon rowing his canoe south- 
ward down the Ohio to arouse the Creeks for the overthrow of the 

Of his efforts and the result of his mission among tlie Creeks, the 
foUowing graphic account! will be read with no little degree of in- 
terest. The Shawanoe chieftain and his followers had meet their 
friends, the Creeks of the south, and a council was at once proposed; 

"Tecumseh led, the waniors followed, one in (he footsteps of the 
other. The Creeks, in dense masses, stood on one side of the path, 
but the Shawanoes noticed no one ; they marched into the center of 
the square, and then turned to the left. At each angle of the 
square, Tecimiseh took from his pouch some tobacco and sumach, 
and dropped on the ground ; his warriors performed the same cere- 
mony, lliis they repeated three times as they marched around the 
square. Then they approached the flag-pole in the center, circled 
around ifcthi-ee times, and facing the north, threw tobacco and su- 
mach on a small fire, burning, as usual, near the base of the pole. 
On this they emptied their pouches. They then marched in the 
same order to the council, or Idng's house, (as it was termed in an- 
cient times,) and drew up before it. The Big Warrior and leading 
men were sitting there. The Shawnee chief sounded his war-whoop 
— a most diabolical yell — and each of his followers responded. Te- 
cumseh then presented to the Big Warrior a wampum-belt of five 
different colored strands, which the Greek chief handed to his war- 
riors, and it passed down the line. The Shawnee's pipe was then 
produced; it was large, long, and profusely decorated with shells, 
beads, and painted eagle and porcupine-quills. It was lighted froip 

» EUU' Life sf Taoiitmeli , pagea 49 and 50. 

tJ'pom"Claiborae's LiEe nndTimee of General SamDnk." 


TEciFMSEn Among iob Chesk Iniiians of the Soi'tu. lEiS 

the fire in the centei-j and slowly passed from the Eig Warrior along 
the lino. 

" All this time not a, word had been uttered, every thing was as still as 
death ; even tlie winds slept, and there was only the gentle-falling leaves, 
At length Tecamaeh spoke, at first slowly and in aonoroiis tones, but 
he grew impassioned and the words fell in avalanches from his lips, 
his eye burned with superaatural luster, and his whole frame trembled 
with emotion ; his voice resounded over the multitude — now sinking 
in low and musical whispers, now rising to its highest key, hurling 
out his words like a succession of thunderbolts. His countenance 
varied with his speech ; its prevalent expression was a sneer of hatred 
and defiance ; sometimes a murderous smiie ; for a brief interval a sen- 
timent of profound sorrow per\-aded it, at the close of a look of con- 
centrated vengeance, ench, T suppose, as distinguishes the arch-eneray 
of mankind. 

" I have heard many great orators, but I never saw one with the 
vocal powers of Tecumseh, or the same command of the face. Had 
I been deaf, the play of his Countenance would have told me what he 
said. It-s effect on that wild, superstitiouB, untutored, and war-like as- 
semblage, may be conceived ; not a word was said, but stern warriors, 
' the stoics of the woods,' shook with emotion, and a thousand toma- 
hawks were brandished in the air. Even Big Warrior, who had been 
true t6 the whites, and remained faithful during the war, was, for the 
momeiit, visibly affected, and more than once 1 saw hia huge hand 
clutch spasmodically the handle of his knife. And this was the effect 
of his delivery — for, though the motiier of Tecumseh was a CEeeb, and 
he was familiar with the language, he spoke in the northern dialect, 
and it was afterwai-d intei-preted by an Indian linguist to the assemblj'. 
His speech has been reported ; but no one has done, or can do it jus- 
tice, I think I can repeat the substance of what he said, and, indeed, 
his very words : 

" ' In defiance of the white men of Ohio and Kentucky, I have trav- 
eled through their settlements — once our favorite hunting-grounds. 
No war-whoop was sounded, but there is blood upon our knives. The 
pale-faces felt the blow, but knew not from whence it came. Ac- 
cursed be the race that has seized on our country, and made women 
of our warriors. Onr fathers, from their tombs, reproach us as slaves 
and cowards, I hear them now in the wailing winds. Ihe Muscogee 
were once a mighty people. The Georgians trenibled at our war- 
whoop ; and the maidens of my tribe, in the distant lakes, aung the 
prowess of your warriors, and sighed for their embraces, Kow, your 
very blood is white, your tomahawks have no edges, your bows and 
arrows were buried with your fathers. Mascogees, brethren of my 
mother ! brush from your eyelids the sleep of slavery ; once more 
strike for vengeance — once more for your country. The spirits of 
the mighty dead complaiji. The tears drop from the skiea. Let the 
white race perish ! They seize your land, they corrupt your women. 

-c by Google 

194 IIiBToay of Fokx \Tayss, 

they trample on your dead ! Back ! ivheDce they came, upon a trail 
of blood, they must be driven ! Back ! back — ay, into the great 
water whose accursed waves brought them to oivr shores I Bum theii- 
dwellings ! Destroy their stock ! Slay their wives and children ! The 
red-man owns the country, and the pale-face must never enjoy it ! 
War now ! War forever ! War upon the living ! War upon the 
dead 1 Dig their very corpses from the graves ! Our country must 
give no rest to a white man's bines. All the tribes of the North are 
dancing the war-dance. Two mighty warriors across the seas will 
Bend us arms. 

" ' Tecumseh will soon return to his country. My prophets shall 
tarry with you. They will stand between yon and yo«r enemies. 
When the white man approaches you the earth shall swallow him up. 
Soon shail you see my arm of fire stretched athwart the sky, I will 
stamp my foot at Tippecanoe,* and the very earth shall shake.' " 

" Incredible as it may seem," says Ellis, in his life of Teeamaeh," the 
threat of Tecumseh, embodied in the last sentence of the foregoing 
speech, was falfiUed to the very letter. It was uttered by the chief 
when he saw the great reluctance of the Big Wanior and the Creeks 
to join him ; and the confidence with v/liich he made the threat had its 
effect upon them." 

Moving northward again, Tecumseh and his followers, came by 
way of Missouri, rallied the tribes on the Des Moines, crossed the head- 
waters of the Illinois, and froni thence to the Wabash and to Tip- 
pecanoe ; and it was about this time that a heavy earthquake occurred. 

Before quitting the mouth of the Tippecanoe river, Tecumseh had 
charged his brothei;, the Prophet, to be most careful in the preserva- 
tion of peace with lie whites during his absence, and especially until 
hia arrangements were fully matured for the confederation of the tribes, 
north and south, as then advancing ; to which the prophet gave his 
assent, and Tecumseh left him with the full belief that he would be 
true to his word. 

But a short time elapsed, however, before the whites of the territory 
began to feel an increased alarm. Teeiimseh's movement southwarcl 
had spread among them, and many murders by the Indians in the re- 
gion of the Prophet's town, at the mouth of the Tippecanoe, and other 
points^ were now becoming more frequent, and it was evident that 
the Prophet was not wholly a stranger to these depredations, notwith- 
standing his promise to his brother, Tecumseh, to remain quiet and. 
peacable with the whites during his absence. 

In the meantime, the regiment under Ool. Eoyd, as desired by Gov. 
Harrison, had reached Vinceniies, and the Governor was likewise or- 
dered to add to this body a corps of militia, and to take immediate 
measures for the defence of the citizens, and, as a last resort, to re- 
move the Prophet and his followers themselves.^ And the Governor 


r writsra say tbat Datroit was 


tioned in plaoe of Tippeoan 

oe, undii 

imations of dlo Mtoni.lied Ii 

fi, wc hove put tliat word i: 

a thoir m 


lec with the a«tiio}ityqiwied, 





Ti!B Prophet's Dbtermtx'ation. 195 

ivaa soou joined by a nnmtier of additional volonteers from Kentucky, 
many of whom were men of high standing as military, civil, and liter- 
ary gentlemen. 

Governor Harrison noiv began to take active measures to bring 
matters to a crisis, and wrote to bis neighboring governors of Missouri 
and Illinois, asking their aid in an effort still to persuade the Indians 
to evade a recourse to anns ; and also charged the Indian agenta to do 
what they could in bringing the Indians to a sense of reason in the 
north ; at the same time sending special messages to the different tribes, 
demanding that all who had been concerned in the recent murders of 
settlers, be at once given up, and from the Miamies a full disavowal of 
all allifbuce or connection with the Prophet ; and concluded, says 
Drake, by saying that the United States, having manifested, through a 
series of years, the utmost justice and generosity toward their Indian 
neighbors, and having not only fnlhlled the engagements which they 
entered into with them, but had spent considerable sums to civilize 
them and promote their happiness — that if, under these circumstances, 
any tribe should dare to raise the tomahawk agamst their fathers, thoy 
need not expect the same lenity that had been shown them at the close 
of the former war; but that iAf?/ uovli eithet b eiierminaied, or driven 

In reply to this, the Prophet aisuied Gov Haniwn that all his 
demands should be regarded, itill inhistmg that his purposes were 
peaceable, though this response of the Prophet had hardly reached the 
hands of the governor, before he also received intelligence that a par- 
ty of whites had been lired upon when in pursuit of some horacs 
stolen by the Indians. 

Gov. Harrison was now the more determined in his course; and the 
Prophet had already seni;, upon learning of the Governor's course of 
action, word to the Delaware chiefs, inquh-ing as to what part they 
intended to play in the coming struggle — as to himself, it was his pur- 
pose not to lay down the hatchet until he was either killed or the 
grievances he complained of were repaired. In response to this, the 
Delaware chiefs at once set out for the Prophet's town, whither, upon 
their arrival, they used strong efforts to dissuade him from opening 
any hostilities with the United States, But they received only rebukes 
and insults for their efforia and advice ; and finding it useless to tarry 
longer in their council with the Prophet, the Delaware chiefs, whose 
tribes had long been most friendly to the United States, left the 
Prophet's town, and made their way to the camp of Gov. Harrison, 
and at once informod him of the treatment they had received at the 
hands of the Prophet. 

The Governor had already begun his preparations for a march upon 
the Prophet's town ; and toward the la.ttor part of the month of Octo- 
ber, with some eight hundred men, embracing the Fourth U. S. regi- 
ment, commanded by the gallant Miller, moved forward toward the 
mouth of the Tippecanoe river, to bring the Prophet and his followers 

-c by Google 

196 HisTOBY OF Fort Wayne. 

to terms or battle, Before quitting hie camp, however, on tlie 29th, 
he sent twenty-four Miami chiefs forward to the Prophet, upon a simi- 
lar errand to that for which the Delawares had visited him ; but not 
having returned as he had expected, he conchidpd they had joined the 
Prophet's forces. Accordingly, on the Gth of November, at the head 
of about one thousand troops, Gov. Harrison took up his line of march 
for Tippecanoe. Desirous still to know whether the Prophet wo«!il 
come to terms, the Governor, when within a abort distance ot the town, 
sent forward a captain, and interpreter to learn what course the Proph- 
et would pursue. .But the Indiana, on seeing these, only endeavored 
to take them prisoners, and they fonnd it difficult to make their es- 
cape ; and one of the sentinels of the army had been shot by the In- 
dians. The Governor now determined to treat the Prophet and his 
followers aa enemies, and again resumed his march upon them. Bui; 
before he had gained the village, the army was met by a deputation 
from the Prophet, enquiring for what purpose they were thus advanc- 
ing upon the town; insisting that they were anxious for peace, and 
that they had sent messages by the Miami and the Pottawattamie 
chiefs, stating to the Governor this desire.* At this a suspension of 
hostilities was agreed upon, and aiTangements for a meeting submitted 
to take place the following day, the Governor telling them that he 
wouldmove on with the army to the Wabash, and take up his encamp- 
ment for the night. Having found a suitable place for rendezvous, 
near a creek, about tliree-fourths of a mile to the north of the town, 
and made all necessary arrangement for action, should an attack be 
made, the army took up its quarters for the night. 

In approaching the town, the Indians, not being aware of the pur- 
poses of the commanding officers of the army to find a suitable place 
for encampment, ran out and cried to the advanced corps to halt, but 
the governor riding up, assured the Indians that his purpose was not 
to attack them, and, in response to questions, as to a favorable place 
for encampment, told the officers of a suitable one upon the creek they 
had, but a little time before, crossed, which point was soon after chosen 
for the encampment of the army. 

The night proved dark and cloudy. The moon rose late, and a 
drizaling rain fell. Many of the men had aiiticipated a battle, and 
were not much pleased that they had not been permitted to engage the 
Indians in a fight, and were fearful that they might have to return 
without a " brush " with them ; and, accordingly, had but little antici- 
pation of an attack from them, although Colonel Daveiss had been 
heard to say that he had no doubt that an attack would be made he- 
fore morning.f And true enough, — according to his habit, Governor 
Harrison being astir, getting his men under arms, — about four o'clock 
in the morning, it was discovered and made known that the Indians 
had stealthily " crept so near the sentries as to hear them challenge 

*rhe Miami chiafs, iu return lug to the OoTernor, from their mission to the Propliet. had 
started on their roliurn by nay of the aouth sidt of tho Wobmh. null had aoeordingly lost 
Bi«ht, -T .;.<> ai luy. tM'Afee. 

-c by Google 

Tuii Bat'I'LE 01' Tippecanoe. 197 

■when i-elieveii ; " their aim being to rush upon the sentries before they 
oould fire. But an Indian being observed by one of the guards, as the 
former crept through the grass, the latter firSd upon the Indian, which 
was immediately followed by one of their fierce yells, and then a des- 
perate charge upon the leftfiank of the encampment, which caused the 
guards to give way. .The army was now all alive with excitement, 
but the men generally stood their ground and fotight most bravely, and 
" tbe battle was soon maintained on all sides with desperate valor. The 
Indians advanced and retreated by a rattling noise made with deer- 
hoofs," and who also fought with great energy, as if " determined on 
victory or death." The Prophet had told them the bullets of the 
white men could not hurt them ; that the Cfreat Spirit would givethem 
light, while the eft'orts of the army of the Americana would be " ren- 
dered unavailing," and " involved in thick darkness : " * and taking 
his position upon an eminence near, secure from the bullets whizzing 
in all directions, he employed his time in singing a war-song, and urg- 
ing his followers " to fight on," that ail would soon be as he had told 
them — singing the louder with each aseurance.f 

Soon after daylight, the Indians were put to flight in different direc- 
tions, and the battle was ended — the power of the Prophet was broken, 
and the plans of Teoumseh forever frustrated and destroyed. 

The force of the Indians was estimated at from six hundred to one 
thousand ; whlie their kiiled was greater than ever known before. " It's 
certain," says M'Afee, " that ro victory was ever before obtained over 
the northern Indiana, where the numbers were anything like equal." 
It was " their custom," continues he, " always to avoid a close action, 
and from their dexterity in hiding themselves, but few of them could 
be killed, even when they are pouring destruction into the ranks of 
their enemies. It is believed that there were not ten of them killed 
at 8t. Clair's defeat, and still fewer at Eraddock's. At Tippecanoe, 
they rushed up to the bayonets of our men, and, in one instance, re- 
lated by Captain Snelling, an Indian adroitly put the bayonet of a 
soldier aside, and clove his head with his war-club, an instrument on 
which there is fixed a triangular piece of iron, broad enough to pro- 
ject several inches from the wood. Their conduct, on this occasion," 
continues M'Afee, " so different from what it usually is. was attributed 
to the confidence of sucocess with which their Prophet had inspired 
them, and to the distinguished bravery of the Winnebago warriors." 
The loss of the Americans was sixty killed, and about one hundred and 
thirty wounded ; among the killed was the distinguished Jo Daveiss, 
of Kentucky .J The Indians had not determined to attack the camp 


tAn micla of John P. Hedgos, Esq., of onr clt;, vhu wns in the engngemont, anil who 
waa also badly wounded, avers that tbe Indinns, undsr the intipiration nnd assurnnoes uF 
the Prophet, " went in," " cutting nnd BlaahinQ; " moat feavleaslj and indiffoi'cntly ; but 
thnt thej readily lost faith in hioi when they saw each other falling, pietcod by tho 
muakat and riflo balls of the white man. 

JSays a note in BIHe' life of Teeumaeh: " Jo DaTeisa was, in many reaped!, "one of 
the most romatkablo mea uf his time. As a lawyer ho had fow euimU— being oouBidoi-i^d 
tbe fallior of tho Kontuoky bar. lie waa very aingular in Ilia habite, traveling hia circuit 


198 HisTOKr OF Fort Wayni;:. 

until after nighfc-fall. Their oiiginal plan was to meet the Govcnior 
in council thij next day, and then for two Witinebagoe chiefs, " who 
had devoted themseivea tcf certain death, to accomplish their design," 
were to loiter about the camp after the council had broken up, and, 
killing the Governor, a war-whoop from them was to be the signal of a 
general attack." 

The Indians about the Wabash, after the battle of Tippecanoe, be- 
came very quiet, andmost of them returned to their homes and villages. 

Among the tribes engaged in this conflict, were the Shawanoes, 
Pottawattamie 8, Winnebagoes, Kiekapoos, &c. After the burial of the 
dead, and caring for the wounded, the army began its return march 
on the 9th of November ; and on the 18th Governor Harrison was 
welcomed to Vincennes by a body of sometwo hundred of her citizens ; 
and in the following month a vote of thanks was tendered him by the 
Kentucky legislature. 

While the Prophet was engaging the army of Gov. Harrison, Te- 
cumseh was in the south rallying the tribes in behalf of his grand 
scheme of confederation, little dreaming that his brother had spoiled 
his plans and broken tbe chain of his wily efforts ; and when he return- 
ed, he is said to have been so enraged at his brother, upon learning 
what he had done, that, in a feeling of great anger, he gathered hold 
of the hair of his head, and threatened to kill him. 

Tecnmseh now thought of peace; visited Gov. Harrison again, and 
wished to call upon the President, as the Governor had suggested, be- 
fore his journey south ; but upon Gov. Harrison not wishing him to 
, take many of his warriors with him, he refused to visit Washington, 
and his conference with the Governor ended for the time, and soon 
after made his way to 'Ft. Wayne, while the Prophet took up his abode 
at a village on the Mississinnewa river, about seventy miles south- 
west of Port. Wayne. 

— irhiob comprised his wholo atate — in tlie oostDme of n huntor, often entering the court 
room with iiis rifio in hialianaa, at the very moment hia uaao was ready for hearing. 
Hia estraordinarj life waa ended at Tippecanoo. Ho assnmed ooinmaad of a Iroop of 
KontHuity horao, after having been defentodbj Heni'jClay, iuthe effort, as United Blates 



As the dBflbiug liillnws lavo the !ip(u; 

And rnuli biiek again iiitu tho llcoj). 
So tUo war elamant sought to raaeh 

A ftenaied height and keep 

Tlio Weat still imblass'd. 

taembiing of tha Indi»QB nt Fort IVajne to rooeiVD thoir j 
froshffomthosoaua ofthaliitB battle of Tippoemioe— Ci 
agent hove — Tho old Counoil-Hunae — Early acOBee— Poacoful proteatations of tho 
lEdia,Qs— Toouniseli visitB Fort Wayne — Failing to obtain ammnnition, ho giyoa tha 
■wac-irtioop and loavaa— Dopredationa bogna again on the frontiers — The Ohio niili- 
ija called out — Command of the arm.; nncreudered to Sen. Hull — Aimy undei' Hall 
raaohea Urbana, Ohio — Triamplial aroh oreoted— Porthai: movBrnents of the army — 
Tho Britieh captitre on American Bohoonei — Col. Cass sent to demand ita aurreuder 
— Qen. Hull piopsaee to invade Oanada — ieaueE a proclamation — Its effoats — BeooD- 
noilering expedition under PBrry—Tecumseh joins tho BrltiBh — Hull retieata from 
Canada, and reaahea Detroit again — Hta anirender to the Bi'idsli — Bitter feelings 
againat Hull at this rsault— The Biitish plan an oxpedition sgajnat Port WajDe— 
SnrrBDder of Mackinaw — Delay in notifying the Ports — SituotioD of Port Dearborn 
(tMoago) — MbJ. Stloknay, Indian agont at Port Wayne, Bends an express to Chiea- 
go— Ruliof propoaad for Capt. Heold, at Port Daarborn— Oapt. Walla ohosan to carry 
out the desi'^a of Maj. Sticknoy — Wella selaota SU Miami Indiana, and leaves Pt. 
Wayne for Chioago— Hia arrival there --Sitnation of affairs --W oil a sees danger 
iaiead--Tho fort abandonod— Wiii blaakenBd taoe. Wells takos tho loo.d— Tbo 
Pottnivattamiea in aiiibu''i— -An attaoi"-BtaTBry of tho trnops— Death of Wella — 
Tho Miamiea dy — The Indiana daraand aanrrenderj-pblch iBeompllodiritb — Their 
treachery— Bravary of Mrs. Heald— Diviaion of tho priaonera— WoIIb' heart cat 
onl and aaton by tho Indians — Escape of tho priaonera and aafa arrival within tho 

SOME DAYS after tlie battie.of Tippecanoe, (on iho 22nd of ^>a-..) 
the period for the tiiinual meeting of the Indiana to receive their 
^yjpaDHuities, having arrived, they began to assemble in great num- 
gSbers to receive their allotted portions. John Johnson, Esq., was 
^ then Indian agent here. 
Many of the chiefs in attendance were fresh from the scene of the 
recent hostilities at Tippecanoe, claiming their respective portions of the 
annuity equal with the most peaceful of the tribes — representing that 
the Prophet's followers had bim in confinement, and purposed taking 
hia life ; that he was chargeable with all their troubles ; together with 
msi.ny other stories of a similar character, all, more or leas, in the main, 
untrue, especially as regarded the Prophet's confinement, for, at that 


200 KrsToiiv on E'oax Wavhe. 

time, \m was at fall liijerty on the Misaissinnewa. But the sti>rie5 pre- 
sented to Col, Johnson had the liesu-ed effect and he was induced there- 
by to inform the Govemnient that the Indians ivere all favorahle to 
peace, and " that no further hostilities should be committed against 
them ; " and, " yet says M'Afee," in most of the nations here assembled, 
a British faction was boiling to the brim, and ready to flow on onr 
devoted frontiers, Tvherever the British agents might think proper to 
inorease the fire of their hostility,'"^ 

The old couucil-hoKse Tras located about the spot now occupied by 
Michael Hedekin, Esq. It was a two-story log building, about sixty 
feet long, by about tweu^ wide ; and stood but a short distance to the 
south-weat of the fort. It waa Lq this building the agent lived. And 
it was often an interesting as well as a painitd eight to witness the 
tall red men, with their painted faces, gaily plumed with feathers and 
trinketa , their skins in some instances barely covering their loina, in 
others measurably dressed in skins, or with a blanket wrapped about 
tliem, sitting in groapa here and there, or standing at some point re- 
counting their adventures or misfortunes ; or, having drank freely of 
*' fire water," were venting their savage ferocity upon each other in hai'd 
words or death-blows with the tomahawk or scalping-knife ; the squaws 
wandering about with their pappooses to their backs, or sitting about 
with their Indian husbands, all- awaiting their turns to receive their an- 
nuity, or in some way obtain some little favor, if only a pipe or loaf of 
wheat bread, at the hands of some pale face or friend. Such was life 
in the vicinity of the council-house and fort here during portions of 
many years subsequent to the treaty of Greenville. 

The assemblage of the Indians, to receive their annuity at the hands 
of Col. Johnson, after the battle of Tippecanoe, consisted principally 
of chiefs and head men of the Miaaies, the Delawares, the Pottawat- 
amies, and Shawanoea. Col. Johnson, on this occasion, delivered 
them a speech, presenting the importance of an adherence to peaceable 
relations on the pai-t of the tribes and the United States — telling them 
that the President was desirous of living in peace and frient^hip with 
them ; and that pardon should be granted to any of the hostile tribes 
who would put away theli- arms and be peaceable. To which Black- 
Hoof, a Shawanoe chief, responded in behalf of all the tribes present, 
assuring the Col. that they all professed the sti-ongcst deau-e to lay hold 
ofthe chain of peaceandfrienilahip with the United States. Itwas be- 
lieved that this expression was sincere on the pai-t of tho Shawanoes 
and a large number of the Delawarea ; but that the Jliamies and Pot- 
tawattamies had little or no intention of being peaceable after receiv- 
ing their annuities-t Says M'Afee,in his "History of the late war(18l2) 
in the 'Western Country," page 40, " The Little Turtle of the Mamies, 
now in the decline of life and inflaence, wan the strenuous advocate of 

"Prior io th( 


100, tho Oovornor-Goiioral of Cnnadft lind infovi 

GoTGramciit It 

:e!iosiJl3 to tho Uni tad States i but it was Buppo 
J VOLIOTO anspioions as to the course of tho IlAt 

ho had doiio eo 

. wilt n view only t. 

to tender thoit 

■ intrigues with the 

IiiiauE tiic moiu iucuc^^lul. jM 




Sketch ok Litti.e'i'f.ii — ~Hif= DkA'I'ii, iiOX 

peace, but the majority of his people followed the couniiels of Te- 
cum s eh."* 

The Indians now made maay pretentions to peace, Stone-Eater, 
with others, visited Port Harrison, and delivered a talk to Oapt. Snell- 
ing, who, with a small detachment, had taken poBaesaion of that post 
after the battle of Tippecanoe. After profeasing much friendship, 
they visited Viocennes, and he toid the Governor of their contrition at 
what had happened, and professed a strong desire for friendship, prom- 
iaing to punish the Prophet, or deliver him up to the United States, 
as soon as they could get hold of him ; and soon after returned to their 
homes.; Visits were now frequent to see the Governor at Vincennes ; 

"It was on the 14tli of Ju!j of ibis year (I8I2) that the fttmons Little Turtln diediuhia 
lodge at the ohl orehavd, a short distanoo noith of the nonflueiioe of ths St. Harj and 
SI. Joseph, in the jard fronting tha house of hia broth or- in -low, Capt, Wm. Wells. Tur- 
tle had suffered for manj months prBviouB with the goat, and came hoio from his plaeo 
of reaidanoe, at Little Turtle village, on Sol river, about 20 miles north-west of Tort 
■Wayne, to be treated by the U. S. SatgooH at tiio foi't. 

It was a solemn and iutBToating ocoRslon. After the treaty of Gtreenville, Tnrtle had 
remained the true and faithfnl friend of the Amerioana and the U. S. florernment, and 
was much beloyed and respeoted by all who knew him. Tooumsah atrOFa bard to gain 
hie oonfldenoe and aid, but without affeot, for nothing eould muvo him from bis pnrpoBoa 
of peace and good-will toirmde the Americans. 

In the language ot one who was prBBantst hia burial: "Hia body was borne to tio 
grave with the highest honora, by his great enemy, the white man. The muffled drnni, 
the aoleruii maroh, the funeral aaluta, announcfld that a groat soldier had fallen, and 
BTen enemies paid tribute to his memory." 

His remaina woro interred about the oeateioftho old orchard, with all hia adornmenta, 
implements of war, a sword, presented to him by General ■Washington, together with a 
medal, with the likeness of Washington thereon,— all laid by the aide of the body, and 
hidden beneath tho sod in ooBOommon grave. The esaotspotof hia grave is still known 
to fljmo of the early settlors of Eoct Wayne, who still survive among ns, Mr. J. I<. 
Hedges among the number. 

Turtle had a somewhat remarkable mind. ■Was, for many years, the leading spirit 
hete, — nuGurpassed for bravory and intelligenee, perhaps, by none of hia race. Of a 
very inquiring tarn of mind, he never lost an opportunity to gain some valnabla infor- 
mation, upon almost evarj aufajeot or object that attracted his atteniion; and Bought by 
every meana in his power, during the latter days of hia life, to relievo hia paopla from ev- 
ery debasing habit— encouraging them only in the more poaoeful, aober, and indus- 
trial relations of life. 

In 1737, aeoompanied by Captain Wells, Iio visited Philadelphia, wJiere he enjoyed 
the Booiety of tlie distinguished Count Volnev, and the Polish patriot, Koseiiisko, and 
others. While in Philadelphia, at this period, lie had hia portrait takeu, by order of 
the Presid«rit. Stopping at the same hDuae with Tiu'tla, in Philadelptia, was an Irish 

frntloman, somewhat remarkahla bb » wit, who made it ft point to " pobi fun " at the 
nrtle whenever an ocoasion offered. The Irish gantlemao and Turtle happening to 
meet one morning in tho studio of 3t«wact, the arliat engaged in painting eaeh of their 
portrails, the Irish inan,obserying Turtle in a rather nnnsnaU y thoughtful mood, began to 
rally him upon his sober demeanor, and suggested, through Captain Wells, that it wm 
beeause of hisinabiltty to coDe with him in the jocular contest. At this the Tmtlo 
hrightened up. "He mistake*," said the Turtle, to 0«ptain Wells, in reply ; "I was 
JYist thinking of proposing to fchk mau (the paintei") to paintua hotli on one ooard, and 
here I would stand, t'soe to face with hira, aad confound him to all eternity." 

Little Turtle was of mixed origin — haLfMohioan and half Miami — and the son of a 
chief ; bora at his village, on Eel Rirer, about the year 1747, and verjemiy became the 
war-chief of -the Mianiiee. In stature, he wusfjiort, well built, with (r^mnietioal form 
— proraimeliii forehead, heavy eye hrows, keen, hlack eyes, and a large chin. 

Such wai Little Turtle, (Me-che-kan-nah-quuh) — the bravest amons. the brave, aud 
wisest smongthe wiAe of the Indians ofthe florthwest of hisday — Jeatung an army of 
braves to sure victory one hour — outting andslashing, as with the fetoeitv of a tiger, at 
onu moment, — and us passive andgenUeana child tlie next. JSvcr may his gentler auJ 
better deeds be peipetuated by Uia Ajnencac peoplo. 



but Tecuniseli jaul the Propliet, ■who were known to he still hostile, 
kept away, and this readily led to the conclusion that but little reli- 
ance was to be placed upon what was said by many visiting the Gov- 
ernor, and others in authority, as agents and commandants. 

Teenmseh made his appearance at Fort "Wayne sometime daring 
the month of December, soon after bis return from the south. The 
result of hie brotJier's efforts had effected him deeply. He seemed 
to know not which way to turn. His scheme was broken, but his 
great will etill bore hiin aloft over the impediments that bad accu- 
mulated in hie path-way ; and yet he was for war — for freedom — for 
the extermination of the white race that occupied the ancient hunt- 
ing ground of his fathers. Hia air was haughty ; and, says McAfee, 
he was still " obstinate in the opinions he bad embraced. He made 
bitter reproViches against Harrison ; and, at the saine time, had the 
presumption to demand ammunition from the commandant (here), 
wliieh was refnsed him. He then said he would go to his British 
father, who would not deny him. He appeared thonghtful a while, 
then gave the war-whoop, and went off." 

Sach was the spirit in which Tecnmseh left Fort Wayne on this 
memorable occasion; and"ear!y in the spring of 1812, he and his 
party began to put their threats into execution. Small parties be- 
gan to commit depredations on the frontiers of the Indiana and L- 
linois Territories, and part of Ohio. Twenty scalps were taken in 
the Indiana Territory alone before the first of June ; and the people 
were thus compelled to protect themselves by going into forts along 
the frontiers. Volunteer companies of militia were organized, and 
the Indians were frequently pursued, but generally without success, 
as they fled at once after committing their depredations. Governor 
Harrison asked permission of the wax department to raise a mounted 
force to penetrate to their towns, with a view of chastising them. 
But this was refused, the government hesitating to disturb them in 
that way at that time, fearing least they would take a more active 
part with the British. Tippecanoe was again occupied, and there 
the Indians were again planting their corn. By vigorous meas- 
ures," says M'Afee, " we might have beateu them into peaceable 
deportment and respect. Mr. Secretaiy Eustie, of the war depart- 
ment, thought differently ; and while he was attempting to soothe 
them with good words, tliey were laughing at his credulity. To 
maintain peace with an Indian," continues the same ^Titer, " it is nec- 
essary to adopt his own principles, and punish every aggression 
promptly, and thus convince him that you are a man, and not a 

Thus stood aftdrs in the early part of June, 1812; and by the 
18th of that month, matters had eo far approaciied a war basis be- 
tween Great Britain and the United States — an issue that had for 
some months prior been anticipated — that the American Govern- 
ment had announced a declaration of war against the English gov- 
ernment. As eai'ly as the month of April an embargo was levied 



by OongTeBS on iill the shipping in ports of the U. S., ami " an act 
anthoriziiig the President to detach one hiindred. thtmsand militia 
for six mpnthe," was adopted and put into force ; while several other 
acts, authorizing the recruiting of a regular army, were hkewise 
passed, and the masses were all astir wiiJt the feeling and anticipa- 
tion of war. 

During this month the President made a recLuisition on the State 
of Ohio for twelve hundred militia, and the , famous 4th regiment, 
under command of Coh MiUer, which had sometime before been 
ordered to the relief of Vincennes, was now ordered to Cincinnati; 
to join the militia. The Ohio mihtia had been soon raised, and 
■were ordered by Governor Meigs, of that State, to rendezvous on 
the .29th of April, at Dayton, at the mouth of Mad river, on tlie Big 
Miami. As previously directed by the Secretary of War, on the 
26th of May following, Gov., MeigB surrendered the command of the 
army to General Hull, for sometime previously Governor of Michi- 
gan Territory, but who, a short time previous to this period, had 
been appointed a Brigadier-general in the United States army. 
From Dayton the army under Hull took np its line of march for 
Staunton on the first of June. From Staunton they marched to 
Urbana. Here, on the 8th, says M'Afee, they were informed that 
they would be met that day on parade, by the governor, accompa- 
nied by many distinguished citizens and some Indian chiefs. On 
the following day, governor Meigs and general Hull held a council 
with twelve chiefs, of the Shawanoe, Mingoe, and Wyandot nations, 
to obtain leave from tiiem to march the army through their terri- 
tory, and to erect such forts as might be deemed necessary ; which 
was promptly granted by thera, and, every assistance which they 
cold give the army in the wilderness was promised. Gov. Meigs 
had held a council with these Indians on tlie 6th, in which it was 
agreed to adhere to the treaty of Greenville. 

On the 10th of June, the 4th regiment, nnder Col. Miller, made 
its appearance at Urbana, and were escorted into camp through a 
triumphal arch, adorned with an eagle, and inscribed with the 
words, " TiPPEOAHos — Gloey."* 

From Urbana the army, on the 16th, moved as far as King'a 
Creek, and from this point opened a road as far as the Sciota, where 
they built two block-houses, which they called Fort M' Arthur, in 
honor of the officer whose regiment had opened the road. To thia 
fort the whole army came on the i9th, and on the 21st Col. Findley 
was ordered to open the road as far as Blanchard's fork, on the Au- 
glaize, whither the army, excepting a guard left at Fort M' Arthur, 
again followed on the 22d. Here, amid rain and mud, another 
block-house was erected, which was called Fort Necessity. From 
Fort Necessity the army soon after moved to Blanchard's fork, 
where Col. Findley had bnilfc a block-house, which was called in 
honor of that officer, A road was shortly after, under command of 

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^"4 I'iiSTUKY Olf i'OB't Wa1!H'K. 

Col. Cass, cut to the rapida, aud the main army Boon encamped on 
the banks ot the Maiimee, opposite tlie old battle grootd of Gen, 
Wayne, in sight of the village then at the foot of the Rapids, which 
had the effect to greatly revive the feelings of the soldiers aft:er 
their tedioiiB march through the wilderness. From this point, after 
a day- or two's rest, the army moved down just below the old British 
fort Miami, from which the Indians had been bo long supplied with 
ammunition, etc., before their defeat in that quarter, in 1794. 

From here, about the last of June, a small schooner was dia- 
pacthed to Detroit, with about thirty ofBcere and privates, with the 
muster-rolls of the different companies, accompanied by an open 
boat, in which were a number of sick soldiers. Fears bad previ- 
ously been entertained that the boat would be captured, but Gen- 
eral Hull insisted on its departure. In the meantime, the army 
had again taken np its march, and was to halt again at the river 
Kaisin, whither, upon its arrival there, the army soon learned that 
tlie schooner, in attempting to pass Maiden, had been captured by 
tlie British. The declaration of war was now generally known. 
From the river Kaiain, the army proceeded to the Kiver Huron, 
fiileen miles, over which narrow stream, on the 4th of July, they 
built a bridge. From this point, on the 5th, the army proceeded 
towards Detroit, and soon formed an encampment within view of 
the place. The northwestern posts were now informed of the dec- 
laration of war; and the commanding officers of Fort Wayne, De- 
troit, Michillimackinaw, and Chicago, were ordered by Gen, Hnil 
to place their garrisons "in the best possibJe st-ate of defence," with- 
out delay, and to " make a return to Brigade Major Jessup, at De- 
troit, of the quantity of provisions the contractor had on hand at 
their respective posts, the number pfofGcers and men, ordnance, 
and military stores of every kind, and the public property of all 

On the 6th, Ool. Cass was sent with a flag of truce to Maiden to 
demand the prisoners and baggage of the captured schooner; but 
his demands were not respected, and, being blindfolded, soon . after 
returned to camp with a British officer. The army now, with a view 
to safety, should the English commence a bombardment, removed 
to the rear of Deti-oit, 

General Hull now conceived the plan of an invasion of Canada, 
and on the morning of the 1 2th of July, the British having moved 
ii'om their former position towards Maiden, in fear of loosing that 
point, the regiments of Cols. Miller and Caes, at a point about a mile 
above Detroit, successfully gained the Canadian shore, and soon 
aiter, followed by General Hull and othere,the stars and stiipes were 
run up from a brick dwelling on the farm of a British officer, by 
the name of Eambee, and on the same day, General Hull issued his 
noted proclamation to the- inhabitants of Canada, in which he re- 
quested the Canadians to remain quiet; to pursue their usual veca- 

tOi'derof GeiieiMlHull. 

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tions, etc.; assuring them that he " came to find enemies, not to mate 
them. I come to protect, not to injure yon. Separated by an im- 
mense ocean and an extensive wilderness from great Britain," said 
lie, " you have no participation in her councils, no interest in her 
conduct. You have felt her tyranny; yon have seen her injustice; 
hut I do not ask yon to avenge the oiie or to redress the other." 

The effect of the proclamation was most salutary for the time 
— many of the inhahitants of Sandwich returning to their dwellings 
again from the woods, whither they had fled on the approach of the 
American forces, having heen told by the British officers, much 
like the inhabitants of ilaskaskia, at the time of Clark's movements 
in the west, that the Americans were an army of cannibals, — worse 
than savages. 

With about forty men, on the 18th, Capt. Ulry was sent on a re- 
connoitering expedition in the, direction of Maiden, and, upon ap- 
proaching a partially destroyed bridge extending over Turkey Creek, 
some nine miles from camp, he discovered a party of some two hun- 
dred Indians lying in ambush, intending, if possible, to cut off any 
detachment that might approacii. A Canadian had informed 
Capt. Ulry that a great number of Indians were in the region, and 
being fearful that he might be encountered by a superior number, 
he at once returned to camp. 

From the time of his abrapt departure from Fort Wayne, up to 
the breaking out of the war of 1812, Tecumseh had been most ac- 
tive against the Americans, sxnrjting up the Indians at various 
points ; and, from tlie first hostiie movements of the British, had 
alHed himself to their cause, and begun to take a most active part 
with the enemy, who soon made him a brigadier-general in their 
army. In August, at the head of a party of Shawanoes, accompa- 
nied by a number of British soldiers, he made an attack upon a 
company of Ohio militia sent by General HuU to escort some vol- 
unteers engaged in bringing supplies for the army, which occurred 
at Brownstown, and was the iirst action that took place after the 
declaration of war had been made. Tecumseh and his party had 
succeeded in drawing the company in ambnsh, and the loss sus- 
tjiined by the company was considerable, and were resolutely fol- 
lowed by Tecumseh in their retreat towards the river De Oorce, 
And it was aboutthis time that General HuU retreated from Cana- 
da, and again took up his headquarters at Detroit. On the leth of 
August, this post was surrendered by General Hull to a British 
force, consisting of some seven hundred troops, and about six hun- 
dred Indians, under command of General Brock, which placed not 
only the garrison at Detroit, but the whole territory, including all 
its forts and garrisons, in the hands of the British, which was a mat- 
ter of as great astonisiiment to the British as the Americans. Said 
General Brock, in writing to his superior officer, after this eventj 
" When I detail my good fortune, you will be' astonished." 

