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VOL. I. 

Qua cntro « lo Ssrondo Federtoo.'- Daktb, Inferno, %. 




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rnHE history of the Emperor Frederick the Second 
JL has long been a fiivourite study with Continental 
scholars. Muratori has treated the subject Uke a 
priest ; Giannone like a lawyer. Von Baumer has 
handled it with national pride; Hoflep with ultra- 
montane rancour. Indeed it i^'inot easy for an 
Italian or a German to write with calm impartiality 
on this reign, a decisive epoch in the history of the 
two nations. France has supplied more candid 
judges in the persons of Cherrier and Br^hoUes. 

It was not until lately that England furnished any 
important contributions to the study of the Em- 
peror s life. A few lines in Gibbon, a few pages in 
HaUam contained all the information respecting it 
that was readily accessible to an English student 
But of late years Dr. Milman has drawn the attention 
of his countrymen to this grand subject In his His- 
tory of Latin Christianity he devotes a whole volume 
to Innocent IIL and Frederick H, the greatest of 
Popes and the greatest of Emperors. The glowing 

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ing colours, in which the Dean haa pourtrayed the 
characters and events of that wonderful half century, 
render any second attempt to delineate the same 
period a very hazardous experiment. 

I must plead in excuse, that since Dr. Milman 
wrote, several French and Latin monuments of Fred- 
erick's age, never before published, have been given 
to the world. I would especially instance the in- 
valuable Chronicle of Fra Salimbene, the Burnet of 
the Thirteenth Century ; this has been often con- 
sulted by previous writers, but was never printed 
until the year 1857.* Another record of the same 
age, the Chronicon de rebus in ItaK4 gestis (always 
cited by me as * Chronicon,' for the sake of brevity), 
the work ofa zealous Ghibelline, long lay unnoticed 
in the British Museum imtil it was published by 
M. Huillard-Br6holles.f 

This gentleman, and his generous Maecenas the 
Due de Luynes, have laid every enquirer into Fred- 
erick's times under the deepest obligation. To them 
we owe the Historia Diplomatica Friderici Secundi, 
a collection of three thousand charters and letters 
bearing upon the Emperor's reign, almost one third 
of which were before unknown to the world ; a few 
previously-unpublished chronicles of Frederick's age 
are included in the work. I need not say that I have 

• See * MonumenU ad provincias Pannensem et Placentinam 

I See * Chronicon Placentinum/ by Br^holles. 

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made fiill use of this vast storehouse, the existence 
of which did not come to my knowledge until after 
I had begim my own book. Any letter or fact, for 
which I do not give a reference, will be found in the 
Astoria Diplomatica, that imperishable monument 
of a French scholar's industry, of a French noble- 
man's liberality. I have paid particular attention 
to the admirable preface which M. Br^holles has 
prefixed to the Latin documents. Nor is this the 
only service he has rendered to literature ; I can 
promise a rich treat to any antiquarian who will look 
out the word Huillard-Br^holles in the Catalogue of 
the British Museimi. 

I might speak of his kindness to myself when I 
visited him in Paris, kindness, I suspect, not very 
often recorded in the annals of Uterature ; of his 
books of reference readily placed in my hands ; of 
his unpublished manuscripts cheerfully lent to me to 
be transcribed. It is in the power of others to test 
his accuracy, which surpasses even that of Von 
Baiuner. I must place on record the invariable 
kindness which I received in Paris ; every one, from 
M. Br^oUes and M. Cherrier down to the door- 
keepers of the libraries, lent me all the aid in their 
power. I must pay a grateftd tribute to Alma Mater 
for her latest institution, the School of Law and 
Modem History ; I have to thank Dr. Milman for 
the advice he gave me as to the books I should con- 
sult ; my warmest gratitude is due to Sir Thomas 
Phillips for the liberaUty with which he threw open 

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to me his unrivalled treasures of books and manu- 
scripts at Middlehill. Nor can I be silent on the 
promptness with which the authorities at the British 
Museum attended to my suggestions as to the pur- 
chase of new books. Few writers have had the 
paths of Uterature rendered so smooth to them as I 
have had. Few have had the advantage of follow- 
ing such guides, as Von Eaumer, Milman, Cherrier, 
and Br^holles have been to me. 

The four opening chapters of my work are intro- 
ductory. The first of these is derived fi:om the 
histories of Giannone and Amaii ; the second fix)m 
HaUam. The third is the shortest possible abstract 
of a great part of Von Kaumer's noble work. The 
fourth is mainly inspired by Dr. Milman, though I 
have added much new matter taken from lately pub- 
lished Franciscan writings of the Thirteenth Century. 
From the end of the fourth chapter to the end of the 
book I have searched for myself in the old chronicles 
of the time, contained in Bouquet, Muratori, Pertz, 
Bohmer, and other collections. 

The most careless reader will not fail to remark 
the resemblance between some of the events in 
Frederick's reign and those which are signalizing 
the year 1862. I have been careful to draw 
attention to the Princes around his throne, such as 
the Dukes of Lorraine, Bavaria, and Brunswick ; the 
Margraves of Meissen and Baden ; the Coimts of 
Wurtemberg and Savoy; and the Burgraves of 

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Nuremberg ; all of whom have left descendants in 
the male Une to fiU the European thrones of our own 
day. Other lines have been less permanent ; I can- 
not help smiling, on looking over my manuscripts 
b^un in the autunm of 1858, to see how many sen- 
tences Napoleon, Cavour, and Garibaldi have forced 
me to strike out Eejoicing that better days seem 
to be in store for the interesting nations over which 
Frederick reigned, I end by asking the indulgence of 
the public for an author's first attempt. 


6 L^MSDOwm Road, Wimblkdon : 
June, 1862. 

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A.D. 400 — A.D. 1194. 

400. Alaric in Southern Italj 1 

500. St. Benedict — The Lombard conquerors . 2 

600. Gregoiy the Great — Gonstans defeated . 3 

800. Charlemagne baffled — The Saracens ... 4 

827. Their conquests in Sicily 5 

Their treatment of the Christians ... 6 

877. They take Syracuse 7 

900. Conquests of Ibrahim Ibn Ahmed ... 8 

948. The Kelbite dynasty — Palermo described . 9 

The Sicilian Saints 10 

900. The Greeks and Saracens in Southern Italy 11 

983. The Emperor Otho defeated— The two Rituals . 12 

1016. The arrival of the Normans .... 13 

1040. They wrest Apulia from the Greeks . . 14 

1053. Their investiture by the Popes .... 15 

1060. They conquer the Lombards and free cities 16 

1085. Achievements of Robert Guiscard 17 

1090. Roger conquers the Sicilian Saracens . 18 

1101. Death of Roger the Great Count ... 19 

1130. Roger the first King of Sicily .... 20 

1154. His wars— William the Bad .... 21 

1166. William the Good— The Arts .... 22 

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1189. Tancred the Usurper — His death 
1194. Gloomy prospects of the Kingdom 




A.D. 400 — A.D. 1137. 

400. The German conquerors— Cloyis 
500. Theodoric — Charles Martel 
750^ Christianity — Conquests of Charlemagne 
888. Separation of France and Germany . 
962. Otho links Italy to Germany 
1024. Conrad the Salic — Azzo . 
1089. Henry the Third— Hildebrand . 
1073. Struggle between the Church and Empire 

The German throne elective 

The free cities of Germany 

The names of her chief cities . 

The cities of Northern Italy 

Rome, the capital of the Empire 

Milan, Venice, Pisa, Genoa 

Florence in the olden time. 



A.D. 1080 — A.D. 1197. 

1030. Frederick von Buren — Frederick Duke of Suabia 40 

1105. His sons Frederick and Conrad .... 41 

1127. Their wars with the Guelfe 


1138. Conrad is elected King of Germany 


1147. He leads the Second Crusade 


1152. Frederick the First, Barbarossa 


1155. He destroys Tortona . 


His coronation at Rome 


1157. His power in Eastern Europe . 


1 158. He leads an army into Italy 


He holds a Diet at Roncaglia 


1160. He taken Creraa .... 


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1162. He destroys Milan 52 

He driyes the Pope into banishment . . . 53 

1163. He punishes Mayence 54 

1167. The Lombard League formed against him . 55 
He loses his army at Rome .... 56 

1168. He files back to Germany 57 

1174. He besieges Alessandria — Battle of Lignano 58 

1177. He makes peace with the Pope at Venice 59 
1181. He overthrows Henry the Lion — Peace of Constance 60 

1186. He marries his son to the heiress of Sicily . 61 

1189. He leads the Third Crusade .... 62 

1190. He is drowned in Asia Minor .... 63 

1191. Henry the Sixth besieges Naf^ . 64 ' 

1194. His cruelties at Palermo 65 

1195. He portions out Italy among his followers . 66 
He wishes to make the Empire hereditary . 67 

1196. His cruelties in Southern Italy .... 68 

1197. His death at Messina — Sudden change . 69 


A.D. 1198 — A.D. 1216. 

1198. Innocent*8 character 70' 

His management of Italy 71 

Spain — Constantinople — England ... 72 

The rise and progress of the Church ... 73 

The Dissenters 74 

1208. The Crusade against Languedoc ... 75 

Enthusiasm enlisted on the side of the Church . 76 

The Dominicans and Franciscans ... 77 

1224. The Franciscans in England .... 78 

Jealousy of the secular cleigy .... 79 

Defence of the friars 80 

Their popularity among all classes ... 81 

Enthusiasm awakened by them .... 82 

Runaway children 83 

1255. Reproof addressed to the Two Orders . 84 

Amazing strength of Rome .... 85 

Her wisdom 86 

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▲J>. 1194 — A.D. 1212. 

Innocent^s Italian policy . 
He drives out the Germans 
The birth of Frederick the Second 
Verses by Peter of Eboli upon it 
The childhood of Frederick 
His coronation at Palermo 

Bargain of his mother with Inno^nt 

Her death — Stories «f Frederick s childhood 

Markwald invades Apulia . 

He assails Sicily .... 

Innocent^s measures to check him 

An army is sent against him 

His defeat at Palermo 

He seizes on Frederick's person 

Innocent calls in Walter de Brienne . 

Rebellion of Walter of Palear . 

Innocent's apology for his policy 

Death of Markwald .... 

Rebellion of William Eapparon . 

Prowess and death of Waiter de Brienne 

Innocent's rebuke to Peter of Celano . 

Sicily insulted by Genoa and Pisa 

Complaint of Frederick to the Kings of earth 

His education at Palermo . 

Innocent's advice to him 

Innocent holds a parliament at San Germano 

His letters to the King of Arragon 

Frederick's first dispute with Rome 

His marriage with Constance of Arragon 

Birth of his son Henry 

Frederick's grants to the Apulian Churches 

To Cava and Bari 

To the Cathedral of Palermo 

To the burghers of Palermo 

To Monreale and Messina . 

To Cefalu and to the Templars 

To the Teutonic Order 







































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1210. The Emperor Otho invades Apnlia 
He Ib exoommnnicated bj Innocent 

1211. He overruns the mainland 

The Grerman Princes elect Frederick 
EUb character, as described by them 

1212. He accepts the Crown of Germany 




▲ D. 1212 — ▲.!>. 1220. 

1212. Frederick's engagements to Innocent 
He goes to Rome 
His interview with Innocent 
Bad policy of the Papacy . 
Frederick's concessions 
He sails to Genoa 
His reception at Pavia 
He crosses the Alps . 
He reaches Haguenau 
He rewards his friends 
His German ministers 
His journey to Vaucoulears 
His election at Frankfort . 
His coronation at Mayence 

1213. He traverses Snabia 
He ponishes all criminab . 
His grant to the Pope at Egra 
He ravages Saxony . 

1214. His grants to the Churches 
Otho is defeated at Bouvines 
Frederick makes his way into Brabant 
He rewards the Duke of Bavaria 
He meets the Prelates of Aries . 

1215. He goes to HaUe 
He enters Aix-la-Chapelle 
He is crowned and takes the Cross 
His homage to the bones of Charlemagne 
He enters Cologne .... 
He sends Berard to the Lateran Council 
The deposition of Otho is there confirmed 

1216. Frederick holds a Diet at Wurzburg . 

VOL. I. a 


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Pope Innocent is succeeded bj Honorins UI. 

Hermann yon Salza amyes 

Queen Constance and her son Heniy in Grermany, 

Frederick sends four envoys to HonoriuB 

He seizes on Leipsic . 

The Fifth Crusade is begun 

Death of the Emperor Otho 

Birth of Rodolph of Habsburg 

Defeat of the Duke of Lorraine 

The siege of Damietta is begun 

Frederick's zeal for the Crusade 

Italian affairs are brought before him 

He excites the suspicions of the Pope 

End of the civil war in Grermany 

The lands of Matilda assured to Rome 

Respites granted by Honorius 

The conquest of Damietta . 

Frederick's schemes . 

The House of Hohenlohe . 

Frederick's excuses to the Pope 

Promises of the Roman Senator 

The Diet of Frankfort 

Frederick's son is elected King of the Romans 

Frederick's charter to the Princes 

It breaks up Germany 

Business transacted at the Diet 

Frederick's excuses to the Pope 

The Diet of Augsburg 

The business there transacted 

Frederick recrosses the Alps 

Azzo of Este — The Treaty with Venice 

Backwardness of Conrad the ChanceUor 

Frederick reaches Bologna 

His dealings with Genoa • 

His treachery to Faenza 

His Coronation at Rome . 

The Order of the ceremony 

The Princes there present 

Frederick's nine Edicts on the occasion 

Quarrel between Pisa and Florence . 

The Pope secures his temporal power 

The succours for Palestine 



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1220. Frederick regulates Northern Italy 
He returns to his Kingdom 
Remonstrance addressed to him by the Pope 
Affiurs of the realm of Aries 




A.D. 1220 — A.D. 1227. 

1220. Frederick's two projects .... 
Previous disorders throughout the Kingdom 
Turbulence of the nobles . 
Disgrace of Diephold 
Privileges brought before the Capuan Court 

1221. Explanations offered to the Pope 
Frederick passes through Apulia 

He reaches Palermo .... 
The Ck>unts of Celano rebel 

1222* Archbishop Luke of Cosenza 
Trick played on St Francis 
The revolt of the Saracens in Sicily . 
They are transplanted to Lucera 
Their misdeeds at Girgenti 
Frederick at Predna .... 
He protects the monasteries 

122d. Variety of business brought before him 
The Counts of Celano are subdued 
The conditions of peace 
Frederick punishes the cities and nobles 

1224. He makes an end of the Saracen revolt 

His dealings with the House of Montferrat 
The French subjects of the Empire 
The case of the Bishop of Ce&lu 

1227. Frederick supplies Rome with com 
His policy in his Kingdom 
His taxes 

1221. His preparations for the Crusade 
Cardinal Ugolino in Lombardy . 
Anxiety of the Pope . 
His reproaches addressed to Frederick 
The Sicilian succours sent to Egypt 
Defeat of the Crusaders in the Nile 


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Damietta is giyen back to the Modem 

The real author of the disaster . 

The Pope and Emperor meet at Veroli 

The earthquakes in Lombardj . 

John de Brienne, King of Jerosalem . 

The meeting at Ferentino . 

Frederick's second marriage is discussed 

Disputes as to vacant Sees . 

Preparations for the Crusade 

Frederick and John at Melfi 

The treaty of San Germane 

Frederick's German grants 

Af&irs of Germany .... 

Murder of Archbishop Engelbert 

Henry's marriage — Affiurs of Upper Italy 

Queen Yolande at Acre 

Her marriage to the Emperor 

Frederick's quarrels with King John . 

His conduct to his bride 

The Teutonic Order is transferred to Prussia 

Honorius rebukes the Emperor . 

Frederick's childhood was guarded by Rome 

Yet he afterwards oppressed her 

He gives way 

Fuiy of Faenza against him 

The Lombard League is renewed 

King Henry crosses the Brenner 

But is stopped by Verona 

The business transacted at Parma 

Declaration of the Prelates 

Frederick at Cremona 

He civilizes the Italians 

The assembly at San Donino 

The Lombards are placed under the Ban 

Frederick visits Tuscany • 

His complaints to Honorius 

The Crusade against the Albigenses . 

The prayers used in behalf of Palestine 

Honorius advises reconciliation with King John 

His award between the Empire and the Lombards. 

His death 











































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▲.D. 1227 — ▲.D. 1230. 

1227. Election of Pope Gregory IX. . 

Hifl character 

Very different from that of Honorius 
His warning to the Lombards • 
And to the Emperor . . . ^ 

Preparations for the Crusade 
Mortality among the Crusaders . 
Frederick sails, but turns back . 
He is excommunicated by the Papacy 
I Recapitulation of his life . 

His misconduct about Damietta . 
Remarks on the excommunication 
Frederick defies Rome 
He is remonstrated with by Gregory . 
State of affiurs in Palestine 
The truce is broken . . 
Frederick's defence .... 
His letter to England 

1228. His dealings with his clergy 

He renews his pr^Mirations for the Crusade 

Gregory excommunicates him again . 

But is driyen ffom Rome . 

Death of the Empress Yolande . 

The Parliament at Barletta 

Frederick is bound for the East 

He revokes the Coimtess Matilda's bequest 

He sails to Cyprus .... 

He seizes the King and his imcle 

He reaches Acre .... 

His comrades greet him heartily 

But turn against him at the Pope's bidding 

Mutinous spirit of the Templars and others 

The walls of Ja£& are rebuilt 

Sultan Kamel is disposed to treat 

Outrages on the Christians 

Frederick's friendship for the enemy 

1229. His high demands 
His popularity among the Moslem 



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1229. Their sorrow at losing Jerusalem 

The treaty is made . 

Its nine articles 

Letters of the Patriarch and Yon Salza 

Frederick goes to Jerusalem 
' His behaviour to the Moslem 

He protects them in their rights 

He is crowned at the Holy Sepulchre 

Von Salza's speech on the occasion 

Bage of the Patriarch 

Injustice of the Church party 

Frederick's own account . 

He gives cause for scandal at Acre 

Malice of the Templars 

Frederick's grants to his friends 

Joy of the Germans and Italians 

Complaints of the Patriarch 

Frederick returns to Cyprus 

1228. The Emperor's Viceroy invades the Pope's lands 
Gregory retaliates ..... 

1229. He sends Cardinal Pelagius into the Kingdom 
Who takes many towns .... 
The Pope calls upon other countries for aid 
He sends Cardinal Otho to rouse Germany . 
John de Brienne and the Lombards invade Apulia 
The Pope rebukes Pelagius for his cruelty 
Frederick returns from Palestine 
He is excommunicated again 
He drives out the Papal invaders 
Remarks on his government 
He justifies his conduct — He takes Sora 
Peace is proposed .... 

1230. The German Princes arrive to make it 
The conference at San Germano 
Engagement of the Princes 
Absolution of Frederick . 
He visits the Pope at Anagni 
They discuss the affiurs of Lombardy . 
Frederick returns to his Kingdom 
Suspicions of the Pope 
Further causes of dispute . 
Frederick and Gregory as lawgivers 



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Gregoiy*8 habits .... .361 

t . Contrasted with those of Frederick 362 

Confusion in the Kingdom of Sicily . . . 363 

Feudalism in France — The new Constitutions . 364 

The Sicilian nobles lose their criminal jurisdiction 365 ' 

Peter de Vinea 866 

Stories about him 367 

The officers of the Kingdom .... 368 

The Grand Justiciary 369 

The Justiciaries in the provinces . • 370 

The Judges and Notaries 371 

TheBailifis 372 

The Master Chamberlains 373 

Venality of the Magistrates .... 374 

The Executive power 375 

TheCaptainsof the Kingdom .... 376 

Administration of justice 377 

Steps in an action at law 378 

Outlawry 379 

Contumacy ; the Indictment .... 380 

The Advocates 381 

Frederick's fiivour to the weak .... 382 

TheOrdeal 383 

The Duel 384 

It is regulated by Frederick .... 385 

The Criminal law 386 

The Z>e/eiMa — Rape 387 

Death a frequent punishment .... 388 

The Torture 389 

The office of Castellan 390 

New Castles built 391 

Arsenals — The Admiral 392 

His privileges 393 

Frederick as a merchant . • • . . 394 

His dealings with the Moslem Sultans . 395 

His coinage 396 

He adds new taxes 397 

He tries to lighten them 398 

Hisfioms 899 

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His stud 

Comments of the Popes on his government 
The golden age of Sicily — The Nobles 

Their vassals 

Frederick demands back his own vassals 
Feudal services .... 

Privileges of knights 

Marriages of nobles .... 

The right of female succession granted 

The Jus Protimeseos ; Dowries . 

Knights in the field .... 

The old Houses — The Poor 

A Calabrian law-suit 

The Abbot of San Ste&no di Bosco 

Tyranny at Polla .... 

Frederick's fevour to the poor — Serfdom 

The Middle Classes .... 

The towns lose their old privileges 

An Italian household described . 

Difference between the North and the South 

Artizans and shopkeepers . 

The taxes on conmion articles 

The first Parliament .... 

Frederick's influence on other Kingdoms 

A Ghibelline prophecy — The Sicilian Church 

Many Sees kept vacant 

Statutes of Mortmain ; anger of the Pope 

He rebukes the Archbishop of Capua . 

Vices of the clei^ .... 

Jealousy between the regulars and seculars 

The Time of the Hallelujah 

The Paterine heretics 

They are denounced by Frederick 

He forbids usury .... 

The Jews in Sicily .... 

The Mohammedans at Lucera 

The Sicilian Questions 

Answered by Ibn Sabin 

His reputation 

The medical schools at Salerno . 
Master Theodore the Philosopher 
Leonard Fibonacci and Algebra . 












































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Frederick's gift to the University of Bologna 

He founds the Universitj of Naples 

He afterwards restores it 

Its Professors 

Study of Aristotle revived . 

The Greek Language 

Grosseteste — Old prophecies 

Michael Scott . 

Stories about him 

Frederick's experiments 

His jokes about Transubstantiation 

Nicholas the Fish — Frederick's treasures 

His buildings 

His new cities . 

Altamura, Monteleone, Agosta 

Lombard emigration — Aquila foimded 

Italian Architecture . 

Italian Poetry .... 

Frederick's own poems 

Other poets of the time 

Frederick's Treatise on Hawking 

His private life ... 

Attempt to revive his Court 

His Secretaries 

Outrage at Trani ; Brother Jordan 

Hermann von Salza . 

The Inquisition in Germany 

The envoys from Eastern Sultana 

The banquet .... 

Frederick's children ; his wild beasts 

His sports .... 

His treasures .... 

His character — his treachery . 

His cruelty .... 

His harem .... 

His vices exaggerated — his children 

Bianca Lancia .... 

Frederick's appearance 

Salimbene's opinion of him 









































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A.D. 1231 — A.D. 1236. 

Correspondence between Frederick and Ghregory 

Their measures against the Paterinee . 

Von Salza in Germany — Rajnald disgraced 

An earthquake — Departure of De Brieone 

Folly of the Templars in Palestine 

The Lombards renew their League 

Frederick goes to Bayenna 

He welcomes the German Princes 

But misses many old friends 

He quarrels widi the Genoese . 

But receives them back into fiivour . 

The Aristocracy protected ; heresy denounced 

The persecuting spirit of the age 

Frederick's intolerance explained 

He turns his back on the Pope's Legates 

He goes to Venice and Friuli 

His agreement with his son Henry 

His edict in favour of the German Princes 

His dealings with Worms . 

He meets the new Duke of Austria . 

Peace is enforced in Lombardy . 

The House of Romano 

Characters of Eccelin 

And of Alberic .... 

Frederick's interview with Alberic 

Criticisms on John of Vicenza . 

His sermons in &vour of peace . 

State of afiairs at Milan 

King Henry's rebellion 

Frederick returns to his Kingdom 

His alliance with the Papacy 

Arrival of Gerard Maurisius 

Frederick subdues his rebels 

He &ils to succour the Papacy . 

His cruelties at Messina . 

He destroys various towns in Sicily . 

He complains of the Pope's dealings with Lombardy 

The Komans rebel against Gregory 







































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1234. Frederick's interview with the Pope . 519 

He attacks Bispampini 520 

He flies back to his Kingdom ~ Citta di Castello. 521 

Intrigues in Palestine 522 

Gregory defeats the Romans .... 523 

Excuses of King Henry 524 

He complains of his father .... 525 

Frederick's sorrow at the state of Germany . 526 

He consults the Pope on his English marriage . 527 

1235. Gregory strengthens the hands of Frederick 528 
The Emperor's letters to the German Princes . 529 
His journey into the North .... 530 
He is annoyed by the Duke of Austria . 531 
He suppresses Henry's revolt .... 532 
He imprisons Henry . . . . f . 533 

1242. His letter on Henry's death .... 534 

K38. His advice to Cowmd 535 

1235. He sends envoys to England .... 536 
He secures the hand of the Princess Isabella . 537 

Her bridal equipment 538 

Her arrival at Cologne 539 

She is married to Frederick at Worms . . 540 

Her pedigree 541 

Frederick's treatment of ^e German rebels 542 

TheDiet of Mayence 543 

The Constitution of fifteen chapters . . 544 

Improvements in German law .... 545 

Frederick's favour to Otho of Brunswick . . 546 

His grant to Otho 547 

Glory of Frederick at this time .... 548 

Therenownof his House 549 

Deposition of King Henry .... 550 

Reparation made to the loyalists . . . 551 

The rebel Bishops are summoned to Rome . . 552 

The brilliant Court at Haguenau . . . 553 

1236. The Jews are accused of child murder • . 554 
Frederick's alliance with England . . . 555 
His harsh treatment of Wolfelin . . . 556 

The story of St. Elizabeth 557 

The translation of her relics at Marbuig . . 558 

Frederick's devotion on the occasion . 559 

State of Architecture at this time 560 

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1236. Gennanj inferior to other lands 
The Church at Marbuzg . 
Frederick's dealings with Atutria 
Charges brought against her Duke 
Another obstacle is at hand 



Page 79, line 9, for Grost^te nad GrosBeteste. 
















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A.D. 400— A.D. 1194. 

" Appolos et Calaber, SiculuB mihi servit et Afer." * 

NOW that the eyes of Europe axe kept fixed upon chap. 
the old land of the Samnites and the islands ^ 
of the Mediterranean, it seems advisable to under- *oo-ii94. 
take a chapter of history known, it may be suspected, 
tx) but few readers. 

In the miseries that followed the downfall of the 
Koman Empire, the seat of government, as was 
uatural, had its fiill share. About the year 400, the 
German tribes were on their way to ravage the plains 
of Italy. Alaric, their boldest leader, foimd his grave 
near Cosenza, before he could land in Sicily ; he was 
replaced by other destroyers, such as Genseric and 
Odoacer. Later in the century, both Italy and Sicily 
found rest under the mild rule of Theodoric the 
Ostrogoth, when Naples began to rise upon the 

• Line engraved on the sword of King Roger. 
VOL. I. B 

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CHAP, ruins of more powerful cities. But stormy times 
were at hand. The whole of Italy was convulsed in 
the struggle between Totila and Teia on the one side, 
Belisarius and Narses on the other. Yet we turn 
away from the capture of Taranto and the battle of 
Mount Vesuvius to a more peaceful scene ; we mark 
the foundation of that edifice which was to bridge 
over the dark chasm between the age of Justinian 
and the age of Luther. St. Benedict came to esta- 
bhsh at Monte Cassino the head-quarters of his Order, 
a power more lasting than that of his Ostrogotliic 
visitor, King TotUa. Meanwhile the Greek convents 
of St. Basil were widely scattered over the South 
of Italy and the neighbouring island, the debatable 
land between Rome and Constantinople. 

The Exarchs, who represented the latter city, 
were not allowed a long tenure of the recovered 
provinces. Alboin led his Lombards over the Alps, 
a race w^orthy to rank as conquerors with their 
kindred tribes, the Visigoths, Franks, and Angles. 
In 589, his successor Autharis began to attack the 
South, and rode into the sea at Eeggio, striking with 
his spear the pillar there erected, while he cried : 
' This is the boundary of the Lombard kingdom.' 
It was this King who exchanged paganism for Arian- 
ism, and who established the duchy of Benevento in 
addition to the two others idready existing in 
Northern Itiily. The first Duke, Zoton, laid waste 
the chosen Abbey of St. Benedict, which did not 
arise from its ruins for 130 years. 

But this instance of Lombard ferocity stood 
almost alone. None of the German invaders were 
milder in the tniutment of their vassals, than were 
the new masters of Italy, as their laws still remain 

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to testify. They laid aside their pagan and Arian chap. 
belief at the persuasion of Gregory the Great, who 
was also the spiritual conqueror of Spain and Eng- 
land, and whose example proves how truly majestic 
a Pope may be, imencumbered by a temporal crown. 
The estates in Sicily, owned by the Eoman Church, 
exhibit him in the character of a humane and pro- 
vident landlord ; a fact the more important, when 
we learn that slaves formed a great part of the pro- 
perty he had to administer. Gregory was equally 
zealous in protecting Naples and the other Greek 
cities dotted around the Southern coast, which the 
Lombards, having no ships, were unable to subdue. 

The loyalty of Eome to the Eastern Emperors 

was sorely tried, owing to their eagerness to tamper 

with heretical novelties. One of the worst of these 

sovereigns undertook to drive the Lombards out of 

the South. Constans, the last ruler of Byzantium 

who ever led an army into Italy, landed at Taranto 

in 663, retook many cities, and laid siege to Bene- 

vento itself. This town, the last stronghold of Arian- 

ism, being in great straits, renounced its false creed 

at the prayer of the orthodox Bishop Barbatus ; and 

the baffled Emperor fled from Naples to plunder 

Kome, and to die at Syracuse. In the iconoclastic 

disputes of the next century, Lombards, Greeks, 

and Italians were bound together in firm opposition 

to the Eastern Emperor : all alike ranged themselves 

under the banner of Eome. Naples, more attached 

to her images than any other city, put to death her 

governor ; the Lombard King saw his interest, and 

placed himself at the head of the movement. The 

Popes grew afraid of this dangerous ally, who now 

found himself able to suppress the Exarchate. They 

B 2 

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CHAP, called in Pepin and Charlemagne ; the Lombard 

'. — kingdom ceased to exist. 

400-1194. jj^^ ^j^^ Lombard duchy of Benevento stood firm 
as ever under two noble chiefs, Arechis and Grim- 
bdd ; these assumed the crown and sceptre, together 
with the title of prince. It is no sUght boast, that 
they were the only rulers in Christendom able to 
withstand the German, the new Emperor of the 
West, though he was aided by the Popes. All that 
he could do after seven years of warfare was to take 
Chieti, and to exact a yearly tribute. * With the 
help of God I will ever be free,' was the declaration 
of his Lombard enemy. Yet it may be doubted 
whether this stout resistance was of any real advan- 
tage to Italy. A broad Une, thanks to Arechis and 
his son, was drawn between the North and South ; 
Eome, lying between the two powers, was fully 
aware of the advantages she derived from this dis- 
union of the peninsula ; and many centuries rolled 
away before Italy could be anytliing more than 
a geographical name. 

The bones of Charlemagne had scarcely been 
laid in the earth, before a new event of European 
interest took place. Sicily had long smarted under 
the incursions of Moslem pirates. The female 
captives, torn from her shores, had given the 
name of SikiUiat to a mansion near the Cahph's 
abode. The images of gold and silver, once the 
boast of Sicilian shrines, had been carried off and 
sold through Moslem agency to the idolaters in Hin- 
dosUm, though the more orthodox of the Saracens 
had felt a pang of remorse at this traffic in the works 
of Satan. But in the year 827, the systematic con- 
(juest of the island was undertaken; it had escaped 

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the yoke for a century and a half, mainly on account chap. 
of the constant civil wars among the African Moslem. 
Two parties had been warring with each other in 
Sicdly for six years ; the weaker side, headed by 
Euphemius, called in the aid of the imbeUevers. The 
city of Kairewan, which had taken the place of 
destroyed Carthage as the mistress of Africa, sent 
forth a smaJl army of Arabs and Berbers, besides 
warriors from Spain and distant Khorassan. The 
invaders, led by Ased a renowned lawyer, landed 
at Mazara, routed the Greek host, and were soon 
encamped in the old stone quarries of Syracuse. 
Kepulsed from the capital, they withdrew into the 
West of Sicily, and were reinforced from Spain ; 
Palermo fell into their hands after a year's siege, 
and became their main stronghold. Hence they 
went forth, year after year, to ravage the Christian 
cities, and to bear off thousands of captives. It 
was a great day for Islam when the hitherto im- 
pregnable Castro Giovanni, the famous Enna, was 
stormed ; the savage conquerors gave aU the glory 
to Allah, and sent to the Caliph many of the 
patrician ladies, forming a part of the enormous 
booty taken. This city, in the centre of the island, 
had baffled the Africans for thirty years. The 
Greek Emperors and Empresses were too much oc- 
cupied with the abohtion and restoration of images 
to pay earnest attention to Syracuse ; the Venetians 
were chased home up the Adriatic ; the Neapohtans 
made a base league with the infidels, and caused 
the fall of Messina ; Eome owed her safety to the 
heroism of her Pope, Leo IV. ; but the city of Bari 
was placed under the rule of Bagdad for a short 
time by an adventurous Sultan. The Saracens now 

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CHAP, proceeded to elect a Wall for the Great Land, by 
which Italy was meant, while Sicily was governed 
by a Sahib. 

There was always much disunion among the 
Moslem conquerors, and the Greek power in the 
island thus gained a long respite. The Berbers, 
mostly given to industry, held the coimtry between 
Mazara and Girgenti ; while the Arabs, the superior 
race, were established to the North, between Trapani 
and Palermo. These last furnished the lawyers, 
governors, and captains of Sicily; from them was 
recruited the Giund, an hereditary class of armed 
nobiUty, paid by Christian money. The gezia was 
a poll tax levied upon all who were not Moslem, 
in consideration of which the tributaries were al- 
lowed to enjoy their own religion. The Sicilian 
Christians were forbidden to carry arms, to mount 
horses, to build high mansions, to drink wine in 
pubHc, or to celebrate pompous iuneral rites. They 
were forced to wear a peculiar dress, to rise up to a 
true believer, and to abstain from building new 
churches and cloisters. Moslem women were not to 
be annoyed by the presence of Christian females at 
the baths, and Moslem ears were not to be scanda- 
lized by the sound of the reading of the Gospel or 
the ringing of bells. But Christian slaves, thanks 
to the merciful laws of Mohammed, were better off 
in Sicily than in Italy or France ; any one of them 
might take a short cut to freedom by professing 
Islam. The three vales, into which tlie island is 
divided, were under very different institutions ; that 
of Mazara was full of slaves, that of Noto was held 
by Christians in a state of vassalage, while the Val 
Demoiie abounded in indc^pondent or tributary coni- 

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monwealths. The vast estates of the Eoman epoch chap. 
were now happily subdivided into many small farms, 
paying rent to the Moslem landlords, who had dis- 
possessed the former owners. The mild policy of 
the conquerors is plain fix)m the few martyrdoms 
recorded ; the most renowned Sicilian saint of the 
time is John of Eachetta, called tlie modem Elias, 
whose adventures in Africa recall the history of 

In 877, Giafiar led on the Moslem once more to 
the si^e of the Christian capital. They battered 
and undermined for months the defences of Ortygia, 
and had the credit of inventing the mangonels and 
petriers, the chief trust of mediaeval engineers. The 
days of Hamilcar and Gelon seemed to have re- 
turned ; the Africans of the West were once more be- 
leaguering the Greeks in the noble old city, which had 
now little help to expect from the East. The soldiers 
who should have reUeved it (the siege lasted almost 
a year) were kept at Constantinople to build a 
church. Still the Maronites, Tarsites, and Pelopon- 
nesians stood at bay in the breach for twenty days 
and nights, though reduced to eat the corpses of the 
slain and the grass that was growing on the walls. 
But a sudden assault of the besiegers carried the town, 
and an awful massacre followed. The brave governor 
and seventy nobles were afterwards butchered in 
cold blood with stones, clubs, and lances ; one hero, 
who during the siege had often been heard to curse 
the Prophet's name, was torn asunder, while the 
Moslem mangled his corpse with their teeth. Never 
did a Christian city yield so large a booty. Two 
months were spent in pulling down the walls and 
rhurclu»?5; the prLsmers were tlien dragged across 

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CHAP, the island to Palermo, which henceforth took the 

T ' 

place of Syracuse, just as Cairo and Kairewan had 
supplanted older foundations. The captive clergy 
were shut up in foul prisons along with negroes and 
Jews for seven years, after escaping the perils of a 
religious dispute with the Wali, though a cry for the 
blood of the polytheists was uttered by a fanatical 

Ibrahim Ibn Ahmed, at whose command the si<^ 
of Syracuse had been imdertaken, was a man of 
great genius, but was guilty of wholesale barbarities 
in Africa. He suppressed the revolt of the Sicilian 
Moslem, putting to death the leaders of both Arabs 
and Berbers, whom he played off against each 
other ; Palermo was sacked by his African soldieiy 
in the year 900 with horrible cruelty. Having 
received orders from Bagdad to resign his power in 
Africa, he came to wage the holy war in Sicily, 
which he had hitherto governed from afar. He 
completed the conquest of the island, a work erf 
eighty years, by the storm of Taormina ; the citizens, 
who had all jeered at the reproofs of the modem 
Mas, were ruthlessly butchered. The victor now 
assailed the mainland ; his son had already seized 
and depopulated Beggio. ' I will take care of 
Italy,' cried Ibrahim, * I will do what I please with 
the dwellers therein ; expect me at Rome, and then 
will come the turn of Constantinople.' But Italy 
was saved ; this new Alaric died under the walls of 
Cosenza, and Naples was relieved from her agony of 
fear at his approach. The Tenth century is chiefly 
taken up with the struggles of the Sicihan Emirs to 
shake off the yoke of Kairewan. These struggles 
were at first fruitless; the rising dynasty of the 

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Fatiinites made its power felt in the island ; Palermo chap. 
was sacked over and over again, to -chastise its re- 
bellions, and one of the satraps sent from Africa 
made it his boast that he had slaughtered more 
than half a million of his fellow-Moslem. A strict 
accoimt was exacted from the corsairs of their 
Italian booty; the Fatimite ruler complained that 
his generals ate the camel themselves and brought 
him only the ears. But in 948, a famous warrior, 
Hassan the Kelbite, landed in Sicily, who made the 
Emirate hereditary in his house for a himdred years. 
His descendants claimed the title of Malek or King, 
named their own viziers, and waged a successful 
war against the hosts of Armenians, Eussians, and 
Paulician heretics, poured into the lost provinces by 
the reviving Empire of the East. Palermo flourished 
in spite of its rebellions and the consequent massa- 
cres ; Cordova and Bagdad were its only rivals. It 
boasted of a mosque^ once a Christian church, said 
to contain the bones of Aristotle ; this stood in the 
street still called the Cassaro from the old Alcazar. 
There were five hundred mosques in the city, and 
nine gates ; many mills were turned by the neigh- 
bouring streams, while the sugar-cane and papyrus 
grew not far from the waUs. Ibn Haukal, a con- 
temporary of St Dunstan who visited Palermo, 
complains of the citizens as more prone to vice than 
to virtue, besides being very filthy in their habits in 
spite of the numerous baths ; they could hardly be 
brought to keep the Eamazan or to fast at all ; they 
would sit idly, yoimg and old, at the city gates, like 
monks begging ; it was plain that there was a good 
deal of Greek blood in these sleek professors of 

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CHAP. The later Kelbites degenerated from their fathers, 
who had so manfiilly faced the assaults of both the 
Eastern and Western Caesars. The Moslem nobility 
began to die out, and lingered only in the Christian 
part of the island. The persecuted followers of Ah 
fled to Sicily for refiige, and civil wars were soon 
raging ; each chief seized on all the towns he could, 
while the central authority was at an end. The 
hopes of the vassals were rising. Pisa had already 
begun that career of conquest in Sardinia and Sicily, 
which may be read in rude Latin verse engraved on 
the West front of her noble cathedral. More for- 
midable foes were even nearer at hand, at whose 
approach the native Christians took courage. A 
few Sicilian monasteries had survived all through 
the dreary seven generations of Mohammedan op- 
pression; religion in that country has invariably 
alhed itself with patriotism. The hermits of Sicily 
went forth to proclaim her wrongs throughout 
Europe. St. Nilus, the statesman and prophet of 
Eossano, clad in sackcloth which he changed only 
once a year, was honoured by Emperors and Popes. 
St. Vitalis lived on Mount Etna, St. Philaret at 
Traina ; while the Syracusan Simeon astonished the 
Germans by making the top of the old Eoman gate 
at Treves his perpetual abode. The deliverance of 
his country was nigh ; and while welcoming a people 
back into the Christian fold, we need not regret the 
hundred and twenty Moslem, who made a name for 
themselves in grammar, philology, law, medicine, 
theology, and poetry, while basking in the smiles of 
the Palermitan court. 

Sicily had been undergoing for more than two cen- 
turies the sliarp di.scii)line of the Saracen scymitar ; 

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her sister provinces of the mainland had been ahnost chap. 
equally harassed by three different masters, the 
champions of three different rituals. Not many 
years after Charlemagne's death the great duchy 
of Benevento, which had once included almost the 
whole of Southern Italy, fell to pieces. Its work 
was done ; it had stayed the progress of Charle- 
magne. The Greeks were now able to retake most 
of their lost provinces ; while the degenerate Lom- 
bard princes of Benevento, Salerno, and Capua 
found their only safety in feudal dependence upon 
the German sovereigns. The Saracens were called 
in by the contending parties; these unbehevera 
estabUshed themselves on Monte Gargano, the re- 
nowned sanctuary of St. Michael, but their great 
encampment was on the banks of the GarigUano. 
They swept the coimtry, carrying off all the horses, 
arms, and young women ; Monte Cassino was now 
for the second time destroyed After their inroads 
had been pushed as far inland as Nami, they were 
exterminated in 916 by a combination of Greeks 
and Lombards, aided by the Pope and King Beren- 
gar. The oppressive exactions of the Eastern Greeks 
were still more- systematic ; they made slaves of 
those of their brother Christians who had submitted 
to the Saracens ; the only way of saving the Cala- 
brian peasants from their masters expectant, the 
foreign soldiery, was first to embark the troops on 
board ship, and then to set free the crowd of cap- 
tives remaining on the shore. The Byzantine Em- 
pire was now being revived by the energy of 
Xicephorus Phocas, John Zimisces, and the Slayer 
of Bulgarians ; who built Troja, Melfi, and Firen- 
zuola, and established at Bari their Catapan, a magis- 

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CHAP, trate with absolute powers, whence the Capitaiiata 

— '- — tiikes its name.* 

400-1194. g^^ j.j^^ Empire of the West, restored in the person 
of the German Otho, was a redoubtable rival to the 
Empire of the East. No Kaiser for the next hundred 
years thought his journey to Eome complete, if he 
did not receive the homage of the Lombard princes 
at Capua and Salerno, over which he exercised 
sovereign rights. The second Otho, sumamed the 
Bloody, led the flower of Germany and Upper Italy 
into Calabria. Here he was defeated in a stubborn 
battle at Colonne by the combined Greeks and Sa- 
racens, and fled by sea to Eossano. After uttering 
an empty boast that he would throw a bridge of 
boats across the Straits of Messina, he sacked Bene- 
vento for its treachery, and carried ofi* the bones of 
its patron, St. Bartholomew, to Eome. Tliese Otlios 
were zealous champions of the rights of Eome against 
Constantinople. The Latin and Greek rituals made 
Southern Italy their battle ground. The Popes pre- 
tended to special authority over Gaeta, and moreover 
erected many of the Southern bishoprics into mo- 
tropoUtan sees. The duchies of Naples, Amalfi, and 
little Sorrento, which subsisted as independent states 
all through these troublous times, claimed each its 
own archbishop. The three Lombard capitals were 
of course promoted to equal honour, and the Latin 
archbishop of Salerno disputed the jurisdiction of 
the Greek archbishop of Eeggio. Bari was the 
head-quarters of the Eastern ritual, while Eossano 

• The Cathedral of Matora is almost the only (JriH'k chiircli in 
the South of Italy that ha.s l)een npared by tlie constant wars aiul 

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I coasted no fewer than seven convents of St. Basil, chap. 

There were several other archiepiscopal sees, subject — - — 

t:o Constantinople, scattered over the South and East *^-^^^*- \ 

of Italy. We must mount up to the political divi- t 

sions of the latter half of the dismal Tenth century, 

if we would know why the late kingdom of Naples 

possessed more archbishoprics than any other realm , 

of the West. 

It would have puzzled any observer in the year ^ 

1000, who recalled the feats of Ibrahim, Nicephorus, 
and Otho, to foretell the fate of Southern Italy; 
Avhether the Saracens would enslave it as they had 
already enslaved Sicily ; whether the Greeks would 
maintain it free from the trammels of the feudal 
system, as a Theme with a high-soimding name under 
the rule of the Eastern Csesar ; whether the Lombard 
Counts and Gastaldi, ever multiplying, would follow 
their Uege lord the German Kaiser to the complete 
conquest of Apulia and Calabria. But affairs took a 
very different turn, and the strange event which now 
astonished all Christendom bears no slight resem- 
blance to the English conquest of Hindostan, when 
we consider the diversity of the political pretensions 
to the provinces, the doubts as to the actual and the 
rightful Lord, and the hmnble guise in which the 
conquering race first appeared. 

They came, not as merchants, but as pilgrims. In 
1016, the great-grandsons of Eollo's warriors made 
their first essay in arms on the ItaUan coasts, whither 
they had resorted in hopes of finding a blessing at 
the shrine of their chosen patron St. Michael, and at 
the tomb of St. Benedict, About twenty years later, 
the valiant elder sons of the Norman Vavassor, 
TaiKTcd de Hauteville, began to arrive in Southern 

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CHAP. Italy. They found their countrymen installed in thi* 


new settlement of Aversa, not far from Naples ; tlie 
400-1194. jj-Qpuia^n knights quartered here always held them- 
selves ready to bear arms in the quarrels of tlie 
Lombard princes who still reigned at Capua, Salerno, 
and Benevento. The German Caesars, Henry the 
Saint, Conrad the Salic, and Henry the Third, on 
their visits to these outposts of their empire, invested 
the gallant strangers with the newly-acquired j>os- 
sessions. The Greek Caesars, on their side, were 
ready to employ, but not to reward, the Norman 
chivalry. Maniaces the Catapan, trained in the wars 
of Syria, led against the Sicilian Moslem in 1038 a 
motley host of Eussians, Scandinavians, Paulicians, 
and ItaUans. The famous Hardrada, if we may be- 
lieve his national Sagas, served on this occasion ; the 
wise Arduin from Lombardy, and WilUani Iron- Arm 
at the head of three hundred Normans, took a better 
authenticated part in the enterprise. Messina and 
Syracuse were speedily wrested from the unbeKevers, 
but the bravest aUies of Maniaces were disgusted at 
his ingratitude, shown in the division of the Sicilian 
spoils; they dissembled their wrongs, withdrew to 
Calabria, summoned their brethren from Aversa, and 
boldly set about the conquest of the Greek provinces. 
Victory after victory was won, until the whole of 
Apulia, except a few cities, was shared out among 
twelve Norman counts; Melfi became their capital 
WiUiam Iron- Arm, the eldest of Tancred's offspring, 
was chosen chief of the new aristocracy; his captains 
declared his election by their suffrages to be a bettor 
title than any that Poi)e or Emperor could give. 
The name of Apuha, tlie first huge province con- 
quered by the Normans*, was noised abroad through- 

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out the Christian kingdoms ; it came in time to stand chap. 
for the whole of Southern Italy, as a general name. 
The tract depending on Benevento was next added 
to the dominions of the adventurers by the bounty of 
the Western Emperor, while he granted the city it- 
self to the Papacy. 

The treachery of the Byzantine court and the re- 
bellion of the oppressed Apuhans had faUed to shake 
the power so unexpectedly attained by the brave 
and crafty Normans ; a more formidable danger was 
tlureatening from the North. Pope Leo brought in 
person an army of Suabian knights and Italian bandits 
against the new tyrants of Apulia. The battle of 
Civitella, which ensued, was to Italy what the battle 
of Hastings was to England thirteen years later. 
On both fields the stalwart Teutons were cut to pieces 
by the well-discipUned knights from the Bessin and 
Cotentinu The Pope, a captive in the hands of the 
enemies he had come to subdue, invested the Nor- 
mans, henceforth the boldest champions of the Eoman 
Church, with all the lands they might acquire. They 
made no sparing use of this grant, with which they 
gladly sanctified their conquests, betraying no im- 
jHjrtinent curiosity as to its validity. The post left 
vacant by the deaths of his three elder brothers was 
filled by Kobert Guiscard, who pushed his arms 
Southward as far as Keggio, and received from his 
liorons the title of Duke of Apulia and Calabria. In 
a synod held at Melfi, A.D. 1059, the new Pope rati- 
fied Guiscard's title; the Norman, acknowledging 
himself tributary and vassal, was made Gonfalonier 
of the Church, receiving a banner, after the Italian 
fashion, at the hands of his hege-lord. It is hard to 
say what right the Papacy had to assume to itself 

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CHAP, a prerogative which must have belonged either to 
the Western or to the Eastern Eknpira 

But the fact remains that, however doubtful the 
origin of the Papal claims may have been, Eome ha? 
for the last eight centuries claimed the feudal supe- 
riority over the Two SiciUes, Even within living 
memory, a tribute has been paid to the Holy See by 
the King of Naples in acknowledgment of his de- 
pendence upon it. In the middle ages we shall find 
the Innocents and the Clements conferring or with- 
holding the vassal crown at their pleasmre, a fistful 
source of bloodshed. 

The Greek schismatics had been overthrown ; it 
was now the turn of the orthodox Lombards and 
the free states of the Western coast. The old city of 
Capua had to yield to the arms of the new colony at 
Aversa. Salerno, which was the first town that 
witnessed the exploits of the Normans, and whicli 
Guiscard coveted for his capital, was taken alter a 
long siege. Amalfi, dating from the time of Gregory 
the Great, and famous aU over the East for its coinage 
and commerce, saw its independence and its prosperity 
pass away. Naples, in which the Greek and Latin 
rituals were both cherished, alone remained to be 
conquered. These duchies and cities were now veiy 
far removed from the power enjoyed by their mighty 
men of old ; such as Athanasius, the duke bishop, 
accursed of the Popes as the ally of the Moslem ; or 
Pandulf Ironhead, who had ruled almost half of Italy, 
and whose soul, according to the hermits, had dis- 
appeared into Mount Vesuv-ius. The Normans, men 
of greater piety than the more ancient lords of tlie 
liiud, were bountifid in their gifts of castles and do- 
mains to the Abbey of Monte Cassino. 

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Eobert Gxiiscard secured his conquests by taking chap. 
Ban after a siege of four years, and by destroying rebel- 

lious Cannes ; Barletta had long before taken the place *9^"^*- 
of this ill-omened town. The Duke's most brilliant 
triumphs were yet to come ; he threw his forces upon 
the coast opposite to Otranto, and routed the English, 
Turks, and PauUdans, enlisted under the standard of 
Alexius. The Emperor of the East cried for help to 
his brother of the West ; they combined to destroy 
the presumptuous son of the Norman Vavassor who 
had established his power in their lost provinces. 
Hildebrand, who was now seated in the Papal chair, 
and who had long been battling against Imperial 
claims, foimd his only ally in Guiscard. The brave 
Duke returned to Italy at his patron's call ; the onset 
of the Normans was not awaited by the German 
Cassar, who withdrew into the North ; the wrongs of 
the Papacy were avenged by the merciless sack of the 
Eternal City, a sack worse than that by Alaric, equal 
to that by Bourbon. The deserted space between the 
Lateran and the Coliseum stiU marks the ravages of 
the Norman. Hildebrand retreated with his de- 
liverer to find a grave at Salerno ; Eobert Guiscard 
liimself died in 1085, the same year that carried off 
his suzerain, William the Conqueror. 

The half century of which we are now treating 
witnessed a great change in the councils of Christen- 
<l(>m. She was no longer standing on the defensive ; 
Japhet was now manfully forcing his way into the 
tents of Shem. Whatever the cause of the counter- 
movement may have been, certain it is that in 1050 
Toledo, Palermo, and Jerusalem were in the hands 
of the Moslem, and that in 1100 these great capitals 
were all restored to the Cross. This is the heroic 


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CHAP, age of modem Europe, to which her noblest hous<^ 

h love to trace their origin. This is a period abound- 

4oo<ii94. ^g jjj great warriors, such as the Cid, Hardrada, 
Godfrey de Bouillon, and above all, the heroes who 
went forth from Normandy to conquests in Italy, 
England, and Palestine. 

Not least among these was the youngest son of 
Tancred de Hauteville, Guiscard's brother Boger, 
from whose loins a line of kings was to issue. He 
led a band of Normans to recover Sicily from the 
decajidng rule of the Kelbite dynasty. After receiv- 
ing a consecrated standard at the hands of the same* 
Pope who sent a like gift to William the CJonqueror, 
Koger sailed from Calabria about the year 1060. 
The Emir Beitoun was his guide ; the storm of Mes- 
sina was the first exploit of the Normans. They 
were besieged in Traina by the combined forces of 
the Greeks and Saracens; but the great hardships 
there undergone were atoned for by the victory of 
Ccrami. Eoger sent to Kome all the banners taken 
on the occasion, and also four camels. The Eastern 
half of Sicily, which was full of Christians, was easily 
mastered ; but a siege of five months was requireil 
for the reduction of Palermo in 1074. Its fate was 
afterwards shared by Girgenti and the other Arab 
strongholds of the West; Malta was not subdued 
until thirty years after the beginning of Eoger's en- 
terprise. The adventurer took the title of Great 
Count of Calabria and Sicily, and formed aUianco 
witli the noblest European realms. He granted free 
toleration to his Moliammedan subjects, from whom 
lie recruited his armies, while at the same time ho 
founded or restored Christian abbeys and bishoprics 
throughout the island. Wlicn his brother Guiscanl 
who had aided him to take Palermo, was laid in the 

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tomb at Venosa, Eoger was ready to seize the vacant chap 
place, although the deceased warrior had left children. ^ 
The conqueror of Sicily kept a watchful eye upon 
the provinces of the mainland, and flew to reduce 
the revolted Lombards of Capua. During this siege 
he narrowly escaped with his life from the treachery 
of the Calabrian Greeks. Sergius, one of that race, 
who commanded two himdred men, took a bribe 
from the besieged, and planned the murder of his 
lord. Eoger, however, was awakened from his slum- 
bers by a vision of St. Bruno in time to escape death 
and to slay many of the traitors ; the saint was with 
difficulty prevailed upon to accept a charter for his 
Calabrian foundation, as a reward for his timely aid. 
The pious Norman, who had now mastered Greeks, 
Saracens, and Lombards alike, met with unusual 
favours at the hands of Bome. Li 1098, Pope Urban 
came to Salerno, and there created Eoger, and the 
lieirs of Eoger, the legates of the Holy See in Sicily ; 
this is the only favour of the kind on record. A 
centiuy later, we shall find Urban's successor anxious 
to withdraw the dangerous privilege. Li 1101, 
Eoger the Great Count, having reached the age of 
seventy, was bome to the grave at his favourite resi- 
dence in Calabria, the city of Mileto. At his birth 
the Normans held in Italy nothing but the town of 
Aversa ; at his death they were in possession of what 
was shortly to become a European kingdom.* 

• The inteirals between the births of the Norman line of 
*Sici] J are most remarkable — 

Tjjccbbd db Hautbtiujb, bom aboat 990. 
Room, the Great Count, bom ia 1031. 
RooBB, the King, bom in 1097. 
CuxsTANCB, the Empniw, bom iu 11J4. 

Fksdeuicx, the £nip<'ror, bom in 1194. 
c 2 

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CHAP. The further development of the Norman power in 

h the South was delayed for a score of years, until 

400-1194. iioger, the son of the Great Count, had arrived at 
man's estate. The young prince was then able to 
add ApuUa to his Sicilian inheritance, owing to the 
opportune failure of Guiscard's line. He did not 
deem the Papal consent necessary to his consecration 
at Salerno, although the Apulian barons a short time 
before had professed themselves Uegemen of the 
Holy See. Eoger in a few years reduced Capua and 
Naples, the one held by an independent Norman 
prince, the other a free state. He now thought that 
his possessions entitled him to rank with the kings 
of France and England ; he was accordingly invested 
by the Pope, not only with the crown, but with the 
mitre, dalmatica, ring, and sandals, the tokens of the 
pecuUar spiritual sway claimed by the Norman prince?*. 
Eoger proudly styled himself * King, by the grace of 
God, of Sicily, ApuUa, and Calabria^ the helper and 
shield of Christians, son and heir of Eoger the Great 
Count.' The boastful inscription on his sword pro- 
claimed the extent of his power ; the navy, the code 
of laws, and the high posts at court, were all creations 
due to the first monarch who made Palermo his 

But his title to his new rank was not secure ; he 
had unluckily procured it from Anadetus, an un- 
lawful intruder into the chair of St Peter- St. 
Bernard upheld another Pope, and the claims of 
Innocent H. have accordingly prevailed. His par- 
tisans conspired for the ruin of the upstart King, who 
was speedily driven from Italy, while a pretender 
was invested with the sovereignty of Apulia, Inno- 
cent the Pope and Lothaire the Emperor of the West 

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Lch held one end of the gonfalon used in the new chap. 
.vestiture, thus purposely leaving in doubt which of ^ 
lem -was in truth li^e lord of the South. But ^00-1194. 
-c^er i^as soon able to settle the question of owner- 
lip by his sword ; he returned fix^m Sicily, put to 
eath the Apulian barons who had taken part against 
lim, and confiscated their lands. St. Bernard came in 
. short time to love the King as much as St. Bruno 
lad loved the Great Coimt ; peace was made, and 
[nnocent ratified the honours bestowed by Anacletus. 
A. tenth kingdom was thus added to Latin Europe, 
known in ItaUan history as The Kingdom. It kept 
its boundaries the same for rather more than seven 
hxmdred years, when it merged itself into another 
and happier realm. 

The new monarch had now leisure for foreign 
conquesta His admiral took Tripoh, Timis, Corfu, 
and Corinth. The manufactory of silk, transported 
firom Greece into Sicily at this time, long maintained 
the memory of Eoger's triumphs. The learned 
Moslem of Palermo found a boimtifiil patron in their 
Christian master, who adopted their national usages 
of the harem and the guard of eimuchs, weaknesses 
in the Sicilian sovereigns which were as yet tenderly 
treated by Bome. The cathedral of Cefalu and the 
Hartorana church were now built; but the great 
monument of Eoger is the Eoyal chapel at Palermo, 
finished in 1142, and adorned with inscriptions in 
Greek, Arabic, and Latin, as if to represent the poli- 
tical changes in the history of the island. Its first 
King died in 1154. 

His son William, sumamed the Bad, inherited a 
contest with the Pope and the two Caesars. Manuel, 
the last Emperor who entertained serious designs of 

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CHAP, reannexing Italy to the Byzantine throne, sent hi'* 
generals to overrun Apulia and Calabria, and thus to 
avenge the late exploits of the Sicilian admiral in 
the Bosphorus. But the Norman King, as brave in 
war as he was slothful in peace, speedily retook these 
provinces, besieged the Pope in Benevento, and wrung 
from the Holy Father a gift of three banners, which 
stood for Sicily, Apulia, and Calabria. William 
fortified his claims still further by professing himself 
the vassal of Manuel. He returned to spend the re- 
mainder of his short reign at Palermo in debaucheries 
and cruelties, and was succeeded by his son, William 
the Good, in 1166. The Sicilians in later times 
looked back to the rule of this admirable prince, ju^t 
as our oppressed fathers talked of the good laws of 
Edward the Confessor. William wedded one of tlic 
daughters of our first Plantagenet, after having re- 
jected the advances of the Cajsars. The country was 
at peace within itself, and prospered accordingly. 
The arts flourished throughout the realm imder Nor- 
man patronage ; Troja, Trani, Bari, and Bitonto pre- 
served the traditions of Greek architecture ; while 
Palermo and its neighbourhood inclined to Saracen 
decorations. There was no need to import into Sicily 
builders from Eouen or Caen. The great work of 
William the Good is the cathedral of Monrealo, 
where he and his father lie buried ; the Scriptural 
history, there set forth in mosaic, is unrivalled by 
anything at Rome or Venice. The cathedral of 
Palermo is due to Archbishop Ofamilio; it must 
have appeared as the rival of the huge Alcazar in 
tlie west of tlie cit)", built witli enormous stonos of 
cunning workmanship. No wonder that Falcandus 

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!::^\oried in the marvels of his beloved Palermo, both chap. 
M^ohammedan and Christian. — - — 

iGng William was as successful in war as in peace, ^^^n^*- 
The Norman mariners, assailing the Greek Empire 
for the last time, sacked Thessalonica ; they were 
aldo employed to check the career of Saladin. The 
third monarch of Sicily died too soon in 1189, leav- 
ing no children ; one fault aJone can be imputed to 
his policy ; he had given his aunt Constance, the right- 
ful heiress of her father Soger's throne, to Henry, 
the heir presumptive of the Western Empire. The 
Sicilian nobles refused to acquiesce in the transfer of 
their land, as though it had been a mere private 
estate, to a German master. The legitimate ofispring 
of Tancred de Hauteville was extinct in the male 
line, yet an illegitimate scion still remained. Tancred, 
a bastard bom to one of the sons of King Eoger, was 
elected King of Sicily by the chancellor and many 
other nobles, and their choice was ratified by the 
Pope. The vigoiu: of the new monarch enabled 
Sicily to keep her independence for five years longer; 
but his imtimely death was the beginning of her 
woes. The patriot Falcandus bewailed the gloomy 
consequences likely to result from the marriage of 
Constance ; he paints the swarms of angry barbarians 
thirsting for Sicilian blood and treasure, the fickle- 
ness of the Apuhans, the probable treachery of Mes- 
sina, the helplessness of Catania and Syracuse, and 
the strength of Palermo rendered useless by the fac- 
tions of Christians and Moslem within her walls. A 
woman and a child, now that Tancred was gone, 
were but a feeble bulwark against the Emperor of 
tlie Komans, the husband of Constance, the avenger of 

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c^p. Ug Suabian kindred slain by the Normans at CiviteUa. 

But while Sicily and Southern Italy, appalled by the 

prophecies of the Calabrian Abbot Joachim, are 
awaiting the approach of the Northern conqueror, 
we end this rapid sketch, which has embraced eight 
hundred years, and we turn to the land whence that 
conqueror came. 

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A.D.400 — AJ). 1137. 

** Roman! gloria regni 
Ko8 penes eet ; quemconque sibi Gennania regem 
Pnefidt, hunc diyes saVmisso yertice Roma 
Aodpit et verso Tiberim regit ordine Rhenns.** 

Gunther Ligurinus. 

IT is well known how the old worn-out Eoman chap. 
Empire received fresh life-blood into its decaying 
fitime about the year 400. Various bands of hardy 
Germans crossed the Ehine and the Danube ; and in 
the course of a century we find the Ostrogoths settle^ 
in Italy, the "Visigoths in Spain, the Burgundians in 
Gaul, and the Vandals in Africa. All these con- 
querors were Arians, and were therefore hated by 
their orthodox subjects. But towards the end of the 
century, the most important conversion to Christianity, 
»nce that of Constantine, was effected. CIovIb, the 
chief of the warlike Franks, embraced the true faith 
of Athanasius ; and the old Gaulish Christians, eager 
to be rid of their Arian masters, aided him to the 
utmost of their power in achieving the conquest of 
their country. He, and his children after him, seated 
at Paris, ruled not only the Boman province, but 
also the old cradle of the Germanic race, on the 
other side of the Bhine. WhUe the orthodox Clovis 

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CHAP, was thus establishing the kingdom of tlie Franks to 

'- — the north of the Alps, Theodoric the Ostrogoth wtis 

400-1137. jnr^stej. Qf Italy, whence the last Eoman emperor 
had vanished. Happy had it been for that ill-fated 
land, if this wise and vigorous German had be- 
queathed to his successors a Kingdom of Italy, 
compact and united, behind its Alpine rampart. 
But this was not to be; Theodoric s Arian creed 
was a fatal bar to the establishment of an Ostro- 
gothic crown. Within one generation after his death, 
his monarchy was annihilated by the arms of Beli- 
sarius and Narses. The forces of the Eoman empire 
had in their turn to make way for the Lombards 
under Alboin, a fresh importation from Germany. 
The state of Western Europe about the year 600 
was this: the Visigoths held Spain; the Saxons 
were seated in Britain ; the Lombards ruled Italy ; 
and the Franks were masters of Gaul. These last 
had one great advantage over their kindred tribes, 
since the rulers of Paris kept up their communio<n- 
tions with Germany, and could thus draw fresh Ufe- 
blood from the original source, whenever they choso. 
The race of Clovis very speedily degenerated, and 
its power in reality, though as yet not in name, passoil 
into the more vigorous hands of Pepin THeristal 
and his sons, men who were thorough Germans. 
Happy was it for Europe that the Saracens, when 
they crossed the Pyrenees after tramphng down the 
Visigothic monarchy, found no sluggard king o\> 
posed to them. Charles Martel gained bis great 
victory over the Paynim mainly by the valour of the 
Germans, whom he called across the llhine to lib 
aid, and whom he rewarded with rich lands in the 
country they had saved. Popin, the son of Charles, 

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>und a new power springing up in Europe, that of chap. 

lie Popes. He made use of their decrees to sanction '- — 

lis usurpation of the Frankish throne, and in his *<><^ii37. 
um rendered the Church good service by setting 
>ounds to the power of the Lombard kings in Italy, 
ind by rescuing Eome from their aggressions. He 
md his house also proved their devotion to the Holy 
?ee by promoting the spread of Christianity among 
Lhe hitherto neglected tribes to the east of the Ehine. 
Celtic and Saxon missionaries were now waging war 
against heathenism, and the English Boniface became 
the apostle of Germany and the first archbishop of 
Mayence. Under these auspices Christianity and 
civilization advanced eastward hand in hand. Many 
new sees were founded in Southern Germany, and 
the clergy were earnest in enforcing obedience to the 
Carlovingian sovereigns, whose piety had saved the 
tottering Church both in Italy and Germany. We 
now come to the greatest name in the middle ages, 
that of Charlemagne, who may be called the father 
of modem Europe, and the restorer of the old Eoman 
Empire, which gained a fresh lease of a thousand 
years, after he had transferred its honours to his 
native Germany. He carried his arms to the Ebro, 
to the Eaab, to the Elbe, and to the Tiber. He up- 
rooted the heathenism of the Saxons, after pouring 
out their blood Uke water, and leaving them to choose 
between the axe of the headsman and the font of the 
priest; he confronted the Saracens in Spain; he 
swept away the Lombard king?, thus laying the 
foundation of that connexion between Germany and 
Italy, of which we feel the baleful effects to this day. 
He marched forth to encoimter his enemies in their 
own head-quarters, instead of awaituig their onset 

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CHAP, on the Loire, as his grandfather had done. The 


noble old German fixed his abode at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
400-1187. ijnaost on the boundary-line between the Teutonic 
and Bomance tongues; thence he sent forth his 
Counts, in his time no hereditary vassals, to govern 
his many provinces. But the master-workman died, 
and his building soon crumbled to pieces. After the 
great battle of Fontenay, fought between his grand- 
sons in 843, Germany and France separated, and 
after 888 these countries became disimited for ever. 
The decrepid Carlovingians ruled at Paris, soon to be 
replaced by the more national dynasty of Hugh 
Capet; while Germany entrusted her crown to 
elective monarchs. The Scheldt, the Meuse, the 
Sa6ne, and the Ehone, formed the boundary between 
France and the Empire ; Italy was for the present 
left to herself. 

Western Europe was now undergoing the most 
cruel sufierings it had ever known. It was attacked 
at one and the same time by three ruthless enemies 
from three different quarters, by the Scandinavians 
from the North, by the Saracens from the South, and 
by the still more terrible Hungarians, a newly-arrived 
Tartar tribe, from the East. These last took Germany 
for their own peculiar prey ; they established them- 
selves on the Danube and Theiss, where their de- 
scendants still dweU. The Himgarians pushed their 
inroads as far as Benevento and Bourdeaux, sweep- 
ing away thousands of captives. Meanwhile the 
Northmen were ravaging France and the British islc^ 
and the Saracens, who had long before conquered 
Spain, were masters of Sicily, and threatened the 
whole of the Italian coast. The tribes which over- 
threw the old Eoman empire were mostly imder the 

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CHAP, record of her struggles against her German masur. 

— Europe has long been disturbed by the bickerings of 

400-1137. |.j^g ill-assorted pair, and has not yet altogether suc- 
ceeded in divorcing them. In all ages it has been the 
same; on the one side we see the brave, imcoutu 
German, looking down with scorn upon his victim: 
on the other side is the wily and polished Italian, 
whose craft in policy is greater than his skill in anu?. 
The struggle is constantly going on ; Arminius agaiibt 
Augustus, Alaric against Honorius, Otho agaiu'^t 
Berengar, Henry against Hildebrand, Hohenstaufen 
against Conti, Kaiser against Pope, Luther againj^t 
Leo. For it is the same in things spiritual as in 
things temporal; three hundred years ago it wiu^ 
Augsburg agamst Eome, just as now it is Viuniia 
against Turin. 

Otho, the new master of Italy, seemed to be an- 
other Charlemagne. Poles, Bohemians, Hungariiu^, 
Danes, and Saracens, sent humble embassies to hi^ 
throne. He bequeathed his Empire to his scarcely 
less powerful descendants, who besieged Paris, pene- 
trated into Calabria, and raised the most learned man 
of the dark ages to St. Peter's chair. The Tenth 
may be called the Saxon century ; the Eleventh wa^ 
that of the Franconian line. Conrad the Sahc, tlu- 
first of this noble race, having gained the crown by 
due election, estabhshed the feudid system on a 
secure basis by his well-known edict ; he strove to 
depress the great princes by raising the power of the 
lesser nobles, and by making the possessions of tho^e 
latter hereditary. About this time, shortly after 
A.D. 1000, we hear of one Azzo, an Italian by birtlu 
wlu) estiibhshed his son in Germany. We mu^t 
look n\)im tliis stranger with all respect: he i^ 

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the unheard-of humiliation at Canossa. This was of chap. 
no avail ; for a rival Emperor was set up against him. — ^Ji — 
Hildebrand himself died an exile, as has been before *^^^^'^- 
mentioned, and a hundred and twenty years must 
pass before we find any Pope that will bear com- 
parison with him. His immediate successors were 
not ashamed to rouse the heir apparent to rebellion 
against Henry IV., who died an excommunicated 
man« In this rebeUious son, first the ally and then 
the tyrant of Eome, the old Franconian line came 
to an end. A few years more bring us to A.D. 1137, 
when a new House was about to be raised by election 
to the throne of the Empire. 

Germany was all this time enlarging her borders 
towards the East. We have seen how Christianity 
and civilization advanced from the Ehine to the Elbe ; 
they were now pushing forward fh)m the Elbe to 
the Oder. The Altmark, the Mittelmark, and the 
Neumark, names which still keep their places on our 
maps, point out the slow but sure steps with which 
Germany strode on, trampling down the barbarous 
Slavonic tribes in her march. Further to the South, 
Austria, the Eastern kingdom, and the Styrian mark, 
became barriers against any renewed onset of the 
Hungarians. From this epoch, the middle of the 
Twelfth century, Vienna, Berlin, and Munich date 
theur origin. Germany was an elective monarchy. 
This bad system was doubtless the fiiiit of the dis- 
gust with which she had viewed the degenerate suc- 
cessors of her first Emperor. She thought to guard 
herself against a repetition of this weak dominion by 
making her crown elective. The father might be a 
Charlemagne or an Otho ; the son might be a Charles 
the Bald or a Charles the Fat. She purchased her 

VOL. I. *D 

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CHAP, freedom from a possible line of bad sovereigns at tte 
^ price of fearful civil wars, often prolonged from gene- 
ration to generation, events which the Popes did not 
fail to turn to their own profit. This was also the case 
in the old PoUsh monarchy; but Germany had one ad- 
vantage over her neighbour; her population was made 
up of something more than haughty nobles and ab- 
ject serfs ; she possessed, thanks to the wise foresight 
of her early emperors, a middle class, the pith and 
marrow of a nation, without which no kingdom can 
count upon a long existence. England owes the pre- 
servation of her Uberties to her towns ; France found 
in her burghers the main obstacle to feudal tyranny ; 
in Castile, the cities alone fought for the old consti- 
tution, when it was on the eve of disappearance. On 
the other hand, Poland and Hungary can scarcely 
boast ten cities worthy of the name, and both the<e 
heroic countries have been forced to sink their poli- 
tical existence in that of other nations. Germany, 
happily for herself, abounded with free cities, which 
it was the interest of the emperors to foster as a 
counterpoise to the turbulence of the princes and 
counts. Charlemagne had planted the chairs of 
bishops among the Saxons, and towns quickly started 
up around the relics of the saints enshrined in tlie 
cathedrals and abbeys. Henry the Fowler saw that 
Germany needed bulwarks against her Himgarian 
enemies ; he accordingly enjoined every ninth man 
of those who owed the crown miUtary service to re- 
move into one of the cities newly built in Saxony 
and Thuringia. He established fairs to encourage 
trade, and overcame the dislike of the forest-loving 
Germans to a town life. Besides the burghs built in 
the middle ages, there were the ancient cities of tlie 
Rhine, dating from the time of the Eomans, nearly 

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all of which are mentioned by Tacitus in his account chap. 

of the rebellion of Civilis. The chief of these was — 

Treves, the oldest city in Germany, which still pre- *^^"^^- 
serves in its ruined baths, amphitheatre, gateway, and 
bridge, so many relics of its Eoman greatness. May- 
ence had been the camp of Drusus ; her archbishop 
was the Primate of Germany, endowed with vast 
political power. Cologne, the great station of the 
legions, became afterwards the most thriving city 
in Northern Europe, and can still show many 
churches dating from the Eleventh century ; it is in 
truth a museum of Christian art. These three cities 
were the sees of powerful prelates, the spiritual 
electors of Germany, who were usually as much at 
home in the saddle as in the pulpit. Worms, the 
seat of many diets of the Empire, was the classic land 
of the Minnesingers, and the scene of the Nibelungen 
Lied. Spires, famous for its loyalty to the imhappy 
Hemy IV., contains the great monument of Conrad 
the Salic, the cathedral where many of the emperors 
lie in dishonoured graves. Frankfort was the city 
whither the future emperor repaired for his election, 
and where he met the spiritual and temporal princes 
who had the right of voting. He was afterwards 
crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, the burial-place of 
Charlemagne. All these free cities, except four, 
have now lost their rights ; but their work has been 
well done ; they abated the hardships of feudalism, 
threw open their privileges to the oppressed serfs, 
and held in check the robber-knights. When, long 
afterwards, the Eeformation came, it was defied by 
the bishops, it was used by the princes for their own 
selfish ends, but it found a hearty welcome in the 
free cities of Germany. 

D 2 

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CHAP. But these, manifold as were their services to man- 
kind, never equallird the development of the grt^: 

.< »A* 

400-1137. cities scattered throughout Upper Italy. The wIk 
of tliis tract belonged, at least in name, to the Em- 
pire ; it had not as yet been portioned out betwct n 
the House of Savoy, the merchant princes of Florence 
and Venice, and the Bishops of Bome. It has a 
history of its own; feudalism never attained the 
same growth in Upper Italy, that it did in almost 
every other European country. Here and there in- 
deed, as in the Trevisan March and Piedmont, wc 
find a few nobles enjoying rights over large domains: 
but in general the Itahan city would not brook a 
feudal neighbour. The castles were either destroyt'J 
or became the property of the towns; and the 
knights, dislodged from their strongholds, were fain 
to take up their abode within the walls of their con- 
querors.* The burghers sallied forth to battle under 
the leadership of a Podesta. This oflScer was usually 
elected for a year, and was almost invariably a 
stranger ; a policy rendered necessary by the factions 
that raged in each city. The Popes found it their 
interest to heap favours upon these commonwealths, 
just as the Emperors were led to foster the cities of 
Germany. Thus the history of Northern Italy, un- 
like that of any other modem country, is the history 

* Salinibene^ who saw King Louis pass througli Sens on hi^ 
way to the Crusade in 1248, was struck by tlie contrast betweor. 
tlie customs of France and Italy. * I wondered, when I remem- 
bered that the Senones captured Rome under Brennus, seeing 
their women now for the most part look like housemaids. Ii* 
the King had been passing through Pisa or Bologna, the flowtr 
of the ladies would have come to meet him. Then I recollecii d 
the French usage; for in France the burghers alone live in tit 
citii'H, while the knightj* and noble ladies live on their estates/ 

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CHAP, iron crown of Lombardy was kept, was burnt by tlio 
Transalpines. The Emperor, if displeased with the 

400-1187. ruler of the Church, would often set up an anti-Pope: 
Henry V. imprisoned the Pope and Cardinals for 
two months, because they would not crown him on 
his own terms. The Eoman people, headed by their 
Senator, were often more than a match for the spi- 
ritual powers ; and such men as Arnold, Brancaleone, 
Eienzi, and Porcaro, reappeared in each century, a^ 
a matter of course. Milan stood next to Eome in 
rank. She was renowned for the numbers and 
talents of her clergy, and for the pecuhar ritual of 
her church, which has lasted down to our own age. 
In no city did the question of clerical ceUbacy arouse 
greater contentions. The Archbishops of Milan, 
from the time of St. Ambrose, have exercised vast 
influence over the fate of Italy. Of these the most 
famous was Eribert, the inventor of the Carroccio, 
used by the Italian cities as a rallying-point in battle; 
it was a huge waggon surmounted by a mast with a 
banner and cross. Venice had not as yet attained 
all the glory that was to fall to her share ; but even 
at this date, 1137, Dandolo was alive, and the Cru- 
sades, from which this city almost alone reaped any 
profit, were being carried on. She wisely gave 
her attention to the Eastern traffic, and as a general 
rule abstained from meddling in the quarrels of 
Italy. Her great church of St. Mark, where the 
styles of the East and West seem to meet, was already 
in being. Pisa was at this time in aU her glory; die 
had waged a gallant war against the Saracens in 
Sicily and Sardinia ; and her noble buildings remain 
to prove what this city, now decayed, must have 
been in the middle ages. Genoa was the third of 

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tlic great Italian naval powers; she bore her part in chap. 
the Crusading expeditions, and took her share of the — — — 
]>rofit3 that resulted; she was always at war with ^^^-i^^^. 
i'ither Venice or Pisa, and found that the contest 
tiixed her powers to the utmost, although she had 
:it her disposal most of the resources of the Riviera. 
]Many other cities remain to be mentioned ; Bologna, 
the nurse of the canon law; lUvenna, abounding 
iu churches that carry us back to the days of Justi- 
nian ; Cremona, the warlike rival of Milan ; together 
Avith Siena, Perugia, and Ancona. But there is one 
Italian city invested with a peculiar interest We 
iire allowed a peep at the Florence of the Twelfth 
century by the greatest of her children, who, meeting 
with ill-usage from his own generation, looked back 
Avith a loving eye upon the good old times, and de- 
lighted to dwell upon the simplicity of the old customs. 
He is accosted in Paradise by the spirit of his ancestor 
Cacciaguida, a hero of the second Crusade, who de- 
scribes to him the city within the old circlet of her 
walls, peaceful, sober, and chaste. In those days there 
were no imbecoming female ornaments, no houses, 
emptied through factious proscriptions, no carpet 
knights, whose feats were confined to ladies' cham- 
bers ; the highest citizens in the state walked abroad 
in leathern girdles, while their wives were content to 
leave their faces unpainted, to handle the distaff, and 
to tend their children's cradle. Loose women and 
|Hittifogging knaves were unknown ; there were no 
internal factions, no honourable families banished, 
and no upstarts springing up in place of their betters. 
Florence was then peaceful, glorious, and just; her 
ensign, the lily, was never hung in derision from the 
lance of a conquering foe, and was never dyed in 

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CHAP, some period of his life under the Papal ban — a fact 
' which gives some idea of the length of time that the 
1030-1197. struggle between the spiritual and temporal heads <»f 
Christendom was maintained. In the very year of 
' his election he began to deal harshly with tlie 

Hohenstaufens, and to inquire into the title-deeds 
by which they held their duchies. He gave lli^ 
onlj (daughter to their enemy, Henry the Proud, tlie 
son of the deceased Henry the Black ; and the bride- 
groom received the duchy of Saxony in addition to 
his old domain of Bavaria. Being employed by the 
Emperor to combat the Duke of Suabia, he set fire 
to an abbey, into which he had decoyed his generou? 
rival ; this treacherous attempt, however, failed 
The Suabian party set up Conrad, the younger of 
the two Hohenstaufens, as King in opposition io 
Lothaire, and had their champion crowned at Milan. 
in spite of the thunders of the Church. Coiinid 
was soon driven back into Germany : Spires for a 
long time held out for him, since he was the repre- 
sentative of her beloved Franconian benefactors; 
and peace was made in 1135 by the aid of St. Ber- 
nard and the Pope. The Hohenstaufen Dukes swore 
allegiance to Lothaire, and Germany enjoyed rest for 
the first time for half a century. 

Duke Frederick, sumamed the One-eyed, pos- 
sessed not only Suabia but Alsace, which latter 
province probably belonged to his father. In it, a* 
the saying went, lay the whole strength of the 
l^pire. Its fruitful plains, washed by the Rhine, 
^ere guarded by a chain of castles, of which the 
Duke was an indefatigable builder ; indeed it wn> 
said of him that he always trailed a fortress at the 
tail of his horse. He it was who began the con- 

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CHAP, surrender after the battle; but King Conrad wa- 
! prevailed on by the women of the town to all^>^v 

1030-1197. them free egress with as much of their property a- 
they could carry on their shoulders. He was pre- 
sently astonished to see them come forth, each bear- 
ing her husband. ' A king's word ought not to h'f 
wrested or explained away/ said Conrad, on seeinj 
the anger of his brother Frederick at being tliu- 
tricked ; the women were even allowed to remove 
their clothes and valuables. In 1142, the King at 
last put an end to all the feuds among the German 
princes. He gave the duchy of Saxony to young 
Henry the lion, and pacified Albert the Bear, who 
had held a grant of part of the forfeited Guell 
inlieritance, by other donations. 

Italy had long demanded Conrad's presence ; but 
he was summoned elsewhere. Edessa, a kingdom 
beyond the Euphrates, was torn from the Christians 
by the Moslem ; the Second Crusade was the answer 
to this aggression. St. Bernard exhorted the Ger- 
mans to leave their civil wars, and to hasten to 
the Holy Land. After rescuing the Jews from their 
Christian persecutors, the mobs of the Khineland 
towns, he overpowered the resistance of King Con- 
rad, who was most unwilling to start for the East. 
The head of Germany was at last prevailed on to 
march ; he took with him his nephew and success<^r 
Frederick, who was making the journey for the 
first, but not for the last time. Early in 1147 the 
German host began to pour through Hungary ; the 
soldiers were robbed and maltreated by the Greeks, 
though not with impunity. After admiring the 
strength of the walls of Constantinople, the Cni- 
eaders were ferried across the Bos]:)horus, and took 

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tlie Straight road through Asia Minor to Iconium. chap. 
Oheated, starved, and misled at every step of the 

-way by their Greek Mends, and harassed beyond 1030-1197. 
c-ndurance by their Turkish enemies, they were glad 
to retreat, after losing no less than 63,000 men. 
Conrad made another unsuccessful attempt early in 
T 148. He joined King Louis of France at Jeru- 
:^alem, who also had left the flower of his chivalry 
l>eliind him in Asia Minor. The siege of Damascus 
Ava^ undertaken, but in vain. The Gennan sovereign 
displayed the greatest valour, and one of his vigorous 
l>lows is still renowned in the ballads of his country 
as the Suabian stroke. Conrad left Palestine, and 
-went home by way of Greece. He died in 1152 ; 
although unsuccessftd as a general, he is free 
from the taint of cruelty, which rfler his time reap- 
pear again and again in each generation of the 

The next monarch, Frederick I., better known 
by his Italian surname Barbarossa, is one of the 
national glories of the Fatherland. He, the son of 
the one-eyed Duke of Suabia, is equally renowned 
a:* a Crusader, as an upholder of order in Germany, 
and as an opponent of the Popes and their Italian 
allies. Succeeding his uncle Conrad, he professed 
to tike Charlemagne as his model ; he seemed bom 
U > heal the feuds of his country, being a Hohenstau- 
fen on his father's side, and belonging to the Guelfe 
tlirough his mother. He treated his young cousin, 
Henry the lion, with the greatest tenderness, and 
behaved to him with even imprudent generosity. 
But Frederick's attention was soon called to the 
future theatre of his exploits. In the year after his 
cr^ronation, two men of Lodi appeared at the Diet, 

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CHAP, threw themselves at his feet, and appealed to L- 

justice against their Milanese tyrants. After hann: 

1030-1197. had recourse in vain to mild measures, he c^os^t^l 
the Brenner for the first time at the head of a 
German army. He found Northern Italy in a sUitt 
of the wildest anarchy. The great cities, such a? 
Milan and Eome, were loud enough in their prai>t";? 
of freedom ; but by this, to judge by their practieu 
they meant the power of tyrannizing over their 
weaker neighbours. Thus it was in the days of ol^ 
Greece, the very type of mediaeval Italy ; each stato. 
as it rose to power, abused its strength, until al! 
aUke had in the end to bow before the Man of tlii' 
North, who reappeared in the person of Barbarossi 
and many another German Emperor. 

After holding ' a diet at Eoncaglia, Frederick 
marched to Turin, in spite of the opposition offemi 
by the Milanese. He next sat down before Tortoni 
which defied him for two months. Henry the Lifiu 
Berthold of Zahringen, and Otho of WittelsbiKlu 
especially distinguished themselves in the siege. X*' 
relief came from Milan to the starving garrison, who 
at length surrendered, and saw their town pillagetl 
and razed to the ground by the Germans. TIh' 
conqueror was crowned at Pavia, the most loyal city 
in Italy, and then marched over the Apennines, e»u 
his way to Rome, for the still greater ceremony. 
The capital had been thrown into confusion for tl.o 
last fifteen years by the preaching of Arnold of 
Brescia, one of those reformers who every now and 
then started up in the middle ages. St Bemanl 
himself had been unable to silence the bold heretic, 
* the shield-bearer of that Goliath, Abelard.* Amohrs 
reforms were chiefly of a political nature ; he wislu^l 

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to deprive bishops of all wealth and power, and to chap. 
-ot Borne free from the control of popes and em- ^^^' 
perors, so that she might once more become the 1030-1197. 
mistress of the world But Barbarossa, who had no 
reason to relish the new doctrines, ordered the arch- 
heretic to be delivered up as a kind of peace-offering 
to the Pope, our countryman, AdrianR^. The bold 
I3re>cian was led to the stake prepared for him in 
the castle of St Angelo, and his ashes were thrown 
into the Tiber, that the Boman populace might not 
pre>erve them as rehcs. Adrian, after some hesi- 
tation, trusted himself within the German camp ; but 
^ould not exchange the kiss of peace with Frederick, 
until the monarch had held the Papal stirrup. The 
I^>mans now sent a deputation on their own account 
to Barbarossa, one of whom made him a pompous 
harangue, demanding a payment in money in return 
t*. »r the honour which Bome would confer on Ger- 
many, by crowning Frederick, a foreigner, as her 
Emperor. The sovereign expectant sharply chid 
th** man's insolence, reminding him that the Empire 
wa.s gone from vicious, perjured Bome, to virtuous, 
fiiithful Germany, and that the Emperor was no 
jiri-^^ner, to ransom himself from his own subjects. 
Pt »j)e Adrian crowned Frederick in St. Peter's ; the 
lloinans, furious at their consent never having been 
a^ked, made an attack upon the German camp, and 
l'»^t a thousand of their fellow-citizens, who were 
#'ither killed or drowned in the Tiber. Frederick, 
jilarmed at the approach of the summer heats, 
marched back by way of Nami, and made an 
example of Spoleto. He would gladly have led 
hi- army into tlie domains of his Sicilian brother, 
!.:i*l not the Germans been impatient to regain their 

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CHAP, homes. After escaping the snares laid for him 1't 
the Veronese, and after being delivered by the voIol: 
of Otho of Wittelsbach from a great danger in th.. 
Southern Tyrol, Barbarossa recrossed the Alps. 

His first care, on reaching Germany, was to hoi': 
a Diet at Worms, to punish the disturbers of peace, 
and to dismantle the castles of the robber-knifrht- 
His cousin, Henry the lion, who was already Duko 
of Saxony, received the Duchy of Bavaria from tlit 
Emperor, a kindness of which the benefector had 
afterwards cause to repent. Frederick had beer, 
unhappy in his first marriage ; he now, in defianct 
of Eome, wedded Beatrice, the fair heiress of tie 
Kingdom of Burgundy, who bore him a fine family 
of sons of the true Suabian breed. He kept all hi- 
neighbours in due subjection ; he made an expe- 
dition against Poland, and forced King Boleslaus lo 
sue for peace, to pay a heavy ransom, and to d-. 
obeisance to the feudal lord of the land. Kinj 
Geisa of Hungary avowed himself the Kaiser's hegc- 
man, as the King of Denmark had done five year^ 
before. Frederick promoted Duke Wladislaus of 
Bohemia to the rank of King. In those days, as avc 
see, Germany was of some account in Europe : sL^ 
was united under one head, and made her power 
felt on all sides. * Germany,' said Baynald tho 
chancellor, 'has an Emperor; the rest of Eutoiv 
has but petty kinglets.' The latter term, indeed 
can scarcely be applied to our Henry H., who ai 
this time sent presents to Barbarossa ; but Loiii- 
Vn. of France was altogether thrown into the shadt^ 
by his German rival, who held diets at Besan^t^n. 
This Emperor might have seemed to superficial olv 
servers the most powerful of the successors o: 

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Charlemagne. But his weak point lay in Italy, chap. 
where the Popes, his implacable enemies, strong in ^^ 
the support of their Norman neighbours, worked 1030-1197. 
agaiDst him, and thus upheld the balance of power 
m Europe. 

Two Papal Legates appeared at the Diet of Be- 
san9oii with complaints on the part of Pope Adrian. 
Roland, one of these envoys, in the course of debate, 
used the rash expression, 'From whom does the 
King hold his power, unless from the Pope ? ' At 
these words, Otho of Wittelsbach sprang up, and 
could scarcely be prevented by the Emperor himself 
from slaying the bold speaker on the spot The 
German prelates, headed by Eaynald the Chancellor 
of the Empire, disclaimed the base notion that their 
Kaiser held his crown from any one except from the 
spiritual and temporal Electors of Germany ; and the 
l^ope, seeing their temper, hastened to explain away 
his words. In the mean time, the Milanese had been 
restoring the walls of Tortona, and had destroyed 
Lodi, a town ever faithful to the Emperor. He, 
therefore, thought it right to imdertake his second 
expedition into Italy, after a sojourn of three years 
in Germany. He first sent forward Eajmald and 
Otho, the two main props of his Empire, to prepare 
his way. His army crossed the Alps by four differ- 
ent passes, and was then joined by many of his 
Italian vassals. The Bohemian aUies distinguished 
themselves at the passage of the Adda; and the 
^filauese, after a success gained over the German 
vanguard, retired to their city. Barbarossa began 
the si^e at the head of a host of 100,000 foot and 
15,000 horse, with which he ravaged Lombardy ; a 
nionth passed before the Milanese, tamed by famine, 


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CHAP, and Franconian emperors. Milan declared boldly 
' — for Alexander, who had excommunicated her tyrant ; 
1030-1197. ^]^Q Coimcil of Pavia, which was well attended, pri>- 
noimced for Victor ; each of the rivals sent forth his 
envoys into all Christian realms. Barbarossa, who 
had dismissed his German vassals for a year, was sur- 
prised at Carcano and almost taken prisoner ; but he 
afterwards defeated the Milanese, although his army 
was now composed of none but his Italian vaseak. 
On the return of the Germans, in 1161, Milan was 
once more strictly blockaded. Every man cauglit 
in the act of bringing provisions into the dty wa^^ 
mutilated by order of the Emperor, who swore ll^ii 
he would not stir until it was taken. It surrendert'i 
early in 1162 ; the burghers came forth with corJs 
round their necks, ashes on their heads, and cros^^ 
in their hands. They defiled before their conqueix>r, 
and laid their banners at his feet ; their far-famt 1 
Carroccio was hewn in pieces. AU, even the Ger- 
mans themselves, wept ; the Emperor alone moveJ 
not a muscle. The fate of Milan was decided at 
Pavia; the great city had to undergo the sam^^ 
doom that she had herself inflicted upon Come aul 
Lodi. Her Lombard enemies insisted upon her dc- 
mohtion. Barbarossa returned and entered Mil^i i 
through a breach made in her walls, which wer^ 
then razed to the ground, according to the term? ^'^ 
the sentence. Some of the churches were spanJ' 
but all the Milanese were driven from their honu'^ 
as their conqueror thought, for ever. He feast^-^i 
his allies at Pavia, in honour of his great achievt" 
ment ; and forced the boldest cities in Italy, such i»s 
Brescia and Bologna, to give hostages and pay tribute 
Alreiidy he was parccUing out the fiefs of Sici'V 

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among his partisans, and his power seemed to be chap. 
^eater than ever, as is proved by the fact that Pope 

Alexander, preferring banishment to slavery, caused ^^30-1197. 
himself to be conveyed by the Norman mariners into 
France, where he abode, out of the reach of the 
Emperor. This flight into France was usually the 
last resource of the Holy Fathers, whenever the 
lord of Germany became too overbearing. Bar- 
l)aro6sa threatened King Louis with his displeasure, 
if the fugitive Pope should be received ; but both 
France and England were on Alexander's side. An 
interview was proposed between the two rival 
Popes and their partisans, to be held at a village on 
the Saone, the boundary between France and the 
Empire. But Alexander would not lay his rights 
l>efore a human judge ; while the French king and 
bishops, who attended the conference, turned a deaf 
ear to the threats and entreaties of the German 
sovereign. He and his anti-Pope withdrew, having 
Ixien unable to efiect anything. 

