(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of the Fourth Regiment of Minnesota Infantry Volunteers During the Great Rebellion, 1861 ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 



e: 

13 ^^ 



o 




ALONZO L. BROWN. 
AUG. 15. less. 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



FOURTH REGIMENT 



OF 



MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS 



DURING THE 



GREAT REBELLION 



1861-1865 



BY 

ALONZO L^'bROWN 

Of ComfMrny B, this Regiment, and also Captain of Company E, Fiftieth Regiment, 

United States Colored Infantry. 



ST. PAUL, MINN.: 

Thr Pionskr Prbss Company. 

1893. 



Copyright, 1892, 

Bv Alonzo L. Brown. 

All rights reserved. 



PBEFACE. 



The statements made in this history were nearly all com- 
piled from official reports, or memoranda made by reliable 
persons of ^ood judgment. I have no excuses to make for 
my style of writing or ability to present a more erudite and 
felicitions production; have copied quite freely from the "War 
of the Rebellion." official records, published by the United 
States Government, and in my reference to the same use fig- 
area "v. 17, 2, 186," which, as here used, mean Volume 17, 
Part 2, page 186, and where such figu res occur they refer to those 
volumes. 

I wish to acknowledge my thanks to the following named 
persons who placed theirdailydiaries, kept during their service, 
at my disposal: Comrade Georpe E. Sly of Company A, 
whose record I found very accurate and reliable; also, Lieut. 
Thomas M. Voung of the sumo company; Hon. Wafihington 
Muzzy of Company II; Capt. I. N. Morrill and Lieut. George 
Bnird of Company K; Adjts. Wm. T. Kittredgo and W. W. 
Rich; Lieut. John G. .lanicke of Company G; Capt. F. V. 
De Coster of Company U: Lieut, tlolin IL Thurston of Com- 
pany C, who aided in corrections to the roster and matters 
connected therewith; Col. R. S. Donaldson, for his aid and 
encouragement. Alonzo L. Brown, 

Browstox, Mixx., Jaiir, 1892. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



Organizing the Regiment — Governor Ramsey's Order — Nnmber of 
Men to a Company — How Promotions Shall be Made — Enlist 
in My Company — "The Officers Oet There" — Organizing the 
Companies — Service at the Forts — Funerals Over the Beef— Or- 
dered to Fort Snelling — A Regiment in Line of Battle — Places of 
Officers, Color Gnard, etc., when Companies Change Positions — 
Departure South 17-43 



CHAPTER II. 

At Benton Barracks, St Louis — Drawing Mules, and also Steel Vests — 
Leaving to Join Halleck's Army Before Corinth — On the Roe — 
The Last Specie Payment to Us— Testing the Steel Vest— At Fort 
Henry; Its Exploded Cannon— Debark at Paris Landing — March 
to Paris — Foot Passengers Plant Their Steel Vests on the Rail 
Fences— ** Sum Sun "—''Took a Bite and Drummed into Line "— 
Ride on the Gladiator and Break It Down — At Hamburgh Land- 
ing — •* Bye-Bye, Shoulder- Scales! "—Join Halleck's Army— Roster 
of Our Division — March to Farmiogton and Borrow the Town — 
Operations Before Corinth — Piling Up the Earth — Rosecrans Takes 
Command — Schuyler Hamilton — Rebel Bass Drums; Cheering; 
Explosion; Smoke; Evacuation and a Foot Race — We are After 
Them — Early History of Our Division — A Glance at Our Army 
Events After Shiloh — How the Rebels Managed the Evacuation — 
Newspaper Correspondents ''Made to Git" — Two Battery Boys 
•'Id a Fix"— Texas Cleavers 44-57 



6 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

We March to Booneville^Farewell to Oar Noah's Arks (Mess Chests) 
^Bamed Train of Cars— Pope Left Us— Back to Rienzi— To Clear 
Creek— First Gray backs— The Maffled Drum's Sad Roll— Half 
of the Regiment Sick — The Angel of Death Comes Often — Terrible 
March to Ripley and Back to Rienzi — Death of Lieutenant Jndd; 
A Lock of Hair — Governor Ramsey Visits Us — A Chauge of Com- 
manders — Halleck Leaves — A Visit to Shiloh — Roster of Division 
— Charles S. Hamilton — Guarding Rebel Com Fields and Wells 
of Water; Five Cents for a Canteen of Water — Pigs Nose About 
Camp with Impunity — To Jacinto — Off on a Scout — News of In- 
dian Massacre; Want to Go Home; Men Distracted; Oilman Goes 
— Grood Foraging; Peaches Galore— Receipt for Making Our Ovens 
— Expect an Attack — March for luka 58-73 

CHAPTER IV. 

Capture of luka by Price's Army — Our Troops Evacuate and Lose the 
Supplies — Rosecrans Surprised — Price Surprised — Battle of luka 
— List of Killed and Wounded — Personal Incidents — Losses on 
Both Sides 74-109 

CHAPTER V. 

From luka to Corinth — Battle of Corinth — List of Casualties — Per- 
sonal Incidents 110-134 

CHAPTER VI. 

Pursuing the Enemy — The Hatchie Battle — To Bone Yard and South — 
Return to Corinth — Formation Department of Tennessee — Poem 
on Death of Captain Mooers — New Commanders — March from 
Corinth— Strict Orders— Five Roll Calls a Day— Davis' Mill; Hogs 
and Sheep — Grand Review — First Horse Stealing Expedition; 
Visit Gideon — To La Grange and Moscow — Rebels Borrow Eleven 
Six-Mole Teams — Six Companies on a Scout — Colored Gentleman 
Borrows Chaplain's Horee — To Holly Springs; Oxford; Yockna — 
The Seventy-Second Illinois Supplies Us with Clothing 135-153 

CHAPTER VII. 

Man Drummed Out of Service — Formation of Our Army Corps — 
Yankee Pictures rs. Confederate Money — Enemy Capture Our 
Supplies at Holly Springs— Our Big Scare— We ** Fall Back "— 
Order Numbering Our Divisions in Our Four Army Corps — Cap- 
turing and Fooling -Quinby's Aids — Guarding Wagon Train to 
Memphis and Lafayette — Stop at White's Station ; Build Stock- 
ades; Lovely Foraging; Sixteen Inches of Snow — Roster of Our 
Division — List of Sick in Hospitals— Our Tents Crowded; '*Spoon" 
— Leaying Memphis — Bunche's Bend — Down the Yazoo Pass — A 
Brush with the Rebels — Our Journey Back on the Pringle — On 
the Sand bar— Go Down to Milliken's Bend 154-174 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



by the Vichsbnrg Battariea; Names of the Boats; Particnlara 
from Both Sides; Brilliant Description by a Lady in Vicksbnrg — 
Oif^aniiiag Freedmen as Soldiers — Adjutant General Thomas' 
Speech to Us — Officers Commissioned; Extra Djngsroas Service — 
More Boats Ran by the Batteries— We Unrch from the Bend— 
High Water; Deep Mnd— Foarteen Span of Horses PnlliDg a 
CaisMD — GoDboats Bombard Grand Gnlf and Run by Those Bat- 
teries— Battle of Port Gibson; Troops Eogaged— Leave Oar Tents 
Mid Teams at Bmith's Plantation — Cross the Mississippi Biver — 
Form in Snppoit of McCIernand's Troops; then March to Port 
GibsoD— Battle of Forty Hills— Haukinson's Ferry— Sapport Lo- 
gan's Troops at Raymond— Corn in tbe Ear— Living OfT of the 
Country — Borrow a Cigar Factory at Clinton — Battle at Jackson — 
Captain Martin Rihei Flag on State House- March for Vicki- 
bnrK— Battle of Champion's Hil! 175-907 

CHAPTER IX. 

At Edward's Depot — Bridging the Big Black River — On to Vicksbnrg- 
Description of the Ground upon wbicli the City is Built — Forma- 
tion of the Lines — Assault on the Twenty-Second of Mny; Inci- 
dents and Official Reports — Rebel Account — List of Onr Casual- 
tice— Draw Our First Full Rations — March to Mechanicsburg and 
Retum—lDci dents of tbe Siege— Lifting Fort Hill— Wooden Mor- 
tars— Siege Batteries— Letter from Colonel Ome;— Rebel Ten- 
Incb Mortar Shells — Coonskin's Tower — Liifaid Hardware as 
Csoned Goods— OfBiial Statemeut of Losses in Out Army from 
May 1 to July i, 1863 208-332 

CHAPTER X. 

Roster of Onr Division and Also of Logan's Division — Flag of Tmce — 
BDireodeT of Vicksbnrg — Terms Accorded tbe Enemy — McPher- 
son's Congratnlatory Order— Stauding on Fort Hill— Hebels Slack- 
ing Their Arms — Hmw Rand Plays at Sherlej's House — Colonel 
Strong's I'urty Hoist the Flag of the Seveuteentli A rmy Corps on 
the Courthouse— Letter from General Claike — The Troops March- 
ing In — Sharing the Honors — t>urOffi<'ers Purchase New Uniforms; 
and Our Rrij^de was the First One to the Courthouse — "Git 
Down Off I>at Mule"— A City of Chtss- Ri tracts from the Wall- 
paper (Idilion of the 7)ai7y Citiztn: Grant Canght His Rabbit— 
RemovingStrcet Barricades— Closing the River in 1861— Our Regi- 
ment Moves In — Paroling the Kel)el Army — Official Reports— On 
ProTost Doty— List of Sick in Hospitals— Colonel Sanbora's 
Farawell Order to His Brigade — We Go to Helena and to 
Henphis. 233-2.59 



8 CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Leave Memphis and Go to Corinth; then to laka — Repairing Bear Creek 
Bridge — We Go into the Fifteenth Army Corps — Leave for Chatta- 
nooga — Cross the Tennessee River — Onr Convalescents and Dis- 
abled Ones Leave Us — Daily Journal of the Man^; Distance, 
Weather and Other Particulars — Short of Rations — Details Qo to 
Decherd ; Forage Trains Go Oat — Pass Plenty of Males that Had 
Starved to Death (of Rosecrans' Army) — Go Up the Cumberland 
Mountains to theBummit; Down Sweden's Cove — Cross Tennes- 
•see River at Bridgeport — To Brown's Ferry and Cross — Camp Near 
to Crane's Hill Across from Chattanooga — Pontoons in North 
Chickamauga — We Cross the Tennessee River — Advance as Skirm- 
ishers — Capture Enemy's Scouts, and Fire the First Shots from 
Sherman's Army — Battle of Missionary Ridge— Pursue the Enemy 
— Quarter Rations — Living on Hope — To Bridgeport and Hunts- 
ville — Big Foraging Expedition — Annual Return for 1863 — To 
Whitesburg and Return — Enlist as Veterans — Trip to Minnesota — 
Capture La Crosse — Arrive at St Paul and Go Home 260-286 



CHAPTER XII. 

Return from '* Vet." Furlough — Roster of Those Returning — Our Trip 
Back to Hnntsville — List of Sick and Wounded in Hospitals — 
Roster of the Third Division — Leave Hunts?ille for Kingston — 
Great Sufifering from Heat on the Road; Men and Mules Sunstruck 
and a Caisson Explodes — Embark on Cars at Stevenson — Arrive at 
Kingston — March to Allatoona and Garrison the Post — Historic 
Ground — Description of Surrounding Country — Engine Thieves — 
Roster of Third Division and Also Field and Stafl', Army of the 
Tennessee — Expedition Up the Railroad — Officers Getting There; 
Governor Miller Commissions Six Citizens Second Lieutenants, 
who Recruit Thirty Men Each to Fill Up the Ranksof the Regiment 
so Our Officers can be Promoted, and Violates the Plighted Faith of 
the State to Its Soldiers — Great Injustice and Dissatisfaction — 
"Atlanta Ours and Fairly Won" — Summary of Campaign — Hood's 
Army Circles Around Ouis — Our Non- Veterans Want Their Dis- 
charges and Can't Get Them ; Are Kept In to Swell the Numbers so 
Officers Can be Promoted — French's Division Strikes Our ** Cracker 
Line" at Big Shanty and Destroys It — Capture Big Shanty and 
Acworth — They March for Allatoona.... 287-304 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Battle of Allatoona — List of Casaalties — Official Reports — Persooal In- 
cidents — The Foot-Bridge — Depth of Railroad Cut — Letter from 
Postmaster at Allatoona — Poem — Letter Sending Flags Home — 
Description of the Captured Flags — Names of Signal Officers and 
Men at Allatoona and Kenesaw — Letters from Them — The His- 
toric Messages 306-229 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Corse and Troops Leave for Rome — Sherman and His Army Arrives — 
New Recruits Under **The New Issue*' Arrive — Our Drove of 
Eight Thousand Head of Cattle Passes to the Front— Our Non- Vet- 
erans Leave for Minnesota — We Vote for President of the United 
States — Sick and Wounded Sent North on Cars to Tennessee — 
Stripping for Our March to Savannah — Annual Official Returns for 
1864 — Receive Our Last Payment until Our Final Muster-Out — 
All Surplus Baggage and Property Sent to the Rear — The 
Eighteenth Wisconsin Goes Home on ** Vet." Furlough — March to 
Atlanta — What Sherman Says About the Composition of His Army, 
His Purpose and His Ordeis for the Campaign — Leave Atlanta — 
Foragers' Marks on Objects — *'Ten Minutes' March and Twenty 
Minntee' Standstill; Weight on Left Leg and Head Under 
Wing" — Our Regiment Destroys a Mile and a Half of Railroad — 
In Clover — Several Hundred BIztra Horses Shot — Burning Cotton- 
Gin House and **Rebe" Hid in It — Arri\e Near to Savannah — 
Mussel Stews — Fort McAllister Ours— Vessels in the Offing — 
Savannah Ours — Strength of Our Army — Summary of Results of 
the Campaign 330-359 

CHAPTER XV. 

Leaving Savannah — The Dike Across the River — Water Falling; Water 
Rising — Battle the Elements; Get Whipped and Return — Forma- 
tion of Our Army; of the Right and Left Wings — By Steamship to 
Beaufort— Salt- Water Coftee — Leave Beaufoit — Charge Through 
Duck Creek— Big "Gater"— Cross the Saulkehatchie— Twist the 
Railroad at Bamberg — March for Columbia — Our Army on the 
Opposite Bluff— Ciipture of Columbia — "God Brefs You, I'se Free 
Now!" — Drunken Soldiers and Negroes Fire the City — Destroying 
Arsenal Stores — Old Revolutionary Relics — Leaving Columbia — 
Little Lynch's Creek— Ramrod Test— In the Wilderness— *' Death 
to All Foragers;" Two Rebels Shot in Retaliation— Big Water 
at Big Lynch's Creek— Big Black Creek— Raid to Florence— At 
Cberaw — From a Starve to a Feast— March for Fayetteville— Cor- 
doroj — Terrible Night at Shoe Heel Creek — At Antioch Church — 
Fayetteville — Leave Fayetteville — More Wilderness — Marching 
Orer, Under and Through the Country— Cross Black River 300-390 



10 CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Battle of BentoDTille — March to Goldsboro— Make Oat Paj Rolls and 
Throw Them Away — Many are Barefooted; All are Ragged — News 
from God's Country Once More — Beaatifol Camp — Reorganizing 
Oar Army; Its Roster — Leave Goldsboro — Citizens Delighted to 
See Us— News of Lee*8 Surrender — Enter Raleigh — A Memorable 
Fourteenth of April; Raising Our Flag at Fort Sumter and Assas- 
sination of President Lincoln — Receive News of the Assassina- 
tion — Reviewed by Grant, Sherman, Meade, Sheridan, Smith and 
Others — Johnston's Army Surrenders — Terms of Surrender — Our 
Division ** Broken Up "--**God Bless You All! ''—Mourning in the 
Smith Family of Officers— In Wood's Brigade of Wood's Division.... 391-510 

• 

CHAPTER XVII. 

March from Raleigh for Richmond — To March by ** Easy Stages Ten 
Miles a Day and to Rest Over Sundays," but We March Twenty- 
Six Miles and More— Commanders Racing Their Troops to Death — 
Most Damnable Treatment — Beautiful Country — Union People — 
**Bres8 de Lord,We'8 Glad to See Ye! "—Pass Iron Post and Enter 
"Old Virginia" — No Foraging Whatever — " Geese Strut and Look 
Wise" — Splendid Discipline of Our Army — March in Review Before 
Logan and Through Petersburg to Manchester Opposite Rich- 
mond — March through Richmond for Washington — Colored Chil- 
dren Bring Bouquets of Flowers and Cups of Water — Their ** Year 
of Jubilee " Has Come — PassLibby Prison — Cross Chickahominy — 
Pamunky and Other Rivers — Through F'redericksburg — Dum- 
fries — Mount Vernon — With Uncovered Heads by the Tomb of 
Washington — Reach Alexandria —Disagreeable Camp — Mud; No 
Wood; Guards Around Camp; No Pay; Short Rations; Army of 
Potomac Fat and Hearty — The Grand Review — Our Regiment 
Leads Sherman's Army — Poem, ** The Last Review" 411-425 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Leaving Washington for Louisville — Orders of Sherman and Grant to 
the Army, *' The Time has Come for Us to Part" — Embark at 
Parkersburg — At Louisville — Rusty Pork for Rations— No Pay — 
Ordered to Drill Four Hours a Day — The Home Guards Kick — A 
Mutiny in the Regiment — Eighteen Heroes Sent to the Guard- 
house— ** God Bless Them! They Did Just Right"— The Dove of 
Peace Hovers Over Us; the Mutiny Only an Error and a Fault — 
Logan's Farewell Address — Honorary Commissions — Muster for 
Discharge Out of the Service — Leave Louisville for Minnesota — 
Are'Guestsat Milwaukee of Eighteenth Wisconsin — Arrival at St. 
Paul— Sign Pay Rolls and Receive Fmal Discharge 426-438 



CONT£NTB. 



CHAPTEK XIX. 



The Qoftrtermuter'a Department — The Btsss Band — Boater of Dnty 
Offlceis — Lilt of Dead in National Cemeteries— Members' SerriceB 
io Other Commands — Pinal Roster of the Begiment — Reunions 
Since the War. 43&-Bei 

APPENDIX. 

Hie Bam Fleet and Hariue Brigade— Pa; Tables of UfBcen and En- 
listed Hen — List of Battles and Record of Events — Nnmber of 
Troops Fnmished b; Ibe States for fhe Union Arm; — Total Num- 
ber of Men in the tJnioa Arm; at Difl[erent Times — Aggregate 
Force of the Union Armies — Confederate Forces Surrendered at 
the Close of the War— Poem, " What Did the PrivateeDo?" 582-593 

Addendnm — Enitta 593-51)4 



MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Portrait of Alonzo L. Brown (Frontispiece), 

My Hero, The Enlisted Man, at Sbonlder Arms, 

Portrait of Gen. John B. Sanborn (Steel Plate), 

Portrait of George E. Sly of Company A, . . . 

Portrait of Charles U. Brown of Company B, 

Map of the Battlefield of Inka, Miss., 

Map of the Battlefield of Corinth, Miss., 

Picture of Tishomingo Hotel and Depot at Corinth, . 

Portrait of Leo Cook of Company B, . . . . 

Portrait of John H. Thurston of Company C, 

Picture of the Battle Ground at Jackson, Miss., . 

Map of the Battlefield of Champion's Hill, Miss., 

Picture Showing the Front of the Seventh Division During the Siege 
of Vicksbuigh, from Fort Hill to the South, 

Three War-Time Scenes at Vicksbnrgh, Showing Washington Street 
and **The Point" up the River, Sherley's House Near to Fort HUl 
Looking East fh>m the Courthouse, 

Picture of Marble Monument Erected Between the Lines on the Site 
of the Celebrated Grant and Pemberton Oak Tree at Yicksburgh 

Portraits of Our Regimental Brass Band Taken at Huntsville, Ala. 

Maps of Country from Kingston to Atlanta, Ga., 

Map of the Battlefield of AUatoona, Ga., 

Picture Looking North to Allatoona Heights and Pass, from a War- 
Time Photograph, ...... 

Portrait of Samuel B. Brown of Company B, . 

Picture Looking South from Western Redoubt at AUatoona to Kene- 
saw Mountain, ....... 

Picture Looking North to AUatoona Heights and Pass, Taken in 1888, 

Portrait of William T. Churchill of Company B, . 

Portrait of H. R. Marcyes of Company I, Leader of Brass Band, 

Portrait of Alonso L. Brown, ..... 



Oppositb 
Paok 

1 

14 

18 

44 

60 

74 

112 

130 

144 

150 

194 

200 

210 



238 

248 
290 
292 
308 

314 
320 

322 
336 
376 
444 
462 



INTRODUCTION. 

My Hero, Thk Enlisted Man. 




Aeets OD the ume line, m near each other m the conluruiBtion or the man 
will ptnuit. 

The feet tarned oat eqnallj, aod rotmiDg with eac:h other something less 
than a right angle. 

The bneea straight withont stilTiiFag. 

The bod; erect od the hips, iDclioing a little Torwanl. 

The Bhonldeni sqaare and ralliog ectaallj. 

The arms bangioK naturnllj. 

The elbows near the body. 

The palm of the baud turaeU n Hitle to the front, the little finger behind 
the Mam of the pantalooon. 

The head erect and ixjDare to the front, without constraint. 

The chin near the stock, withont coTerintc it. 

The eyes ftied straight to the front, and striking the groand abont the dis- 
tance of Qn«eii pace*. 

Bj peimiMloD from D. Van Nostrand. 

VaKy'n Iiifantfy TaeUci. 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



FOUETH REGIMENT 



OF 



MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 



CHAPTER I. 

OigaDiziBg the Regiment; Governor Ramsey's Order — Number of Men to a 
Company — How Promotions Shall Be Made — ** Enlist in My Ck>mpany ** — 
*^The Officers Get There'' — Organizing the Companies — Service at the 
Forts — Funerals Over the Beef — Ordered to Fort Snelling — A Regiment 
in Line of Battle; Places of Officers, Color Gaard, etc. — When Companies 
Change Positions — Departure South. 



General Hbadquabtbbs, State of Minnesota, 

Adjutant General's Office, 

St. Paul, Minn., April 24, 1861. 
Gknbbal Obdebs, No. 2: 

First — The resignation of Adjt Gen. Wm. H. Acker is hereby accepted, 
to take effect on Wednesday, the twenty-fourth day of April instant. 

Second — Col. John B. Sanborn is hereby announced as the adjutant general 

and acting quartermaster general of the State of Minnesota, in place of Wm. 

H. Acker resigned, and will be obeyed and respected accordingly. 

Alex. Ramsey, 

Governor and Commander-in'Chief. 
2 



18 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1861 



HSADQUABTEBS STATB OF MINNESOTA, 

Ad/utant Gkne&al's Office, 

St. Paul, Sept 18, 1861. 
General Obdsbs, No. 18: 

The Secretary of War, in his dispatch to the Goyemor of the seventeenth 
instant, having called upon him **to adopt measnres to oiganize two more 
infantry regiments at the earliest date possible," the oommander-in-chief in 
pursuance of said call hereby directs the organization of two more regiments of 
infiuitry, to be mustered into the service and pay of the United States for three 
years, or during the war, to consist of ten companies each, and to be designated, 
respectively, as the ** Third Regiment of Minnesota Volunteers " and ** Fourth 
Regiment of Minnesota Volunteers.'' The Third Regiment to be retained at 
Fort Snelling until it is fully organized and called into active service. The 
Fourth Regiment to be retained to garrison the forts on the frontier. Com- 
panies and men entering the service under this order may elect the regiment 
into which they will be mustered. Each company must be organized as 
follows, vis.: 

Mlnimom. Mazimam. 

1 Captain. 1 Captain. 

1 First Lieutenant. 1 First Lieutenant. 

1 Second Lieutenant. 1 Second Lieutenant. 

1 First Sergeant. 1 First Sergeant. 
4 Sergeants. 4 Sergeants. 

8 Corporals. 8 Corporals. 

2 Musicians. 2 Musicians. 
1 Wagoner. 1 Wagoner. 

64 Privates. 82 Privates. 

83 101 

In view of the necessity of relieving the command at Fort Ridgely at the 
earliest day, possible the commander-in-chief desires two companies of the 
Fourth Regiment to report forthwith at Fort Snelling for that purpose, and 
the companies that first so report will be mustered immediately into the ser- 
vice and pay of the United States, and be designated, respectively, as Company 
A and B of said regiment. And all other companies, and parts of companies, 
and individuals desirous of entering the service of the United States in this 
regiment will report at Fort Snelling, on or before the first day of October, 
A. D. 1861, or as soon thereafter as possible. 

All companies filled to the minimum number and organized for the Third 
Regiment will report at Fort Snelling on the twenty-fifth day of September 
instant. And all companies and parts of companies and individuals that are 
desirous of entering the service in said regiment will report at Fort Snelling 
subsequent to the twenty-fifth instant, and on or before the first day of Octo- 
ber, or as soon thereafter as possible. Companies and captains of companies 
in said regiments will take position and rank according to date of being mus- 
tered into the service of the United States. 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEBES. 19 

All transportation of companies and individuals entering the service in the 
above regimenta will be paid for by the government at a rate not exceeding 
two cents per mile, to be computed from their place of enlistment to their 
place of rendezvous by the nearest traveled route. 

In view of the urgency of this call, and the fact that the glorious flag of the 

Republic continues to be assailed by an open, armed rebellion, more formidable 

and wicked than was ever before plotted against any government, threatening 

to destroy the work of our ancestors, and subvert all republican institutions, 

the commander-in-chief confidently expects that the brave and loyal sons of 

Minnesota will most promptly respond and go forth as one man in their zeal 

and might to put down this rebellion and enforce the laws, thereby adding 

new luster to the fame already won for our young state by the gallant and 

undaunted '^Firsf The commander-in-chief most confidently expects that 

those counties of the state that have not furnished one company for this war 

will most eagerly embrace this opportunity to attest their patriotism and valor 

and willingness to i>erform an equal part to preserve the government which 

confers equal blessings upon all. 

By order of the commander-in-chief. 

John B. Sanbobn, 

A^utant Oeneral. 



Under date of Oct. 30, 1861, Adjutant General Sanborn 
issued the following General Orders, No. 22 : 

It is announced that the following companies are accepted for the Fourth 
Regiment of Minnesota Volunteers : Company A, Scott County Guard, Cap- 
tain Baxter; Company B, McLeod County Guard, Captain Edson; Company C, 
Dakota County Volunteers, Captain Donaldson; Company D, Le Sueur Steele 
County Guards, Captain Le Gro [this of D was perhaps a mistake — Ed.], and 
the following organization and jiarts of comjianies, each numbering over forty 
men and having a first lieutenant already commissioned, and at present rec- 
ognizing the following named parties as captains, are accepted, viz.: Sher- 
burne County Guards, Captain White; Valley Sharpshooters, Captain Tour- 
tellotte; St. Cloud German Volunteers, Captain Lueg; Parker's Rifle Zouaves, 
Captain Parker; Mower County Guards, Captain Mooers. 

All organizations of recruits mustered into said regiment, not included in 
the company or organization above named and accepted, may be attached to 
either of the above named organizations that its members may choose, and the 
members of said organizations will signify their choice to the mustering offi- 
cer at as early a day as possible. 

In making this announcement the commander-in-chief would at the same 
time call the attention of the people of the state to the fact that Minnesota 
has already furnished her quota of forces demanded by the general govern- 
ment. He would, however, express the hoi>e that she will not stop even here, 
but, like many of her loyal sister states, continue to offer to the nation com- 
pany after company of the best and bravest of her sons, until this unholy and 
unjust rebellion is completely subdued. 



20 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1861 

General Orders, No. 24, of Nov. 5, 1861, announced the fol- 
lowing officers for the Fourth Regiment : Colonel, John B. 
Sanborn of Ramsey county; lieutenant colonel. Minor T. 
Thomas of Washington county; major, Lieut. A. Edwards 
Welch of Goodhue count}-. All of these officers were com- 
missioned on this date. As Lieutenant Welch was wounded 
at the battle of Bull Run, captured and held a prisoner by the 
enemy, he could not muster in. Adjutant General Sanborn 
tendered his resignation as adjutant general, to take eftect on 
or before Jan. 1, 1862. 

The following instructions were issued by Adjutant General 
Sanborn under date of Nov. 29, 1861 : 

To the Oommmioned Officers of the Minnesota Volunteers, 

Gentlemen: It is deemed proper to annoQDce, for the benefit of aU con- 
cerned, the principles governing the state antborities in organizing new regi- 
ments and in making promotions after regiments have been fnUj organized. 
It is of the ntmost importance in a volanteer service like the present to secure 
and continae the snpport of all parties and every section of the state, as pablic 
feeling and sentiment and the pablic interests are at a time like the present 
closely united. Hence the locality of men to be appointed, the service ren- 
dered in raising volunteers, etc., most be taken into consideration, and wiU 
have great weight in all cases, except when parties can be found of military 
education, experience and capacity, who are willing to enter the service and 
take command. In organizing new regiments, all appointments, whether con- 
ferred upon citizens of the state, or upon men in the rank and file of older 
regiments, are appointments de noro, and are not promotions in a military 
sense, but are made upon the principles above indicated. And it is desired 
that these appointments should not be looked upon in the light of promotions. 
It is considered that a promotion is a transfer of an officer of one rank to the 
office of another rank of higher grade already in existence. But in making ap- 
pointments for new regiments, the appointment and commission create the 
office. So when appointments and commissions for a new regiment are con- 
ferred upon officers of the older regiments, it is not to be understood or inferred 
that it is done by promotion or on account of extraordinarily meritorious con- 
duct, but because, in view of all the circumstances and considerations that 
should enter into the determination of the matter, and especially the locality 
of the appointee, such appointment is deemed to be the best for the service 
and the country. The foUowing rule of promotion will be applied in filling 
aU vacancies occurring in regiments after they are once fully organized and 
have passed beyond the immediate control of the state government. 

Promotions to field offices will be made regimen tally; to line offices by 
companies. Each regiment and each company will for this purpose be consid- 
ered a sei>arate military organization, and not a part of the Minnesota army 
nor a part of a corps de armee; and no promotions will be made from one regi- 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEERS. 21 

ment to another, nor from one company to another. The above rnle will be 
adhered to in all cases, unless the commanding officer of the regiment shall 
represent that the party entitled to be promoted under the rnle is incompetent 
for the position vacated. In adopting this rule we are conscious that it does 
not conform to the rules of the regular army of the United States. But yon 
will see there is a wide difference between the volunteer and the regular ser- 
vice. In the regular service men are enlisted from various sections of the coun- 
try, with no acquaintance and with no attachment for each other, and the men 
enlist as privates, with little if any hope of promotion, and are usually a differ- 
ent clas« of men, with aspirations and ambitions far inferior to those who en- 
list in the volunteer service. Many of these are among the most respectable of 
our citizens, and whole companies generally come from the same neighborhood 
or county, feeling often as if they were members of the same family, and 
claiming, as it now seems to us, rightly, that whatever office, honor or emolu- 
ment falls to any one company should be conferred upon that alone, and not be 
transferred to others no more meritorious. The enlisted men of each company 
qualified for the position of commissioned officers, of whom there are many in 
our regiments, are, as it seems to us, entitled to chances of promotion the same 
and to the same extent as the commissioned officers. 

This opportunity the men of each company could not have if promotions 
were by the rule of the regular army. There would seem to be little justice 
in a rule that, when a company by extraordinary exposure and valor on the field 
of battle should lose one, two or three of its officers, would supply their places 
with men from another company less exposed. The same reasoning would ap- 
ply with greater force to regiments. For the above reasons, with many others, 
the rule above stated seems to us at present to be the most equitable and just 
toward all the officers and men of our volunteer service. But we have no such 
pride of opinion in regard to this matter as will induce us to adhere to the rule 
for a single moment after it shall be made to appear to work inequitably, or 
the reason for it ceases to exist, or any other or better rule be adopted by other 
8tat€« or the federal government and brought to our attention. 

'* Enlist in My Company!" 

Recruiting men for the various companiea of these regiments 
Boon began, and the tricks, palaver and "soft soap" of the politi- 
cal candidate, who asks the voter about the health of his family 
and distant relatives, were soon manifested, and the misrepre- 
sentations, lies and impositions that were practiced by some of 
those who were working for recruits, in order that they might 
become officers in some of the companies, would cause Ananias, 
the patron saint of liars, to blush for shame. "Enlist in 
my company and I will make you orderly sergeant or sergeant 
or corporal, musician or company clerk!" The latter was 
thoQght to be a very valuable office, and some of the men were 



22 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1861 

informed that the salary attached to it was about equal to that 
of a captain ; whereas, the clerk was a detailed man from the 
ranks and only received his usual pay. Haifa dozen men, per- 
haps, would be promised the same office, and after they were 
sworn in and they discovered the impositions and chicanery 
that had been practiced upon them, it was fatal to the character 
of many of those officers for truth. But they seemed to care 
nothing for that. They had got in; donned their shoulder- 
straps, " old cheese knives," and were ready to be respected 
and obeyed accordingly. Our victims soon discovered that 
they were not, as soldiers, controlled by a republican form of 
government, but by martial law, and that little errors or indis- 
cretions that would not be noticed in civil life were, according 
to military law, punished with the most severe penalties, and 
the code of punishment in the army regulations which pre- 
scribed among its penalties " shall suffer death or such other 
punishment as shall be inflicted by the sentence of a court 
martial," occurred with alarming frequency. 



EARLY HISTORY OF COMPANY A. 

BY T. M. YOUNG AND GEO. E. SLY. 

In the summer of 1861 there was organized at Belle Plaine, 
Scott county, a company of militia called the Scott Guards, of 
which R. B. Young was elected captain. This company, on 
Sept. 26, 1861, united with the Carver Grays, of which L. L. 
Baxter was captain, in order to get into the Fourth Regiment 
as Company A. It was the agreement that L. L. Baxter 
should be the captain and R. B. Young the first lieutenant 
of the new company. 

Soon after muster, the company was, with Company B, 
ordered to Fort Ridgely, Minn., to relieve two companies of 
the Second Minnesota Infantry on duty at that post. On 
arrival at Ridgely the men were at once put on duty, and almost 
constantly drilled when off of duty, in order to make them as 
efficient as possible before the extreme cold weather set in, 
when drilling outside the barracks would be impossi ble. Company 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 23 

A was drilled while here in the bayonet exercise by;Sergeant 
Hansen, who had previously served in the Danish Army, and 
an equal number of men from Companies A and B were drilled 
in artillery practice by Ordnance Sergt. John Jones. 

Clothing was supplied in about three weeks after their 
arrival at the fort, and it was sadly needed before it was 
obtained. 

During the winter Lieutenant Young made a trip toMadelia, 
and Lieutenant Johnson with fortv men to the Lower Sioux 
Agency, to quiet some disturbance on the part of the Indians, 
who were at that time at those places in large numbers. On 
March 17, 1862, orders were received to report at Fort Snell- 
ing preparatory to going to the front. The command left 
Kidgely, March 18, 1862, and arrived at Fort Snelling the 
twenty-second, the time being remarkably short considering the 
condition of the roads,which were badly drifted with snow. Our 
baggage was hauled on sleighs, which frequently overturned. 

The time spent at Snelling was about evenly divided. Lieu- 
tenant Young says, between drill and cursing the cooks, who 
bad charge of the rations, purchased by the contractor, who 
boarded the soldiers at a stipulated price per day. 



HISTORY OF COMPANY B. 

BY A. L. BROWN. 

This company was organized at Qlencoe, McLeod county, 
Sept. 26, 1861. James C. Edson started its organization. 
Several who were members assisted in getting recruits for it. 
The majority of its members were from this county. The 
southern part of Meeker county furnished several, and some 
were recruited at Fort Snelling. The rendezvous for the com- 
pany was at the old Bates House in Qlencoe, where it 
remained one night and the next morning started for Fort 
Snelling, William Ensign of Hutchinson and Charles W. Ap- 
plin of Qlencoe going along with their teams to haul some of 
the men as far as Carver, where the company remained all 
night. In the evening several patriotic speeches were made, 
two of which we remember, those of Judge Warner and Peter 



24 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1861 

Geoghegan, aud the next day we departed on a steamboat for 
the fort. On arriving at Snelling we found recruiting officers 
busily at work filling up a company of sharpshooters for the 
Potomac arm3% and the Second Minnesota Infantry, all full and 
ready to move to the front, and the Third Regiment of Infantry 
well on its way toward completing its full strength. A good 
deal of persuasion was used by man^^ of the officers of the 
Third upon our men to get them to forsake the " Home 
Guards," as they termed the Fourth Regiment, and join their 
ranks and go South with them, where, they said, we could 
see service; but we doubt if any of the men in our regiment 
succumbed to their influence. The company' passed its medi- 
cal examination standing in line, while Dr. J. H. Stewart of 
St. Paul, the medical examiner, passed along its front and 
looked at the men, who, with open palms, stood before him. 
When he came to William Amies, an old gentleman, he asked 
him to show his teeth, and desired to know if he could bite oflT 
a cartridge. " Put your finger between my teeth," said Uncle 
Billy, "and see." 

It was mustered in on Oct. 2, 1864. Companies A and B 
proceeded together to Fort Ridgely, and remained there doing 
garrison duty until March 18, 1862, when they left that post 
for Fort Snelling, preparatory to their movement South with 
the balance of the regiment. Soon after our arrival at Ridgely 
Ordnance Sergt. John Jones drilled the officers in the manual 
of arms and company formations and movements, and gave 
them and their clerks much valuable information in their 
duties, and very soon after everything was moving harmoni- 
ously. Capt. L. L. Baxter was post commander; Second Lieut. 
Charles Johnson, post adjutant; Frank S. De Mers, adjutant's 
dark and sergeant major; Peter Weego, quartermaster's clerk; 
Fred E. Du Toit, quartermaster sergeant; Ephraim Tipton, 
bugler; L. B. Klingensmith and Cal. P. Smith, bakers, all of 
Company A; and of Company B, First Lieut. R. A. Judd, 
post quartermaster; J. A. Godiug, commissary sergeant; A. 
L. Brown, commissary abstract clerk; Rev. Joshua Sweet, 
post chaplain, and John Jones, ordnance sergeant, both of the 
regular army; contract surgeon, Alfred MuUer; Indian inter- 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEERS. 25 

preter, Peter Quinn; sutler, B. F. Randall. Sweet, Jones, 
Quinu and Randall all had their families at the post. Mrs. 
Price of Henderson, wife of Sergeant Price of Company — , 
Second Minnesota Infantry, remained with her children at the 
post after the companies of the Second Regiment had left, and 
was hospital matron. Captains Baxter and Edson and Lieut. 
R. B. Young had their families at the fort, as did also the fol- 
lowing named enlisted men of Company A: L. B. Klingen- 
smith, George W. Smith, Peter Weego, M. P. Clark; and of 
Company B, the families of Wm. W. Getchell, C. G. Mickel, 
C. B. Fenn, F. W. Beedle, J.N. Bradford, C. G. Topping, Geo. 
N. Gilson and M. McCann. A part of the Second Minnesota 
Infantry had garrisoned the fort previous to our arrival. S. P. 
Jennison, second lieutenant of Company D, with two or 
three men remained behind to turn over the public stores, and 
for several evenings entertained us with vocal music on the 
parade ground, where crowds would gather for that purpose, and 
among the songs, **01d Shady " was a great favorite. Our boys 
seemed very particular in regard to the quality of their rations, 
and some rusty salt pork that we drew at Fort Snelling and 
brought with us to Ridgely did not meet with favor. The beef, 
too, was poor and tough. One day a funeral guard was formed, 
and with reversed arms, fife and drum, and a police cart con- 
taining a sample of the meat, the band playing the dead 
march, proceeded to the centre of the parade ground near the 
flag-staff for the purpose of having a funeral. While these 
proceedings were in progress the beef contractor stood in the 
door of the commissary of subsistence building, looking on, 
and expressed his opinion in vigorous language as he " ham- 
mered down the adjectives." Sergeant Hansen of Company 
A commanded the funeral cortege. Baxter came out before 
the ceremonies were completed, delivered a short extempora- 
neous address, and then dismissed the parade. These proceed- 
ings greatly improved the quality of the beef afterward 
issued. 

As butter was sadly needed to help out the army bill of fare, 
Quartermaster Judd made a requisition on the state authorities 
for two thousand pounds. Gen. J. B. Sanborn approved of 



26 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1861 

the requisition and furnished us with the butter, which was de- 
livered at different times by Burbank's teams. Just how the 
state and the general government settled for that butter we 
have never been informed. Outside of the regular routine of 
camp and garrison duty, but very little of interest occurred dur- 
ing the winter. On New Year's Captain Edson gave his com- 
pany a dinner, prepared under the supervision of his excellent 
wife, who was a lady endowed with rare social qualities and 
whose kindnessand pleasant greetings to all while we remained 
at the fort will always be remembered by the members of 
Company B. In the evening the men of both companies gave 
a grand ball in the large room occupied by Company B as a 
sleeping apartment. Ladies were present from Qlencoe, New 
Ulm and other places. The decorations of the ballroom were 
elaborate with flags and evergreens. The chandeliers were 
made of bayonets tastefully arranged in groups, prod-end 
down, and holding sperm candles. 

Bishop H. B. Whipple of the Episcopal Church visited the 
fort during our sojourn there and preached to the garrison. 

During the winter details from the companies were em- 
ployed in cutting the necessary yearly supply of cord wood and 
filling the icehouse. 

A great source of amusement during the evenings was ** Stag 
Dances." Fred E. Du Toit of Company A generally acted as 
master of ceremonies. For a change, and to get away from the 
fort, the boys would occasionally run the guards and go down 
to Mills', about three miles away, and get supper; or, just be- 
yond, perhaps a half mile, to Jake's, who, though Small by 
name kept a large house and a brewery. 

On Christmas Eve eight or nine went to Mills', and being 
disappointed about getting supper, went over to Small's and 
some of them drank a little beer, while others fed some of it 
to Jacob's shoes that sat in one corner of the room. Finally the 
company started back to the fort facing a pretty stiff northwest 
wind. On returning to the fort, they discovered that the offi- 
cers had been having a check roll call in their absence, going 
around to the beds of all and noting the absentees; that 
when the}' came to the door of the quartermaster's office the 



1861] MIHBJS80TA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 27 

loud pounding and yelling seemed to have no effect on the 
sticks of cord wood that three of the boys who slept there had 
covered up with the bed clothes. We quote the following ac- 
count of that escapade and the subsequent proceedings which 
interested them some more, from the pen of Dr. T. M. Young, 
which was published in a newspaper: 

"The holidays of 1861 came upon us long before we were 
ready. The quarters were cold, and, in some respects, comfort- 
less. Warmed by great, square stoves of wrought iron, and 
during the long winter eveningsdimlylighted by tallow caudles, 
the only mode of illumination Uncle Sam seemed to know any- 
thing about in those days. 

" We had been for days trying to evolve some plan by which 
we could bring into our soldier life some of the enjoyments to 
which we had been accustomed. 

"Finally, Frank D suggested a Christmas supper for a 

select few at Mills', an isolated hostelry about three miles from 
the fort. 

"The next thing was to get permission to go out at night. 

Frank was deputed to see Captain B , the commandant, 

and obtain it. 

" In a little while Frank returned, with an expression on his 
countenance which plainly told us his errand had been fruit- 
less. A hurried consultation developed the fact that we must 
have that supper, and would run the guards to get it. 

"Accordingly we sent word that we would be on hand for it, 
and at the appointed time, one by one, we slipped past the 
guards, met at a previously arranged rendezvous, and took up 
the line of march for Mills', where we arrived, tired, cold and 
hungry, only to find that the lady who was to prepare our feast 
was seriously ill, and that the supper was an impossibility. 
Nine more forlorn or disgusted soldiers could hardly at that 
time have been found in as many states. We had to make the 
best of it. A few regaled themselves with cigars and a glass of 
beer, the rest told what they would have if at home. We sat 
around the tire for an hour and then started back to the fort, 
and in due course of time arrived, to find that check roll had 
been called at midnight, and nine were missing, who were or- 



28 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1861 

dered to report to the officer of the day for fatigue duty the 
next day, Christmas, at 1 p. M. 

"Four of the nine had invitations, previously given, to dine 
with officers, each of which had been accepted, which, of course, 
added to the dileraraa, for it almost broke a soldier's heart to 
be compelled to forego a good dinner. 

" Promptl}^ at 1 p. m. the sergeants, Charlie Sherwin of Com- 
pany A (who afterward fell at Vicksburg), and Dammou of 
Company B, ordered us out, but the difficulties only began 
when they undertook to find us. 

*' The writer was nervously partaking of a sumptuous dinner 
at the quarters of one of the company commanders, the family 
being in blissful ignorance of the fact that one of the runawa\^8 
was with them. The rattle of a musket on the stone step was 
the signal for a hasty "Please excuse me!" and an unceremoni- 
ous bolting out of the back door, and ne, of course, was not 
found there, but was found in his quarters innocently writing 
a letter home. The others were collected after being the cause 
of considerable wrath on the part of the sergeant. 

" We were supplied with rakes, forks and a hand cart, and di- 
rected to remove a quantity of straw which had been left just 
outside the fort by the previous garrison. The tools were prop- 
erly distributed, and we were ordered forward. On arrival at 
the straw pile the cart was loaded and the writer and Frank 

D ordered to dump it over into a neighboring ravine. 

We drew it to the place turned it over and let go, leisurely 
returning to the scene of action and quietly taking our places 
in the crowd which had collected to see the fun. 

'* Charlie waited a while and then called us. We stepped out, 
and he asked the whereabouts of the cart. We answered, ' We 
dumped it.' 

"'Where is it?' 

"'Don't know; didn't look to see where it went.' 

*'He said something about 'fools,' and told us to go and 
find it. 

"We went back to the top of the hill, looked down, saw it, 
and went back and reported that we had found it. 

"'Where is it?' was demanded by the irate sergeant. 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 29 

"* At the foot of the hill,' we answered. 

"*Go and bring it,' he hissed between his teeth. 

" We went back, found it locked between two trees, and re- 
turning reported that we could not draw it through between 
the trees; of course we did not know enough to back it out. 

''Sergeant Charlie then sent Fred DuT with us to get the 

cart, and with his assistance we hoisted it up until it passed be- 
tween the trees, and drew it wearily to the top of the hill, where 
Fred slyly took out the linch-pins, and we started on the run 
for work. The wheels came oft* and were left by the way, but 
the cart went to the straw pile. 

" Charlie's wrath on seeing us was frightful; for the moment 
he was speechless, then he hoarsely demanded where those 
wheels were. As they had not stopped when we passed them 
we did not know, and so were sent after them instanter. 

"Frank D went back and innocently asked if he wanted 

us to roll or carry them, and intimated that three men could 
not manage two wheels without help. 

" By this time the whole garrison was out and all the windows 
overlooking the scene were occupied by the ladies, while the 
boys who were not working were almost splitting their sides 
laughing at the screaming farce. Meanwhile the work went 
on. 

" Charlie ordered the wheels put on. 

" They were turned wrong side to the cart and driven on with 
a stick of cord wood. 

"He stopped that and placed them on properly-, telling us to 
load the cart again while he got some new linch-pi?is, which 
Frank supplied by breaking oft' the tines of the fork he was 
using. 

" When the cart was loaded another crew was directed to take 
it to the hiU and dump it and, as the vehicle had not been 
turned, they started for a hill in the direction they faced, and 
which was half a mile distant. They had gone but a few feet 
when they were ordered to halt and turn that cart; which order 
was complied with by turning the cart upside down and drop- 
ping the load. There were some more remarks about 'fools,' 
and atter much delay it was gotten into the proper i)lace, re- 



30 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1861 

loaded, and sept by the hands of trusty men, who had not been 
tried, to be dumped where the first was, and with the same re- 
sult. 

" The officer of the day here interposed, telling the sergeant 
that he did not think we understood hauling straw, for we had 
worked faithfully for two hours and had only succeeded in 
getting two loads over the hill, had broken the cart, lost the 
linch-pins, broken two forks and one rake, and that, in his 
opinion, we had better pile up two cords of wood which had 
been dropped on the street, and had to be moved about twenty 
feet. 

** We were accordingly marched to where the wood was and 
each soldier was ordered to take up a stick. This had to be 
done by military commands as we could not understand any- 
thing else. 

"The result was, that when the word ' Forward!' was given, 
every man dropped his wood and stepped out briskly; we were 
halted, faced about, took up the wood, put it on our shoulders, 
and at the word 'About Face !' every stick of wood save one — 
and it had no one to strike — struck the man next on the left, 
every stick was dropped and every man, save the one on the 
right was rubbing his bruised head. 

" This was repeated with variations until an hour had passed, 
bv which time the maddest man in the United States was our 
esteemed sergeant. Every order had been obeyed to the letter, 
and yet that wood had not been moved three feet ; the straw, 
with the exception of two loads, was where it was when we 
began, only it was more scattered; several dollars damage had 
been done, the greatest circus ever enacted in the state was 
over, the sun was setting, and Christmas was voted a success. 

" Some of the survivors of the above escapade are Capt. A. L. 
Brown, Brownton, Minnesota; Sherilf F. E. Du Toit, Chaska, 
Carver county, Minnesota; Capt. Frank De Mars, Fisher, 
Polk county, Minnesota; Dr. T. M. Young, Seattle, Wash., 
and several others." 



HISTORY OF COMPANY C. 

Lieut. J. H. Thurston says the nucleus of Company C was 
a militia company formed during the summer of 1861 for the 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 31 

purpose, if may be, of guardino^ persons and property at home. 
The militia company provided themselves with a partial 
uniform and a martial band, the state furnishing them with 
arms. R. S. Donaldson was captain, J. H. Donaldson first 
lieutenant, and Paschal M. Dyar second lieutenant. No list of 
the names has been preserved, but with few exceptions they 
all joined Company C. 

Lakeville, Minn., SepL 23, 1861. 
Pursuant to previous notice, the citizens of Lakeville and 
adjoining towns met at the schoolhouse in District No. 3 
(Vermillion schoolhouse) in this town for the purpose of form- 
ing a military company to be mustered into the Fourth Min- 
nesota Infantry. The meeting was called to order by R. S. 
Donaldson, who briefly stated the object of the meeting. R. 
S. Donaldson was chosen chairman and H. N. Hosmer secre- 
tary. A muster roll was then started, upon which forty-seven 
names were enrolled. The following oflScers were then 
chosen: Captain, R. S. Donaldson; first lieutenant, J. H. 
Donaldson; second lieutenant, Leverett R. Wellman. The 
roll was then called to see how many were ready to proceed 
to Fort Snelling the next morning to be mustered in and 
forty-two answered "Ready!" The following resolutions were 
then adopted: First, that we meet at Farmington and Lake- 
ville (old villages) to-morrow at 8 a. m. and proceed to Rose- 
mount, and, uniting there, proceed together to Fort Snelling. 
Second, that the oflicers-elect furnish the transportation to 
the fort. The meeting gave three rousing cheers for their 
officers and adjourned. When the two parties met at Rose- 
mount next morning forty-five responded to their names, and 
on the next day thirty-eight of them were mustered into the 
United States service. It was not until the twenty-sixth that 
the requisite number, forty, were mustered in, and the company 
was designated as C in the regiment. The company remained at 
Fort Snelling until October 9th, recrniting and drilling, when 
it left for Fort Ripley, where it remained until during the 
latter part of March, 1862, when it moved to Fort Snelling. 
At Fort Ripley, Capt. R. S. Donaldson was post commander ; 
Lieut. J. II. Donaldson, post acting assistant quartermaster and 



32 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1861 

commissary of subsistence; J. H. Thurston, acting quarter- 
master sergeant; W. S. Longstreet, acting commissary ser- 
geant and clerk. There was also stationed at the fort Chap- 
lain Gear and Ordnance Sergeant Frantzkee of the regular 
army, and Dr. Wing (?), contract surgeon, and Spencer, sutler. 
Captain Donaldson, Lieutenant Donaldson, Sergt. S. C. 
Thurston, Corporal Chewning and Privates Brown, Easta- 
brooks, Holman and J. H. Thurston had their families 
at the fort during the winter. On Dec. 9, 1861, a party 
started for Leech lake, where payment was made to the 
Indians. The party consisted of Lieutenant Wellman, 
First Sergeant Dyar, Sergeant Thurston, Corporals Wat- 
son, Phillips and Dilley, and Privates O. B. Bailey, M. A. 
Bailey, Cloud, E. H. Davis, Fish, Goyette, Hale, Huntington, 
Putnam, Robinson, Rich, Woessner and Wilkins. The 
weather was extremely cold and the party suffered severely. 
Sergeant Thurston froze one ear while he was warming the 
other, and several had their toes frozen while in bed. Their 
tents were set up shed-shape with the front open like a 
Yankee tin oven, with a large fire built in front. They ar- 
rived at the fort on their return, Jan. 19, 1862. Quite a party 
of us (including the wives of some that went) went to the 
Lower Chippewa Agency near Crow Wing. We found the 
Indians a dirty, shiftless set. Their tents were made of mat- 
ting, birch bark or old blankets wrapped around poles set 
slanting and tied together at the top, with a hole left for the 
smoke to escape through. Some only had pine boughs for 
shelter. The camp was filthy beyond description. We 
arrived just as the funeral obsequies of a squaw had been 
concluded (she was drowned, while drunk, in the Gull river). 
Private William Kent sang the funeral dirge, "Away Down 
South in Dixie," which was exceedingly gratifying to the 
relatives of the deceased. The mother sat bj^ the side of the 
grave howling most hideously. On Christmas night, 1861, 
the boys had one of the large dining rooms at the fort deco- 
rated with flags, evergreens and pictures, and after enjoying a 
good supper finished the night with a djinee. Over thirty 
ladies were present, quite a number of them being from Crow 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 33 

Wing and Little Falls. Bishop Whipple held service once 
and performed the rite of confirmation, John H. Thurston 
receiving the same. One night the quarters were on fire, but 
by the exertions of our men it was soon under control. After 
spending the winter very pleasantly, the company went to 
Fort Snelling in the latter part of March. 

[The militia company here spoken of was Company D, 
Thirteenth Regiment, Fifth Brigade, Third Division; captain, 
R. S. Donaldson; first lieutenant, P. M. Dyar; second lieuten- 
ant, L. R. Wellman; third lieutenant, John Houts; and forty- 
eight privates, organized July 13, 1861. — Ed.] 



HISTORY OF COMPANY D. 

BY CAPT. F. v. DE COSTER. 

Oct. 1, 1861, forty-seven privates of Company D from dif- 
ferent parts of the state assembled at St. Cloud and were 
quartered in different houses, slept on the floor and drilled 
daily with a few old muskets until the seventh, when the 
company started for Fort Snelling to be mustered in. The 
company returned to St. Cloud, where we remained until the 
eighteenth, drilling daily; then started on the road for Fort 
Abercrombie, N. D. The first day we marched twenty-five 
miles; the nineteenth, twenty miles, and camped near Sauk 
river. Sunday, the twentieth, marched eight miles, a little 
more than a Sabbath day's journey, and camped at Melbourne, 
a city consisting of two log houses. Monday, the twentj'-first, 
rained all day , but we marched twenty-five miles and still patriotic. 
Twenty-second, marched eighteen miles over the meanest 
kind of a road, through the woods. Twenty-third, marched 
eighteen miles ; very disagreeable day. Twenty-fourth, marched 
thirty-two miles and camped near the Otter Tail river. Twenty- 
fifth, marched twenty-eight miles and camped at Breckenridge, a 
city of one house five stories high. Saturday, the twenty- 
sixth, marched fourteen miles and arrived at the fort at 1:00 p. m., 
where, with Company Q, with Captain Lueg commanding, after 
they arrived, we held the fort for the winter. Company G 

8 



34 HISTOEY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1861 

arrived on December 9th, at which time government clothing 
was issued to us. By this time we were pretty ragged and cold. 
The winter was a very severe one and the mercury way down 
in the sixties. But we drilled every day, no matter what the 
state of the weather was, and on Sundays had inspection and 
dress parade. We fell into line with our guns and accouter- 
ments in perfect order, and our buttons, hat ornaments and 
shoulder scales bright and shining. By the way, the greater 
part of those shoulder scales were thrown into the Tennessee 
river, when on our way to real war. After dress parade we 
were invited into the barracks, where Captain Inman (who was 
a minister)ipreached to us of a much hotter climate than we 
were then enjoying. Although the winter was severe and the 
discipline'quite rigid, we had some good and jolly times, as well 
as some novel and stirring ones. We had a debating and 
speaking school. One night there was to be a dance atBreck- 
enridge and fourteen of our boys went. It was on a bitter 
cold night and it was a leap-year party, but there was only one 
girl there and all of the boys wanted to dance with her. 

The beef issued to us was terribly poor and tough and the 
boys made many a complaint about it, but still the poor beef 
was issued ; so one day a part of Company G, commanded by 
a one-eyed sergeant, tied a long rope to a quarter of it and 
dragged it across the parade ground, they pawing and bellow- 
ing, and followed by a squad with reversed arms. They dragged 
it outside the grounds, buried it, and then fired a volley 
over the grave. Very soon the long roll was beaten and the 
men all fell into line, when Captain Inman appeared, with 
drawn sword, and gave the men a regular raking down — 
talked about mutiny and insubordination and the conse- 
quences, and just as he finished some fellow cried out: " Captain, 
you did not say anything about the bull-beef." The only 
answer was, " Right face ! Break ranks ! March ! " 

As winter passed we began to fear the war would end 
before we saw any fighting, but when we got near Corinth and 
heard the big guns, we began to be afraid that we would 
see some, and we did. We leflt Fort Abercrombie in March 
in covered government sleighs,and the snow in places (through 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEES. 35 

ravines) twenty feet deep, which was getting soft. The mules 
would sink in to their bodies, and occasionally go in all over, 
and we would have to unharness them, get them on their 
sides and pull them over, and also pull over the sleighs by 
hand. Many of our men became snow-blind and were badly 
disabled, but when we got to St. Cloud the snow was gone. 
We marched from there to Fort Snelling. Before entering 
Minneapolis our knapsacks were taken from the wagons and 
strapped upon our backs and we carried them to the fort. 
While crossing the suspension bridge we were ordered to break 
step, for fear of breaking down the noble structure, and we 
with it be carried over the raging falls. 

[Company A — Twentieth Regiment, Seventh Brigade, Fourth 
Division, Frontier Rifle Guards, Stearns county. Captain, 
Thomas E. Inman; first lieutenant, Benjamin F. Butler; 
second lieutenant, Solomon F. Brown. Sixty-one privates. 
Organized June 22, 1861. — Gmeral Sanborn's Report, This 
militia company was the nucleus of Company D. — Ed.] 



HISTORY OF COMPANY E. 

BY LIEUT. ROBERT WINEGAR. 

The following brief statement, written by Lieutenant Wine- 
gar, is all that we have been able to learn of the early history 
of this company, except the information contained in the ros- 
ter of the regiment : 

" We made our headquarters at Ottawa, Le Sueur county. 
I raised some of the men in this place and some in Le Sueur 
and Cleveland, and some in Nicollet and Sibley counties. 
When I had forty-seven or forty-eight I got teams and took 
them down to Fort Snelling. After we had been to the fort 
a few days Captain Le Qro came up from Owatonna with 
twelve or fourteen men and wanted to join our company. As 
Le Gro had been in the Mexican War we gave him the cap- 
taincy, and I was elected first lieutenant. When we were here 
we called our company ' The Sharpshooters,' and we drilled 



36 HIBTOBT OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1861 

three times a week. I do not know where Le Gro is, and 
have not heard from him for twenty years. 

"R WiNEGAR, 

Ottawa^ Le Sueur County. 
" Ja?i. 30, 1888." 



HISTORY OF COMPANY F. 

BY CAPT. ASA W. WHITE. 

Capt. Asa W. White of Albert Lea has kindly furnished 
us with the following brief sketch of the early history and or- 
ganization of this company: 

"The company was recruited principally in Freeborn 
county, under call for the first three hundred thousand. Un- 
der instructions from Adjt. Gen. J. B. Sanborn, I commenced 
enrolling in August, 1861. Left Albert Lea October 8th with 
sixty men in teams for Fort Snelling; arrived there on the 
eleventh, and on that day enrolled eighty-eight men in the 
service as one of the incomplete companies of the Third Regi- 
ment; was afterward assigned to the Fourth, having failed to 
recruit up to the minimum number in time to be mustered be- 
fore the Third was full. My commission was dated Oct. 31, 
1861. We left Fort Snelling in detachments one day apart. 
Five companies, with headquarters and the band, were on our 
boat, the Hawkeye State, and we were on the last boat that 
left Fort Snelling for the South. Color Guard Corporal Perry 
H. Jewett of Company F was assigned to the color guard at 
its organization at Fort Snelling, and carried the state colors until 
the battle of luka, in September, 1862, when he was relieved. 
Sergt. Henry R. Loomis carried the national colors after the 
death of Sergeant Colter at Memphis, until the twenty-second 
of May, 1863. Company Fwas the color company at that time 
and on the day of the assault he acted in that capacity. Cor- 
poral Metzler of Company H carried the state flag; they were 
both wounded as we lay in front of the enemy's fort — Metzler 
a scalp wound; Loomis, shot through the lungs (is still a sufferer 
from the wound and lives near Albert Lea). Under directions of 
Colonel Tourtellotte I placed the color guard. The regiment 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 37 

then formed on it to the ri^ht and left — the color guard 
on the left of Company F. Lieutenant Wheeler was on staff 
duty with the division commanders a great part of the time 
during his service." 



HISTORY OF COMPANY G. 

BY LIEUT. GEORGE HANSEN. 

" St. Cloud, Minn., July 25, 1888. 
"About two-thirds of Company G was raised by Captain 
Lueg and Lieutenant St. Cyr. When we came to Fort Snell- 
ing in the fall of 1861, Lieut. D. M. G. Murphy joined the 
company with a number of men he had raised, and then the 
company was organized. Companies G and D went to Fort 
Abercrombie. Fifty men of Company G, with Lieutenant St. 
Cyrin charge, remained with Company D at Fort Abercrombie. 
In March, 1862, we joined the regiment again at Fort Snell- 
ing. I think Captain Inman of Company D commanded at 
Abercrombie. 

"Very truly,yours in fraternity, charity and loyalty. 

** George Hansen." 

The foregoing is all that we have been able to obtain of the 
history of Company G, except the following from Adjutant 
General Sanborn's report, which refers to Company G : *' One 
company marched to Fort Abercrombie, after the snow fell, a 
distance of three hundred miles, through a country sparsely in- 
habited, with the thermometer below zero a considerable por- 
tion of the time, and at sixteen degrees below some of the 
time, and camped all the time when not on the march." 



HISTORY OF COMPANY H. 

BT CAPT. GEORGE A. CLARKE. 

Company H was raised at Mankato and St. Peter, being re- 
cruited in Blue Earth and Nicollet counties by John E. Tour- 
tellotte, George A. Clarke and Gibson S. Patch, in August and 
September, 1861. It was originally intended to be a part of 



38 HI8TOEY OF THE FOUETH REGIMENT [1861 

the Third Regiment, but more companies being recruited than 
would fill the Third, we were put into the Fourth much against 
our will; it being understood that the Third was to go South, 
and the Fourth to garrison home forts. The first squad was 
mustered in at Fort Snelling on Sept. 26 and 30, 1861, and uu- 
assigned until the muster in of the regiment, December 20th. 
The first squad enrolled September 26th and 30th as Valley 
Sharpshooters. When the company left St. Peter it had eighty 
men ; when it arrived at Fort Snelling it had about sixty ; but 
when it mustered it had forty-four, who were the only ones 
who proved true; afterward the balance were enlisted up to 
the full number. The company was stationed at Fort Snell- 
ing, doing guard duty and drilling with Companies E, F,Iand 
K, until April 20, 1862, when we embarked on the steamboat 
Hawkeye State for St. Louis, Mo. 

General Tourtellotte wrote us under a recent date as follows : 
"When in Winona, Minn., on a visit a few years since, a 
man, formerly of Company E, came to see me. When he left 
me he told Judge Wilson I said, 'With a thousand men like 
him I could wipe out hell.' Well, I must correct his state- 
ment somewhat, but I probably did, and now do say, that with 
a thousand such men as could be picked from that regiment 
as much could be done as with any thousand men in the world. 
It was a quiet, modest, trusty, brave, splendid regiment, and I 
am proud to have my name connected with it. When my com- 
pany was transferred from the Third to the Fourth Minnesota 
at Fort Snelling, I thought I had been disgraced, as it was 
thought the Fourth would never go South, but that transfer 
was good fortune both to my company and to myself. The 
historian ought to know such things, although I know he can- 
not use them." The historian concluded to copy the letter and 
take his chances. 

HISTORY OF COMPANY I. 

We are indebted to Capt. Henry Piatt for the following 
brief sketch of Company I. 

About June, 1861, there was formed at Warsaw, Rice county, 
a militia company by the name of Warsaw Rifles, with the 



1861] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 39 

following oflBlcers, viz.: Captain, John H. Parker; first lieuten- 
ant, T. G. Tallman; second lieutenant, Henry Piatt. Said com- 
pany then belonged to the Eighth Regiment, Second Brigade, 
First Division, Minnesota Militia, was armed and equipped by 
the state, drilled every Saturday and kept constantly in readi- 
ness as there was fear of Indian troubles. At the call by the 
President and Governor for more troops to crush the wicked 
rebellion, a great many men of the militia company responded 
to their country's call, and enrolled themselves in the Fourth 
Regiment, Oct. 14, 1861, with one commissioned officer, First 
Lieut. Henry Piatt, at Fort Snelling, whose commission dates 
Dec. 23, 1861. John H. Parker was commissioned as captain 
and Ed. Foster as second lieutenant, and the company be- 
came Company I and was the left color company. The first 
color bearer of the regiment was Sergt. Johnson Colter of my 
company, who was drowned at Memphis, Tenn. 

[Company A — Eighth Regiment, Second Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, Warsaw Rifles, Rice county. Captain, J. H. Parker; first 
lieutenant, T. G. Tallman; second lieutenant, Henry Piatt; third 
lieutenant, G. W.Frink. Fifty-three privates. Organized July 6, 
1861. — General Sanborn's Report. — Ed.] 



fflSTORY OF COMPANY K 

BY CAPTAIN I. N. MERRILL. 

The nucleus of Company K was raised in and about Otranto, 
near to the state line of Minnesota and Iowa, in Mower county, 
which wasat that time the residence of Robert P. Mooers, who 
was engaged in business there. Mr. W. E. Spencer, at LeRoy, 
same county, was also engaged in raising recruits for the same 
company; also at Austin, Minn., others were joining. We 
finally organized together under the name of the Mower 
County Quards,andarrivedatFortSnellingOctober, 1861. The 
Fourth Minnesota Regiment was filled except the last company. 
We found on our arrival a part of a company, which had 
been raised in and about St. Paul, through the efiTorts of L. B. 



40 HISTORY OF THE FOUETH REGIMENT [1862 

Martin and George Sherbrooke, a lawyer (who was afterward 
shot at the assault of Vicksburg); so the two parts of companies 
consolidated, Mooers from Mower county as captain, L. B. 
Martin from St. Paul as first lieutenant, W. E. Spence as sec- 
ond lieutenant. Mooers waited for a time until the men be- 
came acquainted, when he proposed that the non-commissioned 
officers should be elected by ballot instead of his appointing them. 
When the regiment got orders to go South W. E. Spencer re- 
signed in favor of I. X. Morrill, who had been elected by bal- 
lot to the office of orderly sergeant. In reference to Captain 
Mooers, and no more than is due to his memory in behalf of 
Company K, will say he was a gentleman, a true patriot, and a 
truer, braver man than he never went from home to defend his 
country. His death was regretted and deeply mourned by the 
company. Captain Mooers was shot and instantly killed at the 
engagement at Corinth, on Oct. 3, 1862. L. B. Martin at that 
time being on detached service the command of Company 
K devolved upon I. N. Morrill, who commanded it until the 
date of his muster out of service, on Dec. 22, 1864, at Savan- 
nah, Qa. In regard to Company K, I would say that they were 
well organized, well drilled, and as well disposed and brave a com- 
pany as, I believe, existed in the regiment. Their relations to 
their officers and to each other were of the most friendly na- 
ture, and the feeling has, I believe, been strengthened as it has 
been cherished by each member. Brave in battle, all they 
needed was plenty of cartridges and hardtack, and they would 
wade through whatever was before them. 

[All of the companies of this regiment were mustered into 
the United States service b}^ Capt. D. Anderson Nelson, Tenth 
United States Infantry, who was the United States mustering 
officer stationed at Fort Snelling, which was the rendezvous 
and headquarters for recruiting and other military purposes 
in Minnesota. — Ed.] 

Off for the South. 

On March 18, 1862, Adjt. Gen. O. Malmros, in General 
Orders, No. 1, ordered the Fourth Regiment to proceed to St. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEBS. 41 

Louis, Mo. But as navigation on the river had not yet opened, 
he, on March 19th, issued General Orders, No. 2, which 
directed a delay of the movement until navigation was opened. 
Orders were sent at once to the commanders of the troop at 
the frontier posts, and they were directed to proceed to Fort 
Snelling. 

An infantry regiment in line of battle consists of two lines or 
ranks of men standing thirteen inches apart, the captain of each 
company standing in the front rank on the right of his company. 
The first sergeant, or orderly sergeant as he is commonly called, 
stands behind the captain. The corporals stand in the front rank, 
on the right and left of platoons. The other sergeants and the 
lieutenants stand two paces in the rear of the rear rank and are 
called tile closers. The lieutenant colonel and major stand twelve 
paces in rear of these and the colonel thirty -five paces. The 
color guard is composed of eight corporals and is posted on the 
left of the right centre company, of which company for the time 
being, it forms a part. The color sergeant, or color bearer, 
stands in the front rank with a corporal on each side of him. 
The other six corporals stand behind in two ranks, the last 
rank in line with the file closers. 

In our formation of infantry regiments we had ten compa- 
nies, numbered and lettered from one to ten, as follows: A, B, 
C, D, E, F, G, H, I and K. These companies were divided 
into two classes, senior and junior. The captains of Compa- 
nies A, B, C, DandE were senior and of F, Q, H, I and K 
junior captains. In forming a line of battle the ten companies 
were placed from right to left, according to the rank of captains 
as follows : The senior captain (A) on the extreme right and with 
him the first junior (F) on his left; the second senior (B) on the 
extreme left with the second junior (G) on his right; the third 
8enior(C) on the right centre, with the third junior (H) on his 
left; the nexttwo (D and I) on the left of 0, and E and K on 
the left of H. The line as thus formed would be A 1, F 6 — 
D 4, 1 9— C 3, colors, H 8— E 5, K 10 — G 7, B 2. In form- 
ing a column by division (two companies abreast), each senior 
captain would command a division. The position of the com- 
panied change in the line as the rank of the officers command- 



42 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

ing them change. Thus at the battle of luka with B as the 
ranking company, our line was from right to left B 1, G 6 — 
E 4, K 9— D 3, colors, I 8 — right wing; F 5, A 10— H 7, C 
2 — left wing. And as Captains Le Gro and Edson acted as 
field officers in that battle, it made Captain Inman of Com- 
pany D the ranking captain in the right wing. 

April 20th — Sunday, — To-day six companies of the regiment, 
B, G, E, K, D right wing, and I, left Fort Snelling on the 
steamboat Sucker State for St. Louis, Mo. The boat stopped 
a short time at St. Paul. The people lined the bluffs, the 
ladies waved their handkerchiefs and the men cheered as the 
boat swung down the river, the band playing " The Girl I Left 
Behind Me." 

We have a splendid band, and often during our service their 
music revived our spirits and gave us courage to push on over 
dusty roads on long marches when just ready to drop down 
and give up. 

April 21st — Monday. — The remainder of the regiment — Com- 
panies F, A, H and C, with headquarters, and Capt. William 
A. Hotchkiss, Second Minnesota Battery of Light Artillery — 
embarked on the steamboat Hawkeye State and left Fort 
Snelling for the same destination. On arriving at St. Paul, 
Colonel Sanborn debarked his command at the foot of Chest- 
nut street, and, marching through the city to the levee, it took 
the same boat and proceeded on its journey. 

In the evening of this day the Sucker State landed at Du- 
buque, Iowa, and Lieutenant Colonel Thomas, debarking his 
six companies, marched them to Julien street, the principal 
business street of the city, and had dress parade. Embarking 
again we proceeded on the same boat. Tuesday, the twenty- 
second, the command was landed at the rapids above Daven- 
port, to lighten the boat so that it could pass over in the 
morning, and marching past the bridge and through Daven- 
port we entered a park on a hill within the city limits and had 
battalion drill. 

While marching along the streets many women were seen 
who were weeping. On arriving at Montrose, at the head of 
the rapids above Keokuk, the regiment was transported 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 43 

around them on the cars and embarked again on the same 
boats. Arrived at St. Louis on Wednesday, at 10:00 p. m. 
On the twenty-fourth, at 10:00 a. m., we marched out to Benton 
Barracks. The right wing was landed at St. Louis on the 
twenty-fifth and joined the balance of the regiment at Benton 
Barracks. 

A-pril 30th — Wednesday, — Mustered forpay, and stood in line 
from 9:00 a. m. until twelve o'clock. The grounds at the bar- 
racks include the fair grounds and are four miles from the city of 
St. Louis. The residence of Hon. Tom Benton stands near 
them. 



CHAPTER n. 

At Benton Barracks, St. Louis — Drawing Mules and also Steel Vests — Leaving 
to Join Halleck's Army Before Corinth — On the Roe — The Last Specie 
Payment to Us — Testing the Steel Vest — At Fort Henry; Its Exploded 
Cannon — Debark at Paris Landing — March to Paris — Foot Passengers 
Plant Their Steel Vests on Rail Fences—'' Sum Sun ''— '' Took a Bite and 
Drummed Into Line'' — Ride On the Gladiator and Break It Down— At 
Hamburgh Landing — " Bye-Bye Shoulder-Scales '' — Join Halleck's Army — 
Roster of Our Division — March to Farmington and Borrow the Town — 
Operations Before Corinth — Piling Up the Earth — Rosecrans Takes Com- 
mand — Schuyler Hamilton — Rebel Bass Drums; Cheering; Explosion; 
Smoke; Evacuation and a Foot Race — We are After Them — Early History 
of Our Division — A Glance at Our Army Events After Shiloh — How the 
Rebels Managed Evacuation — Newspaper Correspondents ''Made to Git" 
—Two Battery Boys "In a Fix"— Texas Cleavera. 

Benton Barracks. 

We quote from a letter written home : " These barracks are 
just outside of the city limits of St. Louis. They were built under 
orders of General Fremont, and are three-fourths of a mile long 
and are capable of accommodating twenty thousand men. There 
are at present (April 28, 1862) about four thousand here, mostly 
Wisconsin cavalry and the Seventeenth Iowa Infantry. Those 
Wisconsin boys say that our regiment is the best drilled one 
that they ever saw. We had preaching last Sunday by our 
chaplain and we also have a prayer on the color line every even- 
ing at dress parade. Col. Benj. L. E. Bonneville of the regular 
army commands at the barracks. We are now getting ready 
for our departure South, and Quartermaster Hunt has just drawn 
one hundred and twenty mules and wagons sufficient for the 
transportation. The grass is large enough for feed and the trees 
are in bloom. There are a few negroes at this camp who 
work for the United States and receive pay." The paper upon 
which this letter was written is embellished with a large picture 
of the barracks, giving a view from the southeast with the 
headquarters. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEEES. 46 

We had a sutler at the barracks, and to keep up with the 
times he had steel vests for sale. These coats of armor consisted 
of two thin plates (one-sixteenth of an inch thick) bent to fit 
the chest, and slipped into an ordinary vest inside the lining on 
each side. They could be taken out by unbuttoning the bot- 
tom of the vest, and when worn protected in a measure a 
portion of the vitals. The price of these ironclads was 
from seven dollars and fifty cents to twenty dollars, 
according to the quality of the material and make-up 
of the vest. The boys practiced daily on the plates with 
revolvers, and many pronounced them an excellent safe- 
guard. The man reaped a rich harvest at the barracks, and 
when our regiment left on the steamboat accompanied it to 
Cairo. On the way down the river a member of our regi- 
ment, who placed but little reliance on them as a means of safety, 
being urged by the sutler to purchase, agreed that if he was 
allowed to test one in a satisfactory manner with a minie-ball 
fired from a Springfield musket and it stood the test, that he 
would purchase one, and also recommend the other men of the 
regiment to do so. They accordingly set up an inch board at the 
back end of the hurricane roof, against which was placed a sack 
of oats, and one of the vest plates was fitted against the sack. 
The person then took a Springfield rifie belonging to Oscar 
Crandall, one of Colonel Sanborn's orderlies (the colonel's or- 
derlies had the only Springfields in the regiment at that time), 
and the ball went through the plate, bag of oats and board, and 
skipped up the river out of sight, to the great amusement of all 
of the crowd except the owner of the bomb proofs. This ex- 
periment stopped the sale of the "ironclads." 

May 2d — Friday. — We left Benton Barracks, and marching 
through St. Louis embarked on the steamboat John J. Roe. 
There are thirty steamboats at the levee. The Continental 
is a large boat and lays alongside of the Roe. The paymaster 
came on board our boat and paid us two months' wages in gold 
and silver. This was the last specie payment that we received 
during our term of service. A good many of our men allotted 
a portion of their wages, to be in future paid to their relatives 
at home. The Seventeenth Iowa Infantry are embarking on 



46 * HISTOEY OF THE FOUETH EEOIMENT [1862 

another boat. We left the landing at sundown, and proceeded 
on our journey to join the army under General Halleck before 
Corinth, Miss. 

On the John J. Roe, and atterward on the Gladiator, we 
had all of our transportation, ambulances, oflBlcers' horses, sup- 
plies of all kinds and the whole regiment of one thousand 
men. We mention this so that the reader can form a proper 
idea of the capacity of a lower-river boat. 

May 6th — Tuesday, — Arrived at noon at Fort Henry, on the 
Tennessee river. A great many of the men, being disgusted 
with the stiii' army regulation hats, threw them away and wore 
their forage caps. They found out afterward that they had 
made a great mistake, and that the hat was the best thing that 
they could wear as a protection against the weather. 

We stopped here at Fort Henry four hours, and all who de- 
sired went ashore and visited the fort. Two months ago the 
water stood six feet deep over this fort, which is an earthwork 
on low ground with piles driven between it and the river. 
We found several of the cannons had burst in the fight with 
the gunboats at the time of its capture, and many of the piles 
had been cut oti' by shot. Why we remained so long at this 
place was, that Colonel Lowe could dispatch to General 
Halleck and get a reply. We went on up the river eight 
miles and stopped at Paris Landing. Lieutenant Morrill and 
fifty men were left at the landing as guards and to unload our 
camp equipage. Debarked at midnight; marched five miles 
under a hot sun and camped. Were joined by five compa- 
nies of cavalry (Curtis' Horse) and two pieces of artillery. 
None of our teams went except the ambulance. Many of 
our officers and men who invested in steel vests found it 
killing work to carry them, and hung them on the rail fences. 
Col. W. W. Lowe of the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, or Curtis' Horse 
as it was commonly called, was in command at Forts Henry 
and Heiman. On the day before our arrival Major Shaeflier, 
with about one hundred and thirty men of that command, had 
been attacked at Dresden, not far from Paris, and pretty badly 
cut to pieces by a force of 1,250 cavalry, under the command 
of Col. Thomas Claiborne. On the sixth Colonel Lowe sent a 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 47 

request to General Halleek to know if he could keep the 
Fourth Minnesota to assist him, and not receiving any answer, 
took the responsibility of detaining our regiment. 

May 7th — Wednesday. — Up at four o'clock. Took a bite and 
were drummed into line, feeling mighty stiff*. Marched hard 
all day — fifteen miles — and camped within three miles of Paris, 
Tenn., where were said to be stationed two thousand two 
hundred rebels. We slept on our arms, expecting an attack. 
The water along the road was very poor; the day was terribly 
hot, and many of our men fell out from exhaustion. 

May 8th — Thursday. — Up at 4:00 a. m. Eat our hardtack and 
meat. Marched to another road and started for the landing. 
Marched fifteen miles and formed an ambuscade at night, for 
the rebels to fall into. Our wagons joined us; a clear day. 

May 9th — Friday. — Started early. Marched five miles and 
camped at 2:00 p.m. on the bank of the Tennessee river, near 
Paris Landing, Henry county, Tennessee. 

May 10th — Saturday. — In camp. [Population, 1880, Paris 
Landing, 100.] 

May 11th — Sunday. — Had inspection. Marched to a grove and 
attended divine service. The men grumbled a good deal about 
being forced to attend. A good many boats are passing up 
and down the river. 

May 12th — Monday. — Camp drill from four to six. Batallion 
drill from eight to ten and four to six, and then dress parade; 
then Company D was sent out on picket about a mile away, 
but at ten o'clock were called in and ordered to pack up and 
strike tents, and we left on the steamboat Gladiator at 2:00 a. m. 

May 13th — Tuesday. — We passed Pittsburgh Landing at 
twelve o'clock. The steamboats Glendale and Silver Moon 
have steam calliopes, which play the tunes "Dixie" and "The 
Girl I Left Behind Me." This boat is not as large as the Roe, 
and our quarters are more cramped. Just after the boat touched 
the shore at Brown's Landing, Tenn., the men on both decks 
crowded forward and both decks broke down in front of the cab- 
in, and about fifteen men were injured. Fully fifty men were 
precipitated to the lower deck, which w^as crowded with their 
comrades. Captain White of Company F says: "I remember 



48 HI8T0BY OF THE FOURTH REOIMENT [1862 

very well her breaking down, I was officer of the day that 
day, and in the Texas at the time, and told the pilot it was his 
fault in running on the bank so hard, and that if anyone was 
killed he would suffer for it." Mr. George Sly says: "I was 
sleeping on some cracker boxes on the cabin deck, and woke 
up down on the gang plank, the men crying *Look out for 
the bell.' I ran to the side of the boiler. Several men were 
wounded and one man was pushed 'overboard." That man was 
Anthony Capser of Company G, and in trying to save his gtin 
from getting wet by holding it up, he was drowned. Lieut 
D. M. G. Murphy of Company G informs us that he was on 
duty at the time, in charge of the guards; that Capser was sta- 
• tioned at his post on guard duty and was pushed overboard. 
As soon as the boat approached the bank the writer ran down 
the plank, jumped ashore, and stood on the bank looking at it 
when it broke down. 

May 14,th — Wednesday. — Arrived at Hamburgh Landing, 
Tenn., early in the morning. A great many of the men threw 
away overcoats, scales and all unnecessary clothing before dis- 
embarking. We marched two miles and camped on the road 
to Farmington at Childer's Hill. Weather clear and hot. Com- 
pany C boxed their surplus clothing, scales, etc., and sent them 
home in their company mess chest to Mr. Thurston's at Lake- 
ville, where their friends got them. The old chest remained 
there for several years. Company B and several of the others 
piled up their brass shoulder scales on the ground at this camp 
ij and left them. At dress parade the band played ** Home, Sweet 

Home," and it is safe to say that there were not many dry eyes 
in the regiment. There are said to be thirty-five thousand 
sick soldiers at this place. [Population, 1880, Hamburgh, 
121.] 

May loth — Thursday, — Up at 1 a. m., and started early to the 
army before Corinth, and joined the First Brigade, Third Di- 
vision, Army of the Mississippi. The Third Division, April 
80th,was commandedby Brig. Gen. Schuyler Hamilton,and con- 
sisted of two brigades. We copy the returns as follows: 

First Brigade, Brig. Gen. N. B. Baford^s, consisting of Fifty-ninth Indiana, 
Col. Jesse I. Alexander; Fijfth Iowa, Col. W. H. Worthington; Tenth Iowa, 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 49 

Col. N. Perc2sel; Twenty-sixth Missouri, Col. G. B. Boomer; Eleventh Ohio 
Battery, Capt. F. C. Sands; Second Brigade, no commander assigned; Forty- 
eighth Indiana, Col. Norman Eddy; Eightieth Ohio. (10, 2, 147.) 

May 16ih — Friday. — Our pickets to-day drove in the rebel 
pickets, and toward night our division made an advance. 

May 18th — Sunday, — Marched to Farmington, and intrenched 
a camp one mile east of the town. The boys needed lumber 
for their tents, floors, etc., and made short work of the build- 
ings, which were vacant; there were onl}' a few of them. Hot. 
On the night of the twenty-firstjColonelWorthington of the Fifth 
Iowa was shot dead through mistake by the grand guard he was 
visiting. He was highly respected by all who knew him, and 
a very able and efficient officer. General Pope has built a 
lookout about ninety feet high in front of his camp, and says 
that he can see from the top of it into Corinth, and note every 
movement of consequence. Colonel Sanborn is in command 
of the first demi-brigade of the first brigade of our division. 

May '24^th — Saturday. — The Fifth Minnesota Infantry joined 
the army and was assigned to Stanley's division. Lieutenant 
Colonel Thomas is in command of our regiment. 

May 28th — Wednesday, — We advanced with the rest of the 
army one mile and intrenched. Hot. Some skirmishing 
and cannonading. Put brush in front of our line to conceal it. 
Quite an engagement began on the right of our line that ex- 
tended all along the line, and Lieut. David 0. Oakes of Company 
F,Fifth Minnesota, was killed. Stanley'sdivision, the Second, was 
advanced to the white house on Bidge creek, and faced a large 
earthwork of the enemy erected south of the Memphis & 
Charleston railroad. General Rosecrans joined the army to- 
day, and as he was riding with his staif near the edge of a 
piece of timber by the side of an open field, and not far from 
our regiment, his horse was wounded by a shot from the 
enemy. 

May 29th — Thursday, — On this day Brig. Gen. Schuyler 
Hamilton was assigned to command the left wing of the army, 
and Brig. Gen. Wm. S. Rosecrans the right wing. Trains of 
cars were running out of and into Corinth all night long 
last night. We laid near our intrenchments all day to-day. 

4 



50 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

The firing was mostly by artillery. At night our regiment 
went on picket. 

May SOth — Friday, — "We could see a heavy smoke this 
morning at daylight in the direction of Corinth, and 
last night when we were on picket could hear the 
cars running into and out of Corinth. We could 
also plainly hear bass drums beating as if troops were 
on the march and could also hear troops cheering. At 
daybreak two deserters came to our regiment and told us the 
rebs. had evacuated Corinth. At 4 p. m. we marched to the 
east of Corinth and crossing the Memphis & Charleston rail- 
road stopped four miles south of town by the side of the road ; 
found lots of home-made swords, knives, etc., in abandoned 
rebel camps. Very hot. Troops were passing all night. Lieut. 
T. B. Hunt, our regimental quartermaster, went into Corinth 
this morning with General William Nelson and his aid-de- 
camp and on his return to camp brought back several home- 
made Texas cleavers. They were large knives, about afoot 
long, having hilts, and made apparently from old files. Many 
of the enemy were armed with these, expecting, doubtless, that 
they would be a valuable weapon with which to mince Yankees. 
Wagon loads of them could have been gathered up at Corinth 
and in the abandoned camps of the enemy. 



The Early History of Our Division. 

Brig. Gen. Schuyler Hamilton, firom Feb. 28 to March 31, 1862, was in oom- 
mand of the Second (oar) Division, Army of the Mississippi, which was organized 
at this time, and consisted of two brigades. First Brigade, commanded 
by Col. W. H. Wortbington, Fijflh Iowa and Fifty-ninth Indiana; Second 
Brigade, commanded by Gol. K. Perczel, Tenth Iowa and Twenty-sixth 
Missonri; The only battery in the division at that time was the Eleventh 
Ohio, Capt. F. C. Sands. This division took an active part in the operations 
against Island No. 10 and New Madrid. About March 17, 1862, General 
Hamilton suggested to General Pope the propriety of cutting a canal to reach 
the river below Island No. 10. The country was carefully examined by Col. J. 
W. Bissell and the project pronounced practicable, and it was cut under his 
supervision by his engineer regiment of the West, — the First Missouri, — other 
details assisting. The canal was twelve miles long, six of them being cut 
through heavy timber. It was fifty feet wide, and the trees were sawed off four 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 51 

feet below the surface of the water. The work was begnn on the twenty- 
secoiid and completed on the thirty-first of March, and on April 6, 1862, four 
transports passed through it (8, 1, 650-671) to New Madrid, which was evaca- 
ated by the enemy March 14th, and also on the same date occupied by the 
Second Division (ours). On April 7th the division embarked on thf" transports, 
crossed the Mississippi river and landed about three miles below New Madrid, 
on the Kentucky shore, and then marched four miles toward Tiptonville. At 
dftwn of the eighth the division pushed forward about ten miles to Tiptonville, 
and learned at noon of the evacuation of Island No. 10, and at 2 p. M. of the 
surrender of the forces, and it was detailed to guard the prisoners. On April 
10th it returned to New Madrid. April 12th the division embarked on trans- 
ports and proceeded toward Fort Pillow, and reached a point five miles above 
it on April 13th. Reconnaissances were made on the Arkansas shore on the 
fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth, where orders were received to embark 
and proceed to Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. 

On April 15th Oeneral Halleck telegraphed to Pope: *^ Move with your 
army to this place, leaving troops enough with Commodore Foote to land and 
hold Fort Pillow, should the enemy's forces withdraw.'' On receipt of this 
order General Pope's army embarked on their transports for Pittsburgh Landing, 
where they arrived on the twenty-second of April. 

General Pope in his report states that in the capture of Island No. 10 and 
its forces he did not have a man killed, and that the total casualties in the 
whole army in the operations against No. 10 and New Madrid, from February 
28th to the fourteenth of March, would foot up only thirty- two, and of which 
the Second Division (ours) lost six. (8, 1, 91.) 

The army was reorganized by General Pope on April 24th, in General 
Orders. No. 38, and the Second Division was designated as the Third Division, 
Army of the Misdasippi, and commanded by Brig. Gen. Schuyler Hamilton. 
The First Brigade, to be commanded by Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Plummer, 
Twenty-sixth Illinois, Eighth Wisconsin, Forty -seventh Illinois, Eleventh Mis- 
souri and Nelson T. Spoor's Second Iowa Battery of Artillery. Second 
Brigade, Brig. Gen. Napoleon B. Buford, Fifth Iowa, Fifty-ninth Indiana, 
Tenth Iowa, Twenty-sixth Missouri and Sands' Ohio Battery. (10, 2, 121.) On 
May 29th Gen. Schuyler Hamilton was assigned to the command of the left 
wing of the army, and Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Plummer to the command of 
Hamilton's division. (10, 2, 224.) 

It seems to us that no unprejudiced person can read the reports and corre- 
spondence of General Halleck without being convinced of his greatness as a 
military commander. The extreme caution he displayed after the battle of Shiloh 
would have prevented him from beinga very successful general in active field opera- 
tion, but there is some excuse for that. One of the greatest battles of the war 
had just been fought, and the Union army had met with fearful losses, which 
might have been avoided in a great measure if Halleck 's instructions had been 
followed. He had sent a sufficient amount of intrenching tools, and supposed 
that the army at Shiloh had an intrenched camp, but his instructions were dis- 
regarded and the tools were not used; but as an organizer and director of great 
•vents he will stand out boldly in history as a great character. 



CHAPTER n. 

At Benton Barracks, St. Lonis — Drawing Males and also Steel Vests — Leaving 
to Join Halleck's Armj Before Ck>riiith — On the Roe — The Last Specie 
Payment to Us — Testing the Steel Vest — At Fort Henry; Its Exploded 
Cannon — Debark at Paris Landing — March to Paris — Foot Passengers 
Plant Their Steel Vests on Rail Fences—'* Sam Snn "— ** Took a Bite and 
Drammed Into Line" — Ride On the Oladiator and Break It Down— At 
Hambargh Landing — "Bye-Bye Shoalder-Scales'' — Join Halleck's Army — 
Roster of Our Division — March to Farmington and Borrow the Town — 
Operations Before Corinth — Piling Up the Earth — Rosecrans Takes Com- 
mand — Schnyler Hamilton — Rebel Bass Drams; Cheering; Explosion; 
Smoke; Evacnation and a Foot Race — We are After Them — Early History 
of Oar Division — A Olanoe at Oar Army Events After Shiloh — How the 
Rebels Managed Evacaation — Newspaper Correspondents "Made to Git" 
—Two Battery Boys "In a Fix"— Texas Cleavers. 

Benton Barracks. 

We quote from a letter written home : " These barracks are 
just outside of the city limits of St. Louis. They were built under 
orders of General Fremont, and are three-fourths of a mile long 
and are capable of accommodating twenty thousand men. There 
are at present (April 28, 1862) about four thousand here, mostly 
Wisconsin cavalry and the Seventeenth Iowa Infantry. Those 
Wisconsin boys say that our regiment is the best drilled one 
that they ever saw. We had preaching last Sunday by our 
chaplain and we also have a prayer on the color line every even- 
ing at dress parade. Col. Benj. L. E. Bonneville of the regular 
army commands at the barracks. We are now getting ready 
for our departure South, and Quartermaster Hunt has just drawn 
one hundred and twenty mules and wagons suflScient for the 
transportation. The grass is large enough for feed and the trees 
are in bloom. There are a few negroes at this camp who 
work for the United States and receive pay." The paper upon 
which this letter was written is embellished with a large picture 
of the barracks, giving a view from the southeast with the 
headquarters. 




OiUBOK E. ULr. Com PI It 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEES. 45 

We had a sutler at the barracks, and to keep up with the 
times he had steel vests for sale. These coats of armor consisted 
of two thin plates (one-sixteenth of an inch thick) bent to fit 
the chest, and slipped into an ordinary vest inside the lining on 
each side. They could be taken out by unbuttoning the bot- 
tom of the vest, and when worn protected in a measure a 
portion of the vitals. The price of these ironclads was 
from seven dollars and fifty cents to twenty dollars, 
according to the quality of the material and make-up 
of the vest. The boys practiced daily on the plates with 
revolvers, and many pronounced them an excellent safe- 
guard. The man reaped a rich harvest at the barracks, and 
when our regiment left on the steamboat accompanied it to 
Cairo. On the way down the river a member of our regi- 
ment, who placed but little reliance on them as a means of safety, 
being urged by the sutler to purchase, agreed that if he was 
allowed to test one in a satisfactory manner with a minie-ball 
fired from a Springfield musket and it stood the test, that he 
would purchase one, and also recommend the other men of the 
regiment to do so. They accordingly set up an inch board at the 
back end of the hurricane roof, against which was placed a sack 
of oats, and one of the vest plates was fitted against the sack. 
The person then took a Springfield rifle belonging to Oscar 
Crandall, one of Colonel Sanborn's orderlies (the colonel's or- 
derlies had the only Springfields in the regiment at that time), 
and the ball went through the plate, bag of oats and board, and 
skipped up the river out of sight, to the great amusement of all 
of the crowd except the owner of the bomb proofs. This ex- 
periment stopped the sale of the ** ironclads." 

May 2d — Friday. — We left Benton Barracks, and marching 
through St. Louis embarked on the steamboat John J. Roe. 
There are thirty steamboats at the levee. The Continental 
is a large boat and lays alongside of the Roe. The paymaster 
came on board our boat and paid us two months' wages in gold 
and silver. This was the last specie payment that we received 
during our term of service. A good many of our men allotted 
a portion of their wages, to be in future paid to their relatives 
at home. The Seventeenth Iowa Infantry are embarking on 



46 ' HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

another boat. We left the landing at sundown, and proceeded 
on our journey to join the army under General Halleck before 
Corinth, Miss. 

On the John J. Roe, and afterward on the Gladiator, we 
had all of our transportation, ambulances, officers' horses, sup- 
plies of all kinds and the whole regiment of one thousand 
men. We mention this so that the reader can form a proper 
idea of the capacity of a lower-river boat. 

May 6th — Tuesday, — Arrived at noon at Fort Henry, on the 
Tennessee river. A great many of the men, being disgusted 
with the stiff army regulation hats, threw them away and wore 
their forage caps. They found out afterward that they had 
made a great mistake, and that the hat was the best thing that 
they could wear as a protection against the weather. 

We stopped here at Fort Henry four hours, and all who de- 
sired went ashore and visited the fort. Two months ago the 
water stood six feet deep over this fort, which is an earthwork 
on low ground with piles driven between it and the river. 
We found several of the cannons had burst in the fight with 
the gunboats at the time of its capture, and many of the piles 
had been cut off by shot. Why we remained so long at this 
place was, that Colonel Lowe could dispatch to General 
Halleck and get a reply. We went on up the river eight 
miles and stopped at Paris Landing. Lieutenant Morrill and 
fifty men were left at the landing as guards and to unload our 
camp equipage. Debarked at midnight; marched five miles 
under a hot sun and camped. Were joined by five compa- 
nies of cavalry (Curtis' Horse) and two pieces of artillery. 
None of our teams went except the ambulance. Many of 
our officers and men who invested in steel vests found it 
killing work to carry them, and hung them on the rail fences. 
Col. W. W. Lowe of the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, or Curtis' Horse 
as it was commonly called, was in command at Forts Henry 
and Heiman. On the day before our arrival Major Shaeffer, 
with about one hundred and thirty men of that command, had 
been attacked at Dresden, not far from Paris, and pretty badly 
cut to pieces by a force of 1,250 cavalry, under the command 
of Col. Thomas Claiborne. On the sixth Colonel Lowe sent a 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 47 

request to General Halleck to know if he could keep the 
Fourth Minnesota to assist him, and not receiving any answer, 
took the responsibility of detaining our regiment. 

May 7th — Wednesday, — Up at four o'clock. Took a bite and 
were drummed into line, feeling mighty stiff. Marched hard 
all day — fifteen miles — and camped within three miles of Paris, 
Tenn., where were said to be stationed two thousand two 
hundred rebels. We slept on our arms, expecting an attack. 
The water along the road was very poor; the day was terribly 
hot, and many of our men fell out from exhaustion. 

May 8ih — Thursday, — Up at 4:00 a. m. Eat our hardtack and 
meat. Marched to another road and started for the landing. 
Marched fifteen miles and formed an ambuscade at night, for 
the rebels to fall into. Our wagons joined us; a clear day. 

May 9th — Friday, — Started early. Marched five miles and 
camped at 2:00 p.m. on the bank of the Tennessee river, near 
Paris Landing, Henry county, Tennessee. 

May 10th — Saturday. — In camp. [Population, 1880, Paris 
Landing, 100.] 

May 11th — Sunday. — Had inspection. Marched to a grove and 
attended divine service. The men grumbled a good deal about 
being forced to attend. A good many boats are passing up 
and down the river. 

May 12th — Monday, — Camp drill from four to six. Batallion 
drill from eight to ten and four to six, and then dress parade; 
then Company D was sent out on picket about a mile away, 
but at ten o'clock were called in and ordered to pack up and 
strike tents, and we left on the steamboat Gladiator at 2:00 a. m. 

May 13th — Tuesday, — We passed Pittsburgh Landing at 
twelve o'clock. The steamboats Glendale and Silver Moon 
have steam calliopes, which play the tunes "Dixie" and "The 
Girl I Left Behind Me." This boat is not as large as the Roe, 
and our quarters are more cramped. Just after the boat touched 
the shore at Brown's Landing, Tenn., the men on both decks 
crowded forward and both decks broke down in front of the cab- 
in, and about fifteen men were injured. Fully fifty men were 
precipitated to the lower deck, which was crowded with their 
comrades. Captain White of Company F says: "I remember 



48 HISTOBY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1862 

very well her breaking down, I was officer of the day that 
day, and in the Texas at the time, and told the pilot it was his 
fault in running on the bank so hard, and that if anyone was 
killed he would suffer for it." Mr. George Sly says: "I was 
sleeping on some cracker boxes on the cabin deck, and woke 
up down on the gang plank, the men crying 'Look out for 
the bell.' I ran to the side of the boiler. Several men were 
wounded and one man was pushed [overboard." That man was 
Anthony Capser of Company G, and in trying to save his giin 
from getting wet by holding it up, he was drowned. Lieut 
D. M. G. Murphy of Company G informs us that he was on 
duty at the time, in charge of the guards; that Capser was sta- 
tioned at his post on guard duty and was pushed overboard. 
As soon as the boat approached the bank the writer ran down 
the plank, jumped ashore, and stood on the bank looking at it 
when it broke down. 

May nth — Wednesday. — Arrived at Hamburgh Landing, 
Tenn., early in the morning. A great many of the men threw 
away overcoats, scales and all unnecessary clothing before dis- 
embarking. We marched two miles and camped on the road 
to Farmington at Childer's Hill. Weather clear and hot. Com- 
pany C boxed their surplus clothing, scales, etc., and sent them 
home in their company mess chest to Mr. Thurston's at Lake- 
ville, where their friends got them. The old chest remained 
there for several years. Company B and several of the others 
piled up their brass shoulder scales on the ground at this camp 
and left them. At dress parade the band plH3'ed *' Home, Sweet 
Home," and it is safe to say that there were not many dry eyes 
in the regiment. There are said to be thirty-five thousand 
sick soldiers at this place. [Population, 1880, Hamburgh, 
12L] 

May loth — Thursday, — Up at 1 a. m., and started early to the 
army before Corinth, and joined the First Brigade, Third Di- 
vision, Array of the Mississippi. The Third Division, April 
80th,was commandedby Brig. Gen. Schuyler Hamilton,aud con- 
sisted of two brigades. We copy the returns as follows: 

First Brigade, Brig. Gen. N. B. Baford^s, consisting of Fifty-ninth Indiana, 
CoL Jesse I. Alexander; Fifth Iowa, Col. W. H. Worthington; Tenth Iowa, 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 49 

Col. N. Perc2sel; Twenty-sixth Missoari, Col. G. B. Boomer; Eleventh Ohio 
Battery, Capt. F. C. Sands; Second Brigade, no commander assigned; Forty- 
eighth Indiana, Col. Norman Eddy; Eightieth Ohio. (10, 2, 147.) 

May 16ih — Friday.^Oxxv pickets to-day drove in the rebel 
pickets, and toward night our division made an advance. 

May 18th — Sunday, — Marched to Farraington, and intrenched 
a camp one mile east of the town. The boys needed lumber 
for their tents, floors, etc., and made short work of the build- 
ings, which were vacant; there were only a few of them. Hot. 
On the night of the twenty-first,Colonel Worthington of the Fifth 
Iowa was shot dead through mistake by the grand guard he was 
visiting. He was highly respected by all who knew him, and 
a very able and eflicient officer. General Pope has built a 
lookout about ninety feet high in front of his camp, and says 
that he can see from the top of it into Corinth, and note every 
movement of consequence. Colonel Sanborn is in command 
of the first demi-brigade of the first brigade of our division. 

May 2iih — Saturday, — The Fifth Minnesota Infantry joined 
the army and was assigned to Stanley's division. Lieutenant 
Colonel Thomas is in command of our regiment. 

May 28th — Wednesday. — We advanced with the rest of the 
army one mile and intrenched. Hot. Some skirmishing 
and cannonading. Put brush in front of our line to conceal it. 
Quite an engagement began on the right of our line that ex- 
tended all along the line, and Lieut. David 0. Oakes of Company 
F,Fifth Minnesota, was killed. Stanley's division, the Second, was 
advanced to the white house on Bidge creek, and faced a large 
earthwork of the enemy erected south of the Memphis & 
Charleston railroad. General Rosecrans joined the army to- 
day, and as he was riding with his staff near the edge of a 
piece of timber by the side of an open field, and not far from 
our regiment, his horse was wounded by a shot from the 
enemy. 

May 29th — Thursday. — On this day Brig. Gen. Schuyler 
Hamilton was assigned to command the left wing of the army, 
and Brig. Gen. Wm. S. Rosecrans the right wing. Trains of 
cars were running out of and into Corinth all night long 
last night. We laid near our intrenchments all day to-day. 

4 



50 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

The firing was moetly by artillery. At night our regiment 
went on picket. 

May SOih — Friday. — "We could see a heavy smoke this 
morning at daylight in the direction of Corinth, and 
last night when we were on picket could hear the 
cars running into and out of Corinth. We could 
also plainly hear bass drums beating as if troops were 
on the march and could also hear troops cheering. At 
daybreak two deserters came to our regiment and told us the 
rebs. had evacuated Corinth. At 4 p. m. we marched to the 
east of Corinth and crossing the Memphis & Charleston rail- 
road stopped four miles south of town by the side of the road; 
found lots of home-made swords, knives, etc., in abandoned 
rebel camps. Very hot. Troops were passing all night. Lieut. 
T. B. Hunt, our regimental quartermaster, went into Corinth 
this morning with General William Nelson and his aid-de- 
camp and on his return to camp brought back several home- 
made Texas cleavers. They were large knives, about afoot 
long, having hilts, and made apparently from old files. Many 
of the enemy were armed with these, expecting, doubtless, that 
they would be a valuable weapon with which to mince Yankees. 
Wagon loads of them could have been gathered up at Corinth 
and in the abandoned camps of the enemy. 



The Early History of Our Dh^isiok. 

Brig. Gen. Schuyler Hamilton, firom Feb. 28 to March 31, 1862, was in com- 
mand of the Second (oar) Diyision, Army of the Mississippi, which was organized 
at this time, and consisted of two brigades. First Brigade, commanded 
by Ck>l. W. H. Worthington, Fifth Iowa and Fifty-ninth Indiana; Second 
Brigade, commanded by €k>l. K. Perczel, Tenth Iowa and Twenty-sixth 
Missouri; The only battery in the division at that time was the Eleventh 
Ohio, Capt. F. C. Sands. This division took an active part in the operations 
against Island No. 10 and New Madrid. About March 17, 1862, General 
Hamilton suggested to General Pope the propriety of cutting a canal to i-each 
the river below Island No. 10. The country was carefuUy examined by Col. J. 
W. Bissell and the project pronounced practicable, and it was cut under his 
supervision by his engineer regiment of the West, — the First Missouri, — other 
details assisting. The canal was twelve miles long, six of them being cut 
through heavy timber. It was fifty feet wide, and the trees were sawed off four 



1862] MINNB80TA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEKS. 51 

feet below the sorface of the water. The work was begnn on the twenty- 
secoiid and completed on the thirty-first of March, and on April 6, 1862, foor 
transports passed through it (8, 1, 650-671) to New Madrid, which was evacn- 
ated by the enemy March 14th, and also on the same date occupied by the 
Second Division (onrs). On April 7th the diyision embarked on thf" transports, 
crossed the Mississippi river and landed about three miles below New Madrid, 
on the Kentucky shore, and then marched four miles toward Tiptonville. At 
dawn of the eighth the division pushed forward about ten miles to Tiptonville, 
and learned at noon of the evacuation of Island No. 10, and at 2 P. M. of the 
surrender of the forces, and it was detailed to guard the prisoners. On April 
10th it returned to New Madrid. April 12th the division embarked on trans- 
ports and proceeded toward Fort Pillow, and reached a point five miles above 
it on April 13th. Reconnaissances were made on the Arkansas shore on the 
fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth, where orders were received to embark 
and proceed to Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. 

On April 15th Oeneral Halleck telegraphed to Pope: ** Move with your 
army to this place, leaving troops enough with Commodore Foote to land and 
hold Fort Pillow, should the enemy's forces withdraw." On receipt of this 
order Oeneral Pope's army embarked on their transports for Pittsburgh Landing, 
where they arrived on the twenty-second of April. 

General Pope in his report states that in the capture of Island No. 10 and 
its forces he did not have a man killed, and that the total casualties in the 
whole army in the operations against No. 10 and New Madrid, from February 
28th to the fourteenth of March, would foot up only thirty- two, and of which 
the Second Division (ours) lost six. (8, 1, 91.) 

The army was reorganized by General Pope on April 24th, in General 
Orders. No. 38, and the Second Division was designated as the Third Division, 
Army of the Mississippi, and commanded by Brig. Gen. Schuyler Hamilton. 
The First Brigade, to be commanded by Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Plummer, 
Twenty-sixth Illinois, Eighth Wisconsin, Forty-seventh Illinois, Eleventh Mis- 
souri and Nelson T. Spoor's Second Iowa Battery of Artillery. Second 
Brigade, Brig. Gen. Napoleon B. Buford, Fifth Iowa, Fifty-ninth Indiana, 
Tenth Iowa, Twenty-sixth Missouri and Sands' Ohio Battery. (10, 2, 121.) On 
May 29th Gen. Schuyler Hamilton was assigned to the command of the left 
wing of the army, and Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Plummer to the command of 
Hamilton's division. (10, 2, 224.) 

It seems to us that no unprejudiced person can read the reports and corre- 
spondence of General Halleck without being convinced of his greatness as a 
military commander. The extreme caution he displayed after the battle of Shiloh 
would have prevented him from beinga very successful general in active field opera- 
tion, but there is some excuse for that. One of the greatest battles of the war 
had just been fought, and the Union army had met with fearful losses, which 
might have been avoided in a great measure if Halleck 's instructions had been 
followed. He had sent a sufficient amount of intrenching tools, and supposed 
that the army at Shiloh had an intrenched camp, but his instructions were dis- 
regarded mod the tools were not used; but as an organizer and director of great 
•vents he will stand out boldly in history as a great character. 



52 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

On March 24th General Sherman wrote from Pittsburgh 
Landing to General Strong : 

Most assuredly our cause has received a tremendous lift since we x>aced the 
piazza at Benton Barracks, and Halleck has been the directing genius. I wish 
him all honor and glory, and in my heart I yield to whomsoever has merits 
and talents to devote to so worthy a cause. 

We copy the following sent from Pittsburgh Landing by 
Sherman to Grant at Savannah, April 5th, the day before the 
battle of Shiloh (2, 10, 93): 

Your note is just received. I have no doubt that nothing will occur to-day 
more than some picket firing. The enemy is saucy, but got the worst of it 
yesterday, and will not pass our pickets far. I wiU not be drawn oat far un- 
less with ceriainty of advantage, and I do not apprehend anything like an at- 
tack on our position. 

Thus our army lay in camp at Shiloh without in the slightest 
protecting its front. A great army marched over the country 
to attack, but there was not even a cavalryman out to see and 
hear and bring in the news. As an explanation of why Grant 
did not, with BuelPs fresh army, continue the pursuit of the 
enemy after the battle of Shiloh, we quote dispatch from Gen- 
eral Stager to Stanton, April 12th: 

In reply to my inquiry as to further information Crom Pittsburgh 
Landing, Mr. Stevens, operator at Cincinnati, says General HaUeck gave 
orders to General Grant some days previous to the battle that in case he was 
attacked not to pursue the enemy. Consequently pursuit was not kept up for 
any distance. 

And ^General Grant in his Memoirs says that he wanted to 
pursue the enemy, but had not the heart to order his men to 
do so after two days of desperate fighting, and whenever not 
fighting lying in the mud and rain, and he did not feel dis- 
posed to order Buell or an^" part of his command to do so for, 
although the senior in rank, he had been so only a few weeks, 
etc. 

This was on the seventh, and a golden opportunity was lost, 
for if pursuit had been kept up its result would doubtless have 
been disastrous to the Confederates, judging from the following 
sent by Bragg, three miles on road from Mickey's house to 
Corinth at 7:30 a. m., April 8th, to Beauregard (2, 10, 399): 

Our condition is horrible. Troops utterly disorganized and demoralieed. 
Road almost impassable. No provisions and no forage; consequently everything 
is feeble. If we are pursued by a vigorous force we will lose all in the rear. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 53 

The whole road presents the scene of a root, and no mortal power could restrain 
it. Straggling parties may get in to-night. Those in rear will suffer much. The 
rear guard, Brecknridgee commanding, is left at Mickey's in charge of 
wounded, etc. The enemy up to daylight had not pursued. Have ordered 
Breckenridge to hold on till pressed hy the enemy, hut he will suffer for want 
of food. Can any fresh troops, with five days' rations, he sent to his relief ? It 
is most lamentable to see the state of affairs, but I am powerless and almost 
exhausted. Our artillery is being left all along the road by its officers; indeed 
I find but few officers with their men. Relief of some kind is necessary, but 
how it is to reach us I can hardly suggest, as no human power or animal power 
could carry empty wagons over this road with such teams as we have. Breck- 
enridge*s, same date, says: ** Enemy less than two miles in front. My 
tn>ops are worn out. Can't be relied upon after the first volley. The horses 
are sinking rapidly for want of forage." 

Before Corinth. 

May 2Sth — Pope to HcUleck (10, 2, 219) — My command is drawn up and will 
inarch in ten minutes. My heavy batteries will be ready to open by 3:00 P. M.* 
I sent you a dispatch yesterday, stating that I had sent two regiments of cav- 
alry (the Second Iowa, Colonel Elliott, and the Second Michigan, Col. P. H. 
Sheridan) to destroy railroad bridges, etc., forty-five miles south of Corinth. 
They are to be there early this morning. They are commanded by Colonel 
Elliott, and will undoubtedly perform the service at some portion of the road 
to-day. 

And later (220) : 

My command is in position after sharp skirmishing. Enemy driven back 
across creek. To our left and front, on the opposite side, is an intrenched 
position, with artillery about five hundred yards distant. My four thirty- 
pounder Parrotts are in front and now being placed in battery; they will 
open in an hour, when, if practicable, I will carry and hold the enemy's 
intrenched position. I think it is not a portion of their main works, but 
half a mile in advance. From prisoners I am satisfied there is no battery or 
work on Widow Phillips' place, which is on my right and front and half 
way between the two roads to Corinth. 

Pope to Stanley — Feel in with your skirmishers toward the battery on my 
left and see what you can do with it. I will send the sharpshooters from 
Paine's right to turn it on its right. EUve your columns ready to march, and 
if yon deem it practicable, carry the nearest work. Leave at least one brigade 
to watch your right and rear and if you need more, call on Morgan or General 
Paine, who are just in your rear. If by waiting for the thirty-pounder Parrotts 
you can silence the battery, wait, and don't attempt to storm. Meantime put 
Colonel Bissell to work for the Parrotts and your own men to digging rifle-pits. 

General Sherman also this day advanced his lines on the 
extreme right of Halleck's army at Russell's house, — a double 



54 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

etructure built of logs, — where he occupied with two brigades 
a ridge running east and west which had a wagon road down 
to the Mobile & Ohio railroad. 

May 29th — Pope to Halleck (223) — The intienched works of the enemy have 
not been abandoned, although the gnns have been withdrawn and are limbered 
np in the rear, supported by a heavy infantry force. The work is jnst south 
of the Memphis & Charleston railroad, which is much nearer than supposed. 
The railroad runs through a deep cut in fh)nt of the battery. Behind it and 
between the two railroads the forces of Van Dom and Price are massed. I 
can bring on a battle immediately if you desire it. I will post my heavy 
Parrotts so as to play upon the work. 

I would suggest that my only further advance, under present circumstances, 
must be in the direction of the railroad, where I should meet Van Dorn and 
Price and a part at least of Hardee's forces. I have not yet heard from the ex- 
pedition down the Mobile & Ohio railroad. The reconnaissance I sent out this 
morning developed the enemy in heavy force in front of Hamilton, on the 
right of the intrenched position of the enemy. 

May 30/A, 1 :20 A. M.— Pope to Halleck (10, 2,225) —The enemy is re-enforcing 
heavily, by trains in my front and on my left. The cars are running constantly 
and the cheering is immense every time they unload in front of me. I have 
no doubt, from all appearances, that I shall be attacked in heavy force at day- 
light. 

Sherman to Halleck (228) — Please explain to me, as early as possible, the 
explosions at Corinth. The whole is now enveloped in dense smoke, yet the 
rebels are in my front. Cars ran all night with long trains. I have ordered 
Rosecrans forward and to my right. 

Halleck to Sherman — I cannot explain. General Pope telegraphed me at 
one o'clock this morning that the enemy opposite his left were receiving large 
re-enforcements, each train load as it landed being received with cheers. It is 
the impression that Corinth is to be given up, and a stand made in the angle 
between the two railroads. Advance your force and feel the enemy strongly if 
still in your front. 

MaySOthy 6 A. M. — From Pope — All very quiet since four o'clock. Twenty- 
six trains left during the night. A succession of loud explosions, followed by 
dense black smoke in clouds. Everything indicates evacuation and retreat. I 
am pushing forward my skirmishers in several directions toward Corinth; will 
telegraph you in a few minutes. 

7:30 A. M. — I am in possession of the enemy's intrenched position, an em- 
brasured work of seven guns. Four regiments are feeling their way into Cor- 
inth, and are now within three-fourths of a mile of the town; the whole country 
here seems to be fortified. 

8:40 a. m. — My advance (the Thirty-ninth Ohio and Forty-second Illinois) 
entered the town and planted the United States flag on the courthouse at 6:40 
this morning. They were the first troops in the place. 

[As Corinth was in Tishoming county at this time, and the county seat 
being at Jacinto, where the courthouse was located, the statement must have 
been an error — Ed.] 



1862] minnesota infantry volunteers. 55 

The Evacuation of Corinth. 
We copy from the Coufederate Records (10, 2, 545) : 

On Sunday night, May 25, 1862, Greneral Hardee sent the following to Beanre 
gard : **I hare thought it proper to reduce my views to writing on the subject 
we were discussing to-day. You will give them whatever weight they deserve. 
They are honestly entertained. I think our situation critical, and whatever is 
resolved on should be carried promptly into execution. The situation at 
Corinth requires that we should attack the enemy at once, or await his attack, 
or evacuate the place. Assuming that we have fifty thousand men and the enemy 
nearly twice that number protected by intrenchments, I am clearly of opinion 
that no attack should be made. Our forces are inferior, and the battle of 
Shiloh proves with only the advantage of position it was hazardous to contend 
against his superior strength, and to attack him in his intrenchments now 
would probably inflict on us and the Confederacy a fatal blow. Neither the 
number nor instruction of our troops renders them equal to the task. I think 
we can successfully repel any attack on our camp by the enemy, but it 
ia manifest no attack is meditated. It will be approached graduaUy and wiU 
be shelled and bombarded without equal means to respond. This wiU compel 
OS to make sorties against his intrenched positions under most adverse circum- 
stances or to evacuate the place. The latter seems to me inevitable. If so, the 
only remaining question is, whether the place should be evacuated before or 
after or during its defense." ♦ « ♦ etc. 