The feeling among the officers and privates at tluis result was 


2i){; HisTOKT OF Poet Wayne. 

very groat, and "brought down upon the head of Gen. Hull a shower 
of hard words from liianj directions ; although General Hull, while 
Governor of Michigan, previous to his military appointment, had 
suggested to the war department the importance of having a supe- 
rior naval force on Lake Erie, as an auxiliary in the capture of Tip- 
per Canada, stating that the pbject could not be effected without it, 
besides pointiugout many obstacles that would necessarily attend a 
diiferent course of action. And at another time advised, strongly, 
the erection of a navy on the lakes. At the time of the surrender, 
however, Hull's force was superior to that of the British. 

Soon after the conclusion of the capitulation at Detroit, an expe- 
dition was planned by the British against Fort Wayne. 

The garrison at Mackinaw not having received the order of Gen. 
Hull, as written about the 5th of July, relating to the declaration of 
war, putting the several forts mentioned in the best defence, etc., 
this post was surrendered on the 17th of that month, which had the 
effect to cut off all, offensive operations in Upper Canada, and caused 
General Hull to feel much alarm, saying that "the whole northern 
hordes of Indians would be let loose upon them." The loss of 
Mackinaw was at once considered a great impediment to the Ameri- 
can cause, for the sun-ender of which General Hull was greatly 
censured, because of his delay in forwarding the general order 
made out about the 5fch of July. And Fort Dearborn, at Chicago, 
had suffered a similar neglect, and was in an equally hazzardous 
position to tliat of Mackinaw before' its capture. Towards the last 
of July, General Hull began to think seriously of the situation of 
the Chicago Fort, and the relief of the garrison. Capt. Heaid, ita 
commandant, with his family, were now being surrounded by a 
furious party of Indians in communication with Tecumseh, who, 
though not yet attempting any acts of violence upon the inmates, 
were yet only awaiting the necessary encouragement from the 

With this feeling upon him, General Hull, towards the latter part 
of July, sent an express to Fort Wayne with a view to the imme- 
diate relief of Captain Heald and his command at Chicago. 

Major B. F. Stickney was then Indian agent at Fort Wayne, and 
the express sent here for the purpose of relief to the Chicago fort, 
brought a request from Gen. Hull that Major Stickney at once ex- 
tend to Captain Heald all the information, assistance, and advice 
within his power, inclosing in his letter to Major Stickney "an or- 
der to Captain Heald t-o accept of such aid, and to conform to such 
itstruetions as he niight receive from the Indian agent" at Fort 

Instructions were accordingly prepared by Major Stickney to ac- 
company the order of General Hull, and an Indian agent dispatched 
to Chicago, Among the contents of the letter forwarded to " 
tain Heald, he was promised military aid as soon as it was 
to render it. 

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Capt, Wblls Sknt to the Relief of Fokt Dearborn. 207 

Captain William Wclia, the biother-in-law of Little Tcirtle, was 
at this time eab-Indian agent here. He had lived among the In- 
dians from his youth to an advanced age 5 was then, as before, a 
great favorite with the Miamiea, and acuonnted a "perfect master 
of every thing pertaining lo Indian life, hoth in peace and war, and 
withal a stranger to personal fear;"— -was repJete with a knowl- 
edge of Indian strategy; and, says Major Stickney, " if General 
Wayne desired a prisoner, to obtain information, Captain Wells 
could alwaya furnish one," 

Wells was the man for t!ie work, and Major Stickney readily hit 
upon him to lead a party to the aid of Captain Heald. Having 
proposed the matter to Captain Wells, Major Stickney at once sug- 

fsted the raising of thii-ty warriors to accompany him. With 
eUa, the Miamies were hia favorites, and from among their tribe 
he selected the number required. The Pottawattamies were now 
known to be in the vicinity of Chicasjo, and the fact of WeOs being 
a favorite with the Miamies, made tSie former tribe unfriendly to- 
wards him, there having long existed an unfriendly feehng between 
the Miamies and the Pottawattamies. So that WeUe' position waa 
at boat, — shonld trouble arise upon their arrival at Fort Dearborn, — 
a most precarious one, a fact that he was by no means nnacquaiut- 
ed with, but his fearless nature readily threw him into the opposite 
scale of undaunted determination, and on the 3d of August, with his 
braves well equipped by the agent, aU. in readiness, he set out, full 
of hope and courage, for the relief of the garmon at Chicago, 
wliither they arrived on the 12tli of tlie month. 

Wells and hie party had not been long at the fort before he dis- 
covered unmistakable evidences of coming trouble. For some days 
a large number of Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes, professing 
friendship, had been encamped about the fort;, and for some time 
Tecumaeh and the British, through their runners, had kept up a 
regular correspondence with the Indians in the locality, who had 
only been awaiting the result at Maiden in order to join one side or 
the other. On the night of the lith, a runner having arrived among 
the Indians. there with, the news from Teeumseh that Major Van- 
horn had been defeated at Brownstown ; that the ariuy under HuU 
had returned to Detroit ; and that there was every hopp and pros- 
pect of BUCcesB, the Indians about the region were at oiice decided 
to join the British, and resolved to remain no louger inactive.* 

Wells was warmly attached to Captain Heald, The latter had 
married his niece, and she was with Iier hnaband, to share alike the 
dangera and vicissitudes that surrounded them. 

On the arrival of Wells aud his wari-iors at the fort, Oapt. Heald 
told Wells that he liad received the dispatch from the agent at Fort- 
Wayne, with the order of General Hull; that, on its receipt ]ie had 
called together all the Indian warriors ir, his neighborhood, and 
had entered into a tioaty with them The leading terms were, that 

'^''^f'^- Hosted byGoOgle 

208 HisTOBT OF Fort Waynb. 

he was to deliver up to the Indians, the Fort with all its contents, 
except arms, ammunition and provisions necessary for their march 
to Fort Wayne. The Indians on their part -were to permit him to 
pass unmolested. Wells at once protested against the terms of the 
treaty. There was a large qua.ntity of ammunition and wiiisky in 
the Fort. These, he declared, they should not have. He urged, 
that if the Indiana had the whisky they would get drunk, and pay 
no regard to the treaty ; and he was for throwing the ammunition 
and whisky into the Lake. The Indians learned what was going 
on in the Fort, and determined to attack Heald and his party, at 
the first convenient point, after they should lea^e the Icrt Wells 
nndeistood Indian character ao perfectly tli'vt he was ^wire oi then 
intentions at » glance. 

As soon as it was dayhreak, Wells saw that thf> tomahawk was 
sharpening for them, and told Heald thev must be ffafc qui L ts 
possible, hoping to move before the Inlians Rere leadi tor them 
No time was to be lost. To-pee-nee-bee, a chief ot the bt. Josiiph's 
band, had, eai'ly in the morning-, informed a Mr. Kinzie of the mis- 
chief that was intended by the Pottawattamiea, who had engaged 
to escort the detachment; and urged him to reiinqaish his design 
of accompanying the troops by land, promising him that the boat 
containing himself and family should be permitted to pass in safety 
to the St. Joseph's, which -was declined by Mr. K., on the ground 
that his presence might operate as a restraint upon the fury of the 
savages, so warmly were the greater part tlnem attached to himself 
and family.* 

As the troops marched out, on the morning of the 16th, the band 
struck up the Dead March, as if some invisible forco had im- 
pressed upon them the inevitable fate many of them were soon to 
meet ; and on they moved, solemn and thoughtful, in military array, 
Captain Wells taking the lead, at the head of his iitde band of Mi- 
ami warriors, his face blackened, " in token of hia impending fate." 
Taking their route along the lake shore, as they gained a range of 
sand-hills lying between the prairie and the beach, the escort of 
Pottawattamiea, some five hundred in number, instead of continuing 
along the beach with the Americans andMiamies, kept the level of 
the prairie, and had marched perhaps about a mite and a half, 
when Oapt, Wells, who had rode a little in advance with the Miam- 
ies, suddenly came galloping back, exclaiming: "They are about 
to attack us ; form instantly, and charge upon them," telling his 
niece not to be alarmed ; that " they would not hurt her, but that 
he would be Idlled."t And no sooner had he ceased to apeak, than 
a volley was fired from among the sand-hilla. The troops being 
now hastily brought into line, they charged rapidly up the bank. A 
veteran, of some seventy yeare, was the first to i'aU. Capt. Wells 
soon fell, " pierced with many balls ;" and in the words of one of 
the party, (Mrs. Kinzie), " Pee-eo-tum * " held dangling in his 

."" WMi-Bun, 01' Efli'Ij- i?ny in thi.> Niiviinviis',.'- i M.ij, fi. F. Sticknej. 


Bkaveky and Wisdom op Mk?. Heai.r. 20I> 

hamlasc-alpiwliicii, by tlie black ribbon around the queue, I re- 
cognized as that of Oapt. Wells." Their leader now being killed, 
the Miamies fled ; one of their chiefs, hoivpver, befoj-e leavin{>; the 
scene of disaster, riding np to the Pottawattamies, and exclaiming 
to them in pretty eti^ong terms: "You have deceiyed the Ameri- 
cana and ns. You have done a bad action, and (brandishing his 
tomahawk), I will be the the first to head a party of Americans to 
return and punish. your treachery;" and then galloped, away over 
the prairie in pursuit oi his companions, who were rapidly making 
their way back towards Foi-t W.ayne. 

" The troops," says Mrs. Kinzie,* ''behaved most gallantly. They 
were but a handful ; but they seemed resolved to sell theij' Uvea -as 
dearly as posssible. Our horses pranced and bounded, and could 
hardly be restrained, as the bails whistled among them." 

Tlie Indians made several desperate attempts to rush upon and 
tomahawk tlie soldiers, but every auch effort -was bravely repulsed 
by them. Several women and children were killed ; and the ranks 
at length became so reduced as not to exceed twenty effective men; 
yet they were undaunted and resolute, and remained united while 
able to Are. Having now withdrawn some distance from their for- 
mer position, the Indians sent a sraall French boy to demand a 
surrender. The boy was Oapt, Heald's interpreter, who had de- 
serted to the side of the Indians in tlie early part of the engage- 
ment. Advancing very cautionaly towards the Americans, a Mr, 
Griffith advanced to meet him, intending to Mil him for his con- 
duct in deserting ; but the boy declaring that if. was the only way ho 
could save himseH, and at the same time appearing quite sorry ior 
having been obliged to act as he did, he was permitted to come for- 
ward. He said the Indians proposed to spare the lives of the 
Americans, if they would surrender. But the surviving soldiers all 
rejected it. Conveying their determination to the Indians, he soon 
returned, saying the Indians Were very numerous, and sh'ongly 
urged Mr. Griffith to use his endeavors to bring about a sur- 
render, which was at length consented to, and the men having laid 
down their arms, the Indians at once came forward to receive them ; 
when, in the face of their promise, they tomahawked three or four 
of the men ; and one Indian, it is stated, with the fury of a demon, 
approached Mrs. Heald, with his (ombbawk raised to strike her. 
Much accustomed to danger, and being well acquainted with In- 
dian character, with remarkable presence of mind, she looked him 
earnestly in the face, and, smiling, said ; " Surely you will not kill 
a aquaw." Her " action, suited t,o the word," had the desired effect. 
The Indian's arm fell ; hia aavage resolution was broken ; and a 
moment more saw the heroic and thoughtful Mrs. Heald under the 
protection of the barbarous hand that was about to rob her of life. 
Mrs. Heald was the daught-er of General Samuel AVellB, of Ken- 
tucky, who fought mosfvailiantly at the battle of Tippecanoe a<^ainst 

*" EaelyDoy inlha NoHlnvcEh," pagps 224 an'] 225. (14) 

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I-Ibtoby of JFoET Watnb. 

the followers of the Prophet. Captain Welle' head was cut off and 
his heart taken out and eaten hy the Indiane."* 

In accordance with their ancient custom, the Indians uow de- 
vided the prisoners. Captain Heald, Mrs. Heald, and Mr. Griffith 
being selected by the Ottawas, were taken by this band on the 
lake, beyond the mouth of the river St. Joseph. Having been se- 
verely wounded, they considered their fate as inevitably sealed; 
hut some angelic arm seem to have been stretched forth to aid them 
when least expected ; and one day, Griffith's eye accidendy fell 
xipon a canoe, at a convenient point, sufficiently large to hold them 
all ; and one night, soon after, they succeeded in making their es- 
cape, traversing the lake in this frail bark some two hundred miles 
to Macldnaw, where the British commandant enabled them to reach 
the United States in safety. 

* Aethe character ofWells was unequalled for l)ravery, nfter hia destJi the Indians 
took liielieart from hia 1x>dy, cooked it, and divided it among tiiemaelvee in ver\ pcirU 
pieces. Tliey reiigionsly belived, tliat each one wlioiite of it, would tliercliy Ireoonie 
as Ijraveas he from whuniit was taiten. — Stiekiiej-. 



i^liat. liernism ! wliflt, pfrila tiieii ! 
Howtciie of lifiai't and uti'ong of hand ; 
[ow earnest, roHolute those |)ioi)eei' me:* ! 

The Indiana graatly amboldened by thek' auoeess at Oliioagn — TiiefoUowPriof TeeTim- 
8e!i threaten to ojctarminntfi the tiihos refusing to did their oailae — Teoiiinarfi 'g oaa- 
fulness to tJie Bvitish — TeciimBeh's scheme of the siege and mossacro of Ports Wayne 
andHttrriaon — Renewal of tlio irai'— Ohio and Kentuoky arouaad — Ool. John Al- 
len — The Pofctnwttttamiea after the evacuation of Fort Dearborn — Pi'Sjiarationa for 
the siege of Forts Wayne and Harrison — Antonie Bondie — The aeeret of the in- 
tonded Biege and iQasaacre of Fort Wayne disolosed — Doubts as to ita oorrectneffi — 
Mojor Stiokney diBufttohesa meaaenger fo Got. Harrison — Active pi'epni'ation for 
defense-^Iilness of ilajor Stiokney — Indians prowling about the fort — Deatli of 
Stej>heu Johnston — A. peiiod ot great peril — The siege besun — A stratagem— The 
Indians deairoto gain on entrance into the fort — They aak for a signal — Thirteen 
of them, admitted— Their plot frustrated — Winnemao and Captain Rhea — Two 
soldiers aliot by the Indians — -Perilous adventure of Wm. Oliver and some In- 
dian guidBs — The garrison leacna of the movement of Qov. Harrison — The army 
on its march for the relief of Fort Wayne — Gov. HaiTison elected a Major-general 
— Dunking a soldier — Thearmy at St. Mary's — Richard M, Johnaon leads i^ corps 
ofmoiinted volunteers to the relief of Fort Wayne — Logan, thehalf-breed, accepted 
as a Bpy — Incidents oa the rente of the army down the St. Maiy — A court-martial 
— The lial loos of the IndioUH taken as a signal of the appTOaeii of the arniy — Qreat 
rejoicing in the Fort — The " ICey of the West " again unlocks the door ol suooess. 

1^^ HE 8U00ESS of the Indiana at Cliicago, gave them great 
TO) courage, and emboldened them for still greater efforts for the 
"v^poirerthrow of the whites, or driving them beyond the Ohio. 
■^^With few, exceptions, the tribes -were now, from the disasters at 
Detroit, in the captare there of the large army noder Hull, and 
the previous surrender of Mackinaw, determined in their course, 
and were every where more or less iuclined to the British, interest. 
The few tribes continuing friendly to the United States, were soon 
threatened by the followers of Tecnmseh with extermination, who 
was now fast bringing his great scheme to an issue, by the aid of 
the English. Possessing a most excellent memory, and being well 
acquainted with every important position in the northwest, he was 
readily enabled to point ont to the British ipany important advan- 
tages. Before crossing to Detroit, at tbe time of Hull's surrender 



General Brock took occasion to eaqiiire of. Teeumseh what sort of 
a couutry he should have to pass over, should lie concludo to go 
"beyond. Taking a roll of elm bark, and extending it on the ground 
hy means of four stones, Tecnmseh drew his 9calping-knife, and aS 
once began to etch upon the bark the position of the country, em- 
bracing its hills, roads, rivers, morasses, and woods, which, being & 
demonstration of talent quite unexpected in Tecumaeh, had the ef- 
fect to please General Brock' very much, and readily woq for him 
the confidence of the commanding-general. His position and in- 
fluence — strengthened by the British, and joined by a numerous 
ally of his own blood — were now formidable, and he was de- 
termined to render them as potent as his sti-ength and advantages 
ivould permit, destined, however, at last to fall. 

His great plan was now the siege and massacre of Forts Wayne 
and Harrison. The Pottawattamiea and Ottawas, as at Chicago, 
aided by the British, under Major Muir, were to be the leading 
spirits in the movement upon Fort Wayne, while the Winneba- 
goes, and a portion of the Miamies, who had been persuaded to 
join the Tecnmseh party, were to sorprise and capture Fo]'.t Harri- 
son ; and had appointed the first of September as the eai^liest pe- 
riod of attack. 

The government, in the meantime, had begun most active 
measures for the renewal and prosecntion of the war! From the 
first, the President, had disapproved the armistice at Detroit, and 
. the thought of an invasion of Canada', by the strait of Niagara, was 
soon upon the breeze of public expectation, and the British com- 
mander. General Brock, had early heard the rumor. 

Ohio and Kentucky, upon the receipt of the news of Hull's sit- 
oation at Detroit, were soon aroused to the highest sense of patri- 
otic determination. The governor of Ohio at once ordered the re- 
maining portion of the detached militia of his State, numbering 
some twelve hundred men, to be formed and marched to Urbana, 
under command of brigadier-general Tnpper; while the Secretary 
of War had previously called on Governor Scott, of Kentucky, for 
a body of fifteen hundved men, embracing also the regulars previ- 
ously enlisted in that State, In the early part of May, the governor 
of Kentucky, in accordance with instructions fi'om the war depart- 
ment, had organized ten regiments, of some five thousand five hun- 
dred men, as the quota of that State. Among the many patriotic 
■men who so eagerly joined the standard of their country, in Ken- 
tucky, was Colonel John Allen, who took command of a rifle regi- 
ment. He was a lawyer of much distinction at the Kentucky bar, 
and combined many eminent and endearing qualities as a private 
citizen of that State, Allen county was. so named alter him. 

After the massacre of Chicago, those Pottawattamies engaged in 
it spent some weeks about Fort DeaEborn, and divided the spoUs 
which had been given them at the time it was forsaken. They then 
retired to llieir villages on the Su Joseph of Lake Michigan, where 


The Scheme for the Massacke of Foet Wayne. 213 

they were aagembled in council by British emissaries, and at their 
instigation determined upon a simultaneons movemeut to lay siege 
to Forts Wayue and Harrison, The British agents promised, that in 
case the Indians would besiege those forts, and prevent their evac- 
uation by the garrisons, they should be joined, in one moon, by a 
large British force from Maiden and Detroit, with artilery, who 
would be able to demolish the stockades, and would give up the 
garrison to massacre and spoil. Their success in these enterprises, 
it was but too evident, would have exposed the whole frontier to 
devastation, and the plans of Tecumseh were all looking to the 
consommation of this end. The siege was to be commenced in 
twenty days after the counciJ adjourned. 

At this time, there was an Indian trader residing near Fort Wayne, 
of French extraction, by the name of Antonie Bondie. He was 
about iifty years of age, and had lived among the Indians from the 
time he was twelve years old. He was an exti-aordinary character. 
At one time he would app*^ar to be brave and generous, at another 
meanly selfish. He was recognized by the Miamies as one of their 
tribe — married one of their squaws, and conformed to their habits 
and mode of hfe. The hostile Potfcawattamies, desirous of saving 
him from the destruction which they contemplated for the garrison, 
sent Metea, chief of their tribe, to infonn liim of their intentions 
and his danger. Metea went to his cabin in the night, and under an 
injunction of gi'eatse.crecy, informed him of all that had trauspireii 
in relation to the contemplated siege of the two forts. He offered 
to come for Bondie and his family, before the siege was com- 
menced, with a sufficient number of pack horses to remove them 
and their moveable property to a place of safety. Bondie did not 
decline the offer. 

The morning after Metea had made this revelation, Bondie, ac- 
companie,d hy Charles Peltier, a French interpreter, went to the 
agent (Stickney) very early, and with many injunctions of secrecy, 
informed him of it all. The agent was thankful for their informa- 
tion; but doubtful whether to credit or reject it, as any mistake in 
a matter of so much importance, either way, would prove ruinous to 
his character, and cause his disgraceful ejection from the import- 
ant ofBce which he held. He had been but three nionths in oifice 
or in the country, and was acquainted with but few persons. The 
character of Bondie was not known to him, and the nature of his 
communication such as to require great secrecy, and if true, imme- 
diate preparation for the defence of -the fort. Stickney sent a note 
to Rliea, the commanding officer of the garrison, desiring a meet- 
ing with him in the open esplanade of the fort, where there could be 
no one to overhear what might be said. This officer having been 
long in the country, had every opportunity of knowing Bondie. He 
met the agent, heard his communication, and dismissed it, by ob- 
serving that Bondie was a trifling fellow, and no reliance could be 
placed upon what he said. This increased the perplexity of the 


^14 History of Fokt Waynjc. 

agent. He eent for Bondie antt his intei-preter, to hare a cross ex- 
amination. This being completed, it remained for the agent either 
to pass tlie matter without notice, and incur the cjiances of the 
siege of the Indiana against the two posts, to be followed by a reg- 
ular force of British troops, with artillery, without any preparation 
for- defence or relief from abroad, or to report the information, 
withont attaching to it his official belief in its coiTectness, wbioSi 
wonld have no effect. In weighing and comparing chances and 
consequences, be determined that it was better that he should be 
ruined in his reputation, and the government auffor all sacrifices, 
consequent upon the falsity of the report, tlian that they should 
botli suffer if it proved true. He, therefore, sent a second time to 
Oapt. Rhea, and declared his intention to make the report, and give 
it the sanction of his belief in its correctness. He informed him 
that he had just received a dispatch from Governor Harrison, from 
Vincennes, saying that he was going to Cincinnati, where he must 
be addressed, if necessary, and that he should send 'an expressito 
bim, directed to .that city, and another to 'Captain Taylor, the com- 
manding officer at Fort Harrison. He then returned to bis office 
and commenced making inainediate preparations fqr acquainting 
Gov. Harrison with the information be had received regarding the 
contemplated siege of the fort. When nearly ready to dispatch 
his messenger, Oapt. Rhea sent a note to bim requesting that lie 
would delay his express to Cincinnati, until he could write a letter 
to the governor of Oliio, informing him of the report. Stickney 
complied with this request, and the express was sent with letters to 
Governor Harrison and Governor Meigs. Active prepiirations 
were now commenced for defence. Sach men as could be spared 
with teams were employed to send off' ladies who were there, with 
children, to the frontier ; and it was subsequently ascertained tliat 
within a few hours after the messengers had started, the Indians 
drew thoirlines of guard around the fort. 

On the 5th of August, Major Stickney, the Indian agent, was 
prostrated by severe iUne?s, from wJiich he only became convales- 
cent, after twelve days. He was then'conveyed from the agency 
house to the fort for safety. It was now very plain that the state- 
ment of Bondie was no fiction. He, with his Indian family, moved 
into the fort. The Indian waiTiore, to the number of some five 
hundred, as then supposed, began to assemble in the neighborhood 
of the fort ; and it was now evident that they had hopes of getting 
possession of it by strat-agem, Tliey would lie in wait near the fort, 
day after day, — a few near and in sight, but the majority of them 
M'ould be scattered about, as much out of sight ^ possible. Those 
near were watching an opportunity to force the sentries. The sen- 
tinels were, so faithful to their duty, that no chanco was presented. 
Stephen Johnston, who was a clerk in the United States factoi'y 
store,* feeling very solicitous about the safety of bis wife, who had 
'Which had bean erected near tlio fort, sometime Bulistfqiient to the erection of Fort 
Wayne, io 17y4, for the pnr()OBe of suppljiug the Indians with Hgrieultural impleic — '" 


Indiass admitted imto 'I'hb Fobt. 215 

been sent to the frontier in a delicate situation, accompanied by 
Peter Oliver, and a diacbarged militiaman, attempted to elude the 
vigilence of the Indians, and visit the place of her abode. They 
left at 10 o'clock at nifcht. Johnston was fired upon by six Indians 
and Hiled instantly. Before the Indians conld reload their pieces, 
the remaining two men made goocl their retreat to the foi't ; and for 
a reward of twenty dollars, an Indian was induced to bring in the 
body of Mr. Johnston. 

lie Indians now began to disclose their hostility and real pur- 
pOBes by violent and premature acts, showing most conclusively 
their fall designs. On one occasion two soldiers were sent out on 
horseback, three or fom' miles, to drive in some cattle, .One of them 
wftB talien prisoner, the other made his escape. The Indians ob- 
tained possession of both horses. They Mlled cattle and hogs near 
the fort, stole hoi-ses, and committed many other minor depreda- 

Both parties wished to delay the final conflict — Major Stickney, 
to give time for Gen. Harrison to send the fort the necessary re- 
lief, in compliance with his dispatch ; and the Indiana, from a hope 
and expectation of the daily arrival of the British force, which, had 
been promised them. The Indians, however, did not cease to em- 
ploy many devices and stratagems, to accomplish their object, be- 
fore the arrival of the British. An Indian would occasionally come 
near the fort, and bold conversation with an interpreter, who would 
be sent out for the purpose. The interpreter would be informed 
that the, depredations had been committed by the young men, con- 
trary to the wishes of the chiefs — that the chiefs wished for peace. 
At length the Indians expressed a desire to be admitted to see the 
coinmandant of the post-, that they might agree upon some terms 
for a cessation of hostilities ; and asked for a signal by which they 
might approach the fort and be permitted to talk with their white 
father, A white cloth was accordingly sent to them to be used as 
a flag of truce. For several days they delayed making use of the 
flag, and continued their depredations. The agent finally sent a 
message to them, by an Indian, that they had dirtied his flag, and 
he could not sufier them to retain it any longer ; that they must re- 
tnrn it immediately. The next day, the whole body of Indians 
moved up to the fort, bearing the wliite flag in front. The gates 
of the fort had been kept closed for a number of days. They were 
in hopes of obtaining the admission of a large number of their war- 
riors. But the agent, who was still quite weak from his recent at- 
tack, was too well acquainted with Indian chai-aeter to be deceived. 
Havin?, with difflcuKy, walked to the gate, be designated by name 
the chiefs to be admitted, who, upon tJieir entrance into the fort, 
one by one, were disarmed by the guard, and examined very close- 
ly. Thirteen only were admitted, who at once followed the agent 
to his sleeping apartment. The officers in the garrison remained 
in their quarters. The agent now addressed a note to Capt. l^hea, 


216 ilKTCKY Of Fou-i' WAyBB. 

desiring that the guayd Bkonld be paraded and kept under arn:is 
during the continuance oi' tlie conncii. In accordance with the 
castoms of such occasions, tobacco was presented to the eliieis that 
they mi^ht smoke.* 

When the pipes began to go oat, Winnemac, a Pottawnttaniie 
chief, rose and commenced a speech, which he addressed to the 
ageat; the substance of which was, that the Fottawattamiea had no 
hand in killing Johnston, and that the chiefs could not control theii- 
young men. The soldiers and horses had been taken without tiie 
knowledge or consent of the chiefs, in opposition to whose wishes 
the young men had committed all their depredations. '"But," con- 
tinned, Winnemac, " if my father wishes for war, I &m a man."t At 
thi& expression tlie chief struck his hand upon his knife, -which he 
had concealed under his blanket. The agent at this time did not 
understand the language, but saw there was something serious. 
Bondie, who was present and understood the whole force of what 
was said, jumped apon his feet as quick as lightning, and striking 
his knife in a very emphatic manner, shouted in Pottawattamie, 
" I am a man too." At the same instant the interpreter turned quite 
pale, and Winnemac cast his eyes towards the principal chief pres- 
ent, whose name was An-ouk-sa, who was sitting at a window 
where he could see the guard under arms. He returned a look of 
disappointment, and the stratagem was brought to an abrupt tenii- 
ination ; while the interpreter, having sufficiently recovered from his 
confusion, readily explained what had been said. Winnemac now 
finished his speech, and the agent returned for an answer, that in all 
that had been said, there appeared to be something concealed ; and 
that if it was for war, he was ready for it. The Indians having been 
admitted under a £ag of ti-uce, were now permitted to depart. Win- 
nemac, however, who was the last to leave the room, was invited 
by Capt. Ehea to his quarters, who soon sent to the agent for an iu- 
t-erpreter, and remained in conversation with Winnemac, half or 
three quarters of an hour. The agent subsequently learned, from 
the interpreter, that Ehea professed great friendship for tiie chief, 
and invited him to take breakfast with him the next morning. 
Upon learning this, and with a view of dissuading him from such 
intimacy and want of discretion, at such a time, the agent with 
difficulty walked tO"the quarters of Oapt. Bhea, whom he found in 
such a state of intoxication that it was useless to expostulate 'with 
him. Keturningto his quarters again, he now sent for the two lieu - 
tenants, Ostmnder and Oui-tis, and told them what had taken place, 

" In tlie flOEonnfc of tliia siage the ■writer lias mainly followed the statement ot Major 
Stiokney, the Ijiclian agent here at the time of its ooeurrenoe. 

t The wliola plno of the ludiftns on this oeoasioD was Bubeequently divulged. They 
were to olil^ii an entrance into the fort, for as omiijaa possible. WiDoemuo was to be 
the spaabei'. "When he should come to tlm expression, "I am a man," lie was to dis- 
patoli the agent. Other ohiefe were to rush to aaohoEthe ofHoers' maesacre 
them, and others were to open the gates of the fort, t« tlio force witbout. The work 
was lliea tabe liuiiihed, by butaheviiig every soul in the iuit. 


Pekii-uus Adventure ok Wm. Oliver. 217 

giving it as his opinion that an attack ■would ■ be made the nest 
morning; and urged upon them the necessity of all possible prep- 

The next morning, aroused by the firing of rifles, the agent step- 
ped out upon a galler}' that projected from the second story of his 
quarters, and saw two soldiers fall, mortally wounded, about fifty 
yards from the fort. It was now ascertained that no preparations 
iiad been made in anticipation of an attack. Ail was confusion in 
the garrison. The two men were taken into the fort, and died 
about one o'clock, that day. 

About the first of September, a most interesting occurrence took 
place. A white man and four Indians arrived at the fort, on horse- 
back, " in full yell." It was the Indian yell of triumph. The white 
man, who was foremost, proved to be William Oliver. He was ac- 
companied by four friendly Shawanoe Indians, the brave Logan 
among the number. The garrison had been for more than a fort- 
night in a state of suspense ; not knowing whether the express to 
Gov, IJarrison had gotten through, or not, and every day, in ex- 
pectation that the British force would arrive. All were on tiptoe 
to hear the news — William Oliver had arrived in defiance of five 
hundred Indians — had broken throngh their ranks and reached the 
fort in safety. 

He reported that about two thousand volunteers had assembled 
in Kentucky for the relief of General HuU at Detroit, and had 
marched to Cincinnati. There they heard that Hnll had surren- 
dered, and deemed it unnecessary to march any further in that di- 
rection. Harrison having received the dispatch from the agent at 
Fort Wayne, had delermined to march to its relief, Ohio was 
raising volnnteers. Eight htindred were then assembled at St. 
Mary's, sixty miles south of Fort Wayne. They intended to march 
to the relief of the fort, in three or four days. At Cincinnati great 
fears were entertained that the fort had been captured, and its in- 
mates massacred. When the cjuestion arose, as to how the condi- 
tion of Fort Wayne was to be ascertained, the stoutest hearts in the 
army quailed. 

William Oliver was then a young man of about twenty-three 
years of age. He possessed the true spirit ; was at the time sutler 
to Fort Wayne. Previous to any knowledge of the hostile inten- 
tions of the Indiana, Oliver had gone to Cincinnati on business. He 
went to Governor Harrison and made an ofler of his services, indi- 
vidually, to obtain the necessary information. Harrison thought 
the danger too great, and endeavored to dissuade him from making 
the attempt ; but he had determined to accomplish it, or loose his 
life in the effort When Governor Harrison shook hands with him, 
he observed that he " should not see hira again." 

A man by the name of Worthington, an Indian commissioner of 
the time, embarked with Oliver in this adventurons undertaking, 
placing themselves at the head of about eighty whites, forty of 


318 HisroKY OB' Foet Waynh;. 

^hom, 30 periloiis seemed the taek before theoi. after a marcli of 
about tliree dtiye, returaed home. The balance, however, pursued 
their way to the Indian village of "Waupaubonetta, where Oliver 
found friends and acquaintances among some fnendly Shawanoes, 
aud selected four of the bravest to accompany them through to Fort 
Wayne, Logan among the number. 

Having pursued their course, with much care, until within some 
twenty-four miles of the fort, a council was caUed to consider the 
expediency of a further advance, when it was concluded best for 
all to remain behind except Oliver, Logan, and the otiier Indian at- 
tendants. On the following morning, with their horses, they con- 
tinued their way " with the common wariness of Indians, and without 
any remarkable occuiTence until they came within some four miles 
of the fort. Oliver had determined to enter the fort in hroad day- 
light." They now began an examination of the ground with great 
precaution, determining to ascertain, i£ possible, what movement 
had taken place, and the exact h)cality of the Indians. 

The keen eye of Logan now soon discovered that the enemy was 
concealed along the road, with a view to cut off any reinforcements 
that might attempt to reach the garrison. 

Leaving the main road, they now moved cautiously across to the 
Maumee river, whither, leaving their horses in a thicket, they ad- 
vanced on foot towards the fort, in order to get a view of it, and to 
ascertain, if possible, whether it sti!I held out against the besiegers. 
Being fully satisfied on this point, they again repaired to the thicket 
where they had left their horses, remounted, and soon struck the 
main road again. 

The moment of greatest peril aud detormination had now come. 
The fort was to he. gained at the risk of lif^ itself; and putting whip 
to their horses, Oliver and his faithful Shawanoe companions 
started in full speed for the fort. 

What was most remarkable, the moment the scouts gained the 
fort proved to be the only safe one that had for some days presented 
itself, as though a kind providence had opened the way for the safe 
arrival of the party to cheer the inmates of the perilous garrison. 

First reaching the gate of the esplanade, and finding it inacces- 
sible, they descended the river bank, and were soon admitted by 
the northern gate. 

Said one of the lieutenants of the fort : " The safe arrival of Oliver 
at that particular juncture may be considered miraculous. One 
hour sooner or one hour later, would no doubt have been inevitable 
destruction both to himself and his escort, , It is generally believed 
by those aeqaaintecl with the cii'cumstances, that not one hour, for 
eight days and nights preceding or following the hour which Mr. 
Oliver arrived, would have afforded an opportunity of any safety." 

So close was their contact with the Indians, in this fearful ride, 
that (hey even saw the beds upon which they lay as tliey main- 
tained their nightly guard. 

-c by Google 

Olivkie's Akeival at Fokt Wayne. 2)9 

Entering the general gateway ,wliicli was located al^out where now 
stands tlie reaidenees of the late Jas. B. Haona., or Martin Knoll, on 
Wayne atreet — the fort then, with several acres of ground, being 
enclosed by a sabstantial fence — a few moments more, and ail was 
safety. Xhe fort was gained, the north gate opened, and Oliver 
and his companions rode quickly in, to the great astonishment and 
joy of the little gai-riaon, who eagerly gathered about the heroic 
ridera to learn the news. 

Ohver's story was soon told. When the volunteers of Ohio, as- 
sembled at St. Mary's, learned the extent of the Indian force about 
Fort Wayne, they deemed it imprndent to advance with so small a 
force, and concluded to await the arrival of the Kentuckians, thus 
subjecting the garrison to astill longer state of suspense. The anx- 
iety was intense ; and it was through exti'eme good fortune, and 
mere accident, that the fort was enabled to hold out, with so little 
good management — " the commanding officer had been drunk 
nearly all the time, and the twolieuteuantsinefiicient raenj entirely 
unfit to hold. commissions of any grade," The non-commissioned 
officers and privates, eighty in number, behaved very well. The 
Indian agent was feeble and incapable of mnch exertion. Oliver, 
though a private citizen, was now iJie most efBcientmanin the fort. 

Having prepared a letter, announcing to General Harrison his 
safe arrival at the fort, and its beleaguered situation, Oliver imme- 
diately started his Shawanoe companions back with the letter to 
Worthington, while he determined to take his chances with the oc- 
cupants of the fort. 

Seeking an opportune moment, Logan and his companions left 
the fort safely, but were soon observed, and pursued. Their exid- 
tant shouts, however, soon revealed to the inmates of the garrison 
that tliey had outstripped their pursuers and passed the lines un- 

The Indians now again begun a furious attack upon the fort, but 
the little garrison bravely met (he assault, and were, in a few days 
more, enabled to hail the approach of the army. 

The name of Oliver deserves to be enshrined in every heart. 
Such heroism is seldom met with, and who among us to-day can 
fail to cherish a kindly memory and regard for so valiant and self- 
devotional a spirit as the brave, determined Wiltjam Olivkji '? 

At Cincinnati, the Kentucky volunteers elected Gov. Harrison to 
command them' as a major-generaL When he received the infor- 
mation from Oliver that Fort Wayne was in existence, he took up 
the hue of march for the scene of the beleagiired garrison. 

The faithful Shawanoes met the advancing army at Piqua, Ohio, 
where the message of Oliver was readily delivered to Gen. Hani- 
son, who at once drew his men together, and made them a speech. 
Said he, in part : " If there is a man under my command who lacks 
the patriotism to rush to the rescue, he, by paying back the money 
received Ironi the government, shall receive a discharge, as I do not 



wish to conimanti such," But one man responded to the proposi- 
tioo. His name was Miller, of the Kentucky militia; and having 
ohtained liis discharge, on the morning of the 6th, his comrades 
not willing to let him return without some special raanifestion of 
their appreciation of his coarse, put him on a rail, carried him 
around the lines to:the music of the Rogue's March, and down to 
the Miami, where they took him off the rail and let him into the 
water and baptized him in the name of " King George, Aaron Burr, 
and the Devil," As he came out of the water the men stood on the 
bank and threw handsfnl of inud on him, then, forming into two 
lines in an adjacent lane, made him run the gauntlet, each one 
throwing a handful of dirt on him, and then let him go. 

Soon after this event, on the morning of the 6th, the array began 
its march for Fort Wayne, encamping that evening in the woods, 
some twelve miles from Piqua. Early on the morning of the; 7th, 
(Monday) the army resumed its march. This day, says one of their 
number,* " we made fifteen miles, and encamped on a branch, 
three and a half miies this side of St. Mary's river. Next morning 
a melancholy accident happened. , In the act of receiving the 
guard a young man by the name of Thomas Polly, a sergeant in 
Captain Megowan's company, was shot by the accidental discharge 
of a gun in the hands of a sentinel by the name of Thos. Hamilton. 
The baU centered, the left side, below the nipple, and passed out 
near the backbone, perforating the lungs. We carried him on a 
litter to St. Mary's, where he lingered till the next day. This was 
the first death that had occurred during our march. This day, Sept. 
8th. we only marched to St. Mary's,! where we lay till next day. 
On this evening we were joined by two hundred mounted vohm- 
teers, under .Cc3. Richard M. Johnson, who had volunteered for 
thirty days, on hearing that Fort Wayne was besieged. Wednes- 
day, Sept. 9th, we marched eighteen miles, to what was called 
Shane's Crossing of St. Mary's. Here we overtook a regiment of 
eight hundred men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams and Plawldns, 
who had started on to the relief of Fort Wayne. On arriving at 
this place, an Indian, of the Shawanoe tiibe, a half blood, by the 
name of Logan, (who had been taken when a smjill boy by Gen, 
Benjamin Logan, of Lincoln county, Kentucky, and raised by him, 
but who, after arriving at miifcuiity, had gone back and joined his 
tribe) with four ot!iers, offered his services to Gen. Hai-rison as spies, 
which he accepted." 

Logan was a remarkable Indian, and had early merited the es- 
teem and confidence of the whites. Was some sis feet iff height, 
with robust form, broad shoulders, and prominent forehead. "Was 
greatly attached to General Harrison, and a warm friend to the 

*Jolin T). White, of Lam'enoeburghj lud. 

tAtftia polntflomo block-iionaPB were built for the eeoimty of provisions nnd pro- 
teoiion of the siek. Tiiie point lioJ prpyioiiGly bocn liiiown ns Girty Town, doubtless 
niter tlie famouB Simon Girtj. 