In the mean time, Henry the Lion and Albert the 
Bear had been spreading Christianity and civiliza- 
ti< >n, after their fashion, among the Slaves of Pome- 
rania. The armies of these Northern princes had 
fivercome the heathen king Pridislaus, while Walde- 
niar of Denmark, who had received his crown at the 
hands of Barbarossa, conquered the island of Eugen, 
the old head-quarters of idolatry. Thus the Teutonic 
warriors were marching Eastward, trampling down 
the Slavonic race as they advanced, just as their 
island brethren, imder Norman guidance, were seiz- 
inur on the best lands of the Celts in Wales and 
Ireland. The K[aiser, after receiving at Besan9on 
the homage of the Archbishop of Lyons and the 

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CHAP. Count of Provence, came to wreak his vengeanct 
upon Mayence. Three years before this time, tLv 

1030-1197. burghers had plotted against Arnold their Archb: 
shop, had set fire to a tower where he was hiding, 
and had then torn him to pieces. An inquiry was 
prosecuted ; many monks, knowing themselves to be 
accompUces in the murder, threw themselves out of 
a window; and several of the citizens were sen- 
tenced to death or to various fines. Barbarossa 
ordered the walls of Mayence to be razed and the 
trenches to be filled up. The greatest cities both of 
Germany and of Italy had felt his power, which was 
still feared aUke at home and abroad. 

After disposing of Silesia according to his plea- 
sure, he for the third time entered Italy, which wa^ 
in a state of sullen discontent. The heavy yoke of 
the Emperor forced men to turn their eyes to the 
Pi^pe, who was assembling a great council at Toui^ 
and causing the kings of France and England to hoi J 
his stirrups. His prospects brightened when the 
anti-Pope Victor died, in 1164. A fresh anti-PojK^ 
was chosen, who took the name of Paschal, anJ 
whose election — a piece of wanton folly — sent over 
to Alexander's side many of the Emperor's old par- 

^'- , This fact marks the tiun of the tide; Bar- 

sa was slowly losing ground ; his harsh deputies 
insulted or slain ; Venice declared against him. 
here was no German army at hand to put do\ni 
nalcontents. Eaynald the Chancellor was un- 
to keep peace between Pisa and Genoa. The 
jr city was forced to give up Sardinia by thi 
jror, who sold it to a king of his ovm choosinL' 
jd, Frederick made many mistakes during thi< 
ky year 11G4, and hurried back into Germai.y 

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to procure fresh levies. At this moment, Hemy of chap. 
^England was in the midst of his contest with Becket, 

and was enacting the constitutions of Clarendon, 1030-1197. 
-which Pope Alexander opposed. Barbarossa thought 
the time favourable to bring over England to his side ; 
he accordingly sent his trusty Raynald, who pro- 
posed that King Henry should give two of the Eng- 
lish princesses to the heirs of Guelf and Hohenstaufen. 
In return, English envoys appeared at the Diet of 
Wurzburg, convoked to withstand the claims of 
Alexander. The Kaiser, in 1165, visited Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, where his creature Paschal enrolled Charle- 
magne among the saints. 

The rightful shepherd, who had many followers 
even in Germany, now took courage to return to 
Rome; the citizens, weary of the German yoke, 
hailed him with transports of joy ; and the King of 
Sicily was not backward in support of the priestly 
champion of Italy. Barbarossa also marched across 
the Alps, for the fourth time, with a noble array ; 
but he was now at length to learn that there was 
a power higher than himself. All Lombardy was 
groaning under the tyranny of his deputies, whom 
he allowed to carry on the government as they chose, 
to build castles by the enforced labour of their sub- 
jects, and to rob the Italians of their lands. The 
oppressed cities began to draw together, and to make 
ready for a stand. Early in the year 1167, although 
there was a strong army of Germans in Italy, the 
famous Lombard League was formed. The Milanese 
returned to their former home ; and, like the Athe- 
nians of old after the flight of Xerxes, they began 
to rebuild their dismantled walls. Tortona imitated 
Milan ; Lodi was overpowered by the confederates ; 

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CHAP, and the rampartfl of Ancona kept the Einperor a: 
bay. Meanwhile the two great German Archbishoiv 

i//^>-n>7. Christian of Mayence and Baynald of Cologne, hal 
marched through Tuscany, and had cut to pieces tLc 
disorderly Boman mob in a pitched battle. Frede- 
rick imited all his forces before Some, and forced 
his way into the city, after setting fire to the porch 
of St. Peter^s. Pope Alexander fled to Benevento, 
leaving the field open to his rival Paschal, who there- 
upon crowned the Emperor and Empress. 

A hundred years before this time, St. Peter Da- 
miani had thus simg : ' Eome tames the proud necb 
of men ; her crop consists of the finiits of death ; 
the fevers of Eome by a sure law are ever loyal to 
the Church.' It was now the month of August ; the 
poisonous air of the Campagna began to tell upon 
the stout German soldiery ; within eight days the 
best part of the army fell victims to the plague. 
Among the deceased were many bishops and counts, 
Frederick's cousin the young Duke of Suabia, be- 
sides one of the Guelfs, and above aU, Baynald the 
Chancellor, the Archbishop of Cologne. Every one 
cried out that these disasters were a judgment from 
God on account of the birnit porch of St Peter s. 
Two thousand men died in the short space between 
Eome and Viterbo ; the Emperor could scarcely gain 
Pavia, since the Apennine passes were held by the 
rebels. By this time almost every city between 
Venice, Milan, and Bologna had joined the Lombard 
League, and was up in arms. Frederick escaped by 
way of Susa, thanks to the timely aid of Humbert, 
Count of Maurienne. On the way, the baffled 
monarch hanged some of the Italian hostages in his 
hands; their friends plotted his death, and would 

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CHAP, hastened to take vengeance upon Henry the lior 
The deserter was placed under the ban. of tt 

.1030-1197. Empire, and his lands were shared out among il 
many enemies whom he had made by his unbear- 
able pride. The Archbishop of Cologne and othrr 
prelates were great gainers in the distribution; ^ 
large part of the Duchy of Saxony was given t- 
Bernard, a son of Albert the Bear. The faithfiL 
Otho of Wittekbach, whose descendants still rule a: 
Munich, was installed in the Duchy of Bavaria. 
The Lion did not give up his coveted spoils withou: 
a sharp struggle; but in 1181 Barbarossa put aL 
end to it by taking the field himself, and was joine- 
at Lubeck by his vassal the king of Denmark. 
The beaten Guelf appeared at the Diet of Erfiirth, 
and in his turn fell at Frederick's knee. ' Thou thy- 
self art the cause of thy misery ! ' cried the ^weepiiu 
conqueror. Sentence of banishment was pronouna^l 
upon the rebel for a period afterwards shortened at 
the Pope's request, but Brunswick and Lunebur; 
were assured to Henry. In 1182, he sailed fj: 
England, his wife's country, to the throne of which 
his descendants were to be called after more thaL 
500 years. 

While these revolutions were convulsing Gtermanr, 
Alexander, the greatest Pope of the Twelfth centurv. 
had been succeeded by Lucius IH., who was forct^i 
to invoke the aid of the Archbishop of Mayence. 
the Emperor's lieutenant in Italy. The six year?' 
truce with the Lombard League expired in 11 S3, 
and there was a schism among the confederates. 
Tortona, and even Alessandria, went over to their 
old enemy. But at length, a treaty of peace wa^ 
made at Constance, to which the Italian states were 

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e of his re 

' a contingen 
Cenry left Si 
ly hostages 
age of the S( 
m him, and 
es. To thei 
r- of their pro] 
: he told the] 
ich he would 
i Grermany h 
ITS during the 

the chief dis 
Ler a troublous 
e Lion was i 
iving behind 1 
ilatine of the 
riUiam, throng 

Henry the Sh 
\ his own fam 
le princes, ' m 
ly house, and ! 
f Apulia and 
ight of female 
)lan would ha 
x^n for the op 
Archbishops of 


" BavaruB et S 
In propria] 

The Empire, as we 


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always been looked upon as a stepping-stone to the chap. 
conquest of the Greek empire. Henry had more 

chances in his favour than had fallen to the lot of ^^^^"^^^7- 
Robert Guiscard ; he had already forced the Byzan- 
tine tyrant to pay him large sums of money. He 
was but thirty-two ; he had even at that age con- 
quered realms whither Charlemagne had never 
penetrated, and where Otho had only met with dis- 
comfitiu-e. The Hohenstaufen might not unreason- 
ably look forward to still greater achievements in 
the East ; the Sultans of Africa had sent him rich 
gifts, and Jerusalem, still in Saracen bondage, was 
inviting a deUverer. But death put a sudden end to 
all further dreams of conquest on the part of Henry. 
The Emperor had already quelled one revolt, and 
had nailed a crown to the head of the patriot leader. 
He was now besieging the castle of another Sicilian 
baron ; he caught a chill while hunting, and died at 
Messina in September 1197. 

What a change was wrought by a few short 
months! In the autmnn of 1197 the ruthless Ho- 
henstaufen, in all the vigour of manhood, at the 
head of a compact Empire, was domineering over 
the feeble old Pope Celestine, whom he could 
tlireaten from either side of Eome. In the spring 
of 1198 the greatest of all the Popes was installed 
in St Peter's chair ; the rightful heir to the Empire 
was a child but three years old; and fearful civil 
war^ were lowering over every province of Germany 
and Italy. 

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CHAP, brother of the last Kaiser, and Otho of BrunswicL 

the second son of Henry the Lion. Innocent a: 

once declared against the former candidate, as beiiij 
one of that rebeUiobs house that had for the last fifty 
years withstood t^e successor of St. Peter to his face 
Hence Germany' was for ten years embroiled ic 
bloody wars, wtich the new Pope saw without dL^ 
pleasure : he .weU knew that the weakness of the 
Empire was' the opportunity of the Church. He 
now found himself able to take a tone of high com- 
mand in his dealings with the Tuscan and Lombard 
States, wHich. owed allegiance to the German Csesars. 

But if Italy saw in Lmocent a patriotic deliverer, 
it was fa? otherwise with most European realms. 
The five Christian kingdoms, into which the Spanidi 
peninsuljL was divided, shuddered at the threat vf 
the Papal interdict ; the people suffered for the matri- 
monial sins of their rulers. The king of Arra^z^ii 
professed himself the vassal of Eome; the king «•: 
Norway was in vain excommunicated ; but hi- 
brethren of Hungary and Bohemia heard the Pai»:il 
rebukes with awe. Bulgaria and Armenia tumtil 
with confidence to Eome, when Constantinople ha'i 
fallen into the hands of the champions of the Lat::: 
creed. Lmocent reaped the benefit of the great 
Venetian enterprise, which he had at fii-st condemneii : 
the Greek schismatics were trampled imder the fcrt 
of Western crusaders and Western bishops ; and a 
short-lived Latin empire was set up in the capital 
of the Comneni and the Pala^ologL 

But Lmocent's poUcy with regard to England lul- 
led to more abiding results. To him we owe t! t 
promotion of Stephen Langton, the father of ou: 
EngUsh liberties. The tyrant John did indcvl 

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FSsemsicK the second 73 

attempt to degrade our country to the level of chap. 
Arragon or Sicily, submitting to hold his realm as 
a fief of Bome ; but his baseness was neutralised by 
the staunchness of the noble Archbishop and the 
barons. Well had it been for Innocent's fame had 
he supported Langton throughout ; but the Pope, as 
is well known, annulled the Great Charter, and 
enjoined the patriots to bow before his new vassal, 
their hated oppressor. Innocent might well blush 
<.>n hearing the text from Isaiah pronounced by 
English mouths—* Woe unto him who justifieth the 
wicked for reward.' His victory over the wretched 
king of England sinks into nothing in comparison 
with his triiunph over the resolute and crafty king 
of France : the Pope, in this instance at least, stood 
forth as the champion of the oppressed, and com- 
pelled Philip Augustus to respect the indissoluble tie 
of wedlock. 

But France was the agent employed by Innocent 
in that cruel business, which exhibits the Western 
Cliurch in her most glaring opposition to the teach- 
ing of her Founder. She had indeed preserved her 
j)urity in the Ten Persecutions ; but when she came 
forth from the Catacombs to take possession of the 
Basilicas, a change for the worse was soon remarked. 
She struggled for three hundred years against Pagan- 
Um ; she struggled for three himdred years longer 
against Arianism ; she then conquered heathen Ger- 
many, and her old Scandinavian and Hungarian 
oppressors. At last, she reigned supreme over 
Western Europe, except in Spain; even there the 
tide had begun to turn in her favour. But her doc- 
trines and rites were no longer what they had been 
in Apostolic times. Little by little, step by step. 

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Manichean taint ; and that sect alone has lasted to chap. 


our day, preserving the traditions of Vigilantius and '. — 

Claude. "»«^^^^«- 

Beyond all question the revolt against the Church 
was caused, not so much by distaste for her corrupt 
<loctrines, as by disgust at the lives led by her cor- 
rupt ministers. The cardinals and legates them- 
>olves were venal ; the bishops and abbots thought 
only of worldly power ; the regular and secular 
clergy ran a race of degeneracy. Their ministra- 
tions were deserted for those of the dissenting 
teachers, men of ascetic Uves, who also had their 
liierarchy. The evil was at its height in Languedoc, 
and would clearly spread farther, unless stem mea- 
^ures of repression were taken. Eome was not 
I)repared to give up without a struggle her empire 
over the consciences of men. It was not for this 
that Constautine had been her nursing father, that 
Charlemagne had endowed her with lands, that 
Ilildebrand had organised her forces, that Guiscard 
and Godfrey had been her champions in the field, 
Anselm and Bernard in the council Innocent the 
Third was now at her head, conscious of powers at 
I<-a5t equal to those of any men that had gone 
U'fore. He was resolved to crush the heresies of 
Linguedoc; he cried for help to the warriors of 
Normandy and Champagne, men whose valour had 
l>eeu esteemed throughout the world for the last 
two centuries, and who had just set up new trophies 
at Acre and Constantinople. They flew to arms at 
tiie call of Innocent; the war was waged with a 
f< Tf)city surpassing belief; Languedoc became a sea 
<'f blood, and was given over to Simon de Montfort 
Tli(» work went on after his death ; fresh hosts were 

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CHAP, ever ready to be poured in from the North ; Lil:- 

! — cent himself shuddered at the deeds of his crusader^ 

The King of France was as much benefited by :L. 
result as the Pope was ; it was the triumph of Pan- 
over Toulouse, of the Langue d'Oil over the Lanj-r 
d'Oc. In the mean time, every Emperor favour- 1 
by Eome, whether Guelf or Hohenstaufen, was ou- 
strained to publish bloody edicts against the hereti- 
of Italy, known as Paterines or Cathari. 

But other means were taken to combat the evil : 
it was resolved to bring forward enthusiasm as ti... 
best ally of the established Church. Earnest mvn, 
eager to preach, had hitherto betaken themselves :- 
one of the heretical sects. Peter Waldo had bco:. 
driven into secession from the Church, against In? 
own will, by the harshness of Pope Alexander, It 
must indeed have cost religious men a fearfi^ 
wrench, before they could tear themselves awuv 
from the most venerable institution to be found '..: 
the world. For no other institution could boast :?uc:. 
a catalogue of renowned names. Grievously as <1a 
had erred, the Church could point to a long unbrok^ l 
line of holy men reaching up to the Galilean fisher- 
man. It is true that these men had held very diffeivi.1 
opinions, for the progress of error had been stealthy 
and slow. Some unscriptural doctrine had beti. 
first broached by an individual, and perhaps hotly 
debated ; it had then tacitly grown to be a part <•* 
the popular creed ; and it had lastly, after the lajts 
of centuries, been stamped with the seal of u 
General Covmcil. Thus it was hard to tell at wlwi 
precise period truth had been eclipsed by emu 
Tlie Church, challenging the impHcit obedience oi 
all, took the place of the Scriptures, which were 

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CHAP, the main features of the new discipline was the opei 

ing given for lay agency ; anybody might become 

Tertiary, attached to one of the two Orders j wome 

might incorporate themselves into kindred sktd 

hoods; all classes alike might help on the go^Ii 

work. The Italian mind was stirred to its lowe 

depths. When the foundation stone of the Dowk 

can convent at Eeggio was being laid and blessed b 

the Bishop in 1233, men and women, knights an 

plebeians, peasants and burghers, all alike lent the. 

aid, bearing stones and mortar on their backs ; hap[; 

was he who could carry the most The builJt: 

was finished in three years. The devotion arou'^ 

by the Franciscans was still more fervent Wfc^^ 

these brethren first came to Parma, Bafulo, one •• 

the richest and bravest knights in the dty, enral^' 

himself in the Order. He devised a strange penaL^ 

for himself; he was dragged through Farma at t: 

tail of a horse, and was scourged by two of his ^c^ 

vants. On his approaching the porch of St Pett^=- 

the knights who were sitting there, as was the O 

tom, not recognising their old friend, cried oat 

'Give it the robber, give it him!' Bafiilolootei 

up and said, * Very true ; up to this time I have li^^ 

like a robber, sinning against God and my own s<^u- 

He then bade his servants drag him further, ^^j* 

the other knights glorified God.* j 

But in gome cases we find the hearts of the 1^^^ 

estranged by the indiscreet zeal of the friars. C** 

dren were sometimes tempted away from their }* 

rents, and it was not easy to recover a son lost in '^ 

way. By the strongest possible interest, perhap: 

* iSalimbeni'. 


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lid of an Emperor or i 
Id procure letters from 
Lorising a personal inte 

yoimg friar would b( 
at putting his hand to 
aotlier more than Chriis 
1, the enmity to be expe 
1 household. The frifi 
vate conference between 
ioiaelves were listening 
^test fear for their novi 
hy brutes,' the irreveren 
I I to say to your moth< 
cer you ? ' * Say to her, 
?eT, ' that when my fathc 
e, the Ix)rd taketh me uj 
iar the yoke in his youl 
ould dash himself on t 
rethren, and devote his 
l\e lad would find ample 
ouchsafed by the Virgin, 
ery close, if his convent 
\jiconitan pirates might b< 
:arry him off. He woulc 
irom his old acquaintanc 
hireil servants in your fatl 
meat and bread, while yo 
bread from the poor. You 
your city on a destrier, oi 
for the benefit of the ladic 
tiiunts would not move a s 

Fathers were not the on 

• This is Salimb 


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CHAP, encroaching spirit of the new Orders ; the Benedii'' 
tines and Cistercians were indignant at the novel i^ 
tensions now set up by their younger rivals. M*:- 
thew Paris faithfully represents the feeling of the liL 
school of monks ; in him we may also remark t: c 
English patriot, who views with anger the subser- 
viency of the new friars to the Papal chair. Tiity 
became the collectors of the money needed b? 
Bome; they were the shameless exactors of Englii 
revenues for foreign purposes ; they cared for no one 
but the Pope, their patron. In process of time thtir 
virtue began to grow dim ; they forgot the vov:? otl 
poverty so earnestly inculcated by their founiltr*: 
their stately convents rivalled the palaces of kin;?-: 
St Dominic and St. Francis had lived together in unitr; 
it was not so with their disciples. The Preachers qut*- 
tioned the legend of the Stigmata; the Minorite? 
chuckled over the buffoonish verses made in ridicule 
of their rivals. A document, published to the two 
Orders about forty years after their birth, shows tbi 
extent of the mischievous jealousy between the I^^ 
minicans and Franciscans. They were reminded of 
their original aims and alUance by a letter, the j« it- 
composition of their Generals, Humbert of Savry 
and John of Parma* The brotherhoods are thus ex 
tolled : ' These are the two trumpets of Moses whi . 
call the people together ; these are the two Chi-v^- 
bim, full of knowledge, which look towards ca !■ 
other, spreading their wings to the people ; these ar 
the two breasts of the Bride, which give suck to : 
babes in Christ ; these are the two witnesses of Chr<^ 
that prophesy clothed in sackcloth ; these are i- 
two bright stars foretold by the Sibyl. How aiin^' 
be true disciples, imless we love one another? I^' 

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here be no stealing of novices or grasping at wealth chap. 
Tom each other. Let there be no competition for ^' 
Urns or wills, no opposition to rival sermons, no abuse ^^^^-^^le. 
yf each other without good reason.' ♦ 

In spite of all the evils complained of, the two 
Orders throve and multiplied. They embraced every 
class of mankind. They were the counsellors of 
kings, the teachers of universities, the ambassadors 
of popes to the heathen, the confessors of noble 
ladies, the companions of the people. Popular 
preaching, which had been hitherto disused, was 
brought into fiashion by the begging friars ; the elder 
Orders, a proud aristocracy, might hold to the Latin 
ritual ; but the Preachers and Minorites harangued 
the nations of earth in all the modem dialects. 
The new sermons were fuU of proverbs, tales, and 
liisftorical examples, all tending to the improvement 
of morals; this was the sort of pulpit eloquence 
wliich charmed the common folk.f Thus the heretics 
were assailed with their own weapons, and Bome 
arose from the combat stronger than ever before. 
?^he was now putting forth all her might; she 
triumphed ahke on the Ghiadiana, on the Khone, on 
t!ie Vistula, on the Bosphorus — pagan and Moham- 
iiK^lan, schismatic and heretic, all alike went down 
Ixfore her conquering sword. Simon de Montfort, 
John de Brienne, Baldwin of Flanders, Hermann von 
^alza, were all proud to bear arms imder Lmocent's 
banner. New vigour had been lent to the Papacy, 
vigour which inspired all its chiefe for a hundred 
V'.ars. Hildebrand had fallen and had left his work 
t'j feeble successors ; but Innocent had men at his 

* Wadding, for 1255. t Salimbene. 

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CHAP, side whom he knew to be fit for his place. Ther-r 
^^' was Eegnier Capocci of Viterbo, the bosom fnend ' 

1198-1216. g^ Dominic, and Ugohno Conti of Anagni, the 
bosom friend of St. Francis. These were the men 
who would carry on Innocent's work far into thi 
century, relying on the new Orders which Lmocent? 
foresight had given to the Church, and which ap- 
peared just in time to bear the brunt of the renewei 
struggle with the Hohenstaufens. 

How wonderful is the Church of Bome! whcL- 
ever the hour of need comes, she has some fre-1 
chain ready to rivet mankind anew. Her religious 
brotherhoods have been her salvation. Hildebran-l 
would have done httle, had he not had the Benedic- 
tines at hand, to whom he could point as the pattern 
of his darling cehbacy. In the next century, Ux 
Cistercians maintained the battle against the new 
opinions, imtil Innocent arose to crush all opposcrs 
The Dominicans and Franciscans gave a fresh lease of 
three hundred years to the empire of Borne. Ab«1 
in the crash of the Sixteenth century, when all seenit-: 
to be lost, when Britain, Germany, and Scandinarl 
were gone, when France, Austria, and Poland were* 
wavering, and when Spain and Italy alone remaint ': 
true to their allegiance; then it was that a new 
Order, well fitted to the times, rolled back the ihl- 
of Protestantism, recovered half of the lost gioim 1. 
and turned the doubtful day. 

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AJ). 1194— A.D. 1212. 
' Csesaiibiui yirtoa contigit ante diem.* t 

TTE have already beheld Innocent grasping at chap. 
r T the sovereignty of the whole civilized world, 
id setting his foot upon the necks of kings ; we 
lust now r^ard his statesmanship, as it mixes itself 
p with Itdian poUtics and with the interests of 
'rederick Eoger, the Pope's ward and feudal vassal. 

Innocent's first care, after subjecting as far as pos- 
ible tiie turbulent Romans to his yoke, and making 
heir Senator take the oath of allegiance to himself, 
.vas to establish his influence throughout Italy, which 
wras at this time undergoing the tyranny of her Ger- 
man masters, the robber-knights of Suabia and 
Alsace, brought in by the last Hohenstaufen Emperor. 
Innocent here appeared in the character of an Italian 
patriot; it was plain that nothing could be done, 

* Several of the events recorded in this chapter occurred pre- 
viously to those mentioned in Chapter lY. I prefer to consider 
hmocent'a Italian policy here, in order that I may exhibit the 
life of Frederick as a continuous whole. The chief authorities 
for this chapter are Bichard of San Germane ; the Letters of 
Innocent ; and the Gesta, a life of that Pope by a contemporary. 

t line applied by Pope Innocent to young Frederick. 

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CHAP, until Italy was freed from her foreign masters, wi 

^' were bent on carving out lordships for themselves j 

the general scramble. The first of these whi-u 

Innocent took in hand, was the seneschal of the Lu 

Emperor, Markwald of Anweiler, who had K-. 

rewarded for his services in the conquest of Sicil; 

with the duchies of Eavenna, Bomagna, and Ano^oa. 

He was one of the greatest warriors of the ar , 

equally successful on sea and on land.* Yet iio:.> 

the less was he placed imder the ban of the B jv, 

by whom his subjects were easily induced to revcx 

The Church did not spare her treasures ; a Canli:/J 

was sent into the March, and Markwald's ca^::•^ 

were burnt to the ground.f Another Gemiii- 

Conrad of Urslingen, had been made Duke i< 

Spoleto by Henry the Sixth, and was thus a nvic 

neighbour of the Pope, to whom he in vain offenJ 

an enormous bribe for the confirmation of his luil: -' 

possessions; Innocent never rested, imtil he hi. 

despatched the intruder to the other side of *- ' 

Alps. Being aware, however, that he should new: 

be able to keep the distant Eomagnoles true to t:;^ 

Holy See, the far-seeing statesman of the Lattni. 

contented himself with laying the foundation of 'i 

future temporal dominion of the Popes, and for tl v 

present left the outlying provinces pretty much i' 

themselves. Their complete subjection to tlie >:■ 

cessors of St. Peter was not accomplished until thn^ 

centuries later, an acliievement reserved for ?•; 

♦ PetniB de Ebulo : 

< Hie MarcualduH, cui sc Neptunus ad onme 
Vclle dedit, cui Be Mars dcdit esse pareDs.' 
t Innocent's Letters for 1199. 

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tlius the Second, the old warrior who threw aside chap. 
e book for the sword, and who still fix)wns upon ^' 
, stem and resolute as ever, from the canvas of "^*-^2i2. 

The next exploit of Innocent was to form 
?arly the whole of Tuscany, which had been 
ranted by the late Emperor to his brother Phihp, 
ito a league * for the honour and aggrandizement 
f the Apostolic See,' as it was very candidly ex- 
pressed ; the cities, Pisa alone excepted, bound them- 
elves to acknowledge no one as Emperor without 
he Pope's sanction. It seemed as if the mission of 
[imocent was, to reverse every arrangement of the 
late Hohenstaufen tyrant, who had been so oppor- 
tunely cut off. The new Pope, however, found a 
harder task awaiting him in Sicily. The Empress 
Constance haul sent Peter Count of Celano and 
'Others to briiig her son, the young Frederick Roger, 
from Umbria ; she had had him crowned King of 
Sicily at Palermo, in the spring of 1198, when he 
was but three years old. Strange tales were told of 
his birth. It was said that Joachim, the renowned 
Calabrian Abbot, whose doctrines were afterwards 
condemned in the Lateran Council, and who exer- 
cised a vast influence upon the reUgious mind of 
Europe, had made wondrous disclosiu'es concerning 
the infant's future career. When asked by the 
Emperor Henry how it would turn out, the prophet 
had answered ; ' Thy boy is perverse ; thy son and 
l^^ir, prince, is wicked ; for as lord he shall disturb 
the earth, and shall wear out the saints of the Most 
Highest' In his commentary on Isaiah, Joachim 
(^> at least his disciples averred in later years) un- 
Jei^tood the modem Roman Empire to be meant by 

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CHAP, the land of the Chaldees, Sicily by Tyre, and Fred- 
^' rick himself by Ashur. The prophet also foretu.': 

1194-1212. ijjg^t Frederick could not be slain, except by Goi. 
all attempts to murder him would fail. Anotha 
dark presage was referred to Frederick's birth : « 
report was spread, and widely believed, that tht 
Empress had lived beyond the age of bearing dxil- 
dren, that she had shammed pregnancy, and tha: 
the son of a butcher at Jesi had been passed off ^ 
her own ofispring.* This sUly tale was long after- 
wards thrown in Frederick's teetL It was said in 
Northern Germany, that the man who had lent his 
child to the Empress was either a physician, a mil^u", 
or a falconer.f In order to refute this calumny. 
Constance underwent some unpleasant experimen'w? 
in public, wishing to convince the Italian dames that 
she was still capable of the honours of maternity^ 
In truth, she was but forty at the time when her 
offspring came into the world. 

The birth of Frederick, in the year 1194, had 
aroused transports of joy in the hearts of the Im- 
perial party, if we may judge by the verses made 
upon the occasion by a Salemitan bard. Peter cf 
EboH, when welcoming the Hohenstaufen babe, had 
indulged in auguries respecting its future lot» curi- 
ously felsified by the event The father, whox^ 
dearest wishes were granted in the midst of h:= 
triumphs, was happy ; but the child wotdd be hap^ 
pier still. It would surpass its German and Norman 

* Salimbene. The prophecy about Frederick's death is genu- 
ine; it was talked of long before that event took place. 

f Alb. Stadensis. 

X Anon. Vaticani Hist. Sicula, but this is rather a late au- 

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i.tliers. Young Frederick would be a sun with- chap. 


doud, and would never undergo an eclipse. 


3irth i^as hailed in strains that would be appro- i^^^^^^. 
o only to the coming of a Messiah. Beasts of 
, sang the poet, forgot to harass their peaceful 
ms. Earth and heaven poured forth their 
cest blessings upon mankind, happy in the birth 
lie Imperial babe, who was the glory of Italy, 
oflfepiing of Jove, the heir of the Boman name, 
reformer of the world and of the Empire. Long 
;lit he reign, behold the world fiill of his de- 
ndants, and be borne to heaven after having 
:;ome a great-grandfather I 

We are indebted to this zealous bard for the first 

mestic notice of the young Prince. A Spaniard 

ought to the child a huge fish, which is said to 

ivc been worthy of Caesar. The Anconitan coast, 

deed, which was not very far ofl^ had long before 

roduced Domitian's fiunous turbot. The little Pre- 

erick, with the help of his attendant, cut the fish 

Qto three parts, kept two of these for himself, and 

eut the third to his father. The ingenious poet 

x>ntrive8 to extract some curious presages from this 

simple story. Henry VL gratefully bestowed some 

lands at EboU upon his Laureate, who appears in later 

charters as Master Peter the verse-maker. The child, 

90 rapturously greeted, was brought up at Foligno, 

at the foot of the Apennines, a town on which he 

afterwards bestowed many favours, and which thus 

became firmly attached to its illustrious nursling.* 

The wife of Conrad the duke of Spoleto was en- 

• In Fnlginio iulgere pueritia nostra incepit. Letter of Fre- 


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CHAP, trusted with the care of Frederick's childhood, 
rights were very sooa in jeopardy; the Becte 
Gtermany made small accoimt of the oath tky 
sworn to him dining his father's life-time, and s^ 
the sealed letters which they had sent, in tokai 
their pUghted fealty.* Indeed^ the Pope \mi 
directed their attention to another candidate. Ic 
the crown of Sicily was Frederick's undoubted i& 
Palermo witnessed at the same time his corcam 
and his father's burial, in May 11 98. The Skffit-^ 
invoked the blessing of Christ, of the YirguijCi^ 
Agatha, and of many other saints on the Eoyal hak 
as the crown was placed on his head in the sUJ&y 
cathedral, the work of the late Archbishop OSmkf 
The first charter known to have be^i bestow* 
by the young King is dated in June, a month $Dff 
his coronation, and is a grant made by to ^'^ 
his mother to Ofamiho the yoimger. Archbishop *i 
Palermo. The Empress found herself left f^^ 
defenceless. She had rewarded the Gcnnans, & 
old comrades of her husband, and had sent tb& 
back into their own land to join his brother Vmf^ 
The latter, in return, sent home the blinded Apali» 
nobles, whom Henry had kept in his Alpine duJ- 
geons.;}: Intrigues were speedily set on foot ^^ 
of Palear, the Bishop of Troja and Chancellor of ^ 
Kingdom, was so Uttle to be trusted, that he ^ 
deprived of the Seal The Archbishop of Kesa^ 
was not allowed to attend the coronation, lest d* 
absence from his diocese should lead to an outbreak 

♦ Godefr. Colon. Urspei^enais. 

t Codex transcribed hj Amato, which Br^oUes has printed. 

X Breve Chronicon Vaticanum. 

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t the real danger lay in Central Italy, where a chap. 
rm was now gathering. ^' 

Pope Innocent saw his advantage, and drove a 
xl bargain with the friendless lady. He sent the 
jhop of Ostia as his Legate into Sicily, where that 
ice, owing to the peculiar privileges of the King* 
m, had hitherto been unknown. The Pope con- 
itulated the prelates that the hills of Calabria and 
e plains of Apulia were now free from the whirl- 
nd which had lately swooped upon them from 
e North, and that Charybdis near Taormina was 
m unstained with blood. Sicily must prove her 
•atitude to God for these favours, by returning to 
sr old allegiance to the Church ; it had been 
ightly impaired by the late broils. She must 
elcome, with aU due honours, the Legate of the 
Wy See. This letter was followed by another in 
November, addressed to Constance and her son, 
vWeby, after recalling to her mind the piety of 
ier predecessors, the Pope granted to her 'the 
Sngdom of Sicily, the Duchy of Apuha and Princi- 
pality of Capua, with all its appurtenances, Naples, 
Salerno, and Amalfi, with their appurtenances. Mar- 
ia, and the other lands beyond Marsia, to which 
the Eoyal pair had a right' The Bishop of Ostia 
^as to receive the oath of fealty from the vassals of 
Eome; and homage was to be done to the Pope 
^d his successors in future. A yearly tribute of 
1000 schifati was to be paid to the Koman Church. 
Elections were in future to be canonical ; for Inno- 
c^^t, whom his contemporary biographer rightly 
calls 'a most sagacious Pontiff,' was striving hard 
to abolish the privil^e of independence as regarded 
episcopal elections, which his predecessors had 

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CHAP, granted in a moment of weakness to the old tuIl 
^' of Sicily. This vexed question became afterwar 

1194-1212. thg bitter source of contention between young Fr 
derick and the See of Rome. Another letter fixi 
Innocent to Constance proposed a compromL^ 
whence it is not easy to see how the Crown « 
Sicily could reap much advantage, although doul-i 
less the Papal chair was a great gainer. Much : 
said about the Boyal assent to an election bt iiii 
sought, after the chapter has made the choice ; i»'J 
nothing is settled, in the event of the Crown objcv: 
ing to the election. Thus Innocent regained m^?! 
of that power granted of old by the Holy See v 
the Norman Kings, Constance agreed to pay h.:. 
30,000 golden tarins during the minority of her a»". 
besides whatever the Pope might expend in dctVu 1- 
ing the Kingdom. Moreover, the Sicilian bi>h»»p^ 
were in future to have the right of appeal to Bon:., 
and the clergy were to be judged in their ow.. 
courts for every cause except high treason. 

Constance died on the 28th of November, 11'"^. 
after having bequeathed her now orphan son to lu 
guardianship of Innocent. She had appointeii a 
council of regency, comprising the Archbishop? *'i 
Palermo, Monreale, and Capua, and also Walter '*" 
Palear, the faithless Chancellor of the Kingdom, *■ 
whom the Pope very soon wrote for a supply • • I 
money ; it was wrong to spare property when livt^ 
were at stake.* The young King seems to hi\\^ 
been much neglected in the confusion which f'- 
lowed his mother's death. According to one im- 
probable account, the child was passed on, imtil I 

• Letters of Innocent for 1199. 

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seven, from one house to another, the Paler- chap. 
:i burghers takmg him in, one for a week, ^' 
tier for a month, as their respective means al- ^^^^^^^^ 
d.* Strange tales were repeated long after- 
Is about the childhood of the future arch-enemy 
lome. It is said that when he was four years 
he YiHs heard to cry out in his sleep, ' I cannot, 
nnotr On being afterwards questioned about 
dream, he said, ' I seemed to be eating all the * 
a in the world, and I saw one great bell, which 
>uld not swallow, but it seemed to kill me ; and 
Lhat accoxmt I cried out' Bome in the end did 
rve a morsel too tough for Frederick.f 
^ soon as Markwald heard of the death of the 
ipress, who had forbidden him to enter her King- 
m, he hiuried from Ancona into ApuUa, and 
dmed for himself the viceroyalty of Sicily, pro- 
icing a forged wiU of the late Emp)eror to that 
feet All the German intruders, headed by Diep- 
>ld. Count of Acerra, flocked from every part to 
le invader's standard ; at the same time, Markwald 
id before the Pope the most tempting offers of 
irge sums of money, of a doubled tribute, and of 
>rthcoming proofs that Frederick was a suppositi- 
ous child These overtures were haughtily rejected ; 
nnocent ordered the Sicilian nobles to swear alle- 
ciance to their TTing ; but in 1199 Markwald got the 
*apal Legates into his power. Two of them were 
)verawed; the third. Cardinal Ugolino, a futm-e 
Pope, declared the will of Innocent in the most un- 

• Chronicle of Sicily, in ^luratori. 

t Iniago Mundi, by Jacobus de Aquis, in the Piedmonteae 
^'bronides lately publiahed. 

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CHAP, compromising tenns ; and Markwald shrank & c 

- harming him. 

1194-1212. jjj ^^g midst of all these untoward events, Inn^ 
cent wrote a letter of consolation to the orphan Km:. 
whom he called the especial son of the Apostoli 
See. ' God,' said the Pope, ' has not spared the rcJ: 
he has taken away your father and mother ; yet Hi 
has given you a worthier father. His Vicar ; and a 
better mother, the Church/ Cardinal Gregory, ih^ 
Pope's Legate in Sicily, was exhorted to bestir hiic 
self ; the King's courtiers were commanded to olxy 
this representative of the Lord paramount, -and t" 
send the will of the late Empress to Eome. Iiid'V 
cent procured an order directed to the men of Mont > 
fiascone, on the part of Frederick, by which they 
were ordered to obey the Apostolic See, in spite et 
the oath they had sworn to the infant King, 

In the mean time, Markwald and all his abettor. 
whether German or ItaUan, had been excommu:-- 
cated ; but on his coming to Veroli, and making t> 
submission to the Bishop of Ostia, he was absolvei: 
and Innocent sent into Sicily the exact terms of i: * 
reconciliation, lest a false version of tliat event mii: • 
get abroad. This was in August ; three months kio:. 
all had changed for the worse. Innocent tells :!: 
Sicilians, that 'Markwald, a second Saladin in wicki- 
ness, is conspiring against them. The unclean spint. 
finding no rest in the March, has returned k' 
Sicily, taking unto himself spirits worse than hiniM ! 
such as Diephold and the other Germans. Boblvn. 
arson, rape, and murder, are now threatening li 
Kingdom.' The excommunication was rc-i^^^ii 
against these ruffians. Markwald had crossed o\u 
into the island, aided by the pirate William the F:i' 

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and unmindful of the benefits received fix)m the late chap. 
Emperor who had raised him fix)m the dimghill, he ^' 
was plotting the death of the Emperor's child, say- 1194-1212. 
iiig, 'Lo, this is the heir ; come, let us slay him ! ' 
Markwald had been joined by the Saracens of the 
West. A crusade was preached against him; the 
Mvord of Phinehas was to be employed against this 
Midianite, and an army was promised for the de- 
liverance of the Kingdom, although the Pope groaned 
over the cost. 

Innocent also wrote to the Saracens of Western 
Sicily, praising them for their past obedience, but 
warning them not to join Markwald ; if that invader 
had shown himself so merciless to his fellow Chris- 
tians, what would he not do to Mohammedans ? he 
had broken his oath to the Pope, would he keep 
faith with unbehevers ? Many Christian princes had 
taken the cross already, who might probably touch 
at Sicily on their way to Palestine, in the event of 
any Moslem revolt in that island. Innocent sent 
another letter to the r^ents of Sicily, reminding 
them of Maxkwald's cruelties in the terrible year 
1 1 94. ' You know from the past what the man is 
likely to do. Array the Kingdom against him ; I 
am despatching an army to your aid from Lombardy, 
Tu-cany, and the Campagna. Think of the Sicilian 
nobles and clergy, blinded, roasted, drowned, by this 
nian ! Take heed to the King, to the Kingdom, yea, 
to your own selves ! * 

The Pope's exhortations were of no avail; Mark- 
^vald, beginning his march from Trapani at the 
li«.ad of the Germans and Saracens, and aided by 
lie Pisans, occupied the cathedral of Monreale, 
ind was besieging Palermo in the year 1200. 

VOL. I. H 

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CHAP. Money was needed for its defence The Bishop c 
^' Patti came forward with a gift of 17,000 taix: 

119^1212. iQ the Chancellor of the kingdom ; the Can -^^ 
of Palermo contributed 25,000 tarens.* Be-iil.? 
this, Innocent had collected an anny in TuscaiiV. 
which he entrusted to his cousin, James the Mai^ 
and which was accompanied by the Archbishops c 
Naples and Taranto, and by Cardinal Cencio, vb 
was sent to act as the yoimg King's guaidian.f TL- 
Pope's soldiers first landed in Calabria, and thtrt 
subdued Frederick, a German baron. They th/i 
touched at Messina, a town ever loyal to its riglic- 
sovereign, and which had on that account Kv. 
lately endowed with some commercial privile:- 
The army of relief next steered for Palermo; a: 
the result shall be told in the words of Anal:-. 
the Archbishop of Naples. ' We reached Palenu 
on the 17th of July ; all the lords of the court, ti 
cept the Bishop of Catania, arrived on the same c } 
and hour, as it pleased the Lord, The to\^Ti t«' 
been besieged for twenty days by Markwald and i 
Saracens, and was in want of provisions ; that so::.' 
day we pitched our camp in the King's garden, • l* 
side the walls of the city. The cunning euci^ 
Markwald sent Regnier of Manente to treat • 
peace, knowing our want of money, and aware i'^ 
delay would be fatal to us ; but the Lord alK'\' 
who knows all before the event, overthrew his pkr. 
All the King's army, with one voice, though in i-'- 
fcrent tongues, cried out, " No peace with an exo r 
municated man ! " Markwald made a second attci. > 

• Charters of Frederick. 

I This cardinal is not the one who succeeded Innocent in the P*|* 

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ce ; but your scribe, Master Bartholomew, put chap. 
I to it, by producing your letter, which forbade 
eaty with that most wicked Markwald. Four 
ifterwards, a most stubborn battle took place 
en Palermo and Monreale, the latter of which 
wald held, lasting from nine till three. We 
the victory mainly to the Marshal, who held 
le in the rear ; for our van was twice forced to 
f the multitude of our foes ; but the Marshal, 
lid by the Lord, raUied us and afterwards scat- 
l the Germans and Saracens in a moment, and 
3d them with slaughter, until they escaped to 
mountains ; so, after leaving all their tents and 
>erty, they went the way of perdition. Five 
Ired Pisans and a vast number of Saracens had 
1 left to defend the heights of Monreale ; but 

infantry, led by Coimt Gentile and others, 
med the position, and put all they found there to 

sword The Pisan leader Benedetto, with a 

others, escaped, but the Saracen Emir Magded 
3 killed. It is not known whither Markwald has 
1 ; but his envoy Eegnier, lately the mediator be- 
eea men and the Devil, is thrown into prison, to- 
ther with many others of their leaders. We know 
t how many were slain, but we were busy the 
aole of that day bringing off their spoils. This 
ly has given everlasting glory to the Marshal and 

all his men ; I do not recommend him to you ; 
'^ deeds have done that already.' This may have 
^n the first battle ever witnessed by Frederick ; 
>r the child was perhaps a distant spectator of the 
''<>ody field. A document was found among Mark- 
"faW's baggage, said to be the will of the Emperor 
flenry the Sixth. It bequeathed Sicily to the Pope, 

u 2 

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CHAP, ordered the restitution of the lands of the Coimi- 
Matilda, and conferred many advantages upon Mai 
wald. It is impossible now to determine whetL 
this will was genuine or forged ; but Innocent vt 
not slow to avail himself of it. James the Ma^:i 
was made Count of Andria for his services in Sic::; 
and the Electors of Germany were rebuked fo: :: 
terceding for Markwald, who soon afterwards > 
a second battle. 

In October, Innocent forbade the regents of ?:■ ' 
to alienate the royal domains, or to encroach on ' 
treasury. Frederick was then but five years ^i 
yet it was found necessary to interdict his councL 
from planning any marriage for him without : 
Pope's consent. Soon Innocent was annoyed : 
hear that some of the nobles were treating wd :" 
foreigners, and he endeavoured to bring over :• 
Saracens to his side by repeating his threat ••'' 
crusade in the event of their adherence to Markw.i 
This ruffian seems now to have sailed back to A] u 
since Innocent wrote to the nobles of that cou. " 
in November, reminding them that the scars of ' 
wounds inflicted by the German were yet imht^i 
Markwald, as the Pope feelingly complains, sucai* i 
better after his defeat at Palermo than before it : ' 
Walter the Chancellor, angry at being supersecku ' 
a Cardinal from Kome, had gone over to tlie Gen. i 
party, and had brought the dreaded enemy ' 
Palermo against the will of the other prelates, T ' 
wily statesman was accused of aiming at the c' 
tion of his brother. Count Gentile, to the tli: 
He entrusted him with the custody of youni' r.i 

• Breve Chi-onicon Vaticanum. 

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z ; and Innocent was forced to caution the chap. 
m clergy against paying any attention to the ^' 

seal, as the King was not a free agent. The 119^-1212. 
cellor indeed expended the royal goods, and 
5 grants of the royal lands, at his own will. 
had moreover the art to obtain from Car- 
L Cencio, the Pope's Legate, the Archbishopric 
S^alermo ; but Innocent, who was not to be 
3d, refused to ratify this arrangement. The 
e wrote, in 1201, to his Legate, in terms which 
ould suppose are seldom addressed to an agent 
lie Lateran : — ' Unless we bore especial love 
j-our person, we should, by chastising you, teach 
I how you have sinned against the Church, your 
ther. Of your own proper motion you presiuned 
confer the office. K one of us two is to be con- 
mded, you are the man.' 

Innocent, in the mean time, had called a new 
ampion into the field against Markwald. PhiUp 
Suabia, who was at this time struggling with Otho 

Brunswick for the Empire, had set free the Sicilian 
iptives, the victims of his savage brother Henry. 
riUiam, the young usurper, had died in his Northern 
risen ; but his mother Sibylla was now in Prance, 
•here she had married her eldest daughter Albinia 
r> Walter de Brienne, the head of a noble house in 
^ampagne, the destinies of which were closely 
nterwoven with those of Frederick. This French 
bight undertook the conquest of Sicily in the inte- 
rest of the Church, on condition of being made 
Count of Lecce and Prince of Taranto. Innocent, after 
long hesitation, agreed to these terms, first causing 
De Brienne to take an oath that he would be true 
to Frederick. The Pope's champion went back into 

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CHAP. France, in order to enlist men for the crusade agaa 

' Markwald, an easy task in that land of pious adT< 

1194-1212. tupers. Thus France was pitted against Gennany.l 

favourite device of the Popes. 

Meanwhile, the Chancellor, who had la?t 
hope of the mitre of Palermo, acted as if he bi 
been king, conferred and took away the title? ^ 
count and baron, and appointed justiciaries, chambtf 
lains, and stratigots, disposing of the revenues a? 
chose. He crossed over into Calabria, and strip?* 
the churches of their treasures. Innocent eitvi>j 
municated him, and would not allow him to h'^] 
the mitres of either Palermo or Troja. Finding tU; 
he did not gain much by his rebellion, die Chance-'^ 
stooped to make an effort for reconciliation, and m ' 
the Pope's Legate in Apuha. But on being onlertv 
to separate himself from the party of Diepholi w 
answered : ' Even if the Apostle Peter, sent by Cnn^- 
himself, should lay this command on me, I wouJti y- 
obey him, even on pain of damnation I' An in^tn.- 
ment is still extant, by which it seems that ^ alu^ 
pledged some lands to one of the churches. *< 
receiving from it a loan of ninety omices of g * 
The Chancellor acts on the occasion in hi? t^y- 
name, scarcely mentioning his Eoyal mastering' 

In 1201, on the 3rd of July, Innocent addres^^^^- •; 
long letter to the boy King : — * O that tlie h^- 
would inspire your tender years with wisdom' ' 
that you were spared the knowledge of that tru^J • 
"A man's foes are they of his own house." "' 
overthrew your enemy Markwald at our own o**'' 
almost unaided by your courtiers. Some of tli^ 
men are, however, desirous to fish in troul' 

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aters; after sending back the Marshal unrewarded, chap. 

ley have sought peace with Markwald, an excom- '. — 

mnicated man. Thus they have broken their oath ^^^^^^^^ 

:> us and to you, pouring venom into the snake and 

il into the fiimace. They are handing over all 

ower to Markwald, giving us a mere empty name ; 

nd though against our commands they have jlramed 

TOUT coffers, they refuse us the tribute promised by 

he Empress. They have enriched themselves and 

heir kinsmen, male and female. Since the man 

\\\o used to eat your bread has tried to supplant 

^ou, we have taken a course for which there is a 

[)rwedent in Sicilian history. The throne of William 

the Good was strengthened in love and peace by the 

K^call from banishment of those nobles whom his 

father William the Bad had cast out. We have now 

jrranted to Walter de Brienne the principality of 

Taranto and the county of Lecce, which your father 

promised to Wilham the son of Tancred and to his 

heirs, that is, to WiUiam's sister, the bride of Walter. 

We have taken the precaution to exact an oath from 

the said Count Walter, that he will not plot against 

your Crown, but that he will loyally combat your 

German foes. We would rather have him your 

friend than your enemy. He has already returned 

Avith an army from France, raised at his own cost, 

atif] has gained a wonderful victory over Diephold, 

hitherto the master of Apulia. He is causing all men, 

hy our orders, to take the oath of fealty to you. 

Walter the Chancellor has indeed made a league 

^vith the beaten Diephold, but neither of them will 

'xi able to stand. Take care in whom you put your 

trubt ; yom* courtiers are undermining your throne ; 

We are defending you with spiritual and temporal 

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CHAP. arms. The Count of Brienne has done more for 
you in one day, than some of your fiiends, who make 

iiw-1212. i^j^^ ^^ phylacteries, have done in their whcAe 
hves. Give no heed to those who calumniate him, 
his bride, and her femily, and who -declare that your 
father banished them ; be suspicious rather of that 
man, w)iom your mother would have thrown into 
prison, had it not been for us. We warn you to 
trust the loyalty of the Count; we are ready to 
receive your courtiers once more into &vour if they 
only repent' 

Innocent also wrote, in 1202, to the. offidak in 
Apulia, ordering them to xmdo, as far as they could, 
the mischief wrought by the rebeUious Walter of 
Palear, whom the Pope will not call either bishc^ or 
chancellor. He sent James the Marshal once more 
into Sicily, and proposed to employ De Brienne 
against the Germans in that island, as the French 
chief had twice routed Diephold. on the mainland 
*Markwald will not await you in the field,' says 
Innocent, writing to Walter, 'but he will betake 
himself to some castle. The Counts Eoger of Chieti 
and James of Tricarico can deal with Diephold. 
Follow my adWce without delay.* The Pope gave 
his champion letters of credit on the merchants, 
authorisuig him to pledge the revenues of Apulia, 
and to borrow money even on xisurious terms, imder 
the warrant of the Holy See. But Markwald wai 
overpowered by a stronger enemy than I)e Brienne 
in the summer of tliis year ; after having subdued all 
Sicily except Messina^ and after having got possession 
of the King's person by means of Count Gentile, he 
died bellowing with agony, imable to survive an 
operation for the stone. This event took place at 

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*atti, when he was on the point of gaining Messina.* chap. 

noooent rejoiced over the death of his arch enemy, 

ind congratulated those Sicilian prelates who had 

mi bowed the knee to BaaL Death had deUvered 

sim from other Germans, besides Markwald of damn- 

iMe memory. Conrad, the Duke of Spoleto, was cut off 

when on his way to take Markwald's place ; another 

of their compatriots, who had killed the Bishop of 

liege, died pitiably, together with his brother. The 

German party in Italy was all but annihilated by the 

md of 1202, and the Pope sent the joyful news to 

*ie archbishop of Cologne, recommending the Ger- 

otn prelates to take warning by the fate of others, 

Khl not to despise the keys of Peta:. 

The best proof of the turn which the affairs of 

iLe Kingdom were now taking is, that Walter of 

ftuetr at this time made his submission to the Pope. 

Innocent wrote to him in the spring of 1203, giving 

^ (Hjce more his title of Chancellor. He rebuked 

inn for the past, but received him into fevour, after 

uking many precautions for his future good beha- 

^^mr. The chief cause which brought over Walter 

*w his enmity to WiUiam Kapparon, another Ger- 

^aan, who had taken the place of Markwald and 

•iid himself guardian of the King and chief Cap- 

tai of Sicily. The tyrant harassed the Archbishop 

'^ Honreale, banishing his friends and torturing his 

^snats. Innocent sternly reproved the Canons of 

•-Lu Church for wasting its treasures, for giving its 

pm-ious ornaments to the wife of Kapparon, for 

p.tbmg the Prelate of his revenues, and for rifling 

'•he tomb of his predecessor. They had also offered 

* Breve Chronioon Vaticanum. 

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CHAP, outrages to Innocent's messengers. Excommuniu- 
tion for all these crimes was most distinctly threatene- 
What must have been the general state of the dcci.- 
nions of Frederick during his minority, when eve 
the clergy within sight of his own palace set an ex- 
ample of turbulence and rapacity I 

Everything seemed to hang upon Innocent's life,-: 
the King himself was only eight years old ; for upx 
a rumour of the Pope's death being spread, many 'C 
the chief towns of ApuUa revolted fix)m De Briennt. 
In 1204, Innocent despatched Cardinal Gerard Xr 
lucingolo, in whom he had especial confidence, i^ 
his Legate into Sicily, observing to the prelatis urA 
nobles that Satan had sifted them as wheat T . 
young King had before sent to Eome envoys, amor : 
whom was Anselm the archbishop of Naples ; il 
Cardinal brought Innocent's reply in October, whi^: 
it was hoped would put an end to the civil wi-^ 
that had torn to pieces the Kingdom ever since ii'- 
death of the Empress. Even WiUiam Kapparon b« 
asked for peace ; he was told that his request needt . 
much consideration, and he was referred to the Car- 
dinal Legate. Allucingolo in vain strove to K^conc^^ 
Kapparon and the Chancellor ; he had better ^- ■ 
cess with the King, with whom he became a gri-*. 
favourite. He found, however, that he coulJ ^• 
nothing at Palermo, owing to Kapparon*s faii:* 
lessness ; so he awaited the Pope's orders »• 

All this time ApuUa was the theatre of a v:u 
between Diephold and Walter de Brienne. Ti-' 
soldier of the Papacy, who was known as the G^.n\'^ 
Count, would probably have obtained the crown « ^ 
Sicily in the event of Frederick's death, Walu' 

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had SO much confidence in the prowess of his own chap. 
xHintrymen^ that he used to boast that even anned ' 
Sermans would not dare to attack unarmed French- ii^*-i2i2. 
men. However, in the year 1205, notwithstanding 
his vaunt, he was surprised by Diephold, and died of 
his wounds in the hands of his hated enemy. By 
the Princess his widow he left a son, whom Frede- 
nck long afterwards r^arded with jealousy as a 
priseible pretender to the Crown, since the boy was 
:jnDdson to Tancred the Usurper. Thus, in the 
^pace xy[ three years, both Markwald of Anweiler 
and Walter de Brienne had vanished from the scene, 
^neatly to the advantage of the Throne. 

Innocent wrote, in 1206, to the Saracens in Sicily, 
▼ho held Entella, Giato, Platani, and other strong- 
b^ds, advising them to stand true to their allegiance ; 
w this letter they paid little heed, as they very 
Nxm made an inroad upon the Christians of the 
pliins, when the palace at Palermo was once more 
*li4racted by rival fections. Peter the Count of 
Cdano, who was Grand Justiciary of Apulia and of the 
T«ni di Lavoro,and who had married the Chancellor'^ 
^tto", now made overtures to Innocent for reconciUa- 
*^XL The wary old statesman seems to have been a 
aian of little feith ; he would not put himself into the 
PT)e's hands. Innocent rebuked him, gravely tell- 
ing him, ' It is a crime to believe that the Apostolic 
^' will Ix^in to make itself a liar in yom: case, since 
•• ever stands in truth. noble Coimt, who has so 
r»itiAbly bewitched you ? Think of the end of Mark- 
*^ the wicked man who was like a cedar of 
Lebanon. Walter the Chancellor found himself 
"^ertlut>wn when he entered the lists against God. 
i*icph<dd pretended to reconcile himself with us ; 

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CHAP, he tried to deceive us, and lies bound in the cords ol 
his own sins. Do not delay returning to the allegi- 
ance which you owe to the Church.' 

The Pope, in the lastHjuoted letter, refers to 
Diephold, who had made his submission, and had 
then been absolved Unable to remain quiet long, 
the German sailed to Palermo, and for a time got 
the King into his hands, until the child was rescued 
by the Chancellor. Diephold, after passing some 
time in prison, escaped back to Salerno. Other 
parts of die realm were equally disturbed. In 1207 
Cuma, a nest of pirates, was destroyed by the Xe«- 
politans, who assailed it by sea and land.* 

Little respect was shown by the great maritime 
powers to the Sicilian throne during the reign of 
Constance, and her son's long and disastrous minority. 
In 1198 the Genoese admiral laid hold of a pirate 
in the harbour of Palermo, and would not release 
him until the Empress had threatened reprisals. 
Still, in 1200, Frederick granted 10,000 ounces of 
gold to the Genoese, besides giving them houses at 
Messina, Syracuse, Trapani, and Naples ; they had 
also valuable privileges of jurisdiction and security 
throughout the Kingdom. In 1204 the Pisans seized 
upon Syracuse, and turned out the Bishop and the 
townsmen; but this city was recovered by the 
Genoese, aided by Henry, Count of Malta, a renovmed 
captain, whom Innocent praised five years afterwards 
for his feats in Candia. The Pisans also blockaded 
Messina for three months and a half ; and in 1207 they 
made a descent on Palermo, in the interest of William 
Kapparon, but were driven off by the ChanceUor.f 

• Giannone ; Istoria Civile, f Cafliiri ; Ann. Genn^. 

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Xobles and prelates, Christians and Saracens, French chap. 
and Germans, seemed to vie with each other in 
nivagiQg Sicily and Apulia. The resources of the 
Kingdom seemed to have vanished. Frederick's Nor^ 
man grandsire, the great Eoger, had been able to 
equip fleets of one hundred and fifty galleys, which 
had spread havoc among the African Moslem, and 
had insulted the Greek Emperor in his palace at 
Constantinople. In those days the ofllce of High 
Admiral was something more than a mere name. 
But at the beginning of the Thirteenth century, when 
the King of Sicily was setting about a perilous enter- 
pri<e, he was forced to accept money from Bome, 
and to depend on Genoa for a naval convoy, thus 
reversing the usual order of things. So low had the 
j)ower of Sicily sunk, owing to the German conquest 
imd the subsequent disorders. Well might Frede- 
rick thus address himself to his royal brethren : — * To 
all the kings of the world, and to all the princes of 
the universe, the innocent boy, King of Sicily, called 
Frederick ; Greeting in God's name ! Assemble your- 
j^lves, ye nations ; draw nigh, ye kings ; hasten 
liither, ye princes, and see if any sorrow be like unto 
my sorrow I My parents died, ere I could know 
their caresses ; I did not deserve to see their faces ; 
and I, like a gentle lamb among wolves, fell into 
^lavii?h dependence upon men of various tribes and 
tongues. I, the ofispring of so august a union, was 
handed over to servants of all sorts, who presiuned 
to draw lots for my garments, and for my Eoyal per- 
Njn. Germans, Tuscans, Sicilians, barbarians, con- 
^})ired to worry me. My daily bread, my drink, my 
freedom, are all measured out to me in scanty pro- 
portion. No King am I; I am ruled instead of 

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CHAP, ruling ; I beg favours, instead of granting th^u 
My subjects are silly and quarrelsome. Since the:- 
fore my Eedeemer liveth, and can raise me oui : 
such a pool of misery, again and again I beseei 
you, ye princes of the earth, to aid me to wii 
stand slaves, to set free the son of .Caesar, to raise l; 
the crown of the Kingdom, and to gather togetb : 
again the scattered people ! Unless you avenge nir. 
you yourselves will fall into the like dangers.'* 

In spite of these distressing public misfortunes, 6t 
child's private education was well managed. Mus.-l 
man instructors appear to have taught him the vari l- 
branches of learning, in which at that time tli y 
were unrivalled ; while the Archbishop of TaraLi 
and the notary John of Trajetto, personages whomi: 
aftenvards styled his foster-fathers, exercised a gent- 
supervision over his studies. The Royal palaa s* 
Palermo is described by Peter of Eboli, fromvl'^ 
poem we have already quoted. It had a courtyu: 
in the middle of which a fountain played. Thegr 
haU, where the Chancellor of the realm pre^W' 
rested upon forty pillars. There were six nxui 
adorned with various paintings ; among which m" 
the Creation, the Deluge, the journey of Abral r 
the overthrow of Pharaoh, the feats of David, ii^ 
the events of Barbarossa's last Crusade, witli 
gloomy end.f In the days of Henry the Sixth. : 
poet described the nations of earth bringing trib ■ 
to this gorgeous palace ; things were sadly alii:* 
in the reign of Henry's son. The boy had scan* 

• Von Raumer believes this letter to be genuine, 
t There are some frescoes in the Galilee at Durhim 
same age. 


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I friend in the world, if we except his guardian at chap. 
jlniDa ^' 

In 1207, Pope Innocent thus addressed Frederick, 
^ that time twelve years old : — * We congratulate 
^ on your being freed from the custody of the 
■Torthy. The wolf said to the ewe: — "I will 
wckle your lamb better than you can." Just so 
lacBe men put aside the guardianship to which your 
pio© mother oitrusted yoiL We were called upon 
u» id ts your protector both by your mother's will 
ad by the old custom of the Kingdom. We have 
'6ai paesed sleepless nights, while defending your 
okrestB. How often have letters in your behalf 
'Wttied the pens of our notaries, and dried the 
•^istods of our scribes I How often have we 
f««poDed the business of the world to your afiairs I 
^« have spared not our own brother or cousins, 
V*wie toils have borne good fruit. We now hope 
^ He, through whom kings rule, will establish 
pHir throne, and give you courage and virtue, by 
Thick you may withstand your foes and govern your 
iwTple happily. We warn you to be guided by 
^fi«c fiuthM counsellors with whom you now 
«.' Walter of Palear was once more instaUed as 
tbancellor of the realm ; but the Pope addressed a 
*i<3Ti rebuke to the Sicihan nobles, who had given no 
sii to their young King, when William Kapparon was 
3fding it in the palace at Palermo, when Diephold 
»» harasBiDg the mainland, and when the Saracens 
▼«« m full rebelUon. 

In the year 1208, Eichard, the Pope's brother, 
^'>d by Boffiid, the warUke Abbot of Monte Cas- 
ein**, trK>k the lead in rescuing Sora and Eocca 
lArce, two fortresses, perched upon high rocky 

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CHAP, hills, and thought to be impregnable, together t 

many other towns, from the grasp of Com^ t 

Marlei ; the latter being one of the most savage .. 

treacherous of those German tyrants of Italy, ^ 

for the last seventeen years had been tortur : 

murdering, and burning at their pleasure. F:- 

derick, grateful for this service, created Eul.. 

Count of Sora, and Innocent himself came to a? • 

at the ceremony of his brother's investiture, wL 

took place at Fossa Nuova. The new CJount tcxi. i 

oath of fealty to the Pope for his possession. W:. 

at Sora, Innocent regulated the coinage of the Cul 

pagna. He refiised to receive the customary tril-' 

of provisions, that he might not be a burden to i 

various churches.* 

The same year he held a parhament at San G' 
mano, which was attended by the counts and bar -^ 
of the Kingdom. He appointed Peter Count • 
Celano, his new convert, and Richard Count ' 
Aquila, regents of the realm ; its peace v:i? ' 
be maintained, and private wars were forbid 
on pain of outlawry. Two hundred knights v' 
to serve for a year at the expense of their fei^- 
lords, to preserve peace. They were to act ^^ 
police, and were to be at the orders of the ( •; 
tains set over the Kingdom. Innocent wro*^ 
letter to the nobles, in which he regretted that t 
heat of the summer prevented his coming i- 
Apulia ; but his cousin, James the Marshal »■ 
other messengers, were charged with the execu:: 
of the new statutes. The Pope was now occup * 
with a plan for the future welfare of his young v:ir 

• Chron. of Fossa Nuova. 

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years before this time he had proposed to unite chap, 
(ierick in marriage with a daughter of Arragon. 
«ras hoped that the queen-dowager of that king- 
1 would bring five hundred knights to Sicily, to 
^e in the war against Markwald ; revenues were 
)e assigned her, and she was to act as Frederick's 
;her, bringing her daughter with her. This plan 
not take effect, though a formal embassy was 
t to Arragon, and the Princely pair were be- 
hed. Two years later, Innocent forbade the 
ke of Brabant to think of offering the hand of 
daughter to Frederick, as the King was already 
poken. In 1207, Innocent again refers to the 
tter. We find him, in 1208, writing thus to King 
Iro, who four years before had of his own 
»rd acknowledged himself to be the vassal of 
me: — 'What laziness withholds you firom car- 
no; out your agreement ? We have mentioned it 
it in your presence, and in our letters to you ; 
u should do more than send a couple of galleys to 
e help of the yoimg King. You once seemed to 
eager for the match ; you ought not to delay it. 
)ur sister will have a noble husband, the offspring 
Emperors and Kings ; he is of royal blood both 
father and mother. He is endowed with virtues 
vend his years ; he is passing fi:om the gate of 
•yhood *into years of discretion at a quicker pace 
an usual, whence we may expect the happiest 
suits. His Kingdom is rich and noble ; it is the 
ivel and harbour of other realms ; it will be of 
Ivantage to Arragon, and it is especially beloved by 
S being the pecuhar possession of the successors of 
^ Peter. The Bishop of Mazara goes to you for 
^e purpose of bringing the bride. Let your sister 

VOL. I, I 

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CHAP, travel with proper attendance, not avoiding ex- 
pense, as we trust in God that it will be made up. 

1194-1212. ^ y^^ tenfold.' Innocent also sent a letter in the 
same style to the queen-mother, advising ha* to 
accompany her daughter. He wrote once more, in 
1208, from Sora to King Pedro, referring to the 
bride's proposed dowry, and forbidding any furth« 

The Pope had much Sicihan correspondence on 
his hands about this time. The turbulent Chan- 
cellor, who had obtained the mitre of Catania, was 
warned to hold in reverence his superior, the Arch- 
bishop of Monreale. But the great event of the 
year 1209 was Frederick's first entanglement in a 
dispute with Eome, although he was only fourteenn 
He seems to have flown into a rage and banished 
some of the Canons of Palermo cathedral, on account 
of their refusing to proceed to a fresh election, and oi 
their making an appeal to Eome. ' We are amazed^^ 
remarked Innocent, ' at the conduct of your advisem 
Do not usurp our oflSce in things spiritual ; be coni 
tent with the temporal power which you hold from 
us. Beware of the doom of Uzzah and Uzziah ; laj 
not hands on the Ark! It is quite a mistake oi 
your part to think that we confirmed to your mothei 
that privilege concerning appeals to Eome by th^ 
Sicilian clergy, of which you speak ; we refused il 
on her sending ambassadors to us. Do you peree 
vere in your reverence for Eome, and recall th^ 

It is said that Sancia, the queen-dowager ol 
Arragon, claimed the crown of Sicily for her second 
son Fernando, then in holy orders, in the event of Fre- 
derick's dying without leaving issue by her daughtei 

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Constance.* Perhaps this union, so earnestly de- c^^- 
-ired by Innocent, was so long deferred, owing to 
tlie unwillingness of the lady to take the place of 
lier younger sister, and to marry a boy at least ten 
y*?ars her junior. She had already been the bride 
of Emmerich, the king of Himgary, and had borne 
Kim a son in the year 1204, at a time when Frede- 
rick, her proposed second husband, was only nine 
years old. But, by the spring of 1209, all obstacles 
to the Arragonese alliance were removed. Constance 
- lik-d to Palermo, attended by her brother Alfonso, 
CViimt of Provence, and by many Catalan and Pro- 
vencal knights. The wedding took place probably 
:a ilay, amidst the greatest rejoicings. But these 
wt re rudely interrupted by the death of Count 
Alion^o and several other knights, owing to the 
: M Ini^s of the air, which brought on a fever.f The 
young couple, driven from Palermo, visited Catania, 
M«--ina, and Cefalu : and Frederick took advantage 
•»f the presence of five hundred foreign knights, to 
♦-tablish his authority over all the country between 
ralermo and Messina.;jl 

In the next year, 1210, Frederick was once more 
r. 'iisprace at Eome. His Queen, a very resolute lady, 
^'lio liad seen something of the world, had opened 
i.:^ eyes to the deceitful character of his Chancellor, 
iij.fl had caused the banishment of that officer from 
•"urt.§ Walter's old shortcomings seem to have 
1-en completely overlooked by Innocent. The Pope addressed the King: — *As you are now past 
♦MMhood, you should put away childish things. 

• Zurita. f Gianone, Istoria Civile. 

X Fian. Plpin. §*Breve Chronicon Yaticanum. 

I 2 

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CHAP. The greater the dangers which threaten your King- 
^* dom, the more vigorously ought you to strive, in 

1194-1212. order to avoid them. You should make a distinc 
tion between your different courtiers. The Bishop 
of Catania, Chancellor of the realm, has been your 
guardian hitherto, and has undergone many tou^ 
and sorrows in your behalf. But now, forgetful of 
his services, you take no notice of him. Be doc 
surprised, if the other nobles of the Kingdom fall of 
from you. What has followed his retirement shoul: 
teach you the folly of your conduct. Where now 
are the men who told you, liars as they were, that if 
the Chancellor should be dismissed, you would gini: 
many adherents ? We have to think, not only of 
you, but of the Roman Church, which is even at iLl^ 
moment, steadily opposing the Emperor in your 
behalf. Therefore, recall the Chancellor forthwitli. 
and take his advice henceforth ; let no one a.^ 
him, or we shall take it as an outrage done to our 
selves.' Frederick did not obey the Pope's haug! *y 
commands, for the name of Walter of Palear o(x^ 
no longer in the Royal edicts. Innocent addresHnl a 
letter in the same year to Queen Constance, wherein 
he confirmed by his ApostoKc authority the grant o: 
many towns, made to her by her new husband 
They seem in part to have formed the usual down 
of SiciUan Queens. One of them was Taormimi 
together with all the honour of Monte San Angil • 
in Apuha. Early in the year 1212, she gave bin: 
to Frederick's first-bom son, who received the naffi^ 
of Henry. The infant was very soon afterwari^ 
crowned at Palermo, and adopted as his father * 
associate in the Kingdom. 

Although Frederick had from the time of ^'- 

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birth little or no authority over Apulia, he had chap. 

dealings of various kinds with the different churches 

of that country. Thegreatseer, Abbot Joachim, came 

10 the Court at Palermo in 1200, and obtained leave 

to build a refuge for the brethren of his monastery 

in that part of the Sila which adjoins Cosenza, where 

the pass is choked up by the winter snows. Six 

years later, Joachim's successor in the Abbey of 

Fiora obtained a confirmation of the privileges 

imnted to that foundation by Frederick's parents. 

Pope Innocent afterwards gave a decision in &vour 

of the Church of Flora against some rival monks, on 

the ground that Frederick, whose grant was called 

in question, had at that time been in the grasp 

uf William Kapparon, and that the Soyal seal 

muit therefore have been improperly used. The 

Hiurch of SaJemo, where lay the bones of St Mat- 

tl'.ew and of Pope Gregory the Seventh, was taken 

un<ler the Boyal protection, and no stratigot or count 

was allowed to meddle with its possessions. The 

.Vrchbishop had suffered much at the hands of the 

Germans, and had been borne off to an Alpine 


Frederick granted a bath at Amalfi, which had 
come into his hands, to Manso, the brother of the 
Cardinal of St Marcellus. He afterwards, when on 
ill? way to Bome, handed over his ruinous chapel at 
Amalfi to the same dignitary, permitting him to use 
iu endowments for the purpose of enriching canon- 
ries and almshouses. He ftuther allowed the Car- 
'linal a yearly revenue of 1000 gold tarens for the 
new foundation. The King made large grants of 
^'ood fiom his forests near Maddalone for the pur- 
?ose of repairing the church and other buildings of 

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CHAP. Monte Vergine, professing with unusual vam*. 
his devotion to the Mother of the Saviour. L 
another instrument, he took the Abbot and brtib^a 
of that monastery under his special protection, ti- 
dowing it with lands and villeins, to tlie glory ^i 
the Queen of Virgins. Balsamo, the Abbot of Uvj. 
another of the great, southern monasteries, w'. 
known to modem travellers from its pictun^,-- 
situation, obtained the right of jurisdiction over i 
vassals of his lands, to the prejudice of theXiLi:- 
stratigot at the neighbouring town of Salerno. 1 • 
Bishop of Ascoli had his see on the border beiwd 
the Empire and the Kingdom ; Frederick coniin.. - 
him in those of his possessions which lay in t 
latter realm, tliough the King afterwards found :* 
Bishop's successors troublesome neighbours. Fur- 
ther to the south, the men of Pescara were forbi^i^ i 
to annoy the Abbot of St. Clement ; Frederick h* jh- 
to settle all differences on his coming among tli.- 
in person. 

The Archbishopric of Bari was held in 1207 by lu. 
illustrious man, Berard of Castaca, who was tlie lu ^* 
loyal of all Frederick's Apuhan subjects, ami w: • 
lived to attend the death-bed of his master. T- 
King made his first grant to this good prelau- .'- 
1209, wherein he refers to the long and faithful ^ '• 
vices already rendered to him by Beraixi. A y- ' 
later, the Archbishop had a grant of the empty >i'^ * 
around the walls of Bari, for the purpose of builv^ : 
granaries and houses, as his church required fr. • 
buildings for its stores. Frederick bestowed pri\iK - ^ 
on the monasteries of Gualdo and Scolcola ; thon* t 
the vassals who enjoyed common of pasture on (- 
Boyal domains were allowed right of way for lit - 

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IxMsts by day or night The reapers and husband- chap. 
men of the monasteries were not to be molested ; 
and nothing deposited in the sacred buildings was to 
be meddled with by the King's oflficials, unless it 
klonged to enemies or traitors to the crown. The 
H-e of Furcone was not destined to a long existence, 
vut a castle and hamlet were given to it Sibylla, 
the Queen of Tancred, had bestowed certain lands 
• n the Archbishop of Taranto ; the gift had been 
ratified by Sibylla's enemies, the parents of Frede- 
rick; and it was confirmed by the youth himself 
iu 1210. 

The religious foundations in Sicily, being under 
i.e King's own eye, were favoured at least as much 
a^ those in Apulia. In 1200, the Eoyal child 
li.anked the Canons of Palermo for services rendered 
at his utmost need (the grant is dated a few months 
^uer the defeat of Markwald), and for their prayers 
iu behalf of the souls of Frederick's father and 
uiother, whose bodies were lying in the cathedral of 
Palermo. The Canons had paid much money into 
!'> treasury; he therefore gave them the land of 
•^ibuco, the revenues of which were to be shared 
:imong them, and were not to be touched by their 
Archbishop. Thinking he had not yet done enough 
t'jr them, Frederick granted them, seven years later, 
'^ mill standing on a stream in the Saracen country, 
called the Kadi's mill, and allowed them to keep a 
^>at for the purpose of fishing in the harbour of 
Palermo, which was to pay no duty. He added two 
new prebends to the cathedral in 1210, each with a 
vi^rly endowment of 300 tarens, to be derived from 
the tunny fishery. The chapter would then consist 
^f twenty-two Canons. Frederick, a year later, highly 

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C]^. praised Parisio, the Archbishop-elect of Palermo, for 
his loyalty to the King's late parents ; and referring 
to his own anointing and coronation in the noble 
cathedral, says that as it is the first church in the 
Kingdom, it ought likewise to be the wealthi^t He 
therefore grants to it all the Jews of Palermo, pre- 
sent and future, and all the profits fi-om the dyeing 
trade, two sources of revenue which had before be- 
longed to the crown. In the same year, Parisio got 
for his church the tithes of the tunny fishery, to be 
received in kind, not in money, as before. In a 
later charter, Frederick granted to his motherchurch 
29,200 tarens a year, besides com from the harbour, 
and flagons of pure must from the Eoyal vineyard*. 
There was to be a special dole of alms to the church 
on the anniversaries of all thfe Kings of Sicily, from 
Soger downwards, and on the great ecclesiastical 
feasts ; the old grants were confirmed, and no med- 
dling was allowed, imder threat of a severe penalty, 
with the jurisdiction of the clergy over wills, mar- 
riages, and the unlucky Jews. Elias, one of the 
Canons, a great favourite, had a grant of half a vine- 
yard held under the crown by Ibrahim, a Saracea 
As to the burghers of Palermo, who had stood finn^ 
as Frederick says, when others were wavering, thej 
were allowed to bring their wares and property ii 
and out of the gn tes, without paying any tolL Ther< 
was a duty of two per cent, and one per cent ot 
foreign produce, depending on whether it came ii 
great or small quantities. A small tax was ab< 
levied on wine and oil. The Palermitans wen 
allowed to pasture their cattle, and to cut wood, ii 
the Eoyal domains. Various churches and monas 
teries in the capital were highly favoured. 

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Monreale was not &r from Palermo. The Arch- chap. 


)i?hop Caro had long been at variance with his 

.'anons; the King, aided by Cardinal Gerard, the ^^®*"*^^^' 
Legate, made peace between the disputants, in 
mler, as he said, that the Church in question, which 
ss'as the work of kings, might not perish. Caro was 
illowed to seize the refractory Moslem vassals of his 
?et% wherever he could take them, even in Palermo 
italf ; and this permission was often repeated. He 
might also confer upon whomsoever he pleased 
Av goods of persons bound to defend his church, if 
ilie^e men neglected their duty. He might hold his 
Courts in Palermo, and might enter and quit that 
' ity toll free ; his vassals of Monreale had the like 

Frederick, when six years old, granted Calatabiano 
to the see of Messina, which had been much cherished 
!»y his grandfather Koger, and by his father Henry. 
lu 1211, Berard, its Archbishop, was rewarded for 
^Jiving been lavish of his treasures and for having 
j-n^langered his person in the King's service, by a 
LTdnt of the Royal garden at Messina and of a tenth 
'►f the harbour dues, besides many villages. The 
Chancellor Walter gave so good a report of the 
l'>yalty of the Messinese in 1199, to which he himself 
'•'Hild bear witness, that a charter was bestowed upon 
tlif ra, giving them perfect freedom of traflSc through- 
out the whole of the Kingdom. A like privilege 
^aa granted to the men of Trapani. Orso, the 
iJLsliop of Girgenti, procured two grants for his see. 
I^^^'^er, the Bishop of Catania, had in 1200 a con- 
ftnnation of certain rights which Adelasia, the 
Countess of Ademo, Frederick's cousin, had con- 
fcired upon the bishopric. Its mitre was bestowed 

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CHAP, upon Walter of Palear, the crafty Chancell<>n afi : 

; the Pope had turned him out of the see of Palemr 

1194-1212. rpj^g Bishop was much harassed by two turbiLrii j 
neighbours, the Coxmts of Pagano and Parisio, v: 
even ventured to bear arms against the King himseJ. 
They were pronounced rebek, and part of their c -^j- 
fiscated estates was given to the Church of Catania. 
at the request of the Bishop and chapter, to mjk-* 
good losses sustained. The Bishop of Patti v:t* 
rewarded for his loan in the year 1200 by a gin • t 
some lands, which had been held by two traitor^ r 
succession, one being a Pisan. The Bishop of Cei^ - 
held a grant of the dues of that port, and of certAi-} 
tenements besides. Frederick was depicted in mosL: 
on the walls of this cathedral as addressing its Prck:« 
thus : — ' Go to Cairo and Damascus, and question :!' 
sons of Saladin, and speak my words boldly, i' aJ 
you may be the better able to reform the statt* • i 
the men.' The King took advantage of the Bi<li";'* 
absence on this eastern embassy to remove fh:.i 
Cefalu to Palermo two porphyry tombs, which Ki : 
been placed in the cathedral by King Eoger. Tl» 
Bishop, on his return, excommunicated the En-: 
and peace was only restored in 1215, on the paynki ' 
of a sum of money.* The men of Calatagir ►: . 
were excused 100 of the 250 sailors which they lu'i 
been of old bound to supply, so loyal had been tluir 
behaviour during the troubles. The great militan 
Brotherhoods were highly favoured. William •• 
Orleans, the preceptor of the Templars in Siciiy. 
procured a grant of a village for their house :»• 
Messina. He also obtained a boat at Lentini for t: i 

• Roccho Pini, 

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9e of the Order, and had leave to carry water through chap. 


pipe into a reservoir, there to preserve fish. The 
Wbe of the Templars at Aidone was excused a 
ibute of grain. The Hospitallers were taken under 
le especial protection of the King ; they had full 
ine to come and go in all places throughout the 
ihn; their house at Messina was freed from all 
laalage, and the pious were encouraged to endow 
in their kst wills. The goods and persons of the 
ught? were, moreover, protected from insult. 
But there was a third Order which had peculiar 
iaims on a Ilohenstaufen prince, and in which 
^rwlerick always through life foimd his best friends. 
Qht Teutonic Order of St Mary in Jerusalem had 
*si founded a very few years before Frederick s 
■<Jth by his uncle and namesake, who led the com- 
mit* of Barbarossa to the siege of Acre. This 
^f 'thtrhiXKl devoted itself to the sick and woimded 
i^^nnaiw, who suffered from the neglect of the elder 
'■*plers, recruited as these institutions were for the 
ft-K part from France. Frederick's father had 
i-KeTrti the new foundation, and his son proved 
i-^3stlf its steady friend. When but seven years 
*«: he a>nfirmed the grants of his parents to the 
ivuionic house at Palermo, bestowing upon it fiuther 
ifiviltgtrs. Another house which the Order had at 
liufctta was endowed with lands near the famous 
;*-un of Cannae, close to the bridge over the classic 
Auiidus. This house had also the right of self- 
j'iriadiction. In 1205, lands adjoining the wall of 
i Wmo, in a place called Alza, were given by the 
Eng to the Teutonic Order ; Gerard, its master, a 
^^ of approved hospitaUty and zeal, was allowed a 
*"<U ; no harbour-master was to meddle with this 

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CHAP, bark, or with the nets of the brethren. In 120f. 


Frederick bestowed upon the Order the village o: 
1194-1212. Tussano, lying between Salerno and Eboli; ttt 
knights were to have self-jurisdiction, except in 
criminal cases involving loss of life or limb. 

Frederick's authority, as we have already saii 
was at this time confined to Sicily. His possesdort 
on the mainland were being overrun by an hereditair 
foe, whom the Pope was unable to control During 
the ten years that followed the death of the Empeixr 
Henry VL, Germany had been torn to pieces by two 
rival claimants — Philip of Hohqnstaufen, Frederick's 
uncle, and Otho of Brunswick, — the former bcinj 
favoured by France and by the greater part of Glt- 
many, the latter by England and by the Pope. 
Philip was murdered at Bamberg, when just on the 
eve of complete success ; Otho, in consequence, 
descended the Alps in security, and was crowncvi 
Emperor at Eome by Pope Innocent in 1209. But 
Otho proved as hard to manage as any of the olJ 
Franconian or Suabian Kaisers. He refiised to give 
up to the Church the lands of the Countess MatilAu 
which for the last hundred years had been a vexed 
question between the Popes and Emperors. Althoujn 
he had taken an oath at his coronation that he wouU 
not wrong the young King of Sicily, he could m^: 
withstand the invitations addressed to him by than* 
obstinate rebels, Peter the Count of Celano, anJ 
Diephold the German Coimt of Acerra. In 12U' 
Otho entered Frederick s dominions by way of 
Rieti. He was soon master of Capua and Salerno, 
which had been placed in his hands by the t>vo 
Counts. He bestowed on Diephold the Duchy of 
Spoleto, which the Pope looked upon as his own 

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fief. The new Abbot of Monte Cassino went forth chap. 


to meet Otho, much against the will of the monks ; 
the lands of the Abbey were in consequence un- 
Liirmed. Aquino held out against the Germans, 
under the command of Thomas and its other lords 
— the most loyal of the continental nobles. Naples 
>urrendered to Otho, and was therefore excommu- 
liicated by its Archbishop, in obedience to a stringent 
order from the Lateran. The Emperor wintered at 
Capua, where he busied himself in constructing 
machines, to be employed against Aversa and other 
rtfractory towns.* 

In November of this year (1210) Innocent, pro- 

V'>ked beyond all patience at the rebellious career 

"f his old ally, after quoting the text, 'It repents 

me that I made man,*f excommunicated Otho, and 

u!>?olved the Emperor's subjects from their oath. 

Great was the confusion introduced into ItaUan 

J)* clitics when it was seen that the Pope, the natural 

head of the Guelf party, and the Emperor, the head 

«'f the house of Guelf, were ranged on opposite sides. 

S une Italian cities preferred the name to the prin- 

• i;>le ; others the principle to the name.;); Thus Milan 

r«-^<)lved to cleave to any one who was detested by 

li<T Hohenstaufen foes ; she left the side of the Pope, 

hf-r natural ally, and, having first taken up arms in 

Uhalf of Otho, she five years later pleaded his 

caasi in the great Lateran Council. On the other 

l^aiid, Pisa, the constant foe of Innocent, took the 

F'art of the Emperor, even though he bore the name 

• Chron. of Foaaa Nuova. 

I Sec hia letter to the Archbishop of Kavenna. 

I I miut remark that the name Guelf was not at this time ap- 
V'i^d to a political party, except in Tuflcany. 

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CHAP, of Guelf : she sent forty galleys to the isle of 


Procida, to co-operate with Otho ; and was ready to 
1194-1212. ^^^ j^jjjj^ j^g|. ^ gjj^ jj^^ Qj^^ aided his enemy 

Henry VL, in axjhieving the conquest of Sicily.* 
Still further, Azzo, the Abirqiiis of Este, a fer-seeing 
statesman who two years before had become lord 
of Ferrara, disregarding the fact that he and the 
Emperor were both descended from the same Guelf 
stock, forsook the cause of Otho, and placed himsilf 
at the orders of the Church. 

By the autumn of the year 1211, Otho had over- 
run all ApuUa and a great part of Calabria,f He 
disdained the offers of his boyish rival, who en- 
gaged to abdicate his paternal inheritance and to pay 
much gold and silver, if only left in peaceable pos- 
session of Sicily. :}: It seems strange that the South- 
ern Italians, who had for the last twenty yeare 
undergone much at the hands of German masters, 
should welcome another Teutonic invader. The 
Bishop of Melfi, a man of infamous character, was a 
warmer partisan of Otho than any other Apulian 
prelate ; he had embraced the Emperor's cause just 
after taking an oath to Frederick ; he was afterwards 
deposed by the Pope. Another Prelate, he of Sor- 
rento, carried over his dependants to Otho and danxl 
to celebrate mass after the excommunication of his 
city.§ Frederick was trembUng at Palermo, and 
had a galley moored under the walls of his palace, 
to fly in the event of Otho's success. || But before 
the German could complete his conquest by crossing 

• Chron. of Pisa. 

f Chron. of Fossa Nuova. J Ann. Admunt. 

§ Innocent's letters for 1212 and 1213. 

II Albert von Beham. 

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►ver into Sicily and leading away captive the King chap. 

*i the priestcj (so Frederick was called), he was ! 

•reed to hurry back into his native land, where his ^i^*-^2i2. 

c« r^pects were becoming gloomy. The Archbishop 

•f Mayence, who had already proclaimed throughout 

lermany the exconmiunication of Otho, the Prelates 

'f Magdebui^ and Treves, the King of Bohemia, the 

Liii'ljntive of Thuringia, and the Dukes of Austria, 

lavaria, and Saxony, none of whom had ever borne 

^!iy great love to Otho, now took advantage of the 

Kui-^ir s quarrel with his old patron Innocent. They 

'.inned nothing less than the transfer of the Empire 

t: m the intruding house of Guelf back to the old 

H henstaufen line, which had ruled Germany for 

.xiy glorious years before the Pontificate of Inno- 

' lit. and the late civil wars consequent thereon. 

r..i< plan was formed at Niu^emberg, where the 

riuic^-:^ met in the October of 1211, branded Otho 

^ a heretic, and resolved on the election of young 

I . "^lerick of Sicily. The instrument, drawn up by 

•- worthy Germans, runs thus, in a truly national 

k y: — ' God Almighty, seeing by Adam's fall that 

•ikind would abuse free will, and woidd become 

' . ''Ived in the nets of contentions, set up the Holy 

li'iuan Empire, that its Lord, hke a God on earth, 

• rule kings and nations, and maintain peace 
' 1 justice. After the Greek Emperors ceased to 

» their duty. Holy Mother Cliurch and the Eoman 
^* ::ute and people, recalling the said Empire, trans- 
; iMwl its root into mighty Germany, that this do- 

♦ -liion might be propped up by our stately princes, 
' ^^ ^^go^ous knights and our most brave warriors. 
T '•-' Empire without a head is like a ship in a 
^•'•rm without a master pilot. Heresies are spring- 

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CHAP, ing up, and the universal Church is being haraaed 

1«_ Bees are scattered, when they lose their queen ; so 

1194-1212. king(Joms, if unrestrained by a bit, go to min. 
The sun is echpsed ; the world needs an Emperor ti» 
check disorders. The nations have cried aloud to 
God, who has awoke from sleep and bethought him 
of the Empire. He has inspired us, the Princes of 
Germany who have the right of election, to draw 
nigh to the throne, and to meet together in one 
place, as is our duty. We have been each of us ex- 
amined as to his will; we have invoked the Holy 
Ghost and gone through all customary rites; we 
have all in common turned our eyes to the illustrious 
lord, the King of Germany and Sicily, the Duke of 
Suabia, as being worthy of the honour. Though 
young in years, he is old in character ; though his 
person is not fiill grown, his mind has been by 
Nature wonderfully endowed ; he exceeds the com- 
mon measure of his equals ; he is blest with virtues 
before his day, as becomes one of the true blood of 
that august stock, the Caesars of Gt^rmany, who have 
ever been unsparing of their treasures and persons, 
in order to increase the honour and might of die 
Empire and the happiness of their loyal subjects.' 

Such was the report of young Frederick that had 
penetrated beyond the Alps, and had directed the 
attention of the German Electors to the only sur- 
viving heir male of the Hohenstaufen line. He 
had already come imder their notice, having, ai5 
Duke of Suabia, granted privileges to the monas- 
teries of Tennebach and Salem. The Teutonic 
Order must also have been loud in his pnuH*, 
The Electors resolved forthwith to open a communi- 
cation with their future lord. TSn^o brave Suabiaa 

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knights undertook the hard task of traversing Italy chap, 
md gaining the consent of Pope Innocent and King 

Frederick to the intended change. Henry von ^^^^^2^^- 
Neifen stayed behind in Lombardy, to prepare the 
old Imperialist cities for the expected coming of 
their Sicihan lord ; Ansehn von Justingen travelled 
on to Borne, where he won over both Pope and 
lHX)ple to the side of the proposed Emperor. He 
then laid the tempting bait of the Imperial crown 
before the King at Palermo. Many diJflSculties 
JiTose; Queen Constance besought her young hus- 
band not to leave her; the SiciUan nobles, who 
l'"jked with natural distrust upon anything that 
<"ame fix)m Germany, seconded the queen's en- 
treaties. But Frederick had now a successor to his 
sicihan realm ; the proposed adventure was of the 
kind most likely to allure a yoimg and daring 
knight ; and he made- ready for his voyage to Ger- 


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130 THE H18T0BT OP 


A.D. 1212— A.D. 1220. 

* Te ciede gandentes Sicambri 
CompositiB yenerantur armis.' 