Beauregard replied and stated he " had already commenced 
giving orders to my chiefs of staff departments for its execution. 
But everything that is done must be done under the plea of 
the intention to take the offensive at the opportune moment. 
Every commander of corps must get everything ready to 
move at a moment's notice, and must see to the proper condi- 
tion of the roads and bridges his corps is to travel upon." 

General Orders, No. 54, of May 24, 1862, from Beauregard's 
headquarters read : 

All newspaper and other correspondents are hereby ordered to leave this 
post by the first train, nor will they be permitted to return within twenty-five 
miles of the lines. Offioeis and soldiers are forbidden to write of the move- 
ments of the army in their correspondence, and the general commanding 
confidently relies on the patriotism of his troops for the faithful execution of 
this order. 

The original orders for the evacuation of Corinth were issued 
May 27th, and the retrograde movement by the troops was to 
begin at 3:00 a. m. on the twenty-ninth instant. But as the prop- 
erty could not be moved in the time, on the twenty-eighth 



56 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

orders were issued delaying the movement until the thirtieth, 
and on the twenty-ninth the following order was issued by Gen- 
eral Beauregard: 

Geksbal: The folIowiDg modifications have been made in the order rela- 
tive to the retrograde movement from this place: 

First — At snndov^n the light batteries mnst be sent to abont one mile from 
the intrenched lines, in order to avoid communicating to the enemy any informa- 
tion of the movement. These batteries mnst be so placed outside of the road so 
as to follow their brigades at night without any difficulty. 

Sfcond — At 8:00 P. M. the heavy batteries of the lines must be removed with- 
out noise and sent to the central depot. 

Third — At 10:00 P. M. the retrograde movement of the forces is to commence, 
as already instructed. 

Fourth — At 12:00 P. H., or as soon thereafter as possible, the rear guard is to 
follow the movement. 

Fifth — As soon as the army of the Mississippi shall have got beyond the 
Toscumbia, and the army of the West beyond Kidge creek. General Beall, chief 
of cavalry at Corinth, shall be informed of the fact, and the positions in rear of 
said streams shall be held until all trains shall be considered beyond the reach 
of the enemy. 

Sixth — Campfires mnst be kept up all night by the troops in position and 
then by the cavalry. 

Seventh — Three signal rockets shall be sent up at three o'clock in the morn- 
ing by the cavalry pickets of Generals Van Dom, Bragg and Polk. 

Eighth — All artesian and other wells must be destroyed this evening by a 
detachment from each brigade. All artesian weU machinery must be sent forth- 
with to the depot for transportation to Saltillo. 

Ninth — Whenever the railroad engine whistles during the night near the in- 
trenchments the troops in the vicinity will cheer repeatedly, as though 
re-enforcements had been received. 

May 31st — Saturday. — Marched one mile and camped three- 
quarters of a mile from the railroad and three miles south of 
Corinth. Our boys were strolling through the woods early this 
morning and examining the rebel camps, in many of which the 
tents had all been left standing, and large quantities of bar- 
reled salt beef, molasses and other stores were scattered about. 
Two of the Eleventh Ohio batterymen, who had started out 
prospecting rather earlier than the rest of us, came suddenly 
upon two rebel guards who had not been relieved and who did 
not know that their army had evacuated Corinth. The two 
rebels at once arrested the Ohio boys and were marching them 
off through the woods, when our two men turned suddenly 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 57 

and seized their captors, and a desperate struggle ensued for 
the possession of the two muskets. One of our men being 
stronger than his antagonist soon had hira down, and wrench- 
ing his musket away, raised it to shoot the other rebel, who 
had his prisoner down and was just in the act of raising his 
musket to shoot the other batteryman; but not being quick 
enough, was made to drop his gun and let the little man up, who 
picked up the gun, and they marched the two rebels into our 
lines as their prisoners. There is a depot here on the railroad 
about two miles from Corinth, where the enemy left some 
stores, consisting of a long tier of barreled salt, fifty army 
wagons that had their axles burned off, and quite a quantity 
of sugar, molasses and rice. We found several dead rebels 
near the depot that our cavalry had killed. 



CHAPTER m. 

We March to Booaeyille — Farewell to Oar Noah's Arks (liees Chests) — Burned 
Train of Cars — Pope Left Us — Back to Rienzi — To Clear Creek — First Gray- 
backs— Mnffled Dmms Sad Roll—Half the Regiment Sick— The Angel of 
Death Comes Often — Terrible March to Ripley and Back to Rienzi — Death 
of Lieutenant Judd; A Lock of Hair — Governor Ramsey Visits Us — A 
Change of Commanders — Halleck Leaves — Visit to Shiloh — Roster of Di- 
vision — Charles S. Hamilton — Guarding Rebel Com Fields and Wells of 
Water; Five Cents for a Canteen of Water — Pigs Nose Through Camp 
with Impunity — To Jacinto — Off on a Scout — News of Indian Massacre; 
Want to €ro Home; Men Distracted; Oilman Goes — Good Foraging; Peaches 
Galore— Receipt for Making Our Ovens — Expect an Attack — March for 
luka. 

June 1st — Sunday, — Several of us were searching around the 
depot here near the railroad, two miles south of Corinth; just 
west of the track discovered a grave with a board up, marked 
3 T. X., and believing that the enemy could not have retreated 
with all of their artillery, but had buried some of it, we took 
our bayonets and some shingles and dug into the grave, ex- 
pecting to unearth a cannon, but, after laboring a long time, 
struck a coffin and the remains of a dead Texan. 

June 2d. — Marched early across on the west side of the 
Mobile & Ohio railroad to Rienzi, twelve miles. Hot and 
dusty, poor water and not much to eat; boys grumbling; two 
companies sent out on grand guard; rained all night. We 
left our tents and camp equipage behind in camp. 

June 3d. — Started in the afternoon at three o'clock and 
marched through the mud and rain to the railroad near Boone- 
ville (twenty-one miles by the railroad south of Corinth) ; got 
here at 9:00 p. m., rolled into our blankets. At half-past ten 
formed line of battle. At 1:00 a. m. routed out and marched two 
miles in mud to our knees and camped down for the balance ot 
the night beside the railroad. The company mess chests and 
cooking outfit was abandoned, and each man had to cook for 
himself. Our ten company mess chests were ponderous 
pieces of furniture, being as wide as an army wagon, about 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTBEES. 59 

five or six feet long aud five feet high, and in them were stored 
knives and forks, plates, cups and other articles, deemed at 
that time absolutely necessary. 

We saw here at Booneville the remains of a train, consisting 
of one locomotive and twenty-seven cars, which had been 
loaded with the enemy's war material and destroyed by our 
cavalry under Colonel Elliott and Col. P. H. Sheridan. [Pop- 
lation of Booneville, 1880, 603.] 

On July 3d General Hulleck telegraphed to Washington 
(671): **I have seen a published statement of General Beaure- 
gard that my telegram respecting the capture of locomotives, 
prisoners and arms contained as many lies as lines. The num- 
ber of locomotives captured was reported to be nine; Beaure- 
gard says only seven. It turns out on a full investigation that 
we captured eleven." In his report of the evacuation, General 
Beauregard says that "but for some unfortunate and needless 
delay on the part of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad of 
some five trains of box cars in passing beyond the bridges 
over the Hatchie river and its branches, which in the plan of 
evacuation had been directed to be destroyed at a certain hour 
in the morning of the thirtieth, not an incident would have 
marred in the least the success of the evacuation in the face of 
a force so largely superior. It was, however, through a too 
rigid execution of orders that these bridges were burned, and 
we were obliged to destroy the trains as far as practicable and 
burn the stores, including some valuable subsistence." The 
locomotives were disabled but not destroyed, and they were 
soon repaired and in running order. (10, 1, 763.) 

We copy the following as a sample of General Halleck's 
way of doing business. General Pope had left Corinth to 
visit his family at St. Louis (17, 2, 17) : 

Stanton to Pope — June 19, 1S62 — I am glad to leam from Mr. Horton that 
70a are at St. Lonia to-day. If yonr orders wiU admit, and you can be absent 
long enough from your command, I would be glad to see yoa at Washington. 

Pope to Stanton — June 20, 1862 — I leave for Washington in the morning. 

Pope to Hdtteck (same day) — The Secretary of War telegraphs me that he 
detiree to see me in Washington for a day or two, if it wiU not interfere with 
your plans by going. I may be detained a few days longer, not more than that. 
Shall I go? Please answer immediately. 



60 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

Halleck to Pope— Corinth, Miss., June 21, 1862— The Secretary of War can 
order yoa to Washington if he deems proper; bat I cannot give yon leave, as 
I think yonr services here of the greatest possible importance. Yonr command 
is directly in the face of Beanregard, and I think yon should be at its head as 
soon as yon cen leave yonr family. 

General Pope went to Washington and took command ol 
that armj. 

Jane 8th — Saturday. — Our tents and camp equipage came to 
camp here to-day. It is twenty miles back to our camp near 
Corinth. 

June 10th — Tuesday. — Marched through Rienzi toward Cor- 
inth ten miles. Clear weather. 

June 12th — Thursday. — Arrived at our old camp south of 
Corinth a little after noon. Clear and hot. 

June 13th — Friday. — Moved one-fourth mile and policed a 
cAmp. Clear. The grounds do not suit. 

June lith — Saturday. — Moved one and one-half miles and 
policed another camp, which does not suit. 

June 15th — Sunday. — Moved one-half mile to Camp Clear 
Creek. Policed camp. Hot. Clear. Good water. Comrade 
Sly says : " Saw my first grayback." We are five miles southeast 
from Corinth, and about a mile south of the Memphis & 
Charleston railroad, near a fine creek, on a hill in the piney 
woods. 

The water of Tuscumbia creek, eight or nine miles south of 
Corinth, is bad. It is a dull, sluggish stream of muddy water, 
in the midst of wild, tangled swamps. Clear creek is a clear, 
running brook of excellent water, twenty-tive or thirty feet 
w^ide, with many springs along the banks, and with no swampy 
land whatever in the neighborhood. It affords fine water to 
drink and abundance for bathing purposes. There is no such 
stream between Tuscumbia creek and Guntown. 

On several mornings after we went to Camp Clear Creek our 
men were abused and blackguarded by an officer when they 
went to sick call. I stood and heard it and my blood fairly 
boiled with indignation. Several who stated that they had been 
suffering with chronic diarrhea for quite a length of time were 
strongly recommended to make use of a red-hot poker for their 
affliction. I will not repeat the vulgar and abusive language 




CiiAKLm H. Bbowk, Cokfaii 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 61 

made use of, as it is too vulgar to see in print, but the black- 
guardism and abuse of our sick and accusing them of playing- 
off when they went to sick call soon ceased, because theangel 
of death visited us and almost every evening at sundown the 
solemn, mournful strains of the dead march and the funeral 
volley sounded through the camp as our heroes were being laid 
to rest. My brother, Charles H. Brown of Company B, went 
there and on his return I asked him if he had received any 
medicine or advice, and he replied: *'I received nothing but 
abuse. I was abused like a dog and told that I was not sick 
but playing off. All of our boys are abused who go there. I 
will not go back there again. No! I would rather die than go 
back to that sick call." The next morning he was delirious 
and unconscious. I procured a hospital stretcher and by the 
help of a comrade belonging to our company carried him into 
one of the tents used as our regimental hospital, and leaving 
my duties in the subsistence department spent all of my time 
nursing him. Dr. Cross soon came into the tent, pronounced 
the disease t^'phoid fever,and prescribed. I procured the reme- 
dies at the dispensary and remained day and night by his cot 
until he expired. Dr. Cross and George Lambert, our hospital 
steward, were kind and considerate. William T. Churchill of 
our company' was acting as a nurse in our hospital at this time 
and aided me in my labors, and I can never forget his kindness 
in so doing. 

June 26th — Thursday, — Our comrade, Jonas Johnson of Com- 
pany B, made a cotfin of rough boards in camp, and at sun- 
down Charley's body was buried with military honors. He was 
a strong and robust young man, genial in his disposition and a 
favorite among his companions. He went in bathing in the 
sluggish waters of Tuscumbia creek on the evening of the 
twelfth, just previous to our coming to this camp, and we attrib- 
uted his sickness to that cause. 

'*Hard Times in Dixie." 

In the Hospital, 
by t. m. younq op company a. 

"To every soldier of Pope's grand division who was with the 
army after the evacuation of Corinth, May 19, 1862, and from 



. -NT [1862 

.:'. the name of 

- . :s>ible for anv 

In less than 

::,ere fully four- 

. < For weeks the 

•• roirinients, and 

. same number of 

■ with customary 

.'. vollevs became so 

■ ■/.soontinued. The 
::i«litference, appar- 

'Lis. considering the 

. i what there was us- 

y to draw their pay 

;.e men, tliat with all 

.i;'[uainted in nearly 

■ more than lialf a 
. war the active cam- 

- ;'.<ness became more 

-- : :hem to fall out by 

• 'v o(iual to the re- 

i:ot, the water was 

..-.vMis from thousands 

*,:<ands of iJcraves of 

'. ,^<sil)le to find any 

. s :Vom Corinth that 

. < v^' one or the other 

•. ^ v.o one can wonder 

hi Vicksburij; after 

.*v.o over will know 

X* -.lUt's army at that 

v'^pinir the climatic 

-.-.'.^pointmcnt met a 

',' "^^ ore too doe})ly im- 

,■ ■ >;s instead of amons: 

; •< of 1>^()3 sickness 

.I'.v-'so who had be- 

\**.vd intens<.'lv from 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 63 

the miasmas which are always prevalent in Mississippi and 
Louisiana. The Yazoo Pass expedition cost many hundreds 
of lives, though but few were lost in action or from the usual 
casualties of war. The hospitals in the vicinity of Milliken's 
Bend at Young's Point, Louisiana, were for many months 
crowded with the sick from Grant's army at the front, and the 
levees for miles were crowded with graves of Union soldiers. 

Do not for a moment think that all the courage of that grand 
army was shown in battle. It does not require one-half the 
courage to take one's place in the line of battle and charge a 
battery amid the noise and excitement incident to such an af- 
fair that it does to lie at death's door in the hospital and never 
complain or become homesick. It is hard to be sick nigh unto 
death, far from friends, perhaps among entire strangers, not 
one of whose faces have been known before. The history of 
one hospital is the story of all, and with all the aid which our 
glorious women sent to the sick and wounded through the sani- 
tary commission, we can safely say that it was only the timid, 
half-hearted ones who were not glad when the order came per- 
mitting them to go to their regiments at the front." 

The maffled dnun'i nd roll hai httiX 

The ■oldier*! lift Uttoo! 
No more on lift*! parade shall meet 
That braTe bat lUUb ftw. 

On Fame'i eternal oamplng ground 

Theif ailent tents are qtread 
And Glory guards, with solemn round. 

The blToaac of the dead. 

A good deal of complaint was heard among the men of the 
regiment, that canned goods and other delicacies sent to the 
regiment for the benefit of those who were sick or convales- 
cent, were not used for that purpose, but went to feed strong 
and healthy men, and the pile of empty cans near Morrow's 
mess told its own story to our men more plainly than we can 
do 80 in these pages. To see ofiicers who were drawing a 
salary of over a hundred dollars a month "hogging down" the 
choicest hams and rations belonging to the enlisted men was a 
sight that must have made angels weep on more than one 
occasion. 



62 HIBTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

that on through the early summer of that year, the name of 
Camp Clear Creek will mean more than it is possible for any 
one not conversant with the facts to realize. In less than 
three weeks from the time we went into camp there fully four- 
fifths of the whole grand division were sick. For weeks the 
deaths averaged one a day for each of the new regiments, and 
nearly that for the old regiments counting the same number of 
men. For a while the dead were buried with customary 
honors of war; finally the sound of the three volleys became so 
depressing to the sick that it was by order discontinued. The 
men moved around with a sort of dogged indifference, appar- 
ently careless what befell them. There was, considering the 
circumstances, very little complaining, and what there was us- 
ually came from men who were useful only to draw their pay 
and rations. I must say to the honor of the men, that with all 
the good soldiers with whom I became acquainted in nearly 
four years of service, that I never knew more than half a 
dozen chronic kickers. When later in the year the active cam- 
paign work began the effect of so much sickness became more 
apparent, a march of any magnitude caused them to fall out by 
the hundred; their strength was not nearly equal to the re- 
quirements. The weather was excessively hot, the water was 
filthy, the air was poisoned by the exhalations from thousands 
of sinks and cesspools, as well as from thousands of graves of 
men and animals, while it was almost impossible to find any 
open ground within a radius of five miles from Corinth that 
had not been used as a camp by the troops of one or the other 
of the armies. Under such circumstances no one can wonder 
that disease and death had a rich harvest. In Vicksburg after 
the surrender it was almost as bad. No one ever will know 
the sickness and suffering endured by Grant's army at that 
place; tens, of thousands were sent North, hoping the climatic 
change would benefit them, but only disappointment met a 
proportion of them. The seeds of disease were too deeply im- 
planted and they were laid away among friends instead of among 
enemies. All through the trying campaigns of 1863 sickness 
played a prominent part. The men, even those who had be- 
come in a measure used to the climate, suffered intensely from 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 63 

the miasmas which are always prevalent in Mississippi and 
Louisiana. The Yazoo Pass expedition cost many hundreds 
of lives, though but few were lost in action or from the usual 
casualties of war. The hospitals in the vicinity of Milliken's 
Bend at Young's Point, Louisiana, were for many months 
crowded with the sick from Grant's army at the front, and the 
levees for miles were crowded with graves of Union soldiers. 

Do not for a moment think that all the courage of that grand 
army was shown in battle. It does not require one-half the 
courage to take one's place in the line of battle and charge a 
battery amid the noise and excitement incident to such an af- 
fair that it does to lie at death's door in the hospital and never 
complain or become homesick. It is hard to be sick nigh unto 
death, far from friends, perhaps among entire strangers, not 
one of whose faces have been known before. The history of 
one hospital is the story of all, and with all the aid which our 
glorious women sent to the sick and wounded through the sani- 
tary commission, we can safely say that it was only the timid, 
half-hearted ones who were not glad when the order came per- 
mitting them to go to their regiments at the front." 

The muffled dram's Bad roll has beat 

The soldier's last Uttoo ! 
No more on life's parade shall meet 
That brare but fallen few. 

On Fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread 
And Glory guards, with solemn round, 

The blTouao of the dead. 

A good deal of complaint was heard among the men of the 
regiment, that canned goods and other delicacies sent to the 
regiment for the benefit of those who were sick or convales- 
cent, were not used for that purpose, but went to feed strong 
and healthy men, and the pile of empty cans near Morrow's 
mess told its own story to our men more plainly than we can 
do so in these pages. To see officers who were drawing a 
salary of over a hundred dollars a month " hogging down " the 
choicest hams and rations belonging to the enlisted men was a 
sight that must have made angels weep on more than one 
occasion. 



64 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

Augustus W, Littlefield of Company H was detailed here, 
at Camp Clear Creek, to aid us in our duties in the commis- 
sary of subsistence department. We discover in the record of 
the regiment that at a subsequent period he was marked as a 
deserter. The writer is not informed of the circumstances 
connected with that record, but his return to the regiment, 
participation in the battle of Allatoona and death of wounds 
received, tells its own story. During our intercourse with him 
we found him to be a good and faithful man, 

June 27th — Friday. — Marched twelve miles to Rienzi. [Pop- 
ulation about 400,] 

June 28th — Sciturday, — Marched fifteen miles to the 
Hatchie river. 

June 29th — Sunday. — Marched ten miles to Ripley, Miss. 
[Population, 1880, 637.] 

July 1st — Tuesday. — Marched to Rienzi. [Population, 1880, 
316.] 

July ith — Friday. — Governor Ramsey of Minnesota arrived 
and addressed the regiment. 

July 9th — Wednesday. — The death of Lieut. R. A. Judd 
occurred at Rienzi on the ninth and cast a gloom over the 
whole regiment. Previous to his enlistment he was a Metho- 
dist minister and stationed at Glencoe. He went with his 
company to Fort Ridgely and served while there as post 
quartermaster. On the first day out from Clear creek he was 
prostrated by the heat, and being requested to get into an 
ambulance and ride, refused at first to do so, because so many 
of our men were hobbling along with blistered feet. Finally, 
when he could walk no further, he got in and rode back to 
Rienzi, and was then taken to the hospital. Comrade Joseph 
A. Coding of Company B was detailed to takecareof him, and 
he received the best of attention. But all was unavailing, he 
died yesterday morning at three o'clock. He had been for 
several days previous to leaving on the march complaining of 
feeling unwell, but did not put himself under the surgeon's care 
until it was too late. I think his disease was fever and bloody 
flux. He certainly had both, but I believe the doctors pro- 
nounced it something else (varioloid). We thought he would 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEES. 65 

get well, but all at once were surprised by the sad news of his 
death. We buried hira at dusk yesterday with military 
honors, in the village cemetery at Rienzi. I am told he did 
not appear to suffer much and died very easy. When asked 
if he knew that he would die, he said, "I am going home," 
and he asked his nurse if he too would not go. I have met 
but few such men as Lieutenant Judd, perfect to a fault, gen- 
erous and kind, a good Christian and an able man. He was 
twenty-six years of age. Governor Ramsey is here and will 
remain a few davs. He savs he thinks that he will take about 
half our regiment to Minnesota to see if the climate will not 
cure those who are sick. Minnesota ought to be our hospital. 
At the burial of Lieutenant Judd our whole regiment marched 
with reversed arms, led by our fine brass band playing the 
" Dead March in Saul," to the village cemetery, where we de- 
posited his remains, marked his grave and sent a description 
of it to his relatives, who reside in Tioga county, New York. 
Company C composed the firing party at the grave. A 
touching incident is connected with his death. Just as he 
was being placed in the coflin, the writer, desiring to preserve 
something in remembrance of him, severed with his knife a 
lock of hair and put it into his pocket-book. After our return to 
Camp Clear Creek, a lady in St. Paul, the aflSianced bride of 
Lieutenant Judd, wrote to Lieut. C. L. Snyder and begged for 
some memento of his, saying that she was very sick and hoped 
that he would find it in his power to gratify the heartfelt wish 
of a dying girl. The writer, who had preserved the lock of 
hair, presented it to Lieutenant Snyder, who sent it to the 
young lady. 

July 10th — Thursday/, — Marched to Camp Clear Creek. 



Halleck Leaves the West. 

EjDecuUve Mansion, Washington, D. C, July 11, 1862 ~ Ordered, That Maj. 
Gen. Henry W. HaUeck be assigned to command the whole land forces of the 
United States, as general-in-cbief, and that he repair to this capitoi as soon as 
he can with safety to the positions and operations within the department un- 
der his charge. A. Lincoln. 
6 



66 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

JulylAih — Lincoln to Halleck — I am very anxious — almost ilnpatient — 
to haye you here. Have due regard to what yoa leave behind. When can yon 
reach here? (17, 2, 100.) 

Halleck to Sherman — Corinth, July 16, 1862 (Oonfidenliat)— Major General 
Sherman, Moscow — I am ordered to Washington and leave to-morrow (Thurs- 
day). I have done my best to avoid it. I have studied out and can finish the 
campaign in the West. DonH understand and cannot manage affiiirs in the 
East. Moreover, do not want to have anything to do with the quarrels of 
Stanton and McClellan. The change does not please me, but I must obey 
orders. Good-by and may Grod bless you. I am more than satisfied with 
eveiy thing you have done. You have always had my respect, but recently you 
have won my highest admiration. I deeply regret to part from you. 

Sherman to Ealleck — Moscow, July 16, 1862 — General Halleck, Corinth — I 
cannot express my heartfelt pain at hearing of your orders and intended de- 
parture. You took command in the Valley of the Mississippi at a period of 
deep gloom, when all felt that our poor country was doomed to a Mexican 
anarchy, but at once arose order, system, firmness and success, in which there 
has not been a pause. I thank you for the kind expression to me, but all I 
have done has been based on the absolute confidence I had conceived of your 
knowledge of national law and your comprehensive knowledge of things gath- 
ered, God only knows how. That success will attend you wherever you go I 
feel no doubt, for you must know more about the East than you did about the 
West when you arrived at St. Louis a stranger. And there you will find 
armies organized and pretty well commanded, instead of the scattered forces 
you then had. I attach more importance to the West than to the East. The 
one has a magnificent future, but enveloped in doubt. The other is compara- 
tively an old country. The man who, at the end of this war, holds the mili- 
tary control of the Valley of the Mississippi will be the man. You should not 
be removed. I fear the consequences. Personally, you will rule wherever 
you go, but I did hope you would finish up what you had begun and where 
your success has attracted the whole world's notice. Instead of that calm, 
sure, steady progress which has dismayed our enemy, I now fear alarms, hesi- 
tations and doubt. You cannot be replaced out here, and it is too great a risk 
to trust a new man from the East. We are all the losers; you may gain, but I 
believe you would prefer to finish what you have so well begun. With great 
respect, W. T. Sherman, Major GeneraL 

Jithj 20th — Sunda)/, — To-day found the writer and Commissary 
Serg. T. P. Wilson at Pittsburgh Landing, with several of 
our regimental teams, having been to Hamburgh Landing, 
about eight miles above, on yesterday, for supplies for our regi- 
ment, and not having been able to procure them we drove down 
to this place, and while the teams were loading with rations we 
rode over the battlefield of Shiloh. We copy from a letter 
written the twenty-second : 

I returned on yesterday from the battlefield of Shiloh. I went over the 
most of the ground ; about the only evidence to be seen to remind one of the 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEEES. 67 

bloody strife, which was enacted there on April 6th and 7th, are the nnmer- 
oas graveSf and the manner in which the trees are cnt. Some trees have as 
many as a hondred ballets in them ; others have been shot to pieces by cannon 
balls. I saw one that had been struck by four of them, and another as large as 
a flour barrel that had been cat off about ten feet above the ground. We 
visited the ground on which had stood the famoas log building called the 
Shiloh church. The building had been carried away by relic seekers, and 
we could not find even a chip to save as a relic of our visit. We saw several 
citizens wandering around over the field picking up bullets, and they had ac- 
cumulated quite a store of lead, which they may possibly mould over for our 
benefit 

July 31st, — Brig, Gen. William S. Rosecrans comraauded the 
Army of the Mississippi, and the following is the oflicial ros- 
ter of the Third Division of this army, July 31, 1862 : 

Brig. Qbn. Charles S. Hamilton. 

first brigade — brig. gek. n. b. buford. 

Forty-eighth Indiana, Col. Norman Eddy. 
Fifby-ninth Indiana, Col. Jesse I. Alexander. 
Fifth Iowa, Lieut. Col. Charles L. Matthies. 
Fourth Minnesota, Col. John B. Sanborn. 
Twenty-Sixth Missouri, Col. George B. Boomer. 
Eleventh Ohio Batteiy, Capt. Frank C. Sands. 

SECOND BRIGADE — BRIG. GEN. JERRY C. SULLIVAN. 

Fifty-sixth Illinois, Col. William R. Brown. 

Tenth Iowa, Col. Nicholas Perczel. 

Seventeenth Iowa, Col. John W. Rankin. 

Tenth Missouri, Col. Samuel A. Holmes. 

Eightieth Ohio, Col. Ephriam R. Eckley. 

Capt. Henry Hopkins' (Kansas) Battery. 

First Missouri Artillery, Battery I, tJapt. William A. Pile. 

On March 5, 1862, we find Brig. Gen. Charles S. Hamilton in 
command of a brigade under General Banks, in the Potomac 
army. (5, 7, 39.) On the thirteenth he was commanding a di- 
vision in the Third Corps, and on April 30, 1862, he was relieved 
by Gen. Phil Kearney, at Yorktown, Va. (11, 3, 129.) He was 
at Harper's Ferry, May 29th (12, 3, 286), on which date he was 
assigned to duty with General Halleck, in the Department of 
the Mississippi. (10, 2, 224.) He reported in person for duty 
at Corinth, June 18, 1862, and was assigned to the command of 
ourThird Division. (17, 2, 14). We are unable from the records 



68 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

to fix the date when General Plummer ceased to command the 
division, but presume that he retained its command from May 
29 up to June 18, 1862. [General Hamilton died at Mil- 
waukee, Wis., April 8, 1891, in his seventieth year. — Ed.] 

July and August^ 1863, — We copy from letters from Camp 
Clear Creek: "Mr. Isaac Ansell, a Jew merchant from St. 
Paul, we found in Corinth keeping sutler's store. When the 
enemy evacuated the city they plugged the artesian wells with 
cannon balls, but our men soon drove those down. The most 
of the inhabitants left the place along vn\h the Confederates. 
General Hamilton, we hear, is about to issue orders to employ 
the negroes as teamsters and at such other work, the wages 
not to exceed ten dollars a month. One of our teams went 
out foraging and got some corn, and a regular system of 
foraging is to be conducted under the supervision of commis- 
sioned oflBcers, and vouchers given the people for what is 
taken. This gives satisfaction, for it is very discouraging to 
guard corn fields and the people's hen coops and potato 
patches, as we have been doing, to keep our men out 
General Rosecrans has been very particular and tried to 
prevent indiscriminate foraging. Pigs nose about the camp 
with impunity. But just wait awhile. You can imagine the 
policy of the government when we inform you that as our 
boys march along the roads, heavy with dust and sufiering 
from heat and thirst, almost ready to drop down from' 
exhaustion, how they must feel to see a good well of water in 
a door yard, with a Yankee guard around the premises to 
keep our boys out, and, if they want a canteen of water, 
perhaps find a negro inside of the gate who will fill the 
canteens for five cents apiece. We have seen this repeated so 
often that it has become an old story." 

August 5th — Monday, — We marched south twelve miles to 
Jacinto. We extract from a letter written August 15th : " We 
came here the other day, and are in camp two miles south of 
Jacinto, a small village of about two hundred inhabitants, and 
the county seat of Tishomingo county. Our camp is very 
beautiful!} situated in a grove and there is a very good spring 
of water near by. We are temporarily attached to the divi- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEBKS. 69 

sion of Gen. JeiF. C.Davis, and like our camping ground much 
better than we did the one at Clear Creek. They are organ- 
izing a company of Union men in this vicinity and about forty 
have already been sworn in. Just received information that 
Edmund P. Churchill of Company B died the twelfth of 
typhoid fever, at our general hospital near Farmington. Buford 
having gone North on a sick leave. Colonel Sanborn commands 
the brigade." 

August 18lh — Sunday. — Young says: "Special muster to 
note absentees from the regiment. We find absent, dead or dis- 
charged from Company A, twenty-four. We had a hundred 
three months ago present for duty." [Population of Jacinto 
in 1880 was 80.] 

August 19th — Monday, — Regiment ordered out on a scout 
under command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas. We found 
two deer and the roughest country that we ever saw. " Hill's 
peep o'er hills, and alps on alps arise." 

August 2ith — Saturday, — Part of the regiment went on 
provost guard duty in town. 

August 27th — Tuesday, — First news of the Sioux outbreak 
in Minnesota. The excitement of our men is intense, especially 
those who have families or relatives in the vicinity of the 
frontier, and there is a loud demand for our regiment to be 
sent home to fight the Indians. No furloughs can be granted 
the men. 

August 28th — Wednesday, — The anxiety of many of our men 
was so great that they walked the camp all night long. 
Peaches and other fruits are plentiful and are getting ripe. 
Green corn and vegetables are abundant, and we get all that 
we want. The people through this region are, in general, 
wretchedly poor. We have fine foraging here, and quite fre- 
quently go into the country with details of men and teams, 
returning to camp with the wagons full. As soon as peaches 
were ripe we drove under the trees and loaded the wagons 
with them. Lieut. J. H. Donaldson of Company C is acting 
as regimental quartermaster at this time. Lieutenant Hunt being 
away on leave. Lieut. Col. M. T. Thomas commands the 
regiment. It was a good thing for us that we came here, be- 



70 HISTOKY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1862 

cause the water was getting very bad at Clear creek. We 
were, however, nicely fixed at our former canap, as we were 
near a fine creek and had dug wells for the camp and made 
plenty of ovens out of iron ore and clay to bake in. 

W. R. Gilraan of Company I, having been refused a fur- 
lough, left for Stillwater, Minn., a few days ago to make his 
familv safe from the Indians. 

August SOih — Saturday, — The provost guard returned to 
camp Reports are rife of a very mysterious disappearance of 
the ducks and geese kept at headquarters of Colonel Thomas for 
his mess. The regiment was searched for the fowls, but not a 
trace of them was found. Company A, we fear, are a bad lot, 
but the fresh poultry was quite a treat and a notable change 
from hardtack and sow- belly. 

Septeinber Sth — Ftiday, — We have received information that 
Lieutenant Colonel Thomasof our regiment has been appointed 
colonel of one of the new Minnesota regiments. A petition 
has been signed by the most of the officers in our regiment and 
sent to the authorities in Minnesota asking that, if necessary, 
we might be sent home to fight the Indians. 

September 7th — Sunday, — Changed camp. Marched three 
miles to get what the general thinks a better position. We are 
ordered to keep everything in readiness for marching at a 
moment's notice. The enemy is reported in force a few miles 
away. Had just got our tents pitched and orders were re- 
ceived to load everything on the wagons. 

September 9th — Tuesday, — Lieut. Col. M. T. Thomas, having 
been appointed colonel of the Eighth Minnesota Infantry, 
left our regiment to-day for Minnesota. 

Septenibei' 10th — Wednesday. — Still in camp near Jacinto. 
Enemy reported near. Charles B. Smith of Company D has 
been detailed to serve in the printing oflBice here to do some 
work for the quartermaster and headquarters. 

September 11th, — Thursday, — Our ovens for baking are con- 
structed by building a scaflTold of crotches and sticks about two 
or more feet above the ground ; on this an oval pile of dry 
split sticks of wood is made of the size and shape of the in- 
tended oven; an old piece of stovepipe or something is set 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 71 

up at the rear end for a flue; the pattern is then covered with 
bark on the outside to keep the inside of the covering smooth; 
wet clay is then spread over the outside as thickly as may be 
thought necessary; a hole is then fixed for a door; fire is then 
applied to the wood, and when it has burned out, if necessary, 
more wood is introduced until the oven is thoroughly baked. 
These answer all of the purposes of a good oven, and our men 
are so skilled in their construction and use that they might be 
called experts. 

Sepiejnber 12th — Friday. — Received orders to form on the 
color line at daybreak until further orders. 

September IS — Saturday. — Return from picket guard. Every- 
body mad. Company A bunks all stolen and it ends in a gen- 
eral fracas. 

September 15th — Monday. — This morning marched for Ja- 
cinto. Raining very hard. Mud fathomless; that is, it is not 
six feet deep. 

September 16th — Tuesday. — Rained all day. Had to change our 
lines during the day. It is reported that we may expect an at- 
tack any day. I (Young) foraged a fine porker. It was against 
orders, but it was a woodchuck case. 

September 17th — Wednesday. — W. R. Oilman of Company I 
returned to camp from his French furlough trip to Stillwater 
and reported for duty. Q. had been reported as a deserter. The 
company report was amended to ** absent without leave" and 
he was taken up on the returns and not punished. Sick all sent 
to Corinth. In the evening we marched back to our old camp. 
Major Baxter left the regiment to-day and went to Corinth with 
the sick in our regimental ambulances and remained there. 

Lieutenants D. M. G. Murphy and Drysdale are also absent; 
sick at Corinth. 

September 18th — Thursday. — This morning some of the boys 
got a box of condemned cartridges and buried it in the ground 
and tired it off and alarmed the camp. It rained all night. 
Drew half rations and are ordered to march toward luka. 
Price is there and we expect a fight. It rained some in the 
morning but ceased by nine o'clock and we did not get a very 
early start. After marching about seven miles find rebel pick- 



72 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

ets. Halt and wait all day. After going about ten miles from 
Jacinto the regiment camped in a pine thicket. The men of 
Company A lie on their arms all night in an open field. 

Roster of troops, Sept. 30, 1862, Maj. Gen. William S. Rose- 
crans, headquarters at Corinth, Miss.: 

Second Ditisiok, Asmy of the Mississippi— Bbig. Gek. David S. 

Stanley. 

fibst brigade — col. john w. fulleb. 

Twentj-fleyenth Ohio, Mi^. Zeph. S. Spanlding. 
Thirty-ninth Ohio, Lieut Col. Edw. F. Noyea. 
Forty-third Ohio, Mag. Walter F. Herrick. 
Sixty-third Ohio, Capt. Charles £. Brown. 

SECOND BBIGADB— COL. JOHN M. LOOMIS. 

Twenty-sixth Illinois, Maj. Bobert A. Gillmore. 
Forty-seTenth lUinois, Capt Samuel R. Baker. 
Fifth Minnesota, Col. Lucius F. Hubbard. 
Eleventh Missouri. Maj. Andrew J. Weber. 
Eighth Wisconsin, Maj. John W. Jefferson. 

Thibd Division, Abmy of the Mississippi — Bbig. Gin. Chablbs 8. 

Hamilton. 

FIBST BBIOADE — COL. JOHN B. SANBOBN. 

Forty-eighth Indiana, Lieut Col. Jefferson E. Scott. 
Fifty-ninth Indiana, Col. Jesse L Alexander. 
Fifth Iowa, Lieut. Col. Ezekiel S. Sampson. 
Fourth Minnesota, Capt James C. Edson. 
Twenty-sixth Missouri, Lieut Col. John H. Holman. 

SECOND BBIOADE — COL. SAMUEL A. HOLMES. 

Fifty-sixth Illinois, Lieut Col. Green B. Raum. 
Tenth Iowa, Lieut Col. William E. Small. 
Seventeenth Iowa, Col. David B. Hillis. 
Tenth Missouri, Mig. Leonidas Homey. 
Twenty-fourth Missouri, Company F, Capt. L. M. Rice. 
Eightieth Ohio, Col. Ephraim R. Eckley. 

CAVALBY — COL. JOHN K. MIZNEB. 

Seventh Illinois, Lieut Col. Edward Prince. 

Eleventh Illinois, Col. Robert G. Ingersoll. 

Thirty-sixth Illinois, Company A, Capt Albert Jenks. 

Second Iowa, Mi^. Datus E. Coon. 

Seventh Kansas, Lieut Col. T. P. Herrick. 

Third Michigan, Capt. Lyman G. Willoox. 

Fifth Missouri, Company C, Sergt Alex. L. Mueller. 

Fifth Ohio, Maj. Charles S. Hayes. 

Second U. S. Company C, Capt Charles E. Ferrand. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 73 



ABTILLEBY. 

Second Iowa Batteiy, Lieat. Daniel P. Walling. 

Third Michigan Battery, Capt. Alexander W. Dees. 

First Missouri Light Artillery (four batteries), Mi^. Gkorge H. Stone. 

Eleventh Ohio Battery, Lieut. Henry M. Neil. 

Second U. S. Battery F, Capt. Thomas D. Maurice. 

Sixth Wisconsin Batteiy, Capt. Henry Dillon. 

Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, Lieut. Lorenzo D. Immell. 

(17, 2, 248.) 



CHAPTER IV. 

Capture of laka by Price's Army — Oar Sapplies Lost — Rosecians Surprised — 
Price Surprised — Battle of laka — List of Killed and Woonded — Personal 
Incidents — Losses on Both Sides. 

The Battle of Iuka, 

General Halleck was auxious to have General Grant send 
some of his forces from Corinth to Louisville, Ky., and on 
September 2d sent the following telegram to Grant: ** Bail- 
road east of Oorinth may be abandoned and Granger's division 
sent to Louisville, Ky., with all possible dispatch." At this 
time General Stanley's division occupied and guarded the rail- 
road from Iuka, Miss., to Decatur, Ala. — one brigade of the 
division occupying the former place — and Grauthad proposed 
to send this division, but Halleck preferred Granger's. 

On the second Rosecrans from Tuscumbia telegraphed Grant 
that his dispatches were received and orders given accordingly, 
and said : "One brigade will cover Iuka and points east. Tus- 
cumbia must be held till the tents of two divisions and other 
public property is taken away. Iuka covers Eastport and is 
the surest way of getting provisions. It must be well held. 
Have ordered the troops at Iuka to get ready to move. Will 
move them as soon as they can be replaced." 

On the eighth Rosecrans from Iuka informed Grant that 
Hamilton had telegraphed him that a deserter had come from 
Price and Van Dorn, and that they had united for a move into 
Kentucky, but Hamilton thought they were moving on to 
Corinth. On the ninth Grant, at Corinth, sent this to Halleck: 
** For two days now I have been advised of the advance of 
Price and Van Dorn on this place. I presume there is no 
doubt of the advance of a large force. One division will arrive 
from Memphis to Bolivar this evening or to-morrow, which 
will enable me to use all the force now at the latter place 
whenever required. Should the enemy come I will be as 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLTNTEERS. 75 

ready as possible with the means at hand. I do not believe 
that a force can be brought against us at present that cannot 
be successfully resisted." And on the eleventh this also: 
"With all the vigilance I can bring to bear I cannot determine 
the objects of the enemy. Everything threatens attack here, 
but mv fear is that it is to cover some other movement. It 
may have been instituted to prevent sending re-enforcements 
to Wright or to cover a movement on New Orleans by Van 
Dorn or to the east on General Buell. Should there be an 
attack I will be ready." Also, on the same day: "Every- 
thing indicates that we will be attacked here in the next forty- 
eight hours, and at present the route indicated is by the south- 
west. I will be ready at all points. General Bosecrans is not 
yet in with all his forces, but will be by to-morrow night. 
Price's forces are estimated at from thirty-six to forty thou- 
sand. I cannot believe that he has half that number of good 
troops. He may have conscripts in large numbers." 

On Sept. 13, 1862, Col. Robert C. Murphy sent the fol- 
lowing to General Rosecrans, at Clear creek: "luka, Miss., 
10 A.M. — We have been attacked by the enemy's cavalry. 
Have taken two prisoners. They report the enemy to be Arm- 
strong's brigade of cavalry, and say the* infantry is one or two 
days behind them. We have repulsed them this morning. The 
wires are reported cut. I send this by cavalry express to 
Burnsville, to be telegraphed there, if possible; if not, to be 
taken through by express." Rosecrans immediately sent the 
following to General Grant: "The little fight at luka was a 
cavalry attack. The rebels, supposing we had evacuated, were 
much surprised and badly scared. A Tennessee captain taken 
says, 'Price with his staff wasat Bay Springs, but the infantry 
were two days behind.' The scout from Ripley went all the 
way down to four miles of Guntown. There was no force or 
movement in that direction. Report at Guntown: ' Baldwin 
and up to Booneville water so scarce that it seems strange to 
me if they have a large force.' I go up to Ord's to consult with 
Prime about cavalrj' defense works here." He sent from camp 
near Clear creek, on September 14th, this to Grant: "luka 
office not open; no news from there to-day; scout in from Bay 



76 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

Spring says no rebel force on the Bay Springs and Jacinto road 
yesterday. Hamilton reports this morning: ^Our cavalry on 
going to luka fell in with rebel cavalry near Barnett's ; suppose 
it was Armstrong's cavalry that tried luka yesterday morning/ 
Hamilton said our cavalry was to attack them at daylight this 
morning and he would pitch in with vigor. No news yet from 
Jacinto. Sharpshooters scared out of Burnsville by a few rebel 
pickets, stray scalawags from the Armstrong command." At 
this time General Price, with two divisions of infantry, com- 
manded by Generals Henry, Little and Dabney H. Maury, 
and Armstrong's cavalry occupied luka. 

We copy the following statement of the evacuation of luka 
from a newspaper, as we have not been able to find Any official 
record of it : '' The last Federal force which occupied luka 
at that time consisted of five companies of the Fifth Minne- 
sota Infantry, one batallion of the Seventh Illinois, one section 
of the Third Michigan Battery and the Eighth Wisconsin In- 
fantry, all under the command of Col. R. C. Murphy of theEighth 
Wisconsin, commander of the Second Brigade, Stanley's 
division. On the next day after this force entered luka. Gen- 
eral Armstrong's division of rebel cavalry, three thousand five 
hundred strong, fariously attacked the place, making several 
distinct charges upon Colonel Murphy's force, each one of 
which was handsomely repulsed. Colonel Murphy learned 
from a major who was captured in the first charge, that Price's 
army — eighteen thousand strong — was only a day's march 
distant, and would be in town " for breakfast the next 
morning." Murphy's orders were to hold the place until the 
supplies there stored could be moved, and not destroyed. But 
the place was held all day and into the night, vainly waiting 
for cars to come, which came not, to take the stores to 
Corinth, twenty-six miles away. Accordingly, at 3:00 o'clock 
in the morning he began to evacuate the place. A company 
of cavalry was charged with the responsibility of setting fire 
to the stores. This was to be done while the rear of the infantry 
column was passing out of town. The stores were set on fire 
by the cavalry, but they were driven away by the enemy's ad- 
vance, which put the tire out. Colonel Murphy was arrested, 
court-martialed and acquitted. 



1862] minnesota infantry volunteers. 77 

The Rebel Army. 

Generals Price and Van Dorn each had a separate command 
in Mississippi, the headquarters of the former being at Tupelo 
and the latter at Jackson, both being subject to the orders of 
General Bragg at Chattanooga, who, at this time was moving 
his army northward from Chattanooga. His army entered 
Kentucky on the fifth of September and was moving toward 
the railway between Nashville and Louisville, the latter place 
being the objective point of this campaign. 

Believing that Bosecrans had crossed the Tennessee river, or 
was about to do so, to re-enforce Buell's army, he sent Price 
positive orders to watch Rosecrans and prevent him, and if he 
had crossed the river to follow him. Previous to the reception 
of this order Price and Van Dorn had discussed the plan of a 
campaign against Grant's forces, and were about to unite their 
armies for a move to clear the Union army out of the West and 
march north to the Ohio river, where they hoped to join Bragg 
with his army after he had routed Buell's forces from Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky. The positive orders of Bragg, however, 
delaj'ed the execution of this cherished scheme. Price moved 
north and when he arrived at Guntown was informed that 
Rosecrans had not yet crossed the Tennessee river but was at 
luka with ten thousand men, and, as his army numbered about 
sixteen thousand eight hundred, he decided to attack Rose- 
crans at once. 

Price left Guntown on Thursday morning, the eleventh, and 
marched for luka on the Bay Springs road, and it seems 
almost incredible that he could move his army north, passing 
only eight or ten miles east of Jacinto and not know that 
Hamilton's division was- at that place; but such was the fact. 
On September 11th Van Dorn had moved his headquar- 
ters up to Holly Springs, and Jeff'. Davis on the same day 
notified him that his rank gave him command and that the 
forces must all co-operate. On the fourteenth Price sent a 
dispatch to Van Dorn, informing him that Rosecrans had moved 
westward and that he was ready to co-operate in an attack on 
Corinth. 



70 HISTOBY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1862 

cause the water was getting very bad at Clear creek. We 
were, however, nicely fixed at our former camp, as we were 
near a fine creek and had dug wells for the camp and made 
plenty of ovens out of iron ore and clay to bake in. 

W. R. Gilraan of Company I, having been refused a fur- 
lough, left for Stillwater, Minn., a few days ago to make his 
familv safe from the Indians. 

August SOth — Saturday, — The provost guard returned to 
camp Reports are rife of a very mysterious disappearance of 
the ducks and geese kept at headquarters of Colonel Thomas for 
his mess. The regiment was searched for the fowls, but not a 
trace of them was found. Company A, we fear, are a bad lot, 
but the fresh poultry was quite a treat and a notable change 
from hardtack and sow- belly. 

September 5th — Friday. — We have received information that 
Lieutenant Colonel Thomasof our regiment has been appointed 
colonel of one of the new Minnesota regiments. A petition 
has been signed by the most of the officers in our regiment and 
sent to the authorities in Minnesota asking that, if necessary, 
we might be sent home to fight the Indians. 

September 7th — Sunday, — Changed camp. Marched three 
miles to get what the general thinks a better position. We are 
ordered to keep everything in readiness for marching at a 
moment's notice. The enemy is reported in force a few miles 
away. Had just got our tents pitched and orders were re- 
ceived to load everything on the wagons. 

September 9th — Tuesday, — Lieut. Col. M. T. TJaomas, having 
been appointed colonel of the Eighth Minnesota Infantry, 
left our regiment to-day for Minnesota. 

September 10th — Wednesday, — Still in camp near Jacinto. 
Enemy reported near. Charles B. Smith of Company D has 
been detailed to serve in the printing office here to do some 
work for the quartermaster and headquarters. 

September 11th, — Thursday, — Our ovens for baking are con- 
structed by building a scaflTold of crotches and sticks about two 
or more feet above the ground; on this an oval pile of dry 
split sticks of wood is made of the size and shape of the in- 
tended oven; an old piece of stovepipe or something is set 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 71 

up at the rear end for a flue; the pattern is then covered with 
liark on the outside to keep the inside of the covering smooth; 
wet clay is then spread over the outside as thickly as may be 
thought necessary; a hole is then fixed for a door; fire is then 
applied to the wood, and when it has burned out, if necessary, 
more wood is introduced until the oven is thoroughly baked. 
These answer all of the purposes of a good oven, and our men 
are so skilled in their construction and use that they might be 
called experts. 

September 12th — Friday, — Received orders to form on the 
color line at daybreak until further orders. 

September IS — Saturday, — Return from picket guard. Every- 
body mad. Company A bunks all stolen and it ends in a gen- 
eral fracas. 

September 15th — Monday, — This morning marched for Ja- 
cinto. Raining very hard. Mud fathomless; that is, it is not 
six feet deep. 

September 16th — Tuesday, — Rained all day. Had to change our 
lines during the day. It is reported that we may expect an at- 
tack any day. I (Young) foraged a fine porker. It was against 
orders, but it was a woodchuck case. 

September 17th — Wednesday, — W. R. Gilman of Company I 
returned to camp from his French furlough trip to Stillwater 
and reported for duty. Q. had been reported as a deserter. The 
company report was amended to '* absent without leave" and 
he was taken up on the returns and not punished. Sick all sent 
to Corinth. In the evening we marched back to our old camp. 
Major Baxter left the regiment to-day and went to Corinth with 
the sick in our regimental ambulances and remained there. 

Lieutenants D. M. Q. Murphy and Drysdale are also absent; 
sick at Corinth. 

September 18th — Thursday. — This morning some of the boys 
got a box of condemned cartridges and buried it in the ground 
and tired it off and alarmed the camp. It rained all night. 
Drew half rations and are ordered to march toward luka. 
Price is there and we expect a fight. It rained some in the 
morning but ceased by nine o'clock and we did not get a very 
early start. After marching about seven miles find rebel pick- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLTNTEERS. 75 

ready as possible with the means at hand. I do not believe 
that a force can be brought against us at present that cannot 
be successfully resisted." And on the eleventh this also: 
"With all the vigilance I can bring to bear I cannot determine 
the objects of the enemy. Everything threatens attack here, 
but mv fear is that it is to cover some other movement. It 
may have been instituted to prevent sending re-enforcements 
to Wright or to cover a movement on New Orleans by Van 
Dorn or to the east on General Buell. Should there be an 
attack I will be ready." Also, on the same day : " Every- 
thing indicates that we will be attacked here in the next forty- 
eight hours, and at present the route indicated is by the south- 
west. I will be ready at all points. General Rosecrans is not 
yet in with all his forces, but will be by to-morrow night. 
Price's forces are estimated at from thirty-six to forty thou- 
sand. I cannot believe that he has half that number of good 
troops. He may have conscripts in large numbers." 

On Sept. 13, 1862, Col. Robert C. Murphy sent the fol- 
lowing to General Rosecrans, at Clear creek: '*Iuka, Miss., 
10 A.M. — We have been attacked by the enemy's cavalry. 
Have taken two prisoners. They report the enemy to be Arm- 
strong's brigade of cavalry, and say the' infantry is one or two 
days behind them. We have repulsed them this morning. The 
wires are reported cut. I send this by cavalry express to 
Burnsville, to be telegraphed there, if possible; if not, to be 
taken through by express." Rosecrans immediately sent the 
following to General Grant: ''The little fight at luka was a 
cavalry attack. The rebels, supposing we had evacuated, were 
much surprised and badly scared. A Tennessee captain taken 
says, 'Price with his staff was at Bay Springs, but the infantry 
were two days behind.' The scout from Ripley went all the 
way down to four miles of Guntown. There was no force or 
movement in that direction. Report at Guntown: ' Baldwin 
and up to Booneville water so scarce that it seems strange to 
me if they have a large force.' I go up to Ord's to consult with 
Prime about cavalry defense works here." He sent from camp 
near Clear creek, on September 14th, this to Grant: "luka 
office not open; no news from there to-day; scout in from Bay 



78 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

Van Dorn replied on the sixteenth, notifying Price to march 
to Rienzi and from thence to Pocahontas, where they would 
join and attack Corinth from the west and southwest. This 
Price received on the nineteenth. He says: 

"Early on the morning of the nineteenth I received dis- 
patches from Van Dorn, saying he acceded to my proposition, 
and requesting me to move immediately toward Rienzi. I at 
once replied that I would move my army as quickly as I could 
in the direction proposed by him, and issued orders for the in- 
stant loading of the trains and for the marching of the army 
early next morning. During the early part of the forenoon of 
the same day (nineteenth) my pickets on the Jacinto road were 
driven in." 

He also informed Van Dorn that the enemy was concentrat- 
ing against him and that he expected to be attacked that day. 
Price had the captured stores all loaded on his trains ready to 
move on the morning of the twentieth. 

Thus, while Price and Van Dorn were planning to capture 
Rosecrans and his army, Rosecrans and Grant were planning 
to capture Price's forces, and were just one day ahead in their 
movements. What the result might have been to us if Price 
had moved a day sooner toward Jacinto on his way to Rienzi, 
with his whole army, it is difficult to conjecture. 

The Union Army. 

Gen. E. O. C. Ord, with the divisions of Generals Ross and 
McArthur, was, on the early morning of the nineteenth, about 
six miles on the northern side of luka, and Davies' division was 
near bj- — these troops had moved out from Jackson and Corinth 
and numbered eight thousand men. General Grant remained 
at Burnsville on the railroad within easy communication with 
Ord. 

If our plan of the campaign, as agreed upon between Gen- 
erals Grant and Rosecrans, had been carried out it would 
undoubtedly have resulted in the defeat and capture of the 
rebel army. But mistakes occurred. The following is gleaned 
from the official reports of Generals Grant and Rosecrans: 
The original plan was for Ord and Ross to attack from the 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 79 

north and Rosecrans, at the time of the proposed attack, was 
to be in his position on the south with his forces divided, on 
the Jacinto and Fulton roads, to cut oft' the retreat of Price. 
The understanding was that Rosecrans' command would be 
near enough on the night of the eighteenth so that Ord and 
Ross could move up on the morning of the nineteenth and 
attack the enemy, and they were en bivouac six miles north of 
luka on the night of the eighteenth. But Stanley's division* 
in marching from its camp at Clear Creek on the morning of 
the eighteenth to join Rosecrans, through the fault of a guide, 
followed Ross' troops toward Burnsville, and being compelled 
to re-trace their march, did not arrive at the encampment near 
Jacinto until after dark of the eighteenth. This mistake 
made a change of plan necessary, and Rosecrans notified Grant 
that he would move at 4:30 a. m. of the nineteenth and would 
not be in before one or two o'clock. Grant receiving this 
dispatch late at night and when he supposed that Rosecrans' 
troops would be far on their road to luka, caused him some 
disappointment. He sent at once to General Ord Rosecrans' 
dispatch and notified him not to move before he heard firing 
at the south of luka, and he sent a notice of this change of 
plan to Rosecrans by his return messenger. Grant and Ord 
both concluded that from the condition of the roads, and the 
distance to march that Rosecrans could not get his command 
up before the morning of the twentieth, and General Grant 
did not receive any other notice from Rosecrans until after the 
battle had been fought, although the latter had sent him a 
dispatch by courier from Barnett's informing him of the 
arrival of the army at that point, written at 12:40 p. m. of the 
nineteenth, and stating that the head of the column had 
arrived there at twelve o'clock. This point is eight miles 
southwest of luka, and here the Tuscumbia road that we were 
traveling on crosses the Bay Springs road going north. 
According to the original plan Rosecrans, at this place, was to 
divide his forces, sending one division forward on the Tus- 
cumbia road until it struck the Fulton road when it was to 
turn north toward luka. This duty he proposed to have Ham- 
ilton's division perform, and turning Stanley's division north 
00 the Bay Springs road, thus close both roads. 



80 HIBTOBT OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1862 

Our line of march comprised the following commands and 
they occupied the road in the following order: First Brigade: 
(Buford's, commanded by Col. John B. Sanborn), Fifth Iowa, 
Eleventh Ohio Battery, Twenty-Sixth Missouri, Forty-Eighth 
Indiana, Fourth Minnesota, Sixteenth Iowa; Second Brigade: 
(commanded by Brig. Gen. Jerry C. Sullivan), Tenth Iowa, 
Seventeenth Iowa, Eightieth Ohio, two sections (four guns) 
Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, Tenth Missouri. These troops 
comprised the Third Division commanded by Brig. Gen. 
Charles S. Hamilton. Next came the Second Division, com- 
manded by Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley — Second Brigade: 
(commanded by Col. Joseph A. Mower of Eleventh Missouri), 
Forty-seventh Illinois, Twenty-sixth Illinois, Eleventh Mis- 
souri, Eighth Wisconsin, Spoor's Second Iowa Light Artillery, 
Third Michigan Light Artillery, Fifth Minnesota (the Fifth 
guarded the train on the march and during the battle). First 
Brigade; (commanded by Col. John W. Fuller of Twenty- 
seventh Ohio), Thirty-ninth Ohio, Company F (Second United 
States Light Artillery), Twenty-seventh Ohio, Sixty-third 
Ohio, Capt. Albert M. Powell's battery (M First Missouri 
Light Artillery), section of battery Eighth Wisconsin Light Ar- 
tillery, Forty-third Ohio. This force, with a small amount of 
cavalry, numbered about nine thousand men. We halted at 
Barnett's about an hour, while Rosecran8(and his brother,who 
was a priest and accompanied him) and his staff examined a 
map of the country and informed themselves of the dis- 
tance over to the Fulton road. This being found to be about 
five miles, and thus too far away to leave the two columns in 
. supporting distance of each other in case of a battle, he pro- 
ceeded with the whole army on the Bay Springs road, expect- 
ing, no doubt, that he could make the Fulton road from a 
cross-road one mile south of luka. Eight companies of the 
Third Michigan Cavalry, under command of Captain Willcox, 
formed the advance of Rosecrans' army. After leaving Bur- 
nett's a running fight was kept up, the rebels falling back to 
a branch of Crippled Deer creek, distant about four miles. 

On arriving at the branch it was found that the rebel cavalry 
had rallied at a house (Mrs Moore's house) four miles from 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 81 

luka, situated on an elevation four hundred yards distant and 
commanding the road. The advance charged up the hill on a 
full gallop and drove them from their position into the woods, 
but the enemy rallied two squadrons strong and forced he ad- 
vance to retire. A number of shots were now fired into the 
head of the column, one of which mortally wounded Lieut. 
Louis Schraum of the Benton Hussars and of Hamilton's body 
guard. Captain Willcox at this time wheeled the cavalry into 
line on the roadside and uncovered Companies E, G and D 
of the Fifth Iowa, and under the command of Lieut. Col. 
Ezekiel S. Sampson, their Whitney rifles were soon busily em- 
ployed, and they drove the enemy from the cover of the build- 
ings behind which they were sheltered. The skirmishers 
moved forward and the balance of the Fifth moved along up the 
road by the flank close behind them. Some person soon started 
a chemical process into operation which reduced the giost of 
the material composing Mrs. Mooer's house into its original 
elements. The heat was a little uncomfortable for the troops 
in marching past the burning house. Previous to this time 
the enemy was not aware that the advance of our cavalry was 
anj'thing more than a reconnaissance, but the infantry going 
forward and in force and the burning building caused a courier 
to be sent at once to General Price, who notified him of the 
&ct8. He states that he received this knowledge at half-past two, 
and he gave orders at once for Hebert's brigade to march from 
its position, about two miles northwest of luka, in reserve, on 
his line in front of Ord to the Jacinto road, to meet the threatened 
danger. These troops with the Clark and St. Louis batteries 
moved at 8:00 p. m., double-quick to luka, and out three- 
fourths of a mile south to the hill where the road crossed to the 
Fulton road. The rebel line of battle was formed mostly on 
the east side of the road. Gens. Price and Little soon followed 
with Martin's Fourth Brigade, and Price himself superintended 
the formation of his line. 

At one time when the enemy was particularly obstinate, the 
balance of the Fifth formed in line to support our skirmishers. 
A sergeant of Company D while skirmishing was soon se- 
verely wounded in the thigh. The enemy's skirmishers — dis- 

6 



82 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

mounted cavalry — here rallied in a house in the centre of an 
open field, on the left of the road, and completely com- 
manded the field through which our skirmishers had to ap- 
proach; but a flank movement by the left of our skirmish 
line soon convinced them that to remain in their position 
was death or capture, and they broke for the rear, one of 
them falling dead in a peach orchard near the house as he ran. 
At the same time another was killed in the woods on the right 
of the road, and another mortally wounded; still another was 
killed and others wounded, but only one of ours injured. 
At four o'clock, and when we were about three miles from 
luka, the skirmish line of the Fifth was relieved by Companies 
A, B, G and I of the Twenty-sixth Missouri, under Lieutenant 
Colonel Holman. These kept pushing the enemy's cavalry 
back, and while ascending the wooded hill, which the enemy 
had decided to occupy as his side of the battle ground, they dis- 
covered the enemy drawn up in line. Holman says in his re- 
port: 

Posted about forty yards above a ridge, covered with timber and thick 
undergrowth, his artillery being in position in the road in front, a few shots 
were fired by my skirmishers, but the enemy held his fire; at this instant 
Company B drew the fire of the whole rebel line on the right, and feU back 
and rejoined the regiment. Company A rallied on the right and Captain Rice 
brought up his reserve, and getting into position near the top of the ridge, 
these three companies gave him their entire fire, and almost instantly drew the 
fire of their artiUery and two regiments of infantry. Our skirmishers held 
their ground until our front line was formed, and then feU back and formed 
with their regiment. 

At the time this volley was tired General Hamilton and his 
staff were riding up the road a few rods in rear of the position 
where the Eleventh Ohio Battery was afterward stationed, 
and the writer was about four rods behind them, having fol- 
lowed all the afternoon behind the line of skirmishers to see 
the fun. We had been in to the well for a drink in the yard 
at Rick's house, over the gate to which was a little circular 
board which read, "luka 2 miles." 

This house was soon taken and used for our hospital. Aids 
soon hurried to the rear and the troops of our brigade came 
up Oh the run. The Fifth Iowa first, followed by the Eleventh 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 83 

Ohio Battery, then the Twenty-sixth Missouri, the Forty- 
eighth Indiana, then the Fourth Minnesota, and last the Six- 
teenth Iowa, which was temporarily attached to our brigade in 
place of the Fifty-ninth Indiana, which had been left at Jacinto 
to help defend that place in our absence. Rick's log planta- 
tion house stands on the west side of the road; in front of this 
and across the road there was a large, irregular shaped field, 
its surface being quite level ; its width in front of the house 
was nearly a quarter of a mile, and its entire length nearly a 
half mile. 

Passing by the house about a quarter of a mile, we came to 
a log church building on the west side, and just here the roads 
fork; the right hand passing through timber is narrow and fol- 
lows a kind of ridge, but on its left just beyond the forks is a 
shallow ravine, the ground being low and covered with long 
grass and bushes at first, and young, straight timber as we ad- 
vance. 

Across from the church and on the east side, a few rods away, 
there is a graveyard. The narrow road runs east-northeast for 
some two hundred yards, when it turns again to the north. 
Our troops had by this time ascended a low ridge covered with 
oak timber and comparatively free from underbrush; just when 
the road turned north again it began to descend from the ridge 
toward luka. This ridge ran east and west with an inclination 
to northwest and southeast. The eastern edge of the ridge 
divided into three spurs, one running nearly south, one running 
east-southeast, and the other .intermediate. This ridge was 
about a quarter of a mile beyond the forks of the road and an 
old abandoned road passed along it. 

Our Line op Battle. 

The Fifth Iowa filed to the right and its line was formed along 
on top of this ridge, the right flank being refused, and extend- 
ing down its slope. The Eleventh Ohio Battery was formed 
on the left of the Fifth Iowa and on the east side of the road; 
the Forty-eighth Indiana (434 men), the left refused, on the left 
of the battery and west of the road; the Fourth Minnesota (408 



84 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

men),ou the left of the Forty-eighth, then on our left two guns of 
the Twelfth Wisconsin Battery under command of Lieut. L. D. 
Immell and Sergeant Jones (who was a lieutenant at Allatoona), 
and the Tenth Iowa under Colonel Perczel, as a support to the 
guns. This was our front line of battle and contained about 
one thousand seven hundred and fifty men. The Twenty-sixth 
Missouri formed in rear of the Fifth Iowa, the right of the 
regiment being down a steep side to a ravine and the left near 
the centre of the Fifth. The Sixteenth Iowa was formed on the 
left of the Twenty-sixth Missouri; it had three hundred and 
fifty men and was placed twenty yards in rear of the battery 
and the Forty-eighth Indiana; it crossed the road and masked 
the left of the Fifth Iowa, the battery and the three right com- 
panies of the Forty-eighth. 

The Eightieth Ohio and Seventeenth Iowa of Sullivan's bri- 
gade (the Second) formed in the rear, the left of the Eightieth 
near the log church on the hill, with its right just across 
the northwest branch to the road where it turns down the hill; 
the Seventeenth Iowa was on its right and extended across the 
other road. 

At the time that Colonel Rankin formed the Seventeenth 
Iowa, his regiment became parted, the colonel going off to 
the right with the greater part of it. Captain Young remaining 
behind with a portion of the left wing, which was formed on 
the right of the Eightieth Ohio. He says: "Not being in- 
formed that any troops were in my front except the enemy, I 
allowed my men to reply to the balls which came near them," 
and they were not aware, he says, that they were shooting at 
their own men until one of the Fifth Iowa came back and told 
him 80. They were shooting into the woods ahead of them 
where so many of our men slaughtered each other. Captain 
Young also says in his report, that a regiment in his rear was 
also firing into his men. 

Colonel Holmes formed his regiment, the Tenth Missouri, 
with Company F of the Twenty-fourth Missouri attached, in 
all six hundred and fifty men, about four hundred yards to the 
right of the luka road and parallel with it (across from Rick's 
house), to prevent a flank movement by the enemy, and also to 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 85 

furnish support to the forces in front if any should be needed. 
The battle ground on our side was an old abandoned field,which 
was perhaps fifty rods square; our line of battle,from the Ohio 
battery west, running across its southeast corner. The Forty- 
eighth Indiana was about three or four rods in front of the 
woods, which extended along in rear of our line, and about ten 
rods in rear of the Fourth Minnesota. There was a ravine in 
front of the Fifth Iowa, and a small fill for the public road 
across it, and on the opposite side of the ravine was a heavy 
body of timber which covered the long hillside and eflfectually 
excluded the movements of the enemy until they were within 
a few rods of the line at that point; the ravine ran out into the 
old field, the surface of which was uneven and rolling. 

Waiting For Each Other. 

After the first fusilade by the enemy into our advance the 
firing ceased and the forces on each side seemed to be arrang- 
ing their lines of battle and waiting for the other to make a 
demonstration. Capt. E. Le Gro was placed in command of 
our regiment because he claimed he had before seen service, 
and Captain Edson took command of the left wing. Our line 
was now all facing the dense body of timber on the hill in our 
front, which hid everything from our view. 

Soon after the front line was formed our regiment was 
marched several rods to the front, where we fixed the 
sword bayonets to our Whitney rifles and remained a few min- 
utes. While we were there in that position Colonel Perczel 
made a demonstration on our left to uncover the enemy, and 
says of it in his report : "At about 5:00 p. m. I took seven com- 
panies (of the Tenth Iowa) about a quarter of a mile up the 
left-hand road in advance of the left wing, and then sent three 
companies to the right into a dense wood. Then I put my 
two pieces into position and threw a few shells in an oblique 
direction, when I discovered the rebel lines. My three com- 
panies in the woods reported a full brigade of rebels advanc- 
ing on our left wing, on which I withdrew them." We then 
returned to our former position on the left of the Forty-eighth 
Indiana, and soon after General Rosecrans walked in rear of 



84 mSTOBT OF THE FOUBTH SEGIMENT [1862 

men), on the leftof the Forty-eighth, theu onourlefttwogune of 
the Twelfth Wisconaiu Battery under command of Lieut. L. D. 
Immell and Sergeant Jones (who was a lieutcuaut at Allatoona), 
and the Tenth Iowa under Colonel Perczel, as a support to the 
guns. This was our front line of battle aud contained about 
one thousand seven hundred and fifty men. The Twenty-sixth 
Missouri formed in rear of the Fifth Iowa, the right of the 
regiment being down a steep side to a ravine and the left near 
the centre of the Fifth. TheSixteenth Iowa was formed on the 
left of the Twenty-sixth Missouri; it had three hundred and 
fifty men and was placed twenty yards in rear of the battery 
and the Forty-eighth Indiana; tt crossed the road and masked 
the left of the Fifth Iowa, the battery and the three right com- 
panies of the Forty-eighth. 

The Eightieth Ohio and Seventeenth Iowa of Sullivan's bri- 
gade (the Second) formed in the rear, the left of the Eightieth 
near the log church on the hill, with its right just across 
the northwest branch to the road where it turns down the hill ; 
the Seventeenth Iowa was on its right and extended across the 
other road. 

At the time that Colonel Rankin formed the Seventeenth 
Iowa, his regiment became parted, the colonel going off to 
the right with the greater part of it. Captain Young remiuning 
behind with a portion of the left wing, which was formed on 
the right of the Eightieth Ohio. He says: "Not being in- 
formed that any troopa were in my front except the enemy, I 
allowed mymen to reply to tlje balls which came near thentf" 
and they were not aware, he says, that they were shootiaff.^M 
their own men until one of the Fifth Iowa came back and t(worj 
him 80. They were Biiooling into the woods ahead of llieoi 
where so many of our iritn slaughtered each otbur, O^ftt 
Young also says in his report, that a regiment iu fc' " 

also firing into his men. 

Colonel Holmes formed his regiment, thftj 
with Company F of rlie Twenty-foutt 
all six hundred and fifty meu, ahoutfi 
right of the luka road 
house), to preveDt a fl 




18G2] HINNKSnTA IMANTir. V'.I.T •.M.I.IJ-:. 

farnUIisUIlI-jrl '■» f!,'r t'H-i-. i'l ll'.n' :1 .n,-. Ii'.rr 



■■/■■>:• rui 

■■ ' : '.tVl III'- 

■ : — t.^^: »ir» mm 




86 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

our line from the right to the left, the left of our line resting 
in front of a little log house on the road. An old abandoned 
road passed from the luka road at this point across the old 
field in our front and off* to the right on the ridge by the 
Fifth Iowa. 

The Rebel Line. 

The Second Brigade, commanded b}- Gen. Louis Hebert^was 
formed with the Third Louisiana on the left, the Third Texas, 
(dismounted cavalry) in the centre, and Whitefield's First 
Texas Legion (dismounted cavalry) on the right. The Fortieth 
Mississippi and battalions of the Fourteenth and Seventeenth 
Arkansas formed in rear of the Third Texas and Third Louisiana. 
This formation brought the Third Louisiana in front of the 
Fifth Iowa; the Third Texas in front of the battery and over- 
lapping the Fifth Iowa on the right of the battery, and White- 
field's Legion faced the Forty-eighth Indiana. The Fourth 
(Martin's brigade) was formed with the Thirty-sixth Mississippi 
on the left, then the Thirty-seventh Alabama, both being east 
of the wagon road ; then the Thirty-eighth and the Thirty-seventh 
Mississippi on the west of this road. Before the fighting 
had really begun with much severity, Martin's brigade was 
ordered to the front to lengthen Hebert's line. The two regi- 
ments on either side of the road were ordered to move forward 
and form on the right and left. The Thirty-eighth and Thirty- 
seventh Mississippi were in the act ofdoiug this when they came 
in sight of our regiment, which opened its fire on them and drove 
them from the field, they losing, as reported in their ofiicial 
reports, forty-eight killed and wounded, and not firing a shot 
during the action. The Churchill Clark four-gun battery con- 
fronted ours, and Price says in his report that it was the only 
one brought into action. It was stationed in the road at the 
top of the hill. Price also speaks of this battle as " the hardest 
fought fight which I have ever witnessed." 

In the meantime the two other regiments moved up and en- 
gaged in the action as ordered, increasing the force that the 
gallant Fifth Iowa and those at the battery had to contend 
against. About this time Price ordered Little to bring for- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEE8. 87 

ward his other two brigades, the First (Gate's) and Third 
(Green's), "which were some two miles distant. Just there he 
(Little) fell, pierced through the brain with a minie-ball." The 
two brigades reached the field at dark. On the death of General 
Little, Brig. Gen. Louis Hebert succeeded to the command of 
the First Division. 

The enemy soon advanced down the wooded slope in our 
front and probably sixty rods distant. Our troops on the left 
opened at once and drove them back, their colors dropping two 
or three times before they got out of sight. (This regiment 
was doubtless Colonel McLain's Thirty-seventh Mississippi.) 

The action soon became general along the whole line, and 
the bullets flew in all directions like hail stones, and, very for- 
tunately for us, we being on low ground, the most of them 
went over our heads. A constant shower of bullets, fired by 
our troops, passed just over our heads. At the beginning of the 
action Lieut. James A. Goodwin of Company E was shot 
through the hip, and George E. Sly ot Company A, E. M. 
Broughton of Company H and two men of Company E carried 
him off the field in an army blanket to Rick's house. J. W. 
Dunn, the orderly sergeant of Company B, and several others 
were soon wounded. The ground in front of our regiment was 
higher than that on which we were standing, which served to 
protect us, but as we go up the line where the Forty-eighth 
Indiana was it gradually rose. This regiment was bent back 
or refused on its left, and in looking up its line from where 
we were we could not see its full length nor the battery on its 
right because of the timber in its rear. We did, however, see 
a part of its rear rank go back to the edge of the woods and re- 
turn a couple of times, and then the whole regiment broke and 
fled into the woods in its rear. They had discovered the enemy 
advancing on them three lines deep, and instead of stopping 
on our line to fight left it. 

The enemy advanced against the Ohio Battery and its sup- 
ports. Colonel Matthies rode along the front and rear of his 
line, encouraging his gallant men, and cautioning them about 
keeping cool. Presently they heard the enemy's line advanc- 
ing in their front. The oflicers' commands of " Steady there! " 



88 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

"Back in the centre I'' and other orders of alignment could 
be distinctly heard, but they could not see them for the low 
ridge some thirty or fifty yards in their front. These troops 
who were advancing upon them were veterans — some of the 
regiments had fought at Wilson's Creek (Oak Hills), Pea Ridge 
(Elk Horn Tavern), Co\vskin Prairie and many other engage- 
ments before crossing the Mississippi, and were engaged at 
Farmington in front of Corinth. Not a regiment of our 
brigade had before this been engaged in a battle. Their steady 
tramp comes nearer, and in a moment Colonel Matthies com- 
mands, "Attention, battalion! Ready! Aim! Fire!" and a 
sheet of flame and lead is sent into the ranks of the advancing 
enemy, the^' first appearing in front of the left of this regi- 
ment, along the ridge in front and about fifty yards away. 
The enemy is quick to reply, and the contest is begun and con- 
tinued with the greatest severity. The Eleventh Ohio Battery 
is so placed that the enemy can approach unseen, under cover 
of the thick woods, to within a few hundred feet of it. Lieut. 
Cyrus Sears is in command of it, and the men work at the 
guns like Trojans and send double-shotted canister as fast as 
the3' can load and fire into the enemy. Their advancing line 
passed down into the ravine in front of the battery and the 
Fifth Iowa, and the fire of our troops went over their heads 
and allowed them to approach right up to the line, where a 
hand-to-hand contest seemed about t)o be inaugurated. Rose- 
crans sent an order for Matthies to hold his position at all 
hazards. " That's what I calculate to do," was the answer of 
the colonel. The enemy gave a cheer and a yell and came up 
on a charge on the Fifth. " Forward ! Double-quick ! Charge ! " 
rang out the voice of " Old Dutchie," as the boys familiarly 
called their brave and gallant leader. Down went their 
sword bayonets, and with a cheer and a dash the gallant 
Fifth drove the enem}' back into the ravine. They soon re- 
turned and the fighting went on. When the Forty-eighth 
Indiana ran into the woods the enemy was advancing on them 
in "three lines, two deep each," and followed them into the 
woods and got on the left flank of the battery. While the 
Forty-eighth was in the woods, in front of the Sixteenth Iowa» 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEBBS. . 89 

and their officers were endeavoring to rally and form them into 
line, the Sixteenth Iowa fired a volley into the disorganized 
mass, which killed and wounded nearly one hundred of them. 
On reading the official reports of this battle, we were aston- 
ished at the loss of the Forty-eighth Indiana, and wrote to 
General Sanborn for an explanation, and in reply he wrote: 

The great loss made by the Forty-eighth Indiana was the result of a faU 
▼oUey fired by the Sixteenth Iowa, which was in reserve and immediately in 
their rear when the rebels broke the right of their line. The rebels and the 
Forty-eighth men came back absolutely intermingled, with the troops of the 
Forty-eighth bat a few paces in advance in any place. I was near Ck>lonel Eddy 
between the lines and near the right of both regiments, which was about en 
the same line. The colonel and his horse fell at the same time that the line 
broke, shot with from three to five balls each. The Sixteenth Iowa rose up 
and both ranks brought their guns down to the shoulder, took aim and made 
ready to fire, and I shouted over and over again at the top of my voice for the 
men to hold their fire until the Forty-eighth had passed. The troops of the 
Sixteenth Iowa were cool and looked up intelligently as if they understood the 
command. I rode to the right of their line, which was but a few paces, and 
when about half of the Forty-eighth Indiana men that had broken from their 
own line had got through or over the line in some way, and a few butternuts 
were getting very close, the Sixteenth Iowa delivered its voUey and everything 
was swept down in its front to the crest of the ridge where the Forty-eighth was 
fiiat formed, and the Sixteenth Iowa immediately rushed forward and took that 
position; the rebels were still the other side of the crest and Ck>lonel Chambers 
was soon shot and feU into their hands; but this accounts for the great loss 
in that regiment. You may want to know, and the world may want to 
know, why these facts were not embodied in my official report of the battle. 
I did embody them in my first report, and both Crenerals Hamilton and Rose- 
eians recommended that they be omitted and I redrafted the report and omitted 
them. They thought that these facts might tend to humiliate some of the 
officen and men when there was no ground for such humiliation, and both 
stated that veteran troops could not have been expected to hold the position or 
to have done better, and that although the fire of the Sixteenth Iowa seemed 
emel, that regiment could no longer have been expected to withhold its fire, as 
rebel troops were within a few rods or a few feet of them. The discharge of 
that volley by the Sixteenth Iowa was the most cruel and destructive sight that 
I witnessed in the war, and is as vivid now as when the men brought their 
gana down to the shoulder, took aim and made ready to fire. 

Lieutenant Colonel Sanders of the Sixteenth Iowa says, in 
his report, in speaking of his regiment: "The left, holding a 
comparatively safe position, did not retire until they were fired 
into by one of our own regiments in the rear.' 



» 



90 HISTORY OF THE FOUKTH BEGIMENT [1862 

Some little time after the Forty-eighth Indiana left the line. 
Captain Le Qro ordered our right wing to fall back to the 
woods. He thought that the enemy would get in on our 
right flank and he would be prepared to meet them from that 
direction. This was a terrible blunder, because a right 
oblique fire from us along the front of the battery and into the 
woods in its front would have prevented any force from going 
through the gap, and also aided those who were engaged in a 
desperate struggle against far superior numbers on the right. 
We do not know how the order was given and executed on 
the left, but Lieutenant Snyder, who commanded Company B 
on the right, said: "Men! the order is to fall back to the edge 
of the woods. Go back in good order, now!" and before he 
had time to say any more the boys fell back. Great Cfesar! 
how they flew for that brush. I started at first to walk, feel- 
ing disgusted, then took three or four jumps, as the bullets 
came in swarms from all directions just over my head, when my 
cap fell oflTand I returned and got it. We reached the edge of 
the timberall safely on the right,but we were in a fearfully mixed* 
up mess, and while Lieutenant Snyder was trying to preserve 
order and form his company, every other man in the company 
was trying to do the same thing with his neighbor. "Form 
here, men! form here!" "Stand where you are!" "There, 
now, form on this man!" and for several minutes the men in 
the company seemed to have lost their reason. Ethan Allen, 
one of the color guard, and the writer finally concluded to 
watch the line that we had just left to see if the enemy were 
also coming in, for we had not as yet seen a rebel, and we got 
behind the dirt-filled roots of a fallen tree and remained there 
a few moments, when we saw the enemy going into the woods 
on the right. Allen shot at a tall man who wore a straw hat, 
and he fell. The movement made by Le Gro's order virtually 
drew the regiment out of the battle. Snyder soon .formed the 
company and we moved a few rods further to the rear and 
into the road, which was called the main luka road, and the 
balance of the regiment soon joined us. Colonel Perczel and 
the two guns of Immell also changed front with us. The 
fight on the right at this time up at the battery was raging 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 91 

furiously. Volleys could not be distiuguished, and until the 
end of the engagement it was like one continued roar or clap 
of thunder, and although Ord and Grant, six or seven miles 
on the north side of luka, say they did not hear it, the wind 
being from the north, the citizens at Jacinto, eighteen miles 
distant, heard it, so they informed us, as plainly as if it had 
been only a mile away from their village. 

The Forty eighth and Sixteenth having been driven from the 
field, and the rebels having possession of the timber on the 
left of the battery, and the Fifth Iowa and Twenty-sixth Mis- 
souri, these men went down like grass before a scythe. At 
length Col. George B. Boomer, seeing the left companies of 
the Fifth Iowa in his front being badly thinned, took the four 
left companies (F, E, H and C) of his regiment, in all 162 
men, and moved up and strengthened Matthies' left. He says: 
"And I at the same time ordered my right wing to remain 
where it was and await my orders." 

When the men in Boomer's four companies were nearly all 
disabled, he went to the low sheltered ground for his other six 
strong companies. "When I returned to where I had ordered 
Lieutenant Colonel Holman to remain wnth the right wnng, I 
found it gone. I immediately returned to the left wing, where, 
mixed up with the disabled battery, we remained without giv- 
ing an inch until I was severely wounded, having been slight- 
ly wounded before. I immediately ordered the men to retreat 
down the ravine and was carried oft' the field. We had lost seven- 
ty-nine men, including five commissioned officers wounded." 
Holman says: "The battery had been carried and one of the 
caissons came down on my left and threw that part of my line 
into confusion. Seeing that I was being flanked on the left 
and that it was impossible to rally the left of my line I or- 
dered my command to fall back to the field, a short distance 
below my fijst line." 

During the fight the Thirty-seventh Alabama came up in front 
of the Fifth Iowa, and delivered a terrible volley' and charged 
upon their line, and a brave, big red-shirted Alabaman tried 
to seize the colors of the Fifth, but he was killed at once and 
bis regiment driven back. The Fifth luwa and Boomer's four 



92 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

companies continued the battle alone until their ammuuitioo 
was all expended, when Matthies directed his men to retire to the 
field, al)out one hundred yards in his rear, where, under a 
galling fire, he reformed his regiment, and then marched it by 
the right of companies to the rear, passing nearthe road. Am- 
munition was then distributed to the men, and they rested on 
their arms during the niofht. 

Colonel Holmes, seeing our forces giving way at the batterj', 
changed front on his left to move up, if required, leaving his 
skirmishers out where they had been placed, but no one or- 
dered him up. Holman, about the same time that Holmes 
changed front, formed his six companies on Holmes' right, 
where they remained during the night. General Rosecrans 
went over a mile to the rear, where Stanley's division was 
quietly resting in the road, and ordered up Mower with his 
brigade. Mower rode to the front, followed only by his own 
regiment, the Eleventh Missouri, which had, owing to some error, 
filed out of the line, and marching by and ahead of the Twen- 
ty-sixth and Forty-seventh Illinois in its front, moved forward 
with cheers, on the run, up to the ground in rear of the Fifth 
Iowa, being attracted to that part of the field by the heavy 
fighting, and passing by Colonel Holmes' regiment on their 
march, and just before they formed in line, meeting Colonel 
Matthies and the remnant of his command. Mower savs: 
"On arriving at that point, I halted the head of the brigade, 
when I found that I had only one regiment with me, the Elev- 
enth Missouri Volunteers." 

The regiment was soon engaged in a close contest with the 
enemy. On entering the woods they found themselves within 
thirt}' i>aces of the enemy and face to face with the Fourth 
Mississippi Brigade, and gave them a volley. The Eleventh 
continued fighting, and it was for a part of the time a hand- 
to-hand struggle. A number of prisoners were taken who 
pressed into our lines, five by my color guard alone. "After 
fighting for some time the enemy fell back to the top of the 
ridge. About this time, the ammunition of the regiment hav- 
ing been all expended, they fell back eight or ten rods, where 
they remaified until morning. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 93 

When the enemy fell back to the ridge, they were on the 
ground previously occupied by the Fifth Iowa and our front 
line, and held that line during the night. The Eleventh Mis- 
souri did not advance to the ground that had been occupied 
by the Fifth Iowa, but was in the low ground to the rear of it. 
General Sanborn says: "The position of the regiment (Fourth 
Minnesota) relative to the balance of the line compelled me to 
move it by its right flank up in rear of the line occupied by 
the battery and the Fifth Iowa, where it remained until in the 
night." While we were standing in the road, the cheers on 
the right of our line informed us that the enemy had carried 
the battery, and not long after that we began our movement 
to the right. In moving up to a position in rear of the Eleventh 
Ohio Battery and the Fifth Iowa, our regiment, led by Company 
B, marched by the right flank up the road, about forty rods or 
more, toward the log church, and then in line of battle through 
the small timber to the front. The fighting at this time had 
entirely ceased. On our way to the front we stepped over a 
good many of our wounded who belonged to other regiments, 
several of whom begged us to shoot them and put them out 
of tlieir misery. Before arriving at the place of our destina- 
tion we were halted. It was now very dark. A part of our 
left wing in this movement became detached from the regi- 
ment and got between the Eightieth Ohio and the enemy. 
Our right wing halted within a few rods of the rebel line, which 
lay concealed in the woods. Our right was at this time in rear 
of the Eightieth Ohio, which had previous to this time moved 
some distance to the front. The rebels fired into and over our left 
wing and into the Eightieth Ohio, and they — not having been 
informed that our regiment or any part of it was in their front 
or rear, returned the fire — also firing to the rear killed and 
wounded more of our men than the enemv had doHe before. 

On the right we were on lower ground than either of the com- 
mands that did the shooting, otherwise our loss would have been 
much greater than it was. It has been a diflicult matter with the 
writer to explain the manner in which our regiment became 
separated in its movement to the right, some of the men 
wliu were on the left explaining it by stating that the left wing, 



94 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

with Company A in the advance, marched bj the right flank 
(fours) and e^ot between the Eightieth Ohio and the enemy 
while marching by fours. General Tourtellotte explains it by 
stating: "After the fight and after dark the regiment was 
moved toward a position where we were to bivouac for 
the night. In passing through a grove we came upon the 
bivouac of an Ohio (?) regiment, who thought we were the ene- 
m}', and fired upon us in a straggling way without orders. 
Some of our men were killed and wounded. Part of our regi- 
ment continued on the march and part of the regiment lay 
down to avoid the shots, which very soon ceased. We did not 
run upon the enemy, and no enemy fired upon us after dark. 
I do not remember where the commanding officer of the regi- 
ment was. Adjutant Thompson, I think, and probably Kitt- 
redge (sergeaiit major) and I, who happened to be a senior cap- 
tain with that part of the regiment, started out to get the regi- 
ment together. We bivouacked in the woods. The night in 
the woods was very dark." T. M. Young of Company A in- 
forms us that he walked in among the enemy, heard them 
speak in a low voice to each other and say, " This way, Third 
Texas!" when he stooped down and ran out of their lines. 
Mr. Geo. E. Sly also states that " We in the left wing (where 
Company A was) got between the lines and were fired into by 
both parties." And he made a record of it soon after, and as 
we have found Mr. Sly very correct in other matters that he 
made a record of, we consider this as reliable. I know that the 
right wing halted in rear, of the Eightieth, and that they 
turned and fired to the rear and into us. Commands were at 
once given by several in a loud voice to "Lie down!" and the 
most of us seemed willing to obey. Captain Inman of Com- 
pany D, in the right wing, demanded, **Who are you? What 
regiment is this that is shooting into us!" and it was several 
minutes before the true state of facts became known. The ex- 
treme right of our regiment (Company B) had passed just be- 
yond the right of the Eightieth. Soon after the firing occurred 
Captain Lueg of Company G, in the darkness walked against a 
wounded horse a few feet beyond our right, which fell upon 
him. Several of us went to him at once and released him. 



1862] B^INNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEEKS. 95 

When the shots were fired the right had halted, and, speaking 
from memory, I should say that we were not over two or three 
rods in the rear of the Eightieth. The blaze from their guns 
came into our faces and over our heads, and we felt a " Thank 
God! they are on higher ground than we are," as, with Sam 
Russell, we crouched behind a tree about three inches in di- 
ameter. Ben Pool of Company C was mortally wounded by the 
volley of the Eightieth Ohio. 

Not long after we were fired into, Quartermaster Hunt came 
with orders and at 8:30 p. m. the most of the regiment marched 
by the right flank to the rear and into the field across the road 
from and southeast of the hospital, where, with the right of our 
regiment resting against the rail fence on the east side of the 
field, we remained during the night in line, facing the enemy. 
As the night was cold and the dew was heavy, some of us felt it 
keenly, having left our coats in the wagon train. Soon after we 
withdrew from the left, Colonel Perczel withdrew the Tenth 
Iowa from that position and moved it up near to the hospital 
building, and Lieutenant Immell also withdrew his two guns 
and moved them up by the log church building where he had 
at first left his other two guns, the teams to which during the 
stampede from the right had run away and broken out the 
tongues. After we had moved into this field, other regiments 
of Mow^er's brigade were moved up the road to the front, pass- 
ing within a few rods of us, and helped form our night line 
which passed through the grave^^ard. 

Another line of battle was formed, with Stanley's division 
south of the hospital. These preparations and placing the ar- 
tillery consumed nearly the whole night. It would have been 
a grand thing for us it communication could have been opened 
with Grant, but there was no road without going nearly back 
to Jacinto, and the country intervening was almost impassable 
to horsemen. 

Some of Stanley's division kept moving up from where they 
had rested, over a mile from the battlefield, until the small 
hours. Positions were selected and the batteries planted on 
the high grounds, south of Rick's house, by Col. J. L. Kirby 
Smith of the Forty-third Ohio, and dispositions were made for 



96 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH R£GIM£{7T [1862 

a renewal of the battle in the morning, which we expected the 
enemy to open at daybreak. During the night some of the boys 
thought that they would smoke, but no sooner was a match lit 
than, "Put out that light!" would be ordered by half a dozen 
staff officers. 

Both sides were gathering their wounded from the field in 
the night, the enemy taking theirs into luka. An unusual 
amount of noise and activity, as if the enemy was chopping 
trees and moving men and teams and giving orders, gave the 
impression to us that when dawn appeared we would be at- 
tacked, but at that time they had moved away, going south on 
the Fulton road, Maury's division, which had not been en- 
gaged, guarding their rear. 

Hebert says: " Night having stopped the conflict, arrange- 
ments were made to renew it at daybreak or to repel the foe, 
should he in the night move forward his line, then only some 
two hundred yards in front. The Second Brigade which had 
suffered severely, was quietly withdrawn from the line and re- 
placed by the First. The Fourth, after being joined by the 
two regiments which had been at first sent to the right, re- 
mained on the line to form the left wing. The Third Brigade 
was still held in reserve. In this order the division remained 
in position until before day, when it commenced falling back 
to march in retreat." 

The next morning, on going forward to the ground on which 
the battle occurred, we found the guns of the Eleventh Ohio 
Battery standing in the road between the two lines of battle, 
and about one hundred yards in front of the position where 
they were when captured, the enemy spiked the guns with ten- 
penny board nails in their vents. The dead lay thickly scattered 
on the little ridge occupied by the Fifth Iowa and the battery, 
and also in the woods to the left and rear, where our troops had 
been engaged in slaughtering each other. In the low ground be- 
hind the battery twelve horses belonging to two caissons had 
become tangled together and piled up like a pyramid. Some 
below were wounded; others, dead, and over and above all, with 
his hind feet entangled down among the dead and wounded 
beneath him, stood a noble looking animal with head and ears 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 97 

erect, his right fore le^ bent over the neck of a horse beneath 
him, his eyes wide open and out of liis nostrils there extended, 
like a great white beard, a foam fully a foot long and streaked 
with purple. He was dead. This scene, and with it that of 
our dead heroes and those of the enemy lyin^^: thickly over the 
ground and the look of destruction and desolation that abounded 
in the vicinity, was the grandest and most awful spectacle 
of war that I viewed during a service of four and a half years. 
Col. John W. Fuller of the Twentv-seventh Ohio, command- 
iiig the First Brigade of Stanley's division, said in his official 
report : 

When within about three miles of luka we were halted in the road, and 
the batteries were moved to the right of the road and placed in position near 
the edge of the woods and on the hill which overlooked the open field, directly 
soath of the scene of the action. At sunset I received orders to advance im- 
mediately to the front. As S'X)n as the order, ** Double-quick! '' was given the 
infantry ran forwaid, swinging their hats and cheering lustily. But darkness 
hronght a ce««ation of the firing juat in time to prevent our taking a part in the 
action. Soon alter dawn it was reported that the enemy had left the field of 
battle and taken a position nearer the town. My command took the advance, and 
after passing the field three regiments formed in line of battle — the Twenty- 
aeventb. Thirty-ninth and Forty-third Ohio, of my brigade, and the Forty* 
aeyenth Illioois, Colonel Mower's bMgade — and moved forward upon the town. 
Daring the deployment Captain Powell's battery (M, First Missouri Light 
Artillery) was brought forward and threw a few shots at a l)ody of the enemy 
which appeared near the Fulton road. As we neared the town a flag of truce 
came cot, borne by a citizen, saying the citizens desired to surrender the town, 
and that the soldiers (enemy) were all in the ditches dug by the Federal army. 
We then moved forward into the town and found that the enemy had evacu- 
ated the place, leaving by the Fulton road. My command went forward in 
poisait till we reached Crippled Deer creek. * * * Resting near Crippled 
Deer creek for the night we commenced our return toward Jacinto about eight 
o'clock on the morning of the twenty-first. 

The shots fired by PowelPs battery was the first notice Ord 
and Grant received of the approach of Rosecrans' army, and 
Ord then moved into luka with his troops. When General 
Grant rode into the town he was disappointed on finding that 
Rosecrans had not occupied the Fulton road, but in his report 
he says: "A partial examination of the country afterward con- 
vinced me, however, that troops moving in separate columns 
by the routes suggested could not support each other until they 
arrived near luka.*" In his memoirs, however, he blamed Rose- 
crans for not doing so. 

7 



98 histoby of the fourth beoiment [1862 

Personal Incidents. 
T. M. Young of Company A says: 

At night the regiment is moved up to protect the gans of tiie EleTenth 
Ohio Battery; we get between the lines and are fired into by the Thirtj-ninth 
and Eightieth Ohio and the Seventeenth Iowa ; also by the rebels. We loee a 
good many men, among them Thor Olson of Company A, mortally wounded. 
I am badly hnrt myself by the discharge of a mnsket in the hands of a rebel, 
bnt I was too near for the bnUet to strike me, and was only bnmt and scarred. 
My hat was destroyed by the shot. Bivonac in an open field. Very Cold. No 
SQpi>er. 

George E. Sly of Company A says : 

Our regiment formed on the left of the Forty-eighth Indiana and in a hol- 
low across the comer of a field. The municians were ordered to retom to the 
hospital (an old log house) and bring up the litters. The bass drummer and 
I started out of the brush in the rear of the right of our regiment just as the 
rebels fired. We laid down on the side hill and the buUeta cut the fsjtm around 
us. The Forty-eighth Indiana ran and I went back in the brush and lay down 
behind a log. When the regiment in rear fired into the Forty-eighth Indiana 
I was on the same side of the log and did not know which side was the safest. 
When the firing stopped I went back to the road and met a wounded orderly 
sergeant; thought it a good chance to get out of danger, took his things and 
we started back and met the cavalry guard, who commanded me to return to 
the front; I would not obey until oompeUed to by a pistol; found the regiment 
and concluded to stay with the sergeanta; helped carry a wounded lieutenant of 
Company £ (Goodwin) to the hospital in a blanket; returned to the regiment, 
moved to the right after dark, and getting between the lines in the bush we 
were fired on by both lines; great confusion; officers shouting, ** Here, Company 
A! '' *^ Here, Company B! '' etc. ; helped carry a wounded man to the hoepital; 
could not find my things; laid down on the bare ground under a tree and 
shivered all night. 

It is amusing to read the statement of Comrade Sly. We 
will say that George Sly was a good soldier. At that time he 
was only about sixteen years of age. 

Captain Young of Company A states: 

We saw the enemy advancing down the opposite hill and I cautioned the 
men not to fire until they received the command to do so. The lay of the 
ground could not have been better adapted for our purpose if we had fixed it 
ourselves, and when they had advanced until they were in good range I ga^o 
the order for our company to commence firing, and it was fun to see them 
skedaddle. 

At the time of the battle the duty of the writer was to assist 
Commissary Sergeant Wilson in the regimental commissary, 



1862] MnraEROTA infantby voluntbeks. 99 

but having a desire to go into battle with the regiment, as the 
Fourth carae up, with Company B in the lead, I asked the 
men if any one felt unwell and would lend me a gun. Not 
being able to borrow one in the regiment, I saw an ambulance 
near by, and running to it got one of a man belonging to 
Company B, Fifth Iowa, who was assisting a wounded skir- 
misher, and runningahead went in with Company B of our regi- 
ment. George Baird of Company K at the time of the battle 
was detailed and acting as regimental postmaster, and not 
ol)liged to take part in the battle; but he borrowed a gun and 
went into the ranks, as did also Wilson W. Rich, who was at 
that time clerk for the regimental adjutant. 

The morning of the nineteenth found Lieut. T. B. Hunt, 
our regimental quartermaster, and Commissary Sergt. T. P. 
Wilson in Corinth, where they had gone for supplies for the 
regiment. About noon, hearing that a battle was to occur, 
they left at once for luka, and after riding about forty miles to 
get to the regiment and participate in the battle, arrived upon 
the field in time to be of service. 

During the progress of the battle, a great many of the officers' 
colored servants "fell back on the base," and many ludicrous 
Bccnes were enacted in the rear, where they sheltered them- 
selves behind trees and logs. Some of the best runners seemed 
to act as if they had business at Corinth and had no time to 
spare on the road. Before Hunt and Wilson reached our 
lines they met one going as fast as he could. They stopped 
bim and inquired how the battle was progressing. *'0h, 
Lord, Massa! Big tight up dah; an Pse gitten to de r'ar. 
I'se dest trowed way a big key, and a knife dat I paid five 
cents fur, ter lighten me up, so I kin go faster. Yer bettah 
look out up dar ! " 

On their arrival on the field Lieutenant Hunt served as aid 
to Colonel Sanborn, and was very active and efficient. Ser- 
geant Wilson rode to the front to find the regiment and pass- 
ing up the road just after we had moved to the right, found 
himself very suddenly in the presence of a line of Confederate 
soldiers, who were lying on the ground behind a fence with 
their arms all ready to fire. "Where are you going? " said one of 






100 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1862 

them, "Oh! just looking around a little," he replied, as he turned 
his horse partly around and looked back up the road from 
whence he had come. *'You had better not ^o very far in that 
direction," said the rebel, who had not observed his blue uni- 
form. *' ril be careful." said Wilson, as he turned his horse to 
the left and rode away across the field and made his escape. 

Our loss consisted of: Officers killed, 5; officers wounded, 
44; enlisted men killed, 136; enlisted men wounded, 569; 
officers missing, 1; enlisted men missing, 35; total loss, 790. 

Price had not less than sixteen thousand at luka, and a week 
later he left Baldwvn to join Van Dorn with an effective force 
of thirteen thousand. Gen. Henry Little's division consisted 
of four brigades, and Rosecrans had in his two divisions but 
that many. The management on our side began with a blunder 
in trying to reach the cross-road where the rebels had their line 
of battle and on which Rosecrans expected to move a division 
over to the Fulton road, and moving the head of our columns 
too far to the front before forming our line, and blundering 
from that all through. We felt relieved the next morning 
when we found that the Johnnies had concluded to join Van 
Dorn. 

First Lieut. Cyrus Sears and Second Lieut. H. M. Neil were 
present with Captain Sands' Eleventh Ohio Battery, Lieuten- 
ant Sears being in command, lie wrote from Pitt, Ohio, under 
date of Nov. 6, 1884, of the part taken by his battery in this 
battle: 

The official report from the battery showed an ezpenditure of one handred 
and sixteen roands, mostly canister, and double canister at that — and paiiiB 
were taken to make this report accurate. This battery went into the fight with 
abontone hundred and five men and had sixteen killed on the field and thirty* 
nine wounded. Forty-six of these (killed and wounded) were of the gnnneis, 
of whom there were a total of fifty-four. Three out of four officers shared 
the same fate. Forty-two horces were killed upon the field and (a coincidence) 
forty-two were so disabled from wounds that they had to be turned over unfit 
for service. 

[The official report spoken of by Sears is not published 
among the government records. — Ed.] 

In an article on **The Chances of Being Hit in Battle," dur- 
ing the war, The Century Magazine for May, 1888, states: 

The Eleventh Ohio Battery sustained the greatest loss in any one action. 
:> At the^b^ttle of luka it lost sixteen killed and thirty-nine wounded, theenemy 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 101 

captariDg the battery, bat the gunners, refusing to surrender, worked their 
pieces to the last and were shot down at the guns. The battery went into 
action with fifty-four gunners, forty -six of whom were killed or wounded, the 
remainder of the casualties occurring among the drivers or others. 

[Lossin^ says: *'The men of the Eleventh Ohio Battery 
suffered dreadfully. Seventy-two were slain or wounded." — Ed.] 

Hebert's brigade is reported as having 1,651 men, besides 
123 men in the two batteries, the Thirty-sixth Mississippi, 323 
and the Thirty-seventh Alabama, 304. This would make 2,278 
infantry that the men at the battery and its supports had to 
fight during nearly the whole time of the hour and a half that 
the battle lasted. There could not have bee»i over four hun- 
dred and fifty men in the Fifth Iowa; Boomer had 162 and 
with the gunners of the battery would make about 666, who 
alone were fighting the whole rebel force. The Forty-eighth 
Indiana being in front of the Sixteenth Iowa they could not 
tire on the enemy, and did not until they poured their volley 
into them and the Forty-eighth together, and when we fell 
back the whole left wing was drawn out of the fight. We felt 
ashamed of ourselves as we stood in that road and heard the. 
fight the Fifth Iowa and the battery were making. 

Rosecrans accounted for his short line by saying that the 
ground was such on the right and left that there was no place 
to develop or extend our line; but that is an error. There was 
no swamp on either flank. The fact is, he lost his head. He 
spent too much time in looking the ground over and walking 
along our line, to see how our few regiments were placed. He 
should have kept his troops moving to the front. lie was 
undoubtedlv skilled in the art of war, but he made a sad fail- 
ure in the management of this battle. Price reported his loss 
88 493, killed and wounded; but Rosecrans gives it as, killed, 
265; died in hospital of wounds, 120; left in hospital, 342; 
estimated number of wounded removed, 350; prisoners, 361; 
total, 1,438. 

The reader would not know by reading the official reports of 
General Hamilton or Rosecrans that our resjiment was in the 
front line of the battle, and the official map of the battlefield, 
drawn by Rosecrans' engineer officer, places our regiment in 
rear of the Forty-eighth Indiana, the position occupied by the 



102 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1862 

Sixteenth Iowa. Colonel Eddy's official report did not men- 
tion the fact of their having been fired into by the Sixteenth 
Iowa, nor does the report of Lieut. Col. Ad. H. Sanders of 
tlic Sixteenth Iowa say anything of it, but he did say that his 
re.iriment was "fired into by one of our regiments in the rear." 
Nor did Le Qro mention the fact in his report that the Eight- 
ieth Ohio fired into us. General Sullivan in his report stated 
that '' The Thirty-ninth Ohio, through a mistake and without 
orders, fired a volley into the rear of my line, killing and 
wounding more than my whole loss prior to that time." We 
will state that the Forty-eighth Indiana, the Sixteenth and Sev- 
enteenth Iowa and the others were good regiments of brave 
and gallant men, and more than redeemed their reputation af- 
ter this battle. We venture the assertion, and we believe it to 
be true, that we lost more men in killed and wounded by the 
fire of our own troops than we did by that of the enemy. We 
are indebted to Mr. J. Q. A. Campbell of Companj^ B, Fifth 
Iowa, for some of the statements in this record, more especially 
regarding the part taken by his regiment, and extend to him 
our thanks. 

Report of Captain Le Qro. 

Headquabtebs Foubth Minnesota Voluntebbs, 
Camp, Six Miles South of Iuka, Miss., Sept. 20, 1862. 

Sib: I have the honor to make the t'oUowing report of the movementB of 
the regiment under my command daring the battle of yesterday near laka: 

At 5 p. M. I moved my command at donble-qaick to a position on the lefb 
of the Forty -eighth Indiana, which regiment was in support of the Eleventh 
Ohio Battery, commanded by Lieutenant Sears. Shortly after the battle was 
opened by the battery and raged furiously along the line for half an hoar, when 
the Forty-eighth Indiana, being compelled to give away, fell back to the edge 
of the woods, leaving my regiment exposed to an oblique tire in the rear from 
the advancing enemy. I then ordered the right wing to faU back ten rods to 
the timber, which was accomplished in good order, notwithstanding the gall- 
ing and incessant fire of the enemy. This change of position brought 
our line in the form of a semicircle, partly facing the battery. Here we re- 
mained some twenty minutes, when the fire of the enemy was directed against 
the troops on the right of the battery. I was then ordered to move by the 
right Hank about forty rods up the road, at nearly a right angle to my first 
position, and then by the lett flank, in order of battle, to a point near where 
the battery was finst placed, which I did immediately. This position I ooca- 
pied until 8:15 P. M., when the enemy having fallen back, I was relieved by 
the Eightieth Ohio and ordered to the rear for a fresh supply of ammunition. 
Throughout the whole both officers and men behaved with coolness and oonr- 



1862] 



BONNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 



103 



age, condacting themselvee in a maDoer highly commendable. Too much 
praise cannot be awarded Sarg. J. H. Mnrphj and his assistants for their unceas- 
ing attentions to the wonnded throughont the action and daring the night. I 
inclose list of killed, wonnded and missing. I have the honor, etc., 

£. Le Obo, 
Captain Commanding Fourth Begimeniy Minnesota Volunteers. 
OoL J. B, Sanbomf Commanding First Brigade, 

LIST OF KILLED AND WOUNDED OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT, MINNESOTA VOL- 
UNTEERS, AT THE BATTLE OF lUKA, MISS., SEPT. 19, 1862. 

Enustkd Mbh Killbd. 



Kami. 


Rank. 


Co. 


C 
F 


Rbmarks. 


BeqJ.Pool 


Priyate. 
PriTate. 
Private. 




John Caaej 


Attached to 11th Ohio Battery. 


Hioinaii Smith.. 







Enlisted Men Wounded. 



Thor Oben» 

J. W. DuDo 

O. Qrahain 

CQ.Mlekel 

JametNeU 

Ed. A. Zdbarth. 

Caiarles M. Perklxu.. 
Thomas H. Reevea... 
George O. Kimball.. 

George A. Clark 

J. E. SampeoD 

8. M. Momeoy 

Jaa. A. Goodwin 

Addiaon Phelps 

John Boss 

O. Undersmith 

O. W. Thomas 

£dos a. Banker 

BtnL Slers 

Fred Shranm ......... 

Joesph Tatro 

Irmo. Rossell 

William F. Wheeler 

J. W. Bardiek 

Georae Wlnohell..... 
Hollto E. Sersent ... 
Geo. K. Campbell ... 

John Eike „ 

John Tobbe 

Patrick Loftus 

Antoine Moo trail ... 

George RIeder 

Bvnard Westman... 

Charles Olsen 

K. 8. Howland 

Peter Lenta 

Andrew Anderson .. 

8am*l T. Isaac 

Geo. 8. Hutchinson.. 

Aiiron B. ACorse 

8. M. MilhoUln 

JohnG. McCann 

Martin Kelfer 

Isaac Desoielle.. 



PriTate. 
IstSergt. B 



Sergt. 

Corporal., 

PriTate. 

PriTste. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

Ist Sergt. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

2d Lieut 

Sergt. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

Corporal. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

Ist Lieut. 

Corporal 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTste. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate 

PriTate. 

Sergt. 

PriTste. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 

PriTate. 



B 

B 

B 

B 

C 

C 

D 

D 

D 

D 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

F 

F 

F 

F 

F 

G 

G 

G 

G 

G 

G 

G 

H 

H 

H 

H 

I 

K 

K 

K 

K 

K 

K 



Wounded in arm and leg. 

Wounded in leg. 

Wounded in thumb : sliffht. 

Wounded in back and snonlder. 

Wounded in head: slight. 

Wounded in left tnigh. 

Not stated where. 

Wounded in finger; slightly. 

Wounded in shoulder and Mck; soTerely. 

Wounded in left thigh. 

Not stated where. 

Wounded in leg ; soTcrely. 

Thigh broken ; soTerelT. 

Wounded in groin ; slightly. 

Wounded in leg. 

Wounded in leg. 

Wounded in leg; slightly. 

Wounded in leg. 

Wounded in neck ; slightly. 

Wounded; slightly. 

Wounded ; slight It. 

Wounded; severely. 

Od General Hamilton's staff ; wounded slightly on head. 

Wounded in head; slightly. 

Wounded in shoulder. 

Not stated where. 

Not stated where. 

Wounded in leg 

Wounded in ankle. 

Wounded in hand. 

Wounded in head. 

Wounded in both ankles. 

Not stated where. 

Wounded in both legs. 

Wounded : slightly. 

Wounded; slightly. 

Wounded; slightly. 

Wounded in hand ; slishtly. 

Wounded in thigh and breast ; soTorely. 

Wounded in back and breast. 

Wounded in back. 

Wounded in hand and thigh. 



Wounded in left arm Just oelow shoulder; slightW. 

irm ana 1 



Attached to 11th Ohio Battery; wounded arm 
died Oct. 23. 



leg; 



The foregoing is a list of wounded obtained by us from the 
office of the adjutant general at Washington. The list did not 
state in what manner the men were wounded. We obtained 



104 HISTORY OP THE FOUHTH REGIMENT [1862 

that from the iiew9|iaiiers and from the liest authority we c-ould 
get. We have learned that the following named persona were 
also injured: 

Caleb Powers, Compaa; R, states that be was nuaoiltd iu left leg od Sept. 
16, 1862, at Jacioto. 

Tbomas J. Bisbop, CompnTij K, also writes thnt be was injured acroM bis 
barlt at tnka by a shot. 

Mason Rnbej, Company H; slinbtlj. on head, near Inka. 

Joba WiedeTt, Company H; in leg. iit Inka. 

Capt. Charles Lne):. Company G ; a wounded hon« fell on him in tbe dark 
after tbe Eightieth Ohio bad fired ioto us. [The writer ran to taim and aided 
him at the time.] 

Oscar Tiffany, Company E ; slifihtly, in leg. 

A. H. Kellogg, Company D;in ankle. 

Two men of onr regiment were reported as captured or miss- 
ing at this battle. .Moses Xorris of Company I, who joined us 
on March 30. 1863, was one of them, and Henry Harper of 
Company I was the other. Harper afterward eidiBted in the 
Mississippi Marine Brigade. Michael Dolan of Company E 
was stunned and injured by tlic lire of the Eightieth Ohio, so 
much so that he was helpless. Pie iulbrmed us that Harvey 
McKee of Company E led him otf the field in the night. 

BATTLE OF lUKA. 

BETrB!! OV CUU«LTIEj IS TIIB L'slOX FoacKa.^ ARMY or THR UlSSISSIPFI~UlJ. QWM. 
WLLLIAU S. lUunBAMH. 

[Compiled nram DOinlDil Lliiaof cuuiliiet, r«iur<is,aie.: t. IT, 1,17.1 





K.' 


LI^D. 


"•"■ 


..D. 


oit*S"S. 




CO««*IiD. 


1 


1 

11 


i 

1 


|| 


1 


¥ 


1 


Brlg-Geo-WiidS. SUnlty. 1 

FIBST BRlOillK. 

Col. JohaW. Fuller. 
















8 
























2 





,..™, 




WIkouId 1,1. AnlllerF.EiifbihB»lt*rj(imlon| 

Se«ondVnlU»lH«iaAriUl.rr,B.ii«j-K 


— ^ 







^^™_ 














amrosD uhioidk. 
Col. J..«i.h A. Mower. 




; 













■T 


s 


:z: 














' 




Elghlb WfKdP.Ln 

Iowa LlRbi Ann Ier7, SecoDd FMierr 

UchlgiD LIgbl Arlillery. Tbird n.lt»rj,. 






























B 


g 


n 


1 


1 


H 


T til area d Dl i i 





: ■ 


• 


^ 


~i" 


' 











MINNESOTA INFANTHT VOLUNTBBH8. 



BATTLE OF I UK A. 







-r 


WWKDBD 


C^ITDBED 


^ 










C011«»SD. 


1 


1* 


1 


|l 


i 


P 


1 


Brig. Ge^'chwfi'lI'uimlKoD. 






4 




























■ 


3 


















Col. Jabn B. SaDboiii. 




1 

18 


i 


K 
S 




1 






* 














■::::::: 




ObiB Light ArtUlBtr, EI^Dth lui^ ^ 


« 


Total Pirn Brlg»de _- _ 


4 


12S 


It 


4W 




n 


M« 


Brtt oi™ mmtah^eulliTUL 








< 

II 


- 


I 






1 


» 


B 








ISSKifohlo ^'*""'- "^P"' ^- 










.:::": 


it 


WbeooHa LIghl Anillarr, Tvaldb BUtarr 





1 


< 


Total SoMDd Brigidt ™ „..„ 




t ! B 








88 




» 




« 


«.- 


...„ 


n 









BATTLE OF lUEA. 
Brvb* or CASUiLTin ix tbi UhioM Foicn — OnMniKd. 





i..^.. 


WOV>.D,C„. 


CilTUBBD 


J 


CUHMAKD. 


1 


|i 


1 


!^' 


1 |l 


1 


ffi'ZVEl. 








, 








SSJlSK^r^f!::?.!--;;!;: 


:".v.™ 












— 


1 


i 




» 


Total CiTslrj Dlililon 












I'MlTTArHm. 


— 


— 





~r 


— 




























, 1 . 

















106 



HIRTOBT OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT 



[1862 



BATTLE OF lUKA. 
Rbtubiv or Cabualties in thb Union FoRCBM—QmUmued, 

RECAPITULATION. 





KiLLBD. 


WOUNDBD. 


Captdbbd 
OB Mmmo. 


. 


Command. 


e 

s 

G 

o 


EnliBted 
Men. 


i 

o 


Enliated 
Men. 


i< 


Enllitcd 
Men. 


1 


ToUil Second Dirision 


8 
128 


8 
85 

1 


81 

479 

9 


1 


8 

81 


101 


ToUl Third Division 


5 


679 


Total Caralry 


••••••••• 


10 










Total Anny of the MiseiasippL 


6 


186 


44 


669 


1 


85 


790 







Offioen killed: LieutenanU Lafayette Shaal, Elrin M. Holoomb and Stephen W.Smith, Fifth 
Iowa; Lieut. Qeorge M. Lawrence, Sixteenth Iowa ; Lieat. O. H. P. Smith, Serenteenth Iowa. 



Colonel Sanborn's Report. 

Headquarters First Brigade, Third Divismv, 

Army of the Mississippi, Sq^t. 21, 1862. 