Incidests op thj; Army in its March to Fokt "\Vayne. 221 

American cause, for which he did much valuable sei^-iee as a guide 
and spy. 

Continues White ; " Previous to our arrival, Logan liad gone on 
in disgoiee, and passing through the camp of the .besieging party, 
had ascertained their number to be about fifteen hundred. Logan 
also went to the fort, and encouraged the soldiers to hold on, as re- 
lief was at hand. On this night, (the 9tb) the sentinels fired at what 
they imagined to be Indians, but, on esamination, next morning, an 
old horse was found shot, having strayed outside the camp. Thurs- 
day morning we marched early. Cols, Adams and HawJdus hav- 
ing waited several days to come up, (aft«r ascertaining the superi- 
ority of the enemy's forces) joined our army, and we all marched 
together. We now had about three tliouaand five hundred men. 
We marched ten miles and encamped. Nothing occurred of any 
interest. Friday morning we were under marching orders after 
early breakfast. It had rained, and the guns were damp. We 
were ordered to discharge them, and re-load, as we were theh get- 
ting into the vicinity of the enemy, and knew not how soon we might 
be attacked. A strong detachment of spies under Captain James 
Suggefc, of S(!0tt connty, marched considerably ahead of the army. 
Indications of the enemy having advanced from their position at 
Fort Wayne, for the pnrpose of watching the movements of onr 
army, were manifest, and Captain Sugget came upon the trail of a 
large party, which he immediately pursued. After following ' the 
trail some distance he was fired on by an Indian, who had secreted 
himself in a clump of bushes, so near to Sugget that the powder 
burnt his clothes, but the ball missed him. 'Bie Indian jumped 
from his covert and attempted to escape, hut Andrew Johnson, of 
Scott, shot him. At the crack of the gun, the Indian's gun and 
blanket fell. Supposing that .he had killed him, and being eager 
in pursuit of the trail, they made no halt ; but before they could 
overtake the Indians, they had to give up the pm-suit, on ac- 
count of the. lateness of the hour and the distance they were ahead 
of the army. On returning to where the Indian was shot, they 
found the gun and blanket, but he had escaped. They followed 
the blood for some distance and found pieces of his handkerchief, 
■which he had cut into plugs to stop the blood, but be had bleed so 
profusely that it had forced them out of the wound. On abandon- 
ing the pursuit of the wounded Indian, the party returned to the 
camp. We had marched about fifteen miles, and encamped an 
hour before Sugget's party arrived. Logan held up the bloody 
blanket and exhibited it as he rode along the line. Having repaired 
to Gen. Harrison's marque, orders were immediately issued for the 
troops to turn out and make a breastwork around the encampment, 
which order was promptly obeyed, and before dark the same was 
fortified by a breastwork, made by catting down trees and piling 
thera on each other. A strong picket guard was detailed and posted 
at a considerable distance from the line. After tattoo, at 9 o'clock, 


222 HiaTORY OP Fort Waynk. 

we lay down. After which the oiBcer of the night came round to 
give ns the Tvatchword, which was ' fight on,' (The watchword is 
given to the sentinel as weE as to the army, in order, that, in case 
of a night attack, and the sentinels haying to run into camp, may he 
distinguished from the enemy hy it.) Orders were given, that in 
case of two guns being fii'ed in quick succession, the soldiers were 
to repair to the hreastwork. From every indication wo had strong 
reasons for beheving that we would be attacked before day. We 
lay with our guns in our arms and cartridge boxes under our heads. 
AbootlO o'clock, just as the soldiers were in the enjoyment of 
' tired nature's eweet restorer,' they were aroused hy the firing of 
two guns by the sentinels, and the drums beatthe alarm. In a mo- 
ment all were at the breastwork, ready to receive the enemy. Juet 
about this time some fifty guns were fired by the sentinels, and 
some came running in hallooing at the top of their voices, ' fight on ;' 
and, notwithstanding we had orders not to apeak the watchword, 
the cry of ' fight on ' went entirely around the lines. If there had 
been an attack, and the enemy had understood English, it would 
have afforded tliem the advantage of getting into the lines by giv- 
ing the watchword. 

"The Indians, were around ue, and we were in momentary ex- 
pectation of an onset. At last all was calm again, and we were 
pennitted to rest. But just as we were in the sweet embraces of 
sleep, we were again aroused by the firing of a number of guns, 
and again we were as prompt in repairing to our posts. We now 
stood a considerable time, and all became quiet again, when we 
were ordered to count off one, two, three, and every third man was 
made to stand at the breastwork, and the rest were permitted to re- 
tire to their tents. At length day dawned, and the guards were 
relieved. We ascertained afterward, from Indians lakenpiisoners, 
that they came from their encampment with the design of making 
a niglit attack on xis, but on finding us so well prepared to receive 
them, they declined prosecuting their designs. 

" Without being able to get round the entire encampment before 
daylight of the morning of the 9th, the Indians returned to their 
own lines with the word that ' JTsntuok was coming as numerous 
as the trees.' 

"Lieut. Monday, of Kuley's company, of Madison county, Ky., 
and Ensign Herring, of Hart's companj', of Lexington, being offi- 
cers of the guard, both left' their guard lires and ran in when the 
firing commenced,* 

"Saturday, September lOtb, we expected to reach P'ort Wayne, 
but thought, in all probabiHty, we should have to fight our way, 
I'or the Indians lay at what was called the Black Swamp, five miles 
on this side of the fort, immediately on our road. We started after 

* OhiirgeB of eowai'dice huTing been preferred airsinat tJiese two ofHoera, aftei' (Jie nr- 
rival of Ihe army at Fort Wayna, a court ronvtial was ordered for their trial. Mmiday 
resigned and wenthoma. Heri'ing proved tliat lie stood liis ground till the whole guard 
lind left lilm, and wns therefore neqiiitted. 


AekivaIj of the Aemt at Foet Wayne. 233 

early troakfast (if a few Ijare "bones, boiled in water, could bo 
called a breakfast) and marched ■with much caution. From St. 
Mary's we had moved iu two lines, one on the right, and the other 
on the left of the road, at a distance of about one hundred yards 
therefrom, while the wagons kept ihe road. Sugget's spies went 
ahead, and on coming to where they had left the trail of t.he 
wounded Indian, they again took it, and after following it a short 
distance, found his dead body. When he found he coitld not survive, 
he broke bushes and covered himself over, and resigned to die. The 
Indiaus believe that if they lose their scalp, they will not be per- 
mitted to enter the favorite hunting ground which their tradition 
teaches them they are to inhabit after death. Hence they use every 
effort to prevent their enemies from getting the scalps of those slain 
in battle; and during an engagement a number are always em- 
ployed in caiTying off the dead. A short distance in advance of 
their camp, at the swamp, the spies returned with information that 
they were there, prepared to give ne battle. A halt was made, 
and the hue of battle formed. , Col. Hawkins, of the Ohio mounted 
volunteers, had left the lines and gone some distance from the road. 
Being partly concealed by a clump of boshes, one of his men 
taking him for an Indian fired at him and shot him through. The 
hall entered between the shoulders and came out at the breast — 
which, however, did not prove mortal. We again took up the line 
of march, and in a short time came in sight of the smoke of the 
camp of the enemy." 

At the first grey of the morning of the lOth of September, the 
distant halloos of the disappointed savages revealed to the anxious 
inmates of the fort the glorious news of the approach of the army. 
Great clouds of dust could be seen from the fort, rolling \ip in the 
distance, as the valiant soldiery, imder General Harrison, moved 
forward to the rescue of the garrison ; and soon after daybreak, the 
army stood before tlie fort. The Indians had beat a retreat to the 
northward and eastwai'd, and the air about the old fort resounded 
with the glad shouts of welcome to Gen. Harrison and the brave 
boys of Ohio and Kentucky I 

And again, as on former occasions, " the Key of the ■ northwest " 
had unlocked the great door of success ; and the country, though 
not yet through with its trials and conflicts with a wily and relent- 
less foe, was safe, and destined soon to triumphover every obstacle. 
The ])rophetic words of Washington, yeai-s before, were again 
most fully realized; and the scene of the Miami village, more surely 
than ever, pointed to " a most important post for the Union." 

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T'ligiit of the Lidiana on the p.pproaeli of tha army— The Foi't braiegpd tpli m- i-vrelm 
days— Ifooden oiinnon taade by tha Indiana—The little village oraund the foi-t 
destroy ed~Tlie oeenpants of Hie honaea about tha fort seek safety in. tlie fort— Tlie 
fort able to hold ont againat the Indians 'still lohgev — The old Well of tha fort— 
Oaptsin M'Afee'e acooiint — Hia prophecy and that of Captain WbIIb na to tha fU" 
tuvo of Jort Vayne — Loss in tlie forb during the siege — ShooHng an Indian in the 
St. Mary — Ohai^es ag^st Captain Rhea. — Rhea permitted to resign— -The aiiny 
formed into two detaohments to destroy the villages iu theregion of Fort Wayne — 
Destvnetioii of oom and Tegetabla— The totnb of a ohieF— The Tillage of Five 
Medals, near where Qoshen, Ind., now siands — Tho tomb of an Indian aoreecese— 
Evidenoes of Bfitiah aid— Return of the divisions to the fort — Arai^al of new rs- 
oniita at Fort Wayne— A forae sent to destroy tittle Turtle Town— The gi'onnd 
now occupied by tJie city of Fort TTayne mainly elearad by order of Ganeral Har- 
rison— An imposing soene — All approach cutoff— Gen. Hurrison'a report — Arrival 
of Gen. WinoheBter at Fort W^ne — Popularity of Gen. Barciaon — Winoheeter t^i 
take onmmaad of the army — Dissatisfaoiaon among the aoldierB at tlie proposed 
change of genei'ala— A reooooiliBtlon — Gen. Harriaon's return to Piqua — An eXpp- 
ditaon a^nsl Detroit — Movemente of .Gen. Winchester — Indiana disoovei'ed — A 
party aurprised, captured, and five killed. 

^ HE INDIANS liad mainly fled the eveniiig before the anival 
TO)of the army. Some, however, ivere courageoas enough to re- 

fmain until within a few moments before the army reached the 
fort, who " were pursued by the Ohio horsemen, but without 
Bucceea." The fort had now been closely besieged for ten or 
twelve days ; and the Indians, in their effoi-is to capture it, had made 
several pieces of wooden cannon, which they strengthened with 
iron hoops. Previous to the commencement of the siege, there 
were several dwellings near the fort, " forming," says M'Afee, " a 
handsome little vUlage ; but it was now (on the arrival of the army), 
in ruins, having been burnt down by the Indians, together with the 
United States' factory," 

The occupants of the dwellings aurronnding the fort, as the siege 
began, sought refuge within the gariison, where they remained in 
safety till the army ai'iived, . 

The fort, during the siege, was well supplied with provisions. 

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Eablt Feofhecy Cokoekkins Foet Watnb. 225 

Tliere was a good well* of water within tlie eucloeure; and they 
had also four small field pieces. With these advantages, unless, at- 
tacked by a formidable British force, tiiej were well prepared to 
oppose the efforts of the Indians for several days longer. 

Of tlie fort, at this period, which was the same built by order. of 
Gen. Wayne, in 1794, in connection with other relations of this point, 
Captain M'Afeef said .:," Ifc is dolightfally situated, on an eminence 
on the south bank of the Miami of the lakes, immediatoly below 
the formation of &at river by the junction of the St. Mary's from 
the southwest with the St. Joseph's from the north. It is well con- 
structed of block houses and picketing, but could not resist a British 
force, as there are several eminences on the soiith-side, from which 
it could be«3ommanded, by a six or nine poumier, 

"This iB. the place where the Miami Indians formerly had their 
principal town ; and here many an unfortunate prisoner suffered 
death by burning at the stake. It was here also, that Gen. Harmar 
suffered his army to be cut up and defeated in detachments after 
he had burnt the town in the fall of the year 1790, For more than 
a centuiy before that time, ifc had been the principal place of ren- 
dezvous between the Indians of the lakes, and those of the Wabash 
and Illinois, aud.had. been much resorted to about the year '56 and 
previously, by French traders from Canada. The Maumee is navi- 
gable for boats from this place to the lalie, and tie portage to the 
nearest navigable branch of the Wabash, is but seven or eight 
mUes, through a level, marahy prairie, from which the water runs. 
bpth to the Wabash and St. Marys. . A. oanal at some future day 
wUl unite these rivers, and thus render a town at ^ort Wayne, as 
formerly., the most considerable place in that country. 

" The corn which had been cultivated in the fields, by the vil- 
lagers, w^ nearly all desti-oyed by the Indians ; the remUins served 
as forage for the mounted corps. Captain Wells, who was massa- 
cred at Chicago, had a handsome farm in the forks of the river, 
with some good buildings, whi<^h wero all de-stroyeif in the goneral 

During the siege, the gan-ison lost but tliree men.. From subse- 
quent information, it was believed that, the India.n loss was about 
twenty-live. Eight wore seen to fall'. One Indian was killed at a 
distance of three hundred yards, while standing in the St. Mary's 
river. A soldier by the name of King, with a long heavy rifle, fired, 

« Tie. tpjioes of this well nre yet plsiqly to be seen. It was neai- tlio uortliweat end of 
the fort, now to be seen just at the edge of the south sideof tha oanal. 

t Author of the " Histoiy of the Late War in the Weate™ Country," pnblislied in 
1816. M'Afee was here in ISIS. It is from Ibis old volume tbattlio writer hae been 
enabled to draw many Taluable aud inb9:esting facta relating to the early History of 
FortWilyne. M'Afeo'a woi-da in reference to the construction of a oanal by this point 
and the Bubsequent jtrowlh of a "town at Fort Wayne," have been most conoluflivoiy 
realized. The writer also learned from early aettlera that tjie unfortunate Oapt. Wella, 
(killed at Chicago) some yeate before the war ef ISIS, had often' told peraona here that 

"abigditoh" would one day lie dug fvoa ''--''-'- ^i---n---i^^ ^ i-.i- i--.- 

'OTild run — and that thero would alao be a ) 
ilieved, in fact, thought very immwlwate it 

10 IK, Google 

226 History of Fokt Wathe. 

and the ball took effect in the back of the savage, between his 
shoulders, and he fell into the water. Thia feat was witnessed by 
the whole garrison. 

Immediately after the arrival of Gen. Harrison, Lientenanta 
Oatrander and Curtis, -preferred charges against Oapt. Rhea, and 
called upon Major Sticlmey, the agent, as a witness. The General 
assembled bis principal officers as a Board of Inquiry, and upon the 
testimony of the agent, that Rhea was drank six days during the 
siege^be Board thought he ought no longer to hold a commission. 
Gen. Harrison, mainly because of his advanced age, granted Oapt, 
Rhea the alternative of a resignation, {which he complied with,) 
to take effect the first day of January following. 

The second day following the arrival of the army h^e. General 
Harrison formed his army into two detachments, with a view of de- 
stroying the Indian villages in the region of country lying some 
miles around Fort Wayne, the first division being composed' of the 
regiments under Cols. Lewis and Allen, and Captain Garrard's 
troop of horse, under Gen. Payne, accompanied by Gen, Harrison. 
The second division, under Col. Wells, accompanied by a battalion 
oi' his own regiment, under Major Davenport, (Scott's regiment,) 
the mounted battalion under Johnson, and the mounted Ohio men 
under Adams. 

In order that their means of subsistence might also be cut off, it 
was determined, while destroying the Indian viilages in the region, 
to cut np and destroy their corn and other products. 

After a march of a few mUes, the troops under Payne came to 
the Miami villages, at the forks of the Wabash, where, finding the 
villages abandoned, the troops were ordered to cut up the corn and 
destroy the vegetables in the field adjacent. At this point, says 
M'Afee's account of the expedition, was observed. " the tomb of a 
chief, built of logs, and bedanbed with clay." This chief " was laid 
on hf s blanket, with his gun and his pipe by his side, a' small titi 
pan on his breast, containingawoodenspoon,and a number of ear- 
rings and brooches — all deemed necessary, no doubt, on his jour- 
ney to the other world." 

On the 16th of September, the body under Col. Wells had ad- 
vanced to tlie Pottawattamie village, known as Five Medals, on the 
Elkhart river, in what is now Elkhart county, near the town of 
Goshen. Having crossed the river, aboot three miles above the 
village, and formetl in order of battle, " in a plain, thinly timbered," 
the division advanced to the right and left of the village, and then 
surrounded it ; but, to the regret 06 all, the place was found, de- 
sorted, the Indians having abandoned it two days bcftoe, leaving 
behind considerable quantities of " corn, gathered and laid on scaf- 
folds to dry, with abundance of beans, potatofes, and other vegeta- 
bles, which fnrnished an ample store of provisions for the men and 
forage for the horaea. This village was called Five Medals, from a 
,^hief of that name, who made it his residence. On a pole, before 


Destbuciiok of the viixage op Five Medals, 227 

the door of that chief, a red. fla^ was hung, with a hroom tied ahove 
it ; and oq another poie at the tomb of an old women, a white flag 
was flying. The body of the old wonran wae entire, sitting npi-ight, 
with her face towards the east, and a basket beside her, containing 
tiiukets, such as owl and hawk bills and claws, a variety qf bones, 
and bunches of roots tied together ; all of which indicated that she 
had been revered ae a sorceress. In one of the hiits was found a. 
morning report of one of Enil's Captains, also a Liberty Hall 
newspaper, printed at Cincinna.ti, containing an account of General 
Hamson's army. Several coai-se bags, which appeared to have 
contained shot, and pieces of boxes with London and Maiden printed 
on them, were also picked up in the cabin ; which proved that these 
Indians were intimately connected with the jJritiah, and had been 
furnished with information by some one, perhaps, in our own coun- 
try. This village, with some seventy acres of com, was desti-oyed, 
and the same evening the army, on its return, march, reached the 
Elkhart river ; and after a most fatigiiing march, for those on foot, 
and from the efleets of which one man died soon after the return of 
the division, the army arrived again at ihe fqrt on the l8th, a few 
lionrs after the body under Payne had returned."* 

On the day previous to the return of these divisions, (17th), Col. 
Simrall, with a regiment of dragoons, armed with muskets, and 
numbering some three hundred and twenty men ; also a company 
of mounted riflemen, under Col, Farrow, from Montgomery county, 
Ky., had an-ived at the fort ; and on the same evening of the return 
of the divisions ntlder Payne and WeUs, Gen. Harrison sent them 
to destroy Little Turtle Town, some twenty miles northwest of the 
fort, with orders not to molest the buildings formerly erected by 
the United States, for the benefit of Little Turtle, whose friendship 
for the Americans had ever been firm after the treaty of Greenville. 

Colonel Simi'aU most faithfully performed the task assigned him, 
and on tho evening of the l9th, returned to, the fort. 

In addition to these movements, General Harrison took the pre- 
caution to remove all the uudergrowtli in the locality surrounding 
the fort, extending towards tlie confluence of the St. Joseph and St. 
Mary, to where now stands Budisill's mill, and westward as far as 
St. Mary, tothe point where now stands ihe Fort Wayne College, 
thonce south-east to about the point of the residence of the late 
Ailen Hamilton, and to the east down the Maumee a short distance. 
And BO well cleared was the ground, including a very large part 
of the entire limits of the present site of the city of Fort Wayne, 
that it was said by those who were here at that early day and to a 
later period, a sentinel '^ on tho bastions of the fort, looking west- 
ward, could see a rabbitt runaing across the grounds as far as so 
small an object was discernable to the naked eye." 

The seclusiye points were thus cut off, and the Indians now had 
no longer any meaos of concealing their approach upon the fort. 

•M'Afeo. ' 

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228 HisTosY OF FoKi Wayne. 

and the scene thus presented by the destruction of the tinderbrash, 
including many trees, of some growth, was said to have beon quite 
imp.isitig indeed. Some thirty or forty acres, of wHat ianow the Cole 
farm, extending to the junction of the rivers, and just opposite the 
Maumee, was then known as the Public Meadow, whichj of course, 
■wi.8 then, as it bad long before been, a considerable opGn space. 

The soldiers were thus readily enabled to observe tlie approach 
of any hostile movement, against the fort, and to open the batteries, 
with formidable eifect, upon any advance that might be made 
against the garrison, from any direction. 

General Harrison now made an official report of transactions here 
to the War Department j and about the l&th of September, Briga- 
dier-general James Winchester arrived at the Fort, with a view of 
taking command of the first division ot Kentucky troops, which had 
early marched to reinforce the northwestern army. 

General Winchester had seen service in the revolutionary strug- 
gle, as an officer of distinction, and at this period was somewhat 
advanced in years. Was a man of some wealth, and resided in the 
State of Tennessee, where he is said to have " lived many years in 
a degree of elegant luxury and ease, which was not calculated to 
season him for a northern campaign in tlie forest." 

General Harrison was ever a favorite with the soldiers, and there 
was probably no man in the country at this period who could com- 
mand a greater amount of esteem from the masses, or who could 
move at the head of an army with greater confidence and regard 
from the soldiers under him, both officers and privates, than he 
could; and when General Winchester arrived, it was soon un- 
derstood that he was to take command of the forces. This pro- 
duced much uneasiness among the troops, not that Winchester was 
by any means an inferior officer, but that Harrison was the favorite ; 
and the boys wanted him to lead them. Indeed, so great was the 
aversion to the change, that many of the mihtia were disposed not 
to be under bis command ; and it was with much difficulty that 
General Harrison* and the field officers succeeded in reconciling 
them to the change of officers. 

As it is a matter most essential that all raw troops should 
have the largest confidenee in their commander, so the militia, at 
this particular juncture of affairs, needed the greatest confidence in 
their commanding-general, and much of this was unfortunately lost 
to the men by a change of general officers. 

The men being at length prevailed on to march under General 
Winchester, with the confident belief that Gen. Harrison would 
sooner or later be reinstated, and again i^sume command of them, 
* Snye M'Af^ : " The troops hud confidntntly expeeted, that General H^rnson would 
boOiinfirmed in theBonimand; ami by tiiis time, lie had oompleWly secured Uie cotfi- 
4(ipC'' of every soldier in tJie army. Hi> ivaa affuble and couitciiiiH in hia muunecB, and 
in4*fi»*ig»Wc it) his attention bn^eiy braiieh of buBinffla, His aoldipra aeem to antioi- 
jiStBthflffioiiKSOf Mlt^geiienili'it wasonly iieoc^Bory to be known that he wiBhsdaoiae- 
Sijing dooB. and all -wete anxious to riak their lives in its aeuomiiliahment." 


Movements of the Akmy under Gm. ^Vinchhstee. 229 

on the 19th of September, the command of the troops, by jv gen- 
oral order, at the fort, were trannferred to General Winch(;ster, 
placing " any part of the infantry which he might deem necessary 
to tlie extension of hie plana, at his disposal." 

The same evening, after the issuance of this order. Gen. Harri- 
son started on his retarn, towards Piqua, to take oommand of the 
forces collecting in the rear; and to arrange for a mounted expedi- 
tion against Detroit — intending thus to malre a coup de main, on 
that point, marching by way of a route but little known, from Fort 
Wayne, up the St. Joseph, from thence to the head waters of the 
river Eaisin. These troops consisted ot three regiments from Ken- 
tucky, under Barbee, Payne, and Jennings ; tiiree companies of 
mounted riflemen from the same State, under Captains Roper, Ba- 
crfn, and Clarke ; also a corps ol' mounted men from Ohio, who had 
rendezvoused at Dayton on the 16th, in obedience to a prior cail 
by Governors Meigs and Harrison, which they had made early in 
September, intending to employ them against some Indian towns, 
the corps being commanded by Col. Findiey, who had again ea- 
tered the service since the surrender of GeneralHall at Detroit. 

On the 20th General Harrison met the mounted men and the 
regiment of Jennings at St. Mary's (Girty Toiyn), the remainder of 
the infantry being still further in the rear. The General having 
left word at the fort here for Johnson's battalion and Gol. S^mrall'a 
dragoons, which were not. included in General Winchester's com- 
mand, to return to St. Mary's as early as possible, Major Johnson, 
on the morning of the SUth, in accordance therewith, took up his 
line of march, and after an advance of some twenty mites, was met 
by orders from General Harrison to return to Fort Wayne- again, 
and there await further orders, with his dragoons, which was 
promptly complied with, excepting ensign Wm. Holton, with about 
twenty-five men of Captain Ward's company, who, refusing to obey 
orders, started to return home,, to Kentucky. The next evening, 
the remainder of the corps under Johnson reached Fort Wayne 

General Winchester had now removed his. camp to the forks of 
the Manniee ; and early on the 22d of September, he moved down 
the north side of that stream, over very nearly the saiie route as 
that bv which General Wayne's army had reached the Miami vil- 
lages in ITiM:, intending to go as far as Fort Defiance, at the mouth 
of the Auglaize, with a view of forming a junction there with the 
infantry in the rear, who were to como from the St. Marys, by way 
of the Auglaize, 

Before leaving the forks of the Maumee, Winchester issued the 
following order : 

" The front gnaril in .three lines, two deep in the road, and in Inilian filrt on the 
flftnka at dists nets of filly and oue hnndved yardi, as the ground will admit.. A fatigue 
pM^y to consist oC one euptam, oneenaigii, two aopguanta, and two corporals, with fiky 
men, will follow the frant gvuii'd for tim pui'j oss of oj-eniug tlie road. The remainder 
of the infantiy to mai-oli ou the UauIli in the following oi'd^r : coluni^ WelU and AI- 


230 rirstoKY uF i'oJiT Wathe. 

lea's rsgiments on tJie right, and Lewis and Scott's on the left. ■ The general and brig- 
ade baggage, oojiiiaiesanes and ciiiartcrniaaters' stores, imiaediutely ;in the war of the 
fatigue partj. The cavalry in tbo following order; oaptaia GairsT'd and tweaty of liis 
men to precede the guard in front, and equally divided ot the head of each line ; a 
lieuteuant and eighfeeu men in the rear of die whole acniy and baggage; the balance of 
the oaralry equafiy divided on the flanks or the Bank lines. The regimental baggage 
■wagons will fall according to Uie reepective ranks of their commanding officers. The 
offioecH commanding ootps'previooe to their marching -will examine carefully the arms 
and ammunition of their respective eorpa, and see that they are in good order. They 
will also be particularly careful, that tie men do not waste their cartridges. No loaded 
muskflta are to be put in the wasone. Oae half of the fatigue party is to work at a 
time, and the othertj will carry their arms. The wagon master will attend to loading 
tlie wagons, and see that tlie various arUclea are put in, in good order, and that eaoS 
wagon and team carry a reasonable load. The horn' of mareli will be 9 o'clock thia 
morning. The ofScur of the day is charged with this order. The line ot battle will bo 
tiie same as that of General Harrison in his last march to Fort Wayne." 

The March down the Maiimee waa continued with great precau- 
tion, and the camp strongly fortified every niglit, advancing only 
iibout five and six miles each day. Not many miles had been 
gained before a party of Indians were discovered, and the signs 
were strong that there were many more in the region. .: A volunteet 
company of spies having previously been organized, tinder Captain 
Ballard, Lieutenant Harrison Mnnday, of the rifle regiment, and 
Ensign Liggett, of the 17th U. S. Infantry, they were usually kept 
in advance to reconnoiter the conutry. On, the 25th, Ensign Lig- 
gett having obtained permission, to proceed as far as Tort Defiance, 
he was accompanied by four men of McOracken's company, from 
Woodford, Kentucky, Late that evening, while preparing some 
fpodj they were discovered by a Frenchman and eight Indians, who 
surprised them, with a demand to surrender, being postively as- 
sured that they would not be hurt, and also be permitted to wear 
their arras till they entered the British camp. With these condi- 
tions, says il'Afee's account,*! they surrendered ; but the Indians 
and Freuchraaii, as tliey walked on, concocted, in their. own lan- 
guage, and executed the following plan for their destmction : Five 
of the Indians, eiich iiaving marked his victim, walked.behiiid and 
on one side of the men, and, at a given signal, fired upon them. 
i'our oi them fell dead — Liggett only escaped the first fire — he 
sprung to a tree, bat was shot also while raising his gun, to his 
face. Next day. Captain Ballard, with a part of his company, be- 
ing in advance, discovered the dead bodies, and a party of Indians 
watching near tliem. He formed his men for action, with the Maii- 
mee on his right; but not liking his position, and perceiving that 
the Indians were too strong for him, he fell, back two hundred 
yards, and formed in a stronger position. The enemy supposing 
ne had iied, filed ofi" from their right flank, intending to sniTOond 
him 'On his left, and .cut oif hi& retreat. He heard them pass by on 
his left withoat discovering him, and then filed off by the left in 
their rear, and by a circuitous route arrived safe at the camp. 

Lieutenant Munday, with another part of the spies, presently hap- 
pened at the same place, and discovering some Indians, who still 
*" Hia. Late Wariu Western Country," page 135to ]jagol52. 


Defeat of plan to Massacre Fokts Wayne and Hakkison. 231 

remained there, formed his men and charged upon them, at the 
same time saluting them with their own yell. They fled precipi- 
tately, and Monday, on diacovering their superior numbers, took 
advantage of their panic to retreat, hirnself. Next morning, the 
27th, Captain Ballard, with the spies and Captain Garrard's troop 
of horse, accompanied by Major Woolfork, aid to the general, and 
some other volnnteers, went forward to bury the dead. The In- 
dians were sfcill in ambush; hut Captain Ballard expecting it, ap- 
proached them in a different direction, so as to disconcert their 
plans. He attucked them with a brisk fire, and Captain Garrard 
immediately ordered a charge, on which they fled in every direc- 
tion, leaving trails of folood from their killed and wounded. 

These Indians were the advance of an army destined to attack 
Fort "Wayne, consisting of 300 regulars under Major Muir, with 
four pieces of artillery, and about 1000 Indians, commanded by 
EUiott. They had brought their baggage and artilleiy by water 
to old Fort Defiance, at the mouth of the Auglaize, where they 
had left their boats and were advancing up Qie south side of 
the Manmee towards Fort "Wayne. 

Upon the approach of "Winchester, they threw their cannon into 
the river, together with'ihgir fixed ammnnition, and retreated in 
great haste. Gen. Winchester did not pursue them. 

And thus the original plan of the British authorities, at Detroit 
and Maiden, to take the posts of Forts Wayne and Harrison, then 
to give them up to massacre, and to turn about 1500 Indians loose 
upon the frontier, to kill and lay waste, had now come to defeat. 

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SitUBtioii of fort HaiTieou— Tljestvatageiii {<»■ it 

and ohildreii, gaUiered there in Inrge narnL™ ^ , 

bo admitted into the fort— Ona of the biflck-houBee fl»d— The iBdiunB open fire 
■upon the fort — &. critical inoaient — Two men, of Ihefopb, aoftle the.pioketing — Ouu 
of tlieni fcillod, tlie other iifounded — Retreat ofjtJie Indians — Tl)e garrison i^; paired 
— Captain Taylor prepares for a aieg^^SoaW'ly of food — A mesBonger 8noeee<3s in 
passing tlie Indian lines at night — Cajit. TiSyloi' breveted for his bcoTery-^His 
foroo but 50 men — Foroe of the Indiana large — The Indians esaaperated at their 
defeat— Thsy leave the localily of Fort Harrison for the " Pigeon-Roost settle- 
ment "—Two men killed wlien within two miles of the settlement^ '"' ■"' ' 

Inrprised— fhe maaaaere— 93 men, women, ilnd ehildreo kiUed ii 
—A fe ' ■ ■ ■ 

Indiana — Dangers and sufferioga of the pioneers — Zabulun CoUinga' aoeouut — 
Begimeuteef Kentucky — Eecraite of the regtdar ^ — -■ '- "■ - '—--- — 

ment ■'— Two men killed wlien within two milea of the settlement^The aettltn 
iniprised— file maaaaere— 93 men, women, ilnd ehildreo kiUed in a few minutes 
— Aifewonly make their escape— The alarm giveji by those making theij' escape — 
A partyceaoliw the scene of the rnassaore— The buildingsburnod, and the bodies 
msini)' consnmod by tho il amis— Burial, in one grave, of thai'emains— Traii of tlia 
'""'"" ■" "" ' " ■■ ■ !era — Zabulun CoUinga' account — 
. . „ ir army ordered to the frontier — 
Transportation of eupplies — report of General Harrison — A movement against the 
British — Logan, the shawanoe half-breed, sent to take obserrations — He and his 
party overpowered — Their retreat to the enmp of Gen. Winohestei' — Logan bus- 
pedsd of being in oompliotlty with the enemy — Logan's feelings greatly wound- 
ed — Ha resolvea 6i> prove himself true — Logan and his attendants move again — 
" A ptisoner or a eoalp " — They meet a auperior party — Stratagem of Logan — A 
detauhment sent against the Indians ontiie Hiaaisainiwa — A sharp eqcounter — Loss 
and flight of the Indians — Teenmseh in the region — Return of the detachment — 
Privations of the army — The govei'nniant .and people restless — Advance of G*n. 
Winchastei" — Movement of troops under Lewis and Allen apon Frenohtown — The 
British prepai'e for an attack; — Their advance and attack — The AmerieaHa over- 
powered — Terribleslanghter— Ferocity and barbarity of tlie Indians — Capture of 
Gen. Winchester— Bravery and death of Col, John Allen — Oreat valor of Majors 
Graves and Madison — Their refusal to surrender to Gen. Proctor — Hon'ible 
alanghter of tie wounded by Hie Indians — Many burned alive — Movements of 
General Han'ison for the relief of tlie sufferers at Frenchtortn — (Confinement of Gen. 
Wiuehester, Col. Lewis, and Major Madison at Quebec — Sad feeling of the country 
at tho disastei' of Frenoht<iwn--^eiiewBd efforts, and heavy reinforcements to the 
army of HaiTisen. n— 

r|jri>HILE tlie garrison hero is on tlie look-oat for the wily 

^rabi foe that; had now begun to prowl about again, occasionally 

Qj(^ visiting the fort in the guise of friendship, and the north- 

ffi:f western trooi)s are engaged in active preparations for au 

® advance on Detroit, the attention of the reader is turiifcd again 


in the direction of the Wabash and Fort Harrison. Oapt. Zacliary 
I'aylor was in couimand of this fort at this period. Sratagem, to 
the time of tlio' eiege here, had well-nigh assumed an epidemical 
form with the different tribes. It waa an ancient artifice. It had 
often been resorted to as a means of snccess, and seldom failed in 
its operations, if cautiously engineered. Occasionally^ however, a 
Gladwyu, a Harrison, or »■ Johnson was met by the Indians, in their 
pnrpOBOB and plans, and then, after a desperate effort, they usually 
came to defeat. 

On the Sd of September, a body of Winnobagoes and Kickapoos, 
men, women, and children, had gathered about Fort Han-ison, and 
desired, as on many similar occasions, at other points, to be admit- 
ted into the fort, 'with the pretense of holding a counoU — insisting, 
also, that they were greatly in need of food. 

Two men having been killed on the 3d, Oapt. Taylor at once sus- 
pected their designs, and giving them something to eat, refused to 
adniit thorn. But this did not suffice. They continued to loiter 
about the fort, still insisting upon their friendship. On the night of 
the 4th, their designs were made -fully manifest. Setting fire to one 
of the block-houses, a large number of ivaniors, who had been con- 
cealed nearby, now opened a brisk fire, upon the fort, which was 
readily returned by the garrison. Several desperate charges were 
made by the Indians, in which an effort was made to fire the fort 
in several places, and then to enter by tjie breach ; but they were 
bravely repulsed and entirely defeated at ev.eiy side. "So critical 
and alarming was' the situation of the garrison," says M'Afee, " that 
two of the men jumped over the picketing, preferring the chance 
of escape through the ranks of the enemy, to the prospect of being 
burnt or massacred in ttie fort; one of Whom was killed, and the 
other retreated back to' the walls of the fort after being wounded, 
and concealed himself behind some old barrels till the next morn- 
ing, when the Indians retreated, though still hovering aboiitwifchin 
view of the fort for seven or eight days afterwards." 

The garrison was now repaired and .strengtiiened, and Captain 
Taylor prepared himself for a regular siege. The destruction of 
the block-house, in which were stored the provisions of the fort, 
was severely felt, as it exposed the men to the rigors of hanger in 
the lack of food. Daring the siege but three men had been killed, 
and about that number wounded. A small amount of. corn, raised 
near the fort, was their only reliance for fopd for several days; 
while an effort to dispatcJh a messenger to Vincennes seemed out 
of the question, until, at length, a messenger succeeded in passing 
the Indian encampment at night. 

For his valiant conduct in defending the fori. Captain Taylor re- 
ceived much praise, and was theretW soon after breveted a major. 
His force in the ga-n-ison did not exceed fifty men, many of whom 
were sick. Tho force ■ of the enemy was . quite large, comprising 

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234 History of Foet Wayke. 

about; all the IndiaDs that could, at that time, he collected in that 
part of the country. 

Greatly perplexed and exasperated at their failure, a large part 
of. the ladlans engaged against Fort Harrison, now soon started tor 
a little settlement, known as "the Pigeon Roost settlement," at the 
fork of White river, in what is now Scott county, in this State, This 
settlement was founded in 1809 ; embraced an opening of aboat one 
square mile, and was, about five miles distant from any other set- 
tlement. When within abont two miles of the settlement, the In- 
dians discovered two men of the same, who were hunting bee trees, 
These were killed, and then moving forward to the settlement, they 
surprised and maeaaered, in a. few moments, twenty-three men, wo- 
men, and children, a few . only succeeding in making their escape. 
" The children," says M'Afee, " had their brains knocked out against 
trees," etc. 

A large party now soon collected, and repaired to the scene of 
the massacre, where the bodies, many of them partially constlmed 
in the flames of the mined buildings, wore collected together, and 
buried in one grave. 

Many of the Indians engaged in this massacre, were Shawanoes, 
and their trail was followed for several miles, in the direction of the 
Delaware towns, at the head of White river, but without saccess. 

A Mr. ZebuluD Oollings, who resided about six miles from the 
Pigeon-Roost settlement, thus relates the dangers aiid vicissitudes 
under which he proscuted' his farm labors, and lived from day to 
day during much of those early times, which will doubtless also 
serve as an example of the hardships and dangers of most of the 
pioneers of those early days. Sayshe: "The manner in which I 
used to work, in those perilous times, was as follows: On all oc- 
casions I carried my rifle, tomahawk, and butcher-knife, with a 
loaded pistol in my belt. When I went to plow, 1 laid my gun on 
tJie plowed ground, and stuck up a stick by it, for a mark, so that I 
could get it quick in case it was wanted. I had two good dogs. I 
took one into the house, leaving the other out. The one outside 
was expected to give the alarm, which would cause the one inside 
to bark, by which I would be awakened, having my arms always 
loaded, I kept my horses in a stable, close to the honse, having a 

rort-hole, so that I could shoot to the stable door. During two yeai-g 
never went from home with any certainty of returning — ^not know- 
ing the minute I might receive a bail from an Unknown hand; bxifc 
in the midst of all these dangers, that God who never sleeps nor 
slumbers, has kept mo." 