CHAP. inEEDEKICK'S removal from Palermo to the s(^ 
^ — X: of his Hohenstaufen forefathers was soon to K 


carried out But the authorities at the Lateran dt^ 
manded guarantees for his future good behaviour. 
The Cardinal of St. Theodore, who was Legate it 
Sicily, received Frederick's oath of fealty to ih<^ 
Pope, in consideration of the grant of the Kingdou: 
made long before to its youthful possessor.* 

Innocent, indeed, seems at this time to have taktc 
all possible precautions for keeping the Empercr- 
elect steady in his allegiance to Bome. He exacku 
three oaths from the boy at Messina, in Febmaiy 
1212. By the first, Frederick vowed obedience t' 
the Holy See ; by the second, he acknowledged ihii* 
he owed his Ufe and his realm to Innocent, and prv*- 
mised on that account to be more devout than any 
of his pious predecessors at Palermo. He under- 
took to go to Eome, to profess himself in public t:: 
Pope's vassal for the Kingdom of Sicily, and to pay ^ 
yearly tribute of 1000 golden schifati. By the ih i ' 

• Sec the letters for 1245. 

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xith, Frederick agreed to Innocent's innovation as chap. 


tjrarded elections to Sicilian sees. The chapter was '— 

o choose the bishop, and the King was bound to 
five his assent.* The prelate was not to enter upon 
liis functions until the Pope had confirmed him in 
Ills office. 

A charter, granted to Caro the Archbishop of 
Moiireale, in the same month of February, is the 
finit in which Frederick styles himself Emperor of 
tlie Romans Elect. We may conjecture, that he was 
uot allowed by his guardian to assume this new title 
until the threefold security, just mentioned, had been 
jLHven to Bome. In March, he grants to another of 
hb Archbishops, Luke of Cosenza, all the Jews in 
that city, who seem to have had the dyeing trade in 
their hands. Frederick hopes that they may per- 
• iiance arrive at the knowledge of Gospel truth, by 
Iv-coming the servants of the Church. At this period, 
We gearch in Tain for any trace of those Uberal 
"jiinioM which the Sicilian Prince professed towards 
f .e end of his life. As yet, he shows no scandalous 
t')leration to any of his misbeUeving subjects, al- 
though it was to them that he owed a part of his 

Frederick was now to exchange the sunny South 
for the bleak North. About the middle of March 
1-12, he set forth with a few chosen comrades on 
lii'^ daring adventure. From Palermo he sailed to 
^Tiieta, where he remained a month, and was met by 
the Count of Fondi and the lords of Aquino. He 
•iiraiii took ship, and reached Bome in April Here 
''♦' was received with due honoiu^ by all classes ; 

• Cui requiaitttm a nobis praebere deboamufl aasonsum. 
K 2 

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CHAP. Azzo of Este and Peter Traversaro, the represents 

' — tives of Ferrara and Eavenna, followed by many otlitr: 

1212-1220. j^Qp^^j^ nobles, had come to greet their future Em- 
peror.* Still, a few murmurs were raised by lit 
Eomans of Otho's party. They contrasted Innocem'j 
young Sicihan candidate for the Empire with tit 
stalwart Brunswicker, who had ridden through thtr 
city in triumph only three years before. Wasi s 
Thersites to be preferred to a Hercules, a dwarf to a 
giant, a Pygmy to a German ? Frederick's statun: 
was so short, that he must be either a child or » 
dwarf ; in either case he was unfit for the Empire. 
The Papal party allowed that their lay champio:: 
was small ; still he was bigger than many who vert 
neither children nor dwarfs.f 

Frederick now for the first time saw his guardian. 
Pope Innocent, face to face. It was the meeting of 
the two greatest Itahans of the century, the twi' 
most renowned leaders of their respective parties. 
The future head of the GhibeUines knelt before tiit 
mighty head of the Guelfs. The Pope, the spiritual 
conqueror of the world, aided >vith money and advia- 
one who was to become the most powerful temp»^nii 
Prince on earth, and the wearer of many di^tiu't 

• Chron. Placentinum. 

f Carmen de destitutione Othonis, in Leibnitz. 
This takes the form of a dialogue between the Pope and Rt»-* 

* Sed in Fredericum 

Replico. Nemo negat quin ille brevissimus ; ei^ 

Aut piier ant nanus. — 

Vult onus Alcidee Thersites ferre, gigantis 

Nanus, Teutonici Pygraoeus.* 
Innocent answers, that Frederick is 
* Reverb parvus, nee vero brevissimus ; immo 

Phiribus est major, qui nee pueri ncque nani 


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[Towns. The man of the present saw before him chap. 

he man of the fiiture, though Innocent Uttle guessed - 

wh^i a future it was that awaited the lad of seven- ^*^^^^22^- 
^ now all complaisance to the claims of the 
hpacy, and content, in token of vassalage, to place 
it hands within those of the Holy Father.* 

This Pope certainly was never guilty of a greater 
Uunder than when he allowed his hatred of Otho 
t-* cany him over to the Hohenstaufen party. The 
da-tion of Frederick to the Eoman Empire, ap- 
proved of by Innocent, was fated to give rise to 
4e greatest struggle ever imdertaken by the Papacy. 
SunJy Rome here forgot her camning 1 The match 
rf 1186, which united the heir of Germany and 
tpper Italy with the heiress of Sicily and Lower 
I^, had seemed to foreshadow the pohtical annihi- 
ation of the Popes. By an unexpected chance, by 
^ untimely death of the Emperor Henry the Sixth, 
*-tt two crowns had become once more separated ; 
JH here is Innocent agreeing to the election of the 
Ciur of Sicily to the throne of Germany. The con- 
STUHice was that the Mse step of 1212 had to be 
writfved by succeeding Popes ; that Germany, Italy, 
^i Sicily had to become a prey to anarchy lasting 
'f years; that a civil strife, unusually rancorous, 

'1 t4) be waged between Guelfs and GhibeUines. 
f'»ttigneTs called into Italy by the Papacy; the house 

*• Hohenstaufen root<Kl out ; executions, battles, mas- 
"•' '^^ prolonged to the end of the Thirteenth cen- 
* T *^ the maiming of the old Boman Empire, and 
'^* division amongst petty princes, instead of its an- 
' ' A union under one powerfiil head ; all these were 

• Letter of Innocent IV., in 1245. 

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CHAP, the fruits of Innocent's policy, and of FredericV^ 
acceptance of the proffered crown. The depoeitioii s 
Lyons, in 1245, and the scaffold at Naples, m 120\ 
were the direct results of the adventure of 1212. 

Innocent took advantage of the present momiLi 
to wrest a few concessions from his young wanL 
He procured a grant of some lands as additional se- 
curity for the 12,800 ounces of gold, in which sum 
the Crown of Sicily stood indebted to Eome. Wheu 
at Gaeta, Frederick had sent John Euffo, one of hb 
knights, to hold Eocca Bantra at the request of the 
inhabitants, who had undergone much in the laie 
wars. The King was now, however, bidden to re^toa 
this place to the Abbey of Monte Cassino.* More- 
over, there is extant a charter given at Eome i^ 
April 1212, whereby Frederick yielded up the county 
of Fondi and all the lands as far as the river G-ari- 
gliano, so that the Pope might grant them to whom- 
soever he would, after the death of Eichanl, th^' 
present Count, who had previously made a gift of hi^ 
lands to Eome. Three years later, Frederick says in 
a charter given at Spires, that he is aware that lie 
can never display a proper amount of gratitude i<» 
the Pope for past favours ; still, to show his sense «»f 
Innocent's goodness, he directs Eichard, the Poik- V 
brother, to hold Sora, Arpino, Brocco, and niauy 
other fiefs, not of the Kingdom of Sicily, but of thr 
Church. Neither of these grants seems to have take:, 
effect ; the fiefs of both the Eichards are still bep^'» • 
the Southern boundary of the States of the Churo!i 
The Pope was equally attentive to his spiritual autl^ 
rity in Sicily ; the highest in rank were not span"!- 

• Ric. San Germane. 

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V few days after Frederick had left Eome, Innocent chap. 
^rrote to the chapter of Palermo, ordering the re- 
Q<.>val of Parisio, the Archbishop elect, since that 
)rLlate had chosen to quit Rome while a lawsuit 
i^as going on concerning his election. The chapter 
was to choose a new Archbishop within thirty days ; 
jtherwise the Cardinal of St Theodore, the Pope's 
Lgate in Sicily, would name a prelate. 

In the mean time, Frederick was proceeding on 
his journey, afi^r having received a supply of money 
fn>ra Innocent. The Pisans, faithful to Otho, were on 
the look-out for the young pretender, but if Pisa was 
on one side, Genoa was sure to take the other. To 
Genoa accordingly Innocent applied for a convoy, and 
that dty sent four galleys, which brought Frederick 
and his comrades in safety to the ligurian coast. 
He reached Genoa on the first of May, and was joy- 
fully welcomed by both priests and people. Here 
he had to wait for two months and a half, while his 
partizans throughout Northern Italy were making 
ready. AH this time he was hving at the cost 
"f the State, which he afterwards repaid with more 
'!ian 1500 pounds. He proved ungrateful to Genoa 
<>u his return eight years later, much to the indig- 
nation of her patriotic historian, who tells us that 
the dty was the gate {janiui\ giving Frederick 
atx'fss to the Empire. ' He was well received from 
the greatest to the least ; I can hardly write it, 
how well he was received. We gave him money 
when he had not necessaries.'* But he certainly 
uMve a deed to the Consuls of Genoa, among whom 
we find a Querdo, a Doria, and a Spinola, whereby 

* Caffiui ; Ann. Genuenses. 

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CHAP, he promised, as soon as lie should gain the Empire, 

_ _YL tx) confirm all the privileges of Genoa, to grant oer- 

1212-1220. ^^ castles to the state, to transfer to it all the Im- 
perial authority in the district between Atrenolio and 
Monaco, and to pay the city 9200 golden tarens. 
Ogerio Pane, the Genoese annalist, took the oath en 
the part of Frederick, the Emperor elect pledging 
his soul in token of performance. 

By this time the Marquess of Montferrat, the acm 
of the well-known hero of the crusade against Con- 
stantinople, the Marquess of Este, the Count of &m 
Bonifazio, and the Pope's Legate, had arrived at 
Genoa ; they had already been employed by Inno- 
cent in bringing over the Tuscan states from the side 
of Otho. That Emperor had pteced Azzo of &te 
under the ban of the Empire for refusing to attend 
the last Diet. On the 15th of July, the Boy from 
Sicily (so Frederick was called in the North), set out 
from Genoa, taking the road of Montferrat and Astl 
He met with a grand reception at Pavia, where a 
canopy was borne over his head, according to the 
custom of the Empire. Great enthusiasm was shown 
by the partizans of the Church ; the Cremonese en- 
voys, the Pavians, and the Marquess of Este, all 
vowed to carry their candidate in triumph to Cre- 
mona, and thence to Eome, if need were, however 
sturdily Otho's friends might oppose themselves. 
Frederick's way was now beset with dangers ; Mil^^ 
to the north, and Piacenza to the south, were his de- 
clared foes, and indeed their enmity only ceased at 
his death. The Pavians were forced to take him by 
night to meet the Cremonese, to whom they handed 
over their precious charge at the ford of the Lambm, 
very early on a Sunday morning. He was but t^o 

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miles on his way thence to Cremona, when a fight chap, 
Urck place between his old Pavian escort and Otho's 
partisans.* The Milanese, who had brought out 
tbdr Carrocdo and all their forces for a battle with 
tbe pung Hohenstaufen, angry at having missed 
thdr prey, set upon the retreating Pavians, and 
TDiited them with great loss.f A warm greeting 
iTiited Frederick at Cremona, the chief rival of 
IHan. The citizens, we are told, received the youth- 
ful adventurer as if they had seen an angel of the 
LjriJ Nor did they ever waver in their attach- 
ment to him, and to his heirs after him. Frederick 
was th^ passed on to Mantua, and thence to Verona; 
ie inhabitants of this city, aided by the Count of 
2in Bonifazio, escorted their Eoyal guest some dis- 
iioce on his northern road, and then left him to make 
tis own way. His easiest course would have been 
»»» tnvel up the vale of the Adige, and so across the 
Bofflner ; but in that case he might have fallen into 
tbe hands of Otho, who had regained Germany some 
3><itha before this time. Frederick, therefore, had 
**• turn aside to the left at Trent, and to make his 
»iT as he best could with a handftd of followers over 
tbe trackless Alpine snows. A glance at the map 
Tin show the difficulties he must have encountered 
Wore he could come down upon Coire, in the Gri- 
"^Hii Happily for him, all this took place in the 
tti'mthfi of August and September. He was joined 
U the Bishop of Coire and the Abbot of St. Gall, the 
iiraat men of those parts, and crossing the Euppen 
^ sixty knights, he made his entrance into Con- 

• CliroiL Pbcentinoni. f Francis Pipin and others. 
I Tolosanua. 

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CHAP, stance,* Had he tarried but three hours he vau' 


'. — have lost Germany ; for Otho was only three lear^ 

~ ^ ^' off with two hundred knights, and had already sii: 
on his cooks and servants into the town. The Bi^ll«^f- 
who had been wavering between the two rivaKt»Ktf 
the advice of the Abbot of St Gall, and shut tic. 
gates in Otho's face after Frederick's arrival Tnus 
the star of Guelf once more paled before thai : 
Hohenstaufen. Otho was instantly excommuniciu*! 
in Constance by Berard, the Archbishop of Ban, vl-^ 
had followed Frederick from the South, and vh.- 
acted as Innocent's Legate.f 

The Guelf disbanded his army and retreated i:4t' 
the North, while " the child of Apuha" took the rt.c: 
to Basle. Here Frederick was surrounded by : t 
local nobility, among whom was Eodolph, the 0»-ix 
of Habsburg and Landgrave of Alsace ; the Coud: * 
renowned grandson was as yet unborn. The Bi-li 
of Strasburg brought his new sovereign five huniL' -^ 
knights.^ Frederick was met at Colmar by :lv 
Duke of Lorraine, who came fully expecting to rndk* 
a good bargain for himself; the young King bou// 
the powerful aid of his kinsman by the promi>o f 
4000 silver marks. The first-fruits of his alliai: ^ 
with the Duke was the capture of Haguenau, a sl^i ,• 
castle in Alsace, which was always a favourite rt*- . 
of the Hohenstaufen Kaisers, and which was i> ^» 
wrested out of the hands of Otho.§ Freder: i^- 
great-grandfather, the one-eyed Duke of Suabia, ' 
surrounded the town with walls. Barbarossa ! 

• Ursperg. 

f Conr. de Fabaria. lordanus. Frederick says of himdcli ii. IJ.' 
* practer humanum scnsum ct subsidium in Theutoniam w:.:. r 
J Ursperg. § Kicher Sonon. 

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•dcraed the halls of its castle with a red marble pave- chap. 

DKQt, and had buUt three chapels within its circuit ; 

m these he designed to keep the insignia of Char- 

kamagne, which were afterwards, in 1209, removed 

u> Trifek Frederick the First had also foimded a 

iioBpital in Haguenau ; his son Henry had created the 

town an Imperial city, on account of its having become 

tke abode of the Caesars. Frederick the Second made 

it his head-quarters whenever he was in Germany ; 

he built the parish church, and established his trea- 

imy in Haguenau, whither all the towns in Alsace 

brought their tribute.* He soon began to distribute 

iwirds among his partisans. One of his first acts 

»w to issue an edict in favour of Ottocar, the King 

<i Bohemia, who had been foremost in promoting 

ttc late election. The faithfulness ever shown by 

JJie Brfiemians towards the Empire was praised ; the 

pi^ilege granted to their nation by PhiKp, Frederick's 

^Qde, was recited. Whomsoever they might hereafter 

Jttt as their king, Frederick would institute. The 

fc^'Weign of Bohemia was not bound to attend any 

Wets, except those that might be held at Bamberg, 

^umnberg, and Merseburg. Ottocar was to send 300 

*J«ght8 to Rome for the next Imperial coronation, or 

*s* to pay 300 marks. A grant of several castles was 

***le to him. Two castles were also given to another 

^wwii partisan, Henry the Duke of Moravia, the 

t^Jther of the K'lng of Bohemia. 

It may seem strange that the business of a great 
^pire, the granting of charters, the pledging of 
''A<!ts, and the disbiu-sement of large sums of money, 
' 'tuld be entrusted to a SiciUan foreigner of tender 

• See Lagaille*s Alsace. 

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CHAP, years ; but we learn that Frederick was assisted by :: 

'. — council of seven, who were usually in attendame 

1212-1220. ^pQQ j^g person. First in rank came the Chancell« r 
and the Protonotary; the other five had each an 
honorary title, derived from the servile offices onct 
rendered by their predecessors to the Emperors. 
Thus one of them was Seneschal, another Butl*:, 
a third Master-cook, while the other two had ili.- 
better-sounding offices of Chamberlain and MarsliaL 
These titles their possessors, usually Suabian nobl«r-, 
were proud to bear, and to transmit to their descend- 
ants. Among them we find Werner von BoUanden, 
who had taken the lead in making war upon Othn, 
even before Frederick had crossed the Alps*; maiy 
members of the Schipf, Tanne, and Eotenburg fami- 
Ues ; and Anselm von Justingen, who long afterwards 
proved unworthy of his trust. It is possible that on 
grand occasions they exercised the offices whenw 
they took their titles ; but their real function was i'^ 
act as comisellors to their young master, who coiilJ 
as yet know nothing of German customs. They an* 
sometimes called in his charters. Princes of tin* 
Empire. They afterwards performed their minkeri:il 
offices for Frederick's sons, when those children werc 
each in his turn placed at the head of Germany even 
at a younger age than when Frederick himself toi^k 
the reins of government The same office might 1h 
held by more than one noble at the same time ; thu-^ 
one Seneschal followed Frederick to Eome in 12-0. 
while two Seneschals were left behind in Germany 
to act as regents, f 

• Reiner Leod. 

f I have been guided here by the remarks of M. Huili-^'J 
Brdholles, in the preface to his great work. 

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'lie youthful adventurer was most lavish in his chap. 
its to his new subjects. He had given the town 
Roslieim in pledge to his friend, the Duke of 
•mine, but took it back on hearing of the Duke's 
.til in the following year. He made another grant 
Sifl5rid, the Archbishop of Mayence, who had 
lergone many dangers and had spent much money 
Fred.erick'8 behalf. This prelate had excommuni- 
:ed Otho, and had been empowered by Innocent 
wear the Papal dress and to ride on a white horse.* 
II possessions held by the Crown imder the Arch- 
shop ^vere at once given up to him. Conrad, the 
\shop of Metz and Spires, who had acted as Chan- 
llor of the Empire under Otho, came over to Fre- 
drick, and still kept the high office. He was a 
relate renowned for wisdom, but of expensive tastes; 
e was always in want of money, although enjoying 
\\e revenues of two sees.f The Bishop of Worms 
lad done great things for the house of Hohenstaufen, 
nd had served Frederick's uncle in Italy long before 
his time ; he was rewarded by a remission of Impe- 
ial claims, both as to his see and as to the abbey of 
U)rsch. Two years afterwards, he was made Legate 
in Apulia, where he succeeded the Marquess of Este. 
Frederick, although now on the high road to success, 
thought it as weU to secure a way of retreat, in the 
event of Otho's making a stout resistance. He ac- 
eordingly went to Vaucouleurs on the Meuse, the 
l>oundary between France and the Empire, where he 
met the eldest son of Phihp Augustus, the greatest 
5^>vereign of the day and the true founder of the 
French monarchy. The conference was attended 

• Reiner Leodien. f Alb. Trium Fontium. 

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CHAP, by a vast throng of Princes and knights.* On iIk . 
19th of November, a league was made at Toil 
between the Capets and Hohenstaufens ; Frederick 
refers to the friendship which had always existwi 
between these houses, and makes known to all me» 
that he has engaged to make no peace with either 
Otho, or John of England, Otho's chief supporter, 
without the consent of the King of France. Thi? 
monarch, of whose conduct Otho had complaineo 
bitterly in the spring, sealed the bargain by a gift 
of 20,000 silver marks to his new ally. 'Where 
shall we stow away all this money ? ' asked the pru- 
dent Chancellor. 'Share it out among the Princt*^ 
of the Empire,' was the answer of FredericL It 
need not surprise us to learn that these lords broke 
out into loud praises of their open-handed Emperor 
electf He must have formed a strong contrast to 
his rival, the churlish Otho. 

The young chief, who was not yet eighteen J'ca^ 
old, returned fix)m Lorraine to Mayence, where he 
held a Diet of the Empire, on the 13th of November. 
Very many of the Princes who owed him homage 
took the oath of allegiance, but Leopold the Duke 
of Austria, one of his staunchest supporters, was m^t 
present ; that Prince had joined the crusade again-Jt 
the unhappy Albigenses, and had afterwards marche*'. 
on into Spain, to fight against the Moslem.J Anvl 
now the great event of the year was to take pLice 
Frederick went by Worms to Frankfort There, <>n 
the 5th of December, he was met by the spiritual 
and temporal Electors of Germany, by the envop «»i 
the Pope and of Philip Augustus, and by 501M' 

• Giiill. Annor. f Chronic. Sampctr. 

X Godefr. Colon. 

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ougiitB.* All with one voice hailed the Boy fix)m chap. 
icily as their King. Four days afterwards he was 
lowned in the old cathedral of Mayence by the 
^idihishop of that see, who officiated at the re- 
pest of the Prelate of Colc^e, Frederick took all 
be cQstomary oaths ; and the nobles promised that 
wen in the event of his death they would never 
^cognise Otho. Conrad the Chancellor preached 
l»eft)re the countless multitudes in the church, and 
Ltafirmed them in their hatred to Otho, whose 
■niieter he had been, by revealing a dark secret. 
Be made oath that the Guelf Kaiser had entertained 
the design of recruiting his finances by means of an 
■nlieard-of tax, to be laid upon brothels, f The 
Qffliicellor sent a full account of the proceedings at 
Mtyence to the King of France, asking him at the 
•ffle time to continue his support, for which the 
Germans would ever be bounden to him. 

Frederick did not allow this year to pass away 
'itlHHit rewarding his fiaithfiil traveUing companion, 
fiwwd, the Archbishop of Bari. Beference is made, 
* 4e grant bestowed at Spires in December, to the 
^wl&rtneas with which that Prelate had adhered to 
^ Crown in the time of need, and to the risks he 
W run, when following his master into Germany, 
'rederidc gave him at his request some lands near 
1^ cathedral ; his countrjrmen Walter GentUe, the 
tirfi Constable of Sicily, the Count of Loritello, and 
^^^'irew the I/^thete, put their names to the deed. 
^ the Electors of Germany, who had just raised 
f ^rick to the throne, were also witnesses to the 
^^D(mr conferred upon the Apulian stranger ; the 

• Reiner Leodien. 

t AnxL Beinhardsbninn, quoted by SchiiTmacher. 

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CHAP. Archbishops of Cologne, Mayence and Treves, tit 
Dukes of Lorraine, Zahringen, and Bavaria, and ik 
Landgrave of Thuringia, who must all have betj 
present at the election and coronation, subsaiW 
their names. Another fidthfid Apulian comradf, 
John of Sulmona, in the same month obtained from 
Frederick a nonunation to a stall in the Eoyal chapel 
at Palermo. Thus worthily ended the year 1212. 
the most important in Frederick's life. It had been 
fraught with danger to him ; in it were comprijed 
interviews with Pope Innocent, perils from Pisat 
galleys, perils from Milanese onslaughts, journeys 
over rugged Alpine heights, and impending encoun- 
ters with the jealous Otho. But the great event of 
December made up for all; little did the youth think 
that this very event, which seemed to raise him to 
the highest pinnacle of earthly renown, would be 
the cause hereafter of a great and fearful down&Il 
In January 1213, Frederick was again at hi 
ancestral castle of Haguenau, where he was at- 
tended by some of his archbishops and barons. In 
February, he for the first time traversed Suabia 
the cradle of his race ; as yet he had not been far 
to the east of the Ehine, At Batisbon he met the 
Duke of Caiinthia ; the heroic Duke of Austria, wh-^ 
eight years before had rescued CSonstance, the reign- 
ing Queen of Sicily, from her Hungarian persecutors; 
and Diephold, the Margrave of Hohenburg, wh^^ 
became one of the most constant attendants of the 
Eoyal progresses. Frederick held another Pit- 
and received the oath of fealty from many who ha ^ 
not appeared at Mayence.* At his side might u!- 

* Conr. Schirenaifi. 

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vays be remarked the Duke of Bavaria, possessing chap. 
[•mhI claims to the notice of the Hohenstaufen party, 
lut merely as being the son of Otho of Wittelsbach, 
»ut as an old warrior who had followed Henry the 
^mh into Apulia in 1194 and 1197. No small share of 
Kaiser Henry's sternness seemed to have descended 
>» Ilia son Frederick. The eight years which the 
r.uth spent in Germany were employed by him in 
iraversing the country in all directions, and in execut- 
ing' rough justice upon criminals, without any respect 
' t persons. No mercy was shown to those guilty of 
rubbery, arson, or sedition. They were not allowed 
:• buy themselves off; they were beheaded, broken 

•I the wheel, mutilated, or put to various tortures. 
Flit' merchants, who could now travel in peace, were 

•u<l in Frederick's praise ; the fame of the good 
winning he had made of his reign was spread far 

• 1 wide.* Throughout his life he was regarded as 
' y- very impersonation of justice ; he delighted to 

•yle himself *'Law animate upon earth." His 
'inly to the Churches was appreciated at least as 

'-•h as his vigorous rule. Thus at Batisbon he 
liHil favours upon the famous Scotch monastery 

'i that city. The Bishop of Trent, the Emperor's 
>in, was made his General Legate in Northern 

^* -y. Frederick next visited Augsburg, where he 

* littKl a charter to the Bishop of Coire, without 
■ 'i"N,- timely aid he would scarcely have reached 
' "'i^tance in the previous year. He now once more 

* irned to the city of the lake, and held another 

^' • t towards the end of March. Many princes came 

' Coblentz, but Frederick could not meet them, 

'^cljer Senon. late paccm firmat, et prcdones, quos repent, 
•"' if. r clampnat. — Iltst. Novieniensis Monasterii, 

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CHAP, being too much occupied. • He bestowed favoui^ 
upon Eberhard, the Archbishop of Salzburg, who wa- 
at this time one of the Papal Legates, and who i^ver 
wavered in his loyalty up to the eve of his death 
thirty-three years afterwards. The Abbot of St GaE 
and many others of the Emperor's old Swiss frienis 
who had brought him such important aid in \k 
previous year, waited upon their grateful Lord at 

Li July, Frederick entered Bohemia for the to 
time, and met his Heges at Egra, a town better 
known as the scene of the death of WaUenstein many 
centuries later. The Emperor Elect was now sur- 
roimded by nearly all the heads of Germany, spiritual 
and temporal. From Egra is dated a most weightr 
instrument, tending greatly to the advantage of Po|x 
Lmocent and his successors. Full justice is done by 
Frederick to the services already rendered to him by 
Bome ; obedience is promised ; and the old rigl'> 
long enjoyed by the Sicilian crown are ceded Elec- 
tions to the sees are to be free ; appeals to Eonie 
are allowed ; and the goods of deceased prelates art 
no longer to go to the crown. Heresy is to be rooted 
out. The lands of the Countess Matilda are to be 
handed over to the Pope, once for alL Ancoua, 
Spoleto, Kavenna, and many other cities and territo- 
ries are to be given up by the Empire. The GoKte 
Bull was used to ratify these important g^ant^ 
Frederick also took the oath of obedience to Bon/^ 
in the curious double chapel of the castle at Egra. 
in the presence of the German prelates and nobk-- 
who confirmed the act of their new head. 

* Reiner Leod. 

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Later in July, the Emperor Elect returned westr chap. 
ward, visiting Nuremberg ; in September he was at 
rberlingen. In the mean time Otho had been at- 
tacking the Archbishop of Magdeburg, another of 
the Papal Legates, and the Landgrave of Thuringia. 
Frederick marched to the aid of his allies ; his army 
wa:3 joined by the wild Bohemians, who ravaged 
^ony in a ferocious manner, and went home laden 
with booty. Otho, unable to defend his country, 
retreated to Brunswick, his great stronghold, and saw 
the Margrave of Meissen go over to the other side. 
In 1211 Otho had overrun Apulia, and had threat- 
eue*! Frederick in Palermo ; in 1213 Frederick was 
kying waste Saxony, and was almost at the gates of 
Brunswick. Two short years had wrought a great 
change. Very few of the Germans had leisure to 
attend Frederick's Diet at Merseburg, in the midst of 
tlie!^ wars .• The young conqueror had at one time 
^•>'>Ived to besiege Otho in his head-quarters ; but 
i!u5 plan was abandoned.f He kept Christmas at 
^I>ire8, holding one more Diet ; on this occasion, by 
tile advice of his friends, he had the corpse of his 
'>Dce popular imcle Philip buried in the cathedral, 
the noblest specimen of old German architecture, 
where many of his forefathers, the Franconian Kaisers, 
lay interred. Their tombs were broken open and 
<le5troyed long afterwards by the ruthless soldiers of 
I»im the Fourteenth. Philip's body was brought to 
>pire^ from Bamberg, where it had lain for five years 
after his murder, and his nephew bestowed on the 
tanner cathedralachurch belonging to him atEsslingen, 
that the souls of the Emperor's dec^sised kinsmen might 

* Chronic. Sampetr. Reiner Leod. f Alb. StadensiB. 


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CHAP, meet with all due attention. ' Under the old dispoir 
sation,' Frederick remarks in his charter, *it seemec 

useless to pray for the dead ; we, who are appoiniH^l 
to Hve in the time of grace and truth, cannot doul: 
but that it is salutary and necessary to pray for ou: 
deceased fiiends, and to aid them with alms.' 

Otho, Philip's old rival, had been steadily losn;: 
ground from the time of Frederick's first appearamv 
at the gates of Constance. The year 1213 had been 
most unfavourable to the House of Guelf ; the fal- 
lowing year was to put the finishing stroke to its dis- 
comfiture. Not content with the many enemies vb- 
were pressing him hard in Germany, Otho wen: 
forth to seek new foes in France. Frederick knew 
that Suabia and Bavaria would be his best allies in 
the coming struggle. He therefore took up hisabaic 
at Augsburg, in February 1214, where he was met 
by Albert Coimt of Tyrol, Frederick the Bui^ve m: 
Nuremberg, an ancestor of the royal house of P^lSJ^i3, 
Henry von Neifen, who had once done the Crown 
good service in Lombardy, and by many Prelates. 
Ever since his arrival in Germany, Frederick bi'^ 
been most lavish in his grants to the Churches, anvl 
had flattered the nation by his predilection for tb 
- Teutonic Order, which was especially strong in Thu- 
ringia* The Patriarch of Aquileia, on the Adriati' 
was a German ; his rights over Friuli, Istria, ai. • 
Camiola, were now clearly defined, and his po>v< ' 
was extended even as far as Belluno. In June/u. 
new head of Germany was once more at Egra, wh^" 
the King of Bohemia and many other chiefs wait^* 
upon him. He endowed the monastery of W;- > 
sachsen with pecuUar privileges, on account of i^ 
barren fields and of its exposure to the inroad- v* 

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the rude Bohemians. He held another Diet at TJlm, chap. 


in which his faithful Apulian prelate took part. Be- 
rtrd appears no longer as Archbishop of Ban, having 
been promoted to the See of Palermo- Pope Inno- 
cent had specially interested himself in this change, 
Tvproving his L^ate in Sicily for having been slow 
in procuring Berard's translation. 

The great crisis had now come ; Otho had rushed 

^ to his doom. While Frederick was at Worms in 

July, his rival had completed his own ruin. The 

Gnetf had ravaged the lands of the Count of Gueldres 

4ml the Bishop of liege, and had cajoled the latter 

into allowing him to cross the Meuse. He marched 

Vj the aid of the Count of Flanders, and fiirther 

srengthened his party by wedding the daughter of 

tie Duke of Brabant, a most fickle politician.* Philip 

Augustus, on the other hand, led the chivalry of North- 

'Tn France against the German invaders, who were 

j"ined by an English contingent imder the stout Earl 

"t Salisbury, and by the rebellious Coxmt of Flanders. 

The rivals met at Bouvines, near Toumay, on the 

2Tth of July. The nations who fought on that day 

^ere much the same as at Waterloo ; on the one 

^>le were the French, under the eye of their King ; 

w the other side was a motley host of Germans, 

ITemings, and English. But the result of the battle 

^as widely different fix)m that of Waterloo. In vain 

ol Otho display the courage ever shown in war by his 

^HBe ; he was driven off the field, leaving the Coimts 

^j' Salisbury and Flanders prisoners in the hands of 

^ enemy, who retiuned in triumph to Paris. Bou- 

^^ is the first great national victory of France ; 

* Reiner Leod. 

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CHAP, it heads the noble list on which are inscribed *1 
^' names of Marignan and Bocroi, Fontenoy £J 

Frederick did not give his beaten rival any brei.:] 
ing time. On hearing of Otho's defeat at Bouviit^ 
he marched from Worms at the head of an unusuail 
strong army, which included some of the SoutlKi 
Princes, and he crossed the Moselle, The noblt^ i 
those parts, xmable to withstand him, gave him ihd 
allegiance. He went further North than he haJ i 
yet ventured, but lost his faithful partizan the IKi^ 
of Bavaria, who was treacherously seized and id 
prisoned in a castle near Zolpich. An attack <i 
Aix-la-Chapelle failed and cost many lives; id 
Frederick crossed the Meuse at Maestricht on i:H 
24th of August, and was obliged to make use of t}j 
fords of the river, as the bridge was not large eno: j1 
for his mighty army. He then ravaged those pat^ 
sweeping off the cattle ; and on advancing into Br i 
bant, he was met by two of Otho's staunchesi f 
lowers, the Dukes of Brabant and limbui^, v'r.i 
submitted to Frederick, giving their sons as hostagi- ^ 
When at Worsele, he conferred Maestricht upon lii 
Duke of Lorraine and his son, as a reward for li. i 
good services, engaging to redeem the town from '^^ 
possessor by Easter in the following year. T. i 
Bishop of liege joined him ; Fauquemont was hW^^ 
aded; and the Counts of Juhch and Cleve? wi: 
forced to yield.f The muster-roll of the Prina*? ii' 
Prelates attending Frederick at this time is imuKi- 

By the 18th of September the Emperor Elect 1 ■ 
marched Southward, and was besieging the Oi^' 
of Landskrone, standing on a hill wcU known to o 

♦ Godefr. Colon. Reiner Leod. f Reiner Lctnint 

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ihose who turn aside from the Bhine to travel up chap. 


the Ahr valley. This fortress had been built in 

1206 by Philip of Hohenstaufen, as a thorn in the 

Bde of his enemy the Archbishop of Cologne. He 

U placed in it the kinsmen and friends of Gerich- 

ra Ton Sinzig to garrison it But the castle had 

Ukn into the hands of Otho's partizans, and Frede- 

rid found himself imable to take it He promised 

Gerichwin, praising him highly for past loyal services, 

lie (^ce of Castellan, and engaged to bestow other 

Sm3iro as soon as God should give Landskrone into 

Uwr hands. Gerichwin was allowed to keep as a 

pie^ for the promised money certain goods which 

Oiho had granted him. This knight, and his sons 

«fter him, ever showed unswerving loyalty to the 

Bobenstaufens, even in the worst of times. Land- 

*k«»e did not surrender imtil the next year, when 

Trifeb followed its example* 

RuHp of France, in his truce with John of England 
Bttde after the victory at Bouvines, reserved to him- 
*lf the power of aiding his German alHes, One of 
6«e, the Duke of Bavaria, ransomed himself from 
^ gaolers in October, having exacted a vast sum of 
^*»ey from his subjects, to which rich and poor 
^t were forced to contribute,f He now gained a 
"^^ title, that of Count Palatine of the Ehine, which 
^ before been borne by Henry, the still Uving 
eUer brother of Otho. This title the Duke of Ba- 
^^ transmitted to one brandi of his descendants, 
'^^•uiing it during his own life. The partizans of 
y*e young Hohenstaufen, as we see, were rising upon 
^ rain of the Guelf party, rrederick himself went 
'7 Spins to Basle, where he mediated between the 

* Alb. StadensiB. f Ann. Schirenses. 

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CHAP. Bishop of Strasburg and the Duke of Zlahiingen, and 
held a Diet, attended by the Archbishop of Besanfon 

12-1220. ^^^ other Prelates of the far west. He at this time 
granted important privileges to Humbert^ Archbishop 
of Vienne and Arch-Chancellor of the kingdom i>f 
Burgundy, which had been inherited by Frederick 
from his grandmother. The Bishops of Viviera, 
Die, and St. Paul Trois-Chateaux, were also highly 
favoured. Aries was called the head of Provence 
and the chief seat of the Emperor; all possible 
powers were heaped upon its Archbishop, and its 
burghers were gratified by the recognition of their 
consuls. Indeed, this Diet of Basle, held towards 
the end of November, seems to have been summoned 
almost exclusively for the advantage of those domi- 
nions of Frederick which lay on the Ehone. He 
himself, unlike his grandfather, never held a Diet at 
Besan9on or Aries, though his influence was favour- 
able to the privileges of the French-speaking towns. 
One of these, Metz in Lorraine, became his head- 
quarters later in the year, and there he made a treaty 
with King Waldemar of Denmark, who was allowed 
to hold in peace all the conquests of the Danish 
crown, beyond the Eyder and the Elbe, in the Sla- 
vonic coimtry. Henceforth the Dane became a most 
bitter enemy to Otho, and attacked the city of Stade,* 
Dxuing Frederick's stay at Metz, a lawsuit between 
the Canons of the cathedral and some merchants of 
Huy was decided ; the latter claimed exemption from 
paying custom dues, since they had houses in Metz. 
But Simon, the Canons' advocate, convinced the Arch- 
bishop of Treves and the Duke of Lorraine, whom 

* Alb. Stadensis. 

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•rederick had deputed to hear the cause, that the chap, 

• VI 

uerchants were in the wrong, since they did not 
aake Metz their home, and their wives lived else- 
liiere. The Chancellor and the magistrates of Metz 
»nfirmed the judgment 

Another Diet was held during Epiphany 1215, 

Hien the title of King, attached to the kingdom of 

Wes and Vienne, was granted to William des Baux 

tfce Prince of Orange, and to his heir. This was 

p«>hably nothing more than a mere complimentary 

i«inction. Frederick then left Metz for Geln- 

bluseD, the palace of his grandfather Barbarossa, a 

^ fragments of which stiQ remain, specimens of 

i^ interlacing arches of the Twelfth century. Here 

J-: cnnfirmed a grant by the Count of Nassau of the 

' finrch of Wiesbaden to the Teutonic Order. Still 

^nt-nded by the throng of nobles, who had followed 

^ from Metz, he rode on through Naumburg and 

•^burg, where, after alluding to a gift of forty 

^*h fi)r planting vines made to a neighboming 

Aobey by his beloved cousin Theodoric, Margrave of 

^tii^n, he allowed the brethren two cartloads of 

^ "ji every week out of the Eoyal forests. By the 

•ginning of February, Frederick had made his way 

^i the hostile Saxon country, as far as Halle ; here 

> rewarded the good services of the Archbishop 

'/ Magdeburg, and compensated the Prelate for his 

'*6^. About this time, as we are told, King Fre- 

*^rick began to be mighty in the Koman Empire, 

l^i ordered peace to be kept throughout all the 

'•^•i ; the folk bc^an once more to enjoy comfort, 

*•> tin their fields, and to sow com,* Peace was 

* Mae^lvburg Schoffenchronik, quoted by Scbirrmacher. 

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CHAP, also enjoined upon the higher Princes. At Augs- 
burg, Frederick arranged a dispute between Ae 

* Bishop of Passau and the Duke of Austria. To- 
wards the end of April he was at Spires, where he 
made another grant to his friend Berard of aD the 
Jews at Palermo for six years, presenting that Qinni 
with Caccabo as a recompense for its losses sustaiDd 
in the cause of the Crown. In the previous year 
Innocent had caused the Crusade to be preachec 
through Gtermany, and on the Ist of May, Frederick 
held a conference at Andemach with many of th 
nobles, some of whom took the Cross, headed bj 
the Duke of Bavaria.* The siege of Cologne and 
Aix-la-Chapelle was debated, and resolved upon] 
that the war might be ended once for alLf Frede^ 
rick then retreated for the present to FrankfiTrtj 
where the poverty of the Chapter moved his com 
passionate indignation, and obtained a remedy. 

The long-desired enterprise was at length acoont 
pUshed- Frederick left Haguenau, and took th^ 
field at the head of all the nobles of Lorraine. Aix 
la-Chapelle, which had long withstood the effort 
of the Hohenstaufen party, made no further resisi 
ance. The burghers, though a powerful minoriti 
dissented, wrote to Frederick, inviting him to entts 
their city in peaca This he did, after the bars o 
the gates had been broken, on the 24th of July 
and on the next day he was anointed and placed ij 
the Imperial seat of Charlemagna No one was a 
this time recognised as Archbishop of Cologne by th^ 
Church party ; the Archbishop of Mayence there 
fore took the leading part at the coronation, as lit 

• Godefir, Colon. f Beiner Leod. 

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tfd done two years before at the ceremony in his chap. 
mn cathedral* The young King fell on- his face 
t the foot of the high altar, while the Divine bless- 
Bg was being invoked upon hinou He then sat 
ipoQ the marble throne, which had been taken out 
( the toaib of Charlemagne, and heard mass, an 
bcbbishc^ sitting on either hand. He next made 
BBwer to the questions addressed to him by the 
ificiating Prelate, which were translated into Ger- 
■an, promising to do justice to all subjects of the 
Empire, and to obey the Pope. The throng of Princes 
»nd Prelates, knights and clergy, who filled the 
tturdi, were then asked by the Archbishop of 
Mayence if they would obey Frederick as King ; 
Aey thrice shouted assent. The Sovereign was 
tlv anointed and arrayed in the customary garb ; 
^ then received the Eoyal insignia, and three 
Archbishops placed the silver Crown of Germany 
^ his head. Then, placing both his hands on 
^ iltar, he repeated the coronation oath in Latin 

t)n this occasion a further ceremony followed. 
i^ of Xanten, and Conrad the Dean, who after- 
^wfa became Bishop of Hildesheim, preached the 
f naide before the august assembly ; and Frederick, 
^ only twenty years old, took the Cross ; a step 
^''*ined to influence the next fifteen years of his 
^ By dint of largesses and promises, he prevailed 
°poo Hjveral Princes present to enlist for the Cru- 
"•^ Siffiid of Mayence and four other Prelates, 
'^^^^er with three Dukes and many nobles and 
^?lits, followed the example set by their Lord. 

* Heiiicr Leod. Godcfr. Colon. t Pertz, L^cs. 

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CHAP. On the 27th of July, Frederick heard a s-»V-- • 
' mass. He then placed the bones of his great pr^^y 
1212-1220. cessor Charlemagne in a precious reliquary of sio- 
gilt and enamelled, which may yet be seen ue:*- 
that time-honoured dome. He laid aside his rtiV- 
took a hammer, and mounted the scaflfolding, assi-: •. 
by the craftsman whom he had employed. H 
drove the nails firmly into the rehquary in the sbz*' 
of all the people. The rest of the day was given '.* 
to sermons ; the Dean of Spires was most succeacrf:^' 
in his pulpit ministrations.* 

Two days later a Diet was held at Aix-la-Chapel' 
which included most of the grandees. The yf*a7j 
Emperor-Elect gave a charter to the burgher^- : 
which he ranked their city as the second in th- 
Empire, Eome being the first He confirmed :!. 
privileges granted them by SU Charles, Freilfri«*< 
the First, and Henry the Sixth. No Imperial JuJj- 
was to tax them; an iUicit revenue, derived fr**: 
the sellers of bread and beer, was abohshed ; am: r* . 
one of the citizens was to be summoned from ho:.. 
to any greater distance than so that he could go ar... 
return with the daylight. Frederick, after receivi".' 
homage, gave investiture to his cousin the Bishop ■•• 
Cambray, and annulled a charter, which the BL<fc« [ - 
flock had previously contrived to gain finom t' 
Crown. These rebels were, at their pastor's requot. 
placed under the ban ; but two months later, li •.; 
regained Frederick's favour. Many of the cIitj; 
of Cologne and Cambray were present at the !►■ . 
and signed their names before the Dukes of Bjiv:.. 
and Lorraine. 

• Godefr. Colon. Reiner Lood. Ann. Arg^nr. 

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Frederick pa^ed a month in the city of Charle- chap. 
wgne, and then went to Neuss on the Shine, where 
fi granted a charter to the strict Cistercians of 
Utfinberg. Their prayers were entreated by Fred- 
rick as a make-weight ; he being fiilly alive to the 
Kt, that he by himself could not obtain the mercy 
i Heaven, owing to his sins. The beautiful con- 
reitual buildings of Altenberg, which still remain, 
hte from about this period. In the mean time, the 
irehbishop of Treves and the Duke of Brabant had 
br»ught over to Frederick's side the neighbouring 
oty of Cologne ; Otho, who had been lurking there, 
Karcdy daring to stir out of doors, ever since the 
iul field of Bouvines, now made his escape into 
Jttony.* His best friend. King John of England, 
»i* powerless to help him, that monarch having 
i«n forced to sign Magna Charta a few weeks only 
t*4)re Frederick's coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Biriy in August Frederick entered Cologne, and 
*« well received by the clergy and people so lately 
-e supporters of his rival. Without their consent, 
bt would never have been able to hold his coiut in 
Oiigne ; as the strong walls, built about thirty years 
tdbre this time, which are still standing, would have 
'effled any feudal army. He stayed a week among his 
^w subjects, and made them all, gentle and simple, 
"▼w that they would not debase the coinage, 
''^T ttnjust taxes, or disturb the peace of the dty. 
^•^I'^-jnie was now reUeved from the excommunica- 
*-Kjii which had been laid upon it seventeen months 
^v.r. Later in the month, it experienced the 
' H.k of an carthquake.f Frederick quitted it for 

• Gudefr. Colon. Beiner Leod. f Godefr. Colon. 

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CHAP. MetZy where he put down intestine broils withi 

strong hand.* Writing to the burghers of that dty 

1212-1220. ^^^ g^ Avoid, he forbade them to harass ic 
clergy. But he does not seem to have interfered is 
behalf of eighty heretics, who were seized at Strar 
burg about this time, and who were nearly all bani 
ahve, after failing to prove their innocence by tit 
ordeal of red-hot iron.f 

Frederick sent his friend Berard to act as hie 
ambassador in the great Lateran Council, held in 
November 1215. Pope Innocent had assembled a: 
Eome 71 Archbishops, 412 Bishops, upwards of 8fll^ 
Abbots and Priors, and many envoys from Kjj^ 
and cities.^ So dense was the throng, that the 
Archbishop of AmRlfi was actually crushed to destk^ 
The three most distinguished men present, after 
Innocent himself and a few of the Cardinals, veiv 
probably Berard, the Archbishop of Palenna 
Frederick's most faithful partisan ; Eoderick XimeneN 
the Archbishop of Toledo, the father of Cssuhn 
prose ; and Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, the founder of the liberties of England, ft 
is strange to find the Monk of Cologne aflfinniDg 
that nothing was achieved at this Council, except 
the subjection of the Greek to the littin Chuitb. 
The truth is, that the Lateran Fathers did but afc 
their seal to doctrines and opinions which had lot? 
been taught in the Church. The heresies of it^ 
Albigenses and the book of Abbot Joachim we^ 
condemned. Transubstantiation was defined; ^'■ 
ceUbacy of the clergy and yearly confession to a 

♦ Reiner Leod. f Ann. Argeat 

X De Wendover. § Amalf. Chron. 

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riest were rigorously enjoined The publication of chap. 

urns was ordained, and new degrees of relationship '. — 

hich barred wedlock were instituted. Temporal ^212-1220. 
cds were ordered, under fearful penalties, to aid in 
K suppression of heresy.* Any person who reads 
le canons of the Lateran Council will see that they 
■re all one end in view, the power of the priest- 
ood over the laity ; thus one more coat of white- 
ash was smeared over the fine old stones of the 
kristian fEtbric, already shamefully defaced by the 
ponnce or malice of those who had held it in 

The Council did not confine its attention to the 
ifiira of religion. The imhappy Coimt of Toulouse 
w despoiled of his rights, although the Pope him- 
«tf wept over the tale of the woes of Languedoc. 
li* soitenee against Otho was confirmed ; still, the 
lEanese made a gallant attempt to restore their 
'"Twirite to his old position. On the other side, the 
^^pis of Montferrat declared that Otho's advocates 
•«eht to be denied a hearing. The Archbishop of 
**«nno was also a dangerous enemy to the Guelf. 
^ hinocent, supported by public feeling, con- 
J°^ the election of Frederidt, who had shown 
**®sdf such a true son of the Church by the grants 
"*fe at Messina, Eome, and Egra.f Thus passed 
**ty this most important year, remarkable for three 
P^ events — the coronation of Frederick, the 
®^ of Magna Charta, and the assembling of the 
|*^«^ divines. Of these, the first has had the 
^•^A abiding results ; the efiects of the councils 

• UArt de Verifier les Dates, 
f Ric. San Germane. 

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CHAP, about this time held at Eunnymede and Bt 
^^' though dating from more than six hundred y -j 

1212-1220. Q^gQ^ gj,g £g|^ 1^ ^]^Q present day in every qnantr 
the world. 

In January 1216, Frederick was employed in ta 
usual way, making grants to monasteries, and 
moning his nobles around him. The compkini- ^. 
Aix-la-Chapelle were redressed, and the priviit-^ 
lately granted were confirmed. ' The burghe^ 
Cambray had stolen a march upon their E^L j 
while he was on his way to the Lateran Orji: 
They had obtained a grant to his prejudice, vh:J 
was now quashed in the presence of many of !-S 
Canons. On the 17th of April, Frederick, tltr. i 
Spires, made Gerard von Sinzig his deputy in t f 
fruitful country where the Moselle flows int*' •'■* 
Ehine, On the 1st of May a Diet of the Dr.r:-* 
was held at Wurzburg, the city of St Kiliai- / 
which Cardinal Peter attended as the PopeV hs-r 
Here Frederick invested Engelbert, the new Ap : 
bishop of Cologne, the best of all the Prelati> v 
have ever ruled that powerful see. The instal::::: 
of Engelbert, to make way for whom two vr 
occupants had been set aside, was confirmed bv \ 
Legate*, and Frederick renewed a grant of ! ■ 
father to the Church of Cologne. Moreover, o:. t 
occasion he gave up the old custom of keepiii.: - 
the Eoyal hands the personalty of Prelates ivaC: t 
revenues of their churches for a whole year ir 
the death of the last occupant. This he renoui.- 
as he says, out of his reverence for the CViu i 
One, wliose sign he now wore, as a vowed Crusi 1 

* Godefr. Colon. 

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"he Archbishop of Magdeburg, acknowledged by chap. 

'rederick as the chief author of his elevation, was 

Dowed to coin money, and had the town of Ober- 1212-1220. 

resel restored to his see. Two abbesses of Eatisbon 

lid a complaint before the Emperor Elect that their 

Imrches had been wronged in an exchange made 

y hinL The Diet decided that no possession 

ouH be transferred firom the Empire to any one 

fc, against the will of the chief tenant concerned. 

Cke exchange in question was therefore revoked, 

Oil the sentence of the Diet was confirmed for 

A most weighty engagement was now entered 

ato with Pope Innocent. Frederick, who could not 

■W to offend this powerful but exacting guardian, 

P»wused at Strasburg, on the 1st of July, that 

*l»»ever he should gain the crown of the Empire, 

« would hand over the Kingdom of Sicily to his 

*a Henry, and would entrust it to some deputy 

^ the child was of age. This arrangement was 

**1^ he said, to prevent any harm accruing to the 

•^WBtolic See and to his own heirs fix)m the union 

^i tbe Empire and the Kingdom. The agreement, 

*!uch seemed to crown the Pope's policy with suo- 

*^ was feted never to take effect It is probable 

^ Innocent never heard of its execution, for he 

^ at Perugia only fifteen days after the date of it 

fie was succeeded in the Papacy by a man of a very 

'^^^^^rent temper. Cardinal Cencio Savelli, who took 

^ name of Honorius ILL* Frederick was then at 

^^^teUnce, engaged in fostering various Cistercian 

tjundations, an Order whose strictness kindled his 

* Ric. San Germano. 

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CHAP, admiration. At Ulm appeared the Maigrave c^ 
Moravia, and many of the Bohemian nobles ; these 
had just elected Ottocar's son, Wencealaus, as their 
king, with the father's consent. The electioQ was 
confirmed by the head of Germany, whose fint 
cousin Catherine was the wife of Wenceslaus ; and t 
grant of the kingdom of Bohemia was made to the 
young prince. Frederick was at Leipsic in October, 
whence he returned to Nuremberg in December. 
It was probably here that he met his Queen and his 
son, after having been parted firom them for ahno?i 
five years.* They were accompanied into Gennany 
by many ladies and knights, and also by Berard, the 
Archbishop of Palermo ; Einaldo Gentile, the Arcb- 
bishop of Capua; the Marquess of Montferrai; 
William Porco, the Admiral of the Victorious Rett, 
as his title runs, a kidnapper and a pirate ; and Her- 
mann von SaJza, who had been for six years the 
Grand Master of Frederick's dierished Teutonic 
Order. This good knight will often re-appear in the 
course of this work. He was bom in Thuringia, ^ 
the country watered by the Salza and the I^«i- 
salza, which became the head-quarters of the national 
Order. No man ever did so much to advance the 
interests of this renowned brotherhood as Von Salza. 
during the nine and twenty years of lus GnmJ 
Mastership. He had all the qualities requisite for 
his post ; valour, wisdom, eloquence, and, above ak 
stainless honour. He was a thorough German, t* 
true a son of the Fatherland as Luther or Von Stein 
Often had he to do battle for his countrymen again''. 
insolent Templars or Hospitallers, who drew the:: 

* Reiner Lcod. 

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BCTuits chiefly from France. The weight of his chap. 

enonal character is surprising ; it compelled Popes ^^ 

nd crowned heads alike to defer to his opinion, and to 1212-1220. 

ttive for his approbation. Strong in his imimpeach- 

hfe virtue, he could rebuke even the Lateran itsel£ 

fe was the mediiator equally welcome to French, 

iriiana, and Germans, whose services all parties were 

iger to engage ; he was the knight in whose honour 

fl had thorough confidence, when men looked sus- 

•rioualy upon the proflers of Pope or Emperor. 

Too Salza is the model man of the Thirteenth cen- 

Bary ; in him Frederick found a trusty friend, who 

*raiik not from uttering disagreeable truths, when- 

«^€r he saw his superiors in the wrong. Brother 

femann looked up to his Hohenstaufen benefactor 

»iih true German loyalty, such as was seldom met 

^ in his age ; we seem to be in the presence of 

*^ of Proissart*8 knights, or one of Clarendon's 


Qoeen Constance had been overwhelmed by a 
Pwt fioiTow since she had last seen her lord. Her 
^^ brother, the King of Arragon, had fallen in 
^e on behalf of the persecuted Albigenses, the 
jw after Frederick's arrival in Germany. She 
'^^ a piteous letter to the Bishop of XJrgel, be- 
•*2mg her brother's death in what she considered 
* bad cause, and entreating that his remains might 
'***in Christian burial. Her son Henry was prob- 
*^ brought to his father from Sicily, that a certain 
H*n might take eflect, not unconnected with Frede- 
^5 last promise to Pope Lmocent What this 
r'^ waa will appear about three years later ; at 
P^^*^t Henry's rightful title of King of Sicily was 
'^^^^fiiHy suppressed. The two chief friends of 

M 3 

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CHAP. Frederick, who had brought the child, were \>m 
rewarded. Von Salza had a grant of certain taxe? J 

1212-1220. Brindisi for the good of his house, with which Freu- ■ 
rick had made an exchange in Germany. The Anb- 
bishop of Palermo obtained various towns for hi? st--, 
together with the land once held by Roger Achmrf,, 
the descendant most probably of a converted Sara^ti • 
The clergy of the Eoyal chapel at Palermo w.:e: 
freed from taxation, on account of the hanLJui^ 
which they had undergone during the King'* ux 
sence. In February, 1217, the court was transferr/d 
to XJlm, where the monarch gave a village to the rota 
of San Miniato in Tuscany, and appointed that i:.e 
highway should run through their town. Furthc: 
privileges were heaped upon his favourite monasienr 
of Salem in Suabia. In April he was at Hagueni^^. 
He had sent the Abbot of St Gall, the Dean ■? 
Spires, the Marquess of Montferrat, and the Ca?.* - 
Ian of San Miniato to Home, with assurances of 1.* 
sorrow at the death of Innocent, and of hisj«»T:/ 
the election of Honorius. The new Pope eng: j'- • 
to send a Legate into Germany, and already beg-an ••• 
remind Frederick of his promised crusade. Pj' 
Emperor Elect, after a tour in Bavaria, rt^tunir. 
westward to Coblentz by Esslingen, which datt^ I* ' 
old walls and gates from his reign. The monk^ •' 
Heisterbach, under the Drachenfels, were n".* 
allowed by him to convey their wine up and d«»^'i 
the Rhine free from toU, a much coveted privileji 

The young conqueror was called once n. ' i 
into Saxony. Otho and his brother HenTT, wL 
had lost all their allies except the Margrave of Br^: - 
denburg, had been laying waste the district of F:- 
men, because that see had been filled by a nouiii. 

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»f Boma* Frederick assembled an army, and in chap. 

VugiLJt marched into the north by way of Fulda ; he 

Injve Otho within the walls of Brunswick, and laid ^212-1220. 
A-aste his rival's lands. He was joined by many of 
ihe nobles of the district, and at length withdrew.f 
Frederick's march was followed by its usual re- 
sults, the triumph of the high lords and the depres- 
^ion of the burghers. Thus Theodoric of Meissen 
Seized on this opportunity to avenge himself on his 
hated enemies, the men of Leipsic, who had been 
ravaging his lands for the last two years. He 
broi^ht Frederick into the town with a few knights ; 
lih' smaU force came in by diflerent gates and went 
to ilieir quarters without any parade, in order to lull 
tilt* jealous suspicions of the citizens. Leipsic, like 
many other towns in the middle ages, boasted of a 
CTeat bell, at the sound of which the burghers turned 
out for war. The clapper of this was secretly car- 
m-d away by the Margrave's orders, and at a given 
^:J^lal each one of Frederick's followers seized the 
[^eivon and goods of his host Theodoric next razed 
tiie city walls, and built three castles to overawe 
I^ipdc ; he made dihgent search for several knights 
vho had found shelter there after an attempt upon 
l*"? life. One of these ruffians, to whose capture 
P'^t importance was attached, mounted his horse, 
l>ruke open the gate with his battle-axe, and fled 
into the country ; his brother was handed over to 
Frederick, and was sent to perish in the Crusade. J 
^T^en at Altenburg, the sovereign requested the 
^ anons of Meissen to dispense with the presence of 

* Alb. Stadenffis. t Beiner Leod 

t Ann. PegavieiuieB, just published by Pertz. 

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CHAP. Nicholas, one of their body, whom he found miK 
useful Frederick made Nuremberg his head-quart«^ 

1212-1320. i^ December. 

Thus ended the vear 1217, which is renuurbKe 
as the beginning of the new Crusade. This enter- 
prise had been one of the great objects of the 
Lateran Council ; Pope Iimocent had promised him- 
self to superintend the embarkation of the Cru- 
saders at Messina. The undertaking was ddayc^i 
for a year by his death, but in the siunmer of 121T. 
the Dukes of Austria and Meran, the Bishops t< 
Bamberg, Utrecht, Munster, and others, set out for 
Acre. Frederick could not as yet lead in person the 
way to the East, his rival Otho being still alive; he 
contented himself with granting 200 ounces of goM 
out of his Messinese revenues to the Teutonic Order 
to provide the brethren with warm woollen doab 
for winter wear. The Kings of Hungary, Crpntf- 
and Jerusalem were followed by the Crusaders inio 
Galilee, whence, after pillaging the country «Da 
bathing in the Jordan, they fell back upon Acre 
William the Count of Holland, accompanied by 
many Germans who had sailed down the Bhine, haa 
touched at Lisbon on his way to the East, and ha*i 
done good service there with his Frieslanders. 
On reaching the Holy Land, he found that the l^^ 
of Cyprus had died, and that the King of Hungary 
had gone home without achieving anything. Kii? 
John of Jerusalem alone remained, ready for any 
daring enterprise. 

Frederick was for some time at Haguenau in ^'^ 
beginning of 121 8 ; he bestowed his protection ui^-- 

• D© Wendover. God. Colon. 

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e hospital at that town, which his grandfather, his chap. 
tlier, and his uncle had fostered during their re- 
ective reigna In this year the foreign influence of 
e House of Hohenstaufen was still further ex- 
ttied. The Bishop of Burgos and Fray Pedro de 
rknza were sent by the Queen-Mother of Castile 
lo Germany. After a sojourn of four months at 
rederick's court, they secured the hand of Beatrice, 
« daughter of the late King PhiUp, for their yoimg 
■««,&,. Ferdinand, and brought the bride into 
ptin by way of Paris.* About this time, Berthold 
be Dnke of Zahringen, one of the greatest princes 
I Oomany, died without issue. Frederick did not 
wp at much for the Empire, but spUt up the broad 
■ids of the deceased among many claimants. The 
C«ffit of Kybmrg had a grant of large territories in 
^iguiidy ; E^eno, Coimt of XJrach, and other kins- 
■ea of the late Berthold, had the domains allotted 
to them which the deceased had held in Suabia. The 
Cwmt of Savoy, the Margrave of Baden, the Bishop 
nUoBanne, and other powerful barons had their 
■tt^ Berne, Freiburg, and Soleiure became free 
<*e8 of the Empire ; while Ziuich went to the Em- 
pcfor himselflf 

ftederick was probably at Frankfort when he heard 
rf the death of his Guelf enemy. Otho had sent 
* embassy to Borne to sue for reconciliation ; he 
"**^'^ penitence, and was absolved by the Bishop 
w Hildesbeim. By his will he ordered his brother 
^^ to yield up the Holy Cross, the Lance, and 
^ Crown, to whomsoever the princes should elect 
•* Emperor ; and he bequeathed his stores of arms 

^siL Spbenaea. Mjmtimia. f Von Raumer. 

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CHAP, to the cause of Palestine.* He died on the 154 

^' of May, in the Castle of Harzberg, and his body 

1212-1220. ^33 loi^ \yj ^Q gi^^ Qf jjjg pflTents in the Chuith 

of St. Blaize, at Brunswick, after being arrayed ic 
the robes of royalty.f The same month which beheld 
the death of one Emperor gave another to Germany. 
On the 1st of May, a child was bom to the House of 
Habsburg, and Frederick gratified his loyal servante 
by holding the babe in his arms at the font.J little 
did he think that young Eodolph, as the child was 
named, would one day wear the very crown which 
the present Emperor had just, to all appearance, 
secured for himself and for a long line of heir?: 
that this son of the Swiss Count was destined to 
found one of the great houses of Europe, and to 
be the stem whence the rulers of Spain and Austria 
would proudly claim descent Too many of the© 
have proved unworthy of their chivalrous founder. 
Frederick was a good- friend to his godchild ; it is 
pleasant to mark the man of the present in clcee 
contact with the man of the future ; to see, for in- 
stance, Cortez, fresh from his Mexican triumphN 
giving encouragement to the unknown Pizarro ; and 
Clive, almost on the field of Plassey, picking out 
from the crowd the young Warren Hastings. 

It was a happy thing for Frederick that Otho was 
removed at this juncture, since the surviving daimant 
of the throne was involved in a war with one of hi? 
own partizans. Theobald, Duke of Lorraine, had 
rebelled and had laid waste Alsace, Frederick's own 
province. The monarch called to his help the Count 

• See Otho's Will in Pertz, Leges. 

t Godefr. Colon. J Annal. Colmar. Von Raumer. 

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>f Bar and the Countess of Champagne, who burnt chap. 
he town of Nancy. He carried on the war against 
lis old friend so vigorously that he was soon able to 
r»nvey Theobald, a prisoner, into Germany.* With 
Jie aid of the Archbishop of Treves, he had be- 
>ieged the rebel Duke in Amance, a strong castle three 
idigues from Nancy, and had driven him to beg for 
mercy. On the^lst of June, Theobald was constrained 
i'» forswear any future strife with the French alUes 
uf the Crown, to render all services due from him to the 
Countess, to renounce his league with those in rebel- 
lion against her, and to hand over a certain castle to 
the Duke of Bui^undy as a pledge of concord, 
f'onrad, the Chancellor of the Empire, proclaimed 
tilt* terms of peace in Frederick's presence, after 
the rebel had knelt at the feet of his lord. The 
^"^Aereign of Germany at that time exerdsed great in- 
fluence over the rulers of Burgimdy and Champagne, 
^ho held fiefs within his dominions, although they 
vvre also vassals of the French Crown. Frederick 
^' ►<»k the Duke of Lorraine into Germany as a hostage. 
Ht' used to invite his captive to his table, whither 
Tlieobald came unattended, except by a squire who 
fwied his cloak. The Duke was not set free until 
* year had passed ; ten months afterwards he died 
^ Ix>rraine, and an unfounded charge was brought 
^'uinst Frederick of having employed a harlot to 
I^>i^n the son of his old benefactor.f 

^^r the Lorraine war, the Emperor Elect visited 
'^veral towns in Bavaria. The Bishop of Basle 
^lvi(stioned Frederick's right to establish new insti- 
tutions in that town, without the consent of its pre- 

Reiner Leod. Rich. Senonensis. f Richer. Senon. 

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CHAP. late. The cause was judged by Theodoric, the Arclh 
bishop of Treves, a prelate of great prudence, who* 
voice was always for peace rather than for war, and 
who had allied himself with the new Archbishq) of 
Cologne, so that it was said that the two were one 
heart and one soul.* A Count, in want of monev 
for the Crusade, had pledged his castle to the BiAop 
of Passaufor 1000 marks. Frederick' authorized the 
transaction and the conditions annexed to it, enjoiih 
ing a dupUcate of the deed to be made, to prevent any 
future wrangUng. Orders were sent to Frederick? 
Judge at Egra, to do justice, without regard to the 
local courts, upon any one, high or low, who migfct 
rob the convent of Waldsachsen. In November, a 
Diet was assembled at Erfiirth, by which Frederick's 
title to the Empire was established.f A second 
Diet, well attended, was held at Fulda, in December, 
where he confirmed to the Teutonic Order aD the 
privileges he had ever granted to them. They were 
at this time manfully waging the war against the 
Moslem in the East. Another Diet with a riew to 
the Crusade was appointed to be held at Magdeburc. 
early in the next year. After having held thee 
Diets in Otho's country, Frederick returned to 

In the mean time, the Christians at Acre had un- 
dertaken a fresh enterprise. Pope Honorius had sent 
to them Cardinal Pelagius as his Legate, who started 
from Brindisi with James, the Count of Andm. 
steering for Egypt. J For in May, 1218, the army h*i 
sailed from Acre, and had laid siege to the great city 

* Gesta Arch. Treyirormn. f Alb. StadensuL 

X Ric. San Grennano. 

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f Dwnietta near the mouth of the Nile, upon which chap. 

le eyes of the whole Christian world were kept 

led fc«- more than three years. The Duke of Aus- 1212-1220. 
rii, the Frieslanders, and Von Salza's knights won 
ODoorable mention from the chroniclers of the great 
«gUCT. England, France, Germany, and Italy had 
11 contributed soldiers for the holy war. A tower 
a the bank of the Nile was carried with great loss ; 
ixT which, Adel, the brother of the mighty Saladin, 
Bei leaving a fearful contest to his three sons, the 
flJers of Cairo, Damascus, and Aleppo.* It had been 
■ringed that some of the German pilgrims should 
^oat on the 1st of July. But on reaching Apulia, 
4ey found their further pn^ress hindered, at which 
^Pope was very wroth.f 

We are now in January, 1219. Frederick, who 
W viated Treves and forgiven the bui^hers of 
^''w'wrg some old offences, wrote fix)m Haguenau 

* the 12th of the month to Honorius on the all- 
**?r«Bing topic *We know,' said he, 'that the 
^ I^nd has more need of succour now than ever 
^*fc*^; the army, as it seems, must either conquer 
» perish. We are grateful to Him who has 
**>9ed us to the Kingdom and to the Empire, and we 
^ tbout to appoint a time for our men to assemble 
fcf the Crusade. Any prince who does not attend 
^ ppopoeed Diet, unless hindered by a reasonable 
**e, is to lose land and honour.* Frederick went 

* to suggest to the Pope various means of rousing 
^ leal of the faithful, and to request that an ex- 
^""tounication might be launched against the town 
'^ Brunswick and its Cbimt Henry, the elder brother 

• De Wendorer. t Abbaa Ureperg. 

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CHAP, of Otho, who would not give up to the rightful c j 
^^ ant the insignia of the Empire. 

X212-1220. rj^g auswer of Honorius was dated twenty^' 
days later. He sent a Eoman prior to Freden 
and advised him to win over Heniy by gentle mtA'i 
otherwise, if the Guelf should prove obstinate, 
communication should follow. The Pope took F 
derick and his Empire under his protection: a 
threatened all who had taken the Cross with tlie 
unless they should set out for Damietta on St Johr : 
Baptist's day. The correspondence between the vji 
heads of Christendom was not renewed until thr.-i 
months later. Frederick seems at this time to h ' 
been intent on gaining influence throughout Xon:.t r 
Italy, a quarter which he had hitherto neglected. T:- 
Bishop of Turin and the Marquess of MonttVm/. 
after each obtaining a charter, were sent thitiAr..* 
Vicars. To Asti was granted the right of juris^liit : 
over its own causes. Two Lombard Counts Palatirv 
received a renewal of the privilege granted to il*' .: 
forefathers by Barbarossa, of carrying the swonl U- 
fore the Emperor, whenever he might be in L»r> 
bardy. Otho's grants to a Milanese rival wt^• 
quashed. Bernard Orlando Kosso and another Y^:- 
mesan Judge were ordered to restrain Salinguc-:^ 
and the Ferrarese from plaguing the Modent*-^ 
To the Bishop of Ivrea, who came to CourU ^^^ 
granted power over his fellow-townsmen. TliU'i: 
envoys from Lnola besought Frederick to confinn j 
charter given to them by his grandfather ; Bolo^'^ 
and Faenza were forbidden to meddle with tluJ 
neighboiu'. Parma was highly praised, and ws- 
allowed the privilege of self-jurisdiction ; no appc^'- 
were to be carried into Germany ; and the city wa:^ 

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L'ft free to fortify itself. Cremona, Bresda, Verona, cbaf. 
nd Bergamo were favoured. To each of the Counts 

»f Biandrato was granted a charter. A Camaldolese "**-^***- 
ibbey on the Adige received the usual Kst of privi- 
-jes. The Italians secured all they could, knowing 
Lai nothing more could be got from Otho, and that 
Freilerick was soon to start for the Crusade. 

A grant was made to the Archbishop of Magde- 

L^'irg of all the Pagan lands beyond Livonia ; he was 

:n future to be the source of all jurisdiction in those 

iarbarous tracts. These charters give us some idea 

•: the wide stretch of the Empire ; it now reached 

:':» m Bevel to Antwerp, frx>m Vienna to Lyons, fit)m 

* .e Eyder to the Tiber. But it contained within 

->cll the elements of dissolution ; at this very moment 

Ji -tonn seemed to be gathering in the South. The 

Arclibishop of Brindisi arrived in Germany with the 

:.rws that the Pope was becoming suspicious of the 

Emperor Elect Germany and Sicily, so thought 

*: kind politicians, were to be united in after years 

'-.'itjff young Henry. Baynald, the son of Conrad 

'»»n Urslingen, was allowed to style himself Duke of 

'^;*'»leto, a province of the Church. Oerical elec- 

'♦ ii? were not uninfluenced by Boyalty. Such were 

»: charges against Frederick current at Bome. He 

^ -'it back the Archbishop, with orders to make his 

*'X<.uses, and with the announcement that he himself 

v«»uld soon follow. At his request, Honorius de- 

•ived the Crusade until Michaelmas, though trem- 

inu' for the result The Archbishop of BrindLd 

^a? not the only Apulian who made Ins way into the 

^'>rth. In May, Frederick was waited upon at 

Ai^'^burg by some monks from Monte Vergine, who 

^ id come to obtain his confirmation of the grants 

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CHAP, made to their monastery. Diephold, the 

Coimt of Acerra, had been one of their bene&ct< 
The Archbishop of Otranto also arrived, to pi 
a fresh grant of privileges from the CJrown, ance 
charters bestowed on his church by the old } 
man conquerors had become worm-eaten. 
Archbishop of Messina and Simon Count of 
appeared at court later in the year, and were foUuir J 
by the brave Count of Malta. 

From Nuremberg Frederick wrote a letter m 
thanks to Honorius : ' God can reward you, derf 
Father, for your kindness to us, better than we caa 
Your letters concerning the Crusade arrived juf« :■ 
time to be of use to us, and to render fruitless tie 
excuses which would otherwise have been made hf 
many Princes, We request still further favours fem 
you, of which you will not repent. Do not lesJ 
your ear to those calumniators who tell you that isx 
are lukewarm in the matter of the Crusade ; such i 
thought is abhorrent to our conscience.' In Julj. 
the Hohenstaufen chief held a great Diet at Go^. 
which seemed to put an end to the civil war in Gi*r- 
many, after more than twenty years of strife. Heniy 
the Duke of Brunswick yielded up the Imperial ii>- 
signia lately worn by his brother Otho.* In retunu 
he received a grant of considerable privileges, aiJtl 
the question of the Palatinate of the Bhine seem^ *•* 
have been amicably arranged between him ai5<l 
Bavaria, He henceforward signed himself Duke t'f 
Saxony, and remained in high favour until his deul. 
Frederick granted a most ample charter to the bur- 
ghers of Goslar, who had undergone much per^vL'- 

* Alb. Stadensis. 

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at the hands of his enemies on account of their chap. 


Ity. Every possible privilege was rehearsed, and 
exred upon the fidthful citizens. Coiners, as we 
lyy this charter, were looked upon as the worst 
..U public enemies ; they were condemned to lose 
and, unless they could redeem it by a payment 
xioney. Frederick's favoiu^ had hitherto been 
»rved for churches or for princes, and the privi- 
is granted to Goslar were a great innovation on 
usual poHcy. In the next year he made Pfiillen- 
f a city of the Empire, in consideration of the 
aage it had sustained fix>m fire and quarrelsome 

The Emperor Elect now went by Erfiirth to Prank- 
t, and granted to its citizens a site near the com 
irket for building a chapel, which he took under 
5 protection. He passed on through Worms to 
aguenau, where we find him associating with him- 
If his son Henry, Duke of Suabia, in various grants. 
iveral ItaUan bishops waited upon their lord in 
ugust, and two men of Locarno procured from him 
Kicial favours. Pavia was rewarded for her services 
y a confirmation of her old privileges. Alessandria, 
1 ancient foe, was ordered by the Pope to take the 
ath to Frederick. Alatrino, the sub-deacon, whom 
tonorius often employed as his envoy, and whom he 
lade provost of St. Castor at CJoblentz, appeared in 
rermany with letters firom Home. The Emperor 
ilect returned an answer, in which he fully acknow- 
edged the right of the Church to the lands of the 
Jountess Matilda ; Spoleto and Nami were bidden, 
inder the sternest penalties, to obey the Pope. Ee- 
storation of the lands, not as yet recovered, was gua- 
ranteed ; the right of election and appeal was once 

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CHAP, more confirmed to prelates ; and the famous oaih 



Egra was repeated. 

In October, Frederick held a Diet at Niiremberj 
where he caused many of the Princes to take an ^xi 
to set forth for Palestine. The term of Michaeki^ 
fixed by Honorius for the enterprise, was alreii^ 
pasL^ But the Pope granted his fiiend a third :e^ 
spite up to March in the following year, remindi:^ 
him at the same time that httle had as yet been d)D« 
and hinting at excommunication. ' What gh^^ 
dearest son, what galleys have you made ready! 
We had rather that you forestalled our wishes ai 
such an undertaking, instead of lagging behind tLda. 
Do not sleep, but arouse others to watch. H4>:<^ 
haste, noble King, to obey the King of Kings, afit: 
the example of your grandfather Frederick ; it nuj 
be that you will accomplish, with the Divine wiD, iL- 
work which he only began. You are young and va- 
liant ; the more God has given you, the more wiD fl' 
require at your hands. The Christian host will '* 
much diminished if it be not succoured by uer. 
March. Send forward some at least of your men :■ 
recruit it. Up to this time, God has granted suav- 
to His army, but greater triumphs will follow.' 

What success had hitherto been vouchsafed to :i' 
Christian arms, Frederick had now an opportunity • ' 
learning firom an eye-witness. Leopold the D-^ 
of Austria, after an absence of two years, retunn-- 
home, while the court was stiU at Nurembenr. II 
had distinguished himself in Egypt before t" 
arrival of Pelagius, the Legate ; after which eve. : 
the Christians had crossed the Nile, seized on :' 
Sultan's camp and fleet, and blockaded the great i .:} 
of Damietta. The Germans, whose valour is ackin^^v- 

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edged by foreign chroniclers, drove off the Saracen chap. 

my of relief; and the Duke of Austria defended a 

tdge during the second onset of the Moslem, which 

Ook place on Palm Simday. On the 31st of July, 

k third great attack from outside was made on the 

Iristian camp, when the Templars would have been 

B to pieces, had not the Germans and Frieslanders 

fehed to the rescue- The Christians, against the 

Ivice of King John of Jerusalem, gave battle to the 

khammedans outside, and suffered severely, both 

bm the arms of their enemies and from the heat of 

le son. Towards the end of September several of 

fcfc\>efii^er8 returned to Europe ; among these was 

fce Duke of Austria, who, during his stay in Egypt, 

kd made over 6000 marks to the Teutonic House, 

who is highly praised by the chroniclers for his 

[)m from selfishness and pugnacity ; traits which 

ibly distinguished him from most crusading 

L* Had he waited a few months longer he 

have witnessed the fall of Damietta ; the brave 

garrison had begun to suffer fearftdly from 

ae and ophthalmia ; the Sultan offered nearly the 

|rtole of the lost Kingdom of Jerusalem to the Chris- 

Ibfi, if they would only quit the siege of the doomed 

city ; but the L^ate would not hear of these terms. 

k length, on the 5th of November, 1219, the Cru- 

■^T» made their way over the triple walls of Da- 

bietta. and found only 3000 of the inhabitants left 

^ve ; no less than 80,000 are said to have died of 

die plague and starvation during the long siege. 

Moch booty fell into the hands of the conquerors ; 

ftD children foimd aUve were baptized ; and the Le- 

• Bern. Thesaurariua. 
rOL. L N 

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iLjJr -i:^ rz::iei ;Le grei: m«>sque of Damietta into a 
^ -^IrrrCziZ. dur:ri- The 5tD:>ng Castle of Tannis wi* 

--^-^ - i:-^:^! LI. iJie 5;izi-r icniiii, being deserted at the ap 
Tr.iix:^ :■: ir_e Crj^siJcrs.* HoDorius had sent them 
jiTTr SCZ15 jc zirceT. and had informed them thai 
Frelrrl:k -^r-uli o:i::e to their help after his conm- 
i ~ Li I i-iez jlije. The German prelates were or- 
I.ri- 1 :•: exM - '"■"^':a>:c all who delayed the perform- 
iz«.v :c ileir t.tts. Frederick was at Xuremberg 
:c :lr iiv :f ile aipiure of Damietta, attended by 
ilv: 7r~j :•: E«:'~eziiA, the Duke of Austria, anJ 
r: -T.T 7 r-. Lre? ±1 1 prlii\:es. It might be thought that 
*^i Iv.I z -r r?: l-j-ii^er any excuse for ddaying ^ 
vi:^:':. : ill '>rr^'..\\y was at peace with itself; OtL"? 
V ?, •:' . . r Zi . :::y w>^ o>:::ent to act as Frederick's vicar 
::\ rr-..iv^-::k. i:i c :E:e which he held up to his i^*^ 
i'S ' y-i-Ts liicr. After bestowing a most amp^ 
v'^jr^vT u:xci ;le l-y^dl city of Nuremberg, and^i^i*- 
: ,: r^-^ Frv-Ivrlvk enied the year 1219atAui^ 
I ;,rj. u; v-'-iiTtJiy wi:h Lis son Heniy. Six officiiu? 
V : : u IT.:.^ ;:ni of Sivily were in attendance up« 
V..:::: h:s ;:urrL^:y inio Italy woidd evidently hkw 

1:: :l:c Kcl:::ii:.g of 1220 he saw within his re;Kli 
tV.o ii: :..::. :::c'>:: of an object which he must long have 
*uvi ;;: hvcir:. and for which his old friend ?>;» 
l:,:\vvv:;: woulvi pivl^cibly have excommunicated liic- 
on ;>.o s;v:. lie was at this time doing all in hi' 
'jvnvor to u;ake the name of his son familiar to tht 
Oeni^au priiioos;. giving him the title of Buler t't 
l^\;rin;v.viy* ^^"^-i^"^ ^^^^ Dukedom of Suabia, ^^ 
a>.<vvi;u::ig i>.o Ix^y with himself in grants to il'^ 

• De WendoTer. 

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Tuious churches. He returned to Haguenau in chap. 
^anuaiy, wintering there for the last time for many 
long year. Here he brought to an end a question 
Aich was about to simder the members of the 
wose of Hohenlohe, his faithful friends. Their 
rther had been rewarded by Henry the Sixth with 
•rfl-eamed lands in Italy, and had been named as 
•e of Frederick's guardians.* The family now con- 
iied of five brothers and a sister. Two of the 
mothers, Godfrey and Conrad, determined to cleave 
the world, and to win renown in the Emperor's 
<nrioe ; the three others chose to enrol themselves 
■iKng Von Salza's knights, who had been among 
it fiwemost at Damietta, and to bestow their lands 
^ the Teutonic Order. Frederick confirmed an 
«R«iieat which the Hohenlohe brethren had made 
^ csch other in the presence of the Bishop of 
■Tinbarg. Various exchanges of property were 
*«fe and ratified ; the chief anxiety of the brothers 
3ft quitting the world was that their sister Cunigimda, 
^ a mmor, might make a suitable match. Shortly 
^ this, Frederick took under his protection the 
Ciarch of Matton, close to Interlaken, and its estate 
*ar Grindelwald, at the request of Werner, the 
{**>«^»t It was settled that the advocate of this 
tturdi was not to make his lucrative office here- 
*^ — a privilege which the grasping nobles of the 
^ were apt to assume. On the 10th of February 
'?tdenck renewed to Pope Honorius his promise of 
*?ftr*ting the Crowns of Germany and Sicily. He 
«y» that he has already, after the arrival of Alatrino, 
•^ off the Dean of Messina to Bome, and has 

• Voigt, Pnuaia, for 1244. 
■ 2 

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CHAP, entrusted other matters to the Archbishop -" 
Taranto. But he requests a shght change in XL- 

1212-1220. |^j.jj^ Qf Yna oath. He has abready gained leave: 
hold Sicily during Ufe, in the event of his ?»a' 
death. He now hopes to have absolute domiLic 
over the Kingdom reserved to himself during b 
life, asking, with much plausibility, who would U 
more grateful, more fidthfiil, more devout than hin- 
self, if his request should be granted? Aktrj«v 
it is observed, has been most resolute in staoiir-: 
up for the rights of the Pope, and can tell how ti'. 
grateful Frederick intends his son to be suckled 4* 
the breast of the Church. 

The Pope is then informed of the efforts made t.r 
the Crusade at the late Diet of Nuremberg, wh>: 
had hitherto produced no great results. * We f»'a:. 
says Frederick, ' that if we start first, our folk^vrf^ 
will find some pretext to stay behind. This ir- 
entail, a little delay, which you must grant G^-: 
knows that we are planning no trick: we hi^^ 
caused the knights to swear that they will follow u 
and we have made many truces between eiuui'^ 
that the Crusade may be forwarded. We are sen«i :-' 
two messengers to prepare you for the comiiu: • ' 
the Abbot of Fulda, our ambassador. He w.. 
explain to you and to the Boman senator and jx-^ ; 
our devotion to the Church, and our wish that p^-^ 
may be kept in the city.' 

The last part of the letter, the original of wh 
is much mutilated, clearly refers to Frederick^ :. 
tended coronation as Emperor. He excused hin*"* 
to Honorius for writing to the town of Ferm<^ - 
though it had been a city of the Empire, not ha^' - 
known that it belonged to the SUites of the Chiux - 

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lonorius made a somewhat surly answer to his chap. 
nend s request for one more respite before starting 
)r Damietta. ' He who loves much, fears much,' 
aid the Pope ; * we therefore fear delay in succour- 
tit: Palestine. You are now asking for a fourth 
v^pite : a criminal is pronounced contumacious who 
.^.-gleets to appear after three citations. We will 
rive you to the Ist of May. Consider, consider 
i^hose cause it is that is at stake ? — that of Christ. 
WTiose advantage ? — that of his followers. Whose 
rvnown? — that of the whole Christian people. 
God is inciting you to the work — first, by past 
favours, in raising you to your present height ; 
«vcondly, by miracles, having granted that strong 
•:ity Damietta to a handful of Christians; thirdly, 
l»y examples, since the poor and weak, as well as 
the noble, have embarked in the enterprise. Then 
arouse yourself mighty King, for we hope that God 
^iU bestow a great victory. Gird your sword upon 
Your thigh ; be powerful in humility ; be humble in 
l''>wer; trust not to your own arm, but to the hand 
•f the Most High.' 

Another letter came to Frederick from Parenzio, 

the Boman Senator, written in the name of the whole 

li^man people. * The letter sent to us by your Serenity, 

^v^len read in the Capitol, rejoiced the hearts of us 

^ Your worthy ambassador, the Abbot of FiUda, 

liJi^ told us how you are disposed to cherish the 

U'unan Senate and people: we beseech the Most 

Kii:h to continue this disposition in you, when you 

5ite raised to the Empire. We are all longing for 

^'lat happy day, when we shall hail your coronation. 

You warned us to obey the Pope, and to set an 

example of devotion to the Christian world. We 

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CHAP, are resolved to bind ourselves to the Boman Churct 


. '- — which has been founded in the city, not by md. 

1212-1220. Y^^^ ijy j^^ Christ himself: it is our spai^ 
mother, and we are its special bulwark against fnex 
We will take care that peace be kept at jou 

Honorius answered Frederick's letter a few diy^ 
after Parenzio had sent off his despatch. The P-^*' 
says he takes no exception to the Abbot of Fulda *» 
an envoy, though it certainly had been usual for u 
Emperor to send an Archbishop, or at least a Bishop- 
to Eome on a similar errand. Frederick again vn)^* 
excusing himself for having thrown E^niCT cf 
Manente into a German prison. This Count ^w 
an old enemy, whom the Pisans had been ordeml ti' 
seize when he was sailing to attack Sicily. TLoujh 
the rebel had come into Germany without a sirV- 
conduct, Frederick professed himself ready torvkn^ 
him at the Pope's wish, upon Eegnier's giving up hi* 
Sicilian estates,* 

We have now come to the famous Diet of Frank- 
fort, held in April 1220, which crowned a 
Frederick's schemes. It was prefaced by the uf;.u 
list of Imperial favours. The Bishop of VerJu". 
had a charter bestowed upon him ; to the An :- 
bishop of Cologne was given the charge of i 
Church of St. Servais, at Maestricht, which lxtt>t- \ 
long list of Hohenstaufen grants. The Bislny »•' 
Utrecht was authorised to remove his custom-h*'"'- 
to a more convenient spot The Provost of ALv ' 
ChapeUe had neglected his duty : the window- • ' 

* It is odd that tlie mild IIonoriuA should have taken snch m 
tercst in ruffians. In England, he interfered on behalf i^f >' • 
de BrcauU^. 

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the Qiurch, the books, the workshops, were all out chap. 
of repair ; a certain proportion of the conteDts of 

m ahns-box was allott^i to supply all that was ^^^2-1220. 
nntiiig. The vine-dressers of Sinzig were warned 
to be exact in the payment of their tithes to this 
iarch. The monastery on Marienberg, near Bop- 
pud, was taken under Frederick's protection. His 
Fwraey to Bome was arranged, and aU marked with 
Ihe cross, whether high or low, were forced to set 
«tt {(» the East* 

Bat more weighty business was in hand. Fre- 
drick, young as he was, had for the last eight years 
keen vorfdng hard to gain the hearts of the German 
princes. He had been most lavish in his bounty to 
^•on, and he now hoped to reap the fiiiits of his 
Jainy grants, charters, and privileges. He had ap- 
P<«W to the self-interest of these meu, who, accord- 
ne to that shrewd observer, the Abbot of Ursperg, 
''^^ and hated all justice, coveted each the 
***^ tnd honours of his neighbour, and did not 
*^ shrink fix)in murder. In spite of aU his pro- 
*"*8 to Innocent and Honorius, Frederick was 
'^^ed to unite the Crowns of Aix-la-Chapelle and 
Wermo in the person of his son Henry. His own 
***^ount of the election of the child by the German 
piJM^ is this : — ^the Archbishop of Mayence and 
«^Undgrave of Thuringia had long been at enmity ; 
^ came to the Diet at Frankfort with all then- 
•^Tces, and a civil war seemed at hand. The other 
rennets swore that they would not stir iBrom the place 
^ terms of peace had been agreed upon. No 
l^^greas was made in soldering up the quarrel ; and 

• Reiner Leod. 

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CHAP, all men feared that it would break out afresb, afu^ 
^' Frederick's departure for Eome, now dose at haad 
1212^1220. Hereupon all the princes voted the election of yoLir I 
Heniy to the throne, those who had before withstodi 
it now taking the lead. Frederick declared that he ! 
had not had the least idea of what was going on— i 
an excuse which his Holiness probably receive! * 
with a shrug of the shoulders. The youthful EmptP.T, 
though only five-and-twenty, was indeed a pupd 
worthy of Pope Innocent 

The chief Princes present at Frankfort were ibe 
Archbishops of Mayence, Cologne, Treves, and Ma> 
deburg, several Bishops, the Dukes of Bavaria asi 
Brabant, the Landgrave of Thuringia, the Margra^^^ 
of Namur and Baden, the Counts of Holland i&i 
Cleves, and the officials of Frederick s coxirt G^i- 
rad the Chancellor, Bishop of Metz and Spirt% 
was appointed Imperial Legate in Italy, and t«< 
sent forward as the harbinger of his Lord, with fiiL 
power to place all rebels under the ban of the Eel- 
pire. The Princes all joined in a declaration of thcii 
allegiance to the Church, and of their objection u* 
any imion between the Empire and the Kingdom < 
Sicily. On the 26th of April, the boy Henry i* 
styled King for the first time, in the charter whi^* . 
his grateful father gave to the Electors- Fretlt- n« < 
says, that the authors of his promotion ought tlu '^i- 
selves to be promoted ; he therefore did away ^^' 
certain old abuses. The instrument runs thus:- 
' First, we will never hereafter seize upon t:.. 
goods of any deceased Prelate ; any layman infric 
ing this rule shall be outlawed. We will preik:* 
the old coinage and tolls in the lands of the Prinix-^ . 
no innovations shall be made without their cons<...*. 

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Te win not receive their serfe into our cities. The chap. 


liiirches are not to be damaged by their advocates. 
Te will make no attempt to wrest lapsed fiefe from 
odesiastics. Those whom they excommimicate 
ttU be out of the pale of the law ; no advocate 
ttfl be allowed to such. Proscription shall follow 
Kcommunication, if the latter sentence has lasted 
eyond six weeks. The Princes on their side pro- 
Bae to aid us against our rebels. No castles are to 
le built on church lands. None of our officials are 
interfere with the rights of the Princes, as to tolls 
IT coinage. We bequeath to our heirs and suo- 
ysmxs the duty of maintaining these privileges.' 

Sodi was the edict, which in its practical effect 

•STjke up the old Germanic system; other later 

•^lictB of Frederick completed the work. The 

Princes now became in reaUty independent; even 

Frederick himself lived to see Germany shp away 

^ his grasp. At this very time, the French no- 

:4fcs were being by degrees subjected to the crown ; 

jj Germany on the other hand the Princes, as we 

fte, were becoming more and more independent of 

'Jie crown. France became compact in itself, and 

Wed before one despot; Germany was spUt up 

Eito many states, under many despots. Even 

Bodolph of Habsburg could not bring back the old 

*r*em; none of Eodolph's descendants made any 

nett attempts towards enforcing the ancient Im- 

iWrial prerogatives, until Charles the Fifth essayed, 

•ad failed. By that time the Eeformation had sun- 

■Wwi Germany; the sword of WaUenstein for a 

Mment enforced unity and submission to his master, 

Uii the moment soon passed away. Richelieu and 

Liiuis the Foiuteenth ravaged the divided Empire 

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CHAP, at their pleasure ; it saw a kingdom within iuci 
^' start up ; and Napoleon put the last stroke m 
1212-1220. ^^ ^^j,]j q£ disruption in Germany. In ihnt 
latter times, we know not whether most to (<4 
amazed at the baseness of the German princes, or 4^' 
the tameness of the German people. The nati^^ 
heroic in 1813, was feeble in 1854 and 1859, thana 
to its rulers, the parasites now of France, now «l 
Eussia ; the old worn-out Empire has been repboei 
by another system, powerless, as it seems, for gniA 
and mighty for evil. Strange it is, that Vl^ 
Augustus should have been laying the foundau* 
of French union, just when Frederick the Seoxo. 
intent on a temporary advantage, was beginning tii • 
work of breaking up Germany. 