Sir: I have the honor to report that, in pursnance of yoar orders of the 
seventeenth instant, I moved my command, consisting of Fifth Iowa Infimtiy, 
Twentj-sixth Missouri Infantiy, Forty-eighth Indiana Infantry, Fonrth Min* 
nesota Infantry, Sixteenth Iowa Infantry and Eleventh Ohio Battery, at 4 A. 
m., in an easterly direction, at a point on the Tnscambia road, one mile west 
of the j auction of the Pontotoc road with the same, without meeting with any 
opposition. At this point I disposed of my command in order of battle and 
posted a strong guard on my front and flanks and awaited further orders. In 
pursuance of youz order of 2 a. m. of the nineteenth instant I moved my oom- 
mand in an easterly direction on the Tuscumbia road, preceded by the Third 
Michigan Cavalry. When I had advanced about three miles I fell upon the 
enemy's pickets, who fired briskly at the advanced cavalry and retired acrooB 
a clearing into a thick growth of timber and brush, and continued their fire as 
the cavalry advanced so rapidly that it was deemed prudent to have a portion 
of the cavalry dismount and advance as infantry skirmishers, it being desirable 
at this time to conceal from the enemy all our force except the cavalry. 
I advanced in this manner to the point where the road leading from luka to 
Bay Springs crosses the Tuscumbia road and halted, disposing of my command 
in the best manner possible, in my judgment, to receive an attack from any 
quarter, and posted guanls east, south and north. I had hardly acoompliahed 
this when I received your further orders to move forward immediately towmrd 
luka. I at once drew in my guard, and took up my line of march on the Inka 
road, preceded, as before, by cavalry. When I had advanced about two miles 
the firing of the enemy's pickets was so rapid and well sustained that, under 
your orders, I threw out four companies of the Fifth Iowa Infantry as skir- 
mishers. These comxmnies moved forward to their task with great alacrity and 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 107 

soon succeeded in driving the enemy's picketa from a strong position they had 
■elected in a hoose by the roadside and advanced steadily, driving them for 
three hours, killing two of them and seriously wounding one at least. 

At this time (about 4 P. M.) I relieved the companies skirmishing from the 
Fifth Iowa by four companiesof the Twenty-sixth Missouri In&ntry, who went 
forward with the greatest cheerfulness, and continued to drive in the enemy's 
pickets rapidly until they reached a point a little more than a mile from luka, 
where they met the enemy drawn up in line of battle, in strong force (abo«tt 
eighteen thousand infantry, with cavaliy and artillexy), and drew the fire from 
nearly his whole line. The enemy alsMNi instantaneously opened his batteries 
upon us and oommenoed advancine his line, and rendered the most rapid move- 
ments and formation necessary to prevent him enveloping my whole command. 
I immediately caused the Fifth Iowa to file to the right of the road and form in 
order of battle, with the right wing slightly refused, to prevent it as far as pos- 
sible from being flanked on that wing before other troops could be brought 
up. The Eleventh Ohio Battery was brought into position immediately on the 
left of this regiment, the Forty-eighth Indiana Infantry on its left, with the 
left wing slightly refused, and the Fourth Minnesota in the prolongation of 
this line. [This is correct, although neither General Hamilton nor Rosecrans 
place the Fourth on the left of the Forty-eighth, or in the front line in their 
reports. — Ed.] This line was on the crest of a ridge. These rogiments were 
ordered to hold their positions at all hazards until ftirther orders. The Twenty- 
sixth Missouri Infantry was formed in order of battle below the crest of the 
ridge, with its left nearly in rear of the centra of the Fifth Iowa, and its right 
retiring from the front line, with orders to Colonel Boomer, commanding, to 
move immediately to the right of the Fifth Iowa, should the enemy make its 
appearance in that direction, but with discrotionary authority to move to the 
relief of any point the most strongly assailed. The Sixteenth Iowa Infantry 
was formed in order of battle below the crest of the hill with its right in rear 
of the left of the Fifth Iowa, and the battery and the three right companies of 
the Forty-eighth Indiana masking the balance of its front and about twenty 
yards in advance, this formation being made to support the battery. 

All these formations and movements were made under a steady firo of can- 
ister from the enemy's batteries, and hardly had the disposition of the troops 
been made when the enemy came forward with his whole force and formed in 
front of the battery three battalions deep. I immediately ordered the battery 
to open firo and the infantry to commence firing. The battery fired with great 
rapidity and with great accuracy of aim, which, in conjunction with the 
volleys of musketry from the rogiments in the front line, threw the 
enemy into confusion; and thus in his first attempt to take the battery the 
enemy was repulsed with heavy loss. The firing of his musketry during 
this advance was very rapid and quite destructive, and caused the battalion 
on the left of the battery to waver and the right to fall back. The enemy 
soon reformed, and with renewed vigor and cheers came on to the assault again 
and was again repulsed by the well-directed firo of the battery and the volleys 
and charges made by the Fifth Iowa. The three companies of the Fifth Iowa 
flanking the battery had by this time become so unmasked by the loss of 
men that it seemed impossible for the regiment or battery to hold out, and 



108 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

Colonel Boomer of the Twenty-sixth Missonri immediately brooght up four 
companies of his command, and lormed them in line aoder the most galliog 
tire on the right of the battery and left of the Fifth Iowa. The firing of the 
enemy at this time had become so destructive that Colonel Boomer promptly 
proceeded to bring up the balance of his command with great gallantry and 
personal bravery, but fell severely wounded before reaching his command and 
was carried from the field. 

I had during this time been making the greatest efibrts, in conjunction 
with the general commanding the division, members of the staff and the field 
officers of the regiment, to bring back the regiment placed upon the left of the 
battery to its first position. During these efforts Colonel Exldy, commanding 
the regiment with the greatest valor, fell, severely wounded, and was carried 
from the field. The fire was so galling it was found impossible to bring this 
regiment again into this line. Colonel Chambers, commanding the Sixteenth 
Iowa Infantry, had already fallen and had been carried from the field, and it 
did not at this time seem prudent to move the second line of battle in rear of 
the battery. I proceeded to the left flank of the whole line, with a view of 
drawing in that battalion in support of the battery, but the enemy bad then 
appeared in its front and was engaging it with musketry. There was no alter- 
native but for the battery, the Fifth Iowa and the four companies of the 
Twenty-sixth Missouri to fight the battle out with nearly the whole force of 
the enemy concentrated on that point, and nobly did they do this. The infim- 
try on the right continued to fire and charge upon the enemy under their gal- 
lant leader, Colonel Matthies, until their whole forty rounds of ammunition 
were exhausted and until it was too dark to distinguish one object from another, 
and nntilone-half of allthementhat had been taken upon the line upon the right 
of the battery were killed or wounded. The battery at the same time, under 
command of the gallant Lieutenant Sears, held out, if possible, with still greater 
desperation, firing until all the canister shot was exhausted and more than one- 
half of his men and nearly all his horses had been killed or wounded. After 
this the enemy came upon the ground where it was stationed, but did not re- 
move the battery from the field. 

The position where the remaining companies of the Twenty-sixth Missouri 
was left had become very much expos«^d to the enemy's fire, and the lieutenant 
colonel, in his discretion and without orders, removed them to an open field 
to the right of the Fifth Iowa, and then formed them in order of battle, where 
they remained for the night. The enemy making no further appearance on 
my left, I withdrew the Fourth Minnesota Infantry from that wing and ordered 
them to move forward and occupy the ground originally occupied by the bat- 
tery and the left of the Fifth Iowa. They promptly moved forward to within 
a few yards of this position, when they received a heavy volley of musketry 
from one of the regiments of the Second Brigade [the Eightieth Ohio. — Ed.]. 
I am happy to report that, with the single exception of the battalion on the 
left of the battery, each regiment obeyed every order with alacrity, and held 
every position assigned them until directed to vacate them; and, in case of the 
exception above named, I deem it proper to state that the enemy's fire in that 
position was so severe that veteran troops even could hardly be expected to 
hold it. The brigade was in order of battle, soon after the close of the engage- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 109 

meDt, ready for action, the following morning. Every regiment conducted 
iteelf with ooolnees and deliberation, and in no case fired except when the 
enemy appeared in fall view, and then with deliberate aim, bnt were sub- 
jected to foar fall volleys from regiments of other brigades of our own troops 
in the rear. 

I forward herewith the reports of the commanders of the respective regi- 
ments of my brigade, cx)ntaining full lists of casualties of the respective com- 
mands. The official leport of the Eleventh Ohio Battery will be forwarded at 
an early day, the only officer able to be on duty sinee the battle having been 
constantly engaged in refitting his battery for service. I regret that, in an ac- 
tion occupying a little more than an hour and a half, there were, out of about 
2,100 men of my brigade engaged, 684 killed or wounded and 24 missing. It 
will be a consolation to the friends of all to know that they died or were injured 
fighting manfully for their country, and in an engagement where the killed 
and wounded of the enemy were twice the number of our own. All the 
commanding and field officers of regiments and detachments labored with 
equal zeal and courage to perform their whole duty. Colonels Matthies 
and Boomer made most extraordinary efforts and with measurably successful 
results. The former was more fortunate than the latter, in being able to con- 
tinue his efforts to the close of the engagement. They both deserve from the 
country the reward that a grateful people are always ready to confer upon faith- 
ful servants. Lieut. L. B. Martin, acting assistant adjutant general on my stafi*, 
conducted himself with great gallantry, and labored incessantly and success- 
fully in rallying the men who had left their commands, and bringing them into 
position to do good execution against the enemy. The lineof officers deserving 
especial mention for gallantry in the field during the action are named and re- 
ferred to in the reports of the commanders of their respective regiments, which 
reports are by me approved and confirmed, and to which attention is directed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John B. Sanbobn, 
Colonel Commanding. 
Capt. B, M. Sawyer^ Assistant Adjutant General^ Third Division^ Army of the 
Mississippi. 



CHAPTER V. 

From loka to Corinth — Battle of Corinth — List of Casualties — Penoiuil 

Incidents. 

September ^Oih — Saturday, — Sly says: "No breakfast. Some 
of our men bought hard crackers at fifty cents apiece. Formed 
line without moving very far and then marched to the battlefield. 
It is a hard looking place. Found my things and went to the 
regiment. We advanced past the battlefield, and some shells 
were fired toward town, but not replied to. Marched back to 
the cross-roads at Barnett's. Met General Buford returning 
from leave of absence. Plentj^ of potatoes and pork. Clear. 
Good roads." 

September £lst — Sunday. — Marched back to Jacinto and 
camped in our old camp — J. C. Davis — at night, very tired 
and very hungry. Hot and clear. 

September 22d — Monday. — Move out to the old camp of the 
Twenty-sixth Missouri, which we find very dirty. Spend the 
day on police duty, and finally get the place to looking pretty 
well. Very early each morning we load the wagons and get 
ready to move. 

September 26th — Friday. — Companies A and B have to-day 
been in the service one year from enrollment. A. L. Brown 
was relieved as clerk in the commissary department of the 
regiment and assigned to duty as regimental wagonmaster, 
and Daniel Foster of Company A was assigned to .duty as his 
assistant. We have twenty-two six-mule teams in our regi- 
mental wagon train, and Citizen Edward G. Covington, who 
has been our wagonmaster up to this time, has been hired by 
Capt. Henry S. Chibb, our brigade quartermaster, to take 
charge of the brigade supply train. 

September SOth — Tuesday. — Remarks on monthly report made 
for the month of September, 1862 : " Total enlisted (present and 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. Ill 

absent), 842; aggregate, 880; aggregate last month, 916; total 
enlisted present for duty, 494; extra and daily duty, 67; sick, 
18; total enlisted present, 579; commissioned officers present 
for duty, 22; extra and daily duty, 2; sick, 1; total, 25. 

" Left camp east of Jacinto on the morning of the seventh of 
September and moved to the ground vacated by the Fifty-ninth 
Indiana south of Jacinto, bivouacked there, with teams loaded 
to move at a moment's notice, until the sixteenth of September. 
On morning of the sixteenth of September the regiment moved 
out on the Corinth road north of Jacinto, and on the morning 
of the seventeenth returned to camp. On the twentieth the 
regiment marched back to the cross-roads (from luka) and 
baited for the night, and the next day marched to our old 
camp east of Jacinto. On the twenty-second moved to the old 
camp of the Twenty-sixth Missouri, where we now are. Lieut. 
William K. Vickroy of Company B, in charge of intrenching 
tools since Sept. 24, 1862; Capt. Robert S. Donaldson, sick in 
camp; James H.Donaldson, on special duty as regimental com- 
missary of subsistence; Capt. Asa W. White, absent on re- 
cruiting service since July 18, 1862; Lieut. William F. Wheeler, 
detached as division quartermaster. Third Division, June 25, 
1862; Capt. John H. Parker of Company I, detailed on recruit- 
ing service July 13, 1863; L. B. Martin, on General Buford's 
staff; A. S. Fiske, sent north to collect winter clothing of regi- 
ment in St. Louis; M. T. Thomas, discharged from service 
Aug. 24, 1862, to accept promotion in another regiment. 

'' E. Le Qro, 
''''CapUtin Commanding Regiment, 

'\Daied Sept. 30, 1862." 

October 1st — Wednesday, — "Start for Corinth. It is cold and 
chilly in the morning but hot and clear in the afternoon. 
There is some talk of a fight with Price and Van Dorn. The 
regiment carries its knapsacks for the first time on a march of 
any distance. It goes pretty tough. I (T. M. Young) am 
ordered to assist in loading the teams; got behind by so doing, 
and did not catch up for ten miles. The ofticers threaten to 
fine us for getting behind. We arrive at our old camp, four 



112 HISTOBY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1862 

miles south of Corintb, at noon." It is surprising what an 
amount of weight some persons can carry. On this day's 
march, which was a tough one, I believe that Patrick Fallon 
of Company B carried fully seventy-five pounds in his knap- 
sack, haversack, ammunition and gun. 

October 2d — Tuesdojj. — Hot and clear. Moved to camp Big 
Spring, one mile, and about two miles south of Corinth. It is 
the old rebel camp Churchill Clark. 

October 2d — Rosecrans to Hamilton — Prepare yonr commaDd to moTe by 
three o'clock with three days* rations. Move into the ontskirts of town, to the 
north by apper bridge road. Bivouac yonr troope; colnmns closed in mass. 
Yonr artillery will accompany yon. Take post on Pardy road north of the 
town. (17, 2, 254.) 

October 3d — Friday, — George Sly of Company A says: 
" Started at daylight. Marched through town ; formed line of 
battle fronting the north. We kept moving to the left until we 
came to the Purdy road, when we went out to the old rebel iu- 
trenchments. The rebels attacked our right flank. The regi- 
ment charged across a field and drove them out of the woods, 
and the rebel line fell back. The battle stopped for the night. 
I went into town with the wounded, and they were put into 
the Tishomingo Hotel. The regiment moved back into the 
edge of town. Very hot. Water was hauled in wagons to 
our regiment." Two wagons hauled water. 

John II. Thurston of Compan}' C says: "A captain and as- 
sistant quartermaster and aid, who brought orders to Colonel 
Sanborn, was struck by a ball while conversing with the colonel, 
and knocked oflT his horse and fell into Musician Seibert's 
arms. The ball struck a memorandum book in his pocket and 
thus saved his life." Our camp equipage and supplies, com- 
prised of forty wagon loads, moved into the corral camp in Cor- 
intli to-day. Sergt. Henry R. Loomis of Company F was to-day 
assigned to carry the national colors. 

The Battle of Corinth. 

The village of Corinth occupied the ground in the north- 
east angle between the Memphis & Charleston and the Mobile 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEKS. 113 

& Ohio railroads. The Tishomingo Hotel stood south of the 
Memphis & Charleston and east of the junction. Behind this 
hotel and east of the Mobile road we had a large frame building 
filled with supplies for our army. There was a ridge of land 
in the southwest angle of these roads on which stood a large 
three-story brick building, which was known to us as the female 
seminary (Corona College). General Grant caused five re- 
doubts to be constructed on this elevated ground, which were 
named in their order, from south to north: Lathrop, Tanna- 
rath, Phillips, Williams and Robinett. Battery Williams, 
named for Capt. Geo. A. Williams, who commanded the siege 
artillery, was built on a knoll near to and south of the Mem- 
phis & Charleston railroad. Across this road, on another 
knoll that overlooked Corinth and the country west, stood 
Battery Robinett, which was manned by Lieutenants Robinett 
and Cullen and twenty-four men of Company C, First United 
States Infantry. This fort stood six hundred and seventy-five 
yards west of the town, and the wagon road to Chewalla, 
Pocahontas and Bolivar, after leaving Corinth and passing over 
a corduroy and a small creek, passed on the north side of it and 
then northwest. Battery Williams contained thirty-pounder 
Parrotts and Robinett had three twenty-pounder Parrotts, two 
of which commanded the ground to the west and the other the 
ground north of the village. East of the Mobile railroad and 
the Purdy wagon road, north of the village, was another re- 
doubt, named Battery Powell, and south of the village and 
the Charleston road another one, named Battery Madison. 
Some scattering trees stood on Seminary ridge, but those in 
the northwest angle of the roads had been cut down for about a 
half mile away, to serve as a thin abatis and give range to 
the artillery. In front of Fort Powell and three hundred and 
twenty-five yards distant, a little creek, then dry, meandered 
across the Purdy road and the railroad, where it joined another 
branch from the north and ran south half way between Robi- 
nett and the village. 

When Price moved his army to luka, in compliance with 
Bragge' order, for the purpose of following Rosecrans' army 

across the Tennessee river and into middle Tennessee, Van 
8 



114 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

Dorn moved his army up to Davis' Mill, ami, to divert Grant's 
attention from Price, marched, on September 20th, to within 
seven miles of Bolivar, where he was checked by the Union 
forces under Brig. Gen. J. G. Lauman, sent out from Bolivar 
by Brig. Gen. Hurlbut, who commanded the troops at that 
point. Price retreated from luka to Baldwyn and from thence 
to Ripley, and Van Dorn moving south these forces effected a 
junction at Ripley on September 28th and the two generals 
agreed that with tlieir united army they would try to execute 
their long cherished scheme of driving the Union forces from 
west Tennessee. Price, while at luka, had captured one of 
Rosecrans' engineer officers, who had in his possession a splen* 
did map. This he gave to Van Dorn and it proved a treasure 
to these officers in subsequently moving their army. 
General Van Dorn says in his report (377) : 

We marched the next moming toward Pocahontas, which place we reached 
October let. From an the information I coald obtain the foUowing was the 
situation of the Federal army at that time: Sherman at Memphis with aboat 
six thousand men; Hnrlbnt (afterward Ord) at Bolivar, with about eight 
thousand; Grant's headquarters at Jackson, with about three thousand; Rose- 
crans at Corinth, with about fifteen thousand; together with the foUowing 
outposts, viz. : Rienzi two thousand five hundred ; Burnsville, Jacinto and loka, 
about six thousand; at important bridges and on garrison duty about two 
thousand or three thousand, making in the aggregate about forty-two thousand 
in west Tennessee. Memphis, Jackson, Bolivar and Corinth were fortified, the 
works mounting siege guns; the outposts slightly fortified, having field pieces. 
Memphis, Bolivar and Corinth are on the arc of a circle, the chord of which 
from Memphis to Corinth makes an angle with the due east line about fifteen 
degrees south. Bolivar is about equi-distant from Memphis and Corinth, some- 
what nearer the latter, and is at the intersection of the Hatchie river and the 
Mississippi Central & Ohio railroad. Corinth is the strongest but the most 
salient point. 

Surveying the whole field of operations before me calmly and dispassion- 
ately, the conclusion forced itself irresistibly upon my mind that the taking of 
Corinth was a condition precedent to the accomplishment of anything of im- 
portance in west Tennessee. To take Memphis would be to destroy an im- 
mense amount of property without any adequate military advantage, even ad- 
mitting that it could be held without heavy guns against the enemy's gun and 
mortar boats. The line of fortifications around Bolivar is intersected by 
the Hatchie river, rendering it impossible to take the place by quick assault, 
and re -enforcements could be thrown in from Jackson by railroad, and situated as 
it is in the re-entrant angle of the three fortified places, an advance upon it would 
expose both my flanks and rear to an attack from the forces at Memphis and 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEEKS. 115 

OoriDth. It waB clear to mj mind that if a saccessAil attack coald be made 
upon Corinth from the west and northwest, the forces there driven back on the 
Tennvflsee and cat off, Bolivar and Jackson would easily fall, and then upon 
the arrival of the exchanged prisoners of war, west Tennessee would soon be in 
oar po oDCOc ion and communication with General Bragg effected through middle 
TenneflMe. The attack upon Corinth was a military necessity, requiring prompt 
and vigorous action. It was being strengthened daily under that astute sol- 
dier, General Rosecrans. * * * 

Field letums at Ripley showed my strength to be about twenty -two thous- 
and men. Rosecrans at Corinth had about fifteen thousand with about 
eight thousand additional men at outposts, from twelve to fifteen miles distant. 
J. might surprise and carry the place before these troops could be brought in. 
I therefore marched toward Pocahontas, threatening Bolivar; then turned 
saddenly across the Hatchie and Tuscumbia and attacked Corinth without hesi- 
tation, and did surprise that place before the outpost garrisons were called in. 
It was necessary that this blow should be sudden and decisive, and if nnsuc- 
eeasful that I should withdraw rapidly from the position between the two 
armies of Ord and Rosecrans. The troops were in fine spirits, and the whole 
army of west Tennessee seemed eager to emulate the armies of the Potomac 
and Kentucky. No army ever marched to battle with prouder steps, more 
hopeful countenances or with more courage than marched the army of west 
Tennessee out of Ripley on the morning of September 29th, on its way to 
Corinth. 

The enemy reached Pocahontas, which is a station on the 
Memphis & Charleston railroad, on October 1st. The wagon 
road running from this place to Corinth crossed the Hatchie 
river at Davis' bridge, about a mile and a quarter east of Poca- 
hontas. This bridge had been destroyed, but troops were set 
to work at once to rebuild it, and on the morning of the sec- 
ond the army passed over it on its march for Corinth, which 
was about twenty-two miles distant. It is about five miles 
from Davis' bridge to the Tuscumbia river and between these 
streams the enemy parked the most of his long wagon trains, 
and left a brigade of cavalry, under command of Qen. Wirt 
Adams, to guard them, and crossing the Tuscumbia river 
bivouacked on the night of the second, after driving in the 
pickets of Rosecrans' army near Chewalla, about ten miles 
from Corinth. 

The Union generals had not been idle, and from deserters 
coming into our lines and our Union scouts. Grant and Rose- 
crans were kept pretty well informed of every move of the 
enemy. Jackson, Tenn., being at the junction of the railroads 



116 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

where the Mississippi Central, leaving the Mobile & Ohio, 
runs south through Bolivar, Grand Junction, Holly Springs 
and Jackson, and the other one through Corinth, New Rienzi, 
Booneville, Quntown, Meridian and on to Mobile, was regard- 
ed as the most strategical point for the headquarters of the 
army and General Grant established them there on September 
26th, by General Orders, No. 84. (2, 17, 240.) 

On October 1st, Grant, from near Corinth, sent the following 
to Halleck: 

For seyeral days there has been a moTement of the rebels soath of my front, 
which left it in doubt whether Bolivar or Corinth was to be the point of at- 
tack. It is now clear that Corinth is to be the point, and that from the west 
and southwest. Price, Van Dom, Villepique and Rust are together. Rust 
commands Breckinridge's forces. * * * My position is precarions, but I 
hope to get out of it aU right. 

As soon as the enemy began to rebuild Davis' bridge, the 
Union scouts reported the fact and all doubts as to their in- 
tentions were removed. As soon as his cavalry scouts reached 
Young's and the two other bridges, two to five miles from 
Chewalla, a sharp skirmish ensued with the Union forces, who 
destroyed the bridges. 

While Grant on the first of October was satisfied that the 
enemy would attack Corinth, Rosecrans was not, but believed 
that the enemy intended some other plan, perhaps to move 
across the two railroads, and by forming his lines north of 
Corinth try to draw the army out of their works into the 
open country. On the second he sent this to Grant (17, 

What do you think of the plan of my moving with my entire oommand, 
save, perhaps, six regiments, and crossing the Hatch ie, say near Ruckersville or 
higher up, as report may show, and push those fellows to the wall ? 

Colonel Oliver, with some infantry, and aided by the First 
Minnesota Light Artillery with its twelve-pounder howitzers, 
guarded the approaches in front of the enemy. His advance 
on the third pressed them closely, and before reaching Cane 
creek, which crossed the Bolivar wagon road outside of the old 
rebel line of intrenchments, an axle of one of the howitzers, 
which had been shattered at Shiloh and banded, again became 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 117 

disabled, and seeing that they could not save it they spiked the 
gun and dumped it into the creek. This gun was subsequently 
recovered. After destroying the bridge, Oliver's troops took a 
position on the hill north of the railroad, about 8 a. m., and 
concluded to hold it, although his orders were to fall back. 
Training his other howitzer on the bridge to prevent the enemy 
from rebuilding it, his troops began a stubborn resistance. Mc- 
Arthur, coming up, ordered Oliver to hold his position at all 
hazards, and he then rode back for re-enforcements (354). Oli- 
ver had at this time about five hundred men — a James rifled 
six-pounder had been sent to him to replace the disabled how- 
itzer — and with this force and some skirmishers on the line, he 
held the hill for about two hours, when two regiments of Mc- 
Arthur's brigade came up to his assistance. These troops 
drove the enemy back across the railroad and up the opposite 
hill. The firing then ceased. General McArthur then came 
up with Baldwin's brigade of Davis' division, and under his di- 
rection formed on the right and left of the line. Baldwin 
threw out skirmishers, but after advancing only about one hun- 
dred and fifty yards they returned and reported that lines of 
battle were formed against them. Oliver finding that the ene- 
my was advancing in line of battle and that his force was be- 
ing outflanked and breaking, withdrew from his position. 

The Rebel Line. 
Van Dorn says: 

At daybreak of the third the march was resDined, the precaution haying 
been taken to cut the railroad between Corinth and Jackson, which was done 
by a sqnadron of Armstrong's cavaliy. LoveU's division in front kept the road 
on the sonth side of the Memphis & Charleston railroad. Price, after marching 
on the same road aboat five miles tamed to the left, crossing the railroad, and 
formed a line of battle in front of the outer line of intrenchments and about 
three miles from Corinth. Lovell formed line of battle, after some heavy skir- 
miahlDg, having to construct a passage across the dry bed of Indian creek [Cane 
creek, and this was the bridge destroyed by Oliver] for his artilleiy under fire. 
The following was the order of battle: The three brigades of Lovell's division 
— Rust on the right, Bowen's in the centre and Villepique on the left, in line, 
with reserres in rear of each; Jackson^s cavalry brigade on the right en echelon, 
the left flank of the division on the Charleston railroad; Price's corps on 
the left, with the right flank resting on the same road; Maury's division on 
the right, with Moore's and Pflfer's brigades in line, CabeU's in reserve; H6- 



118 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

berths diYuion on the leH;, with Gates' and Martin's brigades in line, CSoIbert's 
in reserve; Armstrong's cavalry brigade on the extreme left, somewhat de- 
tached and ont of view. Hubert's left was masked behind a timbered ridge 
with orders not to bring it into action nntil the last moment. This was done 
in hopes of inducing the enemy to weaken his right by re-enforcing his centre and 
left — where the attack was first to be made — that his right might be forced. At 
ten o'clock all skirmishers were driven into the intrenchments and the two 
armies were in line of battle, confronting each other in force. A belt of fallen 
timber or abatis, about four hundred yards in vridth, extended along the whole 
line of intrenchments. This was to be crossed. The attack was commenced 
on the right by Lovell's division and extended gradually to the left, and by 
hali-pastone the whole line of outer works was carried. — [ Van Dam*8 BeporU"] 

The Union Line and Force. 

General Rosecrans in his October, 1886, Century Magazuie 
article, states : 

To meet all probable contiugencies, nine o'clock on the morning of the 
third found my troops disposed as foHows: Hamilton's division, about 3,700 
strong, on the Purdy road north of the town, to meet any attempt from the 
north; Da vies' division, 3,204 strong, between the Memphis & Charleston and 
Mobile & Ohio railways, northwest of the town; McKean's division, 5,315 
strong, to the left of Da vies', and in rear of the old Halleck line of batteries; 
and Stanley's division, 3,500 strong, mainly in reserve on the extreme left, 
looking toward the Kossuth road. 

Davis had in the morning moved his three bri^des, which 
were commanded by Generals Hackleman, Oglesby and Colo- 
nel Baldwin, and formed a line of battle in the angle between 
the railroads, a mile and a half outside of the town, Hackleman 
being on the right and Baldwin in reserve. He subsequently 
moved his command to the left and front toward the Mobile 
road and was there when he sent Baldwin to Oliver. He 
afterward moved Hackleman and Oglesby out to the old rebel 
breastworks on Hamilton's left, leaving quite a gap between 
his own force and Oliver's. The enemy, in moving forward, 
passed in between these forces, causing Davies, after desperate 
fighting to keep falling back and forming lines to the rear until 
he had formed his. fourth and last line of battle seven hundred 
and twentv-five yards outside of Robinett. Davies during 
the day had sent numerous requests to Rosecrans for re- 
enforcements. It was a long time before the most of Mower's 
brigade of Stanley's division moved forward to his aid. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEBS. 119 

and, after fighting furiously four regiments under Me Arthur 
on the left, charged on the enemy and drove them back. They, 
however, again advanced ontheleftand through the gap between 
Da vies and McKean, and renewed the contest with great 
furv, and the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Iowa of Crocker's Iowa 
brigade of McKean's division, moving up, after a contest of 
three-quarters of an hour, drove them back. 

Hamilton, on the extreme right, took position at daylight 
north of the town, and at 10:00 a. m. had formed a line on the 
Purdy road at the old rebel line of intrenchments, two and 
one-half miles north of the town, his left connecting with 
Davies at the railroad. As the enemy pressed Davies* troops 
back toward the town Hamilton gradually changed the front 
of his division. He says: 

Mj front was gradnanj changed to meet the advance of the enemy and so 
steady and rapid was his progress that in order to present my front to him my 
position at 5 P. H. was nearly the reverse of that when communication was 
opened with Davies. The division had swung around on the centre as a pivot. 

As Davies fell back Hamilton prepared to assault their left 
flank and directed Sullivan to move his brigade down on the 
enemy, his left covering the Purdy road, Dillon's Sixth Wis- 
consin Battery moved forward on the left of the brigade, the 
other batteries being placed in reserve. This force — under 
Colonel Holmes, Tenth Missouri — Sullivan complaining of 
feeling unwell and retiring from the field — moved forward 
to the railroad and its skirmishers became warmly engaged 
with the enemy's left flank. General Buford was ordered to 
support this movement of Sullivan's troops with his brigade, 
but by an error he led his troops too far to the right. 

General Buford said in his report, that at 5:00 P. M. of the 
third instant he deployed three regiments at right angles to 
the Purdy road, but facing south, to co-operate with the Sec- 
ond Brigade in finding the enemy, who was supposed to have 
crossed the railroad and got between us and Corinth. 
**I deployed the Fourth Minnesota on the right, qext the Fifty- 
ninth Indiana, next the Forty-eighth Indiana into an open 
field, but it was closed on the south and west with down brush- 
wood and timber. The deployment was made with Company 



120 HIBTOBY OF TH£ FOURTH BEGIMENT [1862 

K, Fourth Minnesota, as skirmishers, etc." This is the time 
and place where the regiment made the charge and Captain 
Mooers and one private was killed at this time. The enemy 
received a terrible scare, believing that their left was being 
turned, and they made dispositions to meet the threatened 
danger. 

It was not deemed proper by Hamilton to advance Sullivan's 
troops until Buford'e brigade could be returned to aid them. 
This movement on the enemy's left flank caused several of 
their batteries to open on Hamilton's force, and their fire was 
kept up for about half an hour. This movement on the left of 
the enemy undoubtedly caused them to hesitate in their move- 
ments against Davies' and checked their advance upon the 
town. 

It was now sundown and the enemy rested on his arms 
eight hundred yards beyond Robinett, and our forces retired 
to the inner line of works. After dark. General Hamilton 
moved his division around to the right to avoid the enemy, 
who was between us and the town, and about midnignt formed 
his line on the north side of the village, his left resting near 
Battery Powell. 

This ended the battle of the third. The Confederates had 
met with fearful losses, but were highly elated at their success 
in driving their forces like a wedge almost through the centre 
of the Union lines. Van Dorn had hoped that one day's opera- 
tions would end the contest. He says: "One hour more of 
daylight and victory would have soothed our grief for the 
gallant dead who sleep on that lost but not dishonored field. 
The army slept on its arms within six hundred yards of Cor- 
inth, victorious so far." 

Night settled over the scene and active preparations were 
made by both sides for the contest on the morrow. Rosecrans 
reformed his line, McKean's division occup^'ing College Hill 
and defending Fort Williams; Stanley's defending Robinett, 
his line extending along the wagon road from Robinett to the 
town; the Fifth Minnesota occupying the right, in town, with 
its left resting near the railroad depot; Davies' line ex- 
tended to the right of the unfinished redoubt (Powell), while 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEK8. 121 

Hamilton's was on its right and faced to the north and north- 
east. Axes and spades were kept busy during the night, and 
some slight breastworks were built of logs and other material, 
covering a part of Davies' front. Hamilton's division built 
no works of any kind for its protection. The most of the 
night was occupied with these preparations and placing the 
artillery in position. Van Dorn and his army plainly heard 
the rumbling of the wheels and the noise in the Union lines, 
and while some believed that Rosecrans was evacuating the 
town, others thought that the troops at the outlying posts were 
being drawn in. 

Captain Cummins, acting inspector general (rebel), sa3's in 
his report (395) : "All night of the third a great rattling of 
wagons, shouting of teamsters and suppressed murmur of hur- 
rying hosts denoted great activity, from which some of us sur- 
mised that the enemy were evacuating." 

During the night of the third Fuller's Ohio brigade took its 
position to defend the line at Robinett. Captain Brown of the 
Sixty -third Ohio was on duty, with two companies of this regi- 
ment, on the Bolivar road. Creeping up cautiously he captured 
Lieutenant Tobin, who commanded a battery, and his bugler, 
who were looking for a place to plant their guns. 

Van Dorn says: 

DnriDg the Dight three batteries (Tobin, Sengstak and McNallj's, fourteen 
gnns) were ordered to take position on the ridge overlooking the town from the 
west, jost where the hills dip into the flat extending into the railroad depot, 
with instmctions to open npon the town at 4:00 A. M. 

In getting into position one of these guns was driven into 
the Union line and captured. 

Van Dorn's plan was for Hebert to begin the attack on the 
left at daylight, moving down both sides of the railroad and 
the Purdy ridge, the other forces to wait until they were 
heavily engaged, when they were all to move forward and as- 
sault the works. 

The Second Day. 

At 4:00 A. M. the rebels opened on the town with their artillery. 
It was still dark and the flash of each piece from the command- 



122 HISTOBT OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

ing ridge on which they were located, which was higher than 
College Hill, could be plainly seen. It was a grand sight to 
behold the long streaks of flame as they darted out in the dark- 
ness. The most of the shot and shell went high over every- 
thing and screaming into the country beyond. Some, however, 
burst among the troops on the hill, injuring a good many of 
them. Our batteries did not reply at once and we wondered 
what the matter could be. In a few minutes, however, dawn 
began to creep over the landscape and Captain Williams 
opened with his thirty-pounders; Captain Phillips, six hundred 
yards southwest,next joined in with his eight-inch howitzer,which 
enfiladed the batteries of the enemy. Robinett and several 
light batteries also united in the music, which silenced the ene- 
my's guns within thirty minutes and caused them to withdraw 
from the field — they being compelled to leave a gun and caissoa 
behind which our forces captured. As soon as possible after 
the rebels began firing on the town the wounded in the two 
hotels were moved from them to a hospital on the east side of 
the village near the corral of the wagon trains. 

Hebert was sick on the morning of the fourth, and did not 
report the fact at once. When it was known General Qreen 
assumed command of his division, which was still on Price's 
left, and it was nine o'clock before the movement began. At 
this time the Confederate line consisted of the four brigades of 
Hebert's division (commanded by Little at luka), from left to 
right; the Second, commanded by Colbert; Fourth, Martin's 
and McLain's; First, Gates', with the Third, Green's, com- 
manded by Moore, in reserve; on its right Maury's division, 
three brigades, Pfifer's and Moore's, with Cabell's in reserve. 
In the advance of these troops, Moore's attacked Robinett, 
Lovell's division being on Maury's right, south of the Memphis 
railroad and in front of College Hill, and consisting of three 
brigades commanded by Rust, Villepique and Bowen. The 
Thirty-fifth Mississippi Infantry, many of wliom were after- 
w^ard captured by our regiment at AUatoona, was in Moore's 
brigade of Maury's division. 

The Federal line of battle from right to left was as follows: 
Hamilton's division, with Buford's brigade on the extreme 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEKS. 123 

right; then Sullivan's on its left, and in reserve, next came the 
three brigades of Davies' division, Hackleman's, Oglesby's and 
Baldwin's; then Stanley's division of two brigades, Fuller's and 
Mower's; then McKean's division, three brigades, McArthur's, 
Oliver's and Crocker's. General Hamilton says: 

From sunrise to 9:00 A. M. there was little firing, but at 10:00 A. M. the 
enemy having completed all his arrangements, under cover of the woods, his 
columns moved to the assault. The lines of the two armies converged toward 
the centre, and while one column of attack moved directly across the open 
ground against Davies', two columns, equally strong, crossed the Purdy road a 
full half mile north of Davies' and one deploying as it came upon the crest of 
the ridge, the other moved over the ridge far to the eastward and changing 
direction to the right deployed under cover of a cloud of skirmishers and came 
directly down on my front from the north. While this was being done the 
oolumn moving against Davies had progressed steadily up the slope and into 
the town, sweeping away his troops and carrying his batteries on the right 
with the bayonet — had swept over the ridge with resistless force into the valley 
below. Dillon's battery of my division, on Davies' right, was carried in this 
assault. But here the advance of the rebels was checked by the firm stand of 
the Tenth Missouri Regiment under Major Homey. Along the ridge and to 
the eastward on my right, as soon as the enemy came in sight, my reserve 
batteries, the Twelfth Wisconsin, Eleventh Ohio and Batteiy M, First 
Missouri, opened with guns double-shotted with canister and sweeping 
over the whole front with their storm of iron. The rapid play of these 
batteries seemed to check the advance of the enemy, and I directed an 
immediate advance of my whole line of infantry. It was executed at the 
opportune moment. The regiments opened fire, and advancing with cheers 
and volleys, their banners streaming to the winds, they moved to the 
outset. It was too much for even rebel courage. Checked by the storm of 
canister, they could not stand up against the charge of the veterans who had 
met and conquered them at luka. Halting, wavering, they turned and fell 
back, pursued by the whole line. Their left was routed, and followed up by 
the regiments on the left of my line under Sullivan and Holmes they were 
driven from the valley over the ridge, followed by a line of bayonets and a 
deadly fire. The batteries were all recaptured, and quick as the hands of 
brave men could man them, they again poured into the retreating, routed host 
the death -dealing canister. The tide of assault was thus first stemmed and 
turned on my extreme right by the splendid charge of Bnford's brigade, spread 
along my left over the ground from which Davies had been driven through the 
town, along Stanley's front and to the enemy's extreme right. The repulse 
was complete. The day was saved. The victory which hung in the balance 
was ours. 

Davies' troops gave way along his whole line and the enemy 
occupied it for a short time. Some of them entered the town 
and passed through tlie j'ard where Rosecrans had his head- 



124 HI8TOKY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1862 

quarters, several having been killed in Mark Hampton's door- 
yard; others came as far as the public square. Davies' division 
soon rallied and aided in driving the enemy back and recap- 
turing their line. The Fifth Minnesota on the left of Davies 
also aided very materiall}' in accomplishing this result by 
changing front and pouring a destructive and enfilading fire 
into his line, charging him through the streets and out over the 
works. 

The same rebel battalions were opposing our brigade in this 
battle which came against it at luka. Lieut. H. M. Neil of 
the Eleventh Ohio Battery sat on his horse during the action, 
encouraging his men and bidding defiance to the enemy as he 
approached, daring him to come and capture his battery. 

Our regiment during the action supported this battery. The 
Twenty-sixth Missouri was on our right, the Fifth Iowa on our 
left, and, on its left, the Forty-eighth and Fifty-ninth Indiana, 
both supporting Batter}' M, First Missouri Light Artillery. 

As soon as Price's forces became heavily engaged on the left, 
LovelTs division moved forward against the troops of McEean 
on College Hill, intending to storm and carry the works. 
Bowen says: "The information given that there were but 
three guns at this point was erroneous, as I had thus developed 
at least twenty." Lovell's forces were compelled to withdraw 
and Villepique's brigade was moved to the left to support 
Price's centre as it was being driven from the town, and Rust's 
brigade was also moved to the rear and placed in position on 
the Oliver hill to protect the rear until the enemy crossed In- 
dian creek. 

General Stanley, looking at the field from College Hill, says: 
" Should God spare me to see many battles I never expect to see 
a more grand sight than the battlefield presented at this mo- 
ment. The enemy had commenced falling back from the town 
and batteries before our advancing infantry. The roll of mus- 
ketry and the flash of artillery was incessant as the enemy tried 
in vain to form line under fire. As the smoke cleared up I 
can safely say I could see every fighting man on the field. But 
we were not long left spectators of the fight. Our shirmishers 
were driven in and soon a line of battle of a brigade crowned the 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 125 

ridge opposite us and commenced to pour a destructive mus- 
ketry lire upon * * * the troops at Robinett." This redoubt 
was supported by Fuller's Ohio brigade, the Forty-third oc- 
cupying the intrenchment running from the fort to the rail- 
road and just long enough for a regimental front, the Sixty- 
third, Twenty-seventh and Thirty-ninth extending along the 
wagon road toward the town, the Eleventh Missouri being 
held in reserve. During the time that the enemy was 
being repulsed from the town a heavy body of troops 
emerged from the timber and approached Robinett. They 
marched steadily forward in quick time; the sun shining on 
their gun barrels made them look as if they were being carried 
ataright-shoulder-shifl; their flags are unfurled. Robinett fires 
at them with his Parrotts, but the infantry lie down in line 
along the road until the rebels are within fifty feet of them, 
when they deliver their fire and the enemy turn and fly in great 
confusion back into the woods, which are dense and hide all 
movements effectually from our sight. In a few minutes they 
are reformed, strongly re-enforced, and Col. W. P. Rogers 
of the Second Texas, taking a flag in his hand, leads them again 
to the assault. The action is short, sharp and desperate. The 
ditch at Robinett was five feet deep. Colonel Rogers was 
killed just outside of it. Some of the enemy jump into it, scale 
the parapet and open fire on the rear of the Forty-third. The 
Sixty-third Ohio fight gallantly but cannot contend alone with 
the superior force, and Colonel Sprague withdrew the left and 
centre. The gunners seize their muskets and try to repel the 
enemy, but finding they cannot do it, retire to an angle of the 
fort, as previously instructed, when Captain Williams, who 
knows just how many feet it is from his guns, bursts a shell on 
top of the fort and another near its right edge. In the mean- 
time the Forty-third Ohio and Eleventh Missouri changed front 
and stormed up to the right and left of Robinett, and with the 
aid of the Sixty-third and Twenty-seventh Ohio drove the ene- 
my from the fort and back into the woods. This ended the 
battle of Corinth. Col. Jos. L. Kirby Smith of the Forty- 
third Ohio during this assault was mortally wounded and the 
loss in the brigade was heavy. Thirteen out of the twenty-six 
men in the fort, including Lieutenant Robinett, are wounded. 



126 



HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT 



[1862 



The enemy immediately began his flight from the field. 
Ruflt'8 brigade covered the rear as far as Chewalla. 
Captain Cummins says (395): 

Oar linee melted under their fire like snow in thaw. We fell back that 
night nine miles. Oar division did not nnmber eight hundred men. When we 
got into Corinth he swallowed np seven brigades of as good fighting men as I 
ever saw in about twenty minntes. 

Brig Gen. Jas. B. McPherson was Grant's superintendent 
of railroads. General Grant sent him on the fourth with a 
provisional brigade to Corinth to aid Rosecrans. Finding the 
railroad track torn up and the enemy across it, he left the cars 
fifteen miles north of Corinth and taking the wagon road on 
the east side of the railroad, marched into the town, arriving 
at 4:00 P. M. 

LOSSES. 

The losses as reported in the war records were, in Rosecrans' 
report, 355 killed, 1,841 wounded, 324 captured or missing; 
and in Van Dorn's report, 505 killed, 2,150 wounded, 2,183 
missing. Rosecrans stated in his report: 

The enemy's loss in kiUed was 1,423 officers and men. Their loss in 
wounded, taking the general average, amounts to 6,692. We took 2,268 prison- 
ers, among whom are 137 field officers, captains and subalterns. We also took 
fourteen stand of colors, two pieces of artillery, 3,300 stand of smaU arms. 

In a book published by the Pension Office of losses in battles 
during the war. Van Dorn's loss is reported as, killed, 2,017; 
wounded, 7,854; missing, 4,350. 

LIST OF KILLED AND WOUNDED OF THE FOURTH MINNESOTA INFANTRY, AT 
THE BATTLE OF CORINTH, MISS., OCT. 3 AND 4, 1862. 

EXLISTKD II KK. 



Name. 


Rank. 


Co. 

K 

E 

D 
A 

F 
G 
G 
H 
H 
H 
I 

K 

1 


Remarks. 


CommUsioTud OMcer s 

KUted- 
Robert P. Muoen 


Captain. 

1st. Lieut 

Prirate. 

Prirate. 

Private. 

Sergt, 

Private. 

Corporal. 

Private. 

Private. 

Private. 

Private. 


Killed on third, while commanding on sklimlah 

line. 

Wounded in head. 

Killed : mortally wounded; died on the fourth. 

Wounded. 

Wounded. 


CbmmiuUmed Ojffl eers 
Wounded — 

James W. Crawford 

EnlUted Men, 
Frank Wilson 


0«mand Osmandson 

Michael Riley 


William Schalefoo 


Severely. 

Wounded in ankle. 

In arm. or shuulder ; slight. 

In thigh. 

In arm. 


August Loch 

Omar D. Clark. 


Colin Buchanan.... 

John Ma|{nu!* 


Charles O. Healy 


In hand. 


Augustus F. Hagerman.... 


Injured bj ahorse. 



1862] MINNBSOTA DTPANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 127 

The foregoing list we obtained from the St. Paul papers. 
We have been informed recently that the following persons 
were injured: Geo. W. Bishop, Company K, was wounded 
in the knee on the third; G. S. Patch, first lieutenant of Com- 
pany H, was sunstruck on the third, as was also W. T. 
Kittredge, sergeant major; E. U. Russell, Company A, in- 
jured in left side; C. Bromwich, Company P, was sunstruck 
on the third. 

Maj. W. T. Kittredge, under date of May 24, 1888, 
writes us as follows of Lieut. J. W. Crawford's wound: "I 
took care of him day and night from October 4th, until he was 
carried to the hospital, and I know that he was badly hurt. 
Long after the war I read an account, printed, I think, in a 
surgical journal, of the successful operation performed by Dr. 
Agnew (just deceased), who, after two trials, extracted an 
ounce ball from the orbit, one side and back of the eye-ball. 
Report pronounced it one of the strangest cases in all the 
records of the war." And Lieutenant Crawford, in a letter of 
March 26, 1888, states that an ounce ball was removed within 
five mouths after the battle. 

General Sanborn writes: 

At aboat foar o'clock in the afternoon, when the command was oat 
about three milee on the Pnrd j road, and the enemy's lines of skirmishers ap- 
peared in front, Gen. C. S. Hamilton, in confidence, informed the writer that 
be saw no waj of saving the position at Corinth; that the enemy's centre was 
near the town and oar depots; that his lines extended across the road by which 
we marched oat to oar position — which, in fact, was oar rear — and that he 
soppoeed that the army wonld retreat daring the night and wonld try and 
cross the Tennessee at Pittsbnrgh Landing and try and effect a janction with 
Baeirs army in northern Tennessee or Kentacky, and that in that event my 
force mast act as rear gaard and fight and hold the enemy as long as possible 
at all available points. This was a thnnderbolt. I had formed no idea of the 
serioasness of the sitnation. I went into action feeling that all was lost ex- 
cept the army, and that we mast fight with desperation to save that. The attack 
made by my regiment apon the enemy's left and rear was saccessfal. It 
checked his advance. It cansed delay, and necessitated the formation of a new 
line of battle on his part. It was almost dark when I retnmed to the place 
where the dolefal condition had been commanicated to me, to report to Ham- 
ilton for farther orders. Rosecrans was there, and the generals were engaged 
in the most earnest conversation. **This movement has worked splendidly,'' 
said Rosecrans to HamUton, *'and I think yon had better move right forward 



128 HI8TOBY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

in the same line to-morrow morning.'' Hamilton responded: ''Rosecrans, it 
will never do. Oar whole line most be reformed during the night. Each 
division must be so formed that it will support and command the front of the 
other, and each battery most be so placed that it will support and command 
the front of every other battery, or we shall be all torn to pieces before nine 
o'clock to-morrow. '' Rosecrans looked steadily and thoaghtfnlly down upon 
the pommel of his saddle for a few minutes, and said: '* Hamilton, I believe 
you are right. Bring in your command, and we will reform during the night." 
Hamilton at once said to me: ** Withdraw your command as quietly as poe- 
sible and march to Corinth by the Farmington road, and bring in all the 
wounded and all the public property." The command reached Corinth at 
midnight, and no man ever appreciated more highly the whisky and sleep 
found in that bivouac. The result of the attack of the enemy next day showed 
the wisdom of this movement. The history of the war does not record a more 
gallant attack and assault than that made by the enemy on the following morn- 
ing or a more decisive and disastrous repulse. 

Hamilton's Advice Saves tue Army. 

It was a well-known fact to nearly all of the officers and a 
great many of the rank and file of General Hamilton's division 
at Corinth, that his advice to General Rosecrans on the uight 
of the third saved us the day at Corinth. General Sanborn 
has furnished us with the following letter from General Ham- 
ilton, written to him under date of Sept. 13, 1880 : 

Referring to the battle of Corinth, the disposition of the troops at the dose 
of the first day was so fatal, or would have been for the second day, that I re- 
member the statement made you. Long after dark of the first day's fight I 
received an order from Rosecrans by his chief of staff, Ducat, to place all of my 
guns in position and play toward the enemy from ten to twelve in the night 
and then to charge him with the bayonet at midnight. I sent word back at 
once that I would not execute the order until I had a personal conference with 
Rosecrans and could explain to him the fatal results of its execution. That 
brought him to me about 9:00 P. M. and his first question was, * * What do yon mean 
by disobeying my order?'' I replied, ^* General, I am ready to execute that 
order or any other, but for your sake, and the sake of this army and the ooontiy, 
I have declined to do it until I could see you and explain what must certainly 
follow. I then showed him that our movement on the enemy's flank in the 
afternoon had simply checked his movement toward the town; that Davies' divi- 
sion had been badly whipped, and there was nothing then between the enemy 
and the town; that he would move on the town at daylight and his (Rosecrans') 
army would be cut in two and overwhelmed in detail; that as the troops then 
were placed I could support nobody, and no division could afford prompt sap- 
port to any other; that the midnight movement on the enemy wth the bayonet 
must be through a dense forest — the lines would be broken up and so disordered 
that they would be useless at daylight; that his only salvation was to bring all hia 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 129 

troope together around the town and so place them that one oonld snpport any 
other; that the right should rest where we afterward put it and the left should 
be put in the earth works to the west of the town, and that one division should 
be held in reserve to succor any point. He saw it, and thank God for it! his 
acting on my advice saved us all, and saved the valley of the Mississippi to the 
Ohio; for if we had lost that battle there were no troops left to stop the enemy 
from the Ohio. * * * I am, truly yours, 

C. S. Hamilton. 

Personal Incidents. 

The duties of Ooramissary Sergt. Thomas P. Wilson and 
Quartermaster Sergt. Francis E. Collins did not require them 
to go into the battle unless they chose to do so, but both ot 
them acted as volunteer aids to Colonel Sanborn during both 
days of the fight. When the colonel saw that Captain Mooers 
had been shot, he sent Sergeant Wilson with instructions to the 
next officer in command of the skirmishers, and also directed 
him to see that the body of Captain Mooers was recovered. 
Wilson in executing his orders, rode fully eighty rods on the 
crest of a hill, exposed to the fire of the entire rebel skirmish 
line. Both Wilson and Collins performed gallant service dur- 
ing both days. 

On the first day of the battle A. L. Brown, the wagonmas- 
ter, sent two teams to haul water to the regiment for the use 
of the men. 

Capt. R. S- Donaldson of Company C had been granted a 
furlough, had started, and was stopping at the Tishomingo 
Hotel awaiting a train of cars. He informs us that a casket 
was procured at Corinth for the remains of Captain Mooers, 
and he believes that they were subsequently removed by his 
relatives to the North. 

Maj. L. L. Baxter states that he had resigned previous to 
the battle. General Sanborn corroborates this statement, and 
says that at that time Baxter was out of the service. 

At this time our regimental train consisted of twenty-two six- 
mule teams, and Daniel Foster was the assistant wagonmaster. 
Mr. Foster had been quite severely injured while we were at 
Jacinto, by having been kicked by a mule, and for this reason 
the wagonmaster placed him in charge of the two ammunition 

9 



130 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

wagons of the regiment on the field, while he superintended 
the removal of the forty-six wagon loads of camp equipage and 
supplies into the corral at Corinth. On the night of the third 
Foster was sent into the city for supplies, and on his return 
General Smith sent a barrel of whisky out by him to the regi- 
ment, and after it had moved to the inner line, about midnight, 
all of the men who desired it received a liberal supply. 

During the morning of the fourth the wagonmaster was di- 
rected to proceed to the commissary building, in the rear of the 
Tishomingo Hotel, with three or four teams, and load them 
with hard bread, salt, coftee, and other rations, so that in case 
of disaster in the battle we would have something to eat while 
on the retreat. We proceeded there with the teams, but found 
no person in charge of the building or its supplies. While help- 
ing ourselves, or just getting ready to do so, we observed the 
preparations at Robinett, which was plainly in sight, for the 
reception of the enemy; saw the Ohio regiments of Fuller's 
brigade lying along the road between the redoubt and us, await- 
ing the approach of the rebels; saw the enemy marching 
steadily from the woods, Robinett firing at them as they ad- 
vanced, but not a shot was fired bv the infantry on either side. 
They approach nearer and nearer, the glint on the gun-barrels 
showing us plainly that they are carried at a right-shoulder 
shift, until from our position it appeared as if they were at the 
fort and planting their flag upon its parapet. We were highly 
incensed because the infantry had not fired and driven them 
back. But, look! our regiments of infantry rose as one man 
and poured a volley into the rebels at short range, which at 
once sent them flying in the greatest of disorder back to the 
woods. It was a glorious sight. But fearing that the day might 
be disastrous to us and for the purpose of receiving orders for 
the movement of our large train we left the teams in charge ot 
Mr. Iliirvey Fletcher, who was driving one of them, and started 
throusrh the town on our horse to visit the resciment and re- 
ceive orders. After crossing the public square we met large 
numbers of the infantry of Davies' division who had broken 
and were retreating before the enemy. A few scattering cav- 
alrymen were heading them off and trying to persuade or drive 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTKY VOLUNTEEES. 131 

them back to the front. Finding it impossible to get to the 
regiment without making too long a detour we concluded to 
return to the teams we had just left, and soon met them com- 
ing toward us. Mr. Fletcher greeted us with: "Brown! we 
iust saw the most desperate fight up at that fort that you ever 
saw or heard of. The rebels returned just after you left, and 
it was a hand-to-hand struggle. While it was progressing our 
teams got frightened and all of our eflEbrts could not stop them. 
They ran over all of those empty barrels in the rear of the 
Tishomingo Hotel." About an eighth of an acre of ground 
was covered with them. We stopped the train, returned and 
got the supplies, returned to the corral with the teams, and 
then visited the regiment and the battlefield. 

Colonel Sanborn's Report. 

Headquabtebs Fourth Minnesota Voluntebbs, 

Camp, neab Ck)BiNTH, Miss., Oct, 12, 1862. 

Sib: I have the honor to report that I moved mj command, in connection 
with the other regiments comprising the First Brigade, from this camp ta a posi- 
tion on the north side of Corinth on the morning of the third instant at 4:00 a. 
sc., and there formed in order of battle on the right of the brigade and the 
Third Division. Company K was deployed as skirmishers, which took them 
to a point ontside of the defenses of the town. At 10:00 A. M. the skirmishers 
were drawn in by order and the regiment was marched abont two miles and 
formed in order of battle behind the rifle-pits constrncted by the Confederate 
army last spring, still fronting toward the north and still holding the right of 
the brigade and division, which brought my regiment abont one-third of a mile 
to the right of the Pardy road. This position was held until 4:00 P. M. witb- 
oot opposition. At that honr I moved my command, as ordered, abont one- 
third of a mile to the west of where its left rested in its last position, and 
formed them in order of battle at right angles with my former position. There 
I remained abont one-half hoar, the Twenty-sixth Missouri at this time having 
formed on my right and at right angles with my line by your order across the 
field in my front, toward a heavy growth of timber, where our skirmishers had 
encountered the enemy in some force. Company K was again deployed for- 
ward as skirmishers, and had advanced but a short distance in a westerly 
direction before they drew a very heavy musketry fire from the enemy con- 
cealed in the timber. In the meantime I had wheeled my battalion to the 
left, so that I was fronting to the southwest. At this time the fire of the enemy 
was brisk and enfiladed nearly my whole line. 

At this moment Captain Mooers of Company K, commanding the skirmish- 
ers and about one hundred yards in advance of my right, beckoned to me with 



132 HISTOKY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

his sword, as if he deflired to commanicate important infonnatioD, and I started 
toward him on a gallop, but had rode bat a few steps when I saw him fidl 
dead, shot throngh the head . From the coarse of the balls and the poeitloii 
which the enemy seemed to occapj, I interpreted the information that CSaptun 
Mooers desired to give to be, that the enemy was moving to my rear by my 
right, my command at this time holding the right of the infantry of the whole 
army. These impressions were immediately communicated to the general com- 
manding the brigade, and I received orders to dislodge the enemy from the 
woods on my right. I at once changed the front of my battalion to the rear on 
the tenth company. This was done under a heavy fire of musketry, in double- 
quick time, but with as much coolness and precision as if on ordinary battaUon 
drill. This movement completed, I ordered the regiment forward at quick 
time until within about one hundred and fifty paces of the enemy's line ot 
battle at this point, when his fire was increased to a perfect shower of bells, 
and I gave the further command, * 'Forward one hundred and fifty paces. Doable- 
quick!*' This was executed in the most gallant and splendid manner. The 
regiment, in perfect line, with triumphant shouts, rushed forward against a 
most murderous fire, and when within fifty yards of the enemy's line he fled to 
the rear with the greatest precipitancy, receiving two or three full volleys from 
my regiment as he retired. Immediately alter this was accomplished I received 
your order to fall back and join Ck)lonel Alexander (Fifly-ninth Indiana) on 
his right, which order was at once obeyed, and skirmishers thrown forward 
one hundred paces to the front and around my right flank. It was now nig^t; 
the men were exhausted, and, obedient to orders, I moved to the fiist position 
held in the morning and bivouacked there at 11:00 p. m. During the day my 
loss was one commissioned officer and one private killed, and four men wounded. 
The heat, during the engagement of my command, was most intense, said 
to be 108 degrees in the shade, and more men were carried ofi" the fleld on 
litters from the effects of sunstroke than from wounds. Ammunition was dii^ 
tributed to the men, so that each had seventy-five rounds between eleven and 
one o'clock at night, and at one-thirty I received your order to move my com- 
mand to the right across the Pittsburgh and Hamburgh road and about one hnn- 
dre<l yards to the rear, which was done at once, and the regiment stood to annS| 
fronting the north, for the remaining portion of the night. My command 
mained in this position until half-jmst ten the following morning, when I 
ceived your order to move by the left flank into position on the ridge at my 
left, in support of the Eleventh Ohio Battery. This order was at once executed 
and my front changed to the west. I formed my regiment about fifty feet 
in rear of this battery, which masked the six centre companies. These six 
companies were ordered by me to fix bayonets and charge the enemy when- 
ever he should charge upon the battery. Two companies on the right and two 
on the left were moved forward to the line of the guns of the battery, with in- 
structions to engage the enemy with musketry whenever he might appear and 
meet him with the bayonet in case of charge. The enemy retired from the 
ground covered by the battery and from the front of my regiment in about 
forty minutes after firing was commenceil. I maintained the same relative 
position to the liattery in its movements upon the field to get in rear of the 
enemy, until your orders came to occupy again the ground left when I went in- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEE8. 133 

to action. I at once reoccnpied that position, where I remained nntil the 
morning of the fifth instant, at four o'clock, when the pnrsnit commenced. In 
the engagement of the fonrth (second day) I lost one commissioned officer and 
fi^e privates wounded. 

Of the pnrsnit it is enough to report that it was commenced on Snnday 
morning, the fifth instant, and continued without cessation or delay, except 
SQch as was absolutely necessary to rest the men temporarily, until the follow- 
ing Saturday night, the troops having marched during that time about one 
hnndred and twenty miles. 

I cannot speak too highly of the i>atient endurance and valor of my com- 
mand. During a x>eriod of nine days of the most heated and most uncomforta- 
ble weather, my regiment marched one hundred and thirty miles, and during two 
days and two nights of that time was engaged in one of the most extensive and 
desperate battles of the war. The conduct of all officers was satisfactory. 
Oaptains Tourtellotte and Edson conducted themselves with most extraordi- 
nary coolness and determination. My commissioned staff. First Lieut. Thomas 
B. Hunt, regimental quartermaster, and First Lieut. John M. Thompson, 
adjutant, behaved with coolness and judgment, and in the absence of other 
field officers rendered me efficient service in repeating commands and communi- 
cating orders. Quartermaster Sergt. Frank E. Collins, for distinguished valor 
and service on the field, in aiding me in every movement and bringing prison- 
en from the field near the close of the engagement, deserves especial mention. 
Gbmmissary Sergt. Thomas P. Wilson remained under fire all the time, direct- 
ing litter carriers to the wounded and furnishing water to the famishing sol- 
diers, as well as in repeating my commands when near the line. Sergt. M%j. 
William T. Kittredge was among the coolest men on the field and most efficient 
until he was overcome by sunstroke. The surgeon. Dr. J. H. Murphy, and 
the second assistant surgeon. Dr. H. R. Wedel, conducted their department 
with perfect order and method, and every wound was dressed in a few moments 
after it was received and the wounded cared for in the most tender manner. 
I have the honor, etc. John B. Sanbobn, 

Colonel Commanding Fourth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. 
OapL J, P. Foley^ Awistant Adjutant General First Brigade, Third Division. 

The Pursuit. 

Early on the morning of the fifth, McPherson, with his bri- 
gade of fresh troops, consisting of parts of Lawler's and Steven- 
son's, supported by the First Missouri Battery, four companies of 
the Fifth Ohio Cavalry and followed by Stanley's and Davies' 
divisions, followed the enemy on the road to Chewalla that runs 
north of the railroad, while McKean, followed by Hamilton and 
the rest of the pursuing army, took the route on the south side 
of the railroad. This was the road on which the enemy had ap- 
proached, and also the one mainly used by them in the retreat. 



134 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

When six miles from Chewalla he heard heavy tiriog in the 
direction of Davis bridge (Hurlbut's troops). On reaching Che- 
walla he overtook the rear of the enemy, consisting of three 
brigades of infantry and a battery of artillery. Colonel Law- 
ler's brigade at once attacked them while the bridge was being 
repaired, and Col. J. D. Stevenson's brigade at the same time 
moving on their left flank, they retreated. Another engage- 
ment was had between these forces at Big Hill, on the east side 
of the Tuscumbia, McPherson's troops driving the enemy, who 
fled. It was now night and the troops rested. On the morn- 
ing of the sixth McPherson found the bridge at the Tascum- 
bia destroyed. This was repaired and in three-quarters of an 
hour the pursuit continued. 

After crossing the Toscambia and from there to the Hatchie at Cnim't 
Mill, the evidences of a most rapid retreat — almost a roate — were appuent. 
The road was strewn with tents, blankets, clothing;, wagons, small anna, am- 
munition, six caissons and a battery forge, some of them blown npand partially 
destroyed, and others in good condition. — [^McPherson* 8 Rq^ort'] 



CHAPTER VI. 

Pursning the Enemy — The Hatchie Battle — To Bone Yard and Soath — 
Retom toCk)rinth — Formation Department of Tennessee — Poem on Death 
of Captain Mooers — New Ck)mmander8 — March from Ck>rinth — Strict 
Order— Five Roll Calls a Day— Davis* Mill; Hogs and Sheep — Grand 
Review — First Horsestealing Expedition; Visit Gideon — To La Grange 
and Moscow — Rebels Borrow Eleven Six-Mnle Teams — Six Companies on 
a Scont — Colored Gentleman Borrows Chaplain's Horse— To Holly 
Springs; Oxford; Tockna — The Seventy-Second Illinois Supplies Us With 
Clothing. 

October 5th — Sunday morning. — We are awakened early, 
and after some delay start in pursuit of the retreating enemy. 
We follow McKean's division. He has a long wagon train, 
which delayed the whole command. Price has a clean pair 
of heels, as we found, to our sorrow, while on the Ripley march. 
Thurston says: *'We soon see sickening sights. Some of 
our men slain on the third had been stripped of their clothing 
by the enemy and lay festering in the sun, completely black- 
ened by the decomposition. In some instances our wounded 
men had Iain two days with the dead piled on them in such a 
manner that they were unable to move, suffering by day with 
heat, at night with cold; also, by hunger, thirst and the intol- 
erable stench from the field. One poor fellow was killed as he 
was skirmishing, his position being such that he remained in 
it without change when shot. He was on his knees, leaning 
for\vard against a tree, and was just looking to one side to get 
a shot when the fatal bullet struck him. His position was so 
natural that it was hard to realize that he was dead." The 
roads are good. Weather hot and clear. No water, except 
what we haul with us in our wagons. We could hear Hurl- 
but's cannon to the west (in the battle of the Hatchie). We 
marched about eight miles and bivouacked at dark. For five 
miles from Corinth the road was strewn with war material ot 
all kinds, such as soldiers could throw away. Our wagon 
train did not get up until long after dark, and while riding 



136 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

after dark at the head of the train, we suddenly found we were 
in a small bivouac of soldiers. The campfires were burning 
and men running around. About the time we made this 
discovery and supposed we had struck our camp two men 
seized the bridle rein of our horse and said: "You are our 
prisoner, sir!" We saw that we had led our train into a Con- 
federate camp. The train stopped as soon as we did. As 
quick as thought we concluded we had missed the road in the 
dark and were in the enemy's camp, and just as quick we 
drew a navy revolver. Before any harm was done, however, 
our captors burst out laughing. They were a detail of the 
enemy under a flag of truce going back to bury their dead. It 
was a detail under Col. W. S. Barrv, of two hundred men of 
the Thirty-fifth Mississippi and other infantry regiments, the 
same regiment afterwards captured bj' our men at Allatoona, 
Ga., Oct. 5, 1864. (17, 1, 345 and 400.) 
Mc Arthur says: 

Seven miles from Ckirinth I wan met by a party of two hundred of tbe 
enemy, bearing a flag of trace, under Colonel Barry, Thirty-fifth Missiasippi, 
which detained me for three hours; long enough as it afterward proved to 
allow three brigades of the enemy (Rust's, Bowen's and Yillepique^s), who bad 
camped on the road I was following, time to get out of the way, as I reached 
their camp three hours after they had lefb. 

The Battle witu Hurlbut's Troops. 

On October 3d Grant ordered Ilurlbut to move with his 
command from Bolivar to the relief of Rosecrans at Corinth. 
The distance by way of Davis' bridge was forty-six miles. 
Hurlbut says (17,1,308): '* My orders were to reach Rose- 
crans at all hazards or perish." lie moved from Bolivar at 
3:00 A. M. of the fourth with his division (the Fourth), consist- 
ing of the brigades of Generals Lauman and Veatch and the 
batteries of Bolton, Burnap, Mann and Spear, supplied with 
three days' rations. On that night they camped at the stream 
called Big Muddy, twenty-three miles from Bolivar and about 
four west of the Hatchie bridi^e. About 8:00 a. m. of the fifth 
Maj. Gen. E. O. C. Ord arrived and assumed command, and in 
an hour his force advanced and when two miles west of 
the Davis bridge met the advance of Price's army, consisting 



1862] MINNESOTA, INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 137 

of Moore's brigade of Maurj's division and the St. Louis Bat- 
tery. These troops after a sharp skirmish gave way and were 
soon driven across the Hatchie, our forces capturing the four 
howitzers. There is a commanding ridge on the west side of 
the river and a cluster of houses called the villafi^e of Matamora. 
This was occupied by Ord's forces and the remnant of Moore's 
brigade, re-enforced by those of Cabell and Pfifer and the bat- 
teries of McNally, Hogg, Landis and Tobin, occupied the 
heights on the opposite side of the stream. The Thirty-tifth 
Mississippi being in Moore's brigade and on the west side, was 
either captured or dispersed (except the detail with Colonel 
Barry consisting of a part of this and other regiments sent to 
bury the dead, and we find that on October 13th, when General 
Moore made his report, only forty of this regiment were pres- 
ent for duty.) Green's division came up, formed in line, and 
aided those already there. Ord's troops charged across the 
bridge, and after some confusion and delay, Ord being wounded 
about this time, Hurlbut assumed command, and under his 
direction the troops charged up the hill and drove the enemy 
from his strong position and about 3:30 p. m. the battle ended. 
Hurlbut reported his loss in killed, wounded and missing at 
five hundred and seventy. 

About halfway between the Tuscumbia and Hatchie a wagon 
road goes south to Crum's Mill and Bone Yard. 

Captain Cummins says: 

Next morning we feU back, intending to retreat by the same route by which 
we had approached, bat fonnd the Hatchie river disputed by Hnrlbnt's corps, 
which had marched across from BoHvar and reached Pocahontas before as. 
Moore's and Pfifer*s remnants of brigades crossed, were again gobbled ap 
and we lost one battery. We gave ap the attempt to cross, feU back again 
and marched by another route to the south. * * * xhe enemy did not 
pursue with any great vigor. « <^ « Bo wen lost part of his train. We 
brought off two captured guns and lost five, and brought along three hundred 
prisoners, (v. 17, 1, 396.) 

Van Dorn's army crossed the Hatchie six miles up the river 
(south) from Davis' bridge at Crum's Mill, and moved to Rip- 
ley and on south from there. McPherson's troops reached 
Cruiu's at noon on the sixth and found the bridge and mill on 
fire. He was only half an hour behind the rebels. His troops 



138 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

began to rebuild the bridge at once. It was completed and 
ready for the artillery to cross by 4:30 p. m. (368). At 6:80 P. 
M. Rosecrans says (163), from Cram's Mill: "Bridge built. 
Part of the troops across. Hamilton four miles off." 

October 6th — Monday/. — We started early this morning, but 
after traveling about two miles bivouacked at a creek (Cy- 
press creek, doubtless), where we remained the balance of the 
forenoon. About 10:00 a. m. some of our cavalry came from the 
front and gave us the particulars of General Hurlbut's victory 
at Davis' bridge on the Hatchie, a few miles from where we are 
and where Van Dorn attempted to cross the river in his 
retreat. Our cavalry had two flags with them which they 
had captured from the enemy. This caused great rejoicing. 
General Rosecrans soon rode up and told us that he in- 
intended to make "A long pull, a strong pull I" and that "We 
will pull altogether!" "We are after them ! " "Prepare for 
Mobile! " General C. S. Hamilton, our division commander, 
also came and spoke encouragingly to the men, telling them to 
prepare for some long marches into the heart of the enemy's 
country. We got dinner here and after traveling a few miles 
crossed the Tuscumbia river at Young's bridge. As soon as 
we crossed this stream we began to see evidences of the flight 
of the enemy in abandoned wagons tipped over by the road- 
side, some of which had rolled over several times down the side 
of the hill, tents, guns, cast-iron baking ovens, and as we pro- 
ceeded the abandoned camp equipage became thicker and 
thicker, and for miles the road was strewn with their baggage. 
We marched to within three miles of the Hatchie, where the 
battle with Hurlbut's troops occurred, and bivouacked about 
9:00 p. M. at Gum Spring, four miles from a small town called 
Bone Yard, and about seven miles from Kossuth, having 
marched about fifteen miles. 

After crossing the Tuscumbia at Young's bridge and taking 
the Bone Yard road, Ham Iton's division kept on the south side 
of the Hatchie to Rienzi. But the rest of the pursuing army 
all crossed at Crum's Mill and followed the enemy, passing 
through Jonesborough and Ruckersville to just below Ripley, 
arriving there on the seventh and eighth. McPherson started 
on his return on Friday night, the tenth. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 139 

October 7th — Tuesday/. — Distant cannonading occasionally to 
the left. We march southeast in the direction of Rienzi. 
Pass through Bone Yard (an appropriate name for this whole 
region). Stragglers from our regiment are numerous. Some 
person set fire to a large two-story yellow house on the left-hand 
side of the road. It was a vacant building, on the walls of which 
some person had drawn pictures, one of Jeff. Davis. A cotton 
gin was also burned and a quantity of cotton destroyed at the 
same time. Marched twenty-four miles and got to Rienzi at 
9:00 P. M. Hot and clear. 

Hamilton's report states: 

The division marched at dawn of day. When three miles beyond Kossuth 
a brisk cannonade, accompanied with musketry firing, was heard in the direc- 
tion of Rienzi. Learning that Rienzi had been occupied on the fifth by two 
regiments of rebel troops and knowing that the supplies for the army were 
to be sent there by. rail * * * j deemed it my duty to proceed to 
Rienzi and to clear that point. Rienzi was reached after nightfall, the 
diyision having marched twenty-three miles over dusty roads and with but a 
single well of water on the whole route. The day was exceedingly hot and 
the sn£fering of the men extreme. At least six hundred of the command gave 
out by the wayside during the last eight miles of the march. They, however, 
regained the column during the night and the following morning. No pup- 
plies had reached the place, but at 6:00 A. M. a train of cars arrived and two 
regiments were forthwith supplied with rations, and moved at an early hour to 
the Hatchie river under Colonel Matthies. The whole command, together with 
two regiments arrived from Ck>rinth, followed during the day. 

October 8th — Wednesday. — Young says: '*I am ordered to 
Corinth with a dispatch. Start early. Find the Tuscumbia 
bridge burning. I am careful not to show myself, but ride up 
the river to a ford a mile and a half from the road and cross. 
Find that the road is held by a band of guerrillas. I ride very 
carefully and as fast as I can, making the trip to Corinth in 
two hours and five minutes, about twenty miles by the way I 
came.'* Marched at noon on the Ripley road twelve miles 
west to the Hatchie river. Crossed and camped. Hot and 
clear. Plenty of potatoes and pork. 

Ortofter 9th — Tharsda//. — Major Baxter has resigned. 
Young says: "I find Lieutenant Johnson and I. N. Dean 
both very sick. Johnson thinks he will not get better here." 
To-day was spent here at the Hatchie, and the bridges across 
it, which had been destroyed by the rebels, were rebuilt. 



140 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

Dnriog the tenth the division retarned under orders to Rienzi and daring 
the night rebuilt the bridge over the Tascnmbia near Danville ; and on the 
eleventh reached its old camp near Bridge creek, two and one-half miles from 
Ck>rinth. — [Hamilton's Report.'] 

Oftuher 11th — &f('frda'/, — Marched to Camp Big Spring 
(rebel Churchill Clark). Rain and mud. Cold. A nor'- 
wester. 

Orfiihrr IJth — S'OuOfy. — Sly says : "Just before inspection this 
Sunday morning a musket was accidentally discharged and killed 
Corp. Thomas Smail of Company A while sitting in Captain 
Young's tent and slightly wounded E. U. Kussell." Young 
says: "Go to Camp Cliurchill Clark (rebel) and lind the regi- 
ment. Thomas Smail is killed a little after noon bv the acci- 
dental discharge of a ritie in the hands of a member of Com- 
pany D. The shot narrowly missed Captains Tourtellotte, 
Piatt and Young and out a lock of hair from Lieutenant Drys- 
dale's head and then killed Smail. It then struck a pile of 
dishes on father's table and the pieces of lead and dishes 
struck Lieutenant Russell and myself." Captain Tourtellotte 
of Company H was to-day elected by the officers as the lieu- 
tenant colonel of the regiment. 

Ortnhcr loth — M<itul(tf/. — ["To-day we buried Smail and I cut 
his name and regiment in an oak tree near the grave, so that 
his body can be found by his relatives if they desire. More 
marching orders. Move to Corinth and out to near Beaure- 
gard's old headquarters. Get orders to police camp, as we are 
likely to remain three weeks, if not longer. The First Minne- 
sota Battery boys built a fire over an unexploded shell, which 
makes its presence known about 10:00 p. m., causing a great 
scare. Everyone thinks it is the enemv, and it is some time 
before we find out that there is no cause for alarm. No one 
hurt.'' — Young.] We are now on the Farmington road and 
inside of the old rebel breastworks. Very poor water, and it 
has to be hauled on wagons. Built huts. Very cold weather. 
Some snow. We remain here until November 2d. De- 
tails were made from the regiment and worked on the fortifi- 
cations that surround the female seminary (Corona College), 
up on the hill to the south of Robinett. Commissioners from 
Minnesota visited the regiment and took the vote. The men 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 141 

in the different companies were frequently drawn up in line 
and whisky and quinine passed around. Our foraging details 
go south through Danville and to the neighborhood of the 
Buford plantation. We dig our own sweet potatoes, — drive 
into the field and dig all the potatoes. 

October 13th to Nocemher 2d. — Lieut. B. F. Butler of Company 
D resigned, and so did Lieut. W. K. Viekroy of Company B, 
while we were here at Corinth. Cutting down the number of 
regimental teams occurred while we were here during the last 
days of October and the surplus teams and the teamsters were 
turned in to form a division supply train. We turned in, we 
thinjf, ten teams. Mr. E. G. Covington becomes the wagon- 
master of the division supply train. At the time of decid- 
ing on turning the teams into the train it was determined to 
keep the matter a profound secret until the orders were issued, 
so that no changes could be made by thewagonmastersto keep 
the best mules, wagons or drivers in the various regiments and 
turning in the poorest, and when the order was published 
it contained a clause forbidding any changes whatever; 
teams were to be turned in just as they were, drivers and 
all. Just before the order was published, great changes oc- 
curred very suddenly in our train, the best mules were suddenly 
tied to the best wagons and the favorite drivers assigned. 
" What does this mean?" asked the drivers. No explanations 
were made and the new regimental teams and outfit were a 
little the best, we think, that the army could produce. Lieuten- 
ant Hunt was at that time acting as brigade quartermaster on 
Colonel Sanborn's staff. [Population of Corinth, 1880, 2,275; 
population, 1870, 1,512, of whom 679 were colored ; population 
of Danville, 1880, 50.] 

War Dkpabtmknt, Adjutant Gknkbal's Office, 

Washington, Oct, 16, 1862. 
General Obdebs, No. 159: 

Pint— The I>epartmentof the Tennessee will include Cairo, Fort Henry and 
Fort Donaldson, northern Mississippi and the portions of Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee west of the Tennessee river. 

Second — M»j. Gen. U. S. Grant is assigned to the command of the Depart- 
ment of the Tennessee. 

By order of the Secretary of War, 

L. Thomas, 
(17, 2, 278.) AiitUani OeneroL 



142 history of the fourth regiment [1862 

Mrs. Morrill's Visit to the Regiment. 
Captain Morrill, at our request, writes us as follows: 

Mrs. Morrill arrived at Corinth, Miss., about the twentieth of October, 1863, 
having spent the winter with me at Fort- Snelling the winter previous to onr going 
Sonth in 1861, she had become qnite well acquainted with most of the mem- 
bers of Company K, but hardly recognized some of them, hardship, exposure 
and sickness had changed them so. Many of the boys when they met her 
thought of their loved ones at home and from sheer homesickness tears ran down 
their faces. The regiment was ordered out after Price, after she had been there 
about a week or ten days. Colonel Sanborn gave her the key to a room in a 
large building that he had occupied and had been used directly after the battle 
for a temporary hospital. Subsequently it was used as headquarters for officers. 
We went out on a four days' order but we never came back. After getting 
to Grand Junction, Tenn., one commissioned officer was detailed and sent back 
from each regiment to bring on the company property and convalescent sick. 
My wife being at Corinth I was sent back from our regiment. While absent 
Mrs. Morrill had been in the habit of visiting some wounded Confederate officers 
we held as prisoners who were in a building near her. Among the number was 
Col. Sc^uire Boone of the Fifteenth Arkansas Infantry, whose leg was shot off at 
the fight at Corinth, and in the haste of amputation it was not properly done 
and would not heal. He was a large, powerful man, six feet in height I should 
judge, but then was worn to a skeleton. He complained to Mrs. Morrill of the 
poor showing the South had made at that stage of the war. The trouble was 
the South did not have good generals. He called them a lot of ape-headed gen- 
erals. He said if the South ever allowed the North to open the blockade he 
would break his sword on the first tree he came to. I thought it very doubtfhl 
if he ever held a sword again. I went with Mrs. Morrill to bid them good-by 
and Colonel Hoone gave me some wine, remarking : ** Here*s success to 
you, captain!'' I said: **That is more than I can wish you if you mean oar 
present cause." 

Mrs. Morrill composed the following lines in a notice of Captain Mooer's 
death. They were published in the North Iowa T^men at McGregor, Iowa, and 
afterward copied in New York papers at his former home in the East If you 
deem proper, put them in. He (Captain Mooers) has a daughter in the Blast, on 
Long Island. His widow was still living the last we heard. After the surren- 
der of Vicksburg nearly the first man I met was Colonel Boone. He imme- 
diately recognized me and said: " I intend now to keep the promise I made 
to your wife. I shall break this sword on a tree. I shall never raise an arm 
for the South again." After our leaving him at Corinth he had his limb oper- 
atetl on again, had a wrk leg put on and went into active service. He told me 
to write to Mrs. Morrill and tell her of his intentions. 

LINES ON THE DEATH OF CAPT. ROBERT P. MOOERS. 

They have made him a bed in the damp, cold ground, 

Near the bank of a Southern stream, 
Far, far from hia home, in a stranger's land, 

Where the rajs of a tropic sun gleam. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 143 

While gallantlj leading, the brave soldier fell- 
Was pierced bj a ball through the head, 

But his name is enshrined in the laurels of Fame 
As he quietlj sleeps with the dead. 

Yes, he sleeps now— not heeding the cannon's wild roar. 

Nor the lull of the murmuring stream, 
And his comrades march o'er him in battle arraj, 

Yet he heeds not their musketry's gleam. 

For his country he fought ; for his country has died ; 

None braver in Liberty's cause. 
Fair freedom he lored, and to see her prevail 
He has died while defending her laws. 

The wife and the little one, far at the North, 

Were waiting his coming again. 
Qod help them ! their lored, all mangled and torn, 

Has been laid 'neath the field of the slain. 

Then rest, gently rest, In thy rough Southern tomb, 

As o'er thee the aoft breezes wave ; 
Thy loved ones In anguish would drop a sad tear 

Could they kneel o'er thy patriot grave. 

A Change of Commanders. 

On Oct. 23, 1862, General Halleck (17, 2, 290) directed 
General Rosecrans, who was at the time in command at Cor- 
inth, to repair immediately to Cincinnati, where he would 
receive orders. On October 25th, General Grant, in General 
Orders, No. 1, assumed command of the Department of the 
Tennessee in compliance with Orders, No. 159, of the War 
Department, dated Oct. 16, 1862 (294), and under date of Oct. 
26, 1862, Brig. Gen. C. S. Hamilton, by direction of General 
Grant, assumed command of the district of west Tennessee 
and forces therein, and Brig. Gen. Isaac F. Quinby, having 
reported for duty on the twenty-sixth to General Hamilton 
from Columbus, Ky., where he had previously been in com- 
mand, was, by the same orders, assigned to the command of 
the Third Division, Army of the Mississippi (298): 

War Department, Adjutant General's Office, 

Washington, Oct. 24, 1862. 
General Orders, No. 168: 

Firti — By directioD of the PresideDt, the State of Tennessee east of the Ten- 
neflsee river and sach parts of northern Alabama and Georgia as may be taken 
jKMBeasion of by United States troops will constitute the Department of the 
CamberUnd. 



144 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

Second — Maj. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans is aasigned to the command of the 
Department of the Cumberland. 

Third — The troops nnder the command of Major General Grant will con- 
stitute the Thirteenth Army Corps, and those aasigned to the command ot 
Major General Rosecrans will constitute the Fourteenth Army Corps. 

By order of the Secretary of War. 

L. Thomas, 

(y. 16, 2, 641.) AtffiUafU Oeneral, 

Regimental Return for the month of October y 1862. — Enlisted men present for 
duty, 478; on extra and daily duty, 66; sick, 54; total enlisted present, 696. 
Commissioned officers present for duty, 23; on extra and daily duty, 1; sick, 2; 
in arrest, 1 ; total, 27. 

Remarks on Monthly Return for Oclober, 1862, made Nov. 2, 1862.— Left 
Jacinto on the morning of the first of Octoher and marched to Clear creek, 
eighteen miles. Remained there until the third. Left camp at daylight on 
the third and marched through Corinth to a point on the Purdy road, about 
four miles north of Corinth, where we formed line of battle — our brigade 
holding the extreme right. Left the field on the morning of the fifth to join 
jn the pursuit. Retnmed to old camp on Clear creek at noon on the eleventh, 
having made a continuous march of over one hundred miles. Marched to Cor- 
inth on the twelfth and encamped inside the old rebel intrenchments east ot 
the railroad depot. 

This return is signed by James C. Edson, captain com- 
manding the regiment. On this return H. Slackman of Com- 
pany B is reported as having died of disease at Jackson, Tenn., 
on October 16th. We copy this item, but have no other 
knowledfi^e of any such person having belonged to this com- 
pany. 

Marching Orders. (17, 2, 312.) 

Jackson, Nov, 1, 1863. 
General Hamilton^ Oorinth, Miss.: 

There are indications that Bolivar wiU be attacked within forty-eight hours. 

Have three divisions of your command ready to move to-morrow morning, 

with three days' rations in haversacks and three days' in wagons. Take as 

little baggage as can be possibly got along with. Do not move without farther 

directions, bnt be ready at the time stated. 

* * * Start in the morning. Move on Grand Junction, keeping a 
good lookont to the south of yon. If yon find the enemy have moved north 
of that place yon can change your direction toward Bolivar. McPherson will 
also move to that pK)int, starting next day. Establish a line of couriers fiom 
Chewalla to enable me to communicate with you. 

* * * The route will be by Pocahontas. It will be of the utmost 
importance in case of a move to seize on Davis' bridge and the bridge at Poca- 
hontas at once with a cavalry force. Instruct the telegraph operators to keep 
the offices open until six o'clock to-night. * * * i have before me 




Corp. Lio Cooi, Cohpimt B. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 145 

a Jackson (Mias.) paper, which makes no mention of the fall nor even of attack 
upon Mobile. It may be so, however. We will make the move indicated in 
my former dispatch, and, if practicable, drive the enemy from Holly Springs. 
Corinth will then be covered. U. S. Gbant, 

Mqjor OenertU. 

HEADQUABTEBS DiSTBICT of Ck)BINTH, 

Thibd Division, Depabtment of the Tennessee. 

Ck)BiNTH, Nov, 1, 1862. 
Special Obdebs, No. 7: 

First — The divisions of Generals Stanley, Qninby and McArthur will be 
held in readiness for movement early to-morrow morning, with three days' 
rations in haversacks, three days' in wagons and one hundred rounds of ammu- 
nition per man. Not more than one tent per company will be taken; no other 
baggage. Small camp guards will be left, composed as far as possible of non- 
effectives. * ♦ * 

By command of Brig. Gen. C. S. Hamilton. 

R. M. Sawyeb, 

Captain and Assistant Adjutant Oeneral, 

November 2d — Sundm/. — Marched through Corinth and out 
on the Memphis road twelve miles. Good roads. Clear. ['* I 
remain behind to finish muster rolls and take care of Lieuten- 
ant Johnson. The men who are left behind are ordered to 
form a new camp inside the new intrenchments. November 
3d. — Prepare to follow the re^ment. I am not able to accom- 
plish anything on account of taking care of Johnson. He is 
ver}- sick." — T. M. Young.] Hamilton commands the left 
wing of the army. 

November Sd — Mondaij, — Marched across the Tuscumbia 
and Hatchie rivers to Porter's creek. Clear. 

November ith — Tuesday, — Marched through Grand Junction. 
Camped four miles south, on the Holly Springs road, on Wolf 
river. Somebodv set fire to an old building with cotton in it 
on the road to-day and some of our boys were accused of it. 
Good roads. Warm. 

Severe Orders. 

Headquarters Left Winq Army of the Tennessee. 

In the Field, near Grand Junction, Nov. 6, 1862. 

General Field Orders, No. 2: 

First — The pIoDdering and house baraiDg of the past two days shows that 
the discipline of this commaDd is becoming seriously imjtaired. Although these 
10 



146 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1862 

crimes are committed only by those who are ''stragglers on the march and 
skulkers on the battlefield," still all good soldiers share in the odinm which 
snch condnct brings npon the army. It is therefore ordered thateveiy efibrt be 
made to arrest these thieves and house burners, that they be immediately tried 
by a military commission to be detailed by division commanders, and that the 
sentence, however severe it may be, be promptly executed. 

Second — Division commanders will hold regimental commanders strictly re- 
sponsible for the conduct of their soldiers. Directly after the arms are stacked 
in camp the roll vnll be called and the number of absentees from each regiment 
will be reported to the division commander. When the army does not march 
there will be five roll calls per day and the absentees reported to the division 
commander. 

Third — Officers of whatever rank or regiment, who do not use all their 
efibrts to repress these gross outrages, will be deprived of their commands and 
confined in the military prison at Alton. 

Fourth — All firing in and about the camps is strictly prohibited. Soldiers 
so offending will be arrested and severely punished. 

The general commanding regrets that he is forced to use such severity, but 

it is the only means left him to prevent this army of soldiers from degenerating 

into an armed mob. 

By command of Brig. Gen. C. S. Hamilton. 

John V. Dubois, 

Colonel United States Army and Chief of Staff, 

yorember 5th — S^nhhi/. — We went on a reconnaisBaDce to- 
day toward Holly Springs, supporting the cavalry. 

Xovenfher 6th — Jfonfh*/, — The regiment fell in with canteens 
on for inspection. Some thought they were going to draw 
rations of whisky but it was only to detect some whisky 
thieves. None found. 

November 7th — Friday, — T. M. Young, sergeant of Company 
A, left behind at Corinth, says, under this date: ''Turn over 
the extra ordnance stores to the ordnance officer here and take 
a memorandum receipt. Sell the officers' provisions to the 
commissary of subsistence of the Twenty-second Ohio, and at 
noon we start for the regiment. The day is very hot and the 
convalescent men sufter very much. We march twelve miles 
and then back half a mile to find a decent place to camp. 
Pretty rough on sick men to march twelve miles in half an 
afternoon, and then hack so far, for the fun of doing the ground 
over again in the morning." 

November 8th — Saturday, — The regiment marched six miles 
to Davis' Mill and Gray's creek. Clear. To-night, just as the 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 147 

campfires were being lit, somebody tore down a part of the 
fence to a hog lot in rear of Davis' residence and the rebel 
hogs ran through the camps, chasing the boys in all directions. 
Some got across the creek and up through the timber. Our 
boys protected themselves as best they could with their sword 
bayonets and the squealing of the porcines did not last long. 
Mr. Davis also lost some sheep at this time. After the war 
he put in a claim as a Union man against the government 
for a large number of hogs and sheep killed and used by the 
men of our regiment. We never learned whether his claim 
was allowed or not, but think that it was. 

Noranber 9th — Sunday, — Marched toward Holly Springs on 
a reconnaissance. Came back to the mill. Dusty roads. Clear. 

Noranber 10th — Monday, — Marched one mile and camped on 
a hill on the east side of the road. Had plenty of hickory nuts 
and potatoes. Clear and warm. 

Novemba* 11th — Tuesday, — We quote from a letter: 

Camp, Eight Miles South of Grand Junction. 

We are now on our road to Holly Springs, eighteen miles distant, where 
General Price was on last Sunday, but deserters say he evacuated on that even- 
ing. After we passed through Grand Junction we camped about four miles 
south, upon Wolf river, a fine stream of water. Last Sunday we made a recon- 
naissance to within twelve miles of Holly Springs and supported our cavalry 
(Col. A. L. Lee with his Seventh Kansas — the Jay hawkers). Took 125 prison- 
en. We returned the same day to our present camp. Our men are fixing up 
the bridges upon the railroad here and we are also running Davis' grist mill. 
Negroes come in every day in large numbers, some with wagons with two to 
four mules on. The cars run to Grand Junction, nineteen miles from Bolivar, 
and Jackson, forty-seven miles from the Junction, and before long will also run 
from Corinth through. The weather is fine and this is the finest country we 
have yet seen South. Plenty of com and hogs, two very necessary things for 
an army. I think we have left Corinth for good, as our camp equipage is 
on the road for this place, and the army from Bolivar and Jackson is also here. 
We are all glad we have left Corinth, where for miles around the chickens have 
ceased to crow and the rail fences no longer decorate the landscape. 

On November 11th Brig. Gen. Leonard F. Rose relieved 
Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley, in command of the division of the 
left wing of the arm}-, and General Stanley was ordered to re- 
port in person to General Rosecrans, commanding the Depart- 
ment of the Cumberland (17, 2, 343), and was assigned to 



148 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

dutv there as chief of eavalrv and to command all of the cav- 
airy in that department. (20, 2, 94.) 

Xoirnthcr 13(h — Thursdcoi. — Col. A. L. Lee of the Seventh 
Kansas Cavalry, with cavalry, entered Holly Springs this morn- 
ing, driving the enemy's pickets from there and far beyond. He 
has taken about one hundred prisoners and killed and wounded 
many. Lee still in pursuit. The enemy are now south of the 
Tallahatchie. (17, 1, 470.) 

Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen preferred charges against Major 
General Van Dorn for misconduct in the movement of his 
troops against Corinth; for moving in such an important en- 
terprise without sufficient commissary stores, thereby causing 
suftering among his troops: for failing to follow up his success 
on the afternoon of the third, when victorv was within reach; 
and in waiting until the morning of the fourth, when the enemy 
had strengthened liis lines, received re-enforcements, etc. A 
court of inquiry, consisting of Generals Price, Tilghman and 
Maury, with Captain Cummins as recorder, convened at Ab- 
beyville. Miss., on Nov. 15, 1862, to try the case, and after 
hearing the evidence decided that it disproved the allegations 
contained in the charges and specifications (17, 1, 414.) 

Xoremher 16th — Stnulco/, — We had a grand review to-day by 
Generals Grant, McPherson and Quinby. We quote the fol- 
lowing from a letter written home by Sergt. S. C. Thurstou 
of Company C : 

After the review to-day we espied Capt. R. S. DoDaldson coming, just firom 
Minnesota, where he had been on furlough. [Left as on sick leave at Corinth. 
— Ed.] He had brought some eatables from there for the boys. He had left 
his baggage and eatables at Duvis' Mill, two miles away. The mules had all 
been taken out foraging, and as we thought that we might get orders to march, 
Witherell, myself and two others brought them to camp on our shonlden. 
We live high now. Billy Longstreet, McCabe and I mess together. One car- 
ries the meat, one the bread and the other the groceries. 

After the review Lieutenant Hunt came into camp for an 
escort of horsemen to go into the country and get horses and 
mules. After a while he persuaded Captain Edson to go 
alonof. I received instructions to mount all of the teamsters 
and take every saddle that could be procured in camp and 
accompany them, and did so. AVe scouted through the couu- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 149 

try, outside and south of our lines, for many miles, and met 
with good success. We arrived just after sundown at the 
plantation of a Mr. Franklin. Frank Collins, the writer, 
and several others turned the corner of the road and some 
rods distant rode into a small inclosure containing some old 
log stables, where an ancient servant was in the act of stabling 
six as fine mules as we ever saw and two horses. " Uncle," 
we inquired, "where have you had the animals?" "Down 
in de swamp, Marsa." '*What for?" "To keep um fum 
y'all." "Never mind tying them in the stable; we will take 
them along with us." And the astonished uncle saw us lead 
them away and join the rest of our comrades in front of Mr. 
Franklin's, who at once began to plead for his horses. The 
little mare with braided mane and tail and on whose back sat 
a jaunty little saddle, as if his little son had just dismounted 
previous to our appearance, he wanted to save for his boy, and 
the fine large Morgan mare he wanted for his own use. But 
that could not be. We soon left Mr. Franklin standing on his 
porch, contemplating, perhaps, how unstable and transitory 
were some things here below. About a mile distant we rode 
up to the plantation house of his older brother, Mr. Gideon 
Franklin, who, after some parley and objections, also fur- 
nished us with several more fine mules. We then started for 
camp, where we arrived some time after dark with two horses 
and eighteen mules that we had converted. The large Mor- 
gan mare was as fine a one as I ever saw. 

November 17th — Monday, — Marched to La Grange, Tenn. 
[Population, 1880, 511.] We box up our overcoats and store 
them and all surplus goods in the Baptist church (we got our 
overcoats again before we got into Memphis), in which we lie 
down and remain until morning. Persimmons are plentiful. 
Rain at night. 

November 18th — Ttiesday. — Marched to Moscow, about eight 
miles from La Grange. 

Comrade J. H. Thurston says: 

Just before we got to Moscow, Jim and Charley Hubbard hired a negro to 
carry their luggage, which was sufficient to load a mule. He was a stupid fel- 
low. Charley gave him instructions to pack up his traps and be ready to 



150 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1862 

move whenever he saw the rest of as doing so, without waiting to be told. The 
next time we had dreas parade, jost as we (the band) had nearly reached the 
right of the regiment, we discovered Tom with all his traps following as. 
Habbard sent him back, mach to the regret of the band boys, who desired him 
to follow OS as we beat-off. 

We generally had two of our array wagons loaded with am- 
munition with our regiment, and a guard under a corporal 
guarded them. Corp. Ezra A. Tyler of Company E had 
charge of them at this time. 

November 20th — Thursday, — Capt. E. Le Gro of Company E 
resigned to-day and left us. While we were here at Moscow 
foraging parties went frequently into the country. Mr. Coving- 
ton, who had charge of the division supply train, took his train 
out on November 24th, and as fast as th^ leading teams were 
loaded he instructed them to start for camp. About the same 
time three or four of our regimental teams went out on the same 
road. We did not go as far out as the others did, and while 
our wagons were being filled with corn at a house near the 
road a shot was fired. On looking out beyond us up the road, 
a man was seen running, bareheaded, across a field towards the 
camp, and our boys discovered at the same time several wagons 
up the road loaded with corn, standing behind each other, with- 
out any mules. We soon ascertained that the enemy had cap- 
tured the mules and drivers of eleven six-mule teams. One driver 
of the eleven got away. Gen. Jerry Sullivan and some of our 
cavalry came out atonccand patrolled the roads for miles ahead, 
but did not discover the enemy. They had gone oflT across-lots 
and got safely away with their capture. Two of our drivers 
turned into the division train. Allen W. Clark of Company Q 
and Pearl Otis of Company H were among the captives who 
were taken and afterwards exchanged. These teams were cap- 
tured within two miles of camp. An order was issued at once 
by the general to take mules from the surrounding country to 
make our number good, which order was obeyed with pleasure, 
and the order was never afterward to our knowledge revoked. 
[Population of Moscow in 1880, 193.] 

November 25th — Tuesday, — Six companies. Company A 
among the number, went out on a scout. 




Libit. Juiik H. Thub 



r C, Ei-8ic»T*a 



IM HlfTTOUY OF THE FOURTH KEGEBCENT [1862 

utiftH whmt0fft:t \0i MW the ftsmi of lu doing to, without wmiting to be told. The 
ffirst tir/i«i «r« fjjul Attsm para/U, joct m we (the band; hjid ncarlj reached the 
r\U,^ti ttt i)m tt»fiitn»inii wti dinoofered Tom with all his tiape folio wing ua. 
fitth^mtit Msiti hifu \fsu:k, much U> the regret of the band bojs, who desired him 
Ut follow fiN a« W4; bisat-ofT, 

W<j ^<jri<jnilly had two of our army wagons loaded with am- 
rfiiinition with our regiment, and a guard under a corporal 
p^imnU'il them. ('orp. Kzra A. Tyler of Company E had 
ehfirge of them ut thin time. 

Nni't.inlur •;tOlh — Thursdaj/. — Capt. E. Le Gro of Company E 
nmlpjfied to-day and left uh. Wliilo we were here at Moscow 
fonigiiig|>arti<^H w^Mit frerjuently into the country. Mr. Coving- 
ton, who had <!harge of the division supply train, took his train 
out on November 2'1th, and as fast as the leading teams were 
htaded he iiiNtrueted them to start for camp. About the same 
tlifietliree or four of our regimental teams went out on the same 
road. We did not go aH far out as the others did, and while 
our wagoiiM were being filled with corn at a house near the 
road a nliot wtiH firod. On looking out beyond us up the road, 
a man wan neen running, bareheaded, across a lield towards the 
eamp, an<l our bovH diHoovereil at the same time several wagons 
up the road loathul with eorn, standing behind each other, with- 
out any mulen. Wo noon aseertained that the enemy had cap- 
tured tliemuleHand drivers of eleven six^mule teams. Onedriver 
\»t' the eleven uot awav, (Hen. Jerrv Sullivan and some of our 
eavah\v eame vuit atoneeand pat(\>lled the roads for miles ahead, 
but did not diseovor tl»e enenn*. Tlioy had gone off across-lots 
and Kot Haf\»ly away with their oaptur^\ Two of our drivers 
t\0'ne\l intv* tlio ihvision tram. Allen W. Olark of Company G 
and Pearl Otis \»f Company II weiv among the captives who 
weiv taken auvl at^eruarvls e\ehang\HL The^o teams were cap- 
tuivxl \\ \\\\\\\ t\\\» tmles v»t* eamp. Ati orvler was issueil at ouce 
b> the ^vuviat tv> lakv^ tuu!o^ t'jvtn tb.e surrouuvUm; oountrvto 
makv^ xnir tuiuvbe;* i;\^^U\\^i^'ll v^txivr \vii> olvyod with pleasure, 
tttiv\ i!io x^*.\Jev \\;^s '/.ever ar\'v\\;r\l tv^ v^ur kttowlevlgo revoked. 

^Ikt \«i.k llt,» ittik»k>>,\«> w k»»i \.»f \t» • • "^x «•■ 





^ 






4 


■r •"■ 


f:\ 


s. —ill':, 


^ - 1 


r^ \ :^ 


"J 


iLi4i^r\^^ 


- ^ 


i^llBiV^ 



LiKuT. Joiiir H. Thurston. OP Cohp<iny C. Ex-Seciiita b 



L 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEEES. 161 

Captain Clarke of Company H writes : 

On the night of the twenty-sixth of Novembsr, while in ambosh for rebel 
cavalry, a negro came into camp claiming to be a runaway, who was taken 
«p by our chaplain and hired as an extra servant. But he skipped some time 
before morntng and stole the chaplain's mare, saddle, bridle and revolver — thns 
proving to our chaplain that thare is not always an honest heart beneath a 
negro's skin. We recovered the mare — she came in during the night, having 
apparently broken away, but without the saddle — but never saw Mr. Negro 
again. As he was a rebel cavalry officer's servant and sent in as a spy to ascer- 
tain our position, he doubtless reported to his command, as they took another 
road and we lost them. 

The lo83 of the chaplain's horse occurred at the bridge across 
Wolf river, and in writing of this Captain White of Company 
F says : 

I took the detachment over to guard the bridge the time the darkey stole 
the chaplain's horse. I often think of that a£fair. 

Novembei^ 27th — Thursday. — The six companies got back to 
camp about noon. We are very tired and footsore. 

November 28th — Friday. — March for Holly Springs and 
camp for the night at Coldwater, Miss., about four miles from 
that place. Water bad. Hot and clear. Had lots of fun with 
the Seventy-second Illinois, as to-day occurred their first march 
with us, and it was a hard one even for old veterans. The Sev- 
enty-second, Col. Fred A. Starring's regiment, was the Chicago 
First Board of Trade Regiment, and joined us at Moscow. 
They entered with a fine outfit and gradually reduced it along 
the road. 

Noremher 28th — Friday. — Our regiment marched behind 
them to-day and supplied themselves freely with clothingof all 
kinds found scattered along the road: and on arrival in camp, 
while the colonel of the Seventy-second is giving the com- 
mand, ** H-a-l-t ! " and dressing up his regiment, ** Back on the 
left!" "Up in the centre!" our boys have already lined up, 
stacked arms and are getting away with all of the rail fences, 
much to the disgust of the boys of the Seventy-second. 

November 29th — Saturday. — About noon to-day we reach 
Holly Springs [population, 1880, 2,370], a pretty site for a 
dilapidated town. It is poorly fortified and only on one side • 
March through Holly Springs and at sunset reach Waterford 



162 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

[population, 1880, 200J, or Lumpkin's Mills, a name without a 
town. Camp half a mile east on a hill, in the mud and rain, 
without tents or rubber blankets. Could see the campfires of 
a large army around us. Could hear cannon ahead at the Tal- 
lahatchie river. The weather cleared while we were here. 
There is a fine large brick grist mill here and some of our 
army boys are running it for Uncle Sam. 

Monthly Returns for November^ 1862. — Total enlisted present for duty, 448; 
on extra and daily duty, QQ-., sick, 18; total enlisted present, 532. Commis- 
sioned officers present for duty, 21; on extra and daily dnty, 3; in arrest or sna- 
pension, 1 ; total commissioned present, 25. 

Remarks on Return for Novembery 1862, made at Waterfordy Miss, — Regiment 
left Ck>rinth Nov. 2, 1862. November 4th, arrived at Grand Junction; dis- 
tance, fifty miles. Went into camp four miles south of Grand Junction. 
Went on a reconnaissance to a point near Coldwater; distance, sixteen mUea. 
Retnmed and camped near Davis* Mill on the ninth. Marched on the seven- 
teenth through La Grange to Moscow, Tenn., arriving there on the eighteenth; 
distance marched, eighteen miles. November 25th, six companies marched 
sixteen mUes on a reconnaissance and returned on the twenty-seventh. On 
the twenty-eighth the regiment marched to €k)ldwater. On the twenty-ninth 
passed through Holly Springs and on to Lumpkin's Mills, eight miles south 
of Holly Springs. Distance marched from Moscow, thirty miles. AUen W. 
Clark and Pearl Otis were captured by the enemy on November 24th Second 
Lieut. James A. Goodwin, wounded at luka, now in hospital at Jackson, Tenn. 

Deconher M — Tuesday, — Moved through rain and mud to the 
Tallahatchie river, and camped in the evening^ just in front of 
the rebel fort, which is very strong. It rained all night, filling 
the furrows in the old cotton field and making our stay at this 
place intensely disagreeable. The enemy has burned the 
bridge, and some of our men have gone to work to build an- 
other. On account of the destruction of the bridge our regi- 
mental sutler, Mr. Thos. C. Shapleigh, is unable to follow the 
regiment with his supplies and moves back with them to Holly 
Springs, and we will add, that when Van Dorn's army captured 
Holly Springs it also captured all of Mr. Shapleigh 's goods. 

December ^th — Thursdcnj, — Rained all day. Got some mail. 
Abbeyville is across the river and not far from our camp here. 

December 5th — Friday, — Marched early. Roads terribly 
muddy. Cross the river at the rebel breastworks. Move on 
through Abbeyville [population, 1880, 223] and Oxford [popu- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 153 

lation, 1880, 1,534], fifteen miles, racing with Logan's division 
nearly all day through rain and sleet. Camped in the woods 
close to Oxford. We saw a large number of prisoners, 
mostly cavalry. General Grant reviewed us at this camp. We 
went out foraging one day while here at Oxford, and while 
taking dinner with a poor granger, who had served in the Con- 
federate army, he berated the Confederate political leaders 
unmercifully and remarked that it was a "rich man's war and 
a poor man's fight." 



CHAPTER Vn. 

Man Drammed Oat of Service — Formation of Oar Army Ck>rpfl — Yankee 
Pictares v«. Confederate Money — Enemy Capture Oar Sappliee at Holly 
Springs — Oar Big Scare — We "Fall Back'' — Order Nambering Oar 
Division in Oar Four Army Corps — Capturing and Fooling Qoinby's 
Aids — Guarding Wagon Train to Memphis and Lafayette — Stop at 
White's Station; Build Stockades; Lovely Foraging; Sixteen Inches of 
Snow — Roster of Our Division — List of Sick in Hospitals — Tents 
Crowded; ** Spoon!" — Leaving Memphis — Bunche's Bend — Down the 
Yazoo Pass — A Brush with the Rebels — Our Journey Back on the Pringle — 
On the Sandbar — Go Down to Milliken's Bend. 

December 8th — Mondai/. — Marched to Yockua, Miss., six miles 
from Oxford. Still raining. Could see pine woods across the 
river to the south of us. While here we built a corduroy 
road. [The name of this stream in the official records is Tock- 
napatalfa.] A soldier, but not of our regiment, was drummed 
out of camp at this place, after having had one side of his head 
shaved, to the tune of the "Rogue's March." It was a laugh- 
able proceeding. He followed, bareheaded, the fife and dram, 
while a detail marched behind him with their arms carried at 
charge bayonet. At the edge of camp the music struck up 
"Double-quick," and he was run out. He acted as if he en- 
joyed the fun and seemed glad to get out of the service. He 
had been tried for some offense and the sentence of the court 
martial was that he be drummed out of the service. When out 
of camp he kicked up his heels, put his thumb to his nose and 
gracefully waved his hand. 

December 9th — Tuesday. — Still raining. J. M. Thompson, 
our regimental adjutant, having been elected by the members 
ofCompanyEas its captain, took command of the company 
here at the Yockna. 

December 18th — Thursday. — General Orders, No. 210, from 
the War Department at Washington, dated Dec. 18, 1862, 
read as follows: 

By direction of the President, the troops in the Department of the Tenn688ee 
and those of the Department of the Missouri operating on the MissisBlppi river 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 155 

will be divided into four army oorpe, to be numbered tbe Thirteenth, Fifteenth, 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth. Mtg.Gren. J. A. McClernand is assigned to the com- 
mand of the Thirteenth Army €k)rpe, Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman to the com- 
mand of the Fifteenth Army €k)rp8, Maj. Gen. S. A. Hnrlbnt to the command 
of the Sixteenth Army €k)rp8 and Maj. Gen. J. B. McPherson to the command 
of the Seventeenth Army Corps. 

While here at the Yockna we went out foraging. One of 
our men, not wishing to appropriate a pig that was running 
around the doorjard at a house, asked the man in charge 
what he would take for it. He said twenty dollars. He 
^ve him a hundred-dollar picture that had been printed 
at Bome printing office in the North and received eighty dollars 
in good Confederate money as change. Our men were well 
supplied with Confederate money that was manufactured 
and sent down to the army. Five cents would purchase a five 
era hundred dollar bill, and with these pictures our men 
could make purchases, when their feelings did not prompt 
them to confiscate what they wanted. It was fun for the boys 
to do a little honest trading. The country occupied by our 
army soon became so flooded with this fae-simde that it was 
about as bad for a prisoner to have counterfeit money on his 
person when captured as it was to be convicted of being a spy. 

December 20th — Scitardat/, — Holly Springs, with its garrison 
and immense supplies, was captured early this morning by 
General Van Corn's army. 

Deremhtr 21st — Sundaj/, — We marched back to Oxford with 
the rest of the army in the afternoon and encamped on our 
old ground to the east of the village. At midnight when all was 
quiet the long roll sounded and orders were received to fall 
in at once, as the enemy in heavy force was marching on us 
and was just outside the town. We fell in, and with the rest 
of the brigade marched through the town to the west and 
formed in line of battle. Our troops tore down some build- 
ings to give range to the artillery; fences were leveled and we 
expected that the enemy and daylight would open upon us at 
about the same time. A short time before daybreak a good 
part of our army was either in line on the field or marching to 
it, when it was discovered that the noise heard by our cavalry 
scouts, which they had believed to be the advance of the 



156 HISTORY OF THE FOUSTH REGIMENT [1862 

rebel army in force, wa8 made by one of our army wagon trains, 
which had taken the wrong road and had been driving all 
night to get into our lines. Several companies of our regi- 
ment came very near being fired into by our own troops. On 
the twenty-second we marched back to our camp. 



Orders Dividing the Army. 

Headquabtbbs Depabtmbkt of Tsnnkssbk. 

Holly Spbinos, Miss., Dee, 22, 1882. 
General Obdebs, No. 14: 

By direction of the general- in-chief of the army, the troope in this depart- 
ment, including those in the Department of the Miaeonri operating on the 
Mississippi river, are hereby divided into fonr army corps, as foUows: 

first — The troops composing the Ninth Division, Brig. Qen. O. W. Moi|cbii 
commanding; the Tenth Division, Brig. Gen. A. J. Smith commanding, and all 
other troops operating on the Mississippi river below Memphis not included in 
the Fifteenth Army Corps, wiU constitute the Thirteenth Army Corps, under 
the command of Mbj. Gen. John A. McClemand. 

Second — The Fifth Division, Brig. Gen. Morgan L. Smith commanding; the 
division from Helena, Ark., commanded by Brig. €ren. F. Steele, and the forces 
in the district of Memphis will constitute the Fifteenth Army Corps, and be 
commanded by Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman. 

Third — The Sixth Division, Brig. Gen. J. Mc Arthur commanding; the Ser- 
enth Division, Brig. Gen. I. F. Quinby commanding; the Eighth Division, Brig. 
Gen. L. F. Ross commanding; Second Brigade Cavalry, Colonel Lee command- 
ing, and the troops in the district of Columbus, commanded by Brigadier Gen- 
eral Davies, and those in the district of Jackson, commanded by Brigadier 
General Sullivan, will constitute the Sixteenth Army Corps, and be commanded 
by Major General Hurlbut. 

Fourth — The First Division, Brig. Gen. J. W. Denver commanding; the 
Third Division, Brig. Gen. John A. Logan commanding; the Fourth Division, 
Brig. Gen. J. G. Lauman commanding; First Brigade of Cavalry, CoL B. H. 
Grierson commanding, and the forces in the district of Corinth, commanded 
by Brig. Gen. G. M. Dodge, will constitute the Seventeenth Army Corps, and 
be commanded by Maj. €ren. J. B. McPherson. 

By order of Maj Gen. U. S. Grant. 

Jno. a. Rawlins, 
(17, 2, 461.) A89UlatU Adjutant OemeraL 

This order placed Quinby's division in the Sixteenth Corps, 
where it remained until it left iMemphis to take part in the 
operations against Vicksburg, when it formed a part of. the 
Seventeenth Corps under General McPherson. 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 157 

December 2Sd — Tuesday, — Marched back across the Talla- 
hatchie river. While we were in camp here before, two aids 
on General Quinby's staff stopped at a white house not far 
from camp, where they were quite agreeably entertained by 
two young ladies of the household, and on returning here they 
renewed the acquaintance and made the house their head- 
quarters for the night. Col. Fred A. Starring with several 
other officers of the Seventy-second Illinois dressed them- 
selves in butternut uniform, and riding out to the house entered 
it, and, as Confederate soldiers, captured and paroled the two 
aids and made them swear that they would not leave the house 
before noon of the next day. The two young ladies were over- 
joyed to see our Confederates, showered upon them loving en- 
dearments and joyfully invited them to march the aids off into 
captivity. The colonel and his followers, after paroling the 
aids, retired, and the two prisoners remained in ignorance of 
the joke until about ten o'clock the next day. 

December 24th — Wednesday. — Marched to Lumpkin's Mill 
or Waterford. 

Deceynber 95th — Thursday, — Details go out foraging under 
the supervision of the quartermaster of the Seventy-second Illi- 
nois. The boys thought that he treated them meanly, as he 
made them throw the forage all together and divide it fairly. 
This quartermaster wears spectacles. The wagonmaster of this 
regiment (Burtis) is a pretty liberal man. The Seventy-sec- 
ond's train consists of four-horse teams and many of the horses 
are balky. When we forage a large mule and turn out a small 
one, they pick up the small one and turn out a balky horse. 
To-day is warm.and pleasant and some of our officers went in 
bathing. At night it commenced to rain. 

December 26th — Friday, — March for Memphis. Rain all 
day and mud. The train of the Seventy -second is in advance 
of ours, and many of the balky teams are left by the wayside 
and the officers' bandboxes and mess chests are unloaded along 
the road. On our fine mule teams we haul the knapsacks of 
our regiment. The wagons are loaded to the tops of the 
wagon-bows and knapsacks are strapped on the outside. We 
reach Tallaloosa, the rendezvous for the trains at night. 
Marched nine miles. 



158 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

HoLLT Springs, Miss., Dec, 26, 18d3. 
Special Field Orders, No 34: 

The Seventh DiTislon (left wing), army in the field, Brigadier General Qninby 

commanding, will proceed without delay to Memphis, Tenn., as escort to train 

for supplies for the army. A train of fifty wagons will be detached from each 

division for this purpose, besides the regimental train of the Seventh Division- 

The train of the right wing will be collected at Tallaloosa by 12 o'clock M. on 

the twenty-sixth, escorted by details from their respective commands to that 

place, details to return as soon as train is taken charge of by General Quinby. 

The route to be taken to Memphis will be by the Pigeon Boost road, leading 

from Tallaloosa to Memphis. (17, 2, 485-499.) 

The above is a part of Grant's order, and the instractions 
were that after the train was loaded to guard it east along the 
railroad and ship the supplies by rail. 