The regimente of Colonels Wilcox, Miller, and Barbour, of the 
Kentucky militia, were now on their march to Vincennes, but they 
did not aiTive in time to meet the Indians at Fort Harrison: Col, 
Russell being advised of its ■critical situation, collected. some com- 
panies of rangers and Indiana militia, and, by forced marches, ar- 
rived there on the 13th, to the great joy of the garrison, who were 

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in a starving condition. Several wagons with provisions were now 
ordered up to the fort, under aa escort of 13 men, commanded by 
lieutenant Fairbanks, of ■ the regulars. After Colonel Russell had 
met and passed this party on his return, they were Burpriaed and 
literally cut to pieces by the Indians, two or three only escaping. 
Major M'Gary, with a battalion of Colonel Barbour's regiment, was 
at the same time on his way with provisions for the garrison; and 
being reinforced with some compames of Russell's rangers, they 
arrived in safety at the fort, having buried the mangled remains of 
the regulars on their way. In the Illinois and Missouri Territoiiea, 
depredations had also been oommitted hythe Indians. Governor 
Edwards, of the Illinois Territory, had been very attentive to these 
matters. He had sent spies into the Indian country, by whom he 
had ascertained, that they were greatly elated with their success 
and the prospect of driving the white people over the Ohio river, 
and were determined to carry on a desperate war against the. fron- 
tiers in the month of September, To meet the emergency, he had 
called, under authority from the war department, on the governor 
of Kentucky for a regiment of men ; and Colonel Barbour's regi- 
ment had been ordered by Governor Siielby to march to Kaskaa- 
kia ; but General Gibson, the acting governor of Indiana, ordered it 
to Vincennes when Fort Harrison was in danger, conceiving that he 
was authorized to take such a step, as the heiitenant of Governor 
Harrison, who was commandet-in-chief of all the forces in those 
Territories^ Governor Edwards, though deprived of this aid, made 
vigorous exertions to defendhis settlement. He embodied a portion 
of the militia, which he held in readiness to act whenever danger 
might present. Several companies of rangers were also encamped 
on the Mississippi, above St. Louis, and on the Illinois river. These 
troops served to fceep the savages in check in those regions.* 

General Harrison continued his headquarters at Franklinton and 
Delaware, for the most part employing himself in. the superintend- 
ence of supplies, and early in October he ordered *' all the reeruilB 
of the regular army in the western States to be marched to the 

For several months the army was now chiefly engaged in the 
transportation of supplies over the diiferent routes they had, or 
were sooner or later to, march. In this relation, many difficulties 
arose, which were most fully set forth hy General Harrison at the 
time, in hisreport to the President and war department. On the 
2M of October, he said: " I am not able to fix any period for the 
advance of the troops to Detroit, It is pretty evident, that it can- 
not be done, on proper principle, until the frost shall become so se- 
vere as to enable us to use the rivers and the margin of the lake, 
for the transportation of the baggage on the ice. To get suppKes 
forward, throngh a swampy wiidei'neas of near two hundred miles, 
in wagons or on packhorses, which are to carry their own provis- 

' M'AEee. 

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236 History of Fokt Wayne, 

ions, i« aisolutaly impossible.''^ The object, said he, "nan lie ac- 
complished by using the margin of the lake as above mentioned, if 
the ti-oops are provided with warm clothing, and the winter is such 
as it conimonly is in this climate." " No species of supplies are 
calculated on being fonnd in the Michigan Territory. Xhe farms 
npon the river Kaisin, which might have afforded a quantity of 
forage, are nearly all broken up and destroyed. This article, then, 
as well aa the provisions for the men, is to be taken from this State 
— a circumstance which must at once put to rest every idea for a 
land conveyance at this season — since, it would require at least two 
wagons with forage, for each one that is loaded wifJi provisions and 
other articles." 

The ■moat important events, of a military character, that had 
transpired, up to the 22d of November, were a somewhat success- 
ful, though perilous movement npon a party of British and Indians 
at the Eapids, by a small body of troops under General Tapper, 
wherein the former were mainly put t-o flight, bat after the retreat 
of the British and many of the Indians, — a few of Tupper's men 
having imthoughtedly given chase to a number of hogs for a dis- 
tance of half a mile tron\ the main body, — four of them were killed 
by the Indians. The British and Indians now fell back upon the 
river Raisin. 

Soon after this movement, Oapt. James Logan, the faithful Shaw- 
anoe chief, mentioned in a previous chapter, in connection with 
thearmy in its efforts to succor the fort here, in the early part of 
September, by orders from General Harrison, had proceeded with 
a smalt number of his tribe, to make observations in the direction 
of the Rapids. Having met and been closely pursued by a supe- 
rior force, when near that point, ke and his men- were obliged to 
disperse and retreat ; and Logan, with but two of his comrades — 
Capt. John and Bright-Horn — succeeded in reaching the camp of 
Gen. Winchester, where he faithfully recounted what had occurred. 
There were some persons in the camp, however, who suspected him 
of having been in complicity with the enemy, and so intimated, 
greatly to the d^pleasure and mortification of Logan, who at once 
determined to refute the charge by a still further manifestation of 
his fidelity to the American cause. 

Accordinffly, on the 22d of November, accompanied by Capt. 
John and Bright-Horn, he started a second time in the direction of 
the Rapids, resolved to bring in - a prisoner or a scalp. Having 
proceeded down the north side of the Maumee, about ten miles, 
they. met with a British officer, the eldest son of Col. Elliott, and five 
Indians. ■ Four of them being on horseback, and too strong for 
them, and having no chance of escape, Logan at once determined 
to pass them under the pretense of friendship and a desire to com- 
municate to the British certain information. With this determina- 
tion, they confidently advanced to the party, one of whom, proved 
to be Winnemae, the Pottawattamie chief, with whom the reader 


Death op Logan, the Shawanoe Ghide and Spy. 237 

is already familiar, who isnfortunately knew Logan well, and was 
fully aware of' his rpgard for and adlierance to the Amerieao cause. 
But, nevertheless, Logan persisted in liis first couree, telling them 
he was on his way to (lommunicate with the British. After a con- 
versation of some time with them, they moved toward the British 
lines, whereupon Winnemac and his companions tui'ned and fol- 
lowed them, desiring to accompany them thither. As they trav- 
eled on together, aays M'Afee, Winnemac and his party closely 
watched tlie others, and when they had proceeded about eight 
miles, he proposed to the British officer to seize and tie them. The 
officer replied that they were completely in his power ; that if they 
attempted to ran, they could be shot; or failing in that, the horses 
could easily run them down. This consultation was overheard by 
Logan ; he had previously intended to go on peaceably till night, 
and then make his escape; but he now for-med the bold design of 
extricating himself by a combat with double his number. 

Having signified his resolution to his men, he commenced the at- 
tack by shooting down Winnemac himself. The action lasted till 
they had fired three rounds apiece, during which time, Logan and 
bis brave companions drove the'enemy some distance, and separa- 
ted them froiQ their horses. By the first flre, both Winnemac . and 
Elliott fell; by the second a young Ottawa chief lost hia life ; and 
another of the enemy was mortally wounded about the conclusion 
of the combat, at which time Logan himself, as he was stooping 
down, received a ball just below the breast bone ; it ranged down- 
wards and lodged under the skin on his back. In the mean time, 
Bright-Horn was also wounded, by, a ball which passed through his 
thigh. As soon as Logan was shot, he ordered a retreat ; himself 
and Bright-PIorn, wounded as they were, jumped on the horses of 
the enemy and rode to Winchester's camp^.a distance of twenty 
miles in five hours. Captain John, after taking the scalp of the 
Ottawa chief, also retreated in safety and arrived at the camp nest 

Logan had now rescued his character, as a brave and faithful 
soldier, from the obloquy which had unjustly been thrown upon 
him. But he preserved his honor at the expense of the next best 
gift of Heaven — his life. His wound proved mortal. He lived 
two dttys in agony, which he bore with uncommon fortitude, and 
died with the utmost composure and resignation. " .More firmness 
and consummate bravery has seldom appeared on the military 
theatre," said Winchester, in his letter to the commanding general. 
"He was buried with all the honors due to his rank,, and with sor- 
row as sincerely and generally displayed, as I ever witnessed," 
said Major Hardin, in a letter to Governor Shelby. Hb physiog^ 
nomy was formed on the best model, and exhibited tbe strongest 
marks of courage, intelligence, good humor and sincerity. It wag 
said by the Indians, that the British had offered one hundred and 
fifty dollars for his scalp. He bad been very serviceable to oar 

, , ,Coo^[c 

238 HisTOHT OP FoHT Wayke. 

cause by acting as a guide and spy. Ho had gone with General 
Hull to Detroit, and with the first Kentucky troops, who marched 
to the relief of Fort Wayne. 

Captain Logan, it wili be rememberedj had been taken prisoner 
by General Logan, of Kentucky, in the year 1Y86, when he was a 
youth. Before the treaty of Greenville, he had distinguished him- 
self as a warrior, though stiil very young. Hie mother was a sister 
to the celebrated Tecuraseh and the Prophet. He stated, that, in 
the summer preceding his death, he had talked one Whole night 
with Tecumseh, and endeavored to persuade him to remain at peace, 
while Tecumseh, on thecontrary, endeavored to engage him in the 
war on the side of the British. His wifcj when she was young, had 
also been taken prisoner by Colonel Hardin, in 1789, and had re- 
mained in the family till the treaty of Greenville. In the' army he 
had formed an attachment for Major Hardin, the son of the colonel, 
and son-in-law of General Logan, and now requested him to see 
that the money due for his services was' faithfully paid to his family. 
He also requested, that his family might be removed immediately 
to Kentucky, and his children educated and brought up in the man- 
ner of the white people. He observed that he had killed a gi'oat 
chief; that the hostile Indians knew where hie family lived, and 
that when he was gone, a few base fellows might creep up and de- 
stroy them. 

Major Hardin having promised to do everything in his power 
to have the wishes of his friend fulfilled, immediately obtained per- 
mission from the general to proceed with Logan's little corps of In- 
dians to the village of Wapoghconata, where his ;family resided. 
When they came near the village, the scalp of the Ottawa chief 
wi^ tied to a pole, to be carried in triumph to- the council house ; and 
Captain John, when they came in sight of the town; ordered the 
guns of the party to be fired in quick succession, on account of the 
death of Logan, A council of' the chiefs were presently held, in 
which, after consulting two or three days, they decided against send- 
ing the family of their departed hero to Kentucky. They appeared 
however to be fully sensible of the loss they had sustained, and 
were sincerely grieved for his death. 

About the time that Tapper's expedition to the Kapida was in exe- 
cution^ General Harrison determined to send an expedition of 
horsemen against the Miamies, assembled in the towns on the Mis- 
Bieeihiwa river, a branch of the^Wabash. A deputation of chiefs 
from those Indians met General Harrison at St. Mary's, early in 
October, and sued for peace — they agreed to abide by the decision 
of the President, and in the meantime to send in five chiefs to be 
held as hostages. The President replied to the communication of 
the general on this subject, that, as the disposition of the several 
tribes would be known best by himself, he must treat them as their 
conduct and the public interest his judgment, require. The 
hostages were never sent in, and further information of tlieir iu- 



tended hostility was obtained.' At the time of their peace mission, 
they were alarmed by the snccessfnl movements which had been 
made against other tribes irom Fort Wayne, and by the formidable 
expedition which was penetrating their country under General 
Hopbine. But the failui-e of that expedition was aoon afterwards 
known to them, and they determined to continue hostile. A white 
man by the name of William Connor, who had resided many yeara 
with the, Delawarea, and had a wife among them, .but who -was 
firmly attached to the American cause in this war, was sent to the 
towns to watch the movements of the Miamies. He visited the vil- 
lages on the Mississiniwa river, and was present at several of their 
councils. The question of war with the United States and union 
with the British was warmly debated, and there was mnch division 
among the chiefs, but the war party at last prevailed. The pres- 
ence and intrigues of Teeumseh, and aiterwards the retreat of Gen- 
eral Hopkins, rendered them nearly unanimous for war. 

To avert the evils of their hostility, was the object of the expedi- 
tion against Mississiniwa. Said Harrison ; " Tlie situation of this 
town, as it regards one line of operations, even if the hostility of 
the inhabitants was less equivocal^ would render a measure of this 
kind highly proper ; but from the circumstance of General Hop- 
kin's failure, it becomes indispensable. Relieved from the fears 
excited by the invasion of their country, the Indians from the upper 
part of the Illinois river, and to the south of Lake Michigan, will 
direct all their efforts against Fort Wayne and' the convoys which 
are to follow the left wing of the army, Mississiniwa will be their 
rendezvous, where they will receive provisions and every assistance 
they may require for any hostile enterprise. IVoni that place they 
can, by their runners, ascertain the period at which every convoy 
may set out from St. Mary's, and with certainty intercept it on its 
wdy tothe Miami (Matimee) Rapids. But that place being broken 
up, and the proviaions destroyed, there will be nothing to' subsist 
any body of Indians, hearer than the Potawatamic towns on the, 
waters of the St, Josephs of the Lake." 

This detachment nnmb'ered about sis; hundred mounted men, 
armed with rifles. They left Franklinton on the 25th of November, 
by way of Dayton and Greenville ; and reached the Indian towns 
on the Mississiniwa to;ward8 the liiiddle of December,' suffering 
much with ihe cold. In a rapid charge upon the first village, eight 
warrioi-a were killed, and forty-two taken prisoners, consisting of 
men, Ttfomen and children. ■ About half an hour before day, the 
morning following this charge, the detachment was attacked by the 
Indians, and after a sharp but Bhort encounter, with a loss of eight 
killed, and forty-eight wounded, several of whom aflierwards diod, 
the enemy, despairing of success, fied precipitately, with a heavy 

Learning from a prisoner, that Teeumseh was within eighteen 
miles of them, with a body of six hundred warriors, with the njim- , 

240 HisTOBY OF FoKT Watkb. 

ber of wounded then to be cared for, it was deemed advisable to 
return, and the detachment, having previously destioyed the towns 
they had approached, together with all the property thereiD, started 
upon their retnrn march, and reached Dayton dnring the eavly part 
of Janaai-y. 

" Tlie good effi^ct , of the .expedition was soon felt," eaye M'Afee. 
" It let 118 distinctly know who were our friends and who were oiir 
enemies among the Indians." 

The winter being , severe, and unfavorable to transportation, the 
army suffered many privations for the wantof a sufficiency of pro- 
visions and clothing. - 

Though General Harrison had repeatedly presented the many 
difficulties attendant upon a movement, at this period, against De- 
troit and other points, the govexument and people were yet restless, 
and a continued anxiety was manifest for, a forward march against 
the British. 

On the lOth of January, 18l3, General Winchester, having previ- 
ously received .orders to advance towards the British lines, reached 
the iiapids, preceded by a detachment of six hundred and seventy 
men, under General Payne, who had been ordered to attack a party 
of Indians gathered in an old fortification at Swan Creek. 

A. large stone house was now built within the encampment, at 
the Rapids, to secure the provisions and, baggage. A consider- 
able quantity of corn was also gathered. in the fields, and apparatus 
for pounding and sifting it being made, it supppiied the troops 
with very wholesome bread.* 

It now soon became appai^ent that an attack was meditated by 
the British upon the for.ces under Winchester, they having heard, 
through some Indians, of the' advance of the army. 

On the morning of the l'7th,,GeneraI Winchester detached Co!. 
Lewis, with five hundred and fifty men, for the river Raisin ; and a 
few hours later, Lewis' detachment was followed by one hundred 
and ten more under.Ool. AJlen. On thfe morning;of this day Gen. 
Winchester also sent a message to General Harrison, acquainting 
him with the movements . made, and desiring a reinforcement, in 
case of opposition in ^n effort to possess .and hold Fi-enchtown.f 
With this expr^s was a.lso sent word that four hundred Indians 
were at the river Raisin, and that Elliott was expected from Ma.l- 
dcn, with a detachment destined to attack the camp at the Rapids. 

Early on the morning of the 19th,' the messenger reached and 
acquainted General Harrison with the word sent by General Win- 
phester ; upon which he ordered another detachment to proceed at 
once to the Rapids, with. which he also proceeded, whither he ar- 
rived on the morning of the 20th. 

In the meantime, on the iSth, the troops under Lewis and Allen, 
who had proceeded towards the river Raisin, with a view of occu- 

» M'Afee. 

tWIiieh WBS situated betwean. PcasqiiK'Tslfi and Maiden. 

.= b,Google 

Engagement at Frenchtown, akd Death of Col. Allen. 241 

pying Frenchtown, had been attacked by the enemy, wlio were 
driven back: with considerable loea, leaving the town in the posses- 
sion of Alien and Lewis' troops. 

This movement was soon communicated to Gen. Wincheeter, at 
the Rapids, who at once set out, with a small body of men, for the 
relief of the forces at Frenchtown, and arrived at the river Eaisin 
on the 20th. The British, from Maiden, were now pre|>aring to re- 
new the attack of the l8th, and, on the night of the 21sfc, had ad- 
vanned, nnobserved, to a point very near the lines of Lewis and 
Allen's forces, who had, smce the former engagement, been joined 
by Gen, Winchester, with two hundred and fifty men. 

Early on the morning of the 33d, the British, with a large body 
of Indians, having approached within about three hundred yards 
of the American lines, began to open a heavy charge of cannon 
and musketry-upon them, and soon succeeded in nearly surround- 
ing them. 

The Americans fought bravely, bat were soon ovei-powered, and 
an indiscriminate slaughter was begun by the Indiana. " In their 
confusion and dismay," the Americans " attempted to pass a long 
narrow lane, through which the road pasaedirom the village. The 
Indians were on both sides, and shot them down in every direction. 
A large party, which had gained the wood, on the right, were ear- 
roanded and massacred without distinction, nearly one hundred 
men being tomahawked within the distance of one hundred yards. 
The most horrible destruction overwhehned the fugitives in every 

" Captain Simpson was shot and tomahawked at the edge of the 
woods, near the mouth of the lane. Colonel Allen,* though wound- 
ed in hja thigh, attempted to rally bis men several times, entreating 
them to halt and sell their lives as dearly as possible. He had 
escaped about two miles, when, at length, wearied and exhausted, 
snd disdaining perhaps to survive the defeat, he sat down on a log, 
determined to meet his fate. An Indian chief, observing him to be 
an officer of distinction, was anxious to take him prisoner. As 
soon as he came near the Colonel, he threw his gun across his lap, 
and told him in the Indian language to surrender, and he should be 
safe. Another savage having, at the same time, advanced with a 
hostile appearance, Colonel Allen, by one stroke with his sword, 
laid him dead at his feet. A third Indian, who was near him, had 
then the honor of shooting one of the first and greatest citizens of 
Kentucky. Captain Mead, of the regular army, who had fought by 
the side of Colonel Daveiss, when he fell in the battle of Tippecanoe, 
was killed where the action commenced. Finding that the situation 
of the corps was rendered desperate hy the approach of the enemy, 
he gave ordera to his men — "My brave f';Uows,' (cried he,) "charge 
upon them ; " and a moment afterwards he was no more. 

'Mentioned in it f>i'«oedinj 


243 HisTOKT OF FoKT Wayne. 

" A party with Lieutenant Garrett, consisting of fifteen or twenty 
men, after relreating about a mile and a half, were con:ipeIled to 
surrender, and were then ail massacred, but the lieutenant himself. 
Another party of iibout thirty men had escaped near three fiiiles, 
when they were overtaken hy the savages, and having surrendered, 
about one-half of them were shot and tomahawked. In short, the 
greater part of those who were ih the retreat, fell a sacrifice to the 
fuiy of the Indians. The snow was so deep, and the cold bo intense, 
that they were soon exhausted, and unablo to elude their pursuers. 
Gen. Winchester and Colonel Lewis, with a few more, were captur- 
ed at a bridge, about three-quarters of a mile from the village. 
Tlieir coats being taken from them, they Were carried back to the 
British lines, where Colonel Proctor commanded."* 

A small party, under Majors Graves and Madison, having placed 
themselves behind some picketing, where they maintained their 
position and fought bi'avely, until an order, reported as coming from 
General Winchester, was brought by Proctor, who was accompanied 
by one of his aids, desiring them to surrender. Major Madison re» 
marked " that it had been customary for the Indians to massacre 
the wounded and prisoners after a surrender, and that he would not 
agree to any capitulation, wliich General Winchester might direct, 
unless the safety and protection of his men were stipulated." To 
wliich Proctor replied; "Sir,doyoumean to dictate tome?" "No," 
said' Madison ; " 1 mean to dictate for myself, and we prefer selling 
our lives as dearly as possible, rather than be massacred in cold 

Terms, embodying positive protection to all, having at length 
been agreed upon, Madison surrendered, and his party reached 
Maiden in safety. But the Indians soon returned to the scene of 
disaster, and began an unmerciful slaughter of the wounded, strip- 
ping them, aud even setting fire to the houses in which many of 
"them were sheltered, burning them with the buildings. About 300 
Americans were in this way and in the struggle that preceded the 
burning of the bodies, killed, and 547 taken prisoners. 

Such was the sad fate of this expedition. Suoh was the merci- 
less spirit of British warfare at this period of our history. And the 
unwillingness of the troops to advance from Fort Wayne at the 
announcement of a change of general commanders, after the rescue 
of the garrison here from the wily efforts of the besiegers, would 
have seemed to have foreshadowed the terrible result of the engage- 
ment of Frenchtown. 

General Harrison, on the morning of the 22d, (the news of Win- 
chester's attack having reached him at the Eapids,) ordered Per- 
kin's brigade to proceed to his relief, and soon followed himself, in 
the rear of some reinforcements under Payne, which he is said to 
have soon overtaken. But they had not proceeded far, when they 
were fast by some men froni the scene ot defeat, who readily told 

-d by Google 

Effects op the Defeat of FKENcnTowN. 243 

fie sad stoiy of the fate that had befallen their comradcB in arms. 
But General Harrison was only nerved to push on with greater 
speed. Soon again, however, after proceeding some distacce to- 
wards the acene of disaster, another party was met, and, after a 
council as to the wisdom and safety of proceeding further, it was 
deemed proper to venture no neai-er the scene of conflict and disas- 
ter, feeling assured that no succor could be rendered the victims of 
the farions red men and merciless British opponents — that a fur- 
ther advancemebt would only tend to furnish more material for 
massacre and defeat ; and so tie main body returned to the Eapids, 

General Winchester, Colonel Lewis, and Major Madieon, were 
finally sent to Quebec, where, and at Beaufort, they were confined 
till the spring of 1814. 

The gloom that had spread over the country at the receipt of the 
news of the sad disaster to the flower of the Kentucky troops at 
FrenehtowD, was indeed great ; hut the people soon rallied again ; 
and it was not long till large reinforcements began to swell the 
tanks of the regular array for a determined and vigorous effort 
for the overthrow of British rule and future safety from Indian 



" Upward, onwnrd, iu tlia battle, 
TiU yfctDfy "iwm tli«^figlit." 

Bituitljon of affaira after the' slaughter of Frenohtowii— Heavy draft on Kentuel^-— 
Effibi-ls of thH Bi'itiflh — Tlie importonoa of placing the Kentucty militia at Fort 
WajHH — The British oommitndei' datermines to march the American ormj to Mon- 
trenl— AdTonce of the BritUh and Indiana on Fort Meigs— The British o^ain 
ooonpy old Foi't Miami, at the foot of the Bapids—Indians invest tlie AmeriBon 
camp — Gen. Han'ison'ii addreBS—Bombafdmelit of Fort Meigs by th^ British-— 
Efforts of Tecainseh and the Pi'ophet— Faither movements of tJie British— Their 
battecita silenced by the Amevioana — Eeintoreemeats under Gen. Green Clay — Or- 
der to Gen. Clay, and ita exccution-»-Cnptiire of Fort Miami — The Ainerioans 
overpowered, and many eapturad and kiUed^Orders not obCTed, and disaster 
the result — Removal ot Amerioon prisonei-s — Success of Gen. Deai'born at Fort 
George, and evacuation of old Fort Miami by the British — Indians disaatisfied. 

^■5 FTER tiie terrible slaughter of Frenchtown, tut little of great 
2^ importance occurred until the latter part of April, 18l3. On 
OT^tlie iGtli of February, of this year, the Governor of Kentucky, 
^fef in compliance with a law that had been recentiy passed in that 

s State, had ordered a draft of three thousand men, to be organ- 
ized into four regiments, under Colonels Dudley, Eoswell, Cox, and 
Caldwell, under the command of General Green Clay. As the sea- 
son advanced, it bocame evident that the British would soon make 
an attack on the American lines at Fort Meigs ; and this was made 
the more certain from the fact that the enomy had recently learned 
the situation of afl'airs in the American army from a prisoner they 
had taken. 

Tliis condition of affaii'S being communicated to the war depart- 
ment, " the propriety of calling out the balance of the Kentucky 
draft, to be placed at Fort Wayne to keep the Indians in check, was 
pressed on the attention of the government."* 

Both the American and British armies now soon became active 
in their movements against each other ; and the British commander 
made bold to assert that he would march the northwestern army, 
under Gen. Harrison, to Montreal by the hrst of June. 



Investment of Foet Meigs bt the Bbitish aud Isdiaks. 145 

During the latter part of the month of April, the British had often 
been seen, in small bodies, near Fort Meigs, by scotits sent out by 
the commanding-general; and on the 26th of April, the eoemy's 
advance was observed at the month of the bay, within a few miles 
of Fort Meigs. On the 38th of April, as Captain Hamilton was 
descending the Manmee, with a small reconnoitering party, he be- 
held the whole force of t^e Biitish and Indians approaching within 
a few miles of the forfc. 

The British now soon drew up at old Fort Miami, just below the 
Bcene of Wayne's engagement with the Indians, in l794, on the 
opposite side of the river, nearly fronting Fort Meige, and began 
at once to land and mount their guns, the Indians being at once 
removed to the south-west side of the river, where they readily be- 
gan to invest the American camp — ^yelling and firing their muskets. 

General Harrison was now most attentive and energetic in his 
efforts ; and on the following morning, he addressed the troops in 
language and feeling which had the effect to inspire all nnderhim 
with the largest courage and determination- Said he : " Can the 
citizens of a free country, who have talcen arms to defend its rights, 
think of submitting to an ai-my composed of mercenary soldiers, 
reluctant Canadians, goaded to the field by the bayonet, and of 
wretched, naked savages ? Can the breast of an American soldier, 
when he casts his eyes to the opposite shore, the scene of his coun- 
try's triumphs over the same ioe, be influenced by any other feel- 
ings than the hope of glory? Is not this army composed of the 
same materials with that which fought and conquered under the 
immortal Wayne? Yes, fellqw-soldiers, yoar general sees your 
countenances beam with the same Are that he witnessed on that 
glorious occ^asion ; and although it would be the height of presump- 
tion to compare himself to that hero, he boasts of being that hero's 
pupil. To your posts, then, fellow-eitizens, and remember that the 
eyes of your country are upon you." 

About the first of May, the British having completed their batter- 
teriea, they commenced a heavy cannonading against fort Meigs, 
which was continued for five days, with but little effect. The 
American batteries returned the fire with good effect, but with no 
great amount of energy, not wishing to waste their halls and amu- 

Tecamaeh and the Prophet, with a body of some six hundred In- 
dians, since the fatal affau- of Frenchtown, (Tecumseh not having 
been present at that engagement) had joined the British, an_d were 
now most active in their efforts against the Americans. 

About the time of the opening of the British batteries, General 
Hamson had expected a reinforcement under General Green Clay ; 
and when the movements of the British became fully apparent, Cap- 
tain Oliver, accompanied by a white man and an Indian, was sent 
as a messenger to General Clay, with letters also for the Gover- 
nors of Ohio and Kentucky. 

-d by Google 

3i6 HisTOHY OF FoKT Wayne. 

Fears liad been entertained that tlie enemy would at length make 
an effort to gain a nearer approach to the fort, from the opposite 
side of the river, and there erect a battery ; which soon became 
evident, and on the 8d, three field pieces and a howitzer were open- 
ed upon the American camp from a clump of bushes on the left, 
but were soon hushed by a few eighteen pounders from the Ameri- 
can batteries. Changing their position, their batteries were again 
opened upon the American camp, but with an air of mistrust and 
with but Mttle effect. Says Colonel Wood, of the American forces : 
" With a plenty of ammunition, we should have been able to have 
blown John Bull almost from the Miami (Maumee.) * * * It 
was extremely diverting to see with what pleasnre and delight the 
Indians would yell, whenever in their opinion considerable damage 
was done in camp by the bursting of a shell. Their hanging about 
the camp, and occasionally coming pretty near, kept our lines al- 
most constantly in a blaze of fire ; for nothing can please a Ken- 
tuckian better than to get a shot at an Indian^and he must be in- 

with a reinforcement ef eome twelve hundred Kcntuckians, Gen- 
eral Clay soon drew. near. Captain Oliver had met him at 
Fort Winchester. General Harrison immediately sent ah order to 
General Clay, which was delivered by Captain Hamilton, request- 
ing him to detach " about 800 men trom his brigade, and to land 
them at a point he would direct, about a mile, or a oiUe and a half 
above camp Meigs. X will then conduct the detachment," con- 
tinues General Harrison, in this order, " to the British batteries on 
the left bank of the river. The batteries must be taken, the cannon 
spiked, and carriages cut down ; and the troops must then return 
to their boats and cross over to the fort. The balance of your men," 
said he, " must land on, tlie fort side of the river, opposite the iirst 
landing, and hght their way into the fiort (Miami) through tlie In- 

This order was readily complied with. ■' Colonel Dudley being 
the oldest Colonel, led the van. As soon as Captain Hamilton had 
deHjrered the orders, General Clay, who was in the thirteentli boat 
from the front, directed him to go to Colonel Dudley, with orders 
to take the twelve front boats and execute the plans of General 
Harrison on the left bank, and to post the subaltern with the canoe 
on the right bank, as a beacon for his landing."* 

Though somewhat " marred in the execution," yet the plans of 
General Harrison proved-a success; and after some effort, with 
sknifnl manceuvering, the point of attack was gained, and the 
British flag cut down, to the infinite delight of the ti'oops in the 
American garilson above. 

General Harrison, who had been watching, with great concern, 
through his spy-glass, from a battery n'ext to the river, the move- 
ments of the troops in the execution of this order, had discovered 
the enemy approaching the fort below (Miami) by a route that 

, . yGoo^^Ic 


would enable tliem to surprise tlie men under Dudley ; and at once 
began to make signa for them to reti-eat to their boats, but witliout 
success. The General finally sent a messenger to warn them of 
their danger. Lieutenant Campbell undertook the mission; but he 
could not reach them in time. A party of Indians had fired upon 
the spies sent out, who were soon reinforced, by command of Colo- 
nel Dudley. Many of the men rushed rapidly forward in pursuit 
of the Indiims. The left column still holding their position, were 
now soon encountered by the British artillerists, largely reinforced, 
■who overpowered the Americans, capturing some at tho battery, 
while others fled to the boats. The Indians had also been reinforc- 
ed, and began their usual work of tomahawking, etc. 

The greater part of the men were captured by the Indiana or sur- 
rendered to the British. Colonel Dudley had received a- wound, 
and was finally tomahawked by the sa.vagea. The number that 
escaped and regained the fort was lees than two hundred. Had or- 
ders 'been strictly obeyed, which was not tho case, says M'Afee, 
" the day would certainly have been an important one for the 

" The prisoners," says Colonel Wood, "weretaten down to head- 
quarters, put into fort Miami, and the Indians permitted to garnish 
the surrounding rampart, and to amuse themselves by, loading and 
firing at the crowd, or at any particular individual. Those who 
preferred to inflict a still more cruel and savage death, selected their 
victims, led them to the gateway, and there under the eye of gener- 
al Proctor, and in the;presence of the wlwle British army, toma- 
/lawked and sealped t?tem ! " 

For about two hours these acta of unmitigated ferocity and bar- 
barity to prisoners of war was permitted and conlinued ; " during 
which time, upwards of twenty prisoners, defenseless and confined, 
were massacred in the presence of the magnanimoas Britons, to 
whom they had surrendered, and by the aQies, too, with whom 
those Britons had voluntarily associated themselves, knowing and 
encouraging (.heir mode of warfare. The chiefs, at the same time, 
were holding a council on the fate of the prisoners, ia which the 
Potta\vattamie8, who were painted black, were for killing the whole, 
and by their warriors the murders were perpetrated. Tiae Miamies 
and Wyandotts were on the side of humanity, and opposed the 
wishes of the others. The dispute between them had become seri- 
ous, when Colonel Elliott and Tecumseh csme down from the bat- 
teries to the scene of carnage. As soon as Tecumseh beheld it, he 
flourished his sword, and in a loud voice ordered them ' for shame 
to desist. It is a disgrace,' said he, ' to kill a defenseless pi'isoner.' 
His orders were obeyed, to the great joy of the prisonei-s, who had 
by this time lost all hopes of being preserved. In this single act, 
Tecumseh displayed more humanity, magnanimity, and civilization 
than Proctor, with all his British associates in command, displayed 
througii the whole i\'ar on the northwestern frontiers."' 


248 History of Fokt Wavne. 

Eetaining the prieoiiers in this place till Ijight, many of tlie 
Tvottnded for hours experiencing " tlie most excruciating toiineiits," 
they were placed in " the British boats and carried down the river 
to the brig Hunter, and a schooner, where several hundred oi them 
were stowed away in the hold of the biig, and kept there for two 
days and nights. Their Bufferings in this situation," says Colonel 
M'Afee,'"are not to be described by me ; I leavethem to be imagin- 
ed by those who can feel for the wrongs of their country," Being 
finally liberated on parole, however, these prisoners were "landed 
at the mouth of Huron river, below the Sandusky bay." 

At the conclusion of the disasterous movement at Fort Miami, 
but little of interest occnrred while the British continued the siege; 
and having soon learned of the capture of Fort George, by General 
Dearborn, the British commander, on the 9th of May, evacuated 
the old Fort at the foot of the Rapids. Alarm had not only taken 
sadden possession of the British on receipt of the capture of Fort 
George, but the Indiana, too, had snuffed the air of defeat, and 
had become much disaffected by the movements and success of 
the Americana against their British father ; and before the evacua- 
tion of Fort Miami had been fully 'consummated, it was thought 
by many in .the American army that they had measurably left the 
British standard. 

The Prophet and his followers had been promised the Michigan 
Territory, and General Harrison was to be delivered up to Tecum- 
seh. But ail was now disaster to them, and their former hope 
of one day being able,^by the aid of their British father, to drive 
the Americans beyond the Ohio, had vanished forever from their 

-c by Google 


"Andhaatlia West, no stoi'j 

Oi deachleBS deeds eublime t 
Go Bsk yon shining river." 

jvemeiits at Foit Wayne — Plan of Richard M, Johnson — Oommunioation of the 
Seeretary of War to Gen. Harrison— Mounted yolnnteers uniiei' Col. Johnson — His 
addrtsB— Ordered to proceed to Fort Wsyne, and to swur the northweatern frontier 
— Demand for more troopa — Johnaon's regiment — Indifto guides — Anthony Shane 
— Johnson's march to JTort Wayne — Boat firad upon by the Indians, near the Fort 
— Pnrsnit of the Indians — An expedition — Anticipated attack from the British — 
Harriaon's interrie w with the Indians — Movements towards Lower Sanduaky — Ee- 
inyeetment of Fort Meigs by the Britieh and Indians — Snrprise of a picket-guard 
— DepredaUons by the Indians — Movements of Tecumseh — Heavy tiring on the 
Sanduaky load — Movements of the British — Council of war — Fort Stfiphenaon — 
Bravery of the American troops — Valor of Major Croghan, and high appreciation 
of his course — A Wyandolt aoout. 

fURING iiiueh of the time since the transfer of the theatre of 
jtrife and siege from Fort Wayne to points below, along the 
Maumee and elsewhere, but little had occurred here of marked 
interest. The garrison had been watchful ; the Indiana had 
been active in tlie region, but their attention had mainly been 
called away by the action and command of their British fatiier be- 
low and about the Rapids of the Manmee. 

The principal object of the expeditions against the Indians, from 
Fort Wayne and other points, aa the reader will remember, was to 
destroy their provisions and means of subsistence, thereby effectu- 
ally disabling them for renewed efforts in the following spring 
(1813); and Richard M. Johnson, who had witnessed the effect of 
these raovements and the efficiency of the mounted riflemen, on his 
return to Congress, had laid before the war department a plan for 
a mounted expedition against the tribes, as already referred to, dur- 
ing the winter of 1812-'13. 

The good eifects of the expeditions were stated by liim to be : 
" Security to the northwestern frontiers from Fort Wayne to the 
Mississippi— to the convoys of prorisiona for the northwestern 
army, when its force was diminished in the spring, and the neutral- 

y Google 

250 Hbtory of Tort Wayne. 

ity of the savages in future, from the powerful Jinpresaion that 
■would be made on their fears; that the wiatcr season would be 
most favorable for the movement — enabling the horsemen, while 
snow was on the ground, and the leaves off the bushes, to hunt out 
and destroy the Indians prowling about." 

With this view, two regiments, consisting of about 1280 men, were 
proposed to be employed, which weie then considered sufficient to 
traverse the entire Indian country, from Fort Wayne to the lower 
end of, and beyond, Lake Michigan, by way of the Illinois river, 
back to the river Ohio, near LoniBvilie, Ky. ; and " to disperse and 
destroy all the tribes Of Indians and their resources to be found 
within that compass." Colonel Johnson also presented this sobjiCCt 
to the Governor of Kentucky ; and the same was finally submitted, 
by the Secretary of war, to General Harrison, on ihe 26th of De- 
cember, 18 12, Said the Secretary, in this comniunieation ; "The 
President has it in contemplation to set on foot an expedition from 
Kentucky of about 1000 mounted men, to pass by Fort Wayne, the 
lower end of lake Michigan, and round by the Illinois back to the 
Ohio near Louisville, for the purpose of scouring that couutry, des- 
troying the provisions collected ia the Indian villages, scourging 
the Indians themselves, and disabling them from interfering with 
your operatious. It is expected that this expedition will commence 
in February (iSlS) ; and it will terminate in a few weeks, I give 
you the inionhation, that yoa may take it into consideration in the 
estimate of those arrangements, you may find it necessary to make, 
for carrying into effect the objects of the government. I send you 
a copy of the proposed plan, on which I wish to hear from you 
without delay. You will pai'ticularfy state, whether you can effect 
these objects in the manner which is suggested, by adequate por- 
tions of the force now in the field ; and in that case, whether it will 
be better to suspend the movement of this force until the spring." 

In the expedition under Colonel OampbeUf in the middle of the 
winter, to the towns on the Mississinewa, as the reader^will remem- 
ber, General Harrison had already anticipated the plan of Colonel 

After having further considered the proposition of Colonel John- 
80ri, General Harrison made the following res[Jonse ; 

" I am sorry not to be able to agree with my friend. Colonel John- 
son, upon the propiiety of the contemplated mounted expedition. 
An expedition of this kind directed against a particular town will 
probably succeed. The Indian towns cannot be surprised in suc- 
cession, as they give the alarm from one to the other with more 
rapidity than our troops can move. In tlie months of February, 
March, and April, the towns are all abandoned. The men are hunt- 
ing, and the women and children, particularly to the north of the 
Wabash, are scattered about making sugar. The corn is in that 
season universally hid in small parcels in the earth, and could n-Dt 
be found. There are. no considerable villages in that direction. 

, , )og[c 

Kksponsb of Gbh. Harekon to the Secektaey of Wae. 351 

Those that are tliere are composed of bark huts, which the Indians 
do not care for, and wliich during the winter are entirely empty. 
The detachment mi,ght pass through the whole extent of country 
to be scoured, without seeing an Indian, except at the first town 
they sti'Qck, and it ia more than probable, that they would find it 
empty. But the expedition is impracticable to the extent proposed. 
The horses, if not the men, would perish. The horses that are now 
to he found, are not like those of the early settlers, and such as the 
Indians and traders now have. They have been accustomed to 
corn, and must have it. Colonel Campbell went but 70 or 80 miles 
from the frontiers, and the greater part of his horses could scarcely 
be brought in. Such an expedition in the summer and fall would 
be highly advantageous, because the Indians are then at their 
towns, and their corn can be destroyed. An attack upon a particu- 
lar town in the winter, when the inhabitants are at it, as we know 
they are at Mississiniway, and which is so near as to enable the 
detachment to reach it without killing their horses, is not only prac- 
ticable, but if there is snow on the ground is perhaps th« most 

These practical suggestions of the General were sufficient. The 
plan was abandoned, and " ttie attention of government was direc- 
ted to the organization of a mounted corps for the^spring;" and 
Colonel Johnson was "authorized to organize, and hold in readi-. 
ness, a regiment of mounted volunteers — which he readily complied 
with, on his return to Kentucky,, at the close of the session of Con- 
gress, and soon moved towards the scene of action. 

Addressing his men, he said : " The regiment of mounted volun- 
teers was organized under the authority of the war department, to 
await its call, or to meet any crisis which might involve the honor, 
the rights and the safety of the country. That crisis has arrived. 
Fort Meigs is attacked. The northwestern army is surrounded by 
the enemy, and under the command of general Sarrison ia nobly 
defending the cause of the country against a combined enemy, the 
British and Indians. They will maintain their ground till relieved. 
The intermediate garrisons are also in imminent danger, and may 
fall a bleeding sacrifice to savage cruelty, unless timely reinforced. 
The frontiers may be deluged in blood. The mounted regiment 
will present a shield to the defenseless ; and united with the forces 
now marching, and the Ohio volunteers for the same purpose, will 
drive the enemy from onr soil. Therefore on Thursday, the 30th 
of May, the regiment will rendezvous at the Great Crossings in 
Scott county, except the companies, <&c., which will rendezvous on 
the 22d at Newport; at which place, tlie whole corps will draw 
arms, ammunition, &c." 