Some attention was now paid to the great cii*^ 
The money of Nuremberg was no longer allowed i«^ ^ 
coined in imitation of that of Eatisbon. The faithfo." 
city of Worms had a most ample charter. To Henrr. 
the new Duke of Lorraine, was granted a fief, ^i-*- 
the late King Philip, Frederick's uncle, had firs: 
bestowed ; to this sixty waggon-loads of wine wc? 
added. The Coimt of Gueldres was forbiddcii '- 
take toU at certain spots on the Lower Rhine, in i" 
cordance with a sentence passed by the Prina- 
the Diet ; he persevered however, as many sub^^iuo. 
edicts against him prove. The Archbishop of O* 
logne was to enforce this judgment The Cani'i^ 
Verona had a decree made in tlieir favour. T 
merchants of Dortmund were freed from toU tlm*: - 
out the Empire. The affairs of the Hohenlohe fa: .- 
were at last settled. Such was the busine^s, w!i 
occupied the attention of the famous Diet of Fn. - ! 
fort. Frederick, having at length compiiss^il ■ * 

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?ait end, spent the month of May at Haguenau chap. 

Towards the beginmng of that month, Honorius, 
■Pfttly as yet ignorant of the late proceedings at 
'kinkfort, wrote to his chaplain Conrad, a scholar 
i Miyaice, then in Gennany. He exhorted him to 
aertir himaelf, to keep an eye on the preachers of the 
^huade,and to urge on Frederick. K the monarch 
sold not himself start for the East, he might at least 
«i oa his comrades. None were to be absolved 
km their vows, since even the poorest men might 
at of use in Palestine. A month later, Honorius 
wiered Alatrino to receive the resignation of the 
GwniesB Matilda's lands, and also bade the Arch- 
•feAop of Mayence procure the freedom of E^nier, 
■Ke the Count's Sicilian usurpations had been re- 
told. Frederick was to be reminded of his pro- 
BBe to set this enemy at liberty. About the 
■•Me of July, the Emperor Elect was roused by 
*e news that the Pope was by no means pleased 
« having be«i tricked by the Frankfort election, 
ftrferick writes thus to Honorius: — 'We have 
*«d that the Church is dismayed at the exaltation 
•rf oar son, and that she blames us for not having 
•"bounced his election, either before or after it took 
Pw.* He then gives his version of what had 
^•^ place at Frankfort, saying that he was not an- 
W€nble for the choice of the Electors ; he had in- 
*<ol on the election being ratified by Bome. * It 
**» trranged that one of them should seek your 
I^^teence. However, most blessed Father, you will 
^ the whole from ourselves, when we come to 
J^; or your chaplain Alatrino will inform you. 
^ Bishop of Metz was sent to you, but he is 

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CHAP, detained on his way by some illness. We shall takt 
care to prevent the union of the Empire and tli-. 
Kingdom ; we should give the latter, in the event «»: 
our death without lawful issue, to the Church ratlic: 
than to the Empire. We will make no further delar 
in coming to you, our Father and Lord.' Frederick 
then mentions two out of many causes, which hav- 
hitherto kept him in Germany. Egeno, Count of 
Urach, backed by his brother the Bishop of Pon.\ 
has not fiirnished the stipulated quota of men mi 
money for the Crusade ; many in Alsace have fi- 
lowed this bad example. The Count of Champayi:^ 
after manying the widow of the late Duke of !»:- 
raine, has seized upon a fief of the Empire, thougl a 
foreigner, to the consternation of the princes. Xo^ 
however, this difficulty being settled, Frederick \- 
ready to start on his journey. The Pope, a few 
days afterwards, wrote to his Legate Pelagiu;?, aii* 
nouncing to the heroes of Damietta, that Fredcr/k 
would sail for the East at Michaelmas, a most faiii- 
cious hope. He also sent various sums of money ia 
aid of the Crusade, which seemed now to have come 
to a stand-still. 

Before taking a long leave of Germany, Fredtnii 
spent a month at Augsburg, the old city whon^^ 
Emperors usually set out for Eome. Here w^^ 
assembled his son Henry the new King of tli 
Komans, the King • of Bohemia, the Margrave • ■ 
Moravia, the Duke of Meran, the Archbishops •'• 
Mayence, Treves, and Magdeburg, and manyrri*' 
lates and Counts, besides those nobles who ivea* • 
follow then- lord into Italy. The Abbot of St. Ga - 
who had helped Frederick to the crown of Goniu:.; 
eight yeai*s before, died on the eve of his journey 

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I Eome He had maintamed the honour of the chap. 


'estem Empire at the Eternal City, by preventing 
e coronation of the Latin Emperor of Constanti- 
iple at St Peter's, and by refusing to rise up to 
m. Such were the Abbot's talents for dvil busi- 
Bs that all the most difficult questions were reserved 
r his judgment. His successor paid Frederick 
Ke hundred and fifty marks to be excused the 
■Kan journey, saying that the air of that country 
IB turbid.* The Emperor put forth many edicts 
r the welfere of his dominions. One monastery 
fte freed from a troublesome advocate, who acknow- 
ited in Frederick's presence the injustice with 
niidi he had treated the Chiirch placed under his 
**rge. A castle and town were given in pledge to 
Jte Archbishop of Magdeburg for a loan of 2000 
*As. A toll, levied upon those who crossed the 
Ltenbe by the bridge at Donauwerth, was abol- 
^ ; and Frederick determined to replace the old 
*«den bridge by one of stone. Collectors were 
•'^''rfingly sent out imder his protection, to gather 
"» alins of the charitable for the work in hand. 
A iair was transferred to Gelnhausen. Jane, the 
^tes8 of Flanders, had a former adverse decision 
^osed, as she had been prevented by reasonable 
**>se9 from pleading her suit before Frederick. The 
^witt of Holland was forced to give up the lady's 
^ which he had unjustly held. The Pope, who 
^'^i by this time pacified, sent orders to the German 
V^^^^ that no one should dare to trespass on Fre- 
*^8 rights. Egeno, the turbulent Coimt of 
^^ was enjoined to set out on the Crusade 

* Conr. de Fabaria. 

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CHAP, without delay, and Honorius expressed his joy ^ " 
Constance, Frederick's wife, was to share in tbc 
honours of the coronation. 

Late in August the Court broke up from Aik> 
burg, and Frederick once more crossed the Ahif^ 
after having spent eight years in Germany. He kul 
come thither with a handfiil of followers, and h*l 
been in peril of his life while stealing along pte« 
in the mountains scarcely ever trodden by the fM 
of man ; he was now retiuning into Italy, the m •!< 
powerful Sovereign in Europe, surrounded by th# 
Princes and Prelates of Germany, who were pnvj# 
to foUow their young Hohenstaufen lord to his coro- 
nation. The most conspicuous of these was BertioM 
a brother of the Duke of Meran. Thb GermaD kA 
become in succession Archbishop of Colocza in Eii> 
gary, and Patriarch of Aquileia in Italy. He bi 
accompanied his sister Gertrude, who was marrit'^' 
to the King of Himgary, into the land of her aAr- 
tion. Aided by her, he had perpetrated a ruffianly 
outrage upon the lady of a Magyar noble ; the 1l- 
jured husband had taken his revenge upon &.v 
foreign queen by assassinating her.* These crimt-\ 
committed in 1213, have left a lasting stain upr 
the memory of Berthold ; with the record of then. 
before us, we can scarcely take into account the stunh* 
loyalty he displayed towards Frederick for thirty years, 
even when under the frown of Borne. Besides ih- 
Patriarch of Aquileia, who was employed on tho 
road as a judge in contested suits, the Buke •»! 
Bavaria, the Bishops of Passau and Augsburg, in- 
Margrave of Hohenburg, Eaynald the titular Duit 

* Contin. Prwdicatonim Yindobonenfiium. 

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{ Spoleto, and Ansehn von Jiistingen, were in the chap. 
wnarchs train. His son had been left behind, . ^ 
nder the care of a trusty guardian. 
On the 3rd of September the Emperor Elect was 
iBotzen, to the south of the Alps, where he re- 
Hvrti in his tent the Bishops of Brixen and Trent, 
od Albert, Count of Tyrol At Verona he was met 
n Alatrino and his own notary, with good news 
ran Borne. When on the banks of Lake Garda, 
le ordered the city of Asti to blot out fix)m its 
«onis all statutes which might prejudice the Church. 
&e proctor of a nunnery at Verona waited upon 
fiederick, and obtained a charter for his chents. 
Ike inhabitants of Sirmio, * the gem of peninsulas 
■didands,' were taken imder the mundiburd of the 
'"perial protection. When near Mantua, the Em- 
ptor Hect had his first dealings with a lad who was 
^ to cross his path many times in the course of 
^ fife, Azzo the yoimger, the Marquis of Este. 
'^*<Jaick refers in his charter to the services ren- 
iiwltohim in 1212 by the father of this youthful 
*We, and then gives a strict charge to the Podesta 
^ embassadors of Fadua, who had come out to 
***t their sovereign, that they should refi'ain fix)m 
•^■sing the heir of Este, and should rebuild his 
**^*s^ castle in the style he might direct Fre- 
y^ also invested with his golden sceptre Jordan, 
^ Bishop of Padua, confirming him in his temporal 
J^eges ; and the Prelate, in return, swore fealty 
*^ his lord on the Gospels and rehcs. Peter Ziani, 
** Doge of Venice, had sent Dandolo and another 
^^oy to greet the Emperor Elect, who was naturally 
*^us to court the aUiance of the Lord of Croatia, 
^^tia, and a large part of the old Greek empure. 

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c^. The Doge is styled Frederick's d^ar-s fr^l 

league is entered into by the two p«: 




' towns subject to Venice are enumenUttL Ttat m 
dress of outrages, and the surrender of f-CTreai 
stolen property, is promised on either s^ H 
Venetians are freed from paying cuftom tk 
throughout the Empire and the Kingdom. Tril 
for murder and other crimes are reiuktoi I 
return^ the Doge promises a yearly tribute c^ixkJi^ 
peppo", and a robe. 

By this time Conrad, the German Qiancdlor. 1| 

iv'rdDed Frederick near Mantua. H(MK>rius ii^ 

'tia* s:cQe ir»>iicle in procuring from this officii 4 

rf^rrtiLiic. ii lie kods o! the Countess Matflda: ; 

iiran :tf cx:C?:ci=:::nication had been held oat, sbo 

€c-zi^d h^ l*aai i w in setting forth on the Oraade 

A second letter irz-m Eome had reproved the Oua 

cellor for his ?c ~'^g conduct Conrad had bea 

especially busy zi E. cidgna : Frederick nor seni 

another legate ii.:o pj:5cany, through whid he ^ 

that time meant :o pisgw Everard of Lutra ^ 

appointed to the o£ce, with as full powers over ih 

cities and nobles as the Emperor himself could hav 

wielded. On the 24th of September, Frederick, i 

the request of HcMiorius, quashed all the edicts mad^ 

by the cities throughout Italy to the prejudice d 

rhe Church, declaring that heretical depravity v^ 

the source of this obnoxious legislation. Very manj 

Iiiuian bishops had by this time joined him, ^^ 

were witnesses to another edict for the advantage tJ 

his Holiness. The s<mis of Albert Count of Casalo<l 

w^re placed under the ban, for having refused to 

ir^ up the Castle of Gonzaga to the Pope's chap- 

iDi$^ although mild measures had been first tried 

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k these nobles. The two Chaplains were invested chap. 
» the lands so long hotly debated, and all the 
«ls were ordered to take the oath of fealty to the 
jwn Church. Ever since the beginning of the 
tteenth Century, the Papacy had been extending 
temporal power, and its pohcy seemed now to be 
woed with success, 

>B the 1st of October, Frederick, then at Spihm- 
to, released the Bishop of Padua from the burden 
yiowing him to Eome, on payment of fifty 
Tff marks. Two days afterwards the Eoyal train 
« <» the Eeno, the western boimdary of Komagna. 
e Bishop of Como and others were sent on as 
^^Jeiick's messengers to Honorius, with a letter 
«n their employer, couched in a most dutiftd strain, 
i refers to die vast amount of business which had 
**ted him in Lombardy and prevented him from 
*2i^ a more proper embassy. He is grateful to 
* Church for her favours — ' she will not repent of 
"^ begotten and cherished such a son. We are 
^^^3mg to the feet of your Holiness : soon will 
''^ We the desired fruit from the tree which the 
aurch has planted.' Frederick pitched his camp 
**? Bologna for a few days, and made acquaintance 
'^ the turbulent Eomagnoles. A month before 
*^ time, the Chancellor had reheved the Bolognese 
^^ Ae ban, under which they had been placed for 
j^ misdeeds. He had also ratified a peace made 
'*^t«i Imola and Faenza. The district was there- 
^*t in the enjoyment of quiet, to which the Ro- 
**P*ole8 were unused. Embassies from all the 
^ cities m Italy came to wait upon Frederick, 
*J being rival ckiraants for his favour. To this the 
^^=^»oe8e had an imdoubted right ; for it was their 
^OLL o 

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CHAP, galleys which had convoyed him across the sea, sii 

their city which had sheltered him, at a time wlei 

his rival Otho was still in possession of the thro^A 

They requested a confirmation of their p 

but from some unexplained reason Frederick 

to have viewed the Genoese with dislike. He 

scarcely grant them those rights which they dmJ^ 

as depending on the Empire ; those connected iri^i 

Sicily were altogether abolished.* Certain it i^ 

however, that a charter given at this time by Fw 

derick to the Genoese is still extant, whereby sdd| 

praising their tried valour, he grants them pov4 

over the whole coast from Porto Venere to Moaict|| 

with licence to bmld a castle abov^ the latter y^c^ 

He counts upon them, in case of a war with Ma^ 

seilles or a crusade against the Saracens. While oa 

this errand, they were to be protected against tbtir 

powerful neighbours. They also obtained all ti* 

privileges belonging to self-jurisdiction* In spt£ ^i 

this, the Genoese annalist will have it, that his aniL- 

trymen were ill-used by Frederick. The Emptr^: 

wished them to send ambassadors to be present v. 

his coronation ; they refiised, saying that it was cuC 

their custom, and that their senate must first sanct>.c 

such an innovation. He was angry, and tuiiKu 

away the Genoese envoys as if they had beio 

strangers; but his more politic Chancellor, is: 

Bishop of Metz and Spires, wishing to atone for li 

rudeness of his young Master, paid no less than ihhr 

visits to the tent of their Podesta.f Frederick b>i 

undergone another rebuff in his progress. He L-- 

a great wish to be crowned at Monza, as his fir> 

* Cafiari ; Ann. Genuen. f Cafiari ; Ann* Genucn. 

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hthers bad been, with the iron crown of the Lom- chap. 
bards ; but the Milanese, in whose possession it was, ^^' 
bd refiised his request * with round mouth,' to use 1212-1220. 
ke expression of their chronicler.* Frederick never 
brgave this and sundry other offences of these inso- 

He now left Bologna behind him, and marched 
awards with his little army. After investing the 
Bishop of Bobbio, he was met by the envoys of Fa- 
B2I, who gave him 1500 silver marks and abundance 
rf provisions; in return, he released the townsmen 
bm the ban under which they had been placed. On 
4e loth of October he granted them a charter, which 
tl'wed them to garrison a certain castle and a trench, 
3>tl the fete of this stronghold should be decided. 
Be then went on to Forli, where he displayed one of 
^ woirt features of his character ; for, notwith- 
OttKng his late charter, he turned back, and de- 
*^yed the castle and trench, granted so short a time 
Wne to Faenza. The garrison ran off just in time to 
^^^ capture by their Forhvese enemies, who had 
P^'^'aded Frederick to break his word to Faenza.f 
w wronged dty ever afterwards displayed peculiar 
^Jiity to his person. All this time charters were 
*^ freely b^towed ; one of them granted to the 
^Wwt of Sassena is remarkable for its sanctioning a 
'ol cQstom, directly contrary to the old feudal laws 
*i*ich obtained in England, mercifiilly devised for 
*c extinction of slavery. It set forth that if any 
^ of that monastery should marry a free woman, 
*c cflspring of the marriage must remain in thral- 
**^ In the mean time, the Chancellor and the 
^^ of Turin had been sent back to keep peace 

* Gahmeo Fiamnia. f Tolosanus. 

^1. ♦o2 

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CHAP, in Lombardy. An exchange of lands, made mi-:; i 
^' years before by Markwald, Frederick's old persea- 
tor, was ratified by the Emperor Elect, when he v^ 
not far from Bimini. 

In November, the Pope sent to his promi^ng ^qi 
two envoys, Nicholas the Bishop of Tusculum, a sui- 
ject of the Sicilian crown, and the chaplain Alatri!) . 
they were charged to point out the danger resuliir: 
from the union of the Empire and Sicily under ita 
head ; Honorius having an uncomfortable amvicti •- 
that his young friend had outwitted him in tL> 
matter. They were commissioned besides to diarj^ i 
Frederick's zeal against the Paterines, and to ftx 
that if the Crusaders in the East were to W 
succoured at all, their brethren must cross the ^i 
directly, under the Emperor's guidance. Hon^^rii.-. 
moreover, ordered his Legates to have the caji:-- 
laries ready, sealed with the Golden Bull, to N 
published on the very day of the coronatioa Et 
was determined not to be tricked by any more cv-- 
sions. Frederick, as usual, promised everjtlin:* 
for Honorius wrote to the Cardinal at Dbunittu 
that help was coming in March next year. 

The 22nd of November, 1220, was one of :'■• 
proudest days that Home ever saw. The you:: 
King of Sicily, after having regained the crown tr. , 
had been worn for seventy years by his Hohenst;iu!' ■ I 
forefathers, knelt before the Father of the Christ: 
world, an old man almost on the verge of the ir::^^ { 
owing to bodily ailments and decaying strength.* '. 
was in San Lorenzo, beyond the wdls, that Hon- : 
had a short time before crowned the Latin Emy ' I 

* < Erat oorpore infirmtiB ex aenio, et ultra modun <i- 

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>f the East ; but the present ceremony took place chap. 
u the old Basilica of St. Peter, the church which 
lad survived through many destructive mischances 
>ince its foundation by Constantine, and which 
was to stand for nearly three centuries longer. 
Italians and Oermans, Guel& and Ghibellines, 
clei^ and laity, for once were all united. The 
Boman populace, usually so uproarious, were now 
luyal in their acclamations. A bloody fight between 
them and the Oermans had disgraced Otho's corona- 
tion, but nothing now occurred to mar the festivities 
in honour of Otho's rival They had indeed pro- 
mised Frederick, some time before this, that they 
would maint4>in peace on the occasion, and would 
'lutifiilly obey the Pope, with whom they were 
always at variance. The 'Illustrious Senator and 
people' kept their word ; they did well to enjoy the 
fight of the present ceremony ; for this was almost 
the last time that a Pope would crown an Emperor at 
Home. The old state of things was passing away, 
and a new era was about to begin. 

The order, used at the Boman coronation of Fre- 
derick's father, is still extant, in the hand of Hono- 
rius himself. Even Henry, that terrible Emperor, 
condescended^ as we there see, to kiss the feet of the 
Pope, and to present his shaven chin for a return 
of the greeting ; to undergo a catechism in his reli- 
gious belief turning chiefly upon the Athanasian 
Creed ; to wear the priestly dress, to kneel before the 
Hihcs of St. Peter, and to receive the ring, the sword, 
the crown, and the other insignia, at the hands of 
hid Holiness. • He deigned also to hold the stirrup 
f»f the Pope, and to ride behind him through the 
^ity, followed by the Empress ; his place at Ae en- 

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CHAP, suing banquet being at the Pope's right hand.* If 
^* these ceremonies were rigorously exacted from thv 
haughty Henry the Sixth, it is not probable that any 
omission of them would be allowed in the case d 
the deferential Frederick the Second. 

The dignitaries of the Church had each his ap- 
pointed office in the ceremony. The Cardinab ami 
Prelates stood around their Lord ; among them wa? 
Innocent's nephew, Ugolino, the Bishop of Ostia, 
Frederick's evil genius, holding the cross which tte 
Emperor had sworn to assiune. The Archbishops of 
Mayence and Eavenna, the Patriarch of Aquileia, the 
Duke of Bavaria, CJonrad and Obizzo Malaspina, A220 
of Este, and WiUiam of Montferrat, had come in their 
Kaiser's train. There were also present many Bishqie 
and envoys from Northern and Central Italy, who were 
waiting upon their new Lord. Besides these, there 
were some of the great nobles from Frederick's 00 
maternal realm : the Abbot of Monte Cassino, Bogtr 
Count of Aquila, Eichard Count of Celano, and Jarae^ 
Count of San Severino.f The Count of Conversant 
arrived with 300 knights in his train, some of whom 
were Castellans and Vavassors. J Such were the mt-n 
who surrounded the Emperor and Empress ; some, 
doubtless, clad in the long flowing robes of that pe- 
riod, reaching down to the feet ; others in their 
armour, wearing the close-fitting, flat-topped helmet, 
which showed but Uttle of the warrior's moustacht-1 
face ; having their arms and legs cased in chaii:- 
mail, with the timic coming down to the knee ; gir^ 

• The order of the Roman coronation is set out in Peru. 
Leges, II. 

f Ric. San Germano. 

X French Manuscript, quoted by Iluillard BrdhoUets. 

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nth the unusuafly long sword of the time, and bear- chap. 
»g the Jong narrow triangular shield. Men arrayed 
i this fiishion, the contemporaries of Frederick's 
oUes, may be seen sculptured in eflBgy imder the 
lotonda of the Temple Church in London. The 
icred insignia of the Holy Eoman Empire were all 
rought forth, the Cross, the Sword, the Sceptre, the 
•we, the golden Apple with a cross on it, the golden 
Wem, studded with precious stones, and sur- 
»raited by a crest.* This last was placed by 
fe«»rius on the head of Frederick, and then on 
^ of Constance. Mass was performed immedi- 
*^ tfter the coronation ; the lighted candlea were 
E«nched, and the Pope excommunicated all heretics 
ittl their abettors. Frederick took the cross from 
ie hands of Cardinal Ugolino, and vowed that he 
■^ sail to the rescue of the Crusaders in the fol- 
''^ing August, engaging to send off previously 500 
biditB on the holy errand in March. He recom- 
ttftided the three mihtary Orders in the most earnest 
Dttnner to the Popcf 

But Honorius knew very well that it would be 
fctly to combat the creed of Mohammed in the East, 
rf heresy was to be allowed to take root in the West. 
^Jwttgh himself the mildest of men, still, as a perse- 
^^*!^ of Paterines and Albigenses,* he trod closely in 
«c footsteps of his predecessor Innocent. He seized 
^ the occasion to prove to the world that on this 
«ihject the Pope and Emperor were of one mind. 
(k the very day of the coronation, Frederick put 
fjrth his nine Edicts, which were to be published 

Tl*€«e, and their uses, are described in a poem by Godfrey 
'' Viterbo, written about thirty years before this time. 
tScehiBLettcrefor 1221. 

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CHAP* throughout the Empire. In the first, he dedai^t 
' null and void all statutes and customs which as 

1212-1220. against the freedom of the Church and churchmei 
All future offenders against this decree are to be de 
nounced as infamous, and their goods are to be coo- 
fiscated. In the second, he forbids any taxatija i 
churches or churchmen, under the penalty of thi«* 
fold restitution. In the third, he places under ibc 
ban of the Empire any one who has remained is i 
year \mder the excommunication of the ChurcL i* 
the fourth, he forbids plaintiffs and judges to brier 
Churchmen before the civil power, though the rei^ 
rend suitors are not to be denied their legal ligkK 
In the fifth, he denounces as in&mous, and (s^ 
cates the goods of, all Cathari, Paterines, Leoai<N 
Speromsts, Amaldists, Circumcisi, and all heretics i* 
either sex. In the sixth, he orders all dvil ma^'^- 
trates to take an oath that they will pui^ the Ifi- 
of heretics ; the abettors of false doctrine are to N 
outlawed ; and this is to be enforced against jud?^ 
advocates, and notaries. In the seventh, he it- 
nounces penalties against wreckers, whatever be tb 
local custom to the contrary. In the eighth, he pn^ 
tects the rights of pilgrims, and makes the loa 
Bishop guardian of their property, if they die inuv 
tate. In the ninth, he forbids any invasion of tl- 
goods of the tillers of the soil, and protects their ox.: 
and implements. This last clause reminds us <»f « 
certain provision in our own Great Charter, wb^^ 
only preceded these constitutions of Prederid^ by ti^ 
years. The Emperor at once sent his new laws to li 
University of Bologna to be inscribed on its rolk 
It was not to be expected that an occasion, • 
which envoys from nearly all the cities of Italy wt : 

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nesmt^ should pass off without a single disturbance, chap. 
,»iie of the Ambassadors of Florence, dining with a ^* 

?«idinal, asked his entertainer for a hound, which 1212-1220 

fi8 in the house, as a present Next day the Cardi- 

iil gave a dinner to the Pisan envoys, who had come 

Borne in a well-furnished galley, attended by fifty 

fottths, and whom Frederick had welcomed most 

fndously, it being an unusual honour.* The host, 

fcrcetting that the hoimd had been already bespoken, 

pve it to one of the Pisans. The Florentine, how- 

i?w, got the start of the Pisan, as it happened, in 

sailing for the dog, and therefore kept it. The 

inib met in the streets of Bome, and abused each 

«ber ; the two embassies took up the quarrel, and 

tttt Florentines were worsted, as the Pisans had sol- 

<toB at hand. The latter wrote home to lay an 

**l*rgo on all Florentine wares at Pisa ; the order 

*is carried out, and a long and bloody war ensued 

^*tween the two chief cities of Tuscany. Malespini, 

«e Florentine historian, declares that he heard this 

^iry fix)in some old countrymen of his who had 

"^ at Frederick's coronation. A small spark like 

^ was quite enough in that age to set all Italy in a 

*«2e. 'The Devil took the shape of a dog,' says 

^ Villani, * as we see by the mischief that fol- 

Honorius exulted in the territorial influence ac- 
^f°^ by Borne, in return for bestowing the crown 
^ftederick. In the presence of the Emperor, the 
^ invested Azzo the Marquess of Este, then a mere 
^''Pwng, with the Anconitan March, using a banner 
^ ^ ceremony. The patrimony of St Peter seemed 

* Croniche di Pisa. 

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CHAP, now to be secured. The Pope had Castellans of hi« 

own not fsLT from Bologna. Peace was enforceJ 

upon the quarrelsome Umbrians, who were at irar 
from Nami to Foligno, Honorius having already 
summoned the Podestas of Central Italy to resign 
their strongholds to him at Orvieto. A Cardinal was 
sent to act as the deputy of Borne in the Dudij' of 
Spoleto, which was coveted by a certain GennaiL 
who had followed Frederick to Eoma* The Holy 
See was at length, as it seemed, in possession of the 
Countess Matilda's bequest But what had been 
easily gained might be as easily lost. 

The Apulian barons, who were present at the cere- 
mony, had brought with them great numbers of 
war-horses as gifts to their King. Many of the^e 
Frederick gave to his German subjects, who were 
now about to return to their own lanAf The 
Bishop of Metz, the Duke of Bavaria, and more 
than 400 German and Apuhan barons, together 
with a vast number of knights and common people- 
had taken the Cross for the ensuing March ; and 
Honorius sent the cheering news to the sorely-pressed 
Christian host at Damietta. He also despatckil 
Conrad of Mayence, his Penitentiary, into Germany, 
to stir up the flagging zeal of the faithful Tl^ 
Crusaders had now greater need of reinforcement 
than ever, since many of their comrades had rt- 
tumed home. Von Salza seems to have obtaineJ 
leave of absence, for he was with the Emperor at 
Eome. Happily, the Moslem Sultans had made n- 

♦ See a letter of Honoriiw for 1221. 
t Reinerius says that 2000 of these dextrarii (destriers) wer. 
brought, of which Frederick gave away more than 600. 


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rward moTement since the check received by them chap. 

im. ^ 

Soon after his coronation, Frederick encamped on 
bote ]tfario, whence he could overlook the whole 
f the ^orious city, firom his lofly post on the other 
<fc of the Tiber. Here the young Emperor was 
^erwhehned with business. The Archbishop of 
I«veniia, the Bishop of Ivrea, the Piedmontese no- 
fa, and the dty of Turin, aU claimed his attention. 
lOo of Este procured a charter for a Benedictine 
wasteiy on the Po. The Abbot of Borgo San 
«polcro obtained privil^es and protection against 
» noghbours. Pistoia was granted a charter, and 
ft Podesta received investiture. Tortona was fa- 
pjiwd in a similar way. The Bishop of Bologna 
tadAown himself most courageous in the Emperor's 
■'^ and was accordingly well rewarded. The 
f'derta of the same city received high compliments 
« is loyalty, which did not last long, as Frederick 
***r^wds found to his cost The Ubaldini, a famous 
"TOitine house, gained important privileges. The 
■ttoC Poggibonzi, a Tuscan village, made a present 
f'P'^t, and agreed in future to pay eighty marks 
rfalver tothe Castellan of San Miniato, and to lodge 
^ Emperor and Empress once a year. In return, 
*^ were released from their subjection to Siena 
■^Roraice. A castle was given in pledge to Asti 
*jra loan of 1800 marks. Pagano, the Bishop of 
' ^*hena, coming to Frederick, was called an illus- 
*^ Prince of the Empire, and was allowed to ex- 
*^ civil and criminal jurisdiction in his diocese. 
^ Wibot of Bavenna obtained a confirmation of the 
?^*^88ion8 of his monastery. 

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CHAP. But sterner duties had sometimes to be perfor:::4 
Ugolino, the Bishop of Ostia, had akeady \iJ 
Parma \mder an interdict for outrages commirJ 
against her Bishop and clergy ; the Cardinal now a 
quested the Emperor to apply the secular ann. Ti 
Frederick did on the 25th of November, after uiaj 
the advice of the Princes of the Empire then il 
Eome, who were all named in the decree pronu^jJ 
against Parma. On the previous day he had graiw 
a charter to the Pisans, in which he praises tba 
services to his forefathers, and omits to mentioDth< 
enmity against himself in 1212. He confinn?^ 
their possessions, among which Elba and Corsiaiii 
reckoned ; their jurisdiction is to extend fromC^J 
Vecchia in the South to Porto Venere in the S :*•* 
the Genoese boundary. Frederick used to jT" 
in the ceremony of investing the Rsan envoy- '•« 
their new privileges. This Tuscan city fix)m htncet rt 
became the great stronghold of the Ghibelline^^J^ 
never wavering in her loyalty to Frederick, ^'-^ 
his son and grandson after him. She had still M 
four glorious years before her. J 

On the 25th of November, Frederick hadmovL^i»^ 
to Sutri, about twenty-five miles to the north of K- 'i 
and here he remained six days. He gave remarti ^ 
powers to his faithful Chancellor Conrad, the fe ' 
of Metz, as Imperial Legate in Italy, and he '•■' 
under his protection the five Palatine Counts of Ts 
cany, the sons of Coimt Guido Guerra, ginn? * ^ 
many privileges. Early in December the Eic;-'^ 
making a long circuit, marched by Nami to i '• -' 
and thence to San Germano. He met with a r}* 
reception on gaining the bounds of his beloved t • 

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after an abseDce of eight years and a half.* chap. 

lad ah-eady prevailed on the Abbot of Monte ' 

no, while at Borne, to restore Eocca Bantra to ^212-1220. 

Irown, a fort which had been the cause of a dis- 

between Pope Innocent and himself in 1212. 

mt forth his edicts to every part of Germany 

Italy ; but a letter from Bome came to remind 

that after all he was not the undisputed master 

e latter country. It is dated on the 11th of 

mber, and we see that even after the coronation 

Frederick's great concessions to the Pope, there 

)een a slight dispute between the two. * We do 

think that ever Pope of Bome loved Empe- 

more heartily than we love you, as we hope to 

e to you, with God's help, hereafter. K any- 

l has gone wrong as regards the supply of pro- 

ns on the road, it is not our fault ; since when 

were approaching Tuscany, we sent Alatrino, 

is entirely devoted to you, with our orders that 

might be provided with necessaries readily. 

we must remark that, according to the express 

y, within the States of the Church purveyance is 

ect to the direction of the deputies of the Pope, 

)f those of the Emperor. Moreover, the districts 

ie Maritima and the Campagna owe no service 

iw, as they are not usually Uable to be disturbed 

^r on the Emperor's way to the coronation, or on 

return. Still, if Emperors on their expeditions 

^st Sicily have exacted the same service, it was 

' by might, not by right It was not our duty ; 

i^ order to show our special love to you, we 

rged the Cardmal of St. Angelo, the ruler of that 

• Ric. San Germane. 

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CHAP, district, with the care of seeing that necessaries i: 
every place should be delivered in sufficient quani- 
ties. After receiving your letter, we repeated cc 
order to him.' 

Both Honorius and Frederick seem to kvt 
been satisfied with the bargain made at Borne: 
the former had secured immunity for ecclesiastic, 
the lands of the Countess Matilda for the Chuni 
and the services of the Emperor against hervii:: 
and Moslem ; the latter was well pleased to L; 
acknowledged both as Emperor and as King < f 
Sicily. More than this, Honorius sent a letter toiho 
Prelates in the Kingdom of Aries, Frederick's tliiri 
realm, directing them to give all the aid in tlei: 
power to the Marquess of Montferrat, whom the 
Emperor had just despatched from Borne to act S5 
his Vicar in those parts. It was hoped that the Mar- 
quess, a man of approved Catholic principles, voiL'i 
promote the cause of religion, which was confiontol 
on the Ehone by the Albigenses. Conrad, the Ger- 
man Bishop of Porto, no friend to Frederick, wi* 
also directed to give his aid to the Marquess, wbj 
would need the support of the Pope's L^ate in Ger- 
many. In the mean time, the Bishop of Metz went ib 
Frederick's Legate into Northern Italy, and appoinU'*! 
Everard of Lutra to act for him in Tuscany. 

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AJ).1220 — AJ). 1227. 

* Hime saltern ererso jayenem Bucdurere ssedo 
Ne prohibete I — ^Vibqil. 


rEDERICK had left Sicily a lad of seventeen, chap. 
who had been merely a tool in the hands of wily ^^^ 
kieats and the laughing-stock of marauding barons. 
Be returned to Sicily a man of six-and-twenty, the 
Icro of a daring enterprise, holding the highest 
.fcmporal dignity known in the world, and aware 
4ai France and England were bidding against each 
•xbor for his friendship. He had added his father's 
Empire to his mother's Kingdom ; he had had much 
*:xperience in courts and camps ; and he knew himself 
'^^ he a match either for priests or warriors, having 
x^amt craft fix)m the one class, and promptitude from 
Vtic other. He was now to pass almost eight years 
:a his Kingdom, — a period spent by him with two 
Itfdnct objects in view : first, the Crusade in which 
\ai had enlisted ; secondly, the regulation of Sicily 
«d Apulia. These two projects were always run- 
^ counter to one another. Honorius held that a 
Cne's first object ought to be the glory of the King 
jf Kinjrs, and the rescue of Christ's Sepulchre from 
w»e unl)eliever8 ; Frederick thought that a Monarch's 
5rst efforts were due to his own people. The Pope 

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CHAP, kept pointing to Jerusalem and Damietta; tih 
^^' Emperor was not disobedient, but still kept loobDs 

1220-1227. \yQjQ^ on Capua and Palermo. Hence we may divide 
the time between 1220 and 1228 into two parts: 
the preparations made by Frederick for his Cnisade. 
and the measures adopted by him for the good onk 
of his dominions. We will take the latter divia<» 
of the subject first 

The great bane of the Ejngdom of Sicily was the 
excessive power of the nobles, who made war upc« 
each other without scruple, built castles withoa 
hcence, seized on the Boyal domains, and usurped 
the right of criminal jurisdiction. They were partly 
men of old Norman blood, partly German adven- 
turers who had obtained grants of land and titla 
from Frederick's father. Other honours and estate* 
had been conferred by Pope Innocent ; he had iii»le 
full use of his prerogative as feudal Lord of the 
Kingdom. The Genoese and Pisans held with a finn 
grasp several towns on the coast, and disputi^l 
the Royal sway. Moreover, the western part d 
Sicily was peopled by Saracen tribes, ever ready i- 
rush down from their moimtains and plunder tht 
Christians of the plains. The common folk sd^ 
fered much froin the quarrels of the nobles; C 
looked forward to a ruler who would hold the nii* 
with a firm, steady hand ; and such a ruler tht^ 
foimd in Frederick. Peter, the old Count of Cetov 
had died the very year of his Sovereign's departim 
for Germany ; but many other veteran disturbei^ i** 
the peace survived, not to be kept in order eitlnr 
by Queen Constance, the llegent, or by Cnnlini- 
Gregory, the Pope's Legate at Palermo, Thn- 
years later, Innocent had deposed the Ablx^t *J 

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fonte Oassino for dismantling that convent, and had chap. 
bo caused Eoger of Aquila, the new Count of 

'ondi, to swear fealty to the absent King. But in ^220-1227. 
ie very next year this Count and John of Ceccano 
me engaged in a bloody strife ; during which upon 
Be occasion 424 persons, men and women, young 
sd old, were burnt ahve in a castle.* The Counts 
[ Ctkno and Molise waged open war in the Abruzzi. 
ie Bishop of Teano was guilty of the vilest out- 
ages, yet hoped to retain his mitre by bribing the 
tml Legatcf The Crusaders traversing Apuha 
»we rubbed and murdered. Coimt Kegnier, as we 
We already seen, had perpetrated horrible butcheries 
^^skSj. Xo wonder that the Commons looked 
ttmd to the coming of one, who alone could bridle 
Wtl turbulence. ' No man now dares to put his 
^?W m iniquity,' says Frederick in a charter given 
^ Ilia return, * we will introduce justice into all 
^5Jcg5 subject to us.' 
ffis reputation had gone before Imn. The Count 
i Alesina, unwilling to fiice his young master, had 
^oted with eight galleys for Damietta. J The Coxmt 
'^ KoUse, unable to gain Frederick's favour, had 
Aai himself up in Magenul, while the Countess took 
^^^ in Boiano amid the Appenines. On the 
'*«T hand those two almost impregnable positions 
*« the border, Sora and Eocca d'Arce, surrendered 
*/ ^^ ^ege Lord. He enjoyed a further triumph ; 
^ found an old enemy awaiting sentence at Capua, 
^''*> bad been the bane of Southern Italy for nearly 

Chnm, of Fona Nuova. 
t Letters of ThoQuui of Capua, given by Br^holles. 
{ French Gironicle, quoted by Br^holles. 

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CHAP, thirty years. Diephold had in 1210 betrayed Capui 
to the Emperor Otho, and had in return been created 
Duke of Spoleto. Six years afterwards he had beet 
seized, while returning into the Kingdom on an ast, 
and had been thrown into prison at Borne by tk 
Senator ; he had however escaped by means d 
bribes, only to be seized again in 1218 by the ordt?^ 
of Frederick ; Diephold's own son-in-law, James of 
San Severino, had effected this capture. The crimioL 
was now, in 1220, brought up for judgment ; bur 
the host of Germans in Frederick's tram could n. t 
look unmoved upon the sad pKght of one, whi*^ 
name was so associated with the son of Barbanwsi. 
and with the German conquest of Sicily. At thd- 
intercession, and on his brother Siffrid's consencin: 
to give up certain towns, Diephold was set free. H'. 
was however deprived of his honours, which wen 
given to another; Thomas of Aquino was matlt 
Count of Acerra, and also Grand Justiciaiy of thv 
Terra di Lavoro ; this chief became one of the abic' 
Heutenants ever employed by the Crown. He vd^ 
the uncle of his namesake, the great Schoolman, vi.' 
was bom a few years later. The lords of M^" 
henceforth enjoyed much of the Emperors coni- 
dence; and other able ministers were found in tht 
Morra and Cicala families. Before the eoA of tK 
next year, Frederick contrived to get rid of anoilif: 
man, who had been the plague of his childh''<- 
Walter of Palear, the crafty Bishop of Catania. ^^ 
driven into banishment, like his old ally DiephoU* 
In the winter of 1220, the King of Sicily i*^*- 
bUshcd a new tribunal, called the Capuan Court, at i: 

• Ric. San Germano. 

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ky ; where twenty Assizes were enacted. One great chap. 

i^ect of this institution was, to restore to the Crown ^^' 

bose serrices, which the nobles were bound to yield, 1220-1227. 

ad which had become obsolete owing to the troubles 

f the last thirty years.* Again, very many Charters 

n?ted, which had been drawn up in defiance of 

?rtderick s title to the sovereignty ; he fixed upon 

be death of King William the Good as the latest 

wiod of undoubted prescriptive right. Any privi- 

(ps granted by Tancred the usmper, or by Otho the 

leader, or any improperly bestowed by Markwald, 

fcphold, or Kapparon, were condemned as infringe- 

Bteflta on the Eoyal authority. It was not to be 

Iwitt, for instance, that the public acts of the city of . 

Saples should recognise Otho as reigning even up to 

•ie Uteran Goimcil. For a whole year after the 

•w Court had been set up, Charters granted to 

lUw^», Abbots, and Corporations, were being sent 

Ji for revision, and this inspection seems to have 

W rmewed in later years. These strong measures 

*-**! been contemplated by the Emperor, even before 

•pitting Germany. All noblemen, who did not come 

n by a certain day, were held to have forfeited their 

^"wors ; and various grants, that had been extorted 

^ frwd in the old times, were revoked. Some 

F^^^'woa, who did not bring forward their privileges 

^ ^ appointed day, were much injured. All these 

^ were taken by the advice of a famous lawyer, 

-^*^ Bonello of Barlettaf The nobles, from 

Vus time forward, were in general estranged from 

'ivderick's government ; like their Norman brethren 

• See the Charter to Monte Vergine, in 1222. 
t Giaunonc ; Istoria Civile, 
p 2 

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CHAP, in England in the course of the same century. l\. 

. preferred to hold their lands by the sword, rat: 

1220-1227. ^^^^ i^y ^Yxe sheep-skin. These men^ as we see ^* 
Frederick's subsequent Charters, were no hsi^^ 
allowed to oppress the monasteries ; their castle* 
were threatened ; Bichard, the brother of the h:- 
Pope, had to give up Sora, and Cardinal Step>i 
was forced to quit Eocca d'Arce. Sessa, Tta: 
and Kocca Dracone were taken fix)m the Count ■• 
Aquila.* Taxes were laid on the clergy; ai- 
Frederick began to meddle in the elections to raca • 
sees and to banish rebeUious Prelates ; he as?o:t-.- 
that he was not bound by Innocent's compacu ?^L'. 
it had been made with a woman. He complaine*: ■* 
the Papal exactions during his minority, and n\urr:i 
to the old privileges of the Sicilian Kings: *&•'" 
long,' said he, * will the Pope abuse my paticn*"* ' 
What bound will he set to his ambition? I: 
begins to despise the majesty of the Emperor; I 
would rather lay down the Crown, than lessen m;. 
authority 1 ' f 

Frederick, however, who could not as yet aff : i 
to break with Honorius, wrote to him in Man.:- 
protesting against the suspicions of his Holim^-^- 
that the privileges granted to the Church were .: 
danger, owing to this new institution of the Gipus! 
Court. ' Our father,' says Frederick, * granted away 
too large a portion of the Eoyal domains ; many 
the title deeds by which they are now held ar 
forgeries ; the Kealm was in danger of ruin, said wt 
have, therefore, ordered all privileges to be bn>uj * 
before us. You may be sure that all the char.. ^ 

• Kic. San Oermano. tF*'^*^'^- 

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^tm demand shall be sent to your Paternity.' About chap. 

the same time, Frederick allowed the Jews to dwell 

in TranLy on their making a yearly payment of 

ihirty-eight ounces of gold to the clergy of the 

One of the first things he did, after the 

of the Court of Capua, was to order two 

to refrain from harassing a Church at Ma- 

His legislation certainly aimed at strict im- 


From Capua, after confirming to the Pope the 

Itods of the Coimtess Matilda, and after bestowing 

«>Ie privil^es on Monte Cassino, Frederick passed 

Im to Naples and Salerno ; he made to the Arch- 

kbbop of the latter see the usual grant of Jews and 

otaer rights, and protected the neighbouring Abbey 

rf Cava, allowing vassals to place themselves under 

Ct rule. He then took his way across the mainland, 

riating, for the first time in his life, Foggia, Trani, 

litiri, Brindisi, and Taranto, whence the Germans, 

w^ had followed him to Eome, set sail for Da- 

^lieUa ; they bore to Von Salza the news of many 

wrw Imperial grants to his Order. Frederick at last 

otMsed over to Sicily, and held another Court at 

■ MeBEina, in which he enacted laws against dicers 

md blasphemers. Jews were to be distinguished by 

\ tikir drees from Christians. Bturlots were ordered 

fc> dwell outside the walls of the cities, and were for- 

liiiden to use the pubhc baths when honest women 

»tre there. Bufibons were placed beyond the pale 

i law and might be woimded or robbed with im- 

j^mity. Frederick stripped the Genoese of all the 

{irivileges enjoyed by them at Syracuse, whence they 

tijd driven the Pisans ; Genoa had now to pay dues 

it tlie custom-house, like any other state ; her Ad- 

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CHAP, miral barely escaped from the Emperor's dutches 
and another of her citizens, Count Alamanno, founi 
himself obliged to yield up his authority as Gtovemoi 
of Syracuse.* The vexation of the Genoese w» 
doubtless heightened, on seeing their Pisan rival 
receive a Charter shortly afterwards. While ai 
Messina, Frederick confirmed HQldebrand, the Coimi 
Palatine of Tuscany, in all his rights, especially ii 
those appertaining to the city of Grosseto ; froa 
this nobleman the Aldobrandeschi derived theu 
lineage. After visiting Catania and Calatagirona, tht 
Emperor in July was able once more to date fron 
' the happy city of Palermo,' the official title of tht 
capital. His long exile in bleak Germany was at 
last over ; he must have rejoiced to find himself onct 
more within sight of Monte Pellegrino, to walk in 
the gardens of La Cuba, and to feast his eyes on the 
far-famed Conca d'Oro. The faithful burghere of 
Palermo had, according to the edict of the Court at 
Capua, brought before Frederick the Charter giveu 
to them in his name when he was a babe ; this he 
now confirmed. Many Abbots and Prelates hastenal 
to comply with the rigorous edict, the Abbey of 
Flora being alone excepted from its provisions ; tho 
charters seem to have been regranted to their 
holders, after careful inspection. Knights, as we 
have seen, were forbidden to harass the churcbe?; 
on the other hand we find an Abbot rebuked for 
taking more than his due from certain villagers; 
and the rebuke had to be repeated. The Eopl 
Chapel at Palermo had received many injunctions 
from Frederick, when in Germany, to confer ib 

• Caffari ; Ann. Genuenses. Ric. San Gernuuio. 

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iracant dirties on persons named by him. Two chap. 
rem before, he had given to Brother Gerard the 
iarge of a hospital for lepers in the capital, which 
itt open to all ; Von Salza was to have the power 
if appointing the future masters of this institution, 
bee his Order had been foimded mainly to alleviate 
■cbees and disease. This grant Frederick after- 
nrds confirmed, when at Taranto. The magistrates 
i PaloTno were complained of by the Teutonic 
^ohren, and were in consequence sternly forbidden 
^» molest them. These knights now obtained from 
fwderick a yearly pension of two himdred ounces 
'f ?old, charged ou the Brindisi revenues, to buy 
iar white cloaks. 

Scily seems to have remained at peace, under the 

*^ of its Lord, but it was far otherwise on the main- 

■i Evm before Frederick's coronation, the sons of 

«i*T of Celano had broken out into civil war, as we 

>^ bom the letters of Thomas of Capua, a bom 

"•^i^ct of the Kingdom, who became a Cardinal 

* had besought Frederick to pardon the offenders, 

^*iww\e<]^g at the same time that it would be 

*^ unsafe for the Emperor, if he sailed for Pales- 

^ to leave behind him the turbulent Coimt of 

^^ the eon-in-law of the deceased Peter of 

^^^itta The Coimt had, in vain, sent one of his sons 

^'^me,to implore Frederick's mercy. Bichard, 

^ oew Count of Celano, had gone on a like errand, 

*»i had been one of the spectators of the corona- 

'^^ Some of the youthful burghers of Capua 

»ere eager to serve the Crown, in order to have a 

^"^^^^ for avenging private wrongs. The good 

-inlinal wrote to the Celano brethren, warning 

'^^*^ thai the ruin of their house would be a heavy 

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CHAP, blow to the Kingdom. It was folly to scatter the 

riches which Peter, their prudent father, had ac- 

1220-1227. quipg^^ ii y^33 ^ shame for brother to raise the 
hand against brother, and the Countess should know 
better than to stir up these broils. He sent a seconi 
letter to Frederick, imploring mercy . for the &- 
turbers of. the peace. The Emperor showed himsdf 
ungracious, and the war in the Abruzzi was carried 
on throughout the year 1221. The Coimt of Molise 
was abetted by the Count of Celano ; they had 
made a truce between themselves, the more eaaly v* 
combine against the Crown. Thomas, the Count d 
Acerra, was endeavouring to suppress this revolt: 
Boiano, Celano, and Magenul, were besi^ed and 
burnt, taken and retaken.* 

In January 1222, the Emperor quitted Sicily U 
the mainland. He was accompanied by Nichola.'* 
the Bishop of Tusculum, the Legate of Borne, one 
of the great Sicilian House of ChiaramontLf Tii 
Cardinal consecrated in Frederick's presence 1 1^ 
Cathedral of Cosenza, at the request of Archbish*;' 
Luke, and on the next day walked round an'l 
blessed the cemetery. Luke was revered as havii; 
been the chosen secretary of Abbot Joadiiin, con- 
cerning whom the Archbishop had much to ttil; 
how the aged Seer had forced the Empress, Freor 
rick's mother, to go down upon her knees, while li- 
was hearing her confession ; how he had given avs} 
all his garments to the poor of Calabria, in ti' 
dreadful winter of 1202, the year of his deatli! 
The Emperor was now to make acquaintance vi:.. 

• Ric. San Gennano. f Gardella. 

I Ughelli, in his account of Cosenza, gives Luke^s long Itt*^' 
about Joachim. 

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one greater than Joachim. Early in this year, St. chap. 

FriDcis had started fix)m Eome on a mission to L 

Southern Italy, which he traversed, foimding con- 
vents and working miracles at every step. He came 
ti) Ban, where he met the Court, and preached 
•giinst the vices of Frederick and the nobles. It 
was resolvefd to try whether the Saint carried out his 
{Caching in his own practice. He was invited to 
«pper, and was afterwards subjected to a practical 
j<ike, wherein a courtesan played the chief part 
Tbe fiery shield with which, according to the legend, 
!» protected himself, put the temptress to flight, and 
Frederick, who, with his courtiers, had been peeping 
through the chinks into the room, acknowledged the 
=u»culous powers of the man of God, begged his 
P«doD for the insult, and spent some hours in dis- 
fwiig spiritual things with him. The tower in 
'hkh the interview took place retained the name of 
'*i Francis.* While the friar was making his pil- 
?fflttge to the shrine of St Michael on Monte 
Gwgano, the Emperor, attended by the Margrave of 
Wen and the titular Duke of Spoleto, passed on to 
T^ Naples, and Capua. He visited the Pope, 
*wl ««i his return b^ged the monks of Casamara to 
^wwnber him in their prayers, and entrusted his 
*«1 to their Abbot Feudal services were exacted 
^ the churches on account of the civil war which 
^^ raging. Frederick gave counsel to the Count of 
AoetTa, then engaged in the siege of Magenul, 
*lviging a more strict blockade. After bestowing a 
■ '^^rter on the Bishop of Marseilles, who had waited 
^ \mn, he was recalled to Sicily by a more 

• Wadding, for 1222. 

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CHAP, serious daii£cer than that of the AbruzzL Tijr 
Saracens of the West, who had alwajrs given mitn 

1220-1227. ijQ^ble to the Archbishop of Monreale, had brok*^ 
out and were ravaging the plains, aided by pir&tee »4 
their own and of the Christian faith. Wilham Ponra 
Frederick's old Genoese Admiral, who had bt^ 
doomed by his master to a prison, was active oq tkt 
side. Henry, Count of Malta, was employed asab.*'. 
them, but, not having troops enough imder his onfcrv 
he was forced to retreat before them, and thus a se<xo'\ 
time fell into disgrace with Frederick ; for he hac 
already been impUcated in the disgraceful surrendtf 
of Damietta to the Saracens of the East. On tfci< 
occasion the Count was thrown into pnsoa arrtl 
deprived of the government of Malta. He va< 
able, however, to make a good defence of his iv«i- 
duct, and was accordingly set free ; but he was di'*- 
possessed of the Castle of Malta, which was retiiiik< 
in the hands of the Crown.* Frederick, who b*i 
been joined by Conrad the Burgrave of Xunrri- 
berg, and by some Teutonic knights, now Ux>k :: • 
field himself ; he seems to have been keptforti»' 
months before the Castle of Giato, near Maza-s. 
At last he defeated the Saracens. A giblx^ wu- 
erected at Palermo, upon which he hanged at oir 
and the same time their Emir Ben Ab«i, with hi- 
two children, and the foreigners, WiUiam Porco, ai/i 
Hugh de Fer, a pirate from Marseilles.f The Fj.. 
peror forced the wild tribes, which had so n*avi. } 
flown to arms at the call of Markwald, and wL. 
had prepared to welcome Kaiser Otho, to o' 
down from their mountains, and to dwell in •• 

• CafFari ; Annal. Gcnuen. f Trium Fontium. 

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piiiDs, although many still held out in their fast- chap. 

fle«es,and were not thoroughly tamed until four '- — 

vara later. Not satisfied with this, Frederick de- ^^^^^22^- 

vised and executed a master-stroke of pohcy ; he 

waverted the Arabs fix>m harassing foes into the 

Ottjt useful of allies. He transported 20,000 of 

tl»an, all able-bodied men, to the mainland, and 

±ere setded them at Lucera, in the broad plains of 

ApuKa, femed from the earhest times for its breed 

i sheep, Frederick emptied this dty of its Chris- 

^ inhabitants, to make way for the men of the 

tobtn ; the Cathedral was turned into a Mosque ; 

5t built a citadel only half a mile firom the city, and 

^ fortified its circuit with fifteen towers. The 

t^ of Lucera, one of the largest in Italy, may 

^ be seen ; the great central building was pro- 

■•Uj Frederick's palace and treasury ; it is flanked 

^ bastions and two circular towers, showing the 

V^ then for the first time introduced into castel- 

*^ ttchitecture. But no trace now remains of the 

*^€s, arsenals, and workshops, built for the use 

' Ae new colony. In Sicily, where they often 

*^ succoured by their brethren from Africa, the 

^^''^^ns were a source of danger to Frederick ; in 

*^- they became his best soldiers, and Were not 

*™idd by any superstitious awe of the Church 

•nmk tttacking tie Pope himself. They are said to 

^e committed fearful havoc in the Capitanata. 

^ Emperor excused himself for employing them 

^ ^ying that he was driven to wage many 

^^ and that the souls of Moslem were surely of 

'^ consequaice than those of Christians, since 

^^ must be shed. As yet the Pope had to rest 

'^-sfivd with this excuse. Complaints came firom 

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CHAP. Girgenti concerning the transportation of the San- 
^^^' cens ; that Bishopric had previously been mxLci 

1220-1227. harassed by their incursions, and at this time it ws 
almost beggared by so many of its villeins beinj 
forcibly removed from it. It was now richer b 
classic ruins than in worldly possessions. Tu. 
Bishop Orso had, for thirty years, taken a leadic.: 
part in Sicilian poUtics. He had been a partisan i»: 
the usurping King Tancred ; he had afterwards beei. 
seized by the Saracens, with whom in those days hi* 
Bishopric swarmed. They shut him up in a ca>t;. 
untU he had paid five thousand golden tarens for L - 
ransom. This Prelate came before the Lnpen;:! 
Court at Palermo, and proved by witnesses, duly 
sworn on the gospels, that his Church had lost it- 
old privileges. Certain revenues were in consequence 
granted to it, and Frederick, coming to Girgenti in 
November, endowed the Bishop with various kncN 
after praising him highly in the charter then bt- 
stowed, ' considering that this Church has btrc 
beggared by persecution, and that we reoriv^ 
seven thousand tarens from it' The Oatheiiral 
of Girgenti, which had fallen into ruins owini: 
to the long exile and captivity of Orso, was iv- 
buUt by his successor, Kinaldo of Acquaviva.* 
It had been profaned by the Saracens, wh- 
installed themselves in it, drove off the cler^ 
and people, and would not allow children to l-^ 
brought to the font In 1228, we find Frederick 
ordering the transfer of a brotherhood from Pr- 
genti to the house of an Arab, named Barchtl^k. 
who had probably been banished to the mainlanJ f 

• Rocchus PirruB. f Gregorio. 

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Bv October 1222, the Saracen war must have been chap. 

' . • VII 

mnch abated, since the Emperor had leisure to visit ! 

Catania and Messina. He granted the request of the ^220-1227. 
Brethren of the Abbey of Ferraria, whose charters 
had been torn up by a former Abbot, 'instigated 
W the goadings of the Old Enemy.' The seal of the 
Emperor Henry had been broken, owing to the 
orelessness of its keeper, as appeared at the Capuan 
Court ; Frederick therefore granted a general con- 
innatioii to the Brethren of Ferraria, with leave to 
cake an aqueduct The Canons of Cefalu were 
recommended to the Pope's notice. 

In December, Frederick crossed to Apulia, where 
U vas joined by some of the returning German 
Cmsadera. Von Salza was at this time in Italy, 
*Ser having witnessed the ruin of the Crusade; he 
i*d kag before this obtained from the Emperor the 
?«it of a house in Sachsenhausen, the suburb of 
f mikfort, with the gift of two daily waggon-loads 
"fdry wood from the neighbouring forest The 
ieutonic Order was now still further favoured by an 
hnperial edict, which declared that no one entering 
the Brotherhood should be liable for any debts pre- 
^^y incurred by him ; these must be discharged 
^7 ^ heirs of his worldly goods. Frederick re- 
<^ved Hermann, the Grand Master, at Precina, 
^^ the court was ; this was a castle which had 
'*^ given up to the Emperor by the Abbot of San 
*novaani in Piano in the previous year. It stands 
^ 4e foot of Monte G^argano, in the country where 
Frederick loved to follow the chase. It is now called 
Apricena, and tradition tells of a supper given on 
^^ spot by the Emperor, after the death of a huge 

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CHAP, boar.* Wliile in Apulia, Frederick noticed ly 
conduct of some men, who, even after the edy^ 
issued from the Capuan Court, had laid hands on iLi 
goods of the Monasteries ; Monte Vergine was 
especial sufferer by this violence, which was Vfn 
sternly forbidden. The Emperor was eqiiaL] 
zealous for ecclesiastical interests in more di^ 
provinces ; he at this time conamended to the charj 
of the Burgundian nobles the church of St SiqA' 
at Besan9on, where some of his kinsmen had 

In January 1223, Frederick, being surrounded flj 
many of the Princes of Germany, issued some eiL *r 
for the benefit of that country, which he had IfCt" 
under the care of Engelbert, the good Arcibbb* » 
of Cologne. Loud complaints were made apii^ 
the Count of Gueldres, who was taking \mju^ t*>u-« 
from travellers on the Ehine, in defiance of ut.* 
sentence passed at Frankfort; he was acconlinL'y 
warned to desist. The Advocacy of the Abbey • t 
Hirschau had come into Frederick's hands, wtki«!i 
he promised never to aUenate. Hermann von Ssiii. 
besought the Emperor to confirm the privilepe? ■ t* 
his Order, which was highly praised for its couth.-* 
in the late Crusade, and for its tender care of t. . 
poor and sick. 

The Court removed from Precina to Capua • 
January ; the Princes of Germany continued to fl"^ < 
to their Kaiser ; among them were many of ii»' 
high officials of the Empire. The Archbishop "* 
Magdeburg, having been lately appointed Frederick - 

• The name was certainly written Precina in the Thirtnr" 

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Legale in Northern Italy, appeared at Capua. Con- chap. 
ni Bishop of Hildesheim, who had done much for 
the Crusade, obtained a public sentence from the 
Emperw, that no official of the Empire should 
flwmt a deputy, or dispose of property, without the 
MBcnt of the Prince his lord. Another sentence 
w» given, tliat no Prelate might alienate the lands 
.if his Church, or grant them as perpetual fiefe, unless 
he was oae of those who received his insignia^om 
the Emperor himself^ and bore a shield in the Im- 
perial service.* The Bishop of Marseilles came to 
Oipwi, to obtain a confirmation of his privil^es. 
Bie Provost of St. Servais at Maestricht came on a 
ike errand, and moreover obtained a niined build- 
iM for the use of his Church. At this time, Frede- 
»i'i» Court was crowded, not only with Prelates 
&«n the Bhine and the Bhone, and with nobles 
^ Xorthem Italy, but also with still more illus- 
2*309 strangers from Palestine. They all followed 
Fpederick to an interview with Pope Honorius at 
fomtiiia Petitioners both from the Empire and the 
^^*>g"^ kept flocking in. Amongst others, the 
hwost of the Chiu-ch of Berne procured an Imperial 
J^=<ree against the two Counts of Kiburg, who had 
^ him and his Canons out of his Church for six 
jms, and had scorned the ban of the Bishop of 
^oostence. Frederick also granted to a Prior of 
A^Bia a confirmation of the Charter given by Duke 
^?w; one of the witnesses to this deed is a judge 
^^•Oifid Aminadab. Andrew the Archbishop of Ban, 
Uie successor of Berard in that see, obtained three 
^ wters from Frederick at Ferentino ; one of which 

• Johann Victor. 

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CHAP, establishes the fact, that the Greek clergy ai>l 
Catapans were still to be found in the diocese «:■: 

Frederick left Ferentino in March, and returned 
to Sora, followed by Von Salza and many nobles c-f 
the Empire- The Bishop of Trent was appointel 
Legate of the Empire in Tuscany, where he received 
seventy marks of silver for his master. The Qimxl 
of Hamburg obtained a Charter, and orders were 
sent to Engelbert to give corporal possession of the 
Emperor's late grant to the Church at Maestrichi 
Frederick, having thus bestowed much time up^n 
German business, was now recalled to the ware <-f 
Italy. He besieged Celano in March, being res^jlvt^i 
to put an end to the strife which had been rai- 
ing in^ the Abruzzi for more than two yean?> 
The Count of Acerra, his lieutenant, aided by tht 
Archbishop of Capua and the Abbot of ilon:^ 
Cassino, had been occupied, sometimes in chasiiJ 
the noble rebels whenever they broke out of Celan . 
Boiano, or Magenul, sometimes in laying siege w 
those strong positions. Frederick strove to get lU' 
Count of Molise into his hands, by making the 
Countess and her son his envoys.* He was aiA-^l 
in the siege of Celano by Henry Count of Mai: - 
who was once more in favour. The Pope at li-^* 
made peace between the two parties ; the Cou:/i 
was allowed to proceed to Bome, while the Country 
kept the estate and honours. A treaty was a> 
made with the Count of Celano. A letter wa^ -^ '»• 
to Pope Honorius from Pescara, dated on the i'^-- 
of April, 1223, which explained that the EraiK^r^ • 

• Ric. San Germano. 

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had foTgiven Count Thomas, his sons, Kinaldo of chap. 
Aversa, and their followers. A fuU pardon was 

jffwmsed them, to be confirmed by the Church ; but 1220-1227. 

Aey were to give up their fortresses. The Coimt's 

iisaals were to receive back their fiefs ; and their 

lord was that very year to start for the Crusade and 

to serve for three years ; if there should be no 

Qruaide, he was to go into Lombardy in August. 

His son and the son of Einaldo of Aversa were to 

be placed as hostages in the hands of Hermann 

TfjoSalza, the master of the Teutonic Order, in 

*i»ni an men had full confidence. The County 

'i Ifolise was confirmed to Coimt Thomas, his 

*ife, and heirs ; his faithful barons and knights 

'^ not to be judged, imless in his presence 

'f ia that of his deputy. Einaldo of Aversa was 

**^ to receive back his estates, and the conditions 

'' peace were to be published before the whole 

■*r- The Emperor s Court was to be bound by oath 

*" «)t8erve them faithfully, and they were to be an- 

^^'Diced to the Pope. This treaty, which restored 

\^ to the Abruzzi, was made towards the end of 

%i when Frederick was at Pescara ; in May, he 

*^ to Cotrone, where he inspected several Greek 

P**^^^ granted by his Norman fore&thers to the 

** of fiossano ; these he confirmed to Basil the 

^tishop. When at Maida, the Emperor occu- 

M himaelf with the business of the Kingdom of 


^ the beginning of Jime, he was once more at 
^*«nno. By this time, the Saracens of the West 
^Wn almost entirely subdued; an army was 
^^ to exterminate their brethren in the island of 

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CHAP. Gerbes.* Frederick had also the satisfection d 
knowing that, at the other end of his Empire, il. 

1220-1227. King of Denmark was his captive. Cajsar, victorious 

at every point, remained for a long time in Sic2y. 

after making a hasty visit to Melfi in Apulia ; the 

towns of the Abruzzi felt his vengeance- Cekio, 

church and all, was destroyed, and the old iir 

habitants were not allowed to dwell any where 

near its site, which was now called Cassarea. Al 

iron hand was thus laid heavily upon this land of 

feudalism. Many new strongholds, built in t!k 

county of Molise, were pulled down, as alsowe^ 

the walls of the old Samnite city of Isemia. On tit 

other hand, castles were ordered to be buili a: 

Gaeta, Naples, Aversa, and Foggia ; and Boger «•:' 

Pesclalanzano was charged with the execution "t 

these orders. Frederick now resolved to strike a 

fiirther blow against his nobles. The Saracen war 

was still being waged in Sicily, and the feudatori* 

of the mainland were summoned to serve their Ki J 

in this struggle. Four of them. Soger of Aqi--- 

Thomas of Caserta, James of San Severino, and ii-« 

son of the Count of Tricarico did not appear at iN 

proper time, or with proper attendance ; upon wu- 

Frederick ordered Henry of Morra, Ins fiutl -^^ 

deputy, to seize them and to confiscate their t- •' 

The Count of Molise shared the like fate, ha^- 

refused to appear before Morra, when summo:. 

by that ofBcial.f The restlesss oligarchy, un - • 

which the Kingdom had groaned during FrederivA^ 

minority and absence in Germany, was now foi^^ 

* App. ad Gauf. Malaterram. 
t Ric. San Germane. 

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to make way for a despotism, which at least gave chap. 
Deace and quiet to the land. 

The next year, 1224, was entirely spent by the 1220-1227. 

Bmperor in Sicily, and this was the only year in the 

tbole period between his return from Germany and 

IB embarkation for Palestine, in which his presence 

ns not needed on the mainland. He seems to have 

)«n much at Catania, and while he was there, almost 

if last embers of the Saracenic war were trodden 

»i on the heights of Platani. This was a natural 

stress, held by the imbehevers, a mile in cir- 

nnnference, with abrupt precipices on every side ; 

^ ruins of waUs were visible upon it tliree cen- 

fcries after this time, and it still bears the Moslem 

wme of Calata,* In March the Arab sheikhs, the 

^^wties of all the mountain tribes, were brought 

Wfare the Emperor by the Marshal at Catania, and 

■cw they made their submission. The Sicilian nobles 

^•ought Frederick to follow up his advantages, and 

w to quit their shores. Meanwhile the Pope pleaded 

^ cause of the four nobles who had been thrown 

•to prison in the previous year ; they were released, 

w had to give up their sons as hostages. The Em- 

^sor DOW laid a trap for some of his humbler enemies ; 

« caused Morra to lure back to their homes the 

••ttered inhabitants of Celano, under promise of 

''^^'nBg to them their lost possessions. As soon as 

*? came together, they were seized and shipped oflf 

^* Seily, and were thence sent to colonize the barren 

f*-4 of Malta. 

Ahout this time, letters concerning the University 
*'^ Naples, Frederick's new foundation, were sent 

* Amari ; Storia dei Musulmani in Sicilia. 

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CHAP, throughout the Kingdom. The order for dismaT^fe 
fortifications was strictly enforced ; the walk of San 

1220-1227. Germane were with difficulty spared. An edict to 
issued, allowing the churches exemption fix)m (&jM 
services. An illustrious stranger, William the Mir- 
quess of Montferrat, came with troops to Brindiitk 
favourite port of embarkation for the East He vas 
on his way to recover Thessalonica, which had Men 
to the share of his family at the time of the Latm 
conquest of Constantinople. He went into SicDy alone, 
in order to obtain Frederick's aid for this enteiprk 
and he pawned to the Emperor as many towns and 
castles in Montferrat as he was able to pledge ; fo: 
these he received 9000 silver marks. He 80c« 
perished ; his brother Demetrius came to Fiedeikk 
two years later on the like errand, and at his dea- 
bequeathed to the Emperor his own claim to the 
possession of Thessalonica. Frederick kept it uDtii 
the year 1239, when, standing in need of eveiyfii^^^ 
he could make, he handed it back to the Montferrat 
family.* In November, 1224, he made a treaty ^'^ 
the King of France, binding himself not to aid the 
rebels in that country, or to enter into any leag"^ 
with the King of England. Two French ambassad •> 
came to Catania to make this treaty, while King h'^^ 
himself had an interview with Frederick's son in h)'- 
raine. Archbishop Engelbert, on the other hand, ^^ 
all he could to uphold the English alliance. Shorter 
afterwards, Frederick asserted his power over Fn^- 
vence; the Abbot of Montmajeur begged his inter- 
position against the rapacious Coimt of Forcalqui^'* 
who made light of the ban pronounced by the An:^ 

* Benvenuto San Gioigio. 

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lisbop of AiiL Frederick placed the Count under chap. 
iie ban of the Empire, finding that a previous - 
rainii^ had had no effect A few months afterwards, 1220-1227. 
tf conferred favours on the Prektes of Orange and 
Wes, the latter of whom was allowed to become the 
esitee of persons dying, though he was forbidden to 
Jienate a castle belonging to the Empire. The same 
Jwhibition was extended to the Coimt of Toulouse, 
Hw became one of Frederick's firmest Mends, when 
iitT were both alike persecuted by the Church. The 
L<«nt of Provence was enjoined to make war on the 
Iwrgbers of Marseilles, for having rebelled against 
^ Bishop, who had fled for protection to the Em- 
ptor. These mutineers and their goods were to be 
'^sad, wherever foimd, whether on sea or on land, 
**"! Aries was ordered to wage the war against them. 
A sentence of the Empire against Besan^on was also 
W^ed, and a prayer of the Chapter of Toul was 
r''"*^ Louis of France was entreated to dis- 
''^tenance the men of Cambray, who made light of 
^ Emperor's edicts. These papers, which have come 
*'^ to us, give some notion of the power wielded 
y die Hohenstaufen Princes. Many provinces, now 
*^«><l€d within the boundaries of France, then looked 
^ fcection to Haguenau or Palermo, not to Paris. 

^ the 26th of December, his birthday, Frederick 
^^jA mass in the Koyal Chapel of Palermo, when he 
*•* shown by the Chapter a charter of King Eoger, 
^ Golden Bull of which had been cut off by some one 
* ^ by diabolical instinct, or blinded by desire for 
^ ;* whereupon the Emperor renewed the charter. 
*^ofthe different Orders were constantly coming 
^ ^ with privil^^es granted to them by his fore- 
^^^and often written in Greek. Some time before 

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CHAP, this, he had banished Harduin, the Bishop of Crfaiu. 
on a charge of wasting the estates of that See. Tik 
Pope ordered the cause to be tried by two Judges, 
the Bishop appearing as Plaintiff and denouncing the 
exactions of the Imperial officials. One of his griev- 
ances was, that he had been forced to ransom himself 
from the unruly Boman mob, whilst in exile. A 
Eoyal Notary, on the other hand, diarged the 
Bishop with nepotism and waste. Harduin relied 
by stating all that he had done for his Qiurch, and by 
alleging the cost of travelling to Germany and to Borne. 
The sentence was, that the Emperor should make 
good the past revenues of the See and the moD^y 
expended by the Bishop, but that the Crown shouW 
be allowed to hold the Castle of Ce&lu, a bulwark 
against the incursions of the Arabs. Harduin was 90c« 
again driven into banishment, and had the honour of 
being one of the Prelates most hated by Frederick. 

The Emperor, in 1225, was quitting Sicily f >r 
almost two years ; he therefore summoned into tU: 
island all his barons and feudatories, in order t» 
overawe the Saracens while he himself went into 
Apuha. He took up his abode for some time at 
Foggia and Troja, whence he repaired to San Gv:- 
mano. This year being a peaceful one, the de^ 
for the Crusade were much forwarded. 

Early in 1226, he ordered all the barons of hif 
Kealm to meet him at Pescara and follow liim in:*' 
Lombardy. He made Henry of J^rra Chief Ju.^ 
ticiary and Captain of the Kingdom. Frederick'^ 
first care, after his return from his bootless joum^y 
in the autumn, was to receive accounts at Fog;J>«« 
from all his Justiciaries, and to appoint new one.^- 
He withdrew into Sicily for the winter, wliich vtt 

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emarkably hard one ; Lake Fucino of the glassy chap. 
re was fix>zen over, so that men and oxen could 

s across it; and early in the next year, 1227, 1220-1227. 

re was a great dearth which speedily made its 

^t felt at Bome. Honorius, beset by a starving 

)uIation, at once turned his eyes towards the old 

nary of the city ; he sent to Sicily for com, with 

ny complaints oftheBoman dealers, who had locked 

their grain. Frederick was exhorted to imitate 

^ph, and to supply the need of his father and 

ithren; it was not very long since the Kings of 

■ily had sent com to Eome in the time of distress. 

)rra was accordingly ordered to provide for the 

>lKi s wants. The Emperor was now on the eve of 

5 great enterprise ; he summoned all the Justiciaries 

er to Sicily, that he might once more take an 

:oount of their labours. Thomas of Acerra visited 

lat island, before sailing for Palestine as his Sove- 

'ign's harbinger. At this period Frederick per- 

>nned an act of mercy, a fitting prelude to his 

^^isade. The men of Celano had now been in 

anishment for three years ; they were all set free by 

lis command. Marsia seems to have been the most 

">loyal province on the mainland ; it was now called 

^pon to give hostages for its good behaviour during 

pTederick's absence in the East. There were one or 

^^0 outbreaks, as it was, before he could start for 

W in 1228.* In the previous year, we find the 

"ope writing to Morra, and urging him to punish 

^^e Saul, who is called an apostate, the ringleader 

^'f Ae Sora rioters. The citizens of this border town 

^i pillaged the goods and carried ofi* the cattle 

♦ Ric. San Germano. 

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JCHAP. belonging to Frederick's favourite Abbey (rf Caa- 

mara, besides being guilty of bloodshed- The Lonfc 

of Monte San Giovanni had bome their share in 

these outrages ; they were therefore ordered to 

appear at Bome within eight days, on pain d 

excommunication.* Thus, as we see, the Church 

herself bore witness to the lawlessness of FredericVs 

subjects. He loudly proclaimed that his hand alont 

could tame the rebels of Apulia. He seized upon 

the Castles of Bishops and Abbots, allying that he 

was the Advocate of the Church and the best jutL't- 

of military matters ; the clergy would have more 

time for prayer, if they were relieved fix)m the duty 

of acting as Castellans. 

This was Frederick's pohcy in the government of 
his own Kingdom. The punishments he had inflicts 1 
on German criminals, such as mutilation and breakiiu! 
on the wheel, were revived in Sicily.f BSs system 
savoured more of the wisdom of the serpent than uf 
the harmlessness of the dove. * Long promise via 
short heed ' was the characteristic feature of h> 
government ; he had learnt the lesson of duplicity 
from the rulers of the Church, and he never hesiiatei 
to combat them with their own weapons. Whatevc: 
may be laid to his charge, no act of his can qui*^ 
come up to that letter of a renowned Pope, whiol 
justifies an atrocious act of treachery on the part "* 
the Papal Legates in the Albigensian war, br tb' 
text, * Being crafty, I caught you with guile.' Aii • 
the man who thus quoted Scripture for his purjii^ 
was Frederick's old guardian. Innocent the Third. 

It may readily be believed, that the wars in Sici'y 

♦ Rc^esta of Gregory for 1227. MiddlehiU MSS. f ^icb. Seucc 

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md the Abruzzi cost enormous sums of money ; chap. 

Frederick seems to have established the most regular 

system of taxation known in Western Europe since 

the M of the old Boman Empire. The cost of these 

WMs was borne by the whole Kingdom ; not by the 

ptrucular district in which they were being waged. 

Agiin, the impending Crusade was a heavy drain 

^xponthe finances. The first levy of taxes was made 

in 1221, and a new coinage of tarens was issued at 

Amlfi. In the next year, Frederick ordered that 

wires should be sold for the new money at a certain 

'ihadon, to be made by the judgment of six good 

Ml, 8wom for the purpose, in every district. In- 

?naitioM were constantly being made into the ways 

a^ich the taxes were raised. The Saracenic war 

OKted great sacrifices ; an Abbot complained, that 

ke was not properly supported by his vassals in 

o«tributing men for the army ; and Frederick 

'tiered the defaulters to repay all necessary ex- 

i*>^9^ In 1223, the whole Kingdom was taxed 

w this war in Sicily ; three hundred oimces of gold 

^^ raised from the lands of St Benedict alone, 

^ they were rated at the like amount for the next 

far. Taxes were levied on the Church, imder the 

^^^ of loans •; one was raised throughout the 

*^*K when Frederick was on the eve of setting 

^ for Lombardy. This may remind us of the old 

^Jifih system of * benevolences.' The Mint at this 

^ seems to have been established at Brindisi, in 

^ Palace of Margaritone, the blind Admiral, which 

^ gone to the Crown, and was used as a Custom 

S^ even after being granted to the Teutonic 

* Giannone ; Istoria Civile. 

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CHAP. Order.* From Brindisi the new coinage, strlel 

— Imperial, was issued at the end of 1225, the Jc 

1220-1227. money bemg called in. The Master of the Minu 
Messinese, was taken imder Frederick's special prL> 
tection, and obtained a valuable grant Sometime? 
the taxes were commuted for services ; thus in 1226 
the Abbot of Monte Cassino had leave to send lib 
vassals to Gaeta, to aid in building the new Ca5i]e 
Two years later, the vassals of that Monastery wert 
called upon for military service, and the Abbot raised 
1200 ounces for their pay.f 

During these seven years and a half, which Fre- 
derick spent in his own Kingdom, he was constantlr 
interrupted in his efforts for the good of his people, 
by the calls of Eome to make ready for the Crusade: 
and there were various other differences between him 
and the Pope, which had an untoward ending. Thl* 
branch of the subject will now occupy our attention. 
He had already, while in Germany, obtained several 
respites from Eome. At his coronation in 122<', 
however, he vowed to cross the sea in the August of 
1221. In the mean time, he sent on before him the 
Duke of Bavaria, the Bishop of Passau, and many 
other Germans, who on arriving at Damietta fou:.J 
the Christian host a prey to anarchy. John Je 
Brienne, the King of Jerusalem, dissuaded any fiuilie: 
enterprise during the summer heats. Pelagius tbe 
Legate, on the other hand, insisted on pushing on to 
Cairo. In vain had Frederick entreated the Crusa- 
ders to await his arrival. The unlucky expedition waf 
undertaken in July, although at the very time Ur:i 

• See Frederick's Chartera for 1216. 
f Ric. San Gcrmano. 

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anftffcements were coining from Italy. The Pope chap. 

kl sent Cardinal Ugolino, the Bishop of Ostia, into '—- 

ke Xorth to preach the Crusade, and described ^^^^-^^^z. 
im ' as a man who had a zeal for God according to 
ftowfedge, holy as well as eloquent, the man of our 
ght hand, Ugolino, who is like a cedar of Lebanon 
bntai m the garden of God, a man whose presence 
re are loth to lose.' Frederick had also, early in 
iih congratulated the Cardinal on his appointment, 
ttle knowing what a baneful influence this Church- 
man would exercise on the future. He thus addressed 
Bffi; 'We hear that our father Honorius has made 
wa his L^te in Lombardy and Tuscany, with a 
new to the Crusade. We rejoice that the office is 
EJv«ito one, who is so soimd in the faith, so spotless 
a morals, of such eloquence, and so renowned for his 
TUtM9 and learning. We beUeve that any Legate 
«tt by the Pope would bear proper fruit ; still we 
iiak that your words will be peculiarly blessed. 
^^ give you full permission to release fix)m our ban 
*Bv (rf oar subjects who have incurred it.' The 
^^*rdinal, armed with full powers both by Church 
«d State, set himself to the task of collecting money. 
B»e Podestas of Siena and Florence promised him 
» certain sum for every hearth in their respective 
•^ and the Bishops of Lombardy and Eomagna 
^*^ probably equally active in the cause of Pales- 
•^ Frederick wrote from Salerno in February, 
1-21, to his Uegemen in Germany, Lombardy, and 
Tuscany : * We owe to God some return for the help 
He has vouchsafed us in raising us to the Empire ; 
^^havc therefore taken the Cross, and we think 
^»?ht and day of succouring the Holy Land where 
^liel is now weeping for her children, and of 

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CHAP, making ready galleys and ships. Many have Mowed 
our example, but they are too few for the preseLt 
danger. Up, loyal soldiers of the Empire! snatch 
up your arms 1 for now the conquering Eagles of tfcc 
Eoman Empire have gone forth I Our comrades 
will have a double reward, our favour and everkstinj 
bliss ! Think of the old Eomans, who followed tht^i 
Emperor to the uttermost parts of the East! Wiit 
do not the members feel pity for the Head, wb» 
underwent so much on our behalf? We have takea 
upon our shoulders the sign of Him, who for us bore 
the Cross. Be guided by the Bishop of Ostia, our 
especial friend.' Frederick wrote in the like strain 
to the Milanese ; he was engaged in an enterprise in 
which both friends and foes alike could help him. 

Vast sums of money for the Crusade were coUectei 
by the agents of Honorius throughout Christend(>E. 
and many soldiers crossed over to the aid of their 
brethren at Damietta ; but still a leader was wanting 
All hopes of success lay in Cassax, and in him alone. 
The Pope thus wrote to him in June ; * O that y^ 
would consider, how wistftdly the Christian ho^: 
awaits you in the East, beheving that you will jxk- 
pone all to Jerusalem, especially since the Lord ha? 
granted you such means for the enterprise! Bi:t 
many are murmuring, that you delay the gallop 
which you had prepared, and which would be ch' 
great service to the army, should they be despatchel 
instantly. We beseech, we warn, and we exhort 
you to put away frx)m yoiu^elf this reproach ! ' 

Frederick made excuses on the plea that muo: 
money had been spent on his coronation and on seml- 
ing men to the East ; but he promised to despatil> 
a fleet forthwith to Egypt. Honorius made and>ver. 

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that the fleet woiild have been of some use, had it chap. 
been sent earlier ; and he warned Frederick not to 

devote himself too much to the afiairs of Sicily. ^^^^^^^^^^ 

The Emperor had asked for a further respite, until 

Jbrch next year. The Pope replied, * God, who 

bows all secrets, is my witness, with what joy of heart 

I awaited the day, when I was to crown you. I re- 

joioed in your exaJtation, as a father in that of his son, 

expecting from it the greatest profit for the Church. 

Hie more she has served you, the more she hopes 

frjoi you. Even before your coronation, you fell under 

to exconununication ; which I only removed, on your 

»«Jh to obey the Church. But you have hitherto 

oaq^pointed the hopes of the Christians in the East. 

moreover, your deputies have been oppressing Bene- 

^^ato, although I am always ready to listen to any 

^^^*M*^ts of your subjects against the people of 

um dty. Besides, I hear that you are meddling in 

^^ elections of Bishops : I will see that no wrong is 

'V«e you in these afiairs ; but beware of treading in 

'•^ fix)tateps of your forefathers, whom God has so 

^^*toed, that you are almost the last of your race. 

Ttink of the past, and see if you can hope for any 

*"*ntage from war with the Chxu-ch ! How many 

''^ in Germany and Apulia would rejoice, if I were 

'■'^ assail you ! K you force me to harsh measures, I 

^ % all that has passed between us before die 

»orid, and will call Heaven and Earth to witness, 

^ unwillingly I gave up gentle means.' ♦ 

'^ letter was written in August, the very month 
^ ^hich Frederick, at his coronation, had promised 
^^ sail He could scarcely have been aware of the 

Kcgeita of HonorioB, quoted by Von Ramner. Raynaldus 
P^n7 Hole of this letter. 

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CHAP, incredible folly, which was at this time guidji: 
the counsels of the army in Egypt ; still he prepared 

' to send succours to it, according to his promk 
Eoused by the Papal warnings, although he bii 
already despatched his Marshal Ansehn von J'> 
tingen with troops to the East*, he now sent of 
another fleet, consisting of forty galleys, under ti.. 
command of Henry Count of Malta, a gallant lead:, 
who had been much mixed up with Sicilian afia:^ 
since the beginning of the century. With Henry vu- 
joined Walter of Palear, the Bishop of Catania, in. 
old Chancellor who had given Pope Innocent ^^ 
much trouble in the days of Markwald. These t^r.' 
chiefe were also entrusted with large sums of money, 
levied throughout the Kingdom for die benefit of iL^ 
Crusade. On their way, they turned aside to cbas? 
some Saracen pirates, and upon reaching Damiettii 
they found that all had gone to ruin.f 

The Saracens had manned galleys, and had inter- 
cepted the succours from the West that were Ixiiu 
poured into Egypt. Malek Moadhin, the povenul 
Sultan of Damascus, the brother of Sultan h- 
mel of Cairo, had done much damage to the Chrt- 
tians in Syria, and had taken the castie of Cjesarei 
although Acre was protected by its lai^ge garri?*a 
Ashraf, the Lord of Aleppo, was at first hostile i<^ 
the Sultana his brothers, but afterwards joined witli 
them. The Cliristian towns, Antioch, Tripoli, acJ 
Acre were thought to be in great danger, as all lU 
power of the West was concentrated at Damiottii^ 
The expenses incurred were enormous ; many ^^'^f^' 
the prayers put up for the Emperor's arrival; i^ 

♦ Letter of Frederick for 1227. f ^^^' Son Germano. 

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e did not come speedily, aSkirs both in Syria and chap. 
■cypt would be in a most precarious state. After 
unifying Damietta with trenches, the Crusaders held 
. great council, attended by the Legate Pelagius; 
he Duke of Bavaria, Frederick's heutenant, who 
ivowed that he had come to fight ; the Masters of 
Le Templars, the Hospitallers, and the Teutonic 
Jrder ; and many nobles. They resolved to march 
j[Km Cairo ; the King of Jerusalem arrived by sea ; 
lud they set forth in July, 1221, with 6000 knights 
[ind 40,000 infantry. The Sultan flying before them 
lured them on to his camp, which was defended by 
a branch of the Nile. This proved an awkward 
* heck ; thousands of deserters left the standard of 
'Jic Cross ; and the Saracens, getting into the rear of 
their enemy, held the command of the river and pre- 
vented any provisions being brought up from Dami- 
«:ia. Eamel, Moadhin, and Ashraf, together with 
<:her Sultans, hemmed in the Crusaders ; and when 
the latter heed about, aft^r making up their minds 
In go back, they found their retreat cut ofi* by means 
«jf many canals, into which the Kile had been turned.* 
All their stores and baggage were lost ; the river 
U-iran to overflow, and they were now on an island, 
up to their waists in water. The Sultan, to quote 
the words of the Grand Master of the Temple, had 
them like a fish in a net ; and he would not throw 
away his advantages or risk a battle. In this strait, the 
ChrLjtians were ready to catch at any terms of peace ; 
they agreed to give up their great conquest, Dami- 
ttta, which had just been purchased by so many 
iives, and by a siege that had lasted more than a 

* Pofmliid incidit in lacum, imrao laqucum. Letter of Fre- 
i'^ick for 1227. 

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CHAP. year. In return, the Sultan was to yidd up tk 

true Cross; and each, party was to restore aH 

1220-1227. prisoners to the other side. A truce for dgit 
years was also agreed upon, unless a crowned Head 
should come into the East, and b^in the war again. 
Hostages were given on both sides ; and the sad 
news was brought to Damietta by deputies chosen 
from the army. Von Salza and others met Fre- 
derick's fleet coming up the Nile, and ordered 
its return.* Great was the dismay of the garri- 
son ; the Bishop of Acre, the Sicilian ChanceD^^r, 
and the Count of Malta, wished to defend the city: 
but on strict search being made, neither men n<»: 
money were forthcoming. The treaty was theix^ 
fore confirmed ; and Damietta, which had beoi hel; 
by the Christians for almost two years, was ona^ 
more given up to the Sultan, in the beginning of 
September. Thus ended in disaster what may Iw 
called the first act of the Fifth Crusade.f 

Frederick's two representatives seem to have borne 
their part in causing the surrender, by loitering v^- 
their voyage from Italy. Walter the Chancellor 
was naturally averse to the idea of &cing the Im- 
perial wrath, after the untoward issue of the under- 
taking, knowing that this was not his first offona? ; 
he accordingly fled to Venice ; and there the old in- 
triguer, reduced to a state of want, died in exile. 
The Count of Malta, a valiant soldier, returned home : 
Frederick laid hands upon him, and took away bi^ 

A dismal gloom overspread Christendom on tl.v 
arrival of the news, that Damietta, which hu- 

• Letter of Frederick for 1227. 
f Letters in De Wendover. 

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ihsorbed so much blood and treasure, was once chap. 
Dore in the hands of the Moslem. The grave ^^' 
s'utary of Son G^nnano is imusually aroused. For 1220-1227. 
Jmoet the only time, he disr^ards the rule he has 
aid down for himself on beginning his Chronicle, 
kt he will set down nothing but what he has either 
«n himself or heard from others most worthy of 
«M; he is now tempted to quit his sober prose, 
ad breaks out into most piteous rhyming stanzas.* 
The real author of this disaster was beyond all 
i«ibt Cardinal Pelagius, the Pope's Legate in the 
^ He must have known that many galleys were 
3cming to his aid from Apulia, with strong reinforce- 
■oite; yet he ciiose to push on towards Cairo, 
whout waiting for Frederick's soldiers and sailors, 
^ would have done good service in the Nile. This 
•ogmt priest, puffed up by his success at Damietta, 
W meddled in military matters, and had thwarted 
fing John of Jerusalem, the first soldier of the age 
■w that Simon de Montfort was gone. Honorius 
^t to have laid the blame on the shoulders of his 
^>te, his * second Joshua,' who had found the Nile 

* ' Jesa bone, si fiui est dicere, 
Cur sic placuit nos dejicere 1 
• • • • 

Ubi nunc decns est Ecclesias, 
ChrisdanflB flos et militifle ? 
Legatos, Rex, et Dux Bavaris 
Victi cednnt viri perfidis ! 
O qnam pravo ducd consilio 
Exienint daces in proelio ! 
Damiata, tadasexilio 
Qnos foyisd fere biennio 1 * 

^ more phlegmatic German, who writes the Augsburg 
^^'^ucle, contents himself with a simple heu, heu! for the fidl 


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CHAP, less easy to manage than the Jordan. Instead t\ 
^^ this, the Pope turned round upon Frederick Tk 

1220-1227. Emperor wrote in October, 1221, ' that the sadwi 
from E^ypt had plunged a sword into his heart, an 
had made him the more eager to rush to the mcue 
but that further advice must be taken.' Hoootji 
made answer in November : ' For five years m 
have been expecting your Crusade ; they now throi 
the whole blame of the disasters in Egypt on lii 
Pope, and not altogether without reason. We b« 
been too easy in sanctioning your delays. Ovia 
to the solemn vow made by you at your Coronatia 
and owing to your letters to the Crusaders, amwffl^ 
ing your speedy arrival, they rejected the proffer a 
Jerusalem. We shall spare you no loi^, ^ V^ 
still neglect your duty ; we shall excommunwtt^ 
you in the face of the Christian world. Take ht«i 
then, Uke a wise man and a Catholic IVince.' * 
cholas, the SiciUan Bishop of Tusculum, was cwJ 
more sent fix)m Bome to arouse Frederick to t senn 
of his duties. 

In April, 1222, Honorius met the Emperor * 
Veroli, a small town near the boundaiy sepsrs^ 
their dominions. They were in conference for fifW 
days.* Bamietta was lost ; and there was thenti^ 
no need of immediate hurry. The Pope propc^^''' ^ 
call a Council at Verona, where Germans and Ital^ 
could most conveniently assemble ; he and ^^ 
erick would there meet the Princes of the Emp'*-'^ 
late in the year. Honorius also desired the p'^'^^!. 
of the heroes, who had already begun the good ^"T 
in the East ; Bong John of Jerusalem, A« ^'^ j 

* Ric San Gennano. 