December 27th — Saturday. — Rained all night. Reach By- 
halia [population, 1880, 346] late at night, after marching 
seventeen miles. An institution of learning is located here — a 
female seminary. It is a small village. As the cotton busi- 
ness at this time made General Grant quite unpopular with 
some of the army, who blamed him for its being hauled on 
government wagons, we copy the following as an explanation 
of the cotton business: Halleck wrote from Washington, 
Aug. 25, 1862, to Sherman at Memphis, as follows: 

It was determined before I arrived here that gold and treasury notes should 
be paid for cotton, and it was so published in orders by Greneral Butler in New 
Orleans. Whether or not this is wise I ooald not stop to examine. The 
policy being adopted, its operation must be uniform. Hence I directed General 
Grant to make it so in his district I understand that tents for the new leyies 
cannot be furnished till we get more cotton, and hence the absolute necessity 
for encouraging that trade just now. Money is of no more value to the rebels 
than cotton, for they can purchase military munitions with the latter as well 
as the former. Very probably as soon as we get cotton enough for militaiy 
purposes the policy will be changed. (17, 2, 186.) 

Derrmhrr 28th — Suuflaj/. — We move on again to-day and 
bivouac within eight or nine miles of Memphis. The weather is 
clear and the roads are good. Thomas Moore of Company C 
and young Grear, a son of John Qrear of Company E, abont 
fourteen years old, were captured to-day by the enemy when 
only about eighty rods south of the road and in plain sight of 
it. They were after chickens. They rode up to a farmhouse, 
were captured and paroled, and came to the regiment. The 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTRY V0LUNTEEE8. 159 

enemy kept Capt. J. E. Thompson's fine horse and saddle 
which Moore was riding. We got plenty of fine hogs to-day 
along the road. Had to leave two we could not get into the 
wagons before the train passed, and Colonel Alexander, riding 
at the head of the Fifty-ninth Indiana, would not consent to 
let us draw out a team or stop, so the Fifty-ninth boys got 
those two Berkshires. 

December 29th — Monday. — Marched into Memphis. Camped 
near Fort Pickering. Clear and cold. Got very little wood, 
and so the boys helped themselves to a board fence (and we 
afterwards had its value taken out of our pay). 

De/*ember 30th — Tuesday, — Still cold and disagreeable. Some 
of our boys at night went to the theatre in the city. As it was 
forbidden the men to be out of camp, the provost guard were 
banting stragglers at night, but would be looking the other 
way when they came to any of them. The Fifth Iowa were 
on brigade camp guard and with strict orders to arrest all 
without the countersign; but all of our boys, in the opinion of 
the Fifth Iowa, had the mystic word, and none were arrested. 
A couple of themw^ent to the theatre and in returning through 
the city a lieutenant and patrol crossed the street to them, when 
one of them pulled out a fine-tooth comb and says: "That's 
the countersign, sir," and the lieutenant asked, "What regi- 
ment do you fellows belong to?" lie was told, and they im- 
mediately crossed back over the street and said it was O. K. 
They were of the Eightieth Ohio. On coming to the brigade 
guard the first salutation was, "What regiment do you belong 
to?" "The Fourth Minnesota." "The countersign is right; 
pass in, boys." 

Deremher 31st — Wcdmsday, — Marched to Germantown 
[population, 1880, 228], on the Memphis & Charleston railroad, 
in charge of the wagon train, fifteen miles. A good many of 
the men, from the division commander down, were indisposed 
on the march to-day. Former hardships and privations and a 
liberal supply of " Qayoso spring water" in their canteens 
proves too much for many of our men, who are loaded into the 
wagons. Capt. R. S. Donaldson commands the rear guard of 
our regiment and is kept pretty busy looking after them. 
Lieut. J. II. Donaldson is acting regimental quartermaster. 



160 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1862 

We copy the following roster from the army records. When 
the returns were made Colonel Sanborn had doubtless gone to 
St. Paul. 

RosTEB OF Se\'enth DIVISION, Thibtekkth Army Cobps, Dbcembeb, 

1862.— Bbig. Gen. Isaac F. Quinby. 

FIBST BBIOADE — COL. JESSE I. ALEXANDEB OF FIFTY-KIKTH IKDIAKA, 

COMMANDING. 

Seyenty-second Illinois^ Col. Frederick A. Starring. 
Forty-eighth Indiana, Col. Norman Eddy. 
Fifty-ninth Indiana, Col. Jefierson K. Scott. 
Fourth Minnesota, Lieut. Col. John £. Tonrtellotte. 

SECOND BBIGADE — COL. EPHBAIM B. ECK LEY OF EIGHTIETH OHIO. 

Fifty-sixth Illinois, Col. Green B. Ranm. 

Seventeenth Iowa, Lient. Col. Clark R. Weaver. 

Tenth Missouri, Col. Samuel A. Holmes. 

Twenty-fourth Missouri, Company F, Lieut. William W. McCammon. 

Eightieth Ohio, Capt. Charles H. Mathews. 

THIBD BBIOADE — COL. GEOBGE B. BOOMEB OF TWENTY-SIXTH MI8SOX7BI. 

Ninety-third Illinois, Col. Holden Putnam. 
Fifth Iowa, Col. Charles L. Matthies. 
Tenth Iowa, Lient. Col. William E. Small. 
Twenty-sixth Missouri, Lieut. Col. John H. Holman. 

ABTILLEBY — LIEUT. COL. ALBEBT M. POWELL. 

First Missouri Battery M, Capt. Junius W. McMurray. 
Eleventh Ohio Battery, Capt Frank C. Sands. 
Sixth Wisconsin Battery, Capt. Henry Dillon. 
Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, Capt. William Zickerick. 

CAVALBY. 

Fifth Missouri, Company C, Lieut. Russell W. Maryhngh. 

(17, 2, 613 and 616.) 

Returns for Month of December, 1862. — Total enlisted, 750; aggregate, 
787; aggregate last return, 813; total enlisted present for duty, 446; on 
extra and daily duty, 53; sick, 12; total enlisted present, 510. Commisnoned 
officers present for duty, 22; on extra and daily duty, 3; sick, 1; total present, 26. 

Remarks, — Marched from Lumpkin's Mills to a point near the Tallahatchie 
river, seventeen miles. December 3d, marched about a mile and camped on 
the river below the rebel intrencbments. December 4th, marched to Oxfoid, 
Miss., fifteen miles. December 12th, marched six miles south of Oxford to the 
bottoms of the Yocanapatalfa river. December 21st, returned to Oxford. De- 



1862] MINNESOTA INFANTKY VOLUNTEEES. 161 

cember 23d, marched to Tallahatchie, fifteen miles. December 24th, marched to 
Lumpkin's Mills, three mi leu. December 26th, marched to Tallaloo8a,nine miles. 
December 27th, marched to Byhalia, eleven miles. December 28th, marched to 
a point eight miles east of Memphis. December 29th, marched to Memphis, eight 
miles. December Slst, marched to German town, fifteen miles, on the state 
line road. Dnring the month marched 126 miles. On the twenty-eighth the 
rear guard of the train was fired into by guerrillas. Private F. Follett of Com- 
pany D was wounded slightly. Two men were captured and paroled — Privates 
F. Follett of Company D and John Eichler of Company F. Corporal Emil 
Barchard of Company H was captured by guerrillas at Holly Springs. Private 
8. D. L. Baldwin of Company B was discharged Oct. 13, 1862, at St. Louis. 
George A. Clarke, sick at Holly Springs since Dec. 23, 1862. James C. Edson, 
acting major of regiment since Oct. 8, 1862. 

J. E. TOUBTELLOTTE, 

Lieutenant Colonel^ Commanding Regiment. 

Followiup^ is a list of sick and wounded, as reported in lios- 
pitald during the months of October, November and Decem- 
ber, 1862, page 363, Adjutant General's Report: 

Company A. — At Keokuk, James Hare and Thomas Anderson; at Jeiferson 
Barracks Hospital, St. Louis, Mo., Alfred H. Smith, Henry H. Wise, Nels P. 
Peterson; at General Hospital, St. Liouis, Calvin R. Fix; at New House of 
Refoge, St. Louis, John W Frazee, Linus J. Lee. 

Company B. — At Quincy, lU., James A. McClairy, J. Burrows, F. W. 
Hansoom; at Keokuk, Corp. Wm. Knable, Edward Ziebarth; at Jefferson Bar- 
neks, James K. Cochran, W. W. Getchell, C. G. Mickel; at New House of 
Befbge, Joseph Heck, Thomas Ellsworth, Ole Nelson; at Benton Barracks, 
8ergt. 8. D. Dammon. 

Company C. — At Quincy, 111., H. Nickerson, M. A. Bailey, W. A. Bandy; 
tl Jefferson Barracks, Thedro Fish, Edward J. Huntington, Dow Rosenberg, 
Chester K. Jackson, John Asemon, Andrew J. Brown, Chas. F. Putnam; at 
New House of Refuge, Thos. H. Reeves, Chas. M. Perkins; at Benton Barracks, 
Cynu CioQgh, E. D. MeGillis, R. H. Hardick. 

Ctmpany D. — At Quincy, E. Reith, B A. Plummer; at Jefferson Barracks, 
P- V. De Coster, Ross Workman, N. A. Abell, Alonzo Popple; at New House 
of Refuge, Thos. J. Cadwell. 

Company E. — At Quincy, Thomas Agan, A. Rosenberg; at Jefferson Bar- 
^^^ Joseph White, John Boss, Second Lieut. J. A. Goodwin; at General Hos- 
pi^St Louis, G. W. Thomas; at Good Samaritan Hospital, James Wilcox; 
^ Keokuk, John Cocy. 

Ompany F. — At Quincy, F. L. Cutler, O. F. Peck; at Keokuk, Corp. Perry 
^ Jewitt, R. H. Beebe, O. I. Ellingson, B. Habercrom, J. O. Russell. 

Otmpany Q. — At Quincy, Sergeant Charles Ketchum ; at Keokuk, Lorenz 
8*<8er, Joel Taylor, Sergt. Wm. Schelefoo, George Rieder, Patrick Loftus, 
^iMlrew Eichmezer; at Jefferson Barracks, Matthias Waldorf; at General Hos- 
pitU, John Fobe; at Benton Barracks, Lott Palmer. 
11 



162 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT ^1863 

Company H, — At Benton Barracks, Dmm Mig. Comelins A. Kelly; at Keo- 
kuk, Wm. Gregory, Charles Kelly, J. J. Ck>bb, John Penrith; at Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Gastave Johnson, Nels P. Folk; at Benton Barracks, Peter Wilson. 

Company I. — At Qaincy, F. Taylor, M. R. Kelly; at Keoknk, C. Calp, Peter 
Bmith, Charles Haley, A, Lamont; at Jefferson Barracks, John N. Powers; at 
New Honse of Reihge, Henry Harper. 

Company K. — At Qaincy, A. C. Smith; at Jefferson Barracks, Jonathan M. 
MilhoUin, S. M. Milhollin; at New House of Refuge, Wm. M. Milhollin; at 
Keokuk, Corp. George Mail, James Guy, August Hagerman. 

January 1st — Thun^day, — Marched sixteen miles east to La- 
fayette. [Population, 1880, 372.] Clear and very cold. Ice half 
an inch thick. Guarded a supply train. We are thirty-one 
miles east of Memphis. Colonel Sanborn left us for St. Paul 
on leave of absence to settle up some business of his as quarter- 
master general of the state. 

January 2d — Ft^klay, — This morningas Colonel Tourtellotte 
made his toilet he discovered that his navy revolver, put under 
his head as he went to bed, was not to be found. He never 
discovered revolver or thief. [The colonel had our sympathy, 
for the \veapon was a good one and we had sold it to him a 
short time previously. — Ed.] Marched to Qermantown and 
on after dark five miles further to White's Station [population, 
1880, 50], nine miles from Memphis. No tents. Rains hard 
during the night and everybody gets thoroughly wet. Marched 
to-dav twentv-one miles. 

January 3d — Saturday. — Kainsall day and all night. Get our 
tents and pitch them and are more comfortable. 

Headquarters SE\'EXTn Division, Left Wing, Thirteenth Army Ck>sps, 

Department of the Tennessee. 

colliersville, twenty-six miles east of memphis, jan. 3, 1863, 12 m. 

Brig. Oen. C. S. Hamilton, Commanding Left Wing^ La Orangey Tenn., 

General : I hare the honor to report, that pursuant to your InBtmctioxiB 
mj division is now posted on the Memphis & Charleston railroad from Colliers- 
vine to within three miles of Memphis. The Second Brigade, Colonel Eckl^, 
guards the roud from CoIIiersville to Germantown; the Third Brigade, Colonel 
Boomer, from Germantown to White's Station; and the First Brigade, Colonel 
Alexander, from the latter point to crossing of the Pigeon Roost road with the 
railroad, three miles from Memphis, where I hare established my headqnarteis 
for the present. I am, very respectfully, etc , 

I. F. QuiNBY, 
(17, 2, 524.) Brigadier General, Commanding. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEEES. 163 

January ji^th — Sundai/. — Move camp again. Company A is 
posted on the extreme right. Got orders to set up a stockade. 
Captain Young superintends it and Captain Phitt superintends 
building another on the left and near to camp. Forage details 
are busy and the Berkshires are shot down regardless of ex- 
penses, brought into camp whole or otherwise and then 
skinned. We are having splendid foraging. The sweet pota- 
toes are large, abundant and of as fine a quality as we ever saw. 

January 7th — Wednesday. — The first train of cars went 
through from Memphis to Grand Junction to-day with supplies. 
Our Sibley tents are limited in number and consequently 
crowded. We have small sheet-iron stoves in them and from 
twenty to twenty-two men sleep in a tent, lying in a circle 
with feet toward the stove. When a shifting of position is 
necessary, some man calls out "Spoon!" when the boys all 
flop over and find new holes for their hip bones. We bake 
our beans pinery style. A hole is dug in the ground — say 
about two and a half feet deep — and a rousing good fire is 
built in and over it, until the ground is pretty thoroughly 
baked. The coals and ashes are then removed at bedtime 
and a large sheet-iron camp kettle full of parboiled beans and 
a hunk of salt pork is introduced and covered up with the 
coals and ashes and dirt enough on top to make the hole a hot, 
steaming oven. They are not disturbed until morning, when 
the mass of covering is removed and the kettle of beans is 
brought forth — a "dish fit for the gods." 

Hbadquabtbbs Depabthent of the Tennessee. 

Memphis, Tenn., Jan. 15, 1863. 
Special Obdebs, No. 15: 

Sixth — The divisioos of Brigadier General McArthnr, Brigadier General 
Logan and Brigadier General Qainby are detached from the command of Briga- 
dier General Hamilton, and all dispositions made for the maintenance of his 
positions will be made without reference to them. 

Seventh — General Qninbj's, now gnarding a portion of the road, will be the 
last division to move, and while on such duty will be governed by instructions 
received from General Hamilton. 

Eleventh — The divisions now commanded, respectively, by Brigadier Gen- 
erals Qoinby, Logan and McArthur are designated to re-enforce the expedition 
operating down the Mississippi river, M^j. Gen. J. B. McPherson to command 
the whole. 



164 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

Twelfih — Brigadier General McArthar'8 division will at once embark on 
transports and proceed down the river to report to Major General McClemand 
for orders until the arrival of Major General McPhertfon with the remainder of 
his command. 

Thirteenth — Brigadier General Logan will embark and proceed to the same 
destination as soon us tniusports can be supplied, and General Qainby will 
hold himself in readiness to niove at the shortest notice. 

Seventeenth — Troops designated to go south will take with them five 
wagons to each regiment and one to ea(rh company of artillery; one wagon, in 
addition, to each brigade and division commander. Two ambulances will be 
allowed to each regiment. The balance of the trains will be tamed over to 
such quartermaster as Colonel Reynolds, chief (luartermanter, may designate 
to receive them. 

By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant. JoHJJ A. Rawlins, 

Am;<(ant Adjutant General. 

Jnnnari/ 16th aihl 17th — Satunlan and Sumlai/. — Heav\' fall 
of snow, sixteen or seventeen inches. A rabbit ran through 
camp to-day and tlie wliole canip turned out for a run after it. 

Januani JOth, — Chaplain A. S. Fiske left us to-day, being 
detailed as assistant superintendent of contrabands at Mem- 
phis, Tenn. 

Monthly Returns for January, 1863. — Total enlisted men, 704; aggregate, 
742; last month, 788; enlisted men present for duty, 440; on extra and detail 
duty, 51 ; sick, 43; total enlisted men present, 534. Commissioned officers present 
for duty, 21; extra and daily duty, 2; sick, 1; total present, 25. Property — 12 
wagons; 3 ambulances; 1 medicine wagon; 74 mules; 10 horses. 

Remarks. — James C. Edson, acting major since Oct. 8, 1862. Capt. Thomas 
C. Inman, in Minnesota in charge of drafted men since Oct. 22, 1862. J. H. 
Mnrphy, acting division surgeon, Seventh Division, Seventeenth Army Corps, 
since Oct. 5, 1862. J. E. Toubtkllottk, 

Lieutenant Colonel^ Commanding, 

Fehruarn 5th — ThfO^do//, — Colonel Sanborn returned to-day 
from St. Paul, where he went on leave of absence on January 
1st. Maj. A. E. Welch came from Minnesota with Colonel 
Sanborn. Major Welcli, wliile in command of the Third Min- 
nesota Infantry at the battle of Wood Lake in Minnesota with 
the Indians, suffered a fracture of liis leg by a gunshot. 

Fihrnanj 7th — *Sa////v/(///.-^The cars still run through on this 
line to Grand Junction. Our division is stationed alon^ the 
road from Memphis to Germantown, about fifteen miles. Re- 
ceived orders to-day to march to Memphis. We started at 9:80 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 165 

A. M. and marched about seven miles through the snow to a 
camp in timber about two miles southeast of town. The Sev- 
enty-second Illinois camped near to us. 

Fehruarji 19fh — Thnrsdnti, — The weather is disagreeable and 
it rains about half the time, making the roads very bad. The 
smallpox is quite an epidemic in Memphis and one of our regi- 
ment was buried yesterday who died of it at the hospital. 
Our surgeons are vaccinating the men as fast as they can. 

While we were encamped here outside of Memphis Valen- 
tine Oloherty of Company E deserted. Val. was a character 
in his way. He was a natural forager and while we were 
around Rienzi and Jacinto scoured that whole region of coun- 
try. He got a light one-horse rig and used to bring it into 
camp loaded down to the guards, selling the contents to the 
men when not conipelled to donate to the officers' mess. One 
day he was out and the enemy got after him, captured his rig 
and he barely made his escape by taking to the brush. Nothing 
daunted, in a day or two Valentine had another outfit and was 
at his old business. We missed him out of the regiment at his 
desertion, but not more so than our overcoat which we missed 
at the same time. 

We have received notice to be ready to move soon and we 
expect an early departure south by boat. While in camp here 
near Memphis, Joseph Ullmann, Isador Rose, Major Lyons, J. 
R. Livingston, Captain Bell and Colonel Hughitt, gentlemen 
from St. Paul, Minn., gave the officers of our regiment a din- 
ner at the Commercial Hotel in Memphis. [Population of 
Memphis, 1880, 55,000.] 

Rdurns for the Month of February^ 1863. — Enlisted men for daty, 407; ex- 
tra and daily duty, 52; sick, 64; in arrest, 2; total enlisted present, 525. Com- 
miB8ione<l ofl^'ers for duty, 24; extra and daily duty, 2; sick, 1; total commis- 
sioned present, 27. 

Remarks. — Ck>mpany G — Allen W. Clark, captured and dropped, now pa- 
roled and exchanged; joined Feb. 27, 1863; and Valentine Cioherty of Com- 
pany £, deserted Feb. 7, 1863, at Memphis. 

As some of our comrades sometimes ask: " What became of 
'Old Price?'" we will state, that according to ''War Records," 
Maj. Gen. Sterling Price was, at his own request, on Feb. 27, 



166 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

1863, relieved from duty in the Department of the Mississippi 
and ordered to report to Gen. E. Kirby Smith in the trans- 
Mississippi Department. (22, 2, 791.) He went to Little Kock, 
Ark. 

Leaving Memphis. 

March 1 — Sunday, — We got orders on last evening to march 
this morning at seven o'clock into Memphis, to take passage on a 
steamboat. Our men are all in good spirits at the prospect of 
active operations. The roads are good this morning and the 
weather is delightful. Lieut. T. B. Hunt is acting as brigade 
quartermaster and Mr. E. G. Covington, who was formerly 
our citizen regimental wagonmaster and who has recently been 
acting as the wagonmaster of the division supply train, will 
leave us here at Memphis, as he intends to quit the army and 
go to his home in Minnesota. We marched into Memphis at 
11:00 A. M., and took up our quarters on the steamboat City of 
Louisiana, Companies A, B and E in the cabin and C with 
others on the hurricane roof. This boat used to be a first-class 
packet, but is now fitted up to convey troops. Mr. Thomas 
C. Shapleigh, our sutler, left us here at Memphis, and ^vill not 
accompany us any more. 

March 2d — Monday, — Last night Johnson Colter of Com- 
pany I, our color sergeant, and Captain Lueg of Company Q, 
fell ott* the boat into the river. Lueg was got out some dis- 
tance below, but Colter drowned. 

March 3d — Tuesday. — At 4:00 P. M. we started down the river 
with the rest of the fleet. Arrived at Helena, sixty miles 
below, at 11:00 P. m. Cool and cloudv. 

March 4-th — Wednesday. — We started early this morning. 
Passed Napoleon [popula*tion, 1880, 50], at the mouth of the 
Arkansas river, at 8:30 a. m., and arrived at Woodfork's or 
Woodbury's Landing, or Bunche's Bend [population, 1880, 
125], La. This place, or rather point on the river, is three 
hundred miles below Memphis, on the west side of the river, 
three miles from the Louisiana state line, about twenty above 
Lake Providence and seventy -five above Vicksburg. As Bayou 
Macon is but a short distance (four miles) from here, and 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEERS. 167 

as Colonel Bissell's engineer regiment of the West is here 
(First Missouri Engineer Regiment), and as this bayou empties 
into Red river, Bissell's men are here to see if a channel can- 
not be opened into it to get below or around Vicksburg. We 
unloaded the boat at 3:00 p. m. and marched half a mile back 
from the river, where we remained all night without tents. 

March 5th — Thursdan/. — In the night we had a very hard 
storm. There is too much water to do anything. We pitched 
our tents. A fine day. 

March 6th — Fridai/, — We had a severe rainstorm last 
night again, which wet through our tents, soaking everybody 
in camp. This landing is also called Grand Lake, Ark. 

March 7th — Saturdai/. — Embarked again on the City of 
Louisiana and started up the river at 11:00 a. m.. Company B 
being on the roof. We ran very slow as we have a hay boat in 
tow. We laid up at 1:00 a. m. The wind blew hard to-day and 
to-night it rains. We made our bed with a comrade, our 
heads being under the projecting floor of the Texas. Soon 
after we had got to sleep a sudden rush of water into our com- 
fortable bed admonished us that something was wrong. We 
found that the water pipe, which we had not before noticed, 
had been plugged up with dirt, and the accumulated water 
having opened a passage it discharged enough into our bed to 
give us a good drenching. 

March Sfh — Sunda//. — Started early. Passed Napoleon, 
Ark., at 11:00 a. m. Pleasant day, but we have a strong head- 
wind. We laid up at night. 

March 0th — Mondaj/, — Stopped at 9:00 a. m. at the fleet and 
sandbar in Arkansas, five miles below Helena, in sight of 
the town and about opposite the mouth of the Yazoo Pass. 
Disembarked and camped. Clear and warm. Two hundred 
miles to Bunche's Bend. 

March 10th — Tuesdaf/. — It rained all day and nearly all night. 

March 11th — Wed/irsdn*/, — We unloaded our baggage upon 
the shore. A fine day. Our fleet here at the sandbar con- 
sists of the following named boats: Superior (flagboat of 
General Quinby), Dickey, City of Louisiana, Von Phul, J. C. 
Swan (our commissary of subsistence boat), latan, Tecumseh, 



168 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

Brazil, Lady Jackson, Aii^lo-Saxon, R. Campbell Jr., Tigress, 
Piatt Vallev, Gladiator and General Anderson. We are wait- 
in^ hero for smaller boats to take us down the pass. 

Marrh ISfh — Frkhni, — Embarked on the steamer J. S. 
Pringle, a double stern-wheel boat. A part of a battery of 
light artillery is also on board. Clear and warm. Colonel 
Sanborn, with brigade headquarters, is also on our boat. We 
have thirty days' rations, and our boats on the expedition are 
the Prima Donna (on whicli General Quinby has his headquar- 
ters), Duke of Argyle, General Anderson, Lady Jackson, Em- 
pire City and J. S. Pringle, with tlie gunboats Barou De Kalb 
and Xo. 2 tinelad. The method of transporting the troops ou 
this expedition was unique and deserves a passing notiee. The 
wagons and stores were placed in the hold. Then all of the 
mules and horses, the headquarters' roan cow (some will doubt- 
less remember her and the unaccountable wav she had of fall- 
ing overboard) and the artillery were all crowded on the boiler 
or engine deck. Next, just above the animals, was rigged a 
staging covered with loose boards which allowed free ventila- 
tion from below. Four of our companies (we think A, F, I and 
C) were quartered in that cramped place, about four feet high. 
The aroma was something indescribable, and at night when all 
was still and the silence could be almost felt the music of those 
mules was demoniacal and anything but soothing to one's 
nerves. 

March 14.th — Saturday. — Started across the river and went 
through where a ditch had been cut from the river across 
the levee by our forces. The river was very high and there 
was a fall of eight and one-half feet in the levee, through 
which the water flowed with great swiftness, so much so that we 
could not keep steerage-way on the boat. Immediately after 
leaving the river we had to turn at almost a right angle. Be- 
fore we could make this turn we were forced, side on, to the 
bank with a force that made things jingle, doing no harm, 
however. We then followed what appeared to be a lane of 
water, with trees on each side which were submerged to the 
height of fifteen or twenty feet, and as the current was exceed- 
ingly swift the steamer seemed to be almost completely at its 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 169 

mercy, first striking the trees on one side, which, fortunately, 
would spring, so that the blow was broken; then the trees 
bending like whips, she would rebound to the other side. The 
pilot turned pale, the troops were almost breathless. After 
going about a mile we shot into Moon lake, where we had 
quiet sailing for about five miles before we came to the pass, 
and all took a long breath. Hailed some soldiers to know 
where the mouth of the Yazoo Pass out of the lake was. 
Found the hole. Tried to get in and could not. Too much 
cross current and wind. Tied up for the night. The steamer 
Empire City came up with the Seventy-second Illinois on board. 
The men went to blackguarding each other and both regiments 
got nearly fighting mad, when the officers put a stop to it. 
The blacki^uardism consisted niostlvin imitatinc: the commands 
of Colonel Starrinsc »>f the Seventv-second, who had been a 
cadet at West Point and had learned to draw out his com- 
mands, as '* H-a-l-t I '' etc. 

March loth — Sfftnlff'/. — Tried two or three times and at last 
we got into the pass. It was barely wide enough to let the 
boat in and was very crooked. The engineer corps were at 
work at the mouth with scaffolds and saws that oj)erated hori- 
zontally under water, sawing the trees off several feet below 
the surface. We ran ten miles. Trees overhunsr the stream 
and it was very diflicult to navigate. The pass would average 
about eighty feet in width. It is called fifteerj miles from Moon 
lake to the junction of the^pass with the Coldwater river. 

Marrh IGfh — Mohfhf*/, — The rivets were punched out of the 
smokestack on our boat and the pipes were taken off about 
even with the hurricane roof. The stacks on some of the boats 
were hinged and on these they were laid back, but ours had to 
be cut off to allow the boat to pass under the limbs of the trees 
that overhung the stream. The smoke blackens us all up. 
Those of us on the hurricane roof have to keep a sharp look- 
out for falling limbs. As the boat was in the tree-tops some of 
the men got struck and hurt by them. A large, dead syca- 
more tree fell across tlie bow of the boat, striking the wheels of 
a battery wagon, an<l they broke through the deck. It knocked 
one man overboard and injured two others. It came very near 



170 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

sending us to the bottom into fully fifty feet of water. We 
struck one tree that broke the guards all in as far as the hull 
of the boat and ripped thera off clean for several feet, knock- 
ing several guns overboard. The railings and the " gingerbread 
fixings " are all torn oif. The exhaust pipes are knocked oflf, 
and the men utilize the steam in cooking by holding their long- 
handled frying pans over it. Occasionally a full head of steam 
is required for a stroke or two, when the pans would be thrown 
violently up and their contents go half way across the boat, 
amid shouts and laughter. Some of the Seventy-second Illi- 
nois boys nailed pieces of bacon and crackers and barrel heads 
to the trees, after writing messages on them. We worked hard 
all day and only went one mile. The captain of the boat kept 
calling almost constantly to Dan, the pilot, *'Stop her, Dan!" 
"Back her!" "Give her a turn back on the starboard 
wheel!" and similar orders. We had to run out lines fore and 
aft and fasten thom to trees to prevent the current from mak- 
ing a wreck of our craft by driving it against the trees. 

March 17th — Tiusdan. — We rame up to the other boats and 
got off three horses at a farmhouse. Clear and warm. We 
left one side of a field in the morning and tied up at night on 
the other side of it. We went a little over a mile. The farm- 
house we stopped at to-day, a pretty little white house with 
green blinds, near the levee, was Alcorn's, afterwards United 
States Senator and Governor of Mississippi. In looking across 
the field, or in almost any direction, boats can be seen, the 
stream is so crooked, and we cannot tell whether they are 
before or behind us. 

March 18th — Wednesday/, — Got into the Coldwater river at 
2:00 P. M., having made eighteen miles in a little less than five 
days. We went one mile and got oft* to clean the boat. 
Camped over night. Clear and warm. The Coldwater is from 
one hundred to one hundred and thirty feet wide. 

3Iarch 19th — Thnrsdatj. — Got on the boat in the morning 
and started down the river, which was not much better than 
the pass. Thomas Lameroux of Company H was hit in the 
face to-day by a limb and his cheek bones and nose were 
broken. Had guards on the decks to look out for rebels, but 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 171 

saw none. We heard heavy cannonading to-day from a long 
distance south. It is Admiral Porter's gunboats down on 
Steel Bayou, or the Sunflower, trying a passage by that route. 
At night we sent up skyrockets to attract General Sherman's 
and Admiral Porter's attention. 

March 20th — Friday. — We met a gunboat to-day that had 
been fired into, four men being killed. It is 175 miles from 
where we are to-day to Fort Pemberton. We can run now 
about twenty miles a day, and we lay up of nights. The 
whole country is overflowed. 

March 21st — Saturday. — We got into the Tallahatchie river 
to-day. Saw bales of cotton on fire floating down the river. 

March 22d — Sunday. — Met Ross' division coming up last 
night from Fort Pemberton. They turned and went down 
with us. Luke Marcile of Company B is one of the nurses 
in our regimental hospital. The Tallahatchie is from one hun- 
dred and thirty to one hundred and eighty feet wide. 

March 23d — Monday. — We arrived at a point about two 
miles above the junction of the Tallahatchie and Yellowbusha 
rivers, which together form the Yazoo, •and at the junction of 
which is located Fort Pemberton and the town of Greenwood. 
[Population of Greenwood, 1880, 375.] It is about 225 miles 
from Moon luke to Fort Pemberton. We are on Clark's plan- 
tation. 

March 24.th — Tuesday. — We get off* the boat and camp over 
night in a field of old dead trees. Hard storm in the night 
and the trees and limbs were falling all night. Some horses 
were killed by the trees. [Sly says: ''I went back to the 
river and sat up all night. Rain."] Had some skirmishing 
with the rebels and took two prisoners. Companies A, E, 
I and H go out and reconnoiter the position of the enemy, but 
are not engaged. 

Marrh 26th — Thursday. — Another reconnaissance in force 
is ordered, and the Fourth Miimesota, Fifty-ninth Indiana and 
Seventy-second Illinois are ordered for that duty. They move 
out two or three miles and draw the fire of the enemy, but do 
not return it. The only loss was the cap of one of the mem- 
bers of the staff*, which was deposited as a memorial of our 



172 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

visit, while the enemy kept yelling to him to ''Hold up!" as 
they wanted to form his acquaintance. But he had no time to 
spare and in a recent letter says that he thinks that the cap is 
still there. After several futile reconnaissances the expedition 
was iriven up. The water is so hit^h that our troops cannot get 
to the enemy. Captain Donaldson of Company C has charge 
of the «:rand guard opposite the river from Fort Pembertou, 
and they hold fre([uent conversations with the enemy's pickets. 

Rfturns for the Month of March, 1863. — Enlisted men for duty, 397; extra and 
daily duty, 49; sick, 56; total enlisted men present, 502. Commissioned offi- 
cers present, 21; extra and daily daty, 2; sick, 2; total commissioned officers 
present, 25. Total enlisted present and absent, 674; aggregate, 713; last re- 
turn, 727. 

Bemarks. — From Woodfork's Landing proceeded np the river to a point two 
(?) miles below Helena, opposite the mouth of the Yazoo Pass, and encamped 
on a sandbar twelve inches above the level of the river. Left with the rest of 
our brij^e down the pass. On the twenty- third reached the camp of (General 
Ross' division on the Tallahatchie, eight miles above its month. On the 
twenty-tifih the regiment encamped on the east side of the river, one mile 
al>ove the camp of Ross' division, and distant from the rebel Fort Pemberton 
two and a ha^f miles. Comimny A — Ephraim Tipton, died of disease Feb. 16, 
1863, at Memphis, Tenn. Company B — John P. Parson, discharged for din- 
bility March 3, 1863, at Memphis, Tenn. Company B — Thomas Ellsworth, 
discliarged Jan. 28, 1863, at St. l/ouis. Mo. Company H — Pearl Otis, joined 
the regiment March 1, 1863, at Memphis, Tenn. Company I — Moses Nonis, 
joined the regiment March 30, 1863, at Tallahatchie river; was captnred at 
luka, Sept. 19, 1862. Thomas H. Hunt, absent acting as quartermaster First 
Brigade, Seventh Division, since Oct. 5, 1862. William F. Wheeler, absent on 
Hamilton's stafif since June 24, 1862. L. B. Martin, on detached service on 
General Buford's stalf since Sept. 1, 1862. 

xipril S*l — Fr'nltuf. — The enemy slielled our forces and our 
gunboats replied vigorously. 

Ajtril itb — Sdfffrdai/. — Loaded our teams and camp equi- 
page on the steamers. 

Apr'it oth — SfOifffff/, — Started up the river last night on the 
same boats, tlie Fourtli on tlie Pringle and Company A in its 
old position above tlie mules. Can make more headway going 
up than down. 

A/>r!l 7fh — TnesJai/. — Passed the steamer Tishomingo head- 
ed into the timber, badly disabled and apparently abandoned. 
We first saw her at Galena in 1856, as an upper-river boat, and 
the huge Indian painted on the sides of her wheelhouses looked 
like an old acquaintance. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTKY VOLUNTEERS. 173 

April 8th — Wednesdcui. — Arrived at the pass and started up. 
Clear. The water has fallen a good deal and the signs nailed 
on the trees are ten feet above our heads. 

April 10th — Frifla//. — Arrived at the Mississippi river and 
crossed to our old camp on the sandbar. Disembarked and 
went into camp. Clear and warm. Distance down to Fort 
Pemberton and back, about four hundred miles. 

Ap^il 11th and 12th — Satunlan and Sandat/, — The boys are 
washing and boiling their clothes and cleaning up generally. 

April 13th — Monday, — Our quartermaster, Lieut. T. B. 
Hunt, has been promoted to captain and assistant quarter- 
master, and left us to-day for the north. 

The Pass Expedition. 

The Yazoo Pass expedition was one of the schemes resorted 
to after Sherman's disastrous defeat at Chickasaw Bayou to 
kill time, keep the army busy during the winter of 1863 and 
endeavor to get a foothold on terra Jirma near to Vicksburg. 
Grant consulted freely with all who could render information 
about the practicability of these schemes. General Gorman was 
in command at Helena and Lieut. C. K. Davis (since Governor 
of Minnesota) was an aid upon his stall'. We copy the fol- 
lowing, clipped from a newspaper, as his experience: 

I happened to be present on one occasion when he was taking the opinions 
of several officers, whether a canal should be cut from the Mississippi river into 
Moon lake, a sheet of water in the State of Mississippi about six miles below 
Helena and only a few hundred feet from the great river. The plan was to run 
steamboats and gunboats through this cut into the lake and thence by a river 
which had its source in the lake into the Yazoo, thus taking Vicksburg in the 
rear. General Grant sat through a long discussion foraod against the operation 
without saving a word. No statue could have been less expressive. He did 
not seem to me to be even interested. When all had talked to their content, he 
said quietly, "Well, you can cut the ditch.*' The result was the passage of an 
armament through that network of streams until it brought up against Fort 
Pemberton, at the confluence of the rivers which form the Yazoo. 

The cut was made on the second of February, 1863. The 
first troops left Helena, Feb. 24, 1863, and consisted of Gen. L. 
F. Ross* division of McClernand's and two regiments of Sher- 
man's corps, about four thousand five hundred men, on eighteen 



174 HISTOEY OF THE FOUETH REGIMENT [1863 

transports, accompanied by the heavy ironclads Chillicotbe 
(Captain Foster) and the Baron De Kalb (Captain Walker), four 
or five tinclads and a mortar barge, and passing through Moon 
lake confronted Fort Pemberton on the eleventh of March. On 
the twelfth the ironclads opened their bow guns. A shot from 
the fort soon jammed the port shutters of the Chillicothe so 
they could not be opened and she was compelled to withdraw 
for repairs. She returned on the thirteenth and the action was 
resumed, when a solid shot entered a port -hole, exploded a 
shell and killed several men. On the twentieth Ross' command 
and the navy started back up the river. 

Embarked again on the J. S. Pringle and started down the 
Mississippi river. Clear and warm. Had a hard storm at 
night which blew the boat into the trees at the mouth of the 
White river and broke the wheel. Tried to anchor and it 
would not hold. Passed three gunboats. Rain. 

April nth — Tkiesday. — Lay tied to the trees until the wheel 
was fixed. The Empire City tried to get our anchor but lost 
it. Started down the river at ten o'clock. Passed Napoleon 
and tied up at night. Rain and chilly. 

April loth — Wednesday. — Arrived at Lake Providence [popu- 
lation, 1880, 1,100] at eight o'clock. The levee w^as cut and a 
furious stream of water was running through the village. Left 
at ten o'clock and went down to Milliken's Bend, La., to-day. 
Large fleet of boats here and large camp. Warm. Milliken's 
Bend [population, 1880; 225] is twenty miles above Vicksburg 
and three hundred miles below Helena. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Rnnning the Vicksburg Batteries; Names of the Boats; Particulars from Both 
Sides; Brilliant Description by a Lady in Vicksburg — Organizing Freed- 
men as Soldiers — Adjutant General Thomas' Speech to Us — Officers Com- 
missioned; Extra Dangerous Service — More Boats Run by the Batteries — 
We March from the Bend — High Water; Deep Mud — Fourteen Span of 
Horses Pulling a Caisson — Gunboats Bombard Grand Gnlf and Run by 
Those Batteries — Battle of Port Gibson; Troops Engaged — Leave Our 
Tents and Teams at Smith's Plantation — Cross the Mississippi River — 
Form in Support of McClemand's Troops; then March to Port Gibson — 
Battle of Forty Hills — Hankinson's Ferry — Support Logan's Troops at 
Raymond — Com in the Ear — Living Off the Country — Borrow a Cigar 
Factory at Clinton — Battle of Jackson — March for Vicksburg — Battle of 
Champion's Hill. 

A/ml 16th — Thursday, — Disembarked and camped inside of 
the levee. Very hot. We expect to get our pay in a day or 
two. Our men are getting sick very fast. It is said that 
Smith's division, to which the Fifth Minnesota belongs, left 
here yesterday, and Hovey's is leaving to-day by the over- 
land route to the river below. We saw Fred Grant to-day riding 
a pony among the camps with a uniform on. He appeared to 
be about twelve years old. Went down below camp on the 
river and saw some men of Logan's division putting bales of 
hay around the boilers of some of the steamboats to protect 
them while running the batteries. So many of the boys want 
to go on the boats and make the passage of the forts that a 
guard has been placed around them to keep them off. 

The steamboat Henry Von Phul, General Grant's head- 
quarters boat, is anchored out in the middle of the river and 
the general's family is on board. 

Running the Batteries. 

April 17th — Fridatf. — Last night it was intensely dark and 
the steamboats ran the batteries at Vicksburg. The can- 
nonading could be plainly heard at the camp and the 
heavens were lit up brilliantly until the feat was accom- 



176 HISTOBY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

plisbed. At ten o'clock Admiral Porter gave the signal from 
the tlagsliip Benton and she started, followed by the gunboats 
Lafayette (with a barge of coal and the General Price — a 
wooden ram captured some nionths before at Memphis — 
lasbed to her), Louisville, Mound City, Pittsburgh and Caron- 
delet. These gunboats were followed by the transports Forest 
Queen, Silver Wave and Henry Clay. Tljese were all tow- 
ing barges, and the boats and barges were all loaded with 
coal and other supplies. The gunboat Tuscumbia brought up 
the rear. At ten minutes to eleven the Benton rounded the 
point above the batteries. 
General Sanborn savs: 

No difficaltj was met in obtainiDg volanteers to undertake the hazardous 
task of actiog as pilots, engineers and firemen upon these frail crafts that were 
to be mn by these heavy batteries. A few had doubts and misgivings. A 
request for volnnteers was sent to all the division commanders and was read to 
each regiment at its dress parade. The volunteers were requested to report at 
division headquarters. Quite a large number reported from the Seventh 
Division. 

As the gunboats and transports laden with supplies were about to start, a 
large number of other transports were filled with officers and started down 
the river to a point that would be just beyond the reach of the rebel batteries 
to see the venturous fleet ofl" on its perilous voyage. So long a time elapsed 
att>er they parted company from their visitors that the hope began to be 
indulged that they would run ]>ast the batteries without being seen at all, for 
there was no moon, the night was one of intense darkness, there was not a 
glimmer of light upon any gunboat or transport; they moved along silently 
and sullenly in the darkness, which was intense. But suddenly, almost as if by 
a flash of electricity, the whole heavens and earth were iUuminated; fires 
blazed in every direction; the batteries opened from every point, while the 
gunboats responded with equal vigor, and the heavens seemed ablaze, while 
earth and river shook. An hour or two passed, and the rockets sent up by the 
fleet below were read to mean that the gunboats had all run past safely and 
that but one transport had been sunk — the Henry Clay. 

It was sixteen minutes past eleven when the first gun was 
tired from the bluffs by the enemy and Admiral Porter re- 
sponded at once from the Benton. The enemy set fire to the 
railroad buildings across the river in De Soto and built fires 
along the river banks to light up the stream. The vessels 
drifted with the current, which at times carried some of the 
boats in its eddies back and forth, thus delaying their prog- 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEERS. 177 

ress. The gunboats continued their fire. At about twenty 
minutes past twelve the boats arrived opposite the courthouse. 
The Forest Queen was disabled by a shot, and after drifting 
some distance was taken in tow by the Tuscumbia. The Henry 
Clay was set on fire by a shell and burned, and at about two 
o'clock the fleet was moored at Hard Times Landing, about three 
miles above Grand Gulf. In running by the batteries Admiral 
Porter kept his gunboats near the Vicksburg shore, while the 
transports ran close to the Louisiana side of the river. Joseph 
Montoure of Company K of our regiment states that he acted 
as engineer of one of these steamboats that ran by the batteries. 
Admiral Porter says in his "Incidents of the Civil War: '' 

When the Bentoo had passed aU danger we stiU continued to drift on. The 
cannon were yet buomiog and fire was apparently issaing from a dozen burn- 
ing vessels. It might have answered for a picture of the infernal regions. We 
were an hour and a half in passing the batteries, which extended along the 
river for about four miles. I could not stop to ascertain what damage had 
been done to the other vessels, as I had to keep moving to make way for those 
behind me. The sound of guns gradually decreased as the vessels passed the 
batteries and then all was silent. The fires had burned out and the river had 
returned to its former obscurity. I came to anchor around a point and in ten 
minutes the gunboats began to come in sight, one after another, in the same 
order in which they had started, anchoring in line under the stem of the Ben- 
ton. Bunches of cotton still ablaze and burning fragments of the wreck of the 
Henry Clay continued to come down with the current. 

None were killed and but eight were wounded on the gun- 
boats. Grant's report (24, 1, 47) says that none were injured 
or killed on the transports. 

We quote from the diary of a lady ["My Cave Life"] in 
Vicksburg: 

At night I was sleeping profoundly when the deep boom of the signal 
cannon startled and awoke me. Another followed, and I sprang from my bed, 
drew on my slippers and robe and went out on the veranda. Our friends 
were already there. The river was illuminsted by large fires on the bank, and 
we could discern plainly the huge, black masses floating down with the 
current, now and then belching forth fire from their sides, followed by the 
loud report, and we could hear the shells exploding in the upper part of town. 
The night was one of pitchy darkness, and as they neared the glare thrown 
upon the river from the large fires, the gunboats could be plainly seen. Each 
one on passing the track of the brilliant light on the wnt-er became a target for 
the land batteries. We couI<1 hear the gallop in the darkness of couriers upon 
12 



178 HISTOKY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

the paved streets; we could hear the voices of the soldiers upon the river side, 
the rapid firing of the boats, the loar of the Confederate batteries; and above 
all, the screaming, booming sound of the shells as they exploded in the air and 
around the city made at once a new and fearful scene to me. The boats were 
rapidly nearing the lower batteries, and the shells were beginning to fly un- 
pleasantly near. My heart beat quickly as the flashes of light from the port- 
holes seemed facing us. Some of the gentlemen urged the ladies to go down 
into the cave at the back of the house, and insisted on my going, if alone. 
While I hesitated, fearing to remain, yet wishing still to witness the termina- 
tion of the engagement, a shell exploded near the side of the house. Fear 
instantly decided me, and I ran, guided by one of the ladies, who pointed 
down the deep slope of the hill and lefti me to run back for a shawl. While I 
was considering the best way of descending the hill another shell exploded 
near the foot and, ceasing to hesitate, I flew down, half sliding and running. 
Before I had reached the mouth of the cave, two more exploded on the side of 
the hill near me. Breathless and terrified, I found the entrance and ran in, 
having left one of my slippers on the hillside. I found two or three of our 
friends bad already sought refuge under the earth, and we had not been there 
long before we were joined by the remainder of the party, who reported the 
boats opposite the house. As I had again become perfectly calm and collected, 
I was sorry to find myself fluttered and in a state of rapid heart- beating, as 
shell after shell fell in the valley below us, exploding with a loud, rumbling 
noise, perfectly deafening. The cave was an excavation in the earth the size 
of a large room, high enough for the tallest person to stand perfectly erect, 
provided with comfortable seats and altogether quite a large, habitable abode 
(compared with some of the caves in the city), were it not for the dampness 
and the constant contact with the soft, earthy walls. We had remained but a 
short time when one of the gentlemen came down to tell us that all danger 
was over and that we might witness a beautiful sight by going upon the hill, 
as one of the transports had been fired by a shell and was slowly floating down 
as it burned. We returned to the house and from the veranda looked on the 
burning boat, the only one, so far as we could ascertain, that had been injured, 
the other boats having all passed successfully by the city. We remained on 
the veranda an hour or more, the gentlemen speculating on the result of the 
successful run by the batteries. All were astonished and chagrined. It was 
found that very few of the Ck>nfederate guns had been discharged at all. 
Several reasons had been assigned; the real one was supposed to have been 
the quality of the fuses that were recently sent from Richmond and had not 
been tried since their arrival. This night of all others they were found to be 
defective. The lurid glare from the burning boat fell in red and amber light 
upon the house, the veranda and the animated faces turned toward the river, 
lighting the white magnolias, paling the pink crape myrtles and bringing out 
in bright distinctness the railing of the terrace, where drooped in fragrant 
wreaths the clustering passion vine; fair and beautiful, but lulse, the crimson, 
wavering light! I sat and gazed upon the burning wreck of what an hour ago 
had thronged with human life; with men whose mothers had this very night 
prayed for them; with men whose wives hovered over little beds, kissing each 
tender sleeping lid for the absent one. Had this night made them orphans? 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 179 

Did this smooth, deceitfal current of the glowing waters glide over forms loved 
and lost to the faithful ones at home? Oh, mother and wife! ye will pray and 
smile on until the terrible tidings come — "Lost at Vicksburg! " Lost at 
Vicksburg! In how many a heart the name for years will lie like a brand! — 
lie until the warm heart and tried soul shall be at peace forever. 

There was a grand ball, given by Major Watts of the Con- 
federate army, in the city this night, and when the batteries 
opened and the shells began to explode, the unceremonious 
running to and fro from that ballroom and the hasty retreat 
through the streets in the darkness by ladies was a sight never 
before witnessed in Vicksburg. As a shell was heard coming 
they would fall in the dusty road, party dresses and all, lying 
until the explosion took place. After running about a mile in 
the fewest moments possible, they stopped at the first house. 
"If you could have seen our part}' dresses when we reached 
home," remarked a lady afterwards, "and our hair and the 
flowers full of dust, you would never have forgotten us." 

Organizing Colored Troops. 

Aprif 17th, — We quote the following from a letter written at 
this time: 

To-day, the seventeenth, we passed in review before Brig. Gen. Lor- 
enzo Thomas, adjutant general of the United States Army, who recently 
came here from Washington. After the review was over oar division was formed 
in a square hy Colonel Sanborn, our division commander, with Generals Thomas, 
McPherson, Ck>lonel Sanborn and several other prominent officers in the centre. 
General Thomas said that he had been sent here by the President of the United 
States to personally make known to the army the policy of the government re- 
garding the negro question, in order that none may be deceived, and to tell the 
soldiers all about it. After mature deliberation by the best statesmen of this 
country the policy is, to arm the best of them and oiganize them into regiments 
and to use them to hold points along the river and in the country and to put 
the rest to work upon fortifications and plantations, those upon the latter to be 
under responsible persons appointed by the President. He said he had author- 
ized the raising of one thousand artillerists at Memphis and two regiments of 
infantry at Helena. They have filled those at Helena and have enough 
more to almost fill a third." He also said: ** I will give your division the officers 
for two regiments, and whoever the division commander recommends I will 
commission, and I do not care if they are all private soldiers, if they are only 
competent." He also said : ** They at Washington were led to believe that the 
arming of negroes would meet great opposition in the armies, especially in the 



180 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

WesterDf but so far I am happily disappointed, as I have received the en- 
tire support of officers and men from the highest down. Bat/' said he^ ** if any- 
one opposes the action of the government I have fbll power to dismiss him from 
the service, be he whom he may.'' He then asked for an expression from the 
crowd, when three cheers were given. Several other officers then spoke. Colonel 
Boomer of the Twenty-sixth Missouri Infantry did not believe in such a policy, 
but as long as it had been adopted he as a good soldier could only obey. Colonel 
Sanborn of the Fourth Minnesota Infantry made a patriotic speech. He be- 
lieved in the policy and was surprised that the government had not adopted it 
long before. The colonel believed in using any and every honorable means 
within our reach to put down the rebellion, and if the mules could only serve 
with muskets he would believe in arming them. Aflber the speeches closed the 
different regiments marched to their camps. 

The policy of organizing the freedmen was freely discussed among the men 
and the feelings of repugnance that had before been rife gave way, for the men 
would reason, " Why should we not use them to suppress the rebellion when we 
have them in such great nnmben*?" The enemy used them in all ways except 
to shoot guns. They drove the teams, built the fortifications and served as 
cooks and on extra and daily duty wherever their services could be worked in 
and a white man with a gun in bis hands saved to their ranks, and we believe 
that those who served in their military operations — without counting their 
great services as husbandmen in the fields — added at least an hundred thous- 
and fighting men to the ranks of the Confederacy. An opportunity was now of- 
fered to men of ability who were serving in humble station in the ranks where 
they could achieve military honor, by making good, well-disciplined soldiers 
of ignorant plantation negroes who had never had the privilege of firing a gun, 
provided they would take the risk of being captured by the enemy, who we 
all believed would regard and treat all **niggah officers" as outlaws, and as 
soon as any were taken prii!>oners kill them without judge or jury. It was 
amusing to see the change of sentiment among our men, and as soon as possible 
the next day Colonel Sanborn received four times as many applications as 
were needed. Several commissioned officers applied for positions and entered 
this new branch of the service, which was at first very unpopular, and it re- 
quired all of the fortitude we possessed to face the prejudice that cropped out 
as we began to recruit for our companies. We persevered, however, against all 
opposition. I had men bearing celebrated names in my company: Jeff. Davis, 
George Washington and King Emanuel, and we heard of one in another com- 
pany who was named '^Paul's Pistol to the Feeshuns." On acquiring their 
freedom they generally adopted the names of their favorite masters. About the 
twentieth of July some of our officers proceeded to Natchez on a steamboat, 
which was placed at their disposal for the purpose, and soon returned to Vicks- 
burg with a thousand men. 

We established oar regimental camp on the bottom land immediately below 
Cline's foundry, and near to the United States Marine Hospital. The tents of 
the officers were on the first bench, about sixty feet higher, and occupied a portion 
of the ground used by the enemy for his water batteries. These were con- 
structed of earth, nicely turfed, and mounted he^vj guns, eight and ten inch 
Columbiads, and had furnaces for heating solid shot. It was astonishing to us 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 181 

how any vessel could have passed by tbem. The batteries extended along the 
river front a distance of three miles, and mounted thirty-one pieces of heavy 
and thirteen of light artillery, and were divided into three commands, the np- 
per ones being on Fort Hill (sky parlor), the centre on the city front, and the 
lower near to Cline's foundry. 

As Pemberton's army was marching on its way to the Big Black river, it met 
Capt. Eugene Farley and Lieut Joseph Meyer [Meyer was formerly from 
Company G, Fourth Minne«)ta] of the Fiftieth United States Colored Infantry, 
who had been out in the country getting colored recruits and were returning with 
them to the city. These officers had on their shoulder straps and were at once 
stopped and questioned by the rebels as to their object in getting negroes to go 
with them to the city; they were accused of being negro recruiting officers, 
were called the foulest epithets and threatened with instant death. " Let's 

hang or shoot the ! " said they. Movements were made to 

execute their threats and they only escaped with their lives by the interference 
of the rebel officers. If the rebel soldiers had had guns they would have been 
shot down on the spot. On their return to camp they informed us that it was 
the most perilous incident of their lives. This shows the animosity that existed 
toward those officers by the enemy, and those who were engaged in the raising 
and commanding these troops knew full well what their treatment would be if 
captured. 

On the twenty-seventh of July our regimental organization was complete. 
The most of our men were from plantations, and not being used to army diet 
and the river water, sickness soon began to make fearful havoc among them. 
We did not have enough of medical help. The commanding general would not 
relieve us from performing fatigue duties. Every man and every officer who 
was not sick was on duty every day. Our death rate soon began to be appall- 
ing. One day, in our regiment, twenty-two died, twenty-one on another, 
and on another eighteen. The dead were buried without coffins, in long, shal- 
low trenches, on the river bottom, about a mile or more below the outskirts of 
the city limits. It was difficult for the surgeons to tell who the men were and 
to what company they belonged, — they all looked about alike to them, — and to 
ascertain they tied a ticket to each man's neck bearing his name and company. 
In H few weeks alter organizing the health of the regiment improved. There 
were in the United States army 178,895 colored soldiers and of this number 
93,441 enliste<l from the states in rebellion. 

These troops were as brave in battle as men could be. The writer was in 
several engagements with them and saw no cowardice whatever; they faced 
any and all dangers willingly and gladly. In the battle at Milliken's Bend, on 
June 7, 1863, between about a thousand of eur forces, consisting mostly of 
colored troops, and double that number of rebels, General Dennis said: **Itwa8 
the hardest fought battle he had ever seen. It was fought mainly hand to 
hand. Many men were found dead with bayonet stabs and others with their 
skulls broken open with muskets. It is impossible for men to show greater 
gallantry than the negro troops in this fight.'' (24, 1, 95.) And Grant in his 
letter to Halleok (24, 3, 547) says: *'The negro troops are easier to preserve die- 
cipline among than our white troops and I doubt not will prove equally good 
for garrison duty. All that have been tried have fought bravely." 



WKSDTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 183 

!ht:uitrv. and helpod to or^^anize the company 

iji' rosiirned at Vicksburg on Aug. 29, 1864, by 

-j'nkf recoivod at the battle of Raymond on May 

<plj Meyer of Company G, on July 24, 1863, at 

;ts promoted to second lieutenant Company E, 

-i:nia fnfantrv, or Fiftieth United States Colored 

..i ln-'lped to organize the company and regiment; he 

1><;4, at Vicksburg. Robert P. Miller of Com- 

■ 'iioied July 27, 1863, at Vicksburg, to second lieu- 

' -impany K, Twelfth Louisiana Infantry, or Fiftieth 

= i* s Colored Infantrj-, and helped to organize the com- 

'•■girneiit; resigned Feb. 1, 1864. John A. Davis of 

V i»romoted, Dec. 31, 1863, to second lieutenant 

. F, Fiftieth United States Colored Infantry; resigned 

Zinu B. Chatiield of Company A was for a short time 

.M.'lfth Louisiana Infantry and then, on Sept. 7, 1863, 

inted to captain in the Fifty-eighth United States Col- 

^mtry. Calvin Amidon of Company C promoted totirst 

• <»f Company I, Twelfth Louisiana Infantry, at Vicks- 

'.'lA died before being commissioned an officer. The first 

rly sergeants of these colored regiments were white sol- 

w\iii were transferred to these regiments, and generally 

-crve but a short time before they were promoted to com- 

•fjcd officers. 

.'/ lOfli — Snmhn/, — Our regiment received four months' 
■o-day. 
■onirade writes: 

I lie months of March and April the smaUpox broke out in onr army, 

I lay at Young's Point, and as the men would take the deadly complaint 

^V(•re placed on a steamboat and taken to Milliken's Bend, twelve miles above 

jx'int, the same boat bringing the dead every morning in order to buiy 

!) in the levee, that being the only dry land to be found, as the levees were 

liid the country overflowed with water from the Mississippi river. I have 

Oie rough board caskets piled up on the bank like dry goods boxes. The 

- Wits full of dead soldiers, and the provisions and feed had to be hauled on 

■iniind, and the wagon wheels would cut down to the Iwxes in which the 

wore laid. Every morning the " Dead March '^ would be played and some- 

• s one hundred would be laid to rest. 

.!/'/•// 23d — Thnrsflai/, — The following named steamboats 
i\' prepared and protected as the others had been, and each 



182 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

The following named persons were discharged at different 
times from our regiment and entered this branch of the service: 
Thomas P. Wilson, commissary sergeant, was promoted to 
first lieutenant and quartermaster Eleventti Louisiana Infantry 
(afterward numbered the Forty-ninth United States Colored 
Infantry), which he helped to organize. Major Wilson's record 
is given in the volunteer staflf. He was brevetted major at the 
end of the war, and has served as quartemaster general of Min- 
nesota since Nov. 10, 1871. Francis E. Collins, quartermaster 
sergeant, promoted to first lieutenant Eleventh Louisiana In- 
fantry, and helped to organize the regiment; resigned in 1863. 
Augustus Pintler of Company I promoted to lieutenant Elev- 
enth Louisiana Infantry; he helped to organize the regiment. 
Thomas F. Sturtevant of Company F promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Company C, Forty-ninth United States Colored Infantry, 
Feb. 6, 1864. John IT. Thurston of Company C promoted to 
quartermaster sergeant Fortj'-ninth United States Colored In- 
fantry, and also first lieutenant and adjutant of the same regi- 
ment; resigned in the fall of 1864, and then acted as clerk for 
Capt. T. P. Wilson until the close of the war. Wm. H. Hall 
of Compaii}' D promoted to commissary sergeant Forty- 
ninth United States Colored Infantry, and first lieutenant and 
quartermaster of the same regiment ; during the last year of his 
service was ordnance officer on the staflT of Gen. P. J. Oster- 
haus; finally mustered out March 22, 1866. Julius F. Putnam 
of Company I promoted, Oct. 31, 1864, to first lieutenant 
Forty-second United States Colored Infantry. Robert S. Don- 
aldson, captain of Company C, promoted, July 24, 1863, at 
Vicksburg, to lieutenant colonel Twelfth Louisiana Infantry 
(afterward numbered Fiftieth United States Colored Infantry); 
helped to organize the regiment; promoted and transferred to 
Sixty-fourth United States Colored Infantry in July, 1865; was 
detailed in the Bureau of Refugee Freedmen and Abandoned 
Lands as superintendent in charge of the northern half of Mis- 
sissippi, with headquarters at Jackson; finally mustered out of 
service March 17, 1866. Ebenezer M. Broughton of Company 
H, on July 24, 1863, at Vicksburg, was promoted to captain of 
Company E, Twelfth Louisiana Infantry, or Fiftieth United 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 183 

States Colored Infantry, and helped to organize the company 
and regiment; he resigned at Vicksburg on Aug. 29, 1864, by 
reason of sunstroke received at the battle of Raymond on May 
12, 1863. Joseph Meyer of Company Q, on July 24, 1863, at 
Vicksburg, was promoted to second lieutenant Company E, 
Twelfth Louisiana Infantry, or Fiftieth United States Colored 
Infantry, and helped to organize the company and regiment; he 
resigned in 1864, at Vicksburg. Robert P. Miller of Com- 
pany K promoted July 27, 1863, at Vicksburg, to second lieu- 
tenant of Company K, Twelfth Louisiana Infantry, or Fiftieth 
United States Colored Infantry, and helped to organize the com- 
pany and regiment; resigned Feb. 1, 1864. John A. Davis of 
Company C promoted, Dec. 31, 1863, to second lieutenant 
Company F, Fiftieth United States Colored Infantry; resigned 
in 1864. Zina B. Chatiield of Company A was for a short time 
in the Twelfth Louisiana Infantry and then, on Sept. 7, 1863, 
was promoted to captain in the Fifty-eighth Ur)ited States Col- 
ored Infantry. Calvin Amidon of Company C promoted toiirst 
sergeant of Company I, Twelfth Louisiana Infantry, at Vicks- 
burg, and died before being commissioned an officer. The first 
or orderly sergeants of these colored regiments were white sol- 
diers who were transferred to these regiments, and generally 
had to serve but a short time before they were promoted to com- 
missioned officers. 

April 19th — Smuhii/, — Our regiment received four months' 
pay to-day. 

A comrade writes: 

In the months of March and April the smallpox broke oat in our army, 
which lay at Yonng's Point, and as the men wonld take the deadly complaint 
they were placed on a steamboat and taken to Milliken's Bend, twelve miles above 
the point, the same boat bringing the dead every morning in order to bury 
them in the levee, that being the only dry land to be found, as the levees were 
cut and the country overflowed with water from the Mississippi river. I have 
seen the rongh board caskets piled np on the bank like dry goods boxes. The 
levee was full of dead soldiers, and the provisions and feed had to be hanled on 
this monnd, and the wagon wheels wonld cnt down to the boxes in which the 
boys were laid. Every moniing the '* Dead March " wonld be played and some- 
times one hundred would be laid to rest. 

April JJ(f — Tftfirsfho/. — The following named steamboats 
were prepared and protected as the others had been, and each 



184 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

cue with two barges, one lashed ou each side, and all loaded 
with supplies, ran the batteries of Vieksburg again last night 
(the twenty-second): Tigress, Moderator, Empire City, Hori- 
zon, J. W. Cheesman and Anglo-Saxon. The Moderator and 
Empire City were disabled and the latter was towed by the 
Cheesman to Hard Times Landing. The flagship Tigress 
was disabled and sank on our side of the river as she struck 
the bank below. We marched to Richmond, La., fifteen miles, 
to-day. Very hot. Poor roads. Plenty of water. We left 
all of our tents and much of our baggage behind at the river. 

ApriJ 25th — Saturddji/. — Marched nine miles. Started at 5:00 
o'clock p. M. Camped on the Holmes plantation. Hot. Clear. 
Plenty of water. Poor roads. The Seventy-second Illinois 
were left behind at Richmond. 

Aprif 26th — Snndai/. — Marched ten miles to Smith's planta- 
tion. It rained all night. We are camped in an old corn 
field, and the mud is awful. We are about two miles from 
New Carthage, La. Our wagon trains went to Millikeu's Bend 
for rations, etc. 

Ajyrf'l 27th — Mondot/. — Our division did not move for the 
reason that General Logan's division did not get past during 
the day, the roads being next to impassable. 

April 2Sth — Tuesihu/. — Our whole division moved together 
at 6:00 a. m., and during the day marched through the mud four 
miles. It rained and the mud is very deep. We have only 
one team along with che regiment. Empty wagons get stuck 
and fourteen span of horses were pulling a caisson through 
the mud. We had to step in the tracks of the men ahead of 
us. We left our wagon train and tents at Smith's plantation 
in charge of Lieut. S. F. Brown of Company D and A. L. 
Brown of Company B, acting commissary sergeant, who is 
unwell. 

April 29th — Wednesddi/, — Marched six miles and bivouacked 
near a bavou. Hot and clear. 

At Grand Gulf General Grant's memoirs state: 

At 8:00 o'clock A. M., April 29thf Porter made the attack with his entire 
strength present — eight gunboats. For nearly five and a half hours the attack 
was kept ap without silencing a single gun of the enemy. I occupied a 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 185 

tag from which I coald see the effect of the battle on both sides, within 
range of the enemy's gnns, bat a small tag without armament was not cal- 
calated to attract the fire of batteries while they were being assailed them- 
selves. About half-past one the fleet withdrew, seeing their efforts were un- 
availing. The enemy ceased firing as soon as we withdrew. I immediately 
signaled the admiral and weut aboard his ship. The navy lost in this engage- 
ment eighteen killed and fifty-six wounded. 

Admiral Porter, in his '* Incidents of the Civil War," says: 

It was as hard a fight as occurred during the war. For more than five 
hours the gunboats engaged the enemy's batteries at close quarters, the latter 
having thirteen heavy guns placed on commanding heights from eighty to one 
hundred and twenty feet above the river. We lost seventy-five men in killed 
and wounded and silenced all the enemy's guns. 

• 

The reader will notice a slis^ht difference of o[>inion as to 
the guns having been .silenced. 

General McClernand's troops were all embarked on trans- 
ports at Hard Times, about three miles above Grand Gulf, 
with the intention to have them disembark, storm and 
carry the works at Grand Gulf as soon as the gunboats silenced 
the batteries, which were supported by several thousand Con- 
federate troops under Gen. John S. Bowen. At dusk Mc- 
Clernaiurs troops were landed on tho Louisiana shore and iu 
the night marched inland down the river below Grand Gulf. 
The gunboats and transports with the barges all ran by the 
batteries before midnight. On the morning of the thirtieth 
McClernand's troops embarked at De Shroon's plantation, 
about four miles below Grand Gulf, and were being landed 
at noon at Bruinsburg, six miles below. The landing was 
about two miles from the foot of the bluffs, where the road 
ascended through a deep long cut. After receiving a small 
supply of rations McClernand's force was moved as rapidly as 
possible to the top of the bluffs, and passing on for several 
miles, at 2:00 a. m. of May 1st his advance met the troops of 
General Bowen, who was apparently pushing on toward Bru- 
insburg. These they drove back a short distance to a fork in 
the road and then awaited daylight. As soon after daylight as 
the lines could be formed, the battle of Thompson's Hill or 
Port Gibson was beirun, not far from Maj^nolia Church. Our 
forces in this battle were McClernand's cori)s, with J. E. Smith's 



186 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

and Stevenson's brigades of Logan's division as supports, and 
numbered about nineteen thousand men. The enemy's force 
was about eight thousand. 

April 30th — Thnrsdai/. — McArthur's division of the Seven- 
teenth Corps is left to guard our lines from Milliken's Bend to 
Perkins' plantation. Marched to Hard Times Landing [popu- 
lation, 1880, 235] on the Mississippi river. Heard the gun- 
boats bombarding Grand Gulf yesterday. Hot and clear. 
Marched twenty-one miles to-day. 

Returns far the Month of April y 1863. — Total enlisted men, 664; a^^gregate, 
699; aggregate last mouth, 713; enlisted present for duty, 347; on extra and 
daily duty, 44; sick, 15; total enlisted present, 406. Commissioned officers 
present for duty, 22; on extra and daily duty, 1; sick, 1 ; total 24. 

Remarks. — D. M. G. Murphy, commissioned regimental quartermaster April 
9, 1863, from second lieutenant Company O. Peter Hansen, Company A, ab- 
sent, sick, since Feb. 18, 1863. J. H. Donaldson, on special duty as regimental 
quartermaster. James C. Edson, on detached service in Minnesota since Feb. 
17, 1863. 

31ai/ Isf — Friilai/. — Marched four miles to the Mississippi 
river below and opposite Grand Gulf. Embarked on the gun- 
boat Mound City and proceeded ten miles down and across the 
river, landing a short distance below the mouth of Bayou 
Pierre, at Bruinsburg, a landing where once stood a few houses, 
the chimnej's of which are still standing. We marched about 
two miles inland on the bottom up the river, then turning to 
the right ascended the hill by a long deep cut in the road. Af- 
ter marchinoj about five miles we formed line of battle across a 
road coming from toward Grand Gulf, on which the enemy, 
several thousand strong, arc expected from Grand Gulf to turn 
McClernand's left. We could hear the cannonading to-day at 
the battle of Port Gibson. It is warm. Roads good. Our 
wagons all behind. We moved to-day on foot and by boat 
eighteen miles. It is about thirteen miles from Bruinsburg to 
Port Gibson. The Mississippi river at this point is over a mile 
wide. There is not a house standing at Grand Gulf except the 
residence of Judge Maxwell on the bluff. Last night about 
eleven o'clock, as the steamboat Horizon was towing a barge 
loaded with an ammunition train across the river through the 
fog, she was run into, about five miles below Grand Gulf, by 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 187 

the steamboat Moderator, which was coming up stream, and 
after running ashore on the Louisiana side, sunk, and Battery 
6, Second Illinois Light Artillery (Captain Sparrestrom), of Lo- 
gan's division, was lost except a few horses. Only two men 
were drowned. 

May 2d — Saturday. — Marched eight or ten miles to Fort 
Gibson [population in 1880, 1,500] and stopped in town until 
the bridge across the South Fork of Bayou Pierre was repaired. 
Crossed at 5:00 p. m. and marched ten miles to the north branch 
of Bavou Pierre and bivouacked at 9:00 p. m. near Grindstone 
Ford. Good roads. Clear and w^arm. Bridge built in the 
night. We marched rapidly this evening and our men are 
much exhausted from loss of sleep and excessive fatigue. 

General Sanborn says: 

None of the colonels of this old division, which had done mnch to save Inka 
and Corinth, having been promoted, and the generals being determined that 
none of it should be placed nnder the command of the brigadier generals who 
had received their promotion by hanging round Washington, after consultation 
with us all and with our consent, a West Point graduate and splendid officer, 
Gen. M. M. Crocker [formerly colonel of the Thirteenth Iowa Infantry. — Ed.] 
of Iowa, was assigned to the command of the division at Port Gibson, and with 
my old brigade I took the advance of the army and marched as far as the north 
branch of Hayou Pierre that alternoon and evening. The suspension bridge across 
this bayou was burning when we arrived. Some negroes were trying to ex- 
tinguish the flames, and with the aid of our troops soon did the work. The 
cooks of my mess had a serious time that night. No other mess wagons bad 
come up. Borne were still on the other side of the Mississippi. Before I was 
through General Crocker and the division staff came up for supper, and before 
he was through General McPherson and staff had come up and had no provisions 
for supper and had to be supplied, and before General McPherson and staff 
had been supplied General Grant and staff came up and had to eat at the same 
mess. It was fortunate that we had cooks and servants, otherwise no supply 
of provisions would have prevented a hungry night. The night was cold. 
Profound sleep to all (except the large detail to repair the bridge, which 
worked all night) followed the previous sleepless nights and weary days. We 
were sleeping in the open air and upon the ground. In a half-conscious state, 
the impression was made upon my mind that some intruder was punching my 
back with his knees and elbows. To such an extent did this proceed, that, 
being fully aroused, I made a great effort to expel the fellow, at the same time 
asking, " Who are you? '' and a boyish or childish voice answered back, *'I am 
Fred Grant; I am cold.'' A larger share of the robe was furnished and greater 
quiet followed. 



186 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

and Stevenson's brigades of Logan's division as supports, and 
numbered about nineteen tliousand men. The enemy's force 
was about eight thousand. 

A])ril 30th — Thursdaif. — McArthur's division of the Seven- 
teenth Corps is left to guard our lines from Milliken's Bend to 
Perkins' plantation. Marched to Hard Times Landing [popu- 
lation, 1880, 235] on the Mississippi river. Heard the gun- 
boats bombarding Grand Gulf yesterday. Hot and clear. 
Marched twenty-one miles to-day. 

Returns for the Month of April, 1863. — Total enlisted men, 664; a^^gregate, 
699; aggregate last mouth, 713; enlisted present for duty, 347; on extra and 
daily duty, 44; sick, 15; total enlisted present, 406. Commissioned officers 
present for duty, 22; on extra and daily duty, 1; sick, 1 ; total 24. 

Bemarks. — D. M. G. Murphy, commissioned regimental quartermaster April 
9, 1863, from second lieutenant Company 6. Peter Hansen, Company A, ab- 
sent, sick, since Feb. 18, 1863. J. H. Donaldson, on special duty as regimental 
quartermaster. James C. Edson, on detached service in Minnesota since Feb. 
17, 1863. 

31ai/ 1st — Fridaij. — Marched four miles to the Mississippi 
river below and opposite Grand Gulf. Embarked on the gun- 
boat Mound City and proceeded ten miles down and across the 
river, landing a short distance below the mouth of Bayou 
Pierre, at Bruinsburg, a landing where once stood a few houses, 
the chimneys of which are still standing. We marched about 
two miles inland on the bottom up the river, then turning to 
the right ascended the hill by a long deep cut in the road. Af- 
ter marching about five miles we formed line of battle across a 
road coming from toward Grand Gulf, on which the enemy, 
several thousand strong, are expected from Grand Gulf to turn 
McClernand's left. We could hear the cannonading to-day at 
the battle of Port Gibson. It is warm. Roads good. Our 
wagons all behind. We moved to-day on foot and by boat 
eighteen miles. It is about thirteen miles from Bruinsburg to 
Port Gibson. The Mississippi river at this point is over a mile 
wide. There is not a house standing at Grand Gulf except the 
residence of Judge Maxwell on the bluff. Last night about 
eleven o'clock, as the steamboat Horizon was towing a barge 
loaded with an ammunition train across the river through the 
fog, she was run into, about five miles below Grand Gulf, by 



188 HISTORY OF THE POUBTH BEGIMENT [1863 

And Fred Grant says: 

I told them who I was, when one of them. Col. (afterward general) J. B. 
SaaborUf welcomed me kindly and loaned me part of his overcoat for a pillow. 
I remained there nntil nearly dawn, when, heooming very cold, I got np and 
went indoors; there I found a hed with two occnpants, and I took the liberty 
of finding a place of rest between them. The next morning when I awoke I 
found that my bedfellows were two large negroes. I had slept well but bad 
thought my quarters close. 

Mdi/ 3d — S'uyfoij, — Crossed the North Fork at 5:00 a. m. 
General Logan's division was ahead and had some skirmishing. 
Thev formed line of battle but found no rebels in the woods. 
When we came to Forty Hills we took the advance and Gen- 
eral Loi^can's division took the left on another road. We 
skirmished with the rebels (fought the battle of Forty Hills), 
and they retreated. We followed them to the Big Black at 
Hankinson's Ferry, twenty miles from Vicksburg, and camped 
at sunset. Hot. Clear. Plenty of water and good roads. 
Marched eight miles to-day. Some shells were thrown across 
the river at us. 

We copy the following account from the letter of an officer: 

At 8:00 A. M. we came on the rear guard of the enemy with a batteiy of field- 
pieces. They had a strong position. Our battery was put in the road on the 
opposite hill and our brigade ordered forward to drive them out, while a part of 
General Logan's forces went around to get in their rear. It was a terribly hot 
day. The Fifty ninth Indiana was thrown out as skirmishers. The Forty- 
eighth Indiana and Fourth Minnesota were formed behind them and ordered 
to advance while the batteries played on each other in c;ood style. I was 
mounted by order of the colonel, and had to ride in range of the cannon-shot 
for several minutes while the ground was torn up under me and the trees cat 
about me. A few shells were thrown at the right of the regiment, but no dam- 
age was done, except Captain Thompson had a shin bruised by a piece of shell. 
The Fifty-ninth Indiana had one man kUled and two wounded. We expected 
to be ordered to charge up the hill and if we had we should have gone over 
them, but they became aware of General Logan's movements and sloped doable- 
quick. 

Privates Eli Fawcett was killed and James W. Van Slyke of 
Company E, Fifty-ninth Indiana, was mortally wounded. 
Badeau, in his " Military History of U. S. Grant," says: 

Grant immediately detached one brigade of Logan's division to the left, to 
engage the attention of the rebels there, while a heavy detail of McClemand's 
troops were set to work rebuilding the bridge across the South Fork. * * * 
While this was doing, two brigades of Logan's division forded the bayou and 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 189 

marched on. * « * Meanwhile another division (Crocker's) of McPher- 
son's corps had been ferried across the Mississippi and had come up with the 
command. Grant now ordered McPherson to posh across the bayou and attack 
the enemy in flank, now in full retreat through Willow Springs, demoralized 
and out of ammunition. McPherson started at once, and before night his two 
divisions had crossed the South Fork and marched to the North Fork, eight 
miles further on. They found the bridge at Grindstone Ford still burning, but 
the fire was extinguished and the bridge repaired in the night, the troops pass- 
ing over as soon as the last plank was laid. This was at 5:00 A. M. on the third. 
Before one brigade had finished crossing the enemy opened on the head of the 
column with artillery; but the command was at once deployed and the rebels 
soon fell back, their movement being intended only to cover the retreating 
force. McPherson followed rapidly, driving them through Willow Springs, 
and gained the cross-roads. Here Logan was directed to take the Grand Gulf 
road, while Crorker continued the direct pursuit. Skirmishing was kept up 
all day, the broken country, the narrow, tortuous roads and impassable ravines 
offering great facilities for this species of warfare. The enemy availed himself 
fully of every advantage, contesting the ground with great tenacity. This 
continued all the way to Hankinson's Ferry on the Big Black river, fifteen 
miles from Port Gibson. Several hundred prisoners were taken in the pursuit-. 
At four o'clock in the afternoon McPherson came up with the rebels, and Logan 
at the same time appearing on their right flank caused them to move precipi- 
tately toward the river. McPherson followed hard and arrived just as the last 
of the rebels was crossing and in time to prevent the destruction of the bridge. 
It being now dark and the enemy driven across the Big Black, the command was 
rested for the night. 

On the morning of the third it was discovered that Grand 
Qulf had been evacuated by the enemy, after burying or spik- 
ing his guns and blowing up his magazines, thirteen of his 
heavy guns falling into the hands of our forces. The bridge 
consisted of old flatboats. The enemy chopped holes along 
the sides and in the bottoms of these old flats; but by nailing 
boards along the sides and over the holes in the bottoms we 
were enabled to use them for crossing. The writer crossed 
several times on them. [Population Grand Gulf, 1880, 100; 
Rodney, 1880, 533.] 

May if/i — Monday, — Last night our troops attempted to 
run two barges loaded with stores, with a tugboat between 
them, by Vicksburg; they were burned and twenty-four per- 
sons made prisoners. Among them were correspondents of 
the New York Wuvlfl and Tr'thnne and Cinciniuiti Ti/ttrs. (24, 
3, 827.) 



190 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1863 

The commissary stores were loaded to-day at Smith's planta- 
tion and started for the regiment, leaving the tents and a 
guard until the teams could return for them. We went to 
Perkins' plantation. Leaving the teams to return, the writer 
embarked on the steamboat Empire City to-day for Qrand Gulf, 
about twenty miles below. Stayed at Qrand Gulf all night. 

Mail otii — Tuesday, — Started early, on foot, for the regiment 
at Hankinson's Ferry, eighteen miles from Grand Gulf. Got 
to the regiment at dusk. Fred Du Toit had some nice cow peas 
cooked, which he gave us for supper, and we fared sumptu- 
ously on the peas and some fried hard bread. At roll call in 
the evening all of the orderly sergeants read General Mc- 
Pherson's "pain and mortification order," and for miles around 
could be heard, "It is with pain and mortification that the 
commanding general," etc. It was an order against foraging 
and was read every night at tattoo or evening roll call. The 
orderly sergeants committed it to memory, so it could "be 
read" after dark without a light. 

Man Gth — Wednesday. — We found a grist mill and got the 
old miller, a freedman, to run it all night, grinding cornmeal 
for our regiment. 

Mai/ 7th — Tltursdaij, — We marched down to the river and 
relieved a brigade guarding the river crossing. General Sher- 
man's troops joined us at sundown. General Sherman, with 
ten regiments from Blair's division on steamboats and eight 
gunboats, made a feint against Haines' Bluff to hold the enemy 
at Vicksburg while our army was crossing the river below. 
The troops landed and the gunboats engaged the batteries. 
They remained two days and then withdrew. These demon- 
strations occurred on the thirtieth and thirty-first of April. 

Maif 8th — Friday. — Marched back to our old bivouac. 
Clear and warm. 

Ma}j 0th — Saturdat/, — Marched up the south bank of Big 
Black river, twelve miles. Passed through Kocky Springs to 
Utica cross-roads, seven miles from Utica. 

Ma// 10th — Sandai/. — Marched through Utica to-day. [Popu- 
lation, 1880, 230.] Camped in a pine thicket. Good roads. 
Clear and warm. We are encamped on Mr. Week's plan- 
tation. Marched ten miles. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 191 

Ma}j 11th — Monday. — Marched one and a half miles and 
camped in a field. An aid came around and told us that Gen- 
eral Crocker advised us to parch our corn, and he also in- 
formed us how much labor could be performed on that kind 
of diet. We are now living on corn in the ear, obtained in the 
country as we pass along. 

May l'2th — Tmsday. — Marched toward Raymond at 4:00 
p. M. Two miles from that town we formed line of battle in a 
corn field on the left of Logan's division, which opened the 
battle about noon. The rebel artillery shelled our line The 
enemy retreated before we became engaged. We marched 
through the town and camped. Clear and hot. We liad poor 
water to drink. Several of our men were sunstruck moving 
up so fast to get into the fight. The wounded were put into 
the Baptist church in the village. [Population, 1880, 448.] 
We marched eight miles to-day. 

About daybreak this morning the Third Division, under 
Brigadier General Logan, struck the advanced pickets of the 
enemy at Fourteen Mile creek, a small branch that empties 
into the Big Black. They belonged to the brigade of General 
Gregg, who has come with his troops to Raymond from Port 
Hudson to oppose Grant's further progress. Logan's division 
was engaged with the enemy at Raymond about three hours. 
The enemy left two cannon on the field and lost over five hun- 
dred men. 

Colonel Sanborn, in speaking of this battle in his oflicial 
report, says: 

The only loss at Raymond in our brigade was one man of the Forty-eighth 
Indiana, wounded. After the action ceased the command marched through 
Raymond and bivouacked about one mile north of town. Here the Eighteenth 
Wisconsin joined my command, in place of the Seventy-second Illinois, left at 
Richmond, I^., and transferred to General Ransom's brigade. [Ransom's bri- 
gade was in McArthur's division of the Seventeenth Corps. — Ed.] 

May IJfh — Wednesday, — Marched to Clinton (population, 
1880, 569), about ten miles. A fine day. Camped across the 
railroad just outside of tlie town. As a sample specimen of our 
foraging we will say that we started out early this morning. 
The first place we stopped at was a fine two-story white house, 



192 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

just in the edge of the town of Raymond, on the north side of 
the road, belonging to Dr. . The people had gone visit- 
ing. We got a large tin can, holding perhaps twenty-five gal- 
Ions, full of lard, some cornmeal, meat and a jug of molasses. 
Some of the bovs beino: of a literarv turn of mind, borrowed 
a book or two. At another place we got sugar, "dead loads of 
it." Then we came to a plantation where they raised hams and 
shoulders, and the proprietor kindly jnounted into the upper 
regions of his smokehouse and passed down nearly a wagon 
load of the needful, and, *'I suppose." said he, "you will leave 
me, will you not, a part of these for my own use?" and he 
looked discouraged when informed that the presumption of 
our military law was, that he had buried his share before we 
came around and what was in sight belonged to us. While he 
was passing down the meat some of our boys got liis oxen and 
yoked them up to his wagon, and so he furnished us with 
transportation also, as well as fresh beef when we got to camp. 

On the thirteenth I marched in rear of the Third Brigade on the road leading 
to Clinton, passed through the town and bivonacked one mile east of it, on the 
Jackson road, my line of battle this night running across the railroad and wagon 
road. Distance marched this day, nine miles. — [Sanborn^ a Beport.'] 

Battle of Jackson. 

Ma)/ nth — Thnrsd(vj, — Our troops are tearing up the rail- 
road in all directions. Here at Clinton is a Confederate hos- 
pital containing quite a large number of the enemy's sick. 
Some of the boys found a tobacco and cigar factory, which 
furnished enough of the manufactured product for the whole 
division. It rained all night. This village is ten miles from Jack- 
son. About 8:00 A. M. struck the picket lines of the enemy. 
It rained hard nearly all the forenoon. We skirmished with the 
enem}' until within about two miles from the city. We formed 
our first line of battle to the right of the wagon road. We 
then moved up and formed another line and the Fourth Min- 
nesota was shifted to the left of the wagon road Our regiment 
was now in small timber, its right resting near the road. 
We were in the second line of battle here and supporting the 
Seventeenth Iowa, which was about twentv rods ahead of us, 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 193 

in the woods. The McMurray Battery (M, First Missouri Light 
Artillery) stood in the road, and in an open field across (south 
of) the road was the balance of the Second and First brigades 
and Captain Dillon's Sixth Wisconsin Battery, and ahead of 
us in the woods, on the left of the Seventeenth Iowa, was 
Boomer's Third Brigade. The enemy planted a battery in the 
road and another in the orchard in front of the open field. 
The two lines of battle were about three-fourths of a mile 
apart when the enemy first opened fire from the orchard. Gen- 
eral McPherson and staff were near where our regiment filed 
from the road to go into the woods. General Logan soon 
rode up and said : " What cannon are those over on the 
right? That must be Sherman pounding away!" McPherson 
replied: "I don't know what that is over there, but I do 
know that this thing just ahead is a rebel line of battle. 
Form your command on the left and we will go for them." 
Logan's troops were just behind and he led them to the left 
and in a few minutes the enemy opened the battle. Our regi- 
ment, in the timber, was not engaged. We took the position 
assigned us and remained in it. The bullets flew thickly over- 
head, but we only had two men wounded — P. R. Taylor of 
Company F and J. H. Epler of Company K. We did not see 
the enemy through the timber. The fighting, however, was 
pretty lively, especially with the Seventeenth Iowa, and in 
the field across the road. Finally a charge was made and 
the enemy fled, taking their batteries with them. We then re- 
ceived orders and our regiment marched right oblique, through 
the timber and across the road, up by the large white house 
(Wright's) on the enemy's line of battle (and in which they 
had their wounded), through the orchard, and pushing over 
the garden picket fence halted to dress up our lines. We 
were now in plain sight of the enemy's breastworks and could 
see their cannon in them. 

Our regiment was now in the front line of battle and a line 
of skirmishers was in front of us. Between us and the enemy's 
intrenchments was an open field, having low ground in front of 
their works. Xot a shot of any kind was tired at us. We soon 
learned that the rebels had not stopped at their intrenchments, 

13 



194 HIBTOBY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1863 

but had kept on through the city and across Pearl riverin great 
disorder. We now saw two horsemen going from our lines into 
the city, one of them carrying a flag, and in about an hour we 
got orders to march forward. We bivouacked for the night just 
inside of the intrenchments in the outskirts of the city. We 
found some of the cannon of the enemy still loaded. The com- 
missary department now began looking for supplies. Lieuten- 
ant Donaldson found some cornmeal at the prison and we 
killed our cattle. It was 2:00 o'clock a. m. before we had an 
opportunity to get a little sleep. 

The Confederate troops in this battle were composed mostly 
of the brigades of Gregg and Walker. General Gregg left a 
thin line of skirmishers and some artillerists in the line in front 
of General Sherman and moved the rest of his brigade over to 
the Clinton road and joined forces with General Walker in front 
of McPherson. Sherman captured ten cannon and about two 
hundred and fifty artillerists. General Logan's division was in 
reserve and supporting Crocker, with Gen. J. D. Stevenson's 
brigade on the left to outflank the enemy. 

This battle was fought on the farm of O. P. Wright, whose 
buildings, hedges, fences and trees furnished shelter to the 
enemy. Sometime after this battle his dwelling was burned. 

Colonel Sanborn states in his report: 

My command marched from Clinton at 4:00 A. M. on the fonrteenth, along the 
Jackson road toward Jackson, the Second Brigade leading the division and my 
brigade (the First) following the Second. The enemy was drawn np in line of 
battle in a strong position abont two miles west of Jackson, his line of battle 
crossing the road at nearly right angles. . I received orders to form my brigade 
on the right of the road, the two left regiments, the Fourth Minnesota and the 
Eighteenth Wisconsin, as reserve for the Second Brigade, already formed across 
the road, the other regiments, the Forty-eighth and Fifty-ninth Indiana, to the 
right of the Second Brigade, and to cover them from the fire of the enemy's ar- 
tillery as much as possible. This disposition was immediately made. The 
troops were more exposed to the enemy's artillery fire than was at first appre- 
hended and the Fonrth Minnesota was immediately ordered to form on the left 
of the road and as a reserve to the Seventeenth Iowa of the Second Brigade. 
The other three regiments were moved close np under cover of the ridge occu- 
pied by the First Missouri Battery. This ridge was swept by the enemy's fire, 
but as soon as the skirmishers deployed from the Fifty-ninth Indiana had ad- 
vanced far enough to ascertain that there was no enemy on the right fiank I 
ordered the brigade forward across the first ridge, with instructions to halt when 
the line should reach the ravine beyond, which was about four hundred yards 
distant. This order was executed in the most satisfactory manner, the regi- 




At lb* tlm€ or lh« butit th« (enec ulaDdcd bIodh b; Iha Mt of the road Uld lb«ra 
**■ ooHli on Ibe Donb aide. Our irglmenl nMrehtd rlKbl-«blJqu« •crott tb* roul ind lo 
lb* wnth or Wrlibi'i houir,— >lnr« burntd,— Lhe (wo cblnoiwTi of wblcb MidiI In tb< 
left forHTouDd. Tb« nbel llni! pf bati]« ■■• brblnd (ha bulldhin; Iber bad > bMttj 1q 
lb* tMd BDd *D«lb«r 10 the »ulb o[ Ibe bulldlnn Id lb* otcbard. 



ii[ Ibe bulldldgi Id lb* otcbard 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 195 

ments crossing the ridge in perfect line at a ran, and reached the second ravine 
with a lo8s of not more than ten men. Shortly after reaching this position, the 
enemy's main line of infantry was ascertained by the skirmishers in front of 
my brigade to be in the next ravine in front of his batteries, and soon com- 
menced driving back onr line of skirmishers. I received the order from Gen- 
eral Crocker to fix bayonets and charge through the ravine, and all the way to 
the enemy's batteries, if possible. This order was immediately communicated, 
and the whole line commenced advancing and moved forward irresistibly until 
the whole line of the enemy's infantry was in full retreat and his batteries 
taken to the rear. This charge was one of the most splendid battle scenes that 
could be witnessed. The whole line, with banners unfurled, went forward at 
double-quick and with more regularity than at an ordinary battalion drill. The 
fleeing of the rebels in front and the sharpshooters who had been concealed 
behind cotton bales and in an old cotton-gin in front of the Fifty -ninth Indiana 
throwing out white handkerchief at every window and over every cotton bale, 
taken in connection with the novel spectacle presented by Captain Dillon's 
battery charging forward close upon the line of infantry, made up a scene that 
can never be effaced from the mind of any who witnessed it and can never be 
properly represented on paper. After this charge the enemy immediately re- 
treated through Jackson and my command moved into the city over the enemy's 
works, unmolested by a shot. Capt. L. B. Martin, assistant adjutant general 
on my staff, seized the flag of the Fifty-ninth Indiana, my leading regiment, 
and going far in advance of the skirmishers to the capitol raised it over the 
dome, where it remained until the regiment moved from the town; and 
Lieutenant Donaldson, aid-de-camp on my stafl*, riding also far in advance of 
the skirmishers to the vicinity of the prison, seized there a Confederate flag, 
made of double silk, that a cavalry company had apparently abandoned in its 
flight. On one side is the inscription, ** Claiborne Rangers," and on the other, 
"Our Rights." 

Col. Fred Grant states, in the National Trilmne, under date of 
Jan. 7, 1887, that at the time the enemy broke in front of 
Sherman on the right of our hues, and Tuttle's division 
charged over the enemy's intrenchments, he rode into the city 
from that point alone and went to the statehouse. When he 
arrived there the retreating enemy was passing the building, 
but paid no heed to Ijis presence, and he was the only Yankee 
around. Soon after the rebels had passed, he looked up the 
street in the same direction from whence they had come and 
<lisc()vered a man on horseback approaching carrying a Union 
flag. He appeared to be a captain, and passing young Grant, 
dismounte<l and entered the capitol buihiing. Grant says: 

I was fiUed with great enthusiasm and followed him to the second floor of 
the building. When I had looked about until quite satisfied I returned to the 
street, and looking up I saw the officer whom I had accompanied into the 
building high up in the dome or cupola raising this flag over this fallen city. 



196 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1863 

Grant then gives a minute description of Martin's appear- 
ance, and continues: 

He mast have anticipated some opposition to his enterprise, for when I rode 
np to meet him he avoided me, paid no heed to my salutations and darted past 
to gain the door of the capitol. 

By direction of General McPherson, Colonel Sanborn sent 
Capt. L. B. Martin with the flag. He was accompanied by 
Capt. Cornelius C. Cadle of General Crocker's staff. Colonel 
Alexander of the Fifty-ninth sent a guard to protect the flag. 
— l^McPherson'^s and Crocker's Beports.'] 

The following account of this battle was written by the cor- 
respondent of the Cincinnati CommerciaL We extract: 

The battle of Jackson was won by a simple charge on the rebel forces. The 
detaUs of the affiiir are as follows: The divisions commanded by Generals Logan 
and Crocker marched from Clinton this morning, General Crocker in the ad- 
vance. We expected to meet the enemy in force at least five miles from Jack- 
son. Oar troops moved cantionsly along, encountering the rebel cavalry pickets 
abont three miles from Clinton. The pickets fell back rapidly until within 
three miles of Jackson, where we came upon their main force. The rebel 
position was a good one, on a gentle slope, with heavy timber in the rear and 
on either side. This line was nearly three mUes long, of which the Seven- 
teenth Corps engaged abont one-half, Sherman on the right giving his attention 
to the other half. On ascertaining the situation of the enemy Crocker ordered 
the First Missouri Battery of four Parrott guns into position to feel their 
artiUery strength. A reply from three batteries was elicited before long, and 
an artillery duel commenced and was continued for upwards of half an hour 
without any decisive result to either side. The infantry was now ordered into 
action. The first move was a signally successful charge — a charge that should 
immortalize every participant and fill with pride the hearts of all who admire 
true courage and heroic devotion to the cause of the American Union. No pen 
can reproduce the impression made upon the minds and hearts of aU who wit- 
nessed it. The imagination of the artist has equaled it — never excelled it. 
A mile of open space lay between us and the enemy, every part of which was 
controlled by the well-served artillery of the foe. The task before our brave 
soldiers was to form on a hill in face of this terrific fire and move forward to 
victory or death. 

The first brigade, under Colonel Sanborn, consisting of the Fourth Minnesota^ 
the Eighteenth Wisconsin, the Forty-eighth and Fifty-ninth Indiana, and the 
Second Brigade, under Colonel Holmes, consisting of the Seventeenth Iowa, the 
Tenth Biiasouri and the Eightieth Ohio, were selected for the bloody work. 
They formed in line and advanced steadily. They had two hills to ascend and 
descend; the shot and shell from the enemy's batteries fell thick among them, 
threatening destruction to all; the lines began to waver; some hearts began to 
quail, as they approached the jaws of death; they halted for a few moments. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEES. 197 

nnder cover of a hillside; words of encouragement were spoken by the com- 
mai)ding officers; every man was nerved to the struggle. *' Forward!'' Again 
and again the long line of heroes ascended the heavy slope with colors flying 
and voices shouting. Three minutes of double-quicking, indifferent to the enfi- 
lading fire of canister and the fire of musketry at deadly range, commenced. An- 
other minute and our men sent up a loud shout of victory, as the defeated foe 
left the field in panic-stricken haste. All was over. Nearly two hundred Union 
soldiers had fallen, but the day was ours. The rebels retreated in hot haste 
before the two brigades of Crocker's division. Our generals thought they had 
fallen back to a better position, and made every preparation for another attack 
upon them. The two divisions of McPherson's corps followed them up closely 
in line of battle, expecting every moment to hear from them at a second stand- 
point. But while we thought they were forming for another struggle they 
were making the beet of their way out of Jackson on the road leading to 
Canton, Miss. At about noon a heavy column of smoke arose from the 
beleaguered city. This might be a signal or it might be a large conflagration, we 
did not know which. We have since learned by observation that it was occa- 
sioned by the burning of the railroad depot, which was fllled with army stores. 

General Sherman opened the ball on the right at about 9:00. o'clock A. M. 
I cannot speak in detail of his movements, as I did not witness them, being on 
the battle ground on the left all day. The part he took, however, can be judged 
from his casualty list, which is very small, only two or three killed and a pro- 
portionate number wounded, I believe. After the rout by Crocker's men the 
rebels were panic-stricken all along the line. The rebels had ten thousand men 
in the fight. Had we postponed the engagement half a day they would have 
had twice that number, as re-enforcements were hourly expected. The Twenty- 
fourth South Carolina and Forty-sixth Georgia arrived last night from Charles- 
ton. They were eight days in coming. There were several regiments of Port 
Hudson troops in the fight. 

Our loss in killed and wounded will reach two hundred, all sustained 
during the charge. The Seventeenth Iowa lost heaviest. The rebel loss was 
less than ours, owing to the fact that they were under heavy cover, while onr 
men were in an open field. We took probably one hundred prisoners. 

Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived in Jackson last night from Tennessee to 
direct affairs here. On learning the situation he expressed himself disgusted 
with Pemberton's management and said he would have no hand in it as defeat 
was inevitable. Pemberton has been outgeneraled by Grant. He has had a 
heavy force at Big Black bridge, expecting an attack there, instead of strength- 
ening an important point like Jackson. There are no fortifications here except 
some feeble efforts made by Governor Pettus last winter, which are so situated 
that an attack on them would involve the destrnction of the city. The citi- 
zens here are very loud in their denunciations of Pemberton and declare that 
he has sold the State of Mississippi to the enemy. We arrived in Jackson 
about three o'clock this afternoon. The citizens were very much agitated lest 
we should bum their town and do such other deeds as can only be conceived in 
the heart of a detested Yankee. We found a large number of tents pitched 
where the rebel camps had been, officers' baggage in large quantities, etc, 
showing all the evidences of a precipitate retreat; also, five Parrott guns and 
about twenty gun carriages, caissons, etc. 






rapt. ^- ,:n8 C. Cft*^ ;„tVx 86^^ T \.M tb< 






*>«• "r:^ t,^^* rji ^v»«^ i^e ao^> ^r«« loo*. 






\ 



de8«***'.!»d««tt*'=** ted t^ J* 



\ 



198 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

Our losses in battle were: McPherson, 35 killed, 230 
wounded; Sherman, 6 killed, 26 wounded and missing. The 
enemy lost 845 killed, wounded and captured. Our forces 
captured seventeen cannon and the etiemy destroyed all of 
their stores. Of the killed and wounded, the Seventeenth 
Iowa, in our front, lost 16 killed and 64 wounded; Sanborn's 
brigade lost 37 and Holmes' brigade 215, out of about 1,000 
men actually engaged; Boomer's brigade, 11; Dillon's Sixth 
Wisconsin Battery, 2 wounded. Logan's division met with no 
loss. (34, 1, 750.) [Population of Jackson, 1880, 5,205.] 

Mat/ loth — Fridiv/, — We marched at daylight west. Passed 
through Clinton and camped about five miles beyond at dark. 
Marched fifteen miles to-day. Our men have no hardtack 
now, but make mush of cornmeal, which we got at the prison 
in Jackson and which they carry along in their oyster cans, 
and at every rest stop and eat mush. A soldier eating mush 
wants to eat every hour at least, as there seems to be no *' rib- 
sticking " properties to it. After we left Jackson and as we 
were passing a farmhouse by the side of the road, a woman 
stood by the gate who wanted to see General Grant. She said 
that some of our boys had taken her cow, and she thought that 
if she could only see General Grant he would make them give 
it up. The general and his staflT were just riding up and he 
was pointed out to her, but she would not believe that it was 
him, he was dressed so plainly. A stafl:'oflBcer was riding be- 
hind the rest, and as he was finely clad, she called to him, 
thinking he was the general and that we were fooling her. 
The oflicer rode up and pointed ahead to the general, saying, 
"That man there in the middle!" Then she believed, but he 
had passed. 

Champion Hills. 

May 16th — Saturday. — Started at 7:00 a. m. Soon heard 
heavy firing to the front. We got to the battlefield at 11:00 
A. M. Sly says : 

At Baker's creek or Champion Hills the regiment charged the rebels and 
drove them across the creek into the woods. The regiment got lost and had to 
retnm to our lines. I lost the regiment and went np the hill into the road in 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 199 

the rear of the rebels, and coald see large nambers of them over ia the field. I 
returned across the creek, foand a wounded man, and another man and I pat 
him on to a litter and started to go behind Logan's battery, when the rebels 
began shelling the battery very hard. The shells threw the dirt over ns. We 
carried the wounded man to a ditch and laid down until the firing stopped 
some; then carried him back to the hospital. I returned to the regiment. 
After the rebels retreated we were in the road in the dark, and a horse kicked 
another one and that made the men jump and cock their guns. There was some 
time consumed in getting everything in order again. We passed a rebel bat- 
tery piled up in the road between two gate posts, where the forward horses had 
got shot and the rest run onto them before they could stop. Camped late at 
night near the battlefield. 

On the night of the fifteenth, Gen. Alvin P. Hovey's Twelfth 
Division of General McClernand's corps rested near Bolton 
Station, and on the sixteenth was in the advance of McPher- 
eon's troops. Two roads diverge from the road extending 
fronn Raymond to Bolton and lead to Edward's Station. Mc- 
Clernand's other three divisions marched on these: Osterhaus* 
Ninth,followed by Carr's Fourteenth on the northern, and A. J. 
Smith's Tenth on the southern. Blair's division of Sherman's 
Fifteenth Corps also marched in rear of Smith's division. All 
were marching toward Edward's Station, near which place it 
was expected to meet Pemberton and his army. Grant's 
movements after crossing the Mississippi river had bewildered 
and misled Pemberton, who expected the Union general would 
have his base for supplies at Grand Gulf, or some other point 
on the river, according to the rules of military science,and oper- 
ate from that place against Vicksburg. He therefore kept his 
army on the defensive covering that city. After the battle at 
Raymond he concluded to attack Grant's army and cut it off 
from its base. The Union army had no base. It was living 
off of the country. At 5:00 o'clock p.m. of the fifteenth, Pem- 
berton's army marched from Edward's Station toward Ray- 
mond and halted, at about 3:00 a. m. of the sixteenth, six miles 
from the place of starting. At 6:00 a. m. of the sixteenth a 
courier from Johnston arrived and informed Pemberton of the 
defeat at Jackson and instructed him to move to the north side 
of the railroad and join Johnston's arm}' as soon as possible 
near Canton. For this purpose Pemberton's army had begun 
its retrograde movement over the same route it had traveled 



200 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1863 

when our advancing pickets on the Raymond roads opened a 
vigorous skirmish which, before half-past ten, had grown into 
a small battle. 

Midway, or Champion's Hill, is equi-distant from Jackson 
and Vicksburg. It is a high promontory, sixty or seventy feet 
above the level of the surrounding country, bald on its top and 
mostly covered with woods which partly extend down its sides. 
Undulating fields extend to the north and northeast, and at its 
eastern base is a deep ravine with a thick growth of woods 
and tangled vines, which, running off to our right, terminated 
at Baker's creek. The wagon road extending from Clinton to 
Edward's Station, after passing the residence of Mr. Champion, 
turns southward and ascends the hill to its top on its eastern 
side, and then turning northwest descends it by a gentle de- 
clivity and then on to Baker's creek, a little less than a mile 
away. 

Pemberton formed his three divisions into line by placing 
Gen. W. W. Loring's on the right. Gen. John S. Bowen's in 
the centre and Gen. Carter L. Stevenson's on the left, which 
rested on the natural fortress, Champion's Hill. This last 
division bore the brunt of the ensuing battle and consisted of 
four brigades and Waul's Texas Legion, and was formed by 
placing Gen. Stephen D. Lee's Alabama Brigade on the left, 
then Gen. A. Cumming's Georgians on its right; then Rey- 
nold's Tennesseeans; then Barton's Georgia Brigade. The line 
of Lee and Gumming was formed on the crest of the hill, 
where the heaviest fighting subsequently occurred. The whole 
line of battle was about three miles long and crossed both of 
the Raymond roads. Along its entire eastern front the ground 
was a chaos of ravines, narrow hills with steep sides, and all 
was covered with a dense growth of wood and brush, except 
the narrow public road on which Osterhaus and Carr were 
marching, which wound, like a small serpent, over the ground, 
and along which it was impossible to see over a hundred 
yards. We doubt if the rebels could have selected in the state 
a field better suited to their purpose. 

At about 10:00 a. m. Hovey's advance struck the skirmishers 
of Gumming and Lee. Hovey had two brigades. He formed 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 201 

the one commanded by Col. James B. Slack on the left of the 
Clinton road, the other — Gen. George F. McQinnis' — across 
the road and to its ri^ht. When General Logan came up he 
formed Gen. M. D. Leggett's brigade on the right of McGin- 
nis', Gen. John E. Smith's on Leggett's right and Gen. John 
D. Stevenson's in reserve, behind the other two. Capt. Samuel 
De Golyer's battery was placed two hundred yards in rear of 
Leggett, Rogers' battery on Smith's right and behind all, on a 
commanding ridge in the rear, Captain Williams' Third Ohio 
Batterv as a reserve. 

About 11:30 a. m. Hovey's troops advanced, opened 
the battle and were warmly supported by those under 
Logan, whose brigades were in the open field, about one 
thousand two hundred feet distant from the enemy. As our 
line advanced it became crescent-shaped, conforming to the 
shape of the hill in its front, whose sides were scarred by 
ravines which impeded the troops in their advance. Hovey's 
men gallantly drove the enemy full six hundred yards, and 
scaled the heights, capturing eleven pieces of artillery and 
several hundred prisoners. The enemy rallied, was re-enforced 
by Bowen's division and drove them back, taking back several 
of their caimon. The contest raged back and forth over the 
same ground. Meanwhile Logan's men had been heavily en- 
gaged against the enemy, attacking them from the north. The 
ground in front of Leggett and Smith was hotly contested. 
Barton's brigade andseveral batteries re-enforced Lee's left and 
contested every foot. Stevenson's troops during this engage- 
ment finally moved up on the right of Smith, drove the enemy 
from his chosen position and he retired under cover of a 
second ridge. In the meantime they had planted a battery in 
Stevenson's front to open an enfilading tire on the other two 
brigades. Stevenson swung round his right, then charged, 
and driving the supports from the guns, captured five pieces, 
and having turned the left fiankof the enemy, drove them on to 
the ground before Smith and Leggett, whose troops had been 
fighting detiperately and suftering from a severe enfilading fire. 
A united eftbrt of the three brigades finally resulted in the 
rout of the rebels in that part of the field, the capture of 
several more cannon and several hundreds of prisoners. 



202 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1863 

These movements carried Logan's troops far to the right and 
in rear of the enemy and left a long interval on the right of 
Hovey. Quiuby's division, commanded by Crocker, being 
near at hand, with Boomer's brigade in the advance, this bri- 
gade was, after some delay in getting an order from General 
Grant, sent into the gap next to Hovey, and soon after that the 
Fourth Minnesota and Fifty-ninth Indiana also went in on 
the right front and helped to fill the space. By the time they 
had got into position Colonel Sanborn sent in the Forty-eighth 
Indiana and Eighteenth Wisconsin on the letlt fronton Hovey's 
right. All of these troops were not sufficient to drive the 
enemy. 

It was a very critical period in the battle, and while Stevenson 
had turned the enemy's left flank and cut ofl:' his retreat by the 
main roads, he seemed determined to turn ours at this point and 
cut our army in two. Grant, McPherson and their staflfs were 
opposite the dangerously long interval which we did not 
have troops enough to fill. At about 3:00 p. m. Hovey sta- 
tioned sixteen guns belonging to the batteries of Schofield, 
Murdock and Dillon in the open field beyond a slight mound 
on his right. Colonel Holmes had come up with the Seven- 
teenth Iowa and Tenth Missouri on the double-quick through 
the stifling dust and burning sun. These regiments forced 
their w^ay up the hill, driving the enemy before them, crowning 
its summit and retaking several of the guns Hovey's troops had 
before taken and lost, and the sixteen guns opening a brisk 
cannonade, encouraged our men. The rebels soon broke 
and left the field. The battle was over by 4:00 p. m. and the 
enemy were marching across-lots and through the woods to 
make their escape. Stevenson's brigade and De Qolyer's bat- 
tery started at once on the double-quick in pursuit on the Clin- 
ton road to head them off their rapid advance; a shell- 
ing by the battery and also the advance of Carr's division of 
the Thirteenth Corps on the middle Raymond road prevented 
Loring's division from crossing the creek. On finding they 
could not cross the stream by the bridges, because of the rapid 
advance of Logan's troops, the divisions of Bowen and Steven- 
son crossed below at a ford. Loring's troops remaining behind 



isas] 



MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 



203 



to protect the rear were cut off, and after abandoning all of their 
artillery — and without the wagon train which contained their 
cooking utensils, which had crossed and gone toward Vicksburg 
— they made their escape by marching from the field in a south- 
westerly direction, and then, by traveling through the woods 
and on by-roads, passed between Raymond and Utica, and 
on the evening of the seventeenth struck the railroad about 
twenty-five miles south of Jackson. 

We captured thirty pieces of artillery in this battle. 

LOSSES OF THE ARMY. 



Division. 


Killed. 


WODSDKD. 


MissiNO. 


Total. 


Hovey's 

Logan's 

Crocker's 


211 
48 

123 

14 

1 


872 

826 

539 

76 


119 
29 


1,202 
408 
662 


Osterhaus' 

Carr*8 


20 
2 

4 


no 

8 


A.J Smith's 


24 



28 


BUir's 














Total 


397 


1,837 


174 


2,408 







LOSSES OF CROCKER'S DIVISION. 



Brigade. 



Killed. 



Holmes' (Second) 

Boomer's (Third) 

Dillon's Sixth Wisconsin Battery. 
Sanborn's First 



12 
111 



Total. 



iS 



128 



Wounded. 



87 

388 

2 

M 



Missing. 



4 

11 



528 



15 



Total. 



108 

010 

2 

56 



671 



Quinby says he joined the army on the sixteenth, just as it 
was about to perform its part in the battle, and it was not 
deemed proper to relieve Crocker at that time. He resumed 
command of his division on the morning of the seventeenth. 
Holmes' brigade was left behind to help clear up the battlefield. 

Colonel Sanborn states in his report: 

On the morniDg of the sixteenth I moved my commaDd at an early hoar 
along the road toward Bolton and Edward's Depot, following the Third Brigade 
and Logan's division. I had marched bat an hoar and a half when rapid firing 
of artillery in front apiin announced the pre«^ence of the enemy. My com- 
mand moved forward rapidly, and arrived npon the field aboat the time the 
engagement became general. I formed, as ordered, noder cover of the woods at 



204 



HIBTOBY OF THE FOUKTH BEGIMENT 



[1863 



the right of De Golyer's battery and aboat foar hundred yards distant. Daring 
this furmation I was nnder a light fire of artillery and mnsketry, from which I 
lost a few officers and men. As soon as my command was reformed I reeeiyed 
an order from General McPherson, commanding the corps, to send two regi- 
ments immediately to the support of De Golyer's battery. I ordered forward 
the Fifty-ninth Indiana, with instructions to form on the left of the battery, 
and the Fourth Minnesota, with instructions to form on its right. This order 
was complied with in double-quick time, and about the same time the regi- 
ments were so formed the enemy commenced falling back at this x>oint (the 
enemy's left), and the regiments advanced, the Fourth Minnesota across the 
rayine, capturing 118 prisoners, and the Fifty -ninth Indiana into the raylne, 
bearing further to the left, the enemy's line crossing the ravine diagonally 
at this point, capturing here the colors of the Forty-sixth Alabama Regiment 
[Sergt John Ford, Ck>mpany C, Fifty-ninth Indiana, captured them] 
and many prisoners. These regiments retained their portions on the right 
of our lines until the close of the engagement — about three hours. By the 
time these two regiments had got into position on the right and left of the 
battery I was ordered to take the other two of my command — the Forty 
eighth Indiana and Eighteenth Wisconsin — about one hundred rods to the east 
of the battery and form there in the edge of the woods in supjMrt of what 
seemed to be (General Hovey's right The Forty-eighth Indiana Regiment 
immediately went into position under a most galling fire of musketry, and 
retained it for at least three hours and long after the regiments on its right and 
left had given way, and then fell back by my order a short distance to replen- 
ish ammunition only after it was exhausted, but stood like a wall of adamant 
wherever it was placed till the close of the engagement. The Eighteenth 
Wisconsin was moved from right to left and back two or three times, by order 
of the general commanding, as the attack was made more fiercely on either 
hand. The regiment moved with great promptness and held eveiy position 
firmly until removed by orders. After this engagement ceased I moved for- 
ward on the Vicksburg road about three miles and bivouacked for the night. 
My loss in the action at Champion's Hill is as follows: 



OOMMAVD. 


Enlisted 

Men 

Killed. 


WOUNDKD. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
Men. 


Forty-eighth Indiana 


8 
1 


2 

1 
2 


88 


FlftT'nintb Indiana 


9 


Foaith Minnesota 


1 


Eighteenth Wisconsin 


1 


8 






Total 


6 


6 


46 







Lieutenant Colonel Tourtellotte said, in his official report: 

At Champion's Hill, near Bolton, Miss., we came up to the line formed by 
Generals Hovey's and Logan's divisions, who were already engaging the ene- 
my. My regiment was placed on the right of a battery as a support therefor. 
Almost immediately, however, by order of Greneral McPherson, my regiment 



1863] MINNESOTA INPANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 205 

was ordered to hasten forward and assist the right of General Logan's division, 
which was reported to be hard-pressed. The men threw their knapsacks and 
bUnkets from their shonlders and dashed forward in the direction indicated, at 
the donble-qnick step, ap the hill, into the woods and npon a body of the 
enemy, of whom my regiment captnred 118. Directly, finding myself some 
distance in front of and nnsapported on either side by the line formed by the 
remainder of the troops, and finding that the enemy was massing a heavy force 
in front, I sent my adjutant to General McPherson to report our situation and 
ask for instructions. Almost at the same time the enemy opened upon us with 
artilleiy. I caused the men to lie down, where they remained, sheltered by 
the crest of the hill, until I received orders to draw the regiment back, so as to 
connect with the right of such troops as I found first in my rear. This was 
executed and the regiment formed on the right of Colonel Leggett's brigade of 
General Logan's division. Here we remained about an hour, when the line of 
march to the front was again resumed, when I joined my regiment to the bal- 
ance of Colonel Sanborn's brigade. My loss in the regiment was Captain 
Thomp8on and Private Michael Dolan of Company E, both wounded, the cap- 
tain severely. 

We wrote to General Tourtellotte for his reason for threaten- 
ing to slioot the first man of his regiment at this battle who 
fired at the enemy, and under date of Oct. 18, 1887, he says: 

The circumstance of threatening to shoot our men at Champion's HiU was 
this: As the Fourth came into line of battle that day. General Logan sent by 
staff officer to General McPherson, asking for re*enforcement8. General Mc- 
Pherson immediately ordered our regiment forward and told the staff* officer to 
direct me. The staff officer pointed out the direction and then left me. But 
Logan had gone to the right and our advance led us through a gap in our lines 
upon quite a body of the enemy. On our left we had gone quite beyond the 
first line of the enemy. I sent notice of our position to General McPhersonand 
he directed me to move back to a hiU in our rear, which I did. But meantime 
the enemy on our left broke and ran. The enemy in going to the rear were 
quite disorganized, and passing near our left and front I wished to capture 
them. My regiment commenced to fire upon the retreating enemy, some of 
whom threw down their guns and up their hands in token of surrender. Do 
you think I could allow such men to be fired upon? Two or three companies 
of the regiment were wheeled about to capture these retreating rebels, and 
118 (perhaps more) were sent to the rear as prisoners. More might have been 
captured, but I did not think best to change front of my whole regiment when 
the enemy were in force on the other side of the road, and by extending oar 
front further to the left we should have risked the shots from our own troops 
who had forced the enemy to retreat. 