Calhng upon General 'Harrison, who, at this time, was at Cincin- 
nati visiting his family, who then Kved there, Colonel Johnson's 
regiment was accepted, and he was ordered by General Harrison to 
proceed immediately to Fort ffavne, to take command here and of 

,10 1=0 ,L.oo^^lc 

152 HisTOEY OF FoET Wayne. 

the posts on the Auglaize ; also " to make incursione into the conn- 
try of the Indians; to scour the northwestern frontiers; and, if 
poesihle, to cut off small parties who might infest the forts, or be 
marching from the IlUnois and Wabash towards Maiden and Detroit 
— never to remain at one place more than three days." 

An officer from each regiment was at once sent back to raise 
another body of men. The regiment under Johnson was com- 
posed as follows ; 

R. M, Johnson. Colonel; James Johnson, Lieutenant- colonel. 
First battalion—Duval Payne, Major; Eobt. B. M'Afee,* Richard 
Matis on, Jacob Elliston, Benjamin Warfield, John Payne, (cavaliy) 
Elijah Craig, Captains. 

Second battalion — David Thompson, Major ; Jacob Sfcncker, Jas. 
Davidson, S. B. Combs, W. M. Price, James Coieman, captains. 

Staif — Jeremiah Kertly, Adjutant;- B. S. Chambers, Quartermas- 
ter; Samuel Theobalds, Judge-advocate ; L. Dickinson, Sargeant- 

James Sugget, Chaplain and Major of the spies; L. Sandford, 
Quartei-master-sargeant ; subsequently added, Dr. Ewing, Snrgeon, 
and Drs. Cohurn and Richardson, surgeon's mates. 

The regiment arrived at Fort Meigs on the first of June, 1813. 
From tliis point Colonel Johnson proceeded alone to the Indian 
village of Wapoghconata, on the Auglaize, " fo procure some 
Shawanoe Indians to act as guides and spies ; " and after a few 
days returned with thirteen. Indians, among whom was the lialf- 
bred, Anthony Shane, whose father was a Frenchman, and in whom 
the largest confidence was placed by those who knew, him in the 
■ northwestern army. Shane had been an active opponent of Wayne, 
in 17i)4, but after the treaty of Greenville, had been a most tai&tul 
friend of the United States. 

On the 5th of June, the regiment under Johnson again took up 
its line of march for Fort Wayne. When the ti-oops reached's 
crossing of the St. Maiy, about forty miles from Fort Wayne, they 
were hSted and drilled for some time, and here remained over 
night. Heavy rains having but recently fallen, the St. Mai-y was 
found impassible ; and on the following morning a rnde bridge was 
formed over this stream by felling trees across it, upon which the 
army crossed with their baggage and guns, while their horeee were 
gotten over by swimming them by the side of the fallen timber. 

The remainder of the route to Fort Wayne proved very difficult ; 
*' all the flats and marshes being covered with water, and the roads 
ve^ miry."t 

Reaching the Fort on the evening of the 7th of June, it was 
found that the boats had all gained' the common landing place, at 
the base of the hill, just below the garrison, in safety, but one, 
which had stranded on a sand-bar a ^ort distance above, in sight 
of the fort; and while attempting to get the boat off, the boatmen 
"■Author of " History of the Late War in th« WeBtem Couatrj." +M'Afea>-- i 

, ,. vCooglc 

An ExpEon-iON fkom Foet Wayne. 253 

Wfefe fired upon by some Indians lurking near, and two of the men 
killed, while fclie third, in attempting to swim to the shore, was 
ill' owned, 

Arriving a little in advance of the regiment. Colonel Johnson 
and staff, as soon aa it was possiblo to get roady, mounted their 
horses and crossed to the boat. The Indians at once fired upon 
their advance, and then retreated. 

The spies having now suggested that the Indians were consider- 
ably stronger than the party under Colonel Johnson, a pursuit was 
deferred until the arrival of the regiment, when a chase was 
immediately commenced and continued for some ten miles ; but rain 
beginning to fall heavily, the party was compelled to return to the 
fort again, without having gained sight of the Indians. 

But a further pursuit was at once deteraained upon ; and the nost 
day, (the 8th) after a council of oiflcers, and some necessary pre- 
paration, an expedition was formed to proceed in the direction of 
the southeast end of Lake Michigan. With this view, the regi- 
ment, towards evening, deposited their heavy baggage in the fort ; 
supplied themselves with ten days' provisions, and soon crossed the 
St, Mary, to encamp for the night in the forks, opposite the garrison, 
where the river had'now just begun to rise; " though," says M'Afec, 
" on the evening of the 5th, it had been at the top of its banks at 
Shane's crossing, but forty miles from its mouth by land. Hence," 
continues he, " if we suppose the current to run three miles an hour, 
(which is near the truth), the distance by water would be two hun- 
dred miles, so extremely crooked is the coarse of the river." 

Early on the following day, the regiment took the Indian ti-ail 
again, leading towards the old Pottawattamie village of Five Med- 
als, which had been destroyed, as the reader will remember, the 
previous year, but which was now thought to have been rebuilt. The 
regiment marched forty miles this day, before night. Stopping 
now to rest and permit the horses to graze, with a view to an attack 
upon the Indian village at daylight the next morning, a heavy rain 
came up, preventing the execution of the plan ; but " after encoun- 
tering many obstacles in crossing high waters and marshes, they 
arrived at the Elkhart river before it had risen so as to be impassa- 
ble, and in half an hour afterwards the village of Five Medals was 
gained and suiTOunded ; " but found unoccnpied. 

Determining now to visit a village on the other side of the St, 
Joseph of the Lake, known as Paravaah, on the morning of the 
nth, the regiment began its march for that point, but, upon arriv- 
ing at the St. Joseph, and iinding it impassable, 'further movement 
npon this village was abandoned. A rapid advance was now made 
upon the White Pigeon's town, arriving there in the afternoon of 
that day, meeting a lew Indians on the way, who made''their escape 
in a canoe acres? a stream on the route, which was also found im- 
passable. The village of White Pigeon had long been the most 
extensive Indian town in that region ; and the main trace of the 

-c by Google 

254 History of Fokt Wayne. 

Indians, fron? Chicago and the Illinois country to Detroit, \ 
directly tlirongh this town, but appeared to have been but little 
travereed that apring. Here, near this village, the regiment en- 
camped till the following day, when, having fuliiUed his inBtructiona- 
to visit this trace, with a view to intercepting any movements 
of the enemy that might be making by this route,- and finding also 
that the provisions of the' troops had' been considerably, damaged 
by the rains encountered, Colonel Johnson determined to return to 
Fort Wayne ; and^ as there was an I^ndian path' at that time leading 
direct from the White Pigeon town to Fort Wayne, the regiment 
now began its return march over this trail for the Fort, whither, after 
a march, in all, with heavy rains every day, oi* some two hundred 
miles, on the lith^the troops again drew up at the Fort here, eon- 
siderably fatigued, tihowgh as determined and earnest as ever in 
their patriotic efibi'tB, 

Though not encountering the Indians in his route, or finding 
them at either of the villages visited, yet the movements of the ex- 
pedition under OQl^nel Johnson greatly increased' his knowledge 
of the countiy ; and it was now soon ascertained that all the In- 
dians in the British service, and who had principally been engaged 
iii the siege of Fort Meigs^ were still mainly held and maintained 
in the vicinity of Maiden. 

After a few days' stay at Fort Wayne, and finding themselves 
much rested from th«ir late fatiguingand most disagreeable march, 
the regiment under Johnson proceeded down the Maamee, with an 
escort of pi'ovisions, to Fort Winchester. Tiie provisions were 
placed in boats, with a number of men to man them, while the 
troops continued their way along the road opened by General Win- 
chester, on the north side of the Maumee, encamping every night 
with the boats. Arriving at Fort Winchester, Colonel Johnson re- 
ceived a dispatch from Genej-al Harrison, recommending him to 
make an attack on the enemy at Raisin and Browntown. To tliis 
suggestion, though by no means explicit. Colonel Johnson at once 
began to give his attention, feeling, from his high sense of patriot- 
ism and regard for General Harrison and any suggestion emanating 
from him, that the plan should be executed, if possible. 

Having, just before this suggestion to Colonel Johnson, heard of 
the success of the American arms below Fort Meigs, and " that 
General Proctor was ordered in that direction to assist in- repelling; 
the invaders ; andbglieving that Proctor had left Maiden with a con- 
siderable portion of his force, the General supposed that an excel- 
lent opportunity had offered to attack his savage allies in the Michi- 
gan Territory, by a coup de main with the mounted regiment." 

But Colonel Johnson, owing to the fact of his horses being much 
exhausted; from the effects of their late expedition from Fort W ayne, 
as well as for lack of a sufBcient number of men, a detachment of 
his regiment having been engaged in escorting provisions from St. 
Mary's, was unable to can-y out immediately tl^e plan proposed by 

y Google 

Relief op Foet Mbigb. 265 

13enei-al HarriBon. The esecotion of tlio plan proposed was con- 
sidered most hazzardons indeed ; and to have attempted a march 
of a " hundred miles, through swamps and marshes, and over diffi- 
ciilt rivers, with guides not very well acquainted with the country," 
and witli horses greatly woni down, " to attack a hody of Indiana 
\s4io could, in a few hours, raise more than double the force of the 
re^ment " of 700 men then under Johnson, required some considera- 
tioH as well as time and preparation. " But fortunately for the regi- 
ment, on the noxt day an express arrived from General Clay, com- 
manding at Fort Meigs, with infoi-mation that the British and In- 
dians threatened to invest that place again-, and with a request that 
Colonel Johnson would march his regiment there immediately for 
its relief. Orders to march were given without delay ; and such 
was the zeal and promptitnde of both officers and men, that in half 
an hour they were aU ready to march, and commenced crossing the 
Maumee, opposite the fort ***** 'Jhe heads of the 
column were tJien drawn tip in close order, and the Colonel, in a 
short and impressive addi'ess, instructed them in their, duties. If 
an eiiemy were discovered, the order of march was to be in two 
lines, one parallel to the river, and the other in front, stretching 
across from the head of the former to the river on the right. He 
coiidlnd«d with saying;' We must fight our way through any oppos- 
ing force, let what mil be the consequences, as no retreat could be 
justifiaWe-. It is no time to flinch— ^we must reach the fort, or die 
in the attempt,' Every countenance, responsive to the sentiments 
of the speaker, indicated the same desperate determination. The 
ground on which the enemy had gained their barbarous triumph 
over Dudley was again to be traversed, and his allies woulddoubtless 
hope to realize another 5th of May, in another contest with Ken- 
tucky militia. The march was again resumed, and the regiment 
arrived at ten o'clock in the night, opposite Fort. Meigs, without 
molestation, and encamped in the open plain between the river and 
the hill on which the 'British batteries had been erected."* 

Apprehensions of an attack were now strong. Information, gain- 
ed from a Frenchman and an American prisoner^ who arrived at 
Fort Meigs on the 20th of June, was to the effect that the British 
were determined to renew the attack on the fort, and were to start 
for that purpose about that period. At this time, Oenoral Harri- 
son was at Franklinton, where he was made acquainted with the 
determination of the British. 

Before quitting Franklinton for other points in view, he held an 
important councU with some chiefs of the friendly Indians of the 
Delaware, Shawanoe, Wyandotfc, and Seneca tribes; informing 
them " that a crisis had arrived, which required all the tribes who 
remained neutral, and who were ■willing to engage in the war, to 
take a decided stand either for the Americans or against th^m — that 
the President wanted no false friends — that the proposal of General 
Proctor to exchange the Kentucky militia for the tribes in our friend- 

"M'Afeu. --. I 

, ooyCjOOglC 

S56 HisTOKT OF FoST Wayss. 

ship indicated that he had received some hint of their wiHingness to 
to take up, the tomahawk against the Americans — and that to give 
tlie United States a proof of their disposition, they must either re- 
move with their families into the interior, or the warriors mnst 
accompany him in the ensuing campaign and fight for the United 
States. To the latter condition, the chiefs and warriors unani- 
mously agreed ; and said they had long been anxious for an invita- 
tion to fight for the Americans. Talie, the oldest Indian in the 
western country, who represented all the tribes, professed, in their 
name, the most indissoluable friendship for the United States. Gen- 
eral Hanison then told them he would let them know when they 
would be wanted in the service — ^" but," said he, " you must con- 
form to our mode of warfare. You must not kiR defenseless 
prisoners, old men, women, or children." By their conduct, he 
also added, he would be able to tell whether the British could re- 
strain their Indians from such horrible craelty. For if the In- 
diana fighting with him would forbear snch conduct, it wonid 
prove that the British could also restrain theirs if they wished to 
■ do so — hamerously telling them he had been informed that General 
Proctor had promised to deliver him into the hands of Tecnmseh, 
if he succeeded against Fort Meigs, to be treated as that warrior 
might think proper. " Now," continued he, " if I can «acceed in 
taking Proctor, you shall have him for your jftisoner, provided you 
will agree to treat him as a squaw, and only put petticoats upon him ; 
for he must be a coward who would Idll a defenseless prisoner." 

The subject being now strongly pressed upon the government, 
the Indians were soon reluctantly employed by the United States 
against the Indians in the employ of the Eiitish ; and the move- 
ment, saysM'Afee, "was perfectly justifiable, as a measure of self- 
deiense; yet," continues he, "there is only one reason which recon- 
ciles me to it — we thiis demonstrated that the north-American sav- 
age is not Buch a croel and ferocious being that he cannot be re- 
strained by civilized man within the bounds of civilized warfare. 
In several instances," he further remarks, " strong corps of Indians 
fought under the American standard, and were uniformly distin- 
guished for their orderly and humane conduct," 

On the first of July, General Harrison set out from Fort Meigs 
for Lower Sandusky, accompanied by seventy mounted men, under 
command of Captain M'Afee. 

Soon ailier his departure, the Indians had begun again to invest 
the vicinity of Fort Meigs ; and late on tlje evening of the 20th of 
J uly, the vessels of the British army were to be seen in the Maumee, 
some distance below the fort, 

JSarly on the following morning, a picket-guard, of some eleven 
nien, having been sent to a point about three hundred yards below 
the fort, were surprised by the Indians, and seven of them 
killed. At this time a largo body of British and Indians were seen 
encamped below old Fort Miami, on the north aide of the river; 


Sham Movments of the British on the Sahduskt Road. 257 

and the -woodB in the rear of the fort was soon after possessed by 
the Indians, who began to commit some depredations, by occasion- 
ally firing into the fort, and captnring some horaes and oxen. 

General Harrison was at once apprised of the siege, -while all 
in the garrison were attentively engaged in preparing for the mcrve- 
ments against the fort ; and General Clay was most vigilant in all 
his efforts, 

On the 23d, with a body of some eight hnndred Indians, Teciim- 
seh was seen moving up the river, with a view, as was supposed, of 
attacking Fort Winchester. On the 35th, the enemy removed his 
camp to the south side of the river, which superinduced the belief 
that an attempt would be made by the British to take the fort by 

General Harrison was stili kept advised of the inoveraenta of 
the British ; but his force was not sufficient to enable him to reach 
the garrison as he had wished, though he continued to assure Gen- 
eral Olay that all needed aid would reach him from Ohio and'other 
points in good season. On the evening of the S6th, some hours 
after tlie arrival at the fort of the express from General Harrison, 
heavy firing was commenced on the Sandnfilry road, about the 
distance of a mile from Fort Meigs, The discharge of rifles and 
musketry, accompanied by the Indian yell, could be clearly dis- 
tinguished; and by degrees the apparent contest approached to- 
wards the fort, though sometiraes it appeared to recede. It lasted 
about an hour, and came in the end near the. edge of the woods. 
The general pronounced it a shain battle, intended to draw oufc the 
garrison to reUeve a supposed reinforcement. A few diachargea of 
cannon at the fort, and a heavy shower of rain, at length put an end 
to the scheme, no doubt to the great mortification of its projectors. 
The express from General Harrison had providentially arrived in 
time to preserve the garrison from the possibility of being deluded 
by thiB mifice of the enemy. On the next day the British moved 
over to their old encampment, and on thti 28th embarked in their 
vessels and abandoned the siege. The force which Proctor and 
Tecnniseh brought against the fort in this instance was about 
5OO0 strong. A greater number of Indiana were collected by them 
for this expedition than ever were assembled in one body on any 
other occasion during the whole war. 

Having raised the siege uf Fort Meiga, tlie Brifciah sailed round 
into Sandusky Bay, while a competent number of their Indian 
allies moved across through the swamps of Portage river, to co- 
operate in a combined attack on Lower SanduBky, expecting, no 
doubt, that General Harrisou's attention \*ould be chiefly directed 
to forts Winchester and Meigs, The General, however, had cal- 
culated on their taking this course, and had been careful to keep 
patrols down the Bay, opposite the mouth uf Portage river, where 
he supposed their forces would debark," 

General Clav now took care to acquaint General Harrison with 

■"'*'"■ <"> ,., Google 

S59 History . of Tom Waymb 

the movement of t]ie British,, and on the, 29th of July, the messen- 
ger from Fort Meigs haying reached him, he iinm:ediate!y called a 
council of.war, consisting of M'Arthur,. Caas, BaJl, Paul,,Wood, 
HuljiU, Holmes, and Graham, which resulted in a determinacion 
to evacflfite and destroy Fort Stephenson, if necessary. 

By the Siaf of July,. the enemy had approached so near thia fort 
as to he able to throw their shells aboat i( ; and a flag was soon 
seen approaching, the garrison, ■wfhich, waa promp.tlv met by En- 
sign Shipp,.by command of.Miyor Cvoghan. ,The bearer of the 
flag had' beeii instructed by. Gen. Proctor, who accompanied the 
fl.eet, to demand a surrender of the fort, whiph was positiyely re- 
fusecl, Shipp replying :that it was the determination of the com- 
mandant of the garrison to defend it to tlie last pstremity, and to 
disappeaJ anhd the conflagration that should destroy it. 

The Indians, aa^ on former occaiiions, were not to be restrained, 
and the bearer ;of ,the flag .thought it " a great pity that so fine b 
young man should fall into the hands qf the savages." 

!' An Indian," says Captain M'Afee, ":at this, moment came, out 
of ana^joiningravine, and advancing to the ensign, took hold of 
his sword and attempted to wrest it from him. Dickson interfer- 
ed, and having restrained the Indian, affected great anxiety to get 
hini safe into the fort. 

"The enemy now,", continues. M'Afee, " opened their fire from 
their 6-pounder3 in the gunboats and the howitzer on shore, which 
they continued through the night -vs^ith but little intermiadon, and 
with very little e;Sect. The, forces of the .enemy consisted of 500 
regnlars, and about 800 Indians, commanded , by Kckspn, the 
whole being commanded by Geiieral Proctor in person. Tecum- 
seh was stationed on the road to fort. Meigs with a body of 3000 
Indians, expecting to, intercept a reinforcement on that route." 

The enemy had directed their flre against the, northwestern 
angle of the fOrt, which induced the commandant to believe that 
an attempt„to storm his works would be made at that point, . In 
the night Captain, Hunter -VFas directed to remove the pix-p'ounder 
to ;a b!bckJious,e from which it would rake that angle. , By great 
industry and, personal, exertion, OaptainHunter soon accomplished 
this object in secrecy^ The embrasure was masked, and l^he piece 
loaded with a half charge of .powder, and double charge, of slugs 
and grape shot. 

Early on the morning, ol the 2d, the enemy opened their fire 
from, their hpwitzer and three six-pounders, which, they landed in 
the .night and planted in a point of woods about two hundred and 
fiityyards from,. the fort. , About 4 o'clock, p.. m-, that day, they 
concentrated' the flre of all their guns on the northwest angle, 
which convinced Major Croghan that they would, endeavor to 
make a breach and storm the works at that point. 

Late in the evening, when the smoke of the firing had com- 
pletely enveloped the fort, the eiierAy ipi-oceecled to make the 


Attack qs Fort StbFhbnson — Valor op Maj. Croghaw. 259 

assault. Two ffiiots were made towai'ds the southern angle, where 
Captain .Hqntec'a lines, were formed;, and at the same time a 
col'mnn ot S50 men Were die covered advancing througlj the smoke 
within twentypae'es.irf'-.tbenorthwestern angle, ,A heavy,-galling 
fire ol mueketry.wasinow opened upon .them from the fopt, which 
threw them into some confusion. C6lonel Shorty who headed the 
principal column,,sOQn rallied his men, and led them with great 
■bravery to the brink >of a ditch near,. .After a momentary pause, 
he leaped into the ditchj oaUing to hi^ men to follow;him, aiid in a 
few miuKtes it was falL The masked port-hole was now opened, 
and, the six-pounder, at. the distance of thirty feet, poiared such 
destruction among lliem,'that. but-few who had entered the ditch 
were, fortunate enough- to:;eseape. . A precipitate. and confused 
retreat was the immediate 'consequence, although^ some of. the 
oiEcers attempted to: rally their men. ■ The other, column, which 
was led by Colonel Warhurton .and .Major .Chambers, was also 
routed in confusion by a desti'uctive firfe fromthe line commanded 
by Captain Hunter. The whole of tbem fled, into the. adjoining 
wood, beyond the reach of the small arms of .the fort. During the 
assault, which, lasted, half an hour, the enemy kept up ;an inces- 
sant fire from .their howitzer and five six-pounders, ■. .I'hey left 
Colonel Short, a lieutenant, and twenty -five privates . dead in the 
ditch; and the total number of prisoners, talien, was twenty-six, 
mostof them badly wounded. Major Muir^was knocked down in 
the ditch, and lay among the dead .til! the darkness of' the night 
enabled him te escape in safety,. The loss of. tlie garrison iwas 
one killed and one slightly wounded. .The total loss of the enemy 
was calculated at about one hundred and fifty killed and wounded. 
When night came on,.which was .soon after theiassault,. the 
wounded in the 'ditch were: found to be in. a desperate situation. 
Complete- relief could not be brought to them by either side with 
any degree of safety. Major Croghan, however,. relieved them, as 
much as possiblcr— conveying'them, water over the picketing, in 
buckets,, aad a ditch was also opened under the picketing, by means 
of which, those .who Were, able and willing, were encouraged to 
craWl into the fort.* 

About 3 o'clock, on the morning of the 3d, the whole British 
and Indian force commenced a disoi-derly retreat. So. great was 
their precipitation,-, says 'M'Aiee's narration,, that they left a .sail 
boat behind, containing some clothing and a considerable quantity 
of military stores; and on ; the nest day seventy standi of arms 
and some- braceB of pistols were .picked up round the fort , Their 
hurry and confusion was caused iSy the apprehension of an attack 
from General Harrison, of whose position and force tliey had 
probably received an exagerated account. 

At the .council held with M'Ai'tlmr, Cass,, and others, about the 
1st of August, it was determined that Major Croghan should 
abandon Fort iSt«phenaoa lis "untenable against bf^tvyarrillerv;'' 

. . )oglc 

260 EisroBT OF Fort WATTJa. 

and as this fort was considered as of but little value as a militaty 
post, it was alao concluded to destroy it at the moment of evacua- 
tion. To this end General Harrison immediately dispatched an 
order to Major Cvoglian, but Which, owing to the messenger and 
his Indian guides having lost their way, failed to reach him in time, 
and deeming it then unsafe, in view of the near approach of the 
enemy, to attempt an evacuation and retreat, after a council with 
his officers, the most of whom readily coincided with him, Major 
Croghan at once started the messenger on hia return to General 
Harrison with the following note : 

•' Sir, I have just received yours of yesterday, 10 o'clock P. M., 
ordering me to destroy this place and make good my retreat, which 
was received too late to be carried into execution. We have de- 
termined to maintain this place, and by hsaevns we can," 

His main reason for writing thus positively was, that he feared 
that the messenger might be captured, and the note fall into the 
hands of the British; and' when received by General Harrison, 
without knowing fully the motive of Croghan in thus replying to 
his order of evacuation and retreat, presuming it to indicate a 
disobeyal of orders, on the following morning, Colonel Wells, with 
an escort, was sent to take his place, and Croghan at once order- 
ed to repair to the post of General Harrison. Arriving at the 
headijuarters of General Han-ison, Major Croghan readily gaVe a 
satisfactory explanation of his course and the meaning of hia note, 
which received the ready approval of Harrison, and Croghan was 
at once ordered to return to his post and resume its command, 
" with written orders similar to those he had received before." 

In aa official report of Croghan's course in this siege, General 
Harrison said : " It will not be among the least of General Proc- 
tor's mortifications, to find that he has been baffled by a youth, 
who has just passed his twenty-first year. He is, however, a hero 
worthy of his gallant uncle, Geor^'e fl. Clarke." 

All under his command at this siege were highly praised by Ma- 
jor Croghan. " Never was there," said General Harrison, " a set 
of finer young fellows, viz : Lieutenants Johnson and Baylor of 
the 17th, Anthony of the 24th, Meeka of the 7th, and ensigns Shipp 
and Duncan of the 17th." Lieutenant Anderson, of the 24th, was 
also commended for marked good conduct on this memorable 
occasisn ; and soon after the siege of Fort Stephenson, Major 
Croghan was breveted a Lieiiten ant-Colon el by President Madi- 
son, then President of the United States ; while the ladies of Chili- 
cothe, Ohio, presented him with a splendid awordj accompanied 
by an appropriate address. 

A little party of Wyandott Indiana, after the retreat of the 
British from Port Stephenson, were sent down the bay, with other 
scouts, for the purpose of intercepting the retreat of the enemy. 
Succeeding in capturing a few British soldiers, who had been left 
in the general retreat, the Indians "brought them to the camp, 


Ihdian Scouts akd British Prieonbks. 261 

without doing them any injury ; and, conscious," says M'Afee, 
" that they liad done their duty, they were frequently seen telling 
the sfcory to their brother warriors, and laughing at the terror 
which had been manifested by the aoldiers, who, no doubt, expec- 
ted to be massacred or carried off and destroyed by tortnre." 

-c by Google 


PeiTjf the young, Perry t!io bold and brnyp.' 

Ohio and Kentucky again aroused — Henry reinforcemeuts— Operations on. theLake — 
Oocnmodore PeiTy m conroiond of the Lake fleet— Activity of the British— .Movo- 
ment of troops from Ohio and Kentueky — Heavy engagement on the Lake, and 
victoi'j of Oommodore Pei'ry— The British noinmander aenda out a reconnoitering 
party — Bvaouation and deatruotion of Maiden— Airival of the American foi'oeB at 
Maiden— Retreat of the Bcitish towards Sandwioh— iUstless feeling of the In- 
dians — Teoumseh propoaes an abandonment o! efforts againat tbe A,meiioana — Ho 
eeea ruin ahead— His speech. 

e^ OTH Oliio aud Kentacky, from'wliich points, at that time, and 
I^Mduring some years previous, was derivefl the main support 
'gejaof the West in a military point of view, -were now again 
^i aroused, and a large number of volunteers came forward at 
^ the call of Governors Meigs and Shelby. 

The general attention of tlie country was now turned to opera- 
tions oa the Lake, of which the British then had the main con- 
trol, with a considerable Heet ailoat; and it became moat impor- 
tant that tlie American government should begin to exercise the 
largest industry in naval affairs. 

Two brigs and several schooners had been laid at Erie early in 
tile month of March of this year, (1813) and Commodore Perry 
had been sent to superintend their construction and equipment. 
The enemy had also been most active in this relation, and had 
built a twenty-gun brig at Maiden. 

About the 2d of August, having completed his equipments and 
gotten his heaviest vessels over the bar at the mouth of the har- 
bor, Perry "crossed the Lake to Long Point, and then proceeded up 
the British shore some distance without discovering their fleet, 
which had, in fact, returned to Maiden for their new brig and addi- 
tional reinforcements on discovering the force which Perry was 
able to bring against them." 

Abant the 91ih of September, volunteers began to quit Urbaua, 

, . :>Goo<:^Ic 

Puftav's Victoky oh the Laks, 263 

Ohio, where they had assembled from different parts of that State 
and Kentucky, for Upper Sandiisky— the Kentuckians headed hy 
the venerable Governor Shelby. 

In the meantime, (on the 10th) the vessels on the Lalje bad 
come to close quarters ; and after an engagement of four hour's, 
during which time it was most difKcnlt to determine w;hich would 
succeed, the British vessel at length suri-endered, and very eoon 
after, ranch as if the heroic spirit of W&yne had momentarily 
hovered about the mind of Peny, the following laconic note was 
addressed tOi General 'Harrison : 

" Dear General— We have met the enemy and they are oura— 
two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and a sloop. 

"Tours, with great respect and esteem, 

" Oliver Hazard Perry." 

Immediately upon the .i;eceipt ,of the. news of the, loss, of the 
British vessels, Proctor had -sent spies to reconnoiter tbe^forees of 
General. Harrison;, who .soon obtained a distant view of- the. 
Kentuckiajis while encamped on the plains of Sandusky, at once 
reporting, their number to the British commander at from ten to 
fifteen th.oijsand. 

Upon the receipt of this information, Proctor at once determined 
to burn Maiden, and make good his retreat up the Detroit^and 
Thames rivers, then to make his way to the lower parts of the 
proyiiice. Accordingly, on the 26th, Maiden was evacuated and 

On the following day, (27th) agreebleto previous ord^rS, the 
American army set sail from the Middle Sister Island for Maiden, 
where the. whole arrived in good' order about three o'clocfc in' the 
afternoon of that day, only to behold the ruins of the place. 
Proctor had retreated, to Sandwich, " under the impression .that 
ther.e were at least ten thousand Kentuckians coming agaitist him." 

The Indians in the service' of the British had now become Very 
restl-ess and uneasy. General Harrison had some time before these 
events sent some friendly .Wyancfotts among the Indians allied- to 
the British with a view to neutrality with them. Tecumseh had 
previoiwly urged an abandonment of the efforts of the Indiana 
against the Americana, but without success; and the efforts ef the 
friendly Wyandotte, sent by the General, had met with no better 
success. Sorhe 15,000 mtlons had. been dail^ issued to the In- 
dians-r-wamora, women and children — rby the'' British, for- sorne 
time before the retrtat of General Proctor, which was- quite^a 
weight upon the British government— too heavy to be borne lon'g-; 

The impceseive mind of Tecumseh saw ruinaheact. ' He did not 
like, or approve of the Course pursued by Gfcnerar Proctor in tha 
destruction and evacuation of Maiden. As early as thelSt'h of 
September, he had delivered' a stirring speech to the British coift- 
mander, in the name of all the chiefs and warriora in the employ 

-c by Google 

304 EiH'toBT OF FosT Wayne. 

of tlie Britieh, ■which, by order of General Proctor, was written 
down and preserved by hiin until the defeat of the British at the- 
battle of tne ThSmes, when', among other papers left behind by 
the British in their retreat from the scene of the conflict there, it 
was found and brought away by the AmericanB. Aa the repre-, 
eentative of their British father, the King of Great Britain, Te- 
cumseh, in this speech, had appealed to General Proctor, who, 
doubtless, in view of the momentary approach upon hia quarters 
at Maiden of the American forces, was too mneh disturbed to hear 
the words of Tecumseh fully explained by the interpreter, or to 
read the speech himself, when ifTritten down. Said the Shawanoe 
chi«ftwn i 

" Father, listen to your children ! Tou have them now al! be- 
fore you. 

" The war before this, our Eritieh father gave the hatchet to hii 
red children, when our old chiefs were alive. They are now dead. 
In the war, our father was thrown on his back by the Americans, 
and our father took them by the hand without our knowledge ; and 
we are afraid that our father will do so again at this time, 

" Summer before last, when I came forward with my red breth- 
ren, and waa ready to take up the hatchet in favor of our British 
father, we were told not to be in a hurry, that he had not yet de- 
termined to fight the Americana. 

'^Listen! When war was declared, our father stood up and gave 
us the tomahawk and told us that he waa then ready to strike the 
Americans ; tliat he wanted our assiBtance ; and that he would 
certainly get ua our lands back, which the Americans had taken 
from us. 

" Listen ! Tou told us, at that time, to bring forward our families 
to thia place ; and we did so ; and you promised to take care of 
them, and they should want for nothing; while the men would go 
and fight the enemy ; that we need not trouble ourselves about 
the enemy's garrisons ; that we knew nothing about them, and that 
Our fiither would attend to that part of the business. You also 
told your red children that you would take good care of your garri- 
son here, which made our hearts glad. 

" Listen ! When we were last at the Rapids it is true we gave 
yon little assistance. It is hard to fight people who live like 

'^I'atker, listen! Our fleet has gone out; we know they have 
fought ; we have heard the great guns ; but we know nothing of 
what has happened to our father with that arm. Our ships have 
gone one way, and we are much astonished to see our father tying 
up every thing and preparing to run away the other, without let- 
ting hiij red children know what his intentions are. You always 
told us to remain here and take oare of our lands ; it made our 
hearts glad to hear that was your wish. Our great father, the king, 

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is the head, and you represent him, Xou always told ua that yon 
would never draw your foot off Britieh ground ; biit now father, 
we see jou are drawing back, and we are sorry to see our father 
doing so without seeing the enemy. We must compare our fath- 
er's , conduct to a fat dog, that cai-ries its tail upon its back, but 
when afrighted, it drops it between its legs and runa off. 

'^Father, listen! The Americans have not yet defeated ua by 
land ; neither are we sure that they have done so by water ; we 
therefore wish to remain here and Jtght our enemy, shtuld they make 
their appearance. If they defeat as, we will then retreiit with our 

" At the battle of the Rapids, last war, the Americans certainly 
defeated us ; and when we retreated to our father's fort at that 
place the gates were ahut against us. We were afraid that it would 
now be the case ; but instead of that, we now see our British 
fafelier prepai-ing to march out of his garrison. 

" Father ! You have got the arms and ammunition which our 
great father sent for his red children. If you have an idea of go- 
ing away, give them to us, and you may go and welcome for us. 
Our lives are in the hands of the Great Spirit. We are determin- 
ed to defend our lands, and if it be his will, we wish to leave our 
bones upon them." 

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"The battle's o'er 1 the diu ia p^t ; 
Bight's mantle oii^tha fialfl is oast." 
Long livs'tito^ lionored names-r 
The valiant ouncjueroi'sof the TJiamfw.. 

Pmmiitof the BrjtjahfromMaldenv.-HaiTiaop's Department— Fright 
and flight of tiie Canadiftris—Oaptare of TeoumBeh'B chief dpunaelor— His aooount 
to Colonel JoUnsoii— Disooy^ of the bodes ofthemaEsaured man of Fi^enohtown 
— Sieited feelings of the Katttuckian3-.^M9Vemeiit_of tlie ftrrny^ in tiia.murault of 

tha British— Arrival at tha mouth of the Thames— Capture. of^^wtiah d^agc 

Anomeo of vietory— The bird of Liberty ho taring over the ariny-fifHafeBc 

w-sh oat follows the army from HIentuoiy to Bass Island — The army 

of vietory — The bird of Liberty hot 

tfoUows the army ftwm HIentuoiy . _ .. ^ 

Moravian Towns— Oopturfi of a British waeoner— The British order 
of battle, lying in wait — Wear approach of Oolonal Johnson to the Britlah lines — 
The great hom' of defeat or viotoiy at h anil— Formidable position of the British 
and Indiana— Preparations for on attaot— Daring plan of Oolonel Jolmson— A 
aiidden dash to be made upon the British linea— Advance of the American army 
Distant fire of the British— Intrepid oharge of the cavalry under Johnson— Confu- 
Bion and flight of the British— Ocmteat -with the Indians -Pursuit of Proctor— Hia 
Bword and carriage oaptured— Loss suBtained— Death of Teoumaeh— Who killed 
him ? — Estimates of the foroaaof the armira — The charge of tha mounted infantry 
won the victory of f3ie Thames- -Order for tlxe return of the troops -Manly and 
cheering addi'Oss of Governor Shelby. 

^fHE American forcea haying encamped about the ruins of 
TO)MaldeQ on the night of the, S7th of September, with a view 
^£>of pur&uing the retreating army of Proctor tlie following 
^SgJ morning, General Harrison, on the evening of the arrival of 
** the army, in a letter to the war department, said: "I virill 
pursue the enemy to-moiTOw, although there is no probability of 
overtaldng him, as he has upwards of 1000 horses, and we have 
not one in the army. I shall think myself fortunate to collect a 
sufficiency to mount the general ofHcers. It is supposed here, that 
general Proctor will establish himself upon the river Trench, or 
Thames, 40 miles from Maiden," 

Proctor had pressed into his service all the horses of the inhabi- 
tants, which they had not effectually concealed. One only, and 
that a very indifferent one, could be procured. On it tke vener- 
able Governor of Kentucky was mounted, and proceeded witli the 

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Ff,ic;f;T o? TBffi CAifAOiAXS. 2iS7 

army towards Sandwich, where they arrived on the 29lh, withoat 
meeting any obstruction from the enemy; except that the bridge 
over the Aux Canada river had been torn up, but was soon re- 
paired again. There had been considerable expsctation among 
the commanding officers that a; formidable resistance Would' be 
made 'at this bridge, but no enemy was to be s^en; and On arriv- 
ing at Sari'dwichit was ascertained that General Proctor had 're- 
treated from that place eaiiy on the preceding day. The Indians, 
however, were in considerable force in the saburbs of Detroit, the 
inhabitants of which, who had already been very much plundered, 
were in great apprehension of an immediate massacre; but a few 
discharges of grape shot froin the fleet, which had come up the 
liver, aooh 'eompelied them to fly to tlie wo'ods for safety; General 
M'Arthur went over with his brigade and ' 'took p'OBsesslon of the 
town ; and on tJie' same evening General Harrisbn issued his proc- 
lamation for re-establiahirig the civil govemnient of the territory. 
All persons who had been in office at tJie time of the capitulation, 
were directed to resume then- functions, and adminiBter the lavi's 
which had then been in force.* 

The Canadians, like the K-etskasldans, afthetitne of Clark's 
movement upon Kaskaskia, in ITTSihM heard terrible accounts 
of the barbarity and fe'rocity of tlie ■ Kentuckians, and on the 
approach of the American forces, had fled iu the wildesB conster- 
nation and fear, expecting to b6 massacred and plundered by the 
Long Knives, (the ■ Kentuckians) but in this, they were destined to 
meet with agreeable ' disappointment. 

On the 30th of September, Lieutenant Griffith having returned 
with a scouting party from the river Eaisin, brought with faiin an 
Indian by the name of Misselewetaw, a chief counaeilorto Tecum- 
soh, anduucle to the famous Logan: He had led the Pigeon Roost 
massacre, as detailed in a former chapter. When captured, he was 
asleep in ahoiise at the' river Raisinj He told Col. Johnson, says 
M'Afee, that, the Indians had been Wa:tching tlie movements of 
his anny; had examined his encampments, andseen^him arrive at 
fort Meigs ; and that they estimated j]iisforcee to beat least 2400. 
He lurtherstAted'that the Indians about Browhetown, amounting 
to 1750 warriors, had deteirminedto give him battle at the river Hu- 
ron— and that they were still ignorant of the fate of the British fleet. 
He was an Indian of excellent information, and had been the con- 
stant companion and Mend of Tecuniseh, ^Eeing under an impres- 
sion that he would now certainly have to die, he gaVe Col, Johnson 
a long'and appiareritly yery'candid'accoahfcof past transactions, 
since tiie treaty of Sreenville to, that lime; He said' the ' British 
had Supplied the Prophet's party with arms and amuriition before 
the battle of Tippccano^j that Tecum eeh's- plan for-a common 
property in their lands had-been strongly 'recommended and praised 
by Col. Elliott ; and that the British had used every means in tlieir 
power, since' the year '180&, to aeoure the friendship. -arid 'aid'of ths>Goo<:^Ic 

268 History of Fort Waihe. 

Indians;, in the event of a war with the United States — having 
often invited them to Maiden and made them presents for thatpur- 
pose,; and having also represented to them that they should re- 
cei^e Bj-itish aid to drive the Americans over the Ohio river, after 
■which they should live in the houses of the inhabitants and have 
their daughters for wives. He said he was now convinced that 
the British had again deceived.them, and that the Great Spirit had 
forsaken him in his old age for his cruelty and wickedness. 