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issteTs of the Three Orders, and Cardinal Pelagius chap. 

mnself were to appear at Verona. These competent ^^^ 

ndges were there to discuss every thing bearing on 1220-1227. 

he new enterprise, which the Emperor himself would 

eid. In the autunm, he sent four galleys to Acre, 

iMing the illustrious party.* Predericfc, his wife, 

fa 800, and his kingdoms, were taken under the Papal 

protection, now that he was really to become God's 

iwn soldier. But all these plans came to nothing. 

Bng John indeed appeared at Bome towards the end 

rf the year, together with the Grand Master of the 

^jqMtallers : but Frederick was called into Sicily by 

^ Saracen revolt, which occupied him for two 

jwi It would be folly to attack the Moslem in 

4e fc East, and at the same time to leave their 

^^Aren in Sicily imsubdued. Honorius, on his 

^ was prevented fix)m visiting Verona by bad 

*>Wl Had the Council taken place, it would pro- 

■Wy have been rudely disturbed by the fefuiiil 

*%uikee which laid waste the North of Italy 

**wds the end of this year. At Brescia alone, 

mOOO are said to have perished. At Parma, the Bap- 

**jy was nearly overthrown ; a mishap which, had it 

•*n complete, would have entailed the loss of one of 

^ J^est authorities, SaUmbene the Franciscan, then 

* ni« cradle. His mother, scared by the impend- 

■?Ul of the great building, rushed from her 

*^ after catching up his little sisters, but left him 

'^^ Happily for all who search into matters con- 

'*^with Frederick's age, the Baptistery stood, and 

j Wmbeoe was saved. 

I "^Emperor showed no lack of zeal in the cause 

• OliverinB. 

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CHAP, of Palestine. ' shame I * cried he ; ' the dogs of 
the synagogue are putting to flight the sons of iLf 

1220-1227. Church I ' But he was this year embroiled in another 
quarrel with the Pope. It will be remembered thai 
Conrad von Urslingen had been made Duke of Spoleto 
by the Emperor Henry the Sixth, and had afterwanb 
been driven out of Italy by Pope Innocent the Thiri 
The Duke's sons were now with Frederick, and hi 
never forgetten their claim to Central Italy. One of 
them, Berthold, was trying at this time to get posses- 
sion of what he looked upon as his rightful inherit- 
ance ; he received homage and money fix)m many (rf 
the cities of the March, placed malcontents under 
the ban, and was aided by Gunzelin, Fredericb 
Seneschal The Emperor wrote to the Cardinals 
declaring that he had ordered all to be restored to 
Home ; he was very angry on hearing that he was 
suspected of dupUcity in the affair, and his first lett^ 
of the next year was directed to the authorities of 
Ancona and Spoleto, revoking all that Gunzelin had 
done against the Chiu-ch. 

In the spring of 1223, another conference was 
held upon the affairs of the Crusade. Frederick 
came to San Germano ; but Honorius was unable to 
appear, on account of a bad disease in his 1^ ; the 
Pope however, after much pressing, came to Fer^n- 
tino, a town, like Veroli, not very far firom the Ix^'- 
der. Thither also came King John of Jeroalf^ 
the hero of Champagne, impatient of rest, althouji 
he must have been at this time more than seventy 
years old. He was tall, stout, and strongly-buii*-- 
surpassing the common size of men, like anodit: 
Charlemagne or Judas Maccabaeus ; it was said ik:i* 
none of the Saracens dared to stand up to him, wbi" 

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he had once wanned to his work and b^un to lay chap. 
about him with his iron mace. Yet he was observed ^^' 
to tremble on the eve of battle ; on being asked the 1220-1227. 
reason, he answered that he cared not for his body, 
but feared that his soul might not be well ordered 
in the sight of God. Prance was right proud of 
her champion ; a ballad was sung in the cloisters 
of Paris long after his edifying death, wherein King 
John was praised as die prowest of knights, just as 
Alexander Hales was the wisest of derks.* De 
Bri«me had been half burnt by the terrible Greek 
fire at Damietta ; he was a savage old warrior, and 
was said to have beaten his second wife imtU he killed 
Ii(T, because she had tried to poison her step-daughter 
Yolandaf He had quitted Egypt in dij^ust at the 
arrogance of Cardinal Pelagius, and had only re- 
turned in time to share in the disastrous expedition 
up the Nile. Demetrius the King of Thessalonica, 
the Patriarch of Jerusalem, seven German Prelates, 
and the Masters of die three Brotherhoods, who 
vere now at enmity with each other, were also pre- 
*nt at Ferentino. 

Frederick laid before diem the causes which had 
<lt^kyed his coming into the East to fulfil his vow ; 
at this very moment the Saracens in SicUy, and the 
nobles of the Abruzzi, were up in arms against him. 
Honorius therefore granted a further delay of two 
T(ai3; by the end of that time it was to be hoped 
that Frederick would have put down the rebels and 
made all his preparations for the Crusade. He took 
an oath to sail in 1225 ; but the Pope now proposed to 

* Salimbene, who often sang the ballad. See aLao Acropolita, 
t Bemird Theaanrariua. 

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CHAP, give him a stiU nearer interest in the success of the 
^^- undertaking. 

1220-1227. Frederick's first wife, Constance of Arragoii,had 
died in the summer of the previous year at Catania; 
her tomb, a Greek sarcophagus, may still be seen in 
the Eoyal Chapel of the Cathedral of Palermo, near 
her husband's remains. They seem to have led a 
happy life together, in spite of the disparity of thdr 
years. Frederick therefore was now free to many 
again. King John was the ffither of a little giri 
named Yolande, the rightfiil heiress, throu^ her 
mother, of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. This Crown, 
by an unhappy fataUty, was always passing by female 
descent ; a circumstance which had been the duet 
cause of the decline of the Kingdom, and of its 
overthrow by the arms of Saladin in the last gene- 
ration. K Frederick were to wed this child, the 
mischief might be imdone. There would never 
occur a better chance of r^aining the lost prize 
than now, when the De Briennes of France and the 
Hohenstaufens of the Empire were about to set 
forth, side by side, for the Holy Land.* Honorius 
sent the news to France, and seems to have had i^ 
misgivings on his thus bestowing another Crown 
upon one who already held those of Sicily, Germany, 
and Aries. On the 5th of August, 1223, he (Ik- 
pensed with the relationship that existed betwe^ 
the bride and the bridegroom. But these affairs were 
not the only subjects of interest to Pope and Em- 
peror. The old vexed question of nominations to 
Sicilian Bishoprics had been once more mooted. 
Frederick had been much displeased with the CouT. 
of Eome in the previous year, for not confirming a 

* Ric. San Germano. 

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N'otary of his in the See of Brindisi ; the only pos- cjhap. 

?ible objection was, that three months had passed . 

X'tbre the Chapter had proceeded to a fresh election, i^^o-imt. 

The Cluster of Capua, on the other hand, having 

[ tx'Q unable for four months to agree, had at last fixed 

on Hugh the Dean, whom Frederick b^ged the Pope 

to confinn. But in June, 1223, Honorius returned 

an un&Tourable answer. The Judge of Ban had 

li'-maoded the confirmation of Frederick's candidates 

in the Sees of Capua and Aversa. This was not 

immediately granted; he therefore proceeded to 

>lL!iver an unusually harsh message from his master, 

nliich shocked Honorius. The Judge averred that 

tlie Pope's superintendence was not protection, but 

de&tmctiiMi, tending to the ruin of the Kingdom. 

U<»norius had also heard that orders had been sent 

tu shut the gates of Capua, Salerno, and Aversa, on 

aiiv Boman nominee ; he therefore writes thus to 

ti.e presumptuous Emperor : ' Be not corrupted by 

iitierers ; shall we not have in Sicily the rights that 

^^ have in other lands, even in die Empire itself? 

Think you that you can prevail against the Church? 

Trie Lard's hand is not shortened, that He cannot 

^ave; be not ashamed to acknowledge your fault, 

uy sending a messenger without delay to remove 

li.e disagreeable impression created by your envoy, 

who has doubtless gone beyond his instructions.' 

Frederick had retiumed to his Ejngdom to crush, 
:.M the Barons in the Abruzzi, and then die Saracens 
in Sicily. The Pope mediated a peace on behalf of 
the former; and Hermann von Salza, whom the 
Emperor favoured more than ever, took part in the 
proceedings. The Moslem were almost entirely 
"^ubdued by the spring of 1224. In the mean time 

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CHAP. Honorius sent a Legate into Germany to arouse the 
zeal of that part of the Empire for the coming' 

1220-1227. Crusade. Frederick wrote to the Pope in March 
this year, and referred to his own ^proaduiu! 
marriage. * We hope,' he went on, ' to have l'''^ 
galleys and 50 transports ready. Two of the knigli- 
of the Teutonic Order are occupied in the oanstru:- 
tion of these, and they think that all will be really 
by next summer.' A German monk says that SIh^i 
horses and knights, and 10,000 infimtry, could \k 
conveyed in these 50 transports, which were wd 
furnished with gangways for the egress of mount-: 
soldiers, so that a landing might be followed hv 
an immediate battle.* Fraderick informed the Pojxr 
that Hermann von Salza, at his own request, hi 
travelled into Germany to hold a conference with 
the Princes of the Empire; the Duke of Austria 
the Landgrave of Thuringia, and the King of Bud- 
gary were coimted upon. The Emperor would 
have gone thither himself had it not been for t^ 
wars still raging in Sicily. He described the scice 
with the Saracen Sheikhs at Catania, and told the 
Pope of the various hindrances to the Crusade. 
* Your preachers are despised as low persons, and 
their indulgences command no respect ; the Debit's 
of France and England will not give help unles a 
long truce be made between the two countrie?: 
many of the EngUsh are backing out, saying that tht j 
have been absolved from their vows. We have 
sent round to all men King John's letter conceniinL' 
the passage, the provisions, and other matters. We 
are about to despatch our beloved friend Jamc* 

♦ Godefr. Colon. 

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the Bishop of Patti, to Acre, to gain Queen chap. 
lobuuk's consent to the maniage. We beseech 

you to send into the Kingdoms of the West proper 1220-1227. 
preadiers of the Crusade, and to despatch a special 
Legate, that a truce may be made between France 
ind Ei^land.' In the same month, Frederick took 
ander his Imperial protection the Pagans of the 
Baltic, who were coming over to Christianity. 

During all this time, King John of Jerusalem 

lad beei travelling over France, England, Spain, 

tod Gennany, seeking help for the Crusade. He 

W coDected some large siuns of money, but could 

M find many men read) to enlist for 1225. In 

^ year, he returned from Ins torn: in Western 

™ope, bringing with him his new bride, a princess 

rf Castile; they had a noble reception at Capua, 

^ the (ntleis of Frederick. John thence went to 

*dfi, there to await his future son-in-law. The 

"*peror, after calling all his Barons into Sicily, 

"itlichope of overawing the lately subdued Arabs, 

f«»ed the King at Melfi, the old Norman capital 

^ Apulia, built on a hill of lava, with its Castle, 

^ earliest of all the Norman buildings in Italy, 

^^^^f^^^nging a precipice. Here the two Sovereigns 

'^ and De Brienne, together with the Patriarch 

« Jerusalem, was sent to the Pope, in order to 

*^ one more postponement of the Crusade. 

Ayr did Frederick trust alone to the eloquence of 

°^ %; he summoned all the Prelates of the 

^^m to his Court, and there he kept them 

*?*^ their will until the news came that Eome 

^ granted him the desired respite.* He then 

• Ric. San Germano. 

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CHAP, went with King John to San Germane; on dm 
occasion the Fope.hiniself was unable to meet them. 

1220-1227. lJ^J ggj^t f^Q Cardinals as his deputies, whom he 
called in a letter to Frederick, written in the middle 
of July, ' columns erect in the house of the world, 
and stars shining in the firmament of heaven.' One 
of these envoys was Felagius, the arrogant Porta- 
guese, who had ruined the afiairs of the East four 
years before. The other was Gualo Bicchieri, who 
had been sent to England as Fope Innocent's Legate 
the year after the grant of the Great Charter, in 
order to prevent Louis, the son of the French King, 
fix>m establishing himself on the English tbxxie. 
He had received, as Legate of Borne, the homage 
of the boy Henry the Third at his corcmatkxu 
had been present at the battle of Lincoln, in 1217, 
and had afterwards deprived of their benefices all 
the English clergy who had takei part in ibe 
rebellion, some of them r^aining his favour at & 
ruinous expense.* His name is connected with 
the building of Salisbury Cathedral, and with a 
famous Church at his native Vercelli, the ddigbi 
of architects. Felagius and Gualo had full powen 
fix)m Honorius to treat with Frederick. On the 
25th of July, matters were thus arranged* The 
Emperor was to set out for the Holy Land in 
August, 1227- He was to keep 1000 knights 
in Falestine for two years, under a penalty thea 
agreed upon. He was to have 150 ships ready 
to transport 2000 knights, their followers, and three 
horses for each knight He was to pay 100,(MW 
oimces of gold to certain Commissioners by four 

• De Wendover. 

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rtalmente, which he was to receive back if he chap. 
iled to Palestdne within two years. This sum ^^^ 
ks to remain with the Commissioners in the event 1220-1227- 
his death, or if the Crusade did not take place. 
»e agreement was binding on his successors, and 
he made de&ult in any one condition, he and 
«ova- his Kingdom was to fall under the ban 
the ChurcL The treaty was published, sealed 
A the Golden BulL 

Thns, if Frederick should be prevented by any 
w from leadmg the Crusade in August, 1227, he 
«ld be an excommunicated man. No very gene- 
ts interpretation of the treaty of San Germano 
«M be expected firom the Lateran. Kaynald, the 
^ of Spoleto, was at San Germano, and took the 
*h on Frederick's behalf. The Emperor was now 
*«d from his oath of Veroli, -sworn three years 
*^ He de^>atched letters, sealed with the Golden 
*l to the princes of Germany (some of them had 
■0^ present at San Germano), and to the burghers 
'I«nbaidy, directing them to attend the Diet 
*A would be held at Cremona next Easter. Car- 
**1 Conrad, who had been already sent to make 
jj** between France and England, preached the 
^^^ throughout Germany in 1225. Frederick 
P^^'^ a free passage to all who enUsted, and 
r^ ia the hands of Hermann von Salza, who 
« beea at San Germano, 100,000 ounces of gold 
** ^ undertaking. Apulia and Sicily were, by 
MUi time, well accustomed to taxation. 

^ Emperor, rejoiced to meet once more so many 
^ '^ tiorthem li^es, made several grants to them 
^ at San Germano. He gave a fief to the absent 
^^iahop of Cologne, after highly commending 

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CHAP, his services. He confirmed an old grant to die 


Church of Spires, referring to his Imperial fore 

1220-1227. fathers who lay buried there. A thousand silTer 
marks were paid over to the warlike Bidiop cc 
Bamberg, and more were promised in return for a 
certain fief. The Burghers of Bheinfeldai were 
privileged to hold of the Empire for ever as a reward 
for their services. The Imperial Council must have 
paid particular attention to Ohver, the Bishop of 
Paderbom, as an authority on the Crusade ; it is u- 
him that we owe a valuable account of the si^ of 
Damietta, where he acted as engineer to the Chris- 
tians. Honorius had yielded to Frederick's prayers 
as to the delay of the Eastern enterprise, but he wss 
less compliant in another disputed afiair. Tw-> 
months after the treaty at San Germano, he an- 
nounced that he had taken upon himself to name fi: 
persons for the Sees of Capua, Salerno, Brindisi, and 
Conza, and for an Abbey at Aversa. None of tte 
new Prelates, except the first, were acceptable to 
Frederick. The Emperor refused to admit tl.e 
Pope's nominees, and there the matter for die pi^seni 

It is now time to relate what had passed in Gei*- 
many diuing the five years of Frederick's abeemv 
firom that coimtry. His son Henry, the Sang of the 
Bomans, whose election had so disquieted Honorius, 
was left there in 1220, under the charge of Engti- 
bert, the Archbishop of Cologna The Begent had 
exerted himself to suppress the feuds which were 
always weakening the Empire. He had anoinunl 
Henry as King, at Aix-la-Chapelle, in the year 122i 
In the next year the new Crusade was preachtt] 
throughout Gk^rmany ; all the fidthful were to cros 

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the sea with *the glorious Emperor Frederick,* in chap. 
1225. No repetition of the Damietta disaster need 

be feared ; the Dukes of Austria and Bavaria would 1220-1227. 

gather fredi laurels in Palestme. In 1224, the 

jwmg King held a Diet at Frankfort, whither letters 

cune from his {iather, announcing the mission of 

Hcnnann von Salza, whom the Emperor himself 

»oaId have accompanied, had he not been detained 

by the Saracen revolt in Sicily. This year, John de 

Brieme also arrived in Germany ; TTing Henry 

acoompanied him to Cologne, where Archbishop 

Sngdbert gave them a gorgeous reception. Brother 

Htnnann obtained the liberation of the Danish 

Eng, after a captivity of two years ; he was to pay 

U« 000 marks as his ransom, give up all the land 

St had taken from the Empire, and receive his 

ti^>wn at the hands of Frederick To these hard 

Mrfitions the Danish nobles refused to submit. In 

^^ Cologne was overtaken by a sad disaster. 

"•B^rt, * the father of our country, the ornament 

rf Germany,' was murdered on a jomney by his 

wu kinsman, the Count of Isenberg. The deed had 

^ comdved at by many nobles, whose turbulence 

^ good Begent had kept within bounds. His body, 

P'o^ with thirty-eight wounds, was received at 

Wogne, with unspeakable grief on the part of both 

^«gy and laity ; it was honoured with a noble 

^'O^, which perished, together with the old Cathe- 

^ about twenty years later ; miracles were said 

^ be wrought by the corpse. King Henry shed 

■^ tears over one whom he looked upon as his 

*'^* Engelbert's murderer was given up for a 

^ of 2000 marks ; he confessed his gxiilt, and 

^broken on the wheel at Cologne ; his castie was 

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fi^ THE mSlOKT OF 

^^^ iprfZiai ^wrizh ibe groimd. The loss of the goc^ 
— H— Arrrr.r^ic. ^«ms a terrible blow to Frederick; 

^riL frmt iii? izne was 

abandoned to the gmdasce oi 
wiiifi crcLascGrirs, who led oq the unhappy boj 
^z I2* nrr^ Tbe Germans woald not consent to 
zzH: TaET^riio^ c^f li-eir young King with an EDgU 
r:ni»:^5* : ibe Piiziugeoet Monarch sent over Um 
Zii=i:c :rf Carb^ i» his envoy, tendering the baw. 
:c i^ ss::3- LabelLa ; bat it was useless, for no ofie 
:c nircifx was i^aie by England. The Eng 
Himrizy rfiETei a itr^ sum with his daughter, i 
xi*f y.TTT^srx^ w:<:li marry ha- to Henry. The Kb^ 
:c S:«i>r?::^ isfcoe a lad of 30,000 marks, to wbki 
xiie Inif :ir B&xar^ added 15,000 more, if Frederick 
wriLl.i a:«7C a iDember of their house as hi 
iii-iirir*r-ii-ifw. AH was in vain; for Henry wed- 
ifc*I V.irpz^a> ibe cac^ter of the Duke of Amtoia, 
jc y::275n;>5rr is Ifio ; such was the throng on the 
^x-v^isb.TL. ;iii ?:cjy people were crushed to death. 
Tw* yatr? itier, tbe bride was crowned and en- 
vr-rc^ec a: Aix--JhCbapeIi€u in the presence <rf all the 
r^L^a^ifs ir»I rru>«s of Germany, just on the eve of 
ii«e jc^ exT»ec5^ Cnisade.* 

TTtc^cc I::ily. beci^ left to hersdf, and not having 
ax Vr-^-V '^^^ as her head, had been in a constant 
jciT^r 0^ vir:! war ever siiKe Fredeiick's coronation. 
C^tI-tjlI r^\i» had endeavoured, though with 
5*.':ar::T >oxv!«^ to make peace between the LcHnbari 
$ca:os iit l±iL Trie Count of San Boni&zio was at 
war witi ihe bou^e of Bornano^ A2Z0, the Margne* 

« 7S!w .^<«^j$^ » K» G«nBaBT, tn ttlkm from Gcdttf, tht 
yi.^X ^^ Cv^xTie. ^>i &v«a tbc Angsbuig Ghronide. See the 
«a^vi$t-^ V«er c< U»e Bssbop ti CaiMe in Symer, a» toC^ 

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a Erte, and Salinguerra were struggling for the chap. 
waseflsion of Ferrara. The Bolognese razed the 

ralb of Imola in 1222, and carried home the gates 1220-1227. 

tf that town, much to the indignation of Frederick, 

fho dted the Bolognese Podesta to appear before 

lim. Faenza, Cea^ia, and Forli were Guelf; 

Bmini, Fano, Pesaro, and Urbino were Ghibelline.* 

Dtt cities of Tuscany were equally embittered against 

ad other. The Paterines and other heretics were 

Biking great progress. In March, 1224, Frederick, 

writing fix)m Catania, ordered the Archbishop of 

Itigdeburg, his Vicar in Upper Italy, to publish an 

diet agiunst them throughout Lombardy ; if taken, 

liwy were to be burnt alive, or to have their bias- 

j'^noas tongues cut out Still we hear of the 

*o«tic8 increasing at Brescia in the year 1225. 

SiiA were the turbulent lovers of disorder, with 

4ar many jarring interests, whom Frederick would 

^^ to encoimter at Cremona next Easter, all for 

ie sake of Palestine. 

One other event, connected with the Crusade, dis- 
^^oshed the year 1225. After the treaty of San 
'^^OMno, Frederick sent to Acre fom1;een galleys 
■>der Henry of Malta. On board were the Bishop of 
^ who in the next year was promoted to Capua, 
■nd Guy L'Enfent The former acted as Frederick's 
P*^i tod placed the ring on Queen Yolande's 
™8^ ; folk were astonished that a bridegroom in 
^P^ could wed his bride in Syria. She was then 
^^^^^^ Queen of Jerusalem by Baoul the Patriarch, 
'^'^wnded by a brilliant assembly. A Teutonic 
ht named Henry undertook the charge of her, 

^ Sismondi and MmmtorL 

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CHAP, and brought her to Brindisi, where amid great re- 

, joidngs die was married to the Emperor in the 

1220-1227. Cathedral, on the 9th of November. It jars up c 
our modem notions to find all the chief authorities 
of Christendom eager to hand over a girl, who at 
this time could not have been more than fifte^ to a 
man of the world double her own age.* She was 
the heiress in her own right of the Ejngdom of 
Jerusalem, just as her mother before her had been. 
Frederick was not the man to for^o anything tliat 
seemed his due. On the very day of the wedding, 
he required King John to make over to him all th« 
rights connected with the Crown of Palestine. The 
old warrior was taken by surprise ; for Von Salza, 
who had brought about the marriage, had engaged 
that John should hold the Kingdom for his Ufe. The 
French hero however was forced to yield. On the 
next day, the Emperor went with his bride to 
Foggia ; his father-in-law lodged at San Lorenzo, a 
village near, whence he visited his daughter. He 
had been for three years on the best terms with 
Frederick, but henceforth he became Frederick's 
bitter enemy. He saw Balian of Sidon, and all the 
nobles of Palestine, who had long owed him allegi- 
ance, doing homage to a new master. The Empen>' 
sent the Bishop of Melfi, Coimt Gentile, and thnre 
hundred Sicilian knights to Acre, where Eudes d^* 
Montbeillard was appointed his Bailiff. Frederick 
now styled himself Emperor of the Bomans ever 
August, of Jerusalem and Sicily King.f 

King John gave further offence, by refosiog t'» 

* Her parents were nuuried late in 1209. Michaiid. 
f Old French Chronicle, set out by Htdlkzd Brftolk& 

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rit'Id up to his son-in-law the 50,000 silver marks, chap. 
vhich the late King of France had bequeathed for ^^ 

lie purposes of the Crusade.* The new union 1220-1227. 
lid not promise fair at the outset Two different 
tones have come down to us of some fresh cause 
)f quarrel between Frederick and John. The Cm- 
ader had with him his nephew Walter, the son 
A that Walter de Brienne who had been em- 
)loyed against Markwald and Diephold. This 
routh was by his mother the grandson of the 
LMirper Tancred, upon whose issue Frederick 
•j<»ked with no loving eye.f The story went, that 
the Emperor, having failed to make away with 
ynung De Brienne by means of poison, invited him 
N> play at chess, intending to have him stabbed while 
s. eogaged- King John hearing of the plot dragged 
away his nephew from the board, calling the Em- 
peror a Devil and the son of a butcher, in allusion 
:•> the old Jesi slander. Frederick dared not answer 
a worAJ It is added, that the two De Briennes 
made their escape from Barletta in December, taking 
tLe road near the coast, and thus contriving to elude 
the Emperor's watchfulness. 

Tliere is another story, by no means creditable to 
Frederick, which found favour with some chroniclers 
•f the century. It was said that soon after Yolande 
-'.ad been crowned with the diadem of the Empire, father found her weeping in her chamber. On 
l^-iug asked the cause, she complained that her 
! ^^band had neglected her and had taken a cousin 
'>f hers into his bed. King John consoled her, as 

• Chrome. Tnron. f Old French Chronicle, 

t Salimbene. * Fi de becer diabele.* 
VOL I. 8 

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CHAP, he best could, and then went off to seek Frederict 
The Emperor rose up, with all due respect ; but hi^ 

1220-1227. fether-in-law scowled at him, and said, ' I want do 
greeting fix)m the man, whose honour has been 
stained by a foul crime.' Frederick was then 
threatened with instant death, if he did not refom 
his conduct. The Emperor banished his bold gne<t, 
and it is said that he shut up Yolande in prison, lut 
released her on learning that her adventurous sin^ 
was among the turbulent Lombards.* These rebt^^ 
came to John at Bologna, and offered him their Irrv. 
Crown ; but he declined to do anything that would 
disquiet his daughter. Frederick, hearing of thk 
thought it best to reconcile himself with lus fether- 
in-law ; and John returned to Eome, which city b: 
promised him 1000 horse.f 

Frederick kept his Christmas at Troja this yftir. 
Whatever disputes there may have been at ir^: 
between him and his second Empress, these wen 
certainly at an end by the next autumn. Yolande 
did not live three years after her marriage, but fr^m 
her sprang all Frederick's posterity bom in wedltvL 
who made any pretensions to his crown. There l^ 
nothing incredible in the story of his having Ixxn 
unfaithful to so youthful a bride ; but her wrf>i c^ 
have been wonderfully exaggerated by the Bom:-!: 

Early in January 1226, Frederick made a grant t-^ 
Hermann von Salza, confirmed by the new Empa--^^ 
of all the possessions of the Teutonic Order in PaW 
tine, some of which had still to be won out of tlu 

♦ Francis Pipin, a veiy poor authoritj. 
f Bernard. TheaaurariuB. 

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hands of the heathen ; a number of Syrian nobles, chap. 
among whom was the Archbishop of Tyre, the Lord 

of Sidon, and the Patriarch, acted as witnesses. The 1220-1227. 
Emperor in vain begged the Pope to absolve the 
Count of Tripoli, a possible ally in the Crusade, from 
an excommunication. Frederick left his Empress 
at Salemo ; from which city he wrote to the Fries- 
landers, summoning them to equip their fleets for 
the Crusade, and reminding them of their tried 
valour and of the blood of their martyrs with which 
I>amietta was still red. He also sent a circular to 
ihe Italian cities, the members of the body of which 
he was Head, ordering them despatch their warriors 
tn the conference at Cremona. This was the 
V'lT last thing they intended to do. In March, we 
i':.d Frederick at Pescara, on the opposite coast of 
.•= kingdom, where he had ordered all the Barons 
"1* Sicily and Apulia to assemble, that they might 
fallow him into Lombardy. The cavalcade took 
the way of Himini ; at this town an event occurred, 
which had a most important bearing on the history 
"f Europe for many ages. It was nothing less than 
the transfer of the Teutonic Order from Palestine to 
Phl*^; instead of warring against Moslem, they 
w«-re henceforward to convert Pagans. The Duke of 
JLis)via had already sent an invitation to the Brother- 
!"-k1. At Eimini, Frederick as Emperor gave per- 
ini-Mon to Hermann von Salza, * a man mighty in 
W'rks and words,' to make Culm his head-quarters, 
anl thence to undertake the conquest of heathen 
Vni<>\sL Power over markets, tribunals, tolls, and 
^'"iiiage was included in this famous grant. A few 
y«:unj elapsed, before the plan could be carried out ; 
uvirmann must first follow his Kaiser to Jerusalem. 

• 2 

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CHAP. About this time, Honorius sent another sharp lettt- 
VIL *^ 


to Frederick. The Emperor had wished to force tlr 
men of the Anconitan March, through which he w:.- 
passing, to follow him to the Diet at Cremona ; this o •> 
duct was sternly rebuked by the Pope, who brouji.; 
forward many texts of Scripture to justify the sty.t: 
of the letter. *Be content with your own hr^im- 
daries, and seek not to encroach on the Patrimonv ' 
of St. Peter. You have begun to harass the Chur^ 1. 1 
no longer by deputy, but in person. The hiir^it r 
you rise, the more awfiil will be your falL 11-^ 
member the fate of Nebuchadnezzar and Phanv*' : 
aye, and of your own grandfather. He burnt tb 
Porch of St Peter's and worried the Cliurch : h 
was punished, like the Israelites of old, who were i « : 
allowed to enter the Promised Land ; he was drowiiv-: 
before he arrived in Palestine ; we wish his soul m: y 
have reached the heavenly Jerusalem. The vf:;j'- 
ance of God fell on his sons Henry and Philip. ^Iiy 
do you boast yourself in wickedness ? We love V'*: 
more than other crowned heads; we are therxt**^ 
bound to rebuke you, when you go astray. Takv 
care that Gbd does not root you out of the land of ih 
living ; we must excommunicate you, if you peI^i^t 
in your wickedness.' 

Frederick wrote back in the like style, and then ly 
drew down upon himself another long letter fr n: 
the Pope, who had stout-hearted advisers. T ^ 
second letter is a summing up of the whole can*, i 
statement of all the grievances of Borne ajraii>« 
the Emperor.* Honorius was angry that his fiv* | 

* Salimbene sajs that it was composed by Cardinal Tbomai > :' I 

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'relates, before referred to, had not been allowed to chap. 
liter the Kingdom ; moreover Frederick had enacted 

law, by which priests and monks guilty of the ^220-1227. 
■ orst crimes were to be punished by the civil magis- 
•ate.* ' K you are amazed at our letters,* thus the 
'ope at length wrote, 'much more so are we at 
ours. You ought to be grateful to your spiritual 
ather and your spiritual Mother. You say, that 
ontrary to the expectation of aU men, and against 
ie advice of the Princes, you have been more 
bedient to the Church than any of your forefathers 
<^ere. You do not say very much for yourself, even 
vhen you make that comparison. You are ungrate- 
ul to the Church ; why do you attack your nurse ? 
3owmany tears did Innocent, our predecessor, shed 
^^ryou! he is now called by you a stealthy robber 
of your goods ! Think how he found you, and how 
lie left you ! An army was sent against Markwald ; 
and Cardinals came into Sicily, one of whom died 
there ; De Brienne also was sent to your aid. You 
iiow reproach the Church with having raised Otho to 
your father's throne. But what could the Pope have 
Jone for you, a child helpless and forsaken, against 
your mighty foes? Still you used to thank the 
C'liurch, after Gk)d, for your safety and your lifel 
Are your letters, your words, and ypur promises in 
^rect opposition to your inmost thoughts ? What 
nave you done for her ? what can she hope from 
you? You cannot call the German throne your 
paternal inheritance ; it is elective. Philip neither 
could nor woidd hold it for you ; the vassals of the 
^•^urch had some trouble to keep him out of Sicily ; 

* Giannone ; Istoria Civile. 

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CHAP, and after his death, when all the Princes turned to 


Otho, you had not the slightest claim or hope. A? 

1220-1227. gQQf^ 3g Q|;jj() attacked you, the Church began tlie 
war against him. how nigh were you to dangers ! 
how close to a fall ! What more could she have 
done for you ? We are amazed, that you talk of 
your own ciTorts ; it was others who sowed, that you 
might reap! We ourselves in all our dealings with you 
have looked more to your honour than to our own- 
Yet you are making loud outcries about our intru- 
sion of Bishops ; you should pay regard to the treaty 
made by your mother with the Holy See, and to the 
learning of holy fathers. We are aware of no rulo, 
by which the jurisdiction of the Apostolic Chair 
depends upon your choice. We have often had to 
complain of your treatment of Prelates ; the Arch- 
bishop of Taranto, long your favourite, has now betn 
all of a sudden banished unjustly, and is caUed a 
traitor and thief*; the Bishops of Catania and Cefii/a 
have been improperly punished. After overthrowiiii: 
the Bishops, the pillars of the Church, you der^ign t.» 
lord it over the inferior clergy; but here is thv 
Apostolic Chair, ready to check you. You siy 
further, that the Church has harboured your relxK, 
driven out of Apulia. You promised safety to Cou:.: 
Thomas, and to KinaJdo of Aversa ; yet many of their 
followers have been banished, and others have bt\ n 
put to a shameful death : some have found £h.v«h»in 
in strange lands ; but a Prince, such as you are, shiMil : 
not display his might in chasing a leaf driven hitlu*: 
and thither by Uie wind. Count Mattliew, ev 


♦ This Archbishop is not the one who waa Frederick*8 tut. r 
See Ughelli. 

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though he was in the Holy Land, was oppressed by chap. 
Tuu. Think of the renowned JuUus Caesar, and of the 

clemency he showed to Domitius and Metellns ! The 1220-1227. 
Lxadites of old had cities of refuge ; David was the 
pnjtector of the oppressed ; and shall the Pope, the 
Ticar of the great David, turn away his face from 
the afflicted? You think it very hard that these 
nten are still alive I We are grieved to hear of your 
paird with King John ; this is not the way to aid 
the Holy Land I Moreover, you are detaining 
Arquata and other castles from our loyal subjects, 
lou complain that we are laying heavy burthens 
«{«Q you, to bear which we oiu^ves will not move 
i fingCT ; but you forget that in Germany you took 
^ Cross of your own free will ; that we have given 
y^« many respites ; that we have granted you the 
taith of the goods of the clergy ; that we have 
i^^pedyou with money and with the zeal of our 
•rtthren in preaching the Crusade. You often call 
TvBisdf the Advocate of the Church ; that title 
n^Kea protection in her rights. You ought not, 
*iJiwttt our consent, to expect from our subjects 
*!w»e feudal services that have been long since 
tboliahed. Still the hand of the Lord is not weaker, 
t»» bring down the pride of men. Be not seduced by 
Prosperity; Pharaoh's butler, when restored to favour, 
^fgoi the Litcrpreter ; but a noble mind is neither 
elated by success, nor depressed by adversity.' The 
Emperor could not afford to quarrel with Kome, 
*W he was about to face his Lombard subjects. 
^ long letter therefore had its desired effect ; 
Yitdtrick made a humble reply, and acknowledged 
^ the Pope had won the battle. 
From Rimini, where their company had been 

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CHAP, joined by the Duke of Saxony and by many r4r 
Germans who probably came by way of Venice, ;iv 

1220-1227. jjQbig travellers passed on to Eavenna, and llitn 
kept Easter.* This city at that time still boasted-: 
the remains of King Theodoric's palace ; herPode«u 
was Paul Traversaro, a great Baron, much bel- ^vei 
and very rich ; it was hard to say whether ke f 
King John was the handsomer man. Peter, the 
father of Paul, and the old supporter of Frederict 
had long been sleeping in San Vitale, where tl;^' 
Traversari buried their dead.f That fine old chuni 
obtained a charter from the Emperor, thn)iti 
the good offices of his favourite Lando, the Aiu- 
bishop of Eeggio. The Imperial Court remaiitii 
for five wee& at Bavenna, and was there joinea by 
the Landgrave of Thuringia, the young and cl'S^ut 
rous husband of St. Elizabeth. The Empen^r n 'V 
marched westward towards Faenza, the burcli^^ ''^ 
which city had no reason to love him, as he wtv 
knew. His treachery just before his coronal) -ii 
was still fresh in their minds. He sent a knigli^ uu' 
the city with a goodly attendance ; the towi^mT. 
thinking that the Emperor himself was come am--* 
them, rushed upon Frederick's comiterfeit, cut :u- 
down, and seized his treasures and horses. J ^ ' 
was the spirit of Faenza, which Frederick ^ras li- 
able to tame until long afterwards. These st«" ; 
burghers were alarmed at the vast crowds of ^'' 
mans and Apulians, the men of the March anJ ^ 
men of Urbino, who were in the Emperors in* - 

• * Hie profectus est Ravenani, 
Que fcetontcm habct venam.' 

Chrotu PhctHti'^' ■• 
t Salimbcne. J Chronicon. 

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rhe whole of the neighbouring districts seemed to chap. 

lave combined for the destruction of Faenza. The ^^ 

Castellans of the Archbishop of Kavenna and the 1220-1227. 

iumerous Eomagnole Counts were eager for the at- 

.aok. Frederick marched on from his encampment 

it Cosna, and Faenza was in an uproar. The citi- 

i^tos shouted 'We are undone!' and put up their 

prayers to Gkxi and St. Peter. However, the danger 

v^-as averted for this time, and they had the pleasure 

of soeing their enemies of Eimini run as far as Forli, 

though none pursued All the roads were strewn 

with arms, flung away by the flying Ghibellines. 

Frederick, caring little for the discomfiture of his 

allies, avoided Faenza and passed on by Tillaveria.* 

lM»I<)gna refused to receive him ; he rebuilt the walls 

*>t Imola, which had been pulled down by her 

i>»werful neighbour. He encamped near San Gio- 

vimiii di Persiceto, and was there greeted by the 

«-nvoys of Cremona, Parma, Eeggio, and Modena, 

almost the only cities in aU Northern Italy which 

vould pay him any respectf He crossed the Beno 

^vith great diflBculty, and his German retinue were 

limited out of Bologna, where the rain had forced 

tlam to lodge.$ The truth was, that the Lombards 

rttrarded the grandson of their old enemy Barbar- 

•'^^a with the greatest suspicion; they saw him 

«''»ming up from the South at the head of the Apulian 

^'liivalry, and they knew that his son Henry was 

'oming down from the North with a German host. 

The spirit of 1167 was abroad, and the old Lombard 

Uivgue was once more renewed. Milan and Bologna 

* Tolosanus. f Annales MutinenHium. 

I Chron. Schwartzbuig. 

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CHAP, took the lead, and were followed by Piacenza, Verona. 


Brescia, Faenza, Mantua, Vercelli, Lodi, Bergamo 

1220-1227. Turin, Alessandria, Vicenza, Padua, and TreTisa* 
The peace of Constance had given them the right U) 
renew the League ; but was there the least occasioi; 
for their turbulence ? The Emperor had done nothing 
to jeopardize the rights, which they had enjoyed un- 
disturbed ever since the field of Lignano. He was 
merely coming into the North to hold a Diet, for tho 
purpose of furthering the interests of his Crusade- 
Nothing could be more unlike, than the First and the 
Second Lombard Leagues. That of 1167, {ormA 
against Frederick the First after the most crael pro- 
vocation, was sanctioned by the Pope, and had for 
its end the deliverance of Lombardy. That of 122(5, 
formed against Frederick the Second, after no provo- 
cation received, was discountenanced by the Pope, 
and resulted in the frustration of the Crusade and m 
sowing the germ of endless civil wars. This year if 
fixed upon by the Brescian Chronicler as the begin- 
ning of * those plaguy factions of Ghielf and Ghi- 
belline, which were so engrained into the minds of our 
forefathers, that they have handed them down as ^ 
heir-loom to their posterity, never to come to an en(L'+ 
King Henry had in the mean time led his German 
warriors across the Brenner, and had marched dowu 
the valley of the Adige. He had in his train a 
Patriarch, three Archbishops, six Bishops, and nu* 

* ^ Sed Lombardi sunt astuti, 
£t in fiictis yalde tuti : 
Quare cito perpendenint 
Doliim, quern machinaverunt 
Cremonensca pcrfidi.* — Chron, PlaeaUMfm- 
t Jac. Malvecius, who wrote many yeara later. 

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Hikes, others having gone round by Kimini. He chap. 
ached Trent, but found his further progress barred 

J the precipices which overhang the Adige, scarce ^220-1227. 

iving room for the road, and by the strong walls 

f Verona, the key of Italy, which was in the hands 

' the League. He must either storm these ram- 

at?, in part the work of GaUienus and Theodoric, 

rhe must go back by the way that he came, 

awmdng ail hope of meeting his father. He 

«6afTed the latter alternative ; and the greater 

m of the city of Trent, where he had wasted 

1 weeks, was burnt by the Germans before they 

^' off on their homeward march.* This per- 

«e conduct of the Lombards long rankled in 

: wick's mindf Years afterwards he refers with 

^^'^'ness to their cruelty in separating father and 

**■♦ The King of the Eomans probably needed 

fci parental advice, now that he had lost his 

P^ guardian. Archbishop Engelbert, whose place 

*i31 supplied by the Duke of Bavaria. The Em- 

P^ also never forgot that Verona was the key of 

■*y; unless it should fall into his hands, he could 

^^^J pour down his German soldiery into rebel- 


^e the great Council of this province was 
"^ at Mantua, to which city C!onrad, the German 
7W ^^ Porto, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Von 
^ and others were repeatedly sent, the Emperor 
"^ ^ tram reached Parma, where he was on the 
*^ of May. He despatched Berthold, the younger 


t * Ipse venit cum furore, 

Sed recefisit cum dolore.' — Chron, Placentinum, 
♦ ^kialettemfor 1239. 

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CHAP, brother of the Duke of Spoleto, as his Legji*. iin 
the more tractable province of Tuscany. 0»n»i 
the Bishop of Hildesheim, had been most earned i 
preaching the Crusade in Germany ; he now gaiaa 
some valuable privileges fix)m Frederick ; and Hdai 
the brother of the late Kaiser Otho, was onlemll 
protect from injury this Bishop, who was ht mj 
neighbour. Three burghers of Lubeck arrivtJ vi 
a Charter granted by Frederick the Yvrsl wii 
was now confirmed by Frederick the Second Th 
also brought a petition from Volquin, who was h 
ing the Crusade against the Pagans of livonia: d 
request of the good knight was granted in the pi 
sence of Von Salza, a kindred spirit. The Abb i 
Vallombrosa sent a monk to obtaia the Eraix^' ^ 
protection for his monastery. The men of Ac 'J- 
plored Frederick's forgiveness for their past ^J:^ 
comings. The Archbishop of Magdeburg anJ " 
Landgrave of Thuringia had each a request to pn^t 
The Bishop of Paderborn asked Frederick to Lvi/ii 
his agreement with the Church of Osnabun:. 
Parmesan Abbess begged the Emperor's pn^toO 
for her sisterhood. A new Podesta of loyal Pav 
named by Fi'ederick, took the oath of alli-ir-i^»c 
and a way was found to appease the broils in il 
city. The 24th of June was named as the very a 
day of grace for the Lombards. 

By the 10th of June, the number of Prelatt^ *: 
all countries, assembled at Parma on account ol t 
Crusade, was immense. Among them was Gor *; 
Lausanne, tlie new Patriarch of Jerusalem, f^-'" ' 
time at least Frederick's ftiend ; the Ardibisb*; ' 
Magdeburg, Bourdeaux, Milan, and Reggio ; ^^V\' ^ 
with many Bishops from Germany and Italy. Ti.^i 

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aned in putting forth a declaration, how the chap. 
)ards had hindered the meeting of the Era- ^^^ 
with the King his son, in spite of Frederick's 
ntees for the independence of the states ; how 
sbels had sought to impose degrading conditions 
le young King ; how the Emperor had shown 
ishing forbearance towards them ; how the 
>p of Hildesheim, entrusted with letters from 
^ope, had asked the advice of the. Prelates as to 
mmunicating the Italian enemies of the Crusade, 
dth one voice agreed that the sentence would 
1st, and put their seals to the declaration. The 
d soul of Frederick must have undergone bitter 
Qiation during this visit to Lombardy ; he after- 
Is took care to avenge himself, 
a the 13th of June, the Emperor took up his 
ters at San Donino, a httle town near Parma, 
ving its name from a Christian soldier who 
•red martyrdom under Masimian. Hence 
issued three edicts on behalf of Modena, one 
be few towns upon which he could rely, and 
especial enemy of Bologna. The town of Op- 
heim, on the Ehine, now obtained great privi- 
8, and long afterwards proved grateftd. Lubeck 
I made a free city of the Empire on account of its 
%, and its traffic with England was released 
^ toll. The Bishops of Cambray and Beauvais 
^ed with letters for Frederick from the nobles 
France, who sent their excuses for attacking his 
^ of Avignon on their way to the Crusade 
^t the Albigenses. The first-named Bishop 
^^^^^^ one more sentence against his mutinous 
J^jecte, who were forbidden to assemble at the 
'^d of a belL Frederick in this decree asserts. 

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CHAP, that a Diet of Germany may be held out of itt 
^^' boimdaries of that land, wherever the Emj»ir 

1220-1227. naay happen to be. 

He at last reached Cremona, the seat of the pro- 
posed Diet. The Bishop of Porto, Alatrino, Guah 
the Dominican, and others, had obtained from tit 
Lombards degrading terms of peace, in which t:t 
Prelates persuaded Frederick to acquiesce, although 
the Princes of the Empire were ftirious. Even the* 
terms were afterwards set aside by the iiLMileDt 
Lombards. Cremona was one of the few excq)tit«? 
to the prevailing disloyalty; from this time *ir 
became the head-quarters of the Ghibelline am*, 
and her attachment to Frederick was the subjeti 
of many joking tales * Here it was that he ap^ 
peared, not as a conqueror or a tyrant, but as thr 
author of civilization and as the benefactor 'i* 
mankind. All the chroniclers, Guelf as veil s^ 
Ghibelline, monks as well as laymen, are agreed ^■o 
this point. ' He brought more honour to the Em- 
pire than the Empire brought to him,* sap Jam<ir:. 
The Monk of Padua affirms, when treating of lii 
year, 1226, ' that Frederick was exalted in rioh.% , 
in glory, and in numerous offspring, above all i'^ 
Emperors from Charlemagne downwards ; he t'aiL* , 
in peace, but the Milanese counted his promi'^'* is 
nothing.' Riccobaldi of Ferrara says that 'ia 
Frederick's time the manners of the Italians wa' I 
rude; man and wife ate out of one plate:'' 
knives or forks were used; there were only '«• I 
or two drinking vessels in a house ; the familr wri 
lighted at supper by torches held by one of t | 

* See some of these in the Imago Mnndi. j 

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ons, or by a servant, for wax candles there were chap 
woe; the clothes of men were of unho^d flax, 
atking but little show of gold or silver ; the common 
oik ate meat but thrice a week, and kept it cold 
or supper; the wine cellars were small, the 
kwries of women were stnaU, and the ladies, 
riurther married or single, wore no costly oma- 
lents in their heads ; men prided themselves on 
keJr armour and horses ; the great ambition of the 
Kh and noble was to possess castles, great numbers 
i which were in Italy.' This account is confirmed 
^ the curious Chronicle of the Imago Mundi^ 
»ntten late in this century or perhaps early 
B the next ; its author, being a Dominican, is 
Wnd to look upon Frederick almost as au incar- 
i*^ of Satan, yet he testifies thus; 'The people 
^ lialy, from Aquileia to VerceUi in particular, in 
Frwferick's tune lived m a barbarous and strange 
Wmo, Hke Alboin's men ; their food, raiment, and 
«niB were alike uncouth ; their dialect, their amuse- 
*flit8, and their dances were all coarse. Frederick 
twanged everything and taught the Itahans better 
*^; he was remarkable among all the Emperors, 
*iDg aidowed with courteous, noble, and elegant 
•ttners; in his time the Italians used to practise 
*<2totation8 and other brutaUties, derived from the old 
'^^^^•teft ; they had armour of leather, and strange 
■Bcomh coins ;' which, the friar goes on to tell us, 
»ere sometimes dug up in his own age. He is a 
^Hiable authority for anything connected with Cre- 
^'Wfla, and has preserved many traditions of that city.* 

^ good friar cmnnot be trosted, when he wanders far away 
- «a tlie VtUcy of the Po ; thus he brings Charles of Anjou into 
^?hk dnniig Frederick's lifetime. 

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CHAP. While Frederick was there, the Genoese, ove- 
looking old grievances, sent envoys to him, wbon 

1220-1227. jjg treated with courtesy on this occasion, as firienus 
were very scarce. They were bent on having redrt'sc 
for the wrongs they had undergone from the:: 
neighbours. They were much oflfended at the 
conduct of the rival ambassadors from Savona, why 
would not rise up to them, but laughed behind their 
backs, and pretended to be sick at their approach ; 
these mockers were much blamed for their insolencu 
as the Genoese patriot takes good care to tell un* 
Frederick, it is to be hoped, did his best to poILL 
the rude men of the Eiviera. He made the Coul: 
of Savoy his Legate in Upper Italy; form^ Em- 
perors had already transplanted that noble stenu 
which soon took root and flourished in its new s* -ii 
to the south of the Alps. The tree has been grow- 
ing stronger and stronger for the last six hundivi 
years; let us hope that the whole of Italy, afttj 
ages of misery and disunion, may at length fcl 
rest under its shade. 

Frederick had returned to San Donino bv the 
6th of July, whence he sent orders to the Duke a 
Brunswick to put a stop to a civil war in the 
North, which was damaging the property of the lo]ral 
Bishop of Hildesheim and was likely to prejuvlit 
the Crusade, He ordered Paul Traversaro, u* 
Podesta of Eavenna, to do justice to an opp^e^^l . 
IsraeUte. On the 11th of July, his own patior. . 
and that of his advisers, was at an end. He ht^ 
an assembly of Bishops, Judges, and others, in i. •- 
great Church of San Donino, which was throup-. 

* Barth. Scriba, Ann. Gcnuen. 

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The Pope s letters, granting full powers to the chap. 
Bkh(^ of Hildesheim, were read, and the German ' 

iknoimced the sentence of excommunication against 1220-1227. 
the rebellious Lombard cities, from Padua to Ales- 
flndria, though this was afterwards reversed by 
Alatrino, the Chaplain of Honorius.* The spiritual 
power having done its work, the temporal Magis- 
tnte followed. The Emperor, with the consent of 
ie whole assembly, placed the Lombards under the 
l«i of the Empire, depriving them of their laws, 
coqxfflitionB, and all the rights they had gained by 
fc peace of Constance. It is remarkable to find 
ftpe and Emperor united against the Lombards; 
te only proves that the zeal of Honorius for the 
Crwde overpowered his anxiety to see the House 
rf H(Aaistaufen shorn of its streogth. The next 
fjpe would take a very different view of affairs. 

It was now time for the Kaiser to reward his 
fconk The Bishop of Porto had done his utmost 
^' check the froward proceedings on the Po, and 
*1 been one of the most earnest preachers of the. 
tbaade. Frederick therefore ratified an agreement 
fcaerly made between this Cardinal and King Henry, 
•J promised to provide the Bishop's brother, Egeno 
^W of Urach, with thirty or forty knights as an 
*wt m the Holy war. Another mainstay of that 
sceiprise, the Bidiop of Hildesheim, was allowed, in 
^i«i of the Lnperial favour, to bequeath his goods 
*»ii<urbed to his episcopal successor. The Bishop 
•^ IiDola had been imtiring in his attendance on 
^r^lerick; he was rewarded with a Charter. 

• Godefr. Colon. 

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CHAP. Another was granted to Aix-la-GhapeDe, the Pl- 

ladium of Germany. Guerdo, the Marques6 i«i 

1220-1227. Savona, was allowed the privilege of female suca*- 
sion in his fief. Cremona also obtaLned a Charter, 
which its staimch loyalty richly deserved. After 
distributing these rewards to his faithfdl subjects, 
Germans and Italians, the Emperor turned his back 
on perverse Lombardy, and began his mardi home- 
wards. He knew that it was useless to begin a 
war with the few troops he had at hand. He 
crossed the Apennines by the pass which lead? 
to Pontremoli, the way by which Hannibal h 
thought to have penetrated into Etruria. Bsl^ 
at Sarzana, Frederick took that town imder hi* 
protection. He was now entering Tuscany for tit 
first time, and doubtless Uked its gentle inhabitants 
better than the savage Eomagnoles. By the end 
of July, he was at San Miniato, a strong castle 
which he had caused to be built on a steep HI 
commanding the road between Pisa and Floreici'. 
This lofty tower, called from its builders San IDniat' 
dei Tedeschi, is visible for many miles round ; htn 
the residence of the Vicar of the Empire was faei 
an office held at this time by Everard, the nephev 
of the Duke of Spoleto. The Castle of Prato i> 
also Frederick's work.* He was forced to qu.: 
San Miniato by night, feeling himself unable i 
meet the armies brought against him by Florera 
and Lucca-t He probably feared the autumn win l- 
blowing from the south across the poisonous CaiD- 
pagna, and therefore did not visit Borne; he 

* Ric Malespini. f Tolosanna. 

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truck across Italy by way of Nami ; had an inter- chap. 
wvr with Brother Leonard, who came to him on 

he part of Honorius ; and wrote to the Pope from 1220-1227. 

U*oli, on the 29th of August, just before entering 

lb own EJngdonL ' God, who knows all secrets, is 

ware that we postponed everything to His service ; 

hat we attended the Diet in the spirit of love and 

raciousness towards all men ; and that we showed 

latred to none of those who had offended us and 

m Empire. Eespect for the Saviour (whose cause 

re are undertaking), prevented us from chastising 

hem, as the dignity of our Empire required ; we 

howed ourselves merciful, and we did and bore 

nany things, which we should have neither done 

^or borne, had not the holiest of all causes been 

ii stake. But instead of peace we found uproar ; 

liiiesii of love we foimd malice ; and all our efforts 

ivuld not tempt the Lombards fit)m their unright- 

:^»us course ; moreover, owing to their wickedness, 

he late Diet had no due results, although smnmoned * 

»« behalf of the holiest cause. How they have 

iiined against God; how they have damaged the 

ionour of the Church, and that of the Empire, 

p»ur Holiness will easily estimate. We entrust the 

fthole affiiir to you, and to the Cardinals.' 

Frederick wrote also to a preacher of the Crusade 
in Germany, b^ging him to send off to Palestine 
^ who had taken the Cross, in spite of the ill 
success of the Cremona Diet He was now doing 
'1 in his power to please Honorius. He allowed 
^if" five intruded Prelates to take possession of their 
^'♦^ ; he despatched a body of men to Palestine, the 
harbingers of his own speedy arrival. The Pope 

T 2 

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CHAP, had in the eaxlier part of the year complained tkt 
his servants had been robbed by one Tancred < f 

1220-1227. Campelio, a son of Belial, aided and abetted by 
the men of Berthold, the brother of the Duke of 
Spoleto. The captives were sent at midnight bv 
secret roads to this German, who, ' with damoabie 
presumption,' opened and read the Papal letters m 
pubUc, while his crew of ruffians stood by. 'lii' 
could scarcely have happened,' so Honorius wrote 
to Frederick, ' without your connivance ; for tl 
man is your special messenger, and he declares tlii* 
Tancred has a general licence from you to act thii^' 
Frederick certainly gave Tancred two castles sbonly 
afterwards, but the matter seems to have beei 
satisfactorily arranged, as the Pope was soon •>: 
friendly terms with the Emperor, and promifled thj: 
the Kingdom of Aries should not be injured bv (•- 
French Crusaders. These were marching under llie-' 
King against the unhappy Albigenses, and they ha.! 
' already explained to the Emperor how they canic 
to lay siege to his city of Avignon. It was a> 
mantled by the French at the end of a te 
blockade, after it had been treacherously inTeur^'^J 
into a surrender by the Legate. Frederick coni- 
plained to Eome, but was told that he could t^n y 
recover the Kingdom of Aries, after the pok>n • ' 
heresy had been thoroughly purged out Wehav 
admired that letter of Honorius, in which he 5Ui.>^ 
forward as the champion of the oppressed e£'^ 
from Apiilia, and compares Eome to an Israehu* 
city of refuge. It is a noble idea, that of t.. 
Pope being the Great Eedresser of all the vn^i:- 
done in Christendom ; but unhappily there is a d- -^ 

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e to the picture. From Borne came the orders chap. 


ich set in motion the warlike barons of the North L. 

linst the helpless South ; which made Languedoc 
'iceuG of rape and robbery, torture and murder. 

quote the words of the English monk, who 
Kadbes the taking of Avignon, * It seems evident 
it an imjust war had been set on foot, of which 
retousness was the cause rather than the wish to 
3t out heresy.' 
Frederick, as is stated above, was doing his utmost 

keep on good terms with Eome. He was at 
)ggia during the latter part of this eventful year. 
e confirmed the County of Provence and Forcal- 
lier to Kaymond Berenger, and forbade the cities 
I act in despite of their ruler's wishes ; the rights 
f the Empire were to be scrupulously respected, 
liomas of Savoy undertook to reconcile Marseilles 
nth the Emperor, and Honorius interceded with 
Frederick on behalf of two Crusaders of that city, 
vho were kept in prison. The great enterprise in 
land occupied the hearts of all, and no means were 
left untried to procure recruits. The aid vouchsafed 
by Honorius, as shown by his letters to the Churches 
of Bomagna, was this. Every day, except on Sun- 
days, the Psalm *Deus venerunt gentes' was to be sung 
by the clergy, with loud voice, before the elevation 
of the Host Every month, there was to be a pro- 
cession of men and women, headed by the banner of 
the Cross, with fasting and a special Indulgence. A 
box was to be placed in the Churches, to receive the 
alms of the faithful for the great object. The lives 

and property of Crusaders were taken under the 

protection of the local Bishop imtil their return 

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CHAP. home. The Podesta was enjoined to constaram Jewidi 
^^ usurers to remit their gainful trade in favour of 

1220-1227. Crusaders; while the pious warriors on the other 
hand might enforce the payment of any debts due 
to themselves. Those of the clergy, who joined in 
the enterprise, were guaranteed their revenues during 
their absence. None who made the vow could lay it 
aside at their own pleasure.* 

In November the Emperor sent an embassy to tie 
Pope consisting of the Archbishops of Eeggio and 
Tyre, the latter of whom was also the Chancellor ii 
Jerusalem and a great favourite at Court ; Heimann 
von Salza accompanied the Prelates ; they besought 
Honorius to act as umpire between their master and 
the Lombards, who were ready to submit to the P^ 
arbitration, in order that the Crusade might not be 
hindered. Frederick speaks lightly of his own humilii- 
tion, so long as the honour of God is maintained. In 
the mean time he crossed over into Sicily, having ite 
Empress Yolande with him, who had probably bene- 
fitted by her sojourn among the learned medical men 
of Salerno. Very soon, early in the year 1227, alfttei 
came from the Pope, advising Frederick to make 
overtures to his father-in-law, John de Briennv. 
* Why estrange a man of such prudence, such acti- 
vity, such zeal, such counsel ? Who is more terriKo 
to the infidels than he, or more serviceable to theHoly 
Land ? Even had you taken a plain knight for your 
father-in-law, you ought to have made him a Kinf:. 
Through you the zeal of many is waxing cold ! Wo 
beseech you in Christ, as a special favour, to reo>'J- 

• Fantuzzi, Ravenna, Oct 21, 1226. 

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ider the matter ; we are sending to you the Abbot chap. 
)tTiterbo/ ^ 

Houoriiis thus did his utmost to reconcile the 1^20-1227. 

wrayward soldiers of the Cross ; and he determined 

(hat, whatever Frederick might do, so brave a 

Veteran as Xing John should be maintained in a 

manner befitting his rank and services. The Pope 

accordingly gave that hero the charge of the whole 

vnuntry between Eome and Eadicofani, on the 

Tuscan boundary. Perugia, Orvieto, and Todi were 

under the government of various Cardinals. Very 

early in this year, on the 5th of January, 1227, 

lI«>norius made his award between the Empire and 

tU' Ix)mbards, almost his last act on earth. There 

was to be a hearty reconciliation, and prisoners on 

•Mjth sides were to be set free. All, especially the 

Iniversity of Bologna, were to be released from the 

^ of the Empire, and from the sentence pro- 

ii^^unced in the previous summer. The Lombards on 

iheir side were to maintain at their own cost 400 

tuights in Palestine for two years, and were to hunt 

•^ut the heretics from among themselves. They were 

^ to take an oath to obey the canons of the 

Latenm Council Their letters, bowing to this deci- 

Mon, were to be sent to the Pope by the first Sunday 

^ I^nt Thus, Eome, acting as umpire, made an 

award which suited her own interests in every way. 

Tlie Emperor and his son were taken imder her special 

l»rotection ; he at once acquiesced in her decision. 

The Lombards however were rebuked for the delay 

tUy had made in sending succours. Hermann von 

^alza went into Germany once more on the business 

'^^ the Crusade, which must take place this year. 

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CHAP, according to the treaty of San Germane. Hoooriu? 
despatched urgent letters to Andrew the King of 

1220-1227. Hungary, who had abready made one camp^gn u 
Falestme, and to the Landgrave of Thuiingia.* Bur 
this Pope was not to see the end of all his toils on 
behalf of the Holy Land ; he died on the 18th <»f 
March, 1227, and was buried in Santa Maiia M^- 

* Raynaldus. 

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AJ). 1227— A.D. 1230. 

* Eeee puat CSsesar domito, quod defait, orbi 
Addeie. Nunc, Oriens nltime, noeter em I ' — Oyxd. 

'THE Cardinals had at first wished to elect Conrad, chap. 
1 the German Bishop of Porto and the boast of the ^^™' 

Gtodan Order; but he decUned the Papacy, just 1227-1230. 

*? ie had long before refused various wealthy Sees.* 

Tiey next fixed upon Cardinal Ugolino ; after with- 

**oding for some time the holy violence of the 

G»dave, he took the name of Gregory the Ninth, 

•«i Ms election to St. Peter's Chair. He came of 

tte Doble house of Conti, which had aheady given 

*» unde, Innocent the Third, to the Church, and 

^^ was to count yet another Pope, after Gregory's 

^^ among its ornaments. The new Pontifi* is 

"*^*^^^ as ^^the possessor of a noble form and 

twnitenance, of great talents, endowed with a good 

"^^^Ty and a penetrating mind, skilled in law, a 

-<r€ttn of Tullian eloquence, a diligent reader in the 

^^•*^ Page, a planter of religion, and a pattern of 

^ery kind of holiness.' He had already acted as 

^ Protector of the new Order of St. Francis, 

'^ W composed hymns in honour of the Saint ; 

"* waa a great foimder of monasteries and hospi- 

^; he laid the foimdation stone of the Church at 


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CHAP. Assisi, and built the walls of Ostia, his old Bishop- 
^^^' ric. His election took place at the Sette &>Ic; 
1227-1230. }^Q YfBS then installed in the Lateran Palace, and 
was didy enthroned in St. Peter's and in Santa Marii 
Maggiore. Shortly after Easter, he heard mass and 
was crowned with the double diadem of the Papacy. 
He then rode on horseback roimd the walk of 
Eome. The squares were hung with silks and 
tapestry, trumpets were blown, hymns were sung, 
odours were burnt ; the Judges in their silken copt% 
the Greeks, the Jews, the children in the streas, 
bawling out the ribald jests customary in BomaL 
triumphs from time immemorial, all idike shoutf»J 
their greetings to the new Vicar of Christ and 
strewed palm branches and flowers before him. The 
Senator and Prefect on foot led the Pope s horse 
in its gorgeous trappings, imtil the long processes 
of Cardinals, Bishops, and Clergy reached the Laterauu 
amid the applause of the vast multitude.* 

Gregory was no mere monk, taken at hap-hazani 
from the cloister and suddenly plimged into the 
business of the great world. He had been employ^J 
by Innocent and Honorius in missioos to Gennany, 
IVance, Apulia, and Lombardy. He was a master 
of the Canon Law, to which he made some imp-»r- 
tant additions. Stern and unbending as he seemeil 
he thought it no sin, when among friends, to R»lax 
his usual gravity. A smile would cross his f:ia, 
even at an unseasonable momentf Called to a 

* Vita Gregorii IX. 

f Frater Augustinufl. . . . retulit public^ in conTor n 
Londoniss se fuisse apud Assisium in festo S. Franciiici, et n. : 
ibi Papa Gregorius, et cum procederetad prsdlcandum canu!^ ' 
fratres, //unc Sanctus prcBelegerat ; et subrialt Papa. — rAt«»i-' -' 

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gh post of honour in troublous times, he wisely chap. 

olded to the spirit of the age, by showing his '— 

-mpathy with chivalry. On quitting the pulpit, 1227-1280, 
e- would place a garland of flowers on the head 
r each of the cavaUers who craved the honour of 
aighthood on St. Francis's day.* He was also a 
i&tron of learning, and befriended the famous 
Lichael Scott Gregory foresaw the storms threaten- 
ig the Church, and resolved to recruit the Sacred 
oUege with able men. Half a year after his in- 
:£Lllation in St. Peter's Chair, he created three 
'ordinals, who were destined in succession to fill his 
lace. These were Geoffrey Castiglione of Milan ; 
inibald Fiesco of Genoa; and Einaldo Conti of 
^nagni, the Pope's nephew and Chamberlain. To 
hese he added the dauntless Otho of Montferrat, 
rhose name is closely connected with ]Ehglish his- 
ory ; and two other Churchmen of less note.f 

The spirit of the Lateran underwent a great 
^hange. No two men were more unlike in character 
lian Honorius and Gregory. The former was mild, 
:asy, and incUned to gentle measures ; we have seen 
low many respites he granted to Frederick, after 
the Emperor had taken the Cross. The Pontificate 
i)f Honorius, placed between those of the two great 
Conti Popes, is, as it were, a lull between two awful 
storms. Gregory was stem, xmcompromising, and even 
too prone to harshness ; no more respites could be 
expected from him ; he had stood undaunted in the 
German camp, while those around him were quailing 
before the rujffian Markwald. Yet, unlike as they were^ 
the two Cardinab seem to have been Unked together 

* Eccleston. f ^^* Trium Fontium. 

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CHAP, by a heartfelt attachment. Honorius, after becomiit: 
Pope, needed a strong arm upon which to lean ; 11 
the very first year of his Pontificate, he wrote thw< 
of his Mend : ' Ugolino is a man after my omi 
heart, mighty in words and deeds ; on him I can 
rely, and trust him in all cases.'* Both probably 
viewed with equal dismay the overwhelming mA* 
of the House of Hohenstaufen ; but Honorius seeioA 
to shrink from the battle which he must have forv- 
seen ; he strove to end his life in peace, and to put 
off the evil day. Gregory, on the other hand, 
looked the danger ftdl in the face ; his Pontificate, 
as he well knew, woidd decide whether the Pope 
was to rule the world henceforward, or whether he 
must become a mere chaplain to the Emperor. Thi> 
was a problem which Gregory twice attempted h* 
solve in his own way. Frederick perhaps expecriJ 
to find his old firiend Ugolino as favourably dispoijed 
towards him as Honorius had been ; if he did. bo 
was soon grievously disappointed. Even agair.< 
Honorius he had lately had many causes of o>m- 
plaint ; he was now to find that Gregory was mad. 
of still sterner stuff than his predecessor. The fir-: 
letter received from the new Pope is dated the 23r I 
of March. It reminds the Emperor of the g*-* 1 
offices he has received from Cardinal Ugolino, an: 
proceeds; 'We are willing to grant you evenr 
indulgence that we can, but take heed that y-, 
do not place yourself in a situation whence we lu ly 
not be able to extricate you, even with the best wilV 
On the very next day, Gregory wrote to tlie L ►" - 
bard states, ordering them to make ready for u 

* Rcgesta of Honorius, quoted by Von Baomer* 

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usade. *Ye know how we loved you of yore, chap. 

len Tve acted as Legate in Lombardy ; but we 

all love you much more, if ye obey now.' He ^227-1230. 
IS not to be tricked by these men, who according 

their countryman SaUmbene were 'slippery as 
k ;' he had remarked that some of the states, 
id also the Marquess of Montferrat, had not set 
eir seals to the treaty ; he insisted on the due per- 
rmaace of the compact, ordering the Archbishop 
: Milan to excommunicate the refractory. He 
.:^ uttered bitter complaints against the tolerant 
•eatment of heretics in Lombardy, and against the 
rm subjection in which the clergy were kept by 
be laws of the states. The Bishop of Ghibelline 
.remona was excommunicated for not obeying his 
uj>erior, the Archbishop of Guelf Milan.* 

From the Lombards, Gregory turned his attention 
j(} Frederick. The life of the Emperor was not 
without blemish; it could iU bear the scrutiny 
of the stem censor at Bome. The Pope sent to 
liis young friend a letter by Guala, a renowned Do- 
minican ; the first part is written in a style worthy of 
a Christian philosopher ; the last part degenerates 
into the strangest mysticism. 'God has bestowed 
on you the gift of knowledge and of perfect imagi- 
nation, and all Christendom follows you. Take heed 
that you do not place your intellect, which you have 
in common with angels, below your senses, which 
you have in common with brutes and plants. Your 
intellect is weakened, if you are the slave of your 
senses. If those two lights, knowledge and love, be 

• R^eflta of Gregory for 1227, LIV. LIX. MiddlehiU MSS. 
lie Bays, speaking of bis arbitration, ' Utraque pars bumiliter 

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CHAP, quenched, if those conquering eagles be brou^i 

low and turned to earthly lusts, you will not be abk 

1227-1230. jQ point the way of salvation to your followers. Fai 
be this fix)m you, dearest son ! Follow after justice 
and mercy, even as Israel followed the fiery pilkr 
and the cloudy pillar. Eemember the five Tiwignia at 
your coronation ; the cross and lance are carried before 
you in the procession, and you wear on your head the 
golden crown studded with precious stones, haviii]2 
the sceptre in your right hand and the golden apjdt 
in your left. Christ, like you, wore three crowns : 
He had the crown of grace fix)m His mother ; tfat 
crown of justice fix)m His step-mother ;* and the 
crown of glory firom His Father. You are crowned 
by Germany, by Lombardy, which may be called 
yom* step-mother, and by yoiu* fether, the Pope. 
The sceptre stands for justice ; the apple for mercy ; 
be not unmindM of these qualities.' 

Frederick was at Catania in the spring ; and bis 
lieutenant, the Count of Acerra, came into &cilT 
before starting for Palestine. All men were preparing 
for the Crusade ; a paper remains, which informs m 
that eleven dignitaries of the Church, residing near 
Otranto, made up between them a contingent of ten 
knights and forty foot soldiers.f In Jime, the Em- 
peror was at Melfi in Apulia, and while there he 
received a message firom Pope Gregory, requesting 
that provisions from every part of the Kingdom 
might be sent to Anagni, the Papal residence. A 
few weeks still remained for the transaction of the 
business of the Empire. The Bishops of Eatisbon 

* JeroBalem is probably meant. f Chronic. NeritiniinL 

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tod fiftznbeig came in July, and the former procured chap. 
the revocation of the mischievous acts of his prede- 

cefiSQT. A month later, four monks, from as many Aus- ^227-1230. 

tiiBn Abbeys, obtained a confirmation of their privi- 

l^es. Frederick renewed the treaty with France, now 

pw^oned by Blanche, the Queen-mother. August had 

It length arrived, in which the long-expected Crusade 

Mst be undertaken, according to the agreement 

rfSm Germano. To a great extent it was a failiu'e. 

Few came from England, fewer stlQ from France ; 

tie main strength of the enterprise lay in the Ger- 

MM, who came over the Alps under the Landgrave 

^ Thuringia and the Bishop of Augsburg. Frede- 

nck had paid the former recruit a large smn of 

*ney to induce him to march; the Duke of 

A«ria had hung back at the last moment. The 

^^omui host arrived in Apulia; and their Kaiser, 

wing his Empress Tolande at Otranto, joined them 

<BrmdiaL He rode thither in the heat, against the 

'iAes of his physicians, who feared the worst from 

n« imprudence, since his health was giving way. 

^ it was, the constitutions of the Northern men 

<^ not bear the heat of an ItaUan summer ; they 

'^ more than a week engaged in freighting their 

*j|» with provisions and water ; the power of the 

''ni was 80 great, that it melted solid metal ; Brin- 

*^ ^w an ill-chosen trysting-place, being most 

^"*Wlthy ; the badness of the air, and the rain that 

^ killed off many of the Crusaders.* The Bishops 

^ Aivgers and Augsburg died ; and the Landgrave 

^'^ fell a victim at Otranto. Gregory, twelve 

y^^ afterwards, charged Frederick with having 

• Life of Gregoiy. 

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CHAP, poisoned the Thnringian. What interest could tb< 

Kaiser have had in making away with a gaUaLl 

1227-1230. comrade? He endeavoured to lighten the domsi 
of the bereaved family, by giving Hermann, thi 
son of the deceased Landgrave, certain rights ovd 
Meissen, in the event of the death of Margravl 
Henry. The surviving warriors set sail frod 
Otranto, Frederick among them. But after remain 
ing at sea for three days, he said that he was seizd 
with a sudden illness, so that he could not at tin 
risk of his life any longer bear the roughness d tfc 
waves and the unhealthy season. The nobles o 
the East, who surrounded him, advised him fc 
delay his voyage, after a carefiil consideraticm oi 
the state of his health. He put about and returned 
to Otranto, offering two galleys to Gerold the ft- 
triarch, who went off by himself, seeing that the 
matter could not be otiierwise.* The other piJ- 
grims, 40,000 fighting men in all, reached Acre; 
but returned home for the most part, on finding that 
the Emperor was not coining ; * putting their trastm 
man rather than in God,' as the Patriarch remarked. 
Only 800 knights remained, the command of whom 
Frederick had given to the Duke of limburg; the 
Crusade seemed a total failure.f A report was 
spread and widely beheved, that the Emperor hm 
made a treaty with the Sultan, to break off tbe 
enterprise.;!; Frederick sent two Judges to Borne 
to explain all, and went to recruit himself at the 
baths of Pozzuoh, near Naples, where he could hu»t 
in the forests around Licola, his royal chase. B*' 

• French Chronicle. f ^^ Wendover. 

f Ric. Malespini. 

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de^ched a fiirther embassy to Gregory, consisting chap. 
vf the Archbishops of Reggio and Ban, Eaynald of 

Spofeto, and Henry Count of Malta; they were 1227-1230. 
thuged with the task of his exculpation. The Pope 
Tould not believe a word they said; but calling 
ti^ether as many Bishops as he could, he publicly 
ooMiimunicated the recreant Crusader on the 29th 
'»f September, 1227.* Hermann von Salza, probably 
ie only man in all Christendom who could have 
Ittpt peace between Pope and Emperor, had imluckily 
•fled for the East. 

Gregory ordered the sentence to be published 

(krodghout all Christian Kingdoms; his letter to 

5<epben Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was 

» follows : ' The bark of Peter is in such constant 

'iager, that its pilots and oarsmen can scarcely 

^*ttthe; for if it is making fiill sail for port with a fair 

*^the breeze suddenly veers round to an opposite 

i^tfter, and carries the ship into the deep ocean. 

Yd it is not overwhelmed ; for the Lord, awakened 

^T ^e cries of his disciples, commands the sea and 

ie waves, and there is a calm. Foiu* gusts are as- 

«i^ our ship ; the Moslem in Palestine ; the fiiry 

"^ Tyrants ; the madness of Heretics ; and the per- 

^tfseness of false brethren. Without are fightings, 

Kid withm are fears ; the sword slays abroad and 

^ home ; while the Chm*ch thinks she is cherishing 

''JQN she is fostering snakes and cockatrices. The 

*^pi(itolic See, to escape these dangers, brought up a 

*^«^ pupil, the Emperor Frederick, whom she 

took bom his mother's womb, rescued from his 

^u^erers, and raised first to the Kingdom, then to 

• Ric. San Gemiano. 
^OU I. U 

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CHAP, the Empire. In Germany he gave us a happy om\ri^ 
^^' though it now seems a dangerous one ; for of Lij 
1227-1230. own accord, unknown to the ApostoUc See, he ic*^ 
the Cross. He then obtained a decree of exo:^\ 
munication against himself and the others who k^j 
imitated him, if he should not set out by a ceruu 
time. The Church called him to the Crown out *- 
due order, that he might the more speedily sail :•. 
Palestine ; but he has used the banner of the Cnw 
until now for his own purposes. After his coronatioi 
by Pope Honorius, he received the Cross from tin 
hands of ourselves, who were at that time in a lowd 
place ; he then induced many others to imitate bii:: 
He afterwards conferred with the Pope at Yeroli,ai.;: 
there swore to set out whenever the Church sL«»u)] 
fix the time. Again, at Ferentino, he swore to sni 
within two years, and to marry the heiress of Jtnii 
salem ; adding that he should thereby be bounii iH 
the service of Palestine, not like the other piliTiiii.^ 
but like the Templars and HospitaDers, for ever. A1 
the end of the two years he made fresh delavN an J 
wanted another respite for three years. The Chuiclil 
after much debating, sent Cardinals Pelagius anj 
Gualo to San Germane ; and there the Empen^r <•! 
his own accord swore that he would sail withiu tvii 
years, that is, in August last past ; and many ft! .^ 
conditions were named. The Cardinab then p^- 
claimed the sentence which he would incur if i- 
failed in aught But you are now to learn how * 
has fiilfiUed his promises ; for many thousand C ' 
saders came to Brindisi at the appointed time ; . 
had withdrawn his favour from the cities of 0. 
coast ; we had in vain urged him to make the pn»:-. ' 
preparations; he neglected to send provisions; L. 

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kept the Christian army in a foul climate so long chap. 
thai nobles and commons alike perished from disease, 

tliiret,and heat Many died in the woods, plains, 1227-1230. 

mountains, and caves. The smrivors could scarcely 

sd leave to sail, but at last they did, though there 

vere not ships enough to convey all the provisions 

tod horses, as had been promised. Yet the Emperor, 

shirking his engagements and casting aside all fear 

"f God, came back, making a frivolous pretence of 

bodily sickness. Is there any sorrow like unto our 

wrow? He has paid no attention to the ill-usage 

•rf priests and to the complaints of the poor, both 

cccimons and nobles, whose prayers, we think, have 

ateed the ears of the Lord God of Sabaoth. Eome 

frmrns for him, conquered without a battle, borne 

i^wn without an enemy. She mourns the death of 

pert of the host, and the wasted efforts of the rem- 

^t, who are driven they know not whither, doing 

^ little good to the Holy Land ; we cannot help 

^^em owing to the stormy season. She mourns for 

Wistine, which we were hoping would now be res- 

<^ied from the Moslem, and which we should have 

2*ii^ in exchange for Damietta, had not the Em- 

[*^w's letters forbidden it; our army would not 

^ve been captured, if he had sent ships to the rescue, 

*^ lie had promised ; for Damietta, after it had been 

[•taced in the hands of his envoy and been de- 

^mied ^ith the Lnperial eagles, was on that day 

^^J pillaged and then given back to the infidels. 

^^ mourn the more, when we think of the toil, the 

'"^ the blood, and the time spent on Damietta. 

^i»el is weeping for her children and for these 

^^"*^9 ! Who can refrain fit)m tears ? Ought not 

^^ Christian to hurry to the Holy Land, seemg 

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z^^ iiii G>i ani Cnrist are disgraced ? Yet His mat] 
*~^ — if r.'-C clean g- -ne f* »r ever ; He will show us a bette 

-rrr-ii:., TiT.a::! He wiH send men after His own heart, wb 
^11 p'jre hearts and dean hands will lead on E 
ritrS. We therefore, by these Apostolic letters, bt 
seei t:u to =et aH these matters before the clei^g 
izji r*^ I-^ tinier tout care, and to induce them t 
iTe:i^e lii^ insult o5ered to Jesus Christ Howeva 
iLii we hie n :■: like unto dumb dogs imable to bari 
wr T J:1:?1t exoininiumcate the Emperor Frederick 
15 li Lis wilrjZT Siiltd to keep his promise, and h liZts unier our ban; and we order you t 
T-rx^:" :: ni aH your churches. We trust in ih 
L* r i :li: lie E:i:r«eror may still have recourse to th 
rr-r i'lys::iin and retiim to the Chureh his mothei 
F -r we I_ !?:•; J^ire his damnation, as we fonnerli 
J T-: "- "— . ir^y, when we were in a lower place. - 
0-"'.c i: iltr Laieran. 

We r-iy remark on this letter, that the saiteDO 
si-ei-f ::• been m«D6t hastily pronoimced It wa 
i . c. :l•es^ in ann«:>yance to the Pope, when he saw th 
Crnsa. :e miscarrying : but he should have satkfie 
- -Mr":" :hjLi Fr^ierlck's illness was only a pretence 
K::-:^ runisiing him so grievously. The Papa 
n:v^?s<r^ers ihenis<^ives seem to have confirmed tlw 
Er^r*cr:r's sciiemenL* If Frederick had lied, de 
:<:\::::c was easy. It was hardly generous to hok 
h:n: :o ihe strict letter of the law; if the Pop 
r.,Ni w^shcvi to ruin the Crusade, he could d^> 
rave c5cv:ed his object better than by exconununi 

• Ai rxpdOB »d scam excosatioDem sqos dirigit nnnciot Is- 
|xnvr. . . . qaibus nco plus credens, quam mmtiit s^* 
v;o :zTAl.;;adiae Ixspentocis, cxoommimicat, &c — Bk* 5a» Gtr- 

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iting the only man who could possibly bring it to a chap. 
ippy end. It amazes us to hear Gregory charging the 

mperor with having refused to yield up Damietta 1227-1230. 
I exchange for Palestine; Frederick indignantly 
enied this, and Cardinal Pelagius, at the Pope's 
^lx>w, could have enlightened the Holy See, had he 
Liosen, as to the real cause of the great disaster. 
redeiick's envoy had been one of the few who had 
rished to hold out Damietta to the last. The 
xconcuminication, with which the end of the 
Mer is taken up, seems more like the freak -of a 
piteful school boy, than the grave sentence of a 
rrey-beard who held in his keeping the interests of 
Jl Christendom. 

Gregory did his best to set the Crusade on foot 

f)uce more. He sent letters to the Duke of Austria, 

praising him for his zeal, though Leopold had hung 

back in the summer ; the other Princes of Germany 

were also to be aroused by messengers sent for that 

jmrpose, Frederick on his side was not idle; he 

quitted PozzuoU for Sessa, and from that town went 

to Gaeta, where he found the castle he had been 

building ready to receive its garrison. He then held 

a Parliament at Capua, whither he summoned all the 

Counts of the Kingdom ; he regulated the new levies 

and the taxation, ordering the money to be paid in by 

next May, when he meant to cross over to Palestine ; 

he proclaimed a Diet of the Empire, which was to 

\ye held at Eavenna in March next year. He ordered 

the clergy to go on celebrating the offices, although 

their Sovereign was an excommmiicated man; if 

they disobeyed, their property was to be confiscated 

to the Crown ; none of them were allowed to leave 

the realm. At the same time, he was careful to 

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CHAP, protect them. He despatched to Borne one of hi> 
^^* ablest lawyers, EoflSid of Benevento, who read Li- 

1227-1230. master's exculpation before the Senate and peopiv 
assembled m the CapitoL The Emperor sent to lie ; 
Pope another embassy, which was more likely t ■ \ 
succeed than the last ; it consisted of two Cardinal?, 
one of whom was Otho of Montferrat.* 

Gregory wrote two more important letters Ixf jre 
the end of the year 1227 ; the first was to the ex- 
communicated Emperor, ' that you would submn 
yourself to Him, who has subjected to you Yarii>uj 
nations, that you may not be foxmd ungrateful ! *-> ; 
that you would humbly recognize the goodness a::d 
long-suffering of the Boman Church, which in ^pit^• 
of many provocations has never met you save with 
the spirit of gentleness 1 We have been blamed ami | 
perhaps with justice, for cherishing you in your j 
hurtful pleasiu'es ; as it were, seething a kid in :t^ 
mother's milk. All hoped that you would bring tbo 
Crusade to a glorious end ; but we have all bejun 
to despair of the recovery of the Holy Land. Owini: 
to you, many are groaning over their banishiiK-:/. 
(God grant that it be not their death !) who at your 
instigation have undertaken the voyage. Let n- : 
our love towards you be held in suspicion ! a fail* r 
chastises the son whom he loves. Be not, we K^ 
seech you, of the number of those, of whom ilit 
Lord complains, "I have smitten them, and tiny 
have not momned ;" but hasten back into the boe* ■:.: 
of the Church, which yearns for you. We have oi 
ten been blamed for not asserting the rights of t!.. 
Count of Celano, and of Binaldo of Aversa. WIa:: 

• Ric. San Gcnnano. 

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he treaty was made between you and those parties, chap. 

ou promised Pope Honorius that you would again 

like Count Eoger into favour ; but he is in exile 1227-1230. 
ad his son is a captive, although you made the 
jrmer take the Cross. People say " See how Eome 
iiotects these men! they took the Cross, when 
K>werfiil and rich : but now, being thrust out by the 
inperor, they are banished men and beggars." 
»Ve cannot pass over the oppression of Sicily ; men 
^k how can we endure such tyranny. We cmx now 
10 longer put up with your faults or delay your 
>uniahment ; we b^ you to remember that it profits 
I man nought^ if he gain the whole world and lose 
bis own souL Betum then to virtue, knowing that 
we are ready to restore you to our favoiu* ; otherwise 
we shall act as God and Justice dictate.' 

Gr^ory sent another letter into all the Kingdoms 
uf the West, which displays the state of Palestine 
during the autumn of 1227. It was a copy of a 
despatch fix)m Ceroid the Patriarch of Jerusalem, 
the Prelates of Narbonne, Winchester, and Exeter, 
and the Grand Masters of the three Knightly Brother- 
hoods. It began with a bitter expression of disap- 
pointment at the non-arrival of the Emperor in 
Palestine, and with an account of the consequent 
dispersion of the Crusaders. * Eight hxmdred knights 
remained, who were clamorous for the breach of the 
truce with the Sultan. The Duke of Limburg was 
appointed to act as the Emperor's Lieutenant He 
called a coimcil, and openly stated his wish to break 
the truce. Some withstood this, saying that it was 
dishonourable and also dangerous. The Duke and 
bis party declared that the Pope could not wish the 
truce to be kept ; the pilgrims could not idle away 

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CHAP, their time ; and if they departed, the Saracoe mid: 
perhaps get the start in breaking the truce Not. 

1227-1230. if ever, was the time to fight ; for Moadhin, 6 
Sultan of Damascus, was hard pressed by some .: 
the other Mohammedan powers, and would c^^"^ 
terms of peace, if the Christians were to thieaic: 
him. At length the council determined on a marcL 
to Jerusalem next August, and resolved in the m^ 
time to fortify first Csesarea, and then Jaffa. PaTi 
of the plan was carried out ; and the pilgrims, V. 
did not know the whole of the design, were soddt uy 
seized with a longing desire to see Jerusalem; e&l 
man felt as if he could beat a thousand Moelec. 
The despatch ended with an earnest hope thai si 
faithful Christians would hasten to the succour of ->. 
small but devoted band in Palestine.* 

We must r^ret to see Hermann von Salza leci:^ 
his sanction to anything that was a breach of in- 
laws of honour. He must have known fuD ^^ 
having been at the surrender of Damietta, that it 
eight years' truce, then agreed upon, would d 
expire until 1229. The only circumstance that ccii 
annul it was the arrival of the Emperor in pers:<. 
which had not hitherto taken place. This, as hi ^> 
I know, is the only blot on the otherwise slain! "' 
reputation of Brother Hermann. If a man sue-* 
he was could prefer expediency to honour in - 
dealings with imbeUevers, we may judge howua^"- 
pulous must have been the ideas of most of hk ci 
temporaries ! 

In the mean time, the Emperor resolved t^* ^' 
himself right with his brother Monarchs. He aco •" 

• De Wendover. 

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glj sent a circular round all the Kingdoms of the chap. 

'est, which throws much light upon the events of 
s past life. * We are loth to say it, but our hopes 1227-1230. 
ive been deceived; the end of all things is at hand ; 
re is waxing cold, not only in its branches, but in 
I iwts. The Boman Empire, the bulwark of the 
dth,i3 being assailed by its own fathers. If an 
any were to attack us, we should grasp the sword ; 
It when the Vicar of Christ arises against us, our 
raiwice for the blessed Peter causes us to pause 
ttnazement Let the whole earth hear the provo- 
itions we have received from oiu: step-mother the 
korcL' Frederick then goes through the story of 
b life. He complains of Otho having been preferred 
> the Empire, and of his own Kingdom having been 
A exposed to dangers, while he was a child. He 
tfris to the many perils he underwent in Germany, 
nd to the whole history of his preparations for the 
-rosade, the vow at Aix-la-Chapelle, the coronation at 
iwne, the succours despatched in vain to Damietta, 
!te three conferences with the Pope and his Legates, 
^e sent Von Salza into Germany, to levy soldiers, 
^ to promise pay according to their deserts. We 
?^e up the March of Meissen, worth more than 
^eaty thousand silver marks a year, to the Land- 
?*ve of Thuringia, that he might be induced to ac- 
^pany us ; besides paying him five thousand marks 
Jown. W'e took seven hundred knights into our 
!*.^; we had eight hundred carpenters at work on 
^ j^hipe ; we had fifty galleys and other vessels ready 
-t Brindisi ; there were not pilgrims enough to fill 
'^'^dl' Frederick then gives a minute account of his 
•^^ iUness, and of the death of the Landgrave ; he 
'^'km that he meant to follow his comrades in 

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CHAP, the ensuing May ; he upbraids the Church vm 

1_ harshness in excommunicating him after he hadd«:t 

1227-1230. his utmost, siucc seven hundred German kni^ V/ 
and two himdred and fifty Sicilian knights had bc^i 
despatched to Palestine, and the four himiLvi 
Lombard knights would also have been sent off. i 
the Pope had not connived at their delay. Et: 
afltons that he can fully accoimt for the huLiln- 
thousand ounces of gold, which he was boimJ t 
pay; Von Salza at least was satisfied. *Our Ap-^ 
toUc Lord did not deal fairly with the ambassiJ -: 
we sent him ; they were ready to explain alL ': - 
he would scarcely listen to them ; it is said tli.; 
he consulted with each Prelate in private, iu- 
warned each not to depart fi'om the senU-ot 
arranged beforehand, prior to the defence maa y 
our envoys ; thus the Council arrived at a conck^ : 
without hearing what we had to bring forvr. 
Besides this, the men of Eieti, the subjects c^ t. 
Church, on hearing of our embarkation, maJt a: 
attack on our Kingdom, but were beaten off Al 
this we desire to make known to the whole wor. . 
in spite of all, we shall not desist from theserr.-. 
of Christ. Perhaps it has been all ordered for tj 
best ; since we shall be able to do more in Palrt- 
next year. We ask you for succour, as we m^a^ - 
set forth in May. We also ask you to send env)- 
to us at Eavenna in Mid-Lent, when we shall 1 
a Diet for the maintenance of peace in Italy.' 

Frederick sent another letter to the Kin:: " 
England, in which he shows himself well versi * :^ 
our national history. ' Take warning by the va^' 
did not the Pope hard press the Count of Tou!' ;* 
and others by an unjust excommuniaition. - 

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ey bowed before him? Did not Tunocent the chap. 
lird stir up the English Barons against King ^' 

>hii, as being a foe of the Church ? As soon as 1227-1230. 
e King had crouched hke a coward and handed 
er his reahn to Eome, the Pope, who only 
ingered for the fet of the land, gave the Barons 
•y to misery and death. The Eoman Church is 
ie a leech ; she calls herself my mother and nurse ; 
It she is a step-mother, and the root of all evils. 
er Jje^tes go throughout all lands, binding, loosing, 
onishing ; not to sow the seed of the Word, but 
) subdue all men and to wring fix)m them their 
loney. Neither churches nor hospitals are now 
pared. This Chiu-ch was founded on poverty and 
mocence at first, as its catalogue of saints proves ; 
•ut other foundation can no man lay, than what 
.'hrist has laid Now she wallows in riches; and 
t is to be feared that riches wiU overthrow her. 
All the wicked are eager for the fray, and hope 
:o riot on the ruin of the kingdoms of the earth. 
Unite yourselves then, and overturn this unheard-of 
tyranny, this danger common to all. Kemember 
that when your neighbour's wall is on fire your 
own property is at stake.' 

The year 1228 seemed at its outset to promise but 
little for the cause of the Crusade. The Spiritual 
and Temporal heads of Christendom were waging a 
rancorous war. Frederick began the strife by hold- 
ing up to pubhc shame the morals of the enemy's 
partizans. The clergy, debarred from wedlock by 
Hildebrand's stem poUcy, had evaded the joyless 
existence to which they were doomed by Eome ; it 
vras a common custom among them to keep concu- 
bines, called in Italy focarice^ to cheer their hearths. 