When the fighting ceased we walked along the wooded hill 
and examined the artillery captured from the enemy, and, un- 
less mistaken, counted twenty-eight pieces which had been cap- 



206 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1863 

tured and which the enemy had abandoned in the road after 
taking away the horses. We saw one battery upon the brow 
of the hill. Some of the horses had been killed, and upon one 
of them sat its rider, — dead. The animal lay on the side of a 
sharp little slope so that the right leg of the rider was under 
its body while the other was extended naturally, with the foot 
in the stirrup. He held the bridle rein in his right hand and 
with eyes wide open, as if looking to the front, sat upright in 
the saddle as naturally as if still alive. His features looked 
like marble, and he was apparently not over seventeen years of 
age. Near to this battery we counted fully a dozen ramrods 
that the soldiers had fired into the trees and which were 
fastened in them and sticking out, our men being apparently 
in too great a hurry to remove the ramrods before firing. The 
enemy had evidently been driven from his guns before our 
regiment came on that part of the field. 

The residence of Mr. Champion — a two-story white frame 
on the left of the road where it turned up the hill — was used 
as one of the hospitals for our wounded. After our forces had 
left, the Confederates came and paroled the wounded. Capt. J. 
M. Thompson of Company E was anxious to save his sword 
and revolver, so he had his servant secrete them for him, and 
thus preserved them. He says he w-as the only one out of about 
two hundred who managed to save his arms. 

Captain Thompson writes, under date of March 22, 1888: 

I was shot throngh the hody (left lung) at Champion's HiU* and was reported 
by Surg. J. H. Marphy mortaUy woanded. When our army moved on 
to Vicksburg I was left with others reported as mortally woanded at Bowles' 
plantation house. The rebels soon came up. Their surgeon reported me mor- 
tally wounded and left me within the rebel lines to die, and I was reported as 
dead in the St. Paul papers. I was paroled at the same plantation by Captain 
Terry of the Confederate service, and in September, 1863, was exchanged ; on 
Jan. 14, 1864, was promoted to first major of the Second Minnesota Cavalry 
and was mustered out at St. Paul, to take effect May 1, 1865. 

Bowles' house was a log building on the south side of the 
main road and east of Champion's house. 

[*This battle is called in the official war records Champion's 
Hill, but with our men it was called Champion Hills. — Ed.] 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEES. 207 

On moving oar regimental property from Smith's plantation the teams 
were too heavily loaded and Ck>rp. Leo Cook of Ck>mpany B was detailed as 
one of the guards. The property was loaded on a steamboat at Hard Times. 
The captain of the boat told the gnards that he would not leave until the next 
morning and ten of the boys camped on shore, but at daylight the boat had 
gone. The guards then marched down the river to opposite Grand Gulf, 
hoisted a flag of truce made of a shirt, and at about 4:00 o'clock p. M. a boat 
came and took them across the river. Ck>ok got a pass from the commander of 
the post at Grand Gulf for eleven and they started to join the regiment. 
While eating dinner one day they were flred upon by the enemy, but fortu- 
nately, none of them were hit. They then left the main road going to Ray- 
mond and traveled on by-roads and through the woods, and by the advice of 
negroes managed to escape capture. They captured eleven stragglers of the 
enemy, turned them over to our cavalry and joined our army at the Big Black 
river; they were themselves then arrested as stragglers, but managed to run 
the guard and joined the regiment in rear of Vicksburg. — [Cookie Statement,'} 



CHAPTER IX. 

At Edward's Depot — BridgiDg the Big Black River — On to Vicksbnig — De- 
scription of the Groand npon which the City is Bnilt — Formation of the 
Lines — Aseanlt on the Twenty-second of May; Incidents and Official Re- 
ports — Rebel Account — List of Onr Casnalties — Draw Oar First Full 
Rations — March to Mechanicsbnrg and Return — Incidents of the Siege — 
Lifting Fort Hill — Wooden Mortars — Siege Batteries — Letter from Col- 
onel Offley — Rebel Ten-inch Mortar Shells — Coonskin's Tower — Liquid 
Hardware as Canned Goods — Official Statement of Losses in Our Army 
from May 1 to July 4, 1863. 

May 17th — Sunday. — Marched through Edward's Depot 
[population, 1880, 421] to the Big Black river near by 
and camped about three miles east of the railroad bridge, be- 
tween the railroad and river. We marched six miles to-day. 
Heard the cannonading at the battle of the Big Black bridge. 
Clear and hot. Good roads and good water. We have lota 
of cotton here for beds. At night we were detailed and aided 
in building a bridge across the river at this point, and using 
cotton-gin and dwelling-house boards and timbers, we con- 
structed cribs which we filled with cotton bales and made a 
floating bridge 102 feet long. Capt. S. R. Tresilian, engineer 
officer of the Third Division, had supervision of the work. 
The enemy was found at the Big Black bridge in a strongly 
intrenched position, and almost immediately after our lines 
were formed our men assaulted and carried the works, captur- 
ing almost the entire rebel force prisoners, with all of their 
batteries and camp and garrison equipage that was on the west 
side of the stream. The Thirteenth Corps, Logan's division,and 
Ransom's brigade of McArthur's division of the Seventeenth 
Corps crossed near to that place. The Fifteenth Corps crossed 
at Bridgeport, and all moved forward on the eighteenth to the 
lines at Vicksburg that evening. Several of the Forty-eighth 
Indiana boys built a fire and while making coflfee used **an 
old abandoned shell" that laid on the ground near by to help 
hold up their cofi^ee kettle. The shell exploded but injured 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 209 

no one. Joe Arraes, Marvin Pond and J. F. Withee of Com- 
pany B of our regiment were standing near the fire at the 
time. Our five regimental teams left behind at Smith's plan- 
tation overtook us to-day. 

May 18th — Monday, — The bridge was completed by 8:00 
A. M., and the artillery and trains passed across the Big Black 
while we guarded the bridge. 

May 19th — Tuesday. — Formed line of battle at 5:00 p. m. 
The prisoners passed us. We crossed the river at 10:00 p. m. 
Tore up the bridge. Marched two miles and camped. Can 
hear cannonading at Vicksburg. 

On the morninfi; of the eiji;hteeiith my oommand, with the Third Brigade, 
crossed the river and moved forward toward Vicksbnrg. When abont three 
miles west of the river I was ordered to retam to the east side of the Big 
Black and remain there, guarding all trains coming np and the bridge until 
Colonel Holmes should come up from the battlefield with his brigade. I 
immediately returned, bivouacked my command on the same ground left in 
the morning and remained there till the evening of the nineteenth, when 
Colonel Holmes with his command came up and I again crossed the river and 
bivouacked about two miles west of it that night. On the twentieth came 
forward to the rear of Vicksburg, marching a distance of seventeen miles, with 
a most intense heat and sufifocating dust all day. — [8anborfi?a Report.^ 

On the supposition that the enemy would not fight after 
their defeat at Champion's Hill and the Big Black, General 
Grant ordered an assault on the works at Vicksburg at 2:00 
p. M. of the nineteenth. It was made and our forces were 
repulsed. 

May 20th — Wednesday. — We marched eighteen miles to the 
rear of our lines, investing Vicksburg, and could hear skirmish- 
ing all day. Camped in a ravine two miles from the rebel 
works. Very hot and dusty. Our lines of communication 
were open to-day via Haines' Bluif and the Yazoo river to the 
Mississippi river, and our army is being supplied with food 
from that place. 

May 21st — Thursday. — Road opened to Chickasaw Bayou. 
We were assigned to our position in the line of investment on 
the north of the railroad, and also north of the wagon road to 
Baldwin's Ferry. General Logan's division joins ours on the 
right. We are in the centre of the line south of Fort Hill, in a 

14 



210 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1863 

deep ravine about half a mile from the rebel works. Spent 
bullets came over and wounded three men. Plenty of cane- 
brake. Hard to get around. We lie on the edge of the hill 
and cannot expose ourselves without being fired at. Hot and 
clear. No roads to or from our lines. Poor water. The bal- 
ance of McArthur's division of the Seventeenth Corps that had 
been guarding our cracker line on the Louisiana side crossed 
the river at Warrenton, and to-day went into position on the 
line of investment extending from Hall's Ferry road to the 
crest of the hill immediatelj' on the river. It was subsequently 
relieved by Herron's division. 

Description of The Ground. 

At the beginning of the siege the defenses were essentiaUy the same as at 
its close, making the place an intrenched camp fonr miles long and two miles 
wide, the line of defense not following its windings, beiog seven miles 
long and weU adapted to the ground. Perhaps the best idea of the groand 
around Vicksbnrg may be obtained by supposing that originally a plateaa 
having from two hundred to three hundred feet elevation here reached the 
Mississippi. That the fine soil, which when cut vertically will repiain so for 
years, has gradually been washed away by rains and streams till the plateaa 
has disappeared, leaving in its place an intricate network of ravines and 
ridges, the latter everywhere sharp, and the former only having level bottoms 
when their streams become of some size. It has already been said that the 
soil when out vertically will remain so for years. For this reason the sides of 
the smaller And newer ravines were often so steep that their ascent was difficult 
to a footman unless he aided himself with his hands. The sides of the ravines 
were usually wooded, but near the enemy's line the trees had been felled, 
forming in many places entanglements which under fire were absolutely im- 
passable. At Vicksbnrg the Mississippi river runs nearly south and the 
streams which enter it from the east run southwest. One such stream enters 
the river five miles below the city, and the dividing ridge which separates two 
of its branches was that on which the defensive line east of the city was 
placed. (24, 2, 169.) 

The Confederate troops defending Vicksbnrg consisted of 
Gen. M. L. Smith's division, north of the city and in front of 
Gen. Frank Steele, composed of the brigades of Shoup, Bald- 
win, Vaughn and Buford; then General Forney's division, 
with Moore's and Hebert's brigades. These were our old 
antagonists at luka and Corinth and in our front here. Then 
Stevenson's division, composed of Burton's, Cummings', Lee's 



^- 




'^i^ 



V 



^■m 


It 

1 




■ 


\^ ■ 


|| 




|s 








I ^'. 




tr 




> 5. 




ill 




1 |S 


H'«i] 


U 


"JW 


11 



i°%% 




111 

in 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEEES. 211 

and Reynold's brigades, these being on the right of their line 
toward the river from the railroad. Bowen's division, com- 
posed of Green's and Cochran's brigades, was in reserve, 
General Waul's cavalry being dismounted and acting with 
Stevenson's division. The Confederates had along their line 
thirty-six siege guns and 128 cannon, besides forty-four heavy 
guns in batteries along the river. 

In the line of investment Steele's division of Sherman's 
corps rested its right on the Mississippi river above the city. 
On its left was Blair's division, and during a part of the 
siege these two were supported by Tuttle's division. Next 
on Blair's left came Ransom's brigade of McArthur's divi- 
sion; then Logan's division; next Quinby's; then came Mc- 
Clernand's corps, with A. J. Smith's division covering 
Baldwin's Ferry road, and south of the railroad the divisions 
of Carr, Osterhaus and Ilovey. McArthur's division, except 
Ransom's brigade, on May 2l8t moved on to the line to 
the left of llovey, but was withdrawn, and on the twenty-third 
of May took post in rear of Logan as reserve to McPherson's 
corps. On May 24th Lauman's division arrived from Memphis, 
was ferried across the river and joined on to Hovey's left. 
On the eleventh of June General Ilerron's division arrived 
from the north and completed the line of investment between 
Lauman's troops and the Mississippi river below the city. 

An Unlucky Day. 
Badeau says: 

At three o'clock on the morniDg of the twenty-second the cannonade began 
from the land side. Every available gan was bronght to bear on the works. 
Sharpshooters at the same time began their part of the action and nothing 
coald be heanl but continued shrieking of shells, the heavy booming of cannon 
and the sharp whiz of the minie-balls as they sped with fatal accuracy toward 
the devoted town. Vicksburg was encircled by a girdle of fire; on river and 
shore a line of mighty cannon poured destruction from their fiery throats, 
while the mortars played incessantly and made the heavens themselves seem to 
drop down muliguaut meteors on the rebellious stronghold. The bombard- 
ment was the most terrible during the siege, and oontinned without intermis- 
sion until nearly eleven o'clock, while the sharpshooters kept up such a rapid 
and galling fire that the ref)el cannoneers could seldom rise to load their pieces. 
The enemy was thus able to make only ineffectual replies and the formation ot 
the columns of attack was undisturlied. 



212 HISTORY OF THE FOUETH EEGIMENT [1863 

The assault cost the Union array three thousand in killed 
and wounded. 

May 2M — Friday, — At 3:00 a. m. our batteries opened. 
Our regiment advanced in single file at 9:00 a. m. till we got 
close to the rebel works and formed in line. The rebels could 
not hit us there. We came back past camp at 4:00 p. m. 
and went to help McClernand. Advanced up a ravine close to 
a rebel fort and got fifty-four killed and wounded. After dark 
we fell back to the railroad bridge. Hot. 

We quote from a letter from General Tourtellotte : 

An officer, not very weU known in the regiment, deserves mention in your 
history — M%j. A. E. Welch. He was an exceUent officer. He was a lieuten- 
ant in the First Minnesota and was appointed in the Fourth; but he was 
captured at Bull Run and not exchanged in time to join the Fourth. Be- 
fore the regiment went to the field Welch's appointment was withdrawn and 
Baxter, senior captain, was appointed m^jor. After a time Thomas and Baxter 
left the regiment and Welch returned to Minnesota from Libby Prison. The 
Crovemor of Minnesota then reappointed Welch as major and sent him to 
his regiment. I was then in command. The regiment had been in several 
battles, officers were desirous of promotion, and Welch was considered by some 
as a trespasser. He had but little tact to make friends or even acquaintances, 
but I necessarily came to know him well. He was honorable, brave and 
soldierly in the highest degree. He was sure to be respected by aU who knew 
him. Well, the officers did not know him more than was necessary and did 
not wish to know him. He had stepped into their line of promotion, and I 
think he was actually disliked in the regiment until after our assault on Vicks- 
burg, when this incident occurred: The regiment with others was ordered to 
the support of General McCIemand's command. The regiment marched by 
fours. Major Welch in rear, as was proper. We reached our position, formed 
line and commenced firing on the enemy. I was too busy to notice the nu^o^'B 
i^bsence, but presently someone asked me if I knew the migor was killed. 
Then I heard someone call, *^ Colonel Tourtellotte ! Where is Colonel Tourtel- 
lotte? '' and looking back in the direction from which the regiment had come 
I saw Major Welch approaching. His face and clothing were covered with 
blood, but he came up to me, saluted as on parade, and asked where he could 
be of most service. From tHat time on the whole regiment were proud of him. 
But that was his last fight, poor feUow! He had even then inflammation of the 
stomach, from which he died in hospital. His wound at Vicksburg came from 
a piece of shell, which knocked him down and stunned him. 

The general also says, in speaking of our regiment: 

I was and am very proud of my old regiment. I never saved them from 
work; I never saved them from danger when duty called them in; but I think 
the men understood that I protected them all I could, and they understood I 
did not save myself from work or danger. I remember before the assault on 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 213 

Vicksbarg the regiment was lying down and an officer came to me saying that 
it was the request of the regiment that I lie down too. Of coarse, my duty 
would not permit that, but the incident was remembered. 

During the process of the assault a staiF officer rode up to 
the tent of General McPherson and reported, " General Mc- 
Clernand has captured a part of the enemy's line and cannot 
hold it unless he is supported." He was informed that General 
McArthur had been ordered to suppoH McClernand. The 
officer then rode away. Standing near enough to hear this 
conversation, I asked of the orderly who stood near the door 
who the officer was, and he replied, "Lieutenant Colonel 
Forsyth of General McClernand's staiF." In less than half an 
hour the same staff* officer returned and reported that McAr- 
thur had not arrived and that help must be had at once. Our 
division was finally ordered to General McClernand's support. 

Colonel Sanborn's report says: 

On the twenty-first I moved my command into line of battle in front of the 
enemy's works, deployed a line of skirmishers in front and remained in 
this position till the morning of the twenty-second. A general assault having 
been ordered upon the enemy's works at 10:00 A. M. this day, I spent the night 
of the twenty-first, in connection with the lamented Colonel Boomer, command- 
ing the Third Brigade, reconnoitering for the best approaches for infantry to the 
enemy's works in our front. It was ascertained that we could approach to 
within eighty yards under cover of the hills and form without great exposure to 
the men, and early on the morning of the twenty-second I moved my command 
into this position and formed in line of battle on the left of the Third Brigade. 

Badeau says : 

Benton's and Burbridge's brigades, the former in Carr's, the latter in Smith's 
division, now rushed forward and reached the ditch and slope of another little 
earthwork, planting their colors also on the outer slope. Captain White of 
the Chicago Mercantile Battery dragged forward one of his pieces by hand quite 
to the ditch, and double-shotting it fired into an embrasure, disabling a gun just 
ready to be discharged and scattering death among the rebel cannoneers. A 
detachment here got into the work, but the rebels rallied and captured every 
man. These were the only troops that actually carried or gained possession, 
even for a moment, of any portion of the enemy's line. [White started with 
two guns; one got stuck ou the way and it was abandoned. The men carried the 
ammunition in their haversacks. — Ed.] * * * Grant's loss had been great, 
both in killed and wounded. The hillsides were covered with the slain and 
with unfortunates who lay panting in the hot snn crying for water, which none 



212 HISTOEY OF THE FOUETH EEGIMENT [1863 

The assault cost the Union army three thousand in killed 
and wounded. 

May 22d — Friday, — At 3:00 a. m. our batteries opened. 
Our regiment advanced in single file at 9:00 a. m. till we got 
close to the rebel works and formed in line. The rebels could 
not hit us there. We came back past camp at 4:00 p. m. 
and went to help McClernand. Advanced up a ravine close to 
a rebel fort and got fifty-four killed and wounded. After dark 
we fell back to the railroad bridge. Hot. 

We quote from a letter from General Tourtellotte : 

An officer, not very weU known in the regiment, deserves mention in your 
history — M%j. A. E. Welch. He was an exceUent officer. He was a lieuten- 
ant in the First Minnesota and was appointed in the Fourth; but he was 
captured at BuU Eun and not exchanged in time to join the Fourth. Be- 
fore the regiment went to the field Welch's appointment was withdrawn and 
Baxter, senior captain, was appointed major. After a time Thomas and Baxter 
left the regiment and Welch returned to Minnesota from Libby Prison. The 
Governor of Minnesota then reappointed Welch as major and sent him to 
his regiment. I was then in command. The regiment had been in several 
battles, officers were desirous of promotion, and Welch was considered by some 
as a trespasser. He had but little tact to make friends or even acquaintances, 
but I necessarily came to know him well. He was honorable, brave and 
soldierly in the highest degree. He was sure to be respected by aU who knew 
him. Well, the officers did not know him more than was necessary and did 
not wish to know him. He had stepped into their line of promotion, and I 
think he was actually disliked in the regiment until after our assault on Vicks- 
burg, when this incident occurred: The regiment with others was ordered to 
the support of General McClemand's command. The regiment marched by 
fours. Major Welch in rear, as was proper. We reached our position, formed 
line and commenced firiDg on the enemy. I was too busy to notice the mi^o^'B 
absence, but presently someone asked me if I knew the migor was killed. 
Then I heard someone call, ** Colonel Tourtellotte ! Where is Colonel Tourtel- 
lotte? '' and looking back in the direction from which the regiment had come 
I saw Major Welch approaching. His face and clothing were covered with 
blood, but he came up to me, saluted as on parade, and asked where he could 
be of most service. From that time on the whole regiment were proud of him. 
But that was his last fight, poor fellow! He had even then inflammation of the 
stomach, from which he died in hospital. His wound at Vicksburg came from 
a piece of shell, which knocked him down and stunned him. 

The general also says, in speaking of our regiment: 

I was and am very proud of my old regiment. I never saved them from 
work; I never saved them from danger when duty called them in; but I think 
the men understood that I protected them all I could, and they understood I 
did not save myself from work or daDger. I remember before the assault on 



-■.' 



1863] 



MINNESOTA INFaNTKY VOLrNTEERa. 






Vicksburg ihe regiment was lying down AT-d an ofi-.tr 'i-an-e :•:• cie ^aj:- z •cat. 
it waa the reqaest or" the regiment toat I l:e duwii toi.,. Of -.onr**. nj d -tr 
would not permit that, bat the inciden: wi.* rez.e=:;bered. 

During the pr(X?es> oi thr: asfa:.: a •:ar ••rn-.er r -i-r :: •> 
the tent of Genera! McPLers-jr. a:, i r^: jr.-;. '•<^je:.Tr<i! M:- 
demand La^ 'lartureJ a rur: •:■: :L-r •_-:.':-::-'»■• Wuk a\: .^r.*. '/: 
hold it iiLrr:- :.^ - -iM-jrtei. ■ H-r 7^^* ::.:.. r::.e'i ::-ii: G-.-:.^rA. 

officer :':.^L yy.-. lvx-i, S:aL«i:r.i: T.^ar ^:.ou^"r. :o hr-ar ::.:.•: 

Forsyt'r. :•: «i^--:ri.. MiiJUni:: i's ^:^rl" I:. '--^ :La:. La!: ^r. 
hour tL-r --ar-i--^: r-tr '.<3i«r r^rir:.^: a:. : r-r:-:::-^; ::.ii: MjA*- 
thurhad r.:-: arriT^: uu: -riia: L-='.: :---: 'h: r-ii a: .:.:.=:. 0-r 
diviaior: v.'a.=; f:.i..j 'rrtKriiii v. Grrr.nri! M .Ci-^r-.ar.ir r::i.:.-. 



CoioiiTrl rf^'-v'-rr.'* ?*cor:^T%: 



On the twe-t7-ir« ^ aiv*'*! Jvr 
enemy's worir. d*;/>-7«i * ia» 'rf 
this positioi: t:.: th.* s-fflrxia*? ^^ 
been ordered upoi. -.i* *=*3t7 * 
of the twenty.frst. :- 'rAaj««w* 
ing the Thini Erl^e. -•^^^ 
enemT's wo:k« :n o't frvart. I-s •»« 
within eight V yard- Ti^-f^ fr^« 4^tft« 
the men. and early oi ri-t »!*««■«<* 
into this position and for^i^ »> 

Badeau say.^ : 

BeDton'sand BnrV^ndj?^'* '« 
division, now rtLfehed :or»** • 
earthwork, plantiuir t"'*^-- *^ 
the Chicago MercaLt:> b*tw*T< 
to thediuh. and dour/.t^^^'** 
readv to >>e di'^.har.i^: ^^'^ . ** 
detachment he:- .-V. :r-V. t*-* 
man. The^ •^-r:*: V;-«: '-'- ? ^ 
even for a r:io::.*::.t o: *'-:• >^''' 

ammnnition :n •:>: - - . 

both in k-.-e'- ^ . • 

^th unfor--Tir.:.*>:-. •'^:.'' " -' ** 



A X!t&»7a^ MMbl-". lA-roa 

^*^^ A. X ^Lj^ tkj ' vyKT. V.I* i-onr 
•Ciki' *»* 'T.*! jit innr*'- - . : . 





I ■ 




t .' . 



>r: • 



^ft..: 



»4ib» 






214 HISTOEY OF THE FOURTH BEGIMENT [1863 

could bring them, and writhing in pain that might not be relieved; while the 
rebels, ensconced behind their lofty parapets, had suffered bat little in com- 
parison. The national troops had everywhere shown the greatest individoal 
bravery. Regiments in all three corps had planted their flags on the enemy's 
works, where they still waved, the rebels nnable or afraid to remove them. 
The brunt of the battle incident to the first assault was over in less than an 
hour and no substantial result had been attained. It was plain that Grant 
could not hope to succeed by assault. 

The author of '* Cave Life" says: 

At four o'clock I was awakened by a perfect tumult in the air; the explo- 
sion of shrapnell and the rattling of shrapnell balls around us reminded me 
that my dangers and cares were not yet over. How rapidly and thickly the 
shells and minie-balls fell! Our little home stood the test nobly. We were in 
the first line of hills back of the heights that were fortified, and of course we 
felt the full force of the very energetic firing that was constantly kept up, and 
being so near many that passed over the first line of hills would fall directly 
around us. They were speaking of a charge that had been made, most gal- 
lantly, by General Burbridge and the Federal troops of his command on the 
Confederate intrenchments; they had rushed over the breastworks, driving out 
the Southern soldiers. The whole Confederate camp near the spot arose in a 
furious excitement, officers and men alike throwing hand-grenades down upon 
the intruders until they were forced to retire, after holding the place some lit- 
tle time. I was told that General Burbridge had laughingly remarked to a 
Confederate officer during the truce, that staying in the intrenchments in the 
hot sun and having hand-grenades thrown at him in profusion was as warm a 
work as he wished to undertake in one day. After the Federal troops left the 
intrenchments a hole was found in the loose earth of the breastworks that 
caused much amusement among the Confederate soldiers — a large hole where 
one of the Federals had literally burrowed his way out from the pits. **I 
reckon he's some kin to a mole," sagely commented one of the soldiers. 

Colonel Sanborn's report states: 

Colonel Boomer had some doubts as to his ability to carry the works on his 
front, and as to the works left in my front they could not be held if carried 
while those on my right were in posses(<ion of the enemy. I transferred to 
him for the purpose of this assault the Fifty-ninth Indiana Regiment, and de- 
ployed the Eighteenth Wisconsin along our whole front as skirmishers. These 
dispositions being made the commanders of regiments were ordered to advance 
upon the works immediately upon the movement commencing upon our right. 
For some reason the troops upon our right did not move, and I retained the 
same position with some loss till about three o'clock, when I received an order 
from General McPherson, through General Quinby, commanding division, to 
move at once, and vigorously, upon the works. A staff officer was dispatched 
immediately to the regimental commanders to communicate this order, but 



1863] MraNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEES. 215 

before he had sacceeded in doing so it was conntermanded and I was ordered 
to move with all my command not deployed as skirmishers to the left to sap- 
port Major Greneral McClernand. I immediately moved my oommaad, with 
the exception of the Eighteenth Wisconsin, deployed as skirmishers, from its 
position some miles to the left and was then ordered by General Qninby to 
support General Bnrbridge's brigade, then engaged in front of the enemy's 
works. I immediately moved forward for that purpose nnder the direction of 
a staff officer, and was led up through a ravine that was raked to a consider- 
able extent by musketry and artillery to a point a few yards in rear of the 
line of General Bnrbridge's brigade. I was informed by General Burbridge 
that the position close to the enemy's works was not so exposed as the ravine, 
and he desired me to form near or in front of his line. I formed my brigade, 
the Fifty-ninth Indiana on the right, the Forty-eighth Indiana to the left and 
the Fourth Minnesota to the left of the Forty-eighth Indiana. The position 
seemed very much exposed and I lost several men during the formation. My 
command was exceedingly exhausted, having had no rest the night of the 
nineteenth, marching nearly twenty miles the twentieth, moving into camp 
the twenty-first and having been under fire or marching all this day to the 
time I moved to this position. One or two of the regiments had already lost 
thirty men during the day. As soon as my line was formed General Bur- 
bridge's line gave way, and his troops left the ground, with the exception of 
one regiment, which remained to support the Fifty-ninth Indiana. The 
enemy was largely re-enforced and fired rapid and destructive volleys into my 
command, which were promptly returned, but the enemy having such high 
and strong works in front, it cannot be expected with much effect. Once or 
twice the enemy came over his works in large numbers and formed on my 
right, with the evident design of turning my right flank, but were promptly 
driven back by my command with much slaughter. I held this position for 
about two hours until dark, and having no support and seeing no reason why 
a position nhould be held at such sacrifice, which if lost could be recovered at 
any time by a line of skirmishers, unless the enemy should choose to fight us 
outside of his works, which could hardly be expected, however much desired, 
and there being no general officers on the ground, I ordered the position 
abandoned and my command to march back to the hill on the right of the 
railroad bridge and then form and rest for the night. In falling back Colonel 
Tonrtellotte, Fourth Minnesota, took from the ground a piece of artillery that 
was in position within a few yards of the enemy's works when my command 
went upon the ground and left there by the brigade then in position. The 
casualties in my command daring this engagement, as the official lists will 
show, are greater than all the balance of the campaign, and it seems to me all for 
no good. Success was no t)etter than defeat unless an assault was to be ordered* 
and I have not learned that such a thing was thought of, and if thought of 
was preposterous unless made by both brigades and in a most vigorous manner: 
and I can but feel that there was official misrepresentation or misconduct that 
led to this matter which retjuires investigation. I am compelled to say this 
much in my report of this engagement by eloquent voices coming from the 



216 



HISTORY OF THE FOUETH EEGIMENT 



[1863 



tombs of many of the most brave of my command, fallen in that fniitlefis 
straggle under the enemy's works. The following are my losses in this en- 
gagement : 



Rkoimemt. 



COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Fifty-ninth Indiana. 

Forty -eighth Indiana. 

Eighteenth Wisconsin 

Fourth Minnesota. 

EM LISTED XEN. 

Fifty-ninth Indiana 

Fortj-eighth Indiana 

Eighteenth Wisconsin 

Fourth Minnesota. 

Total. 



Killed. 


WOUlfDBD. 


Missing. 


1 


4 


1 





1 








2 





1 


7 





10 


95 


1 


9 


23 


1 


S 


9 





11 


35 





87 


176 


8 



On the morning of the twenty-third I moved my command forward about 
four hundred yards and formed, with one regiment on my right in rear of the 
right of General Burbridge's brigade and two regiments in prolongation of hia 
right, which position was occupied but a few hours, when my command moved 
back to the ground it left on the morning of the twenty-second, where it now 
remains. 

The conduct of all the officers and men of my command during the entire 
campaign has been more than satis&ctory — it has been most gallant and 
praiseworthy. There has been no shirking and no desire to shirk on the part 
of either officers or men, and I have not found, or even heard of, a man out of 
his position in battle or on the march. I know not how soldiers could do more. 
Capt. L. B. Martin, assistant adjutant general, and Lieutenants John S. Akin 
and James H. Donaldson, aids-de-camp, have conducted themselves in the 
most gallant and faithful manner and deserve special mention. The living are 
rewarded by the consciousness of having done all that human nature is capable 
of to suppress a most wicked rebellion and to preserve order and good govern- 
ment for themselves and posterity. But, alas, for the patriotic and gallant 
dead! No language of mine can do justice to their virtues. May some Macaulay 
or Bancroft recite in interesting narration their hardships, endurance, patriot- 
ism, valor and achievements, and some modem Homer or Virgil live to sing 
them in heroic verse. John B. Sanbobn, 

Colonel, Oommanding, 
Lieut. Col. W. T. Clark, Assistant A^ulant General, Seventeenth Army Corps. 

LIST OF KILLED AND WOUNDED OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT, MINNESOTA 
VOLUNTEERS, AT THE BATTLES OF JACKSON, CHAMPION HILLS AND AT 
THE ASSAULT ON VICKSBURG, MISS. 

Jackson, Miss., May 14, 1863. 



Names. 



Rank. 



Phineas R. Taylor ; Private.., 

Jacob H. Epier ; Private.. 



1 Com- 
pany-. 



Remarks. 



F 
K 



Wounded; shghtlv; in hipw 
Wounded; severelj. 



1863] 



MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 



217 



Champion Hills, Miss., Mat 16, 1863. 



Names. 



Rank. 



John M. Thompson Captain. 

Michael Dolan.. Private.. 



Com- 
pany. 

E 
E 



RSMAJtKS. 



Woanded in leA breast; shot 

through body. 
Woundnl in arm; severely. 



ViCKSBURG, Miss., May 22, 1863. 

*' Come fTom the four winds, oh, breath! and breathe upon these slain that they may live." 
— Eaekiel, xzxvii. 9. 



OommitHoned Officer t Killed — ' 
Clark Turner ' Ist Lieutenant. 



G. G. Sherbrooke. 

OommUtioned OfUcert Wounded — 

A. E. Welch 

Wm. T. Kittredge 

8. F. Brown 

Abner 8t. Cyr 

Henry Platt 

John D. Hunt 

EfUiated Men Killed— 

Riifus L. Applin 

Eilaha Lackey 

J. E. Kinny 

Daniel F. Perkins 

W. 8. Cates 

J. M. H. Flin 

Wm. Schelefoo 

B. C. Hoffman 



Peter Gouthier 

Israel Baker 

Robert P. Tifll 

Wm. C. Somers 

BklitUd Men Wounded — 

John P. Hunter 

Jonan Johnson 

Martin Luther 

A. Williams 

Peter Geoghegan 

Charles A. Sherwin 

Thomas Ringrose 

Thomas Craig 

Swan Anderson , 

Russell Witherell 

Patrick Moran 

Christian Funk 

Robert R. Miller 

Andrew Dowds 

Thomas Reee 

Henry R. Loomis 



Enoch Croy 

George Hansen .... 
Wm. HutchioBon . 

Joseph Roi 

James Blair 

Edward Knowles.. 

Adolph Metzler 

Charles L. Drewer. 
James W. Arnold.. 

John Magnus 

Fred Elling 

James C Haines.... 

Henry L. Jiish 

Aaron S. Bragg 

R. 8. Perkins 

Wm. H. Bogart.... 



2d Lieutenant. 



Maior 

Adjutant 

1st Lieutenant. 
Ist Lieutenant. 

Captain 

2d Lieutenant.. 

First Sergeant.. 

Private 

Corporal 

Private... 

Private 

Sergeant 

Sergeant 

Private 




Private- 
Private.. 
Private. 
Private.. 



Sergeant . 

Sergeant . 

Private.... 

Private..., 

Private.... 

Sergeant . 

Private... 

Private.... 

Private.. 

Private.... 

Private.- 

Private.... 

Corporal . 

Private.... 

Sergeant.. 

Corporal . 

Sergeant . 
Sergeant . 
Private.... 
Private.... 
Private.... 
Sergeant . 
Corporal . 
Private.... 
Private.... 
Private- 
Private.... 
Corporal . 
Corjtoral . 
Private.... 
Cor]>oral . 
Corporal . 



Wm. .Manson Private. 

Samuel Schuta Private. 



B 
C 
D 
D 
D 
E 
G 
H 

I 
K 
K 
K 

B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
A 
A 
A 
A 
C 
C 
C 
D 
D 
E 
F 

F 

G 

(i 

G 

G 

H 

H 

H 

H 

H 

H 

I 

I 

I 

K 

K 

K 
K 



Wounded in left side; severely; 

died on May 26th. 
Died on May 23d. 

In face with shell ; slightly. 

In foot;sligbtlv. 

In shoulder; slightly. 

In leg. 

In left hand ; slightly. 

In side; slightly. 

Shot through head and shoulder. 



Shot through the head. 



Wounded severely; taken prisoner 
and died. 



Died May 23d. 

Lost a leg; died. 

In face; slightlv. 

In shoulder; slightly. 

In leg; sliglitly. 

In leg; slightly. 

Slight fracture of skull ; died. 

In foot; slightly. 

In shoulder; severely. 

Right thigh ; severely. 

Slightly. 

Slightly. 

In arm. 

Right arm broken and amputated. 

In right leg. 

In left breast; through left lung; 

severely. 
In shoulder; slightly. 
In right elbow. 

In head and shoulder; severely. 
In leg; slightly. 
In shoulder; severely. 
In head; slightly. 
In head; slightly. 
In left leg ; severely. 
Inside; slightly. 
In shoulder; severely. 
In head; slightly. 
In Hide: severelv. 
In hand; slightly. 
In hand: slightly. 
In hip. 
Arm broken and in hip slightlr; 

died, August 2d, of these wounds. 
In enM>w; severely. 
In hand; slightly. 



218 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

The foregoing is the official list. Since writing these records 
we learn that William M. Davis of Company I was also slightly 
wounded on the twenty-second; Richard McLagan of Company 
G was wounded in leg at Jackson, R. A. Wheeler of Com- 
pany D was wounded by shell at Vicksburg in June and 
George W. Wetherell of Company C by a piece of shell on 
May 22d. The sword belt of Lieut. D. M. G. Murphy was 
cut by a piece of shell. He was one of the bravest officers on 
the field. 

It has been reported to us by members of Company A that 
Fred E. Du Toit of that company stood up on the works of 
the enemy, in plain sight, and loaded and fired his gun several 
times, and that three bullets passed through his cap. 

Augustus Parrett of Company A says that when John 
Hunter of Company B was wounded he took him up in his arms 
and carried him to the rear to a place of safety. Our hospital 
was in a farm building, which stood some distance in the rear 
of the Battery Logan siege guns and which was afterward 
torn down to furnish material to build the lookout tower in 
front of Fort Hill, platforms for siege guns, etc. Comrade 
Hunter was conveyed to that building, and after his leg had 
been amputated Ed. Nichols of Company B and the writer 
placed him in the ambulance that conveyed him to Chickasaw 
Bayou, at which point our wounded were placed on hospital 
boats. That was the last time we met our dear comrade, who 
was respected and beloved by all of us. At this time Sergt. 
C. A. Sherwin of Company A stood near us. He had been 
struck in the forehead by a piece of shell, but did not seem to 
be much injured, although his eyes looked inflamed. We re- 
quested him to go to the building and place himself under the 
surgeon's care, but he declined, saying, "Oh! I can't, as long 
as there are so many who are injured much more than I am." 
Inflammation set in and he died at Memphis on June 11th. 

We copied the following extract, from a letter written by 
Capt. L. B. Martin of Company K to Lieut. T. B. Hunt, 
from the St. Paul Press: 

The campaign has been the most briUlant one ever made on this oontlDent, 
and the fntare historian wiU so record it. General Grant has shown himself 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 219 

the ablest strategist of them all, and there is bat one voice here now: ** We 
are all Grant men.'' I called twice and spent all the time I could with poor 
Sherbrooke. He lived aboat twenty-two hours after being shot. When I 
called first he took my hand. Said he : * * I am about to go off the stage of action. 
I do not fear d^th ; only I dislike leaving a wife and three children helpless.'' 
He told me all he wished me to do for him. Said he: **01d Company K 
fought splendidly." And so they did, my old company! It suffered more 
than any in the regiment. Poor fellow, he knew he was going to die, but a 
braver man on his death-bed you never saw. 



Report of Lieut. Col. John E. Tourtellotte, Fourth Min- 
nesota Infantry, First Brigade, Including Operations 
April 23 to May 22, 1863. 

In Camp, near Vicksbubg, Miss., May 23, 1863. 

Sib: I have the honor to report, that on April 23d last my re^ment, to- 
gether with other parts of the army, started from Milliken's Bend, La., on an 
expedition to the rear of Vicksburg, Miss., where we are now lying. To reach 
this place we marched via Richmond, Hard Times Landing, La. (where we 
crossed and went down the stream of the Mississippi river ten miles, landing 
on the Mississippi side at Brainsbarg), Port Gibson, Miss., Hankinson's Ferry 
(on the Black river), Rocky Springs, Utica, Raymond, Clinton, Jackson, 
Champion Hills (near Bolton), Edward's Station, crossing the Black river near 

plantation and arriving in front of the enemy's works in rear of 

Vicksbarg on May 2l8t. To accomplish this we have marched a distance of 
more than two bandred miles. At Smith's plantation, some twenty-five miles 
from Milliken's Bend, all army regimental teams (six in namber) excepting 
one were ordered back to Milliken's Bend, from which place they were used in 
carrying ammunition for the use of the Seventeenth Army Corps, and were so 
employed for several days. When relieved from such duty they were for sev- 
eral days unable to cross the Mississippi river, so that during the entire march 

from Smith's plantation, Louisiana, April 26th, to plantation on the 

Black river, May 17th, the only government transportation of any kind with the 
regiment was two ambulances, one medicine wagon and one six-mule team. The 
men carried their knapsacks, blankets, rations and sixty rounds of ammunition. 
The six-mule team carried a few boxes of ammunition, the blankets and pro- 
visions of the officers and such supplies for the men as the regimental quarter^ 
master was able to secure along our route. On said march we have drawn 
rations from the government as follows: We took with us five days' rations 
from Milliken 's Bend. On or about May 1st we drew four days' rations of hard 
bread alone. May 4tb we drew three-fifth rations of hard bread, sugar and tea 
for five days, l)eyond which time, up to May 17th, all rations used by the regi- 
ment and all forage U8e<1 by regimental horses and mules were secured by the 
regimental quiirtermaster in the country through which we passed. The ra- 
tions procured by the quartermaster for the regiment consisted chiefiy of sugar, 
molasses, salt, cornmeal and bacon. On May 17th the five regimental teams 



220 HI8TOKY OF THE FOURTH EEGIMENT [1863 

left behiud overtook us, briDging five days' part rations of hard bread, flour, 
sagar and coffee. May 23d we drew fall rations for the first time since leaving 
Milliken's Bend. 

We met the enemy for the first time on this expedition on the third 
instant, about ten miles from Port Gibson, on the road to Hankinson's 
Ferry. Here the regiment was formed in line of battle on the right of the 
road, and advanced in this manner for some distance under a brisk fire of the 
enemy's artillery. The regiment received no injury, the enemy hastily re- 
tiring. We advanced by the flank to Hankinson's Ferry on the Black river, 
remaining at that place for several days. Co May 12th we heard firing in 
front, and on arriving near the town of Raymond the regiment formed in line 
of battle on the left of General Logan's division, which was already in line. 
In this position we remained an hour as support for a battery of artillery. 
That evening we passed through and encamped near the town. 

On May 14th, on the road from Clinton to Jackson and when about two 
miles from the latter place, we met the enemy in strong force and immediately 
formed a line on the right of the road. Soon, however, the regiment was or- 
dered to take position on the left of the road with its right resting thereon and 
to support the Seventeenth Iowa in charging the rebel lines. The enemy fled 
before the charge, and the regiment, with the others of Quinby's division, en- 
tered the town. Loss of the regiment was two wounded. ^ ''^ ''^ On May 
21st we formed line in front of the enemy's works in rear of Vieksburg. On the 
morning of the twenty-second, at ten o'clock, by order from General Grant the 
assault was ordered upon the fortifications around Vieksburg. My regiment, 
with the Forty-eighth Indiana for reserve and support, was ordered to charge 
upon one of the enemy's forts just in front as soon as I should see a chaiige 
made upon the fort next on my right. All preparations were made and we 
were waiting for the signal to advance when I was directed not to advance 
until further orders. While awaiting such orders our brigade was directed to 
proceed to the support of General Burbridge's brigade of General McCler- 
nand's army corps on our left. The Forty-eighth Indiana and Fourth Minne- 
sota Infantry were moved into position in front of the rebel works, where Gren- 
eral Burbridge was already engaged. No sooner had we taken such position 
than General Burbridge withdrew his brigade from the action. Under a di- 
rect fire from the fort in front and a heavy cross-fire from a fort on our right 
the regiment pressed forward up to and even on the enemy's works. In this 
position, contending for the possession of the rebel earthworks before us, the 
regiment remained for two hours, when it became dark and I was ordered by 
Colonel Sanborn to withdraw the regiment. Noticing a field-piece which had 
been lifted up the hill by main strength and had apparently been used by 
General Burbridge in attempting to batter down the walls of the fort, but 
which he had left behind when he withdrew his brigade, I sent Company C to 
draw the piece from the ground and down the hill. [Colonel Donaldson, 
then captain of Company C, on reading this, states that it is error; that. with, 
out any instructions whatever, he directed his company to pull the gun off the 
field and down the ravine far enough for the battery men to hitch to it; and 
the colonel has referred us to witnesses. We will only remark that both state- 
ments are undoubtedly correct. — Ed.] This being safely executed I moved 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTEY VOLUNTEEES. 221 

the regiment by the left flank from their position and down the hill. We 
bivoaacked about eighty rods from the place of action. In this action the regi- 
ment saffered severely, losing some of its best officers and men — twelve were 
killed and forty -two were wounded. The next morning we were formed in 
line to sapport the right of Greneral Barbridge. No engagement coming on, we 
moved in the afternoon to the position occapied on the twenty-first. Daring 
the whole of this expedition, throagh many embarrassments, drenching rains* 
muddy roads, without rations, without shelter, carrying heavy loads and sev- 
eral times under heavy fire from the enemy, the regiment has deported them- 
selves to my entire satisfaction. I hope and believe that their conduct has 
been satisfactory to yourself and to others still higher in authority. I might 
mention worthy names, but that would be clearly -wrong when all or nearly all 
have attempted to do their whole duty. It shall be a matter of pride with us, 
that not only were we present but assisted in accomplishing this expedition. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. E. TOUETKIXOTTE, 

Lieutenant Colonel, Commanding Regiment, 
Capt. J, B, Marlin, Acting Assistant Adjutant General, First Brigade, Seventh Di' 
vision, Seventeenth Army Corps, 

May 23d — Saturday, — We drew full rations of everything 
while we lay near the railroad bridge at the foot of the ravine. 
Marched up the ravine a short distance and in the afternoon 
returned to our camp. Dug wells and built shades and cots 
of canebrake. When the regiment crossed the river at Bruins- 
burg, on May Ist, it received four days' rations of hardtack 
alone, and on the fourth of May three-fifths rations of hard- 
tack, sugar and tea alone; the rest was foraged from the haver- 
sacks of dead rebels and from the country through which we 
passed, until to-day we drew the first full rations we have 
drawn since April 23d. 

May 2oth — Monday. — Adjutant Kittredge being wounded 
in the foot left the regiment to-day for Haines' Blufll'. A flag 
of truce came to our lines and hostilities ceased for two or 
three hours to bury the dead. On the failure to capture the 
works of the enemy on the twenty-second, Grant requested of 
Pemberton a cessation of hostilities to bury the dead and re- 
move the wounded, but it was refused. We copy the follow- 
ing from Confederate sources: "Afterward the effluvia from 
the dead bodies became so intolerable that he (Pemberton) was 
obliged to ask a truce and request the Federal officers to bury 
their dead," and from 3:00 to 8:00 o'clock p. m. the time was 
devoted to that purpose. 



222 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

We quote the following from "Cave Life:" 

I was distressed to hear of a yoaDg Federal lieutenant who bad been ae- 
verely wounded and lefc on the field by his comrades. He had lived in ibis 
condition from Saturday until Monday, lying in the burning sun without 
water or food; and the men on both sides could witness the agony of the life 
thus prolonged, without the power to assist him in any way. I was glad in- 
deed when I heard the poor man had died on Monday morning. Another sol- 
dier, left on the field, badly wounded in the leg, had begged most piteously for 
water, and lying near the Ck>nfederate intrenchments his cries were a*l directed 
to the Confederate soldiers. The firing was heaviest where he lay, and it 
would have been at the risk of a life to have gone to him; yet a Confederate 
soldier asked and obtained leave to carry water to him and stood and fanned 
him in the midst of the firing while he drank eagerly from the heroic soldier's 
canteen. 

On May 26th General Grant sent a force of about twelve 
thousand men, consisting of six brigades from six different 
divisions of infantry (three from the Fifteenth, in command of 
General Mower and three from the Seventeenth Corps, in com- 
mand of General McArthur), and a force of cavalrv and some 
artillery, and all under the command of Maj. Gen. F. P. Blair, 
Jr., with seven days' rations and one hundred and fifty rounds 
of ammunition, as a corps ot observation and to drive off any 
force it might meet; also, on its return march to destroy all 
stock, forage, roads, bridges and grist mills, and in fact any- 
thing upon which the army of Gen. Joe Johnston could main- 
tain itself in attempting to raise the siege of Vicksburg. 

Ma]} )26th — Monday, — Started at ten o'clock at night and 
marched toward Haines' Bluff, seven miles on the ridge road 
(Benton road) and camped. Very dusty. Poor water. About 
daylight General Leggett came up with his brigade and an 
hour or two later Gen. Frank P. Blair came up with a bri- 
gade of his command (Gen. Joe Mower's), and being the officer 
highest in rank had command of the whole force. General 
Leggett on reaching Mechanicsburg was directed to return in 
person to Vicksburg by General Grant, w-ho needed his ser- 
vices. He turned over his command to the next in rank and 
returned from the expedition. 

May 27th — Tuesday, — Marched toward Haines' Bluff. 
Turned off on the Benton road. Marched fifteen miles. Dusty 
and hot. Men fell out in the afternoon all along the road and 
came in in the night. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 223 

On this day, at ViclcBburg, the ironclad gunboat Cincinnati 
was sunk. We quote from ** Cave Life: '' 

At ten or twelve o'clock, we saw, in spite of the continaed falling of the shells, 
gentlemen hurrying toward the river. Soon we heard the Confederate river 
batteries booming lundly and then all was silent. What conlu it mean? I did 
not venture to look without, and so I sat waiting for someone to come to me. 
At last a friend appeared, who, in the most triumphant manner, told us that 
the Confederates had routed the Federal fleet. The gunboats had formed in 
line of battle, sailing down majestically with the Cincinnati — one of the finest 
boats in the river navy — leading the attack. She came rapidly down around 
the point of the peninsula, the signal gun silent, when the battery, containing 
the Brooks gun [Whistling Dick. — Ed.] opened on her as she came within 
range. The first shot cut down the flag, the second struck her side, and the 
third, the Brooks ball with the steel wedge, cut into the iron plates near the 
water's edge. She turned immediately and bteamed back up the river in a 
sinking condition. The remaining boats also changed their course and retired. 
The Cincinnati had scarcely turned the point when she sank near the shore. 
The major also told us that many ladies had been so much interested in the ex- 
pected engagement, that they had gone up on Sky Parlor hill for a better 
view. It has been said that the Federal guna have never been sufficiently ele- 
vated to throw shell and shot so high as Sky Parlor hill; yet I should not like 
to risk my life for mere curiosity's sake, when it was not possible to be of any 
service. The Sky Parlor hill is so called from its extreme height, being a por- 
tion of the bluff that stood where the principal commercial street now stands, 
the grading of the city having taken most of the elevation down. The hill 
now occupies about a square — the distance of two squares from the river — and 
is a prominent feature from all parts of the city. A rugged drive winds on 
one side up the steep ascent, and a long and dizzy flight of wooden stepsascend 
from the street on the opposite side. The view — and that is what the place ia 
visited for — is good, both of the city and river, for some miles above. Crowds 
of people collect here on the occasion of any move being made in the direction 
of the river. 

Captain Green, in his book, ''The Mississippi," says: 

Just after the assault of May 22d it was thought that by bringing gun- 
boats to enfilade the batteries on Fort Hill (Sky Parlor) that position might 
be carried. At Sherman's request. Porter gave the necessary orders, and on the 
morning of May 27th the Cincinnati came down to engage these batteries. At 
the same time four vessels which were below the city engaged the batteries 
near the Marine Hospital. The Cincinnati was shot through and through by 
the plunging fire from Fort Hill, and in less than half an hour five of her guns 
were disabled and she was in a sinking condition. She was run toward the 
shore abi>ut a mile north of Fort Hill and sunk in three fathoms of water. 
Thirty-six of her crew ^vere killed, wounded or drowned. [The hill known to 
the Seventeenth Army Corps as Fort Hill was not the hill here designated, but 
was in front of the line of investment, back from the city, on the wagon road to 



224 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1863 

Jackson. The guns of the Cincinnati were removed and some of them placed 
in battery on the extreme right of our line, in Gen. Frank Steele's command, but 
could not be elevated sufficiently to be of much use against the frowning heights 
of Sky Parlor.— Ed.] 

May 28th — Wednesday. — Marched j&fteen miles. Camped 
on a creek. Hot. Clear. Good road. 

May 29th — Thursday. — Marched fifteen miles to Mechanics- 
burg. Camped north of the town. Hot. Clear. This town 
has a drug store and three or four buildings. At about 1:30 
o'clock p. M. our advance encountered four or five hundred 
of the enemy's cavalry. Our battery gave them a few shots 
and they skedaddled. No loss on either side, as they did not 
stop to fight. At this place we leave the road going north and 
are to turn west to the bottoms of the Yazoo river. 

May SOih, — Saturday, — Marched to Satartia on the Yazoo 
river bottoms; then down the river toward Haines' Blufif. 
Passed large plantations. Corn very high. Hot. Qood roads 
and good water. Foraged a good saddle at a plantation just at 
the top of the bluff. The cotton-gins, mills and bridges are 
burned and all supplies are destroyed that we cannot take with 
uSjSO that Johnston's army cannot be supported here. Marched 
ten miles to-day. 

May 31st — Sunday. — We march up on the bluffs and then on 
the bottoms. We stopped to-day to rest at the Roach planta- 
tion and it had the finest houses that we have seen on any plan- 
tation in the South — two large two-story frame residences for 
the planter and overseer. The negro quarters are all brick 
buildings, with brick sidewalks between them. [A year after 
this time all of these buildings were burned by the enemy and 
all improvements on the place destroyed. — Ed.] Marched to 
Haynes' Bluff and rested a little and then toward Snyder's Bluff. 
We marched up a ravine with a creek in it. The men all 
fell out and went to the creek. It was terribly hot. Only a 
few men in the regiment got in to stack arms, but were scat- 
tered all along the road and came in during the night. We 
marched fourteen miles to-day. 

Return for the Month of May, 1862. — Total enlisted men, 664; aggregate, 
676; last month, 699; enlisted men present for duty, 309; on extra and daUy 
duty, 52; sick, 21; total enlisted present, 382. Ck)mmi88ioned officers present 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEE8. 225 

for duty, 16; sick, 1; total, 17. On this return, made June 9th for the month 
of May, we find reported — 52 mules, 12 horses, 8 army wagons, 1 medicine 
wagon and 2 ambulances. 

Bemarka. — Distance marched during the month, ninety miles. James H. 
Donaldson, on Colonel Sanborn's stafif since May 11, 1863. Company A — Peter 
Hansen's resignation accepted April 25, 1863. 

June 3d — Wednesday — On this day Bri^. Qeu. John E. 
Smith (formerly colonel of the Forty-fifth Illinois and from 
Galena, 111.), commanding the First Brigade in Logan's Third 
Division, was assigned to the command of our Seventh Divi- 
sion, Seventeenth Army Corps. 

June 4'th — Thursday, — Left Haines' Bluff and marched 
twelve miles toour old camp in the rear of Vicksburg. Before 
we left camp this morning General Blair put out a guard across 
the road to seize all extra horses and mules on which soldiers 
were riding. Some of us got around the guard by going 
around the bluff and saved our horses. The Eightieth Ohio, 
having been detached at Champion's Hill to escort prisoners 
going to Memphis, rejoined the Second Brigade to-day. Our 
regiment went on the picket lines several times this month. In 
the night we go up on the hill and watch the shells from the 
mortar boats as they ascend and fall into the city. The rebels 
have a rifled cannon that fires an elongated shell that makes a 
horrible noise as it passes over our camp in the ravine. Brig. 
Gen. John E. Smith took command of our division and General 
Quinby, because of poor health, started for the North to-day. 

HSADQUABTEBS SEVENTH DIVISION, 

Seventeenth Abmy^ Ck)BPS, June 7, 1863. 
Special Obdebs, No. 97: 

First — The officers, non-commissioned officers and privates, announced in 

Special Orders, No. 23, from Secretary of War, dated Milliken's Bend, La., 

May 8, 1863, as officers of the Twelfth Loaisiana Volunteers of African descent, 

will report to Charles A. Gilchrist of that regiment for dnty. 

By order of Brigadier General Smith. 
(Official.) M. RocHSSTEB, 

Assistant Adjutant General, 
L. B. Martin^ Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 

Hbadquabtebs, Foubth Minnesota Infantby, 
Camp, neab Vicksbubo, Miss., June 10, 1863. 
In compliance with the above order Capt. R. S. Donaldson of Company C, 
Fonrth Minnesota Infantry, will report to Charles A. Gilchrist for daty. 
By order of Lieut. Col. J. £. Tonrtellotte, commanding regiment. 

W. W. Rich, 
15 Acting AtdutanL 



226 HIBTOBY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1863 

A. L. Brown of Company B and E. M. Broughton of Com- 
pany H left our regiment in compliance with this order on 
June 8th. We will state that Adjt. Gen. Lorenzo Thomas of 
the United States Army remained at Milliken's Bend and 
other points on the river, on the little steamboat Rocket, issu- 
ing orders and instructions in regard to organizing the freed- 
men into regiments, and issued his orders in the name of the 
Secretary of War. 

June 10th — Wednesday. — Captain Young of Company A re- 
signed to-day and Lieut. E. U. Russell takes command of 
the company. The rebels began j&ring ten-inch shells to-day 
from a mortar planted in a ravine south of Fort Hill; they 
are trying to hit and dismount our nine-inch siege guns at Bat- 
tery Logan. 

June H,th — Sunday, — Gen. John Q. Parke with two divisions 
of Burnside's Ninth Corps arrived. These troops are loaded 
down with baggage and wonder how we get along with so lit- 
tle, but admire our scant supply and say that if the Potomac 
army was stripped as ours is it would be more effective. 

July 18th — Thursday. — General Grant relieved General Mc- 
Clernand of the command of the Thirteenth Corps this 
evening and ordered him to report in person in Qlinois and by 
letter to the adjutant general at Washington. [General Grant 
states that he relieved McClernand because of publishing in 
Northern papers a fulsome congratulatory order which was 
complained of by McPherson and Sherman. The reader, by 
referring to Badeau, Vol. I, p. 667, can read this order, and 
also the correspondence on the subject. — Ed.] Maj. Gen. E. 
O. C. Ord took command of Major General McClernand's 
Sixteenth Corps. 

June Wth — Saturday. — There was a grand bombardment of 
the rebel works and city by the land and naval forces. It was a 
grand sight. The rapid discharge of artillery, shells from the 
gunboats and mortar barges, and the rattle of musketry on 
both sides made a din and uproar seldom equaled, but the citi- 
zens and soldiers being protected by bomb proofs and caves 
did not suffer much loss of life. Our lines are now drawing 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 227 

close to those of the enemy and we have run parallels up 
near to them. Saps and mines have been run under several of 
their forts. 

June 24,1)1 — Wednesday, — Our regiment wentinto the rifle-pits 
this morning. Lieut. D. L. Wellman of Company H was to- 
day assigned to duty as acting regimental adjutant in place ot 
Lieutenant Kittredge, wounded. We now have only six line 
oflicers present for duty in the regiment. 

June 2oth — Thursday. — Lieut. Lev. Wellman of Company C 
had command of five companies to-day, he being the senior 
oflicer present. It was 102 degrees above zero to-day in the 
shade. We have been paid for March and April. One man 
of Company C was shot in the shoulder this afternoon. 
Some of our boys have been out visiting Burnside's troops, who 
are guarding our rear over north of the Jackson wagon road in 
the direction of Haines' Bluff. At 3:00 p. m. a mine was sprung 
under Fort Hill on the Jackson road by Logan's troops, who 
undermined it, and a desperate attempt was made to capture 
the line at that point. The explosion blew off the top of the 
hill and left a cone-shaped crater about thirty-five feet in diam- 
eter, into which the Forty-fifth Illinois rushed and planted their 
colors on the bank, the enemy holding their side of it. The 
fighting at this point lasted all night, our men lying on the 
edge of the slope and firing over as the guns were loaded and 
handed up to them. The enemy kept throwing hand-grenades 
among our men, who also threw grenades back, and when our 
grenades had all been expended, a caisson filled with ten-pound 
shells was run up the ditch excavated in the road to the front 
and our men would light the fuse and throw them over. The 
following named regiments each in its turn also helped hold 
the crater until the morning of the twenty-sixth: The Twen- 
tieth Illinois, Thirty-first Illinois, Fifty-sixth Illinois, Twenty- 
third Indiana, Thirty-first Illinois; and then the Forty-fifth 
Illinois and One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Illinois held it 
until 5:00 o'clock p. m. of the twenty-eighth. (24, 2, 294.) On 
the night of the twenty-fifth we stood near to Battery Logan 
at midnight and saw by the glare of the explosions our flag 
spread to the breeze above our brave boys who were fighting 
on the bank of the crater. 



228 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1863 

Colonel Raum's report states : 

By orders of Gen. J. E. Smith, the Seventeenth Iowa and Fifty-sixth Illinois, 
nnder command of Col. Clark R. Weaver, reported to Migor General Logan, 
and during a part of the night they occupied the sap and partial breach made 
by Logan's division, with a loss of fifty-four men. 

The headquarters of General Logan during the siege was on 
the south side of and but a few rods from the Jackson road, 
seven hundred yards in front of Fort Hill, in a tent, and 
between his tent and the road was planted in a redoubt two 
nine-inch Dahlgren siege guns that had been brought up from 
Admiral Porter's gunboats. 

The heavy guns in Logan's line were placed in position on 
May 21st and another battery was also planted that day near 
the same point. Systematic operations were commenced on 
that day by completing the protecting parapets and platforms 
for the guns, and fixing the wagon road so that the dooryard 
of Mr. Sherley's house, which was in front and on the north 
side of the road, could be reached without much exposure. 
By the twenty-eighth our men had dug a canal eight feet wide 
and five feet deep in the middle of the road and piled up the 
dirt on its side, making a. parapet and banquette. It was deep 
enough so a person could walk upright in it and be secure 
from danger. Captain Tresiliau, engineer officer of Logan's 
division, had three wooden mortars constructed of short oak 
logs, banded with iron, — one six-pounder and two twelve- 
pounders, — put them into position about one hundred yards 
from Fort Hill, and the shell being loaded with heavy bursting 
charges, and the exact range being obtained, made fearful 
havoc when fired among the enemy. These mortars made no 
loud noise. 

The enemy's ten-inch mortar in a ravine south of Fort Hill 
troubled us a good deal. They were trying to get the range of 
our siege guns. A puff of white smoke would be seen above 
where the mortar was placed, when, "Look out! there comes 
another!" could be heard, and a shell would be seen slowly 
rising, its burning fuse showing a dim streak of white smoke, 
and after reaching the limit of its ascension, its downward 
course would be with great speed. At night its burning fuse 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 229 

would reveal the course of its flight. On one occasion General 
Logan and his staff stood in a group just in rear of those siege 
guns, watching one of the shells as it slowly rose, turned very 
gracefully, and a moment after the general exclaimed, "Look 
out!" when it came down and entered the ground in their 
very midst. A lieutenant dodged and fell flat and the ex- 
plosion covered him over with dirt. No person was injured, 
as the pieces flew out of the ground on a sharp angle. The 
oflicer as he lay upon the ground could not have beeti over 
four feet from where the missile enttred. The writer was also 
standing near by at the time. Captain Offley, the officer at 
the guns, elevated them, put in light charges and dropped a 
few shells into that ravine, and for a time the mortar ceased, 
but it was not silenced. 

Battery Logan. 

The following letter, written to us under date of May 9th, 
1888, explains itself: 

During the siege of Vicksburg I was captain First United States Infantry 
and commanded the siege guns in front of Fort HiU and to the right of General 
Logan's tent. The battery was called ** Battery Logan," so named in orders 
by General McPherson, and consisted of two nine-inch Dahlgrens and two 
thirty-pounder Parrotts. I also had a battery of Missouri Light Artillery 
under my command. The siege guns were manned by Companies £ and I, 
First United States Infantry. The Dahlgrens I got from one of the gunboats 
of the Mississippi squadron. The Parrotts were turned over to me after the 
capture of New Madrid, Mo., and were used during the siege of Island No. 10. 
My recollection is that the rebel mortar was a ten-inch. One of the shells from 
the mortar struck one of the Dahlgren guns just forward of the right-hand 
trunnion, making a large and deep dent, but did not iiyure the usefulness of 
the gun, as I fired it immediately as a mortar, when, finding it all right, used it 
afterwards up to the surrender of the city. On one or two occasions General 
Logan aimed one of the Dahlgrens. I had a corporal of the Missouri Light Ar- 
tillery named Young detailed on duty with my company, who had been a 
sailor in the navy and was an excellent shot, and I made him gunner. One of 
the shells from the rebel mortar exploded in the tent of General Logan's chief 
of artillery, but not in General Logan's. One day he and several others were 
standing just behind my battery when a shell from this mortar struck the 
ground between them, but did no injury to anyone. The powder and ftise 
being defective, but few of the shells exploded. The one that struck my gun 
had a piece of fuse sticking out of it at least a foot long, which was palled out 
by one of my men and brought to me. My Dahlgren guns were about seven 



230 HIBTORT OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1863 

hnndred yards in front of Fort HiU, my Parrotts abont five handred yards. 
Jnst before the explosion at Fort Hill (June 25th) I moved one of the Parrotts 
to abont fifty yards from this fort, jnst alongside of the obeeryatory built by 
the man who was called '* Coonskin." Tonrs tmly, 

R. H. Ofplky, 
Lieutenant Colonel Seventeenth Infantry. 

The observatory was built on the north side of the approach 
on the Jackson road, between the white house (Sherley's) and 
Fort Hill. It was built square, of fence rails and timbers, like 
a cob-house, with double walls tilled in with dirt, having steps 
inside, and it was hoped that from its top a view could be had 
of the enemy's line, but it was not high enough. One day the 
writer was there and a comrade informed us that General 
Grant had just been up to the top; that when he approached, 
being dressed in his private's uniform, which he very frequently 
wore in strolling around, a soldier who did not recognize him 
accosted him with a warning to keep down, which the general 
did not heed but still continued on his way. " Say !" said the 

man, "you old ! ! you had better keep down from 

there or you will get shot!" The general still paid no at- 
tention to him, but kept on, when one of the other soldiers 
informed the man who the person was that he had been 
addressing. Battery Archer, consisting of two heavy siege 
guns, in charge of Major Archer of the Seventeenth Iowa 
Infantry, was located in rear of the lines of the Seventh 
Division. Our army has in its different batteries in place on 
this date two hundred and twenty cannon. They are mostly 
light field-pieces. Eighty-nine forts and redoubts for cannon 
have been constructed. The average length of our trenches 
is twelve miles. 

On July 1st, about 1:00 p. m., we sprung another mine under 
Fort Hill, which destroyed the redan and left a large chasm, 
but our troops did not assault the works. 

During the siege intoxicating liquors of all kinds were pro- 
hibited from being brought into the army. One day our 
wagonmaster, Dan Foster, informed us that he had some 
excellent canned goods and exhibited some labeled "Peaches," 
" Tomatoes," etc. On opening the cans they were found to 
contain liquors of various kinds, but from outside inspection 



1863] MIimESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 231 

it would have beeu impossible to have ascertained their con- 
tents. Good table butter also comes to us in tin cans, the 
same as canned fruits. 

We quote from " Cave Life : " 

About this time the town was aionsed by the arrival of a courier firom 
(General Johnston, who brought private dispatches to General Pemberton, the 
nature of which did not transpire; yet from the very silence of General Pem- 
berton, the officers augured the worst. The courier brought many letters to 
the inhabitants from friends without. His manner of entering the city was 
singular. Taking a skifif in the Tazoo, he proceeded to its confluence with the 
Mississippi, where he tied the little boat, entered the woods and awaited the 
night. At dark he took off his clothing, placed his dispatches securely within 
them, bound the package firmly to a plank, and going into the river he sus- 
tained his head above water by holding to the plank, and in this manner 
floated in the darkness through the fleet and on two miles down the river to 
Vicksburg, where his arrival was hailed as an event of great importance in the 
still life of the city. The hill opposite my cave might be called ** Death's 
Point,'' from the number of animals that had been kiUed in eating the grass 
on the sides and summit. In all directions I can see the turf turned up from 
the shells that have gone plowing into the earth. Horses and mules that are 
tempted to mount the hill by the promise of grass that grows profusely there, 
invariably come limping down wounded, to die at the base, or are brought down 
dead from the summit. A certain number of mules are kiUed each day by the 
commissaries and are issued to the men, all of whom prefer the fresh meat, even 
though it be of mule, to the bacon and salt rations that they have eaten for so 
long a time without change. 

[The extracts from "My Cave Life in Vicksburg," written 
by a lady whose husband was a staff officer in Forney's divi- 
sion of General Price's army (rebel), are copied by permission 
of D. Appleton & Co. This lady occupied a cave between the 
Jackson and the Baldwin's Ferry roads, in front of our divi- 
sion. — Ed.] 

Returns for the Month of June^ 1863. — Total enlisted men present and ab- 
sent, 629; aggregate, 658; last month, 676; enlisted men present for duty, 291; 
on extra and daily duty, 46; sick, 56; total enlisted men present, 393. Com- 
mifwioned officers present for duty, 13; on extra and daily duty, l;sick, 3; 
total commiR8ione<l officers, 17. 

Remarks.— J une Ist, 2d and 3d, remained at Snyder's Bluff. June 4th, 
marched ten miles to the lines at Vicksburg and encamped in the ravine 
occupied on May 3 Ist, and are still on the same ground. Lieutenant Mor- 
rill of Company K and Private B. V. Robinson of Company C, wounded 
slightly sharpshooting in the front. Edson, sick in camp. C. L. Snyder, ab- 
sent, sick, in hospital at Memphis since April 11, 1863. Graham, sick in quar- 
ters. W. F. Wheeler, first lieutenant of Company F, returned to duty June 



HIBTOKT OF THE FOUBTH KEGIHBNT 



3, 1863. G. a. Patefa, left, dck, at Hempbis, Teno., Hsrcb I, 1863. L. B. 
Martin, actiog asaiataDt adjatant general on Colonel Sanborn's staff since Oct. 
6, 1962. James M. Hnbbard of Companr P, diBCbargnd for disability Jnne, 
1863 (date not knonn); TbomaB Fallon of CoiapBD;B,diHCliargedroi diMbility, 
April 5, 1863, at Memphis, TeDD. Joseph A. Godiug of Compan; B, qoartei- 
master sergeant Jnne 16, 1863. Frederick S. Woodwsid, commissary sergeant 
June 16, lb63. Died of wonnda — Charlee A. Shernin of Company A, Jnne 
11. 1S63, at Memphis, Tenn.; Privatejoho Magnna of Company U, June 16, 
1(^63, of wODods received at Vicksbnrg. 





Klttuc. 


WOITHDKD 


Hi«"ho. 


« 




1 


¥ 


1 


jl 


- 


h 


1 


BiUle of Port Gih»ii. TbompKio'. Hill or Uig. 


■ 


V) 

sat 


"i 


.,. 


is 




SMimlib an ibe South Fork or Bsjon Plem 


1 


eUr Jlih DO Ih^ North Fotii of BiV«i Plern. 
■t Wlllo- Springi, Inmm-i HeI>bU, Jddh 


2.S77 


1 


1S3 

6 






i 




BkTralih on Foun«B ull< Cr«k, Mmj 12th.„._ 


M 


Butllc of Oiimplon't 'hiII or BJikei'i Cn«k, 


2, Ml 






BUnnldi mboirt VidnbiHg. Ua; ISth, »lh sad 


i 


40 
IS 


i-s 








SSEI.°iS.''^r'^V*^K'^ffiJS^"«d 


'JS 














M 


i.4Te 


'" 


e,Mi 


" 


m 






. 



There were I>,4»1 prlHiien captured >l Vlckaburg ani 
Nitchexmod Yiioo Citf; tDI*],S0.(»^|!4,l, -Gl); mndoTar one 
■rtlllerr aete cipiured U Vlckiburg, 



CHAPTER X. 

Roster of Oar Division and Also of Logan's Division — Flag of Truce — Surrender 
of Vicksburg — The Terms Accorded the Enemy — McPherson's Congratula- 
tory Order — Standing on Fort Hill — Rebels Stacking Their Arms — Brass 
Band Plays at Sherley's House — Ck>lonel Strong's Party Hoist the Flag of 
the Seventeenth Army Corps on the Courthouse — Letter from General 
Clark — The Troops Marching In; Sharing the Honors — Our Officers Pur- 
chase New Uniforms and Our Brigade was the First One to the Court- 
house— "Git Down Off Dat Mule ''—A City of Caves— Extracts from the 
Wall Paper Edition of the Daily Citizen — Grant Caught His Rabbit — Remov- 
ing Street Barricades — Closing the River in 1861 — Our Regiment Moves 
In — Paroling the Rebel Army — Official Reports — On Provost Duty — List 
of Sick in Hospitals — Colonel Sanborn's Farewell Order to His Brigade — 
We Go to Helena and to Memphis. 

Roster of the Seventh Division, Seventeenth Army Corps, at the 
Beginning of the Siege of Vicksburg, Brig. Gen. Isaac F. Quinby 
Commanding (Brig. Gen. John E. Smith Commanding from June 3d). 

first brigade — col. JOHN B. SANBORN COMMANDING. 

Fifty-ninth Indiana, Col. Jesse I. Alexander. 

Forty-eighth Indiana, Col. Norman Eddy. 

Eighteenth Wisconsin, Col. Gabriel Bouck. 

Fourth Minnesota, Lieut. Col. John E. Tourtellotte (Col. J. B. Sanborn). 

SECOND BRIGADE — COL. GREEN B. RAUM COMMANDING. 

Tenth Missouri (with Company F, Twenty-fourth Missouri attached, Mfg. 

F. C. Deimling), Col. Samuel A. Holmes. 
Seventeenth Iowa, Lieut. Col. Clark B. Weaver (Col. D. B. Hillis). 
Eightieth Ohio, Maj. Pren. Metham (Col. M. H. Bartilson). 
Fifty-sixth Illinois, Capt. P. J. Welsh (Col. G. B. Raum). 

THIRD BRIGADE — COL. GEORGE B. BOOMER COMMANDING. 

Tenth Iowa, Lieut. Col. Paris P. Henderson (Col. Wm. E. Small). 
Fifth Iowa, Lieut. Col. E. S. Sampson. 

Twenty-sixth Missouri, Lieut. Col. B. D. Dean (Col. G. B. Boomer). 
Ninety-third Illinois, Col. Holden Putnam. 



234 HIBTOBY OF THE FOURTH BEOIMENT [1863 



ABTILLEBY. 

First Missoari Light Artillery, Battery M, Lieat. Jnnins W. McMamy. 

Sixth Wisconsin Battery, Oapt. Henry Dillon. 

Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, Gapt. William Zeickerick. 

Eleventh Ohio Battery, Gapt. Frank^C. Sands (Lient F. K Armstrong). 

CAVALRY. 

A detachment of Fourth Illinois. 

The roster of Logan's Third Division during the siege of 
Vicksburg was as follows. It -was the Third Division, Seven- 
teenth Corps: 

First Brigade. — Brig. €kn. M. D. Leggett commanding: Twentieth, Forty- 
fifth, Thirty-first and One Hundred and Twenty-fonrth lUinois, and Twenty- 
Third Indiana. [This brigade was commanded by Gen. John E. Smith until 
June 3, 1863, when he was assigned to the command of the Seventh Division 
of the Seventeenth Corps, and Leggett, who had before commanded the Second 
Brigade, assigned to command the First. He was formerly colonel of the Sev- 
enty-eighth Ohio and General Smith was colonel of the Forty-fifth Illinois.] 

Second Brigade. — Col. M. F. Force commanding: Twentieth, Seventy- 
eighth and Sixty-eighth Ohio, and Thirtieth Illinois. [Colonel Force was 
colonel of the Twentieth Ohio.] 

Third Brigade. — Brig. Gen. John D. Stevenson commanding: Eighth, Sev- 
enteenth and Eighty-first lUinois, Seventh Missouri and Thirty-Second Ohio. 
[Stevenson was formerly colonel of the Seventh Missouri.] 

Artillery. — Maj. C. J. Stolbrand commanding: Third Ohio, Gapt. W. S. 
Williams; Eighth Michigan, Lieut. T. W. Lock wood (Captain De Golyer's 
battery); Captain Sperrelstrom's battery (G, Second Illinois Light Artillery); 
Capt. W. H. Bolton's Chicago Battery (L, Second Illinois Artillery); Captain 
Test's battery (captured at Champion's Hill from the enemy by the Thirty- 
Second Ohio). 

The First Brigade was located in and along the Jackson 
road in front of Fort Hill and Stevenson's brigade south of the 
road. These two brigades operated against Fort Hill. On 
the twenty-second the Seventh Missouri planted its colors on 
the parapet of the fort and lost six color bearers. The saps, 
mines and operations against the fort were mainly performed 
by the First Brigade after Leggett took command of it, and in 
the attempt to hold the crater after the explosion of the mine, 
June 25th he was severely wounded, and on the morning of 
July 4th was assisted to mount his horse. 



1863] minnesota infantry volunteers. 236 

The Flag of Truce. 

W. J. Landrurn, brigadier general Uuited States Volunteers, 
Lancaster, Ky., says: 

In my address at the reunion of the Cincinnati Society of ez-Annj and 
Navy Officers, at the Bomet Honse, Jan. 12, 1882, in response to the toast, 
*' Vicksborg and Its Siege,'' I gave the following account of the flag of trace 
allnded to: On the third of Jaly, under a flag of truce, General Bowen and 
Migor Montgomery of the Confederate army appeared in our front and were 
escorted, blindfolded, to the headquarters of General Burbridge, who, being con- 
fined to his bed at the time, sent for me to assist in entertaining them during 
their stay. After entering the tent the handkerchiefs were removed, and they 
at once announced that they were the bearers of a communication from Gen- 
eral Pemberton to General Grant. Gen. A. J. Smith, the division commander, 
was then sent for, and upon his arrival and introduction to these officers he 
received the papers and started to the headquarters of General Grant. The 
time was pleasantly occupied during his absence in discussing the battles of 
Port Gibson, Baker's Creek (Champion's Hill) and other engagements. General 
Bowen especially talking freely and unreservedly about everything that had no 
reference to the siege. He complimented Admiral Farragut for his gallantry in 
running the blockade of Grand Gulf with his wooden fleet, and said that he 
was quite sure he had recognized the admiral and gave orders to his men un- 
der no circumstances to fire at him. He said that at the battle of Port Gibson 
he deceived McClemand as to his real strength by stretching out his command 
and making a company represent a regiment. Upon the return of General 
Smith with the reply of General Grant, General Bowen opened the envelope 
and read the commanication, and remarked that a reply would be sent that 
night. They were again blindfolded,and M%)or Montgomery by a staff officer and 
General Bowen by myself were conducted through our works back to the Con- 
federate intrenchments. The bandages were removed at my suggestion as soon 
as we reached the few yards of disputed territory, and after lighting our cigars 
and a pleasant shake of the hand we separated with a friendly good-by. I do 
not remember what officer of General Burbridge's brigade escorted the Confed- 
erate officers into our lines, but think it quite probable it was Migor Leonard 
of the Ninety-sixth Ohio. They were not taken to General Grant and never 
left the tent of Barbridge during the time they were in our lines. Burbridge 
commanded the First Brigade of Gen. A. J. Smith's division, while I com- 
manded the Second, oar headquarters being within sixty or seventy yards of 
each other. The reply of General Grant was written on small note paper and 
was not read aioad by Bowen, hence we were left only to conjecture as to the 
object of their visit. I think something was said by Bowen indicating a desire 
on his part to have a personal interview with General Grant, and he was in* 
formed by General Smith that it could not be granted. The walking through 
the intrenchments was tiresome and worried Bowen considerably, and he ex- 
pressed great gratification at my removal of the handkerchiefii with which their 
eyes were bandaged. I was satisfied that the visit was with reference to a con- 



236 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

templated surrender, though no allusion was made to that subject or to any- 
thing connected with the siege by anyone present during the interview, which 
lasted about an hour and a half. The distance between our headquarters and 
those of General Grant was about a mile, but General Smith was a very rapid 
rider. Bowen and Montgomery were handsome, well-formed men, fine conver- 
sationalists, and seemed to enjoy their visit. If they felt any chagrin or morti- 
ficition at the existing state of affairs they did not show it. On the contrary, 
they looked bright and cheerful, and were genial and interesting in their con- 
versation and bearing generally. From what I had seen of his management of 
troops I was impressed with the belief that General Bowen was not only one of 
the best of officers in Pemberton's command, but one of the best in the Confed- 
erate army. 

The following is taken from ''My Cave Life in Vicksburg:" 

On Saturday, July 3d, a painful calm prevailed. There had been a truce 
proclaimed, and so long had the constant firing been kept up that the stillnees 
was absolutely oppressive At ten o^clock General Bowen passed by, dressed in 
full uniform, accompanied by Colonel Montgomery and preceded by a courier 

bearing a white fiag. M came by and asked me if I would like a walk out; 

so I put on my bonnet and sallied forth beyond the terrace for the first time 
since I entered. On the hill above us the earth was literally covered with 
fragments of shell — Parrott, shrapnell, canister — besides lead in all shapes and 
forms, and a long kind of solid shot, shaped like a small Parrott shell. Minie- 
balls lay in every direction, fiattened, dented and bent from the contact with 
trees and pieces of wood in their flight. The grass seemed deadened — the 
ground plowed into furrows in many places; while, scattered over all, like 
giants' pepper, in measureless quantity, were the shrapnell balls. I could 
now see how very near to the rifle-pits my cave lay; only a small ravine be- 
tween the two hills separated us. In about two hours General Bowen returned. 
No one knew, or seemed to know, why a truce had been made; but all believed 
that a treaty of surrender was pending. Nothing was talked about among the 
officers but the all-engrossing theme. Many wished to cut their way out and 
make the risk their own; but I secretly hoped that no such bloody hazard 

would be attempted. The next morning, Sunday, th^ fourth, M came up 

with a pale face, saying: *'It's all over! the white flag floats from our forts! 
Vicksburg has surrendered! " 

On July 3d a flag of truce and two rebel officers — Maj. 
Gen. J. S. Bowen and Captain Montgomery — came out of the 
enemy's works, about 10:00 a. m., and the firing ceased. The 
troops got upon the works and talked to each other. The of- 
ficers were the bearers of a letter from Pemberton to Grant 
proposing an armistice. At 3:00 o'clock p. m. General Grant, ac- 
companied by Ord, McPherson, Logan, A. J. Smith and some 
of Grant's staff, and Pemberton, Bowen and Montgomery, met 
under the oak tree in front of Logan's division and just 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEilS. 237 

south of Fort Hill. These officers could be seen from the 
hill above our camp. No terms were agreed upou at this 
conference, but Grant informed Pemberton that he would 
send him a letter by 10:00 p. m. giving him his j&nal terms, 
which were, in substance: One division of our army was to 
march in at 8:00 a. m. to-morrow (changed to 10:00 a. m.); 
rolls to be made out and signed; enemy to march out, offi. 
cers taking their side arms and clothing, and field, staff and 
cavalry officers, one horse each; the rank and file all their 
clothing, the amount of rations deemed necessary and cook- 
ing utensils, thirty wagons, two animals to each. The same 
terms to all sick as soon as able to travel. Pemberton tried 
to have these terms modified and proposed, at 10:00 a. m., to 
evacuate, stack arms outside and surrender the works, the 
city and his army. These terms were finally made and Pem- 
berton informed that if no notification was received by 9:00 a. 
M. of the fourth he should regard them as rejected. Maj. Gen. 
John H. Forney, having been assigned by Pemberton for the 
purpose, received the Union army at Fort Hill. 

The following is the order of General McPherson, read to 
the troops of his command at dress parade on the evening of 
July 4th, 1863: 

Headquabtebs Seventeenth Abmt Cobps, 

Depabtment of the Tennessee. 

VicKSBUBG, Miss., JtUyA^ 1863. 
Genebal Obdbbs, No. 20: 

SoLDiEBS OF the SEVENTEENTH Abmy Cobps : Again I rejoice with yon 
over your briUiant achievements and yonr unparalleled success. 

Hardly had your dag floated to the breeze on the capitol of Mississippi 
wbeu, springing to the call of your noble commander, you rushed upon the 
defiant columas of the enemy at Champion's Hill and drove him in confusion 
and dismay across the Big Black to his defenses within the stronghold of Vicks- 
burg. 

Yonr assanltiug columns, which moved promptly on his works on the 
twenty-second of May and which stood for hours undaunted under a wither- 
ing fire, were unsuccessful only because no men could take the position by 
storm. 

With tireless energy, with sleepless vigUance, by night and by day, with bat- 
tery and with rifle-pit, with trench and mine, yon made yonr sure approaches, 
until, overcome by fatigue and driven to despair in the attempt to oppose yonr 
irresistible progress, the whole garrison of over thirty thousand men, with aU 



238 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1863 

their arms and mtmitions of war, have, on this the annivenarj of our national in* 
dependence, snrreodered to the invincible troops of the Army of the Te^ineesee. 

The achievements of this honr will give a new meaning to this memorable 
day, and Vicksburg will brighten the glow in the patriot's heart which kindles 
at the mention of Bnnker Hill and Yorktown. 

This is indeed an anspicions day for yon. The Ood of Battles is with yon* 
The dawn of a conquered peace is breaking upon yon; the plaudits of an 
admiring world will hail you wherever you may go, and it will be an ennobling 
heritage surpassing all riches to have been of the Seventeenth Army Corps on 
the Fourth of July, 1863. James B. McPhebsok, 

[24, 3, 476.] Major General. 

Jfily i-th — Saturday, — About 8:00 o'clock a. m. Capt. Geo. 
S. Spicer of the Fiftieth United States Colored Troops (former- 
ly of the Fifth Iowa) and the writer walked up the Jackson 
road toward Fort Hill. White flags were displayed all along 
the Confederate lines. We passed readily along to the front, 
walked up on the fort and proceeded to examine the work. 
We were interested in the hole made by the explosion on June 
25th, which explosion we had witnessed at the time. Oenerals 
Forney, Bowen and Captain Montgomery, at the time we got 
there, were standing on the fort. The first, with folded arms, 
was walking a little distance aside and seemed to be meditating 
over the situation and looking over toward General Grant's 
headquarters. Captain Montgomery asked one of us about the 
eflfects of some shells that he had fired a few days previously 
at the two-story white house of Mr. Sherley (who was at home 
and claimed to be a Union man). A part of this house was 
used by the Forty-fifth Illinois as its headquarters. It stood on 
the north side of the road, about three hundred ^'ards outside 
of the fort, and was the only house between our lines and the 
enemy on that road and in the reports is called " the white 
house." During the conversation which ensued the First Bri- 
gade Band of Forty-fifth and One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
Illinois of Logan's division stationed itself (at 10:00 a. m.) on a 
small veranda out of the second story of Sherley's house and 
played patriotic airs, " Hail Columbia," Star Spangled Banner," 
etc. The lines along which the vision extended, for nearly a 
mile and a half each way, were quiet. The men were seen 
standing upon both sides and near enough together to converse. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 239 

As the music swelled forth, Captain Montgomery turned to 
Bowen and remarked, "That's damned humiliating, General!" 
**0h, I don't know ! " said Bowen. "Well, we can't always win ; 
we will live in hopes and try again." Not long before ten 
o'clock two officers rode up to the fort from Logan's advanced 
line and the colonel commandingthe Confederate troops at that 
point met them there. The officers dismounted and a short 
conversation ensued. We heard the Confederate officer speak 

of himself as Colonel from Missouri, and ask if he 

should have his men march outside and stack their arms and 
he was told that was the understanding. The Confederate 
troops then marched out, stacked their arms and then returned 
to their line. No cheering was indulged in. The writer and 
his companion then started for the city as fast as they could walk» 
and concluded they would be among the first ones in, as no 
person was ahead. We walked to the courthouse at a lively 
pace. 

Stacking arms consamed a little over an hoar. McPherson, Logan, Forney 
and their stafb stood on the breastworks. After the arms were stacked they 
all rode to Forney's headquarters. Pemberton and all his general officers were 
there. Pemberton was sitting in a chair when they arrived and he did not offer 
General Grant a seat. MePherson and Logan then rode oat to the troops and 
Lieut. Col. Wm. E. Strong and others, who were detailed for the purpose, rode 
to the city, about a mile distant, and ascending to the cupola of the courthouse, 
at 11:30 o'clock a. m. [hoisted the headquarters flag of the Seventeenth Army 
Ck>rps — Ed.], flung out the banner of beauty and glory to the breeze. — [Put- 
nam's Record of the Rebellion^ Vol, VII. p. 51.] 

We were talking to a Confederate soldier in the trench just 
south of Fort Hill this morning, after they had stacked their 
arras at that point, and pointing to a battery in Ransom's 
line northwest, said, "There is a gun over there that did us a 
great deal of damage because it enfiladed this ditch. One 
shell came in here and killed five men. Here is the spot and 
you can see their blood," pointing it out. The courthouse in 
the city was about two and a half miles from our line and had 
been a common target for the Union artillerists and could be 
plainly seen from the most of the line; hundreds of shots 
were fired at it, but the only one that struck it that we could 
discover was on the side of one of the four columns of the 
cupola, which had a piece cut out of its side. 



240 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

Seven wagon roads pass out of Vicksburg, one going north 
through and over the blufts to the Yazoo river bottoms; one 
northwest, passing by the cemetery, and known as the Ceme- 
tery road; one going east, called the Jackson road; then the 
Baldwin's Ferry road that runs out of the city parallel with 
the railroad; the Hall's Ferry road, south of the railroad; and 
lastly, the upper and lower Warrenton roads. 

Sly says: "At 4 o'clock p. m. we marched into the city and 
stacked arms at the courthouse. Had half an hour to look 
around and then marched back to camp." [Population of 
Vicksburg, Warren county, in 1880, was 11,814.] 

We quote the following from J. H. Thurston : 

Yicksbarg has faUen, and that on oar glorions Fourth of July, the anni- 
versary of oar national independence. I have jast been ap on the hiU and saw 
the rebels marching out and stacking their arms. Oar forces are also moving 
in. Marched into Yicksbarg, banners flying and mnsic playing. This is the 
most glorious Fourth of July I ever spent. Fireworks seem to be all around 
the lines. 

At night, fireworks having been procured, our troops had a 
grand illumination. 

General Sanborn writes: 

On the evening of the third of July General McPherson came to me in per- 
son and said that my own brigade and John D. Stevenson's brigade of Logan's 
division were designated to take possession of Vicksburg and take charge of 
guarding and paroling the prisoners, for the reason that they had fought the 
hardest and suffered the most in the campaign. All the writers that I have 
examined on this matter have reported that the place was taken possession of 
by Logan's division. While this is not strictly untrue, it is not the precise 
truth. But it is immaterial as a matter of history, so far as the campaign is 
concerned; but is not quite satisfactory to the troops who bore off the honors 
of the campaign and were designated to and did actually march into Vicksbui^ 
and guard and parole the prisoners of war. As ordered by General McPherson, 
I led the column that marched into Vicksburg, and the Fourth Biinnesota 
Band and Regiment led my brigade. 

Nearly all the officers of the army had procured and had by them new uni- 
forms in anticipation of the surrender. On the fourth aU such uniforms were 
put on, every enlisted man burnished his gun so that it glimmered in the 
sunshine like pure silver, the bands of music took their position, and the 
commands marched from their camping places during the siege into and through 
the city to the courthouse and the banks of the Mississippi river. Steamboats 
by the score, if not by the hundred, came out of the Yazoo and down the river 
from Milliken's Bend, and there was a scene of life and joy and excitement 
such as is rarely seen on this planet. 



1863] MINNESOTA INPANTBY VOLUNTEEE8. 241 

Orders were at once issued by General Grant directing the details of all offi- 
cers and men competent for the duty to write and take paroles, and the work 
of paroling the rebel prisoners was commenced in good earnest and occupied the 
time for about a single week. When everyone had received his parole they 
formed in regular ranks and marched out, with their side arms, in accordance 
with the terms of the surrender. 

The following is a copy of the instructions and orders issued by me to the 
officers and men detailed to carry into effect the instructions received from Gen- 
eral Grant. I remained on duty all day and decided the questions as they aroae 
between the officers and their slaves: 

Headquabtebs Fibst Bbigads, Seventh Division, 

Seventeenth Abmy Ck>BP8. 

ViCKSBUBG, Miss., July 9, 1863. 

The following instructions will govern the several commissioned and non- 
commissioned officers in the examination of the paroled prisoners in being passed 
beyond the lines: 

The following officers being duly paroled to be passed with their side arms, 
private horses (one each) and baggage: 

All general officers, with their staff. 

All field and staff officers of regiments. 

All commissaries and quartermasters. 

All other officers with special permits from Mi^or General McPherson, with- 
out horses. 

All line officers with side arms and private baggage. 

All soldiers being duly paroled will be passed out with knapsacks, haver- 
sacks, canteens and blankets, after being duly examined to see that they have 
no contraband articles, such as colors, powder, caps or cartridges; when such 
articles are found, they will be taken possession of by the parties making the 
examination. 

No negroes will be permitted to pass with the troops, except such as the 
commanding officer shall decide entitled to pass the lines under existing orders. 

After each regiment shall have been examined, the regimental wagons will 
be examined and all articles contraband, such as colors, powder, caps and cart- 
ridges, will be taken possession of. 

The wagons allowed are as follows: 

General headquarters, two teams. 

E^ch division headquarters, one team. 

Each brigade headquarters, one team, four mules. 

Each regiment headquarters, four mules. 

Chief quartermaster, one team, four mules. 

Elach artillery company, one team, two mules, where company exceeds 
sixty men. 

No other teams will be passed except such as the commanding officer shall 
decide to be entitled to do so under existing orders. 

Commanding officers will instruct their men that it is the desire of Miyor 
General Grant that no soldier shall indulge in either abuse or jeering language 
16 



242 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

to the priBoners whilst being examined or being passed beyond the lines, and 
the commanding general feels assared that his command will conduct them- 
selves with magnanimoos forbearance toward their conquered foes. All men 
and officers are enjoined to remain patiently upon the ground until such time 
as they shall complete the work assigned to them. 

By order of John B. Sanborn, 

Colonel^ Commanding. 

Many singular and some ridiculous incidents occurred, mainly in connec- 
tion with the colored servants of the officers. We formed a line of officers and 
men, mainly as a corps of observation, to observe the rebel army as it passed 
through the fortifications and out into the Confederacy. Strange changes 
seemed to come over the minds of these faithful servants very suddenly at 
times. They would dart up to me and ask if they were compelled to go out, 
and upon receiving the answer that it was optional with them to go or stay, 
universally, so far as I know, deserted their masters and staid in the Federal 
lines. 

The number of men surrendered to Grant at Vicksburg was 31,600, including 
2,153 officers, of whom fifteen were generals. One hundred and seventy-two 
cannon also fell into his hands. It was the largest capture of men and mate- 
rial which had ever been made in war up to that time. The small arms sur- 
rendered exceeded forty thousand. 

The campaign at Vicksburg opened amid the greatest diversity of opinion in 
regard to what was commonly known as the negro question. General McClel- 
lan, in 1862, after he had been driven back to Harrison's Landing, wrote to the 
President, among other things, that *4he military power should not be allowed 
to interfere with the relations of servitude, either by supporting or impairing 
the authority of the master, except for repressing disorders in certain cases;" 
and made the statement that **a declaration of radical views, especially upon 
slavery, will rapidly disintegrate our present armies.'' 

Notwithstanding this, Mr. Lincoln had issued his Proclamation of Emanci- 
pation, to the effect that ' * on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within 
any state, or designated part of a state, the people whereof shall then be in re- 
beUion against the people of the United States, shall be thenceforth and forever 
free, and the executive government of the United States, including the mili- 
tary and naval authority, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such per- 
sons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons or any of them in any 
efibrts they may make for their actual freedom." 

It was all that military authority and power could do to maintain disci- 
pline in some of the regiments recruited from the border states and along the 
line of the free states as they bordered upon slave states, but the result of this 
campaign seemed to crystallize all these conflicting ideas, and the country for 
the first time settled down to the determined purpose that the war should be 
from thenceforth conducted with a view to making absolute freedom and ab- 
solute justice the law of its life. Confidence was infused through the Northern 
States by this campaign that the rebellion could be overthrown and the rebel 
government subjugated, and it was the first time that there had been implicit 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 243 

faith in nltimate saccess daring the progress of the war. It was the first great 
aggressive moyement that had been snccessfally made daring the Rebellion np 
to that time. The most intelligent and wisest of the Sonthern leaders then in 
the Ck)nfederate army at Vicksbnrg frankly admitted that the doom of the 
Confederacy was sealed, althongh conceding at the same time that pablic senti- 
ment through the Sonth was wrought np to so high a pitch that other battles 
would have to be fought and other campaigns carried on before the great mass 
of their people could be convinced that they could not maintain their govern- 
ment. 

No campaign in the history of human alfairs has done so much to establish 
freedom and justice as the Vicksbnrg campaign. It seemed to derive its prin- 
ciple and great purpose from the noble and martyred President and its energy 
and vigor from the greatest general of his day, and its influence for good on 
mankind can never be lost. Such achievement of men, in such a cause, can 
never be forgotten. 

When ages shall have passed away and the proudest monuments erected by 
human hands shall have crumbled to dust, and even those heights from which 
the guns of Vicksbnrg frowned and belched forth fire and death shall have been 
worn away by that mighty river that rolls at their base, the fame and glory of 
the campaign that compelled the surrender of this stronghold and of the com- 
mander that gave it direction and success will still survive, *' exempt from mu- 
tability and decay,'' a light and hope to the desponding and oppressed people 
of all lands and a beacon to all nations struggling to establish liberty, humanity 
and justice as the law of their national life. 

The troops of General Logtui's division were the first to 
enter the outside fortifications on the Jackson road, they pitched 
their tents in the outskirts of the city on the north side of the 
road early in the afternoon. The First Brigade, General Leg- 
gett commanding, led Logan's troops. Leggett says in his re- 
port (24, 2, 294j: 

My brigade, led by the Forty-fifth Illinois, was honored with the privilege 
of being the first to enter the garrison, and the flag of the Forty-fifth Illinois 
the first to float over the conquered city. 

Their Hag was not the first one to fly from the courthouse as 
gome have asserted. 

General Sanborn copied for us the following letter: 

Faboo, Jan, 11, 1886. 
Oen. John B. Sanborn, St. Paul^ 

My Dear General: During the terrible assault on Vicksbnrg, the twenty- 
second of May, 1863, the Seventh Division of the Seventeenth Corps suffered 
more severely than any other command. The last charge, made by reason 
of General McClernaud's false reports to General Grant, was simply murder 
and slaughter, and it was your command that was mowed down then and there. 
I saw the charge — carried the order, indeed — and saw the gallant Golonel 



244 HI8TOBY OF THE FOUBTH SE6IMJBNT [1863 

Boomer of the Twenty-sixth Miaaoiiri &11. The loss was over seven handled 
men in lees than forty minntes. Remembering your oondnct and that of your 
splendid troops, General McPherson gave yon the right of the line on oar tri- 
nmphant entry into Yicksbnrg on the morning of the Fonrth of Jnly, 1863^ 
Logan followed, and being ranking division commander was made commander 
of the post. Yon had yonr troops disposed of to protect property, and had, 
onder my suggestion, taken possession of all the printing presses with a view 
to preparing paroles. General Grant's memory is frequently at &nlt in what 
he writes concerning this campaign. Doabtlees General Logan, who visited 
Grant about the time he was on this part of his work, unintentionally misled 
him. I have already corrected his account regarding the flag on the ooart- 
house. It was our headquarters flag that flrst floated there, placed by Greneral 
Strong's party. Hardly a week passes that I am not called upon to correct 
errors of statements which are doing some gallant officer great iiijustioe. If 
my mind ever gets free from the struggle for daily bread, I shall turn the 
light on those operations and give the meed of praise where it justly belongs. 
I am writing now where it is so cold that I can hardly hold my pen. 

Now, my dear general, if this is not sufficiently in detail, I will reproduce 
it for you and put it in official shape. 

Faithfully yours, 

W. T. Clabk, 
Adjutant General Seventeenth CorpB^ 1863. 

General Clark is in error as to the time of day when Colonel 
Sanborn with his brigade led the army into Vicksburg to the 
courthouse. It was in the afternoon instead of the forenoon. 

The official war records (Vol. 24, 1, 178 and subsequent 
pages) contain ample proof that McClernand's statement was 
not false; that his troops captured the first fort south of the 
railroad at about 11:00 o'clock a. m.-, and held it until about 
5:00 o'clock p. M. If his statement had been false he would 
undoubtedly have been suspended from his command that 
night. He did wrong, however, in permitting our division to 
assault the works after his own troops had been repulsed and 
the assault along the line had ceased. 

Colonel Sanborn's brigade was the next troops to pass the 
outside fortifications, which they did on the Baldwin's Ferry 
road, and after marching some distance toward the city came 
to the road where Colonel Sanborn expected to meet General 
Stevenson with his brigade to march with us to the courthouse, 
halted his troops, waiting for an hour or longer for General 
Stevenson, who did not come, and then he marched on without 
Stevenson's brigade into the city to the courthouse, and his 
were the first troops to arrive there. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 245 

We quote from "Cave Life:" 

M in the morning came np with a pale face, saying, ^* It's all over! the 

white flag floats from onr forts. Vicksbnrg has snrrendered!'' He pnt on his 
uniform coat, silently backled on his sword, and prepared to take oat the men 
to deliver np their arms in front of the fortification. I felt a strange nnrest, 
the quiet of the day was so unnatural. I walked up and down the cave until 

M returned. The day was extremely warm, and he came with a violent 

headache. He told me that the Federal troops had acted splendidly; they were 
stationed opposite the place where the Ck>nfederate troops marched up and 
stacked their arms, and they seemed to feel sorry for the poor fellows who had 
defended the place for so long a time. Far different from what he had ex- 
pected, not a jeer or taunt came from any one of the Federal soldiers. Occa- 
sionally a cheer would be heard; but the migority seemed to regard the poor, 
unsuccessful soldiers with a generous sympathy. I stood in the doorway and 
caught my first sight of the Federal uniform since the surrender. That after- 
noon the road was filled with them, walking about looking at the forts and the 
headquarters' horses; wagons also filled the road,drawnby the handsome United 

States horses. Poor M , after keeping his horse upon mulberry leaves 

during the forty-eight days, saw him no more. After the surrender in the 
evening, George rode into the city on his mule. Thinking to ^* shine,'' as the 

negroes say, he rode M 's handsome silver-mounted dragoon saddle. I 

could not help laughing when he returned with a sorry face, reporting himself 

safe but the saddle gone. M questioned and requestioned him, aghast at 

his loss, — for a saddle was a valuable article in our little community, — and 
Oeorge, who felt as badly as anyone, said, **I met a Yankee, who told me, 
*Git down off dat mule; I'm gwin' to hab dat saddle;' I said, * No, I ain't gwin' 
to do no such thing.' He took out his pistol, and I jumped down." 

The following was published in the Century Magazine, Sep- 
tember, 1885, p. 775, as from the diary of a lady who lived not 
far from the courthouse: 

July 4th. — Breakfast dispatched, we went on the upper gallery. What I 
expected to see was files of soldiers marching in, but it was very different. 

• 

The street was deserted save by a few people carrying home bedding from 
their caves. About eleven o'clock a man in blue came sauntering along, look- 
ing about curiously. Then two followed him; then another. **H , do you 

think these can be Federal soldiers?" *'Why, yes! here comes more up the 
street." Soon a group appeared on the courthouse hill and the flag began 
slowly to rise to the top of the staff. As the breeze caught it and it sprang out 

like a live thing exultant, H drew a long breath of contentment. "Now 

I feel once more at home in mine own country." In an hour more a grand 
rush of people, setting toward the river, began — foremost among them the gen- 
tleman who took our cave. All were flying as if for life. ** What can this mean, 

H ? Are the populace turning out to greet the despised conquerors?" 

*'0h!" said H , springing up, '*]ook! it is the boats coming around the 

bend." Truly, it was a fine spectacle to see that fleet of transports sweep 



246 HISTORY OF THE FOUJBTH REGIMENT [18d3 

aroand the curTe and aDchor in the teeth of the batteriee so lately YomitiDg 

fire. Presently Mr. J passed and called: '* Aren't you coming, Mr. L ? 

There's provisions on those boats — cofiee and floar! * First come first served/ 
yon know.'' Bnt now the newcomers began to swarm into oar yard. The 
townspeople continued to dash through the streets with their arms full, canned 

goods predominating. Towards five Mr. J passed again. '*Eeep on the 

lookout," he said; **the army of occupation is coming along." And in a few 
minutes the head of the column appeared. What a contrast to the suffering 
creatures we had seen so long were those stalwart, well-fed men, so splendidly 
set up and accoutered — sleek horses, polished arms, bright plumes! It was the 
pride and panoply of war. Civilization, discipline and order seemed to enter 
with the measured tramp of those marching columns, and the heart turned 
with throbs of added pity to the worn men in gray who were being blindly 
dashed against this embodiment of modem power. 

Colonel Sanborn's brigade, the body of troops herein de- 
scribed, was led by the brass band of the Fourth Minnesota 
Infantry. 

On entering the city we found the hills in places honey- 
combed with caves in which the people had lived quite secure 
from the terrible rain of shot and shell. The nature of the 
soil was such that the caves needed no support to prevent their 
caving. We visited many of these and they seemed quite 
secure and comfortable. Nearly all contained one or more 
rooms that branched oft* from the main entrance. We ex- 
pected to find that the shot and shell from our batteries and 
mortar fleet had caused great destruction of property, but to 
our astonishment we saw that, comparatively speaking, little 
damage had been done. A few buildings had been burned 
and many others injured, but there had been no wholesale de- 
struction of property. A great many of the shells from the 
mortar fleet were twenty-two inches in diameter and had 
penetrated the ground before exploding. 

The Vicksburg Daily Citizen (John W. Swords, proprietor) 
was printed on wall paper, and the last issue of Thursday, July 
2d, contained the following: 

On Dit. — That the great Ulysses — the Yankee generalissimo, snmamed 
Grant — has expressed his intention of dining in Yicksbnrg on Saturday next 
and celebrating the Fourth of July by a grand dinner, and so forth. When 
asked if he would invite Gen. Joe Johnston to join, he said: *'No! for fear 
there would be a row at the table.'' Ulysses must get into the city before he 
dines in it. The way to cook a rabbit is: "" First catch the rabbit/' etc. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 247 

The type was set for this issue, but the paper had not been 
printed on the fourth when our array entered the city. Some 
of our soldiers took charge of the office and after adding the 
following note printed the paper: 

Note. — July 4, 1863. — Two days bring great changes. The banner of the 
Union floats over Yicksbarg. General Grant has ^* caught the rabbit;'' he 
has dined in Vicksborg and he did bring his dinner with him. The Citizen 
lives to see it. For the last time it appears on ^* waU paper." No more will 
it eulogize the luxury of mule meat and fricasseed kitten — urge Southern war- 
riors to such diet nevermore. This is the last ** wall-paper'' Citizen^ and is, 
excepting this note, from the types as we found them. [Printer soldiers set 
this note and worked the form.] It will be valuable hereafter as a curiosity. 

July 5th — Sunday. — Two hundred men of the Twelfth 
Louisiana Infantry proceeded into the city last night and this 
morning began to work, leveling down the breastworks and 
barricades built across the streets. We worked all day remov- 
ing obstructions. 

On Jan. 14, 1861, the following appeared in the daily news- 
papers : 

Jackson, Miss., Jan. 12, 1861. — Artillery ordered to Vicksburg this morn- 
ing by Governor Pettus, to hail and bring to all passing boats. 

This was the beginning of rebel interference with the 
navigation of the Mississippi river. The artillery sent from 
Jackson consisted of the Quitman Battery, which had a 
brilliant reputation among the people of Vicksburg. On the 
night of Jan. 13, 1861, this battery attempted to fire on the 
steamer A. O. Taylor, Captain Collier, and were only pre- 
vented from doing so by their . awkwardness in getting the 
priming of their guns wet. 

July 6th — Monday. — General Grant's headquarters moved 
into the city to-day. Sly says: *'Our regiment marched in- 
side of the rebel works and camped near the railroad among 
the prisoners.'' L. Wellman went out with his company this 
morning at five o'clock on guard. 

On the Fourth of July, 1864, the army at Vicksburg erected, 
on the site of the oak tree where Generals Grant and Pember- 
ton held their conference, a marble shaft, on which was cut an 
eagle with scroll, escutcheon, battle flags, drum, cannon and 



248 HISTOBY OF THE FOURTH BE6IMENT [1863 

pyramid of balls. Underneath was the following inscription: 
"Siege — Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. A., and Lieutenant Gen- 
eral Pemberton, July 4, 1863." This shaft was surmounted 
by a marble ball, was cut at Vicksburg and inclosed by ma- 
sonry surmounted by an iron fence. Maj. A. E. Barns of the Fif- 
tieth United States Colored Troops, formerly captain Company 
I, Seventy-second Illinois Infantry, was marshal of ceremonies 
and delivered an address. Relic seekers soon began to chip 
and deface the shaft and ruined it, after which the government 
erected on its site an hundred-pounder cannon, standing on its 
base and properly inscribed. The original oak tree was soon 
dug up and carried away. 

We quote from a Vicksburg letter of July 13th: 

The most of Pemberton^s army left here, paroled , the day before yesterday 
and the rest go to-day or to-morrow. It was laughable to be on the picket posti 
on the Jackson and Baldwin's Ferry roads when they marched ont. The names 
of the men who were paroled and who were expected to march oat with their 
officers were read from the rolls, bat the men were few in n ambers. Thoos- 
ands of them after getting their paroles got oar boys to ferry them across the 
Mississippi river so they coald go to their homes. General Pemberton, accord- 
ing to the terms granted, was to march his men oat after they had been paroled. 
The free ferry basineas ranning night and day across the river soon came to 
Pemberton's notice, and he complained of it to General Grant and instractions 
were issaed against it. General Pemberton also complained to Grant that 
many of his (Grant's) men were getting the negro servants of his officers away 
from them and enlisting them into the army as soldiers. 

There are bat few honses ia this place that have not been struck by shell, 
but the city has not been destroyed, and in fact bat very few of the houses 
have been burned. 

The Third Minnesota Infantry was at Snyder's Bluff about two weeks ago. 
This is ten miles from here. The Fifth Minnesota Influitry landed here this 
morning from Young's Point. They are but few in numbers. It was very 
sickly at that place. We expect to get our pay soon, up to July Isl Lieuten- 
ant Snyder of Company B, Fourth Regiment, is at Memphis very sick, and we 
hear that he has resigned his commission. We have received information that 
Sergeant Caldwell of Company B died at that place on June 17th. A boat has 
arrived from Port Hudson with the good news that it surrendered on the ninth. 
We have also received information of Mead's victory over Lee at Gettysburg, 
and also good news from the army under Rosecrans. 

July 15th — Wednesday, — Our hospital steward, Geo. M. D. 
Lambert, left on furlough to-day for St. Paul, Minn. Maj. A. 
E. Welch also left on sick list to-day for his home at Red 
Wing. The major has been quite unwell for over a month. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 249 

July 20th — Monday, — Brigadier General Logan went 
North ou leave, and on the twenty-first Brig. Gen. John E. 
Smith was assigned to the command of the post and defenses of 
Vicksburg during Logan's temporary absence. (24, 3, 638.) 

July 25th — Saturday. — Our regiment went on provost guard 
duty to-day. 

We quote from St. Paul Pioneer of July 30, 1863 : 

Promotions at Vicksburg : Foarth Regiment — Asst Sarg. £. W. CrosBto 
be surgeon, vice Murphy, resigned; Lieut. £. U. RnsseU, Company A, to be cap- 
tain, vice Toung, resigned; Lieut. Geo. A. Clarke to be captain, vice Patch, re- 
signed; Second Lieut. David L. WeUman to be first lieutenant, vice Clarke, 
promoted; Sergt. John L. Samson to be second lieutenant, vtoe WeUman, pro- 
moted; First Lieut. Ira N. Morrill, Company K, to be captain, vieeL. B. Martis, 
resigned; First Sergt. Charles C. Hunt to be first lieutenant, vice MorriU, 
promoted; Sergt. Charles W. Douglas to be second lieutenant, vice Sherbrooke, 
kiUed on May 32d; First Lieut. Wm. F. Wheeler of Company I to be captain, 
vice Asa W. White, resigned; Second Lieul James Drysdale to be first lieu- 
tenant, vice Wheeler, promoted; First Sergt. Adrian K. Norton to be second 
lieutenant, vice Drysdale, promoted; Sergt. Samuel T. Isaac to be first lieu- 
tenant, vice Turner, killed in battle. 

Jvly 31st — Friday, — Our regiment is still on provost guard. 
We have a great deal of sickness; in some companies there are 
only seven or eight men for duty. 

Return for the Month of July, 1863. — Total number of enlisted men, 602; 
aggregate, 631; last month, 658. Enlisted men present for duty, 339; on extra 
and daily duty, 43; sick, 102; arrest, 1; total present, 385. Commissioned offi- 
cers present for duty, 13; sick, 4; extra duty, 1; total present, 18. Aggregate 
present, 403. 

Bemairka. — James Dayis, transferred to non-commissioned stafi* from Com- 
pany K and promoted to principal musician July 25, 1863. A. T. Pintler, 
transferred to first lieutenant in Eleyenth Louisiana Volunteers. John P. 
Hunter, died May 25th on hospital steamer City of Memphis. A. E. Welch, 
absent, sick, fh>m July 4, 1863, for twenty days. O. Graham, absent on sick 
leave, dated July 18, 1863. B. S. Donaldson, absent since June 10, 1863, in 
Twelfth Louisiana Volunteers, Special Orders, No. 97, Headquarters Seventh 
Division, Seventeenth Army Corps. D. L. Wellman, acting adjutant regiment 
since May 24, 1863. Gibson S. Patch, honorable discharge June 30, 1863, 
Special Orders, No. 288, War Department. L. b. Martin, resignation accepted 
July 6, 1863. J. H. Murphy, resignation accepted July 9, 1863. 

Report of Lieut. Col. John E. Tourtellotte, Fourth Min- 
nesota Infantry. 

Headquabtebs Fourth Minnesota Volunteers. 
Camp in Vicksburg, Miss., Aug. 1, 1863. 

Sib: I have the honor to report, in obedience to Special Orders, No. 31, of 
date July 27, 1863, from your headquarters, that on May 26th we moved from 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEBS. 249 

Jvly 20th — Monday, — Brigadier General Logan went 
North on leave, and on the twenty-first Brig. Gen. John E. 
Smith was assigned to the command of the post and defenses of 
Vieksburg during Logan's temporary absence. (24, 3, 538.) 

July 25th — Saturday, — Our regiment went on provost guard 
duty to-day. 

We quote from St. Paul Piow^fr of July 30, 1863: 

Promotions at Vicksbarg : Fourth KeKiment — Asst. Sarg. E. W. Crow to 
be surgeon, vtc« Marphy, resigned; Lieut. E. U. Russell, Company A, to be cap- 
tain, vice Young, resigned ; Lieut. Geo. A. Clarke to be captain, vice Patch, re- 
signed ; Second Lieut. David L. Wellman to be first lieutenant, vice Clarke, 
promoted; Sergt. John L. Samson to be second lieutenant, vice Wellman, pro- 
moted; First Lieut. Ira N. Morrill, Company E, to be captain, vieelt, B. Martia, 
resigned; First Sergt. Charles C. Hunt to be first lieutenant, vice Morrill, 
promoted; Sergt. Charles W. Douglas to be second lieutenant, vice Sherbrooke, 
killed on May 32d; First Lieut. Wm. F. Wheeler of Company I to be captain, 
vice Asa W. White, resigned; Second Lieut. James Drysdale to be first lieu- 
tenant, vice Wheeler, promoted; First Sergt. Adrian K. Norton to be second 
lieutenant, vice Drysdale, promoted; Sergt. Samuel T. Isaac to be first lieu- 
tenant, vice Turner, killed in battle. 

July 31st — Friday, — Our regiment is still on provost guard. 
We have a great deal of sickness; in some companies there are 
only seven or eight men for duty. 

Reium for the Month of July, 1863. — Total number of enlisted men, 602; 
aggregate, 631; last month, 658. Enlisted men present for duty, 239; on extra 
and daily duty, 43; sick, 102; arrest, 1; total present, 385. Commissioned offi- 
cers present for duty, 13; sick, 4; extra duty, 1; total present, 18. Aggregate 
present, 403. 

Remarks. — James Davis, transferred to non-commissioned stafi* from Com- 
pany K and promoted to principal musician July 25, 1863. A. T. Pintler, 
transferred to first lieutenant in Eleventh Louisiana Volunteers. John P. 
Hunter, died May 25th on hospital steamer City of Memphis. A. E. Welch, 
absent, sick, from July 4, 1863, for twenty days. O. Graham, absent on sick 
leave, dated July 18, 1863. R. S. Donaldson, absent since June 10, 1863, in 
Twelfth Louisiana Volunteers, Special Orders, No. 97, Headquarters Seventh 
Division, Seventeenth Army Corps. D. L. Wellman, acting adjutant regiment 
since May 24, 1863. Gibson S. Patch, honorable discharge June 30, 1863, 
Special Ordeis, No. 288, War Department. L. b. Martin, resignation accepted 
July 6, 1863. J. H. Murphy, resignation accepted July 9, 1863. 

Report of Lieut. Col. John E. Tourtellotte, Fourth Min- 
nesota Infantry. 

Headquabtebs ForRTH Minnesota Volunteers. 
Camp in Vicksbubo, Miss., Aug, 1, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to report, in obedience to Special Orders, No. 31, of 
date July 27, 1863, trom your headquarters, that on May 26th we moved fh>iii 



250 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH BEGIMENT [1863 

oar poeitioD in front of the enemy's works around Vicksborg and proceeded on 
the road to Mechanicsbarg, which place we reached May 29th. Thence we 
marched down the valley of the Yazoo river, passing near Satartia via Haines' 
Blnff to Snyder's Bluff, where we bivouacked and remained three days. June 
4th we marched into a ravine near our first position in front of the enemy's 
fortifications around Vicksburg. Here we remained until after the surrender 
of Vicksburg, when, on July 6th, my regiment moved inside of the rebel breast- 
works. 