Since the massacre of the river Raisin, the bones of the Een- 
tBckians had remained exposed until fiometirae in June, 1813, when 
Colonel R. M, Johnson had collected and buried a large num- 
ber of them, which, after hia departure, had again been dug up 
and Scattered over the fields. On the evening of the 25th of Sep- 
tember, orders having been received at Fort Meiga for the regi- 
ment under Colonel Johnson to march again for the river RaisJn, 
on the following morning, after due preparation, the regiment mov- 
ed forward, and on the eecond day after starting, reached the scene 
of massacre, where the bones of the slain were to be seen scatter- 
ed about in every direction, Frenchtown was now generally de- 
serted, and " the iine orchards of peach and apple trees were load- 
ed with excellent truit." " The sight of the bones," says Captain 
M'Afee, " had a powerful effect on the feelings of the men. The 
wounds inflicted by that barbarous transaction, were again torn 
open. The bleaching bones still appealed to heaven and called on 
Kentucky to avenge this outrage on humanity. We had beard 
the scene described before," sdys he, — " we now witnessed it in 
these impressive memorials. The feehngs they excited cannot be 
described by me — but they will never be forgotten — nor while 
there is a recording angel in heaven, or a historian upon earth, 
will the tragedy of the river Raiaia be suffered to sink into obliv- 
ion. , Future generations will often ponder on this fatal field of 
blood : and the future inhabitanta of Frenchtown will long point 
out to the curious traveler the garden where the intrepid Madison 
for several hours maintained the unequal contest of four to one, 
and repulsed the bloody Proctor in every charge. Yonder is the 
wood, where the gallant Allbn fell ! Here the accomplished Hart 
and Woolfolk were butchered! There the brave Hickman wa» 
tomahawked and thrown into the flanaea! That is the spot where 
the lofty Simpson breathed his last! And a little farther doctors 
Montgomery, Davis and M'llvain, amiable in their manners and 
profound in science, fell in youth ajid left the sick to mourn their 
loss ! The gallant Meade fell on the bank in battle, but his mag- 
nanimous lieutenant. Graves, was reserved for massacre ! " 

At this point an express arrived from the main army, which the 
meisengerhad left on thelsJand of the Middle Sister on the morn- 
ing of the 26th. He had been sent, while General Harrison was 
reconnoitering off Maiden, by the attentive and watchful Gover- 
nor of Kentucky, to apprize Colonel Johnson of the progress and 


PoKscrr OF the BKiTisn Akuy. 369 

prospects of the ai'iny, that he might regulate his march accord- 
ingly. Neit morning, before the regiment marched, their faithful 
guide, Anthony Shane, the Shawanoe half-breed, observed that he 
knew the spot where Oaptain Simpson had been killed. The 
Colonele, with Captain M'Afee and Dr. Ewing, went with Shane 
to the place, and found the hones, which they buried. The frame 
of Oaptain Simpson was easily known from the others, by its length, 
the Captain having been upwarda of six feet and a half high.* 

On the 30th of September, the whole regiment under Colonel 
Johnson, had safely reached Detroit, where they eoon crossed the 
river to Sandwich. 

It was now concluded, in a council between Genaral Harrison 
and Governor Shelby, that Proctor might be overtaken in three or 
four days' rapid marching ; and the Governor was accordingly re- 
quested to collect hie general officers at headquarters, with a view 
to arrangements for the plan of pursuit. Two courses were siig- 
geated — one, to follow up the Strait bv land — the other, to embark 
and aail down Lake Erie to Long Point, then to move rapidly 
across by land, some twelve miles, to the road, and intercept tlie 
course of the enemy's retreat Governor Shelby was of the opin- 
ion that the route by land, up the Strait, would be the best ; which 
was unanimously agreed upon ; and on the morning of the 2d of 
October, at -sunrise, the army was in motion, the vessel troops mov- 
ing some hours in advance oi the brigade of General Cass, which 
was detained on account of their bianketa and knapsacks having 
been left at the Island of the Middle Sister. The mounted regi- 
ments were also detained a short time in drawing provisions. But 
alter a march of some twelve miles, the mounted troops over- 
took the advance corps. 

It having been ascertained that the Indian chiefs, Five iMedals 
and Mai-pock, with other chiefs, in connection with the MiamieS, 
Pottawattamies, and other tribes, had remained on the westside of 
the Detroit river, General M'Arthur's brigade was left at Detroit 
to hold them in check. 

Upon the arrival of the army at the moutii of the Thames, a 
emalt body of British dragoons was discovered by the spies, under 
Mtgor Sugget, just below that point, who were pursued and 
captured, just after an effort, on their part, to destroy a bridge over 
a small stream near the place of capture. " This little ailair, the 
first fruits of the pursuit," says Captfun M'Afee, " had a very great 
effect in animating the pursuers." 

A s the army drew up at the mouth of the Thames, all eyes were 
turned upward. An omen of victory was hovering over the scene 
in t!ie form of the glorious bird of Liberty — the American eagle! 
'■ A presage of .success 1" remarked General Harrison ; "as it i* 
our tutelary bird." A similar event had occurred to the fleet of 
Commodore Perry, before hiaviisfcory, on the morning of the lOth 
of September. 

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370 EiSToar op Foai' Wayne. 

And it may be remarJ^ied just here that anotber somewhat singu- 
lar manifestation was. presented for the thoughtful consideration 
and aniuaement of the army just prior to the appearancr; .of the 
eagle at the mouth of the. Thames. A sow-shoat had followed a 
company of mounted volunteers from the interior .of Kentucky 
to- the point where the .army drew up for further orders at Lake Erie. 
Keeping " constantly witktlie army, abe became generally known 
to the soldiets, whs called her the governor's pig, and were care- 
ful to protect her, aa they deemed, her conduct an auspicious omen. 
At the margin of the lake," runa the account, " she embarked with 
tlie troops and went as far as Bass island." Beings- offered a pas- 
sage into Canada from.tliis point, ehe" obstiiiately cefased to em- 
bark. the second time;" and though her condaot.was /jocosely 
attributed " to constitutional scruples " — some . of tlie men of the 
army humeronnly suggesting that " it waa contrary, to the consti- 
tntionto force a militia pig over the line," yet she .could not by 
any meana be pursuaded to cross over to Canada, and was accor- 
dingly permitted to "return to the regiment at Portage." 

Early on the morning of the 5th of October, the army waa again 
in- motion, and continued ita march, without special interruption, 
until within a short distance of the Moravian Towns, some ninety 
miles northeast of .Detroit, where, capturing a British wagoner, 
the army received the intelligence that " tlie enemy were lying in 
order of battle about three hundred yarda before them," awaiting 
the approach of tlie American- forces. Golonel Johnson, with 
Major Sugget and his spies, now advanced within view of tha 
British lines, for the purpose of obtaining as much information aa 
possible a.B to the position, &c., of the enemy, which waa readily 
communicated to General Harrison. 

The great hour that was to decide the triumph of American 
arms in the full establishment and maintenance of political rale 
over the vast territory ef thevGreat West was now at hand ; and 
the forces under General .Harrison wece halted and formed for the 
conflict ! 

The British commander had selected a formidable position for 
the prosecution of his plan .of attack. ., The ground upon which 
the British forces .had halted extended along near the margin of 
the river Thames, the ground being covered principally with 
beech, .sugar-tree, and oak timber, with but little underbrush. 
Running nearly parallel wii3i the river, for about two miles, waa 
a somewhat lixtensive marsh, whichigrew narrower as one advanc- 
ed up .the stream. Where the British forces, were stationed, there 
was a narrow swamp,, some three hundred yards from theThamea, 
lying between which and the' main swamp extending up the river, 
there appeared a spot of solid ground. In two lines, their left 
resting on the river, and their; right extending to the first swamp, 
the British regulars were ranged, with tiieir artillery planted in 
the road, Rear the bank of the river. The JudiaoB, ;ill ranged aloag 


Eattlr of thj; Tuameb.. £T1 

&e first. BTvamp, their left at a point where Tecumseh commanded, 
occupying," the isthmus between the. s:wamps,.on which, the un- 
dergrowth was tolerably thick; and. their right extending a con- 
Bidernble distance dpwn the main marsh, the niargin of whicii, at 
this place, receding very fast from the river, fofmed a very obtuse 
angle with the lines ".of the- American forces, 

.At the out-pet, in the order of arrangement for battle, the mount- 
ted regiment tender, Oolonel Johnsoa . occupied the space between 
the river and the iirst,, swamp. ..On. approaching this regiment 
and learning of the discovery of the enemy, aa .well as satisfying 
himself .as to the aitijation of the. Bi-itish forces, by personal obser- 
vation, General Harrison atonce directed Coionel Johnson, on the 
approach of. the iniantry„tp a position &t the left, from 
thence, if possible; to turn the right of the Indians. 

The Britjsh regulars were, drawn up in open order. A daiing 
plan wag now readily concei,v,ed by Colonel Johnson, and as quick- 
ly agreed upon. It wa^ for the mounted .infaqtry to malce a sud- 
deji dash upon the, British lines, .confusing and, breaking them at 
once ; and the two mounted regiments were .accordingly ordered 
to be formed "in two. charging columns, in short lines, and, on re- 
ceiving the enemy's fire, to charge through, his ranks, form in his 
r^M, and. act as .cji'cuTastancea might require." . 
. ^he rear .and flanks being well secured against attacks, the foot 
troops,, embracing five brigades, averaging some three hundred 
men. each, wer^.well arranged along the rear, the river, the swamp, 
the, road, near the river, &c., and Governor Shelby was ordered to 
take hia;P08ition^a yery iwa)ortant onerr-at the angle between the 
swamps, vt-hile. General .Harrison .took.hia position at the head of 
the front Hne, in order the .better to observe the charge, and ren- 
der ready and efficient support to lhe.hoi's,emen. 

All was noiy readiness for the charge; and "the whole army 
advanced in the order '] already presented, ".until the front of the 
fUrst battalion received a, distant fire from thp . British lines," which 
" somewhat frightened the horses, and caused, a little, .confusion at 
the heaijs of the columns ; thus, retarding the chaj-ge, and giving 
the enemy time to prepai'e tor a secoiid fire, which aqon followed 
the first." . .But in a moment, tht> American columns ."were com- 
pletely .in motion, and rushed uj).on the British with irreslstable 
impetuosity," causing their front line, to precipitately break away 
in every direction, and their aecojid, also, some thirty paces in the 
rear of the front line, after .a single fire, " was broken and thrown 
Into confusion." The. grand idea of the. onset of the mounted 
troops nnder. Colonel .Johnson had now. consummated its pur- 
pose ;,. and sure victory .at. every point was already, perching upon 
the American, banner. .,.T!ie bird of Liberty had indeed proved 
"a presage of success ;" and he. had not. yet ceased to spread 
his gio^-ioi'.s pinions over the region of the. scene of conflict 1 Such 
\V3.s the patriotic fervor and heroism of that eventful hour of our 


3T2 History op Foet Watsb. 

country's historj — such the fierce contest between tlie reced- 
ing monarchial element of the time, seeking dominion and control 
over the northwest, with a\-iew to the overthrow of Kepublicanism, 
and the supplanting upon the ruins thereof the power and rule of 
of the British crown, on one hand, and the valiant pioneer soldiery 
and patriots of the West, striving to widen the avenues of free 
institutions, free government — to open the broad domain of the 
Great West for the cultivation of a boundles unity of goodnesa, 
order, truth, industry, and all the conditions and elements then 
and therealler germanly pertaining to the welfare, general well- 
being, progressive education, and safety of a free people — the 
protection and perpetuation of a generous and progressive govern- 
ment, on the other. And the powerful will ot^ the latter, intensi- 
fied and impelled by a broad and glorious spirit and sense of free- 
dom and hope of future goveramental unity, charged upon the 
enemy with an undaunted and even riackiess determination to 
achievathe end sought to be attained, viz: an unconditional victory 
over a common foe to republican institutions and a free, un- 
trammeled government ! 

At this stage of the conflict, the American columns, having now 
passed through the broken lines of the enemy, " wheeled to the 
right and left., and began to pour a destructive fire on the rear of 
their disordered ranks ; " but the contest was only momentary — for, 
•ays the narration of the very truthful and intelligent Captain 
M'Afee, a participant in this eventful struggle, " No sooner had our 
horsemen charged through their lines and gained their rear, than 
they began to surrender as fast as they could throw down their 
arms. And thus, in a moment, the whole British force, upwards 
of eight hundred strong, was totally vanquished, and the greater 
part of it captured by the first battalion of the mounted regiment 
under lieutenant-colonel James Johnson, before the front line of 
our infantry had got fairly in view of them. General Proctor, 
however, made his escape, escorted by a small party of dragooni 
and mounled Indiana, who were immediately pursued as far as the 
Moravian town, by a party of the mounted regiment, consisting 
chiefly of officers. 

■' The contest with the Indians on the left," continues the narra- 
tion of M'Afee, " was more obstinate. They reserved their fire till 
the heads of the columns and the front fine on foot had approach- 
ed within a few paces of their positien. A very destructive fire 
wan then commenced by them, about the time the firing ceased 
between the British a«d the first battalion. Colonel Johnson, 
finding his advanced guard, composing the head of his column, 
nearly all cut down by the first fire, and himself severely weund- 
ed, immediately ordered his column to dismount and come up in 
line before the enemy, the ground which they occupied being un- 
favorable for operations on horseback. The line was promptly 
formed on foot, and a fierce conflict was then maintained for seven 

1. 1.. Coo^k 

Battle op the Thames — Flight op Pkoctob. 273 

or eight'minutes, with considerable execution on both sides ; but 
the Indians had not sufficient firmness to sustain very long a fire 
which was close and warm, and severely destructive. They gave 
way and fled through the brush into the outer swamp, not, how- 
ever, before they had learnt the total discomiiture of their allies, 
and had lost, by the fall of Tecumseh, a chief in whom were unit- 
ed the prowess of Achilles and authority of Agamemnon. 

" As soon as the firing commenced between the Indians and the 
second battalion, Governor, Shelby, who was posted at the crotchet 
in its rear, immediately ordered that part of the front line of in- 
fantry which lay between the first swamp and the crotchet, being 
a part of Colonel Uonelson's regiment, to march up briskly to the 
aid of the mounted men. They rushed up accordingly into Colo- 
nel Johnson's lines, and participated in the contest at that point, 
Thiawaa the only portion oi the, infantry which had an opportunity 
of engaging in any part of the battle. The Governor also dis- 
patched General Adair, his aid-de-camp, to bring up the brigade 
of General King to the front line ; but before this couid be accom- 
plished the enemy had fled from Colonel Johnson, and a scattering, 
running fire had commenced along the swamp, in front of General 
Desha's division, between the retiring Indians and the mounted 
men in pursuit, who were now commanded by Major Thompson 
alone, Colonel Johnson having retired in conseq^uence of his 
wounda. This firing in the swamp continued, with occasional 
remissions, for nearly hall an hour, during which time the contest 
was gallantly maintained by Major Thompson and his men, who 
■were still pressing forward on the Indians. Governor Shelby in 
the meantime had rode down to the lefl of General Desha's divis- 
ion, and ordered the regiment of Colonel Simrall, which was post- 
ed on the extreme left, to march up on the right flank of the enemy 
in aid of Major Thompson ; but before this reinforcement could 
reach the scene of action, the Indians had given up the contest. 

" Soon after the British force had surrendered, and it was discov- 
ered that the Indians were yielding on the left, General Earrison 
ordered Major Payne to pursue General Proctor with a part of his 
battalion; which was promptly done, and the pursuit continued, 
by the greater part of the detachment, to the distance of six miles 
beyond the Moravian town, some Indiana being killed, and a con- 
siderable number of prisoners, with a large quantity of plunder, 
captured in their progress. Majors Payne, Wood, Todd, and 
and Chambers ; Captain Langham, and Lieutenants Scorgin 
Bell, with three privates, continued the pursuit several mil es furth- 
er, till night came upon them— but Proctor was not to be taken. 

The pursuers, however, at last pressed him so closely, that he was 
obliged to abandon tiie road, and his carriage and sWord were cap- 
tured by the gallant Major Wood. The prisoners, about 50 in 
number, were brought back to the Moravian town, where they , 

(IS) II. L.oo^lc 

274 History of Fort WA?m, 

wei'e left in charge of Captain M'Afee, with lOO moim1;ed men, 
milil. Major arrived, about midnight, ivith a reinforcemeni; of 
150 infiititiy. , At the head of the town, six pieces of brasa artillery 
■« ei'e tiilien, three of which had been captured in the revolution, 
at Saratoga and York, and enn'endered again by Hull in Detroit. 

" Tha exact loea which either side sustained in thia battle," coa- 
liiiues Captain M'Afee, " has never been correctly known. Accord- 
ing to the best informatioD, however, which has been received, the 
tOLal loas of the mounted regiment on that day, was 17 killed and 
30 Wounded. The loss of the infantry wais much leas, though con- 
siderable also, at the point where tliey reinforced Colonel Johnson, 
which was the principal theati'e of our Iorbob. The Indians left 
liiirty-three dead on the battle ground, and had ten or twelve killed 
in different places by their pursuers. The British had IS killed 
and ^6 WQuJided, besides 600 prisoners captured, including 25 
olHcei's. Among our killed waa Colonel Whitley, a veteran who 
had beeii a'dietingitished soldier in former Indian ware, and had 
feeen no less conspicuous and serviceable in the present campaign, 
in wheih the accompanied Colonel Johnson. Captain Craig and 
Lieiitenaht Logan died of thei]- wounds a fewdays after the battle. 
Col. Johdson and Captains Davidson aiid Short were also woimd- 
ed severely, but recovered. The Colonel was shot through his 
thigh and in his hip, by the iirst fire of the Indians ; and shortly 
afterwards he was shot through his left h and, by a ball which rang- 
ed up his arm, but did not enter his body. He continued, hoivev- 
er, in front' of his men, gallantly fighting the enemy as long as the 
action lasted at that place. The white mare on whicti he rode 
was also shot so severely that she fell and expired soon after she 
had caiTied her rider within the hnes of the infantiy. 

" Teeumseh was found among the dead at the point where Col. 
Johnnon had charged upon tlie enemy in person ; and it is gener- 
ally believed that this celebrated chief fell by the hand of the 
Colonel." It 19 certain that Ihe latter killed the Indian witli his 
pistol who shot liim through Ms hand, at the very spot where Te- 
eumseh lay; but another dead body lay at the same place, and 
Mr. Ki»g, a soldier in Captain Davidson's company, had the honor 
of killing one of them. 

'■ Fi'om the best information that has been received, it appears 
that there was no material difference in the strengtJi of the two 
armies in thia battle The troops under Harrison had been great- 
1 e lu ed n number by detachments left aa guards and tor other 
p ] e and bv those who Weje sick and otheiwise unable to 

-db> Google 

Tribuie to Tkcub£Shh. 275 

keep up on forced niarclics. The distance frsra Sandwich Lo the 
Moravian town is upwards ofeiglity miles, -which our army match- 
ed in three days and a half, though IVequeiitly harrassed by shir- 
mishing and forming in order of battle, and delayed by repairing 
bridges and procuring supplies, A body of undiseiplined militia, 
urged along and regulated a_Ione by Iheir patriotism and military 
ardor, would necessarily be much reduced by such a journey. The 
whole of the regulara had been left behind, except the small frag- 
ment of a regiment under Colonel Paul. The brigade of General 
M'Arthur had been left at Detroit to protect the inhabitanta against 
the Indians ; and that of General Cass had been left at Sandwich, 
waiting for the baggage of the men, which delayed them so long 
that they were unable to come up with th« army before ihe battle 
had been fought. The whole way from Sandwich to the battle 
ground was filled with scattering parties of the militia. Heoce, 
our force at the place of action was believed to be less than ^500 
men, which was vary little more than the force actually engaged 
on the part of the enemy. The British part of that force appears 
to have been about 845 strong. Its loss in killedj wounded, and 
captured, was 645 ; and the at^jutant-general of the British forces 

so.DP jeara ii.go,io tlie columns of Iha "Hi^SPEnuN," p=icl ilio l!oIluw:u3 be[i|i^\"uT i"".' .0 
to tile great wa^rioi' ; 

'' TECOMSEH, Thb last Kivo oir -st OniO. 

Art lliou & BOldier ?— -do-.t lliou nol; 

Hero atttj thy step? — What holiei- spof 

Couldst thou for pontemplalLon eliooKO 
Iho earth beneath U holy ground, 
iio pilgrim sje- ave seen to weep ,- Ithokla » thoUHand valiant briveT; 

And no momorial marble throws Tread lightly o'or each liUle mound, 

Its fhadoRwheia his ashes sleep. Foi'they are no IgDoble graves. 

" Sfop,6trangei', thofa Toenmaeh lies ; " ThermopjliB and Mavatlioii, 

Behold the lowly resting plnee Though elasaic eorthjoan boast no mors 

0.° all liat of the hero dies ; Of deeds horoio than yon sen 

The Cteaar— Tullj— of his vaoe, Onoe saw upon Ibis lonely shore, 

WliOBB a-m of Btrannth and flrel touEue, When in a gallant nation'^ k-A 

And deadliest Btrcgglo, I or I j owiij 
recninseh'a liory spivit posaad 
In blood, and souglithii fuLUer's tirone: 

'■ Stop— foi' 'tis glory elainn thy tear, " Oh, softly fall tho summer dew, 

T^ne wovth belongs to all mankind. The tears of Heaven upon his soil. 

And he whose ashes slnraber iiei-e. For he in life and deatli was true, 

Tjongh man in form, was God in mind; Both to his country and his god; 

TVbat matter ho was not like thee, For oh, if God to man has jiven. 

In race or color? — 'ds the aonl From his bright home beyond the skies 

That marks man'a true divinity— One feeling that's akin to Hoaven, 

Then let not abame tliey tears control. 'Tis his who for his eountry dies. 

"Art thonapatriut?— sowasho— B- 

His breast was Freedom's holiest shrine; 
And as thon bendest there thy knee, 'Time cannot in ob]iTio^ marge 

His spirit will unite wiih thine j T:ie i:g'4t t&y star of glofy ci 

All that a man can give, he gave— WliUe heave yon high iiilla to t' 

His life— the country of his sires Whi e :ol!s jon Cavt and in 1 

In vn'.n— quenched a;eliiBnfl::on'BE-e?. Wlioiki F ledom loccfl will 


276 HisiOKT OF Fort WAiraE, 

soon afterwards ofBciaily acknowledged that 30i of those whe 
escaped had assembled at Ancaster on tho 17th of October. This 
calculation is also confirmed by the official return of the troops at 
Maiden en the lOth of September, which made them 944 in num- 
ber — affordihg an excess of 100 above our estimate to meet the 
losses experienced on tJie retreat before the battle. As for the 
amount of their Indian force, when it is shown by their own offi- 
cial papers, captured with tlie army, that 15,000 rations were issu- 
ed daily to the Indians hefore the retreat, and that the greater 
part of them' accompanied Proctor up the Thames, it is certainly a 
reasonable calculation to estimate them at 15, 18, or even 20 hun- 
dred warriors in the battle. The whole force of the allies must 
hence have been at least considerably above 3000 — yet a large 
portion of tJiat force was captured, and the balance entirely driv- 
en off by the single regiment under Johnson, aided at one point 
only by a portion of the infantry, and malting altogether, it is be- 
lieved, much less than half the army. But had our force been 
greatly superior, the nature of the ground, and position of the 
eneray, would have rendered its superiority useless ; for a larger 
force than hia could not have been brought efficiently into action, 
Bad his resistance been So great as to render it necessary. The 
mounted regiment had but 950 men in the battle— henCe the force 
of the battalion, which was led into action by Lieutenant-Colonel 
James Johnson, could not have been much more than half aa great 
as the British force, which it shattered in a moment by its impetu- 
ous charge. 

"Our important and glorious victory, it is evident, was princi- 
pally achieved by the novel expedient of charging through the 
British hues with mounted infantry. 'The measure,' says General 
Harrison, who conceived it at the moment for its execution, ' was 
not sanctioned by anything I had seen or haa^d, but I was fully 
convinced that it would succeed. The American backwoodsmen 
ride better in the woods than aiy other people. A musket or rifie 
is no impediment to them, feeing accustomed to carry it on hoi^e- 
back from their earliest youth. I was pursuaded, too, that the 
enemy would be quite unprepared for the shock, and that they 
could not resist it.' The shock was indeed so unexpected and im- 
petuous that all the resistance thay were able to make amounted 
to nothing. Two or three killed, and a few more wounded, was 
all the execution done by upwards of eight hundred veterans, many 
of whom surrendered without giving a second fire. ' It is really 
a novel thing,' says Colonel Wood, ' that raw militia, stuck upon 
horses, with muskets in their hands, instead of sabres, should be 
able to pierce British lines with such complete effect, as did John- 
son's men in the affair upon the Thames ; and perhaps the only 
circumstance which could justify that deviation from the long 
established rules of the art military, is the complete success of the 
result. Great generals are authorized to step aside occasionally— 


Indianu to Deliveb THEiK Peisonbes AT FoET Wayne, 277 

especially when they know that their errors will not be noticed by 
the adversary." 

On the 6th the American troops continued to occupy the battle 
ground, and the Moravian town, about two miles above it, being 
employed in burying the dead and collecting the public property of 
tlie enemy, of which a considerable quantity was found in difi'erent 
places. In addition to the artillery already mentioned, and a great 
variety of military stores, there were at least 6000 stand of small 
armB captured by the American troops and destroyed by the ene- 
my oathis expedition. A large proporlaon of them had been taken 
at the surrender of Detroit, the massacre of the river Raisin, and, 
the defeat of Colonel Dudley. Early on the 7th, Gen. Harrison 
left the army under the immediate command of Governor Shelby 
and returned to Detroit ; and in the course of the same day the 
difi'erent corps commenced their return home, having embarked the 
greater part of the property they had captured in boats on the 
Thames, and set fire to the Moravian town, which was a very in- 
considerable village, occupied chiefly by Delaware Indians, who 
professed to be of the Moravian sect of religion. On the JOth all 
the troops arrived with their prisoners at Sandwich. It now began 
to snow, and the weather was extremely cold and stormy. For two 
or three days the wind blew down the strait with such violence, 
that it was impracticable to cross it, and the vessels bringing down 
the public property, were greatly endangered, and much of it was 

In the meantime, an armistice was concluded by Gen, Harriaou 
with the Indians. Before he marched in pursuit of the British, a 
deputation of Ottawas and Ohippewas had sued for peace, which 
he had promised them on condition that they would bring in their 
families, and raise the tomahawk against the British. To these 
terms they had readily acceded ; and before his return the Miamies 
and Pottawattamies had solicited a cessation of hostilities from 
General M'Artur on the same conditions. Even the ferocious and 
inveterate Mai-pock, of the Pottawattamies, now tendered his snb- 
mission, and an armistice was concluded with seven of the hostile 
tribes, which was to continue till the pleasure of the President was 
known. They agreed to deliver up all their prisoners at Fort Wayne, 
and to leave hostages in secmity for their good behavior. Sepa- 
rated &om their allies, by the American victories on the Lake and 
the Thames, from whom they had received subsistence and council, 
they were now gUd to accept the American friendship on any 
terms, which would save them from esteiTnination by famine and 
the sword.* 

On the 12th the storm had so far abated, that the mounted regi- 
ment crossed over the strait to Spring Wells ; and on the next day 
the Kentucky infantry crossed at the mouth of the river Kouge. 

On the 20th of October, a, general order having been issued for 

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278 History of Foet WAtaE. 

the return of the troops to Kentucky, Governor Shelby said : " Al- 
though, in the course of this campaign, you necessarily encountered 
many difficulties and privations, yet they were met with that 
cheerfulness, and sustained with that manly fortitude which the oc- 
casion required. The uninterrupted good fortune which has attend- 
ed uB, ia a source of the most pleasing reflection, and cannot fail to 
excite the warmest feehngs of gratitude towards the Divine Being, 
who has been pleased in a peculiar manner to favor us, and to 
crown with success the exertions we have made for our country. 

" In the course of the very active operations which we have 
performed, it is possible that expressions may have dropped, tend- 
ing to irritate and wound the feelings of some who were engaged 
in them. The Commanding General hopes, that with the campaign 
will end every unpleasant sensation, which may have arisen from 
tliat source, and that we shall return home united as a band of 
brothers, with the sweet solace of having sei-ved our country from 
the purest motives, and with the best of onf abilities." 

In pursuance of this order, the troops returned to Kentucky, and 
were discharged by Major Trigg, at Limestone, on the 4th of No- 
vember. The mounted regiment was detained a few days at 
Detroit, till the Indians had dispersed, after the armistice, and then 
returned homo without any remarkable occurrence. 

-c by Google 


" See ! again, tlie smoke is cvirliiig 
From, tlie Mendly ealumet, 

And the club of war is bui'ied. 
And the etar of slaughter set." 

Furtlifr moYemenlE of tlie Ameriosn Array— Holmes' esiMdition againsl iJie BritisU 
near the old battle-ground — He posta his men on a height, andgives the enemy- 
battle— The Americans again victorious — Movement ogainet MackinawT-Expedi- 
tion of General M' Arthur — Eesignation of General HaiTlaon — The treaty of 
Greenville — Chief Pe-oon — Durability of the old fort — Sneofssion of commandeis 
here — Deatruetion of the old fort and building of a new one — Peaceful attjtude of 
the Indianaafter the war-— Spirit of order and desire foi' peace among the Indians 
— Their close observation and intuition — New-oomera — An incident — James Pel- 
tier, the interpreter, and the Indian. 

^tLTHOUGH the defeat of the British, at the battle of the 
2^ Thames had virtually teiininated the stragglea. in the north- 
Vafcyswest, yet there was a determinatiou to push the war still 
^^ further. In February following, (1814,) an expedition was 
formed tinder Captain Holmes, to invade Canada, the enemy 
having, in the naonth of January, again taken a position at the point 
of Proctor's defeat, against which Holmes aimed to direct his expe- 
dition ; but learning that the British were advancing with a superior 
force, he took his position upon an elevated point a few miles from 
the old battle ground, and at once proceeded to fortify himself. 
Here he was now soon attacked with much vigor, but after 
considerable loss, the British were again forced to retreat. 

The next was a. movement against Mackinaw, which had first 
been proposed soon after the battle of the Thames, but the unfa- 
vorable condition of the weather prevented the safe navigation of 
the lakes, and the purpose was abandoned. la the following April, 
however, the plan was again proposed, and put into execution for 
the double purpose of desti'oying eome vessels the British were 
supposed to be building at Gloucester Bay, and to capture Mackin- 
aw ; which, through some misunderstanding, resulted in a fruitless 
effort, and was at length abandoned. It was again revived, late 
in the month of July following, from further informatjon received 

y Google 

280 HisTOKT OF FoKT Wayne, 

relative to the building of vessels at Gloucester Bay. Failing at 
length to reach the point in (question, the .vessels sailed to St. 
Joseph's, where a trading house was destroyed, and the goods 
thereof seized. A portion of this fleet at once sailed for Mackinaw, 
and on the 4th of Augnet made a landing npon the west side of the 
Island, where a rather spirited action occurred, in which Captain 
Holmes and 11 others were killed, which induced an abandonment 
of any furtlter attempt to capture Mackicaw. The British were now 
somewhat successful in several efforts against the Americana. 

M'Arthur, on the 26th of October, with seven hundred and twenty 
mounted men, left Detroit. Soon reaching Oxford, be proceeded 
to Burford, whence, instead of joining General Brown, at Fort Erie, 
as had been previously proposed, he moved towards the lake, by 
the Long Point road, and there defeated a body of militia, who 
had thought to stop his further march ; destroyed also some five 
or six mills, and then made his retreat along the lake shore towards 
Sandwich, pui-sued by a body of regulars, nearly double his own 
number, arriving at Sandwich, on tiie l7th of November, with a 
loss of but one man; and this closed the struggles in the North- 

General Harrison, feeling, for certain manifest reasons, that the 
Secretary of War entertained a dislike for him, resigned his position 
as commander-in-chief of the western forces, on the 11th of May, 
1814. Prior to his resignation, however, he had arranged for a 
treaty at Greenville, where, on the 23d of July, with General Cass, 
on behalf, of the United States, they had met the friendly Wyan- 
dof ts, Delawares, Shawanoes, Senecas, and concluded a peace with 
the Miamies, Weas, and Eel Kiver Indians, and certain of the 
Pottawattamies, Ottawas and Kickapoos; all ofwhom had engaged 
to join the Americans, should the war continue. On the 24th of 
December, the treaty of Ghent having been signed, by the rep- 
resentatives of the two governments, the difficulties ended, and 
the proffered aid of the Indians was no longer required. 

The treaty of July, 1814, at Greenville, was one of the largest 
treaties that had ever been held with the tribes. Pe-con,* the 
successor of Little Tui^tle, as the representative of the Miamies, 
with one hundred and thirteen others, were signers to this treaty. 

The old ForE, as originally built by order of General Wayne, in 
1794, had withstood the ravages of^ time and the efforts of the 
Indians to destroy it, remarkably well. From the period of Gen- 
eral Hamtramck's occupation of it, after the departure of General 
Wayne, to its final evacuation, in 1819, it had been in charge of 
many commandants. After the resignation of Captain Eay, in 
1812, Captain Hugh Moore, assumed command, who, in 1813, was 
superseded by Jos, Jenkinson. In the spring of 1814, M^or Whist- 
ler became its commandant, who in turn was superseded by Major 

« Chief Te-oon died soon after this treaty, neor the cid re 
Chief RiehBrdville, some four or five miles up the St. Mary's i 

IK, Google 

Peaceable Ohaeactbr of the Iisdiaks, 281 

josiah H.'Voae, in 1815, who continued in command until its final 
evacnatioD, l9tii of April, 1819. 

At the close of the straggles in l81i, soon ailer the arrival of 
Major Whistler, to assume command, here, it was feared that the 
Indiana might again make an effort to capture the post, and bt^ing 
much out of repair, and moat uncomfortable for the garrison in 
many respects, Major Whistler applied to the War Department for 
permission to rebuild it, wliichwas granted by General Armstrongj 
and the main structure was replaced by new pickets and other 
necessary timber for the rebuilding of the officers and other quart- 
ers within the enclosure. 

Though many Indians continued, for several years after the war 
of 1813 to congregate here for purposes of trade ; to receive feheii- 
annuity ; and also from a feeling of sympathy and attraction for 
the scene of tlieir old home and gathering-place, aside from some 
petty quarrels among themselves, in which they would often kill 
each other,* nothing of a war-Uke nature was ever again manifest 
between the Indians and the whites. 

During 1818, a year remarkable for the congregation of many 
Indians here, the red man is referred to as presenting a general 
spirit of order and love of peace, not surpassed by many of the 
whites of the time, and well worthy of emulation in many in- 
stances. It was no uncommon thing in their visits to Ke-ki-on-ga, 
seeing a new hut, to enquire whether the new-comer was quiet — if 
he "make no trouble for Injun," <fee. And their intuition and 
close observation were presented very often in the most striking 
and remarkable light. 

On one occasion, about this period, an elderly Miamie had come 
to the village to tarade a little. Soon meeting his old friend, Jas. Pel- 
tier, the interperter, his observing eye, in looking about the place, 
soon fell npon a hut near, that had but recently been built. " Ugh I " 
ejaculated the Indian; "new wigwam I" He now became most anx- 
ious to know if the white man was peaceable — whether he come to 
make trouble for Injun? The two now soon entered the hut of the 
newcomers, and shook hands with the inmates. The Indian at once 
began to look about hirn, and to enquire how many warriors (chil- 
dren) they had, &c. Eyeing the mati'on of the house or squaw, as the 
Indian called her, and observing that she was quite sad, the Indian 
became anxious to inow what was the matter with her — he was 
sure she was sick. The woman aveiTed that she was not sick. 
But the Indian knew she was. Turning to his old friend P. again, 
after looking at the woman and striking his hand upon his breast, 
exclaimed, "White squaw sick at heart;" and was anxious to 
know if she had not left something behind, at the settlement from 
which they came to Fort Wayne. In response to this, the 
woman quickly rephed, that she had left her only son, by her first 
husband, at Piqua, and that she was anxious to have him with her, 
but her present husband did not want him to come. " Did'nfcT tell 

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282 EiBTOKsr of Fokt WArKis. 

you white squaw sick at lieai't !"repliecl. tlie Indian, muoh elated; and 
he at once proposed to go to Piqua and hring her son to her, ii'Mr, 
P. would giv§^,him a blanket — ^wMeh was readily agreed to. Ue- 
ceiving a note from the mother, the next morning eaiiy, with two 
Indian ponies, the generous red man was on the road to Piqua; and 
in five days from that time retui'ned with tlie hoy I TJie woman's 
heart was eased, and ae the faithful Indian gazed upon the happy 
meeting of the mother andthe son, his lieai't warmed within him, 
and turning to his friend Peltier, he exclaimed: '- la'iit that good 
medicine for the whit« squaw ! " 

The Indian now heoame the faithful i^rotector and friend of the 
woman and her son, assuming the special guardianship of the lat- 
ter — telling the husband that if he evei; heard a word of complaint, 
either from the son or mother, as to iU treatnteiit, " he would have 
his hide, if he had to lay in the Maumee river until the moss'* bad 
grown six inches on his back." 

I'or sis or seven years the Indian continued. !l)is visits to tlio hut of 
tlie new-comers, always bringing them.siippUes in the form of 
venison, anrt animals of dilFerent kinds ; and tlie boy verj often ac- 
companied his Itind benefactor to the forest in pursuit oi- game. ■'( 

«It was acustom-vfithtlieliiditua in ■warfare, when seeMng to ravenf.'e Hiemsfilves 
upon some ona, ofton to oov^ fcheip baota with jvkhb 01' Aveeda, imd thus lo eiten ftum 
point to point, surpciflin^ ami hilling their oppoiienta. 

tAa related by Jas. Peltier to nis sou Lonia Peltier, from whom tha writsi' ■ coeived 



I'ort Wayiic regarded as an objeut of marked value to the coiinliT,^— Commanding offi- 
cer's and soldiers' eardoa — Main road and genei'al scenery 'from the iort— Burial 
grounda — Exhumntion of Indian bonfa,Ao.— Hospitality of the enrrismi — Early 
nayigRtion of the St. Mary's and Maumea — Fha general landing-piaee — Dams and 
mills— 'The fur-trade~"Paeb»" — Riohardville — His wealth — Flinch '--^ — 

„._ appointment ofMajorJ, 

H, V03S and Lieutenant Clark — Abandonment of the garrison — Loneliness of the 
settlers — Captain James Riley's visit to and eii'ly impressions of Fort Wayne i>nd 
vicinity — Early buildings — Settlers of 1815 — Army contractors — Admission of In- 
diana as a State — The ooavention at Corydon— Vinoennea the seat of government 
for the Indiana Territory — Whatis now Allen Ooanty, early formed a part of Ean- 
dolpii Countro on tliesonth, of whioi Wliiohester was long the county-seat — Large 
gatherinfl; of Indians at Fort Wayne — How they drew their rations — The old 
Couneil-house and well— Letter of Major B. F. Stickney— Early trad eis— Visit 
here of General Cass and H.R.Selioolovaft — Formation of State Distric'^s and. elec- 
tion of Bepresentatives. 

^Ni-^S AVITH the heat of summer and thefroatof winter, eotho 
^^effects and agitated state of the war element only gradually 
.i^fj- disappeared, again leaving the atmosphere of the general 
^^ mind in a state of comparative passivity and teconeiliation. 

a^ Still remote from the " settlements," Fort Wayne continued 
as in former years, to exist as an object of special interest to the 
nation, not knowing what trials and conflicts might sooner or later 
call it into action again, in defence of the northwest ; and for some 
years after the achievements of 1812-14, the soldier still continued 
to stand guard at its portals. 

Attached to the fort, lunninp; west to about where the " Old Fort 
House " is located, and where David Comparet's warehouse stands, 
embracing about one acre of ground, was an excellent and well 
cultivated garden, belonging to the commanding ollieer, always 
filled, in season, with the choicest vegetation. Still to the west of this 
was the company's garden, extending to about where the Hedeldn 
House now stands, which was also well tilled. The road then main- 

I.C.V Google 

284 History of Fokt Watse. 

ly used, extended westward from the fort along wliat is dow the 
canal, to the comer of Earr and Columbia streets. 

In general appearance, in the srnnmer of 1814, looking out upon 
the Burronnding scene from the fort, the country and -vicinity was des- 
cribed as of the rarest beauty. Nature everywhere wore an aspect 
of grandeur. The surface, as cleared by order of General Harrison, 
in 1812, to thwat-t the efforts and designs of the Indians, was now 
formed, here and tliere, with beautiful lawns of tall blue grass, of 
the linest growth, undisturbed, from season to season, save by the 
ti-ead and hunger of a few stray ponies. 