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CHAP. Only the year before, Gregory had written to Coii: 

of Marbui^, bidding him look to the state of u 

1227-1230. parish priests and the ordained men through^ 
Germany, nearly all of whom kept their concubine- 
Frederick now issued orders that these women, 
their sons and daughters, should be thrown in 
prison, wherever they could be found, in Siu 
or Apulia, King John of England, a few jc. 
before, had avenged himself on the Pope in a 

Meanwhile preparations for the Crusade we 
going on in spite of the excommunication- T 
Archbishop of Palermo, the most loyal of all i 
clergy, had been sent on an embassy to Sultan KaiLi 
of Egypt, whom Frederick hoped to find belter Ci:^ 
posed towards the Christians than the other ruler? k\ 
the East were. The Prelate brought home an ia- 
phant, some mules, and other costly gifts fri>!:i t ' 
Sultan to the Emperor. The ruler of Cairo vus i/ : 
Ukely to be a hindrance to the Crusade. All fou^lai 
services were rigorously exacted throughout Apui;.i 
and Sicily ; the Abbot of Monte Cassino alone h » . 
to provide a hundred well armed men for Palf^iii; 
to be kept at his own cost ; 1200 ounces wen* o'* 
lected to pay these troops ; and the Abbot was ^u:.. 
moned to meet Frederick at Taranto. 

Afresh blow was now aimed at Pojx? Grotr'n. 
The Emperor called to him the Frangipani and uil: 
powerful Boman patricians ; he bade them val 
their real property at Eome ; he bought tlie wJ • 
of it at a fixed price, and then restored it to :* 

♦ Regesta of Gregory for 1227, Middlehill MSS. TIjo P 
Bays that the priests were * gastromargia dediti et f*viorc li' ' - 

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)les, who now according to the feudal law be- chap. 


le his vassals and did homage to him.* They 

lit back to Eome, and soon rendered good service 1227-1230. 
their new lord. Gregory had assembled a Comi- 
o{ Prelates from Lombardy, Tuscany, Eomagna, 
1 Apulia ; he once more excommunicated Frederick 
Holy Thursday, rebuking him at the same time 

seizing on some lands belonging to the rebellious 
lane^e. He sent the following letter to the Bishops 
the Kingdom : — ' We have drawn the medicinal 
onl of Peter against Frederick, in the spirit of 
Qtleuess ; we have placed him under the ban, as 

himself had consented. But he has added sin to 
1 ; for scorning the Keys of the Church, he has 
us.d the divine oflSces to be celebrated, or rather 
«>faned, in his presence. Our predecessor Hono- 
i"^ took care to warn him respecting divers matters 

which he offended the Church ; and we oiu^elves 
lit to him the Cardinal of St. Sabina and Cardinal 
tho, that they might admonish him ; but they were 
fiable to recall him to repentance. We have ex- 
>ininunicated him once more, because he did not 
lil at the time agreed ; because he will not allow 
'^ Archbishop of Taranto to return to that see ; be- 
vd>Q he has robbed the Templars and Hospitallers ; 
'1*1 because he maltreats his nobles. We have 
^'Icred the suspension of the divine offices in any 
la<'e where he may be ; we shall proceed against 
^^ni like a heretic ; we shall absolve his subjects 
rom their oath of allegiance; and we shall strip 
lini of his Kingdom, which is our fief, and for which 
'»- has (lone us homage.' 

• Abbas Urspa^. 

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CHAP. Gregory was too hasty in his measures. He 'wi* 

; — celebrating mass at St Peter's, when the comin.-c 

1227-1230. f^Yk^ 4 ministers of Satan, heirs of perdition,' \ns^l 
him and abused him most scurrilously, barking Hke 
dogs, whilst the Host was being elevated.* They 
soon drove the Holy Father out of Home ; he to i 
refuge at Eieti, travelling imder a safe escort ; aii*: 
thence moved on to Perugia, which was under xh 
government of Cardinal John Colonna. At tl^* 
time, Frederick was laying a tax upon all tk 
churches of the Kingdom on behalf of Palesticf : 
Gregory forbade them to pay anything. He hux 
two Minorite friars to his enemy early in May; tit^ 
were charged with a letter ; * The noise and how!:;c 
of the Churches of Sicily and Apulia, plundered by 
you, has come up into our ears. We are placed bf a- 
to defend Christ's Church ; we warn you to restc^ri 

The Diet, to be held at Ravenna in Lent this year, 
was a failure ; the men of Milan and Verona roblx^*! 
the German pilgrims, who were on their way to i)ir 
South. This was said to have been done by xu 
Pope's orders ; ' which woe is me ! ' says the AI*}*^* 
of Ursperg, * is unfit to be named ! * Frederick ki^' 
Easter with great pomp at Barletta on the Adriflti* : 
his joy was all the greater, on the arrival of the no^- 
from the Count of Acerra, his lieutenant in the II' • } 
Land, that Moadhin the Sultan of Damascus, t-^ 
most dreaded of all the Moslem, was dead. Kichii:- 
Filangieri, the Marshal, was at once sent off fr' 
Brindisi with 500 knights as a reinforcement. T- 
Emperor supplied needy pilgrims with horses, an^? 

• Life of Gregory, 

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j)rovi:*ions, besides having ships ready. He sent chap. 
CL\>unt of his struggle with the Pope to the men 
'c^eua, and complained of Gr^ory for siding with 
ilian traitors. He still fomid time to protect 
iiisteries both in Italy and Germany. The Crown 
Jerusalem seemed now more easy of attainment 
[I ever ; but the heiress who had brought it to 
(lerick was at the point of deatk The Empress 
iuide gave birth to a son, the last but one of the 
Lf of Hohenstaufen. She was cut off at the early 
' uf seventeen, having had little enjoyment in her 
-time ; her step-mother had attempted to poison 
"; her fether had quitted her side ; and her hus- 
ii'l had neglected her. She died ten days after 
•umiug a mother, imable to survive the pains of 
ilil-birth. The infant was called Conrad by his 
i.iT's desire, and was held at the font by the am- 
vsulors of Cremona- The men of this city, the 
"Utihold of Trederick's party in Lombardy, had 
-i: -d for the honour of acting as the sponsors of 
^* young Prince ; they gave sumptuous presents to 
c EnijHiror, who thus made them his gossips ; 
td their women likewise sent gifts to the Empress, 
i i^U must have come too late for her acceptance. 
•laiide was biuied with all due honour at Andria.^ 
A letter of Gregory to his Legate in France gives 
^ an ia^iight into the state of the Holy Land at this 
Ji»^*. He complains of Frederick's treaty with 
-TP^ and of the kindness shown by him to Sara- 
"i^. After the breach of the truce, which the 

* '!>** affirms to have been broken by the Emperor's 

* l^r, the Saracens made a foray into the Christian 

* Ric. San Germano. Imago Mondi. 

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1. and Baynald summoned the whole Kingdom to 
ipress the revolt; the rebels' stronghold, Torre 
Reoaria, which they had newly fortified against 1227-12S0. 
ir Sovereign, was destroyed, after they had sur- 
idered on condition of having their Uves spared ; 
y fled to Bieti, in the Pope's coimtry. 
\ short time before these latter events, Frederick 
length set off on his voyage to the Holy Land. 
i-* was the point to which the poUtical movements 
the last tliirteen years had been tending ; the 
ing of the Cross at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1215 ; the 
piles up to 1220, so often granted by Pope Hono- 
L'i : the bestowal of the Crown of the Empire at 
Hue in 1220 ; the renewed delays after the loss 
Damietta in 1221 ; the conference at Veroli in 
ii ; the .conference at Ferentino in 1223 ; the 
nfereuce at San Germano in 1225 ; the marriage 
th the heiress of Jerusalem in the same year ; the 
"tlcsi journey into Lombardy in 1226 ; the false 
rt in 1227, followed by Pope Gregory's excom- 
inication; all these events had now at length 
ir fitting end ; the Emperor Frederick the Second 
15 on his way to the East, thus treading in the 
I» of his Hohenstaufen forefathers and kinsmen ; 
Conrad, the first Suabian monarch ; of Frederick 
xban)ssa ; and of Duke Frederick, the foimder of 
• Teutonic Order. What might not Christendom 
[K( t at the hands of so vigorous and poUtic an 
nperor? One thing alone was wanting, the 
^rty co-operation of the Pope in the new under- 
t^ng. There was no mighty Saladin now in the 
"^t, wielding the whole strength of Islam ; his 
aim had been splint up into kingdoms for his 
iTerent nephews, whose alliance was ofi^n sun- 


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Emperor/ said Gr^ory ; * owing to which the awful chai>. 

name of the Soman Empire was less respected among 

Ae barbarous nations.'* 1227-1230. 

Prom Brindisi, the Emperor dropped down the 
fottt to Otranta Thence he issued one more circular 
fcr the benefit of his li^es. After referring to his 
m1 for the Crusade and to the unjust excommuni- 
«ition, he says : ' We have seijt envoys to the Pope 
iff forgiveness even more frequently than became 
fxi dignity ; we have lately sent to him the Arch- 
bebop of Magdeburg and two Judges of our C!ourt, 
Ini they could not prevail upon him even to state 
fc own terms. He has allowed his subjects, the 
ftaof fiieti, to make an attack upon our Kingdom. 
He has made use of the money subscribed for the 
Creaide to raise soldiers for the purpose of harassing 
R Still we are bent on the service of Christ ; we 
^ JQBt about to sail for Syria with a fair wind, 
^e order you all to do your best to aid us and 
tbeowise of Palestine.* 

Frederick started from Otranto on the 29th of 
'one; b two days he reached Corfu. At Cefalonia, 
^ WM welcomed by an ApuHan subject, Count 
iI«one, who had all things necessary in readiness. 
^^ fleet steered from Cerigo to Candia, along 
^^ it coasted. On the 13th of July, the weary 
^^igers dropped anchor at Bhodes, where they 
**rc glad to rest They then coasted along Lycia, 
* bid full of interest to the Apulian worshippers 
'< St Nicholas, one of whom has bequeathed to us 
*» account of the voyage. On the 21st of July, 
*it7 reached a harbour of Cyprus, having thus taken 

• Monach. PaUvinus. 
z 2 

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CHAP, three weeks to accomplish what may now be doni 
in a couple of days.* Frederick's father, acting i 
his Imperial capacity, had erected Cyprus into \ 
Kingdom for one of the Lusignans. The ragmn| 
King was only eleven years old, and had just los 
his guardian, Philip of IbeUn. Frederick asserts 
his own right of wardship over the youthful Monarch 
and claimed homage from him. The Emperor wa 
welcomed at Limisso with great rejoicings, havin( 
been invited into Cyprus by five of the barons o 
that country, enemies of the Ibelin fection. A 
their request, he laid a scheme for possessing himsel 
of the Eegency of the Kingdom. He sent a letter 
couched in honied terms, to John of Ibelin th^ 
actual Eegent, calling him his dearest uncle, and 
begging him to come and to bring the young Bng, 
his ward. The pair came accordingly ; they were 
in mourning for a kinsman, probably the deceaad 
Phihp ; but Frederick bade them lay aside their 
black garments, giving them scarlet robes in ex- 
change ; he also invited them to dinner for the 
next day. While at the meal, they found them- 
selves surrounded by armed men, and Frederick 
cried with a loud voice : * I want two things of you; 
first, the town and castle of Beyrout ; secondly, the 
revenues of Cyprus, during the King's minoritr/ 
The Emperor laid his hand on his head, and swore 
by his Imperial Throne that he would make good 
his claims at any cost The Eegent at first re- 
fused to yield to these pretensions, but at length 
said : ' I am ready for the love of Christ, and for 

• Breve Chronicon Yaticanum. By a comrade of Fredena- 
He makes the fleet to consist of forty galleys. 

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m own honour, to undergo an 
orced to give twenty hostage 
•vere two of his own sons ; they 
i> many servants of the Empei 
^)hn of Ibelin made his escape t^ 
he night, hearing that his ca 
)lanneA He b^an to fortify t 
Ticosia, saying, ' Our fiice shall 
he Emperor's face/ 

Frcderick remained at limisso 
lugu5t By this time he had bee 
•f his Syrian vassals, besides his < 
le now rode across the island tov 

the way was met by Bohemc 
intioch at the head of sixty knight 
len. The Emperor entered Nic 
iie King of Cyprus ; John of Ibel 
le strong castle of Dieu d'Amoiu*. 
a:^ at last made between the a 
rederick was acknowledged as G 
^ng Henry, whom he took with 
hile he placed his own Bailiffs 
j'prus, to coUect the revenues for 
»e hostages, receiving the homage 
►r Beyrout ; this noble however w 
tation before the great Court of i 

Tlie Emperor set sail from Fana 
f Si'ptember ; he dropped down 
r lieyrout, Sidon, and Tyre, a 

1 four days, having thus spent 
<»iiths in his voyage from Api 

• 01(1 French Chronicle. Breve Chroni 
m. ^larin. Sanuto. 

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nin Winchester. This Poitevin Bishop was one of cilap. 
it* worst of England's rulers. The Abbot of Mur- 
iich, the Count of Wurtemberg, with several Sua- 
iaii knights, the £Eimous Werner von BoUanden, and 
aiian of Sidon, were in the camp. But it was found 
lat many of the pilgrims would not remain in the 
•)Iy Land any longer. 

For the first few days the Emperor, who had made 
le Ctbtle of Ricordana his head-quarters, was treated 
ith the greatest respect ; but all was changed on the 
rrival of two Minorites with the news, that he was 
ill under the Pope's ban, and that he had added 
.t* guilt of presumption to his other sins, in sailing 
> Acre without the absolution of his Holiness. 
Tigory charged the Patriarch and the Grand Mas- 
?r? of the Templars and Hospitallers to allow no 
fie to associate with Frederick.* He had also in 
uly striven to detach the Teutonic Order from their 
abcr, by granting them a long Charter.f The 
m\K'TOT uttered bitter complaints to the army on 
/«nunt of the unjust sentence, and declared that 
\> ilhiess at sea in 1227 had been no subterfuge. 
li comrades advised him to give satisfaction to the 
"IK», to whom he accordingly sent the Archbishop 
r Ban and the Count of Malta ; in the mean time 
wny refused to sit at table with Frederick, and 
MiA him the kiss of peace.;}: The Templars and 
'»>[)itallere became his worst foes; the Venetians, 
ith characteristic wariness, stood neuter ; and Fre- 
L'riek found that he could only rely on the Pisans 
id Genoese and on his trusty Teutonic Order, the 

• Ric. San Gennano. 

t Rc-gesta of Gregory for 122S. MiddlehiU MSS. 

t De Wendover. 

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ember, they reached Jafla, the fiiture base of all chap. 


operations, which had therefore to be fortified, before 

my fresh work could be undertaken. The Crusaders ^227-1230. 

bid brought no food or baggage with them, trusting 

\o the ships which had been chartered at Acre. But 

a sadden storm had arisen ; and owing to the rough- 

Be» of the sea, the army was left for seven days at 

Jdk without provisions. Loud were the outcries 

tmong the pilgrims ; many advised a retreat to Acre ; 

Int at last, the storms abating their fury, several 

iips were enabled to enter the port of Jafia, laden 

wh €om, barley, and wine ; the pilgrims purchased 

fcod, some for one month, others for two months, 

Many ships, great and small, were now passing to 

ttd fro between Acre and Jaffa, freighted with 

prorisions.* The work of rebuilding the walls and 

^ castle was being briskly carried on ; and the 

GmHiicIer of San Germano assiu*es us, that those 

nniparts of Jaffa will be a memorial for ever to all 

Qiristendom ; Frederick and the army toiled on for 

»hole dap without ceasing ; and before the ensuing 

l«it, the work was so well done, that nothing ever 


It may be asked, what were the Saracens doing all 
^ time ? f The truth was, that Islam was in a tot- 
^fring crmdition ; Sultan Moadhin, the most worthy 
'j( the kinsmen of the great Saladin, had died a year 
^re, leaving a child, Daoud, to succeed him at 
l^unascus. The deceased Sultan had before his death 
Utm at variance with his brother. Sultan Kamel of 
Cairo, and had called in Gelaleddin, the mighty 

• De Wendover. 

t Wilken, Michaud, and Rcinaud's Extracts are my authorities 

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CHAP, ruler of Khaiizmia. Kamel, on the other hand, looW 
to the West for aid ; he had sent the Emir Fab- 

1227-12S0. eddin to Frederick, whom he thought the m*-^ 
powerful of Christian Princes. This envoy h%: 
visited the Emperor in Sicily, and had promised him 
Jerusalem as the price of his aUiance ; the Pope wa.* 
kept entirely in the dark as to these n^otiatiotii 
Matters were much simplified by the death of SultaJi 
Moadhin ; Kamel instantly seized upon the Southern 
part of that monarch's dominions, including Jem- 
salem; and then informed his surviving bi\»ih*'r 
Ashraf, the Sultan of Aleppo, that he was now al>»ut 
to return into Egypt. Ashraf, frightened at the inh 
pending Crusade, agreed to leave Kamel undi:=turfK-J 
in his new acquisitions ; and the two brothers uniUM 
in a project to despoil their nephew, the youui 

Kamel had expected that the Emperor wtxiJ] 
come to the East at the head of an immense army, 
which would sweep everything before it On hair- 
ing of Frederick's arrival at Acre with merely a 
handful of men, he began to repent of his late iuvi- 
tation.f He and his brother Ashraf lay encamj^-l 
at Gaza to the South, while Daoud had halted hi^ 
men at Nablous to the North ; Frederick lyini' dt \ 
Jafla between the two Moslem armies. The Cliri- 
tian intruder had no object in fighting, if he on: 1 \ 
gain the great prize, Jerusalem, by means of uv: - 
tiations; almost as soon as he had landed at Avr^- | 
he had begim to treat with Kamel, who had si:-' 
himself gracious to the Imperial envoys, the Count 
Acerra and the Lord of Sidon. The Sultan had receiv 

• Ibn-Alatir. f Abulfeda. 

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>rses, jewels, gold and silver plate, and the choicest chap. 
)rks of the loom, as presents from his Christian ^^^ 

other.* The Patriarch, Frederick's bitter foe, I227«i280. 
veils with pleasure on the slights, which he 
It^es the Emperor received. According to him, 
e Sultan at first declared, that the Christians had 
» right to fortify Jaffa or to plunder the country, 
- long as the Truce lasted. Frederick ordered all 
at had been robbed from the villages, which he now 
•*>k imder his protection, to be restored. Kamel 
jreupon condescended to send his rival some mean 
eapons, those of a light-armed soldier and barber, 
vying that he had plenty more in his coimtry. Fre- 
erick's own Notary was now despatched to the 
ultan, but only met with insult, and was robbed by 
he Saracens on his return. He was again sent, to 
he great scandal of the Pilgrims, carrying the 
Einperor's own coat of mail, helmet, and sword, 
with a message, as was rumoured, that his Master 
would not take up arms against KameL The Sultan, 
-'peaking by the mouth of one of his Courtiers, 
desired the presence of Thomas Coimt of Acerra, 
iij)on whose arrival the articles of truce made pro- 
trresa; still the pilgrims, to the number of 500, 
if we may believe Gerold, were either kUled or 
taken prisoners by the Saracens, who did not 
themselves lose a tenth part of that number. A 
Mussulman prisoner, on the other hand, was sent 
back to Kamel, arrayed in rich garments ; but the 
Christians, who escorted him, were robbed and 
had a narrow escape from death. Frederick asked 
the Sultan to send Saracen guards for the Christian 

Old French Chronicle, in Br^hoUes. 

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CHAP, army; these came *like wolves turned into shep- 
^^^' herds/ Dancing and smging girls, the Almehs of 

1227-1230. ^Q East, and other loose characters, the veiy 
mention of whom makes Gerold blush, were sent 
into the Christian camp, in order to suit the 
Emperor's taste ; Frederick donned the Saracen 
garb, and was lavish of his gifts to his foes^ as if 
desirous of purchasing peace. Long before Christ- 
mas, 1228, he ordered biscuits and galleys and all 
his plate to be got ready for a sea voyage, to the 
great scorn of the Arabs.* Balian, the Lord of 
Sidon, accompanied the Count of Acerra; and 
Kamel, now showing himself more gradous, sent 
presents to Frederick of gold, sUver, precious stones, 
and silk ; elephants, dromedaries, horses, bears, and 
apes were also offered as gifts. Many difficulties 
were made ; Schems-eddin and Fakr-eddin, the latter 
of whom had already visited Frederick in Sicily, 
were the two Emirs employed by Sultan KameL 
The Emperor was fond of conversing with Fakr- 
eddin on philosophy ; and if we may beUeve Yafei, 
their opinions were very much in unison. Certain 
of the Frank nobles, eager to effect Frederick's ruin, 
wrote to the Sultan, who sent their letter to the 
Emperor ; the intended victim for a time dissembled 
his rage at their treachery. His reply to Kamel has 
been preserved by Dehebi ; * I am your friend ; I 
am, as you know, above all the Princes of the West, 
It was you who brought me hither ; if I go back 
without gaining something, I lose all my honour. 
After all, Jerusalem gave birth to our religion ; and 
have you not destroyed it, so that it is in the last 

• Letter of Gerold, in Rajnaldus. 

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Stage of misery? Give it back to me just as it is, chap. 
that I may uphold my renown. I will then return 
liome and renounce all the advantages I might gain 
from it' 

Frederick had at first demanded, that all the 
towns which the Franks had ever held in the East 
should be given up to him; thus overturning all 
that Saladin had effected. He had also claimed 
immunity fix)m taxation for all the natives of his 
Kingdom, who might trade at Damietta or Eosetta. 
But Kamel well knew that, owing to the divided 
i^tate of feeling in the Christian host, these high 
terms could not be enforced. At last, in the spring 
of 1229, the Emperor came down to more reason- 
able conditions. ' I only made those lofty demands,' 
so he told Fakr-eddin, turning from the discussion 
of Aristotle and Averrhoes to more serious busi- 
ness, * to keep up my credit in the West ; that was 
my only object in coming hither.' He declared 
ten years afterwards, that the Papal Court, besides 
throwing many hindrances in his way by means of 
the Legate, had warned the Sultan not to yield up 
Jerusalem to the Emperor. He affirmed that he had 
seized the bearers of the Papal letters, and that he 
had these documents in his possession, to prove the 
truth of his statement.* Gregory himself accounts 
for the scanty advantages gained by Frederick in 
Palestine by saying, * that the Almighty did not 
then deign to confer more glory on the Christians ;' 
thus setting down to the account of Providence the 
effects of Papal misconductf 

The Emperor is said to have knighted his friend 

• Sec lii» lettcre for 1239. f De Wendover, for 1235. 

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CHAP. Fakr-eddin, who bore the Imperial arms on lus 
bamier mitil he was slain by the soldiers of St. lom 

1227-1280. ^^^ years later.* The feme of the Western invaider 
lingered long in the East ; when yoimg JoinviHe, in 
a day of disaster, mentioned that he claimed kin 
with Frederick, the Saracen Emir at once Bnsw&ed ; 
'I shall love you the more for it' The MoDaidi 
turned to accoimt his thorough knowledge of philo- 
sophy, geometry, and mathematics, by sending hard 
problems to the Sultan, who had them solved by 3 
Sheikh in his train, and then returned them, along 
with fresh difficulties, to his Christian brother.f The 
customs of the East are still much the same as in the 
days of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. 

It is strange, that Frederick and Kamel never hud 
an interview. They much resembled one another in 
character, in habits, and in their pohtical situatioa 
The Sultan of Cairo, hke his friend from the West 
was a Sovereign magnificent in his tastes, deter- 
mined to enforce order in his realm, delighting 
to converse with learned men, and taking pleasure 
in beautifying his capital;;}; he was besides sus- 
pccted of being very loose in his religious notions. 
The bigots of Christendom railed at Frederick for 
gaining too Uttle ; the bigots of Islam abu.«od 
Kamel to his face for granting too much. * After 
all,' said the Sultan, ' we are only giving up churches 
and ruins; and if Frederick makes a breach in 
the agreement, I can easily recover Jerusalem/^ 
Still so great was the wrath of the Moslem at 
what they considered a traitorous surrender and a 
betrayal of the renown of Saladin, that Kamd wa5 

• Joinville. Makrizi. f Makrizi. 

X Abnlfeda. § Tafei. 

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forced to send envoys to the Caliph, a phantom still chap. 
liiigermg at Bagdad, and to other Mohammedan 

Pnnces, in order to justify his conduct He probably ^227-1230. 
did not on this occasion put his excuses into verse, as 
iK^as his usual custom in transacting business. After- 
wards, when the Holy City was to be evacuated, the 
^loslem broke into loud groans ; the place, which 
was esteemed next to Mecca and which was hal- 
lowed by the foot-mark of their Prophet, was to be 
jriven up to Idolaters. The Imaum of the Mosque 
c»f Omar remonstrated with Kamel, and announced 
prayers at an unusual time at the entrance of the Eoyal 
tent. The Sultan drove off the fanatics and seized 
c»n the silver lamps and other valuables from the 
^lijsque. This added fresh fuel to the flame ; and 
verses were chanted on the sad fate of Jerusalem. 
Tbii-^Vlatir calls its surrender an act of inexcusable 
wickedness, and prays Allah to restore it to Islam. 
-rVnother Eastern Chronicler, Ibn-giouzi, produced an 
amazing effect from the pulpit at Damascus, at that 
time besieged by Sultan Ashraf, by announcing the 
loss of Jerusalem. We may safely affirm, that Fre- 
derick with his little army would never have gained 
his object, had there not been quite as much dis- 
union and jealousy among the Moslem, as among 
their Christian foes. 

At last the Emperor, whose patience was at an 
end, caUed four Syrian nobles before him, and told 
them, that he was was too poor to stay any longer 
m the country ; and that the Sultan had offered him 
Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Sidon, together 
with some unimportant villagers lying on the roads 
between the great towns. Not one foot of ground 
was to be restored to the Monasteries. The Grand 

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CHAP. Masters and the English Bishops, on being sum- 
moned to a coxmcil, declared that they could mx 

1227-1230. sanction anything without taking the Patriarci'i 
opinion, which Frederick did not want, as he opetly 
said. He gave his oath to the Sultan's me&^^riiLV.'^ 
that he would be bound by a certain secret chaitti. 
which none of the Pilgrims ever saw; and with 
this Kamel was content. The German CnMikn 
desired little more than to visit the Holy S^pu^- 
chre ; their advice alone was worth anything, so 
Frederick and Hermann said; the Emperor w<dd 
be guided by them, and bade them raise a s-.^ag 
of joy for the honour he had won. Kamel lad 
despatched an envoy named Sahah-eddin to Jai 
with full powers. This Arab swore to the tivLty 
in his nfiaster's name and received the Imperil 
oath. Being a femous poet, he sent back tw.> 
Arabic verses to the Sultan, with the ner? «'t 
the conclusion of the treaty. * The accursed Em- 
peror has promised us a lasting peace. He \i^ 
drunk the oath with his right hand ; may he pi^ 
his left hand if he dares to break his word I** ^^- 
the part of Frederick, the Grand Master of the 
Teutonic Order, the Count of Acerra, and the Iac. 
of Sidon, went once more to Kamel, and receivi^l tit j 
Sultan's oath. Daoud of Damascus made difficult: % 
saying that he knew that his uncles Kamel ar.'l 
Ashraf wished to rob him of his lands, and ^^ ' 
they had no right to give away what had nevtf | 
belonged to them; he therefore refused to be a ^ 
to the Truce. 

♦ Ibn-Kallikan, quoted hj Cherrier. The Arabic » 
Yemin, means both an oath and a right hand ; eo a pm >^ ^ 
tended. To drink an oath means ' to be forced to take it' 

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At this juncture, Von Salza sent a letter to the chap. 

Patriarch, begging him to join the army on its 

march to Jerusalem, and saying that the Emperor 1227-1230. 
was desirous of his advice. ' We knew Frederick's 
treachery,' Gerold remarks in his letter to the Pope ; 
' and we were aware that he would make off iu- 
stantly.' Here follows some abuse of Brother Her- 
mann. The Treaty had been made on the 18th 
day of February, 1229, and consisted of nine 
-rVrticles. 1. Jerusalem was to be given up to the 
Christians. 2. Geemelata, which is the Temple of So- 
lomon, with its precincts and its keys, was to remain 
in the hands of the Saracens. 3. No Saracen was 
to be prevented from making a pilgrimage to 
Bethlehem. 4. If a Frank entered the Temple 
i^) pray, he might do so ; but he was not to make 
any stay. 5. The Saracens were to have their own 
judges in cases of outrages perpetrated among them- 
H^lves. 6. The Emperor was to give no aid to 
any Frank or Saracen in carrying on any war against 
the Saracens during the Truce. 7. He was to keep 
in check aU those who designed to attack Sultan 
KameL 8. He was bound to aid the Sultan 
iu preventing breaches of the Truce. 9. Tripoli, 
^ith its territory, Karak, Castel Blanco, Tortosa, 
ilargato, and Antioch, were to be left as they were ; 
and the Emperor was to forbid his men to aid 

This was the famous Treaty of 1229, the chief 
^niit of Frederick's Crusade. It undid part of the 
nu^hief caused by Saladin forty years before ; and 
^t obtained advantages for Cliristcndom, which 
^i^ither the craft of Phihp of France nor the coiu^gc 
*>f Richard of England had been able to win. No 
vou I. Y 

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CHAP. Crusader, since Gbdfrey de Bouillon, had effected 
1_ much as Frederick the Second. What would he a 

1227-1230. ^^yQ obtained, had the Pope, the Patriarch, and lii 
Orders given him their hearty co-operation? Ii i 
possible that he might in that case have smitten Cai' 
to the South, and Damascus to the North ; tb: lu 
might have restored the old Kingdom of Jerusala 
as it existed before Saladin's fatal inroad ; and liu 
he might have alarmed even distant Mecca au 

The Patriarch was not too well pleased with tk 
Treaty. ' We asked to see it,' he says, * and we f ^urj 
some siu-prising things in the copy of it sent to « 
by Von Salza. We took counsel, and saw that tii 
Sultan of Damascus might still annoy us ; that thcr« 
was no mention of the Church in the Treatr: ^ 
that the Saracen worship was still allowed in 'JJ* 
Lord's Temple. We therefore refused the p%nr^* 
leave to enter the Holy Sepulchre, and we fort^^* 
the celebration of the divine offices.' Von ta*^.. 
writes to the Pope in a very different strain. * 
begins by praising the works at Jaffa. ' Th^' "^i 
peror and all worked so hard, that the buH^ 
was as good as it ever was before, by Sexaj!«ii3 
Sunday.' Hermann then refers to the Treaty*. *' 
. George was restored to us ; and we are allowt'' 
rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and Montfort ^'" 
new castle, which we began to erect this n*" ^ 
the mountains. It seems probable that if o^xr L-^ 
the Emperor had crossed the sea with the ^^ ^ 
and peace of the Church, the business of the H 
Land would have prospered much more. The T' 
is made for ten years ; the Sultan is to ^^'^" '^ 
new Castles. The Emperor purposes to vti^ ^''^ 

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salem, and to wear the Crown there ; for that advice chap. 

... vin. 

has been given him by the majority of the Pilgrims. 

I cannot describe the joy of the folk at what has 
l)een done. Brother Leonard came to us at Jafia 
t>n the 7th of March, with rmnours fix)m the parts 
l)eyond sea ; we would that these rumours had been 
l>etter and different from what they are. But the 
Archbishop of Eeggio, who has been sent to } our 
ftx-4, will explain how, and in what manner, we 
attended the Emperor. We are ready to obey 
your future commands.' 

The rumours, to which Brother Hermann, assum- 
ing a tone of grave rebuke, refers in the foregoing 
letter, were nothing less than the tidings of the 
invasion of Apulia by a Papal army, led by John 
de Brienne. If Frederick hoped to save his Euro- 
pean Kingdom from the brigandage prompted by 
Roman emissaries, he must hurry back thither as 
fast as he could. Still Jerusalem must be visited, 
where no Boman Emperor had been seen since 
Ileraclius lost it six hundred years before. The 
I>resent Cassar accordingly set forth from Jaffa, at 
the head of his rejoicing army, leaving the men of 
Cyprus behind him. He was accompanied on the 
jr)umey by an Imaum of the Mosque of Omar, who 
gave the following details of the grandson of Bar- 
barossa to the Chronicler rt)n-Giouzi: 'The Em- 
peror was red and bald ; he had weak eyes : had 
he been a slave, he would not have fetdhed 200 
drachms. Whenever he spoke, he railed at the 
Cliristian religion. He saw an inscription in gold 
letters on the Holy Chapel, " Saladin, in such a year, 
pulled the holy city fit)m the presence of those who 
worship many Gkxls." He then asked, why bars had 

T 2 

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CHAP, been placed on the windows of the ChapeL "To 
keep out the birds," was the answer. " You may 

1227-1230. j^^^p Qut ^1^3 birds," said Frederick, "but God k 
sending you hogs in their place." Thus scomfoIlY 
did he refer to his fellow-Christians. ^ When noon 
came," says the Imaum, " we knelt for prayer, and 
no one attempted to hinder us. Among those who 
knelt was an old SiciHan Mussulman, who had been 
the Emperor's tutor in Dialectics." ' 

Another Mohammedan was an attentive observer 
of Frederick's conduct. Schems-eddin, the Cadi of 
Nablous, was sent by Sultan Kamel to escort tl.o 
Emperor to Jerusalem. He had orders to prevent 
the occurrence of any thing which might displea^' 
the Frank. Among other things, no preaching wa^ 
to be allowed in the Mosque of Omar, and no crie^ 
from the minarets were to be uttered by the 
Muezzins. On the day of the Emperor s arrival in 
Jerusalem, the Cadi forgot to give the necessary 
orders ; so every thing went on as usual One of 
the Muezzins made the most of his opportunity, by 
shouting at the top of his voice those parts of the 
Koran, which are directed against Christianity. 
Among other texts, he propoimded, 'How can it 
be possible, that God had for His son Jesus the ?< »:: 
of Mary?' Frederick's lodging happened to Ix* 
close to the minaret ; he overheard the Cadi rebuk- 
ing the Muezzin and forbidding him to shout any 
more texts. Next morning the Emperor asked. 
' What has become of the man, who shouted from 
the minaret ? ' The Cadi answered, that he feared 
his Christian guest might be annoyed. 'You art- 
wrong,' said Frederick, 'why out of compliment 
to me should you fail in your duty, your law. 

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und your religion?' The impression left on the chap. 

Ciuii's mind was, that the Emperor was no true 1« 

CTiristian. '^^^''^''' 

One of the inducements which brought Frederick 
u > Jerusalem, if Makrizi may be trusted, was a de- 
sire to hear the call of the Moslem to prayer. He 
was greatly charmed with his first view of the 
Mosque of Omar ; he then wished to see with his 
own eyes the pulpit whence the Imaums delivered 
their sermons. While he was there, a Christian 
priest happened to come in with the Gospels in his 
hand. Frederick remembered the agreement, which 
forbade any insult to the Moslem in their mosques, 
or any disturbance of their religious rights. He 
was angry with the priest, and bade him come no 
further, swearing that he would severely pimish any 
Christian who should enter the Mosque without a 
>j>o<*ial license. ' We are all the servants and slaves 
i if the Sultan,' said he ; * he has given us our 
Churches of his own free will, and we must not 
aljiisc his kindness.' * The Arab Chroniclers long 
remembered Frederick's learning and theological bias. 
The Cadi Gemal-eddin, who visited Sicily a genera- 
tion later, says that this Emperor was remarkable 
among the Princes of his time for his fine qualities, 
and for his dehght in philosophy, dialectics, and 
medicine. * His inclination,' the Cadi aflSrms, * car- 
ried him towards Islam, for he had been bred in 
Sicily, where there are many Mussulmen.' 

These witnesses of Frederick's conduct on the road 
from Jaffa to Jerusalem made acquaintance with the 
champion of Christianity at a most unfavourable 

* I cannot help foispecting a little Oriental exaggeration in the 
npurt of this speech. 

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CHAP, moment. He had lust heard how the Church had 


L- been pouring an army of marauders into his King- 

1227-1230. (Jqju^ ^}jq were robbing, torturing, and murdering 
his faithful subjects. A galley fix)m Apulia ha J 
brought the news, and had gone back with orders *>> 
Henry of Malta, to bring a fleet instantly for the 
purpose of escorting the Emperor home.* At sucli 
a moment, he was not likely to be sparing in Yn$ 
sarcasms on the Vicar of Christ ; he would probably 
give full play to his wit, in contrasting the theories of 
the Church with her practice. On Saturday, the 17ih 
of March, he made his entry into Jerusalem at the 
head of the joyful Crusaders. On the morrow, Sun- 
day, he prepared for a repetition of the pageant in 
which he had already been the leading actor at 
Palermo, at Aix-la-Chapelle, and at Bome. Godfiry 
de Bouillon had refused to wear a crown of gold, 
where his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns ; but 
Godfrey's successors had been less scrupulous. This 
Crown of Jerusalem was now within Frederick's 
grasp. Many had advised him to have the Divine 
offices celebrated on the occasion, but Von Salza, 
always on the side of moderation, withstood this. 
* We dissuaded it,' says the good Knight, * acting like 
one who is zealous for the exaltation of both Church 
and Empire, because we saw no advantage either to 
Frederick or to the Church in the projects So he 
did not hear mass, following our advice, but simply 
took the Crown from the Altar without any conse- 
cration, and carried it to his Throne, as is the custom- 
The Archbishops of Palermo and Capua and many 
other nobles were present ; rich and poor were there. 

♦ Old French Chronicle. 

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Ee bade us speak both in Latin and German on his chap. 
iDehalf.'* ^ 

The scene must have been of a striking character. ^227-1230. 
The Christians were once more installed in the pos- 
session of the Holy Sepulchre, afler having for the 
|>revious forty years bewailed its loss. The loyal 
subjects of the Empire, Germans and Italians, were 
•overjoyed. The faithful Apulian Prelates were at 
their master's side. The Church was probably 
thronged with Pisan sailors, Genoese crossbowmen, 
and German knights. Foremost among the latter 
^would be Von Salza's noble Brotherhood, gazing with 
reverence upon their Kaiser, and arrayed in their 
white cloaks marked with the black cross. A few 
Templars and Hospitallers, proud of their French 
refinement, scowled upon the scene and treasured up 
its details for the ear of the Patriarch, to be trans- 
mitted to Eome. The noblest hero of the age now 
became spokesman ; the tongue, as well as the sword 
of Brother Hermann, was ever at his Kaiser's service. 
Gerold groans over the long speech that followed in 
praise of Frederick, couched in two languages. Von 
Salza b^an vdth the taking of the Cross at Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 1215. He explained the reason of the 
respites granted to Frederick, and complained of the 
harshness of the Church, declaring his behef that 
the Pope himself could not approve the charges 
brought forward. He avowed to the whole Christian 
licet, that the Emperor would act for the honour 
of God, as he had promised long before. His master 
would not extol himself, but so high as God had 
raised him, so low would he humble himself before 

* Ceroid says that Von Sal2a spoke in German and French. 

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CHAP, the most Highest and before His Vicar. ' The joy at 
the Emperor's entry into the CSty, and during our 

i227-i23(K speech, cannot be explained.' 

Here the Patriarch Gerold takes up the tale. * Fre- 
derick received offerings, in despite of the priests 
for the repair of the walls. After dinner, he went 
out, and called for the English Bishops and the 
Chiefe of the Eehgious Orders ; still making Von 
Salza his mouth-piece, he asked them to help in re- 
building the walls; they promised to consult together. 
He demanded their answer for the morrow. Next 
day (Monday), he prepared to set ofii together with 
all his people, though the Chiefs hastened to affirm 
that they were ready to help him in the work of re- 
building the ramparts. He went off towards Jafik ; 
and the Pilgrims, hearing the name of Mohammt'J 
still proclaimed in Jerusalem, left the Gty with one 
accord and followed him ; he reached Acre in Mid- 
Lent He in vain tried to inveigle the German 
knights into following him home ; they stood in awe 
of excommunication.' The Patriarch has sadly 
garbled the history of the proceedings at Jerusalem, 
as will be seen on comparing his account with tliut 
of Von Salza. The German says, ' On the Monday, 
the Patriarch sent the Archbishop of Csesarea, and 
laid the Holy Sepulchre and all the Holy Placc-s 
under an Interdict. The whole army was much 
disquieted, and was wroth with the Church for 
taking this step without any seeming cause. Fre- 
derick sent for the Archbishop of Caesarea, (who 
did not appear) and for all the Prelates ; he com- 
plained pubhcly in their presence of the Interdict 
having been laid on the Holy Places, just rescueil 
from the Saracens. He said, that if he or his meii 

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had offended the Patriarch in aught, he was ready to chap. 

make the Prelates umpires in the dispute. After 
having busied himself about the repair of the walls, ^227-1230. 
he went off towards Jaffa that very day. We heard 
afterwards, that the Interdict had been laid on theGty, 
i>n account of the Saracens still holding the Temple 
of Solomon, and worshipping there. But you must 
know that they have only a few unarmed priests 
there, to offer prayer and to clean the building. The 
Emperor s soldiers keep the outer doors, and grant 
access to the Saracens at their own pleasure; this we 
have seen and heard. The Christians also receive the 
offerings made in the House of the Lord, at the stone 
where Jesus Christ was offered up. Old men say more- 
over, that after the Saracens lost Palestine, the unbe- 
lievers were allowed to have their own laws in ahnost 
all the Christian cities, and they worshipped, just as 
the Christians do now at Damascus. God knows, 
that the Emperor could not make the Truce other- 
wise ; he did not make it, in the way he could have 
wished. We write this, that you may know the 
trutli, if any one should be writing the contrary. 
Our Brother, the bearer of these presents, will tell 
you more.' 

The last part of the letter clearly refers to what 
the Patriarch might be expected to write. Von 
Salza, we see from this letter, understood the prin- 
ciples of toleration far better than most men of his 
day. He seems to have had a suspicion, which 
indeed proved correct, that the Church party would 
wilfully confound the Holy Sepulchre with the Tem- 
ple of Solomon, in other words, with the Mosque of 
Omar. A great effort would be made to induce all 
Christendom to believe, that the Holy Sepulchre had 

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CHAP, been left in the hands of the unbelievers by the gf«i- 
less Emperor. Frederick, in his despatch to tie 
Pope, gives all the glory to Grod, describes the 
famine at Jaffa, and the advantages gained by ilie 
Truce, and thus proceeds : * We shall tell you moa* 
openly of the help received by us from the Patriarci 
of Jerusalem, and from the Masters and Brethren of | 
the Three Orders ; but we cannot be silent on iLe 
conduct of the Master and Brethren of St. ilaiy f f 
the Germans ; from the beginning they have stood 
by us most loyally. We entered Jerusalem on Satur- 
day, March 18, to the great joy of all ; we reverently 
visited the Tomb of the Living God, like a Catholic 
Emperor. On the next day, Sunday, we wore the 
Crown there, to the honour of the Most Highest; 
and we took measures for the rebuilding of ^ 
walls, which will be carried on in our absence. The 
Sultan is bound to restore those captives whom he 
did not give up after the loss of Damietta.' The 
walls of Jerusalem did indeed stand in need of a new 
Nehemiah ; they had been razed to the ground x^i'i 
years before this time by the dreaded Sultan Moadhin. 
The only part of them left standing by him wa? tho 
huge mass known to us as the Tower of David, said \k^ 
be built on, and indeed to form part o^ the renowned 
Tower of Hippicus ; this the Emperor bestowed i>d 
his trusty Teutonic Order.* It is asserted that he 
burnt his military engines, or gave them to tJie 
Saracens, after the Truce had been made He 
ordered Eudes de MontbeOlard to remain as hi" 
Bailiff at Jerusalem, though he afterwards summontJ 
him to Acre.f The Pope declared that a covenant 
had been arranged between Christ and BeliaLJ 

• Fran. Pipin. f Old French Chronicle. % KayniMu^ 

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' The way in which the Patriarch and the Religious chap. 
Orders behaved, after Frederick's return to Acre, ^^^^' 

and in the civil wars, was clearer than day-light.' 1227-1230. 
Thus sap Bichard of San Germano ; the English 
Chronicler gives us some particulars of the tran- 
sactions in Palestine. Frederick seems to have 
caused great scandal in the first place by crowning 
himself, by sitting in the Patriarchal Thjone, and by 
wearing the Crown when on his way to the Palace 
of the Hospitallers, where he held his Court. In 
his own Palace at Acre, where he had to wait 
some time for his naval convoy, he feasted with the 
Saracens and brought in Christian dancing girls for 
their entertainment ; worse excesses are said to have 
ensued. He adopted their customs ; and it was a 
general matter of complaint, that no one but himself 
knew the terms of the fiimotis Treaty, called in 
Arabic mosepha. It was said that it contained a 
condition, which bound the Emperor to aid the Sul- 
tan against Christians as well as against Saracens. 
Some Canons at Acre had been robbed of their 
harbour-dues. The Archbishop of Nicosia in Cyprus 
had been plundered. On the other hand, a schis- 
matical Syrian bishop had been sheltered from the 
persecution of the Patriarch. The Emperor had 
seized upon oblations, made in different Churches. 
On Palm Sunday, he had ordered the preachers to 
be dragged from their pulpits, and had imprisoned 
them. At Easter he had besieged the Patriarch, the 
two English Bishops, and the Templars, in their 
houses; but without success. Gregory, in writing 
to the Duke of Austria, an old Crusader, imputes 
four crimes to Frederick. * He has given up to the 
Sultan the power of the sword, taken from the altar of 

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CHAP. St. Peter's, thus renouncing the honour of the Empire. 

He has left the temple of Gk)d in the hands of the 

Saracens. He has left Antioch and other places 
exposed to the Pagans, if they break the truce. He 
has entered into a League against the Christians.' 
Gregory goes on to say that he has heard of Fre- 
derick's besieging Gerold and the Templars for five 
days at Acre, meaning to rob them, and of his carry- 
ing off arms belonging to the Christian Common- 
wealth, besides destroying some galleys. Copies of 
these charges were sent to the King of France and to 
his Archbishops. 

This quarrel with the Templars is easily explained 
The Emperor had once more encamped at Becor- 
dana, near Acre, and had entered into fresh engage- 
ments with Sultan Kamel, who was at that time 
waging war on his brother Ashraf. The Christian 
Chief wished the Templars to place the Pilgrim s 
Castle in his hands ; they shut their gates and said, 
that if he did not depart, they would put him in a 
certain place, whence he would never come fortL* 
When the Emperor went to bathe in the Jonkn. 
a common custom with pilgrims in all ages, the 
treacherous Templars informed Kamel how easily 
Frederick might be surprised. The noble Moham- 
medan sent back the letter to the intended victim.t 
The Order of the Temple was already deeply 
tainted with that spirit of pride and insubordination, 
which has been set forth by a Master's hand Chil- 
dren were aUve at this very time, who would see in 
their old age the appalling doom of the powerfiil 
Brotherhood. The Hospitallers have identified their 

• Hugo Plagensis. | Michaud 

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ame with Bhodes and Malta ; the Teutonic Order chap. 
id the foundation of the Kingdom of Prussia ; but 

le Templars passed away for ever, long before the ^227-1230. 
[iddle Ages had fled. 

Frederick had few fiiends on his side, but these 
e took care to reward. When at Acre, he granted 
less than seven Charters to Hermann von Salza. 
le confirmed an exchange made by the Order with 
ames of Amigdala, whereby the brave knights 
ained the strong Castle of Montfort, a new bulwark, 
'hey had a grant of 6400 bezants from the revenues 
»f Acre. They were also presented with King Bald- 
rin's Palace at Jerusalem, and with a barbacan near 
he Holy Sepulchre. A lady complained to Fre- 
lerick of his granting away her property to his 
favourite Order ; she obtained her rights on proving 
her case* The Pisans had been most loyal through- 
out the whole campaign. They were now allowed 
tu hold their own Courts in Acre, as of yore ; they 
recovered their old privilege of freedom from tolls in 
the Kingdom of Jerusalem ; and they had free access 
to the Holy City, both in going and returning. 
Their three Consuls complained to the Emperor of 
Thomas of Acerra ; and the injury done them was 
soon redressed. It would seem that this noble- 
man had been sent back to Acre early in the spring, 
whence he had transmitted a letter to his master, 
with fiill details of the bloody war then raging 
in Apidia. If Frederick would retain his maternal 
Eeahn, he must hurry back thither to counteract 
the designs of his Holiness, who was no follower of 
the advice given to his great predecessor, ^ Put up 
thy sword into its sheath.' The Count had added, 
that the harbours of the Kingdom were filled with 

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CHAP, armed spies, all on the look-out for the return of 


There is no chapter in the history of human per- 
verseness more strange, than the conduct of Gn^iy 
towards his discarded friend. He excommunicated 
him in 1227 for not sailing to Palestine ; he excom- 
municated him again in 1228 for sailing, without 
having first been absolved. He did his utmost to 
cripple Frederick's efforts for the good of Christen- 
dom, thwarting by means of the Legate eveiy mea- 
sure taken by the Emperor. In 1229, the Pope 
viewed with displeasure the campaign in Palestine ; 
he viewed with still greater displeasure the return to 
Apulia Can we wonder at those outbursts of Fre- 
derick on the road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, which so 
startled his new Moslem friends ? On reviewing this 
campaign, the Second Act of the Fifth Crusade, which 
wiped out the disaster at Damietta, we are tempted 
to agree with honest Freigedank, who probably gives 
utterance to the thoughts of the German Pilgrim?. 
Yon Salza among them : 

< O what in the world can a Kaiser do, 
Since Christians and heathen, clergy too, 
Are striving against him with might and main 7 
Tis enough to craze e^en Solomon*s brain ! 
Since Frederick does the best he can. 
Upon us thej needs must lay the ban.' * 

The Italian poets were as loud in praise of the 
Emperor as the Germans, Marquard of Padua 
dwells on the fact, that Frederick won his victories 
by peaceful rather than by warlike means. The 
Imperial patience had achieved great things on 

* Von Raumer gives the old German Verses. 

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ither side of the sea. Let Jerusalem rejoice ; Jesus chap. 
ladonce been her King, and his place was now filled ^^ 
•y Frederick, who trod in the footsteps of God, and ^227-1230. 
bowed himself to be the Defender of the Faith, and 
lover of peace,* 

Gr^ory's agent was a man like-minded with his 
)aster. Some idea maybe formed of the hatred 
ome by Gerold to Frederick fix)m the letter written 
»T the Patriarch, just as the Emperor was leaving 
Palestine. Things the very reverse of truth are 
tated in this most venomous composition, and the 
vents of the Crusade are misrepresented * When 
he Emperor returned to Acre from Jerusalem, he 
ried to curry favour with the townsmen. All were 
ibout to leave Palestine ; we wished to retain some 
bights in our pay with the money bequeathed by 
ttelate King of France, since there was nothing in 
the Truce to prevent the Sultan of Damascus from 
attacking us. The Emperor convened an assembly 
of all the Prelates and Pilgrims on the sea-shore, 
abused ua and the Grand Master of the Temple ; and 
forbade any knight, under pain of punishment, to 
remain in the land. He posted archers and cross- 
bowmen, so as to prevent access to us or to the 

* Qui paciendo magis quam pugnando domat omnes, 
Cujus et hie et ibi vicit paciencia Bummos, 
Coi munimento sunt leges, anna decori. 

Jeroflalem, gaude, . . . 

Bex quia magnificus, Jesus olim, nunc Fridericus, 
PromptuB uterqne pati, sunt in te magnificati, 
Obtulit ille prior semet pro posteriore, 
Et pro posterior sua seque prioris honore. 
Hie Deusy ille Dei pius ac prudens imitator, 
Defensor fidei, spem firmans, pacis amator. 
The whole may be read in Pertz, 9. 

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CHAP. Temple, forbidding provisions to be brought us. 

He caused the Dominican and Franciscan friars u» 

1227-1230. YyQ dragged through the streets and flogged as if 
they had been thieves, because they preadied on 
Palm Sunday. After a fruitless attempt at peace m 
his part, we laid Acre under an interdict He sent 
off to his dear friend the Sultan the arms which had 
been stored up for the defence of the Holy Land ; 
he burnt the galleys which he could not take with 
him ; and he wrung much money from Cyprus. 
He set sail for that island on the first of May, with- 
out saluting any one, and leaving Jaffa improtected; 
O that he may never return ! ' * 

The Emperor went his way, leaving the Patriarch 
and his faction to sing hymns of joy at the departure 
of their Champion. They might rejoice in 1229, 
when no danger was near ; but a few years later, 
when the Third Act of the Fifth Crusade had proved a 
failure, when no heaven-bom General had come for- 
ward, and when the savage Kharizmians were knock- 
ing at the gates of Jerusalem, the Christians who 
remained behind would sigh in vain for that wise 
head and strong right-hand, which had for a moment 
revived their affairs and wrested a glorious peace 
from the Moslem, in spite of all that Pope and 
Patriarch, Templars and Hospitallers, could do to 
counteract it. Frederick left the ungratefid shortf 
of Palestine, and touched at Limisso on his war 

* Muratori^s remarks on the Pope^s conduct throughout the 
whole sSsAi are worth quoting. ' lo per me chino qui il capo. 
n^ 080 chiamar ad esame la condotta della Corte di Roma in tsu 
congiuntura, siccome euperiore a i miei rifleasi, bastandomi di 
dire che/ &c. Here he quotes the Abbot of Urspeig and Ricbi^^^ 
of San Germane, who are both indignant at the Pope« 

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home He gave Alice, the daughter of the Marquis chap. 
of Montferrat, in marriage to the boy-Eing Henry, 


and entrusted Cyprus to five noblemen, who were to 1227-1230. 
act as Brents and pay ten thousand marks to the 
Emperor's Bailifi* at Jerusalem. Frederick then 
steered westward for Apulia.* 

It is now time to relate the &te of that country 
during his absence. Pandulph of Aquino and Stephen 
of Angl<Mie were left in office imder Baynald, the 
Duke of Spoleto, at the Emperor's departure in 
1228. Baynald took post at Antrodoco, and smn- 
moned the li^es of the Kingdom to his aid. Torre di 
Renaria and Capitiniano, two rebel towns, were taken ; 
and the Lords of Pohto were driven into banishment 
Baynald had never forgotten the claims of his father 
Conrad to the Duchy of Spoleto ; he could not with- 
stand the temptation of invading the Pope's dominions. 
He entered the March of Ancona, over which he 
had been just appointed Vicar ; his brother Berthold 
halted near Norda, and destroyed the Castle of 
Prusa. The Arabs of Sicily, whom Frederick had 
transported into Apulia, now made their first ap- 
pearance in Italian warfiure ; they tortured to death 
some of the luckless prisoners taken at Prusa, whom 
Berthold placed in their hands ; some were blinded, 
others hanged, and priests were among the sufferers. 
The Pope in vain sent his chaplain Cencio to remon- 
strate with Baynald, and to threaten excommunica- 
tion. The Southern assailants were soon at Montelmo 
and Macerata; Baynald, so &r fix>m quitting the 
March within the eight days allotted by Gregory, 
tried to bribe the men of Perugia to rise against 

* Old French manuscript. 
VOL. I. Z 

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CHAP, their Papal guest He had before constrained scjfine, 
who owed allegiance to the Apostolic See, to swear 

1227-1230. fealty to himself. Conrad, another German, marched 
into Foligno, a dty ever rebellious to Borne ; bat he 
was soon driven out agaiiL Baynald, by virtue of 
his authority, bestowed great privil^es aa Osimo 
and BecanatL The German and Apulian leaders 
were all excommunicated, on their refusal to leave 
the States of the Church. A Council for that pur- 
pose was called at Perugia, and the Pope once more 
denoimced Frederick's misdeeds, espedalfy his at- 
tempt to oppress Benevento, the special dependency 
of Bome ; the Emperor was reviled as worse than 
Pharaoh. Cardinal John Colonna, the richest and 
noblest of all the members of the Sacred College, and 
moreover a good soldier, was sent against the in- 
vaders.* Pandulph of Anagni, the Pope's chaplun, 
an able man, also led troops into Frederick's do- 
minions ; with him were the banished nobles, Thomas 
of Celano and Eoger of Aquila. The Emperor V)ng 
afterwards protested, that he had had no hand in the 
attack on the Eoman States, and that he had made 
this manifest, by punishing the authors of the nus- 
chieff The Bishops of Beauvais and Clermont arrived 
with troops, but were sent back by Gr^ory, who 
spent 120,000 gold coins on the war, a dead kssL 
He wrote to the Genoese late in November : * The 
Emperor has sent the Archbishop of Bari aod 
Henry Count of Malta to treat of peace. We heard 
them, but said that we could do nothing, while Bar- 
nald was vexing the Church.' The Pope sought help 
from Milan and Piacenza ; he demanded money even 

* Ric. San Germano. f See his letters for 1239. 

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from distant Sweden ; and summoned the Marquis chap. 
Azzo into the March. The Archbishop of Bavenna 

^H^as rebuked fornot having excommimicated Pre- 1227-1280. 

Gregory's soldiers, who advanced on the 18th of 
January, 1229, were beaten off from Fondi, the 
frontier town of the Kingdom ; this place was held by 
John of Poli, a Boman, but no friend to the Pope. 
Aquino also held out for Frederick. Cicala, Morra, 
and Adenulf the son of the Count of Acerra, were 
as loyal as ever. The strong position of Monte 
Cassino, and San Germano below it, were forti- 
fied ; the Abbot seemed at present to be a staunch 
loyalist The Pope's army, bearing the ensign of 
the Keys, * having no fear of Gfod,' plundered the 
villages, after fSailing in an attempt to storm Bocca 
d*Aroe. Then the tide of war turned. In March, 
Stephen of Anglone the Justiciary lost a battle in 
the mountains and fled to San Germano. The 
Abbot was induced to yield up Monte Cassino, after 
a long treaty with the Legate, ^ which I know not, 
Ood knows,' says loyal Bichard, who was doubtless 
watching the progress of events with more than 
usual interest His native town was also given up, 
and the nobles of the Kingdom went off to their 
own lands. All seemed lost ; the Pope's army took 
the clasmcal towns of Venafro, Isemia, Teano, and 
Caleno; Cardinal Pelagius, who was now Legate, 
more lucky in his operations in Apulia than he had 
been in Egypt, went on from conquest to conquest 
He mastered Sessa after a long si^e, forcing it to yield 
by cutting down the vineyards. The strong Castle 
of (Jaeta, one of Frederick's four great fortresses, 
whieh had cost a large sum of money, was taken 

s 2 

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CHAP, and pulled down ; the materials were thrown mtd 
the sea. Two of its citizens went to Gregory 
and procured several privileges ; among others, thti 
right of coining money stamped with the head oi 
St Peter; they were to contribute one gaDej 
to any fleet equipped by the Church. The Po{« 
engaged to protect Sessa and Qaeta, as if they weit 
towns in his own Campagna. Aquino surrendered 
and the commander of Bocca Bantra was bribed U 
yield that place. William of Sora gave up Trajetto 
which he held ; and the men of Benevento, a torn 
ever true to the Pope, made forays into Apulia 
seizing the cattle in those rich plains. The Papa) 
commanders asserted on oath, that Frederick was a 
prisoner in Palestine* ; the lie was spread every- 
where, probably by clerical agency, for we find 
Baynald the Viceroy driving all the Franciscans, 
and also the monks of Monte Cassino, out of the 
Kingdom. The Pope gave out that the ApuHans 
were released fix)m the oath of fealty they had takoi 
to Frederick, since he was imder the ban of the 
Church. Alife fell, but Capua was staunch in her 
loyalty ; the Papal troops, unable to take this city, 
withdrew after three days to Benevento, burning 
the villages around. But the army could be kept 
together no longer, melting away with great speed 
upon certain evil tidings coming fix)m the eastern 
coast of Apulia.f No reinforcements were at hand ; 
the Lombards were slow in marching down, and 
those who served under Cardinal Colonna threatened 
to desert The Pope in vain wrote to the chi^ ^' 
the League : * Now is the time to strengthen the 

♦ Letters of Frederick for 1289. f ^c- San Genw«»- 

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army of the Church, since her enemy has returned chap. 

in confusion from beyond the sea. You, Lombards, l_ 

are in as great jeopardy as ourselves. We command 1227-1230. 
you by your oath to keep your men in the field 
for at least three months, and to send them pay. 
Believe the message from us, which Guala will give 
you/ This was written in July ; later in the year 
Gregory thus upbraided his slu^sh allies : * Would 
that we had never looked for help from Lombardy ! 
since we placed our dependence on her, she has 
disgraced herself for ever.' Still he would make no 
I>eaoe without the advice of this province, declaring 
that the Church, the mother of the Lombards, would 
never forsake them.* 

€rr^ory wrote early in June to Pedro, the Infant 
of Portugal, whose Conduct seems to have given 
his Holiness more satisfaction than that of mo!?t 
other European princes. Pedro is compared to De- 
borah in Israel, sitting under the palm tree, ready 
to do battle against the new Sisera, who does not 
feel the sharpness of the spiritual sword that is 
drawn against him, but has hardened his heart. 
The Portuguese champion obtained remission of sins 
for himself and for his comrades.f England sup- 
plied nothing but money. One Master Stephen, the 
Pope's Legate, called a council at Westminster, and 
bullied the Prelates into granting one tenth of their 
incomes and personal property, which was to go 
towards the expense of the Apulian war. Arch- 
bi:ihop Langton was by this time in his grave at 
Canterbury. The young King, Henry the Third, 

• Regeste of Gregoiy for 1229, XXXVL LXXV. MiddlehiU 

t RajnalJus. 

▼OL. I. *« 3 

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CHAP, made no resistance ; but the laity proved refractoiy. 
VIII. fjij^^ dergy throughout England and Wales, Scotland 

1227-1230. ^j^^ Ireland, furnished pay for the Pope's army, at 
that time harrying Frederick's dominioii& Gregonr, 
according to Master Stephen, was so overwhelmed 
with debts, that he knew not how he should finish 
the war he had begun.* 

Cardinal Otho was sent into Germany, but found 
it impossible to stir up sedition there, Henry, the 
Emperor's son, had already crushed the Duke of 
Bavaria, the only Prince who seemed inclined to 
rebel The King of England wished to raise the 
House of Guelf once more to the throne of Ger- 
many ; the family's sole surviving representative was 
Otho, the nephew of the late Emperor of the same 
name ; but Otho the younger was Lord of little besides 
Luneburg. The Pope was consulted as to the possibi- 
hty of dislodging the House of Hohenstaufen in fa- 
vour of this youth, who however had the wisdom to 
decline the glittering bait.f The Bishop of Verdun 
declared for the Church, but was almost mined by 
a contest with his own flock.:}: In the end. Cardinal 
Otho was driven to take refuge in Huy, in order to 
save his life from the ImperiaUsts ; he placed Liege 
and Aix-la-Chapelle under an interdict. He pene- 
trated into Denmark, where he had no better suc- 
cess than in Germany. The constant opposition 
which he had to encounter must have convinccHl 
him that Frederick was firm in his seat The Patri- 
arch of Aquileia not only prevented any Northem 
army from embarking for Apulia from Pola, but 

• De Wendover for 1229. 

f Conr. de Fabaria. Godefr. Monaclius. 

t Regesta of Gregory for 1229, LXXVIII. MiddliliiU MSS. 

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went to the King of Hungary and prevailed upon chap. 
him to discountenance the measures of Eome. 
Prance was almost as deaf as Germany to the calls 
of the Church. 

The army led by Cardinal Pelagius was not 
the sole dependence of Pope Gregory. An out- 
break took place at Lentini in Sicily, stirred up 
by one Vinito of Palagonia, who survived to take 
part in another rebellion ten years later.* More- 
over, Cardinal John Colonna was commanding in 
the country of the Abruzzi, and was aided by John 
de Brienne, the old King of Jerusalem. Though at 
this time he had seen more than seventy years, 
that redoubtable Champenois was as full of life and 
activity, as when twenty years before the King of 
France had singled him out as the man best suited 
for the war in Palestine. John had eagerly joined 
in an enterprise directed against the Kingdom of lus 
hated son-in-law. Milan had with great willingness 
sent a hundred knights, Piacenza thirty ; f though 
as we have seen, the Lombard contingent did not 
satisfy Gregory. These were the soldiers who, ac- 
cording to the award of the late Pope Honorius, 
should have followed the Emperor to the Holy 
Land. Listead of this, they were now joining in 
the attack on his Apulian dominions, a perverse 
sort of satisfaction, as he called it, for their former 
conduct:]: The army of the Church had driven 
Baynald out of the March, and was now blockading 
him in Sulmona ; but Cardinal Pelagius summoned 
these forces to his aid. After the whole of Marsia 

* See the Hegestom for 1240. f Gal. Fiamma. 

^ See his letters for 1239. 

vou I. *« 4 

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CHAP, had been conquered, the two armies united to Ut 


siege to Caiazzo. A tradition, probably untrue, was 
current sixty years later, that when King John 
was besieging Boiano, the babe Conrad was shown 
to him from the walls, and the authorities be^eJ 
him not to despoil his own grandson of his inherit- 
ance. John answered with tears, * The Pope must be 
obeyed.'* In the mean time the Count of Campagna, 
who was at the head of a third division, had taken 
the town of Sora, though the Castle above it still 
held out for Frederick, In September, Gr^iy 
issued an edict, by which he annexed Puroone 
and Amitemo on the border to the States of the 
Church, denouncing Frederick's past oppresaoDS, 
A heavy payment was exacted from the towns- 
men, and they were ordered to set about build- 
ing a new city at Accola, to be strongly fortified 
under the inspection of Pandulph the chaplain. This 
design was carried out many years later by Frede- 
rick himself, who called the n^w city Aquila, after 
his armorial bearings. 

We eagerly catch at anything which proves the 
humanizing influence of the Church on the savage 
style of warfare usual in these times. The Pope 
seems to have been shocked at the cruelties prac- 
tised by the Portuguese Cardinal He thus writ^ 
to Pela^us in May : * We ought not to revel so 
much in blood ; we should remember who has said, 
"Thou shalt not kill." brother, it is not expe- 
dient ! Let no murder or mutilation of prisoi^^^ 
be practised, for we abhor it ; let your captives be 
thrown into prison, but nothing more.' War&re id 

• Barth. de Neocastro. 

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fV.>iithem Italy has always been waged with a fero- chap. 

oity elsewhere unknown. The Count of Acerra had 

stLready sent a letter to his master, in which he com- 
plained of King John's cruelty ; towns were set on 
ILre, cattle seized, men tortured xmtil they paid heavy 
Transoms, and no age or sex was spared. If the Em- 
peror's name was invoked, King John would declare 
that there was no other Emperor besides himself. 
Elven the clergy were amazed at these proceedings, 
^which seemed to be authorized by the Vicar of 

But dehverance was now at hand for the harassed 
Souths To the astonishment of the ApuUans, the 
Imperial eagles reappeared. Frederick, returning 
firom Acre with only seven galleys, which the Count 
of Malta had brought him, landed at Ostuni, not far 
from Brindisi, on the 10th of June, 1229, escaping 
from the snares laid for him on the coast He made 
Brindisi his head-quarters, whence he sent letters 
throughout the Kingdom to proclaim his arrival firom 
the East Baynald his Viceroy and the Justiciaries 
of the loyal towns were soon at the side of their 
master. Some brave Germans, on whom Frederick 
placed great reliance, arrived from Palestine. They 
had at first refused to aid their Eaiser in reconquering 
Aptdia, but a strong wind had blown them out of 
their coiu^se and delayed their voyage to Venice.f 
Frederick's first act was to send some knights of the 
Teutonic Order to the Pope, asking for peace. But 
Gr^ory, who had just canonized St. Francis, made 
up his mind to try the chances of war ; on the 19th 
of August he first excommunicated all heretics, by 

* See Aoerra*8 letter in 1229. f Brere Chron. Vaticanum. 

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CHAP, whatever name they were called ; then he thundem 
the same anathema against Frederick, rehearsiDg x. 
the sins of this enemy, absolving the subjects of thii 
Kingdom from their oath of fealty, and laying 
towns, whither the Emperor might come, under ii 
interdict. Baynald and Berthold; certain Bomsi 
citizens of Frederick's party ; the Castellan of Si 
Mhiiato, who had robbed many pilgrims on their way 
to Bome ; the men who had seized upon the Abbev 
of San Quirico ; Ubaldo of Pisa, who had entenri 
Sardinia, an island claimed by the Boman Chuid): 
all these, and many others besides, were laid nnccr 
the same excommunication. 

Frederick was busy equipping his army azxl 
assembling his horse and foot He was detained on 
the Eastern coast during nearly three months; for 
he dates in August from Barletta, one of his chief 
strongholds, when he confirmed the late gnaat nude 
by Eaynald to Becanati and Osimo. The Hoheokhe 
brothers, Conrad and Gbdfrey, were rewarded for their 
loyal services by a German grant We find anotbtf 
faithful liegeman, Gebhard von Amstein, in Bttmi- 
ance upon the Kaiser, who afterwards entrusted tiii< 
chief with the highest commands. LandulfofAquiiK' 
was recompensed for his late services in the We^ 
Frederick now advanced by Canossa to Foggia. i' 
his troops were taking up their quarters in the ktur 
city, an outbreak on the part of the citizens fonv" 
the German soldiers to fly and to seek lodgings at San 
Lorenzo, not far o£^ He sent another embas^ t^' 
the Pope, consisting of the Archbishops of Bt^p • 
and Bari, and Hermann von Salza ; but diey retumtH: 

* Old French Chronicle. 

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^vrithoat efiecting anything. Cardinal Colonna, on chap. 
the part of the Papal forces, had to apply to Gr^ory ^^^^ 

for more money. The wearers of the Cross, fresh 1227-1230. 
fix>in the East» were now opposed to those who bore 
tlie ^ifiign of the Keys. The Castle of Caiazzo had 
undergone a long si^e from King John and Cardi- 
ng Felagius; these leaders, hearing of Frederick's 
&»udden advance on the last day of August from 
the Eastern coast, burnt their engines, among which 
iTvas a trebuchet made at great cost ; they fled to 
Teano. That same day, Frederick pushed on to loyal 
Capua, and thence went to Naples, in search of men 
and money. He now retook Calvi, Alife, and Vena- 
fro, hanging some of the Campanian prisoners. 
Within four days he had recovered more than 200 
casUes.^ But on the other side of his Kingdom, 
Paul of Logoteta, one of his Justiciaries, was torn in 
pieces by the enemy; a cruel deed, to which the 
Emperor refers many years later.f The King and 
the Cardinal fled to San Germano, whither Frederick 
followed them with the utmost speed ; the men of 
the town removed their goods, expecting a battle ; 
but Felagius shut himself up in Monte Cassino, the 
treasures of which he had already seized. The 
rebellious Prelates and the Pope's soldiers from 
the Campagna fled to Bome; Frederick retook 
Piedemonte, and his Saracens plundered the Church 
of St Matthew. Sessa was given up to him by 
Thaddeus .the Judge, a man of remarkable character. 
The Count of Acerra was in full employment ; nearly 
every town in the Kingdom had been retaken, ex- 
cept Sora, QsetAj and the strong position of Monte 

* Old Fi«nch Chronicle. t ^^ ^ letters for 1239. 

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CHAP. Cassino ; the revenues of this Abbey were now con- 

!—- fiscated, Frederick was further strengthened by 

1227-1230. ijjQ arrival of some Greek soldiers and ambaasadors 
from Boumelia. He appointed lieutenants in all the 
towns, and sent horn San Germane letters into Lorn- 
bardy, Tuscany, and Bomagna, bearing date the 
5th of October: — 'We have returned,' he wrote, 
' by the favour of God from beyond the seas ; we 
have driven our foes, who had invaded our Eingdonu 
into the Campagna ; in the space of a few days we 
have won back what they had held for half a yean 
Wishing then to hasten into Germany, we give you 
warning to meet us quickly with your horses and 

Frederick's speedy reconquest of his Kingdom is a 
fact of great weight in our view of his character. 
Were we to beUeve the Papal letters directed against 
him, he would appear to have been a monster, rivall- 
ing in cruelty the worst of the old Boman Emperors^ 
a fiend who had reduced the Kingdom of Sicily to 
ashes, whose thirst for blood and treasure could 
never be slaked, and who was always grinding his 
subjects to the dust, or goading them into revolt 
But here we find him landing unexpectedly with a 
handful of men at a time when his Kingdom was half 
lost, and when his loyal subjects had no leader in 
whom they could trust ; no sooner does Frederick 
appear on the scene than all is changed; crowds 
flock to his banner, and in a few days his enemies. 
— King, Cardinals, and all — are glad to fly out of 
his dominions.* The Commons of ApuHa had n> 

* Copiosom exercituxn tain de Regnioolis qtuun de Theotooicis 
Gongr^;are cepit. — Chr&n, breve Vatkanum, 

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ceived a practical lesson as to the advantages of Fre- chap. 

derick's rule, by which they ever afterwards profited ; 1_ 

henceforth they showed no eagerness to welcome a 1227-1220. 
Papal army of deliverance. The nobles and clergy 
of the Kingdom might conspire, but the Commons, 
with, few exceptions, were ever true to him who had 
saved them fix>m the tender mercies of King John 
and Cardinal Pelagius. 

Frederick sent an ambassador to Gaeta, one of 
the few disloyal towns : the envoy was put to death 
by the buighers, and the Emperor treasured up the 
wrong- Two hundred knights recovered Marsia for 
him, whither Berthold, the brother of Baynald, was 
n< >w sent back Frederick at this time thought it right 
to send letters to aU the kings of the world, explain- 
ing his conduct in Palestine, and reftiting the false 
charges of the Patriarch, who had accused him of 
having brought shame on Christendom. Frederick 
appealed in support of his own assertions to the 
Bishops of Winchester and Exeter, and to the Heads 
of the Beligious Orders, who had been present at 
the signing of the Truce. His cause still continued 
to prosper ; the Boman Senate and people sent an 
embassy to him, when at Aquino. On the 28th of 
October he took Sora, which was burnt ; and some 
of the citizens perished by fire and sword. The 
garrison, men of the Boman Campagna, fled into their 
own land ; William of Sora was handed over to Fre- 
derick and hanged as a rebel The Abbey of Cava, 
which had preserved its loyalty, was taken under 
the Emperor^s special protection. 

About this time, Hermann von Salza returned 
with the welcome news that Gr^ory was ready to 
make peace. The Pope very honourably consulted 

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CHAP, his Lombard allies on the terms proposed, promnnf 

not to desert them. Frederick had an interviei 

iw-iaao. ^jIj Thomas of Capua, the Cardinal of St S«hina 
the result of which was a proclamation of peace an 
pardon to the Abbot and monks of Monte GasdnG 
and the restoration of their confiscated lands. (^ 
dinal Pelagius and his garrison left the impregnabli 
convent, which together with its possessioiis wai 
placed in the hands of Von Salza, a man in whoa 
all parties alike could put their trust He ap 
pointed Brother Leonard its guardian; and then 
with the Cardinal, went once more to Bome. M006I 
was exacted firom the revolted towns, Venafra 
Isemia, and Teano, while a horse £Edr was estahlishd 
at San Germane. Forty men of that town were 
chosen to garrison the great convent so latefy in tbe 
enemy's hands, after they had taken an oath to be 
trusty. The war seemed now to be at an end, and 
the German soldieie were sent home with bountiful 
rewards.* Frederick kept his Christmas at Capua 
with great joy ; he set free on this occasion some of 
the prisoners taken at Sora. He also made Conrad 
von Hohenlohe, one of his faithful Gtermans, Count 
of MoHse. 

Early in January the next year, 1230, Frederick 
was at Melfi, whence he sent the Archbishop of 
Keggio and Von Salza to the Pope. Gr^coy had 
been recalled to Bome, after a sojourn of more than 
two years at Perugia, by the Boman authorities, who 
were in dismay at a great overflow of the Tib^' 
Proclamation was made at San Qermano, that w/ 
one who would serve the Crown should be free fr^°* 
all servile burdens. The town was fortified, sad w^ 

* Chron. breve Yadcanimi. 

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SoBsUble of Capua was ordered to overlook the chap. 


wt Frederick kept Easter at Foggia, which had 

ktius time submitted ; its walls were destroyed and 1227-1230. 

n trenches filled up; Troja, Casale Nuovo, San 

Ercto, and Civitate, which had refused even provi- 

iou to the Emperor, all underwent the like fate, 

■d had to give crowds of hostages.* Stephen 

i AngloDe garrisoned some castles, but burnt 

Bden, ocxustraining the inhabitants to dwell in the 

|fcins Pope Gr^ory had been excommunicating 

feihold and Baynald ; he was now welcoming at 

Baae sooie of their more illustrious countrymen, who 

t«iaimefirom the North to make peace between the 

Q"ffdi and their Emperor. The Bukes of Austria, 

Ifiotliia, and Meran, the Patriarch of Aquileia, the 

Wibtthop of Salzburg, and the Bishop of Eatisbon 

'^ I conference at Bome with four Cardinals. 

Btte Germans kept Easter with Frederick at 

^ogii, returning to Eome with the Abbot of Monte 

^W The Emperor, at the request of the Duke 

"/-btria and Von Salza, gave a Charter of forgive- 

** to this renowned monastery, and also bestowed 

Nege8 upon many German foundations. He 

*e back to Capua on the 30th of May; on the 

^ he was overtaken by two nobles of Palestine, 

■odananded that his son Conrad should be sent to 

"^ there to be brought up; Frederick retimied 

• evaaive answer.f At Capua he met the Cardi- 

■) who had full powers to make the peace. The re- 

*^ Prelates, frightened at his severity towards the 

■toi towns, would not encoimter him. The Pope 

^961 his heart upon retaining Ghtetaand St Agata, 

■^^ch request IVederick would not listen. Peter 

^'^n*. breve Vaticaniim. f ^^^ French Chronicle. 

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CHAP, de Vinea, one of the greatest men of the age, biougtt 
some of the Gaetans to a conference with theCardiMk 

1227-1230. yfi^Q could HOt induce the rebels to submit to their 
rightfid Sovereign. Von Salza and one of the Bishqe 
had therefore to undertake yet another embasj- to 
Gregory, and returned with Guala the Domimcan. 
Hereupon the treaty of peace was at last made, and 
all the banners in the churches of San Germano were 
waved for joy. Frederick was at that town wha 
Guala met him ; the Pope being then at Anagni 
On the 9th of June, the Cardinal Bishop of Sabuu 
and the Cardinal of St Sabina received the Emperon 
oath in one of the churches of San C^ermaDO; aT 
the Transalpine Princes were present, except thi 
Duke of Austria, who was dangerously UL The 
Archbishops of Palermo, Bari, and E^gio, the rebel 
Prelates, Eaynald, Acerra, and Morra, the Jusum- 
ries of the Kingdom, the Barons, and thar vassal-, , 
made an imposing assemblage. The oath takai was, | 
that Frederick would give satisfaction to the ChuKh | 
for his misdeeds. The Archbishop of Salzbur: I 
preached a long sermon to exculpate him ; the Car [ 
dinal of St. Sabina, a subject of the Sicilian Cro^ 
replied with equal clearness.^ 

Frederick's engagement bears the date of July 
He swore to give satisfaction to the Church, to for 
give the offences of all, and to remit the punishmeni^ 
of trespassers ; Acerra was to take the oath in t^- 
behalf. The question as to Gaeta and St Agatav-^ 
left as yet undecided. All that was settled was, l 
they were to be returned to Frederick, and yet " 
honour of the Church was to be saved The ^" 

* Rlc. San 6«nnano. 

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cliiration of the German nobles is dated on the 23rd chap. 
of July. The Princes and Prelates of the Empire ^^^* 
there assembled make it known to all that they 
have set their seals to the agreement Three of them, 
!)eing Churchmen, declare the cause of Frederick's 
excommunication, and order him to restore all, 
especially what has been taken from the Monastery 
of Antrodoco. The Archbishop of Taranto and other 
exiled Prelates are to return to their sees. Gaeta 
and St. Agata are to be given back to Frederick, 
and a year's time is allotted for the fulfilment of 
the treaty ; if the business cannot then be arranged, 
umpires are to be chosen, two by each side ; if need- 
ful, a fifth is to be added. Germans, Italians, and 
French, are alike pardoned. Frederick engages not 
li") invade either the Duchy of Spoleto or the March 
'^f -Incona. The Princes at length declare, ' We have 
pwom on the Gospels to enforce the keeping of this 
Treaty ; if it be not kept, we will aid the Church 
yguinst the Emperor within a certain time ; but if 
the Church does not name umpkes, as agreed, we 
are not to be bound by our oath.' The goods of the 
Hospitallers and Templars within the Kingdom are 
to be restored ; the exiled Prelates are to be allowed 
to return ; the clergy are not to be taxed ; and the 
tl^.rtions of churches and monasteries are to be free. 
The only parties shut out of the Treaty were Eay- 
nald's soldiers, who had ravaged the March. The 
County of Fondi was at length restored to Eoger of 
Aquila ; Johnof PoU, on whom it had been bestowed, 
l>ecoming Count of Alba. Monte Cassino was given 
"P to its Abbot, and the exiled Bishops returned to 
l^ieir dioceses. 
The only circumstance which occurred to damp 

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CHAP, the rejoicings at San Germane, was the death of 
^^^' Duke Leopold of Austria. He had fought for the 
1227-1230. (^^rch in many parts of the world, in Languedoc, 
in Spain, in Palestine, and in Egypt He had done 
his part in the siege of Damietta, but had luckily 
returned home before its loss. His bones, afler the 
custom of his country, were taken back to Germany, 
while his flesh was buried at Monte Cassino. His 
death was a great blow to Frederick's interests. 
The Emperor wrote to the Stedingers, a people in 
Northern Germany, praising them for their devotion 
to the Teutonic Order. He forbade the bui^^hers 
of Lubeck to hold tournaments, on account of the 
riots which were wont to ensue. The Archbishop 
of Salerno was enjoined to deliver up a Castle to Von 
Salza, the usual referee, rnitil peace should be made. 
Guala, upon the signing of the treaty, brought back 
leave from the Pope that religious offices might once 
more be celebrated in the Kingdom ; the invadere of 
the March were alone excluded from divine worship. 
On the 1st of August, Frederick went to Eocca 
d'Arce on the border ; thence he proceeded to 
Ceprano, and met some of the Cardinals ; here he 
encamped his army and reviewed it The condition^ 
of peace were slightly altered, and more Castles weiv 
placed in the hands of Hermann von Salza. The 
Archbishop of Aries and the Bishops of Winches^ter 
and Beauvais, being at Ceprano, were requested to 
publish Frederick's absolution, which duly followed 
all these concessions. On the 26th of August, he for- 
gave Strasburg for her adherence to Cardinal Otho, 
and heaped privileges upon the Archbishop of ArK^. 
Gregory wrote thus to the Emperor ; ' The Church 
is rejoicing over her recovered son, like Anna over 

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Tobias. Great is the joy in heaven over one sinner chap. 
that repenteth ! Give up to us, we beseech you, the ^^^^' 

sons of Count Thomas and Binaldo of Aversa, as 1227-1230. 
this day is the Feast of Angels, in order not to 
grieve your guardian AngeL' 

Eveiything was done to please the Pope. Ere- 
derick on the 24th of August sent letters to his 
officials on behalf of the cleigy throughout the King- 
dom, and ordered all the Castles in the March to be 
given up. At length, on Sunday, the 1st of Septem- 
ber, the formal reconciliation took place. A Papal 
invitation arrived, and the Emperor entered Anagni, 
the Pope's beloved abode, in great pomp, attended 
by the Cardinals and the leading men of the town. 
Gregory received him in person ; it was the meeting 
of Priam and Achilles, although on this occasion it 
was not the aged man who bowed himself at the feet of 
the warrior. Frederick knelt before Gregory, arrayed 
in a doak, and gave him the kiss of peace ; he after- 
wards sat at the Papal table, and then held a long con- 
ference with his old friend in the Pope's own chamber. 
The Cardinals were not admitted ; no one was pre- 
>ent, except Hermann von Salza, the truest friend 
that either of the reconciled pair possessed. The Em- 
{^ror spent the night at the Palace, and on the mor- 
njw again sat at the same table with Gregoiy, many 
lYinces being in attendance.* Frederick's own ao- 
">unt of the interview is this ; * We went to the Pope, 
who receiving us with fatherly love and with the kiss 
of peace, talked with the judgment of dear reason, 
(calmed our passion and removed our rancour, so 
that we were unwilling to speak of the past. We 

♦ Vita Gregorii. 

A A 2 

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f 356 THE flISTOEY OF 

CHAP, have forgiven our foes, one and all, their offences 
against us.' In the next month, Gr^ory thus wrote 
to the Lombards; ' We did the best we could for 
you, when Frederick, our dearest son in Christ, 
himibled himself before us and was absolved. The 
Bishop of Brescia was present, and acted on your 
behalf with faithfulness and wisdouL The Emperor 
has expressly forgiven your trespasses/ 

Frederick's approaching journey into Lombardy 
was one of the chief topics of the conference ; Gr^ory 
earnestly advised him to go without an army, and to 
trust to the peaceful efforts of the Apostolic See.* 
Frederick may have thought that these efforts had 
met with with but smaU success in the year 1226. 
Gregory has left us his own account of the meedng; 
he dwells on the Emperor's humble demeanour, un- 
expected devoutness, and pleasant converse. The 
noble guest paid his visit on the second day in simple 
fashion, without Imperial pomp, and showed himself 
complaisant in every matter debated. The cheer- 
ing news was sent to Eome, to the vassals of the 
Campagna, and to France. 

Frederick, when at Anagni, had more German 
business in hand. The act of a Bishop of Freisingen, 
who had enfeoffed his Episcopal city to therebelliouis 
Duke of Bavaria, was reversed, as being contrary to 
the laws of the Empire. Batisbon was rewarded for 
its loyalty by a most ample Charter, and had a grant 
for six years of the proceeds of a toll, that the city 
walls might be strengthened. The Church of Gurck 
was subjected to that of Salzburg. The Bishop of 
Trieste had a confirmation of the privileges of his 

* Letters for 1239. 

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See. Among the witnesses to these Charters were chap. 
Conrad the Burgrave of Nuremberg and the Count 
of Habeburg, the ancestors of the Eoyal Houses of 
Prussia and Austria. 

The Emperor rode down the steep hill, upon which 

IB built the city of the Conti, followed by the good 

wishes of his Holiness and of the Cardinals. He had 

exerted himself in behalf of the Abbots and Bishops 

who had remained loyal to him, when the Kingdom 

was invaded ; and he had obtained their absolution 

fromGr^ory. He took breakfast at SanGermano, and 

thence hastened to Capua; after visiting Melfi, where 

his friend the King of Thessalonica died, he kept 

Christmas at Precina.* The high dignitaries who had 

metatAnagni were soon scattered; the German nobles 

went home, the Bishop of Beauvais was made Duke 

of Spoleto, though he was unable to reduce that city; 

Gregory himself returned to Eome, where he added 

greatly to the Lateran Palace and built hospitals for 

the poor. He took Monteforte, kept it for the Church, 

and fortified it with a high wall, towers, and trenches. 

The work was pressed on in spite of the winter 

frosts; 900 pounds were paid for the stronghold, 

which was then entrusted as a fief to some of the 

nobles.f Gregory however had leisure to write to 

Frederick in October ; the Emperor had been laying 

hands on some of his officials. ' We doubt not but 

that some evil man is advising you to harass the men 

of Foggia, Casale Nuovo, and San Severino ; a deed 

which does you no credit. Do not exasperate your 

Bedeemer. Let not the feast be turned into moum- 

iDg ; let it not be said, that those great Lights, the 

* Ric. San Grennano. f Vita Gregorii. 

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CHAP. Pope and the Emperor, only met to produce the 

L_ darkness of sorrow. Forgive them that have tr» 

1227-1230. passed agamst you.' Later in the same month, 
Gregory sent a long letter to the Sicilian Prelates, 
ordering them to chastise the vices of their clergy .• 
Heresy, as usual, was the result of the evil lives of 
the appointed pastors. Frederick confirmed the 
possessions of the Templars in Sicily and Calabria, at 
the prayer of their Preceptor. It was probably wiUi 
far greater good will that he made a grant to Henij 
von Waldstromer and Gramlieb his brother^ and to 
their heirs after them, of the office of chief Forested 
in the wood near Nuremberg. Tlus was done, to 
reward them for the faithfiilness with whidi they 
had served the Kaiser beyond the seas. 

An important letter that was sent by the Tcpe 
to the Emperor this year, is dated the third of 
December, and refers to some haggling about the 
terms of the Treaty, attempted by Frederick. Gre- 
gory writes to him ; * We heard your propoe&ls from 
your messenger, the Judge of Pavia ; but on looking 
into your letters to the Princes your sureties^ we find 
certain things omitted through n^ligence or pre- 
occupation ; so we did not make the letters pubha 
The Archbishop of Capua befiiended you with great 
judgment and zeaL We send you back the letters ; 
and we beseech you to believe in our sincerity, and 
not to suspect that we mean to cheat you in aught ; 
since we desire that all may succeed according to 
your wishes. We trust that you will speedily recall 
that messenger of yours, who has strangely set off 
for Germany without having an interview with us. 

* Rajnaldus. 

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in order that he may not go beyond the prescribed chap. 

form of the surety/ The aged Pope was fiilly alive 

to any attempt on the part of his young fiiend to 1227-1230. 
overreach him. 

In the same month of December, the Archbishop 
of Capua was sent as ambassador to Bome upon a 
matter connected with the rights of the Empire on 
the Rhone. Gr^ory, after having consulted his 
brethren, returned this answer to Frederick ; ' The 
Boman Church, after much outpouring of Christian 
blood, has triumphed over heresy in Provence. Yet 
the land may easily relapse into errors worse than 
the first ; we therefore think it best not to grant your 
request at present, though we do not intend to wrong 
you. Moreover, you say that you have been robbed 
of Citta di Castello ; but you forget that this place 
belongs to the Apostolic See ; we ask you to listen 
to what the Archbishop of Capua will tell you as to 
that matter.' This letter closed the correspondence 
between the two parties for the year, making it plain 
that there was more than one subject of dispute still 
unsettled. The year 1230 ended, to all appearance, 
with the recondliation of Church and Empire. 
What astonishes us most in the Treaty of San Ger- 
mano is, that the Pope, the weaker party, gains 
almost everything ; the Emperor, firesh from his con* 
quests, at the h^ul of a great army, can compass 
little more than his absolution from the sentence of 
1227. Even the restoration of his faithful partizans 
to their old position seems to have been an after- 
thought, a concession not made by Gregory before 
the interview at Anagni. Peace is made, but it is 
only a hollow truce ; the great battle between 
Bome and the House of Hohenstaufen has yet to be 

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CHAP, fought out Meanwhile each party makes the mc^ 
of the breathing-time allowed. Frederick spend? 

1227-1230. jjjg j^g^ fiyg years, perhaps the happiest of his life, 
in his beloved E^ingdom, to whidi he gives new 
laws ; Gregory also, with the help of the great 
Spanish Dominican, Bamon de Fennaforte, compiles 
a code, not for one realm alone, but for the whole 
of the civilized world ; a code long the bulwark of 
priestly government, which has influenced even coun- 
tries unshackled by the yoke of Bome. To this day, 
the Decretals of Gregory the Ninth are quoted undtf 
the roof of Westminster HalL 

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' Sub rege Medo Marsos et Appnlufl/ — Hobacb. 

IT was not only in their pubKc acts that the greatest chap. 
contrast possible was to be seen between the ^^ 
Pope and the Emperor ; their private lives were 
widely different. Gregory, who had now fiUed the 
highest offices in the Church for two and thirty 
years, was its living embodiment The Saints, the 
preservers of its tottering fabric, had been his bosom 
feiends when alive, and after their death received at 
hb hands the honours of Canonization. He aad his 
Cardinals composed the earliest hymns in praise of 
St Francis. He delighted to throw off his costly 
trappings, and to share the devotions of the Minorites 
witii his feet unshod.* He would assume their garb 
as a disguise, if he wished to visit the holy places 
aroimd Borne. When these brethren were engaged 
in washing the feet of the poor, one in the dress of 
St Francis went through the duty so clumsily, that 
he was bluntly told to make room for others who 
understood their work better than he did Little 
did the thankless complainants know that they were 
rejecting the services of Pope Gregory the Ninth.f 
But his character has a darker side. He was an 

* Thomaa de Gelano. 

t Letter of Philip of Perugia, who could just remember Gre- 
gory. It ia in Wadding, Vol. I. 