On July 25th my regiment was ordered to report to Gen. John £. Smith 
for post duty, on which duty we still remain. After our return from the ex- 
pedition to Mechanicsbuig the following named persons were wounded while 
on duty in front of the rebel works, viz. : Lieut. I. N. Morrill, Company K, 
slightly; Private Orlando Lindersmith, Company E, slightly; Private B. Y. 
Robinson, Company C, slightly; and Private R. A. Wheeler, Company D, slight- 
ly. Summary — 1 officer and 3 enlisted men wounded; total, 4. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
[24, 2, 311.] J. E. TouBTKLLomt, 

Lieutenant Oolond^ Commanding. 

Capt. John E. Simpson^ Acting Assistant Adjutant Oeneral^ First Brigade^ Seventh 
Division^ Seventeenth Army Corps. 

Report of Col. John B. Sanborn, Fourth Minnesota In- 
fantry, Commanding First Brigade, Seventh Division, 
Seventeenth Army Corps. 

Hbadquartebs First Brigade, Seventh Division, 

Seventeenth Army Corps, Vicksburg, Aug, 7, 1863. 

Capt R, M, Rochester^ Assistant Adjutant General^ Seventh Division: 

Sir: I have the honor to report the part taken by my command in the 
siege of Vicksburg. After moving on the twenty-third of May to the position 
we left on the twenty-second, I continued to skirmish constantly with the 
enemy, who all the time remained inside his fortifications, until the evening 
of the twenty-sixth, and at the same time kept large details at work during 
the nights, constructing rifle-pits, covered ways and breastworks. On the 
evening of the twenty-sixth, while I had one regiment on fatigue duty, I received 
your order to move my whole command immediately, with seven days' rations, in 
the direction of Mechanicsburg and Yazoo City, and report to Major General Blair 
for further orders. At ten o* clock in the evening I took up the line of march, 
marched out eight miles and bivouacked at 1:00 o'clock A. M., and at sunrise 
again took up our line of march and marched out fifteen miles further toward 
Mechanicsbuig that day. This march was continued through Mechanicsburg, 
Satartia and down the Yazoo to Snyder's Bluff, at which place we arrived the first 
day of June, having learned the movements of the enemy, and without any loss 
to my command. Having remained at this place three days and furnished the 
command with shoes, socks and other articles greatly needed, I moved on the 
fourth of June again into the line of forces investing Vicksbuig and took 
position on the left of the Seventh Division, being the left of the Seventeenth 
Army Corps. In this position the command remained, having out a line of 
skirmishers, until the twenty-fourth of June, when the Third Brigade, having 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 251 

moved to the rear and joined the forces on the line of circnmyallation, I 
moved my forces on to the ground vacated by it on the right of the division, 
and in this last position remained nntil the surrender of Vicksbnrg, on the 
Fourth of July, when my command moved into the city. During the entire 
siege the health and morale of the command was excellent and none seemed 
to have a desponding thought or a doubt as to the successful result, and 
whether called upon to dig rifle-pits, throw up intrenchments, skirmish with 
the enemy or stand to arms by day or in dark, stormy nights, all was done with 
the greatest alacrity. Every man in my command seemed determined to do 
his duty. Johk B. Sanbobn, 

[24, 2, 689. ] Commanding FirtA Brigade^ Seventh Division, 

Col. John B. Sanborn had been appointed brigadier general by the Presi- 
dent after the battle of luka in 1862, but the Senate had adjourned in the 
spring of 1863 without having taken any action upon this appointment, whereby 
it lapsed. Immediately after the surrender of Vicksburg, Oeneral Grant had 
sent to Washington a list of officers recommended by him for promotion for 
services in that campaign. This list included Colonel Sanborn. The pro- 
motions recommended by Greneral Grant were all made at once, except this 
one, and the commissions issued were received from Washington at General 
Grant's headquarters on or about the third day of August, 1863. On this 
account Colonel Sanborn at once tendered his resignation as colonel of the 
Fourth Minnesota Infantry. This resignation was accepted by General Grant 
and the colonel left for St. Paul. But the order of General Grant accepting 
the resignation was disapproved and revoked by the President, and on Sept. 
12, 1863, the President again appointed Colonel Sanborn brigadier general 
of volunteers, said appointment to date and he to take rank from the date of 
Aug. 4, 1863, and he remained in the service through the war and nntil 
June, 1866. 

General Sanborn's Farewell Order to His Brigade. 

HSADQUABTEBS FiBST BBIQADE, SEVENTH DlVISIGN, 

Seventeenth Army Cobps. 

ViCKSBUBO, Miss., Aug. 5, 1863. 
Genebal Obdebs, No. 16: 

SoLDiEBS OF THE FiBST Bbigade : Having determined to leave the 
military service, the colonel commanding announces that he sincerely re- 
grets to part with that brave command, whose hardships, privations, honor 
and glory he has had the good fortune to share for more than a year past 
During this brief period you have been called upon to fight for the 
honor of our flag and the maintenance of the authority of the government 
many times and have won immortal honor on many fields. At the siege 
of Corinth yonr constant and sure approaches, by great labor in the trenches, 
aided to drive the enemy from a most important position and scatter the 
largest army yet brought together in this Confederacy. At Inka, alone and 
unaide<l, except in the last moments of the battle by the gallant Eleventh Mis- 
souri, yon, at fearful sacrifice, resisted the repeated furiouschargesof the enemy 
and drove three times your number from a hard-contested and bloody field. On 



252 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

the first day of the battle of Corinth, aeemingly as the forlorn hope of a day of 
bad fortune, you made a fierce and moat periloas attack upon the flank and 
rear of the enemy's steadily advancing columns and compelled him to fidl back* 
when he had almost gained the town, and to wait the fortunes of another and 
more auspicious day; and on the second day of the same battle, when the ene- 
my's advance had gained the town and all seemed lost, again, by a most des- 
perate attack upon his flank, you cut off* his entire reserve and compelled him 
to give up all he had gained and contributed vastly in wrenching from his 
hands a most brilliant victory. When the sound of the enemy's guns at Port 
Gibson broke on your ears, although the broad Mississippi rolled between yon 
and the enemy, you crossed as if by magic and moved as if on wings toward the 
scene of conflict to aid your brothers in arms to win a victory in what you knew 
to be a most important contest, and long before the sound of battle ceased yon 
were in position protecting one flank of our army. At Forty Hills, by a steady 
and constant advance upon the enemy's batteries and linef>, you drove him firom 
strong positions across the Big Black. At Raymond you moved up on the 
run, through terrible dust and heat and nnder a most galling fire, to the support 
of a most gallant division, hard pressed by superior numbers. Your pres- 
ence precipitated the retreat of the enemy from a well-chosen and hard-con- 
tested field. At Jackson, by a most perilous and gallant charge upon a hidden 
foe, supporting well-manned batteries of artillery, you drove a superior force of 
the enemy from a most favorable position and carried your standards in triumph 
to the very dome of the capitol of Mississippi. At Champion Hills every one of 
you was engaged constantly for four hours, at no time taking any step back- 
ward, aiding the three small divisions there engaged to drive the enemy from a 
well-chosen position that our army might advance and wrench from the enemy's 
grasp the key that would unlock the navigation of our Mississippi. At Yicks- 
burg you were among the first to reach the enemy's works at the assault and the 
last of all to retire, although your position was unfavorable and exposed. And 
after this you immediately moved nearly fifty miles to the rear and aided to 
develop the movements of the enemy in that direction, and then again took 
your position in front of the enemy's works, and aided, by your deadly riflesi 
by trench and mine, to reduce this stronghold. In addition to these services 
on the field of battle you have made long and perilous campaigns, always suc- 
cessfully and without loss to the government. Yours is indeed a glorious record! 
Few organizations of the army have been so fortunate. In future strive to 
emulate your own example in the past and nothing but glory can await yon. 
Brave and faithful soldiers, I bid you farewell! 
By order of Col. John B. Sanborn. John £. Simpsok, 

Captain and Acting Assistant Adjutant GeneraL 

Headquarters Fourth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. 

Camp, near Vicksburq, Miss., Aug. 7, 1663. 

Col, John B. Sanborn, Commanding First Brigade, Seventh Division, Stvenieenth 

Army Corps. 

Sir: We, the officers of this regiment now in camp, have just learned that 

your tender of resignation as colonel of the regiment and commanding ofllcer of 

this brigade has been accepted. Allow us, then, very resx>ectfully to state that 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 263 

we very mnch regret the caose which forced yon to resign to preserve yoor self- 
respect as in your opinion it seemed. We also mnch regret that in fntnre 
while in the service we shall be deprived of yonr condnct and connsel as an 
officer and your society as a gentleman. Allow ns very respectfully to thank 
yon for yonr uniform justice and courtesy as commanding officer of this r^- 
ment and of this brigade, and also for the active i>art yon have taken in acquir- 
ing for this brigade the reputation we believe it has. With most earnest de- 
sires for yonr future happiness and prosperity and with many hopes that an 
approving conscience may bear an abundant recompense for your arduous labors 
in the service of your country, we remain, 
Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

J. E. TouBTELLOTTE, Lieutenant Colonel. 

J. C. Edson, Captain Company B. 

L. R. Wbllman, Second Lieutenant Company C. 

£. U. Russell, First Lieutenant Company A, 

Jno. D. Hunt, Second Lieutenant Company L 

Geo. a. Clarke, First Lieutenant Company H. 

Henry Platt, Captain Company L 

James Drysdale, Second Lieutenant Company F. 

Chessman Gould, Second Lieutenant Company D. 

Daniel G. Towle, Second Lieutenant Company E, 

I. N. Morrill, First Lieutenant Company K, 

Chas. C. Hunt, Second Lieutenant Company K. 

D. L Wellman, Second Lieutenant Company H, 

Samuel W. Russell, Second Lieutenant Company G. 

Dennison M. G. Murphy, First Lieutenant and Quartermaster. 

Wm. F. Wheeler, First Lieutenant Company F. 

Aug. 7th — Friday. — The Thirteenth Corps (Ord's, formerly 
McClernaiurs) in command of Gen. A. J. Smith, left to join 
General Banks down the river, to go on the Red River ex- 
pedition. 

Aug. 19th — Wednesday. — The steamboat City of Madison 
blew up at the wharf boat at the levee as she was being loaded 
\\\\h captured ammunition and arsenal stores. About thirty 
were killed and wounded. She was one of our commissary 
of subsistence boats at Chickasaw Bayou. We have very poor 
water. Have to haul it on wagons from the river. 

Any. ^Hjfh — Tharsihry, — James McCartney and several 
other members of Company B started for Minnesota to-day on 
sick t'urlouij^h. 

The company and mess cooks often dry the coffee grounds 
and sell them to the natives, who seem to like coffee. At 
times our cooks have as much as a barrel full of dried mate- 
rial on hand, as stock in trade. 



254 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

After the surrender of Vieksburg the lines of works con- 
structed bv General Grant's armv were all leveled down, so 
that the enemv could not use tlieni. The rebel line of works 
was retained and occupied bv our pickets and, subsequently, 
on many occasions, both night and day, as officer of the 
guard, the writer walked that line visiting the guards to 
see that thev were alert and attending to their duties. Our 
armv constructed an inner line of forts and breastworks on 
high ground within the city limits, which were all connected 
and made high and strong, so that a small body of troops could 
garrison and defend the city. 

[Extract.] 

War Department, Adjutant General's Office, 

Washington, Sepi. 12, 1863. 

l\c€nty-second — So much of Special Orders, No. 212 (current series), Depart- 
ment of Tennessee, as discharged Col. John B. Sanborn, Fourth Minnesota 
Volunteers, by resignation, is hereby revoked and his name will be restored to 
the rolls of the regiment. 

Ticenty-ihird — Col. John B. Sanborn, Fourth Minnesota Volunteers, having 
tendered his resignation, is hereby honorably discharged the service of the 
United States, to date Sept. 11, 1863, he having accepted an appointment as 
brigadier general of volunteers Sept. 12, 1663. 

By order of the Secretary of War. E. D. Townsend, 

Adjutant General. 

Return for the Month of August^ 1863. — Total enlisted men present and 
absent, 564; aggregate, 590; aggregate last month, 631. Enlisted men present 
for duty, 213; on extra and daily duty, 50; sick, 46; total present, 309. 
Commissioned officers present for duty, 12; on extra and daily duty, 1; sick, 
3; total, 16. 

Remarks, — During the entire month the regiment has been on duty in 
Vieksburg. D. L. Wellman, absent v^ith leave since Aug. 19, 1863. C. L. 
Snyder, resignation accepted Aug. 3, 1863. Thor Olson, Company A, died 
of wounds, Sept. 29, 1862, at Jackson, Tenn. ; Chas. P. Hubbard, discharged 
for disability, Aug. 10, 1863, at Vieksburg. John D. Casterline, Company A, 
discharged, February, 1863, at Mound City. Lieut. Col. J. E. Tonrtellotte, 
absent by Special Orders, No. 214. James C. Eoson, 

Dated Sept. 2, 1863. Captain^ Commanding. 

We copy the following report of the Rev. Dr. B. F. Crary, 
agent for Minnesota to visit the sick in hospitals, from St. 
Paul Pioneer of Sept. 10, 1863 : 

Sick at Keokuk, Iowa: Wm. B. Bandy, Company C, Brown county; in 
Sixth Street Hospital; eyes have been very sore, but is improving. Mathias 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEBS. 255 

Bartz, Ck>mpany H, Mankato, Medical College; chronic diarrhea; is improvlDg; 
walks aboat. Joseph Blair, CompaDj C, Third Street Hospital; debility; con- 
yalescent. Jndson Burrows, Company B, Carver county, Third Street Hospi- 
tal; chronic diarrhea; is very weak, but is improving. Almon Cottrell, Com- 
pany F, Estes House; piles; is cheerful and hopes to get well. M. Hemerick, 
Company B, Medical College; ague. Wm. Hutchinson, Company G, Third 
Street Hospital; debility. Gustav Johnson, Company H, Medical College; 
ague and diarrhea; very feeble, but thinks he is gaining a little. Michael 
Liesar, Company C, Estes House; diarrhea; convalescent. A. B. Morse, Com- 
pany H, wounded at luka; ball entered spine, passed through right lung and 
lodged beneath the skin under the arm; be is acting as nurse. C. C. Mclntyre, 
Company I, Le Sueur county, Estes House; debility; sick since February 10th; 
convalescent. Sergt. Julius F. Putnam, Company I, Minneapolis, Estes House; 
debility; wants to go into Invalid Corps. Joseph H. Reed, Company H, St. 
Paul, Estes House; spinal affection and debility; suffers much. Corp. Jacob 
Tenvoord, Company G, St. Cloud, Medical College; feet bruised; acting as 
nurse. James H. Thomas, Company H, Estes House; increased action of heart; 
would like to go into Invalid Corps. B. F. Wilson, Company A, Estes House; 
increased action of heart; would like to go into Invalid Corps. 

September Sth — Tne.iday, — Received orders to ^e^et ready to 
march; are going into Arkansas to re-enforce General Steele. 

Septetfiher IJfh — Scit'irday. — Marched through the city to 
the levee. Embarked on the steamboat Illinois. At ten o'clock 
started up tlie river, without tents or camp equipage. Hot 
and clear. 

September loth — Sufubff/. — Arrived at the village of Lake 
Providence. Stojjped one hour and then started on up the 
river. 

September li.th — Mombn/, — Arrived at Napoleon at half-past 
nine o'clock. Started up the Arkansas river and went through 
the White river cut-off to the Mississippi river. 

September loth — T'(e.'<iliO/. — Arrived at Helena, 325 miles 
above Vicksburg, in the morning. At twelve o'clock we left 
the boat and marched up the river, through the town, and 
encami)ed half a mile from the city. Rain at night. Our 
whole division is here, with Gen. J. E. Smith in command. 

Gen. J. K, Smith, in a recent letter to the writer, states: 

We were ordered to proceed to Helena, from thence to report to General 
Steele, who was marching on Little Rock. But having captured that place he 
did not require our assistance, which, heing reported to headquarters we were 
ordered to proceed to Memphis. 



256 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

September 17th — Thursday. — Marched through town and 
down the river one mile and bivouacked on the bank of the 
river. Clear and hot. [Population of Helena, 1880, 4,000.] 

List of sick and wounded soldiers of the Fourth Regiment 
in hospitals at Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 18, 1863 : 

James A. Williams, Company B; on duty at hospital. Angnstos H. Kelly, 
Company D; convalescent; on dnty; detailed. Charles Ziebarth, Company B; 
intermittent fever; three months sick. William H. Seeley, Company H; salt- 
rheum; on dnty; detailed. Merritt W. Cunningham, Company H; hernia; on 
duty; detailed. Samuel Mathews, Company E; chronic diarrhea; well; on duly; 
detailed. HoUis £. Sargent, Company F; chronic diarrhea; quite sick. 
George W. Rogers, Company A; flux; will get well. A. C. Lawrence, Company 
H; debility; convalescent August Nill, Company H; diarrhea and fever; sick 
ten months; improving slow. Albinus Griswold, Company A, intermittent 
fever; sick six months and stUl quite feeble. Charles G. Topping, Company 
B; sick a long time; now able to do light duty. Wm. A. Prisbery, Company 
£; convalescent; on duty; detailed. Theo. B. Casterline, Company £; convales- 
cent; on duty; detailed. Colin Buchanan, Company H; wounded in thigh and 
breast. James McCrory, Company C; chronic rheumatism. Richard Lambert, 
Company D; rheumatism of kidneys. A. B. Myers, Company G; hernia and 
ii^jury to right eye. James H. Badger, Company H; chronic bronchitis. Yin- 
cent B. Lincoln, Company K; debility. Jacob Koons, Company B; chronic 
diarrhea. Charles B. Fenn, Company B; disease of spine. 

The following named persons are reported by the special 
agent as sick at Memphis in November: 

Isaac Vanderwalker, Company K, in Adams Hospital; E. Tuckey, Company 
A, in the Overton Hospital; Townsend G. Nichols, Company B, C. P. Booth, 
Company B, Charles Rogers, Company A, all three in the Overton Hospital; 
Lieutenants S. F. Brown and St. Qyr are both in the Officers' Hospital; C. G. Pea- 
body, Company D, A. S. Bragg, Company I, Wm. Dynes, Company I, are in 
the Union Hospital; K. Helling, Company H, is in the Webster Hospital; 8. V. 
Brook, Company E (probably S. £. Birch), is in the Jackson Hospital; C. L. 
Dresser, Company H, and H. L. Gish, Company I, are at the Gayoso Hospital. 

Sending Troops to Rosecrans at Chattanooga. 

Washington City, Sept. 15, 1863, 5:00 p. m. 

Major General 8, A. Hurlbut, Memphis: 

All the troops that can possibly be spared in west Tennessee and on the 
Mississippi river should be sent without delay to assist General Rosecrans on 
the Tennessee river. Urge Sherman to act with all possible promptness. If 
you have boats send them down to bring up his troops. Infotmation just re- 
ceived indicates that a part of Lee*s army havS been sent to re-enforce Bragg. 

H. W. Halleck, 
General-in-Chief, 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEES. 257 

General Grant, on August 30th, went to New Orleans to 
consult with General Banks, and while there was thrown from 
his horse and injured. On the thirteenth of September, while 
he was still in New Orleans, Halleck telegraphed him to send 
all available forces to Memphis and thence to Tuscumbia to co- 
operate with Rosecrans for the relief of Chattanooga. General 
Grant returned to Vicksburg on September 16th and was 
compelled to keep his bed until the twenty-fifth. On the fif- 
teenth Halleck again telegraphed him for all available forces 
to go to Rosecrans. This was received on the twenty-second. 
He was still confined to his bed and unable to rise from it with- 
out assistance, but at once ordered Sherman to send one divi- 
sion to Memphis as fast as transports could be provided. The 
division of McPherson's corps (ours), which had departed from 
Vicksburg and was on its way to join Steele in Arkansas, was 
recalled and sent likewise to report to Hurlbut at Memphis. 
Hurlbut was directed to forward these two divisions with two 
others from his own corps at once, and also to send any other 
troops that might be returning there. Halleck suggested that 
some good man like Sherman or McPherson should be sent to 
Memphis to take charge of the troops going east. On this he sent 
Sherman,as being, he thought, the most suitable person for an in- 
dependent command, and besides he was entitled to it, if it had 
to be given to anyone. He was directed to take with him 
another division of his corps. This left one back, but having 
one of McPherson's divisions, he had still the equivalent. Be- 
fore the receipt by him of these orders the battle of Chicka- 
mauga had been fought and Rosecrans forced back into 
Chattanooga. (See Grant's ''Memoirs.*') The administration, 
as well as the general-in-chief, was nearly frantic at the situation 
of afiairs there. The battle of Chickamauga was fought Sept. 
19 and 20, 1863. 

St'ptcmher Jf)fh — Saturday, — On this date Gen. J. E. Smith 
sent the following report from Helena to General McPherson 
at Vicksburg: 

I arrived here with a portion of my command on the evening of the 
fourteenth inst^iut. Finding no instmctions and believing the whole command 
would arrive during the night of the fourteenth instant, I intended to march 
17 



258 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

on the morniDg of the fifteenth instant. A portion of the command, howeyer, 
did not arriTe until 12:00 M. of the fifteenth. I at once relieyed my trans- 
portation and sent Lieutenant White of my staff to report to General Steele, and 
issued orders to march at 4:00 A. M. of the sixteenth instant. Captain Ckwk of 
General Hnrlbut's stafif arrived on the night of the fifteenth instant and ordered 
me into camp at this place. After making my men as comfortable as possible, 
by taking the camp equipage belonging to General Steele's command, I pro- 
ceeded to Memphis, with the view of conferring with General Hurlbut, whom 
I found absent. I awaited his return last Thursday instant, when I received 
an order to return to Vicksburg. Upon my return last evening I found General 
Grant's order. There were then but two transports here, by which I could 
transport three regiments and two batteries. I have already embarked on 
board the steamer Julia and will report to Migor General Hurlbut for further 
instructions. (22, 2, 575.) 

Our old brigade commander, Gen. N. B. Buford, is in com- 
mand of the post of Helena at the present time. 

At six o'clock in the morning we marched to town and em- 
barked on the steamboat Monsoon and started up the river at 
eight o'clock; are ordered to proceed to Memphis and await the 
arrival of General Sherman. Hot and clear. Little Rock was 
captured by General Steele's forces September 10th. 

September 27th — Sunday, — Anchored in the morning during 
the fog. Started up the river at sunrise. At one o'clock ar- 
rived at Memphis. At three o'clock we debarked and marched 
through the city to the north and camped one and a half miles 
from the city and near Wolf river. Hot. On the thirtieth it 
rained and we had no tents. Memphis, from Helena, ninety 
miles. 

Septemher SOth — Wednesday. — Monthly report made. Aggre- 
gate, 583. 

October 2d — Friday. — The First Division, Fifteenth Army 
Corps, Gen. P. J. Osterhaus, has gone to Corinth. Our camp 
equipage came. We are ordered to go with Sherman to Chat- 
tanooga across the country. One of his divisions has been left 
behind at Vicksburg (the Third, commanded by General Tuttle), 
and we will go into the Fifteenth Corps in its place. The regi- 
ment is very much dissatisfied at this change, but we are in- 
formed that we will be restored to our old corps as soon as we 
get together again and it can be done. The Second Division, 
Fifteenth Army Corps, Gen. Giles A. Smith commanding, 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 259 

reached Memphis to-day from Vicksburg and General Sher- 
man came with it. [We were never changed back. — Ed.] 

October 3d — Saturday. — John H. Stevens and J. V. Daniels, 
the commissioners appointed by the Governor of Minnesota, 
took the vote of the Fourth Regiment to-day. About one hun- 
dred and fifty ballots were polled. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Leave Memphis and Go to Ck>riiith; Then to Inka — RepairiDg Bear Creek 
Bridge — We 60 into the Fifteenth Army Ck>rp8 — Leave for Chattanooga 
— Cross the Tennessee River ^— Oar Convalescents and Disabled Ones Leave 
Us — Daily Journal of the March, Distance, Weather and Other Particiilars 
— Short of Rations — Details Go to Decherd — Forage Trains Go Ont — Pass 
Plenty of Mules that had Starved to Death (of Rosecrans' Army) — Go Up 
the Cumberland Mountains to the Summit; Down Sweden's Cove — Croas 
Tennessee River at Bridgeport — To Brown's Ferry and Cross — Camp 
Near to Crane's Hill Across from Chattanooga — Pontoons in North Chicka- 
mauga — We Cross the Tennessee River — Advance as Skirmishers — Cap- 
ture Enemy's Scouts and Fire the First Shots from Sherman's Army — 
Battle of Missionary Ridge — Pursue the Enemy — Quarter Rations — 
Living on Hope — To Bridgeport and Huntsvilie — Big Foraging Expe- 
dition — Annual Return for 1863 — To Whitesburg and Return — Enlist as 
Veterans — Trip to Minnesota — Capture La Crosse — Arrive at St Paul and 
Go Home. 

October 5th — Monday. — We started early and marched 
through the city to the Memphis & Charleston Railroad depot. 
Got on the cars. Started at seven o'clock. Went to Corinth. 
Got otf and camped in town. Hot and clear. One hundred 
and two miles from Memphis. A year ago to day we marched 
out of here after the rebels. 

October 6th — Tuesday, — Marched out on the Farmington 
road. Passed the old rebel works. Marched to Glendale on 
the railroad, ten miles from Corinth. Clear. Good roads. 
Rain at night. This is a city of three houses and one saw mill. 

October 16th — Friday. — Received two months' pay. The 
Fifteenth Army Corps, under General Sherman, has all arrived 
and we are now temporarily attached to it. We till the place 
ofTuttle's Third Division. 

Octobei* 17th — Saturday, — Started at eight o'clock and 
marched eight miles to Burnsville on the Memphis & Charles- 
ton railroad. [Population, 1880, 240.] Crossed the railroad 
and encamped. Clear and warm. Good roads. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 261 

October 19th — Monday, — Marched ei^ht miles to luka. 
[Population, 1880, 845.] 

October 21st — Wednesdat/ — Marched six miles to Big Bear 
creek. Rain and mud. Camped in the woods. [General 
Grant reached Chattanooga October 22d, took command, 
and General Rosecrans went to Missouri. — Ed.] The Bear 
creek railroad bridge was on stone piers with stone abut- 
ments and the trestle work was also on stone piers. Length 
of bridge, two hundred and forty feet; total length of trestle, 
in three pieces, five hundred feet. Bear creek is very bad 
in itself and the swampy bottom is impassable to wheeled 
vehicles. 

October 23d — Finday, — The division moved on along the 
railroad, leaving our regiment and the Fifty-ninth Indiana on 
duty here for the present to guard the bridge and repair the 
railroad. Cold and rainv. While here at Bear creek the 
mother of E. A. Parker of Company K came from Minnesota 
and visited him. 

October 25th — Sunday, — Policed a camp. Heard some firing 
ahead. 

October 26th — Monday. — The Fifty-ninth Indiana marched. 
Railroad finished. Heard some gunboats cannonading on the 
Tennessee river. Semi-weekly returns sent in — fifteen officers 
and 268 men present. 

October 28th — Wednesday. — Company F marched to a bridge 
two miles east. We received orders to march in the morning. 

October 29th — Thursday. — Started at daylight and marched 
east to Dickson's Station, Ala., four miles, and joined the bri- 
gade. We marched northeast. Heard some skirmishing east 
of Dickson's. [Population, 1880, 100.] We marched twelve 
miles beyond the station to Chickasaw, on the Tennessee river. 
Good roads and good water. 

Octol>er SOth — Frida^/. — It rained the most of the forenoon. 
Boats are crossing troops from Eastport, Miss. All of our sick 
men and all those not able to march and carry their luggage 
are being sent on a steamboat from here to Paducah, Ky. Sent 
in semi-weekly returns for the twenty-ninth — thirteen officers 
and two hundred and seventy men. Our division commenced 
crossing the river. Cold rain all day. 



262 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

October 31st — Saturday. — Three gunboats and three steam- 
boats arrived at Eastport. At eleven o'clock we got on the 
steamboat Masonic Gem and crossed the river. Marched two 
miles and through Waterloo, Ala. [Population, 1880, 275.] 
Encamped on a creek. Cold. Tri-monthly return — aggre- 
gate present and absent, 579. Sly says : " I went foraging and 
came near being captured by a gang of guerrillas who hung 
some of our men whom they had taken prisoners." Plenty of 
pork and potatoes. Our regiment mustered for pay. 

November 1st — Sunday, — At 3:00 P. M. we marched east to 
Gravelly Springs, Ala. [Population, 1880, 100.] We en- 
camped after dark on a creek at 8:00 p. m., after hav- 
ing marched ten miles. Good rock roads. Major Welch 
arrived from the North. He left us on July 15th at Vicks- 
burg, sick. 

November 2d — Monday. — Marched east through Gravelly 
Springs to Florence, Ala. [Population, 1880, 2,000.] Crossed 
Cypress creek at 3:00 p. m., three miles east of Florence, where 
the thread mills were burned by Union men in May. We 
encamped near Florence at 4:00 p. m. Got orders not to 
go to the river. Unable to procure water. Were rearguard. 
Marched eighteen miles. Monthly report sent in — aggregate 
present and absent, 579. Semi-monthly made. The rebels 
are firing on our men from the other side of the Tennessee 
river. 

November Sd — Tuesday — We started at 5:00 a. m. Marched 
through Florence and southeast. At 11:00 a. m. crossed Shoal 
creek. Passed through Tenebaugh, and at 5:00 p. m. camped 
on a creek near Rogersville, having marched twenty miles. 
Clear and warm. Good roads. 

November 4-th — Wedmsday. — Started at 5:00 a. m. Marched 
tour miles. Stopped at Rogersville [population, 1880, 200], 
Lauderdale county, Alabama, till 12:00 m. Came up to the 
Second Brigade and the rear of Ewing's division. They reported 
that a bridge some miles ahead had been destroyed and that the 
stream could not be crossed. Halted and bivouacked until the 
head of the column should move on. At 12:00 M. we started 
again, preceded by the Second Brigade, and took the road lead- 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 263 

ing to Fayetteville, Tean., there diverj^ing from our original 
course and going northeast. The Third Brigade came up just 
before we left. Camped, about 5:00 p. m., four miles from 
Sugar creek, on another creek. Roads good. Clear. 

November 5th — Thursday, — Semi-weekly return sent in — ag- 
gregate present, 270. Started at 5:00 a. m. Crossed a creek 
at 8:30 a. m. At 9:00 a. m. came up with the Second Brigade 
again and halted while it moved out. We stopped in a field. 
It rained. At 11:00 a. m. started out and marched toward 
Elkton. Crossed Sugar creek after much trouble. Rained all 
the afternoon and the road was very rough and bad. Bivou- 
acked, at 4:00 P. M., in a field at Qilbertsborough [population, 
1880, 25], Limestone county, Alabama. Distance for the day, 
twelve miles. 

November 6th — Friday, — Started at 6:00 a. m., our regiment 
leading. Marched through Qilbertsborough and crossed a 
creek. Passed through Bethel [population, 1880, 153], Giles 
county, Tennessee, and kept on northeast. Very rough and 
hilly roads. Muddy and rocky. Passed some stone walls 
used as fences. At 9:30 a. m. struck the Nashville & Decatur 
railroad and followed it about two miles, then diverged toward 
the east and at sundown forded Richland creek — water three 
feet deep — and bivouacked on the further bank. The Second 
Brigade camped just in front of us. Hilly. Good roads. 
Fine camping grounds. Distance marched, twelve miles. 

Norember 7th — Satnrdai/, — The brigade left at 7:00 a. m., 
preceded by the Second Brigade. Our regiment being in rear 
of the train remained in camp while the column was crossing 
Buchanan creek, Just ahead. We started at 11:00 a. m. in rear 
of the train. Crossed the creek. Marched one mile to the 
turnpike. Struck it about 11:30 a. M.,and turning to the right 
marched down the pike six miles to a point one and a half 
miles from Elkton. Then turned oflf to the left and marched 
on the Favetteville road. Halted about dark and bivouacked 
on the further side of Elk creek. Distance marched, fourteen 
miles. 

Xoreniher iSfh — Sftnday, — Started at 6:00 A. M. Roads very 
rough, hilly and rocky. Passed some cedar timber or brush 



264 HISTORY OF THE FOUETH REGIMENT [1863 

a!id crossed several creeks. Halted at 4:00 p. m. and en- 
camped one and one-half miles from Fayetteville. Cool. Dis- 
tance marched, fourteen miles. Rearguard. 

Xor ember 9th — Moihiay. — Rested in camp. Semi-weeklj' 
return sent in: For duty, 209 enlisted men; extra and daily 
duty, 47; sick, 12; absent, 282; total enlisted men, 550. Com- 
missioned officers, 26; aggregate, 576. 

Noreiaber 10th — Tuesffatj. — Started at 9:00 a. m. Passed 
through Fayetteville [population, 1880, 2,104], Lincoln 
county, Tennessee. Crossed Elk river on a very fine arched 
stone bridge. Rough, rocky roads for about two hours and 
then dry and smooth. About noon came up with the Second 
Brigade and halted half an hour. After marching about nine 
miles crossed the railroad about 4:00 p. m. It is probably the 
one from Fayette to Decherd. After crossing halted for half 
an hour on account of slough ahead. Reached the camp on 
a creek after dark. Distance for the day, fifteen miles. Froze 
ice one and one-half inches thick. 

Nor ember 11th — Weilnesdw/, — Started at 7:00 A. M. Halted 
frequentl}' to bridge sloughs. Road in other respects first-rate. 
Country flat, with undergrowth of oak, etc. We marched eight 
miles without passing a house. Marched through Salem. Saw 
a train of cars. Crossed the railroad three times. Reached 
Winchester just at sundown and encamped on a creek one 
mile from town. [Population of Winchester, Franklin county, 
Tennessee, in 1880, 1,039.] Distance for the day, twenty-two 
miles. Short of rations. 

Nnremher 12th — Thursdau. — Details started for Decherd at 
reveille. Forage train went out. Drew rations at night. 
Sergeant Major Rich arrived from Minnesota, where he went 
on sick leave. Clear and cool. 

Norernbvr 13th — Fi^idan. — Started at 6:00 a. m., the First 
Brigade in the advance and our regiment leading. Passed 
through Winchester. Crossed a creek and crossed the Nash- 
ville & Chattanooga railroad near (three-fourths of a mile 
south) Decherd. [Population, 1880, 350.] Passed plenty of 
dead mules and horses — starved animals of Rosecrans' army. 
Marched south five miles and about 10:00 a. m. reached the 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 265 

foot of the Cumberland mountains. Halted awhile and made 
details for the train. Started up the mountain about half-past 
ten. Road very steep and rough. Marched about two miles, 
reaching the summit of the mountain about 1:00 p. m. Found a 
very good road. Halted and bivouacked at 4:00 p. m., after 
marching five miles from the summit, near the branch railroad 
to coal mines. Clear and cold. Distance for the day, seven- 
teen miles. 

Noremher Hth — Sdtunlru/, — Heavy fog. Lightning struck 
a tree near us. Our regiment being rearguard did not start 
until nearly 9:00 a. m. It rained all the morning and the 
roads were quite bad. Marched eight miles to the crest of the 
mountains, which we reached about 3:00 p. m.; then down a 
very steep and rocky hill to Swedon's cove; then three miles 
down the cove to Battle creek, which we crossed, and then we 
camped. Distance for the day, fifteen miles. Cool. Rain. 

XorenthtT lotli — S'lndai/, — Left camp at 7:00 a. m., following 
the valley of Battle creek to the Tennessee river, which we 
reached about 10:00 a. m., and marched along a railroad bed to 
near Bridgeport, where the brigade encamped in line of battle 
near the bridge and river. Distance marched, ten miles. 

Norenther lOih — Mondiui. — Drew clothing. Cool. Rested in 
camp. Semi-weekly return sent in — commissioned officers, 
15; enlisted men, 252; sick, 13; present aggregate, 267. Copy 
of monthly return sent to adjutant general's office and one 
made for office. ''List of deserters" for October sent to 
provost marshal general by mail. No deserters. 

Xi}ref)fh(T 17fh — T'OSffa//, — Ewing'sdivision crossed the river. 
Remained in camp. 

Xot'cfifhrr IStli — Wcffncsdat/. — Marched to Bridgeport [popu- 
lation, 1880, 200], Jackson county, Alabama, at 7:00 A. M. Our 
division moved, but our brigade being in the rear we started at 
1:00 p. M. We erov^sed the river on a pontoon bridge toan island 
and across another pontoon bridge to the south side of the Ten- 
nessee river. 8j)ecial Orders, No. 177, Headquarters Third Di- 
vision, received, relieving Hospital Stew^ird George M. D. Lam- 
bert from duty with the regiment and leaving him in charge of 
convalescent cam}) of our division. We j»a8sed some fortifica- 



266 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1863 

tions. Marched cue mile. Stopped for supper. Started after 
dark and marched to Shell Mound [population, 1880, 50], 
Marion county, Tennessee. Camped at 9:00 p. m. Orders not 
to beat our drums. Distance marched, eight miles. 

November 19th — ThnrstUu/. — Started about 7 a. m. Marched 
up the Tennessee Valley through Whiteside [population, 1880, 
300], Marion county, Tennessee, and then in the valley and 
along a railroad to the vicinity of Lookout Mountain, which we 
came in sight of just at sunset. Skirted around the mountain 
after dark, within range of the enemy's cannon, and at 9:00 P. M. 
halted for an hour. Chattanooga is eight miles away. Marched 
four miles toward Chattanooga. Passed through Hooker's 
camps. Halted at 12:00 p. m. and bivouacked on a hill in a 
field. Cool. Poor, rockv roads. Could see rebel fires on 
Lookout Mountain. Distance marched to-day, twenty miles. 

Xoremher 20th — Friday/. — Started at 1:30 a. m. Marched to 
the Tennessee river, at Brown's Ferry, on the river below Chat- 
tanooga. Crossed on a pontoon, at 3:00 a. m., to Moccasin 
Point. Got on the wrong road and countermarched. Turned 
off to the left down a ravine toward Dallas up the river. Camped 
at daylight in a ravine one mile from the Tennessee river. 
Pontoon train passed in the night up the river. Lieutenant 
Wellman joined the regiment from furlough. Semi-weekly re- 
turn for the nineteenth sent in — commissioned officers, 15; en- 
listed men, 241; total, 256. We are in bivouac near Crane's 
Hill, on the top of which our signal station is located. 

Xoremher 21st — Satard(o/. — Rained all day. Had no tents. 
We could see Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge from a 
hill close to camp. MudI MudI Tri-weekly returns sent in 
— for duty, 13 officers and 197 men; on extra and daily duty, 
2 officers and 42 men; sick, 4 men; total, 243. In the after- 
noon received orders to be ready for an important movement, 
taking one hundred rounds of ammunition and three days' 
rations and leaving everything else behind. 

yocember 22d — Sunday, — Heard heavy cannonading on 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Eight or ten batter- 
ies went down to the river and then came back. In camp all 
day awaiting orders. Bright sunshine after the rain. Went up 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 267 

on Crane's Hill and watched the movements of the rebels 
across the river. Both armies in plain view, as well as Look- 
out Mountain, Moccasin Point, Chattanooga, etc., the whole 
making a magnificent sight. [From Nashville to Chattanooga 
by railroad is 136 miles; from Chattanooga to Knoxville one 
hundred and ten miles. — Ed.] At 8:00 p. m. received orders to 
move precisely at midnight. Plan of operations set forth in 
detail. At 9:00 p. m. the above order was countermanded. 
First Sergeant Wells of Company A received commission as 
first lieutenant. 

November 23d — Monday. — Still in camp. Semi-monthly re- 
turn sent in — for duty, 15 officers and 191 men; on extra 
and daily duty, 2 officers and 41 men; sick, 10 men; total, 242. 
First Sergeant Wells of Company A reported as first lieuten- 
ant. In the afternoon heard heavy cannonading and then a 
continuous musketry fire from Thomas' front. Died away 
just at dark. All kinds of rumors afloat as to what was going 
on. Probably it was a reconnaissance in force caused by ru- 
mors that the rebels were evacuating. From all accounts we 
drove the rebels nearly to Missionary Ridge. Dark and rainy 
in the evening while all were preparing for the contemplated 
move. 

Col. Gabe Bouck of the Eighteenth Wisconsin commands 
our brigade. 

We copy the following from a letter written home by an 
officer of the regiment on Nov. 23, 1863 : 

We left Bridgeport on the eighteenth instant, crossing the Tennessee river 
at that place on a pontoon bridge. Marched six miles and camped at 10:00 
p. M. The next morning we were np and ofif at seven o'clock. Jnst at sanset we 
came in sight of Lookout Mountain, the highest point among the mountains in 
this section. It is held by the rebels, although Jjookout VaUey and Kacooon 
Mountain opposite are in our possession, having been taken by Hooker about 
the firet of the present month. [October 27th, at 6:00 A. M., General Haxen's 
command of alwat one thousand eight hundred men, in sixty pontoon boats, 
landed at Brown's Ferry, surprised the guards, and by 10:00 A. H. the bridge 
was laid. Hooker crossed the river at Bridgeport on the twenty-sixth and 
meeting bat slight resistance emerged into Jjookout Valley. — Ed.] One thous- 
and two hundred prisoners and seven cannon fell into Hooker's hands. We 
marchetl down this valley, which opens to the Tennessee river below Chatta- 
nooga, all the time in sight of the batteries and rebel picket fires on Lookoat, 



268 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

which I'roiu its threat elevatiou seemed jast above as, though in reality two miles 
away, aud at nine o'clock halted in a grove for an hoards rest; then on to Chat- 
tanooga, eight miles distant. We had marched twenty miles already, and more, 
and the men were tired enough to stop. At ten o'clock wo were again in mo- 
tion, bat after a march of four miles we were unexpectedly ordered to camp and 
move on to Chattanooga at eight o'clock in the morning. Everyone felt thankful, 
so we stretched ourselves under our blankets, under the cold, cloudy autumnal 
sky aud under the ever- watchful Lookout. I had just got to sleep — it might 
have been an hour after we bad halted — when I was awakened by som^ne 
shaking me and saying, *' Up! we march at once!" Weary and half asleep, I looked 
up at Lookout. So sound from its lofty crest; nothing but the active signal light 
which we bad seen early in the evening. I couldn't understand it. I now know 
what it meant. One thing was certain: Everybody was rolling blankets, putting 
on belts and *' cussing." I had just time to dress and get ready when the order, 
"Forward!" rang down the line. It was one o'clock — cold and dark — when 
we filed into the road aud start-^d again for Chattanooga. At 3:00 A. M. we 
crossed the Tennessee river on a bridge of boats, all the time under the eye of 
the ubiquitous Lookout, distant three and a half miles, but it seemed much 
nearer. We marched a mile or two on the Chattanooga road, halted and re- 
traced our steps. '* Someone bad blundered." Took another road running to 
the north of Chattanooga and striking the river about that place. The men 
were nearly exhausted. More than once during the night I fell asleep on my 
horse. At every brief halt men throw themselves on the ground and snatch a 
moment's sleep. It was broad daylight when we halted here in a ravine near 
the river, some distance above the town. Yesterday was Sunday, pleasant, with 
bright sunshine and clear sky. In the forenoon I went up to the top of a high 
point at the left of our camp, from which a splendid view may be had. It was 
a magnificent picture. Just below, the broad Tennessee. Beyond the river, 
running parallel thereto and distant about two miles,stretche8 Missionary Ridge. 
Away to the right rises Lookout, aloiie, and higher than the ground yoa stand 
on. Between the two, Thomas' camps at Chattanooga, with a brisk cannonade 
along that commander's front, and all the rough hilly ground intervening looks 
almost like a plain from your superior height. All this, I say, makes a grand 
picture. I saw it yesteiVlay. It paid me well for climbing to the top. A view 
from the top of that mountain to-morrow will be such as a man could not expect 
to see twice during a lifetime. It will be grand. Last night at dark we re- 
ceived orders to move at midnight. In an hour we received notice that the 
enterprise bad been postponed twenty-four hours, so we are under orders to 
move to-night at twelve oVlock. Sherman's corps, now comprising six divi- 
sions, jusr from Vicksburg, is ordered to cross the river near the mouth of the 
Chickamauga, and carry and hold the eastern end of Missionary Ridge. The an- 
dertaking is a difficult one to bring to a successful issue. The ridge is well for- 
tified. The enemy is strong. Our advance is to cross the river in boats, and 
covered by our artillery on this side, gain the foothold. A pontoon bridge is to be 
thrown across as quickly as possible and troops rushed across to the support of 
the advance, when the corps, twenty or twenty-five thousand strong, must carry 
and hold Missionary Ridge. Our centre and right will most likely attack in order 
to prevent the enemy from sending re- enforcements against us on the left. Oar 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 269 

brigade is to cross in boats. Oar regiment is to be in the advance as skirmish- 
ers, so yon see that we shall have enough to do, and if by any mishap the 
enterprise should fail (which may the Lord forbid!) we shall be annihilated or 
captured. It was intended this move should be made three days ago, but all 
the troops did not arrive until late yesterday. These statements are facts re- 
ceived by me from the colonel, who got his information in a council of officers at 
brigade headquarters, and if no change is made in the program twelve 
o'clock to-night will see us moving to begin our part in the great work. 

Jiadeau says: 

By Friday night, November 20th, 116 pontoons were hidden in North 
Chicknmauga creek, which empties into the Tennessee from the north five 
miles above the mouth of the South Chickamauga (which is about four miles 
above Chattanooga and runs from the south). It is a sluggish stream, one hun- 
dred and eighty feet wide. This stream offered such facilities for launching 
the boats that it was determined to put the iK>ntoons in the water there and 
float them down, loaded with soldiers, to the point of crossing. * * * Seven 
hundred and fifty oarsmen were selected from the two armies, and these, 
with Giles A. Smith's brigade, were placed at the head of Sherman's column 
and marched under cover of the hills to the North Chickamauga. Before mid- 
night of the twenty-third of November the pontoons were loaded with thirty 
armed men each, and the whole fleet, ciirrying Giles Smith's brigade, pushed 
carefully out of the North Chickamauga and then dropped silently down the 
Tennessee. Floating quietly by the rebel sentinels they reached their destina- 
tion, a point just above the mouth of the South Chickamauga. A small force 
then jumped ashore, and advancing rapidly captured the enemy's outguard, 
twenty in number, before the rebels were aware of the presence of a foe. 
Smith then pushed rapidly below the mouth of the Chickamauga, disem- 
barked the rest of his brigade and dispatched the pontoons back for other 
loads. 

We quote from the diary of Adjutant Kittredge: 

At 2:00 P. M. of the twenty-third we left camp and marched rapidly and 
quietly up the river to the place of crossing. We got into boats and were rowed 
o\er to the south side of the river, which we reached at half-past one o'clock 
on the morning of the twenty-fourth. Our regiment was the first one of 
our division to cross, meeting with no opposition. Climbed the ridge at the 
mouth of Chickamauga creek just below the crest. The brigade formed in line 
and proceeded to fortify on the ridge and the regiment deployed forward as 
skirmishers. By daylight we were advancing across the fields, meeting no re- 
sistance. Captured three cavalry patrols with their horses. Halted about 
10:00 A. M. und the division threw up a second line of works, the right resting 
on the river, and remained (juite a while. Pontoons were thrown across and 
the artillery was brought over. About 1:00 P. M. all was ready, when our di- 
vision formed close column by division, our line of skirmishers so deployed as 
to cover the front und right flank. Our regiment, as skirmishers for our divi- 
sion front, pushed on rapidly through woods and through a swamp, and then, 



268 HI8TOHY OF THE FOURTH EEGIMENT [18( 

whic'ii'rom its graat elevatiou seemed Joat above aa, tbough in reality two mi 
awoy, auii at aiae o'clock halted in a grove for an bonr's rest; then on to Chi 
tanooga, eixbt tuileedistaDt. We had marched tweatjtnilee already, and nun 
and the men were tired euoagh t« atop. Att«u o'clock we were again in a 
tion, bat afteramarch of Jour miles we were □□eiptcledlyonlereil U> ciiitip a| 
moveon to Chattanooga at eigbto'clock in tbemornLD>!. Everyone I'elt ChAnfci^ 
so we atrelcbed oaiselves aoder oar blauketa, nader the cold, clondy untDiniq 
sky and a Oder the ever- watch rut Lookout. I bad jast not U> aleep — itndd 
have been on bonr after we bad halted — when 1 was awakeDe<) by aonuA 
ababingmeandsaying/'Up! we march at once!" Weary and hair aaleep, Ilcmlj 
np at Lookout. Ho sound from its iofty creet; nothing but the active signal U); 
which we bad seen early in the evening. I cnaldn't understand it. Inoirkl.'V 
whatitmeaot. One thingwascertain; Everybody was roUiughlaukets, pttUil 
on belts and "cussing." I bad just time to drees and ^Et ready wheu thatltl 
"Forwatd!" rang (town the line. It waa ooe o'clock — eold and dark — A*' 
we filed ioto tbe road aud startsd agaiD for Chattnuoj^. At 3;D0 a. K I 
croflsed the Tennessee river on a bridge of boata, all the time under Ibe ay- , 
the nbiquitooB Lookout, distant thi«e and a half miles, hut it seenud 1i i 
nearer. We marched a mile or two on the Chattannnifa tund. halted W 
traced oar ateps. "Someone bad blundered." Touk luiotUer road rtlnii'' 
the north of Chattanooga and striking tbe river ahoiit that place. Tli 
were nearly eibansted. More than once during the [li^hl I f«ll asleep 
horse. At every brief halt men throw themselves oa the ground and >• 
moment's sleep. It was bioad daylight when we bn)t«t^ here in a Di*it> 
tbe river, some distance above the town. Yeat«rday wiis Suudny. piMni 
bright annshine and clear sky. In the forenoon I Tvi-ut up to the topi 
point at the lell of onr camp, from which a splendid 
a maguiGcent picture. Just below, the broad Teniie-Hset. Beyoi 
running parallel thereto and distant about two mileir.streUbesMivii 
Away to the right rises Lookout, alone, and higher ihiiu the groi 
on. Between tbe two. Thomas' camps at Chattano^>td, with a brisk! 
along that commander's front, and all the rough hiU^' i^rouud inten 
almost likea plain from your superior height. All ttiiii. I say. mnlll 
picture. I saw it yesteMay. It paid me well for cliuibiog lo tb» I'l^ 
from the top of that monu tain to-morrow will be soihiM n man con 
to see twice during a lifetime. It will be grand. L^ist night at 
ceived orders to move at midnight. In an hour ne reoeived ii" 
enterprise had been postponed twenty-four hours, i^o W6 are un'ii il 
move to-night at twelve o'clock. Sherman's corp?. now compri"' W 
sions, jos! fn.m Vickshu^, is ordered to cross tbe riret near the i ) 
Cbtckamanga, and carry and hold the eastern endof Missionarj llti J 
derta^ing is a difficult one to bring to a succeeafnl i^ue. Tfa«Tl'i ^ 
tified. The enemy is strong. Our advance is to cro^ tbe ri'er > 
covered by our artillery on this side, gain tbe footboUi. A poutAO)! , 
thrown across as quickly ns po^ible and troops nu! >t>d across *■■ 
the advance, when tbe corp". twenty or twenty-five liioii-HUjd «'. 
and bold Missionary Ridge, Our centre and right 
to prevent tbe enemy from sending re- eo force meota 




270 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

swinging half to the left, advanced across the Western & Atlantic railroad, 
throagh a vineyard and then directly up Middle Hill (the position assigned oar 
division to occupy) and into the valley between that and Tnnnel Hill. Here 
we met a very brisk fire, which was kept np until long after dark. The regi- 
ment was relieved about 8:00 p. M. by the Forty-eighth Indiana, and came up 
to the top of the hill and formed in line back of the ridge. Private £. Ruble 
of Company I was wounded slightly in the leg [and afterwards died of it on 
December 3d. — Ed. ]. No one else of our regiment hurt. Our brigade fortified 
the crest of the ridge during the night. The Second and Third brigades 
moved in the evening to support Ewing's division, which was said to have been 
partially repulsed. During the day heavy firing was heard in the direction of 
Lookout. 

J. N. Bradford of Company B, under date of November 
24th, savs: 

Frank De Mers and myself (after we crossed the river and the enemy's 
pickets had been captured without firing a shot, and we were about a mile 
inland and were forming our lines ready to advance) started up the road with 
our guns and soon discovered two of the enemy on horseback riding down the 
road toward us. They were riding along carelessly and had not yet discovered 
that we were across the river. Before they saw us I proposed to my companion 
to get behind a stump and to capture them as they came up, but he declined 
and went back. I, however, secreted myself and when they rode np brought 
my gun up and halted them. One threw up his hands and said *' Don't shoot! 
I surrender!'* But the other, who was a lieutenant, wheeled his horse sud- 
denly and made his escape through a shower of balls which our men fired at 
him, for he rode right up our line and hundreds fired at him. I got my pris- 
oner, whose name was also Bradford, and his horse, which was a fine animal, as 
Colonel Tourtellotte will remember. The volley fired at that officer in his 
flight up the road was the first notice that the enemy had that we were on that 
side of the river. We viere then deployed as skirmishers and advanced on the 
trot, Colonel Tourtellotte following closely behind and some of the time ahead 
and urging us forward until we struck the railroad track, where we halted 
until onr forces could come up. 

Bradford savs, "Tourtellotte took the horse and never said 
' Thank you!' " By 9:00 a. m. the colonel, adjutant and sergeant 
major were all mounted on the steeds of captured rebel scouts. 

General Tourtellotte writes: 

This circumstance occurred in regard to the Fourth Minnesota crossing the 
river first at Missionary Ridge. The brigade commander called his regimental 
commanders together and told them that his brigade was ordered to cross the 
river first on the morning of the fight and asked who was willing to lead the 
way. It was supposed that our crossing would be fiercely opposed. I de- 
sired permission to cross first with my regiment. I did not say that the mat- 
ter of a little (or much) fighting to get across the river would make no differ- 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 271 

ence with my regiment, bat others were permitted to make whatever inference 
they chose. And that very advance by oar brigade on the first day prevented 
oar taking the lead on the next day and saved as from the very severe and nn- 
saccessfal fight in which the other brigade was engaged. Oar regiment was 
not the first of General Sherman's army that crossed the river, bat it was the 
first of oar division to cross, and we had the division front to cover. 

Before the battle of Missionary Ridge provisions were scarce for man and 
beast. One of my horses had eaten no government forage for several days nor 
coald we get any in the country. The other horse had been fed some hard bread. 
We saw s )me stacks of grain on the enemy's side of the river and at length we 
started for those stacks. All officers were on foot at oar first crossing in the 
boats, and I directed that one horse shoald be broaght to me when the pon- 
toon bridge was laid. Before the bridge was laid the man and horse were cap- 
tared, as mentioned in the diary. I monnted the captnred horse and sent 
back word that my horses shoald be fed and not broaght to me. In advanc- 
ing np the hill that day I rode into a vineyard. The fence was very high at 
oar place of exit. The men climbed the fence, bat the captared horse conld 
not, and as I could not spare the time to ride back to the place of entering the 
vineyard, as we expected the enemy apon as every moment^ I dismounted 
and left the horse where he stood, climbed the fence and went on foot with the 
men. A captain of artillery was afterward seen riding the captared horse and 
I did not get one of my own horses for two days. 

Adjutant Kittredge says, under date of November 25th: 

Bivouacked on Middle Hill behind the intrenchments. Heard in the morn- 
ing that Lookout Mountain had been carried by assault. Daring the forenoon 
oaf forces moved to the assault of Tunnel Hill, which the rebels had been for- 
tifying during the night. X)ur regiment and the FHfty-ninth Indiana and 
Eighteenth Wisconsin remained on the ridge. From there we could see the 
whole afiair, which was gallant in the extreme. Step by step our men 
advanced up the hill in the face of a terrible fire. All seemed working well, 
when about 4:00 p. M. the right of the line was attacked by a heavy force from 
Missionary Ridge and our men were almost surrounded and forced to fall back, 
losing quite a number in prisoners. Our left held its ground and proceeded to 
fortify during the night. The capture of Lookout was confirmed and seemed 
to lighten the sorrow occasioned by our partial repulse and heavy loss. Laid 
down for the night expecting a renewal of the attack on the morrow. 

Col. Ilolden Putnam of the Ninety-third Illinois Infantry 
was killed in these operations. 
Sly says: 

At one o'clock on the twenty-fourth we advanced up Chickamaaga creek in 
front of our division. Met the rebels on the first hill of Missionary Ridge. 
Drove them over to the next hill. Skirmished until dark. Marched back to the 
first hill and camped on the north side of the hill. Very cold. One man 
wounded. I helped (tirry him back to the surgeon's, and on returning to the 
reserve of the skirmish line down hill, dodging from tree to tree as the rebels 



272 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

fired at me, I dropped m j revoWer. Stopped behind a tree and saw where it 
was up the hill. Started for it. The rebels fired a volley between me and the 
next tree down hill. Got the revolver and ran back. Took the litter and ran 
down the hill to the reserve. ECad nothing to eat nntil 9:00 P. M. 

Xoremhcr 25th — Wednesday, — We are acting as reserve on 
the first hill captured. Skirmishing coraraeuced in the morn- 
ing in front of us. Some shells were thrown over us. Could 
see the troops fighting across the ravine in front of us. We 
are with the reserve of Smith's division and on the crest of 
the first hill captured on the twenty-fourth. 

November 2Gth — Thursday. — Marched down the hill. Crossed 
back over the railroad. Marched to the river and drew rations. 
At eight o'clock we crossed Chiekamauga creek on a pontoon, 
then marched up the creek to the old bridge and road. Passed 
some rebel breastworks. Crossed the Knoxville railroad. 
Marched one mile. Started after dark. Passed Chiekamauga 
Station [population, 1880, 75], which was burning. Passed 
some huts built by the rebels. Plenty of cornmeal scattered 
along the road. Fences were burning. 

yorcud/er 27th — Friday. — Marched southeast eight miles, to 
Graysville, Catoosa county, Georgia. [Population, 1880, 279.] 
Camped on a side hill. Drew quarter rations. 

November 28th — Saturday, — Rained. Detailed to fix roads. 
Marched through fields and by-roads to the mouth of the 
Chiekamauga creek. Waited until late in the evening for our 
turn to cross. Crossed and marched to the other bridge near 
division hospital. Crossed the I'ennessee river late after dark, 
to our old camp. Marched sixteen miles to-day. No rations. 
Very cold. [Population, 1880, Chattanooga, Hamilton county^ 
Tennessee, 17,500.] 

Young says: 

Here ocearred one of the most trying times in the history of the organization. 
They reached the camp wet, tired and hungry, to find that they had no tents 

nor a ponnd of anything to eat. Lieutenant , Eighteenth Wisconsin, 

acting commissray of subsistence, was sound asleep in his tent, regardless of the 
fact thai a brigade of worn and famished men were coming. The writer was 
present when the fact was brought to the notice of Col. Gabe Bouck, Eigh- 
teenth Wisconsin, who commanded the brigade. As soon as Bouck ascertained 
where the delinquency was located, he proceeded, in his peculiar way, to roast 
that officer, and for a few minutes there was a storm of profane expletives 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEB8. 273 

heard there the like of which has probably never been equaled. We got one 
day's rations at 4:00 A. M., the twenty-ninth, with orders to make it last four 
days. 

Cold wind all day. The animals suffered even more than 
the men. Xearly all the artillery and field and staft' horses 
were starved so as to be useless. Mules died from starvation 
by the hundreds. 

Missionary Ridge. 

General Sherman states, in his official report. 

At last, on the twenty-third of November, my three divisions lay behind 
the hills (Odterhaus* division was left to act with Hooker) opposite the month 
of the Chickamanga. I dispatched the brigade of the Second Division, com- 
manded by Gen. Giles A. Smith, under cover of the hills, to North Chickamanga 
creek to man the boats designed for the pontoon bridge, with orders (at mid- 
night) to drop down silently to a point above the mouth of South Chickamango, 
there land two regiments, who were to move along the river bank quietly and 
capture the enemy's river pickets. Gen. Giles A. Smith then was to drop 
rapidly below the mouth of the Chickamanga, disembark the rest of his bri- 
gade and dispatch the boats across for fresh loads. These orders were skillfully 
executed, and every rebel picket but one was captured. The balance of Gen. 
Morgan L. Smithes division was then rapidly ferried across, that of Gen. John 
E. Smith followed, and by daylight of November 24th two divisions of about 
eight thousand men were on the east bank of the Tennessee and had thrown ap 
a very respectable ritle-trench as a tete du pont. As soon as the day dawned 
some of the boats were taken from the use of ferrying and a pontoon bridge 
was begun, under the immediate direction of Captain Dresser, the whole 
planned and supervised by Gen. William F. Smith in person. A pontoon 
bridge was also built at the same time over Chickamanga creek near its month, 
giving communication with the two regiments which had been left on the 
north side and fulfilling a most important purpose at a later stage of the 
drama. I will here bear my willing testimony to the completeness of this 
whole business. All the officers charged with the work were present and mani- 
fested a skill which I cannot praise too highly. I have never beheld any work 
done so quickly, so well; and I doubt if the history of war can show a bridge 
of that extent (viz., thirteen hundred and fifty feet) laid so noiselessly and 
well in so short a time. I attribute it to the genius and intelligence of Gen. 
William F. Smith. The steamer Dunbar arrived in the course of the morning 
and relieved Ewing^s division of the labor of rowing across, but by noon the 
pontoon bridge was done and my three divisions were across, with men, horses, 
artillery and everything. Gen. Jeff. C. Davis' division was ready to take the 
bridge and I ordered the columns to form in order to carry the Missionary 
Hills. The movement had been carefnlly explained to all division com- 
manders, and at 1 :00 P. M. we marched from the river in three colnmns en 
18 



274 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

echelon : The left, GeD. Morgan L. Smith — the colamn of direction — following 
sabstantially Chickamauga creek; the centre, Gen. John £. Smith, in columns 
doubled on the centre at one brigade interTal, to the right and rear; the right, 
General Ewing, in column, at the same distance to the right and rear, prepared 
to deploy to the right, on the supposition that we would meet an enemy in 
that direction. Each head of column was covered by a good line of skirmish- 
ers with supports. A light drizzling rain prevailed and the clouds hung low, 
cloaking our movement from the enemy's tower of observation on Lookout 
Mountain. We soon gained the foothills. Oar skirmishers crept up the face 
of the hills, followed by their supports, and at 3:30 p. M. we had gained, with 
no loss, the desired point. A brigade of each division was pushed rapidly to 
the top of the hill and the enemy for the first time seemed to realize the move- 
ment; but too late, for we were in possession. He opened with artillery, but 
General Ewing soon got some of Captain Richardson's guns up that steep hill 
and gave back artillery, and the enemy's skirmishers made one or two ineffec- 
tual dashes at General Ligbtbum, who had swept around and got a fhrther hill, 
which was the real continuation of the ridge. 

From studying all the maps I had inferred that Missionary Ridge was a 
continuous hill, but we found ourselves on two high points, with a deep depres- 
sion between us and the one immediately over the tnnnel, which was my 
chief objective point. The ground we had gained, however, was so important 
that I could leave nothing to chance, and ordered it to be fortified during the 
night. One brigade of each division was left on the hill, one of Gen. Morgan 
L. Smith's closed the gap at Chickamauga creek, two of Gen. John R Smith's 
were drawn back to the base in reserve and General Ewing's right was ex- 
tended down into the plain, thus crossing the ridge in a general line facing 
southeast. The enemy felt our left flank about 4:00 p. M. and a pretty sharp 
engagement with artillery and mnskets ensued, when he drew off; but it cost 
us dear, for Gen. Giles A. Smith was severely wounded and had to go to the 
rear. * * * As night closed in I ordered Gen. Jeff. C. Davis to keep one 
of his brigades at the ridge, one close up to my position and one intermediate. 
Thus we passed the night, heavy details being kept busy at work on the 
intrenchments on the hill. Daring the night the sky cleared away bright, a 
cold frost filled the air and our campfires revealed to the enemy and to our 
friends in Chattanooga our position on Missionary Ridge. About midnight I 
received at the hands of Major Rowley (of General Grant's staff) orders to 
attack the enemy at *'dawn of day," with notice that General Thomas would 
attack in force early in the day. Accordingly before day I was in the saddle 
attended by all my staff, rode to the extreme left of our position near Chicka- 
mauga creek, thence up the hill held by General Lightbum and around to the 
extreme right of General Ewing. Catching as accurate an idea of the ground 
as possible by the dim light of morning, I saw that oar line of attack was in the 
direction of Missionary Ridge, with wings supporting on either flank. Quite 
a valley lay between us and the next hill of the series, and this hill presented 
steep sides, the one to the west partially cleared and the other covered with the 
native forest. The crest of the ridge was narrow and wooded. The further 
point of this hill was held by the enemy with a breastwork of logs and fresh 
earth, filled with men and two gnus. The enemy was also seen in great force 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 275 

on a still higher hill beyond the tnnnel, from which he had a fine plunging fire 
on the hill in dispute. The gorge between, through which several roads and 
the railroad tunnel pass, could not be seen from our position, but formed the 
natural place d'armes where the enemj covered his masses to resist our con- 
templated movement of turning his right flank and endangering his communi- 
cations with his depot at Chickamauga Station. As soon as possible the 
following dispositions were made: The brigade of Colonels Cockrell and 
Alexander and General Lightburn were to hold our hill as the key-point. Gen- 
eral Corse, with as much of his brigade as could operate along the narrow 
ridge, was to attack from our right centre. General Lightburn was to dispatch 
a good regiment from his position to co-operate with General Corse, and Gen. 
Morgan L. Smith was to move along the east base of Missionary Ridge, con- 
necting with General Corse; Colonel Loomis, in like manner, to move along the 
west base, supported by the two reserve brigades of Gen. John £. Smith. The 
flun had hardly risen before General Corse had completed his preparations and 
his bugle sounded the "Forward!'* The Fortieth Illinois, supported by the 
Forty-sixth Ohio on our light centre, with the Thirtieth Ohio (Colonel Jones), 
moved down the face of the hill and up that held by the enemy. The line 
advanced to within about eighty yards of the intrenched position, where Gen- 
eral Corse found a secondary crest which he gained and held. To this point 
he called his reserves and asked for re-enforcements, which were sent, but the 
space was narrow and it was not well to crowd the men, as the enemy's 
artillery and musketry fire swept the approach to his position, giving him great 
advantage. As soon as General Corse had made his preparations he assaulted, 
and a close, severe contest ensued, which lasted more than an hour, gaining 
and losing ground, but never the position first obtained, from which the 
enemy in vain attempted to drive him. Gen. Morgan L. Smith kept gaining 
ground on the left spurs on Missionary Ridge and Colonel Loomis got abreast 
of the tunnel and railroad embankment on his side, drawing the enemy's fire, 
and to that extent relieving the assaulting party on the hill crest. Captain 
Collender had four of his guns on GeneAil Ewing's hill and Captain Woods his 
Napoleon battery on General Lightburn's; also, two guns of Dillon's with 
Colonel Alexander's brigade. All directed their fire as carefully as possible to 
clear the hill to our front without eudangering our own men. The fight raged 
furiously about 10:00 A. M., when General Corse received a severe wound, was 
brought ofl^ the field and the command of the brigade and of the assault at that 
key-point devolved on that fine, gallant young officer. Colonel Walcott of the 
Forty-sixth Ohio, who fulfilled his part manfully. He continued the contest, 
pressing forward at all ][>oints. Colonel Loomis had made good progress to 
the right, and about 2:00 P. M. Gen. John £. Smith, judging the battle to l)e 
most severe on the hill and being required to support General Ewing, ordered 
up Colonel Kaum's and General Matthies' brigades across the field to the sum- 
mit that wa.s being fought for. They moved up under a heavy fire of cannon 
and musketry and joined Colonel Walcott, but the crest was so narrow that 
they necessarily occupied the west face of the hill. The enemy at the time 
being ma.sKed iu great strength in the tunnel gorge, moved a large force under 
cover of the ground and the thick bushes and suddenly appeared on the right 
rem of this command. The suddenness of the attack disconcerted the men, 
exposed as they were in the open field; they fell back in some disorder to the 



276 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

lower edge of the field and reformed. These two brigades were in the nature 
of supports and did not constitute a part of the real attack. The movement, 
seen from Chattanooga (five miles off) with spy-glasses, gave rise to the report, 
which even General Meigs has repeated, thtit we were repulsed on the left. It 
was not so. The real attacking columns of General Corse, Colonel Loomis and 
General Smith were not repulsed. They engaged in a close struggle all day 
persistently, stubbornly and well. When the two reserve brigades of Gen. 
John £. Smith fell back, as described, the enemy made a show of pursuit, but 
were in their turn caught in flank by the well-directed fire of our brigade on 
the wooded crest and hastily sought cover behind the hill. 

Thus matters stood about 3:00 p. M. The day was bright and clear and the 
amphitheatre of Chattanooga lay in beauty at our feet. I had watched for the 
attack of General Thomas '* early in the day." Column after column of the 
enemy was streaming toward me; gun after gun x>oured its concentric shot on 
us from every hill and spur that gave a view of any part of the ground held by 
us. An occasional shot from Fort Wood and Orchard Knob and some musketry 
fire and artillery over about Lookout Mountain was all that I could detect on 
our side; but about 3:00 p. M. I noticed the white line of musketry fire in front 
of Orchard Knoll extending further and further right and left and on. We could 
only hear a faint echo of sound, but enough was seen to satisfy me that General 
Thomas was at last moving on the centre. I knew that our attack had drawn 
vast masses of the enemy to our flank and felt sure t)f the result. Some guns 
which had been firing on us all day were silent or were turned in a different 
direction. The advancing line of musketry fire from Orchard Knoll disappeared 
to us behind a spur of the hill and could no longer be seen, and it was not until 
night closed in that I knew that the troops in Chattanooga had swept across 
Missionary Ridge and broken the enemy^s centre. Of course the victory was 
won and pursuit was the next step. I ordered Gen. Morgan L. Smith to feel 
to the tunnel, and it was found vacant save by the dead and wounded of our 
own and the enemy commingled. The reserve of Gen. Jefif. C. Davis was or- 
dered to march at once by the pontoon bridge across Chickamauga creek at its 
mouth and push forward for the depot. ♦ * * By about 11:00 A. M. Gen. 
Jetr. C. Davis' division reached the depot, just in time to see it in flames. He 
found the enemy occupying two hills, partially intrenched, just beyond the 
depot. These he soon drove away. The depot presented a scene of desolation 
that war alone exhibits — cornmeal and com in huge burning piles, broken wag- 
ons, abandoned caissons, two thirty -two pounder rifled guns with carriages 
burned, pieces of pontoons, balks and chesses, etc (destined doubtless for the 
famous invasion of Kentucky), and all manner of things, burning and broken. 
Still the enemy kindly left us a good supply of forage for our horses, and meal, 
beans, etc., for our men. Pausing but a short while we passed on, the road 
filled with broken wagons and abandoned caissons, till night. Just as the head 
of the column emerged from a dark, miry swamp, we encountered the rear 
guard of the retreating enemy. The fight was sharp, but the night closed in 
so dark that we could not move. General Grant came up to us there. At day- 
light we resumed the march, and at Graysville, where a good bridge spanned 
the Chickamauga, we found the corps of General Palmer on the south bank, 
who informed us that General Hooker was on a road still Airther south, and we 
could hear his guns near Ringgold. 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 277 

It being necessary to relieve the army of General Burnside, 
which was besieged at Knoxville, over one hundred miles dis- 
tant, by Longstreet's forces, General Sherman marched with 
the First and Second divisions of his corps (Howard's and 
Jeff. C, Davis') and some other troops to that place, arriving 
there December 6th, and returned to the vicinity of Chatta- 
nooga about the nineteenth. 

Xoremlnr 29th — Stoufaf/. — Cold wind drove the men to the 
ravine and woods for shelter. Drew quarter rations. 

N()veml)er 30tb — Monday. — Drew some beef. Ilad to eat 
corn. Cold. 

Monthly Betumafor November^ 1863. — For duty, 14 officers and 198 men; extra 
and daily, 2 officers and 40 men; sick duty, 1 officer and 2 men; total, 17 
officers and 240 men. Detached, 2 officers and 75 men; sick, 6 officers and 212 
men; without leave, 2 officers and 3 men; with leave, 1 man; total, 10 officers 
and 291 men. No deserters. 

Diceniher 1st — Tuesday. — Drew half rations. In camp. Were 
reviewed by General Hunter. Generals Grant, Logan and 
Smith were present. In the evening the regiment was paid 
by Major Tillman up to Oct. 31, 1863. Tourtellotte, Cross, 
Wedel, Murphy, Kittredge and Rich were all paid. Lieut. L. 
K. Wellman was mustered in as first lieutenant from Oct. 3, 
1863. 

I)erenil>e.r 3/ — Wi'dnei<(lay. — Remained in camp awaiting 
orders to move as soon as teams could be procured, ours having 
been sent oti* for forage, meal, etc. 

Jkrendter 3d — Thursday, — Started at 7:00 A. M. Marched to 
Brown's Ferry. Crossed the Tennessee river on a pontoon 
bridge. Passed General Hooker's headquarters and Lad a 
good view of the general, who was standing in front of his 
tent watching us. Found the roads very bad. Sent the men 
on the railroad, meeting them at Whiteside, near the ruins of 
the large railroad bridge that was burned. We marched 
al)out a mile from the bridge and camped on a side hill in 
Trenton Valley. The wagon train did not come up for the first 
time in all our experience, having got tangled up with trains 
going the other way over the mountains. Consequently the 
men spent the night hungry and cold. Rations were promised 



276 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1863 

lower edge of the field and reformed. These two brigades were in the nature 
of supports and did not constitute a part of the real attack. The movement, 
seen from Chattanooga (five miles off) with spy-glasses, gave rise to the report, 
which even General Meigs has repeated, that we were repulsed on the left. It 
was not so. The real attacking columns of General Corse, Colonel Loomis and 
General Smith were not repulsed. They engaged in a close struggle all day 
persistently, stubbornly and well. When the two reserve brigades of Gen. 
John £. Smith fell back, as described, the enemy made a show of pursuit, but 
were in their turn caught in flank by the well-directed fire of our brigade on 
the wooded crest and hastily sought cover behind the hill. 

Thus matters stood about 3:00 P. M. The day was bright and clear and the 
amphitheatre of Chattanooga lay In beauty at our feet. I had watched for the 
attack of General Thomas ''early in the day.'' Column after column of the 
enemy was streaming toward me; gun after gun poured its concentric shot on 
us from every hill and spur that gave a view of any part of the ground held by 
us. An occasional shot from Fort Wood and Orchard Knob and some musketry 
fire and artillery over about Lookout Mountain was all that I could detect on 
our side; but about 3:00 p. M. I noticed the white line of musketry fire in front 
of Orchard Knoll extending further and further right and left and on. We could 
only hear a faint echo of sound, but enough was seen to satisfy me that General 
Thomas was at last moving on the centre. I knew that our attack had drawn 
vast masses of the enemy to our flank and felt sure t>f the result. Some guns 
which had been firing on us all day were silent or were turned in a different 
direction. The advancing line of musketry fire from Orchard EnoU disappeared 
to us behind a spur of the hill and could no longer be seen, and it was not until 
night closed in that I knew that the troops in Chattanooga had swept acrofls 
Missionary Ridge and broken the enemy's centre. Of course the victory WM . 
won and pursuit was the next step. I ordered Gen. Morgan L. Smith to feel 
to the tunnel, and it was found vacant save by the dead and wounded of onr 
own and the enemy commingled. The reserve of Gen. Jeff. C. Davis was or- 
dered to march at once by the pontoon bridge across Chickamauga creek at lis ;. 
mouth and push forward for the depot. ♦ * * By about 11:00 A. M. G«o* ..^ 
Jeff. C. D.ivis' division reached the depot, just in time to see it in flames. H« v. 
found the enemy occupying two hills, partially intrenched, just beyond tii#./ 
depot. These he soon drove away. The depot presented a scene of deeolatilM^J^'- 
that war alone exhibits — cornmeal and corn in huge burning piles, broken ifWlf^ 
ons, abandoned caissons, two thirty-two pounder rifled guns vnth carzia^lttr! 
burned, pieces of pontoons, balks and chesses, etc. (destined doubtless fuT llfci. 
famous invasion of Kentucky), and all manner of things, burning and biokiij^ 
Still the enemy kindly left us a good supply of forage for our horses, and 
beans, etc., for our men. Pausing but a short while we passed on, the 
filled with broken wagons and abandoned caissons, till night. Just as the! 
of the column emerged from a dark, miry swamp, we encountered tbe 
guard of the retreating enemy. The fight was sharp, but the night <doie^^ 
so dark that we could not move. General Grant came up to us there. At 
light we resumed the march, and at Graysville, where a good bridge 
the Chickamauga, we found the corps of General Palmer on the south 
who informed us that General Hooker was on a road still further south, 
could hear his guns near Ringgold. 




.1 



cr 



278 HIRTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [18^ 

U8, but the men sent for them could not find them. Distance 
marched to-day, fourteen miles. 

Decaiiher ith. — Friday, — Remained in camp till the rations 
could be found. At last the regiment received two boxes of 
hard bread. That issued, we started. Marched past Shell 
Mound and to Bridgeport. Crossed the river on pontoon 
bridge and camped one mile below the railroad bridge, on the 
bank of the river. Drew rations. Sent back extra mules to 
assist our train over the road. Distance for the day, thirteen 
miles. 

December 6th — Sunday. — Policed a camp and had Sunday 
inspection. Bridgeport is twenty-eight miles down the river 
from Chattanooga. 

Derc/nhtT nth — Friday. — Adjutant Kittredge went to Nash- 
ville to-day on a seven da3's' leave of absence, on business for 
the regiment, to purchase four Sibley stoves and supplies of 
clothing and other goods for the officers and men; also, a 
twenty-four-inch bass drum and mouthpieces for the brass 
instruments, fifteen music books, etc. While in Nashville he 
visited Maj. A. E. Welch, who was then sick in hospital and 
who died on Feb. 1, 1864. 

Decnnber 20th — Sunday. — Got orders to-day for our First 
Brigade to march to Huntsville, Ala., seventy miles distant. 
The rest of our division and the baggage of our brigade is to 
follow us in a day or two. We go to relieve troops there now 
and under marching orders. 

Dereiidxr 21st — Monday. — We marched at daylight to the 
railroad. Crossed. Marched close to the Cumberland moun- 
tains to Stevenson [population, 1880, 300], Jackson county, 
Alabama. We started with a citizen as a guide. Marched on 
the railroad, four miles. We are to make all haste possible so 
as to get there and relieve the other troops. We have ten 
days' rations and plenty of ammunition with our brigade. 

Marched south one and one-half miles to the wagon road 
and camped. The horsemen and teams had to go a long way 
around and did not get up at night. Plenty of mud. 

Dei'tridnr 22d — Tutsdat/. — Marched four miles. Crossed a 
creek near a mill. Marched six miles to Bellefonte. [Popu- 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEERS. 279 

lation, 1880, 150.] Marched three-quarters of a mile. Turned 
off on the wrong road. Marched one and one-half miles. Turned 
back to a cross-road. Got on the right road. Met theoflScers. 
Marched one and one-half miles and camped. 

December 23(1 — Wednesday, — The teams came up. Marched 
three miles to Scottsborough, Jackson county, Alabama [popu- 
lation, 1880, 800], at the foot of the mountains. Marched four 
and one-half miles on the railroad to Larkinsville, Ala. [Popu- 
lation. 1880, 300.] Marched six and one-half miles and en- 
camped. The teams and horsemen took the wagon road. Cool. 

December 2i(h — Thursday. — Four companies rearguard. 
Marched seven miles to Paint Rock, Jackson county, Alabama. 
[Population, 1880, 60.] Marched on the railroad. Left the 
railroad at the forty-mile post, marched three miles and 
camped on a hill. Cold. Cedar bushes and tree* all around. 

December 25th — Friday, — Christmas. We started before day- 
light and marched six miles to Maysville, Madison county, Ala- 
bama, [Population, 1880, 230.] Marched two miles to a creek. 
Crossed in the wagons and then marched eight miles to within 
sight of Iluntsville, Madison county, Alabama [population, 
1880, 4,976], and camped on a hill. Details went to town on 
guard. Rain. 

Ue( ember 26th — Saturday, — We camped last night on the 
plantation of a man who is said to have shot General McCook 
last year. The house is destroyed and everything is desolate. 
We started before daylight over the rough frozen ground, sur- 
rounded by wintry darkness, and marched into town. On ar- 
rivini^ we went into the empty houses near the depot of the 
Memphis & Charleston Railroad and built bunks. Rain and 
cold. 

heriinher JfJth — Tuesday, — The regiment received orders 
about 10:00 p. m. to proceed at once toward Athens to a ferry 
on the Tennessee river, and with a squadron of cavalry (two 
companies), secure and destroy all boats and collect and bring 
in supplies for the brigade. We started at 10:00 P. M. 
MarclRMl west eii'ht miles. Clear and coM. Good roads. 

Ihruidnr -int], — Wulmsday, — We kept on marching until 
eiirlit o'clock this morning. At three o'clock in the morning 



280 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

we passed Madison Station. Stopped four hours at a planta- 
tion. Marched four miles toward the Tennessee river. 
Stopped two hours. Started back, and after marching six 
miles camped on a plantation. Clear and cool. Commenced 
driving along hogs, cattle and sheep. 

Dnr/tihrr oJst — Th'trsdaf/, — Marched to Madison Station 
[population, 1880, 500] and stopped for dinner. Marched one 
mile and then stopped in the houses. Rained all day and 
night. Sleet and snow. Very cold. Ice two inches thick. 

January 1st — Frnfaj/, — Started at nine o'clock and 
marched to Iluntsville. Very cold. Had a large drove of cat- 
tle, sheep and hogs and lots of plantation teams filled with 
negroes. 

General Tourtellotte, in writing us in reply to our inquiry, 
states : 

The expedition you speak of, from HuntsviUe to destroy some ferry-boats, 
which the enemy were using to carry supplies across the Tennessee river, and 
to briuK in some cattle, I remember well The expedition was ordered by the 
brigade commander and consisted of the Fourth Minnesota and two companies 
of cavalry. The cavalry were taken, as we had to strike the river about day- 
light at two different places, and the cavalry were to go to the most distant 
place. We were to have started at dusk, but the guide did not come until ten 
or eleven o'clock, and we then started. We had some eighteen miles (more or 
less) to go, and after we had marched some ten miles (more or less) I found 
that the infantry could never make the river by daylight, so I ordered 
Edson to bivouac with the regiment and I started with the cavalry on a trot 
for the river. I divided the cavalry into two parts so as to strike the two 
places on the river as was intended. One ferry-boat was taken and destroyed. 
The infantry did not go within several miles of the river, but they collected 
(as they had been directed) a large number of cattle, sheep, and perhaps bogs, 
which were driven back to camp. The last night of that expedition (the regi- 
ment was two days in returning) will be remembered by some of the men as 
very cold. 

Capt. W. W. Rich informs us that the expedition also took 
three prisoners and drove back seven hundred cattle, sheep 
and hogs, four or five ox teams and the wagons loaded with 
poultry, sweet potatoes and corn. It was twenty-five miles to 
the river. 



18G4] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 281 

Jantfiin/ 4-ih — Mondioj. — Over three-quarters of the regi- 
ment present for duty. Re-enlisted as veterans for three years 
more of service — 219 men in all. 

JawKtri/ 11th — Monda'i. — Policed a camp (swept and 
brushed the ground) a mile and a half west from town, at Rus- 
sell's Hill, and put up tents. Clear and cold. 

Janndri/ 12th — Tfiesdaii, — We marched out to the new camp 
at ten o'clock. We had hail at night. Cold. Our whole bri- 
gade except the Eighteenth Wisconsin is here. That remained 
on duty in town. 

JifUfiart/ 17th — Sunda>/. — Commenced snowing at dark. 
Snowed three-fourths of an inch. It is cold. We built fire- 
places and chimneys. 

From the St. Paul Prrs^-, Jan. 12, 1864: 

Sick ia hospital at Memphis, Tenn. — Wm. F. Seely and M. W. Canning- 
ham of Ck>mpaDy H, in Washington Hospital; Albert Johnson of Company B, in 
Gayoso Hoiipital; Wm. Dynes of Company I and J. F. Tostevin of Company K, 
in Adams Hospital; C. G. Peabody of Company D and J. L. Aldrich of Com- 
pany K, in Union Hospital. 



Annual Return of Alterations, Etc., Made Jan. 20, 1864, 

AT IIUNTSVILLE, AlA. 

Remained at Vicksburg on gnard dnty nntil September 12th, when we em- 
barked and proceeded to Helena and thence to Memphis. The division 
(Seventh of Seventeenth Army Corps) was then temporarily assigned to General 
Sherman's (Fifteenth) corps, and with it marched to Chattanooga. * * * 
PIncam})ed at Bridgeport. There we were permanently assigned to the Fif- 
teenth Army Cor])s as the Third Division, John A. Logan assaming com- 
mand of the corps. Onr brigade (First Brigade, Third Division, Fifteenth 
Army Corps) is now encamped near the city of Hantsville, its commander, Col. 
J. 1. Alexander, Fifty-ninth Indiana Infantry, commanding the pott. Over 
314 of the men now with the regiment have re-enlisted as veteran volunteers 
and are now being mustered. There are present for dnty sixteen officers and 
two hundred and ninety men. During the year the regiment has traveled one 
thousand six hundre<l miles by steamboat, one hundred miles by railroad and 
has marched over eight hundred miles. 



282 



HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT 



[1864 



L03SES DURING THE YEAR. 



Place. 



Battlefield, Vicksburg 

Benton Barracks, Mo 

Cairo, 111 

Champion Hills 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Field Hospital at Vicksburg 

Helena, Ark 

Hard Times Landing, La 

Hospital boat on Mississippi rirer. 

Jackson, Tenn 

Jefferson Barracks, Mo 

Keokuk, Iowa (General Hospital) . 

La Grange, Tenn 

Memphis, Tenn 

Milliken's Bend, La 

Miunesota (while on furlough) 

Quincy, 111 

Raymond, Miss 

8t. Louis, Mo 

Vicksburg. Miss, (in city) 

White's Station. Tenn 

Wisconsin (while on furlough) 

Young's Point, La 



Total Loss. 



Deaths. 



12 
1 
2 



1 
8 



6 
1 

S 



1 
10 

1 

7 
1 



7 
17 



1 

4 



77 



TIOMS. 



1 



1 
1 



•••••• ••••••••• 



7 
1 
8 



••••••••••••••• 



2 
1 



8 



29 



LOSSES BY COMPANIES. 



Companies. 



Company A . . 
Company B.... 
Company C... 
Company D ... 
Company E ... 
Company F.... 
Company G.... 
Company H ... 
Company I .... 
Company K... 

Toul Loss 



Deaths. 



77 



Desbk- 

TIOVS. 



9 


8 


6 


1 


8 


2 


8 


•••••« •••••••• 


9 





8 


2 


6 


2 


6 


8 


9 





8 


6 



29 



Aggregate strength, Dec 31, 1862 — Commissioned officers, 37; enlisted 
men, 750; total, 787. Loss during year, 1963. Commissioned officers, 16; 
enlisted men, 227; total, 243. Gain daring the year — Commissioned officers, 
6. Net loss for the year, 237. Aggregate strength, Dec 31, 1863, 550. Re- 
capitalation — Commissioned officers, 27; enlisted men, 523; total, 550. 

Janmirij 29th — Fridm/. — Received orders at 9:00 P. m. to 
march at 7:00 a. m. to-morrow to Whitesburg, on the Tennessee 
river, ten miles directly south of Huntsville, with two days' 
rations and sixty rounds of ammunition, leaving camp and 
garrison equipage behind. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY V0LUNTEEE8. 283 

Jamuirif SOth — Saturday, — The regiment marched south 
through Huntsville, ten miles, to Whitesburg, on the north side 
of the river, arriving at 10:00 P. M. [Population, 1880, 140.] 
Our pioneers built two boats, and while at work the rebels 
kept firing across the river at them. We moved into the 
houses. Many of our men became intimately acquainted with 
some of the ladies of this town. Lively skirmishing between 
our men and the enemy was kept up for three days, when an 
agreement was entered into and firing ceased until some overt 
act should be committed. 

Januanj 31st — Sunday, — Adjutant Kittredge was detached 
from the regiment and assigned to duty as post adjutant at 
Huntsville, and remained on that duty until the regiment went 
to Minnesota on veteran furlough. 

February 8th — Monday. — The paymaster came and paid the 
veterans. 

Feln'uary 0th — Tuesday. — The pioneers marched to Hunts- 
ville. 



Ft I f mar y 13th — Saturday. — Company A went up the river 
scouting. 

Fhruary loth — Monday . — Company A moved down to the 
bank of the river and occupied an old house. Sly says: **My 
shorthand books arrived and I spent all my time -studying them. 
In a week was able to read it." False alarm long roll in the 

nitcht. 

Fhrufiry 2ith — Wednesday. — Five companies went out 

scoutiiii^. 

Fhriiary JSfh — S»inday. — Four companies started after dark 
and marched two miles toward Huntsville and camped. 

Fhrtixry JUth — Miuulay. — The rest of the regiment came up 
and we marched to our old camp near Huntsville and mustered. 
Good road. Plenty of cedar trees and bushes. 

Mn-'-h ."ith — Saturday. — Start home on veteran furlough. 
Marched to the railroad depot. Got on the cars at 11:00 a. m. 



284 



HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT 



[1864 



Started for Minnesota at 3:00 P. M. on veteran furlough, with 
the followins: number of officers and men: 



SUA'.- 

Company A.. 
Company B.. 
Company C. 
Company D.. 
Company E.. 
Company F.. 
Company G., 
Company H. 
Company I... 
Company K. 



Com. Ok- 

FICBRS. 



,SER0EA5T6. 



6 
2 
1 



ToUl. 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 



Corporals. Musiciaks. 



NON-COM. 

Staff. 



4 
2 
4 
3 
4 
3 
1 
4 
8 
3 



17 



31 



3 
1 
3 
2 
2 
3 
1 
5 
2 
5 



27 



1 
1 
1 



Privatss. 



18 
11 
19 
12 
82 
21 
18 
18 
21 
27 



187 



Duty roster of officers— Captains E. U. Russell and Morrill and Lieutenants Wells, Tbwie, 
Wellman, Isaac, Douglas, Graham, Gould, Hunt and Sam Russell. 

Reached Stevenson at 9:00 p. m. Changed cars. Started 
at 10:00 P. M. for Nashville. Just as the train stopped at 
Anderson Station, eleven miles beyond Stevenson, a train ran 
into it from behind, about 11:00 p. m. Our train had stopped 
for water. Two cars were telescoped and three passenger cars 
were consumed by fire. George Therriot of Company K was 
burned up. Five women from Huntsville were also burned. 
We could see the women running around in the burning cars. 
In all, seven were killed or burned to death, twenty-two were 
wounded and twenty cars and one locomotive burned or ren- 
dered useless. One of the ladies burned was a Miss Picket, a 
relative of General Picket, who led the rebel charge at Gettys- 
burg. Her mother was a widow lady and lived at Huntsville. 
She was taken from the car alive, expressed her thanks to our 
men for taking her out and before she died sent messages by 
our men to her mother. Many of our men, especially in Com- 
pany I, lost guns, clothing, etc. 

March 6th — Sandnii, — We started at 11:00 a. m. Were de- 
tained several hours at Tantallon waiting for down trains to 
pass. At last we started on and reached Nashville on the 
seventh, at 3:00 a. m. Got olf the cars at 4:OjO a. m. and stayed 
at Exchange Barracks, No. 2, all day. It was afemale seminary. 

March 8th — Tffesdfn/. — Marched through Nashville and got 
on the cars and started north. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEBS. 285 

March 9th — Wednesffai/. — Arrived at Louisville, Ky., at 
daylight. Went to the barracks. At four o'clock crossed the 
Ohio river to Jeflersonville, Iiid., got on the cars and started 
north. 

March 10th — Thursdat/, — Arrived at Indianapolis at daylight. 
At twelve o'clock arrived at Chicago, 111. Went to the Sol- 
diers' Rest. Got dinner. Were handsomely entertained. 

General Tourtellotte writes us: 

I went north with my regiment on veteran furlough as far as Chicago, when 
I left the regiment to make a short visit to my father and mother in Connecti- 
cut. Then I went to Minnesota; was present and in command when the regi- 
ment assembled in St. Paul, where we had several dress parades, and then we 
started south. I used to stay very close to the regiment in those days, and was 
never very long from it. 

Jl/ffrih 11th — Frklaii, — Left Chicago at one o'clock. 
Changed cars at Milwaukee. 

Mrrrh 12th — Satunlai/, — Arrived at La Crosse, Wis., at 7:00 
A. M. Went into the courthouse. Guards put around. The 
men ate breakfast the best they could. At ten o'clock Major 
Edson came and told us the people had prepared a good dinner 
for us and he had i)ut the guards around so as to keep it a 
secret. The men were all mad at the major, and a good deal 
of swearing was done, as they had all just had all they could 
eat. We are' delayed for want of transportation — too much 
ice in the river. 

W^e cannot let the Fourth Minnesota Volunteers go to their homes without 
the assurance that they have made hundreds of warm friends in this city during 
their brief stay. The officers in command seem to realize their duties and re- 
HponHibility, and the men respect them and themselves accordingly. The 
Fourth Minnesota has been here four days, and in all that time we have not 
seen one of their number intoxicated, not one of them using profime, loud or 
indeceut language on the streets, not one but acts like a true soldier and gen- 
tleman. They come and go, pass and repass, mind their own business, and 
the entire city would fight in their behalf if called upon. We congratulate the 
ofTicers on the good conduct of their men and Minnesota on these heroes of a 
dozen hard fonght battles. It is a pleasure to have a city f\ill of soldiers when, 
like the Fourth Minnesota, every man realizes and shows by bis acts and gen- 
tlemanly de})ortment that the hardships of war have not driven fVom the heart 
the finer feelings of man and that the profession of arms is one which produces 
gentlemen iuatend of loafers. The Minnesota Fourth has captured La Create 
without firing a gun. [Captain Clarke of Company H sent us this article, which 



286 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

was written and published by Mr. (Brick) Pomeroy in bis newspaper. It was 
a long article and gave a condensed bistoiy of the regiment. We omit the 
most of it. — Ed. ] 

March 16th — Wedmsday. — The ice being out of the river the 
steamboat Clara Hine is being prepared for our use to take us 
up the river to St. Paul. We are delayed by clearing away the 
new ice that forms. It is very cold. We embarked to-day 
on the Clara Hine and started up the river. Arrived at Winona 
at sundown. We got supper prepared by the ladies of the city. 

March 17th — Thursday. — Started at 6:00 a. m. and went to 
Reed's Landing. Went to houses and remained all night. 
Cold. 

March ISth — Friday, — Got into wagons and went up Lake 
Pepin on the ice to Red Wing. Very cold. 

March 10th — Saturday. — Went to Hastings. 

March '20th — Stniday. — Went to St. Paul. Stopped in In- 
gersoirs Hall. Had dinner at the International Hotel. Our 
men will be furloughed for thirty days, to report at St. Paul on 
April 23d. 

March 2 Id — Monday. — Sly says: "At five o'clock got our 
furloughs and started for home. Several of us hired a team 
and traveled all night. Went by way of St. Anthony Falls to 
Shakopee." 

Of the Fifth Iowa, Comrade J. Q. A. CampbeH'of Company 
B, Fifth Iowa, writes us: 

I do not remember whenyonr regiment and ours separated, bnt think it was 
when we left you at HnntsviUc, about the last of March, to go home on veteran 
farlongh. After we came back we were at Decatar along the Memphis & Charles- 
ton railroad, and at and near Kingston, Ga., until mustered out — us veterans 
going into the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. We veterans, after the others had gone 
home and before we went into the cavalry, went on an expedition from Kings- 
ton to Chattanooga, up into east Tennessee, back to Chattanooga, and to 
Stevenson, to TuUahoma, back to Stevenson, west through Huntsville to De- 
catur, north to Athens, Ala., and west to Duck river, after Wheeler's cavalry, 
which had been sent north from Atlanta. 



CHAPTER Xn. 

Return from ''Yet." Fnrlongh— Roeter of ThoeeRetamiDg— Our Trip Back 
to HontsYille— LiBt of Sick and Wounded in Hospitals— Roeter of the 
Third Division — Leaye HantsYiUe for Kingston — Great Suffering ftom 
Heat on the Road ; Men and Mules Snnstmck and a CSaiason Explodes — ^Em- 
barked on Can at SteTenson — Arrive at Kingrton — March to Allatoona and 
Garrison the Post — Historic Ground — Description of Surrounding G6un- 
tiy — Engine ThieYes — Roster of Third Diyision and also of Field and Staff, 
Army of the Tennessee — Expedition Up theRaihoad — OiBoers G^etting 
There; GoTcmor Miller Gdmmissions Six Citiaens Second Lieutenants, Who 
Recruit Thirty Men Each to Fill up the Ranks of the Regiment, so Our 
Officers Can be Promoted, and Violates the Plighted FiAth of the State to 
Its Soldiers — Great Injustice and Dissatisfiiction — "Atlanta Ouis and 
Fairly Won" — Summaiy of Campaign — Hood's Army Cirdes Around 
Oars— Our Non-Veterans Want Their Discharges and Can't Get Them; 
Are Kept in to Swell the Numbers so OlBcers Can be Promoted— French's 
Division Strikes Our *' Cracker line " at Big Shanty and Destroys It; Cap- 
tures Big Shanty and Acworth; liarches Ibr Allatoona. 

April 22(1 — Friday. — The following table shows the number 
of officers and men returning to the front: 



Field and SUff.. 

Cooipany A 

Coiupaoy B 

Company C 

CoDipany D 

Compaoy E 

Company F 

Company (* 

Company H 

Company I 

Company K 

R«crulU 



«••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••«•••••••• ••••«•••••«•••• 



ToUl. 



OoMiiiasio«*o 
OFncaat. 



6 
8 
1 



1 
8 

8 

8 



X7 



SSUSTSD 
llBll. 



8 
81 
14 
15 
16 



10 
89 
SS 
84 



8«1 



AooaiOATS. 



16 
17 



11 
61 



April 23d — Satimhn/. — The regiment assembled at St. 

Paul. 



288 



HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT 



[1864 



April 2itli — Sunday, — Left St. Paul on the steamboat Itasca 
at 6:00 a. m. for Cairo, at which place we are directed to report 
for orders. 



Reported for Orders. 



CoQimissioned Officers 

Enlisted men —veterans 

Enlisted men — convalescents. 
Enlisted men — recruits 



Total. 



17 

266 

10 

22 



815 



Rbmainivo Bkhikd. 

Absent sick 

Absent with leave 

Absent without leave (one officer and 
32 men) 

Total 



10 
9 

SS 



67 



The regiment was paid to February 29th, excepting Compa- 
nies A and I and field and staft', paid by Maj. E. S. Kemble, 
Chaplain Fiske, Quartermaster Sergeant Goding and Musician 
Davis not present and Commissary Sergeant Woodward paid 
and then sent to hospital with descriptive roll. 

April 2oth — Mondajj, — Reached Winona at 10:00 A. m. At 
four o'clock in the afternoon proceeded down the river. Ar- 
rived at La Crosse at dark and continued down the river. Dr. 
Wedel reported for duty at Winona. 

April 26th — Tcusdinj. — Arrived at Dunleith at 5:00 a.m. 
Debarked and went into the depot. At eight o'clock we got 
on the cars and started for Cairo. 

April 28th — Thursday, — Arrived at Cairo at twelve o'clock. 
At six o'clock we embarked on the steamboat Armada and 
started up the Ohio river. 

April 29th — Friday. — Arrived at Smithland. Debarked. At 
dark we embarked on the steamer J. M. McCoombs and 
started up the Cumberland river. 

April 30th — Saturday, — Arrived at Fort Donelson at eight 
o'clock. Arrived at Clarksville at two o'clock. 

The following is a list of sick and wounded reported in hos- 
pitals in adjutant general's report for 1864, page 612, on April 
22d: 

In hospital at Keokuk, Iowa. — CompaDj B — Jadson Barrows; Michael 
Hemerick, finger off, on duty. Company F — A. H. CottreU, Ole Ellingson, 
on furlough. Company G — Joseph Blair, gunshot wound; Andrew Eich- 
mezer, sent to his regiment ; Jacoh E. Tenvoorde, George Weggemann, sent 
to his regiment. Company H — Mathias Barts, pneumonia. Company I — 
C. C. Mclntyre. At hospital at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Lou*s, Mo. — 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 289 

Company B — Saraoel J. Fuller, on doty in dispensary. Company D — 
Thomas Darling, discharged. Company I — Moses T. McGrew; Alfred J. Moler, 
on furlough. 

Md'l Isf — Siiiuhu/. — Arrived at Nashville this morning. De- 
barked. Marched through the city to the seminary. 

J/</// J<1 — Muntlaij. — At six o'clock three companies got on 
the cars and started for Huntsville. Arrived at eiccht o'clock. 
Went by way of Decatur. We are ordered on provost duty 
at Huntsville by General Logan, who now commands the 
Fifteenth Army Corps. 

Maij /fth — Wednesday. — The rest of the regiment arrived. 

Maij oth — Thursday, — Marched through the city and camped 
in the edge of town, in the old camp of the Seventeenth Iowa. 
Warm. Good water. 



Roster of Third Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, Brig. Gen. John E. 
Smith Commanding, in the Month of May, 1864. 

first IIRIGADE (AT HUNTSVILLE, ALA.) — COL. J. L ALEXANDER. 

Fifby-niDth Indiana Infantry. Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry. 

Forty-eighth Indiana Infantry. Sixty-third Illinois Infantry. 

Fourth Minnesota Infantry. 

SECOND BRIGADE (AT LARKINSVILLE, ALA.) — COL. GREEN B. RAUM. 

Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry. Eightieth Ohio Infantry. 

Seventeenth Iowa Infantry. Company E, Twenty-fonrth Missoari 

Tenth Missouri Infantry. Infantry. 

THIRD BRIGADE (AT DECATUR, ALA.) — COL. B. D. DEAN. 

Twenty-sixth Missouri Infantry. Tenth Iowa Infantry. 

Fifth Iowa Infantry. Ninety-third Illinois Infantry. 

CAVALRY. 

Fifth Ohio Cavalry.* 

Company F, Fourth Missoari Cbvaliy. 

ARTILLERY. 

Company D, First Missoari Light Artillery. 
Sixth Wisconsin Battery. 
Twelfth Wisconsin Battery. 

M'l'i 1st It — Wednesday. — Cannonading in the direction of 
Madison Station. The regiment did provost duty in the city, 

19 



290 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGI3IEXT [1864 

Aboat this time came reports that a large cavalry force of the enemy had 
passed around onr left flank, evidently to strike this very railroad somewhere 
below Chattanooga. I therefore re-enforced the cavalry stationed from Resaca 
to Cassville, and ordered forward from Hnntsville, Ala., the infantry division 
of Gen. John E. Smith to hold Kingston securely. — [Sherman^a '^ifemotrs."] 

Maij 3Ut — Tvi'sdnij. — Regiment paid by Maj. Wm. N. Mc- 
Intire, to include April 30, 1864. All of field and staff paid 
except Fiske, Goding and Woodward. Lieutenant Colonel 
Tourtellotte received pay afterward to May 31st, as did Sur- 
geon Wedel (also from Major Mclntlre). 

Monthly Return for May, 1864.— Field and staff, 11; Company A, 48; B, 45; 
C, 49; D, 46; E, 64; F, 54; G, 46; H, 59; I, 65, K. 49; total, 516. 

Colonel Alexander, who commands our brigade and also 
the post, has his headquarters in the courthouse. The division 
headquarters is in the bank building, which is a massive stone 
edifice of great architectural beauty and tasteful design. As- 
sistant Surgeon Wedel is acting as post surgeon. 

Jane loth — Wednesdcnj, — Very warm weather. 

Jane 16th — Thamhfy.— The Third Brigade, Fifteenth Array 
Corps, came to Iluntsville at 10:00 p. m. We expect to start 
for Atlanta to-morrow. 

Jane 19th — Samlof/. — Had inspection at 7:30 a. m. 

Jane 20th — Monday, — We received orders to be read}' to 
march on the twenty -second. Captains Morrill and Lev. Well- 
man went out on skirmish drill. Lev. soon returned. Heavy 
shower in the evening. 

June 21st — Taesda*/. — Captain Morrill went out again on 
skirmish drill. Had dress parade. Heavy rain. 

Jajie 22d — Wednesday. — We marched from Huntsville with 
the Third Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, at 6:00 a. m., 
through the city and out on the Chattanooga road. Rested at 
10:30 A. M. for half an hour and arrived at Brownsborough 
[population, 1880, 100] at 12 m. Crossed Flint river on the 
railroad bridge and bivouacked just east of that stream and 
within two miles of Brownsborough. Nothing occurred 
worthy of note during the day. Cloudy and cool during the 
forenoon and the roads were good though a trifle muddy. The 
sun came out very hot in the afternoon as we lay quietly in the 
shade. Distance marched, eleven miles. 







'% 



If »■ 



<*' 



* • - -i*i - 






"%. 



,. "^ 






-1 ir - :■ 






■*- ^. 



... V ... . 



A . ~:-: 



i . • ■- 



i : 



BBS .__ — _ ■•. k « 



V ;•- 



T _ • — 






: A 






a^'i i>>. i::-r- -rrri* -^ : 

the Finj-L:-:! I. di- 
vision Itrf: clit::: i: 4 . 
regimenr "xa,* r-ri.-r':^: 
at a liitic irerorv i^^. 
1880, 150\ Alia-, i: V 
heat is fearfu". i^:. : :..: 
them were sur.*:.-: :!-:, ll 
a creek three rr;:'.e= -: . 



t « 



' * ■■.-'. 



r J'. •■; ■ 






... '<^ 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 291 

June 23d — Tloirsihni, — Our brigade being in the rear of the 
division did not move out until 7:00 A. M., and then the road 
was so blocked with the division train that we did not get fairly 
in motion until nearly eight o'clock. We halted at the spring. 
We reached Paint Rock Station [population, 1880, 60], Jack- 
son county, Alabama, about 3:00 p. m., after a verj^ hot and 
fatiguing march, as the train was constantly checking us up. 
Crossed a small river to the east bank and camped at 4:00 p. m. 
Sly says: "Several men were sunstruck. I was partially sun- 
struck and fainted. The men opened my clothes and poured 
water on me." Distance marched, sixteen miles. 

Jone 24.fh — Fridoj/. — Reveille at 3:30 A. M. The division 
started at 4:30 a. m. We marched at 5:45 a. m., the Third 
Brigade leading, followed by the First Brigade and our regi- 
ment leading the First. We marched rapidly during the fore- 
noon, reaching Larkinsville [population, 1880, 300] about noon. 
Two of our men were sunstruck and all suffered severely 
from the intense heat. After resting about an hour we 
pushed on to a point one mile west of Scottsborough [popula- 
tion, 1880, 800], Jackson county, Alabama, where we halted 
for the night. Morrill says: "Seven men were killed by the 
explosion of a caisson in the Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, and 
one man also in the Fifty-ninth Indiana by an accidental shot." 
Our men are worn out — not one-half of the regiment in line at 
night. Two officers (Graham and Isaac) and seventj^-six men 
on picket. Kittredge says: "One of the Sixty -third Illinois 
Infantry was instantly killed by the accidental discharge of a 
gun as the regiment was stacking arms. Seventeen officers 
and 2f37 men eflective force. Seventeen miles to-day." 

June 2')th — S(ffffrd(o/, — Reveille at 3:00 A. M. One man of 
the Fifty-ninth Indiana was buried before daylight. The di- 
vision loft camp at 4:00 A. M., the First Brigade leading. Our 
regiment was rearguard for the brigade train and started out 
at a little hetbro five. Passed through Bellefonte [population, 
isso, loO], Ala., at 0:00 a. m. Roads mostly good, but the 
heat is foarful an<l manv fell out on the march. Several of 
tlu'Mi were sunstruck, as were also some of the mules. Reached 
a ereek three miles southwest of Stevenson [population, 1880, 



292 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

300], Ala., at 4:00 p. m. Crossed and encamped. We are near 
the Tennessee river. Found that our orders had been changed 
and that we were not to take the cars at once, as we had 
expected to do. We are in an orchard with plenty of shade. 

June J(Jth — Su7)(l(nj. — Had green apple sauce for breakfast 
with our army bill of fare. Rested in camp all daj^ making 
preparations to move on by rail. A good man}' men went down 
to Crane creek and took a bath. The rear brigade came in about 
9:00 A. M. The weather is very hot. On the twenty-seventh 
we remained in camp all day. Very hot. 

Jifiu' 2St}' — T'ttsi/tfi/. — Still in camp, but expect to move to 
day. It looks like rain. Hope it will, for it is fearfully hot. 
Captain Morrill detailed for i)icket officer to-morrow\ 

Jtnu' 2iJt}t — Wtdntsihitf. — Morrill went on picket at 7:00 a. m., 
relieving Captain Gibbons of the Forty-eighth Indiana. Mor- 
rill was relieved at one o'clock to start for Stevenson. Left 
camp at 1:00 p. m. on Crane creek and marched to Stevenson, 
arriving at 3:00 p. m. During the afternoon the stores were 
loaded and the trains were sent out one after another. We 
spent the entire night on the platform waiting our turn to start. 
Two trains of wounded passed up the road, among whom were 
some of the Second Minnesota Infantrj-. 

June SOth — ThtirMhti/. — Got on the cars at 4:30 a. m. with 
the Eighteenth Wisconsin. Reached Bridgeport at 6, White- 
side at 6:30 a. m. and Chattanooga at 8:30 a. m. Remained 
thereuntil 3:30 P. m., when, having changed cars, we started 
on toward Kingston. Passed near Middle Hill, where our 
division was engaged in November last, and then on to Chicka- 
mauga Depot, Tunnel Hill, etc. Road quite smooth and no 
trouble from guerrillas, though a constant watch was kept for 
them. Passed corner post between the states of Alabama, 
Georgia and Tennessee just at sundown. Hot. Arrived at 
Ringgold [population, 1880, 436] at 7:00 P. m. 

Jabj 1st — FruliVf. — Daylight found us still on the road a 
little above Resaca, Ga. [population, 1880, 191], where we ar- 
rived at 6:00 a. m. We kept on slowly, passed through Adairs- 
ville [population, 1880, 500], ten miles from Kingston [popula- 
tion, 1880, 483], Ga., and arrived at Kingston, Bartow county, 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTBT YOLUNTEERS. 293 

about 9:00 a. m., where we disembarked in pursuance of 
orders. Had a very heavy shower. The Second BrijB^de 
went to Resaca and the Third Brigade to Rome [popu- 
lation, 1880, 6,000]. Our First Brigade will remain here. 

Jnhj 2d — Saturday. — Our regiment is camped in front of the 
depot. We had a heavy shower last night, and now, at 9:00 
A. M., it still rains. We expect to remain here for some time. 

Jtdji 3d — Sunday. — Sent one hundred and twenty prisoners 
to Chattanooga. Our regiment is doing provost and fatigue 
duty in Kingston. Very hot. 

The railroad depot here at Kingston was built of stone, and 
by direction of Colonel Tourtellotte, S. B. Brown of Company 
B of our regiment and another man, who was a member of the 
Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, commenced to cut loopholefl 
through the walls of the building for the infantry to fire 
through, so that, if necessary, the troops could use the building 
as a fort. The regiment moved away before the loopholing 
was completed. 

July 4th — Monday. — This is the dullest Fourth of July that 
we ever had. A good drink of whisky was all that we had to 
regale ourselves with. A year ago to-day we were marching 
into Vicksburg. 

July 5ih — Tuesday. — Captain Morrill went on picket at 9:00 
A. M. and Maj. Thomas A. McNaught of Fifty-ninth Indiana, 
the officer of the day, visited him. 

July 6th — Wednesday. — Nothing new. 

July 8th — Friday. — Some of the Second Minnesota Infantry 
under Major Uline went past for Chattanooga with prisoners. 
We got sugar to-day. 

July 10th — Sunday. — Had a fine shower. Our train came 
from Chattanooga and Captain Hotcbkiss, Second Minnesota 
Light Battery, called while on his way to the front 

July 11th — Monday. — Remained in camp. Had dress parade. 
Received orders in the evening to march at 5:00 A. M. to-morrow 
and we made all preparations accordingly. No news from the 
front. Adjutant Kittredge says: *'I received notice from 
Senator Ramsey that my nomination as captain and assistant 
adjutant general was confirmed by the Senate on the thirtieth 
of June." 



294 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Julu 12th — Tuesday, — Marched east at 6:30 a. m. with the 
rest of the First Brigade, the Fifth Ohio Cavalry, Eightieth Ohio 
Infantry, Twenty-sixth Missouri Infantry and the entire divi- 
sion train and artillery. Passed through Cassville [population, 
1880, 175], Bartow county, Georgia, about 8:30 a. m., then 
turned nearly south. We stopped to rest at 12:00 M. Passed 
through Cartersville [population, 1880, 2,037] about 2:00 p. m. 
and bivouacked one and a half miles south of the town near 
the Etowah river. It was very hot to-day and the latter part 
of the march was very dusty. At 9:00 p. m. w^e received orders 
directing the Fourth Minnesota, Eighteenth Wisconsin, Eigh- 
tieth Ohio, Twelfth Wisconsin Battery and fifty of the Fifth 
Ohio Cavalry to proceed to Allatoona at six in the morning, 
relieve the troops there and garrison the place. Capt. George A. 
Clarke of Company H was assigned to duty to-day as provost 
marshal, Third Division, on the staff of Gen. J. E. Smith. Dis- 
tance marched to-dav, twelve to fourteen miles. 

Jnbj ISih — Wednescho/. — Left at 6:00 a. m. for Allatoona — 
Lieutenant Colonel Tourtellotte, as the senior officer, taking com- 
mand of the troops — in the following order: Detail Fifth Ohio 
Cavalry, Fourth Minnesota Infantry, Twelfth Wisconsin Bat- 
tery, Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry, ambulances and train; 
Fifth Ohio Cavalry as rearguard. We reached Allatoona at 
9:00 a. m.; distance, six miles. Here at Allatoona we relieved 
the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Illinois and Third Iowa Infantry. 
Our regiment moved into camp and supports the Tw^elfth Wis- 
consin Battery. Weather very hot. The right wing of our 
regiment is on the east side and the left wing on the west side 
of the railroad cut. [This day's record is the last one made 
in the diary of Adjutant Kittredge, and he doubtless left the 
regiment soon to join General Sanborn in Missouri. The 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Illinois were captured by French's 
division on the third or fourth of October at or near to Big 
Shanty.— Ed.] 

Jtd// nth — Thnrsday, — We can see from here the mountains 
of Kenesaw, Black Jack, Lost and Wild Cat. Lieut. Samuel 
W. Russell began to act as regimental adjutant to-day, Kit- 
tredge as post adjutant. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 295 

JkI'I lOth — Sfdnnhf//, — Our band played very nicely in the 
evening. Company K were all on duty to-day. 

Jffll/ 17th — Sundai/. — Received ninety-seven conscripts from 
Minnesota to-day. Clayton and Wellman came with them. 
[On this date Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was superseded in 
command of the rebel army by Gen. J. B. Hood.] 

Juhf 18th — Mnndu/. — Weather quite cool to-day. The sut- 
ler (Davis) came down from Cartersville. Could hear cannon- 
ading in the direction of Atlanta. 

Jtitt/ 20th — We(hies(hii/. — Letters, dated in Minnesota July 
5th, came to-dav. 

Atlanta is fortv miles south. Marietta is on the south side 
of Kenesaw Mountain and twenty miles distant. Big Shanty 
is on the north side of Kenesaw and twelve miles south. It 
was at Big Shanty where, on April 22, 1862, twenty Federal 
soldiers in disguise and under the leadership of J. J. Andrews, 
a citizen from Kentucky, but a spy for General Mitchell, 
seized the engine "General" and three freight cars, and un- 
coupling them from the rest of the train when the crew and 
passengers were in to breakfast, escaped with them up the 
railroad toward Chattanooga, intending to burn the bridges 
on the route and thus aid General Mitchell in his movement 
against Chattanooga. After running the captured train about 
a hundred miles they were forced to abandon it just north of 
Ringgold and about twenty miles from Chattanooga, without 
having accomj)lished their purpose, and while trying to make 
their escape across the country into the Union lines they were 
all captured and eight of them hanged as spies. 

J'//'/ 2 J' I — Friihiii, — The great battle of Atlanta was fought 
to-<lav and Gen. James B. McPherson was killed. Gen. John 
A. Logan assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee. 

Roster of the Third Division, Fifteenth Army Corps — Brio. Gen. 

John £. Smith Commandino. 

first HRKJADE — col. JESSE I. ALEXANDER OF THE FIFTy-NINTH INDIANA 

COMMANDING. 

Fifty-ninth Indiana, Lient. Col. Jeff. K. Scott. 
Forty-eij^hth Indiana, Lient. Col. Edward J. Wood. 
Sixty-third lUinois, Col. Joseph B. McCown. 
Kighteeutb Wii^consiu, Lient. Col. C. H. Jackson. 
F'ourth Minnesota, Mnj. James C. Edson. 



296 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

SECOND imiGADE — COL. GBEEN B. BAUM OF THE FIFTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS 

COMMANDING. 