Just to the south of the fort, in what is now " Taber's Addition," 
was located the burial-ground of the garrison ; and where also were 
deposited others not immediately connected with the fort. Lieu- 
tenant Ostrander, mentioned in a former chapter, who had un- 
thoughtedly fired upon a flocl:: of bii-ds passing over the fort, had 
been repremauded by Captain Ray, and because of his refusal to 
be tried by a court-martial, was confined in a small room in the 
garrisoB, where he subsequenlly 'died, was among the number 
buried in this old place of intennent. Another place of burial, 
where also a number of Indians were interred, extended along the 
northwest corner of Columbia and Clinton streets, and to the ad- 
joining block. Many bones were removed from this point some 
years ago, in digging cellars, and laying the foundations of build- 

In 1846, in the progress of excavating for a foundation wall, 
immediately to the west of the northwest comer of Main and 
Calhoun streets, were dug up and " removed the remains of an In- 
dian, who hadlong before that been buried, with a gun excellently 
mounted, some trinkets of silver,, and a glass pint flask of whisky, 
which liquid was still preserved in at least as good a state as when 
buried. The hair was also in a fair state of preservation, though the 
skull was much decayed, as were the gnn mountings carroded."* 

Another burial ground, used principally by the Indians, within 
the recollection of some of the early settlers here,extended from about 
where Messrs. Hill (& Orbison's warehouse stands, across the basin 
to the brewery, aud beyond. And often had been seen, years ago, 
swinging from the bough of a tree, or. in a hammock stretched be- 
tween two trees, the infant of the Indian mother ; or a few little 
log enclosures, where the bodies of adults sat upright, with all their 
former apparel wrapped aboutthem, and their trinkets, tomahawks, 
&c., by their side, could be seen at any time for many years, by the 
few pale faces visting or sojourning here. 

In those hospitable periods in the northwest, when it was the 
pride as well as pleasure of every one to freely' help his neighbor, 
in any way that each could be serviceable to the other, the appear- 
ance of a stranger at the fort, from the settlements, or any part of 
the counti7, was a treat not to be lightly considered ; and such an 

•'jFortWejua Times," 1658. 

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Kaelt Navigation — The Fob Trade. 285 

arrival was always hailed with unbounded pleasure by all, and en- 
tertained with the freest and most gratifying hospitality. 

One of the principal ways by which Fort Wayne was reached at 
this period, was by water, either by way of the St. Mary's or Maumee 
rivers, usually in flat boats and what was then known as pirogues, 
embarking at St. Mary'B,Ohio,when coming by way of the St. Mai7'a 
river. Xhe boat landing was just below the fort, about where the 
Manmee bridge is, and in the bend of this river — a road leading 
obliquely down the embankment from the fort to the landing; and 
up to 1838, ic wasDO uncommon thing to see pirogues andflatboats, 
laden with various articles of merchandise, whisky, floor, furs, &c., 
land and unload, and re-load, at this point. But many dams hav- 
ing been subsequently erected along the St. Mary's, with a view 
tti the establishment of miila, navigation at length became impeded, 
and finally abandoned altogether. Among the early mills built 
along the St. Mary's and near Fort Wayne, was one erected by 
Captain James liiley, in 1822, at a point familiarly known as the 
" Devil's' Race Ground," or what is now Wiilshire, Ohio ; in 1824-5 
Samuel Hanna and James Barnett built a mill some three miles 
from Fort Wayne, now known as " Beaver's mill." 

Great quantities of hides and peltries arriving here on horses, 
familiarly called " packs," or by water, across by portage,* from 
the Wabash, &c., were placed in pirogues, and re-shipped to Detroit, 
and other points below. And this business was for many years 
the principal commerce of the place — in fact, the coin itself, by 
which notes and " promises to pay," were usually liquidated'; and 
it was through these that goods of various kinds were generally 

^Thisbiisineasof the iKH'tage or transporting of goods anil furs to and from the waters 
of the Manmee and W abash, had, before the erection ef the fort, beoonie of eonaidarable 
!m|x>rtnpee. For some time previons to about the year 1800, it hod been pretty much 
monopolized by the'mother of the late chief EiohardTille, who mnalh' eoiployed a 
ooQBiderable nnmher of men — Indians — and horaas for that pnrpcse. The ejcteut and 
profit of the buuness waa such, that tbe Indians, tipon the grifnt oC a traot of land on 
Little river, at the treaty of Greenyille, endeavored to have reserved to themselves the 
exohisive right of transportation across the portage, a portion of whioh -was included 
ill the grant ; and it was stated that as mneh as one hundred doHara had been yielded 
from this source in one day. It is quite certain that this woman amassed a consider- 
able fortune at the husiness. Afterwards, Mr. Louis Bonrie, of Detroit, who had a tra- 
ding house here, principally carried on tliis business, from ahoutthe year 1503, to 1BU9. 
His olerk hare, who usually employed a number of man and hbrses for tha purpose, ac- 
ted also as a tied of forwarding merohant for the traders. Upon the deposit of goods 
in their abeeaoe, he issued regulM receipts for thasama.and paid off thecharges of freight 
and dutiee at the post of Miami. The traders would purohaae their goods in Detroit 
or Canada, usually in the summer or fall ; transport them in pirogues, in case of pur- 
chase from the former, to Betroit or Post Miami, where they paid duties ; thenoe tliey 
ascended the Maumee riTer, hy the same road to the portage at Fort Wayne ; crossad 
the same by oaok horses to the head watera of the 'Wabash, and down the same by pi- 
rogues to their respectiya establishmente Id the spring they returned, in the same 
mannerwith the furs they had eoUeoted in winter, t« the mailBof Detroit and Oanada, 
whence they wei'e sent to Europe. Wa can scarcely conceive, at this day, of the im- 
raenee quantities of furs, consiBting principally of' beaver, tear, otter, deer, and ooon, 
which were formerly oollecMd on the Wabash and lUinoii rivers, and nearly all of whioh 
passed over thia portage. They were the principal staple of the country, and among 
the traders the only cnnwuoy — when debts were oontraofed, or paymenla to be made, 
Kote« were -usually drawn payable in fura. Suck notes are faumi extending baek is 


HisTOEr OP Fort Watse^ 

3 exchange — sucli. as dry goods, boots, shoes, hal-dware, 
&c — which were sold at exorbitant prices to the Indians, and others, 
and by which means, and the early piu'chase of lands, at a very 
low figure, many in after years became very wealthy, flichard- 
ville, the late chief of the Miamies, ■vvho was licensed as a trader 
with the Indians at this point, as early as 1815, amassed an immense 
fortune, mainly by this trade and the sale of lands. Schoolcraft 
estimated his wealth some years prior to his death at about $200,000 
in specie ; much of which he had had so long buried in the earth 
that the boxes in which the money was enclosed, had mainly de- 
, cayed, and the silver itself gi-eatly rusted and blackened. 

In 1818, several French ti-aders came here, but not meeting with 
such inducements as they had desired, passed on, after a few days, 
to tlie more remote regions of the West, where furs were supposed 
to he more abundant. 

In this year there were also a number of treaties held with the 
Indians at St. Mary's, Ohio, on behalf of the United States, under 
the direction of Governor Jennings and Benjamin Parke, of Indi- 
ana, and General Lewis Oass, of Michiga.n; at one of which, on 
the 6th of October, a purchase of a considerable body of land 
lying south of the rivers St. Maiy and "Wabash, was effected. 

When Major Whistler assumed command of the garrison, in 
May, 1814, aside from the little band of soldiers here, were the two 
daughters of the commandant, Mrs. Laura Suttenfieid,* George 
and John E. Hunt ; Lieutenant Ourtiss, and William Suttenheld, 
husband of Mrs. L. Snttenfield. Soon after the war broke out, with 
many other members of the tribe, including his family, Chief 
Bichardville, made hie way to the British hues for protection, and 
with a view, doubtless, to render some aid to the enemy ; for, as 
the reader already knows, but few among the tribes of the northwest 
remained neutral, or failed to give aid in some way to the British 
cause. At the ^.lose of the troubles in 1814, he again returned 
to this pomt, and soon passed on np the St. Mary's, about three 
miles from Fort Wayne, where he encamped. t Major Whistler, 
desiring to see him, at once sent an interpreter to him by the name 
of Orozier, recjuesting him to come immediately to the fort, with 
which he readily complied. The treaty of Greenville, already re- 
ferred to, -was now about to take place, and the Major desired 
that the chief should be present, and so requested him ; but Eich- 
ardville was very indifferent abont the matter, hesitated, and soon 
returned to his camp again. A few days subsequently, however, 
he came back to the fort, where he was now held as a hostage for 
some ten days, when he at length consented to attend the treaty, 
and was soon after accompanied thither by Chief Chondonnai, of 
date frolii 1810 to ts early as 1738 ; ai whioli latter period liaskasiiia Tvas the empori 

of tiiciraiiof theWest.- 0. B.Lssselle, from B'oit Wayne Deinoorat, Feb. 30th 1B67. 
'Sep skelcii of her in baek pai'tof this volume. 

Ji, M-aa not fai' from tliis point where tlie government, a few years later, built hira » 
y neai: bi'iok Itonse, in which he vfsided forsovm'al years afterwards. 


Eecoh-dtng OS ME Fort. 287 

one of l^ie lower tribes,, (wlio liad Ijeon a party to the Cliioago mas- 
BairreO Robcit E. Forsyth, and Wm. SutfcenOekl. 

Much of tli6 season of 1815, was spent iu rebnilding the fort ; 
and when completed., as with tlie firet erected in 1704, was a moat 
Bubstantial affair. I'ho timber with which it had been bnilt, waa 
obtained principally from wliat is now the east enil, abont whete 
stands the dwelling of B. B. Taylor, James Embiy, and the late 
Samuel Hanua — the pickeis consisting of timbex-, som.e twelve and 
a half feet in length, " in sets of sis, with cross pieces, two feet 
from the top, lot in and' spiked, and a trench dng, two and a half 
feet deep, into which they were raised ."* As the old pickets were 
removfc(l,the new ones took their place. 

At this early period, the roads leadbig irom the fort were mere 
traces ; one leading to Fort Eecovery, and known as the " Wayne 
ti'ace," passing through what is now Allen County, thence into 
Adams, to iJie north of Monmouth; from thence passing not far 
from Willsliire to " Shane's Grossing," and so on. 'ITiere was also 
a lTa<:e to Oapijiin Well's place, on the banks of Spy Run ; two 
t3-aces led down the Manmee on either side ; and one extended in 
the directdon of Foi-t Dearborn, (Chicago;) between which point 
and Fort Wa;^ honse was then visible, nor indeed, in any other 
direction, witli, pei'ha]js, one or two esceptions, short of the settle- 
meufein Ohio. Tlie two common foi-ding places at that time and for 
some years later, were above and below the Manmee bridge — ^the 
one below the briLl,Q;e was better Icnownas " Harmer's Ford," both 
of which are now most entii^ely obliterated. 

It was below this latter ford, near a path leading towards Detroit, 
under tlio citperfal shade of what was then and long after known as 
I he "Big Elm," on tlie 4th of July, I8l0, that Captain Ray and a few 
otIiei'B from the fort, were enjoying themselves most agi'eeahly, 
partaking of a dinner, in honor of the glorious occasion, when an 
express came up the trace From Deti'oit, with the private mail and 
Government despatches. , Here Captain Kay took possession of 
the " mail matter," all gathering around to receive their favors, 
which were then duly distributed by first I'ostmaster Ray ; and the 
old Elm was thereafter :known as " the Post Office." What has 
become of this " old familiar tree "-^whose overhanging bows 
formed the shadow of the Jirsi^ post office in the region of Fort 
Wayne, is now unknown. Perhaps some unsparing axeman long 
since cut k down. 

It was by way of' Fort Wayne at this period and some years after 
that the troops at Chicago and Green Bay received their regular 
mail by military exprebs. 

Major Whistler, in 1&17, being rej^oved fi:ora lliis point to what 
is now St.. Charles, Mo., was succeeded by Major J. H. Vose, of 
the 5tii regiment of regciiara, who held command until permanent- 
ly evacuated. In April, 1819. The departure of the troops is 
" •' l''o;i V^^ayni. Times/' ISSW. 

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S88 HisTOKT OP FoKT Wathe. 

said to have " left the little band of citizens" then here " extreme- 
ly lonesotae and unprotected. The cesaation of the therefore daily 
music of the troops in the fort was eupplied by the etiUneBs of 
nature, almost overwhelming. The Indians were numeroua, and 
their camp fires and rude music, the drum, made night more dread- 
ed ; but to this the inhabitants of Fort; Wayne soon became famili- 
arized." "The punctilio of military life was gradually infused 
into the social circle, and gave tone to the etiquette and moral 
habits of the citizens of" the fort.* 

It was in this J'ear, about the 24th of November, (181&,) that 
Captain James Riley, the surveyor, paid a visit to Fort Wayne. 
The following are some of his impressions as then dotted down. 

" At every step, in this country," said he of General Wayne 
and the fort, "every unprejudiced mind will more and more admire 
the movements and achievements of the army, conducted by this 
veteran and truly wiae and great commander, (General Wayne.) 
By occupying Fort Wayne, the communication between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio, through the channels of the Maumee and the Wabash 
(which is the shortest and most direct water route from Buffalo to 
the Missisippi river,) was cut off, or completely commanded," He 
also suggested the importance of a canal, by' way of the portage, 
from St. Maiy's to Little river, and said snch " might very easily 
be cut six miles long, uniting the Wabash to the St. Mary's, a little 
above its junction; and from what I saw and learned from others," 
said he, " it is my opinion that the swamp might afford water suffi- 
cient for purposes of Canal navigation. 

" The country around Fort Wayne," he continued, " is very fertile. 
The situation is commanding and healthy, and here will arise a 
town of great importance, which must become a depot of immense 
trade. Tlie fort is now only a small stockade ; no troops are sta- 
tioned here, and less than thirty dwelling houses, occupied by 
French and American families, from the settlement. But soon as 
the land shall be surveyed and offered for sale, inhabitants will 
pour in from all qoartersj to this future thoroughfare, between the 
East and the Mississippi river." 

A year later, November, 1820, Captain Kiley, writing to Hon. 
Edward Tiffin, surveyor- general, said he " was induced to visit this 
place for curiosity, to see the Indians receive their annuities, and 
to view the country." It was at this period that he levelled the 
portage ground, from the St. Mary's to Little river, and presented 
also some very practical suggestions, which, in after years, came 
to be highly serviceable. Every freshet at that time, brought 
many boats down the St, Mary's, which had, for some years, been 
quite common. This, (Fort Wayne,) said he, is " a central point, 
combining more natural advantages to build up and snpport a town 
of importance, as a place of deposit and trade, and a thoroughfare, 
than any point he had seen in the western country," 

At this period, he remarked, there were about one thoasand 

• "FortWayna Timea," 1838. 

, oy Google 

AocoDMT OF Captain Rilky— Teade with tde Indiahs. 289 

whites here from Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and New York, trading 
■with the Indians during the payment season, who had brought a 
great Abundance of whisky with them, ami which they dealt out 
to the Indiana so freely as to keep them continnally drunk, and un- 
fit for basioesa; horse-racing, drinking, gambling, debauchery, 
extravagance, and waste were the order of the day and night; and 
that the Indians were the least savage, and more (^irietianized ; 
that.lhe exa,mples of those whites were too indelicate to mention ; 
all of which he thought could be remedied by a speedy survey of 
the lands, and then t-o dispose of them as soon as possible, from 
the mouth of the Maumee to Fort Wayne; and from thencedown 
the Wabash, which would superinduce a rapid settlement, and 
give spur and energy to agriculture, commerce, and manufactures; 
and further suggested that the p'.ace should te laid out in lots, and 
sold, the money to be applied uy tlie ir'resident, giving a place and 
lands on which to erect buildings of a public character for "t?iis 
jputure Emporium of Indiana." And he fina.lly purchased, this 
year, at the Piqna Land Office, a number of tracts of land at the 
Kapids of the St. Mary's, (Willshire,) where he soon moved his 
family, laid off a t-own, and, two years later, (1832,) built a grist 
mill, and surveyed all the conntry, on both sides of the St. Mary's, 
embracing Fort Wayne^ and also about twenty townships, of sis 
miles square, between the St. Mary's and the Maumee. 

Sach were the prophetic words — such the spirit and energy of 
that Stirling pioneer. Captain James Riley. And lie will certain- 
ly long live in the memory of the people of Fort Wayno. 

The trade withthe Indians now constituted, for some years after 
the organization of the county, in 1824, the main life and business 
activity of the place, the principal features of which have been most 
fully presented in the foregoing, by Captain Riley. 

As illustrative of what Captain Riley lias said of the adventur- 
ous sptrit of the time, on one occasion, at a later period, in the 
history of this old carrying-place, an Indian had come to Fort 
"VVayne, upon a very fan- pony, and alighted in front of a little 
grocery and liquor store, which then stood on the west side of 
what is now Calhoun street, a little north of the north-west cor- 
ner of Main and Calhoun streets. The Indian wanted money, and 
offered to sell his pony for a moderate sum, to a white man stand- 
ing near the point at which he stopped. The man looked at the 
pony somewhat scrntinizingly, and said to the Indian that he would 
" like to ride him up the street a piece, and if he liked him, would 
buy the pony." The Indian assenttd, and the mau sprang upon the 
animal and rode toward-? Wayne street. At that time, and for 
some years subsequent, the old jail, a rather substantial, though 
rough-looking log building, stood on the soiith-west corner of 'the 
the present enclosure of the court-bouse. Coming to this old edi- 
fice, the man turned the corner, eastward, p issed the jail, and' put- 
ting whip to the pony, was soon beyond the limits of tlje town 1 'i""- 

ml toe 


290 HisToar oi^ Fokt WAjas. 

pony was gone. None could tell liim of the nder ; irnd the Indian 
never saw him more. 

In 1815, a few houges began to appear some distance from the 
fort, but usually in range of the baationai so that, in case of attack, 
they might easily be destroyed, or the enemy driven away. One 
of these was built about the centre of what is now Earr eti-eet, near 
the corner of Columbia, which, some years afterwards, being re- 
moved from ita former locality, formed a part of the old Washing- 
ton Hall building, on the southwest corner of Columbia and Barr 
streets, destroyed by Srein 18S8, 

Among those who came to this point in 1815, were a Mr. Bourie, 

Erandfather of L. T. Bourie ; Dr. Turner, Dr. Samuel Smith, from 
ancaster, Ohio, and John P. Hedges returned here from Cincin- 
nati, whither, and to Bowling Green, Ky., he had gone after tho 
battle of the Thames. The following yea.r Dr. Trevitt came, 

John H. Piatt, of Cincinnati, beginning with 1812, furnished 
supplies to the army here, with whom, in 1814, became- associated 
Andrew Wallace. Thia conti'sct was subseg^uently disposed Of to 
Rob't Hugh Glenn and Jacob Fowlee, who, lu turn, disposed of it 
(in 1817,) to Major Wm. P. Rathbone, of New York City. 

In 1816, Indiana having been admitted as a State, incompliance 
with an act of Congress, a Convention was held at Corydon, with 
a view to the formation of a State Constitution, in which body this 
part of the State, then a portion of Knox county, was represented 
by John Badolet, John Beneflel, John Johuson, Wm, Polk, and 
Benjamin Parke, all now deceased. 

The. seat of government of Knos county was at Vincennes, 
which had for several years been the seat of government for the 
Indiana Territory ; and all judicial matters relating to the vicinity 
of Fort Wayne, were settled at Vincennes up to 18l8, when this 
portion of the State, extending to Lake Michigan, was embraced in 
Eandolph County, of which Winchester was the comity seat, up to 
the formation of AUen County, in 1823. 

During 3815, alter the declaration of peace, the Indians began 
to gather here in large numbers, to receive their rations, &c., aa 
per treaty stipulations, at Greenville. 

Being admitted into the fort, on such occasions, in parties of six 
or eight, the Indians would present a little bundle of short sticks, 
to represent the number of rations they wished to draw. The coun- 
cil-house which had been destroyed by the siege of 1812, was 
rebuilt in 1816, upon the site of the old one, which was again oc- 
cupied by the former Indian agent here. Major E. F. Stickney. 
The same well that was used at the time of its occupancy at thia 
early period, is still used by Mr. Hedekin, whose residence now 
occupies the site of this old edifice. 

The yearfollowingtherebnildingof the old council- house, (1817,) 
Major Stickney addressed the following letter to Thomas L. M'Kin- 

-c by Google 

Lbttek of Majoe B. ii'. Sticknet. 291 

Hey, then Bupeiiiitendent of Indian Affairs. Tiiis letter beare date 
"iorfc Wayne, August 27th, 1817," and at once presents to the mind 
of the reader the true conditjoii of the Indiaus here at that period. 
Said Mr. Stickney : 

"I shall pa f every attention to tlie eubjeot pf jour lottev, deTeloping the exalted 
TisTTS of philanthropy of the Kentuoky Baptist Soeiety for propagating the gospel 
among the heathen. The oivilisation of tlio Indians is not a aewBubjeot to me. I 
have been, between five and sis years, in tha habit of daily and hourly intercourse 
With the Indians northwest of the Ohio, and the great question of the pfaotioabiUty 
of oiviliiing them ever before rae. That I might have an opportunity jjf oostingin 
ray mite to the bettering of tha condition of these unoultivated human beings, and 
the pleasure of obaei'Tiug the ohange that might be prOduoedou them, were the prin- 
cipal inducements to my surcendering the comforts of oiviliaed sooiety. 

" tlpon my entering on my duties, I Boon found that my speculative opinions 
were uot reducible to jiraotioe. What I had viewed, at a dislancp, as flying clouds, 
proved, upan my nearer approach, to be impasaable mountains' Kotwith standing 
these disoonraging oiroumatances, I am ready to aidjoarviewsby all proper means 
within my power ; and, in so doing, belieye I ombraoe the views of the government 
of which I am agent. » * s it will be proper for me to be more particular, 
and give you something of my ideaa of the nature and eitent of the obstacle to bo 

"Jfe-ji.— The great, and, I fear, insurmountable obatacl« is, the ibsatiabib 
iinnsT MB iNToxio.iriMO tiauoa^that appears to be bom with all the yellow-skin in- 
habitants of America; and the thirst for gain ct [aomeof] l he citizens of the Uni- 
ted States appears to be capable of eluding all the vigilaiicB of the govertuneutto 
atop the distribution of liquor among them. Wlien Che Indians can not obtain tlie 
meansiof Jntosioalion within their own limits, tfiey will travel any distance to ob- 
tain it. There is no fatigue, risk, oreipense.thatiatoo great to obtain it. In eon-e 
cases, it appears to be valued higher than life itself. , If a change of habit in this 
can be effected, all other obstacles may yield. But if the whites cannot beire- 
Ktrained from furnishing them spirituous liquora, nor Ibey from the use of them, I 
^itr ail other efforts to estend to them the benefits of oiviliaatiou will prow fruitless. 
The knowledge of letters servos as the medium of entering into secret arrangements 
wilh the whites, to supply the means of their own destruction, and, within the lim- 
its' of my intercourse, fiie principal use of the knowledge of letters or civilized lan- 
guage has been for them to obtain liquor for themaelvea and others. 

•• SeeonSy — The general aversion to the habits, manners, customs, and dress 
of civiliied people; and, in many cases, an Indian is an object of jealousy for 
baing aoquaiiited with a civilized languago, and it is made use of as a subject of re- 
proach against him. 
_ 'I rAirtlJj/.— tJeneral indolence, connected with a firm conviction that the life of a 
civilised mania that of slavery, and that savage life is manhood, ease and indepen- 

" FourlMj/ — The unfavorable light in which they view the character of the citi- 
zensof the United Slates — beliflving that ihoir minds are so occupied in trade and 
opeoulation, thattheyneveraotfromanyothermotives. • » » Their opinion 
of the government of the United States is, in some degree, more favorable ; but 
secretly, they view all white people as their enemiea, and are eitremcly suspicious 
of every thing coming fk'om them, 

"All the Miamies, and Eel river Miamies, are under my charge, about one thou- 
sand four hundred in number ; and there arc something more than two thouaand 
Pottawattamies who come within my agency. The proportion of children can not 
be ascertained, but it must be less than among the while inhabitants of Ibe United 
States. They have )iad no schoola or missionaries among them sinoo the time of the 
-French Jesnits. They have places that are commonly called villages, but, perhaps 
not correctly, as they have no uniform pUco of residence. During the fall, winter, 
and part of the spring, Ihcy are aeatiered in the woods, hunting. The respective 
bands assemble in the spring at their several ordinary places of resort, where some 
have rude cabins, made of small logs, covered wilh bark; but moroeommonly, som* 
po:es stuck in the ground and tied together with pliant slips of back, and covered 
W'ta "large sbeets of bMlt, or a kind of mats, raada o^ i!a^B, 


293 HisTOHT OF FoKT Wayke. 

" Near these places of raiort thaj plant some core. Therg are eleTen of these 
plaoas of resort within my agency. The Miainiea aa(i Eel river Mianiies reside, 
prinoipalj.on ihe IVabash, MississiiiewiiaiidEel river, and nlihe head of White viTer. 
The Pottawattamie 3 [reside]' on the Tippeeanoo, Kankakee, Iroquois, Yellow riror, 
St, Joseph of Lake Michigan, the Elkhart, Miami of llie lake, the St. Joseph emp= 
tying Into it, and the St. Mavj'8 river. Tliey all beliere in a Sod, as creator 
aad governor, but have no idea of hia *ill being communicated to man, except as it 
apfe ira in the oroation, or as it appears, ooeaaionallj, iVom hia providential gov- 
ernmBDt. Some of them had bean told of other communications having been made 
to the white peoplea longtimesinee.andlhat it was written and printed; but they 
lieitiier have conception nor belief in relation to it. Their belief in afutui-eesiatenoe IB 
a kind of tranaubatantiation — a removal from ihisesiatenoetoonemore happy, with 
similiar appetites and eojoyments. They talk ofabad 8pirit,but never esptesa any 
appcebenaiona of his troubling tliem in iheir future esistenee." 

Among those engaged in the Indian trade at this point and at 
what is now South Bend, in 1821, were Francis Comparet, with the 
Pottawattamies, at the latter place, and Alexis Coqnillard, with the 
Miamiee, at the former. Wm. G. and Geo. W. Ewing arrived laere 
in 1823, and began to trade with the Indians. , 

En route for the Mississippi, General Lewis Cass and the histori- 
an, H. K. Schoolcraft, made a short stop at this point in June 1822, 
reaching here in a canoe \>j way of the Maumee, from Detroit, 
whence this little vessel was hauled across the portage to Little 
river, from whence they proceeded on their jolirney to the Father of 

The foliowing year, (1823,) the State being divided into two 
Congreseionei Districts, John Test, of Dearborn county, was selec- 
ted representative from the district, then embracing Allen, &c., at 
which petiod there were but about fifty votes polled in the whole' 
north part of the State of Indiana. 

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Scenes yoried — new life- 
Hew acts in tlie clrania ; 
Still in. the " forest deep and « 

Brtabliahment of ft laud ogioe at I'ort Wayne, nndsale of lands — Purcliaseof Bai'i- and 
MoOorkle — The original plat — Donation of ground for liui'iftl pnr]iosss, and "pou 
which to ereot a meeting hoi^ae and Beminary — Purchase of Judge Hanna— The 
Scat school -house of FovfWayne— Earlv 8ehool-teaehars---Qreat abuiiclflnoe offish 
in the Maumee— tfanufftcture of oil — What the Indians thought — Buildings and 
bosiiipes of 1819— Store of Samuel Hanna and James Barnelt— Appearance of the 
eountry in 1819— Soaroity of aettlers — The Quaher traoe— Settlers between Fort 
Wavne and Biehmond, Ind,— RaoollebtJons of John Strat-tso—Early purchsp.eca 
of land here— The Wella pre-emption— Orguniiation of Allen CouqW— First Ma- 
aonio organization here— First plat of Fort Wayne reoorded at Winohester--- 
First eleotion of eonnty offiaars — First meating of the Oouiity Board— County offi- 
cers — 5'irBt Juatioea of the peace-— Early tavfirn rates— -Taiation — Report on taxa- 
ble property— Wo! f-BOalp CBnafioates- First circuit court — First grand jury — Firet 
easeondoctet — Firat application for divorce — Tavemlicense— ApplicfttionforoitL- 
zenship— Pay of officers — Meeting of ooiirt — Attorney's device for seal — Miles 0. 
Eggleston— ASBOoiate Judges— Report of Grand Jniy — The oonnty jail— Impris- 
onment for debt— Court sessions- First will of Allen County— Murder by an In- 
dian Chief, (BigLeg)— His trial— Firat testroining obss— Tenn of 1831— County 
officers — Judge Hauna and John Right— Judga Right and Pat. MoCaHy— Daniel 
Worth — Organization of Delaware County -The (Jiree per oent fhlid — Grant of 
land by Congcesa for oanal purposes— Action of the land office- -Ci^Bsion of land 
tothe State of Oliio -Canal stipulations— Canal commissioners — Hon. OUv< 

Smith— Trip toPort Wayne, by Ml'. Smith, Judge Eggleston, and James Eariden 
— Election of John Testand Jonathan Me Oarty— Eleotion of Mr, Worth, of Ban- 
dolph County— Formation of Randolph, Allen, Delaware, and other territories, 
adjoining into a senatorial district- -Re-election of Mr. Worth— Eleotion of Mr. 
Holmon— Allen, Randolpk, St, Joseph, Elkhart, arid Delaware counties foiTned 
.into a senatorial district— Election of Messrs, Worth, Hanna, Crawford, and 
Oolericlt- -County Board of oommissionera—ijounty addition— Taber'a addition- 
First Probate Oiurt— Lettereof administcaljon— Court terms —Estate of Chief La 
Gross--Appointment of W. G. E wing- Judge McCuUonh— Luoien B. Fecry-- 
Electiona and appointments— ibjlition ot the Probate Conrt and oiganization of 
the Common Pleas Court— Eleotion of Judga Borden— Organization of a Crimin- 
Conrt— llarriago i-Mords. 

f HRO DGH an act of Congress, approved by the President of the 
') United States, May 8th, 18-22, a land office was established at 
sFort Wayne. By this act the district for the sale oflands at this 
^ point was also defined, and the President appointed Joseph Hol- 
man, of Wajao couEty, Register, and Captain Samuel CVance, 


29i HisroKr ov Foki' WxVyhe. 

of Dearborn county, Beceiver.- After the sniTey of the lands, the 
President issued a proclamation for tlieir sale, to the highest bidder, 
the minimnm price being $1.35 per acre ; and the sale begau on the 
22d of October, 1823, attlie fort. Considerable rivalry having been 
awakened, touching that portion which embraced the town and 
immediate settlement — some forty acres, in the immediate locality 
of the fort, being reserved for the use of the Indian Agent — the 
most extensive purchasers thereof were Barr, of Baltimore, Md., and 
McOorkle of Piqua, Ohio. This portion of the city is marked on 
the city maps " Old Plat to Fort Wayne," and originally designa- 
ted as "the north fraction of the south-east quarter of section two, 
township thirty, north of range twelve east ; and it was on this that 
Messrs. Barr and McCorkle laid off the original plat of the " Town 
of i'brt Wayne," as enrveyed by Robert Yoang, of Fiqna, Ohio. 
This plat was embraced in one himdred and eighteen lots.* 

In this plat, Messrs; Barr and McCorlde set apart and donated, by 
deed, a body of ground, some four rods square, as a free place of 
burial, with the privilege to any denomination, that might form, a 
first organization here, to build a Church thereon. They also set 
apart a lot, of similar dimensions, and adjoining the foregoing, 
upon which to erect an educational institute or seminary. 

But all marks of these donations have long since been destroyed — 
the poiuff alone remaining to remind the reader of the thoughtful 
character of the donors. 

In subsequent years, Judge Hanna having purchased all the Barr 
and McOorkle claims here, and the lots donated, asin the foregoing, 
being laid off by Mr. Hanna as a part of the place, for general 
building purposes, the dead of the grave-yard, were, in 1838-1>, re- 
moved, at public expense or by loved friends, to the general ceme- 
tery, west of Fort Wayne. 

Of the seminary or school-house erected on the donation of Barr 
and McOorkle, the "Fort Wayne Times," as late as 1858, in some 
sketches of the place by the editor, aays : " In this old school- 
huose, many of those, then young, but now past middle life who 
yet live here; many dead, and others absent, had their early train- 
ing for usefulness ; and many there experienced that joy only once 
to be enjoyed in a life-time ; while, perhaps, nearly every teacher, 
who there disciplined the youthful mind, has gone to his final ac- 
tjount, and soon here to be entirely forgotten. * * * Xhis 
old school-house was built of brick, in 1825, and was then quite 

■ Rimning north to "Watei- stroeb, oe tlie bank of the slougli, iriiere tlio 
water from the City Mills now disohargea, souUi to the alley south of tha 
first Presbytei'ian Oliaroh, west to Calhoun street, and east to a line running; 
jiBteaat of Barratreet. Theraason, for the.peouliar direotion of &estroetfl, na variant 
fl'om a north and south line, is this, that some buildings had been put up by the set- 
tla.B and temporary atreets.thns adopted, ■which caused the proprietors to adopt the enr- 
vay to tha oonvenienoe of those aqnattera, who would, it was thought, huy the lota 
Whiou theit imnrovemettts should happen to fa!i.~" Fovfc Wayne Times,^' 1SS3, 


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Great Quahtities of Fish ik 'rHK Mausiee. 295 

large enough for all needed purposes. * *■ * It was only 
one etory iu height, and served, ibrmauy years, not only as a school- 
house, but as the place of religioua worship, town meetings, Ma- 
sonic installations, political speeches, fiie." 

J. P. Hedges, who still sarvives as " one of the old ones of the 
old ones," of Fort Wayne, was among the first, teachers in this 
old pioneer school-house. In the winter of 1826, he had it plas- 
tered at his own expense, that it might be tlie more comfortable 
and neat. A Mr. A. Atighinbaugh also taught in this old achoo!- 
houae at an early period. Mr. A., previous to 1833, had charge of 
the county seminary, at which latter period, it is presumed he took 
charge of a school in the old brick school-house. . It will not be 
out of place here to remark that the old county jail, which, up to 
1847, stood on the south-west corner ofCalhoun and the coort-houee 
square, was used for eome time as a school-room, in which Henry 
Cooper, Esq., taught ; and Mr, Ciooper is claimed as the. lirst school- 
teacher of the place. 

The Indians, perhaps for centuries, had been accustomed to look 
to the streams here for much of their food in the form of fish, so 
abundant were they from Lake Erie to this point, and for some 
distance up the St. Mary's and St. Joseph, During seasons of fresh- 
ets, in great quantities, and some of them very iarge, they would 
iind their way up the Maninee from the lake, and when the high 
■water subsided, they were often so numerous, that it was diflicult 
to ride a horse or drive a team across the streams here without the 
animals or the wheels of the vehicles running over some of the finny 
tribe ; and some years ago, a company from Cincinnati began, and 
for several years carried on, the manufacture of oil from the lish 
caught here. Many boys and Indians made very good wages by 
catching the fish for the company. The Indians had always been 
of the belief that the Great Spirit had thus filled these streams with 
fish for their special benefit, and when, a few years subsequent to 
the period in question, a dam was built near the mouth ot the 
Mauraee, at the' Lake, and the flah prevented from getting into this 
stream, as their number gradually diminished, and the company 
compelled to cease its operations thereby, the Indians expressed 
great displeasure, and considered it a direct encroachment upon 
their rights, and the designs of the Great Spirit. 

Among the buildings erected here in 1819, was a log house, hj 
Samuel Hanna, at the north-west corner of Barr and Columbia sts., 
where his brick'block was some years ago erected, and still stands.* 
In this log edifice, he and James Barnetfc opened a considerable 
store, for whoiesaleiug to traders, in which buaiiieBS and building 
they continued for several years — -their goods reaching here from 
the east, by way of Detroit, Toledo, and the Xlapids of the Maumee, 
from which point tbey arrived here in pirogues, a kind of" dugout," 
though usually quite long, and of one solid tree. 

■* Seesketoliof Mr. Hanuaialittar pavtof thisTolnme. 


296 HisTOET OF Fort Wayne. 

At this period, the north-west was yet a comparative wilderness. 
On the Wayne trace, already alluded to on a former page, not a 
house was to be met with between this and " twenty-four mile 
Creek." At Ihie point, there resided a man by the name of George 
Ayres, near Willshire. By the St. Joseph trace, the nearest was 
the honee of a Colonel Jackson, on Elk Hart Prairie ; and it was 
not until a few years later,, that a house appeared, in ■which Joel 
Bristols lived, about three miles south of Wolf Lake, iu what is 
now Noble county. At a later period, about four miles north of 
Keodallville, a man by the name of Norris settled ; where Lima is 
now located. On what was known, at an early day, as the " Quaker 
trace," a iew miles this side of ifichmond, Indiana, there was an 
occasional house to be seen ; amaii by the name of Robinson lived 
on the Wabash, about thirty miles south of Fort Wayne ; and a few 
Quaker missionaries had a small settlement at the forks of the Wa- 
bash, where they ga^e the Indiana instructions, as at Wa-pa-kou- 
netta, Ohio, in the art of agricrdture.* 

At the sale of lands at the foi-t, as already mentioned, " the south, 
half of the south-east quarter of the section referred to, and im- 
mediately south of that on which the original town was laid off, 
was also purchased by Barr and McCorkle, running to the section, 
line, and also the sooth-west quarter of section one, just oh th« 
east of the fort ; while Alexander Ewing got the east half south- 
west quarter of section two — same on which Ewings' ar.d Eockhili's 
addition were laid ont afterwards. * * The section of land over 
in the forks of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph, known as the ' Wells 
pre-emption,' had been, by an act of Congress, May 18th, 1808, 
set apart as a pre-emption to Captain Weils, who was authorized 
to enter it, when adjacent lands should be offered at $1.^5 per 
acre ; but having lost his life, as the reader has already seen, in 
1812, his heirs were thereafter authorized to, and entered it, at thia 
land sale, at $1.55 per acre."t 

By an act of the legislature of 1823,J the present county of Allen 
was organized, as then forming a part of Handolph and Delaware 
counties ; and James Ray, of Indianapolis, W. M. Conner, of Ham- 
ilton county, and Abaithes Hathaway, were commissioned to deter- 
« John Strattfin, Esq .now feeidiEg soniPsiK miles north of Fort Weyne, came her« 
»,bout 1894-5, from Wiiyne county, near Richmond, mRinly by way oC the Robinson 
traoe, -with a Icid of boots anri siioea, whioh he tlien sold to tbeMeEsra. Ewiag, tra- 
ding liwe. At Ihattime, he am. there irere not more tlinn gis or eight houses to be 
sei;n between Foi't Wayne aodRiclimond. and the best bouse to be seen hereat that period 
■was a hewed lag house, one and a half stories high, keptaa a tavern ; besid;8Wliioh, ha 
lavB, there were but about eiglit ordinaiy pole eabins; Besides the Ewings, he met 
Peter Kiarr here at iJiat time, who is still a goodly oitizan of Fort Wayne, and, as fov 
many years past, atill eBgaged in tlie sale of Dry Goods, Groceries, &e. 
t "Foit Wayne Times," 18£8. 

i The fiiit Masonic organization here -was formed in this year, {1823) and tnown as 
•'"Wayne Lodge, No. 9S, P. A, M." The place of meeting was within the pickets of 
the fvirt, in the room of General .'ohn Tipton, at which place the order regulaily na% 
until linally removed to the old Washington Hall building, on tiie southwest ooraer of 
Columbia and Barr streets. 


FiKST CouMTY Officeks OF Allsn CorNiY. 297 

mine upon the county seat, which they agreed npou in the early 
part of 1824.* 

In the laist week of May, in this year, the first election for county 
ofEcers occurred ; and the first session of the " County Board" was 
held on the 31st of May, the same month ; the Board was -constitu- 
ted of the following persons : Wm. Rockhill, James Wyman, and 
J'rancis Com pa ret. 

The county ofHcers were : Anthony L. Davis, Clerk ; Allen 
Hamilton, Sheriff; Samuel Hanna aiid Benjamin Cushman, Asso- 
ciate Judges; Joseph Holman, Treasurer; H. B. McKeen, first 
Assessor; Lambert Cushoois, first Constahle of Wayne township, 
then embracing the entire county; W.T. Daviss, Overseer of the 
Poor; E. Hars, Inspector of Elections ; Israel Taylor, Joseph Trout- 
ner, and Mosea Scott, Fence Viewers ; Samuel Hanna, Road Su- 
pervisor for the township. 