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CHAP, earnest patron of the Inquisition, which he strove to 

transplant from France into Germany. On hearing 

that its rigours had been pushed to excess, 'The 
Gennans,' he coldly remarked, *were always mad- 
men, and therefore they have had madmen for their 
judges.' One of the speeches of these spiritual 
judges was this ; ' We should hke to bum a hundred 
innocent men, if one guilty man were among them.' * 
Happily for Germany, this outrageous violenoe de- 
feated its object 

A man like Gregory, as stem to himself as he was 
to others, was the very last person to feel any sym- 
pathy with Frederick's pursuits. The Pope was 
shocked at the life led by the Sicilian Monaich, the 
harem stocked with handsome girls and watched by 
black eunuchs, the intercourse maintained with 
Arab and Jewish sages, the laws enacted to keep 
the Church in due subjection to the State, the pro- 
fane lays of the Italian Troubadours which were so 
much prized, the jests upon sacred things which 
Bumour put into Frederick's mouth, A brilliant 
Court, which even outshone the former glories of 
Toulouse, was dose at hand to invite the atten- 
tion of Bome. Palermo was forsaken, except for 
grand occasions of state; Naples did not become 
the capital until much later in the century; the 
chosen abode of the Suabian Monarchs of the King- 
dom was the Eastern coast of Apulia, where the 
broad plains were the delight of the hunter, and 
where it was easy to watch the affairs of Northern 



♦ Ann. Wormat. 

t Frederick sajB of the Gapitanata in 1240; * Magia qnam in 
aliis proYinciia regni nostri moram aepina trahimiifl ibidem.* 

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Frederick was the most powerful Sovereign of chap, 

the aga He had ah-eady fulfilled the three con- 
ditions of greatness ; he was bom great, being the 
heir to Sicily; he achieved greatness, when he 
mastered Germany ; he had greatness thrust upon 
him, when he was forced by the Church against his 
will to undertake the conquest of Jerusalem. A 
vast tract of country owned his sway ; but we are 
at this time more immediately concerned with that 
part of his dominions which he loved the best, and 
in which he was now spending the five happiest 
years of his life. We gladly turn aside fix)m his 
wars for a short time, to gaze at the triumphs of 
peace* The interval of rest which was granted 
him, an interval unhappily short, was employed by 
him in drawing up a code of laws for the Kingdom 
of Sicily, a heritage, as he says, more noble than any 
other of his possessions. Many masters had left 
traces of themselves in that realm. There were 
Boman customs, Lombard feudal laws, Greek r^u- 
lations, and Arab innovations. But all former in- 
vaders had been forced to bow before the swords of 
the Norman conquerors, the Mowbrays and Grent- 
mcsnils. Feudalism had been firmly established in 
Southern Italy, just at the time when it was loosening 
its hold upon Northern Italy. The nobles, ever 
turbulent unless when held down by some strong 
hand, had enjoyed a long period of misrule. This 
had been brought to an end in 1220 ; Frederick, no 
longer distracted by preparations for the Crusade, 
was now determined to make Italians, Greeks, Arabs, 

* Theantherides for this Chapter are the Imperial Constitutions 
( f 1231, and the Imperial Blisters of 1239 and 1240. 

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364 THE mffroBY of 

CHAP. Nonnans, Germans, and Jews alike submit to a codn 

— - which should indude the best customs of each iace.1 

'Hie way had been cleared by the resumption o 

. . ^ privileges and charters ; Eoyalty was to b 

the V ly fountain of government for the future. 

But before proceeding to describe Frederickl 
laws, we must cast a glance at the state of Fraod 
during the minority of St. Louis ; by this meafl 
alone can we appreciate the new enactmentB <i 
Melfi. Let us contrast the model land of feudalist 
with the Sicilian realm. Li the former we see th 
power of the Crown set at nought by the meanes 
vavassor ; the nobles claiming the right of coiiiin| 
money, of waging private wars, of exemption froi 
taxes ; the owners of fiefe allowed to judge tbei 
vassals at will, and proudly erecting their owi 
gibbets; the villeins fleeced or outraged at th< 
caprice of their lords without the slightest chanc 
of legal redress ; the towns groaning under the fk 
of their Bishops ; the Chimjh in all her gloiy ; tl 
Jews plundered without remorse ; the magistrates i 
the mercy of any burly ruffian, who might chaDoij 
them to the wager of battle for an adverse 8enten< 
In France alone there were at least sixty differe 
codes of local customs.f Bearing all this in miB 
we turn to a widely different scene and mark tl 
ItaKan lawgiver. 

The new Justinian prefaced his Constitutions wi 
every one of his titles ; Caesar of the Eomans ei 
August, Itahcus, Siculus, Hierosolymitanus, Are! 
tensis, happy, conquering, and triumphant In 1 


♦ According to Grotius, Frederick borrowed more from t 
Lombards than from any other race, 
t HaUam, Middle Ages, Chap. ii. 

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preamble, he traced the progress of kw from the chap. 


zreation of rebellious man ; Necessity and Providence 
lad alike pointed out Kings as the correctors of vice, 
he arbiters of life and death, the vic^erents of God. * \ 
rheir first duty was to protect His Church, and to 
naintam those two sisters, Justice and Peace. Fre- 
ierick had been raised above all other Kings ; he 
aad to give account of double talents ; he desired 
to render imder God the calves of his lips. He could 
aot do this better than by providing the Kingdom of 
Sicily with the code of laws it so sadly wanted ; all 
statutes and customs adverse to his new Constitutions 
were now quashed. CsBsar, by the decision of the 
Quirites, was the origin and the guardian of law ; he 
must prove himself both the father of justice by 
giving birth to her, and the son of justice by vene- 
ratbg her. She should now be tendered to each and 
all of the loyal subjects of the Kingdom without 
respect of persons, the civil and criminal codes being 
administered by distinct officials. Frederick gave 
to the world his Oracles, as he styled his laws, not 
for the vain glory of being admired by future ages, 
but to repair the injuries caused in time past by the 
silence of Law. He inserted in his own Constitutions 
some of those of his Norman kinsmen, but prided 
liimself on having softened the old laws in several 

Many were the changes now introduced into the 
Sicilian code, but the most important change of all was 
the stripping of the Prelates and nobles of their juris- 
diction in criminal causes. This was an amazing stride 
in the right direction, but a step quite unprecedented 
in thoroughly feudal Kingdoms. The very first thing 
Frederick did, on returning home from Germany in 


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CHAP. 1220, was to exact the right of blood, an ezpressve 

name, fix)m the Abbot of Monte Cassino; it had 

been granted to the monastery by Frederick's &ther.^ 
The high clergy were at the tune powerless to resist; 
but the moment the Hohenstaufens had fallen, the 
Bishop of Catania hastened to prove that these Mo- 
narchs had stripped him of his criminal jurisdiction 
in his city, and he brought forward witnesses to 
speak to the old state of thing&f The change was 
probably felt still more acutely by the nobles. We 
can imagine the disgust with which Korman Barons, 
able perhaps to trace up their lineage as &r as Lod- 
brog or Hasting, would see themselves forced to 
hand over their powers to some low-bom upstart, 
who was raised above the heads of the r^tful 
lords of the land, merely because he had studied law. 
Such an upstart was the &mous Peter de Yinea, the 
leading statesman of the age.;]; His parents bang 
wretchedly poor, he had to beg his bread whik 
studying at Bologna. The Archbishop of Palermo 
was so struck with a letter written by the needy ad- 
venturer, that he recommended Peter to the Em- 
peror's notice, Frederick had a quick eye in singling 
out men of talent, whether rich or poor. It was 
said of the new favourite, that Mature had accumu- 
lated upon him all the gifts she usually distributes 
among many ; that wisdom, after having long sought 
a resting place, had at length transfused herself into 
him; that he was a second Moses in legislation, a 
second Joseph in his Sovereign's favour ; superior to 
St Peter in faithfulness, to Gcero in eloquence. 

* Eic. San Germano. f Charter of 1266, quoted by Gieganc, 
X See Tiraboachi and Giannone. 

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Meanwhile the friends of Borne branded him as a chap. 


modem Achitophel. We find the leamed Capuan 1— 

sitting on the Judicial bench so early as 1225.* 
Biches and honours were heaped upon him, and he 
was employed by his master to compile the state 
papers, which throw so much light upon the history 
of that age. Although somewhat turgid, they were 
accounted the finest models of epistolary composi- 
tion ; a &ct which explains the number of letters, 
attributed to Peter, preserved in the MedisBval con- 
vents. He was at the same time a poet, an orator, 
a lawyer, and a diplomatist. His mournful fate, &r 
worse than that of Wolsey, and the romantic interest 
aroused by his story, have left their traces in Italian 
l^ends. Thus, according to one tale, the Emperor 
came into the chamber where Peter's beautiful wife 
lay asleep. The intruder covered her arms which 
happened to be exposed, and withdrew after dropping 
his glove. On finding it, Peter, whose suspicions 
were naturally excited, refused to speak to his wife ; 
>he in her trouble sent for the Emperor, and the 
three sat together in silence for some time, until the 
lawyer broke out into verse : 

' On a Vineyard another plant trespassing came, 
And mined the Vineyard, O yillainons shame ! * 

The lady promptly made her protest : 

* Vineyard I am, Vineyard I '11 be ; 
Hy Vineyard never was fidse to thee.' 

Peter instantly dismissed his suspicions and went on : 

* If this be so, as she says ; then I vow, 

That the Vineyard I loye more than ever now.' 

* See the Charters for that year. 

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CHAP. So great was Peter's joy, according to this Pied- 

montese tale, that he forthwith composed his poem 

on the twelve months of the year.* 

After naming Thaddeus of Sessa and Bofiid of 
Benevento as Peter's ablest assistants, we pass on to 
the great Officers of the Kingdom. The Logothete, 
who long retained his Gfreek title, drew up diarters 
and edicts in the Sovereign's name, overlooked the 
accounts of the Treasury and the financial affairs of 
the Church, and altogether acted as the right hasd 
of his employer. The office of Protonotary was not 
kept up in Sicily during the last thirty years of the 
Emperor's life, but the Notaries of the Court, one of 
whom was Bichard of San Gtermano the Chronicler, 
transcribed privil^es and signed their names as wit- 
nesses. The dignity of Constable of the Engdom 
of Sicily was suppressed after Frederick's letuni in 
1220 ; the post, as was the case in England threeh\in- 
dred years later, was thought too high to be entrusted 
to any subject But ntiany other great officers sur- 
rounded the Emperor. There was the Grand Admi- 
ral of Sicily, charged with the direction of all mari- 
time affairs. William Porco, the Qenoese pirate and 
kidnapper who died on the gibbet at Palermo, wbs 
succeeded in this office by Henry Count of Malta, 
and afterwards by various fugitives from Gaioa 
The Chamberlain, administered the Sovereign's privy 

* Imago Mundi. The lines were : 

' Una vigDa o pianta per travers e intra 
Chi la vigna mal goasta. An fidt gran peoca 
Di &r ainfi che tant mal.* 

' Yigna smn, vigna saray, 
La mia vigna non fiili maj.* 

* Se ooBsi ecomo e narra, 
Plu amo la yigna che fis may.* 

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^urse, took charge of the palace, and acted as chap. 

ivereeer of the woods and forests. Bichard, who 

irst held this post, was replaced after his death by 
I negro, called John the Moor, raised by Frederick 
rom the lowest grade.* The Seneschal and the 
Butler were about the Sovereign's person* The 
Vlarshal of the Kingdom was Eichard Filangieri of 
ixe Principato, famous alike in Italy and in Pales- 
tine; other warriors bore the same title during 
EUchard's life. As to the high and permanent post 
\)( Chancellor, it was never filled up by Frederick 
after the disgrace of Walter of Palear in 1221, 
though Peter de Vinea might well plead his claim to 
the honour. The lofty titles connected with the 
Empire, Aries, and Jerusalem were respected ; but 
the great offices belonging to the Sicilian realm were 
watched with a jealous eye, and were kept in abey- 
Jince, if there seemed any danger of creating too 
iwwerful a subjectf 

Highest in authority among all these Officials, 
owing their origin tp King Boger, stood the Grand 
Justidaiy of Sicily, whose power reached to every 
comer of the Beahn. Henry of Morra held this post 
for all but twenty years, replaced at his death by 
the unpopular Bichard of Montenero, who enjoyed 
Frederick's ftivour to the last, but proved false to 
Frederick's son. The Grand Justiciary corrected 
^y errors committed by the inferior Courts, com- 
pelled them to do justice without delay, restored 
property and liberty to all wrongfully injured or 
(letained, and in many cases acted without consulting 
^e Crown. He was called the Mirror of Justice, 

•Jamailla. f See Brdholles* Preface. 


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CHAP, and was gwom to act with speed and without guile. 

All causes connected with the greater fiefe and 

castles of the nobles came under his cognizance. He 
was also specially deputed to hear questions brougiit 
forward by the Courtiers. He was supreme in any 
city he might enter, throwing into dai^ess the 
lesser lights, the provincial Justiciaries. His duty 
was to examine all petitions, whether from the 
Empire or the Kingdom. He was aided by three or 
four Judges in the great Imperial Court, who em- 
ployed two special scab for pubUc and secret busi- 
ness. One of these magistrates was Peter de Yine^ 
at least up to 1232 ; and the name of his nephew 
William appears afterwards on the list These JudLres 
seem usually to have sate for hfe, unlike most c/the 
other officials. 

There were many Justiciaries in the provinces, who 
presided over criminal causes. No one nught hold 
this office without the authorization of the Crovn; 
no Prelate, Count, Baron, or £night might take the 
duties of Justiciary upon himself ; a deadly blow, as 
stated above, was thus aimed at the feudal system. 
The cities of the Kingdom were forbidden under the 
sternest penalties to elect their own magistrates. 
The higher nobihty alone were tried by the sentence 
of their peers ; and if an appeal was made, a Ban^n 
must be Judge. In every province there was a Jus- 
ticiary, aided by a Judge and a Notary. They were 
always strangers, without property or £unily ties in 
their district ; and they were forbidden to anpky 
any of their fellow-townsmen in their housdolds 
They travelled about at the cost of the province, 
searching for robbers and murderers, who met with 
no mercy. The Justiciary usually g&ve his decision 

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\rithin three months in a common cause, and avoided chap. 


dragging suitors up and down the province, or tres- 

passing on the time of the local Bailiff. In the 

inquisitions made, all depositions were given in 

without any needless delay. These inquisitions were 

rather vexatious. If ten witnesses of good repute 

convicted a man of quarrelling, gambling, frequenting 

taverns, or living beyond his means, the Justiciary 

Knt the culprit to labour for a time on the public 

works. The accused was given a copy of the names 

of the witnesses, but no copy of what they meant to 

prove. An absurd old law was abolished, by which the 

witness of ten men was deemed irrefragable. Those 

who informed against their neighbours were protected. 

The Justiciary was allowed to receive nothing fix)m 

litigants, except the cost of his eating and drinking 

for two days ; if he took horses, jewels, or other 

bribes, he was stripped of his belt of honour as a 

manifest thie£ There was no need for hiin to resort 

to bribes, since he had a yearly allowance fix)m the 

Treasury. The Justiciary was answerable for the 

pood order of his province ; if any charge against 

him was brought to Frederick, down would come a 

letter with round abuse of the careless Epicurean, as 

the oflfcial was styled. 

The Emperor appointed five Judges and eight No- 
taries in each of the cities, Naples, Salerno, Mea- 
^ina, and Capua. In every other large town of his 
<lomain^he established three Judges and six Notaries ; 
these had to bring testimonials from their townsmen 
before taking office, and were necessarily men who 
held ^heir lands of the Crown alone. They were 
P^d by receiving a certain proportion of the value 
^f every thing brought imder their judicial notice. 


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CHAP. They held oflSce only for one year, and on retirin| 

they underwent a strict examination as to thai pa^ 

conduct. They were doomed to death if tk 
attempted to falsify a public instrument Th^ 
were not allowed to have any money dealings, or t 
contract matrimony, in their districts, while in offic^ 
They, in conmion with the rest of Frederick's ageni 
and courtiers, were protected against violence by 
double penalty inflicted on the aggressor. 

Several statutes of King Eoger had defined dj 
power of the BaiUffs, His Imperial grandson e? 
duded the clergy fix)m this post, and forbade mor 
than three officials to hold office in the same town 
They were paid by receiving the thirtieth part rf thi 
value of the thing upon which they decided. Everj 
month they inquired into the justice of the wo^U 
and measiu'es in common use. They were fcHbiddeii 
to harass the H^es by forcing them to undertake 
journeys, or to give up their animals for the Imperial 
service ; a fair price was ordered to be paid fiM-hiid 
horses, and any harm suffered by the beasts vi 
compensated. The Bailifis redressed the damage 
done to private persons by the rapacious exaction! 
of the Imperial foresters and harbour-mastas Se 
vere fines and perpetual infamy awaited any c^icial 
who abused his autiiority in avenging private grudges 
peculators had their h^uis cut oflC The Seoretaiy d 
Messina, as we learn from Frederick's registers, w» 
charged to imprison certain Bailifils accused (rf hav^ 
ing wrongfully extorted money- On the other hand, 
some other Bailiffs in Calabria were dehvered from 
the oppression of one Basil, who had terrified Uiem 
into bestowing money upon him, by malicious)/ 
citing them before the ^nperor. The goods of* 

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de&ulting official went to the Treasury, but we find chap. 

Frederick making provision for the widows of such 

culprits ; if the marriage had taken place before the 
commission of the crime, the wife, as he said, had a 
claim prior to his own, and so might take her dowry. 
Duplicates of all accounts had to be kept, one copy 
being lodged in the Treasury. 

Bailiffi, Judges, and Notaries were bound to labour 
from morning to evening, wkh intervals allowed for 
their meals and siesta; though Christmas, Easter, 
Simday, and the festivals of the Virgin and the 
Apostles, were always kept as hohdays. If an in- 
strument was to be drawn up at the request of pri- 
vate persons, the official was bound to do it within a 
week, on pain of a fine ; in the contingency of his 
death, other strict rules were observed A curious 
cypher in use in three cities was abolished. The 
only material to be employed for the future was 
parchment ; cotton paper was forbidden, as not likely 
to last long. But a few sheets of the Emperor's 
own Begisters, written on the objectionable sub- 
stance, are still to be seen at Naples, and are the 
most precious relic of his age. 

These Bailifis, and aU other dvil officials, were 
imder the direction of Master Chamberlains, just as 
all criminal business was placed in the hands of Jus- 
ticiaries. The Chamberlains, before entering office, 
took an oath on the Gospels to do justice according 
to the Imperial Constitutions ; £Euling these, accord- 
ing to the local Boman or Lombard common law. 
They were in a post of great trust, since the super- 
intendence of the Emperor's estates, the exaction of 
fines, the collection of taxes and customs, formed a 
part of their duty. The Kingdom was divided for 

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CHAP, these purposes into six provinces ; each province had 

its Master Chamberlain, who was subject to the same 

restrictions as the Justiciary. He held assizes in the 
different towns to fix the price of wares or provi- 
sions ; he heard all suits brought against the Trea- 
sury, except those connected with Boyal fie&. He 
was not to sell the office of Bailiff, but to bestow it 
upon the most worthy. He might inflict fines upon, 
or send up to Court, ai)|r man who was so stubborn 
as to refuse the proffered office. 

In the island of Sicily, the Master ChamberlaiR 
changed his title for that of Secretary, and was 
allowed twelve horses for himself and his attendant 
Judge and Notaries. He paid out money, took 
receipts, and transmitted the surplus he might have 
in his hands, after defraying the charges of justice, 
to the Imperial Treasury in the Castle of N^les. 
He often incurred ill-will in the discharge of his 
duty ; thus we find the Emperor consoling Fallamo- 
naco, the faithful Secretary of Palermo, in these 
terms ; * Be not afraid of abuse, so long as you 
commend yourself to us ; since our Highness looks 
to works, not to words.' Frederick was not equally 
satisfied with other officials ; he complained that many 
of them were very loth to pay their debts to his Trea- 
siuy and that their meaning was not always dearly ex- 
pressed. There were still worse faults ; he might make 
them belted knights, but he could not make them 
honest men. He seems to have had much trouble 
with his Magistrates, a venal race, against whom he 
launched an edict early in 1239. ' Unjust sentences 
cannot be too severely punished, since otherwise the 
paths of truth will be darkened and the oppression 
of the just will prevail, which is contrary to Chri*- 

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tiamtj. Justice is the foundation of faith, without chap. 

which nothing can be built up. By this law, which, 

please God, shall last for ever, we condemn to death 
those judges who have given unjust sentences firom 
any motive. Their goods, especially if they have 
sinned in capital causes, are confiscated. If any have 
erred through ignorance, they may thank their own 
folly in assunung the office of Judge, and they must 
incur a minor penalty/ We find Frederick rebuk- 
ing the Justiciary of the Principato for having 
allowed an unlearned merchant named Matthew 
Curiale to be chosen Judge in Salerno. The removal 
of this official was ordered, because merchants usu- 
ally had hands swift to lucre, and there ought to be 
no dearth of learned men in such a city as Salerno 
was. Any litigant attempting to bribe a Judge lost 
his cause, even if he were in the right ; his name 
and the sum he offered were sent to the Emperor. 
The bestower of the bribe was allowed to denoimce 
the Judge who took it, but had to give in his charge 
within three days of the alleged commission of the 
crime. The corruption of pubUc officers in the 
^i^om, if we may judge by detached notices, 
seems to have been on a truly Eussian scale. A 
superior Court, however, called the School of Ac- 
^unts, travelled from place to place, and revised all 
l^^ce sheets ; this put some sUght check on official 

From the Judicial authorities we proceed to the 
^ecutive. The Kingdom under Frederick the 
Second was divided into two parts ; Sicily and Cala- 
l^ria forming one, while the other comprised the rest 
of the mainland. This division answered to the old 
Korman partition of the provinces between Eobert 

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ci^. Chuscard and his brother Eoger. Each of the tw^ 

parts had its own governor, who was styled CapUi^ 

or Master Justiciary. This office was held by th^ 
most distinguished warriors and statesmen of Predri 

rick's age, such as Walter de Brienne, Peto- of Cekiw 
the Counts of Andria and Acerra, Henry of Mom^ 
Andrew of Qcala, and Eichard of Montenero. Th^ 
Captain was bound to hold Courts twice at least ii 
the year, where grievances might be redressed ; U 
took cognizance of great crimes, such as those com 
mitt^ by nobles or corporations ; he heard appeak 
from the sentences of the local Justiciaries; he re 
presented the Emperor, except in cases of treason oj 
infemous crimes. He punished the faults of the local 
officers, especially of the Secretaries, Castellana, aiuj 
Proctors of the Koyal domains ; he kept an eye npcm 
all n^hgence or bribe-takmg. If charges were 
brought against the Court, the Captain heaid th«n,| 
having first appointed a clever Proctor to act for the 
Imperial interest; the decision was then sent under 
seal for Frederick's confirmation. The Emperor often 
lost a suit in his own Courts. Thus in 1224, the 
Provost of a Monastery complained that the Trea- 
sury was exercising feudal oppression over the men 
of a hamlet, which of right belonged to his Church. 
Witnesses were produced, one of whom spoke to 
the state of things in the dap of King WilliaoL 
The High Court of the Bealm inspected the deposi- 
tions, while the famous Boffiid of Benevento a{q)aued 
for the Emperor. In the end, sentence was given 
against his Highness. Frederick so loved justice, as 
his subjects boasted, that he placed himself on a 
level with the meanest in the land ; he preferred to 
lose his cause rather than win it> if he was in the 

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^wrong.* He strove haid to make his officials as right- chap. 

eous in their dealings as he himsAlf was. With this 

intent he established a new institation in 1234, which 
was to be held at Piazza, Cosenza, Gravina, Salerno, 
and Sulmona, in May tuid November every year. 
To this each great dty was to furnish four impartial 
deputies, each town and each castle was to send two 
representatives ; the Counts and Barons of the neigh- 
bourhood met them. All the Prelates, who could, 
were to be present in order to denounce the Paterines. 
The main object of the institution was to insure to all 
men their rights. A special Imperial messenger was 
sent down, who placed on record the complaints of 
the li^es against the Officials, and brought them to 
his master's notice. The Justiciaries decided causes in 
the usual way, and the C!ourt lasted a week or a fort* 
nightf It is dear that there was no attempt at l^;is- 
lation on the part of these five Provindal assemblies. 
Justice was administered between man and man 
with all due solemnity. * No recourse to any other 
tribunals than those of the Crown, except in cases 
authorized by law, was allowed. No advocates 
might practise without undei^oing an examina* 
tion by the Judicial Bench; they then took an 
oath that th^ would allege nothing against their 
consdence, that they would throw up their case, 
should it appear contraiy to £Eict or to law, and 
that th^ would demand no increased fees during 
the process; any breach of this oath was pun- 
ished by perpetual infamy, loss of office, and a 
fine.^ The deigy might not plead in secular 

* Jamailla. f Ric. San Grermano. 

I In modem tunes, the Neapolitan bar has been the sole pro- 
{vMoaa entitled to national respect ; army, navy, clei^, nobility, 
peaaantiyy magistracy, have been alike worthless. 

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CHAP, causes, except on behalf of themselves, their cr^n 

kin, or the poor ; but in no case did they receive i 

fee. The first step in an action at lawwas to obtain 
a writ of summons directed to the Defeodant; a 
certain delay was granted by the CJourt, according tfl 
the distance of his abode. A trusty messenger, noi 
the Plaintiff, bore the citation ; which specified tht^ 
Court, the complaint, and the time granted for api 
pearance ; if the Defendant dwelt beyond the King^ 
dom, he was entided to a delay of sixty days. If l^ 
would not open his door to receive the citation, it 
was laid on the threshold in the presence of two oii 
three witnesses or a pubUc Official. The fine imn 
posed for contumacy was a third of the personal 
property of the culprit ; by this innovation on the 
old law, Frederick spared the purses of the poor anil 
made the rich smart, who had formerly paid with 
ease a small fine. If the Defendant kept out uf 
the way, his hereditary goods were sold by the 
Judge after a year's delay ; the sale of feudal pn> 
perty was always referred to the Crown. The per- 
son of the fugitive might be seized and imprbone«l 
until judgment was given. A Count might swear w 
a. debt being due to himself up to the value of a 
hiindred ounces of gold; a Baron up to hal£ a 
Knight up to a quarter of that sum ; a rich Bunrl.tT 
up to a pound of gold ; while the oaths of men tf 
lower rank were only good as regarded a debt of 
three ounces. To recover any debts beyond t^ 
above quantities, written instruments or good wit- 
nesses had to be brought forward. Sales of dij^utiJ 
property were not allowed, since Justice might tl -? 
be defeated. Any contempt of Court, caused by i:*^ 
parties not being ready for trial, was punished by a 

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ine of a tenth of the property at stake, which was (JHAP. 

ened in equal portions upon Plaintiff and Defendant ; 

md all compounding of suite after trial had begun, 
.vith the intent of defrauding the Treasury, waa 
)unished. Should any corporate body prove con- 
umacious, without possessing any tangible property, 
I fine was levied upon the citizens at the rate of half 
ui Augusta! for each hearth ; they assessed it accord- 
lig to their wealth and paid it to the Crown. 

In criminal cases, those who neglected to appear 
:o the citation were despoiled of their goods and 
ien outlawed by the local Justiciary. In these 
:ases, Frederick conferred a great boon on his sub- 
jects by allowing corporate bodies and married 
women to be represented by Proctors. After the 
lapse of a year from the proclamation of the Ban 
agaiQst a contumacious culprit, outlawry ensued ; he 
was accounted a public enemy, whose life might be 
taken without question; a price was set on his head; 
a hundred Augustals, if he was a Count ; six, if he 
was a peasant; those who sheltered him were liable 
to a similar sentence of outlawry. A man imder the 
Ban might give himself up within two months from 
its proclamation, but was obliged to make good all 
Itjsses sustained in consequence of his contumacy by 
his accusers. The names of outlaws were sent up to 
Court and entered on the roUs, but the righte of their 
kinsfolk were respected, so long as no aid in money 
was afforded to the culprite. The son of such an 
outcast became the ward of the Treasury. Defend- 
ants in criminal causes were allowed to give bail for 
their appearance ; unless their guilt was notorious or 
the charge one of high treason. It had often been 
found in practice that a man was accused by his 

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380 THE msTosr of 

CHAP, spiteful enemies, merely that he might be throws 

. into prison ; when they had gained their aid, tbej 

woxild quietly withdraw the charge. The prisot 
allowance allotted by the Treasury was very small 
those in gaol had to keep themselves ; but Frederic) 
declared that he had often known a sojourn in (m 
of his prisons turn a man into a good citizen for thi 
future. The worst offenders, it seems, were sait ii 
chains to Malta. Fraudulent accusers were dov 
punished with the loss of the sixth part of theu 
goods. To prevent calimmy, every accuser mu* 
bind himself to undergo, in default of proc^ tbi 
punishment he might have invoked against th^ 
accused ; collusion between the two, for the poipose 
of delaying judgment, was punished by heavy fines ; 
the Emperor set his fiEu^e sternly against compoaod- 
ing felonies deemed atrocious by the conunon law. 
He wished to hold the balance even between aD 
suitors in his courts, whether th^ were Boman^ 
Lombards, or Normans ; he therefore abolished the 
term of fifteen days, allowed by the law of the latter 
race, which interposed vexatious delays in litigation. 
The old law against contumacy, which bore too iard 
upon the Normans, was also changed for a milder 
enactment. The libel or indictment was preferred 
without delay, containing full particularB of the 
charge sought to be established ; all ezceptioDS to it 
must be tendered within three days of its pnefer- 
ment The Judge then granted as long a delay ^ 
the natm^ of the case might require, taxing the costs 
of any frivolous defence. A Defendant would some- 
times endeavour to rebut the charge against him, by 
bringing a counter-accusation of some greater oS&ice 
against the Plaintiff; but Frederick ordered the prior 

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diarge always to be proceeded with first ; except in chap. 
the case of high treason, when the Crown had a right ^^ 
to the goods of the culprit As soon as the cause 
came on for trial, each party took an oath to abstain 
from calumny ; the Plaintiff then b^an, and was 
restricted to two days at the furthest. The Defend- 
ant followed; peremptory exceptions, replications, 
and triplications were discotmtenanced ; all costs use- 
lessly incurred were taxed by the Judge. He might 
put questions and administer oaths to the parties at 
his discretion. He kept the advocates in proper 
order, for by the Constitutions silence was termed 
the homage paid to justice. No one might speak in 
Coiut, without leave fix)m the Judge ; a whisper firom 
the client to his advocate was the utmost allowed, 
unless a clamorous interruption was justified by im- 
mediate necessity. Three warnings were vouchsafed 
to a noisy or tedious litigant ; after these, he atoned 
for his folly by fines ranging from one to sixteen 
Augustals, according to his degree. Those advocates, 
who made broad their phylacteries in their perora- 
tions, were not spared ; they might have two days, 
and no more, for their legal arguments, after the 
witnesses had been examined. The fees to be re- 
ceived by the Counsel were fixed by the Judge, 
unTess the cause was one of property ; in that case 
the sixtieth part of the value of the matter in Utiga- 
tion was always the advocate's due. The Plaintifi* 
was also bound to reimburse the messengers of the 
Court who had carried the citation ; the fee varied 
according to the distance. The Judge had to give 
his decision within three days ; it was not valid, un- 
less in writing ; the defeated suitor was always con- 
denmed in costs, though he was allowed fifty days, 

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CHAP- Bhould he wish to appeal to a superior Court The 
^^ Crown showed itself most merciful to the weak, sudi 
as widows, orphans, and the poor ; it furnished them 
with advocates and champions free of expense ; it 
shielded them from the exacting harpies that are 
always found attached to law courts; it gave the 
friendless suppliants a daim to be heard before all 
others, as soon as the law business of the Churdi 
and the Treasury had been brought to an end. 
' We water the domain of Justice,' said Frederick, 
' with the streams of mercy/ He would even aDow 
women to present themselves before his Court, pro- 
vided they were poor and helpless, although the 
common feeling was against modest matrons appear- 
ing in public. The frailty of the sex was thought 
ample excuse for mistakes in lawsuits, such as aban- 
doning a claim for an inadequate consideraticNi, or 
neglecting to sign an instrument. Women were held 
harmless against the fraud of their Proctors, and 
special provision was made for children, who were 
accounted minors until they reached the age of 
eighteen. All instruments brought forward at the 
trial were narrowly scrutinized ; in the case of debts 
the acknowledgment had to be witnessed in writing by 
a Judge, a Notary, and three witnesses, if the loan 
amounted to more than a pound of gold. The Im- 
perial Judges insisted upon the production of instru- 
ments in Court Thus, in a case which was heard 
early in 1239, the Crown obtained a decree against 
two Barons who were detaining some of its land^, 
mainly on, the groimd that the Defendants were 
unable to produce a Charter said to have been 
granted them by the Emperor, on which they re- 
Ued; although many witnesses were brought for- 

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iirard to swear that they had seen the Charter in chap, 

question. The Proctor for the Treasiuy challenged 

the Barons either to produce the Charter, or to 
prove that it had been destroyed ; and the Court 
gave sentence in his favour. No documents were 
held good, which contained the names of traitors or 
invaders of the Kingdom, like the Emperor Oiliio ; 
such charters were brought to Frederick's officials, 
who erased the objectionable name and date, and 
inserted the name of the rightful Sovereign. An 
Imperial confirmation of old Charters of the Crown 
was absolutely necessary to their validity, and this 
confirmation must have been granted since the year 
1220. Commissions were issued for the examination 
of sick or aged persons, who could not appear in 
Court ; and all fi^udulent dealing on the part of the 
delegates was punished by heavy fines. 

Frederick was shrewd enough to see the folly of 
the trial by ordeal, against which the Church had 
already set her £Eice, on the strength of the text ; 
•^ Thou shall not tempt the Lord thy God.' A missal, 
compiled at Palermo during the earlier years of the 
Emperor's life, instructs us as to the fourfold usage 
of Sicily in these matters. The accused received the 
Host after a solemn warning fi-om the priest, who 
then blessed the water, sang the seven special psalms 
and the Litany, and ofiered a prayer to Christ that 
the truth might be made manifest If the appeal 
was made to cold water, the accused, after kissing 
the Gospel and the Cross, was sprinkled with holy 
water and plunged into the probative element ; if it 
refused to receive him, his guilt was clear; if he sank, 
he was pronounced innocent Sceptics were found, 
even in that age, who attributed these effects to 

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CHAP, physical causes. When the appeal was made to boil- 
__ ing water, the accused dipped his hand thereiii, and 
it was afterwards wrapped up in a doth, sealed witii 
the Episcopal seal. He spent three days in fesring 
and prayer, and then tendered his hand for inspec- 
tion, the seal having been removed ; if the hand was 
nofunscathed, he underwent a suitable penanca In 
the ordeal of red-hot iron, the fire was blessed by 
the priest, and the accused carried the glowing ma« 
in his hand for three paces in the name of the 
Trinity; the hand was then sealed up as before. 
There was a fourth kind of proo^ in which the ac- 
cused placed in his mouth some bread and cheese 
blessed by the priest ; if it could not be swallowaJ, 
guilt was presiuned. But the &bled doom <rf ^ 
Godwin was not meted out to Sicilian culprite; the 
Missal fix)m which we quote invariably forbids the 
punishment of death.* Frederick now put (fo^ 
altogether these Leges Paribiles, as they were calW 
by simple folk fi:om a notion that the truth was m 
this way made to appear ; they ought rather, bs w 
thought, to be called Leges AbsconssB k Veritate. 

Another sort of appeal to God's judgment was less 
uncompromisingly dealt with in the new Confititii- 
tions. The Lombards rooted in the Kingdom their 
national custom of the duel or single combat as a ^^ 
of truth, and used to challenge a hostile witness to a 
trial of physical strength. But the Emperor p^*- 
noimced this to be divination rather than p^ 
contrary to nature, to the common law, and to th? 
rules of justice. Still, even he found himadf ^ 

♦ This Miasal ia quoted by Gregorio, ' CoiuadeMiioni »P* * 
Storn di Sicilia.* It may have been compiled a ftwiw*'* 
before Frederick's birth, which is its earliest pooBiblo if^ 

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--trained to allow the wager of battle in certain cases ; chap. 

!'• >r instance, on the trial of a poisoner or a traitor, if L_ 

t lie presiding Judge had exhausted all other modes 
* »f proof. Such criminals, Frederick declared, were 
lx.'yond the pale of moderation, and were liable to an 
iiw-ful kind of trial He did his best, however, to 
ensure a fair fight Thus the man challenged was 
always henceforth to be allowed the choice of wea- 
lM-*ns, and might fight on foot or on horseback accord- 
iiifT as he might wish ; in old times, it had been the 
cliaUenger who had enjoyed and abused this privi- 
l«--ge of selection. The combatants were put on an 
equal footing, as far as might be ; thus, if the man 
<liallenged was blind of an eye, the other party was 
l>oimd to deprive himself for the time of the use of 
i ►ne of his own eyes. A man above sixty, or below 
twenty-five, might employ a substitute against a chal- 
]• nirer. This champion, before entering the ring, 
took an oath that he believed his principals to be in 
the right, and that he would stand up for them with 
hi^ whole might No covenant was allowed between 
c »inbatants, that they would abstain from using hands 
« ►r teeth ; each must put forth all his means of 
i ^STence, though King William had forbidden the use 
i »f clubs bristling with sharp spikes. If the presiding 
Ju<lge should think, with the concurrence of the by- 
standers, that the champion had played into the 
enemy's hands or had raised the craven cry too soon, 
then both the principal and the faithless champion 
were doomed to death. This took place, if the 
wronged principal was the defendant ; but the cham- 
pion only lost a hand, if his principal was the accuser, 
f >erhaps a father eager to avenge the death of a son. 
VOL. I. c c 

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CHAP. In cases of high treason, the accuser lost his life if h 
' did not prove the conqueror in the combat. 

The criminal law, as moulded by the Suatria 
Emperor, was very severe. But the imnily spirit * 
the age demanded strong measures. No weakne^ 
could now be laid to the charge of the govemm^ii 
There was no need to have recourse to the Truce n 
Grod, sworn in solemn assembhes, the only remed; 
for dvil broils known to the old Norman conquerors.* 
Peace throughout the land was henceforth to h 
inviolably maintained ; no reprisals were allowal 
imless to repel an attack upon life or property; ev« 
then the retaliator was not to employ arms superi«>] 
to those used by the aggressor, and was bound u 
defend himself on the instant, or not at alL Noc- 
turnal burglars, however, might be put to death on 
the spot, if they would not surrender. Any Count 
or Baron carrying on war on his own account lo^t 
his head and all his goods. Instances are recordtii 
of punishment following such lawlessness eleven 
years after the offence. No weapons were allowed 
to be borne ; even knives and iron-tipped staves 
were forbidden ; though Courtiers were allowed an 
exemption, while knights and burghers might wear 
swords on a joimaey. Foreigners had to lay aside 
their armour on entering the Kingdom. Any one 
inflicting a woxmd with forbidden weapons lost the 
offending hand; Frederick took credit to himself for 
mitigating the old laws, which in such cases in- 
variably presumed a mmderous intention. Not even 
the Koyal Castellans might go armed outside their 
fortresses, xmless they were employed on their Lords 

* Gregorio. 

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business. Murderers were beheaded or hung, accord- chap. 

ng to their rank ; children and madmen being ex- 

•(*pted. If the murderer could not be discovered, a 
lundred Augustals were exacted from the district ; a 
popular rising was now and then the result of this 

An inferior unjustly attacked by a superior was 
iiUowed to invoke the Sovereign's name, and this 
was called a Defense^ If a Lord robbed his vassal 
after this outcry, he was debtor to the Treasury, as 
well as to the wronged sufferer, after a civil process ; 
but this did not apply to offences against the person. 
Frederick's officials imposed the Defensa in cases 
where factions or fights were apprehended Three 
witnesses of unblemished character were required to 
convict the scomer of the Boyal name, who lost a 
third of his property if he had employed arms in his 
crime, Jews and Saracens were admitted to a share 
in the benefits of this privilege ; any abuse of it by 
debtors or others was carefully guarded against 

The persons of women had been already protected 
l)y King Roger and King William, who had pimished 
raj)e with death, whether a nun or a harlot were 
the sufferer. Frederick's laws were still more severe ; 
they were aimed against a custom prevalent in some 
of the Sicilian provinces, according to which, a sub- 
sequent marriage was supposed to atone for the out- 
rage. He was aware of the difficulties that perplex 
the trial of such cases, and reserved them specially 
for his own decision, now that the ordeal of battle 
liad been almost entirely forbidden. Any person 
under the same roofi who did not fly to the rescue 
of the victim, if she screamed, was fined four Augus- 

tak But a woman, bringing a false charge of rape 

c c 2 

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CHAP to extort marriage or money, was sentenced to death : 

ifpregnant, her executionwas delayed forty dap after 

her giving birth to a child, which was then brought 
up at the- cost of the Treasury, in the event of do 
kinsman coming forward to maintain it. The con- 
victed ravisher found no mercy ; in one instance, an 
Imperial letter ordered the castration of a steward, 
who had outraged both a lady and her handmaid 
after they had been entrusted to the knave's care by 
his lord, a certain knight By the new Constitudoas 
procuresses had their noses cut off, were branded cm 
the brow, and were flogged. All who blasphemed 
Grod or the Virgin, a very conomon vice in Italy to 
this day, lost their tongues ; those guilty of perjuiy 
in a court of justice, and those who stripped corpses, 
were deprived of their hands. Frederick changed 
the absurd punishment of death for accidental homi- 
cides. But he maintained the old laws, by whi<'h 
men guilty of arson, forgers of Boyal charters, uttea rs 
of bad money, clippers of the coinage, destroyers of 
wills, suborners of peijury, and sellers of poison, vrere 
sentenced to death. He adjudged the same doom to 
those who compounded love potions, if the draught 
should prove fatal 

In cases of forcible dispossession, the new Constirj- 
tions took a middle course between the Lombard anJ 
the common law. If the rightful claimant had been 
kept out of real property, he recovered it and half 
its value besides; if personal property had botii 
carried off, it must be restored fourfold. A remeily 
was now for the first time given against the heir or 
the assignee of the wrong-doer. It was a commoi: 
practice to cut down trees and set fire to house? at 
night ; these crimes were punishable with death, hlJ 

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the district had to make good the damage even to a chap. 

Jew or a Saracen, since it was often foimd to be the 1 

case that the culprits were screened by their neigh- 
bours. Frederick granted a special letter of redress 
to a widow who had found her vineyard cut down, 
)a her return from C!ourt ; he strove also to detect 
Lhe men guilty of laying waste the crops belonging 
to the Archdeacon of Monreale. 

It is the glory of England, her special glory, 
that our common law has never recognized the 
U)rture as a means of wringing confession of crimes. 
At the time of the ruin of the Templars, we find it 
questioned whether a tormentor by trade could be 
found in our land. Frederick, enlightened in so 
many respects, was no wiser than the rest of the 
contment as regards the torture ; he enjoined it in 
Rispected cases of murder, after inquisition had been 
made. He himself however confessed that this 
method had often been known to fail Whenever it 
did fail, the district forfeited a hundred Augustals 
l^or a murdered Christian, and half that smn for a 
murdered Jew or Saracen ; these xmbehevers were 
often the victims of Christian bigotry. In Sicily, as 
m Ireland now, it would seem that the neighbour- 
hood was sometimes in tacit league with the mur- 
uerers. Death was the punishment for many a 
crime in the Sicihan code ; it was inflicted on those 
^'ho helped themselves to their neighbour's goods 
during a shipwreck, a fire, or the fall of a house ; 
^y man who n^lected to give all due aid in such 
^se3 was fined an AugustaL The Ueges were for- 
t^idden to appropriate stray animals ; these must be 
"^ied over to the local Justiciary, on pain of a 
charge of robbery. It is plain, the lawgiver remarks, 

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CHAP, that no one can lose animals by their nmning away, 

. if they be not seized and kept. Any one captuiing 

a robber with the stolen animal, was rewarded with 
a tenth part of its value. 

The foresters both of the Crown and of the Barons 
were accused of grievous exactions in seizing stray 
cattle ; it was enacted that sheep should be allowed 
pasture during a day and a night, while they were 
being driven along. The Emperor mitigated the 
punishment of death adjudged by his Gorman prede- 
cessors to transgressors of the laws respecting cattle. 
He allowed the horses of any traveller to feed on hay 
or grass in fields by the wayside, so long as their 
hind legs remained in the pubUc road ; only tiie half 
of their bodies might be introduced into the field- 
The fences and hedges in the Kingdom cannot have 
been very formidable obstacles. 

One of the most important trusts in the realm was 
that of the CasteUan or gaoler. He was forbidden 
to take more than a specified sum fix>m the prisoners 
in his castle ; if he connived at their escape, he was 
capitally punished ; if they broke out through his 
negligence, he lost all his goods and was imprisoned 
for a year. He was not allowed to meddle in the 
business of the district in which his fortress ky. 
under a penalty of fifty Augustals and the loss of 
his post. He was aided by a certain numb» of 
sergeants, men of approved loyalty, receiving three 
gold tarens a month, who might not go out of die 
castle without his leave, and even then not more 
than four at a time. He was under the .authority 
of the Captain of his province, by whom he could 
be imprisoned or removed on just cause beiag shown 
to the Emperor. The garrison imder the orders of 

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t'lC Castellan varied in numbers ; that of Bari com- chap. 


prised a hundred sergeants, that of Naples ten 

knights, sixty crossbowmen, and a hundred and forty 
M.-rjeants and sentinels. The latter Castle was pro- 
vided with an oven, a bkcksmith's shop, and stores 
ijf millet, salt, and coals ; it was thoroughly repaired 
in 1239. Frederick's fortresses were kept in good 
order by the men of the district, this being one of 
tiie feudal burdens ; if any persons claimed exemp- 
tion, they had to prove their case by the oaths of 
M.veral witnesses. No houses were allowed to abut 
•m an Imperial Castle; if built, they were Uable 
lo be pulled down at any moment. The Saracens 
au«l sergeants who garrisoned Frederick's numerous 
strongholds in Sicily were provided by his orders 
with barley, wine, cheese, and shoes ; to see to this 
was a part of the duty of the Messinese Secretary. 
The Castle of Catania was begun in 1239, great 
>tores of stone and mortar were laid in, and the 
men of the district furnished the money, for which 
ilicy received an Imperial letter of thanks. Besides 
the renowned Matagriffone, a new Castle was built 
at Messina in 1240, upon which a hundred beasts of 
burden and twenty yoke of oxen were employed, 
<lrawing stones from the quarries. The Castles of 
Buri and Trani were repaired in the same year ; the 
rain threatening great damage, unless the halls and 
chambers were roofed in. The Castellans were some- 
tiinesj charged with the duty of attending to the growth 
of the trees which surroimded their walls. Frederick 
would tolerate no Castles but his own in the towns of 
his domain. No towers belonging to private persons, 
^uch as those which frowned over the riotous streets 
of Viterbo and Bologna, were allowed to encumber 

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CHAP, the cities of the Kingdom ; Graeta alone had at one 

IX. . . 
time nearly thirty of these petty fortresses. But n-> 

Castles, erected since the days of William the Goo-l. 

were allowed to stand without Frederick's ?pe*.i:il 

hcense ; all must be pulled down by Christmas, 12oL 

The Imperial strongholds were used not only a- 

gaols, but as arsenals ; the wars of the time deman<it4 

a large store of arms. We find Saracen ^Jthai< 

fabricating armour and bows at Melfi, Canossa, antl 

Lucera. Master Simon of Syria was kept at work 

in Messina, turning out crossbows; the Emper-'.' 

wrote to know how much progress was made evtn- 

week; sixty-five of these weapons, tlie work »»/ 

Simon, were stored in one Castle. The Imjvri .1 

galleys would sometimes bring back a airi:") »»t 

crossbows from Acre, 'good, true, and beautitu..' 

as Frederick wished his arms to be. All that o»:.l I 

be found of the proper length, car\'ed with tJ;.* 

chisel, were bought up by his orders. Momncr 

every private ship, making the voyage to Pale>tiiiv. 

had to bring home a certiiin number of c^>^^bo^v^ 

one for each of its cables ; the fine laid by tl;o 

Emperor on those who failed in tliis new duty caux-] 

much grumbling among the lieges. 

The Admiral held one of the highest posts in t: • 

Kingdom. Nicholas Spinola, a noble Genoese wIum 

Frederick appointed for life, proved liimself as acli\> 

as any of the Xorman seamen of the prerious :u:'- 

lie had under him Vice- Admirals and at leii>t oiio 

official in each dockyard ; he corresponded diixv'.V 

with the Treasury. No one might sail as a privaiu: 

without Spinola's leave; the chief was bound touiav 

good any damage done to friendly ships hy ih""** 

whom he hcenscd. He was supreme in all causes ^' 

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•iiging to seamen, just as the Marshal was supreme in .chap. 

he army. He might depose any navy official, except 

\x><e whose office was hereditary. The leader of 

ill.' enemy's fleet, if taken, was Spinola's acknow- 

t Iged prize, besides all arms and a fixed proportion 

•f the com and wine that might be captured. The 

Admiral enjoyed certain privileges in the event of 

viccess against the Saracens, and he was stimulated 

i y an Imperial letter to demand new tributes from 

;!ioin. He might have all foreign vessels wrecked 

■Li the coasts of the Kingdom, and his property paid 

ha duty to the Crown on entering or leaving the 

Sicilian harbours. Spinola took his measures against 

•/ *.' Slavonian pirates, who issued forth under the 

J i>c of merchants from Zara, Eagusa, and Spalatro ; 

I. 'ue of these robbers might be released, even should 

'.xy offer money for their pardon. The Genoese 

and Venetian Caravans used to arrive from the East 

a!^mt the month of May ; in time of war they were 

a< counted fair game ; four ships and four galleys of 

tKc Imperial fleet were thought strong enough to 

^I'-al with them; Frederick would not commit to 

writing the instructions with which he charged Spi- 

ii<»Ia in these matters. Due precautions were taken 

airaiiist the enemies of the Kingdom ; a trusty man 

^^ »^ appointed in eiich harbour who boarded every 

strange vessel before it was allowed to unload its 

* «irgo, making strict search for rebels or their letters. 

liie Admiral found that his duties often clashed with 

*^'"'^e of the local magistrates; he sometimes com- 

\)liiined of their delays in ftu-nishing him with money. 

Ho Was provided with armour for his seamen, with 

V^^^\\ wine, biscuit, and salt pork. Fortified docks, 

^*J hold twenty galleys, were bmlt at Brindisi, the 

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CHAP, chief harbour of Apulia. Others were constructed a) 


Messina and Mcotera, while those at Naples wen 

enlarged. We hear of Imperial ships being built a 
Oaeta, Naples, Castellamare, Ams^lfi^ and SalariMi 
Sorrento and Ischia furnished each a galley to tin 
fleet; the crews of these two made up 283 men^all paii 
to serve for a stated time. Admiral Spinola infiisei 
some of his Genoese activity into the towns of tin 
Apulian coast, the inhabitants of which seemed at oix 
time to have lost all taste for the sea. He promisei 
his master to have ten ships and seventy-five galler 
ready within a very few months. Frederick ordem 
him to sell a damaged ship for as much as it wouJc 
fetch, and to see another ship, which it was desimbU 
to purchase,with his own eyes before buying. A third 
too large for navigation, was to be reduced in size. 
Each had its name ; one bore that of the Eagle, an- 
other that of the Half World. Wood for their con- 
struction was cut down in the Emperor's forests. 
These ships were not all equipped for war; Fred- 
erick was one of the keenest merchants of the day. 
He was ready to convey pilgrims to Palestine on pay- 
ment of their passage-money; but his chief gains 
arose fix)m the export of com. He enjoyed a great 
advantage over his rivals in trade, since we find him 
forbidding his subjects to ship any grain, until bi^ 
own vessels had got fairly under weigh for the Tunis 
market. He was much annoyed on learning thai 
the Genoese merchants had contrived to overreach 
him by buying up Sicilian com with the money 
of the King of Tunis, to their own great profit. 
The wary Emperor was fully alive, as his r^ttrs 
prove, to the advantage of buying in the cheapest 
market and selling in the dearest, whether in Spain 

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or in Afiica. His agents, it is said, pushed their chap, 

way as far as Hindostan; he had dealings with 

ail the Eastern Sultans, from whom he received 
costly gifts; at one time a dozen camels arrived, 
laden with gold and silver.* The Paynim stood 
upon their dignity when treating with their Italian 
brother. Thus C!onrad of Amici, Frederick's Am- 
bassador at Cairo, sturdily reftised to kiss the 
Sultan's hand, though bribes were offered. The 
Mohanmiedan, determined to trimnph over the 
Christian, gave him audience in a room so small 
that no one coidd enter without bending the knee ; 
besides this, carpets embroidered with crosses were 
laid upon the floor. But Conrad, aware of the 
intended trick, came into the room with his back 
to the Sultan. A Turcoman asked, why the Chris- 
tian was trampling on the cross of the Lord? 
' These,' answered the envoy, * are not the one holy 
Cross of Christ, but the crosses of the thieves.' 
He was sent back to his master, laden with many 


The treaty between Abou Zak, the King of Tunis, 
and the great King of the Eomans, was drawn up 
early in 1231. Captives, who had not changed 
their creeds, were to be restored on both sides, 
and the Moslem dwelling in the island of Pentel- 
laria, between Afiica and Sicily, were to be ruled 
by a Mussulman deputy, sent by Frederick. Mer- 
chants were to be free from vexatious interference 
in both coimtries. The Emperor was to be answer- 
able for the depredations of Christian pirates, and 
the Tunisian undertook to make all the coast of 

* M. Paris. f Anon. Vaticani Hist. Sicula. 

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CHAP. Africa^ as far as Egypt, secure to the Sicilian cam 
-_^L- vek This treaty, negotiated by Vibald a Chiisdaj 
knight, was to last for ten years, but the African after 
wards gave offence by opening his harbours v 
Frederick's Italian enemies. A r^ular tribute wa 
long paid by the King of Timis to the rulers o 
Sicily, whether Norman, Suabian, or Angevin, u 
return for the com he was allowed to import fit>n 
the island.* Frederick also sent frequent embassie 
to the Caliph of Morocco, and entertained envoys 
from Cairo at his own cost from the time of theii 
arrival in Apulia. He recruited his army from the 
subjects of these Mussulman Princes, adding tht 
Moslem of Barbary to their more civilized br^thnai 
already at Lucera ; just as the Sovereigns of Africa 
employed Spanish Christians in their servicef The 
Popes might express their horror at this scandaloiu 
interchange of good offices ; but the world was for 
wiser than it had been in the First Crusade, and 
Sicily and Africa were now drawn closely together 
by the ties of commerce. 

The old Sicilian coinage had been a strange med- 
ley ; Frederick's grandfather had stamped some of 
his coins with the Arabic profession of fSaith ; the 
Emperor himself struck nothing but Latin coins, the 
execution of which fiEir surpassed that of any other 
European mint Constant changes took place ; the 
money of Brindisi was substituted for that of Amalfi ; 
and six trusty men in each town assessed the new 
coinage at its proper value. It was brought into the 
various provinces, and its reception was compulsory 
when it was once made current Frederick s coiitf 

* Saba Malaspina. f ChroniooD. 

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ere at first called Imperials; but in 1231 the chap. 

ugustals were struck ; they bore his head on the 

le side and the Eagle on the other.* The mint at 
essina existed for the benefit of Sicily and Calabria ; 
Jewish notary employed in it had once to report to 
te Emperor that many in these provinces refused 
i deliver up the old coins after receiving the new, 
iking advantage of the Secretary's death.f 

As r^ards taxation, Frederick was not satisfied 
rith the usual feudal aids, given for the defence of 
be Bealm, for the Coronation of the Sovereign, for 
he knighting of his son, for the marriage of his 
laughter. He had taken much money, as we have 
een, for his Crusade ; and after that event, he made 
t a regular practice to enforce a collection of taxes 
n January every year. His constant wars, some- 
times on behalf of Eome, more often against her, 
forced him to drain the resources of his Sicilian sub- 
jects, to whom he made a tardy reparation on his 
death-bed. Besides the aids, all feudal holders, in- 
cluding even Bishops, paid a reUef to the Crown on 
coming into possession of a fief. The indirect im- 
posts had been numerous even in the golden days of 
the old Norman Kings ; these were now multiplied. 
There were harbour dues, fishing dues, grazing dues, 
and others for oil, cheese, and meat, of which the 
Church took her tithe. To these Frederick added 
several new taxes on iron, steel, pitch, salt, silk, dye- 
ing, soap, milk, and timber, besides many others. 
The monopoly of salt, usurped by the Emperor, was 
a great grievance; he had many salt mines in his 

domain lands ; and if there was any scarcity, he im- 

• Ric. San Germano. f Regeeta. 

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CHAP, ported it fix)m Sardinia ; he was very unwilliiig to 

!_ lower its price. Those who worked in his salt minej 

sometimes grumbled at the diminution of their wages. 
Andrew of Isemia, a lawyer who wrote his glosses 
in the reign of the Angevin Kings, bears witness to 
the discontent caused by the new taxes, and declares 
that Frederick who introduced them is sleeping, not 
in peace, but in pitch.* 

The taxes were heavy, but it must be owned that 
the Emperor did all in his power to lighten them. 
He watched the proceedings of his officials with a 
heedful eye, ever ready to put down abuses, and to 
foster commerce. In 1234 he established yearly 
fairs, which were to be held at seven cities of the 
Kingdom in succession, thus stimulating the industry 
of every one of the provinces. He seemed to forestal 
our modem advances in poUtical economy. The 
Crown had indeed its monopoUes of various articles 
in conmion use, but these were managed in such a 
way as to further the pubUc interests. No officials 
were allowed to fatten on the miseries of the 
people. 'The glory of Kulers,' Frederick writes, 
' is the safe and comfortable state of their subjects' 
Even at a time when he needed every ounce of 
gold that his ministers could scrape together, he 
chid them for their misdirected zeal in raising the 
tariffs. He forbade them to tax the exportation of 
provisions firom one province to another. He would 
decree a diminution of taxation in hard thavs, 
and woidd adjust the burden according to the 
resources of each particular district. Free coutm? 
was given to trade even in time of war, when 

* In pice, non in pace requieflcit See TinboadiL 

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he exportation of macliines and horses alone waa chap. 

•jrbidden. He was willing to wink at the sojourn of 

tis Genoese and Venetian enemies in his dominions, 
f they iwrould only live in peace and abstain from 
ntrigues against him. Frederick's aim was to pro- 
note his own power by giving free play to the 
aerp^es of his people. He was as attentive to 
he interests of tillage, as to those of commerce. 
Being a great landed proprietor, he built mills for 
limself and his neighbours, and planned model farms 
or the instruction of his subjects. These were under 
the direction of a superintendent, who drew up an 
inventory of the stock every October. The stewards 
were closely watched, and were forbidden to employ 
their own kinsmen on the farms. A strict account 
of the crops was taken ; the wine made was 
stored in clean vessels ; oats, millet, hemp, cotton, 
were sown on each farm ; peacocks, geese, pigeons, 
aiid other poultry were bred, and Frederick wished 
Uj know what was done with their feathers. Bees 
were among the live stock; oxen, pigs, goats, and 
>heep were fattened and sold for the benefit of the 
Treasury; while vines and olives were planted in 
suitable spots, especially in the coimtry roimd Mes- 
>ina. The farmers in Western Sicily complained that 
there was no wood wherewith to make their ploughs, 
on account of the space occupied by the Emperor's 
hunting grounds ; he hastened to remedy this want. 
He fanned out marshes and woods in his own domain 
lands, granting leases for five years to the highest 
bidder. He kept herds of buffaloes, and we hear of 
60OO sheep of his in Calabria, and 500 cows in Sicily; 
some of these latter were allowed to run wild in the 
forests. Frederick took pains to maintain a proper 

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CHAP, supply of the most valuable animals, sending hi 

orders throughout the Kingdom that those who ha 

mares should cover them with asses and horses i 
alternate years. He himself imported steeds of n 
nowned pedigree from Barbaiy, and estabhshed 
breeding stud in Apulia.* The yearlings were can 
fully kept at a distance of ten miles from the stallioi 
and mares; they were turned out in the Capiu 
nata, and men were hired to cut grass for then 
The charge for disabled horses appears in th 
Eegisters ; Frederick would insist on knowing hoi 
many of his stallions died, and in what way. H 
imprisoned certain Sicilian Chamberlains, who hat 
taken advantage of their superior's death to neglec 
the steeds entrusted to their care. Twenty t»l 
these SidUan mares were fed on barley by Tre- 
derick's special orders, to improve their milk^ 
The island seems to have been also famous loi 
its breed of asses ; three were brought over to 
cover the mares in Frederick's Calabrian stud. On 
one occasion he sent for three ambling mult^ 
young and soimd, for the use of his Court Tlie 
saddles for these animals were ordered at Aflp«* 
and were made of good Cordova leather. He was 
well versed in the management of the stud anrf 
made his servants equally sldlfuL One of the?e» 
Jordan Kuffo of Calabria, the composer of a treatise 
on the training of horses, avowed that he owed bi^ 
knowledge to a long apprenticeship in the Emperors 
stables.f About the same time, Master Ho^ o( 
Palermo translated fix>m Arabic into Latin a work by 
Hippocrates on the same subject;J; 

• Aratia, the French haras. j- Giaiwwo* 

X Tiraboschi. 

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Frederick appointed in each province a Master chap. 

Proctor, who looked out for all property that might . 
fall to the Crown, and watched over the Imperial 
domain lands, granaries, fisheries, and farms; these 
I »tiicials leased out various offices to the highest bid- 
' ler, provided he was a man of good conduct ; the 
Emperor would confirm the appointment, after hear- 
Inir aU the particulars. Others bought the privilege 
« »f collecting the duties on taxable articles ; they were 
^ ubidden to force the provincials into buying more 
-alt than was really requisite. 

From the preceding facts, it will be clear that, 
whatever might be the state of the rest of the Im* 
penal dominions, Sicily and Apulia at least were 
iiappy in the enjoyment of a far-seeing ruler, a des- 
fK>t indeed, but a despot who wielded his power to 
promote the happiness and comfort of his subjects, 
not to fleece them. All that was wanted for their 
complete prosperity was peace in Upper Italy, a boon 
denied them owing to the policy of the Popes. It is 
true that Honorius, Gregory, and Innocent were loud 
in their outcries against the Emperor's Sicilian mea- 
sures, which, aiming at the perfect equahty of all 
men before the law, beat down the power of the 
nobles, bridled the turbulence of the clergy, and 
checked faction in the cities. The heavy taxation 
of Sicily was another charge always ready to be 
laimched against Frederick. But the Sicilians knew 
not when they were weU off*. They might murmur 
at the Suabian whips, yet what were these to the 
coming Angevin scorpions ? That very Pope, who 
rooted out the House of Hohenstaufen for ever, 
bears witness to the statesmanlike quaUties of 
ita greatest ornament. Clement the Fourth writes 


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CHAP, thus in 1267 to his greedy champion, Charl^ | 

-1 Anjou, on finrling him not content with the treasury 

of the conquered Kingdom; 'Who can pity tl 
poverty of which you complain, when you have nj 
the abihty or the sense to Hve on the resources of 
reahn, in which the noble Frederick, some time Ei:^ 
peror of the Bomans, who had, as you know, great^ 
expenses than you, was able to enrich both himv 
and his subjects enormously, and besides to replen:^ 
Lombardy, Tuscany, the two Marches, and G«: 
many?'* It is very possible to imagine a subject 
the Sicilian Crown, bom under the old national Xt 
man line, who might have been a witness both 
the Suabian conquest in his boyhood, and of tri 
Angevin conquest in his old age. Such a mai 
looking back upon the past, and taking leave of lii 
at a time when the whole of the Kingdom was gross 
ing under the yoke of bloodthirsty and lecherod 
foreigners newly brought in by Papal managemin^ 
would probably fix upon the years that immediateij 
followed Frederick's Crusade, as the golden age *^ 
Southern Italy falling within an old man's reo^iKti 
tions. Strange as it may seem to an Englishicai^ 
the history of Sicily has been one of retrogresj^i^^n ) 
the Emperor's reforms were annulled by those tr).«l 
succeeded to his Crown, NeapoUtan writere, n«»J 
&r from our own times, sigh when they think of t^/ 
good old days of the Hoheqstaufen Kings.f 
There were not many degrees of rank among ^ " 

♦ Quoted in Br^hollea' Preface, 426. I nispcct that no I?j> 
Pope would have written in iheae tenns of Frederick ; Ivui i - 
ment was a Proven9al. 

t Coletta talks of < la buona casa Suera.* See also Gianc.:- 
Galanti, and Amari. 

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Sdfian nobility. The old Dukes of Naples had long chap. 

race passed away ; in Frederick's time there were , 

only Counts, Barons, and Knights. He had stripped 
di€m of much of the power they had enjoyed since 
the death of King Soger ; but he still allowed them 
ifae priril^e of being tried by those of their peers 
wko held their fiefe of the Crown alone, whether the 
chirge were civil or criminal. An appeal lay from 
tfae sentence to the Emperor, who would then ap- 
point a C!ount or Baron to pronounce the final de- 
QsioQ, after this Judge had sworn to act aright. No — 
ilienation of fiefs, whether by deed or by will, was 
nlid in law, without the confirmation of tiie Crown. 
Frederick abolished the old harsh laws of prescription, 
Ij which adverse possession for a year, a month, a 
ijr, and an homr, ousted the rightful owner. The 
bokkr of a fief had now to prove undisputed pos- 
ttwm for thirty years, before he could be secure 
fcr ever. A hundred years' possession was required 
to bar the claims of the Treasury ; the old limit had 
kem forty or sixty years. But tiiese Constitutions of 
liSl gave no similar relief to the holders of small 
hnm depending on fiefs. 

As to vassals, the Prelates and Nobles were still al* 
lowed to retain the customary civil jurisdiction, and to 
Bold their Courts ; the Imperial Judge only interfered, 
whoi the impleaded vassals of the nobles happened 
to dwell on his master's domains, or when one of 
the litigants owed service to the Crown ; the fine and 
the salary were in such cases shared between the 
Tieasury and the Lord. No one was allowed to 
"ppress his vassals contrary to justice, or a fine was 
doe both to the wronged man and to the Treasury ; 
tviasal fiELlsely accusing his Lord had to pay tiie 

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CHAP, costs of the other party. No PreliU^ CJoimt, or 

Baron might retain vassals who had been adjudged 

to belong to the Crown, iinder penalty of confiscatioo 
of all the culprit's goods. Such vassals, if recalled tc 
the Imperial domain, might be compelled to sell then 
property to other vassals of their former Lord ; am 
these latter might be compelled to purchase. Thk 
provision was looked upon as an abatemait of tin 
rigour of the old law. The Emperor drew a broac 
distinction between the states of Keconmiendatior 
and Vassalage ; he also asserted his right by tin 
common law over all vassals, unless this was re- 
butted by the production of authentic instrumente 
He moreover declared that persons were mon 
precious in his eyes than things ; he therefore de- 
manded back from the nobles all men belonging to 
his own domain. Any burgher or villein who had 
quitted the Crown lands must return within three 
months, if he were still in his native province ; with- 
in six months, if he had left it ; flight was often re- 
sorted to as a means of escaping the tax-gatherer. 
Any Prelate, Coimt, Baron, or Knight detaining such 
fugitives forfeited a pound of the purest gold, if 
the Emperor were wronged; half-a-pound if any 
other proprietor suffered loss. Frederick, on his 
side, gave up all runaways who had fled to his do- 
main lands since his coronation. He abolished & 
custom which had long prevailed, that of nobte 
imdertaking the protection of the men of the Crown 
domains; his own Judges, he thought, were well aMe to 
throw a shield over such clients ; any one who should 
usiup this duty hereafter was to lose his head for the 
second offence. All personal service rendered to nobto 
was for the future forbidden ; fiefia must be paid f(ff 

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)y rent or money ; ' we,* said the Emperor, ' are the chap. 
Lords of persons/ If a Lord had made his vassal .«_^_ 
)tand surety in a cause for himself, and did not hold 
iiim harmless, the vassal was released from homage, if 
it was a criminal cause, and was reimbursed for losses 
sustained, if it was a civil cause. All neglect on the 
part of the vassal in a question of suretyship for his 
Lord was punished in a similar way. It was the 
duty of vassals to protect the life, hberty, lands, and 
honour of the Lord ; to reveal his counsel to no man, 
to give him notice of all threatening dangers, to defend 
Ills land against every man ; and these feudal duties 
could only cease when they clashed with the Empe- 
rors rights, a proviso which Frederick took care to in- 
^rt. If vassals refused to stand as sureties for their 
LA>rd, or committed felony against himself, his wife, 
or his children, or neglected to render their due ser- 
vice after three summons, or refused to aid him in 
the law courts, they were liable to disseisin. On the 
other hand, if the Lord would not stand surety for 
vassals accused of any criminal charge, treason ex- 
cepted, or if he flogged them without just cause, or 
if he debauched their wives and daughters, then 
h(jinage was at an end, and the parties injured were 
transferred to the Crown. 

Feudal services in the Twelfth Century were more 
burdensome in Sicily than in some other Bealms. 
Aids were payable for redeeming the Lord's person 
from pubUc enemies ; for making his son a knight ; 
for bestowing his daughter or sister in marriage; 
for contributing to the purchase of land bought for 
the Boyal service. Prelates might exact an aid for 
tlieir consecration, for their journey to a Council, for 
their joining the Boyal army, for their travelling on 

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406 THE mnosT o¥ 

CHAP. Bopl embasaee, for their receiving the King <m 
— — — thdr lands. In addition to these long establi^ 
bardens, Frederick aDowed his nobles and cavalien 
to take a moderate aid from (heir vassals, whoievei 
the yoonger brother of the feudal Lord was knighted 
even ^ould the cadet have returned to his home ifta 
having quitted it against the will of the head cS tin 
house. The Emperor^ in more than odb instance, m 
terfered to procure the knightly belt for a n^lecta. 
heir. Maintaiining a law of his Norman grandare 
he allowed no one to be knighted who was not a 
knightly birth, without a special license from the 
Crown. No villein, bastard, or son of a derk couW 
become a Judge or a Notaiy. But those only, ip^ 
bdiaved as knights should do, were entitled to the 
privileges <^ knighthood These privil^es hsd s 
curious bearing in civil and oiminal actic»s. Thus 
no villein or man of low d^ree could bear witness 
against a knight, in a case of feudal rights or in a 
capital chaige ; the evidence of a respectable burgher 
was the very lowest that could be received in such 
cases, and even then sixteen burghers were required 
to prove the case against the defendant, if he hap- 
pened to be a Count ; foiu-, if he was only a knight 
There was a r^ular gradation of the evidence re- 
quired to convict each rank, absurd as this may seem 
to oiu: levelling age- A charge of high treason alone put 
all parties on the same footing, whatever their cod- 
dition might be. Due respect to rank was enforced 
by law. If a squire or anyone of low d^ree struck 
a knight, the aggressor lost his hand, unless he could 
prove that he was acting in self-defence. If a noble 
attempted to strike his equal, he was sentenced to hss 
of knighthood and to a year's banishment; hewasde- 

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nounced as a shameless fellow, who disgraced a rank chap. 
that was the foundation of every dignity. If a knight — ^^., 
struck his equal, he forfeited all his horses and arms, 
Ix'!sides undergoing a year's banishment. If a knight 
struck an inferior who was not his vassal, the sen- 
tence ^was left to the discretion of the Judges. Cer- 
tain rules for their guidance were laid down by 
Frederick ; the time, the place, the witnesses, the in- 
jured part were all taken into consideration. The 
sufferer had to make oath that he would rather have 
lost so much money than have borne the wrong of 
which he complained, and according to this oath the 
^gressor was condemned, always with the right of 
tppeaL The Emperor contented himself with two- 
thirds of the fine, leaving the rest to the party ag- 
grieved ; this boon was an innovation on the custom 
of several provinces in the Kingdom. 

King Roger had forbidden his nobles to celebrate 
their weddings in private ; his grandson went so much 
further, as to provoke the comment of Andrew of 
Isemia, that marriage, the institution of God in Para- 
<lise, had been prohibited by a side-blow, to the ruin 
of the Emperor's souL What Frederick did was 
this ; he enacted a law which prevented any tenant, 
whether of the Crown or of any other feudal lord, 
from taking a wife, or from giving a daughter, a 
sister, or a niece in marriage, without leave from 
Court ; any local custom to the contrary notwith- 
standing. Aliens, who had dwelt for ten years in the 
Kingdom and paid taxes, were allowed to marry 
wives of stainless loyalty. If a Count or Baron died, 
his heir could not receive the oaths of his vassals, with- 
out Frederick's sanction ; confiscation followed any 
breach of this new statute. The noble who was the 

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CHAP. Buperior Lord was bound to announce to the Crown 
^^ the death of any knight holding a fief or barony in- 
scribed on the Treasury rolls ; a schedule of the real 
and personal property of the deceased was also to be 
drawn up.* The Emperor would then appoint an- 
other feudal tenant, who paid a relief to the superior 
Baron not exceeding ten ounces of gold, Frederick, 
remembering perhaps that it was' from his mother 
that he inherited his Crown, introduced a most im- 
portant innovation by granting the right of fanak 
succession throughout the Kingdom, declaring thai 
this was agreeable to Nature ; Norman and Lombard, 
knight and bmgher, came alike under the operation 
of this new statute ; Frederick claimed for himself 
the wardship of young heiresses, who were under 
the age of fifteen. In some cases he would set aside 
his own law, and grant the vacant fief to a brother 
of the last tenant, even should a daughter be left to 
represent her deceased sire. A younger sister, 
munarried at her father's death, excluded an elder 
sister, who was already married and doweredf H 
none were dowered, the elder sister was preferred 
to the younger, in a province where the Nonnan 
law obtained. If the fiunily were subject to the 
Lombard law, all the sisters brought their dowries 
into the common stock and an equal division took 
place ; this is our English hotchpot Nephews had 
no claim to the property of their uncles. If a man 
had children bom to him by a concubine whom he 

* These rolls formed a kind of Sicilian Doomadaj Book, v^ 
were kept tliroughout the whole of the Thirteenth centoij. TJm7 
have perished since Freccia wrote. See Gregorio on this point 

I In the Sicilian kingdom, unmarried ladies wore their h^ 
loose, whence thej were called * filiae in capiUo.*— Dncange. 

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afterwards married, these children were plax^d on a chap. 
par with his legitimate offspring ; and we see, by a — 5L- 
case that occurred at Naples, the care of Frederick 
to uphold the law of the Emperor Anastasius on 
this point 

Another law, borrowed fix>m Greece, was the 
Jus Frotimeseos, intended to give to the kinsmen 
and joinj; tenants of the vendor the right of pre- 
emption of his real property. Their claim must 
be made within thirty days, or in certain specified 
cases of exemption, within four months. All inti- 
midation, direct or indirect, practised on the vendor 
to force on the sale, was guarded against On 
the other hand, those who had the right of pre- 
emption might exact an oath from both vendor and 
purchaser, that there was no fraudulent dealing in 
the sale. The right was denied by general custom 
to the representatives of the pubhc road, the church, 
and the city. 

To revert to dowries, by the new Constitutions, a 
baron or knight, if possessed of but one fief, waa 
obliged to provide for his wife in money, not in land. 
If he were possessed of one fief and a half, he might 
assign the half fief to his wife ; and after his death 
the lady was bound to render all feudal services. 
The Crown gave the wardship of heirs under age to 
its own nominee, who was forced to render an ac- 
count thereof to the Justiciary, and to replace all 
losses caused by the fraud of the guardian. In old 
times his misdeeds used to pass unchallenged. We 
find Frederick, in 1240, enjoining the Justiciary of 
the Principato to imdertake the wardship of certain 
children, since their mother Aroasa, a lady with a 
taste for a religious life, was wasting the revenues of 

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CHAP, their deceased fsitlier's estate upon mms and aster* 

— ^^1— hoods. 

We gather from Frederick's Blisters a few details 
respecting the Apulian chivalry. A knight on ser- 
vice had three ounces of gold per month, fumishiii:: 
his own saddle and bridle, though not alwap pro- 
viding his own horse. In some expeditions each 
knight was expected to bring four horsey ; if the 
service was evaded, the de&ulter lost his fiefis. We 
usually find the knight mounted on his destrier, and 
attended by what was called his family ; that is, t^o 
squires on ronzini or inferior horses, while another 
steed, the somero^ bore the baggage of the party.* 
The great dignitaries sent vast contingents into the 
field ; thus the Abbot of Monte Cassino in (me year 
furnished sixty horsemen and two hundred foot'f 
Frederick was not disposed to lose any of the mili* 
tary service due for land. He praised his Justicwiy 
for summoning certain Neapolitan knights» after 
cunningly getting from them the title-deeds of their 
fiefs, in order to know whether they really owed any 
service. All who were conscious of being debtors to 
the Treasury were exhorted to come forward without 
waiting to be informed against; their zeal mig-i 
thus make amends for the sloth of Officials. 

The Marshal commanding the army had authority. 
by a new law, to decide all disputes between soldier 
in the field. A knight who served at his own expen* 
was not bound to answer the complaints of any knigit 

* The lines of Jaoopone da Todi, who lired in this oentmjr s^ 
often quoted : 

* Non vuol nnllo Caralieri, 
Che non aerva a tre destricri/ 
t Ric San Gennano. 

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^ho served at the charges of another. Employment chap. 

n the field was a bar to any action brought against — 

soldiers by civilians ; even outlaws serving in the 
irmy enjoyed this privilege, which was called the 
Bosticum. A man summoned to serve the state 
night oppose this exception to any citation, and was 
shielded by it for fifteen days before joining the army, 
and for fifteen days after his return. The Norman 
race stiU maintained their old pre-eminence in the 
South, as we see by the names of the Imperial offi- 
cers Fitzosmond, Fitzmauger, Fitzhenry. The great 
houses, famous for ages in Italian story, already 
begin to appear. Thus in February, 1240, we find 
Frederick alluding to the marriage of Bartholomew 
Carafia of Spina, a man descended fix)m the old Consuls 
of the city of Naples and the rulers of Sardinia, who 
waa wedded to Delizia Caraccioli. The Emperor 
granted letters patent to this Lady, whereby the ofi*- 
spring of the marriage were allowed to bear the 
name of Caraccioli Carafia, and to hold certain reve- 
nues in the Abruzzese country. The Filangieri, 
Caped, Acquavivas, Chiaramonti, and Sanseverini 
were aU very prominent in Frederick's reign. A 
still higher interest attaches to the well-known pa- 
trician names among the Genoese, Venetians, Parme- 
sans, Florentines, and Bomans, meeting us at every 

But the state of the poor, who tended the vast 
herds of cattle on the plains of Apulia, or cultivated 
the vines and olives on the slopes of Etna, now com- 
mands our attention. ViUenage was widely prevalent 
in Frederick's Kingdom, and a few monuments re- 
main which illustrate its effects. The men of four 
villages in Calabria complained to the Emperor's 

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CHAP. Chamberlain, in the year 1221, that they were Wmz 

— : oppressed by a neighbouring monasteiy, that of San 

Stefano di Bosco, illustrious as the^burial-place of the 
Carthusian founder. The case was remitted to the 
Imperial Justiciary of the province, when the villeins 
acknowledged that they were unwilling to go to kw 
with their lords. Shortly afterwards, while the Abbot 
was at Eome, the peasants laid another complaiDt 
before Frederick, who bade the conventual authorities 
desist from oppressiog men, the gift of the pious. 
Still the suit proceeded. The Proctor of the Abbt j 
had the villeins condemned in a large sum, for non- 
appearance to a citation. At last their Proct4»r, 
Nicholas Asy, appeared, and a long suit ensuciL 
The Abbey brought forward a charter, granted to it 
by Count Roger, who, after his preservation at Capua 
through the prayers of St Bruno, had handed ovtr 
the forefathers of the complainants, traitorous ci>a- 
spirators as they were, to be, with their posterity, 
for ever serfs to the famous Carthusian Monastery, 
where St. Bruno lay buried. The villeins produced 
a subsequent instrument which discharged them irom 
many of their burdens. But the Court gave sentencv 
in favour of the Abbey, and decided thus : — Every 
villein must work two days a week for the Abbtv, 
either in reaping, or tending the vineyards, or thresh- 
ing. Once a year they were to fell timber for 
their lords. Their dues, to be paid in ohves, wiiie- 
poultry, and eggs, were all specified. Their asse? 
and teams were to perform certain fixed work in 
bringing com, salt, and wood to the monasteiy. 
The villeins might give their daughters in marruuro 
to whomsoever they would, provided they first oN 
tained leave from their lord, and paid the u:^ua! 

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tribute. They were to yield the Abbot a feudal aid, chap. 

^vhenever he might be summoned to Eome or to the 

Cistercian Chapter. They had to give sureties for 
the payment of past arrears. 

In spite of this sentence, the villeins persisted in 
their old course, and once more complained to Fre- 
derick. After receiving another Imperial injimction, 
the Abbot appeared before the Court, and accused 
the complainants of having uttered falsehoods re- 
specting his conduct Various questions were put 
to them, the instruments were brought forward, and 
judgment was given against them, after a short delay. 
They were sentenced to pay a fine of 5000 tarens, 
and the old decision as to their state of villeinage was 
confirmed Frederick was enraged at their conduct, 
and declared that they were the worthy descendants 
of those traitors, the accomplices of the wretch Ser- 
gius, who had plotted to betray the Great Count 
Koger into the hands of the Capuan enemy. The 
Emperor was with diflSculty dissuaded fi^om putting 
the villeins to death, but forbore at the prayer of 
the Abbot, who was highly commended. This ec- 
clesiastic was soon involved in another suit. Two 
women came before Frederick, and complained that 
they had been driven by hunger to sell some lands 
to the Abbot, who had only given them half of the 
fair price. The Emperor, avowing that the laws 
come to the aid of the deceived and not of deceivers, 
sent the case to the Bishop of Mileto ; it was decided 
against the plaintifis. 

In 1225, the Abbot of San Stefano diBosco was once 
more* before the Court, and was once more success- 
ful. He complained that some neighbouring nobles, 
under the pretence that he owed them three coins 

TOL. I. *D D 7 

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CHAP, called Bopds, had robbed >iim of three oxen, ' noi 

having the Lord and respect of justice before thck 

eyes/ The case was heard ; when the Monasttrv 
produced a series of old Charters and wills, some •►i 
which were in Greek. The brethren also allege!, 
that if they had at any time paid more than oh'. 
Boyal, that was because the malice of the times ha i 
forced them so to act against their wilL Their rea- 
sons were admitted by the Court 

If the influential Convents suffered fix>m feu<Li. 
oppression, as we see by the foregoing instance, wli: 
must the state of the poor have been in this aijir 
The men of the village of San Ketro, whose olx\:i 
ence was due to the Abbey of Cava, were tyrannize .! 
over by Theodora, the Lady of Polla, enjoying certa::i 
Xorman rights. She would not allow them to c::: 
wood in the groves, or to make use of water, * •: 
to buy the necessaries of life in her town of ?(»!!.'. 
She cited the villagers before her Court in order t* • 
exact money from them, although all they wo:. 
bound to give her was two days' digging and tw » 
dap' reaping in each year. She endeavoured to ctj- 
force her claims by seizing upon the oxen of the p> r 
peasants, and she was supported in her tyranny l\^ 
the town of Polla, A lawsuit was decided in favour 
of the oppressed parties ; the Lady made no appeal : 
and the Emperor confirmed the sentence in VlS'x a: 
the prayer of the Abbot of Cava, Cases such :> 
this drew from Frederick a merciful edict, wl-i 
forbade the seizure of oxen for debt, even tl.oi:,'.^ 
his own Treasury might lose thereby. He fou: i 
that the poor were often robbed of their croi>s ar : 
vines by the rapacity of the wealthy. Foolish tn;:.^ 
gressors, he remarked, must be made wise by pui.NV 

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aent. A culprit of the male gender was to chap.' 

mdergo imprisonment; but less mercy was shown 

<:> the female attendant, who, secure of her master s 
protection, plucked the fruit belonging to the poor 
rine-dressers. Such women were to be flogged 
pound the town, no matter what the rank of their 
iords might be. The Emperor not only favoured the 
humbler classes in his legislation, but lightened their 
cares by allotting to them a substantial part in pubhc 
rejoidngs. Thus at San Germano alone, more than 
five hundred of the poor were feasted in the piazza 
on meat, bread, and wine, when the joyful anniversary 
of Frederick's birth was kept by his directions.* The 
Commons, as we see, looked up to him bs their best 

A dispute arose at Sorrento, between the clergy, 
monks, and knights on the one hand, and cer- 
tain viUeins dwelling beyond the walls on the 
other. The Emperor, by his Proctor, intermed- 
dled in the suit at the prayer of the serfs, and sent 
the case before Henry of Morra. The Lords ap- 
pealed to the rights which they held since the days 
of William EL. After Morra had made a report of 
the case, it was heard by five judges, who decided 
against the villeins. The work to be done, and the 
tribute to be paid in kind, was settled. No villein 
was to make his son a priest, or to give his daughter 
in marriage, without his lord's leave. We need not 
he surprised to learn, that runaway serfe were 
numerous throughout the realm. King William 
had enacted a kind of Fugitive Slave law, by which 
all runaways of either sex must be restored, by 

* Ric. San Gemumo. 

t CkboTj amor legum ; Friderice, piiBaime r^um. 

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CHAP, any one who might find them, to their master. 

K unclaimed, they were sent to the Court. Frtde 

rick kept them for his own use, unless the master 
should prove his title to his missing chattels within 
a year's time by lawful documents. Any one, who 
sold a finee man into slavery, became the slave 
of the Court with his posterity. It would seem 
that serfdom was much more general in the King- 
dom than in that part of Italy which belonjjctl 
to the Empire. Still even in the South, Christianity 
was at her usual work, lightening the burdens of the 
lowly. In 1222, we find Ephraim, a pious nobleman 
of Ban, giving fi-eedom to numbers of his sertV.* 
The poor had another powerful fiiend in the Pt^fie, 
who withstood feudal tyranny on professional groun^K 
Thus he ordered the Archbishop of Naples to chcvk 
a knight, who was endeavoiuing to debar a deao'a 
fix)m further advancement in the Church, on the 
pretence that the priest expectant was the eon of a 
male ser£ Qr^ory remarked that there could be 
no feudal claims upon the clerk, since he must follow 
the condition of lus mother, who had been freet 
King William had enacted in the last century that 
those villeins only who were bound to the soil could 
be debarred by their lord's will fix)m the honours '^f 
the tonsure. 

The state of the middle classes next calls for notice. 
We find a Charter bestowed upon Trani, so early 35 
1215, by the Bishop of Worms, Frederick's Vicar in 
Apulia, which grants to the burghers the privilep? »'f 
self-jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cau5(>; 
their magistrates had a certain fixed salary, and the 

* Beatillo. f Labbceiu. 

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King's Justiciary alone might intermeddle with them. chap. 

Trani was excused military service, but was to fiir- 

nish two galleys, as of old, to the fleet ; a yearly 
collection was to be made for the pay of the seamen. 
A small sum was allotted to the man who watered 
horses from the pubHc fountain. No citizen was to 
be challenged to the duel, except on a charge of high 
treason ; and these privileges were extended to any 
strangers who might settle in Trani. But it is not 
likely that the burghers enjoyed this Charter for 
very many years. Frederick's laws, as we might 
e3q)ect, were unfavourable to the maintenance of 
dL^itinctionfl between the different cities of his realm. 
Naples, Amalfi, Sorrento, and other waifs of the old 
Eastern Empire, which had retained their privileges 
even after the Norman Conquest, were now reduced 
to the level of their neighbours, the ancient Lombard 
Duchies. A custom had long prevailed in the above- 
named cities of electing umpires to decide suits be- 
tween the citizens ; but Frederick would tolerate no 
judges save his own. A few cities, such as Messina 
and Aversa, had enjoyed the privilege of sheltering 
their inmates from the citations of the Eoyal officials ; 
the new Constitutions refused to recognise this right. 
The town of Gaeta was deprived of her Consuls, as 
soon as she had yielded to the Emperor's arms. The 
privileges of Palermo, * the first Seat of the King- 
dom,' were the only ones respected* The local 
officer of Messina, who bore the name of Stratigot, 
was blamed in 1240 for refusing to allow appeals in 
criminal cases, on the ground of this being an in- 
fringement on the customs of his dty.* No town 

* 6alIo*8 book on MesHina is tlie best history of any of the dtiea 
of the Kingdom. 

VOL. I. £ E 

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:f iieLaib 



*^ IP 


-kr : 



5=rr 1-1^'! I'll -:: 7-r.I jy.nmtiimj 
..SET- ^ ^c* liie noa 

' ^je* there ^ 

Z=r CET 

TiS^ — z eesiTT if 


s^L Ti* 

1 • -i: iin xitf: Lni 
iiiius^ in tthlUhs Mud 

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n heaven.' It was a good old femily, and highly CfHAP. 

:^spected ; the Bishop of Parma himself would gos- 

;ip with the father, as the worthy Prelate sat at the 
window of his palace. Another friend was one of 
the Canons of the Cathedral named Sinibald Fiesco, 
}{ whom the world was to hear much. But the 
.-arliest recollections of the young Chronicler were 
>f a warlike character ; when eight years old he 
:ould remember a quantity of mangonels, taken in 
cattle from the Bolognese, standing in the Piazza 
xjfore the Cathedral These were trophies of the 
jrreat fight of San Cesario, which immediately fol- 
lowed Frederick's return from Palestine, and in 
which Italian party spirit blazed forth in its full vi- 
gour. On this occasion it was that the Podesta of 
Modena knighted his son, saying, * Go, charge the 
enemy, and fight like a man.' The youth soon died 
of a thrust from a lance, when the stem father said, 
* I care not, since my son has been knighted and has 
Men fighting manfiiUy.' This spirit runs through 
the whole of the Thirteenth century and many a 
succeeding one. 

But only in the ]ff orthem half of Italy ; very dif- 
ferent was the state of things in the South. Not 
three years before this battle we find Henry of Morra, 
the Grand Justiciary, publishing sundry Imperial 
edicts at San Germano. The burghers must abstain 
irom dice, must shut up their shops at the second 
toll of the beU, and must not stir abroad at night 
after the third toll. Certain men were sworn in, to 
cany out these orders, and to lay fines on transgres- 
sors according to the rank of each. Strict inquisition 
^^as made whether any lived in too luxurious a style, 

a a 2 

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CEAF. or cxnied foil»dden weapons.^ The graves of tl 

. Jieai were obliged to be made of a certain depth 

the Hies and carcasBes of dead animals most \ 
throim izito the sea, or into a river, at least a qoBiU 
of a mile distant firom towns, imder penal^ of oi 
AugustaL The danghter-honses were alwap outsit 
ti« wiILaw BoCchezs and fishmongers were forbidd^ 
to nriie the health ci their customers by sellii 
dwb:Iesome food. Xo one might warm up an 
arZ €a:AbI« cooked on die previous day, or mi 
-w^zer with the wine for sale in taverns. All fla 
a:ii h^no was to be soaked in water at least a mil the city walls, that the air might be kept swee 
Freoeiivk pried into the secrets of evoy trade, a 
?* r tf-y aL iLindicraftsmen to fiur dealing. Thoe 
who <»:li shitiiis* saddles, and candles were spedall 
enj-iDed i>tc to pafan off inferior wares upon thd 
ct::^i=!er^ All who worked in gold, silver, bras 
or ir*xu aa*! all who made bows and crossbowi 
were to kbircr with honesty and zeaL Goldsmith 
and ^Tergrr::h> were doeely watched by two o&cm 
iz. everr town, who were set wpsji, for the purpoe 
and apcroved by the Court Bings, buckles, cupa 
and plate were to be £urly made, without any uDdu< 
a^TT.TTture of alloy ; eight ounces of gold went bj 
law to the pound, eleven ounces of sflver to the ssmt 
Any triokery was punished ; the culprit forfeited a 
pound of tfce purest gold for the first oflence, or eke 
w^ fl.^gged; he lost his hand for the secood offenc^' 
he was s«it to the gallows for the third 

Weights and measures were under the directi(^ 
of the Court, and fiur dealing was strictly enforced 

*Bk. SttiGcnniDO. 

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I a shopman, for instaace, was detected in stretch- chap. 

ng the doth he sold beyond the fair measurement 

>f the canna, or in using false weights and measures, 
le was liable to the triple penalty just mentioned, 
L>^ides having his cheating yard-wand hung around 
his neck while he was being flogged through the 
UywiL A double punishment was inflicted on any 
Sicilian subject who tried to overreach a pilgrim. 
The shopkeepers were not the only class under the 
watchful eye of the Government. The Imperial 
Bailiffs regulated the wages and tasks of vine-dressers, 
reapers, and artisans, punishing any attempt at fraud 
by imposing a fine four times the value of the wages 
wrongfully received. The State seems to have inter- 
meddled in everything. All merchants entering a 
city with wares liable to duty were bound, under 
penalty of forfeiture, to deposit these in a certain 
place set apart for the purpose ; thus the Treasury 
could not be tricked. The taxes on articles in 
general use varied according to the state of Frede- 
rick's finances. Thus in 1232 he promulgated the 
following assizes at San Germane. He reduced to 
their old scale the duties on wine, apples, chestnuts, 
nuts, and other fiiiit. It was the same with leather, 
flax, cotton, Syrian wool, tunny fish, and anchovies ; 
the duty on hemp was altogether remitted. The 
merchants now paid less for their lodging in the 
Custom-house, the overseer of which was bound to 
fumiah them with beds, lights, straw, and wood. The 
tax paid on the various beasts killed in the slaughter- 
houses was also lessened ; and the duties levied on 
the sale of horses and the pasturage of animals re- 
turned to their old scale.* But Frederick, in years 

* Bic. San Genuano. 