SeveDteenth Iowa, Col. Clark B. Weaver. 

Tenth Mbsonri, Col. Francis C. Deimling [was adjutant of this legiment 

at luka.] 
FiAy-sixth Illinois, Lient. Col. John P. Hall. 
Eightieth Ohio, Lient. Col. Pren. Metham. 

THIBD BBIGADE— COL. B. D. DEAN OF THE TWENTY-SIXTH MI8S0UBI COM- 
MANDING. 

Twenty-sixth Missouri, Lient. Col. James M. Fall. 
Ninety-third Illinois, Lieut. Col. Nicholas C. Boswell. 
Tenth Iowa, CoL Paris P. Henderson. 
Fifth Iowa, Col. Jabez Banbury. 

All of this division was guarding communications along the 
line in the rear during the battle of Atlanta. 

RosTEB OF Field and Staff of the Abmy of the Tennessee, July, 

1864. 

MA J. GEN. WM. T. 8HEBMAN COMMANDING MILITABY DIVISION OF 

THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Capt.* L. M. Dayton, assistant adjntant general; Capt T. 6. Baylor, 
ordnance officer; Lient. CoL Chas. Ewing, assistant inspector general; Capt. 
J. C. Andenried, aid-de-camp; Capt. O. M. Poe, engineer; Capt J. C. McCoy, 
aid-de-camp; Brig. Gen. W. F. Barry, chief of artillery; Col. Willard Warner, 
inspector general; Col. £. D. Kittoe, medical director; Lieutenant Marshall, 
Captain Menitt, Capt. J. C. McCoy. 

MAJ. GEN. JA3IES B. M'PHBBSON COMMANDING ABMY OF THE TENNESSEE. 

Lieut. Col. W. T. Clark, assistant adjutant general; Lient. Col. W. E. 
Strong, assistant inspector general; Capt. Andrew Hickenlooper, chief of artil- 
lery; Capt. D. H. Oile, aid-de-camp; Captain Bnel, chief of ordnance; Maj. L. 
S. Willard, aid-de-camp; Captain Reece, chief engineer; Capt. G. R. Steele, 
aid-de-camp; Colonel Boucher, medical director; Lieutenant Colonel Wilson, 
Dr. Duncan, Capt. K. Knox, commissary of musters; Captain Howard, Signal 
Corps; Colonel Conklin, quartermaster. 

MAJ. GEN. JOHN A. LOGAN COMMANDING FIFTEENTH ABMY COBPS. 

Maj. R. R. Towne, assistant adjutant general; Maj. John R. HotaUlng, 
chief of staff; Maj. Thos. D. Maurice, chief of artillery; Capt. John 8. Hoover, 
aid-de-camp; Capt. H. N. Wheeler, aid-de-camp; Maj. John M. Woodworth, 
medical inspector; Capt. Fred Whitehead, aid-de-camp; Maj. £. O. F. RoUer, 
medical director; Capt. F. C. Gillette, aid-de-camp; Capt. W. B. Pratt, aid- 
de-camp; G. A. Kloberman, chief engineer; Lient. Col. Chas. £. Morton, Maj. 
L. £. York, commissary of musters; Col. J. S. Wilson, Capt. W. H. Barlow; 
Capt. L. B. Mitchell, ordnance officer. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 297 

MAJ. GEN. G. M. DODGE COMMANDING SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS. 

Maj. J. W. Barnes, assistant adjutant general; Capt. Ed. Jonas, aid -de- 
camp; Maj. W. H. Rose, chief of artillery; Capt. Geo. E. Ford, aid-de-camp; 
Capt. H. L. Barnham, provost marshal; Lieut. George Tichenor, aid-de-camp; 
Lient. N. R. Park, ordnance officer; Col. J. J. Phillips, aid-de-camp; Maj. 
Norman Gay, medical director; Lient. Col. D. F. Tiedman, chief engineer; 
Capt. J. K. Wing, assistant commissary of masters; Capt. Thos. C. Fuller- 
ton, assistant adjutant general; Capt. C. C. Carpenter, chief of staff; Capt. 
W. H. Chamberlain, assistant commissary of musters; Capt. Wm. Eoesett, 
engineer. 

MAJ. GEN. F. P. BLAIR COMMANDING THE SEVENTEENTH ARMY CORPS. 

Lieut. Col. A. J. Alexander, assistant adjutant general; Capt. Rowland Cox, 
assistant inspector general; Capt. A. G. Bean, A. S. M.; Lieut. Col. E. M. 
Joel, chief (luartermaster; Capt. J. H. Wils, chief of staff; Capt. W. C. Ide, 
commissary of masters; Maj. J. H. Bamber, medical director; Maj. John F. 
Chase, chief of artillery ; Capt. W. J. Murray, ordnance officer. 

MAJ. GEN. JOHN A. LOGAN COMMANDING ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, 

JULY 22d to 27th. 

Fifteenth Corps — Brig. Gen. Morgan L. Smith. 
Sixteenth Corps — M^j. Gen. G. M. Dodge. 
Seventeenth Corps — Maj. Gen. F. P. Blair, Jr. 

Jul'l 23d — Saturday. — Captain Morrill went on picket on the 
old Alabama road. The body of Maj. Gen. James B. McPher- 
son passed Allatoona to-day on its way north. We can hear 
heavy cannonading toward Atlanta. Four hundred rebel pris- 
oners went north. 

Jtdti 24.th — SKnddjj, — Some hard fighting at Atlanta to-day. 
A train of wounded went north. Weather quite cool. 

J'dii 2')th — Mondaif. — The left wing of our regiment moved 
over the track and joined the right wing. Camped on the 
ground taken out of the railroad cut. It was quite cool last 
ni<;lit, but is warm again to-day. 

.////'/ J*///' — Wediusdtn/. — Had a fine shower. No news from 
the front. Quite cool at night. On this day Maj. Gen. 0. O. 
Howard was assigned to the command of the Armj' of the 
Tennc'ssoe, relieving Maj. Gen. John A. Logim, who resumed 
cc)nnnan<l of the Fifteenth Army Corps. 

./'//// 'ilst — Sxndu'i, — Had a heavy rain this afternoon. No 
news from the front. A train went north with three hundred 
prisoners. 



298 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Return for ihe Month of July^ 1864. — Enlisted men present for daty, 362; on 
extra and daily datj, 54; sick, 16. Commissioned officers present for daty, 
11; on extra and daily duty, 6; sick, 1. Agj^regate present, 450. 

Remarks. — Tourtellotte, on special daty , commanding Post Allatoona since 
July 14, 1864. Kittredge, on special duty as post ac^atant since Jaly 14, 
18§4. One handred drafted men and substitutes received July 17, 1864. 
Transferred W. S. Longstreet, Company C, July 10, 1864, to non-commissioned 
staff; Edwin J. Huntington, Company C, May 1, 1864, to Veteran Reserve 
Corps; August E. Whitney, Company D, May 1, 1864, to Veteran Reserve 
Corps; Truman Booth, Company H, July 1, 1864, to Company B; John Frank, 
Company K, July 1, 1864, to Company B; O. S. Wiley, Company K, July 1, 
1864, to Company D; Edward Whitoomb, Company K, July 1, 1864, to 
Company D. Killed by accident — Enoch F. Smith, July 8, 1864 (conscript), 
drowned; Charles Koecber, July 17, 1864, on Western & Atlantic railroad, run 
over by cars. These two men were not of any company. Samuel W. Russell, 
acting regimental adjutant since July 14, 1864. 

AiUfust 1st — Monday, — Morrill on picket on Cartersville 
road. No news. More rain. Weather very hot. Blackber- 
ries are ripe and plentiful. 

Auf/ast i,th — Thursday/, — Received mail from Minnesota to- 
day dated July 24th. 

Angast 6fh — Saturday. — Major Rhodes paid the regiment 
to-day. Heavy rain. A part of the regiment went to Mari- 
etta [population, 1880, 2,227] to drive some cattle. We were 
paid tor the months of May and June. 

August 8th — Monday, — A train ran off the track at the 
depot and broke a man's leg. Clothing received and issued. 

Augnd 13th — Saturday. — Had inspection by Lieutenant 
Warren. Warm. 

August nth — Sunday, — Received orders that Companies F, 
G and K will march to Etowah bridge. Arrived at 11:00 p. m. 
Distance, six miles. 

August loth — Monday, — Reveille at 3:00 a. m. Marched 
back to Allatoona, arriving at 8:30 a. m. Hot. The Ninety-third 
went north on the cars. 

August 16th — Tuesday. — Report from Sherman that we will 
be attacked before night. The wires are cut between us and 
Cartersville. Warm. 

Aiujust 18th — Thursday. — The Ninety -third Illinois came 
back. At tattoo (evening roll call), Companies I, G, K, F and 
B went out on a scout on the old Alabama road and came back 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 299 

in the night. Hot. Capt. Thos. P. Wilson, assistant quarter- 
master, is in charge of the field hospitals at Marietta. 
Young says: 

At 9:00 p. M. (on Aagnst 22d) orders were received from General Sherman 
to send aU the available men at Allatoona up the road toward Chattanooga to 
resist a threatened invasion of the road by the rebel General Wheeler's command. 
In one hoar Companies A and I, nnder command of Capt. £. U. Russell of Com- 
pany A, with three days' rations, were on board cattle cars and started for the seat 
of trouble. Arriving at Dalton we found Wheeler had been there and destroyed 
all he could. We repaired the road and moved on. There was damage done 
at other points along the line, but nowhere so much as at Dalton. Arriving at 
Chattanooga, the command, which now assumed the proi>ortion8 of a provisional 
brigade, under command of Maj. Gen. J. B. Steedman, moved up the valley of 
the Tennessee river as far as Madisonville. There was somewhat of skirmish- 
ing, but no regular engagements. From here we were ordered back to Chatta- 
nooga and thence to Decherd and Elk River stations on the Nashville & Chatta- 
nooga railroad. At Elk River Companies A and I manned one of the forts, 
which mounted three guns — a twelve-pounder rifle, an eighteen-pounder 
howitzer and a three-inch smooth-bore. We had plenty of ammunition but no 
drilled artillerists except the writer, who had at Fort Ridgely a course of 
three weeks' artillery drill under Ordnance Sergt. John Jones of the Fourth 
United States Artillery — not much of an outtit for the work in hand. A detail 
of twenty- seven men was made to man these guns, and to me, who had never 
fired a shotted gun, was assigned the duty of drill master. The squads were 
drilled a^^siduously, and after a few days felt that they could cope with cavalry, if 
not too strong. Soon after this the two companies of the Fourth were ordered 
to Cumberland Tunnel, Tenn., four miles from Cowan Station and about thirty 
miles from Elk River. Here we again had an encounter with Wheeler's advance, 
but nothing occurred beyond the exchange of a few dozen shots. On the eigh- 
teenth of September we were placed on the cattle cars again and taken to Chat- 
tanooga and from thence to Allatoona, Ga., where we arrived September 22d, after 
an absence of just one month, and thus ended the raid after Wheeler in east 
Tennessee. On our arrival at Allatoona we found what deprived six men in the 
Fourth Minnesota of captains' commissions. We found an addition of twenty 
recruits to each company and a civilian with a second lieutenant's oommis- 
sion in command, thus debarring men who had earned promotion by years of 
faithful service from their just rights. 

Comrade Young is in error as to the companies which went 
on the expedition north. The report says Companies A, D and 
a part of K. 

While the regiment was here at Allatoona, Stephen A. 
Miller, Governor of Minnesota, was requested by officers of our 
regiment to issue second lieutenants' commissions to six per- 
sons when tliey recruited thirty men each to fill up the ranks 



300 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

of the ree^iment. The object of this request was to increase 
the number of men in the regiment. The number of men had 
been reduced to such an extent that no more officers could be 
promoted until more men joined. The regiment already had 
all the officers it was allowed for the number of men. 
Officers hud been sent to Minnesota at diffiirent times on re- 
cruiting service, but few recruits had been received, prin- 
cipally from the fact that for an officer to go home on that duty 
meant a "soft snap'' for him, and as he already had his com- 
mission it made but little diffisrence to him whether he suc- 
ceeded in getting any or not. But if some of the non-com- 
missioned officers who were entitled to promotions had been 
sent, and told that their promotions depended on their success, 
we believe that they would have got the men. Miller set the 
process to work to fill the regiment and six civilians received 
recruiting commissions, labored and got thirtj^ men each, and 
secured the coveted prizes. This action on the part of Miller 
violated the plighted faith of the State of Minnesota to its sol- 
diers in the field, and we believe was the only instance during 
the war when citizens were commissioned as officers into old 
Minnesota regimental organizations. 

Lieut. J. G. Janicke writes as follows of Governor Miller's 
issuing the second lieutenants' commissions to six citizens: 

I suppose that was to give as old sergeants who had served in other organiza- 
tions a chance for promotion. We were commissioned on Aug. 20, 1864, and 
were required to raise the men (thirty each) by Sept 5, 1864 Second Lieaten- 
ant Wood had not before been in service. He took the first lot of recruits from 
Fort Snelling. Lieutenants Dooley and Janicke took the second lot down. We 
left the fort about September 10th. We could not muster in in Minnesota. 
Our recruits had to first be mustered into the companies in the regiment, 
which would make men enough to create a vacancy in the grade of second 
lieutenant and then we could muster in. We had to pay for our own trans- 
portation and subsistence to the regiment. The Eighty-third Illinois guarded 
our men from Indianapolis down. As the men had been paid big money as 
national and local bounty, or as substitutes, it was feared some of them would 
jump the bounty, and two of them did. Our welcome at AUatoona by Edson 
and Tourtellotte was a very pleasant affair. They spoke in high praise of the 
fine body of men who had come to re-enforce the regiment. There was stiU a 
large body of recruits under Lieutenants Douglas, Plowman and Chewning at 
Snelling. They came as iiir as Chattanooga on October 5th, when they got 
news of the battle. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 301 

The faithful ohl non-commissioned officers — some of whom 
had served as such from the bes^inning of their service — and 
privates felt outra<2ced at tliese proceedings, and they tried to 
make it livelv for these new officers durins: their terms of ser- 
vice. They felt that the}- ought to have been sent home and 
given an opportunity to get the recruits and thus secure the pro- 
motions which the}' themselves were entitled to. 

Returns for the Month of Augwti, 1864. — Enlisted men present for daty, 261; 
on extra and daily dntj, 49; sick, 35. Commissioned officers present for duty, 
14; on extra and daily duty, 3. Aggregate present, 362; aggregate present and 
absent, 597. 

Bemark'H. — Ninety-eight drafted men joined the regiment August Ist. W. 
T. Kittredge, honorable discharge to accept promotion as assistant adjntant 
general, Aug. 12, 1864, by Special Orders, No. 101, Headquarters Department 
and Army of the Tennessee. Of the drafted men Company A got 12; B, 16; 
C, 9; D, 13; E, 2; F, 3; G, 12; H, 7; I, 12; K, 9. Scouting parties sent out 
frequently during the month. Four commissioned officers and eighty-one men, 
detnchments of Companies A, D and K, sent to Chattanooga Aug. 22, 1864. 
Unofficially informed that they have been sent to Cowan Station, on the Nash- 
ville & Chattanooga railroad, to guard the road at that point. Asa A. Fiske, 
assistant superintendent of contrabands at Memphis, Tenn., since Jan. 29, 1863. 

Behind the old hotel here at AUatoona, which was used as 
post headquarters, there was a long stone building, and a 
line of looi»holes was cut through the wall on its back side by 
S. B. Brown of Compan}- B of our regiment and a stonecutter 
who belonged to the Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, under the 
supervision of Lieut. George M. D. Lambert, so that, if neces- 
sary, the building could be used as a defense against any assault 
made by the eneni}-. 

A summary of the campaign against Atlanta shows, that 
General Sherman, with about ninetj'-eight thousand men and 
254 cannon, in the beginning of May began liis campaign from 
Chattanooga. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, with about fifty 
thousand men, opposed his advance. Dalton was evacuated 
May 12th; Hesaca, May loth; Cassville, May 19th; Dallas, 
May 25th and 28th; AUatoona Pass, June 1st. Marietta was 
occupied by Sherman July 3d. On July 17th Johnston was 
relieved of the command of the rebel army by Gen. John B. 
Hood, who assumed the offensive. The rebels made desperate 
attacks on the Union lines on July 20th, 22d and 28th, in 



302 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

which they were repulsed with heavy losses. General Sher- 
man be^an his flank movement around Atlanta on the night 
of August 25th. On the night of the twenty-sixth the Fif- 
teenth and Seventeenth Corps, composing the Army of the 
Tennessee, moved out of their trenches. On the twenty-eighth 
the army reached the West Point railroad. On the thirty-first 
it was before Jonesboro, and the enemy, moving out against the 
Fifteenth Corps, was repulsed. On the night of September 1st 
Hood's army evacuated Atlanta to fall back on Macon, after 
burning all of their war material that they could not transport. 
The losses of General Sherman's army from Chattanooga until 
the occupation of Atlanta were thirty thousand four hun- 
dred men and fifteen guns; the rebel loss is reported as 
forty-two thousand men, forty or fifty cannon and twenty-five 
thousand stand of small arms. [Atlanta became the capital of 
the state upon the adoption of the new constitution in 1868. 
—Ed.] 

September 2d — Fruhti/, — Last night the enemy evacuated 
Atlanta and our forces occupied it this morning. 

Septemhtr 3d — Sdturdat/. — One man of Company B (Zeiberth) 
was taken prisoner to-day. Heavy rain and quite cool. 

September 5th — Tutsdiu/. — Captains Clarke and Morrill went 
up to Cartersville. Warm. 

September Gth — Wednesdm/, — Clarke and Morrill returned. 

September 7th — Thiirsdfn/, — A train of rebel prisoners went 
north. 

Septoiiber 8th — Fridfiij, — The rebels captured eight teams 
and fifty men within two miles of Marietta, but not of our 
regiment. 

September 10th — Stnuhv/. — Letters received from Minnesota 
dated August 29th. 

September 14th — Wednesday, — We received to-day one hun- 
dred volunteers from Minnesota. 

September 16th — Frida*/, — One hundred more recruits arrived 
to-day. 

September ISth — Sundatj, — We received to-day seventy -seven 
volunteers from Minnesota. Cool. 

Sejjtember 20th — Tfusda^/. — The recruits were assigned to 
the companies. 



1864] MINNESOTJL INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 303 

September SSd — Thursday. — (Captain Morrill and Lieut Sam 
Kussell started for Atlanta to-dav at 4:00 a. m. They went 
down about three miles and discovered that the rebels had 
torn up half a mile of track and driven off sixty head of 
cattle. They returned to camp. Wet weather. Companies 
A and D and a part of K returned to the regiment. 

Capt. T. P. Wilson, acting quartermaster, after the evacua- 
tion of Atlanta was assigned to duty with General Dodge as 
chief quartermaster of the Sixteenth Army Corps. In the 
reorganization of the army, preparatory to the march to the 
sea, the part of the Sixteenth Corps about Atlanta was merged 
into the Fifteenth and Seventeenth corps and Wilson was then 
assigned to duty as chief quartermaster of the Fourth Division, 
Seventeen Army Corps, and in that capacity accompanied the 
army to Savannah and Qoldsboro. This division was com- 
manded by Gen. Giles A. Smith. 

September SSd — Friday. — At Cartersville, Ga., John G. 
Janioke and Ahimaaz E. Wood were to-day mustered into the 
regiment as second lieutenants, muster-in to date from Sep- 
tember 20th. Were mustered by George W. Hill, captain Thir- 
teenth Infantry, United States Army, and assistant commis- 
sary of musters Third Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. 

September 2ith — Saturday. — Morrill started for Atlanta at 1:00 
p. M. Got there at 10:00 p. m. and put up at the Trout House. 

September 26th — Sunday. — Capt. T. P. Wilson, assistant quar- 
termaster, took Captain Morrill on a ride ardund the city of 
Altanta. 

S(ptember 26th — Monday. — Captain Morrill got back to 
Allatoona in the night. 

S'ptember 27th — Tuesday. — ^The most of the regiment went 
to Marietta to guard a wagon train. 

September 28th — Wednesday. — ^The regiment returned on the 
cars. Communications cut between Nashville and Stevenson. 

Stptanher SOth — Friday. — The rebels tore up the track at Big 
Shanty. We hear that Hood is across the Cbattahoochie. 

Eetum» for Month of Stptembeff 1864. — KnHrtfid HMD pwssnt fbr dulgr, 468| 
OD extra and daily datj, 61; eiek, 80. Oomnatokmed oflloen pntent Air 
dntj, 21 ; on extra and daily dulgr, 8. AgKVQgite pnseat, 008; p r es e n t and 
absent, 760. 



304 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Reinarl'it. — On July 12th broke camp and marched from EiDgston, Ga., to 
Carteisville. Distance, fifteen miles. On the following day marched to 
Allatoona, Ga., six miles south. On Angnst 22d, Companies A, D and part of 
K went to Chattanooga to guard railroad, etc., and returned on the twenty- 
second of September. 

Octal nr 1st — S'Oifhf/. — Eighty more recruits arrived. 
Ortolnr itl> — Wedncsfhf//. — The rebels are coming this way 
from Big Shanty. They took Acworth at 7:00 a. m. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Battle of Allatoona — List of Casaalties — Official Reports — Personal Incidents 
— The Foot- Bridge — Depth of Railroad Cot — Letter from Postmaster at 
Allatoona — Poem — Letter Sending Flags Home — Description of the Cap- 
tared Flags — Names of Signal Officers and Men at Allatoona and Kene- 
saw — Letters from Them — The Historic Messages. 

The flanking operations of our army around Atlanta, result- 
ing in the defeat of the rebel corps under Hardee at the battle 
of Jonesboro on September Ist, caused them to retreat south- 
ward to Lovejoy's Station, on the Macon railroad. Our army 
followed them to that place and in a few days withdrew to 
Atlanta and vicinity. The defeat of Hardee caused Hood to 
evacuate Atlanta on the night of the first, and early on the 
second Slocum's troops entered and took possession of the city. 
Hood's army marched southeast and on the fifteenth was con- 
centrated at Lovejoy's. On the twenty-first they moved west 
to Palmetto Station, on the West Point road, about twenty-four 
miles south of Atlanta, and on October Ist were crossing 
the Chattahoochie river and marching for our " Cracker Line," 
to destroy our communications with the north. They marched 
west and north, circling around our army. 

Lieutenants C. H. Fish, Army of the Tennessee, and J. H. 
Connelly, Army of the Cumberland, Fish being in command 
and assisted by Connellys were the signal officers on Kenesaw 
Mountain. Early on the morning of October 3d, Lieutenant 
Fish discovered, from the station on the summit of Big Kene- 
saw, a large camp of mixed troops, a few miles west of Mari- 
etta, near Lost Mountain. The enemy had cut our telegraph 
line that morning near Smyrna. A six-foot flag on a sixteen- 
foot stafl* was made use of, and General Sherman, at Atlanta, 
twenty-one miles distant (air line), was informed of the camp 
at Lost Mountain and that they were moving toward Allatoona. 
He replied that they were rebels and directed the signal ofll- 
cers to watch them. During the day these troops traveled in 

20 



306 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

the woods as much as possible, to be screened from observation. 
It was the army corps of Lieut. Gen. A. P. Stewart, consisting 
of three divisions, and also Armstrong's brigade of cavalry. 
The rebels arrived at Big Shanty on the aftcunoon of the third, 
drove the small garrison into the depot and captured it. Arm- 
strong's cavalry took post between Big Shanty and Marietta 
to cover the work of destroying the railroad. Stewart's corps 
labored all that night tearing up and destroying the railroad. 
Loring'e division moved on to Acworth and up the road to 
Allatoona, Stewart returning to Lost Mountain with the other 
two divisions. Loring's orders were to fill ''the cut at Alla- 
toona full of logs, brush, rails, dirt, etc." He took with him 
twelve cannon. (39, 1, 815.) 

Sherman, divining Hood's plan, left the Twentieth Corps 
under Slocum to hold Atlanta and put the rest of his army in 
motion on the third and fourth, to checkmate the enemy, who 
had "got the move on him." He probably saw the error he 
had made in leaving the supplies for his army so poorly de- 
fended, for if the rebels should capture them his great cam- 
paign might come to a disastrous termination. Hastening to 
Vining's Station on the fourth, he sent a signal message over 
the heads of the enemy to the officer of the signal station on 
Kenesaw Mountain, which was repeated from there over the 
rebel army to Allatoona, and from thence by telegraph line to 
General Corse at Rome, to move at once with his command to 
Allatoona. Sherman said: "If he (Hood) moves up to Alla- 
toona, I will surely come in force." Also: ^^ Corse^ Borne ^ 
Ga, — Move with your command to Allatoona. Hold the place; 
I will help you. — Sherman." At about 8:00 a. m. on the fifth 
Sherman was at the signal station on the summit of Kenesaw 
trying to get a communication to and from Allatoona, fourteen 
miles (air line) to the north, to assure him that re-enforcements 
had been received. The signal station was a small, dark shanty 
into which no light was admitted and out of which extended 
a telescope. He heard the distant noise of the battle, but fog 
and the smoke from the burning railroad obscured the vision so 
that the signal flag could not be seen. Finally the officer on 
Kenesaw received the letters ''C," "E," "S,""E," "H,""E," 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEKS. 307 

*' R," which he iuterpreted to mean " Corse is here," and it was 
a source of great relief to General Sherman. Tlie signal 
messages that passed on this occasion suggested to Mr. Bliss 
the text for the soul-stirring gospel hymn, '' Hold the Fort, for 
lam Coming!'* Sherman watched with painful anxiety the 
smoke and listened to the noise of the distant battle. The ex- 
tensive camptires of the main body of Hood's arni}- could be 
plainly seen a few miles southwest in the vicinity of Dallas and 
Lost Mountain, and from the heights of Kencsaw he ordered 
Gen, J. D. Cox to march his corps (the Twenty-third, Army 
of the Ohio) west from Marietta, on the Burnt Hickory road, 
to interpose it between the enemy's main army and the force 
attacking AUatoona, and he started the rest of his army to the 
relief of the beleaguered garrison. 

French's division, Maj. Gen. S. G. French commanding, 
was composed of Ector's brigade. Col. W.H.Young — Twenty- 
ninth and Thirtj'-ninth North Carolina, Ninth, Tenth, Four- 
teenth and Thirty-second Texas, and Jaques' battalion; Cock- 
rell's brigade. Col. E. Gates — First, Second, Third, Fourth, 
Fifth and Sixth Missouri Infantry, and the First and Third 
Missouri Cavalry; Sears' Brigade, Col. W. S. Barry — Fourth, 
Seventh, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, Thirty-ninth and Forty- 
sixth Mississippi. [We cannot say that all of these regiments 
were present in the attack. — Ed.] 

At AUatoona there is ahigh,steep ridge, havingsharp spurs and 
deep ravines, and here the Western & Atlantic railroad, running 
northwest and southeast, passes through it, in a cut 175 feet in 
depth,ninety-five of which is through solid rock. The little village 
of AUatoona, consisting of six or seven houses, stood mostly on the 
southern side of this hill, on the western side of the railroad, and 
two large sheds or warehouses at the southern end of the pass, 
on the eastern side of the railroad, were filled with rations. Dur- 
ing the previous June, at the time of the advance of our army 
on Kenesaw, Col. 0. M. Poe, United States engineer, on 
General Sherman's staff, caused two redoubts to be constructed 
on the hill, one on each side of the railroad, the one on the western 
side being near to and that on the eastern about seven hundred 
feet distant from it. They were located so that each could fur- 



J 



306 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

the woods as much as possible, to be screened from observation. 
It was the army corps of Lieut. Gen. A. P. Stewart, consisting 
of three divisions, and also Armstrong's brigade of cavalry. 
The rebels arrived at Big Shanty on the aftcnnoon of the third, 
drove the small garrison into the depot and captured it. Arm- 
strong's cavalry took post between Big Shanty and Marietta 
to cover the work of destroying the railroad. Stewart's corps 
labored all that night tearing up and destroying the railroad. 
Loring'e division moved on to Acworth and up the road to 
Allatoona, Stewart returning to Lost Mountain with the other 
two divisions. Loring's orders were to fill ''the cut at Alla- 
toona full of logs, brush, rails, dirt, etc." He took with him 
twelve cannon. (39, 1, 815.) 

Sherman, divining Hood's plan, left the Twentieth Corps 
under Slocum to hold Atlanta and put the rest of his army in 
motion on the third and fourth, to checkmate the enemy, who 
had "got the move on him." He probably saw the error he 
had made in leaving the supplies for his army so poorly de- 
fended, for if the rebels should capture them his great cam- 
paign might come to a disastrous termination. Hastening to 
Vining's Station on the fourth, he sent a signal message over 
the heads of the enemy to the officer of the signal station on 
Kenesaw Mountain, which was repeated from there over the 
rebel army to Allatoona, and from thence by telegraph line to 
General Corse at Rome, to move at once with his command to 
Allatoona. Sherman said: ''If he (Hood) moves up to Alla- 
toona, I will surely come in force." Also: '^ Corse ^ Borne ^ 
Ga, — Move with your command to Allatoona. Hold the place; 
I will help you. — Sherman.'' At about 8:00 a. m. on the fifth 
Sherman was at the siornal station on the summit of Kenesaw 
trying to get a communication to and from Allatoona, fourteen 
miles (air line) to the north, to assure him that re-enforcements 
had been received. The signal station was a small, dark shant}' 
into which no light was admitted and out of which extended 
a telescope. He heard the distant noise of the battle, but fog 
and the smoke from the burning railroad obscured the vision so 
that the signal flag could not be seen. Finally the officer on 
Kenesaw received the letters "C," "E," "S,""E," "H,"''E," 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 307 

*' R," whieli he interpreted to mean '* Corse is here/' and it was 
a source of great relief to General Sherman. The 8i«:nal 
messages that passed on this occasion suggested to Mr. Bliss 
the text for the soul-stirring gospel hymn, ''Hold the Fort, for 
I am Coming!" Sherman watched with painful anxiety the 
smoke and listened to the noise of the distant battle. The ex- 
tensive caraptires of the main body of Hood's army could be 
plainly seen a few miles southwest in the vicinity of Dallas and 
Lost Mountain, and from the heights of Kencsaw he ordered 
Gen. J. 1). Cox to march his corps (the Twenty-third, Army 
of the Ohio) west from Marietta, on the Burnt Hickory road, 
to interpose it between the enemy's main army and the force 
attacking Allatoona, and he started the rest of his army to tlie 
relief of the beleaguered garrison. 

French's division, Maj. Gen, S. Q. French commanding, 
was composed of Ector's brigade, Col. W. H. Young — Twenty- 
ninth and Thirty-ninth Xorth Carolina, Ninth, Tenth, Four- 
teenth and Thirty-second Texas, and Jaques' battalion; Cock- 
relTs brigade. Col. E. Gates — First, Second, Third, Fourth, 
Fifth and Sixth Missouri Infantry, and the First and Third 
Missouri Cavalry; Sears' Brigade, Col. W. S. Barry — Fourth, 
Seventh, Thirty-lifth, Thirty-sixth, Thirty-ninth and Forty- 
sixth Mississippi. [We cannot say that all of these regiments 
were present in the attack. — PJd.] 

At Allatoonathere is ahigh,8teep ridge, havingsharpspursand 
deep ravines, and here the Western & Atlantic railroad, running 
northwest and southeast, passes through it, in a cut 175 feet in 
<lepth,ninety-five of which is through solid rock. The little village 
of Allatoona, consisting of six or seven houses, stood mostly on the 
southern side of this hill, on the western side of the railroad, and 
two largo sheds or warehouses at the southern end of the pass, 
on the enstern side of the railroad, were tilled with rations. Dur- 
ing the previous June, at the time of the advance of our army 
on Kencsaw, Col. 0. M. Poe, United States engineer, ou 
General Shernuurs statf, caused two redoubts to be constructed 
on the hill, oneon each side of the railroad, the one on the western 
side heinir near to and that on the eastern about seven hundred 
fc'ct distant from it. Thev were located so that each could fur- 



308 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

nish some support to the other and also protect the depot of sup- 
plies. The garrison at the tirae of the battle consisted of the 
Fourth Minnesota, Ninety-third Illinois, seven companies of the 
Eighteenth Wisconsin, Twelfth Wisconsin Battery of Light Ar- 
tillery and fifteen men of the Fifth Ohio Cavalry, and according 
to Tourtellotte's report, numbered 905, without counting the 
batterymen, whose number he fails to give. The guns of the 
battery consisted of four ten-pounder Rodman rifles and two 
twelve-pounder brass howitzers, and they were equally- divided 
between the two forts. The trees had been felled from the 
crest and dow^n the steep sides of the hill, to aiFord a wider 
range for the artillery, and the camp of the Fourth Minnesota 
.was made on the narrow crest so the men would be in easy sup- 
porting distance of the guns in case of an attack. A dozen 
steps from the tents of the regiment one could look down the 
steep side of the hill and the ration-sheds, stationhouse and 
building used as headquarters of the post were almost at your 
feet. The scenery is wild and beautiful — hill, valley and ravine 
intersecting. The view from the hill extendp for a distance of 
twenty-five miles. The Allatoona range of mountains rises a 
few miles to the north, and away oflFto th^ east is avast moun- 
tainous chain. On the eastern side, half a mile away, Alla- 
toona creek, sparkling in the sun, winds its way across the 
deep valley. The western flank is protected by the Pumpkin- 
Vine, and these two creeks flowing to the north empty into the 
Etowah river about three miles apart. In a military point of 
view the position is one of great natural strength and was well 
chosen as a depot for supplies. The warehouses contained over 
a million rations of hard bread, and across the Etowah river, five 
miles to the north, there was a government herd of nine thous- 
and head of cattle. On the fourth the troops saw the ascend- 
ing smoke of the burning railroad and heard the musketry of 
the small garrison at Acworth, and all night long the lurid 
flames of rebel campfires and the burning ties of the road lit 
up the greenwood of the forest and shone upon the cloudy sky 
and the bold outline of Kenesaw Mountain. Sherman's signal 
message to Corse at Rome, thirty-five miles from Allatoona, 
to move with his troops to the pass, was received by him on the 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTEEKS. 309 

fourth, and at 1:00 a. m. of the fifth a freight train of twenty 
cars arrived containing a part of the brigade of Col. Richard 
Rowett, consisting of the Seventh and Fiftieth IlHnois and 
Thirty-ninth Iowa, and also a part of the Twelfth Illinois In- 
fantry-. These numbered 1,054, and with Tourtellotte's 890 
made the total number for the defense 1,944.^ [Tourtellotte's 
report makes his number more; we give the number as in 
Sherman's " Memoirs."] Another train of about ten freight cars 
was loaded and started, but the rails spread and it could not 
proceed in time. Corse's train was soon unloaded and then 
backed up to Kingston. On arrival Corse and his troops took 
possession of the works on the western side. At about 2:00 
o'clock' A. M. a sharp rattle of musketry on the main road lead- 
ing from the south told that trouble had begun. The enemy 
attacked our outposts and drove them back on the reserves; the 
seven companies of the Eighteenth Wisconsin were then sent out 
and they held the line until three hours after daylight. Mean- 
time, during the night. Captain Towle of Company E, Fourth 
Minnesota, was sent out with a part of his company to hold a 
road running to the north. Before dawn of day the rebels 
pliuited eleven cannon about a mile away, upon and near to the 
Acworth road running from the south. Early in the morning a 
shell was tired at them by Lieut. Samuel E. Jones of the battery at 
our eastern redoubt, and the scampering of men and jumping 
of horses as it exploded and dismounted one of their guns, 
caused the hills to resound with the cheers of our soldiers. 
The enemy quickly replied and our boj's soon shot them out 
of the field. They withdrew to the cover of the woods, set 
their '*dogs of war" and made it lively for us. 

A l)risk artillery duel was kept up until about 8:00 A. M. 
The most of their shells exploded high in the air beyond our 
troops and none were killed or wounded by them. They 
killed, however, twenty-seven of the battery horses. At 
about half-past eight a major bearing a flag of truce approached 
our works on the west, and General Corse received from him 
the follo\vini( written summons to surrender: 

Abound Allatoona, Oct. 5, 1864. 
Commanding* Ofkickr, Unifkd States Forces, Allatoona: I have 
placed the forces under my command in each positions that yon are ear- 



310 HISTOBY OF THE FOUBTH KEGIMENT [1864 

Foanded, and to avoid a needless effusion of blood I call on yon to surrender 

your forces at once and unconditionally. Five minutes will be allowed you to 

decide. Should you accede to this, you will be treated in the most honorable 

manner as prisoners of war. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully yours, 

S. G. French, 

Major Qeneraly Commanding Confederate Forces. 

General Corse's reply, in writing, was: 

Hbadquartbes Fourth Division, Fipteknth Corps. 

Allatoona, Ga., 8:30 A. m., Oct, 6, 1864. 

Ma J. Ge.v. S. G. French, Confederate States, etc. : Your communica- 
tion demanding surrender of my command I acknowledge receipt of, and 
respectfully reply that we are prepared for the ** needless effusion of blood'' 
whenever it is agreeable to you. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John M. Corse, 

Brigadier Oeneraly Commanding United Slates Forces, 

General French in his report states that he received no reply 
to his summons to surrender. The reply was delivered to his 
officer, but the enemy began the assault at once and that 
perhaps is the reason why he did not receive it. 

Previous to and during this time the enemy was busy mov- 
ing his troops into position on the south, west and north, and 
the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-ninth Mississippi regiments of in- 
fantry, having crossed the railroad to the north and rear of our 
position, advanced on our skirmishers. At 9:00 a. m., Captain 
Towle's company being hard-pressed, he asked for help and 
Company K, under Captain Morrill and Lieut. George Baird, 
was sent to its support. The captain deployed his company 
as skirmishers. He writes: 

I posted my men on the east side of the railroad cut; had been there about 
thirty minutes when I discovered in front, about a thousand yards away, a 
brigade of rebels coming down the mountain. Between them and myself 
there was a ridge that ran off to a point so far to my right that I could not see 
any person passing, and to my left was a deep railroad cut and I could not have 
any view of men passing up the track. Shortly after the rebels came dovm off 
the mountain into the valley I saw an officer (Maj. R. J. Durr, Thiity- ninth 
Mississippi) directly in front of me with a white handkerchief tied to his 
sword and advancing toward me saying, at the same time, **Do you not 
know that there has been a flag of truce sent in to your commanding officer 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 311 

demaading your sarrender?*' I replied very emphatically, **No. What 
do you want? Do you want to surrender?" He replied, *'I do not." I 
then said to him that he had better drop down out of sight, as my boys were 
not feeling very friendly just then toward them. While engaged with him in 
this conversation, the rebels were moving around both to the right and left 
of us. In the meantime I had sent out a man in both directions, and 
they came back quickly, reporting to me that we were being surrounded by 
the enemy. Losing no time, I rallied my men, saying, *'Boys, follow me!" 
My weight being much less at that time than now and not caring for grass to 
get much of a start under our feet, I think we made the home-stretch in pretty 
fair time. We were pressed by the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-ninth Mississippi 
regiments. I found Major Durr a fine, pleasant, gentlemanly kind of a man. 
He wrote his name in my diary — all the token I have in remembrance of 
him. 

Lieut. Geo. Baird had command of the ri^ht of the com- 
pany. 

The members of several companies of the Seventh Illinois 
Infantry, at an expense of fifty-one dollars to each, had armed 
themselves with the Henry rifle, a sixteen-shot magazine gun, 
and did fearful execution in the ranks of the advancing enemy, 
who at once charged and began to as.sault the works. They 
threw themselves in heavv masses as^ainst our outer intrench- 
moiits, and after a desperate hand-to-hand struggle fairly 
pushed our men from their rifle-pits. They entered the town 
and the building occupied as headquarters; they clung to the 
hillsides, surmounted the ridge and with fearful veils and con- 
tinue<l discharges of musketry came sweeping down the road 
toward the western redoubt. On reaching the slight abatis 
nia<le of sharpened stakes, not one hundred yards from the 
tort, tliev brushed it aside, when full in their faces was hurled 
canister from double-shotted guns, and our infantry, rising, 
lK)ure(l a sheet of flame and lead into their very teeth. This 
dose was too much. The charging column was scattered and 
it ft'll back to a ravine to rally. Four desperate charges were 
made upon the western redoubt, but Lieutenant Amsden's men 
stood manfully to their guns and our infantry fought so 
bravrly that the charging columns were each time repulsed. 

After the artillerv ammunition at the western redoubt had 
been expended, I^rivate Kdwin R. FuIlington,a member of the 
battery, crossed the narrow, rickety foot-bri<lge that spanned 



312 HISTORY OF THE FOUKTH KEGIMENT [1864 

the chasm to the eastern side three times in succession, under 
a direct fire from the enemy, and carried rations of canister 
for the guns. 

After driving in our skirmishers on the eastern side the two 
Mississippi regiments boldly advanced, but were soon broken 
by the fire of the troops on that side and one of the ten-pound 
Rodmans, which was run up by hand to the edge of the most 
northern spur between Companies A and I of our regiment, 
where, without any protection whatever, the detail of heroic 
batterymen poured their double-shotted doses of canister into 
the howling enemy, who rallied and charged three or four 
times over the same ground, but were as often broken and 
driven back. On their last advance a detachment charged 
down the opposite declivity as if to scale the ridge, and our 
troops with fixed bayonets made ready to receive them. They 
failed to come to close quarters, and stopping in the gully down 
in the deep ravine next to the railroad, in front of Company 
A, Fourth Minnesota, they found themselves in a trap; they 
could not climb the steep hill in their front, and to retreat 
meant death to the most of them, and, after a show of resist- 
ance, they surrendered. 

A rebel lieutenant, maddened at their frequent repulses, en- 
tered a house near the railroad depot and seizing a firebrand 
rushed for the ration-sheds to apply the torch. A marksman 
took good aim at him and he fell dead, pierced by a bullet 
through the centre of his forehead. 

On finding they could not succeed in capturing the works 
by a direct assault they secreted 'themselves several deep 
behind every stump and place of shelter and kept up a mur- 
derous fire. The air literally rained bullets. Hunger had 
made them desperate and they were fighting for food — had 
believed it an easy task to storm the works and capture them 
The troops on the eastern side, being on higher ground, ren- 
dered great assistance to their comrades across the track. 
About 11:00 A. M. Colonel liedfield of the Thirtv-ninth Iowa 
was killed and Colonel Rowett wounded. Major Fisher, com- 
manding the Ninety-third Illinois, was severely wounded in 
the side. At about 1:00 p. m. General Corse was wounded across 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTBY VOLUNTBERS. 818 

the side of his face, and soon after Lieutenant Colonel Tourtel- 
lotte was also wounded. Everv field oflScer on the western side 
with the exception of two was either killed or wounded. 

The surrender of the detachment in the gully ended the 
battle, and then those who were secreted behind stumps and 
in the fallen timber began to make their *^ home-runs/' and a 
lively fusillade was kept up at those who dared to venture 
forth. Details were now sent out over the field to gather in 
the prisoners and wounded. The haversacks of their killed 
and wounded were mostly empty and the prisoners had only a 
few ears of corn in their possession, with tin plates punched 
full of boles to grate the corn into meal. They had a train of 
over two hundred empty wagons in the woods a short distance 
from town, ready to carry off rations if they could get them. 
They told us that French promised them our rations by ten 
o'clock on the morning of the attack. The wounded prisoners 
are under a shed lying on beds of cotton. They look wretch- 
edly hungry and squalid, as do also their dead on the field. 
Two of their surgeons have been left with us to help care for 
their wounded. 

French had detached one regiment and one cannon from 
his command to capture the blockhouse at the bridge across 
Allatoona creek, about two miles distant, held by three com* 
panics of the Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry under Captain 
Melntyre, but were unable to take it, and after withdrawing 
from Allatoona he bombarded it with sufficient artillery, which 
set the building on fire and would have soon annihilated the 
small garrison had it not surrendered. At aboat 4:00 o'clock 
p. M. the Johnnies were in full retreat to regain^ their main 
army near Dallas and made their escape before the troope of 
General Cox's corps coald head them off. 

Corse, in his ofScial report, stated the loss of the enemy to 
be: Dead, 231; prisoners, 411, and that we captured three 
regimental flags and eight hundred muskets. Among the 
prisoners was Colonel Toung, who commanded one of their 
brigades. During several days aftier Corse's troops left, a good 
many of the dead of the enemy were found scattered through 
the woods and slashings, and Tourtellotte and others estimated 



3U HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

that they woiild number at least one hundred. Corse reported 
our loss to be — officers killed, 6; wounded, 23; missing, 6; 
enlisted men killed, 136; wounded, 330; missing, 206. Total 
loss, 707. A great many of the enemy who were slightly 
wounded went away with their army. It was estimated at the 
time that the enemy's entire loss would reach two thous- 
and. 

Sherman says, in his "Memoirs:" 

I watched with painful suspense the indications of the battle raging there 
and was dreadfully impatient at the slow progre<«8 of the relieving column, 
whose advance was marked by the smokes which were made according to 
onlers, but about 2:00 P. M. I noticed with satisfaction that the smoke of battle 
about Allatoona grew less and less, and ceased altogether about 4:00 p. m. 
For a time I attributed this result to the effect of General Cox's march, but 
later in the afternoon the signal flag announced the welcome tidings that the 
attack had been fairly repulsed, but that General Corse was wounded. The 
next day my aid, Colonel Dayton, received this characteristic dispatch: 

Allatoona, Ga., Oct. 6, 1864, 2:00 p. m. 

Capf. L. M. Dayton, Aid-decamp: I am short a cheekbone and an eart 
but am able to whip all hell yet! My losses are very heavy. A force moving 
from Stitesboro to Kingston gives me some anxiety. Tell me where Sher- 
man is. John M. Corse, 

Brigadier General, 

Inasmuch as the enemy had retreated southwest and would probably 
next appear at Rome, I answered General Corse with orders to get back to 
Rome with his troops as quickly as possible. 

Geo. E. Sly says, on October 5th : 

At 1:00 A. M. General Corse [formerly colonel of the Sixth Iowa Infantry. 
— Ed. J arrived with a part of a brigade from Rome. At two o'clock the rebels 
attacked our pickets. At daylight our battery opened on the rebel battery. 
The rebels shelled us till nine o'clock, then attacked us on three sides, but were 
repulsed. The battle was hard till three o'clock, when the rebels retreated. 
The regiment lost eleven killed and thirty-three wounded. The rebels in front 
of Company A came over a hill and into a hollow. When the rebel army re- 
treated these rebels surrendered. Colonel Tourtellotte was wounded. The 
men tore down the bunks to make breastworks along the side of the railroad 
cut, so as to help the fort on the west side of the railroad. I was sick at the 
time and had been for some time. Our tents were all full of holes. 



IS64] MINTfGSOTA INFAirTBT TOLUNTEEBB. 31S 

TKe following list was sent to the St. Paul Press by Adjt. 
W. W. Rich on Oct. 6, 1864 : 




Sehwk; AlgMtr- 
nthlih; ■UihUr. 
Dlernbauldiri Hintlr. 
Bbte: Ulatatlj. 
Blfniblili: wnitij. 
a kowriilljtiltlr. 

. nlMt; iHalitlT- 
: Blhlih: Jiitulj. 
alimit) ilMadifd. 

nbrMUti MT*ril7. 
In l*A >b«nU« t ; MTWtlr' 
-mlBHilnMaiad- 



RBCAPnDLl.TI01l. 







DICD. 


WODITBSn. 


TOTAt. 








.; 








is 












II 


•t 











316 histoky of the foubth begiment [1864 

Major Edson's Beport. 

Headquarters Fourth Minnesota Infantry, Veteran Volunteers. 

Allatoona, Ga., Oct. 7, 1864. 

Capt J. B. Sianfordj Acting Assistant Adjutant General First Brigade, Third 
Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, 

Sir: I have the honor to report the part taken by my regiment in the action 
at this place October 5th, instant. I had four handred and fifty men engaged 
in the battle, a part of which were on gnard and skirmished with the enemy 
before and after daylight. Daring the night previous Capt. D. G. Towle was 
sent oat with part of his company on the road leading to the Allatoona iron 
works, with instractions to hold the pass at the foot of the blaff on the north 
side of the railroad, and in ciseof need to send for assistance. At 9:00 o'clock 
A. M. he sent to me that he was hard-pressed and mast have immediate help, 
whereapon I ordered Capt. I. N. Morrill to join him with his company, direct- 
ing him to fall back if attacked by a heavy force to the rifle-pits on the hill 
near oar camp. This he did, holding in check two regiments of the enemy, un- 
til the remaining portion of my command, excepting two companies stationed 
at the north fort, were placed in position to receive them. I regret to say that 
Captain Towle was severely wounded. Meanwhile we were being furiously 
shelled from the opposite direction, and also suffered a serioas cross-fire from 
the enemy beyond the soath fort. The two regiments of the enemy charged 
with much desperation, but were finally driven back with heavy loss, excepting 
small detachments of each that pushed forward and took shelter in a narrow 
ravine near our works, where we captured eighty prisoners, including the 
major commanding the Thirty-ninth Mississippi Infiintry and several line offi- 
cers, with the colors of the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-ninth regiments, Mississippi 
Infantry and 123 stand of arms. My losses are : Killed and died of wounds — 
enlisted men, 13; wounded, commissioned officers, 3; enlisted men, 28; total 
wounded, 31 ; total killed and wounded, 44. I cannot speak too highly of the 
conduct of the officers and men of my command; all behaved like heroes. 
About one hundred and sixty of my regiment were recruits who had received 
their arms only three days before. They behaved most admirably, fighting 
with the steadiness of veterans. Where all did s) nobly it is impoasible to dis- 
tinguish individual acts of bravery. I inclose a list of casualties in my com- 
mand. Very respectfully, etc. 
(Official copy.) James C. Edson, 

W. W. Rich, Mnjor, Commanding Begiment. 

First Lieutenant and Adjutant. 

Lieutenant Colonel Tourtellotte's Report. 

Headquarters Post Allatoona, Ga., Oct. 7, 1864. 

Lieut. A. P. Vaughn, Acting Assistant Adjutant General^ Fourth Division, Fif- 
teenth Army Corps, 

Lieutenant: For some two days previous to the fifth of October, instant, 
the enemy had been operating in this vicinity, especially on the railroad to the 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 317 

southward, bat not till the eveoiog of October 4th did they make any demon- 
stration against this point. It then became evident that they proposed to at- 
tack the place in the mornins. The garrison here consisted of the Ninety-third 
Illinois Infantry, two hundred and ninety gnns, Major Fisher commanding; 
seven companies of the Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry, one bandred and fifty 
gnns, Lieutenant Ck>lonel Jackson commanding; the Fonrth Minnesota In- 
fantry, four hundred and fifty gnns, Maj. J. C. Edson commanding; the 
Twelfth Wisconsin Battery, six guns, Lientenant Amsden commanding; and 
fifteen men of the Fifth Ohio Cavalry. Of the effective force of the Fourth 
Minnesota Infantry, one hundred and eighty-five were recruits just received 
from the North. My first unpleasant apprehensions weie that the rebels 
would make a night attack, and taking advantage of the darkness, deprive me 
of the advantage of position, the fortifications of this place all being on the 
high ridge, while the stores are collected on the flat land at the hill's base and 
on the south side, from which direction the rebels were approaching. To pre- 
vent such approach I strengthened the grand guard, barricaded the roads to 
the south and made preparations to fire a building which should so illuminate 
the site of the village and stores that my men could see even in the night, to a 
considerable extent, any approach of the enemy. In this way I hoped to bold 
the rebels till daylight when we should have the full advantage of our superior 
position. About 12 o'clock M. I was not a little relieved by the arrival 
of General Corse, with a brigade, Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. 
About 2:00 o'clock A. M. of October 5th the rebeU charged upon my picket 
lines and drove the outposts back upon the reserves. I immediately sent Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Jackson, Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry, to deploy his com- 
mand and hold the rebels approaching on the Acworth and Dallas roads until 
further orders. This he did successfully, remaining on the line until the rebels 
had wholly outflanked and rendered his position worthless, when he moved 
back into the fortifications. I placed the Fourth Minnesota In£EUitry in the 
fortifications on the east side of the railroad and sent out five companies of the 
Ninety-third Illinois Infantry to hold a commanding point on the road leading 
to Pumpkin-Vine creek. About 6:30 A. M. the rebels opened on us with artillery, 
with which they kept up a fierce and continuous fire for more than an hour, when 
it temporarily and partially ceased. At about 8:30 A. M. the rebel infantry 
moved upon us, their line extending from the railroad south of our position 
around on the west to a considerable distance over and beyond the railroad on 
the north. General Corse ordered two regiments of his division, the Twelfth 
and Fiftieth Illinois Infantry, into the works east of the railroad, and with 
those regiments, together with the Fourth Minnesota Infantry, he directed me 
to hold the position. About one-half hour afterward. General Corse, to cover 
a necessary movement, ordered to the west side of the railroad one of the regi- 
ments left with me. By some error in communicating the order, both the 
Twelfth and Fiftieth Illinois regiments moved to the other side of the railroad, 
leaving the Fourth Minnesota Infantry to contend against the troops advancing 
directly upon us from the north. This from our great advantage of position 
we were able to do, and also to assist greatly the troops on the west side of the 
railroad against rebel? charging on them from the north and northwest. About 
10:30 A. M. Lieutenant Colonel Jackson brought four companies of his regi- 



318 



HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT 



[1864 



ment, the Eighteenth Wisconsin, to the assistance of the Fourth Minnesota 
Infantry, the other three companies of his command, under Captain Bruner, 
having some time before moved back into the fort on the west side of railroad. 
The detachment of the Ninety-third Illinois Infantry sent oat on the Pamp- 
km-Vine creek road were moved back into the fortifications aboat 10:00 A. M. 
There were no farther movements of my command. From the commencement 
of the attack the contest was never for one moment intermittent. The rebels 
moved forward with boldness and perseverance, and at length when they did 
withdraw, at about 3:00 P. M., they had been so broken in the contest they 
withdrew as individuals and not as organizations. The rebel loss has been 
heavy. With the conduct of my command I am satisfied. Officers command- 
ing regiments and batteries labored bravely and faithfully. The whole com- 
mand seemed determined to hold the place at any cost, and many brave deeds 
I saw that day. I have to thank the officers and men of my command for the 
earnestness with which they did their duty, and especially do we all most 
heartily express our thanks to General Corse and his command for their oppor- 
tune arrival and heroic conduct. My losses are considerable and are as follows: 



Commands. Killed. 


Wounded. 


MiSSINO. 


Total. 


Ninety-third Illinois Infantry.. 21 

Eigliteenth Wisconsin Infantry 1 

Fourth Minnesota Infsntry 11 


52 

y 

33 

19 

1 


^2 

2 


83 
12 
44 


Twelfth Wisconsin Battery m 5 

Detachment Fifih Ohio Cafalry 




20 




1 


1 






Total loss ' 38 


no 


12 


160 


1 





Some seventy or eighty prisoners were brought in by my command, and the 
Fourth Minnesota Infantry brought in two rebel flags. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) J. E. Tourtellotte, 

Lieutenant Colonel^ Commanding Garrison at AUatoona, 

Headquarters Post Allatooxa, Ga., Oct. 8, 1864. 
Special Orders, No. 11: 

The lieutenant colonel commanding desires to express his thanks to the in- 
dividual officers and men of his command for the promptness and earnestness 
with which they laid aside feelings of selfishness and devoted themselves to the 
public service, Oct. 5, 1864, at this place. Among the ancients yoa would 
be termed gods; with us, living or dead, will be heroes. Deport yourselves thus 
and you will ever be successful. I am proud to be in command of such troops; 
you may be proud of yourselves. Your services in the campaign have been 
important. Commanding officers will communicate this order to their respec- 
tive commands in such way as they may deem most convenient. 

By order of John E. Tourtellotte, 

Lieutenant Colonel, Commanding Post. 

[Order No. 11 was furnished us by Lieut. T. M. Young of 
Company A. — Ed.] 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 319 

After Allatoona General Sherman issued the following 
order: 

The general commandiug avails himself of the opportuaity, in the hand- 
some defense made of Allatoona, to illustrate the most important principle in 
war, that fortified posts should be defended to the last, regardless of the rela- 
tive numbers of the party attacking and attacked. The thanks of this army 
are due and are hereby accorded to General Corse, Colonel Tourtellotte, Colonel 
Rowett, officers and men, for the determined and gallant defense of Allatoona, 
and it is made an example to illustrate the importance of preparing in time, 
and meeting the danger, when present, boldly, manfully and well. 

Commanders and garrisons of the posts along our railroad are hereby in- 
structed that they must hold their posts to the last minute, sure that the time 
gained is valuable and necessary to their comrades at the front. 

Sherman, in his "Memoirs," says: 

The rebels had struck our railroad a heavy blow, burning every tie, bending 
the rails for eight miles, from Big Shanty to above Acworth, so that the esti- 
mate for repairs called for thirty-five thousand new ties and six miles of iron. 
Ten thousand men were distributed along the break to replace the ties and to 
prepare the roadbed, while the regular repair party, under Col. W. W. Wright, 
came down from Chattanooga with iron, spikes, etc., and in about seven days 
the road was all right again. [They destroyed about twelve miles of the 
road. — Ed. ] 

Personal Incidents. 

We have been informed by ditterent men, who belonged to 
several of the first companies and whose terms of service had 
expired nine or ten days previous to this battle, that they tried 
to ti^et thuir discharges when they were entitled to them and 
could not procure them, for the reason that their membership 
was needed to keep up the numbers of the men so that, with 
the new men who were arriving from Minnesota and joining, 
the numbers would be increased sufficiently to enable some of 
the oftieers to be promoted and mustered in. As it was, the 
numbers were too few to admit of any more promotions. So 
they were kept in to swell the immbers. Our informants also 
stall' that Captain Hill, the mustering officer, was at the time 
at Carti'rsville, only a few miles distant, and that no other 
rt^ason v.hatever existed except as stated. We will state that 
all men who were enrolled on Sept. 26, 1861, were en- 
titled to thuir discharges on Sept. 26, 1864, except those 



320 HI8TOBY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1864 

who had re-enlisted, and among the number were George 
Rogers and John Young of Company A, who were killed in 
the battle. When General Sherman arrived, our comrades 
state that they went to him and told him why they were being 
kept in the service and when their period of service expired, 
and he replied that he would have it attended to and they 
should be discharged at once, and on October 11th sixty-two 
men were discharged. Thirty-one of them were present with 
the regiment; the rest, absent, sick in hospitals in various 
parts of the country. 

During the first part of the battle the signal flag was waved 
from the top of a stump, some distance outside the eastern 
redoubt, but the rain of iron and lead becoming too thick the 
men with the flag went into the redoubt immediately behind 
Company B of the Fourth Minnesota and waved it from that 
position. 

It has been asserted by some historians that Corse stood by 
the signal officer and directed the messages sent to Sherman, 
and while the flagman was standing on a stump sending a 
message a rebel shot cut the flagstaflF in two, etc. Such state- 
ments are not correct. We have been permitted to copy the 
following statement from a letter recently written by General 
Corse : " I did not see a signal flag handled by anybody that day, 
for the reason that I was not on the hill where the signal flag 
was." Adjutant Rich says: "It was waved from the redoubt 
on our side." The man who waved it stood a part of the time 
on the embankment of the redoubt. 

My father, S. B. Brown of Company B, was in the battle, 
and informs me that the signal flag was immediately behind 
Company B and in the eastern redoubt, "within twenty feet of 
me. I would turn around every few minutes and look at it." 
. Second Lieut. J. Q. Adams of the Signal Corps, now cap- 
tain First Cavalry, United States Army,' was the signal officer 
at Allatoona. In a letter to us of April 3, 1892, he says : 

The men who flagged the messages were named McKenzie and West. I do 
not remember their first names. There were twelve signalmen of the detach- 
ment; nine of them took gnns and went into the intrenchments. Three were 
on duty with me inside the fort. I have not copies of the signal messages sent 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY YOLUNTSSBS. 321 

on that memorable day, bat it was a signal menage which brongbt the re- 
enforcements under General Corse, and jost before the fighting was too hot to 
stop signaling, a number of messages had passed between us and the station at 
Kenesaw. Lieutenant Fish was there in charge of the station. A message 
from General Sherman, saying, ''Hold the fort at Allatoona; I am working for 
you,'' is the one on which the popular hymn was written. This was in 
response to our inquiry asking where General Sherman was and if re-enforoe- 
ment8 were coming. 

Frank A. West writes us, in May, 1892, that he was formerly 
of Company A, Second Minnesota Infantry; that he and 
James W. McKenzie, both then of the Signal Corps, were at 
Big Shanty on the evening of the third when the enemy ap- 
peared ; went to Acworth that night and to Allatoona on the 
fourth; that in flagging the message to Eedesaw a six-foot flag 
was used, and he stood up on top of the embankment of the 
redoubt; that it only took about four minutes to flag the mes- 
sage; but that was long enough. Several bullets passed 
through the flag, several struck the staff near his hands and 
some went through his clothing. He states that McEenzie 
used the telescope and read the messages received from Eene- 
8UW, and was entitled to equal credit with himself. They 
were both promoted for " bravery, coolness and good behavior" 
at that battle, in General Orders, No. 47, of Signal Corps, 
Washington, Nov. 80, 1864. 

Adams, in his official report, states that he had moved over 
to the fort with his flag and at about 10:00 A. M. told the signal- 
men on Eenesaw of Corse's arrival; that the message was 
flagged under a sharp fire; that Frank A. West got upon the 
works and relieved James W. McEenzie at the flag; that the 
message was long and was flagged with remarkable coolness 
and accuracy by these two men; that when the main fighting 
had ceased and the enemy had about all withdrawn, R. 0. 
McGinty and A. F. Fuller flagged from the top of the fort a 
message that they held out and Corse was wounded. (82, 1, 
736-740.) 

J. Willard Brown, historian for the Signal Corps, says in a 
recent letter that ** Lieut. J. Q. Adams was present but too ill 
to be on duty that day, and the reading and most of the flag- 
ging was done by Private James W. McEenzie, formerly of 

21 



322 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Carey, Ohio. He was assisted by Private Frank A. West, de- 
tailed into the Signal Corps from the Second Minnesota/' 

Mr. A. D. Frankenberry of Point Marion, Pa., in a recent 
letter, says that he was one of the Signal Corps on Kenesaw 
at the time mentioned ; that he flagged some of the messages 
and now has in his possession the identical flag used; that the 
signal call of Allatoona was the number "1881." He also sent 
us the message beginning, *' Corsr, Ro/ne, G*f.,^' and says it was. 
a repeat message, sent late in the afternoon of October 3dfrom 
Atlanta to Kenesaw, signaled to Allatoona and telegraphed 
from there to Corse. 

Fish writes that James H. Sloan of his squad did the flag- 
ging. Connelly and his s(|uad of men belonged to the Army 
of the Cumberland and Fish and his to the Army of the Ten- 

ft* 

nessee. 

J. X. Bradford of Comj^any B informs us that "during the 
progress of the battle two horsemen dressed in blue approached 
from the east toward Allatoona creek and the eastern redoubt. 
I tried to persuade the boys not to fire at them, but some of 
them did and the two men rode oft' in a northeasterly direc- 
tion." 

A supply of ammunition was stored near the eastern end of 
the foot-bridge. Near the close of the battle Companies A 
and I were engaged firing across at the enemy on the west 
side and got out of cartridges, and Colonel Tourtellette asked 
for someone to go for a box near to the headquarters house, 
where a wagon load had been piled. The distance was about 
a hundred yards or more along the crest of the ridge, fully 
exposed to the enemy's fire, and Washington Muzzy, one of 
the band, who was receiving the wounded as they were brought 
to the Hospital tent, volunteered to get a box to them. He ran 
to the pile and shouldered one (they weigh one hundred pounds 
and contain one thousand rounds) and returned with it, although 
the bullets whistled around him at every step. Before he 
reached the companies he stumbled and fell heavih', when an- 
other member (Kimball) of the band, supposing he had been 
shot, took up the box and carried it to the men, who received it 
with cheers, and those bullets were soon speeding toward the 
enemy. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 323 

Adjutant Rich was directed to take a company out and open 
a flank tire on the enemy in the ravine in front of Company 
A. He took Company H out on an unprotected hillside. 
He says : 

I had orders from Colonel Edson to take bnt one company oat, and took H, 
which was commanded by Lieut. Chessman Goald. Finding it too hot for 
one I went back and told Captain Wells of Company C that I had no orders 
for a second company, bnt that we needed it, and asked him if, under the cir- 
cumstances, he would come. He very cheerfully said yes, if I wanted him, 
and we went with his company. 

Previous to this he had gone to Lieutenant Colonel Jackson 
and asked for one of his companies, but Jackson declined to 
move one out, and finally, after beino^ persuaded by Rich to go 
and see for himself, he still declined, stating that he thought 
two companies enough. 

After the tight was over the oflicers sat down to coftee and 
hardtack in the niessroom, which was in one end of the 
double building (the adjutant's otiice being in the other end). 
Maj. R. J. Durr and his ofticers also sat down to the table, and 
tlu*y all talked over the incidents of the day. Morrill ques- 
tioned Durr about the attem{>t to take in his company while 
the olHcer with the flag of truce was communicating with 
Corse. 

During the ))rogress of the battle Tourtellotte went along 
the line visiting the conii)anies, speaking words of encourage- 
mcMit to the men, and told them that General Sherman was on 
Kenesaw watching and sending messages to hold the place. 

Lieutenant Amsden of the batterv was wounded below the 
knee bv a minie-ball and died shortlv after. 

A corporal of the Xinety-third Illinois, having in his pos- 
.•-ession ii Si)encer rifle, was captured. Tlie rebels threatened 
to shoot him unless he showed them how to use it. He told 
tlieni to go to hades, or any other seaport. We recaptured 
our corporal. 

Comrade Muzzy states that the battery received a new flag 
a short time previous to the battle. [It was with Amsden. 
— Ki).] ( )ne hundred and ninety-two bullet holes were counted 
ill it after the liirht. 

We kept finding dead rebels in the woods until October 22d, 
on which date we buried the last one. 



324 HIBTORT OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1864 

Merritt W. Cunningham of Company H says that he received 
the sword of a wounded rebel otfieer, who also directed him 
where he could find their flag, and that he brought both in, 
and that Lieutenant Lieberg of Company H has the sword. 
The lieutenant states that he has the sword and that Colonel 
Tourtellotte gave it to him. We have other evidence that 
Cunningham's story is correct. Knudt Helling of Company 
H says the sword was taken from Captain Yates, who was 
wounded, and that Cunningham brought in both the sword and 
flag. As soon as it became known that the enemy in the gully 
had raised a white flag Capt. E. U. Russell of Company A de- 
tailed Orderly Sergt. Thos. M. Young and twenty men of his 
company to go down and receive the surrendered rebels. 
Young says that on arriving at the place he picked up one of 
the flags and handed it to Frank De Mers and then all pro- 
ceeded at once to headquarters. 

The term of service of John Young and George Rogers of 
Company A had expired, but they went into the battle and 
were killed. Isaac S. Russell was sick in the hospital, and leav- 
ing it took his gun and went into the ranks, although he was 
so weak that the recoil of the gun knocked him over. Lieut. 
G. M. D. Lambert, who fought with Company A, used two 
guns, as also did P. W. Fix, O. 0. Jaquith and several others, 
and when one got too hot would change to the other, or some 
of the boys would do the loading while they tired. 

The Rodman gun, between Companies A and I, was worked 
by the gunners until they were all killed or wounded. They 
stood out openly and had no protection. At times they would 
lie on their backs and load the gun. Men lying flat on the 
ground would pass the ammunition up to the gunners. . 

Sylvan us Allen of Company A was a Methodist minister, and 
previous to the battle used to hold forth for the boys in a sort 
of booth, constructed of fallen trees, across the ravine in front 
of Company A. Some of the enemy secreted themselves in his 
gospel shop and he devoted his attention to them, sending leaden 
messages that proved sure passports to several of the enemy. 
It is said that eight dead rebels were found in it. 

Company I, under Capt. D. L. Wellman, was obliged to dig 
and fight at the same time. They tore down the tents and 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEB8. 325 

piled up the poles and pieces of boxes, and anything to throw 
dirt against. Their excavation was a shallow trench scooped 
out on the edge of the railroad cut, facing the west and north- 
west, in which they la}-, and being on the most elevated and 
exposed ground on the left of Company A, the bullets came 
freely among them, and when the battle ended the ground 
looked like a slaughter-pen. If their trench had been like 
that used by Company A — a ditch in which the men could 
stand up — they would probably have suffered less loss. They 
did not have time to dig such a d^tch. The bullets coming 
from the north enfiladed their line. Ephriam Dudley of this 
company, after having been mortally wounded, said: "I would 
not care about dying, if I had fought all day; but I regret 
being killed after having fired but three shots." 

The foot-bridge, four feet wide, was formed of two pine trees 
laid across the rock-cut at a distance of about ninety feet above 
the railroad. It had a railing on, was covered with pine boards, 
and was located near the northern end of the cut. 

In answer to a letter, Mr. T. C. Moore, the postmaster at 
Allatoona, writes us, under date of March 6, 1890: 

Copt. A, L. BrowHy 

Dear Sir: Yoars of Febmarj 28th at hand. The bridge was ninetj-fiTe 
feet alx)ve the railroad track. From the top of the rock-cat (where the 
bridge was) to top of the earth-cat is about eighty feet; whole depth, 175 feet. 
The house yoa refer to [on the hill, headquarters Fonrth Minnesota] was a 
frame with chimney at each end. It was torn down several years ago. Those 
hills are now covered with second growth and look nothing like they did Oct. 
5, 1864. The old forts on either side of railroad are good and sonnd, and pine 
trees eighteen inches in diameter are growing in them. I saw the whole fight, 
and it was a desperate one. I was on the southern side, * « * etc 

The eastern redoubt was built in nearly a square form on 
the most southeastern spur, Company B being stationed on 
its northern and eastern and Company G on its southern side. 
Capt. 1). M. G. Murphy was in command of Company B, and 
stood out openly a great part of the time under an oak tree 
that stood in the bank of this redoubt, and from which it was 
said that the leaves were all shot off, cautioning his men not 
to tire while Company K and the other company were out in 
front. With some of our skirmishers Lieutenant Graham was 
<lown in front, east of the redoubt, toward Allatoona creek. 



326 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

During the night of the attack the recruits in some of the 
companies were drilled in the loadings and firings. A few 
days previous to the attack Sergeants Young of Company A, 
Judson Whitney of Company D and Corporal Andrew Qish of 
Company I placed markings on the ground from one hundred to 
five hundred vards distant from the fort, which aided the men in 
their firings. Almon H. Cottrell of Company F, after his arm 
had been amputated. Young says, carried ammunition for 
Companies A, I and F. He died a few days after of lock- 
jaw. 

Rev. Charles H. Savidge of Company H was a Methodist 
minister, preaching in Minnesota, but enlisted as a private. 
During the battle a musket ball struck a testament in the 
pocket of his blouse, which prevented its going through his 
body, lie was promoted to chaplain and made a good one. 
About one o'clock Sergeants John N. Bradford and A. B. 
Applin went down into the ravine to get some coftee for Com- 
pany B. On the way they met a man belonging to Company — 
on the ridge, standing up coolly and loading and firing at the 
enemv. Thev cautioned him to get under cover, but he laugh- 
ingly told them that the bullet had not yet been made that 
would kill him. On their return they passed his dead body 
lying where they had left him. 

We copied the following from " Wisconsin in the War:" 

Three companies of the Eighteenth [Wisconsin Infantry Volanteers] were 
at the blockhouse, two miles south of AUatoona, and were attacked in the 
morning afler declining to surrender. They numbered eighty men, and did 
not surrender until dark, and then not until the blockhouse was on fire. They 
were under the command of Captain Mclntyre of Company I. After the battle 
of AUatoona the non-veterans and recruits were assigned to the Ninety-third 
Illinois and accompanied Sherman on his march to the sea, Savannah and 
Goldsboro. The veterans were furloughed on November 28th, reassembling 
at Milwaukee on December 28th, and arrived at Nashville Jan. 11, 1865. 
They started for Sherman's army, arriving at Goldsboro the last of March and 
rejoined their comrades of the First Brigade, Third Division, Fifteenth Army 
Corps, and marched through to Washington. W^ent to Louisville and were 
mustered out July 18, 1865. 

The following poem was written by Sergeant Major Flint of 
the Seventh Illinois Infantry the night after the battle, and 
may be read in the history of that regiment: 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEBS. 327 

Winds that Bweep the Southern mountain 
And the leafy river's shore! 
Bear ye not a prouder burden 
Than ye ever learned before ? 

And the hot blood fills 

The heart until it thrills, 
At the story of the terror and the glory of the battle 

Of the AUatoona hills. 

Echoes from the purple mountains 
To the dull surrounding shore — 
'Tis as sad and proud a burden 
As ye ever learned before ! 

How they fell like grass 

When the mowers pass, 
And the dying, when the foe was flying, swelled the cheering 

of the heroes of the pass. 

Sweep it o'er the hills of Georgia 
To the mountains of the North ; 
Teach the coward and the doubter 
What the blood of man is worth. 

Hail the flag you pass ! 

Let its stained and tattered mass 
Tell the story of the terror and the glory of the battle 

Of the AUatoona Pass. 

The Captured Flags. 

We 4uote from the St. Paul Pn^'s the following reference to 
the presentation by the Fourth Minnesota of their captured 

battle Hags to the state : 

Aarou Scribner uud John N. Bradford, two members of the Fourth Minne- 
sota, arrived here yesterday, direct from AUatoona. Thej brought with them 
two battle fla^s which were captured from the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-ninth 
Mi:)si8'*ippi regiments by the Foarth Minnesota daring the battle of AUatoona, 
and deposited them with the adjutant general at the capitol. The foUowiog 
note accompanied them: 

Headquarters Fourth Minnesota Infantry, 

Allatoona, Ga., Oct. 11, 1864. 

(). M'llmron, Adjutnnt Gtnernl^ State of Minnesota^ 

Colonel: By the bearer hereof, in behalf of the officen and men of my 
coiinnaud, I have the honor to present to the state the colors of the Thiity-fifth 
and Thirty-ninth Mississippi Infantry, captured by this regiment in the action 
at this plare October 5th. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James C. Edson, 
Major f Commanding Rtgiment, 

The tl<)U'4 are of coarse material and one of them is without any inscription 
whatever. The other is ornamented with the names of ^^Yicksburg," 
"Corinth," "luka,*' ^'Hatchie'' and** Green wood." It is a singmlar (act that 



328 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

in all those battles the Fourth Minnesota has met these two Mississippi 
regiments [No. — Ed.] The Fonrth for its gallant action in this battle is 
entitled to a new set of colors, with the word ** Allatoona" added to the other 
records of honor which already emblazon its banners. After the battle thirty- 
one whose time had expired were discharged and left for home. 

Colonel Edson informed us that he sent the flags to St. Paul 
by John N. Bradford, and the latter informed us that he had to 
carry his knapsack and the fla^ about forty miles around 
breaks in the railroad and could not get anyone to help him 
carry them except Thompson Larraway. 

Battle flag of the Thirty-ninth Mississippi Infantry (rebel) captured by the 
Fourth Regiment, Minnesota Veteran Volunteers, at the battle of AUatoona, 
Ga., Oct. 5, 1864. 

The above notice is on a piece of common writing paper. It 
was written by Adjt. W. W. Rich and pasted to the flag, ap- 
parently before it ^vas sent to Minnesota. There are no names 
of battles or any lettering whatever on it. The body of both 
flags is of red baize, the cross of blue baize (woolen). This has 
twelve stars and seems to be of full size and intact; the stars 
are of white cotton cloth sewed on the cross, three on each 
arm. 

Battle flag of the Thirty-fifth Mississippi Infantry, captured by the Fonrth 
Minnesota Infantry Veteran Volunteers, at the battle of Allatoona, Ga., Oct. 
5, 1864. 

I certify on honor that the rebel flag (without description) now in the 
office of the adjutant general of Minnesota should bear the above record of 
history. W. W. BiCH, 

Late Captain Fourth Minnesota Veteran Volunteers, 

116 Fifth Street S, E., Minneapolis. 

This notice was written in recent years and is pinned to the 
flag of the Thirty-fifth Mississippi Regiment. This flag con- 
tains the names of luka, Corinth, Hatchie, Greenwood and 
Vicksburg. [The oflicial records show that this regiment 
was in those battles. — Ed.] The letters and stars are made 
of white cloth and sewed on each side of the flag. It has 
but eleven stars, the one on the lower corner having been 
cut oft', and the entire end of the flag is ragged, as if a consid- 
erable part had been cut away. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 329 

Principal Musician W. S. Kimball cut a piece 6x6 out 
of a flag and has it now. Sergt. Wm. M. Davis of Company 
I also informs us that he has quite a large piece of a flag which 
he cut ofl' and sent home, and says that he wrote in the letter 
that it was a piece of the Thirty-fifth Mississippi flag. Com- 
rade James E. Conway of Company G has now in his posses- 
sion a piece of silk and one star, which he says he cut from a 
flag, and claims he captured it. It is also claimed that John 
Hughes of Company F captured a silk flag. But poor health 
and the shortness of life prevents our settling these questions. 
The statement about Hughes is supported by pretty good 
evidence. As all of the flags were captured by the entire 
garrison at the post, we fail to see how any person who picked 
one up and carried it in deserves any special credit. Young 
might just as rightfully claim that he captured all of the 
prisoners. We believe, from the evidence received, that three 
flags were captured by our men at this place, one of which was 
made of silk and torn up and divided among the boys. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Corse and Troops Leave for Rome — Sherman and His Army Arrive — New 
Recruits Under *'The New Issue'* Arrive — Our Drove of Eight Thousand 
Head of Cattle Pass to the Front — Our Non- Veterans Leave for Minne- 
sota — We Vote for President of the United States — Sick and Wounded 
Sent North on the Cars to Tennessee — Stripping for Our March to Savan- 
nah — Annual 0£Qcial Returns for 1864 — Receive Our Last Payment 
Until Our Final Muster-Out — All Surplus Baggage and Property Sent to 
the Rear — The Eighteenth Wisconsin Goes Home on ** Vet." Furlough — 
The March to Atlanta — What Sherman Says About the Composition of His 
Army, His Purpose and His Orders for the Campaign — Leave Atlanta — 
Foragers* Marks on Objects — **Ten Minutes' March and Twenty Minutes' 
Standstill; Weight on Left Leg and Head Under Wing " — Our Regiment 
Destroys a Mile and a Half of Railroad — In Clover — Several Hundred 
Extra Horses Shot — Burning Cotton-Gin House and Rebs Hid in It — 
Arrive Near to Savannah — Mussel Stews — Fort McAllister Ours — Ves- 
sels in the Offing — Savannah Ours — Strength of Our Army — Summary of 
Results. 

Orlo/'tr Oth — Tharsday. — Morrill says, in his diary: "I went 
over the battleground; a great many wounded on the ground 
yet.'* A part of Sherman's army passed throuojh in pursuit of 
tlie rebels. The stench from the dead rebels is verv bad. 

Ortnhcr 7t]i — Frida;/, — Cleaning up. Fixing camp and trying 
to fix up things. General Corse left for Rome with his com- 
maixl. 

Oi-folnr Sfh — Sfitffrdffi/. — The Twenty-third Army Corps 
(General Cox) is moving north in pursuit of Hood. Eight 
thousand cattle passed to the front. 

Orfohir 0th — S*fndfft/, — General Sherman passed through 
this place. 

Orfohcr 10th — Mondaii. — The Twentj'-third, Fourth and 
Fourteenth Army Corps passed this place. 

OrfoUr 11th — Tijisdnti. — We got orders to be ready to move 
at a moment's notice. Received one hundred recruits from 
Minnesota. The Fifteenth Corps passed. A good many of 
our regiment whose time has expired started to-day for Minue- 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 331 

sota. The Second Minnesota passed, ^oing north after Hood's 
army. They visited some with our boys. 

Ocfoher l^th — Wednesdaij, — Five men, recruits, joined Com- 
pany K. Quite cool. 

Octoher loth — Saitrrdai/, — There was a rumor in camp that 
the Seventeenth Iowa had been taken prisoners at Rcsaca; 
but Hood, after demanding the surrender of the post and 
reccivins^ Col. Clark R. Weaver's reply, did not assault the 
works. 

Oi'tobcr 16th — Sioidoi/, — Had inspection. Articles of war 
read to Company K. 

Ortohtr nth — Mondatj, — -Captain MorriU went orrt with a 
forai^e train. Got fourteen loads of corn and hav, seven head 
of cuttle and five rebels. We got information that Stewart 
would attack our post. Lieut. Col. J. E. Tourtellotte was 
to-dav mustered in as colonel of the regiment, the muster-in 
to (late from Oct. 5, 1864. 

Qritthrr 18th — Tmsdai/, — Three years ago to-day a good 
many of Company K were enrolled in the service. 

Or/o/vM* 10th — Wcdthsf/nf/. — Captain Ballou sent Company 
K a ([uarter of beef. Major Lemon from Cartersville called on 
a visit. 

O'fnhcr JOth — Thtfrsda//, — Captain ^[orrill went up to Car- 
tersville to-day and took dinner with General Smith; then 
went over to the Sixty-third Illinois and remained all night. 

Or(<,/jrr Jlsf — Friihu/. — Morrill returned to camp this fore- 
noon. The vote was taken to-day for president. Company K 
all vr)tcd tor Lincoln. 

(h'tiJur J2il — Sntnrday. — Morrill, officer of the day. Cap- 
tain Roberts of the Eighteenth Wisconsin and Inspector Smith's 
division inspected companies and also had inspection of cloth- 
ing, cam[> and garrison equipage. Chas. F. Hellberg of Com- 
pany A, in band, received descriptive list and left for Hospital 
Xo. 3, at Nashville [on Nov. 26, 1864, was transferred to Louis- 
ville, Ky.]. 

Orfn/nrJ.Jd — Stnidfft/, — Inspection. Company K made out 
(leserii)tive rolls for men at division headquarters. Weather 
splendid. Morrill still officer of the day. 



382 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Orfohrr 2ph — 3Lmdai/. — Morrill went up to Cartersville to- 
day, dined with Clarke and stayed all night. 

Ocfohcr 2oth — T'tesdai/. — Morrill came back to camp and 
Captains McBride and Budlong came with him. 

OrtohiT 20th — WidiHsdin/, — We arc informed that the Army 
of the Tennessee will move to Atlanta within ten days. Every- 
thing quiet. Weather very fine. 

October 27th — Thursday, — Commenced to make out pay 
rolls. 

Ortohtr 28th — Fr'ah'/, — Officers had sword drill. Had dress 
parade.* 

October 29th — Sutffrdat/. — Morrill, officer of the day. 

October 30th — Sunday, — Lieutenant Warren came down 
from Cartersville. 

October 31st — Monday, — Captain Roberts inspected ord- 
nance and ordnance stores. Major Edson mustered the regi- 
ment for pay at 1:00 p. m. 

Returns for the Month of November, 1864. — Total enlisted, 744; aggregate, 776. 
Remarks. — Charles C. Hunt, on detached service at draft rendezvons at Fort 
SneUing. 

Xorcmber ith — Friday, — Morrill, officer of the day, and also 
on a board of survey to assess loss on cattle for Captain Ballou. 
Cool. 

Xoretnber oth — Saturday, — Grand blow-out, at Captain Bal- 
lou's, with officers of Ninety-third Illinois, Eighteenth Wiscon- 
sin, Twelfth Wisconsin Battery and Fourth Minnesota. Cool. 

George Sly says : 

The sick and wonnded were sent north on the cars. I went to Chattanooga, 
then to Nashville [population, 1890, 43,461] and into a hospital. When weU 
I returned to Chattanooga and was on gaard aU winter. We were short of 
rations, but I had an uncle clerking in a hotel and used to go to town and fill up 
every few days. In the early spring we convalescents went to Louisville, Ky., 
and up the river to Madison, Ind.; then on the cars to Annapolis, Md.; then 
on a steamer to New Berne, N. C. We had a very hard storm when off Cape 
Hatteras and several men were washed overboard. I barely escaped in the 
night by fortunately catching hold of a roi>e. At New Berne [population! 
1880, 6.443] we built log huts. The camp was called **Camp Chattanooga.'' 
When the troops started to open the railroad to Goldsboro to meet Sherman's 
army I got into one battle. I had a musket then. A Connecticut regiment 
ran and I followed. Played off sick and got back to New Berne. Guarded 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY YOLUNXEERS. 333 

prisoners till Sherman arrived at Gtoldaboio, then stole onto a ficeight train in 
the night, threw away my musket, etc, and joined the r^ment in camp at 
Goldsboro. 

AnnwU Return Made Nov, 1, 1864. — Retamedfkom desertion, 5; drafted men 
and snbstitates, 163; recniits (volnnteer), 224; commissioned officers appointed 
from enlisted men, 8; commissioned officers appointed firom cItU life, 6; total 
gain, 405; loss, 179; increase, 226; aggregate Dec 31, 1863, 660; aggregate Nov. 
1, 1864, 776. 

Bemark»,—Eaily in Septemher two men were captured, while scouting, by 
guerrillas, Ck>rporal Stephen Mazson of Company K on September 7tb, and Pri- 
vate Edward A. Zeibarth of Company B on September 2d; reported as missing 
in action, August 22d. Companies A, D and K were sent to assist in guarding 
the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad and returned September 22d. October 
5th the regiment lost eleven killed and thirty-three wounded (of the wounded 
five have since died). It captured eighty prisoners, including several officers, 
and two stands of colors. October 11th sixty-two non-veterans were mustered 
out of service. Seventy-five or one hundred more will be mustered out by 
December 23d, three years from date of original organiition of vsgiment. 
During the year the regiment has received 223 volunteer reemlls and 163 
drafled men and suhstitutes. 

John B. Q rover of Company B was out foraging for the 
officers' mess and was captured by the enemy's cavalry and held 
by them for several hours. He made his escape in the night 
and got to Cartersville, where he got on the cars and rode to 
Allatoona. 

Xnranher 7th — Monday, — All camp equipage was turned 
over to Lieutenant Russell, regimental quartermaster. The 
paymaster came to-day to pay the troops here. 

Noninher 8th — Ttiesday. — Major Woodson, the paymaster, 
paid us to-day. The Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry started 
home to-day on veteran furlough. Weather wet. 

We make a few quotations from a letter written home by an 

officer: 

Received two months' pay to-day, probably up to August Isl The eg pr sw 
office is to be moved to the rear to-night General Smith says that the Eigh- 
teenth Wisconsin Infantry of our brigade goes borne on vetefaa ftiriough. 
Will start to-night. We start in a few days for somewhere — we all think for 
Savannah. All our surplus tents and baggage have been sent to the rear. 
Two teams for baggage only are allowed to a regiment. Weather wet, cold 
and windy. We shall have a hard trip, perhaps, but aie anxious to start A 
commission for Chaplain Savidge has been seot for. 

Nnrtmbir 11th — Friday. — Received orders to march at 9:00 
A. M. to-morrow. Company A about this time was detailed as 



334 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

provost guard to the headquarters of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps and remained on that duty until after the capture of 
Savannah, Ga. 

General Sherman states in his *' Memoirs: " 

On the twelAh of Xoveiul)erthe railroad and telegraph commanications with 
the rear were broken, and the army stood detached from all friends, dependent 
on its own resources and supplies. No time was to be lost; all the detach- 
ments were ordered to march rapidly for Atlanta, breaking up the railroad en 
routej and generally to so damage the conntry as to make it nntenable to the 
enemy. By the fourteenth all the troops had arrived at or near Atlanta, and 
were, according to orders, grouped into two wings, the right and left, com- 
manded respectively by Major Generals O. O. Howard and H. W. Slocum, both 
comparatively young men, but educated and experienced officers, fully compe- 
tent to their command. 

The right wing was composed of the Fifteenth Corps, Maj. Gen. P. J. Oster- 
baus commanding, and the Seventeenth Corps, Maj. Gen. Frank P. Blair com- 
manding. 

The left wing was composed of the Fourteenth Corps, Maj. Gen. Jefferson C. 
Davis commanding, and the Twentieth Corps, Brig. Gen. A. S. Williams 
commanding. 

The Fift-eenth Corps had four divisions, commanded by Brigadier Generals 
Charles K. Woods, W. B. Hazen, John E. Smith and John M. Corse. 

The Seventeenth Corps had three divisions, commanded by Maj. Gen. J. A. 
Mower and Brigadier Generals M. D. Leggett and Giles A. Smith. 

The Fourteenth Corps had three divisions, commanded by Brigadier Gen- 
erals W. P. Carlin, James D. Morgan and A. Baird. 

The Twentieth Corps had also three divisions, commanded by Brigadier 
Generals N. J. Jackson, John W. Geary and W. T. Ward. 

The cavalry division was held separate, subject to my own orders. It was 
commanded by Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, and was composed of two bri- 
gades, commanded by Colonels Eli H. Murray of Kentucky and Smith D. 
Atkins of Illinois. 

The general gives the total strength of his army as it started, 
stripped for the fight from Atlanta, as 62,204 officers and men. 

From Atlanta. 
General Sherman savs: 

The two general orders made for this march appear to me, even at this late 
day, so clear, emphatic and well-digested, that no account of that historic event 
is perfect without them, and I give them entire, even at the seeming appear- 
ance of repetition; and although they called for great sacrifice and labor on the 
part of officers and men, I insist that these orders were obeyed as well as any 



1863] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 335 

similar orders ever were by an army operating wholly in an enemy's country 
and dispersed, as we necessarily were, daring the subsequent period of nearly 
six months. 

Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi. 

In the Field, Kingston, Ga., Nor. 8, 1864. 

Special Field Orders, No. 119: 

The general commanding deems it proper at this time to inform the offi- 
cers and men of the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Seventeenth and Twentieth Corps 
that he has organized them into an army for a special purpose, well known to 
the War Department and to General Grant. It is sufficient for you to know 
that it involves a departure from our present base and a long and difficult 
march to a new one. All the chances of war have been considered and pro- 
vided for, as far as human sagacity can. All he asks of you is to maintain that 
discipline, patience and courage which have characterized you in the past; and 
he hopes through you to strike a blow at our enemy that will have a material 
etfect in producing, what we all so much desire, his complete overthrow. Of 
all things, the most important is that the men during the marches and in camp 
keep their places and do not scatter about as stragglers and foragers, to be 
picked up by a hostile i)eople in detail. It is also of the utmost importance 
that our wagons should not be loaded with anything but provisions and ammu- 
nition. All surplus servants, non-combatants and refugees should now go to 
the rear, and none should be encouraged to incumber us on the march. At 
some future time we will be able to provide for the poor whites and blacks 
who seek to escape the bondage under which they are now suilering. With 
tliese few simple cautions, he hopes to lead you to achievements equal in im- 
portance to those of the past. 

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman. 

L. M. Dayton, 

Aid-de-camp. 

Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi. 

In the Field, Kingston, Ga., Nov. 9, 1864. 

Special Field Orders, No. 1*20: 

Fititi — For the purpose of military operations this army is divided into two 
win^s, viz.: The right wing, under Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard commanding, 
comi)08ed of the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Corps; the left wing, Mai. Gen. 
H. W. Slocnm commanding, composed of the Fourteenth and Twentieth 
Corps. 

Stcond — The habitual order of march will be, wherever practicable, by 
funr roads, us nearly parallel as possible and converging at points hereafter to 
be indicated in orders. The cavalry, Brigadier General Kilpatrick command- 
ing, will receive special onlers from the commander-in-chief. 

Third — There will be no general train of supplies, but each corps will have 
itM ammunition train and provision train distributed habitually as follows: 
liehiud each regiment should follow one wagon and one ambulance; behind 
eacli brigade slionld follow a duo proportion of ammunition wagons, provision 
wagons and uinbulances. In case of danger, each corps commander should 
change this onler of march, by having his advance and rear brigades nnin* 



336 HISTORY OF THE FOUBTH REGIMENT [1864 

cambered by wheels. The separate colamns will start habitually at 7:00 A. M. 
and make about fifteen miles per day nnless otherwise fixed in orders. 

Fourth — The army will forage liberally on the country during the march. 
To this end each brigade commander will organize a good and sufficient 
foraging party, under the command of one or more discreet officers, who will 
gather near the route traveled corn or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, 
Tegetables, cornmeal or whatever is needed by the command, aiming at all 
times to keep in the wagons at least ten days* provisions for his command and 
three days' forage. Soldiers must not enter the dwellings of the inhabitants 
or commit any trespass; but during a halt or camp they may be permitted to 
gather turnips, potatoes or other vegetables and to drive in stock in sight of 
their camp. To regular foraging parties must be intrusted the gathering of 
provisions and forage at any distance from the road traveled. 

Fifth — To corps commanders alone is intrusted the power to destroy mills, 
houses, cotton-gins, etc., and for them this general principle is laid down: In 
districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested no destruction of 
such property should be permitted ; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers 
molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads or 
otherwise manifest local hostility, then army commanders should order and 
enforce a devastation more or less relentless, according to the measure of such 
hostility. 

Sixth — As for horses, mules, wagons, etc, belonging to the inhabitants, the 
cavalry and artillery may appropriate freely and without limit, discriminating, 
however, between the rich, who are usually hostile, and the poor and industri- 
ous, usually neutral or friendly. Foraging parties may also take mules or 
horses to replace the jaded animals of their trains or to serve as pack mules 
for the regiments or brigades. In all foraging, of whatever kind, the parties 
engaged will refrain from abusive or threatening language, and may, where 
the officer in command thinks prox>er, give written certificates of the facts, but 
no receipts, and they will endeavor to leave with each family a reasonable 
portion for their maintenance. 

Seventh — Negroes who are able-bodied and can be of service to the several 
columns may be taken along; but each army commander will bear in mind 
that the question of supplies is a very important one, and that his first duty is 
to see to those who bear arms. 

Eighth — The organization at once of a good pioneer battalion for each army 
corps, composed, if possible, of negroes, should be attended to. This battalion 
should follow the advance guard, tepair roads and double them, if possible, so 
that the columns may not be delayed after reachibg bad places. Also, army 
commanders should practice the habit of giving the artillery and wagons 
I the road, marching their troops on one side, and instruct their troops to assist 

wagons at steep hills or bad crossings of streams. 

Ninth — Capt. O. M. Poe, chief engineer, will assign to each wing of the 

army a pontoon train, Ailly equipped and organized, and the commanders 

thereof will see to their being properly protected at all times. 

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman. 

L. M. Dayton, 

Aid-d&^amp, 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY YOLUNTESRS. 337 

The greatest possible Attention had been given to the wagon trains and 
artillery. The namberof gana had been redaoed to sizty-fiTe, or abont one, 
gan to each thousand men, and these were generally in batteries of fonr gnna 
each. Each gnn, caisson and foige was drawn by fonr teams of horses. We 
had in all abont twenty-five hundred wagons, with teams of six mules to each 
and six hundred ambulances with two horses to each. The loads were made 
comparatively light, — about twenty-five hundred pounds, net, — each wagon 
carrying in addition the foxge needed by its own team. Each soldier carried 
on his person forty rounds of ammunition and in the wagons were enough 
cartridges to make up about two hundred rounds per maUf and in like manner 
two hundred rounds of assorted ammunition were carried for each gun. The 
wagon trains were divided equally between the four corps, so that each had 
about eight hundred wagons, and these usually on the march occupied five 
miles or more of road. Each corps commander managed his own train and 
habitually the artiUeiy and wagons had the road, while the men, with the ez- 
ception of the advance and rear guards, pursued paths impoverished by the 
side of the wagons, unless th^ were forced to nse a bridge or causeway in 
common. 

Xovc/nber 12th — Saturday, — We are to leave AUatooDa this 
morning, and after so many months of camp and guard daty 
since we re-enlisted, take up our long march to the coast ou 
the great campaign so long talked of and its objective point so 
long discussed among the soldiers. The Fourth Regiment is 
all together and in splendid spirits. Colonel Tourtellotte is 
not able to ride on horseback yet, but will command the regi- 
ment while riding in an ambulance. Our brass band has lost 
two of its members since coming to Allatoona. Charles Hal- 
berg, our snare drummer, was taken sick and sent North and 
(lied en route. His place was filled by a drummer from the 
Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry. And. F. Brackelsberg, our 
alto solo, was wounded at Allatoona and sent North to a hos- 
pitul. His place could not be filled by a detail. Truman 
Booth of Company H of our regiment was detailed to play in 
the band, which numbers eleven men. At 9:00 A. M. Oen. 
John E. Smith came down from Rome with the rest of our 
division and at ten o'clock we left Allatoona, marching on the 
Marietta road. We have either destroyed or sent to the rear 
everything that we could not carry with us or that the enemy 
can use for war purposes against us, the railroad and telegraph 
line sharing the common lot with the rest of the property. 
We went into camp at 8:00 P. M., two miles south of Acworth, 
having marched six miles. 

23 



338 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Xovember loth — Stouio'/. — Reveille bv the band at dawn of 
day. We broke camp at 6:00 a. m. Marched toward Marietta 
and reached that place at 1:00 p. m.; distance, ten miles. We 
rested for half an hour and then moved on; then went into 
bivouac until a wasjon train of two hundred and fiftv teams 
passed us. We then moved on again until 5:00 P. M., when 
we went into camp at sundown about six or seven miles south 
of Marietta, after having: marched during: the dav about seven- 
teen miles. At Marietta, the railroad depot, several business 
blocks and some private residences were burning. All right 
for the depot, but it is a shame that private residences should 
be burned. The railroad is eliectuallv destroved, the ties hav- 
ing been burned up and the rails twisted. Col. Joseph B. Mc- 
Cown of the Sixty-third Illinois Infantry commands our brigade. 
Major Generals Logan and Blair went Xorth before the fall 
elections. Blair has returned and commands the Seventeenth 
Army Corps. General Logan has not yet returned and Maj. 
Gen. P. J. Osterhaus is in command of Log:an's Fifteenth 
Corps in his absence on our march to the coast. 

The troops of the Fifteenth Corps after leaving Atlantahad 
distinguishing marks that would inform them of the number 
of the division or brigade which had passed along the road, 
and when thev saw it thev could tell what division or briifade 
was ahead of them. This was a great help to foraging parties 
in finding: their various commands. I have never seen any 
statement in any history of our army operations that made 
mention of this fact, nor am I able to state by what authority 
any marks were made for that purpose. But such marks were 
made and were well known to the men of the Fifteenth Corps. 
It is claimed by some that the sign was a Maltese cross, each 
arm of which represented one of the four divisions, and each 
division and brigade had a place assigned to it on which to 
place a mark, which was made with an axe, on houses, trees or 
fence corners. Others claim that the marks were made in the 
form of a four-pointed star, or such as lumbermen make on logs 
they are rafting. The reader can help himself 

Xorc/nher l^th — Monda>i. — We drew rations last night. 
Broke camp this morning at 6:00 a. m. Crossed the Chatta- 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 339 

hoochie river at half-past ten and having passed through 
Atlanta camped one mile west of the city at 2:00 p. m. Distance 
marched, fourteen miles. As we marched through the city 
we passed in review before Maj. Gen. 0. 0. Howard, who 
commands our wing of the army. The Fourth Regiment 
Band got into a tangle in passing the general, by not knowing 
just what to do. The general discovered our error and put 
us right in so kind a manner that he won our aftection at once. 
The most of the city has been destroyed, and we can see in all 
directions evidences of the stubborn contest that was waged 
for its possession. Our march from AUatoona to this place 
was over an almost continuous battlefield. During the day 
the troops drew a full supply of clothing and shoes and made 
their final preparations for a long campaign. Two men from 
Company D and three men from Company C were detached 
for service in the First Illinois Light Artillery, Battery H. 
[Population of Atlanta in 1880, 38,398.] 

\nce//ther loth — Taesulioi. — The commissary department is 
driving along a large herd of cattle, and it seems that they kill 
the poorest animals, or those that are the least able to stand the 
journey, first. We drew rations of fresh beef, or rather bones, 
last night, and when the boys saw the quality of the beef, the 
bellowing and pawing engaged in by our brigade made night 
hideous and the comments and eulogies over the dead were 
enough to make a statue laugh. We marched at ten o'clock 
this morning; made slow progress, ten minutes' march and 
twenty minutes' standstill, weight on left leg and head under 
wing. Marched two miles and halted for dinner; or rather, 
took dinner during a halt. Skirmishing can be heard in the 
front. The order of march is: On the right, Fifteenth Army 
Corps: right centre, Seventeenth Corps; left centre. Fourteenth 
Corps: with the Twentieth Corps on the left. Our cavalry is 
all over and everv where. We have now cut loose from our 
base and our supplies must be picked up as we pass through 
the country. The Fifty-ninth Indiana is marching in front of 
our regiment to-day. We moved on until 11:00 P. M., when 
the regiment camped six miles below Rough-and-Ready. Our 
men are tired out and thoroughly mad. Our route is on the 
Atlanta and Macon road. Distance marched, sixteen miles. 



340 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

November 16th — Wcdmsday, — Reveille at 4:00 a. m. We left 
camp at six. Our regiment is leading our division on the 
march to-day. We halted at 10:00 a. m., had coflfee and rested 
fifteen minutes. We then marched on until 4:00 p. m., when 
we camped one mile west of the little town of McDonald. Our 
men are very tired and foot-sore from wearing new shoes. 
Roads good and plenty of water. Macon is sixty-five miles 
distant. The whole of our Third Division is together, with 
Gen. John E. Smith in command. We are having excellent 
foraging. Distance marched, seventeen miles. 

November 17th — Thursday. — Reveille at 4:30 a. m. Our regi- 
ment being the rearguard of the division and train did not 
leave camp until seven. There was some skirmishing to-day 
at the front and on the right flank with rebel cavalry. We 
moved on steadily until 7:00 p. m., when we camped four miles 
south of Jackson, which is a small and badly used up town, the 
citizens all having left early in the morning on hearing of the 
approach of the Yankee mudsills. The roads are very fine and 
our forage^details, consisting of one company from each regi- 
ment, keep us well supplied with food. Distance marched, 
twent^'-three miles. 

November 18th — Friday . — Reveille at four. Left camp at 5:30 
A. M. Took the wrong road and had to turn back, losing 
two miles' travel. Reached Planter's Ferry, on Ocmulgee 
river, five miles from camp of last night. Our regiment 
crossed the river on a ferry-boat, in the advance, and held the 
opposite bank while a pontoon bridge was laid. As the ene- 
my was known to be near, a detail threw up some light breast- 
works. We halted two hours and then moved forward five 
miles and camped. Distance marched, twelve miles. Planter's 
factory is a large cotton factory with more than seventy 
looms. We found large quantities of tent cloth in stock. 
There are also large flour mills near by on the same stream. 
This is an excellent water power. [Population of Ocmulgee 
Mills in 1880, 50.] 

November 19 fh — Saturday. — Reveille at 4:00 a. m. We had 
a heavy rain all last night, and our blankets are so wet and 
lieavy that some of them could not be dried by the fire and had 
to be left, being too heavy to carry, and so the boys will have 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY Y0JLUNTEBB8. 341 

to sufier and get along a8 best they can. We left camp at 6:00 
A. M., our regiment a8 flankers to our division train. We took 
the wrong road and so lost two hours, and had some hard work 
in getting right again. After marching eight miles we stopped 
at Henry Glover's plantation. We then moved on about five 
miles to Hillsboro, where we camped for the night. Distance 
made, fifteen miles. 

November 20th — Sunday. — Broke camp at 6:00 a. m., our regi- 
ment leading the brigade and the brigade leading the division. 
We reached Clinton [population, 1880, 294], a once fine village, 
at 2:00 p. M. and camped in town. A part of our regiment went 
on provost guard at 8:00 P. M. The regiment was marched 
one mile west of town, on the Macon road, to guard against the 
enemy's cavalry that were making observations too near town. 
It rained and was muddy to-day as we marched into Clinton. 
We had just got our fires built when we were ordered to fall in 
and were moved out and deployed into line of battle. We then 
fell in again and moved out two miles and formed line of bat- 
tle once more, where we laid until dusk. Then marched back 
to our campfires, got our knapsacks and returned to the ad- 
vance line of battle and laid all night in the rain, some of the 
men without blankets. Stoneman's cavalry had a sharp en- 
gagement with the rebel cavalry, and having a battery of 
mountain howitzers along, fired shells into them so lively that 
they beat a hasty retreat. Distance marched, eleven miles. 

November Slst — Monday. — The morning opened rainy. We 
left camp at 7:00 a. m. and turning east left the Macon road 
and marched toward Gordon. Rain continued to &11 nearly 
all day and the roads are very muddy. Our progress with the 
long train is very slow. At 2:00 P. M. we struck the Seven- 
teenth Corps and turning to the right rajirched two miles 
and then camped in a large field. The weather toward night 
was very cold and windy, and it cleared op with the wind in 
the north. A few members of the band started for a planta- 
tion and getting to it before the foragers, found an immense 
lot of sweet potatoes, some chickens, etc Distance marched, 
about eleven miles. Captain Morrill on picket. 

November 22d — Tuesday. -^The morning opened cold and 
clear. The ground is frozen and we have a sharp wind. Wo 



352 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [18W 

nearly there when the news came to us that Savannah has 
been evacuated. It is now ours and without the expected 
great battle. Good! Thousands of good soldiers will now 
rejoice with us, who, if the assault had occurred, would be cold 
in death. We had orders to march into the city, which we 
gladly did, arriving at this camp in the suburbs at 7:00 P. M. 
Distance marched, thirteen miles. The rebels evacuated the city 
yesterday at 10:00 a. m. by crossing the river on the Union 
causeway to Hutchinson's Island, and then across to the main 
land on the road to Charleston. The weather is cold. We 
have at last arrived at our destination, after having made 

A thoroaghfare for Freedom and her train. 
Sixty miles in latitude, three hundred to the main. 

The following promotions were made in the Fourth Minne- 
sota after the battle of AUatoona: Lieut. Col. John E. Tour- 
tellotte to be colonel; Maj. James C. Edson to be lieutenant 
colonel; Capt. George A. Clarke of Company H to be major; 
Lieut. Charles W. Douglas to be captain, vice Clarke, promoted; 
and Sergt. George Baird of Company K to be first lieuten- 
ant, vice Douglas, promoted; First Lieut. George M. D. Lam- 
bert of Company A to be assistant surgeon. Some of these 
commissions were received while the regiment was at Savan- 
nah, Ga. 

Dcrcniher 22d — Thursdai/, — We moved our camp one-half 
mile nearer to the heart of the city. Distance marched during 
the campaign, about 333 miles. Capt. Ira N. Morrill of Com- 
pany K having resigned, was mustered out of the service at 7 
A. M. and ordered to turn over all United States property to 
Lieutenant Douglas and make out his clothing, camp and gar- 
rison equipage reports. Our campaign is now ended and we 
are out of the woods in every sense. We left AUatoona on the 
twelfth of November and were within five miles of Savannah 
on the twelfth of December, having marched four hundred 
miles in thirty days. Our regiment was in one skirmish, 
and marched only three days in the rain. Yes, Savannah 
is ours, with all its millions of dollars' worth of cotton and 
other valuable merchandise. Our camp is near some old earth- 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEKS. 353 

works of the War of 1812. They must have been very heavy 
works, as the}' are five or six feet high now. 

On Dee. 22, 1864, General Sherman sent the following to 
President Lincoln, which reached him on Christmas Eve: 

I b€g to present you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah, with one 
hundred and fifty guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about twenty-five 
thousand bales of cotton. 

And he said in his official report: 

I estimate the damage to Georgia at a hundred millions of dollars, at least 
twenty millions of which has inured to our advantage, and the remainder is 
simply waste and destruction. This may seem a hard species of warfare, but 
it brings the sad realities of war home to those who have been directly or in- 
directly instrumental in involving us in its attendant calamities. « « « 
As to the rank and file of my army, they seem so full of confidence in them- 
selves that I doubt if they want a compliment from me. But I must do them 
the justice to say that whether called on to fight, to march, to wade streams, 
to make roads, clear out obstructions, build bridges, make corduroy or tear up 
railroads, they have done it with alacrity and a degree of cheerfulness unsur- 
passed. A little loose in foraging, they **did some things they ought not to 
have done,'' yet on the whole they have supplied the wants of the army with 
as little violence as could be expected. 

President Lincoln wrote: 

Many thanks for your Christmas gift. When yon were about leaving At- 
lanta for the coast I was anxious, if not fearful. Now, the undertaking being a 
succcHS, the honor is all yours. 

And General Grant also wrote: 

I congratulate you and the brave officers and men under your oomouuid on 
the successful termination of your most brilliant campaign. I never had a 
dou))t of the result. When apprehensions for yonr safety were expressed by 
the President I assured him that with the army yea had and with yon in com- 
mand of it, there was no danger but yon would reach salt water at some place. 

And General Ilalleck wrote: 

Your march will stand out prominently as the great one of this great war. 

It tnrned out that there were more than two hundred and 
tifty sie^re guns and thirty-one thousand bales of cotton at 
Savannah. 

Jjtccntlfer JJtf — Frifhf/. — The troops are quietly enjoying 
their well-earned rest and victory. History will accord to us the 
glory due for this great march, and cutting the Confederacy 
in twain, regardless of any force they could bring to oppose us. 

23 



344 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Xoroiiber 30th — Wednesday, — We drew rations this morn- 
ing, or rather quarter rations. We get now one hardtack a 
day. Foraging in these pine woods is pretty slim business. 
It is said that we have orders to march twenty miles a day 
hereafter. We took the road at seven this morning and made 
very slow progress on account of sloughs. Company K made 
out a montly report last night. We marched to-day in rear of 
the brigade. We saw but few inhabitants. We are still 
among the pines. Camped at dark near Summerville, after 
having marched fifteen miles. The enemy is said to be just 
ahead. 

Returns fttr November y 1864. — Enlisted men present for dnty, 455; extra and 
daily dnty, 62; sick, 82; total present, 589. Officers present for dntj, 25; ex- 
tra and daily duty, 2; sick, 1; total, 28. Aggregate present and absent, 776. 

December 1st — Thursday. — Left camp at Summerville at 8:00 
A. M. The Fourth Regiment march as flankers in the rear of 
the brigade. Marched until 5:30 p. m. and camped. We had 
frequent halts during the day and the Pioneer Corps was busy 
building corduroy. Reports were sent to brigade headquarters. 
Distance marched, ten miles. The weather is warm, like 
springtime, and marching along these roads is very tedious and 
tiresome. Some of the boys killed a snake twelve feet long. 
It was called a pine snake. Rations are getting more scarce 
and are highly prized. 

These pines are the famons turpentine pine, whose tall, smooth trunks rise 
high in the air to the first limb. They are from one to two feet in diameter 
and are thinly scattered over the ground, so that one can see nearly a mile 
through the forest in many places, as there is no undergrowth. The turpentine 
pine is peculiar in the length of its leaves, which are from eight to fifteen 
inches long. In such a wood, lit up by our hundreds of campfires at night, 
nothing can be more beautiful than these pine leaves swinging aloft in the 
night bieeze, like silver fringe, through which the twinkling stars shine like 
gems, altogether forming a canopy that can never be surpassed in beauty by 
art of man. For Sherman's gallant army such is a fitting canopy, and the at- 
tending lullaby song of those leafy boughs, softly sung in ceaseless strains, is 
only needed to complete the charm of our soldier-life and woo us to a slumber 
so sweet and refreshing after the weariness of the day's march. On such a 
night and amid such enchanting surroundings our tuba-player found that some 
wretched being, out of harmony with the scene and time, had in very wanton- 
ness of spirit actually coveted, and, worse still, had taken and carried ofi* his 
haversack, with all its life-sustaining contents. In these pine woods and pov- 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 345 

erty of commissarj supplies, when a soldier loses his haversack he has lost 
his all. He is undone. The antics of the poor tuba-player and his wonderful 
eloquence in his expressions of disgust were really laughable in spite of the 
gravity of the situation. He searched for the lost haversack as only the des- 
perate could, and his perseverance was finally rewarded by his finding another 
as full, or more so. Whether the loss of a haversack will be passed on from 
one poor soldier to another until we reach the coast, who can tell ? 

Decern he)* 2d — Fridaj/. — We moved at six o'clock this morn- 
ing, passing through a wet, sloughy country. We captured 
some prisoners during the day. After marching about five 
miles we halted to rest. Our regiment is rearguard for the 
train. We camped at sundown in woods. Distance marched, 
twelve miles. 

Derewher 3d — Saturday, — We remained in camp all day and 
in the afternoon had inspection by Warren. The whole army 
rested. Water is plenty and the weather is fine. 

Dereynber ^th — Sandatj, — We left camp at five this morning 
and after marching about five miles stopped to rest. The 
roads are bad and sloughy and we are still among the pines. 
The enemy hangs around our flanks, but does not seem dis- 
posed to fight. After resting this forenoon we marched on 
about four miles and then stopped for dinner, resting one hour, 
and then moved on until 7:00 P. M., when we camped near 
Statesboro, among the pines and sloughs. The Pioneer Corps 
are building roads and bridges. Distance marched to-day, 
about sixteen miles. 

iJereinhcr ot}( — Monday, — We moved on this morning at 
6:30 A. M., marching slowly, our right in the advance to-day. 
Passed through the dilapidated little town with the large name 
of Statesboro. [Population, 1880, 200.] We passed a mill 
where a negro was grinding corn for the rebels. We got 
plenty of forage. Country more level and the pine trees are 
smaller. Distance marched to-day, seventeen or eighteen miles. 

Ikrtinher f)th — Tffisday. — We remained in camp all day. 
Sent out all of our teams after forage and got plenty. The 
weather looks like rain. 

Ihrtfuhrr 7th — Wednesday, — We left camp at 8:00 A. M. in a 
heavy rainstorm. We marched three miles over very bad 
roads. The country is level, and the pine timber is every- 



346 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

where. We camped, at sunset, withiu three miles of the 
Ogeechee river. Distance marched, eleven miles, 

December 8th — Thursday. — Left camp at 8:00 a. m. Marched 
about a mile and rested all day. Houghton of Company K 
was relieved from duty at corps headquarters and joined his 
company. Our forces have met with some opposition in lay- 
ing pontoons across the Ogeechee river, and it is said that we 
have been waiting here for Kilpatrick's cavalry to drive the 
enemy from the other side of the river. 

December 9th — Friday. — We marched at 6:00 a. m. Crossed 
the Ogeechee river at 8:00 a. m. on a pontoon bridge. We 
marched in a southeast direction on a road leading to the 
canal, and camped within a half mile of the canal at 3:30 p. m. 
Distance marched, twelve miles. We heard heavy cannonad- 
ing on our left and ahead. Our regiment camped behind rifle- 
pits made by the Fourth Division. The weather is cold and 
damp. We are among the pines and live-oaks. Country level. 
Our rations are out and we are faring hard. 

December 10th — Saturday. — We left camp at 7:00 a. m., 
leaving our supply train behind us. Crossing the canal we 
marched down the tow-path on the south side toward Savan- 
nah. Good road, but very narrow. Swamp on either side. 
Pines, cypress, live-oak and magnolia are the principal trees. 
The weather is cold and a chillv mist is above and around us, 
which, rising from the flow water of the swamp and canal, 
gives a spectral appearance to the long lines of blue-coats. 
After marching ten miles we halted. Ahead of us a swamp 
and a rebel fort. Wanted to go on to Savannah, four miles 
distant, but could not. Sharp skirmishing soon began with- 
out any needless preliminaries. The regiment filed oft* to the 
right, double-quick, and formed in line of battle facing the 
swamp and fort that were just beyond. We advanced about 
two hundred vards and halted, the rebel batteries all of the time 
throwing shells at us. One man was wounded by a musket 
ball from a sharpshooter. After dark we dug rifle-pits near 
the edge of the swamp. There was a cold rain during the 
night. No fires. Xo tents, and but a few of our men had 
blankets. The ground is low and level. Torpedoes are planted 
in this vicinity. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 347 

Dcrciiibcrllth — Stnnlai/. — No rations, and no fires are allowed 
to cook them with if we had any. At 8:00 a. m. were ordered 
back to first bridge over the canal. We then marched on 
the road leadincr to the sonth, and after counter-marching 
camped one-half a mile from the bridge. At 8:00 p. m. we 
moved south to within one and one-half miles of Miller's 
Station, on the Georgia railroad, running the blockade of a 
rebel battery. Had it been daylight we would have received 
a salute. At eleven o'clock we camped in an open field. 
Cold, bitterly cold, and no wood near. Country fine and 
oi>en. Large rice and cotton plantations. Beautiful groves of 
oak, pine and magnolia. The tide sets up the streams empty- 
ing into the sound. Distance marched, seven miles. Capt. D. L. 
Wellinan and Martin Ransom of Company I were both injured 
this morning by the enemy's fire. *' Little Abe" (Captain 
Murphy's colored servant) used to carry his fighting cocks 
uiidcM* his arm, and when the regiment would stop on the road 
or in camp would favor the boys with a cock-tight. While in 
front of and quite near the enemy's lines here at Savannah 
this morning, Abe's rooster began to crow lustil}', and soon the 
enemy fired a shell which exploded in front of Capt D. L. 
W(»llinan of Company I and a piece of it cut off the front 
of his hilt, skinned his nose and hit him on his shoulder, 
cutting a hole in the cape of his overcoat. The captain picked 
up the piece of shell [and has it yet]. Turning to Abe, he 
told him to "Choke that rooster and stop its crowing." '^Fse 
dun gone an' dun dat, Massa Wellraan." said Abe, as he held 
the fowl by its neck. [Abe continued to be the servant of Capt. 
D. M. G. Murphy until the close of the war.] Martin Ransom 
was wounded this morning, as the regiment was moving 
out, by a piece of shell or shot of some kind that struck him 
on the jaw and injured him so severelv that for about two weeks 
he could use no solid food and was only able to pour down a 
little soup. [Joseph Babb of Company I informs us that he 
was iiijure<l at Savannah in December by a fall. — Ed.] 