At the first session of the Board, an election for three Justices 
of the Peace, for the township, was ordered, which resulted in the 
choice of Alexander Kwing, Wm. N. Hood, and Wm, Rockhill, 
who then assumed the position, fa; officio, of the "Board of Justices," 
taking the place of County Commissioners. Their iirst session was 
held October 22d, 1824, at which time the commissioners gave 
notice of the location of a " State Road from Vernon, in Jen- 
nings county, by way of Greensburgh, Rushville, and New Castle, 
to Fort Wayne." 

The following were the tavern rates at that early period : Keep- 
ing horse, night and day, 50 cts ; Breakfast, Dinner and Sup per, each 
25 cts. ; Lodging, per night, 12-| cts.; whisky, per quart, 12| cts. ; 
Brandy, per quart, 50 cts,; Gin, per quart, 37^ cts.; Porter, per 
bottle, 37-j- cts.; Cider, per quart, 18f cts. 

In matters of taxation, the rates were arranged as follows : For 
every male, over 21 years of age, 50 cts. ; for a horse, gelding, or, 
mare, over 3 years old, 37^ cts. ; every work ox, 18| cts. ; stallion, 
prices of the season; gold watch, $1.00; silver watch, 25 cts. ; 
pinchhack, 35 cts.; four-wheeled pleasure carriages, $1.00. The 
report oi Mr. Holman on taxable property for 1824, was $112.62, 
embracing delinquents, errors, &c, 

The State, at this period, and for some years later, granted cer- 
tificates of bounty on all wolf scalps taken, which certificates 
were received by the collector for taxes. " So small was the tax," 
it is said, " that the State revenue due from this county, was near- 
ly all paid off in these certificates, which were usually sent up to 
Indianapolis by the representatives." | 

The first circuit court held in Allen county, was on the 9th of 
August, 1824, which then embraced what is now Adams, Weils, 

• The original plat of Fort Wayne, ai laid out in thii jfsar, waa duly recorded at 
Winchester, in Rondolph county, which, a* the reeoi'd* of ths Eecordet's ofSoe here 
eshihit, were sul)s«queutly transfeiTftd to Allen. 

t " Fott Wajno Timee." 1^58. 


298 ilBTOET OF i'"OKT WaYMS. 

Huntington, aud Vf'hitLey counticB. CW.Ewing, was at this time 
prosecutiiig Attorney. John Tipton was made foreman of the 
grand jury, which was composed as foDowa: Paul Taber, Witliain 
Suttenfleld Alexander Ewiug, James W. Hackley, Chales Weeks, 
John Davias, Wm. Probst, Horace Taylor, James Wymaii, James 
Conner, Cyrua Taber, and W. N. Hood, Peter Felix being discharg- 
ed. The first case found on the docket was that of Eichard Swain, 
va. Joseph Troutner, for trespass ; and continued. At this time,W. 
G. iSwing was admitted to tbe bar as a practitioner at law. 

The first application for a divorce in the county, occurred during 
the first session of this court, The names of tlie party were A. 
Canada and Nathaniel Canada; which was continued. The near- 
est paper at that time, in which such mattei's received publicity, 
was the Riehmond, Ind., linquire'i; about one hundred miles from 
Fort Wayne. 

Two applications for license, to open taverns here, were also 
made at this term of the court, by Wm.Sutteafield and Alexander 
Ewine: — the former on the corner of Barr and Columbia streets; 
the latter on the southwest corner of Barr and Columbia. An ap- 
plication was also made for citizenship, during this term, by Fran- 
cis AveJine, or St Jule, as then l^nown, father of Francis A Ave- 
line ; which was gi-anted. The St. Jule family, (French) came 
from Vincennes to this place. 

Some indictments were found again-'t peirties for selling liquor 
without license, &,c., at this term of the court — each being fined 
^3 and cost. In one instance, for gambling, a man was fined §10. 
The first master in chancery of this Coiirt, was Chai-les W. Sw- 
ing, then a young lawyer of much ability. " To show the differ- 
ence, between the manner of allowances of that day and this, 
when six times as much service was rendered in a given time, 
* * ' * the records show that Rob't Hood,* (well remem- 
bered by our old citizens,) was allowed '75 cts. per day for three 
days' service as bailiftto the Circuit Court; Allen Hamilton $16.6fl 
for four months service as SheriiT of Alien county; and Charles 
W Ewing, for his services as Prosecuting Attorney, for the term, 
$5. This court after a session of three days, ad,ji)urned on the 12th 
of August, 1824, to convene again as theCourtincourBe."t Tho 
following year, 1826, the Board of Justices appointed W. G. Ewing 
county treasurer ; and the second term of the circuit court wae 
convened at the residence of Alexander Ewing, on the 6th of 
June — Hon. F. Morris, of the fifth judicial circuit, a resident of 
Indianapolis, presiding— Judge Banna officiating in the capacity 
of Associate Justice. James Rariden, and Calvin Fletcher were 
admitted as practitioners of law at tliis term— both men of eonsid- 

* Avery fci nd- hearted miiD, alloys ready, lEtlioae early days, to entertaic the Bfraii- 
ger and aid the western mover, when erer ooeasion nreeented ; and many Tpere the in- 
tereidng adrenlnres and laughable stories he related to hia old friends and the many 
Htrangera then often gatlierod aboat the big fire of the iog-eabin in winttr. 

f Fort Wayn« Timee," JfflB. 

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erable distinction in after years. Henry Cooper, a man of many 
estimabis qnalities, long since deceased, was also admitEed to the 
bar, at this term of the court, which coiitinKed only five days. 
The third term of this court was convened at the houae of Wm, 
Suttenfield, on the Slst of November, 1825, Judges Hanna and 
Cushman presiding ; and it was at this term that a device for a 
seal was reported by Charles W. Ewing. Calvin Fletcher 
having presented his commission, was also sworn as Prosecuting 
Attorney at this time. 

The term which convened 13th Februaiy, the year following, 
1826, was held at the residence of Alexander Ewing, Judges Han- 
na and Cushman presiding, Hiram Brown, of Indianapolis, and 
Moses Cox, being sworn in as attorneys, and Calvin Fletcher re- 
ceiving the appointment of prosecuting attorney. 

But two indictments were issued by the gi-and jury at this term 
— one against an Indian, known as Sa-ga-naugh, ibr murder, and 
the other against a man by the name of Eiisha B, Harris,* familiar- 
ly known as " Yankee Harris," for larceny, neither of which, how- 
ever, came to trial. 

At the next regular sitting, August 13th, of this year, Eon. 
Miles C. Eggleston, of Madison, then pronounced one of the best 
nisi prius judges of the west, presented his commission at the 
court here, aa president judge, was sworn in, and presided over 
the third term, Beiyamin Cushmen acting as Associate Judge, 
Cyrus Taber, (afterwards of Logansport, where he died some yeiira 
ago,) sheriff, and Amos Lane, of Lawrenceburgh, father of Hon. 
James H. Lane, of Kansas, was sworn in as prosecuting attorney. 

The report of the grand jury, at this session, of which John P. 
Hedges, now among the last of the old pioneer stock yet remain- 
ing, was foreman, relates to the county jail, and runs as follo\*8: 

" We, tte ei'and jury, ampannelled for the oounty of illen, and St»to of Indiana, 
aft«? exnmintna the eonnty jail, ure of the opinion thitt the criminals' rooms are not !\ 
place of anfe^ ior peraona eommitfed thereto; that the debtors' room, u]>pei' depBrtinent 
of said jail, is not in a suitable oonilition for the reoepl:ion of debtors, Irom the want of 
loelts, floor, and bedding, "JoHs P. Hedoks, ForBinan." 

As this report clearly attests, imprisonment for debt was a com- 
mon custom at this period, and continued for some years after to 
be a common lawin the land. At this session. Judge Eggleston 
presented a report relative to the mode of keeping, a marriage record 
by the clerk. No marriage record having been previously kept, it 
was thereafter determined to keep such a register. 

The next session met at Wm. Suttenfields', August 27th, 1827, 
.Messrs. Eggleston, Hood and Cushman, presiding, Abner Gerrard, 
acting as sheriif, Oliver H. Smith, being sworn in as prosecuting 

■* Harris was a singular oharaetar. He lived on the St. Mary's, about seven miles 
frani Fort Wayne, Had early adopted for his life's motto— "To be oa honest as the na- 
ture of tlie oireumataneea ■woulcl permit." He seems to have poaseaeed a considerable 
amount of cnmmon sense, titit]iiBmainfiulingwas,toengagein as many law suits m 
poasibli, and ir thai ■Lvay.iii par!, gained u very unenviable reputation. 


300 HiBTOET OF FosT Wayne, 

attorney. At this time, Wm. Quarles, of Indianapolis, was licensed 
to practice as an attorney. 

The next term began May I2th 182S, at the residence of Ben- 
jamin Archer, and was presided over by Judges Hood and Oush- 
man, at which time, Charles H. Test, and Andrew Ingram were 
BWorn in as attorneys, and Mr. Test, late Secretary of State, re- 
ceived the appointment of prosecuting attorney for the term. 

It was at this session that the first vi'ill was recorded in Alien 
county. The party thus recording, was Abram Burnett. 

At the next term, November 10th, 1828, Messrs. Hood and 
Cushman, presiding. David Wall ace, subsequently Governor of the 
State, was sworn in and appointed special prosecutor, it was at 
tliis term that the first conviotion of felony occurred — the State 
"VS. Joseph Doane, who was sentenced to the penitentiary for three 

The next term began May llth, 1829, Judges Eggleston and- 
Hood presiding; Martin M. Ray sworn in as prosecuting attor- 
ney. At this term Joseph Carville, for larceny, was sentenced lor 
three years to the state's prison. During the vacation that fol- 
owed, Anthony L. Davis having resigned the clerliehip, on the 
lith ofOctober, 1829, the Associate Judge met and appointed Jo- 
seph Holnian thereto, but to which position Robert Hood was 
subsequently elected, to assume the duties of the oiRce from Febru- 
ary 15th, 1830. On the lOlli of May, of this year, C. H. Test, 
presenting his commission as President Judge, began the term of 
1830, with Wm N. Hood, Associate Judge ; Robert Hood as deck ; 
James Perry as prosecuting attorney; Thomas J. Evans being 
BWorn in as attorney, while David H. Colerick, Esq., was sworn 
in as attorney, ex gratis, for the term. 

At this term a case of murder came, up for trial. A Miami In- 
dian, known as Ne-we-ling-gua, or (Big-Leg,) being the accused, 
A half Indian and negro ■woman, whom he claimed as his slave, 
had been in the habit of entering his cabin during his absence, 
and taking his meat. Afier repeatedly warning her to desist, he 
at length told her that if she disobeyed him again, he would kill 
her. J'rom her residence among the clan, of which Big-Leg was 
chief, whofie village was on the Wabash, a few miles from Fort 
Wayne, with a view to escape the fate that she knew must befali 
her, after a further disregard of the commands of the chief, the 
woman came to Fort Wayne, and was soon employed by some of 
the citizens. 

Shortly after her departure. Big Leg came to town, too, and 
wandering about, he soon discovered her washing, at a house then 
standing about what is now the southeast corner of Chnton and 
Columbia streets. Stealing suddenly upon her, with his long 
knife ready for her destruction, he plunged it into her with such 
force, that it is said the blade passed through her body, and she 
fell dead at his feet; whereupon, he proudly ejaculated, "was'nt 


TsUL OK Big-Leg. 301 

that nice ! " Though no unoommon tiling, at that period, for the 
Indians vifiling here to kili each otlier, and- for which no 
redress* had ever been sought by the aatiiorities, the citizens here, 
■who were then largely outnumbered by the Indians of the region, 
■were greatly incensed at this terrible procedure of Big- Leg, and the 
civil authorities at once had the chief arrested, and placed in the 
oM county jail. 

His main plea was that the woman belonged to hiin—waa his 
property, and that he had a right to do what he pleased with her. 
When told that he was to be hanged for the offense, he could not 
comprehend it, but aeemed to get the idea that it was some such 
operation as that he had often witnessed in the use of the old 
steel yards by the traders in weighing venison, &c., and concluded 
that he was to be weighed until hi was dead ; which fact soon be- 
came commonly understood among the Indians of his tribe and 
the region here; and as he wag a chief much regarded by his 
clan, they early sought to exchange him for one of their number, 
whom they considered rather worthlesa ; b«t without avail. 

Having received some explanations as to his probable fate by 
hanging, or weighing, as he understood it, which he seemed lo re- 
gard as fixed, he, with his Mends, thought to have the experiment 
tried upon a dog, in order to ses how the animal would act. Ac- 
cordmgiy, while the chief was still confined in the jail, a number 
of his Indian friends uoUected about the outside of the prison, in 
yiew of a small opening, where the chief couid look out and see 
the action of the canine as his Indian friends proceeded to execute 
him. Placing a rope around the animal's neck, and suspending 
him from a pole that had been armnged for the purpose, at 
the height of a few feet from the ground, by means of crossed 
stakes driven into the earth, the dog was soon dangling in the air. 
Observing the animal very closely through the grates of 
the jail, the violent throes and contortions of the dog at once gave 
him a great aversi6n to hanging, or being 'ihasweighed till he was 
deal; and when thejailor again made his appearanee,he urged that 
he might be shot, ratlier than be killed by such a process as that 
he had seen tried on the dog."!- 

When his trial came on, John B. Bourie and chief Eich- 
ardville acted as interpreters. He was convicted, but being re- 
commended to mercy by the jury, the governor subsequently 
granted him a pardon; and in 1848, with a body of Miamies, he 
removed to Kansas, 

The first restraining case that came before the court of Alkn 
county, was tliat of Maria Caswell, vs. Wm. Caswell, to prevent 
the latter from selling certain property during the pendency of a 

* Ittdian naaga gaaronteed tlierigMtokill onaaiiotlier,iftIiey saw proper, aa a mat- 
ter ot revensfii or fop ot)icp v^noaa, without any other pnnisliment than that often 
BDHghttobe inflict :d by Way of eomraon retaliation fof the mnrdev of friends. 

+ Escolleotiona of T. W. Hoed. 'Squire Jolm Dubois, and others, tlieo residing taia, 

, . :,GoogIc 

303 HidiORT OF Fort Wayj:e. 

jiuit for divorce. This case came up at the September term, 1830, 
Judges Hood and Oushman presiding. 

But little was now done in court matters until the latter partof 
I8i31, when Judges Teat, Hood, and Lewis G. Thompson, (the lat- 
ter of wliom hiKt then but recently been elected,) presided 8.3 
Judges. Allen Hajniltoa was now- clerk, and David Pickering, 
sbeiitf. As clerk, Mr. Hamilton had been commiasioned for sev- 
en years, beginning with June 14th, 1831, all of which period he 
s'jrved. David il. Colerick was alio again sworn in aa stttomey 
for the term, 

The first case, that of H. Cooper, vs. J. Wheeler, sent down 
from the Supreme Oourt, occurred at this time. The caae had 
been reversed. 

Tile spring term of 1832 began April 0th, and was presided over 
by Judges Hood and Thompson, "W. J. Brown acting as prosecut- 
ing attorney. Gustavus A. Everett, and John S. Newman ap- 
peared aa attorneys, and David H. Oolerick, Esq., having produced 
a itcense, signed by Jndges Teat and Morris, was then fally ad- 
mitted rb a practitioner at the bar- 
In 1 826, Kamuel Hanna was elected a representative to the Leg- 
islature, the district then being composed of Eandolph and Allea 
counliee — Jay, Adams, Wella, and Delaware, having since been 
formed out of these, the limits of Allen then embracing the terri- 
tory ol' about all of these latter counties, west to the Illinois line. 
Mr. Hanna'e opponent, at this time, was John Right,* of Winches- 
ter, formerly a representative from Randolph, and the adjoining 
disti'ict As representative Mr, Hanna now served but one term, 
Daniel Worth, of Kandolph county, was the successor to Mr. 

During this legislative term of Judge Hanna, Delaware county 
was organized ; and a considerable region of country then lying 
between Kandolph and Allen counties received the name of 
"Adams," but was not organized as a county until 1836. At that 
period the three per cent, tund, amounting to about $500 for each 
couoiy, was appropriated by tbe State, to the use of the different 
counties, for the purpose of opening roads. The territory then 

" In (3ioBe Pioueer days, when log ofibins of Twious dimensioQa, served for tJie gen- 
eral purposes of dwelling, oourt-roum and taTern, wherain, in the latter case, many 
often slept in tte same rooic, and not imfrequently.wlien verjuiiioli crowded, two and 
'Jirea in a bed, Mr. Right, while attending court in this oistriet, of whioh, at the 
time, lie was Judge, the landlord of the honse in whioh he was stopping, being very 
mneh ewwded, raqneBWd the Judge to receive a bed-fellow for tha night in qnsstion, 
that all might be aoeommodated. Being averse to '■strange bed-fellows." the Judga 
was by no means favorable to the propoeilion of the landlord ; bnt being SESured that 
the man was a very olevec fellow, a good-natored Iriihman, by the name of MoCarty, 
— the Judge at length conaented, and the two were soon "in theonebed," with a fbw 
OTHEB BEDS IN TUK SAUE Booji, all Bs fuU OS that ocoupied by the Judge and hia friend 
McOarly. Awateoing " bright and eai'ly" the neit morning, the Judge began to quiz 
his Imb friend. " Pat," said this Judge, " I gueis you'd ha^e lived a long time in tha 
old oouQtry before you'd have had the honor of eleepiag with a Judge." 

"Yob, be jabara,'' quickly replied Pat ; "and if you'dlired in Ireland, it vroiild Jl iiT* 
been a mighty loug time bafore you'd uv bad the honor of being a judge." 



embraced within the boundaries of Allen, was so estenaive, that 
tile sum ailowed her for road pm-pcses, was considered of little val- 
ue in carrying out the design of the appropriation ; and Judge 
Hanna drew the amaunt coming to AUen county, and bestowed it 
upon what was afterwards called and organized as Adams county. 
Id the following year, (1827,) on the 2d of March, by an. act of 
Congress, "every alternate section of land, equal to fave miles in 
width," on both sides of what Is now the Wabash and Erie canal, 
"was granted to the State of Indiana," for the purpose of construct- 
ing " a canal from the head of navigation on the Wabash, at the 
mouth of the Tippecanoe river, to the foot of the Maumee Rapids," 
the same to be commenced at the expiration of the five years fol- 
lowing the passage of the act ; " and to bo completed within twen- 
ty years " from that time, 

■ Koon after this grant, the Land Office Commissioners closed the 
sales and entry of all government lands lying along and embraced 
within the Kmits of said grant, until such time as "the State should 
select and locate her .bounty under the grant," which, for a time, 
had the effect to retard, rather than superinduce and encourage set- 
tlement in the northern portion of the State, and along the region 
of the intended line of canal. A large body of this land, amount- 
ing to some two hundred and fifty thousand acres, lay in the State of 
Ohio, which were eventually ceded to that State, by an act of Con- 
gress and the consent of the State of Indiana, under certain stipu- 
lations, viz : "that the canal should be commenced and completed 
according to the original grant ; and that it should be sixty feet 
wide on the surface of the water, and five feet deep, instead of 
forty feet wide, and four deep." To adjust this, Hon. Jeremiah 
Sullivan, during 1829, was commissioned to adjust and settle this 

"In the winter of 1836 and 1827, a Board of Canal Commission- 
ers was created, whose duty it was to examine into the practicabil- 
ity of a canal route across from the Maumee. to the Wabash, and of 
obtaining a supply of water therefor, from the St. Joseph, St. Mai-y'a, 
Maumee, or Wabash, or all of them; for which purpose $500 
were appropriated, and Samuel Hanna, of Fort Wayne, David Burr, 
of Jackson county, and Robert John, of Franklin county, were 
elected Commissioners. It was very difficult to get this Board to- 
gether, but finally it was convened by Governor Ray, on the 14th 
of July, 1828, at Indianapolis, and there received from him, plats, 
maps, suiTeys, profiles, notes &c., of a report made by a corps of 
Government JEngineers, under instructions ofthe Engineer's De- 
partment, from the mouth of Little river, — at which point a prior 
survey had been suspended in 1826 — thence down the Wabash, and 
from the aummif at Fort Wavne down the Maumee river. This Board 
of Commissioners met at Fort Wayne in the summer of that year, 
(1838,)and being without a level or any instrument to work with, and 
having no engineer, and the $500 of appropriation being insuffi- 

II. ,Coo^[c 

304 History of Fokt Wathe. 

cieat for any practical purpose, Judge Hanna agreed to procure 
the itistniments, and was thereupon dispatched to Detroit, which 
place hereaciied, onliorse,intwodays, then proceeding toN. York, 
procured the instruments, and returned in an extraordinary quick 
time for that day. The Board then proceeded, by the aid of John 
Smyth, of Miamisburgh, Ohio, (an engineer) early in September, 
to gauge the St. Joseph, St. Mary's, and AVabash, at the forks, 
During these observations, Smyth was taken sick, and left the Board 
(none of whom were engineers,) to carry on the work as best aa 
they could. From the lOfch to the 23d of September, they spent 
the time in examining the St. Joseph river, and the adjacent coun- 
try, for the purpose of locating the Feeder for the canal, and final- 
ly succeeded in locating the dam and Feeder-line to the summits, 
making their own estimates of this, and adopting the estimates, 
&c., of Colonel Moore, under whose directions former surveys had 
been made, down the Wabash and Manmeo rivers ; which, in the 
meantime, had been received from the AVar Department, enab- 
ling the Commissioners, after the most diligent work, night and day, 
to present a report of their labor on the iiCtb of December, later 
than was intended by law creating the commission. So eshausted 
was Colonel Burr, by constant fatigue, in caluelation, &c,, that for 
a time his mental powers were overcome, and hence it devolved 
on Juge Hanna to report ; aa he did — a report replete with liberal 
Buggesrions, and sound sense. This report was concurred in, and 
from that day went on a work which has proved bo great a benefit 
to Indiana. In this capacity Judge Banna served three 'years. 
TJie canal lands were located by commissioners, under act of Jan- 
nary 25th, 1829, and platted, and a sale opened at Logansport, af- 
ter some delay, in October, l830, and an office opened in the first 
week of October, 1832, at Fort Wayne."* 

The sale at Logansporfc was attended by a large number of per- 
sons, and much land was then sold in Cass and adjacent connties, 
which resulted in the attraction of quite an influx of emigrants to 
that section and contiguous parts of the State. " But," says 0. 
B. Laeselle, Esq., " owing to the length of credit given on the pur- 
chase, availed hot little in affording means for the prosecution of 
the constriiction of the canal. It was, therefore, found necessary 
to appeal to the means of the State. Accordingly a bill was in- 
troduced in the Legislature during the sessions of 1831-3, for ef- 
fecting a loan upon the faith of the State, predicated upon the mon- 
eys arising from the sales, with interest thereon, together with the 
tolls and water rents of the canal. The bill met with fierce oppo- 
sition upon the pa'rt of many prominent men in the Legislature ; 
but it finally passed. Its success was duly celebrated by the citi- 
zens of Logansport." 

The " Cass County Times," of March 2d. 1832, gave the follow- 
ing interesting aceoant of the meeting of the commissioners, and 
commencement of the work on the canal at Fort Wayne : 

^ •• Fttft Wnyne TiMBB," D^tjembw IBth, 1HB8. 

, oy Google 


" Tlie Commissioners of the Wabaeh aod Erie canal met at Fort 
Wayne on the 22d iilt., for the purpose of carrying into effect the 
requisition of the late iaw of the Legislature of thie State, provid- 
ing for the commencement of said work, prior to the 2d day of 
March, 1832, whereupon the Commiasioners appointed the anni- 
versary of the hirth of the Father'of his country as the dtiy on 
which the first excavation should be made on said canal, and by an 
order of the Board, J. Vigus, Esq., was authorized to procure the 
.iiecesaary, tools .aod asBistance, and repair to the most convenient 
point on the St. Joseph Feeder-line, at 2 o'cluck, on said day, for 
the purpose aforesaid, 

"The intention of the Commissioners having been made known, 
a large number of citizens of the town of Fort Wayne and its vi- 
cinity, together with a number of gentlemen from the valley of the 
Waliash, convened at the Masonic Hail, for the purpose of making 
arrangements for the celebration of this important undertaking ; 
whereupon Henry Rudisiil, Esq., was called to the chair, and David 
H. Colerick appointed secretary. , * * * * * 

"Tlie procession, Jiaving been fornied agreeably to order, proceed- 
ed across the St-, Mary's river, to the point selected, when a circle 
was formed, in which the Commissioners and Orator took their 
stand. Charles W, Kwing, Esq., then rose, and in his usual happy, 
eloquent manner, delivered an appropriate address, which was re- 
ceived with acclamation. J. Vigus, Esq., one of the Canal Com- 
missioners, and. the only one present, addressed the company ; ex- 
plained the reason why his colleagues were absent — adverted to 
the difficulties and embarrassments ivhich the friends of the canal 
had encoitntered and overcome; noticed the impbrtance of the wo^k, 
and the advantages which would ultimately he realized ; and then 
concluded by saying, ' 1 am now about to commence the Wahaah 
and Erie canal in the name and by the autliority of the State of 
Indiana,^ Haying thus said, he ' struok the long suspended hlow ' 
— broke ground— while the company hailed the event with three 
cheers. Judge Hanna and Oapt. Murray, two of the able and con- 
sisteni advocates of the caflal, in the councils of the State, next ap- 
proached and excavated the earth ; and then commenced an indis- 
criminate digging and cutting. The procession then marched back 
to town in the manner it went forth, and dispersed in good order." 

Hon. Oliver H. Smith, at the period in question, a resident of 
Oonnersville, Ind.;in 1826, was elected a representative to Congress, 
and took his seat at the session of 1837. His opponent was Hon, 
John Teat. Allen County then gave Mr. Smith but ten votes. In 
his " Early Indiana Trials," Mr. Smith presents the.following inter- 
esting account of a trip to Fort Wayne, in company with Judge 
Eggleston and James Rariden, in 1825: 

The fiilUerra of tUe Circuit Coarts, 1825, foiinj Juilgo Egglesion snd myself well 
motmteij, once more on (.lie Circuit. The Judgo upon Ills pacing ludiaii pony: rlin 
»aino tliit I afterirardfi rtJilo tlirouEli nn BlnotioneerinB dcisressiunal caiopaJEn \ 1 

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306 HisTosi; of Foet Waysi!. 

Liiea rode my gray "fox." WeWflrejoineilttt Centerrillebj JamssEtn-iion, moant- 
eci on "Old Gray," one of ths finest aniniala T iove evep sbmi. Our Conrt was to 
be held oa the nest Monday at Fort Wayne. We reached IVincliestap late in the 
eTeniog and took lodgings at the hotel of Paul W. Way, bntao newspaper heralded 
the arrival. How dllferent iras the oirbumstancu that oocurred when I was in tho 
Benute of fbe 0Qited States. Silaa Wright. Thomas H. Benton aad James Biichau' 
an, for reeteotion, tan up to Philadelphia; the neil day the Pens jlvanian an- 
jiounead that, Senators Benton and Biiohanan had smved in that aity, and taken 
lodgings at the United States Hotel. A few dq.ys after the three digtluguished Sena- 
torii were in their eeats. I sat ttt the time In the next seat to Gov. Silas Wright; 
turning to tiie-dov., "Iseeby the papers that Mr.BenlonandMr. Buchanan haie been 
in Philadelphia and taken lodgings at the United Statefs Hottl ; how did it happen 
that your name was not announoeJ, as you wore with tiiem t " "I did not Bend my 
name to the printer." So it.was with ua. 

After early bi-eakfaat we were onoo more upon our LoMes, with one hundred miles 
through the wilderness before us. There were two Indian paths tliat led to Fort, 
Wayne, tho one by Chief Francis Godfrey's on the SalamoniariTer, the otlier in a, 
more easterly direction, crossing the Hissiseenewa higher up and striking the 
" Quaker Trace," from Ejehmond to Fort Wayne, south of the head waters of the 
Wabash river. After a momeiit's oonBuItation, Mr. Bariden, who was our guide, 
turned the head of " Old Grey " to the eastern path, and off wo started, at a brisk 
traveling gait, in high spirits. The daypaased away ; it was very hoi, and ihera 
was nawaterto behad for ourselves or horses. About one o'clock wo camo to fho 
Wabash rivet] nearly dried up, 3)ut there was grass upon Ihe bant for our horses, 
and we dismounted^ took off tho saddles, blankets and saddle-bags, Hhen the ques-' 
tion arose, should -we hold Uia horses while they graied, tie them to bushes, gpancel 
them, or turn them loose? We agreed that the latter was tho best for thehorseaand 
easioat fo<^ us, but I raised tbe question of safety, and brought up the old adage, 
" Safe bind safe find." Mr. Ttariden. — "Tou could not drive Old Gray away from 
me." Judge Eggleston. — ."My Indian pony. wOl never leave me;" ImafJenoprom- 
iso for my " Grey Eos." The bridles were taken off, and th« horses turned loose lo 
graae. A moment after, Old Gray stuck up his head, turned to the path wo bad 
just oome, and bounded off at a full gallop sWarming vrith flies, followed by tiio 
pacing Indian pony of tho Judge, at his higheet speed. Pox lingered behind, buK 
soou became. infecte^ with tho bad axamplo of his associates, and away tliey all 
Went, leaving us sitting under the shade of a tree that stood for years afterwacdi on 
tho bank of tlie Wabash. Our horses were, aweek ofterwarda, taken up at Port Defi- 
ance, in Ohio, and brought to ua at Winchester on ourretum. It took us bat a 
moment to deoide what to do. Ten miles Would take us up to Thooipaon'a on Town- 
send's Prairie. Our saddles and blankets were bung up above tho reach, of tho 
wolves. Jiiaeh took&is'saddle-tags upon his back, and we started nt aquibk step — 
llariden in tho lead, Judge Eggloston in' the centre, and I brought up the rear. 
The heat wasinteSae. Noae of nsliad boenmuah used to walking. I am satisfied 
we must aUhavebrokendownlbutmost fortunately there hadtalleotha night before 
a light rain, and the water lay in tho shade in the horse troaka. We were soon on 
our knees, with our mouths to the water, — Tell me not of your Croton, ye New 
Yorkers, nor of yoiir Pairmount, ye Phiiaiielphians, here was wator, " what mus 
water." Hear night We reached the prairie worn down with heat and fatigue. The 
thunders were roaring and the lightnings flashing ftom the blitok clouds in the west. 
A storm was coming up on the wings of a hiirrloano. and ten minutes after we ar- 
rived at Hr^ Thompson's it broke upon us in all its ftiry, and continued raining in 
lovrents during the night, ffe were in a low, one story log cabin, about twenty 
feet square, no floor above, with n clapboard roof. Supper, to us dinner, was soon 
ready. Tliree articles of diet only on the plain walnut table, corn-dodgers, boiled 
squirrels, and sasaaii-as tea. — Epicures at. the 5 o'clock table of lie Aator, St. 
Mioholaa, Metropolitan and Eevere, how do you like fho bill of fare !. To us it was 
sumptuoas and thankfully received. Supper over, we soon turned in, and such a 
alight .of sweet sleep I never had before or since. The nest morning' our saddles 
iimdWanketa were brought to ns from the Wabash. The landlord provided us with 
aionies.aniwo'set forward at full speed, arrived at Port Wayne that night, and took 
lodgings lijt*hB hotel of William N. Hood. In the morning court met, Judge Eggle- 
B'toiij PresiJfQt, ?.y'} side judges, ThoWpson and Cusliranu ou the bench. Fort 



Wayne oontalned about Iwohundcetl inbabitftHts, and the County of Allen some fifty 
vocace. Xiiei'e were no eaaes on docket to try of aorimioaleliavncter. Court adjourned 
Qirly, and -wo all went np the St. Mary'a riTBP, to Chief Riohardville'a to Boe an 
ladioB horse race. 

. The nage. were brought to the gronnd, a gray pony, about twelve hands high, and 
a roan, rather larger, Ute Eolipse and Henry, to contest the Bupeiiority of etook 
between the bands of Miamies antl Pottawattamies. 81s Indiana were eeleoted a.n 
judgee-'two plBoed at the atarting point, two at the quarter atake, and two at tlie 
coming-out place. "Riders up-^olear the track," and away they went under whiy 
and spur. The raoo over, the judgea meet, the apokeaman, a large Miami, eayf 
"Kaoe eVen, Miami grey take first quarter, Pottawattamie roita take last qusrler," 
nnd all are satisfied. In' the erening tie grand-jury brought in abill^ainBtEliaha 
K. Harris far stealing an Indian; pony. Judge Eggleston- — " Any more bueineas 
before you, Mr. Foreman 'i " Gen. Tipton.— "Sone air." "You ace flischargad." 
. JoDdEEootiESToH.— "fhereisbutoneoiiaBoa thedooketfortrial, an appeal oase, 
ilttmages claimed five dollars. I feel quite (ired| and will be obliged to my aBsooiatea 
to try_the caaa." Judge Cush man.— "Certainly." The case was called., Henry 
Cooperfor the plaintiff, and, lliram.Browcforthe defendant. Case aubmittedtoihe 
Court. The aotioa was for damages, five dollars claimed, for killing the plaintilf'n 
dog. the witness awore that he saw the defendant runningwith his rifle serosa hia 
yard; saw him lay it on the fonoe; saw the smoke;, heard the oraok; sawthe dog 
fall; went to where the dog lay, and saw tbe bullet-hole just beliind the fore leg. 
Here Cooper realed with a triumphant air, and indeed, to a common eye, the caae 
seemed beyond hope, but to the mind of the skillful advocate, capable of drawing tha 
distinotion between positive and oiroumetaiitial evidence, a different oonoluaion was 
come to. — Breckeo ridge's Miscolianias, and Phillip's Bvidenoe, stating the danger 
of listening to circumstantial aridence, and enumerating many lamentable oases of 
convictions and eKeoutions for murder upon oiceumstantial evidence, when the con- 
iriets were afterwards proved to be entirely innocent, had been widely circulated 
and eitensively read by courts and lawyovs until the tendency of. the courts was to 
rtqect oiroumstaQtial evidence. My friend, Mr. Brown, an ingenious attorney, of 
flqe talents, and, by the W^y, rather waggish,, said: "A single question, Mr. Wit- 
aeas— CanyftUsWearyOusawthebullethitthedogi" "I can swear no such thing." 
" That's All, Mr. Cooper ; a case of mere eircumstantial evidence, your Honors," 
Cooper's 00 ualonanca foil ;. defeat stared him in the face; tbe ease was submitted to 
the Court without further, evidence. Judge Gushman. — "This ia a plain ease of 
drcnmsianHiil evideaee. Judgment for the defendant." Cooper, with great indigna- 
tion, with his eye upon Bi-own : — "When I die I wish it engraved upon my tombstone, 
hero lies Henry Cooper-^an honest man." Brown, risiag ds quick as thought ; — 
" Pope says an honest man is the noblest work of God. There have been Atheists 
in this wfltlii—Bollngbroke'of En gland, Voltaire of Prance, and Tom Paine of Ameri-- 
ca, WilL a host of other infidel writera who may be named; they have all done no th- 
ing against tieAlJnighty, But lot Henry Cooper be held up in the mid heavens, by 
o.nangel,.for thewhole race of maa to look upon; an* let Gabriel, with his trumpet, 
nnnonnoB to gaiiug worlds, this is Gad's noblest 'motk, and all the hnman race would 
become Atheists in a day." WereturnedtoWlfiofeeater on ourborcowcd poniea, took 
our horSes that had bean brought from Defiance, and reached the Wayne Circuit 
Court in gciod time. 

■ At the expii'ation oi" Mr. Smith's term, in 1828, Hon. John Test, 
tken.of Brookville, Ind., -vfaa elected from the same ctistricfc, for the 
term of 1229-30,. and waafiiieceeded by Jonathan McOarty,* of Fort 
Wayne ; the latter taking his seat in ISSI. 

Mr. Worth, of Eandijlph coanty,.'was elected State Seiiator,and 
Anthony L. Davis, of Allen, Kepresentative, in 1829, dnring which 
year the coiiBtieaof Allen, Randolph and Delaware, inclnding also 
the territory north thereof, was formed into a senatorial district ; 
wliile Allen, Cass, Kandolph, and Delaware, were organized into a 
"Mr. McGar^liad previously been receiver of public money at the land office herf, 
at which time Ca'ptniii Eobsrt Sraakenrldge was i^eiEWto iu.3«i.4 office. 

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308 HiSTOST OF FOET Waykk. 

KcpreEentative District. In 1S30,* Mr. Worth was again elected 
a Senator, and. Joseph Holman chosea a Representative from tho 
ibregoing diebict, at which Beeainn, AUeo, ^Randolph, St. Joseph, 
Elkhart a'nd, Delaware were formed into a'senatorial district, from 
which, in the following year, (1831, j*) Mr. Worth was again elected 
State Senator, and Samuel Hanna, irona. tJie. district at this tiuio. 
formed out of Allen, Elldiarfc and St. Joseph, was chosen a Eepi-c- 
sentative. The following year, (1832,) Samuel Hanna, of Allen 
county, was selected State Senator, and George Crawford, of Elk- 
hart, Kepreseiitative. The following year, Mr.Hanna was re-elec- 
ted .Senator, and David H. Oolerick, fi8i|l, chosen Eepresentative, 

The " Board of Justices " having, in 18^9, been changed to that 
of " Oonnty Board of Commiesionera,"- consisting of James Hol- 
man,-Win. Oaswell, arid N. Coleman, on the 29th of September of 
this year, it having been preyiously presented, that tn^o-thirds of the ' 
cilizeiiB of Fort Wayne were in fayor ol incorporating the place, 
the Cotinty Comffiissioners ordered an election of IrnsteeB, the 
following gentlemen being chosen.therefor : John S. Archer, W. 
G. Ewing, Hngh Hanna, Dr. L. G. Thompson and Jqhn P. Hedges. 
In the monlh of \November following, the iirst meeting of this 
Board took place. 

By an act of.Congress of May 3.1st, 1830, the associate' judges of 
Allen county were authorized to enter some twenty acres of land 
off the west side of' the fort reserve, at ®1.25 per acre, which .was 
compHed with and patented to them March Slst, 1831. Having 
previously been transferred to the agent, and for theuse pf Allen 
county, by order of the County Board, these twenty acres were laid 
off, platted, aud filed Nov. 3d, 1830, and designatecl' " Coirnty Addi- 

The remains of tho fort reservaUnn, hy an act of Congress, was 
set apart for the benefit of the canal, and, with other public lands, 
at Logausport, Ind., was subsequenty offered at public auction, and 
purchased by Cyrus.Taber, who, April 15th,1835i portio,ned it oil' 
into forty lots, which have since been known as " Taber'a Addition." 

"At this period thare were but 252 malBS, oyer 21 years of ose,in Allen cotinty. 
+ Tlia wiuter of tliiBjeBr, (IH^il,) was a mo?t remiirkalile ojie Aaeofly as tha latter 
paW of Ifovamba!', anow began to fall, and "ontiiiiipd to In npon tha graiiiid viiitil t!io 
middle of iljtch folloiring and the «»ttl' i ■■ n,^ ti i= inuj Beasoa of snow witli 
then lUHghly oonBtinoted pols junapti n' i I 1 iiignpon the ite of thu 

adjaoant sticama aongbtto, and did eii) l\ and happily So in 

- --1- - f 11... 1 ."" '1.- — 1-1 I II ilie aBow dnrtng this 

»ii III liil offood andthegen 

h 1 > iBC-ncK lionout to the greatest hnnger 
II iJ3l nuuilcrs tjiiuughout the northwest and 
09 tha red man receded TTece hrouglit to 
li iwlingB were mRhtiy heard by the citizens 
il (.rtl.i^r,, Ytniuri. lai b \ wi J tlit hmi a ol 
I I II 1 il >f th iii 

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Sdocessioh oir Judges. 309 

Previous to 1825, the associate jnJgea of the different rountie's 
in the State also exercised proliate jurisdiction, the cleik thereof 
acting also as clerk of the Ohcuit Court, while the gheiiffocted for 

It was in this year, (l825,)Novemher 14th, that the oigaiiization 
of the firqt Coiut for Probate purposes octpired, whith mot at the 
Old Washington Hall, and was piesided over by Samuel Ilamia 
auJ Benjamin Ooahman.