Ihriinlnr IJtl, — Momh*/. — At 7:00 a. m. we marched to 
Miller's Station on the Georgia railroad. Saw the remains of 
a train of ears that had been burned yesterday bv the Fourth 



348 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

Division. We went into camp on the railroad, near the station 
and one and a half miles from the bridge across the Little 
Ogeechee. Pleasant camp in groves of pine and live-oak, on 
the border of a large plantation and within half a mile of tide- 
water, that sets back over the extensive marsh at the head of 
the sound and island, visible away off to seaward. Our sol- 
diers are digging clams on the marsh. Beautiful country. 
Plantations are like prairies fringed with groves. Distance 
marched to-day, three miles. 

In speaking of the regiment moving to the rear and the 
bivouac last night, Mr. Muzzy says: 

We passed the batteries withoat accident and retired so far to the rear as 
to allow ns to have campfires, for the night was very cold. Our camp was in 
an old field near a large rice mill, and fnel being scarce that large mill soon 
came tumbling down, although it was a substantial four-«tory structure, and 
our campfires soon burned cheerfnUy, and by midnight we were as comfortable 
as the cold wind would admit. 

December 13th — Tiiesdatj. — Remained in camp. The skir- 
mishers of our brigade are at work near the bridge at the 
Little Ogeechee. We had mussel stew to our hearts' content 
last night. We are in camp east of the Savannah & Gulf rail- 
road. Heav}' cannonading all day in the direction of Fort 
McAllister. At sunset we heard the noise of the charge on 
this fort, eight miles distant, by General Hazen's Second 
Division of the Fifteenth Corps. Hazen was formerly colonel 
of the Forty-first Ohio Infantry. The noise of the conflict 
was a succession of heav}' guns and dull reports of musketry. 
It was over in fifteen minutes. Bets on success and repulse 
were offered and taken. Fort McAllister is a heavy earthwork, 
mounting seventeen guns, on the Great Ogeechee, eighteen 
miles southwest of Savannah, and commands the river. If 
taken, our fleet can come up the river to or near us with 
rations. 

December Hth — Wcdmsdaij, — Capt. T. P. Wilson, acting 
quartermaster, visited our regiment to-day, and with Adjt. W. 
W. Rich went to the bank of the Great Ogeechee, six miles 
south of our camp and within three miles of Fort McAllister, 
which was plainly visible, with the stars and stripes flying from 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 349 

its flag-staff. It was taken by assault last evening at sunset. 
They could see vessels against the horizon to seaward. Vice! 
Vice! Crackers and gingerbread ! Our men have been on very 
short rations for several days and we have no more on hand now 
to be issued excepting salt. On their way to the river this morn- 
ing they passed through some magnificent plantations. On one 
of them they passed down an avenue a quarter of a mile in 
length, forty feet wide, with giant live-oaks on either side. 
The trees must be two centuries old, as they are four feet in 
diameter and some of them shade a plat of ground more than 
three hundred feet in circumference. They also saw a palmetto 
tree and a garden that had been laid out with much skill and 
kept in great taste. Wilson had taken possession of Cheever's 
rice mill and is fitting it up to hull rice for his division. From 
the roof of a shed attached to this mill General Sherman and 
a good many others witnessed the assault on McAllister and 
sent messages to General Ilazen and also to the officers in our 

fleet. 

On Board Dandelion, Ossabaw Sound, Dec, 13, 1864. 

To Eon. E. M. Stanton^ Secretary of War, Washington, D. C: 

To day,at 5:00 p. M., General Hazen's division (Second) of the Fifteenth Corps 
carried Fort McAllister by assault, capturing its entire garrison and stores. 
This opened to as Ossabaw Sound, and I poshed down to this gnnboat to com- 
manicate with the fleet. Before opening communication we had completely 
destroyed all the railroads leading into Savannah and invested the city. The 
left of the army is on the Savannah river, three miles above the city, and the 
right on the Ogeecbee, at King's bridge. The army is in splendid order and 
equal to anything. The weather has been fine and supplies were abundant. 
Our march was most agreeable and we were not at all molested by guerrillas. 
We reached Savannah three days ago, but owing to Fort McAllister could not 
communicate; but now that we have McAllister we can go ahead. We have 
already captured two boats on the Savannah river and prevented their gunboats 
from coming down. I estimate the population of Savannah at twenty -five 
thousand and the garrison at fifteen thousand. General Hardee commands. 
We have not lost a wagon on the trip, but have gathered a large supply of ne- 
groes, mules, horses, etc., and our teams are in far better condition than when 
we started. My first duty will l>e to clear the army of surplus negroes, mules 
and horses. We have utterly destroyed over two hundred miles of rails, and 
consumed stores and provisions that were essential to Lee's and Hood's armies. 
The quick work made with McAllister, the opening of communication with oar 
fieet, and thecoosequeut independence as to supplies, dissipate all their boasted 
threats to head us olV and starve the army. I regard Savannah as already gained. 

Yours truly, 

W. T. Sherman, 

Major OtneraL 



350 HISTOKY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

All quiet to-day. Xo cannonading. The boys are washing 
up their clothes. We here found a class or variety of negroes 
new to us both in color and general appearance. They are 
neither a clear black nor mulatto, but a dingy, dirty black, 
and are not so well built, limbs not so well rounded out with 
flesh, nor can we understand their gibberish. We now draw 
rations of rice in the bundle, and have to thresh it, and hire the 
negroes to pound it in their mortars to get the shell off (they 
understand this working in rice and it is all they do understand) 
or we have to parch it like popcorn. We gathered some salt- 
water clams when the tide was out and made soup of them, but 
they were not a success, being too tough and tasteless. Expect 
mail and rations in a dav or two. Weather warm. 

Dercniber loth — Tlmrsdat/, — There was heavy firing along 
the centre to-day, our loss, three men (not of our regiment). 
Rebel batteries were silenced. Some of the bovs went down 
to the coast and got oysters to-day. They were a treat. Captain 
Morrill and other officers and men went down to the signal 
station (on Cheever's rice mill). Saw General Sherman and 
Admiral Dahlgren and also Fort McAllister. Very hot in the 
afternoon. Six companies, under command of Capt. L. R. 
Wellman, went out as escort to the division wagon train. Will 
be absent two days foraging. — [Corp. John Anderson (Second) 
of Company A writes us that while out foraging with his train 
he was captured by the rebels and held a prisoner until May 
14, 1865.— Ed.] 

December 16th — Frnlto/. — No rations now except very poor 
tough beef and rice in the straw. Siege guns are being put in 
place and other preparations made for an assault on the fortifi- 
cations of the enemy. Remained in camp all day. We hear 
that we will get mail to-morrow. The most of the regiment 
went out with the forage train on yesterday. 

Decemher 17th — Scitunlui. — We got plenty of mail to-daj'. 
Hot and pleasant. Still no rations. 

December 1st h — Sfoula*/, — Commenced to make out muster 
and pay rolls for the non-veterans. Weather very hot. Got 
letters from home and also papers. Good! Xow give us ra- 
tions and then we will be all right. Said a Company K boy, 



1864] MINxVESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 351 

*'I can live a month now without eating; I have got five letters 
from my dear wife/' "And Satan came also" (in the shape of 
copperhead newspapers), said one of the boys to-day; '^I was 
mad all night after readini^ them; I want no more such papers. 
They are not worth the postage, except to copperheads." 

Slocum's wing extends from the Savannah river to the canal 
and Howard's wing from the canal to the extreme right, along 
down the Little Ogeechee. 

Drrchtbcr lOtlt — Jfn))(lat/, — We drew hardtack last night 
for three days. When the rations came in sight of camp every 
soldier who could make a noise jumped and shouted as loud 
and as long as his strength would let him. Such cheering I 
never heard. All of the non-vets whose time has expired are 
to be mustered out, and start for home on the first boat for 
New York. Some went on yesterday. [By the capture of 
McAllister our supply boats could come up to the army. — Ed.] 
Some of the oflicers are making out muster-out rolls. We are 
informed that Sherman has demanded the surrender of Savan- 
nah and that Hardee lias refused. 

Deninhtr 20tli — Twsdcoj, — We get lots of rations now. Had 
heavy firing along the whole line. We are building a redoubt 
for four thirty-pounder siege guns, and to-morrow our boj's 
expect to make it hot for the rebels. Hot and dry. We can 
see the rebel forts and flags. Company K was busy all daj' 
making out muster-out rolls and monthly returns. Capt. 
George A. Clarke of Company H having resigned, was re- 
lieved to-day as jirovost marshal ofthe Third Division, Fifteenth 
Army Corps. Capt. D. L. Wellman of Company I was as- 
signed to duty by Gt*n. J. E. Smith as provost marshal for the 
Third (our) Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. Clarke went on 
this start' dutv Julv 12th last. A commission was received 
here at Savannah for Captain Clarke, as major of our regiment, 
but he (lid not muster-in as such previous to his discharge. 
He has informed us that he has applied to the War Department 
ncentlv for muster as major of the re«^iment and that it has 
been allowt-d to date from Sept. 14, 1864. — Ed.] 

Ihri,„hrr J 1st — Wnlncsilni/, — We got orders to break camp 
and move seven miles to a large rice plantation, and got 



352 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1864 

nearly there when the news came to U8 that Savannah has 
been evacuated. It is now ours and without the expected 
great battle. Good! Thousands of good soldiers will now 
rejoice with us, who, if the assault had occurred, would be cold 
in death. We had orders to march into the city, which we 
gladly did, arriving at this camp in the suburbs at 7:00 P. M. 
Distance marched, thirteen miles. The rebels evacuated the city 
yesterday at 10:00 a. m. by crossing the river on the Union 
causeway to Hutchinson's Island, and then across to the main 
land on the road to Charleston. The weather is cold. We 
have at last arrived at our destination, after having made 

A thoroaghfare for Freedom And her train. 
Sixty miles in latitude, three hundred to the main. 

The following promotions were made in the Fourth Minne- 
sota after the battle of Allatoona: Lieut. Col. John E. Tour- 
tellotte to be colonel; Maj. James C. Edson to be lieutenant 
colonel; Capt. George A. Clarke of Company H to be major; 
Lieut. Charles W. Douglas to be captain, vice Clarke, promoted; 
and Sergt. George Baird of Company K to be first lieuten- 
ant, vice Douglas, promoted; First Lieut. George M. D. Lam- 
bert of Company A to be assistant surgeon. Some of these 
commissions were received while the regiment was at Savan- 
nah, Ga. 

Dnrniher 22d — Thursdatj, — We moved our camp one-half 
mile nearer to the heart of the city. Distance marched during 
the campaign, about 333 miles. Capt. Ira N. Morrill of Com- 
pany K having resigned, was mustered out of the service at 7 
A. M. and ordered to turn over all United States property to 
Lieutenant Douglas and make out his clothing, camp and gar- 
rison equipage reports. Our campaign is now ended and we 
are out of the woods in every sense. We left Allatoona on the 
twelfth of November and were within five miles of Savannah 
on the twelfth of December, having marched four hundred 
miles in thirty days. Our regiment was in one skirmish, 
and marched only three days in the rain. Yes, Savannah 
is ours, with all its millions of dollars' worth of cotton and 
other valuable merchandise. Our camp is near some old earth- 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEKS. 353 

works of the War of 1812. They must have beeu very heavy 
works, as they are live or six feet high now. 

Oil Dec. 22, 1864, General Sherman sent the following to 
President Lincoln, which reached him on Christmas Eve: 

I beg to present yon, as a Christmas giil, the city of Sayannah, with one 
hundred and fifty gnns and plenty of ammnnition, and also aboat twenty-five 
thousand bales of cotton. 

And he said in his official report: 

I estimate the damage to Georgia at a hundred minions of donars, at least 
twenty millions of which has inured to our advantage, and the remainder is 
simply waste and destruction. This may seem a hard species of warfare, but 
it brings the sad realities of war home to those who have been directly or in- 
directly instrumental in involving us in its attendant calamities. « « * 
As to the rank and file of my army, they seem so full of confidence in them- 
selves that I doubt if they want a compliment from me. But I must do them 
the j ustice to say that whether called on to fight, to march, to wade streams, 
to make roads, clear out obstructions, build bridges, make corduroy or tear up 
railroads, they have done it with alacrity and a degree of cheerfulness unsur- 
passed. A little loose in foraging, they *'did some things they ought not to 
have done,'' yet on the whole they have supplied the wants of the army with 
as little violence as could be expected. 

President Lincoln wrote: 

Many thanks for your Christmas gift. When yon were about leaving At- 
lanta for the coast I was anxious, if not fearful. Now, the undertaking being a 
sncccHH, the honor is all yours. 

And General Grant also wrote: 

I congratulate you and the brave officers and men under your command on 
the successful termination of your most brilliant campaign. I never had a 
doubt of the result. When apprehensions for your safety were expressed by 
the President I assured him that with the army yon had and with yon in com- 
mand of it, there was no danger but yon would reach salt water at some place. 

And General Ilalleck wrote: 

Your march will stand out prominently as the great one of this great war. 

It tnrnc'd ont that there were more than two hundred and 
fifty siet^e guns and thirty-one thousand bales of cotton at 
Savannah. 

Jjtrtni/nr JJi/ — Fi'nffft/. — The troops are quietly enjoying 
their well-earned rest and victory. History will accord to us the 
o:l()ry due for this threat march, and cutting the Confederacy 
in twain, regardless of any force they could bring to oppose us, 

'2A 



354 



HISTORY OF THE FOUKTH REGIMENT 



[1864 



We find Savannah to be an old and well-built town, whose 
chief attractions are its broad, shaded streets, public buildings 
and monuments, which have a national reputation. [Popula- 
tion, Savannah, Ga., 1880, 30,700.] 

STRENGTH OF THE ARMY, ATLANTA TO SAVANNAH, 



AHMY. 



NOVEMBEB 10th. DeCEMBEB 1ST. 



December 20tu. 



Infantry 

Cavtlry 

ArtUlery 

Aggregate. 



62, 79t'> 
4,9t)l 
1,788 



59, 545 



55,829 
6,063 
1,M2 


54,2S5 
4. 084 
1,769 


62,204 


60,596 



STATEMENT OF CASUALTIES AND PRISONERS CAPTURED BY THE ARMY IN THE 

FIELD CAMPAIGN OF GEORGIA. 





■ 


Killed. 


Wou^ 


SDED. 


Missing. 


a! 

< 

i 

< 


Captubed. 


• 

M 

s 
•< 


Commands. 


•2 

.Is 

r 


<" • 
'J* 

35 

23 
85 
d3 


5 

|8 

11 

G 
7 


'2 . 


1 
1 = 

if 


h 

Is 


ll 

r 


h 

s' 


Right wins, Army of the Ten- 
nessee, >iaj.Gen.O.O.Howard 
coniuiandfng 


5 

2 
3 


172 

112 
120 




1 


19 
258 


242 

402 
120 
764 


84 

80 
13 


632 

409 
220 


ooo 


Left wing, Utb and 20th Corpe, 
MaJ. Gen. H. W. Slocum com- 
manding 


489 


Cavalry Division, Brig. Gen. J. 
Kilpatrick commanding 


283 




277 




Total 


10 


24 

I 


404 


1 


f 1 


l,i;61 


1,338 







Mr. Muzzy says, under date of December 24th : 

There was a grand review to-day of the Fifteeuth Anny Corps, and a grand 
sight it was — four miles of troops were marching by companies closed to half 
distance, whose firm, qnick step was in perfect time. The arms glistened in 
the sanshine, banners gaily tlnttered in the breeze. But the bands, playing 
Inspiring airs, were really the mainspring of that splendid movement, for they 
defined the time and inspired the men with a vim and pride that proved them 
every whit soldiers. Such a body of men ought to gladden the heart of any 
general, and how much more the heart of General Sherman, who sees in them 
the glorious results of his fostering care and victories on many a bloody field. 
Well may his eyes fill with tears and his heart swell with pride at beholding 
that body of invincible men — his men — who never doubted him nor faltered 
in performing his orders. Such men and such a general should be our nation's 
pride. 



1864] MINNESOTA INFANTRY YOLUNTEEBS. 3S5 

December 25th — Sunday and Christmas. — The officers of the 
Fourth had a Christmas dinner at 2:00 P. M. Morrill went up 
to General Smith's headquarters to supper. Had oysters raw, 
stewed, and also oyster pie and some good brandy. The 
Fourth Minnesota Band serenaded Generals Sherman and 
Howard at daylight and sunrise this morning and were 
received with many words of kindness and good cheer. 

December STth-^Tivesday, — We are quietly resting in camp, 
with only our ordinary camp duties to perform, such as roll 
calls, guard mount, dress parade, etc. We had rain last night 
The Fourteenth Army Corps had a review to-day by Qeueral 
Sherman in front of the Commercial buildings. 

It was firat thought best to transfer Sherman's army by sea 
to Virginia, but this plan was abandoned, and on December 
27th he was ordered to move north by land. His army num- 
bered sixty thousand men and was accompanied by sixty-eight 
guns and two thousand five hundred wagons, 

December 28th — Wednesday. — Warm and raining, with heavy 
thunder and lightning. Last night a rebel blockade runner 
came into port, not having heard that the city had changed 
hands, with a cargo of tea, coffee, sugar and bacon. This 
morning when they saw the stars and stripes floating over 
town they realized the situation and surrendered as gracefully 
as possible. 

Captains Morrill, Russell, Clarke and Surgeon Cross left 8a^ 
vannah to-day at 7:00 a. m., on a steamboat for Minnesota. 

They passed Fort Jackson at 9:00 ▲. x., Pulaald at IIKX) ▲. x. and anifiad 
at Hilton Head at 4:00 P. M. Stopped at the Pdrt Boyal Hooae. Tixik paa- 
8aj<e the tweatjr-niath on steamship Ashland. Left Port Royal <m the thirtieth 
at 6:00 P. M. Weather fair, bnt on the thlr^ilrst, befiMW dinner, almost OTeiy- 
l>odjr on board was sea-eick. The tea wae xongh and the hatdiways were 
lashed down. Wind sontheast and blowing hard. Water one hundred and 
twenty feet deep and running ten milee an hour. On Jannaiy lft~8till blow- 
ing hard. Ont of sight of land. Jannaiy Sd. — Wenlher aome better and wind 
not blowing quite so hard. January 3d.** At JerMy ahore at 11 KK) ▲. M. Ar- 
rived at New York at 10:00 P. M., and left New York ibr Minneeota<m the 
foarth at 6:00 P. M., on the Erie road.— [JTerrifTf IMeiy.] 

Captain Morrill writes us: 

Doctor Cross, Gapt Geo. A. Clarke and n^yaelf were mneteied ont of eeniee 
at Savannah and went hj boat to New Yoik, anlTing theie abont the seeond 



356 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

day of January, 1865. Oar first bosinees was to get an order for transporta- 
tion. We were obliged to apply to the headquarters of General Dix. We ap- 
pointed Captain Clarke as spokesman for the occasion. We followed Clarke, 
who led the way, into the office, and not being informed in regard to this point 
of military discipline, we all omitted raising onr hats, which was qnickly 
noticed by the subordinates, Clarke first making the inquiry, if this was Gen- 
eral Dix's headquarters, when one of the officers said to ns: ** You will take off 
your hats when you enter the office of General Dix.'' Clarke replied: *'Not 
by a damned sight! We don't know that we are in General Dix's headquarters. 
We have looked around some time to find such a place. Our business here is for 
an order for transportation to St. Paul, Minn." A second time we were re- 
minded of our negligence in not removing our hats, when Clarke answered that 
we had just been engaged in a business that was more profitable than raising 
hats to an officer, especially when we did not see any insignia of rank, and 
added, **I presume I now outrank any of you here." Our hats were not re- 
moved from our heads and we succeeded in getting our order for transportation 
and left for St. Paul. 

Dtrrtuhcr 29flt — Thursilaii, — The regiment has resumed its 
daily drills and the band its practice. They must practice to 
keep from getting rust\% for we are soon to be oft* again, 

Jjtrinilnr SOth — Fr!(/fn/. — We are looking for some distin- 
guished oflicers to visit us to-day in our tattered garments, 
and we fear that we will make a sorry appearance compared to 
their Eastern and more stylish army. But, thank God! we are 
proud of our cuts and scars, which show plainly through the 
holes in our worn-out uniforms. 

iJo-nnhcr 3L<f — Saturdaj/ — Light rain to-day and everything 
quiet. We have plenty of time to see the town and enjoy its 
beauties. It is pleasant to note the absence of that bitter rebel 
spirit, manifested so freely by the citizens — especially ladies — 
of many other rebel cities. These people seem to see the folly 
of playing the rebel and are glad that the foolishness is over. 

Jaivumj Ifit — Sandaii, — We are beginning to talk and pre- 
pare for another campaign. General Sherman, in a speech 
on Christmas day, told the soldiers that "one more short cam- 
paign was before them, which would end the war." We all 
hope that this will be so. We must give South Carolina a 
taste of the war such as Sherman's boys are able to attbrd her, 
and see how she looks "bared to the waist for the conflict," as 
her newspapers claim she is. They will find out what this 
army is made of before it is done with her. Such vim and 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 357 

evidence of conscious strength and ability to conquer gives 
promise of splendid triumphs in our next campaign. This 
army is invincible against any force that Jeft'. Davis can send 
against it. However, he will undoubtedly keep his own pre- 
cious carcass well guarded. Company A was relieved from 
provost guard duty at the headquarters of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps, on which duty they entered soon after leaving Atlanta. 

Jdnnnri/ 3d — Tavsday, — We expected to move into town to- 
day. Our camp is about one and one-half miles from the city 
hall. 

Janiiarij ith — \Vvd)usd(uf. — We moved to-day, not into 
town, but one mile further awaj' and more to the right. The 
freedmen, women and children, who came with the army from 
their plantation homes when we came through Georgia, are in 
camp near here and living in brush houses for shelter. There 
are thousands of them. They seem joyous and free from care 
and do not dream of what is before them when the weather 
gets bad — without shelter or clothing enough to make them 
comfortable. 

Januai'ii of It — Tharsdaij, — Still in camp. Nothing new. 
Weather fair and cool. 

Janmini Ofh — Frida*/. — Rain^' to-day, but cleared oft' at 7:00 
r. M. Gen. Giles A. Smith's division of Blair's Seventeenth 
Corps marched from Savannah to Thunderbolt Inlet, on Was- 
sau sound, eight miles. They then embarked for Beaufort, 
X. C. 

Jfinmir;/ 7th — Sett »i.r day, — Cold and fair. The Fifteenth 
Army ('orps had inspection to-day. It stood high in drill and 
suhlierlv bearing. 

J'imuirii Sth — S"ndfi;i, — All quiet and pleasant. Regimen- 
tal inspection to-day. The rumor is that we are soon to go to 
Hilton Head by water. Sixteen hundred recruits (drafted men 
mostly) have reached Savannah, some of whom came to our 
ri'iriinent. 

HRAIHiirARTERS MiLITABT DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

In tiiu Field, Savannah, Ga., Jan, 8, 1665. 
SpKciAL Field Okoebs, No. (J: 

The general commaudin^ nunounces to the troops composiDg the Military 
Divi^iuu of the MiHHissippi that he has received from the President of the 



358 HISTOKY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

United States, and from Lientenant General Grant, letters conveying their 
high sense and appreciation of the campaign just closed, resulting in the cap- 
ture of Savannah and the defeat of Hood's army in Tennessee. 

In order that all may understand the importance of events, it is proper to 
revert to the situation of affairs in September last. We held Atlanta a city of 
little value to us, but so important to the enemy that Mr. Davis, the head of the 
rebellious faction in the South, visited his army near Palmetto, and commanded 
it to regain the place and also to ruin and destroy us, by a series of measures 
which he thought would be effectual. That army, by a rapid march, gained 
our railroad near Big Shanty, and afterward about Dalton. We pnrsued it, 
but it moved so rapidly that we could not overtake it. and General Hood led 
his army successfully far over toward Mississippi, in hope to decoy us out of 
Georgia. But we were not thus to be led away by him, and preferred to lead 
and control events ourselves. Generals Thomas and Schofield, commanding 
the departments to our rear, returned to their posts and prepared to decoy Gen- 
eral Hood into their meshes, while we came on to complete the original journey. 
We quietly and deliberately destroyed Atlanta, and all the railroads which the 
enemy had used to carry on war against us, occu])ied his state capital, and then 
captured his commercial capital, which had been so strongly fortified from the 
sea as to defy approach from that quarter. Almost at the moment of our vic- 
torious entry into Savannah came the welcome and expected news that onr 
comrades in Tennessee had also fulfilled nobly and well their part; had de- 
coyed General Hood to Nashville and then turned on him, defeating his army 
thoroughly, capturing all his artillery, great numbers of prisoners, and were 
still pursuing the fragments down in Alabama. So complete a success in mili- 
tary operations, extending over half a continent, is an achievement that en- 
titles it to a place in the military history of the world. The armies serving in 
Georgia and Tennessee, as well as the local garrisons of Decatur, Bridgeport, 
Chattanooga and Murfreesboro, are alike entitled to the common honors, and 
each regiment may inscribe on its colors, at pleasure, the word ** Savannah'' 
or ** Nashville." The general commanding embraces in the same general suc- 
cess the operations of the cavalry, under Generals Stoneman, Burbridge and 
Gillem, that penetrated into southwest Virginia and paralyzed the efforts of 
the enemy to disturb the peace and safety of east Tennessee. Instead of being 
put on the defensive, we have at all points assumed the bold offensive, and 
have completely thwarted the designs of the enemies of our country. 

By order of Major Gen. W. T. Sherman. L. M. Dayton, 

Jnnnarji loth — Sfoxlai/, — Six of Company K are on extra 
duty for sitting down while on guard last night. We drew the 
first hardtack to-day we have drawn in two weeks. Two di- 
visions of the Twentieth Corps have crossed the Savannah 
river into South Carolina, one occupying Purysburg and the 
other Hardeeville, about fifteen miles from the citj' and on the 
road to Robertsville, S. C. The Seventeenth Corps, having gone 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 369 

by boat to Beaufort on this day, occupied Pocotaligo, the 
enemy having abandoned their works, and our forces made a 
lodgment near the railroad. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan having 
joined the army here at Savannah, Maj. Gen. P. J. Osterhaus, 
who commanded the Fifteenth Corps from Atlanta to Sa- 
vannah, left our army at this place and reported to General 
Canby at New Orleans, and was his chief-of-staff in the Mobile 
campaign. 

Jamtary 16th — Monday. — Quite a number of our soldiers 
have the smallpox, and there is a pretty fair prospect of more 
of them getting the same disease. We get nearly full rations 
now. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Leaviug Savannah — The Dike Across the River — Water Falling; Water Rising — 
Battle with the Elements; Get Whipped and Return — Formation of Onr 
Army; of the Right and Left Wings — By Steamship to Beaufort — Salt- Water 
Col!'ee — Leave Beaufort — Charge Through Duck Creek — Big **Gater'' — 
Cross the Saulkehatchie — Twist the Railroad at Bamberg — March for 
Columbia — Our Army on the Opposite Bluff— Capture of Columbia — '*God 
Bress You, I'se Free Now " — Drunken Soldiers and Negroes Fire the City — 
Destroying Arsenal Stores — Old Revolutionary Relics — Leaving Colum- 
bia — Little Lynch's Creek — Ramrod Test — In the Wilderness — "Death to 
All Foragers;'' Two Rebels Shot in Retaliation — Big Water at Big Lynch's 
Creek — Big Black Creek — Raid to Florence — Cheraw — From a Starve to a 
Feast — March for Fayetteville — Corduroy — Terrible Night at Shoe-He«l 
Creek — At Antioch Church — Fayetteville — Leave Fayetteville — More 
Wilderness — Marching Over, Under and Through Country — Cross Black 
River. 

Jantiarij 19th — Thur^dco/, — Marching orders at last. We 
broke camp at 6:00 a. m. and marched into and through the 
city. At the foot of Whittaker street we marched onto a pon- 
toon bridge, made of old flat, coal and other boats, anchored 
across the Savannah river to Hutchinson's Island and over 
the low marsh^^ ground of the island for two miles to a second 
pontoon bridge, which was half a mile long. Rain com- 
menced falling and a cold wind blew, and with a surplus of 
black mud, we waded on. Our division train was ahead of ns. 
Wagons got stuck in the mud. We halted after crossing the 
second pontoon. The road is blockaded with the train which 
is stuck fast in the mud. The mules are down and the water 
is rising rapidly. Rain keeps pouring down and the regiment 
stands shivering on the narrow dike for five hours. At 4:00 P. M. 
we move up a quarter of a mile and camp among a few trees 
about a plantation house. Water rising, water falling, and 
wagons in places gone. Our men worked in the night, drag- 
ging and digging out the teams to save them. It is terrible, and 
we are all wet through and covered with mud. We lie under 
the live-oaks until morning without any shelter. 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEKS. 361 

Jnnnar*j 201)* — Fritlun. — The water is still rising and the 
country is flooded. A part of our division train is lost. The 
remainder of the train of the Second Brigade has reached dry 
ground beyond the third pontoon bridge. At 6:00 a. m. our 
men were detailed to pull down some old rice mills and build 
a plank road on which to get the train out. We demolished 
the buildings, but were only able to get a part of the train. 
The mules from some of the wagons were unhitched and saved 
and the wagons abandoned. The water is so deep that some 
of the wagons are nearly covered with it. The road is a dike 
between two rice canals and is not wide enough in such an 
emerijuncv as this. It is said that the road is overflowed for 
eight miles. In the afternoon we started back for Savannah, 
three miles distant, with the rain falling, and the water still 
rising. We reached our old camp in the suburbs of the city 
at dark, feeling very glad indeed that we made our escape from 
the flood and mud. None of our teams of the First Brigade 
were lost. After we got to camp we had to carry wood for 
fires one-half mile through the rain. 

Jmntdrt/ Jlst — Sntttrdaii, — The water rose so high last night 
that the anchors to the pontoon boats were lifted and the 
bridge was carried away. Our division lost in the flood one 
man and sixty nmles drowned and forty or fifty wagons. Dis- 
tance marched yesterday, six miles. We remained in camp 
to-<lay. The weather is rainy and cold. We drew rations. 

Capt. I). L. Wellman says of the flood: 

\Vhen we were ready to leave Savannah General Smith was ordered to cross 
the river at the pontoon bridge and take the dikes across the rice swamps 
Dorthwaid, to be followed by the Fourth Division, General Corse. These dikes 
iu dry weather are as good roads as coold be wished for, boilt ap from swamp 
soil six t<f eight feet high and al)Out twelve feet wide, rounded or sloping from 
the centre. At intervals these dikes have gates and bridges to control the 
water from tloodiog the rice fields. Dikes and canals by the side of them cat 
the whole country np into small fields. It was seven miles over these dikes 
to the timber or dry ground. General Smith and staff led off, followed by 
Second Hrigiule, (reueral Kaum, then the battery, and that followed by a 
part of the wagon-train. Everything was lovely until we were two-thirds of 
the way to the woods, when it commenced to rain. The general kept on until 
two miles into the wimmI.^, when we stopped for dinner and to have the com- 
mand come up lor the same purpose. The Third Brigade arrived in due time 



362 HISTORY OF THE FOUKTH REGIMENT [1865 

hot the battery came in straggling, and reported considerable trouble in keep- 
ing their pieces from sliding off the dike into the canal. The rain and infantry 
marching had puddled the top of the road so that it was like tar on a solid bot- 
tom, and if the wheels of the battery did not exactly straddle the ridge or 
centre thev would slide off. 

A part of the wagon train came in and reported seeing some go over into the 
canal — and fiually nothing more came in sight and it was getting near night. 
Then General Smith directed me to go back until I found the commander of 
First Brigade, Colonel McCown of the Sixty-third Illinois, and find out what the 
matter was that they did not come forward and ** to assist him in all that I could,*' 
by giving such orders as the case seemed to demand after viewing the road on 
my way back and the condition that I should find them in. 

Back at the edge of the woods I met two of the staff officers coming up — 
Captain Skinner, quartermaster, and Captain Roberts, inspector. The quarter- 
master said he had lost some of his train in the canal and to save others had un- 
hitched the teams and sent them back to the island, where the First Brigade 
was waiting for the train to get out of the way. Captain Roberts had left the First 
Brigade commander to get to General Smith and explain the situation of affairs. 
In riding back I found places where the water was running over the dike and 
had cut channels so that the water was belly-deep to the horse, while train 
wagons were standing square across the road that had been pulled up to save 
them, after the hind wheels had slid around ready to fall over into the canal if 
moved a step further ahead. Just at dark I found the First Brigade on the 
island where some large rice mills were located. This was a high spot of 
ground on the bank of the river and called an island in the rice swamp. The 
First Brigade had crossed the bridge (pontoon) early in the morning, and been 
all day " ready to march on a moment's notice'' and yet not a mile from the 
city. Pitch-dark and a rainy night was on them. 

Colonel McCown, commanding, was anxious to move forward as per his 
orders of the morning, but I told him that he could not obey without swimming 
his troops, and gave him orders to go into camp for the night, and that I would 
go to General Logan in the city in the morning at daylight and report matters. 

In the morning it was a sea of water from the island to the timber, with the 
dikes showing only a part of the way. I found General Logan at his head- 
quarters just ready to take the steamer for Beaufort. I told him where and 
how I had left General Smith; that there was a sea of water now where yester- 
day was dry land, and that the First Brigade was on the island just across the 
river yet, and in my opinion ought to be called back from there because the 
pontoon was being badly strained and might be wrecked with the high waters, 
and I did not want any of the Fourth Minnesota drowned. Yes! Yen! He 
knew that the way had not been open yet for General Corse to follow General 
Smith yesterday, so he had not broke camp, but he had just given him orders to 
start his command and go over and straighten out matters, and then he tried to 
dismiss me and started for the boat again. I asked him what he expected General 
Corse to do. He said that he was to tear down the rice mills and corduroy 
the roads where necessary. I answered him that he would need steamboats 
instead of rice mills to get to the high ground with, and told him that he ought 
not to go to the boat until he had gone over and seen matters for himself, for it 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 363 

might save delay, if not disaster, which he would be sorry for. Just then one 
of his stair came in and said that it was time for him to be at the boat or he woald 

get left. Yes, be was for starting some time ago, but this d d captain had 

come in and would not let him go now until after he had gone over the river 
and seen the danger and trouble to troops there, and: ''I think I will go over 
there first now, and you go and tell the captain of the boat to wait for me.*' An 
orderly was sent to General Corse to come and go with him, and I went to hont 
some breakfast. After breakfast, when I got back to the bridge, there were 
Generals Logan and Corse sitting on their horses and hurrying the troops across 
the bridge, fearing from the flood that it might break away at any moment. 

General Loga^i complimented me on my persistency in not ** being put off '' 
in a case of this importance, and asked me if I could get to General Smith. I 
told hioi that I could with a boat and men to row it. Right there, tied to pon- 
toon bridge and belonging to the pontoon corps, was a nice fonr-oared skiff which 
he sjid I should take and for me to select the men from my regiment to row 
it. Company U was just passing so I called out four men and turned my 
horse over to the company for safety. General Logan wrote some written 
orders aud gave me some verbal ones to General Smith **for him to proceed 
northward to Pocotaligo with what troops he had, where the balance of his 
command would Join him, they going by boat to Beaafort.** 

With the four men to row the boat I soon steered it to the dike that I had 
traveled over the day before and passed the wagons, left for good, and a seven- 
mile row brought us to the timber where the boat conl^go no farther, yet 
there was at lea>t one-half mile of water knee-deep to wade through — where I 
found General Smith with two orderlies in waiting for me, as he had seen the 
boat coming. After delivering my orders and telling my tale he was pleased with 
my perseverance, aud I rode to camp on an orderly's horse. Oar march to 
Pocotaligo was without incident, for the whole country was depopulated, except 
that when we got up near Beaufort we came across a small outpost from Gilmore's 
com luand, who were surprised tosee someof Sherman's ragged bammers, and our 
boys were anini«e<l to see them all wearing paper collars. [The dike mentioned 
wa8 the '* Union Causeway," over which Hardee's army passed when he evacu- 
ated Savannah. — Ed.] 

Corps and Division Roster of the Army on Leaving Savannah. 
riciht wing — maj. gen. o. o. howard commanding. 
Fifteenth Corps — Maj. Gen. John A. Logan — 
First Division, Brig. Gen. Charles R. Woods. 
Second Division, Maj. Gen. W. B. Hazen. 
Third Division. Brig. Gen. John £. Smith. 
Fourth Division, Brig. Gen. John 51. Corse. 
Artillery Brigade, eighteen guns, Lieut. Col. W. H. Ross, First 
Michigan Artillery. 

Seventeenth Corps — Maj. Gen. Frank P. Blair, Jr. — 
First Division, Maj. Gen. Joseph A. Mower. 
Sec »nd Division, Brig. Gen. M. F. Force. 
Fourth Division, Brig. Gen. Giles A. Smith. 
Artillery Brigade, fourteen guns, 5faj. A. C. Waterhouse, First 
Illinois Artillery. 



364 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

LEFT WING — MAJ. GEN. H. W. 8L0CUM COMMANDING. 

Foorteenth Corps — Maj. Gen. Jeff. C. Davis — 
First Division, Brig. Gen. W. P. Cariin. 
Second Division, Brig. Gen. John D. Morgan. 
Third Division, Brig. Gen. A. Baird. 

Artillery Brigade, sixteen guns, Maj. Charles Hongbtaling, First 
Illinois Artillery. 

Twentieth Corps — Brig. Gen. A. S. Williams — 
First Division, Brig. Gen. N. I. Jackson. 
Second Division, Brig. Gen. J. W. Geary. 
Third Division, Brig. Gen. W. T. Wanl. 

Artillery Brigade, sixteen gnns, Maj. J. A. Reynolds, First New 
York Artillery. 

CAVALRY DIVISION — UBIG. GEN. JL'DSON KILPATRICK. 

First Brigade, Col. T. J. Jordan, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Sei'ond Brigade, Col. S. D. Atkins, Ninety-second Illinois Volonteers. 
Third Brigade, Col. George £. Spencer, First Alabama Cavaliy. 
One battery of four gnns. 

The Seventeenth Army Corps (Maj. Gen. Frank P. Blair 
commanding) was transported by steamers from Savannah to 
Beaufort. The Fourth Division (Corse's) of the Fifteenth 
Corps, havincj been cut oif by the flood in the Savannah river, 
joined the left wing (Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps), which, 
with Kilpatrick'S cavalry (excepting two divisions of the 
Twentieth Corps, which crossed at Savannah), marched up 
the west side of the Savannah river fortv miles to Sister's 
Ferry. The gunboat Pontiac was sent up the river to that 
place to protect the j)ontoons and assist Slocum's wing in 
crossing. On the arrival of the army, the river was found 
to be nearly three miles wide, and a delay of several days 
occurred before the waters subsided. About the first of 
February the pontoons were laid and the left wing crossed 
over to Robertsville, two miles from the ferry. As the dilfer- 
ent regiments entered the sacred soil of old South Carolina they 
cheered lustily. This wing then marched in the direction of 
Augusta, threatening that city, while the right wing moved 
toward Charleston as if that city was the point of its destina- 
tion. The two wings of the army met near Bamberg, S. C, 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 365 

about February 7th. It is stated that when the left wing en- 
tered South Carolina, finding torpedoes planted in the roads, 
they burned a great many of the buildings along the line of their 
march; and perhaps if no torpedoes had been found a great 
many of the houses might have caught on lire just the same. 

Januarji 22d — S^nidaj, — Ii still rains and is cold. We have 
not been dry for four days. 

Ja)t(i(ny 23d — Monday, — About midnight last night four 
men from each company were called up in the rain to go into 
the city and draw two days' rations for the regiment. When 
they got there the order came to start at six in the morning for 
the pier to take a ship for Beaufort, S. C. We broke camp 
this morning at six and marched into the city, where we stacked 
arms and waited until 2:00 p. m., when we went on board of 
the large Pacific mail steamship Mariposa at the pier at the foot 
of Bull street. The Fifty-ninth Indiana also went on board. 
All being on board, at 3:00 p. m. we steamed down the river 
about a mile when we ran on a sandbar, and the tide running 
out and our boat drawing fourteen feet we were safely tied up. 
The night is cold and we have a sharp wind. Our boat is 
crowded and we nearly freeze. The floor of the small cabin 
is paved with ofiiccrs. A ferry-boat tries to draw us oft' but 
fails to accomplish it. 

Jmmaril 24.th — Tue.^do)/, — Laid on the bar all night. The 
tide floated us ott' at davli«:ht and we steamed down the river 
past Fort Brown. There was fun when the boys began to 
draw water over the side of the ship with their kettles to 
make cottee. The first got good river water and their coffee 
was good, but the last ones were not so fortunate and after 
having made tlieir cottee their faces expressed more surprise 
and disgust than is often seen on the face of a soldier. They 
in<|uircd of the first ones if their coffee was all right and were 
considerably puzzled at first to discover the difference, which 
was that we were in salt water. Hardtack was eaten that 
morning by a good many of our boys without coffee, although 
great crowds besieged the sliip's cook. The wind blew strong 
down the river during tlie night, making it impossible to keep 
blankets over us on deck, and the night was very cold though 



366 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

clear. We passed Fort Pulaski at 7:00 a. m. [this fort was cap- 
tured from the* enemy by Generals Gilmore and Viele, April 12, 
1862, with forty-seven heavy guns, forty thousand pounds of 
gunpowder, etc., and three hundred prisoners. — Ed.], Fort 
Thunderbolt at 11:00 a. m. and Fort Jackson at 12:00 m. We 
were for a part of the time out of sight of land except a point 
to the west. The day was fair with wind northwest. We 
reached Hilton Head at 2:00 p. m., anchored at 3:00 P. M. and 
pulled up again at 3:30 p. m., when we steamed to Beaufort, 
arriving there at five o'clock. At Hilton Head we saw some of 
our navy and got some idea of that branch of the service. We 
went ashore and marched four miles inland and camped with 
the rest of our brigade. Plenty of oysters. Beaufort bears 
evidence of being an old though not a large town — a sort of 
**back number'' of the respectable sort. The houses, all of 
wood, are low, cover considerable ground and are encompassed 
by verandas. The fortifications here are manned by Foster's 
corps of colore^l troops, who bear a very soldierly appearance 
and are in a good state of discipline. There are a large num- 
ber of freedmen in this vicinity who are cultivating abandoned 
plantations. Weather cold. 

Januan/ ^^oth — Wefhnsdft*/, — The regiment is lying in camp 
to-day. Three companies were detailed to unload the steamer, 
and having done so joined the regiment to-night. The weather 
is very cold. We police the grounds of our camp. [Popula- 
tion of Beaufort in 1880, 4,010,] 

January .?Ofl' — Tl'ffr^^daf/, — Still in camp. Ice froze an inch 
thick last night. 

January :28f}i — Sainnhiy, — At 7:00 a. m. the regiment 
marched to Beaufort to do guard and fatigue dut}'. The 
wtiather is bitterly cold but clear. Our regiment is feasting on 
ovsters. Pick them ui) bv the bushel at low tide. Briir. Gen. 
Wm. T. Clark took commaml of our brigade here at Beaufort. 

January 29th. — S'nuhiy, — Our brigade marched for the front 
at 11:00 A. M. Our rednient is still on dutv in town. The 
detachments were relieved from dutv to-dav and joined the 
regiment. Warmer. We have marching orders to join our 
brigade twenty-eight miles out at Pocotaligo. [Population, 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 367 

1880, 20.] Many of our officers aud men attended services to- 
day in a negro church and the colored preacher in his discourse 
remarked: "Sherman's men will march to-morrow. They 
carry dead on every hand.*' 

January 30th — Monday. — About 8:00 a. m. we broke camp 
and marched inland across Beaufort Ferry, with our regiment 
in the rear. Marched nineteen miles and camped in an old field 
at 7:00 p. m. Lieutenant Janicke with Company O was left to 
load the train with sacks of grain, then to march and catch up 
with the regiment to-night. The train was loaded but the 
march to the regiment was a hard one in the loose, drift-sand, 
and many of his men were badly crippled. Country flat, cov- 
ered here and there with marshes over which the salt water 
flows at high tide. Saw several Palmetto trees of small size. 

January Slst — Tuesday. — Left bivouac at 6:80 A. M. Passed 
Pocotaligo Station on the Charleston railroad aud joined the 
brigade at McPhersonville at 9:00 o'clock a. m. Distance 
marched, eight mile§. Reports sent to brigade headquarters in 
evening. Our Fifteenth Army Corps is here. Dress parade 
to-night and our marching orders were read. We are to begin 
our great march to-morrow at 7:00 a. m. 

Sftuma for the Month of Januarf, 1885. — Totel enlisted, 678; aggregfite, 710; 
aggregate last month, 676; enlisted men preeent, 467. Thirfy«eightmen Joined 
as recruits from depots daring the month at SaTannah, Oa. Tb^ ware anhili- 
tntes and drafted men. 

February 1st — Wednesday. — Hickory Hill Postoffice. We 
are now well started on our march after many days of prepara- 
tion, and I think that our men are ready to teach South Caro- 
lina the lesson she deserves. Our march to-day was through a 
low, wet, timbered country for fifteen miles to this place. We 
came up with rebel cavalry at 8:00 o'clock P. M. Our skirmish- 
ing drove them back. The trees they had felled across 
the road were removed, when we went on, going into camp at 
(lurk in a large cottonfield. We had one man killed to-day, 
but not of our regiment. Country level, covered with small 
pines. 

February 2d — Thursday. — We marched at 8:00 a, m. 
Weather warm and foggy. We hear cannonading away to 



3G8 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

our lott. Probably the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps of 
the left wing. We marched twelve miles to-da}' over very bad 
roads. 

Fthnmrtf ,J(/ — Frulfo/, — Our bri<jade leads to-dav. We 
marched six miles to crossing of Duck creek. Our regiment 
was sent to drive the rebels from the other side of the stream. 
We deployed four companies as skirmisliers, reserves of two 
compa!]ies eacli, one in centre and one on either flank. 
Bridge taken up. The regiment waded the creek. Water 
three feet deep. The rebels left without ceremony. Our boys 
and those of the Sixty-third Illinois charged through the 
stream and as they came back tliey captured an alligator, seven 
foot long, lying torpid in the mu<l, wliich they pulled ashore 
and into camp. lie could scarcely move, but when poked 
would strike viciouslv witli his tail. He was the first native 
that we had seen. We moved on a short distance and went 
into camp on a big plantation where "old massa runned away 
and missus staved to home," or rather the overseer's wife did. 
She was a Yankee woman, and a true blue Union woman at 
that, and she was overjoyed to see us. Among **old massa 's" 
papers we found a requisition from Wheeler for a large quan- 
tity of corn. He had just served it when our brigade ran him 
oil', and lie did not get tliat corn. There was a slip somewhere; 
a new factor lunl entered into the problem, and that corn went 
into United States wagons. There was about one thousand 
bushels of it, and then we "done took ole massaV bacon, 
chickens, turkeys, ducks and sweet potatoes — all good forage 
for Uncle Billy's boys and teams. One company of our regi- 
ment is skirmishing with tlie rebels. 

It was twelve o'clock of the fifth day oat from Beanfort on our campaign 
through South Carolina. We had marched eight miles through rain and mud 
and Btacked arms. The boys were making coffee and preparing dinner when the 
onlers were given to fall in. Within a mile of us was Duck creek, on the 
opposite side of which the rebels were known to have been in considerable 
numbers only a few hours previous. Dinner was quickly crammed into haver- 
sacks, coffee thrown away and the noble Fourth again turned face to the foe. 
When within a short distance of the creek (which was much swollen by the 
late rains), a line of battle was formed, half a mile in length, the reserves 
placed in their proper positions and our gallant colonel (who never seems ao 
much in his element as when going into battle) gave the command *' Forward!" 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 369 

aD(l we started for the creek. And dow the water is reached. It has over- 
tiowed its banks and spread oat for ten or fifteen rods in width. Every moment 
we expect that the enemy will open fire on as, baton we go. Now the water 
is to the knees and now to the waist; bnt we press onward and gain the shore. 
''The Rubicon is passed,*' but the Johnnies have fled. Onward leads oar 
commander; onward presses that invincible battle line, which water did not 
dannt and which rebel fire has never yet checked. The open ground is gained. 
We approach the mansion of a rich planter. We halt. He has left for parts 
unknown. The family and the negroes are left behind. The former are badly 
frightened; the latter in ecstacies. And here, too, are plenty of comforts for 
jay hawking soldiers, and as we were disappointed in not having an enemy to 
charge we charge on these. Arms are stacked; chickens sqaall; torkeys ran; 
pigs squeal. And now they come loaded. Sweet potatoes — and everything 
that is good. And now to camp. Tents are put ap; fires kindled, and the 
afternoon is spent in feasting and rejoicing. — [<S, in St. Paul Press,'] 

Fthruar}/ ith — Scifnrffcu/. — We marched at 6:00 a. m. Rain 
falling and roads muddy. The regiment is rearguard to the 
train. Countr}' rich, level and wet. Piiie and oak. The 
forage details are having line times, but they have to keep a 
sharp lookout for rebel cavalry. We camped within three 
miles of the Cambahee, or Saulkehatchie river. [This stream 
is called near the coast, the Cambahee, and back from the 
coast, the Saulkehatchie.] Distance marched, ten miles. 

Fi briumf flth — Stntf/fft/, — Beaufort's bridge. We reached tlie 
Saulkehatchie last night and found the bridge gone. To-day 
is Sunday. We liad reveille at 4:00 a. m., and marching at six 
we crossed the Saulkehatchie swam.p and river, passing over 
twenty-four bridges, and camped in the timber, one mile beyond 
the crossing, at 10:00 a. m. Distance marched, four miles. 
Had dress parade in the afternoon. The divisions of Generals 
Giles A. Smith and Joe Mower of the Seventeenth Corps 
crossed below at River's bridge. The stream at that point was 
fuUv three miles wide, and as the enemv was fortified on the 
oppf)site shore, those troops encountered severe opposition. The 
<leep water of the stream and swamps being full of cypress trees 
an<l tangled underbrusli, our forces advanced very slowly and 
with the greatest difficulty, some of tlie troops being in the 
water three hours before they emerged on solid ground. Gen. 
Wager Swayne, colonel of the Forty-Third Ohio, lost a leg in 
crossing the swamp. He was sent back to Pocotaligo. 

24 



370 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

Fehruari/ Gth — Moiuhvi, — Left lanip at 6:00 a. m. The roads 
are good. The plantations are large and the forage ia abun- 
dant. Our advance is skirmishing witli and driving the enemj'. 
We halted at the Little Saulkehatchie while the skirmish- 
ers of our Second Brigade advanced across the swamp and 
creek and drove the rebel cavalry from their works on the op- 
posite shore. The enemy made a feeble resistance. Our di- 
vision being in the advance, crossed first and formed in line of 
battle. The rebels advance<l to the rear on the double-quick. 
After marching a mile and a half further, we camped at 
3:00 p. M. It rained in the evening. It was our melancholy 
dutv to burv the remains of John Smith of Company K of 
our regiment here on a lonely hillside. He died of dysentery. 
Distance marched, nine miles. 

Fehraary 7th — Tuv.^day, — We left camp tliis morning at 
half-past six, and after marching five or six miles in a pouring 
rainstorm over very muddy roads, our regiment being com- 
pelled to build a corduroy across a swamj>, we camped at 2:00 
p. M. in the woods near Bamberg Station [population in 
1880, 900], Barnwell county. South Carolina, on the Augusta 
& Charleston railroad. We all felt as if we would be compelled 
to fight for the possession of thus important railroad. The 
First and Second divisions are destrovini; the road. Distance 
marched seven miles. 

Feffrtuoy Stl* — WufiK-^-^'ij/. — We left at G:00 a. m., and 
marched on the railroad for three miles toward Augusta, when 
we stacked arms and did *'the railroad act.'' We destroved 
the road completely, burning all that would burn, and piling 
the rails among the ties after the style of a cob house, heated 
them and then twisted them like a rope. Our old regiment has 
learned the kink to give the rails that will send them to the 
rolling mill to be made over before they can be used again. 
It is warm work. Toward noon we returned to camp, and in 
the afternoon we di<l more of the same kind of work toward 
Branchville. The weather is cold and windv. 

Fihr'umi 9th — Th'.n\<(lof/, — It is cold and we have snow this 
morning. We marched at 7:30 a. m. Our regiment is rear- 
guard of the division and is also in the rear of the wagon train. 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY TOLUNTEEBS. 371 

We camped on the railroad, four miles from the crossing ot 
the south fork of the Little Edisto river, at 2:00 ?. M., after 
having marched seven miles. Qeneral Schofield with the 
Twenty-third Corps, numbering about twenty-one thousand 
men, moved his army around from Nashville, Tenn., joining 
Qeneral Terry's forces on February 9th near Fort Fisher for a 
movement on Wilmington, N. C. 

February 10th — Friday. — Our regiment destroyed ndlroad 
until two o'clock in the afternoon, and at 4:00 p. m. we 
marched toward Orangeburg, camping at 7:00 p. m. Distance 
marched, four miles. 

February 11th — Saturday. — Broke camp at 6:80 a. m. We 
crossed the south branch of the Edisto river, marched fifteen 
miles to Muddy Springs and camped at sunset. 

February Wh — Sunday. — We left at 8:00 a. m., the Second 
Brigade being in the advance. We are making but slow progress. 
After a march of two miles we reach the north branch of the 
Edisto river at Snelling's bridge. We march and counter- 
march, and rest and stack arms, etc., for the most part of the 
day. The Second Division forced a crossing, the rebels offer- 
ing but a weak resistance. The pontoons having been laid 
we crossed after dark, and marching two miles camped at 
about midnight in a bleak, open field. The teams did not 
come up until after midnight. The weather is very cold and 
windy. 

February 13th — Monday. — Reveille was played at 4:80 a. m. 
We marched at half-past six. Passed within a half mile of 
Orangeburg. [Population, 1880, 2,250.] This city is the resi- 
dence of W. Qilmore Simmes, a rather famous Southern 
writer. Then turning directly north, we marched twelve 
miles and camped. The country is rolling upland, well 
watered. The soil is sandy and the plantations are large. Our 
^' bummers" bring in plenty to eat. Oar boys dug up several 
trunks that they found buried in the ground in our camp, 
which the citizens undoubtedly thought safely hid. We are 
moving toward Columbia, the capital of the state. Distance 
marched to-day, eighteen miles. 

February 14th — Tuesday. -^St Valentine's Day. Left camp 
this morning at nine. Our regiment is rearguard to the division 



372 niSTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

train. Soon after starting it commenced to rain and grew very 
cold. The rain froze as fast as it fell and it was by far the 
most disagreeable day, thus far, of the campaign. Marched 
about thirteen miles and got into camp at 4:00 P. M. at Sandy 
creek. 

Fehniaiy Jotli — Wcflnesdai/. — It rained all last night. Our 
division did not move until about 9:00 a. m. Were in rear. 
After marching about three miles we turned oif (our division 
only) by ourselves. After going about a mile, commenced 
and skirmished with the enemy until night. Then moved. 
Built as manv fires as we were able, in order to deceive the 
enemy as much as possible. We then withdrew and followed 
on after our corps. Got into camp about midnight. Heavy firing 
ahead all day. Distance marched, eight miles. Lieut. George 
Baird is officer of the da v. 

Fehnmr)! 10th — Tharsfhtif, — We are now in the rich valley 
of the Congaree river Marched at 7:00 a. m. The roads are very 
muddy. Crossed Congaree creek, from which the enemy were 
driven last night by the First Division, and halted in a large 
cornfield within sight of Columbia and distant from it about two 
miles. In the afternoon the whole corps moved on to the bluff 
just opposite the city and stacked arms. The clouds have 
cleared away and the sun shines brightly and we have a little 
breeze from the northwest. The city is on a wooded bluff just 
over the Congaree river, in plain sight, and only one mile dis- 
tant. It is a beautiful sight. It lies to the north, and the morn- 
ing sun brings the various streets and prominent buildings into 
our view very clearly. Looking toward our army from the city 
it must be a magnificent view, like a great war picture on can- 
vas. The blue uniforms, glistening arms, fluttering banners 
and shining brass guns of the artillery, with the many regi- 
ments of cavalry and the long train of army wagons with their 
white covers, taken all together, made up a ecene that cau 
probabl\- never be forgotten In^ the people of Columbia who 
witnessed it. While we were marshaled here for the inspec- 
tion of the people of Columbia no hostile shots were exchanged 
until a couple of our six-mule teams were being driven along 
the bank of the river. The enemy began firing from a light bat- 
tery at them. That furnished a good excuse for Capt Frank 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 373 

De Gross, who unlimberetl one of his twenty-pounder Parrotts 
and replied. The Saluda and Broad rivers unite at Columbia 
and form the Conijaree river. Orders of march: 

General Howard will cross the Saluda and Broad rivers 08 near their mouths 
as possible, occupying Columbia, destroy the public buildings, railroad prop- 
erty, manufacturing and machine shops, but will spare libraries, asylums and 
private dwellings. He will then move to Winnsboro. destroying en route utter- 
ly that section of the railroad. He will also cause all bridges, trestles, water 
tanks and depots on the railroad back to the Wateree to be burned, switches to 
be broken and such other destruction as he can find time to accomplish, consist- 
ent with proper celerity. 

So our work, and it is work, is before us. 

On the eighteenth. General Hardee with the CTonfederate troops evacuated 
Charleston, S. C, one hundred miles distant from Columbia, using the only 
remaining railroad by Florence to Cheraw, and a brigade of colored troops of 
Maj. Gen. John G. Foster's command took possession. They found the city in 
flames, the torch having been applied by the Confederates before they left. 
General Fonter was captain of United States Engineers and was in Fort Sumter 
with Major Anderson during its bombardment by the rebels. 

Fihi'iifirii 17 fh — Frifl'iif. — We got up this mornins; and 
found ourselves on the bank of Broad river. Our batteries 
were shelling the rebel skirmish line on the opposite shore. A 
reirinient of the First Divisioi] crossed in boats and scattered the 
enemy's skirmish line, capturing a number of prisoners. From 
our bivouac on the bluff we could overlook tlie whole. As 
soon as a pontoon bridge could be laid the Fifteenth Army Corps 
marched into Columbia with our colors flying and bands play- 
inic It was 3:00 P. M. wlien our division entered the town. 
There was great enthusiasm among the negroes, while long 
fares t^nzed at us from the windows. General Howard had 
men ferried over the river quite early this morning (this 
splendid bridge having been burned by the enemy), who 
surprise<l the rebel picket, capturing some and killing others, 
drove the rest back and got possession of that shore. Soon a 
regiment was over and the work of laying the pontoons began. 
While the pontoons were being hiid we saw a bit of tine ar- 
tillery practice. We w^.re on a high bluff overlooking the 
river and the belt of low timber on tlie opposite side, beyond 
which was a larirc ticld, risini' as it receded from the belt of 
timl>er to a wood beyond, perhaps a mile and a half away, and 



374 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

the road to Columbia ran to the right of this field. Our troops 
had driven the rebol cavalry out of the belt of timber bj the 
river and into this field. A squad of about twenty halted in 
the centre of the field to look at us, when a gun was unlimbered 
near where wo stood ai]d a shell thrown into the field, and so 
accurate was the aim and the calculation of distance so correct 
that the shell exploded apparently just over and within thirty 
feet of their heads, and such haste as those rebels made to 
get out of that could only be surpassed by men better mounted 
than the v. A few more shells cleared the road as far as we 
could see. The pontoons were soon laid and we took our line 
of march for the city. Weather fair. The wind blew strongly 
from the northwest. We were on a broad, splendid pike, and 
with bands playing and colors flying we marched into the city. 
We made no halt, but passed through and about a half mile 
beyond, where we went into camp on the eastern side of town 
and across the railroad. In marching through we saw a good 
many drunken soldiers and drunken negroes. Had to pass 
long ranks of cotton bales on fire, which was so hot we could 
scarce march past them on the sidewalk. How are the mighty 
fallen! This proud rebel city tamely surrendered after all; 
notwithstanding: their boasted valor and avowed determination 
to resist to the drath, they surrendered without a fight. We 
find no South Carolina*' bared to the waist for the conflict" but 
we find a humble, trembling people, suing for mercy and pro- 
tection. 

Wc copy the following account of the surrender of the city 
from other sources: 

The formal surrender of the city of Columbia was to the Fifteenth Corpa. 
As soon as the pontoons were laid, five companies of the Thirtieth Iowa aader 
Major Cramer passed over and as soon as sufficient support had crofised, 
advanced, capturing thirty prisoners and dispersing the rest of the enemy, 
and then proceecled on the main road toward the city. Soon a carriage with a 
white flag tiying was seen to approach from the city. It contained the mayor, 
who drove up and surrendered the city to Major Cramer. Colonel Stone, who 
commanded the brigade, soon came up, and the mayor made a more formal sur- 
render to him, and Cramer, Stone and the mayor all rode back to the city in the 
carriage. 

But previous to this. General Belknap, who commanded a brigade in the 
Seventeenth Cor]>s, di<«patched a party to make search for a boat, aud an old 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 375 

scow was ibuDd, which after a great deal of labor, was made serriceable, and 
about 9:00 A. M. of the seveuteenth crossed the stream with twenty-one men of 
the Thirteenth Iowa, besides Lientenant H. C. Arthur and G. W. Ooodell of Belk- 
nap's staff and Lieutenant Colonel Kennedy of the Thirteenth, who pro- 
ceeded to the old, and also the new, statehonse and raised the regimental flags 
over each at 11:30 A. M. Gen. Giles A. Smith on the seventeenth issued a con- 
gratulatory order to General Belknap of the Third Brigade, and the officers and 
men under him, who accomplished this undertaking. One very pleasant inci- 
dent of the capture of this city was the release of a good many of our men who 
were prisoners of war, and among the number was Lieut. S. H. M. Byers, adju- 
tant of the Fifth Iowa Infantry, who wrote while in prison the following 
poem. Our men in the prison had a glee club, who used to sing it frequent- 
ly to an audience of rebel ladies. One of our soldiers presented this poem 
to General Sherman in Columbia, when the general sent for Adjutant Byers and 
attached him to his staff. 



SHERMAN'S MARCH TO THE SEA. 

Our campflres shone bright od the mountmin 

That frowned on the river below, 
As we stoo<l by our guns in the morning, 

And eagerly watched for the foe ; 
When a rider came out of the darkness 

That hung over mountain and tree. 
And shouted, " Boys, up and be ready! 

For Sherman will march to the sea." 

Thorus. — Then sang we a song of our chieftain, 
That echoed o'er river and lea ; 
And the stars in our banner shone brighter 
When Sherman marched down to the sea. 



Then cheer u{>on cheer for bold Sherman 

Went up from each valley and glen, 
And the bugles re-echoed the music 

That cAme from the lips of the men. 
For we knew that the start in our banner 

More bright in their splendor would be, 
And that bievsings from Northland would greet ui, 

When Sherman marched down to the sea. 

CiioRi's. — Then sang we a song, etc. 



Then forward, boys! forward to battle! 

We marched on our wearisome way, 
And stormed the wild hills of Reeaca — 

(tod bless those who fell on that day! 
Theu K«ne»aw proud in its glory, 

Frowned down on the (lag of the free; 
And the t^ast and the West bore our standard. 

And Sherman marched down to the aea. 

Chokis.— Then sang we a song, etc. 



376 HISTOKY OF THE FOUKTH REGIMENT [1865 

Still ODward we pressed, till our baonen 

Swppt out from Atlanta's griiu walls, 
And the blood of tbe patriot dampened 

The soil where the traitor Hag falls ; 
But we paused nut to weep for the fallen. 

Who slept by each rirer and tree. 
Vet we twined them a wreath of the laurel, 

As Sherman marched down to the sea. 

CHORUS.— Then sang wc a song, etc. 

Oh! proud was our army that morning, 

That stood where the pine darkly towers. 
When Sherman »aid, " lioys, you are weary, 

But to-day fair Savannah is ours! " 
Then sang we a ^ong of our chieftain, 

That echoed o'er river and lea. 
And the stars in our banner shone brighter 

When Sherman camped duwn by the sea. 

Chorus.— Then sang wu a song, etc. 

DariDg the day thirty or forty of the l>oys met in the senate chamber of the 
capitol, and after orgaDizin<r. repealed the ordi nance of secession, passed reso- 
lutions of censnre against John C. Calhoun, and had some fan in firing ink- 
stands and spittoons at his marble bust which ornamented the hall. Finally* 
after making the building ring with patriotic songs, our legislative body ad- 
journed, to meet at Kaleigh, N. C, jnst as some of the left wing did at Mil- 
ledgeville, Ga., to meet at Columbia. 

The government arsenal was a place of great interest, for it contained arms 
of all kinds and many of great age — one of Revolutionary fame, and marked 
*' GeorgiuH Rtx^ 1770,*' surrendered by Cornwallis at Yorktown, etc. This was 
an iron cannon, and our boys broke oil' the trunnions with a sledge hammer and 
then used the cannon to bend and break muskets over. 

Lieutenant Janicke savs: 

Oflicers and men ramble through the buildings. Accompanied by Lieuten- 
ant Chewning, I search for curiosities. In the basement of the tower of Citadel 
Academy lies a large bomb-shell on a small platform, bearing the inscription 
on a plate. **Fit\een-inch hollow-shot fired by the abolition fleet of ironclads 
at Fort Sumter April 7, 1863." 

Lieut. Geo. Baird \vi*ote in his diarv : 

The buildings in the city as we marched through were thronged with spec- 
tators, mostly old men and women, and out of the thousands we passed one 
woman (God bless her!) had the courage to slyly swing her handkerchief from 
the back door of her house. The negroes were the happiest creatures that we 
ever saw. As we passed throujj:h they would greet us with, **God bless you; 
I'se free now!'' Some would dance to the music. Old venerable looking 
blacks would uncover their heads and bow reverentially; others were so carried 




WH. T. CHI-ICHILL, COHFIBT B. 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 377 

away by the exciUmeat thnt tbey actaally screamed and ran wild through the 
streets. We never saw such sights before and never expect to aj^ain. I regret 
to say that some of our soldiers got some whisky and set some of the buildings 
ou fire (after dark), which spread very rapidly as the wind is blowing very 
hard, and very soon the whole city was one whole blaze of fire and was still 
burning when I went to bed. 

When the morning of the eighteenth came it was found 

that three-fourths of the city luui been destroyed. 

Mr. Muzzy says: 

The ^ lie of wind which blew on yesterday and last night (the seventeenth) 
carried the burniug cotton from the bales in the streets to the buildings and 
set them on fire, and a confiagration ensned beyond the power of our meD, 
with the meaus at hand, to control, and the business portion of the town be- 
came a ruin. As soon as it became dark it was evident to us that the town was 
on fire, and as soon as we had our supper, all were permitted, or ordered, to go 
into the city and try to extinguish the fire, or save property by carrying it out 
of its track. There were two fires burning at the same time in diffdrent parts 
of the city, the lesser fire, which burned two blocks, was near the river, and all 
the buildings were cheap frames, and said to be mostly occupied by disrepu- 
table women. We understand that this fire originated in a difficulty between 
some of the soldiers and these women. This fire soon spent itself. The other 
fire, which burned a tract one-half mile wide by three-fourths of a mile long, 
was undoubtedly set by the burning cotton. One incident I will mention, as 
myself and another Fourth Regiment band-boy were connected with it. We 
were ^ >ing to the fire and had got nearly there, when we were called to carry 
a sick woman, who was helpless, to a place of safety. We of course complied, 
that being just what we desired to do. On entering the house and going to 
the sick woman, we found her to have been burned so that, though a white 
woman, .she was black, and her face and hands were burned to a crisp. I 
inquired how she met with such terrible burns. In reply, she gave me the 
details of a bit of cruelty perpetrated by the reliels that will more than oflliet 
the brntality that tbey have charged upon us. The rel>el officers ordered the 
depot and contents, which consisted largely of provisions, to be bumed, as 
they evacuated the city. Upon learning this, the families that needed pro- 
visions begged the privilege of taking what they needed, which was not 
gnuited. Hut many women began to help themselves without leave, and were 
near the building when it was fired, and there being a quantity of gunpowder 
in it. Hii explosion took place, which burned some and killed others. This 
woman escaped death, but wa.s badly burned. It was brutal to burn and 
destroy Umd needed by the i)eople of the city that they professeil to befriend, 
and more brutal still to blow up a building when the lives of women and chil- 
<lre!i wen* expose<l to death thereby. 

Thi'i't' wcro ahout fifteen hundrecl of our officers of all 
LTiadt'- and hrandu's of the service confined here as j)risoiier8 
(»t war. Sonu' iliirty <»f these escaped during the time that 
\vi* wcTc advancing u\ion the city. I visited the prison yard 



378 HISTOKY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [18d5 

in which the officers were confined, and was much interested 
and iistonished to behold the many wavs in which those un- 
fortunates had endeavored to tunnel their way to the outer 
world by underground processes. The earth beneath their 
quarters was completely undermined by tunnels large and 
tunnels deep. Tunnels led in every direction, and they .were 
so far completed that, had they not been discovered, many of 
the prisoners would have escaped. 

An officer in our regiment wrote in his diary as follows: 

Fthrufiry 18M — Saturday. — Hearing that much of the city had been de- 
stroyed daring the night, I mounted my horse and afler breakfast rode into the 
city. The scene presented almost defies de.^cription. An area nearly one mile 
in length and one-qnarter mile wide had been swept by a tempest of fire. 
Everything was destroyed in its track. Most of the business part of the town 
and many residences were only smoking ruins. Many families were in the 
streets with a few things saved from the flames. It is a terrible sight. Last 
night a host of drunken soldiers and negroes overpowered the guards and fired 
the city in several places. Families were driven out without warning, barely 
escaping with their lives. Quite a number of drunken soldiers were burned to 
death. Citizens were insulted. Many soldiers joined with the citizens in at- 
tempts to stay the flames, but the wind blowing a gale, it was of no use. At 
three oVIock in the morning a brigade of the Second Division was sent into 
town double-quick and quelled the mobs, arresting everyone. Some of them 
should be shot. For the first time I am ashamed of the Fifteenth Corps. In 
the afternoon the regiment was ordered into town to assist in destroying stores 
at the arsenal and at the Citadel Academy, a military school. 

Ffbrunry I9th — Sunday, — At seven o'clock the regiment again went into 
town to complete the work begun yesterday. Two other regiments of the bri- 
gade accoiupjuied im. Worked until dark, destroying a large quantity of 
powder, artillery and musket ammunition, cannon, small arms, acoouterments 
and quartermaster's stores. A sad accident occurred at noon, by which eigh- 
teen or twenty men were killed and wounded. Some fixed ammunition ex- 
ploded and communicated fire to several loads of powder and shell. The de- 
tail at work unloading the wagons was mostly from the Sixty-third lUinois. 
The captain in charge was blown far out into the river and never seen after^ 
ward. Several were killed outright and others terribly burned and mangled. 
One man of the Fourth was injured — Pearl Otis of Company H. In the after^ 
noon I went down to see the prisoners' pen where our officers had been con- 
fined. I talked with several of them who had made their escape when the 
others had been removed. It made my blood boil to listen to them and to look 
over the grounds. However, it was not as bad as I expected. 

Comrade Seth Nichols of Company II says: 

Mr. Pearl Otis of Company H was a driver of one of the teams hauling am- 
munition and was near enough to get one of his mules burned and Otis himself 
had his hair and whiskers burnt ofl^aud was so badly injured that he was dis- 
abled for several weeks. 



1865] MINNESOTA INFJlNTEY YOLTJNTEEBS. . 379 

The new capitol building in course of construction was an 
object of great interest. Its erection was under the supervision 
of an Italian engineer and before it stood the iron monument 
erected in honor of the Palmetto Regiment, with the inscription 
on it of the names of all the officers and members who had 
fought in the Mexican War. 

Fibruary 20th — Monday. — We left our camp near Columbia 
at 7:00 a. m., and marching in a northerly direction camped at 
Muddj Springs before sunset, having measured nineteen miles 
of muddy road in the rain. The country is rolling with sandy 
soil and oak and pine timber. The country passed over to-day 
is as poor as any we have seen in the South. 

February 21st — Tuesday. — We did not leave camp until 8:00 
p. M., the delay being caused by three of our divisions being 
in our front on to-day's march. Our progress is slow and the 
country is hilly. Boulders abound on the hills and pine tim- 
ber covers th^ country. We bivouacked at midnight after our 
tramp of sixteen miles. 

February 22d — Wednesday. — Washington's birthday anniver- 
sary. Reveille at 5:00 a. m., but we did not start until nine. 
Pas:$ed Poplar Grove Postoffice at 10:80 A. M. and turning to 
the east halted, at 2:00 P. M., near Peay's Perry, on Wateree 
river. At 11:00 P. M. we crossed on pontoons and camped 
after midnight just over the other side. Distance marched to* 
day, twelve miles. Our men had to stand a long time, moving 
up step by step every few minutes, and with knapsacks on, . 
waiting for the pontoons to be laid. Frank Alderman of 
Company 6 was captured to-day near this river by the enemy. 
[Schotield's and Terry's troops took Wilmington, N. C, Feb. 
22, 1865.] 

February 23d — Thursday. — Marched eighteen miles. Coun- 
try hilly and rough. Boulders. Less pines. Timber princi- 
pally oak. Plantations large and well cultivated. Negroes 
plenty. Still rains. 

February 20i — Friday. — Reveille at five. Left camp at 
7:00 A. M., marching on right flank of train. Rain fiftlling most 
of the (lay. At 10:00 A. M. passed Flat Rock Postofliee 
[(lopulation in 1880, 156], Kershaw count}', which takes its 



380 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

name from a large tiat rock which covers an area of several 
acres. Our direction of travel is east b3' south. Country more 
level. Less rock. More pitch pines. Sand3' soil. More plan- 
tations. Water plenty. Bummers still manage to feed U8. 
At 5:00 P. M. we crossetl Little Lynchers creek and camped 
within one mile of it, havi-nic marched tifteen miles. Our Third 
Division finds itself brought to a halt. We are informed that 
a part of the army cannot get across the river, because of the 
flood. We are encamped in the woods on a by-road. Flat 
Rock is on a high hill. We can see the campfires of the enemy 
in the distance. The weather is very bad. 

Fihraartf Jofh — i^nttinhn/, — An alarm at 9:00 A. M. The 
long roll sounds and the regiments fall in and stack arms, fell 
timber and throw up intrenchments; we find that the enemy 
has, in small force, attacked our pickets, killing some and cap- 
turing others. Some of our men who were captured while out 
foraging had their throats cut and a label appended to their 
bodies, upon which was written, *' Death to all foragers." In 
retaliation for these murders, two of the rebels whom we had 
taken durin<2: the attack were imme<liatelv tied to a tree and 
shot. This was done bv the order of the £:eneral command- 
ini;. Our men killed belonged to the Sixtv-thinl Illinois. 

In the afternoon the regiment went on guard one and a half 
miles from camp. It rained hard all night long. We are waiting 
for orders. The ramrod test is put into practice with good 
success. We find bacon, syrup and various kinds of liquor 
buried on the plantations along the route and the probing with 
ramrods reveals where it is. To-(hiy we came to a place that 
looked as though there should have been large quantities, but 
our foragers failed to find them. However, we found some 
meal in an outhouse which we took. There was a negro there 
who seemed to have the care of the place. The mistress of 
the house had also remained at home. One of our men, an 
orderlv, finallv asked the darkv where they had hid the meat 
and things. He replied, "There is none." The orderly told 
him he was lyinEc, and ordered him to tell what thev had done 
with it. Just then the mistress came out and warned the 
negro *'to keep his mouth shut," upon which the soldier drew 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 381 

his revolver and told him that if he did not show where it was 
he would bo a dead man. This view of the case induced him 
to lead the way with alacrity to a field near by that liad been 
recently plowed. A squad soon unearthed the richest find on 
our march. It consisted of more than an army wagon load of 
good things, such as bacon, molasses, whisky, brandy, wine, 
applejack, etc., enough to treat the whole division. Some of 
our men in camp got intoxicated. Lieut. Frank De Mers of 
Company K was in command of the foragers. 

Fthrnart/ 20th — Stniday, — Marched to within one mile of 
Kelley's bridge, on Big Lynche's creek. Distance, ten miles. 

Fehruari/ 27th — Monday. — Rain. Water rising, flooding the 
creek bottom to the depth of several feet. Remained in camp. 

February 28th — Tm\<day, — Rain! Rain! Water five feet 
deep on creek bottom. Remained in camp. We mustered 
for pay to-day. We will i)robably look a long while before we 
see it. Reports sent to brigade headquarters: Elias Branch of 
Company II is on detached service at division headquarters 
and Charles L. Dresser of Company H is on detached service 
at brigade headquarters; Elias N, Peterson is on detached 
service at division headquarters. 

Return for the Month of February^ 1805. — Total enlisted, 675; aggregate, 707. 
aggregate laflt month, 710. Enlisted men present for duty, 407; on extra and 
daily duty, \M,, sick, 7; total enlisted men, 451. Commissioned officers present 
tor duty, 28; on extra and daily duty, 1; total commissioned officers, 29. 

Remarks. — John Smith, Company K, died of disease near Bamberg, S. C, 
Frank Adelman, Company G, captured Feb. 22, 1865, Wateree river, while 
foraging; was on duty in division escort company; Henry Morrill, African 
uuder cook, captured Feb. 25, 1865, at Lynche's creek; supposed to have been 
captured while with forage party; Second Lieut. F. S. De Mers, Company K, 
on special duty in charge of forage detail; Second Lieut. James M. Douglas, 
Company F, Dec. 31, 1864, on detached service commanding provost guards 
at division head<|uarters, Special Orders, No. 267, Third Division; First Lieut, 
(r. M. D. Laml>ert, Company A, on special duty in medical department of regi- 
ment. Distiince marched during the month, two hundred and thirty 
miles. 

Morrh 1st — Wtdihsday, — Remained in camp awaiting the 
toinpletion ol* a long bridge across Lynche's creek valley. Men 
short of rations. Our men are running a grist mill near here. 
Un fortunate delay. Expect to march to-morrow. There is 



382 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

trouble in bridfciii,^ the eroek. We have little else to eat but 
poor beef and cow peas — a sort of bean of a dark color, raised 
for stock. 

March ?</ — Thur-'i'loii, — Left camp at 3:00 p. m. Crossed 
Lvnche's creek at 7:00i». m., on a narrow, rickeiv brids^e three- 
fourths of a mile in length, and marched to Kelly Town. 
Bivouacked at 9:00 \\ m. Distance marched, seven miles. The 
rain poured down to-day and covered the ground in many 
places knee-deep and the bottom fell out of the roads, so the 
troops took hold of the wagons and harness of the mules and 
pushed, pulled and lifted, through thick and thin,sometimes knee- 
deep in water and sand. Xo fires were allowed and we were 
glad to eat wet hardtack and whatever else our haversacks 
contained. Thus the night closed in on us in the woods, strug- 
gling slowly along, until we could get no further. 

Lieutenant Young ot Company A says: 

One of the moet tryiDg episiKles of the war occarred at the crossing of 
Lynchers creek, South Caroliua. The rain had been faUing in torrents for days. 
The streams were 8woneu out of aU proportion to their usual size. The banks were 
no longer their boundaries, and the wide bottoms, which are at aU times in- 
clined to be swampy, were conveited into vast morasses. Lynchers creek lan 
through the centre of one of these oveillowed swampy bottoms, and was spanned 
by a rickety apology for a bridge. This was constantly giving way, as was 
also the corduroy approaches to it, which were three-fourths of a mile and one- 
fourth of a mile respectively. The regiment had but little breakfast, no din- 
ner and no supper, when dark came oti. The tedious stopping and starting 
incident to going into camp had been going on for some time, when Adjutant 
Kich notified company commanders that the several companies were to be 
divided into squads of ten men, each s<iuad to take charge of two wagons and 
assist ( V) them through the crossing. 

A few rods further we came upon a familiar scene. >Six mules were in the 
immediate advance of an army wagon, two were lying dowu in the bottomless 
mud, the leaders were standing over them with their heads the wrong way, 
while the wheelers were contemplating the affair from what appeared to be a 
disinterested standpoint. The driver was expostulating with the refractory 
animals in a way peculiar to the craft, and an expert might have interpreted 
some of his remarks as l>orderiug on the profane, while he punctuated his 
staccato sentences with a long blacksnake whip until the whole sounded like a 
skirmish fire of musketry. 

This was being repeated on every hand. It would be hard to tell how many 
times that corduroy was destroyed and rebuilt, or how many times those wagons 
were pried and lifted out of the mud that night; but day broke and the sun rose 
before we had either sleep or supper. 



1865] MINNESOTA INPANTBY YOLUNTEEBS. 383 

Daring the worst of it the writer and Sergt John Mullen of Company K 
appropriated a box of hardtack and some aogar, which was divided equally 
among the men of the two companies A and K much to their wonder as to the 
sonrce of the snpply at so opportnne a time, and I presume the young fellow 
from the Sixty-third Illinois who was guarding the wagon from which the food 
was abstracted lost all his faith in any soldier's honesty when confronted by 
an irate commissary of subsistence the next day. 

March Sd — Friday. — This morning opened clear and cold, 
roakiug our wet clothes anything but comfortable. Left 
bivouac at 5:00 o'clock a. m. and marched toward Cheraw. 
Sun visible for the first time in several days. Crossed Big 
Black creek at 11:80 a. m. Country rolling and sandy, well 
watered, and for the most part uncultivated. Passed only two 
or three houses during the day. Bivouacked at 6:80 o'clock 
p. M., near Thompson's creek, about ten miles from Cheraw. 
Distance marched, twenty-six miles. Lieutenant Colonel Eisen- 
menger, Sixty-third Illinois, in charge of Pioneer Corps, was 
captured by the enemy at Big Black creek. After crossing 
Black creek we stopped in an open field where, betwen fire 
and sun, our clothing and blankets could be dried and repaired. 
A more woe-begone set of men and mules it would be hard to 
find than were found in that field. 

March 4.th — Saturday, — ^Left camp at 7:00 a. m. in a storm of 
rain. Roads muddy. Progress slow. Two divisions ahead 
of ours. Pioneers building corduroy. Heard cannonading 
ahead. Entered Cheraw, Chesterfield county. South Carolina, 
at 8:30 o'clock p. M., and turning westward marched one mile 
and bivouacked about midnight. Distance, eleven miles. 
Regiment hungry. No rations but corn in ear. Drew two 
boxes of hard bread at midnight. This is the finest country we 
have seen since we left Beaufort. 

Our lorces captured twenty-seven pieces of artillery here at 
Cheraw, and concluding to celebrate the inauguration of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, loaded twenty-three of these pieces for this pur- 
pose. The guns could not stand the pressure and exploded. 
General Blair gave one of the Blakely guns that was not de- 
stroyed to the First Minnesota Light Artillery, who made a pres- 
ent of it to the State of Minnesota. The following history of 



384 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

one of the others the writer recently received from the cora- 
niaiulin«^ officer of the United States Arsenal at Bock Island, 
III.: 

It is a Blakely ritled field gnn — caliber, 3xV.t inches. Its solid shot would 
weigh about eighteen ponnds and I think it was rated as an eighteen-poonder. 
It is made of vast iron hooped with wrought iron. It was mannfactured by 
Fawcett, Preston & Co., Liverpool, £ng., in 1860, and has on it a copper plate 
bearing the following inscription: ** Presented to the sovereign state of South 
Carolina by one of her citizens, residing abroad, in commemoration of the 
twentieth of December, 1860." It was captured at Cheraw and was sent to 
Washington, D. C, I think about the close of the war. It was sent here in June, 
1881, when the Washington arsenal was broken up, and has been here since 
that date. [The ordinance of secession passed the South Carolina convention 
Dec. 20, I860.— Ed.] 

The force rnakins^ the raid to Florence consisted of about a 
thousand men, who were detailed from the companies of our 
regiment and other regiments in our brigade and division. 
The expedition left the army on March 3d from near to 
Darlington and camped near there that night. On the fourth 
the command, which was all mounted on horses and mules, 
marched to Florence, entering the village and driving from 
thence a regiment of rebel cavalry. On the opposite side of 
the town our force encountered quite a large body of infantry, 
which greatly outnumbered ours, and we were compelled to 
retreat back through the town and across the railroad track, 
where we formed a line and prepared for action. A regiment 
of rebel cavalry followed us, and crossing to the same side of 
the track that we were on, they formed a line iu our front and 
quite near to us, performing the maneuver under a shower of 
bullets from our guns. But we soon shot them out, and it was 
fun to see them get. While we were tiring, a boy about six- 
teen years old left the rebel ranks and with his hands up came 
running to us on foot. He yelled like a good fellow: 
"Don't shoot I Don't shoot!" The rebels fired at him and 
the bullets seemed to cut the ground all about him, but he 
reached our ranks iu safetv. lie told us that he was forced 
into the rebel ranks against his will, and that he had been 
fooled long enough; that his father was a Union man and 
that he had never fired a shot at us. We then fell back to 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 385 

Darlington, or near to that place, on the fourth, getting there 
at about midnight, camped there that night and marching 
from thence joined the army at Cheraw. Frank De Mere, 
second lieutenant of Company K, had charge of the men of our 
regiment on the expedition. 

[We received the foregoing information from our old com- 
rade, John S. Boyd of Company K, who was seriously injured 
while riding his saddle. He also stated that the date of the 
fight with the rebels at Florence is noted on his discharge as 
March 4, 1865.— Ed.] 

Manh oth — Sfnulfiy. — Left camp at 7:00 a. m. Marched 
through Cheraw (a once neat little town) [population, 1880, 
2,000], on the Great Pedee river, and crossed that stream on a 
pontoon bridge. Marched four miles beyond the river and 
camped in a rich country near some mills. Our division is 
the most advanced of any in the army. Excellent foraging. 
Hungry men feasting. A detail put in charge of mills to grind 
corn. Men from our division are running three grist mills. 
Everything in abundance — meal, meat, sugarand molasses. Dis- 
tance marched, five miles. The east bank of the Great Pedee is 
heavily fortified. It was chilly this morning and after crossing 
Lieutenant Norton was interested in the discovery of a captured 
cannon, and stopped to read the inscription on the plate. In 
passing through Cheraw this morning we noticed a large 
amount of rebel army stores, and also other goods said to have 
been sent here from Charleston for safety. There was a great 
quantity of beef, put up in London, in six-pound cans. The 
enemy set fire to their stores, but the citizens helped themselres 
freely and kindly saved large quantities of it for us. This 
little city is the terminus of a railroad from Charleston. John 
B. Freeman of Company G died at 7:00 P. M. of typhoid fever. 
His body was put into a rough coffin and buried in a large 
cotton fiuld here. Company A came near being captured while 
out foraging while here at Cheraw and only saved themselves 
bv a hasty Hii^ht. The woods are full of rebel deserters. 

J////'(// cth — Mnfidffi/, — Remained in camp collecting sup- 
plies. Our*' bummers,'' who have been absent for two days raid- 
ing at Florence, Darlington county, South Carolina, returned 

25 



386 HISTOKY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

to camp. George Adam Weaver of Company C, one of them, 
being quite severely wounded in the shoulder. They had a fight 
at Florence [population, 1880, 1,915] and got whipped. Rebels 
chased them twenty miles. Their mules are about tired out. 
Weather better. 

March 7th — Tutsilny, — Marched at 9:00 a. m. in the direc- 
tion of Fayetteville, X. C, and bivouacked at 3:00 P. M. at 
Mills, on Crooked creek. Soil sand v. Plantations small. 
Fewer negroes. Face of country, rolling. Distance marched, 
nine miles. 

March Sih — ^Vcdncsdaij, — Marched at 7:00 A. M. Roads 
bad. Progress slow. Corduroy and bridges to build and 
repair. Rain poured down all day long. Roads in the after- 
noon almost impassable. Darkness found us fast in mud. 
Bivouacked at Laurel Hill, Richmond county, Xorth Carolina, 
at 8:30 p. m. [Population, 1880, 295.] Trains did not get in until 
near midnight. Countrv level, sandv and well watered. Plau- 
tations large and well kept. Distance marched, twelve miles. 

March lOtJi — Friila*/, — Left bivouac yesterday morning at 
seven o'clock and marched five miles to Shoe-lleel creek, 
Robeson county. North Carolina. [Population of Shoe-Heel, 
1880, 314.] At noon it commenced raining furiously. Directly 
we crossed the creek, the wagons stuck fast in the mud. 
Ground low. Wagons down to the hubs. Troops build cor- 
duroy and draw the wagons with ropes. The nmles cannot 
work. Dark. Rain pouring down. Swamp flooded. Regi- 
ment rearguard, as was also the Forty-eighth Indiana. Worked 
until three o'clock this morning and lay down in the mud. 
Advance of division, six miles ahead. Wagons stuck all along 
the road. Reveille at 5:00 a. m., and after a hastv meal all 
hands go to work again. Roads terrible. Build corduroy. 
Reach Lumber river at 10:00 a. m. Cross. March three miles. 
Join the rest of our briirade. We halt fl.ve minutes. Continue 
our march. Roads bad, but no more rain. Passed through 
Randalsville and bivouacked at 5:30 p.m. near An tioch Church. 
Men and teams much worn. Distance traveled since vester- 
day morning, sixteen miles. [Population, Antioch, Robesou 
county, North Carolina, in 1880, 25.] 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTBY V0LUNTBBE8. 887 

George M. D. Lambert wrote: 

Afterward we entered into dense pine woods. Oar regiment was a flank- 
ing party for the rear of onr division train. We had bat jast entered the 
woods when the sky darkened and farioas and blinding rain came down apon 
as. In an hoar nearly oTeiything was stack fiut. Darker grew the sky. 
Loader aad deeper carsed the teamsters, as down woald go males and wagons 
into some bottomless hole. That rain we never saw eqaaled in rolnme and 
intensity, and as the hoars paased on and not a fbarth part of the train had 
been extricated, with miles of road before as to oordaroy, the prospect for an 
all night's work in the rain and mod became onpleasantly certain. After 
tagging away, the steaming males woald be aaloosed firom the wagons and the 
men woald take their places — some in the rear, some at the wheels and more 
at the toogae and trace chains, and with a tag and a yell woald land the eam- 
broos wagons apon a few feet of solid ground, with tb» Tery likely prospect of 
seeing it go down again in less than a handred yards distant Night came on 
and still it rained. The gloomy forest was resonuding with the swinging of 
ai^es, the crash of fiiUing trees and the mingling caiaes of a maltitode of male 
drivers, while it thaadered, rained, and the wind blew beyond description. To 
add to the wildness of the scene, every few handred feet woald be seen a pitch 
pine in fall blaze of light, its smoky flames tossing away ap in the air, and 
throwing a light which served to "make the darkness visible." At 2KM) o'doek 
A. M. the tired, hangiy, wet and altogether miseimble members of the Foorth 
Minnesota Veterans bivoacked for an hoar or two for rest and a obaiice mooth- 
fol of food. Daylight came, and with it a resamptUm of work. At last| by 
nine o'clock, the last team was ap<m good and reliaUe terra JUma and we ware 
on our way to join oar brigade, and at Antioeh Ghareh, some iizteen miles dla- 
tant, we found a good camp and prospects for a night^s rest before at. It was 
the universal belief that in all time we ooold never ibrget the miasiy of oar 
night work in the pine woods of Oarolina. 

March 11th — Saturday. — Marched at 11:00 A, ic. Several 
divisions in advance. Rebelg made a dash just as our rearguard 
was leaving camp; one man shot Slow progress. Country 
low and swampy. Troops ahead building corduroy. Bivou- 
acked at 10:00 p. M. Distance marched, seven miles. 

March 12th — Sunday. — Left bivouac at 9:00 A. M. Marched 
one hundred rods, halted one hour; marched one-half mile 
and halted, etc., etc. At 8:00 P. M. crossed the Big Rock- 
iish creek and marched steadily, the roads being excellent and 
the country high and rolling. At 6:00 P. M. passed through 
the little manufacturing village of Rockville, on Little Rockfish 
creek. Cotton manufactory bunied. Splendid water power. 
Crossed the creek and marched nearly north on plank-road 
toward Fayetteville and bivouacked within two miles of that 



388 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

place at 8:30 p. m. Distance marched, twelve miles. The 
Fourteenth and Seventeenth Corps reached Fayetteville yester- 
day. 

March 13th — M*niday. — Remained in camp. Two dispatch 
boats came up the river from Wilmington. 

March nth — Tne.^day. — At 9:00 a. m. marched to Fayette- 
ville and at 5:00 p. m. crossed Cape Fear river on pontoon 
bridge. Saw remains of a tine bridge burned by the enemy. 
The town is old and dilapidated; only a few good buildings. It 
has five or six thousand inhabitants. Second Minnesota on 
duty in the city. Bivouacked just on the other side of the 
river and one mile from the landing. Distance marched, four 
miles. The weather was clear to-day. [Population, 1880, 
5,000.] 

This is a pleasant day and one to be enjoyed after onr terrible experience in 
mnd and rain. This is a beantifnl town, and seems to be the HuntsyUle of 
North Carolina — an old, aristocratic place. The reunion and jollification of 
the Second Minnesota Brass Band with the Fourth Minnesota Band this evening 
was an occasion of mncb enjoyment. The bands played together and had a gay 
old time, talking of their experience and drinking some fine old applejack that 
the Second boys had picked np somewhere. There is a United States govern* 
ment arsenal here which the rebels appropriated to their own nse. The boys 
are lan^hing over Kilpatrick*s experience two or three days ago. It seems 
that he overlooked an old road in placing his pickets, and in the night Hamp- 
ton's cavalry took advantage of the gap in the lines and surprised and captured 
his camp and aU it contained, except the men, the most of whom escaped into 
the bnshes. Kilpatrick also escaped, rallied his men, and in turn surprised the 
rebels, who were busy with the plunder, and drove them out of camp. The 
enemy carried off several hundred prisoners and some horses. ** Little Kill " 
was caught napping that time, and the boys think it a good joke. [Kilpatrick 
had encamped on a farm, and himself and staff and Gen. Geo. £. Spencer (who 
commanded one of his brigades) and his staff had taken possession of the bouse 
for the night. The sound of bugles and great noise outside awoke Kilpatrick 
and his officers, who managed (KiU in his night clothes) to escape to a swamp 
near by. Here he found a few of his men, whom he rallied, and with them 
opened fire on the enemy, who were finally forced to retire. Hampton claimed 
that he captured five hundred prisoners, and Kilpatrick in his report stated 
that he had only lost two hundred. Kiljmtrick and his officers were saved 
from capture by the ruse of a lady, who was traveling under their protection 
to her home in the North. Hampton rode np to the door and asked her if there 
were any Yankees in her house. She told him no. This occurred on the 
ninth. — Ed.] 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEEEfcS. 389 

The government arsenal at this place was completely de- 
stroyed. The government dispatch boats came up to this place 
from Wilmington and brought some supplies and mail. When 
at Laurel Hill General Sherman was traveling with our corps 
and from there sent Corporal Pike and another scout with 
cipher dispatches to the commanding officer at Wilmington. 
Pike was to go to the Cape Fear river, get a boat and go down 
the stream : 

We are marchiDg for Fayetteville. WiU be there Saturday, Sunday and 
Monday, and wiU then march for Goldsboro. If possible, send a boat np Cape 
Fear river and have word conveyed to General Schofield that I expect to meet 
him aboat Goldsboro. We are all well and have done finely. The rains make 
oar roads difficult and may delay us about Fayetteville, in which case I would 
like to have some bread, sugar and coffee. We have abundance of all else. I 
expect to reach Goldsboro about the twentieth instant. 

W. T. Shebman, 
Major General, 

March loth — Wednesday. — Left camp at 2:00 p. m. Rain 
falling steadily. Roads muddy. Country flat. Few inhabi- 
tants. Marched six miles before halting. Night found us in 
the mud. Wagons stuck. Bivouacked at 10:00 p. m. Dis- 
tance marched, twelve miles. 

Marrh 16th — Thmsday. — Marched at 9:00 a.m. Progress slow. 
Country flat. Roads very bad. Division ahead of us building 
corduroy. The men wade swollen creeks. At 3:00 p. m. crossed 
a small stream two or three feet deep w^hich Quartermaster 
Russel named Salt river. Rain, rain! Bivouacked at dark, 
nineteen miles from Fayetteville. Rain still falling. Teams 
did not got in until 11:00 P. M. We crossed Black river this 
afternoon. Distance marched, seven miles. We hear consid- 
erable cannonading oft' to the left to-day, as if that wing was 
meeting with more than the usual opposition. [This was the 
battle of Averysboro.] 

Marrh 17th — Friday, — *'St. Patrick's day in the morning" 
found us on the road at 7:00 A. M. Roads bad. Mud, water, 
swamps. Whole country low and flat. Many of our men 
barefooted. Farms small. Horses small and old. Cherry 
trees in bloom. Not so much noise over on the left. Passed 
*' Kay's Store '' and bivouacked in a dry field at 3:30 P. M. 



390 HISTOKY OF THE FOUKTH SEGDtLENT [1865 

Regiment dug wells for water and found a good supply two 
feet below the surface. Distance marched, seven miles. 

March ISfh — Sdturday, — Marched at 7:00 A. M. Roads bet- 
ter. Country rolling. Plantations larger and more numerous. 
Residences better and negroes more numerous. Good foraging. 
Bummers in clover. Soil good. Timber as heretofore — pitch 
pine. Reached Xewton Grove at 3:00 p. m. Distance on finger 
board, "ToGoldsboro, twenty-six miles;" **To Clinton, twenty 
miles." Halted one hour at Newton Grove. The regiment 
got some meat. Turned square to the right toward Clinton. 
Marched one and one-half miles and bivouacked on a large plan- 
tation. Distance marched, fourteen miles. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Battle of Benton ville — March to Goldsboro — Make Oat Pay Rolls and Throw 
Them Away — Many are Barefooted; All are Ragged — News from ** God's 
Conntiy" Once More — Beantifnl Camp — Reorganizing Our Army; Its 
Roster — Leave Goldsboro — Citizens Delighted to See Us — News of Lee's 
Surrender — Enter Raleigh — A Memorable Fourteenth of April; Raising 
Oar Flag at Fort Samter, and Assassination of President Lincoln — Receive 
News of the Assassination — Reviewed by Grant, Sherman, Meade, Sheridan) 
Smith and Others — Johnston's Army Sarrenders — Terms of Surrender — 
Oar Division ** Broken Up" — '* God Bless You All!"— Mourning in the 
Smith Family of Officers — In Woods' Brigade of Woods' Division. 

March 10th — Sunday, — Marched at 6:00 a. m. They say we 
are to make communications to-day. Progress slow. General 
Sherman and staff passed us at noon and our band struck up 
"Hail to the Chief." The general took off his hat. General 
Howard passed a short time before. The sun is oppressively 
hot. Went into camp, as we supposed, at about 3:30 P. M., at 
cross-roads, about five miles from Cox's bridge across Neuse 
river. Had orders not to take off our accouterments as we 
were near the rebels. The Third Brigade is skirmishing, with 
the enemy a half mile in advance of us. Moved camp from 
the woods to a corntield. We were soon ordered to throw up 
works, and had just got fairly to work when we were ordered 
to fall in, which we did in a hurry. Marched ahead about 
half a mile and again commenced to throw up works. Got 
nicely to work and were again ordered to fall in. We then 
marched back three-fourths of a mile and threw up works on 
each sidu of the road. At 6:00 P. M. the regiment was sent 
out on picket on the South Goldsboro road. At 10:00 p. m. 
Companies K and D went ahead two miles and guarded a 
bridt^e all nii^ht. The rest of the regiment worked until mid- 
night on breastworks. Distance marched, ten miles. During 
the afternoon we heard heavy and continuous cannonading to 
the west, supposed to be the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps. 
[This proved to be correct. They had met the rebel army and 
it opened the battle of Bentonville. — Ed.] 



392 HISTORY OF THE FOUKTH BEGIMENT [1865 

March 20th — Monday. — At daylight heard fighting and 
charging on the left of us here at the bridge. It can't be over 
half a mile away. Two or three balls came over our heads. 
[We are keeping a sharp lookout for the rebels. Expect they 
will soon make their appearance and try to burn this bridge, 
and we don't propose to let them do it. — Extract from Lieut. 
Geo. BainVs Diary.'] Our adjutant has just come and ordered 
UB back to the regiment. Marched at 6:00 A. M. to within two 
miles of Cox's bridge, on Neuse river. Second Brigade 
skirmishing with rebels at the bridge; drove them across and 
burned it. We then turned to the left and marched seven 
miles toward Bentonville, where we met the enemy. Our First 
and Second divisions are skirmishing. The Third (ours) is 
held in reserve. The Seventeenth Corps is coming up, they 
are going ahead of us. At 2:00 p. m. our boys are charging but 
don't drive the rebels much. They are fighting very stubbornly. 
General Sherman is now standing on the rightof our regiment 
watching the result. At about dark we fell in and marched to 
the rear of the First Division. There was heavy skirmish- 
ing going on all the evening. We dug rifle-pits. Distance 
marched, ten miles. 

March 21M — Tuesday. — Skirmishing kept up all night. At 
about ten o'clock our brigade marched to the rear, back from 
our rifle-pits about half a mile and camped faced to the 
rear. This was to guard against an attack in the rear from 
Rebel cavalry. It soon rained in torrents. We hear heavy 
musketry and men cheering. Troops are charging, they take 
the enemy's outer line of works and hold them. Our First, 
Second and Fourth divisions are fighting a little up at the front. 

Battle of Bentonville. 

On the nineteenth Carlin's First Division of the Fourteenth 
Corps was in the advance and was followed by Morgan's Second 
Division. Carlin was not expecting to meet the enemy in 
suflicient force to ofler much resistance and when the advance 
could proceed no further he formed a brigade in line, which was 
soon outflanked and forced to retire, as was also the remainder 



1865] 



MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 



393 



of his troops, by the advancing rebel line of battle. Mors^an's 
division soon formed in line, intrenched its position, and the 
Fourteenth Corps was able to check the advancing enem}- until 
the Twentieth Corps came up to its assistance. Slocum's wing 
was able to hold its ground. Meanwhile he sent to Sherman, 
informed him of the situation, and asked for help. General 
Sherman says he thought that Johnston's army was larger 
than it really was, and as his supplies were quite limited in 
quantity he did not wish to force the fighting, but was content 
to skirmish wMth and hold tne enemy until he could procure 
supplies and make a junction with the forces under Schofield 
and Terry. The division of General Mower advanced, broke 
the enemy's line and was advancing toward Mill Creek bridge 
when Sherman recalled them. This enabled the enemy to 
retreat across the bridge and make his escape. 
Our losses in the battle were: 



Date. 



On March 19th 
Od March 20th 
On March 2l8t. 

Total.^ 



KiLLKD. 


WOUSCDKD. 


MlSSIKO. 


180 

6 

87 


1,220 

90 

157 


515 

SI 

107 


223 


1,467 


658 



Total. 



1,915 
127 
801 



2,848 



Sergt. George C. Snyder of Company F states, that on 
March 23d, at the battle of Bentonville, he was wounded in the 
breast by a piece of shell while the enemy was shelling the 
woods. He also states that another man was wounded at that 
time. Swan Helling of Company H also states that he was 
wounded in the left knee by a musket ball. General Tourtel- 
lotte stated to us in a letter that a few of our men were 
wounded. 

March JM — Wahusday, — Hard fighting at the front last 
night. Woke us up. The Johnnies left the field last night, 
leaving us their dead and wounded. It is clear to-day, but 
very windy. The tires are burning fiercely in the pine timber 
and make it very unpleasant on account of the smoke. The 
rebels crossed the Xeuse river at Turner's bridge. Our army 
retraced its steps toward Cox's bridge. 



394 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

March Joil — Thursday, — We marched at 7:00 a. m. toward 
GoUUboro, and after tramping for ten miles crossed and camped 
just beyond Falling creek. While we were engaged at Benton- 
ville Captain Douglas of Company A, Fourth Minnesota, was 
detailed to go out and take possession of an old grist mill, ten 
miles from our lines, and run it night and day, grinding corn 
into meal for the troops which were fighting. And a hungry 
fight we would have had of it in our brigade had it not been 
for the captain and the grist mill. 

March .^ith — Friday. — Marched at 8:00 A. M. Crossed Neuse 
river on pontoon bridge near the ruins of the Wilmington 
railroad bridge. Entered Goldsboro at 3:30 p. m. Met Twenty- 
third Army Corps from New Berne. Saw Colonel Thomas of 
Eighth Minnesota. Once more we have communication with 
the world. Strange sensation ! — we are promised rest. It will 
be welcome. We are promised mail, clothing and rations. 
Thev will be welcome. Many of our men are barefoot; all are 
ragged. At sunset camped two miles from Goldsboro, N. C. 
Distance marched, twelve miles. Distance marched from Sa- 
vannah during the campaign to Goldsboro, N. C, 463 miles. 
[Population, Goldsboro, Wayne county, 1880, 3,286.] 

Relurn for the Month of Marchy 1865. — Total enlisted present and absent, 
662; aggregate, 694; aggregate last months 707. Enlisted men present for 
daty, 415; on extra and daily dnty, 38; sick, 12; total, 465. CommiHsioned 
officers present for dnty, 25; on extra and daily duty, 2; sick, 1; total 28. 

Lieutenant Janicke, writing of Goldsboro, sa^'s ; 

The misery, however, the regiment was in will be remembered by everyone. 
Onr andergarments and oar uniforms were torn in shreds; half-barefooted, nay, 
half-naked, were officers and men. Besides this, the whole regiment waa 
lousy. In a few days there came piles of new clothing and good new shoes, 
hats, etc. Our industrious quartermaster brought us whole vragon loads of 
Old Government colfee, sugar and tea, and medicine and delicacies too numei^ 
ous to mention, to relieve the sick and the suffering. An order came from 
headquarters that the old clothing and uniforms must be buried in the groand 
or burned. There was activity, — a running "to and fro," — building nice 
quarters, sweeping and cleaning, cooking, frying and baking and feasting. An 
order came: " Commanders of companies, make out pay rolls for six month's 
pay." Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! This meant relief for the regiment, as well 
as for our poor, suffering families at home. Every heart was glad. Fine forti- 
fications were constructed all around our division encampment, where sentinels 
could be seen walking all in a line, as straight as an arrow and facing one way; 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 395 

coming to ^^ about face*' all at one time. We now were all soldiers of the 
United States regular army! Fine iidnsic and brigade guard mount was the 
order of every day. Who would not be a soldier ? 

The last day at Ooldsboro the writer was officer of the grand guard. Cap- 
tain Murphy was officer of the day. Brigade guard mount commanded by a 
second lieutenant was considered an honor. Here on this beautiful plain 
was strung out a whole battalion in dress parade line, — Brigadier General 
Tourtellotte with some of his staff, many officers and men of our own regi- 
ment, looking on to see brigade guard mount. It was unquestionably the best 
guard mount we had — such a large body of men in new uniforms, new hats, 
shoes polished as bright as a dollar. I shall never forget when Captain Murphy 
gave the order: *' Officers, about face! Inspect your guard! March!'' We 
officers marched to our posts, when Lieutenant Janicke at the head of the 
guard gave the order: ^' Order arms! Inspection arms!" The Fourth Min- 
nesota Regimental Band struck up a lively air prepared for such occasions; the 
sergeants went through the performance of inspecting the army at a lightning 
speed. When the officer of the day gave the order: **By platoons! Right 
wheel! Head of column to the left! " the line broke into platoons, thus giving 
every sergeant an opportunity to be a platoon chief. The column marched 
past the old officer of the day, reformed in line, when Captain Murphy would 
order each sergeant to his respective post. The writer thinks that Captain 
Murphy acted on that occasion as assistant adjutant general; also, as past 
adjutant. No officer of the day or any grand rounds visited my guard on that 
night. There was wind in the camp about marching orders. Instead of being 
properly reieved the next morning, I heard a yelling and shouting in camp. 
A staff officer came and ordered me and my guard to skedaddle — we had 
orders to march. I shouted at the top of my voice: '^Boys, roll up your 
blankets! Run for your companies!" When we came in camp there was a 
tearing and a slashing; tents flew down and wagons were loading; Quartermaster 
Russell, half wild, yelling, ** Officers, bring your valises!" The whole camp- 
ing grounds were strewn with muster and pay rolls, while our pockets were 
empty. Not one hud a red cent. We were Uncle Sam's soldiers. Orders 
must be obeyed. The regiment formed, the order of '^Attention! " was given, 
and on the tenth of April at 10:00 o'clock A. M. the column was in motion. 

(Teiierals Schofield and Terry moved on Goldsboro from 
Wilmington and entered it on the twentieth of March with 
their troop.s, which, with General Sherman's forces, made an 
army of abont eighty thousand men. Leaving the army in 
command of General Schofield, General Sherman took the 
small steamer Russia at Morehead City and proceeded in her to 
City Point, arriving on March 27th, and on the morning of the 
twenty-eighth met President Lincoln, General Grant and 
Admiral Porter on board the steamer River Queen, where they 
held a council. On the afternoon of the twent3'-eiglith General 



396 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

Sherman started back to his army on the steamer Bat, and 
arrived at Qoldsboro on the thirtieth. As soon as General 
Sherman returned to Goldsboro he reorganized his army. 

It will be seen that our regiment was placed in the Second 
Brigade. This was the first time in its history when it formed 
a part of any except the First Brigade. Colonel Tourtellotte 
was assigned to the command of this brigade and continued as 
such until the division was disbanded at Raleigh, when he re- 
turned to the regiment. 

Generals Charles K. and William B. Woods were brothers. 
The former was colonel and the latter lieutenant colonel of the 
Seventy-sixth Ohio Infantr3',and when the former was promoted 
the latter became the colonel of that regiment. William B., 
after the close of the war, in partnership with his brother-in- 
law, Gen. Willard Warner, purchased the Daniel Pratt planta- 
tion, a few miles below Montgomery, Ala. President Grant 
appointed Wm. B. Woods as judge of the United States Court 
in Alabama and he was subsequently justice of United States 
Supreme Court. [Now deceased.] Gen. Charles R. Woods re- 
cently died while on the retired list, United States Army. 



Army of the Tennessee. 

maj. (jen. 0. 0. howard commanding. 

Fifteenth Army Corps— Ma j. Gen. John A. Looan CoMMAKDiiro. 

First Division — Bxt. Maj. Gen. C. R. Woods. 



First Brigade. 
BTt. Brlg.CTeD.W. B. Woods. 



Second Brigade. 
Col. R. F. CattenoD. 



Third Brioaob. 
Col. O. A. Stone. 
Fourth lows Inflintry. 



Twenty -seTenth Mixsouri Id- Fortieth Illinois Tnfantrj. 

fantrj. Forty-sixth Ohio Infantry. j Twenty-fifth Iowa Inftntiy. 

Twelfth Indiana Infantry. One Hundred and Third Illinois ' Thirtieth Iowa Infiantiy. 

Seventy-sixth Ohio Infantry. j Infantry. I Thirty-first Iowa Inflintzy. 

Twenty-sixth Iowa Infantry. Sixth Iowa Infantry. 
Thirty-first Missouri Infantry. Ninety seventh Indiana In-: 

fantry. j 

Twenty-sixth Illinois Infantry. ' 
One Hundredth Indiana In- 
fantry. 



1865] 



MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 



397 



Second Division— Maj. Qen. William B. Hazen. 



First Brioadb. 

Col. T. Jones. 

Sixth Missouri Infantry. 
Fifty-fifth Illinois Infantry. 
One Hundred and Sixteenth 

Illinois Infantry. 
One Hundred and Twenty- 

seTenth Illinois Infantry. 
Thirtieth Ohio Infantry. 
Fifty- seventh Ohio Infantry. 



Second Brioadk. 

Col. W. & Jonee. 

Thirty-seventh Ohio Infantry. 
Forty-seventh Ohio Infantry. 
Fifty-third Ohio Infantry. 
Fifty-fourth Ohio Infantry. 
Eighty-third Indiana Infantry. 
One Hundred and Eleventh 
Illinois Infantry. 



TiiiRD Brigade. 
Brig. Gen. J. M. Oliver. 

Fifteenth Michigan In- 
fantry. 

Seventieth Ohio Infantry. 

Forty-eighth Illinois In- 
fantry. 

Ninetieth Illinois Infantry. 

Ninety-ninth Indiana In* 
fantry. 



Third Division — Bvt. Maj. Gen. John E. Smith. 



First Brigade. 

Brig. Gen. Wm. T. Clark. 

Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry. 
Fifty-ninth Indiana Infantry. 
Sixty-third Illinois Infantry. 
Forty-eighth Indiana Infantry. 
Ninety-third Illinois Infantry. 



Second Brigade. 

Col. J. E. Tourtellotte. 

Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry. 

Tenth Iowa Infantry. 

Eightieth Ohio Infantry. 

Seventeenth Iowa Infantry. 

Battalion Twenty-sixth Missouri Infantry. 

Battalion Tenth Missouri Infantry. 

Fourth Minnesota Infantry. 



Fourth Division — Bvt. Maj. Gen. John M. Corse. 



First Brkjade. 

Brig. Gen. E. W. Rice. 

Second Iowa Infantry. 
Seventh Iowa Infantry. 
Sixty-sixth Indiana Infantry. 
Fifty-second Illinois Infantry. 



Second Brigade. 

Col. R. N. Adams. 

Twelfth Illinois Infantry. 
Sixty-sixth Illinois Infantry. 
Eighty-first Ohio Infantry. 



Detachments. 



Third Brigade. 

Col. F. J. Hurlbot. 

Seventh Illinois Infantry. 
Thirty -ninth Iowa In- 
fantry. 
Fiaieth IlliBois Infantry. 

Fifiy-seventh Illinois In- 
fantry. 

One Hundred and Tenth 

United States Colored 

Infantry. 



Artillery Brigade— Lieut. Col. William H.Ross. 



Company H, First Illinois Artillery. 
Twelfth Wisconsin Battery. 



Company H, First Missouri Artillery. 
Company B, First Michigan Artillery. 



Twenty-ninth Missouri Infantry. 
Signal Detachment. 



We copy the following from inuster-in rolls made and dated 

Goldsboro, April 8 and 4, 1865: 

George M. D. Laml>ert wiis mastered in as asBistant sargeon, to date from 
Feb. 9, 1865. Henry K. Wedel was mastered in as sargeon, to date from Feb. 



398 HISTORY OF THE FOURTH REGIMENT [1865 

9, 1865. Od April 4, 1865, Herbert N. Hosmer was mastered in as captain of 
Company K, to date from March *29, 1865, vice Morrill, mastered out. 
^^Signed) J. £. Toubtellotte, 

Cohnci Fourth Jlinrusota Infantry ^ Oommandimg, 

C. J. Dickey, 
First Lieutenant Thirteenth Infantrp^ CommiiiMry of Musters, Thirteenth Army Corps. 

April Hh — TurSihiu, — The l)rass band of the Second Min- 
nesota Infantry serenaded our regiment to-day. Capt. T. P. 
Wilson, assistant quartermaster, has been assigned to duty as 
assistant to Gen. L. C. Easton, chief quartermaster of Gen- 
eral Sherman's armv. 

April lOth — Mnndfiif, — At ten o'clock marched through camp 
in a northern direction, fourteen miles, to Pikeville [popula- 
tion, 1880,50], Wayne county, on the Wilmington, Weldon k 
Petersburg railroad. Very muddy. Pine woods. Sandy soil. 
Marclied bv the side of the road. Marched until twelve o'clock 
at night and then kept on marching. Rained all day and part 
of the niffht. Heard some cannonadinfi:. 

April lit], — T'lt .^((ir,/, — Marched three miles. Camped at 1:00 
A. M. Slept without any shelter; no blankets with us. Details 
went to get the wagons out of the mud and came back at daj'- 
light. Started at nine o'clock, our division taking a by-road. 
Heard some cannonading. Marched behind the Second Divi- 
sion. Turned off on another road. Found some rebel deserters. 
We were in the advance. At three o'clock we got to the Little 
river. Came in to main Raleigh road at 4:00 p. m. Had to 
wait for the Second Division to pass. Stacked arms and rested 
until after dark, when we moved on two miles, crossing the 
river. Passed through Lowell Mills and camped in the edge of 
town in a pine thicket. Marched sixteen miles. There is a 
large cotton factory here. 

Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi. 
In the Field, Smithfield, X. C, April 11, 1865, 10:30 p. m. 

General Kilpatrick, Commanflinff Oir«/rv, 

General: Please, herealter in reporting your position, to use names on 
onr map. Moore's, on Middle creek, is not down. I sappode yon to be abont 
the mill without name. You may count on my being near Gulley's store to- 
morrow night, and you may go as near Raleigh as you can. I haTe Raleigh 
papers of the tenth. Stoneman is raiding strong near Greensburg and Wheeler 
is after him. A portion of Wade Hampton's cavalry is cut off toward Weldon 



1865] MINNESOTA INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS. 399 

(Nahuma Swamps). I don't think Wade Hampton has two thonsand caTalry 
with him, and this is yonr chance. I will pnsb al