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c^is. of sctfcitT, ins iixced to look more nanowly intc 

. viT? a&i meansL Thus, on staitiiig for Oennany it 

l:^Sa^ be fband himself in great want of nKHier 

He allowed the dtizois oi rebeDious Tioja to puri 

c£Lise ics %W0 ounces of gold the fireedom of theia 

bnechren, whom he had IcHig kept in piiscHU Thre^ 

oc* ch<e towosmen were employed to assess and colled 

the m*xieT. One Jdbn Tafiiio was rated at the sun] 

oc eleven omices^ but he made his escape rather th^ 

par. Frederick's Justiciary sent down an order U) 

s^6^ the daims of the Treasury by selling the pn>- 

pi^rty of the runaway. A public auction was acconi- 

ingly held, but no one came forward to purchase. 

TaAiro s knds only realized three ounces and a bait 

whai sold in priTate by the collectors. 

The towns were shorn to a great extent of their 
local privileges^ but were taught to unite their 
strength fiwr the common good. Twice, at least, in 
the course of his reign, in 1232 and in 1240, Fre- 
derick summoned their deputies to a conference or 
Fkrliament, ^ for the weal of the Kingdom and uic 
general advantage of the State.' Forty-seven citio« 
aU belonging to the Imperial domain, sent two dt'j)> 
ties each to the Assembly convoked, which must n^: 
be confounded with the Solemn Courts held by the 
Sovereign and his Barons for the purpose of revifdiu 
charters, enacting Constitutions, and regulating ti^ 
government We should be mistaken in suppose 
that the Sicilian Parliament enjoyed much of tht 
power implied by the name. There is no trace ^< 
any clamour against grievances, of any complaint 
against officials, or of any refusal to grant supplit^ 
The only function of the deputies siunmoned set- r*:-' 
to have been the assessing of the public burdcON 

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The Emperor demanded a certain sum of money, chap. 

and the deputies, meekly complying, regulated the ^ 

ways and means of raising it. * Send your messen- 
gers,' thus runs the writ, ' to see the Serenity of our 
face on your behalf, and to bring you back our will.' 
Later in the century, the Assembly acquired greater 
authority. It is just possible that Simon de Mont- 
fort, who is known to have visited the Imperial 
Court, may have borrowed his femous improvement 
on the old English constitution from an Apulian 
source ; the gathering of the Commons at Foggia 
certainly preceded their first meeting at Westminster 
by thirty years. Other countries besides our own 
were indebted to Frederick for a better mode of 
l(^islatioiL Shortly after his death, many of his 
innovations were borrowed by his cousin Alonzo 
the Wise, and were inserted in Las Siete Partidas, 
the new Code of Castile. The ideas of the Suabian 
Emperor were evidently the model followed by St. 
Louis and his successors; in France, as well as in 
Southern Italy, the lawyer was feeling his way 
towards the enjoyment of the power wielded of old 
by the knight and the churchman ; Philip the Fair 
was able to carry out the projects which Frederick 
had merely been able to sketch. The world made 
rapid strides between 1230 and 1300. 

The Northern half of Italy, distracted by endless 
struggles, was not insensible to the improvements 
introduced into the South by her mighty son. But 
in the North two fatal obstacles existed, the Papal 
power and the mimicipal spirit of the various States, 
which marred all Frederick's efforts in behalf of 
Italian unity. In vain did he visit in person almost 
every Italian city, except Milan and Florence ; in 

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CHAP, vain did he tlirow himself ahnost entirely upon 
^^ Italian agents, when obliged to exerdse his authority 
through deputies. The Ghielfe were not to be so 
conciliated. He flailed in his attempts; and the 
Imperial sway was exchanged on the Po and the Amo 
for the rule of petty tyrants, the curse and the shame 
of mankind. Six hundred years of internal misery 
and foreign oppression passed away, before the Hoii>e 
of Savoy was allowed to achieve what its old Hohen- 
staufen patrons had in vain essayed to do. Our own 
age is witnessing the fulfilment of a prophecy, uttered 
by a Ghibelline scribe, who bewailed the decay of 
the Empire that followed rFrederick's death : — 'As 
the spawn of fish, which have remained for a century 
in the dry bed of a river, become fhiitful when the 
river returns to its bed ; so the cities and nobler, 
which were fevoured of old by Imperial Majesty, 
will joyfiilly submit themselves to this protective 
sway, when the power of Imperial excellence shall 
reappear.'* The seeds of ItaUan happiness have 
now started to life at the call of a Savoyard rultr, 
Boyal if not Imperial ; no more account b made « f 
the temporal power of the Papacy, or of petty local 
broils — curses now taken away. 

We have already considered the state of ibe 
higher, the lower, and the middle classes ; a founh 
class remains. 

The condition of the Sicilian Church had akeadv 
given rise to many bickerings between the 0>^"n 
and the Papacy. King William had exempted tLt 
clergy fi-om arrest or imprisonment in civil actior.N 
and had allowed them the privilege of being triui 

• Chronioon. 

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in their own courts, except for treason or some great chap. 

crima Frederick's Constitutions deduced the duty 

of paying tithes from the Old and New Testaments ; 
his officials were enjoined to enforce this Divine 
obligation, at least as far as they could without 
injury to his Boyal rights. He maintained the 
Sicilian clergy in their dues, even when he was at 
war with Borne. But he kept a tight hand upon 
both bishops and priests; he upheld every jot of 
the rights granted by the Papacy to the old Norman 
Kings. In 1239 he issued a mandate to check the 
Bishop of Caiazzo, who was raising riots both by 
day and night, and who had seized on certain vassals 
and lands belonging to the Crown, thinking himself 
above the Law. By a statute of King William's, 
the property belonging to a cathedral, at the 
Prelate's death, was placed in the hands of three 
clergymen, until the successor was appointed. 
But Frederick, in such cases, would put in two 
Bailiffs of his own to collect the revenues, keep 
the buildings in repair, and cultivate the vineyards. 
Southern Italy then, as now, aboxmded with Arch- 
bishopricks and Bishopricks, far out of proportion 
to the requirements of the population. These 
Frederick often kept vacant for the benefit of his 
Treasury. In October 1239, we find by his regis- 
ters that the sees of Qirgenti, Monreale, Cefalu, 
Catania, Beggio, Bossano, Alife, Telesia, Capaccio, 
Aversa, Teano, Sorrento, Caleno, Pohcastro,Venafro, 
Sora, Aquino, Gaeta, Chied, Penna, Otranto, Melfi, 
Lecce, Monopoli, Venosa, Salpi, Potenza, Vesti, 
AscoU, Lesina, and many others, were in a state of 
widowhood. If an Abbess died, the Imperial leave 
must be obtained for a fresh election, and the nuns 

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426 m HnroKT €ff 

CKAP. must dioose their ruler from a loyal house. The 

Emperor wotild order his Archbishops to withdraw 

any excommimifiation he himself might deem unjusL 
The Greek Frotop^Mt of Messina was kept in as 
great subjection as the Latin Archbishop of Salerno.* 
Frederick was an enemy to plurahties, and bade his 
Justiciaries coirect this fiiult ; he was very angry on 
finding that some clerks, to whom he had given an 
order on the Treasury, had extracted from it more 
than was their due. The children of the dei^. 
being ill^timate, could not inherit their parent^* 
goods, but the Emperor ordered these luckless 
victims of Bomish legislation to be provided for out 
of his Treasury. He himself, as a great &vour, 
would sometimes confer Intimation on the children 
of his subjects ; but the of&pring of priests had to 
pay a yearly sum to the Crown for this boon. The 
clergy, much to the disgust of Bome, were obliged to 
appear before secular judges, in dvil actions for pro- 
perty not belonging to the Church. No lands chaz]geJ 
with any service to the Crown might be bestowed on 
the Temple or the Hospital, though personal property 
did not come under the statute. Even the beloved 
Teutonic Order could obtain no exemption from this 
law, which was a revival of old Norman enactments. 
If a man left any forbidden real property to one ot 
these Houses, the hereditaments so devised went to 
the Crown, unless they were sold within a year to a 
kinsman of the deceased. Borne, of course, frowned 
upon Frederick's Statutes of Mortmain, which pre- 
ceded those- of the Plantagenets. In July 1231, 
Gregoiy rebuked his friend for the tendency of this 

* See the Regesta. 

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3gisIation. * We have heard,' says the Pope, * that chap. 

ou mean to enact new laws, which force men to 

tyle yoTi a persecutor of the Church, and a sup- 
pressor of public freedom ; thus you are working 
igainst yourself. We fear that God has withdrawn 
his favour fix)m you, while you are thus careless of 
your own fame, supposing you are acting of yourself; 
but if you are urged on by others, we wonder that 
you listen to such bad counsellors. O that you would 
consult your own peace and our reputation, both of 
which are endangered by the invectives of the 
people! The poor, it appears, find their sorrow 
most bitter in this tune of peace. We seem to hear 
beforehand the bowlings of the many that weep.' 
Gregory also wrote to the Archbishop of Capua, 
one of Frederick's most trusted advisers : * We learn 
tliat you are, of your own accord, suggesting to the 
Emperor laws destructive of salvation, and the 
sources of enormous scandals. You stitch yourself 
an apron of fig-leaves, and pretend that you are 
only the pen that writes the laws, not their adviser, 
though you ought to be their most zealous opponent. 
You are perhaps glad of the opportunity of showing 
off your learning, in spite of the displeasure of God 
the Bestower of knowledge, and of our anger. We 
warn you to be mindfiil of your office, and to 
redeem your former fault.' 

The Pope was not the only person who thought 
that the new legislation, dating from 1220, was 
prejudicial to the Church. The idea seems to have 
been widely spread. In October 1231, the Borello 
femily of Anglone, one of whom held the See of 
Siponto, made a gift of lands to the Abbey of 
Casamara, carefully insertiog this clause in the deed : 

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CHAP. * We renounce all aid from the laws, and from everv 

Constitution of Capua, or from any future one, b; 

which we may have the power to impair or revokt 
this gift.'* The laity were still imder the spell o\ 
the priesthood, although the morals of the Sicilian 
clei^ were very lax. Deeds of murderous violence 
were not uncommon. Thus late in 1239 we finO 
two monks joining with two laymen in the munlei 
of the Prior of Campogrosso. The Emperor wrot<2 
a stem despatch, commenting on the men wIi-.> 
abused the stamp and privil^e of religion. Such 
crimes, he said, should not go impunishedL The 
ecclesiastics on this occasion were thrown into prL^' >a, 
while their lay accomplices were put to the tortuiv. 
Other clerical failings were remarked ; the system of 
keeping concubines and of making simoniacal con- 
tracts was in full vogue, as many a Papal lett^ of the 
age angrily testifies. Nor was the disorder confiBnl 
to the lower ranks of the deigy ; a bad example 
was set by the highest Prelates. Thus Andrew, tlie 
Archbishop of Acerenza, who had held that See f »r 
more than thirty years, was accused of a variety of 
crimes in 1231. He had refused to ordain piiests 
until he had extorted bribes ; he had allowed h^ 
clergy to keep concubines, if they could pay for ilio 
privilege ; he had brought nirns from the East, aiid 
had kept them at Brindisi for infamous purposes. Be 
had added cruelty to his other vices, for when Bdbj 
as Justiciary during the inroad of the Empen»r 
Otho, he had mutilated two men. The Pope now 
instituted an enquiry into his conduct, and fom^ 
him to resign.f Great jealousy existed between the 

* Ughelliy for Siponto. 

t UghcUi gives Gregory's letters of 1281 on these duu^ 

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secnlar cleigy and the be^^ing fiiars. The Mino- chap. 
rites at Palermo were prevented by their rivals from _^i_ 
building a convent, and Gn^ory ordered the Arch- 
bishop of the city to make good their losses. The 
Franciscan buildings at Patti were greatly ob- 
structed, for the seculars pulled down during the 
night whatever the brethren had built in the day. 
The feud was only arrested upon the Pope's threat- 
ening to curse the a^ressors. When the Emperor 
was at war with Bome, the enemies of the friars 
ventiu^ to much greater lengths. In 1248, an 
Abbot and a Bishop, who were brothers, harassed 
the Minorites in Apulia, cut off the garments, hoods, 
and sleeves of the friars, and forbade them to beg 
for the necessaries of life. The victims comforted 
themselves by rehearsing the Divine judgments said 
to have fidlen upon the oppressors.* The new race 
of friars carped at the old-established Orders. The 
Benedictine Abbots, the worst specimens of whom 
dwelt in Italy, were accused of eating meat with 
seculars, while their monks were left to a v^etable 
diet in the refectory. If a Dominican or a Franciscan 
were promoted to a Bishoprick, the election was sure 
to be due to worldly motives; for the Canons of 
Cathedrals did not care to set a good man above 
them, who was likely to reprove, them for their 
carnal vices. Some Italian towns had a pecuhar 
distaste for virtue and the begging friars. Thus 
at Parma, deigy and laity, men and women, high 
and low, all sdike refused to show any devotion 
to the Brethren, and preferred to spend their money 
on buffoons. In France, any dty of the size of 

• Waddiog. 

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430 CHB marosT of 

CHAP. Fanna would have maintained a hundred Minotites 


in abundance. The Lombard Prelates were noted 

for selfishness and churlish behaviour ; they would 
eat the whitest bread and drink the bat wine, 
without inviting their inferiors to partake, though 
sitting at the same table with them.* No Juvecal 
arose to scourge these followers of Vino. 

But the sloth and greediness of the secular clergy 
were forgotten amid the paroxysms of devotiuQ 
aroused every now and then by cowled enthusiasts. 
The most noted instance is the discipline of the Fk- 
gellants. Long before their time a strange religiou5 
fever ran through Italy, which we trace both in the 
Kingdom and in Lombardy. This was in the year 
1233, called the time of the Hallelujah. An di 
man from Spoleto, who had no learning, entered 
Farma, dressed in a black garment reaching down to 
his feet, which was marked before and behind with a 
great red cross. He wore a hood, had a long black 
beard, and carried a small brazen trumpet which he 
blew very loudly. A crowd of children followfJ 
with lighted candles and boughs of trees. He bt?gan 
in the vulgar tongue, ^Praise and blessing and glory 
be to the Father,' which the children repeated afti r 
him. After a similar address to the other Fersons of 
the Trinity, his hearers thrice shouted, Hallelujah ; 
he blew his trumpet, preached a sermon, and ended 
with a hynm to the Virgin. The like went on in 
every dty of Italy. Arms were laid aside, nothing 
but hymns of praise were heard ; every village seut 
forth its procession with the banner of its patn)D 
Saint ; and the peasants thronged into the grc.^ 

* Salimbene. 

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cities, ringing as they marched, to hear the famous chap. 
Dominican and Frandscan preachers, who held forth ^^ 
morning, noon, and evening. High and low alike 
seemed to be drunk with Divine love.* The Empe- 
ror looked upon these exhibitions with no loving eye, 
since the friers were often unwilling to draw the line 
between things spiritual and temporal, and made 
use of their vast influence to wei^en the Imperial 

All the enthusiasm drawn out by the new ma- 
chinery lately furnished to the Church was only 
barely sufficient to make head against the heretical 
sects which swarmed throughout Italy. These 
pushed their way into the cities of the Kingdom, 
such as Naples; but their chief conquests were 
achieved in the North. As was the case long after- 
wards with the Huguenots and Puritans, the Paterines 
made their converts mainly from the middle classes 
in the towns. The heretical burghers of Como, 
Milan, and Cremona spared no pains in proselytising, 
and entertained their neophytes most sumptuously. 
The richest wines and the choicest fruits were used 
as baits. A pervert would be kept for months in 
their houses, and would then be passed on from one 
city to another, always lodging with the initiated. 
The Paterine merchants were ever on the look-out 
for unwary customers, whom they entrapped both 
temporally and spiritually. Most of the Lombard 
and Tuscan cities sent heretical students to Paris for 
the purpose of learning logic, to be turned against 
the orthodox faith.f Nor were the Prelates of the 

* Salimbene. Ric. San Germano. The former says that the 
^rati Grodenti, so well known to students of Dante, arose in 1233. 
t See the corious letter of Ito de Narbonne in M. Paris. 

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c^P. Church itself always what they seemed ; heresy crept 

into high places. Thus the Bishop of Parma in 1236 

was a concealed Paterine, although he came from 
Borne. He refused the Sacrament on his death-bed, 
saying that he had no faith in that religion* * Why/ 
it was asked, ' did you take the Bishoprick ? ' ' For 
the sake of the riches and the honour/ and so he 
died.* The number of heretics in Italy was in- 
creased by their brethren who fled from fiery trials 
on the other side of the Alps. They were here in 
comparative safety, since no Crusade, like those in- 
flicted upon France and Germany, was ever launched 
against Italy ; it was not the interest of the Popes to 
exterminate the burghers of Lombardy. But a sud- 
den turn of politics would bring dismay upon the 
little knots of heretics that had thriven all through 
these stormy times. One of the results of the 
triumph of the Angevin conqueror was, that many 
Proven9als, who had long before fled into Italy for 
shelter, were sent back in chains to their Inquisi- 
torial tyrants.f 

The Emperor in his day was reviled as an Epi- 
curean and an abettor of heresy. He tried to dear 
himself from these chaises by issuing edicts agaiEbt 
the heretical sects both in the Empire and in the 
Kingdom. He denounces them in his Constitutioiii 
as men who rend the seamless coat of Christ, who 
lead astray the sheep from Peter's fold ; wolves in 
sheep's clothing, snakes that vomit forth poison undt-r 
the semblance of honey. Arius and Nestorius had 
given their names to the sects that followed them: 
but these new heretics called themselves Pateriuu. 

* Solimbene. f Chrpnioon. 

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ince they pretaided to undergo the passion of mar- chap. 
irrdom. They offended alike God, their neighbours, ^' 
lid themselves ; careless of their own lives, strange 
L> say, they were not overawed by the prospect be- 
':>re them. The Neapolitan heretics were most 
I'orthy of punishment, since they dared to practise 
heir superstitions dose to the seat of the Church, 
rheir crime was worse than treason ; they were to 
os€ their lives, their goods, and their reputation. 
Frederick's officials were ordered to search after 
hem, and to bring them on the very slightest suspi- 
:ion before the Bishops ; if found guilty, the culprits 
were doomed to the stake ; no man might make 
intercession with the Crown for such wretches. Those 
vrho favoured them were banished and stripped of 
iheir goods ; the only way in which the reputation 
of a femily inclined to heretical errors could be re- 
£^to^ed, was, for a member of it to come forward and 
^lenoimce some other Paterine. The legislation at 
Melfi was stem enough, but it did not quite rival the 
Canons of Toulouse, under which Languedoc was 
now groaning. Still Frederick's laws assuredly 
checked the progress of heresy in Southern Italy. 
King Boger had long before enacted severe statutes 
against apostate Christians and robbers of Churches. 
Tsurers were in general looked upon as only inferior 
in guilt to heretics, having been expressly condemned 
by the Fathers. The Emperor would not allow any 
native of his Kingdom, or any sojourner within it, 
jto practise usury; confiscation of all the goods of 
I the culprit was the penalty, and all borrowers at 
^isurious interest might denounce their creditors in 
the Courts. In spite of this virtuous indignation, 
both Frederick and his Papal enemies were glad to 


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CHAP, take up money at a most exorbitant rate, in defiano. 

of their avowed principles. 

One class alone was excepted from the punishment 
due to usurers; the Emperor allowed the JewsM 
take ten per cent, since they were not bound by m 
authority of the Fathers. A few other records of hii 
favour towards the Hebrews remain. Several o| 
them, coming to Palermo from Gterbes in 1239, foim-l 
themselves imable to agree with their Sicilian bretii- 
ren ; at the request of the strangers, an old man vai 
chosen from among themselves to be their magi- 
trate ; they were allowed to rebuild any synagogu<i 
which had gone to ruin, although a similar boon wai 
refiised to the Minorite friars. The Jews had hiiu 
to erect their houses on ground outside the Alcazit^ 
of Palermo. They made an offer to improve th 
Sovereign's plantation of date trees at Favara, if they 
might have half of the crop for themselves ; tlitV 
obtained a lease for not longer than ten yearv 
They imported into Frederick's dominions indigo anO 
other plants not known there before ; he allowoJ 
them to settle on any lands of his not set apart f< : 
his sports. They paid dues for wine and knives, Ix- 
sides the old Arabic tax of gezia. He foresaw u 
advantages which would accrue to his realm, if i^ 
were thrown open to all industrious strangei?; - 
like policy has contributed in no small degree to i:.^ 
greatness of England. The Emperor expressly f:- 
bade any compulsion to be used towards the Hebrew * 
when it was proposed to settle them in one body j- 
Palermo; they might dwell wherever they ch^- 
About the same time, he sent for two men who we^ 
to instruct the burghers of Palermo in tlie my.^ttr;.^ 
of siigar boiling ; an art which he was unwilling • * 

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let die.* A learned Prince like Frederick had a still chap. 


further motive for patronising the children of Israel ; . 

they were renowned as translators. One of them, 
named Antoli, came fix)m Provence to Naples, and 
there published a version of the Almagest in 1231. 
In the next year he translated some works of Averr- 
hoes, ending with an euloginm on Frederick, who had 
provided hhn and his fiunily with the means of life. 
' God has put the love of learning and of its culti- 
vators into the Emperor's heart ; may He manifest 
His clemency in the man, whom He has raised above 
all the Bongs of the earth ! ' The writer hopes that 
his national Messiah may appear during Frederick's 
reign. Another Jew, born in Spain, named Judah 
Cohen Ben Salomon, estabhshed himself in Italy and 
corresponded with his patron on hard questions of 
geometry, which the Emperor was fond of pro- 

But Frederick regarded his Mohammedan subjects 
with still greater favom\ His establishment of them 
at Lucera was a scandal to Christendom. They 
pidled down the Church at Foiano, twenty miles from 
their new abode, and carried oflf the stones and tim- 
ber to build their houses. Pope Gregory complained 
of this outrage in 1232, remarking that too much 
indulgence was shown to the sons of Belial, whose 
just doom ought to be slavery, and who ought not to 
be placed on an equal footing with the children of 
hght In the following year, he sent a mission of 
Dominicans to enlighten this people that dwelt in 
Jarkness, requesting the Emperor to water where 
the Pope had planted. Frederick returned a dutiful 

• Regesta. t Sec Breholles' Preface, 

p r 2 

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436 THE fflSTORY OP 

CHAP, answer, saying that many conversions had already 

1_ taken place ; the Moslem had by this time learnt 

Italian. He watched over those left in Sicily mo?: 
jealously, and endeavoured to allure them fix>m their 
native hills to Palermo and other large towns 
promising them his favour. Some of them paiu 
him a certain rent for the use of his sheep ; many 
of these men ran into arrears, and were therefore 
seized and set to labour on pubhc works. FrederiLk 
was most particular in maintaining his colony at 
Lucera; his officers had orders to prevent any uf 
the transplanted Saracens from stra}dng back t<.> 
their old haimts in Sicily, or from loitering in tht- 
Calabrian towns on pretence of business. He sciit 
a thousand oxen to Lucera, for the use of which tLo 
Moslem paid a certain sum ; gezia was exacted from 
every one of them, including the Cadi They were 
employed by the Emperor to keep his camels, attenti 
to his wild beasts, and fabricate weapons for hi^ 
army. The votaries of Islam had been the teachers 
of his youth ; he still hankered after their lore, while 
he was embarrassed with the cares of state: 

Ibn Sabin, a Murdan Mussulman, sumamed Eot- 
beddin (pole star of the faith), was an author on 
philosophical subjects at the early age of fifteen :ui 1 
afterwards foimded a sect, to which he gave h> 
name. While living at Ceuta in Africa, he was n- 
quested by Frederick, somewhere about theyear 124^1 
to solve certain problems, which are called the Sici- 
lian Questions. The wise man, like his corre>p>r:- 
dent the Lnbiratour of Boum, was accused of im.':* 
gion by the bigots of his own creed ; he then^fore 
strove to silence his enemies, who in the end drow 
him into exile, by setting himself up as the hauglity 

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champion of Islam against Christian cavillers. Fre- chap. 

derick had already in vain sent his Questions into 

Egypt, Syria, Irak, Daroub, Yemen, and Tunis ; no 
satisfactory solution had come. He then sent them by 
an Ambassador to Kaschid, the Caliph of Spain, who 
pitched upon Ibn Sabin to solve them. The philo- 
sopher received them with a smile, answered them, 
and refiised the Emperor's proffered guerdon, only 
desiring the conversion of the Christian. He be- 
sought Allah to turn the learner from the doctrine 
of vague reasonings, and to bring him to the certainty 
of truth. Ibn Sabin begins by rebuking the Empe- 
ror for using inexact and obscure language, when 
treating of points that had puzzled the greatest phi- 
losophers, and for felsely attributing to Aristotle 
the theory of the world's existence from everlasting. 
He then lays down the exact meaning of certain 
Arabic words loosely used by Frederick in one 
Question as to the existence of the world, and he 
ends by pronouncing that our planet was created. 
The second Question was, ' What is the end of Theo- 
logy, and what are the preliminary theories indis- 
pensable to it?' Ibn Sabin quotes largely from 
Aristotle, but answers that the preliminaries re- 
quired are doctrine and works, and that their subject 
is the Koran. ' The best thing,' writes the Moslem, 
'would be to have a personal interview with you ; 
for your questions prove that you know not the 
sciences, and that you have not tasted speculative 
doctrines, though you desire to walk in the way of 
truth. If you cannot come to me yourself, you 
might send a man of scholastic attainments, who is 
m your confidence. You must know that all these 
questions of yours are already known here, better 

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CHAP, than a beacon fire. Another time you must throw 


! them into a more obscure form ; for we have Mus- 

suhnan doctors, sharper than swords or scissors, men 
who are not true philosophers, but mere wiseacres ; 
these men are not versed in these discussions, an^l 
they conclude that both the questioner and the re- 
spondent are fools. K these men knew that I hail 
answered this part of your Questions, thqr would 
regard me as they do the problems; and then I 
might escape or not, as Allah might direct' 

The third Question was on the subject of the Ten 
Categories, their use, and their real number. I1)d 
Sabin sees clearly that Frederick is one of the crowd 
void of intelligence, and moreover unable to explain 
his own meaning. The teacher goes on, in a strain 
provokingly pedantic and dogmatical, to complain 
of the feeble capacity, inexperience, and obtusene>5 
of the Imperial student, who contradicted himsilf. 
He then answers Frederick's Question as to the Si»iil 
and as to the proof of its immortality, by sending tlic 
questioner to the Koran, the Pentateuch, the Gos}k»1 
the Psalms, the Sohofs, Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle. 
He discusses Mohammed's words ; ' The heart of the 
believer is between two fingers of the MercifuL' The 
whole ends with a wish expressed by the Mussulman, 
that he may have an opportunity of speaking mouih 
to mouth with the Christian.* The reputation of 
the sage was well known at Rome, where the Pojx 
himself avowed that no Mussulman knew God better 
than did Ibn Sabin. 

Having so much intercoms with the Moe^Kni 

* Amari found the ' Sicilian Questions * in the Bodleian L> 

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Princes and philosophers, Frederick naturally wished chap. 

to keep up the knowledge of Arabic in his domi- 

nions. Two of the slaves at his Court bore the 
Eastern names of Mosca and Marzuch ; a third, Ab- 
dullah, learned to read and write the Saracen charac- 
ter, while the cost of his board and education was 
defrayed by his master.* In the medical schools at 
Salerno, the Arabs were taught in their own language ; 
while the Latins, the Greeks, and the Hebrews were 
equally fiivoured. Even women, it is said, profited 
by the teaching of the various professors, and gained 
a reputation for themselves by their lectures and 
writings.f The Emperor himself was most attentive 
to .sanitary matters, forbidding any physician to prac* 
tise, who could not produce testimonials from the 
l>3ard at Salerno and a license from the Court The 
examination of the surgeon-expectant, as it seems, ex- 
tended to his own poUtical principles and to those of 
his family. No one might give lectures on medicine, 
except at Naples or Salerno. J The Masters in physic 
at the latter University licensed two men in each 
town throughout the Kingdom to sell electuaries and 
syrups ; any fraudulent dealings on the part of the 
Masters involved a capital sentence; an oath was 
taken by all druggists to compoimd their medicines 
with due heed. Frederick allowed no physician 
to practise without three years* study of logic, 
and five years* study of medicine and surgery ; the 
practitioner was sworn to denounce all foul play 

* S«ge8ta. f Von Bamner. 

X The phjaician of Philip AngUBtiUy quoted by Tiraboschi, 
F{>«akB thus of Salerno : 

' Urbs Phoebo sacrata, Minervs sedula nntrix, 
Fona phjaics, pogil eucmsis, cultiix medicins.* 

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CHAP, attempted by druggists, and to give advice gratis to 

— the poor. Every patient must be visited twice a day, 

and once in the night should he wish it, paying half 
a taren of gold each day ; eight times as much was 
the fee for a patient dwelling beyond the city walk 
The price of the druggists' wares was regulated with 
nice adjustment The Emperor, being himself an 
author on medical subjects, was most particular in 
prescribing the study of Hippocrates, Galen, and 
anatomy. He knew by experience the virtues of 
the baths of Pozzuoli, and we find him sending his 
sick German squire thither in 1240. 

Other sciences besides medicine were cultivated at 
Frederick's Court One of the leading men there 
was Theodore, styled the Emperor's Philosopher. 
He it was who translated into Arabic his masters 
correspondence with the Sovereigns of Africa. He 
condescended to prepare syrups and sugar for the 
Imperial table.* He was also versed in mathematics, 
and pretended to skill in astrology ; but he some- 
times met with his match. During the siege of 
Brescia in 1238, Theodore had posed certain fiian 
with hard questions which they could not answer. 
Brother Eoland of Cremona, hearing of this, cried, 
* Saddle me an ass.' He was not to be kept back by 
the gout which tormented him; he instantly chal- 
lenged his enemy in the face of all the Court 
' Master Theodore,' said the Dominican, ' that you 
may know that the Order of Preachers has its 
philosophers, I give you your choice ; either start 
objections, or make answer, on any philosophical 
subject' Theodore chose the former part; and 

* R^esto for 1240. 

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Holand, who answered, had so much the best of the chap. 
argument, that the whole affair turned out to the ^^ 
great glory of the Order.* 

A more illustrious sage than Theodore now and 
then appeared at the Emperor's Court A Fisan, 
acting as consul for the merchants of his city at 
Bougie, had his son Leonard brought to him in 
Africa. There the youth learnt all that Egypt, 
Syria, Greece, or Provence could teach in mathe- 
matics. He included in his studies Euchd and the 
ujse of the Hindoo numerals. Leonard Fibonacci 
grew up, and had the lot of most benefactors of 
mankind, being nicknamed by his Fisan countrymen 
Bigollone, or the FooL He wrote his treatise on the 
Abacus in 1202, the second edition of which he 
dedicated to Michael Scott in 1228, at the request 
of that worthy. In this work he pointed out the 
close connexion between arithmetic and geometry, 
and enjoined daily study on his disciples. He also 
mentioned the mysterious Elcataym, the Algebra so 
well known to us, which Leonard was the first to 
introduce into Christendom. Another work he 
<ledicated to Theodore, * the highest Fhilosopher of 
the Imperial Court,' asking him at the same time to 
correct and prune the treatise. Cardinal Begnier of 
Viterbo was a frequent correspondent, who took a 
keen interest in Leonard's problema But the chief 
patron of the Fisan sage was the Emperor himself. 
To him Leonard addressed his Treatise on Square 
Numbers, which has lately been brought to light 
When Frederick was at Pisa, he heard an arith- 
metical problem proposed by John of Falermo, 

* SalanhacaB in Ecbard. 

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■Lif-r^iifi^i*. vr..-^iiif^ r ^'y * n-g rr t*— 112^ for t}.»- 

ffiKZLj : TrC i. li :,2 I'T i^zJi zo 1-er Ttn-^wTie'l UiJ- 

V ork* 'i?! I?-'Z:c 1:11 1 zjii-erzAdcs. male by the Iinpi.- 
rkl oriers. *We rAxe alirays,' he writes, *L>v-! 
knowl^ize froa ocx jroui ; whaiever time we can 
itfrfjJ firom Stare afiir* we cteerfuliy delicate t'> 
Tf^flh^q the miiiT Tolione? stored in our lit»rarT. 
We Lave stripped the works written by the Givck 
and Arabic philo6^.»phers of their old garb ; we havt 
had them translated by chosen men, maintain:!:.' 
faithfully the virginity of the wordsw We do dM 
iivTAh to keep these all to ourselves ; you are the hr^t 
to whom we send them, since you are the illiistriK:> 
nurslings of pluloeophy, who skilfuDy draw new 
waters out of old cisterns. Do you make tliem 
public for the use of students, to ihe gloiy of your 
friend Cajsar.' 

At this very time he was fostering a rival U' 
Bologna. He had issued, so early as 1224, hi? 

* Boncoinpag:iUy on Leonardo Pisano. 

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♦^t^ in behalf of his new University at Naples, chap. 

which had no slight influence in making that city 

*>he capital of the realm, after the lapse of a few 
years. He thought it, as he says, only proper that 
tie Ii<^es of rich Sicily should not beg for learning 
ia foreign parts, but that they should have a table 
•^ before them at home. His forefathers had drawn 
even foreigners to their Sicilian schools. He there- 
J^ wishing to restore the Kingdom to its old splen- 
ifcur, had pitched upon Naples as the future seat of 
ktming, praising it for the pxirity of its faith and 
Sjt the pleasantness of its site. Masters and scholars 
were alike invited to the proffered banquet. Sicily 
sbould be as eminent for learning as for fruitfiilness. 
The arts and sciences had too long lain dormant, 
•faring the King's disastrous minority. Naples, as 
tbe ancient mother and home of learning, easily 
ipproached by sea and abounding in the wealth of 
tvih, would be grateftd alike to teachers and to 
ieamers. Bishops, Barons, Judges and all ranks, 
Were invited to aid the good work. The service of 
God and the practice of justice were the two great 
'Ejects in view. Eiches and honours would be 
showered upon the students, who had long hungered 
after the learning which had been denied them at 
lK>me. Provisions in plenty, roomy halls, and a 
bearty greeting from kindly Naples awaited the 
^holars, and the Emperor would heap gifts upon 
^hose worthy of them. * We keep the students,' he 
ssys, ' within view of their parents ; we save them 
JDtny toils and long foreign journeys; we protect 
them from robbers ; they used to be pillaged while 
travelling abroad, they may now study with smaU 
^^M and short wajrfaring, thanks to oiu: liberality.* 

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CHAP. Peter of Isemia, a famous Professor of law, who ha^] 

rendered many services both to the Emperor and i-: 

the Emperor's father, was specially invited to Xapk-^ 
and was promised a yearly pension of twelve ounc\ i 
of gold. Eoflfrid of Benevento, a most volimiinoii^ 
writer, was also named Professor of Civil Law. Fre- 
derick's Officials were ordered to prevent any of h:i 
subjects from going to study abroad; all emigraiJ 
scholars, natives of the Kingdom, must return Ix 
Michaelmas. Naples was to have a monopoly ^1 
learning ; grammar schools indeed were barely tole- 
rated, where the hungry children of science murl: 
begin to suck; but soUd meat must be sought ::: 
Naples alone. There all the learned faculties might 
be cultivated ; the scholars were protected in tluir 
persons and property; the cost of their lodginu 
would be fixed at a certain rate ; two ounces of gol>i 
a year would be the very highest sum asked Loaii> 
would be advanced to them, if they chose to pledge 
their books, and to swear that they would not give 
their creditors the shp. There was no need !•• 
regulate the price of com, wine, meat, and fish, i:: 
so plentiful a city as Naples was. 

But the new University almost perished at i:^ 
birth, when the troubles broke out in 1229. Fiv? 
years later, the Emperor had leisure to restore lii-^ 
beloved foimdation.* He turned his attention t » 
Bologna, the only rival that Naples had any caiiH' 
to dread. He stooped to court the alliance of hi^ 
old enemies, the Komagnole Guelfe, * We wish our 
knights,' he sap, * to understand arms and not law> ; 
we also wish to adorn our throne with learned nu: 

* Ric. San Germano. 

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of eveiy profession. Do you then help us in restoring chap 

aur University, since we axe gathering there doctors 

in theology, professors of each branch of law, and 
masters of all the liberal arts. Next September 
(1235) we hope that our scholars will begin their 
studies, and we invite you, as men of experience, to 
our University ; you will have a warm welcome from 
oiir kindly subjects/ About the same time Frederick 
sent a famous Professor of Civil Law to the Univer- 
sity of VerceUi, a high proof of favour. 

A few years later, while carrying on a desperate 
war in Lombardy, the Emperor was not unmindful of 
his Xeapolitan scholars. The University had sent two 
envoys to his feet, whose requests he granted in 1239, 
in spite of their inopportune appearance. Instead of 
suppressing the foundation, as he had intended, he 
now threw open its haUs to aU his subjects of the 
Kingdoms of Jerusalem and Sicily, invited the Trans- 
alpines and all the inhabitants of Upper Italy, and 
only excepted eight rebel cities, together with all 
abettors of the Papal power. He went on to advise the 
gownsmen to live in peace with the townsmen, for 
the University of Naples seems to have resembled 
her Northern sisters in pugnacity. Andrew of Cicala 
was ordered to see that the students were not har- 
assed by the oflGicials. Bartholomew PignateUi of 
Brindisi was raised by the Emperor to a chair, and 
was licensed to explain the Decretals. The death of 
Walter of Ascoli, who had taught grammar in the Uni- 
versity, was hkened by Peter de Vinea to an eclipse 
of the sun. John of Pguma, one of the most daring 
speculators of the age, lectured on theology at Naples 
before his promotion to the Generalship of the Fran- 
ciscan Order in 1247. Sicily was in the mean time 

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CHAP, enlightened by Friar Gerardino of San Donin. •. 
' who taught grammar. It was this Minorite wh« 
long afterwards composed the strange book calie- ' 
the Everlasting Gospel, that supplement to the revi- 
lations of Abbot Joachim which threw the whole i » . 
the religious world into confusion, and was condemne- 1 
by Eome.* 

Incidental notices also occur of the course of stud y 
pursued by children. It was the custom at Mon:^ 
Cassino to receive the young nobility of the Kingda:. 
at a very early age ; each came attended by his ow:. 
tutor, and began to study logic and the natuni' 
sciences. The httle Thomas Aquinas was sent to \\w 
Convent when only five years old ; he got on so fa-: 
that his parents were advised by the Abbot to trans- 
fer the child to Naples. He there studied gramm:i: 
and logic under Master Martin, while Peter of Isemia 
was his tutor in natural sciencaf The Greek phi- 
losopher, to whose writings the fixture Schoolmar. 
became so partial, was now once more coming int« 
vogua Aristotle, condeumed at first by the Chun ::. 
was soon embraced as her cherished teacher. Hi- 
works were brought into Western Christendom fn»i:i 
two difierent quarters. He had long been a fevouri:* 
in the Moslem colleges of Spain, and had been cov.)- 
mented upon by Avicenna. The Christian studo: ' 
used to seek Cordova and Toledo ; and there, sur- 
rounded by Jewish or Arabic assistants, he trarx- 
lated the Stagirite's works into Latin for the u>e • * 
the West. But scholars, whose appetites had lx» • 
whetted by these translations, soon had recourse' :« 

* Salimbene settles the point as to the authorship of the IV v^ 
t PtoL Lucensis. Gul. do Tocco. 

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the original Greek. Paris and Constantinople had chap. 

been brought into dose connexion by the issue of '— 

the Fourth Crusade. The Dominicans and Francis- 
cans were ever running to and fro between the East 
and the West on the errands of Borne. It is not siu*- 
prising that they were eager importers of Aristotle, 
whose works were by degrees tacitly adopted by the 
Church. The University of Paris had been at first 
the enemy of the new learning ; she was now the 
enemy of the begging friars. Albert the Great, the 
famous Dominican, became the ablest commentator 
on the Greek philosopher, although working upon a 
\ilely corrupt text ; the master was followed by his 
pupil, Thomas Aquinas, who had access to far better 
tnanuscripts.* Eoger Bacon, our great Franciscan, 
was an ardent admirer of Aristotle, and hfted up his 
voice against the bad translations, only fit for the fire, 
which were made by pretenders ignorant alike of 
Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. Ignorance of the first 
of these languages was inexcusable; it was still 
widely spoken in Southern Italy. This is plain from 
the fact, that Greek charters were sometimes brought 
to the Emperor, the benefactions of his Norman 
forefathers, which he confirmed, making use of the 
liitin language. He even found it advisable to pub- 
lish a Greek version of his Constitutions. After his 
death, the Greek began to die out, and the Ecclesias- 
tical authorities deemed it needful to have Latin 
translations made of their ancient Charters.f The 
Judges and Notaries of Reggio boasted of their skill 
in both tongues. Still, the old Greek long main- 
tained its sway. We hear that there were Greek 

* Jourdain. f to. XanVo Koi rd ypalKa owrwf XaXovrra. 

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CHAP. Archbi^<^ and Abbots fix>m the Kingdom of Sicily 

present at the SeocHid Council of Lyons, many yeare 

after the Emperor's death* ; and Boger Bacon asseits 
that even in his day the title of Magna Graeda, col- 
ferred upon a part of Italy, was no misnomer. 

The greatest English scholar in the time of Fre- 
derick was Bobert Grosseteste. There may have ba-n 
a connexion between the Emperor and the Bbhop "f 
Lincoln; letters on public affairs certainly pa^ 
betweai them, and we know that it was to Italy that 
the IvTicr^Ulinian soit for books and for moi who un- 
derstood Greek. ' The only thing that has been resily 
d<Mie for the last seventy years,' says Boger Bacon, 
^is the tnmslati(Hi of St. Dionysius, Damascenus, 
and oth» books by Grosseteste/f The same author 
tells us that his ^ glorious Bishop ' knew mathematics 
and perspective, and had books of grammar brought 
from Greece J The reputation of English authors 
was widely spread on the continent. IVedejick was 
ddighted on receivinga copy of the new romana^ of 
Palamedes, composed in England, on one of Eiiur 
Arthur*s knights. He had full belief in the prophe- 
cies of Merlin, and encouraged a writer of the uame 
of Bichard to translate them from Latin into Frenck 
^ that knights and other laymen might understanii 
them better and take example from them.*§ T^^^ 
Emperor himself had an interest in them ; Merlin 
had declared ; ' The Second Frederick shall be of aa 
unhoped-for and wonderful origin.' Many conneciol 
this prophecy with the mysteries that hung abr^a\' 
the birth at JesL The dark sentences of the sooth- 

* Builds Samina Gmciliomm. f Compeiidiam Studii 

X OpQB Tertium. §^Br£hQllea' Pteftce. 

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saver shake our fidth in the gift he was supposed to chap. 

possess, more especially when we find him allotting 

Iwo-and-seventy years of prosperity to the Emperor. 
It was an age of insatiable curiosity as to the hidden 
future ; Frederick's father had, forty years before, 
induced Abbot Joachim to write commentaries on 
the Old Testament prophecies, Merlin, and the Sibyls. 
The greatest preachers and logicians of the time 
pored over the books of the renowned Calabrian 
j?eer.* Salimbene, as wise as most men of his cen- 
tury, eagerly devoured any prophetical writings ; of 
all the ten Sibyls, he could find only the Erythraean 
and the Tiburtine prophetesses, whom he searched 
for information as to Frederick's life. The friar re- 
hearses with awe the sixty hues ascribed to Michael 
Scott, threatening dire woes to almost every dty in 

The name of this renowned soothsayer is better 
known to us in connection with Melrose Abbey and 
the Eildon Hills than with his real abodes, the clois- 
ters of Castile and the Court of Apuha. After 
having studied at Oxford and Paris, Michael betook 
himself to Toledo. His earliest work, a treatise on 
the Sphere of Alpetronji, bears the date of 1217, 
This was followed by several translations from 
Averrhoes. In 1224, Scott's reputation was so well 
established, that Pope Honorius gave him leave to 
hold two benefices in England. Donat O'Lonargan 
resigned the Archbishoprick of Cashel in that year, 
and Honorius was eager to place the great scholar 
in the vacant see ; Scott refused it on the ground of 
his not knowing Irish.f Among the first letters 

* Salimbene. 

t Regesta of Honorius, MSS. in the British Museum, 
VOL. I. O G 

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CHAP, written by Gregory on his election in 1227, was one 
^ to Archbishop Langton in the interest of Master 
Michael Scott, who, as the Pope says, had not bet:u 
content with Latin literature, but had toikd ai 
Hebrew and Arabic. So illustrious a scholar, wLo 
had abandoned all for the sake of learning, ought tn 
be rewarded with a suitable benefice.* On the other 
hand, both Albert the Great and Eoger Bacon accu^.• 
Scott of the grossest ignorance. Michael dedicatcJ 
to Frederick a translation of Avicenna's work up »n 
Animals, with the fervent wish that it might be an 
ornament to the head and a chain to the neck of lii. 
Lord of Earth. Another work on Physiognomy by 
Scott, composed at Frederick's request, was out"'-' 
the first manuscripts to be printed.f 

The wise man, it is said, knew that he should iL<' 
by a small stone of a certain w^eight droppii.^* 
on his head. To avert his doom, he invented tl^ 
iron covering for the head known as the cervdl'ur. 
But one day, being in C!hurch, he uncovered his heu- 
at the elevation of the Host ; a stone fell on lu^- 
which he caused to be weighed. On leamini! i- 
weight, he settled all his worldly afiairs and awaiK- 
his end, which soon came.:j; All sorts of tales akv- 
the Astrologer were long current in Italy. Thiis iL 
Emperor, it is said, once asked Michael Scott, t^I^-i- 
was the distance firom the chamber where they wto 
sitting to the sky. After being answered, he took t: 
wise man with him to another part of the EngJ^' • 
and in the mean time had the roof of the chaiii''-.' 
lowered, so that the change was almost imperceptii' 

* Eegesta MSS. in the British Museum. f Jooni:*^ 

X Fran. Pipin. Dante^s lines upon Soott are well known. 

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When this was done, Frederick brought back his chap. 

friend to the old place, and asked him if his former 

reckoning was right. Michael went through some 
calculations, and then said, that either the sky had 
been raised or at any rate the earth had been lowered. 
Another time, the Emperor took it into his head to 
investigate the origin of language. He had certain 
babies brought up, enjoioing the nurses not to speak 
or caress their charges. But Frederick was disap- 
pointed in his wish to know whether the children 
would speak Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, or mo- 
dem Italian; they all died, since they missed the 
lullabies and nursery rhymes. A third experiment 
was made on the digestive powers of mankind ; two 
men were treated to a very good meal ; then one was 
sent to sleep, another to hunt ; in the evening Frede- 
rick had them both ripped open in his presence, and 
the medical men decided that the sleeper had digested 
his food the best* These are samples of the legends 
about the Apulian Court, which were carried into the 
North and there retailed to lovers of the marvellous. 
The Emperor certainly had some knowledge of phy- 
Mc; thus in his Constitutions he avowed that to 
those who searched into truth and the natm^ of things 
it seemed a firivolous or rather fabulous notion, that 
the minds of men could be moved to love or hatred 
by meat or drink. He was a diligent student of all 
sciences, both earthly and heavenly ; his mind, ever 
busy, was compared to the swift motion of the wind. 
His contemporaries attributed his wondrous faculties 
to the arts of the astrologers and necromancers, in 
whom he dcUghted. His mathematical studies, so 

* Salimbene. 
a a 2 

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CHAP, his enemies declared, were meant to raise human 


! — nature to the level of Divine knowledge* The Guclf- 

denounced him as an Epicurean, who searched the 
Scriptures in the hope of upsetting the existence of 
a future 8tate.f The doctrine of Transubstantiati^n 
was too tempting a subject to be spared by a scoffer. 
After hearing a solemn mass, the Emperor was asked 
by a Moslem Prince, what was the thing lifted up bv 
the priest and adored by all the Christians so rever- 
ently. ' The priests say that it is our Grod' * Werr 
your God as large as a mountain,' answered tie 
Moslem, ' he would long ago have been eaten up bv 
your priests, since they devour him daily in the raaNv 
Put away this hateftil superstition, or it will dtLlc 
all your glory/ One day, riding through a cor:: 
field in the Ehineland, Frederick cried, '0, ln>\v 
many Gods will be made out of this com in my 
time I 'J On another occasion he saw a priest carry- 
the Host to a sick man. ' How long/ the Empei\>r 
remarked, ' is this mummery to last ? '§ It is to N 
remembered that the Latin theory as to the L<^i\r^ 
Supper was now for the first time stamped with tl.o 
full authority of the Church and surrounded wii!^ 
new mysteries. Pope Innocent enforced the doctnih 
by his Lateran decrees ; Pope Honorius first orderit! 
the priests to hold the Eucharist before their bre:i>:N 
whenever it was carried to the sick, and to have 
tapers borne before it ; || Pope Gregory first onlenv 
the bell to be rung at the elevation of the Ha^tT 
But Frederick had a greater taste for the my- 

* Saba Malaspina. We must bear in mind, that so leaniitl ^ 
prince bad not been seen in Italy for four hundred jcsn, 
f Salimbene. J Vitoduranus. § Alb. Triom Fonti*jr~ 

II Salimbene. T Vita Gregorii. 

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teries of Jfature than for those of Keligion- There chap. 

was a man in Sicily named Nicholas, upon whom 

his mother had once called down a curse, that he 
might ever live in the water and seldom come to 
knd. The Emperor had often made this man dive 
in the Faro ; wishing to know if the bottom had 
been reached, Frederick threw his golden cup into 
the deepest part^ which the diver brought back. A 
second attempt being proposed, Nicholas said : ' Do 
not send me thither, for the sea is so disturbed, that 
I shall never return; there are rocks, and many 
wrecked ships, and huge fish at the bottom.' But 
Frederick would make him dive again, and Nicholas 
never came up. These tales, and many more, were 
brought into Northern Italy by the friars of Messina, 
one of whom was Salimbene's cousin. Towards the 
end of the century, Eomagnole mothers used to 
frighten their naughty children into silence by a re- 
ference to Nicholas the Fish.* 

Frederick delighted in sculpture, painting, and 
architecture, and gathered around him all the choicest 
works of art he could find. * Like most collectors of 
rarities, he was very unscrupulous ; Kavenna and 
Grotta Fcrrata had to yield up their treasiures, in 
order that Lucera and Palermo might be embellished. 
Even in the midst of a costly war, he found a large 
sum of money to lay out upon an onyx and other 
jewels, sold to him by some Proven9al merchants. 
He bought from the Venetian traders a sculptm-ed 
throne, together with more rich ftuniturcf He 
also seized upon the most prized gems of the 
Churches and convents in the Kingdom. But xm- 

• Fran. Pipin. t Regesta. 

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CHAP, happily he had little respect for the monuments of 
antiquity ; the Greek temples were too often de- 
spoiled by the Norman Bishops and Barons, in order 
to erect new Churches and Castles. Great havoc 
was thus made at Girgenti and in various places ou 
the Calabrian coast; Frederick himself built a 
stronghold at Brindisi, when on the eve of his Cru- 
sade, with the stones of old Boman aqueducts, the- 
atres, and shrines ; which accounts for the fact tlmt 
very few antiquities are now left in that famous 
dty. Its spohation was avenged three centurii-s 
later by the Spanish Viceroy, who in his turn 
pulled down the finest buildings left by the Suabian 

Saracen art found more favour, than did the Greek 
remains, in Frederick's eyes. He had many Sicilian 
palaces, the work of the Arabs, and we find him 
writing to forbid the planting of vineyards too near 
the curious Ziza at Palermo. But he usually pre- 
ferred to dwell on the mainland. The Eastern axbi 
of Apulia was studded with his castles and huntini: 
lodges, such as that at Lago Pesole ; from these he 
sallied forth to the chase in the forest of Incoronata. 
A single arch, decked with the Imperial Eagles, > 
all that is left of the Palace at Foggia, built in 
1223, as we learn fi-om the inscription. The Cs^t! 
del Monte near Andria, the most perfect remainii.; 
in Italy, was completed shortly after 1240, Kmlj 
built on the site of an older fortress of the X^r- 
mans. Its thick walls are pierced with loopholes ai: . 
flanked by eight towers, each standing at an an::'. 
Eight grand vaulted halls are stUl in being, dockr- 

• Von Rauxncr. 

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with marbles of different colours, and with the re- chap. 

mains of mosaics. The windows, one of which over 

tlie entrance gate recalls the triforium of Westminister 
Abbey, are finely sculptured, commanding a wide 
view; the reservoirs for water are well contrived, 
with a noble dstem in the court. Painting was 
largely employed in the decoration of Frederick's 
mansions, although Cimabue, the reputed father of 
the art, waa not born until towards the close of the Em- 
peror's reign. In the Palace at Naples, the Monarch 
was painted sitting on his throne, and addressing his 
kneeling subjects, bidding them take their lawsuits 
to the tribimal of Peter de Vinea, who was seated 
near.* This picture was probably a fresco, of the 
age and style of those painted on the walls of the 
old Palace of Westminster. If the halls of Naples 
were adorned by the limner, the fortress of Capua 
was decked by the sculptor. Its front, commanding 
the bridge over the Voltomo, was flanked by two 
huge towers, and was ornamented with statues, bas- 
reliefs, marbles, and alabaster. Frederick was repre- 
sented in his Crown and robes, with one arm out- 
stretched, the other resting on his knee ; the two 
pillars of his realm, Peter de Vinea and Thaddeus 
of Sessa, were on either hand, with Latin verses 
beneath each statue. The Castle of Capua kindled 
the admiration of the foreign soldiery, who passed 
tlirough the city on their way to overthrow Frede- 
rick's heir; but it was demohshed three hundred 
years ago.f The Emperor, we have said, was a 
great builder ; he drew out the plan of new cities 
^'ith his own hand ; many owed their origin to him, 

♦ Fran. Pipin, t Br^holles* Preface. 

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CHAP, as we learn from Jamsilla. Thus he founded Alta- 
^^ mura, and dedicated its Church to the Virgin. Ho 
appointed one of his clerks Archpriest in 1232, re- 
serving aU future collations to himself and his suc- 
cessors. No Bishop, except the Pope, was allowed 
to meddle with this new city. Frederick built Monu^ 
leone in Calabria, and on finding that there were rj> 
lands around for its inhabitants to till, he endeavoured 
to eflTect an exchange with the neighbouring Bishi }>? 
and Barons. Another of his foundations was Eraclea 
in Sicily ; the citizens were allowed to pay their rent 
in com, and a quay was built for them by the Em- 
peror at the cost of a thousand tarens, so that bout- 
could easily be imloaded there. He peopled tht^o 
cities by despotic means, forcing men to quit their 
old homes and to dwell in his new creations. In tL:^ 
way he built two new villages near Girgenti, while 
his own hunting lodge was constructed hard by, on 
the banks of a fountain. The old cities of Centorb: 
and Capizzi were destroyed in 1233 to punish tlieir 
rebelhon; the burghers were ordered to tnm^fir 
themselves to Palermo; but these commands had :•' 
be enforced by fines even seven years later. At tin- 
time the new dty of Agosta was foimded, and nami 1 
after its builder ; to it were removed many substan- 
tial burghers, who still retained vineyards near tht:: 
native Catania; Augustus allowed them to visit thti: 
old homes at stated seasons, provided they left tliei: 
famihes at Agosta, which must not be forsaken. !!:• 
letting of its granaries, mills, and meadows was *»* 
first mismanaged. The oflSciab took advantage •* 
the imsettled tenure of land ; one at Trapani ]>:>*■ 
sumed to sell Frederick's free gifts to the new coin< ^< 
making them pay two Augustals a head. The Ei-- 

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peror founded Mdehudi and Petxolla on the main- chap, 

land, in the district of Otranto ; but the men whom 

he wished to settle there got off by bribing the offi- 
cials, at which the neighbouring Barons connived; 
his wrath broke out in two rebukes addressed to the 
Justiciary.* In 1235, he endeavoured to repeople the 
old town of Cuma, destroyed by the Neapolitans dur- 
ing his minority ; he sent thither many who belonged 
to his domain land.f The contrast between the state 
of Northern and Southern Italy at this time is still 
further marked by the emigration of several Lom- 
bards under Otho of Camarana in 1237. They came 
before Frederick at Brescia, and represented to him 
that they were weary of constant war and oppression; 
he removed them at their prayer into Sicily, and 
settled them at last on his rich domain lands at C!or- 
leone, granting them the right of pasture and of 
cutting down wood to build their houses. Such emi- 
grants paid no taxes for ten years after their arrival. 
Twelve years later, Frederick transferred his Lom- 
bard colony to Militello, and endowed them with the 
privileges of Norman law. In 1240, he provided 
for the defence of his Kingdom by founding Aquila 
in the Abruzzi, hoping by this means to block up 
that road so often trodden by invaders, traitors, and 
robbers. Pope Gregory had already entertained the 
idea of building this new dty ; Frederick named it 
after his ensign, and endowed it with the neighbour- 
ing lands and woods : aU vassals who fl^d to it were 
safe from their lords, to whom however a fixed com- 
pensation was made ; the towers within its limits were 
to be destroyed. Aquila might fortify itself with 

* R^esta. t ^^^' ^^^ Germano. 

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CHAP, walls of a certain height, and hold two fairs in each 

: year. The Emperor, as usual, ordered a castle to be 

built for himself at the cost of the burghers. 

While he was issuing his orders about the too% 
tiles, staircases, and frescoes of his Southern castles, 
demanding an exact account of the length, breadtl], 
and strength of the new erections, the Northern hidf 
of the peninsula was making but Uttle progress in 
architecture. It gave but a cold welcome to the 
beautiful pointed style which had long prevailed in 
France and had become naturalised in England 
Cardinal Gualo Bicchieri had indeed employed an 
English architect when building a new church at 
Vercelli in 1219 ; and another church at A^ti, 
begun about ten years later, shows those long, nar- 
row, pointed windows, repeated later at Arezzo, in 
which our own coimtry abounds. The German 
buildings at Assisi, the delight of Pope Gregory au«l 
Brother Elias, also show the lancet windows; but 
these churches are far more remarkable for their 
paintings than for their architecture. The Cathedral 
of Siena, a city ever faithful to Frederick, was bogurx 
seven years before his death. Grand as it undoiiI>t- 
edly is, it is far surpassed by many cathedrals o!i 
this side of the Alps ; we cannot reconcile our 
Northern eyes to the huge, plain, circular window oi 
the West fix>nt, and to the sti-ange intermixture ***' 
round and pointed, however marvellous may be li • 
beauty of the niches and pinnacles. The sister Ca- 
thedral of Orvieto was begun much later in tL^ 
century, soon to be followed by that of Romkv. 
Eome, well-stocked with churches that reach Ikios 
to the earhest ages of triumphant Christianity, h^i : 
no need of any new style, and furnished no exam;' 

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of Thirteenth century architecture, if we except the chap. 

Basilica of San Lorenzo beyond the walls, thoroughly 

restored by Pope Honorius, and the noble Tribune 
of San Paolo with its mosaics, unhappily the only 
part of that church which has been spared by a late 
disastrous fire.* K Frederick gave but httle coun- 
tenance to church-building in the North, he atoned 
for this by the number of castles he built for his 
Vicars and Captains. Lombardy, Tuscany, and Eo- 
magna were overawed by his many fortresses ; he 
was anxious to have a Palace or a Castle in every 
city that owned his sway.f 

Among the arts cultivated with success at the 
Apuhan Court was poetry. Frederick's Kingdom 
was indeed fiill of local memories, recalling the 
past triumphs of the godhke art. The tongue of 
Bion and Theocritus was still spoken in Sicily and 
Calabria. Few lands possess associations which can 
rival those linked for ever with the banks of the 
Ofanto, the cool streams of Sulmona, the tomb look- 
ing down upon Naples, the town of Aquino. The 
first great epoch of Italian song had long passed 
away ; but its second age was now about to dawn. 
The supremacy of the Latin, as the language of the 
learned, was being invaded by her daughter. Al- 
ready, towards the end of the previous century, CiuUo 
of Alcamo had written poems in the Sicihan dialect. 
St. Francis had made the vulgar tongue the vehicle 
of rehgious rapture ; but it received its great impetus 
at the hands of Frederick and his courtiers. The 
most renowned master, who ever wielded the re- 
^urces of the modem ItaUan, acknowledged his 

* F. Pipin. t Salimbene. 

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CHAP, country's debt to this Emperor. 'The illustrioib 

heroes, Frederick Caesar and his noble son Manfred. 

followed after elegance and scorned what was mean : 
so that all the best compositions of the time came 
out of their Court. Thus, because their Boyal throne 
was in Sicily, aU the poems of our predecessors in 
the vulgar tongue were called Sicilian.' * And Dante, 
who was bom little more than fourteen years aftf : 
Frederick's death, was well able to appreciate iLe 
fostering cares of the Imperial bard. Indeed it 
seemed at one time as if Palermo, and not Florence, 
was to be the cradle of the sweet Italian tongue. 
The Emperor himself was a poet, who had an eve 
not only for the charms of his sovereign lady, ' iLe 
flower of all flowers, the rose of May,* but also for iliO 
beauties of Nature — a source of inspiration commonly 
despised by the Troubadours of the middle ages-f 

In his days we find the first traces of the pootio;/i 
crown, which Petrarch long afterwards inheritt'tl 
There was a bard living near Ancona, who bore tl.' 
title of the King of Verses, and who received il;' 

* Dante, De vulgari eloqtdo. 

f I give a specimen of Frederick's rhymes from the Pari- - 
ItalianO) where five poems of his may be found : — 

* Per voi son gioioso, 
Gaio ed amoroso, 
Viso prezioso, 
B'amore lezioso. 
Pregovi, Donna mia, 
Per Yostra cortesia, 
£ pregovi che sia 
Quello, che lo core disia.* 

Six hundred years have made very little change in the lu- ' 
language. The old orthography is preserved in the ballads qu< ''- 
by Cherrier and by the editors ef Salimbene. 

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honour of coronation at Frederick's hands shortly chap, 

after 1220, with all due solemnity. This poet, how- 

ever, soon retired from the world, being converted 
by St Francis himself. We may further mention 
the names of Patecelo, SaHmbene, and that myste- 
rious Sordello, as Lombard composers in the vulgar 
tongue, Alcadino, a doctor at Salerno, made epi- 
grams at Frederick's instance on the baths of Pozzu- 
oli, and also wrote in his patron's praise.* The 
Emperor's sons, Enzio, Conrad, and above all, Man- 
fred, have bequeathed to us poems in Italian and 
German. Peter de Vinea has left us the earhest 
specimen of the Italian sonnet. Einaldo of Aquino, 
James of Lentini, Inghilfredi of Palermo, and the two 
Colonnas of Messina, were poets who flourished in 
Frederick's reign. The pohtical ballad, which had 
hitherto been couched in Latin, took its vernacular 
fonn rather later in the century, almost exactly at 
the moment when it underwent a like transforma- 
tion into the vulgar tongue of England. The Italian 
muse made her first efforts in this style both in 
behalf of and against Conradin, the Emperor's ill- 
starred grandson, who was himself a poetf 

From all this it will be dear that Commerce, 
Learning, and Art were basking in the smiles of a 
Patron, such as they had not had since the age of 
Cliarlemagne and Alfred. Every branch of know- 
ledge was starting into life, after a sleep that had 
lasted for centuries. The clerks of Paris were no longer 
to enjoy a monopoly. The tide of enquiry, awakened 
early in the Thirteenth century, flowed on without a 
check to the age of the Keformation, which alone 

• Tiraboschi. f See the poems in the Appendix of Cherrier, 

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CHAP, can be compared to Frederick's era. Iiibothperiod> 

we find the same appeal to antiquity, the same tlibt 

for classic lore, the same development of national 
tendencies, the same daring speculations in religi m, 
the same homage paid to artistic novelties. TW 
who take pleasure in historical parallels will find a 
curious resemblance between Charles the Fifth and 
his Suabian predecessor in many points ; for instance, 
both of them coveted the glories of authorship. But 
the performances of Charles were not allowed to sn 
the light, while the bolder Frederick gave to tin 
world a Latin treatise on the art of hawking. He 
begs pardon in his Preface for a few barba^u^ 
terms he is driven to use, since he can find no 
Latin words to express his meaning. He bei::n- 
with his reasons for preferring hawking to all ot^ 
kinds of sport He classifies birds, and treats g(u- 
rally of their habits, describing in particular a white 
cockatoo sent to him by the Sultan of Cairo. Tlx 
Emperor next gives a careful description of the mem- 
bers of birds, their beaks, wings, talons, and interior 
organization. He goes on to treat of their vari«.'U^ 
methods of flying, fighting, and moulting. In ^^ 
second Book, he writes on birds of prey, quoiin- 
Pliny, and having the courage sometimes to difi- 
from Aristotle. He extols the Gerfalcon of hkn^ 
above all other feathered fowl, deriving the fint >y 
lable of its name fix)m the Greek. The nests, incu- 
bation, migration, plumage, and digestion of bawk^ 
are described ; also the way to capture, tame, ac: 
carry them; the falconer must be a man endowt^i 
with many special qualifications. Several chapU^ 
of the book are devoted to the causes which proo'?- 
the birds to flap their wings, when on the pole. H^^ 

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Emperor claims the merit of having introduced into chap. 

Europe the hood to cover the felcon's eyes ; the 

Eastern Sultans had sent their best falconers to him 
when he was in their country, and he had thus learnt 
many things.* The treatise of the Imperial author, 
with some additions by his son Manfred, has often 
been printed, and is still cited with respect In the 
noble hall at Frankfort, which is adorned with the 
portraits of every one of the German Csesars, Frede- 
rick is painted with a hawk on his wrist He was 
once summoned to submit by the Khan of the Tar- 
tars, who was then ravaging the frontiers of the Em- 
pire. Caesar was offered any post he might choose 
for himself at the barbarous Coiul; he laughed, 
and said he knew enough of birds to take the place 
of Grand Falconer.f The book, upon which he 
rersted his hterary fame, proves that he succeeded far 
better in Latin prose than in verse ; the Latin lines 
ascribed to him, to say the truth, are below the 
rhyming jingles of the dullest monk. He should 
have wooed the ItaUan Muse, and none other. 

But it is Frederick's private hfe that most attracts 
our curiosity. We care httle for a monkish descrip- 
tion of the great Emperor, as he enters some city of 
hb dominions with the gold-embroidered canopy 
borne above his head, while the Barons and Abbots 
of the neighbourhood welcome him with joy and 
banqueting.| We would fain know more of his 
every-day life ; what rude things were said to his 

* Albertns Magnus, in his treatise on hawks, quotes hrgelj 
from William, a Sicilian falconer. 

j- Alb. Trium Fontium. 

^ Chron. Neritinum for 1225. One of these Imperial canopies 
maj sUU be seen at Hatisbon. 

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CHAP, fece by the friars from the pulpit ; how Bianca 
^^' Lancia first attracted his notice ; how much he n?ally 
believed of his reUgion ; what efibrts were made to 
trip up his great minister. A few scattered notice? 
may be gleaned of the enjoyments in which FreJe- 
rick revelled. Thus we read of the abode he chose, 
when at Pisa, with a leafy vine spreading over the 
whole building, delighting strangers with its green- 
ness and its tempthoig shade. Near it were seen 
leopards, and other strange beasts from beyond j^ea. 
Handsome boys and girls were present in gay attire, 
with vioUns and harps in their hands, to the music 
of which some of their number danced ; charm- 
ing songs were simg, while the bystanders KsteneJ 
in silence. If a stranger foimd his way in by chana\ 
he could scarcely tear himself away fix)m a scene of 
so great enchantment* This mode of life, which 
the Emperor enjoyed when at a distance from 
home, whets our curiosity as to the state kept by 
him when in his own Bangdom. But it is scanvly 
possible to revive the old Court, of which Frederick 
was the sim. Here no Hamilton, no Pepp, no St. 
Simon comes to my aid ; a few detached passili:l^ 
fit)m scanty Chronicles, a few scraps from the Impe- 
rial Kegisters, are all the materials which a modem 
enquirer can find. We may imagine the Emper»>r 
in one of his Castles on the Apulian coast ; he i? 
most attentive to the care of his health, which is n«< 
strong ; he eats but once in the day ; he takes ftv- 
quent baths, and his enemies make it a crime that be 

* Salimbene. It never seems to have strack the friir tlu; 
the znansioii which he saw could have belonged tovy one bat *ii 

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continues this habit on Sundays * He consults his chap. 

^Vstrologers, Master Theodore or Michael Scott, on L 

the day that lies before him. Peter de Vinea, we 
may be sure, has an early audience ; he discusses the 
business of the Kingdom with his master, and makes 
no scruple of overturning any of Frederick's decrees.f 
Law is not their only topic ; the Emperor perhaps 
recites a poem he has composed in honour of some 
favourite beauty ; and the Magistrate produces 
a sonnet, of which Petrarch himself might be 
proud. Frederick then dictates to his Secretaries 
the mandates which are to go forth into every pro- 
vince of the Kingdom ; the most trifling subject, 
such as the breeding of poultry, the purchase of an 
ass, the removal of a superannuated keeper, does 
not escape the master's eye. If there are illustrious 
j)etitioners from distant lands at the Apulian Court, 
charters must be drawn up, to be afterwards signed 
by the Emperor. The Bishops of Burgundy, the 
Monks of Saxony, the cities of Tuscany, the Knights 
of Palestine, all alike turn to Frederick's Throne as 
their common centre of attraction, and await their 
respective messengers who will bring home the im- 
press of the Golden Bull. The Secretaries must take 
heed ; the Emperor once had the thumb of a care- 
less scribe cut off, because the man wrote Fredericus 
instead of Fridericus.J 

The weighty affairs of the Empire are debated in 
the presence of the highest nobles, both Germans and 
Italians. A fieimous lawsuit between Florence and 
Siena is decided in a Court comprizing Gebhard 
von Amstein, the Count of Acerra, the Count of 

* Vitodaranus. f Gnido Bonatti. ^ Salimbene. 


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CHAP. Chieti, the Marquess Lancia, Bichard the Hiiili 

Chamberlain, and Peter de Vinea. Sentence is prx)- 

nounced after calling in the aid of other Coimts 
Barons, and lawyers ; an enormous fine is inflictnl 
upon Florence for her violent acts and insolent con- 
tumacy.* But the grievances of the Kingdom an- 
more easily brought to the Monarch's notice, Lt>rJ 
Simon Eocca, one of the highest nobles of Traiii, 
steps forward with three Syndics of that city anJ 
two brothers of his wife ; aU have hoods drawn over 
their eyes in token of shame ; they fall on tlkir 
knees before Frederick, craving justice. Itseoin- 
that a Saracen Captain named Phocax, quartered h 
Simon's house, cast his eyes upon the beautiful Luly 
of his host ; the villain in the night tiuned the Iiib- 
band out of doors stark naked, while the wife K- 
came the victim of an infamous outrage. But Fa^ 
derick remarks : ' Lord Simon, where force has Kv:i 
used, there is no cause for shame. Go, I will take 
care that no such crime be committed again; hal 
the culprit been a native of the Kingdom, I should 
have ordered him to be beheaded.' After this heart- 
less sentence, we cannot wonder at the emigradou t. 
Dalmatia of many noblemen of Trani and Ban, w1k>^v 
wives have the fatal gift of beauty, upon the arriv: 
of seven fresh troops of Saracens in Apuliaf 1^ • 
Frederick's failings do not always go unrebuk-i 
Thus, Brother Jordan, who at this time fills the p^' 
of St Dominic, is admitted, in his garb of black ar. ! 
white, to an interview with the Emperor. Af:^' 
sitting silent for some time, the Saxon friar hem^' 
* My Lord, I am always running about my proviut^*- 

* See the Chartere for 1232. f Mat. Spinello. 

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as in duty bound ; I wonder therefore that you do chap, 
not ask me for news.' Frederick answers : ' I have ^^ 
my own envoys in all Courts and provinces, and I 
know all that goes on in the world.' — ' Our Lord Jesus 
Christ,' replies the Dominican General, ' knew all 
things, since he was God ; yet he asked his disciples, 
"Whom do men say the Son of man is?" You as- 
suredly are but a man; and you are ignorant of 
many things said of you, which it is very much your 
interest to know. It is said of you, that you oppress 
the Churches, that you scorn censure, that you put 
faith in auguries, that you favour Jews and Saracens 
too much, that you do not employ faithful advisers, 
that you pay no respect to the Vicar of Christ, the 
Father of Christians and our spiritual Lord; and 
surely all these things do you no honour.' The 
Preacher, like an Old Testament prophet, goes on 
with his lecture after this courtly opening.* 

Other Germans, besides Jordan, find their way to 
the far distant throne of their Kaiser. Master Henry 
of Cologne comes to borrow one of Michael Scott's 
works from the Imperial Ubrary ; its owner is most 
liberal of his treasures, and the transfer of the book 
is made in the house of Volmar, the Court physician.f 
Perhaps Hermann von Salza has arrived from the 
North, having taken Eome on his way. Frederick 
hails with peculiar dehght the stout old warrior, the 
hero of the white mantle, who was battUng in the 
Holy Land at the time when the Emperor was a 
babe in the cradle.J The friends talk over the 
affairs of Palestine, the haughtiness of the Templars, 

• Acta Sanctonun, Feb. 13. f See the Charters for 1282. 

X Voigt Hermann landed at Acre in 1196. 
u u 2 

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CHAP, the squabbles always going on at Acre, the umc- 

countable conduct of his Hohness. Thence u.^* 

transition is easy to the perverse Lombard Leagiio, 
and Frederick groans out: * Germany, Sicily, an J 
Palestine, are content to obey us ; why cannot Lorn- 
bardy imitate them ?' Hermann makes what excuses 
he can for his clients on the Po, whom he knows by 
experience to be shppery as eels. He also take< 
occasion to reprove his young friend, who is nut 
exactly a monk in his tastes and habits. A man 
like Hermann, the type of old-fashioned Gennau 
virtue, must do good wherever he goes. 

Dreadful news comes from the North about tlii< 
time. Heresy, checked in France twenty years be- 
fore, is now making great progress both in Germany 
and Italy. Almost every city between Hambui^ and 
Naples is more or less tainted with the diseasa But 
the begging-Friars are ready to encounter it, and to 
apply sharp remedies. The Emperor, although ho 
can remember the stakes hghted for the heretics of 
Alsace in 1215, is appalled at the lengths to whicii 
matters are now carried. The persecution has lasiel 
for three years, and has confounded the innooci:: 
with the guilty. Eich burghers denounced for tl:* 
sake of the spoils, which are afterwards shan^l 
among the barons; the Inquisition brought int- 
Germany; processes determined by venal Judge>: 
the highest nobles at last marked out for a pn^y : 
disapprobation of the new severities expressed bytlu' 
great Prelates ; appeals made to Home ; the munlc 
of the Inquisitors by their maddened victins ; J>w> 
held by King Henry to clear the good name of ih^^ 
accused ; such are the items of the news brought :.: 
this time from Germany. Frederick has also to lu^r 

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of the massacre of a whole people, that once dwelt chap. 
between the Ehine and the Elbe. The Stedingers ^^ 
of Friesland have for thirty years scoffed at the laws 
of Eome. A Crusade is preached against them by 
the Archbishop of Bremen; the dams of their 
country are broken ; and an army of 40,000 men, 
headed by the neighbouring Counts, annihilate the 
heretics, in spite of an heroic resistance. Rome hopes 
to reign triumphant in Germany after the bloody 
year 1234.* 

Perhaps some Crusader of high birth, on his way 
home from Palestine, makes his appearance at Court. 
He is conducted thither by Frederick's Seneschal, 
who furnishes horses and mules for the journey. The 
knights of the various cities, through which the noble 
stranger passes, turn out on horseback by the Impe- 
rial orders, and their ladies in choicest apparel greet 
liim with flowers and music. His health is restored 
by baths, medicines, and bleeding, during his stay at 
Court ; for the Emperor understands physic. Should 
the guest be highly fevoured, he is admitted by spe- 
cial order to an interview with the Empress.f 

A great variety of strangers meet at the banquet- 
ing hour. Ambassadors from the Greek Monarch 
arrive with a present of falcons. Some clerical 
visitors from Germany are astounded to find them- 
selves seated close to the turbaned men of the 
East, and shudder on hearing that these are envoys 
from the Sultan of Cairo and the Old Man of the 
Mountain.^ The honest Germans whisper among 
themselves some remarks on the late end of the 

• See the Annals of Worms, Treves, Cologne, &c. 
t M. Paris. $ Godefr. Colon. 

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CHAP. IXie ''j( Eavaria, wrio was st^icoed at KeHieim I'V 

a, suspected to be an a26;KK?i!u employed by 

tiie my-teriOGa Old ILm ra Fr^crick's beLr.Ii'. 
The Emperor himt^eli eats and drinks very liiilc. 
He is the Tery mc-^iel of a toet. and can put up 
wizh a .great deal fom his guests.* S^me lulLiii 
BL-b p* are at taLr.Ie.f C>ne of them, instead of rc- the cup to his entertainer after drink::. j, 
gives it to an a:ren*Iant priest, to the astoni^hniv:/. 
of all the guests. The Preliite wishes to inculcate 
the truth, that the lowest of the clergy is shove any 
earthly Sovereign. 

The Emperor, it must be afiowed, is rather kvfc 
in his talk. Speaking of his late Crusade, he re- 
marks : ' If the God of the Jews had seen my E: ::- 
dom, the Terra di Lavoro, Calabria, Sicily, and Apu- 
lia, he would not have so often praised that lanJ 
which he promised to the Jews and bestowed uj> »a 
them.' J The Bishops treasure up this imlucky spetxl , 
which will one day be noised abroad all over Italy. 
When the meal is over, the company are amused by 
the feats of some of the Almehs, brought finom iIk 
East. Two yoimg Arab girls of rare beauty pLu\ 
themselves each upon two balls in the middle of i^i' 
flat pavement. On these they move backwards an 1 
forwards, singing and beating time with cyinb:il- 
and castanets, while throwing themselves into intri- 
cate postures. Games and musical instnunents. pn^ 
cured for the Empress, form part of the entertaii:- 
ment.§ We hear moreover of a Saracen danor 
from Aquitaine. Such sports are relished by ti^ 

♦ Salimbene. "f Acta Sanctorum, Feb. 1>. 

^ Salimbene. § M. Paris. 

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guests quite as much as the Greek wine and the chap. 

viands prepared by Berard the Court cook, who is 

famous for his scapece ; this dish, consisting of fish 
lK>iled in salt water and sprinkled with saflton, popu- 
lar to this day in the province of Lecce, has been 
derived firom Apicius.* 

The meal being over, Frederick takes his German 
friends to see his son Conrad, the future King of the 
Iloinans.f He ponders with a sigh over the tales 
from the North respecting the unruly conduct of his 
other son, Henry, and promises his guests soon to 
i-ross the Alps himself, and once more to revisit 
Imperial Haguenau, which he has not seen for 
many a long year. He points with a father's pride 
to Enzio, his golden-haired darling, who bids fair 
to be the best cavaher in Italy. The little Man- 
fred, the most renowned of Frederick's children, 
who is destined to have all his sire's virtues 
wth hardly one of his sire's faults, is now a 
babe in the arms of his mother, the Marchioness of 
Lancia, a fair Piedmontese. The brothers of the 
frail Bianca are in high esteem, and are entrusted 
with important offices. The Emperor's favourite is 
watched with Oriental jealousy, and is under the 
care of hideous eimuchs from Africa. Every consort 
whom Frederick may choose must make up her 
mind to undergo the hke imprisonment. J 

The Emperor now shows his guests the wild bea^^^ts, 
which he has had brought from Africa and the East 
Tliere is the huge elephant, soon to be sent to Cre- 
mona, the bearer of the Imperial banner, guarded 

* Rcgesta for 1240. f Conrad de Fabaria. 

X Alb. yon Bcham. 

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'^ -•►. I-.'-* 

"t^ ji r 

-=. JL r:aCr~.:.r 2? : iiL ii:: . - 

hn. L ill* '~ !-• : V ~ '■ -•• 

i^ ;.• ^*e rr-y.. 

1 .1^ -^ u . - 

-n5^ X_-7 ;r. 

i. c -c* 

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up to the hills for the summer.* His hmiting esta- chap. 

blishment is upon a large scale ; we read of nineteen — 

falconers being sent at one time to fetch hawks from 
Malta ; others of these birds are foimd at Lampe- 
(lusa, Pantellaria, and the neighbouring isles. He 
has cranes taken alive for the pmpose of training his 

The treasures, with which Frederick dazzles the 
eyes of his visitors, rival those of Solomon. The 
Sultan of Egypt has given his Christian brother a 
tent of wonderful workmanship, displaying the move- 
ments of the sun and moon, and teUing the hours of 
the day and night. This prodigy, valued at 20,000 
marks, is kept at Venosa. J There is also a throne 
of gold, decked with pearls and precious stpnes, 
doomed to become the prey of Charles of Anjou 
and Pope Clement.§ There are purple robes 
embroidered with gold, silks from Tripoli, and the 
choicest works of the Eastern loom. Frederick 
charms the ears of his guests with melodies played 
on silver trumpets by black slaves, whom he has had 
trained. || He himself knows how to sing. Travel- 
lers, jesters, poets, philosophers, knights, lawyers, all 
find a hearty welcome at ihe Apulian Court ; if they 
are natives of the Kingdom they address its Lord in 
the customary second person singular, ' Tu, Messer.'^ff 
He can well appreciate the pretensions of each guest, 
since he is able to converse with all his many sub- 
jects, each in his own tongue. The Arab from 
Palestine, the Greek fix)m Oalabria, the Italian from 

♦ Villani. t Regesta. J Grod. Colonienais. 

§ Saba Malaiipma. j| Regesta. 

^ Salimbene. Natiyes of Borne addressed the Pope in this 


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rXij? T^»!5z.T, iLr Freiicl^man from Lorraine, the German 

'^ ir.cL TizriiiinJu £iii that Oesar understands them 

iZ. "i^ii Tat^ti of ooTirse, he is fiimiliar.* Yeiy 

L^erdLi 5? rr^icrick fi>L>m his Xorthem grand5ire, 

vl-: :*:cji sDeak ii:»iring but German and very bad 

Tr:*-:rLZ:»:ir. Crusader, Lawgirer; Grerman by 
ciioi. T'l.i^i^ It binh. Arab by training ; the pupil 
lie tjriZL:. Lie vxiim of Eome ; accused by the world 
c-f r^ciiiz -y turns a Caiholic persecutor, a Muham- 
nzx^Lm or-GTen, an Infidel freethinker ; such i> 
Frei-erfv-k iiie Se^x^ni His character has betn 
skrt.iei for us by two men of opposite politii-s,^e ihe Guelf and Jamsilla the Ghibtlliiic, 
b:ih of whom knew him well Each does justice to 
the wonderfjl genius of the Emperor, and to the 
rapid developmeni of the arts and conunerce under 
his fostering care. But all is not feir, whatever ai> 
pearances may be. Every generation of the Hohen- 
staufen Kaisers seemed to add a vice to the shame of 
their house. Cruelty is the one dark stain in the cha- 
racter of Barbarossa ; cruelty and treachery mar ilit- 
soaring genius of Henry the Sixth ; cruelty, treacherr, 
and lewdness are the three blots that can never bo 
wiped awayfrom the memory of Frederick the Second. 
He has painted his likeness with his own hand H:^^ 
Eegisters with their varied entries throw more liii-t 
upon his nature than any panegyrics or diatribes ova 
do. One example will be enough. If he wishes to 
get an impregnable castle into his hands, he ihu? 
writes to his general: — 'Pretend some business, 
and warily call the Castellan to you ; seize on him 

* Malespini. 

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if you can, and keep him till he cause the castle to chap. 
be suirendered to you.'* The Emperor's chief aim in ^' 
these transactions was to avoid scandal. ' Give good 
words,' he writes to another agent, ' and employ dan- 
destine theft, if necessary ; but be sure of your ground 
at the outset, so that you may not have to aban- 
don the imdertaking.' Frederick was very particular 
in the choice of his agents, usually preferring those 
of low birth, whether Christians or Saracens. They 
were disgraced without scruple, if they chanced to 
transgress, and their wealth flowed into their master's 
coffers. ' I have never bred a hog without having 
its lard,' is one of the sentiments put into the Em- 
peror's mouth.f 

Frederick's cruelty is indisputable. His leaden 
copes, which weighed down the victims of his wrath 
until death came to the rescue, were long the talk of 
Italy and are mentioned by Dante. In this way died 
Count Kegnier of Manente, who harassed Sicily dur- 
ing Frederick's early years, and iu whom Pope 
Honorius felt so warm an interest J It was an age 
of horrible punishments, when the Church herself 
took the lead in torturing, mangling, and roasting the 
bodies of mankind. Treachery as well as cruelty 
might easily be learnt from her preaching and prac- 
tice ; but there is another vice which is Erederick's 
own. He may be compared to one of the old war- 
like CaUphs or Sultans, with all the best and all the 
worst points in the character of Lorenzo de' Medici 
superadded. This Oriental likeness is especially seen 
in his treatment of women. He might sing their 

* Regesta. f Salimbene. 

X French Chronicle, quoted by Br^holles for 1220. 

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CHAP, praises in his Sicilian lay ; but he viewed them in th-- 
• hght of slaves, created for his pleasures. Treadin:: 
in the steps of the old Norman kings, he was the 
master of a harem, recruited fix)m Saracen countries. 
which was the scandal of all good Christians. It was 
watched by eunuchs ; the Emperor himself is said to 
have deprived these wretched beings of their natural 
rights.* They were sent into Apulia, as we find in 
his Eegisters, by the Cadi of Palermo. The girL 
attached to the Imperial estabUshments, whether at 
Lucera or at Messina, were not allowed to eat the 
bread of idleness ; Frederick ordered them to employ 
themselves in spinning or in some other useful wort 
An Arab of the name of Ben Abou Zeughi superin- 
tended the distribution of the robes trimmed witii 
fur, the veils, and the Unen raiment, served out to 
each of the Emperor's ladies.f This is not a plea:?- 
ing part of our subject; but it proves the utter 
falseness of the idea, that the mere cultivation of tlie 
human mind has any power to elevate, unless tliere 
be a higher motive at work. These vicious hal>:l> 
bore their usual fruit ; the heart was hardened^ the 
feelings were petrified ; the Sovereign, as we have 
seen, turned away from the cry of the oppres«.J. 
How different is Frederick, surrounded by his Saracv n 
lemans, fiom St. Louis sitting under the oak of Viii- 
cennes I The Emperor, so his Papal monitor ackmnv- i 
ledged in 1227, was well fitted by nature to soar u:» 
into heaven ; he chose rather to grovel on earth. i 
We may easily imagine the delight with which li> 

* Letters of Innocent for 1245. Let ub hope that this hatd':' 
practice is now confined, in £urope at least, to the Pope*8 c^ - I 
and to the Sultan's harem. ' 

t Regesta. Nic. de Curbio. 

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enemies, the scribes of Eome, fastened upon this chap. 
weak side of his character. It was bad enough, but ^' 
they a^ravated the scandal K we put faith in the 
statements made by Gregory's biographer, by Albert 
von Beham, by Nicholas of Corby, we must believe 
that Frederick was the greatest of monsters, a com- 
pound between Sardanapalus and Nero ; that he shut 
up his consorts in dark prisons until he killed them ; 
that he enforced prostitution on Christian virgins and 
gloated over their agonies with fiendish glee ; that 
lie sold his female subjects to the Saracens ; that he 
was defiled by the foulest of all vices.* The histo- 
rian, who makes truth his aim, must draw the line 
somewhere. I think we may admit as proved 
those accusations of vice which the Popes, no male 
prudes, put forth against Frederick in the face of the 
world. But the writings of private ecclesiastics, 
unconfirmed by the seal of Eome, must be viewed 
with the greatest suspicion. We are not content to take 
the measure of Hannibal's character from Livy. We 
know how the CavaHers have painted Cromwell, how 
the Legitimists have painted Buonaparte. The hatred, 
^'hich the Friars bore to the Hohenstaufen, was the- 
ological as well as pohtical. 

Frederick was the father of a numerous ofispring. 
His eldest sons, bom in wedlock, were Henry and 
Conrad, each of whom in turn became King of the 
Komans. His third Empress bore him two children, 
Margaret and a second Henry. But Frederick's 

* De Ciirbio aays : ' Et non contentus juvenculis nmlieribus 
et puellifl, tanquam scelestus infami vitio laborabat : quod quidem 
turpe est cogitare, turpius dicere, turpiasimum exercere. Nam 
ipsam peccatum quasi Sodomte apert^ prtedicabat nee penitus 

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CfHAP. bastards were many. First in age came the best- 

beloved of them all, the chivalrous Enzio. His name 

is probably the Italian corruption of the German 
Hans, called by the French Ance. His birth in 1220, 
and the yellow locks for which he was famed, point 
to a German mother. Next came Frederick of Au- 
tioch, the origin of whose title is imknown ; Tuscany, 
not Syria, was the field in which he gathered his 
laurels. Eichard was a third son, the future Vicar- 
General of Komagna. The youngest male of the 
Imperial illegitimate brood waa Manfred. Hi< 
mother, Bianca I«ancia, came from Asti in Piedmont; 
her connexion with her seducer began in 1231. 
When she was lying on her death-bed, at some period 
during the nine last years of Frederick's life, she be- 
sought him to marry her. He complied, and thus 
legitimated the children she had borne him.* But the 
Church never recognized the union, since the Empo^ 
ror was at the time an excommunicated man. He 
distinguished Manfred fix)m his other children bv 
bestowing upon that youth a part of the knd< 
usually granted as a dowry to the Sicilian Queens 
with which the dying Bianca had been gratified 
Manfred is the only bastard son mentioned in his 
father's will ; the three elder sons bom out of wed- 
lock are not named in that document, although thev 
had all of them done the Emperor good service in his 
wars. Manfred had one sister, Constance, who wa.N 
married to the Greek Emperor. Frederick also begat 
at least five illegitimate daughters, whom he gave to 
various Italian nobles ; these were Selvaggia, Yolando. 
Catharine, and the Coimtesses of Acerra and Carretto. 

* Salimbene, Jamailla, Imago Mimdi> and other chronidcs. 

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A sixth daughter, Blanchefleur, the last survivor of chap. 

all this numerous tribe, died a nun at Montargis in 


After this attempt to describe the Court of Apulia, 
the great central figure must once more occupy 
our attention. Frederick was of middling height, 
well made, rather fat, with slightly red hair, the 
heritage of the Hohenstaufens.f His face, with a 
mouth unmistakeably sensual, may be seen upon his 
seals and coins.J His handsome brow confirms the 
accounts given by all the Italian chroniclers of his 
knowledge, so wonderful for his age. Palermo, the 
cradle of his youth, was the point where the Latin, 
the Greek, the Jewish, and the Arabic elements all 
met together. Much knowledge he undoubtedly 
gained from these various sources ; but he found it 
a dangerous possession. His religious belief, so it 
was ever rumoured, was of the most perverse hue. 
In vain did he found masses, attend ceremonies, be- 
stow yearly wax candles upon saints, and issue per- 
secuting edicts; Eome still held his orthodoxy in 
suspicion. Yet even the partizans of Eome could 
not withhold their meed of praise from one who was 
the marvel of that marvellous century, who was re- 
garded by some of his contemporaries as Antichrist, 
by others almost as an incarnation of the Deity. Mo- 
dem students, who are not so dazzled by Frederick's 
brilliant qualities as to forget his many faults, may 
adopt almost word for word the opinion entertained 

• See Br^hoUes' Preface, 211. 
t Solimbene. Ric. Ferrariensis. 

X The finest coin I ever saw of Frederick's was a golden one in 
iLe museum at Treves. 

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A.D. 1231— AD. 1236. 

* Chutode remm Caesare, non fiiror 
Civilis aut via eximet otium.' — Horace. 

THE first thing recorded of Frederick in 1231 is chap. 
his renewal of the famous edict of 1220 ; he ^ 

ordered Stephen of Anglone, who had been much 1231-1236. 
employed in public aflairs, to give notice that aU 
privileges must be presented to the Court by a certain 
day, with a view to their fixture validity. The men 
of Eavella, who would seem to have fled into the 
mountains, were commanded to send back their 
wives and children by a specified time, and no more 
new cBfitles were allowed to be built.* The Pope 
deigned to express his approbation of Frede- 
rick's zeal in the work of recovering Palestine, but 
exhorted him to deal gently with the two chief 
bulwarks of that land, the Temple and the Hospital. 
He also warned the Emperor to fiilfil his promise 
of giving sureties within the allotted eight months. 
The Pope's letters, with a view to this object, went 
forth into every part of Germany and Upper Italy. 

In February a special Court was held at Taranto. 
Gebhard von Amstein, who had replaced Eaynald 
as Frederick's Vicar in Italy, brought a flourishing 
report of the loyalty of Siena, to which city the 

* Ric. San Germano. 
VOL. I. I I 

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CHAP. Emperor addressed two letters. Gregory a few 
months later seconded Frederick's eflTorts to promote 

1231-1236. peace in Tuscany by a letter to Pistoia. He remou- 
strated again and again on behalf of the persecuted 
Orders; but his attention was now occupied with 
more serious business. Several Paterine heretics 
had been discovered at Borne, against whom Pope, 
Senator, and People were alike zealous ; some of tli^- 
victims were burnt, others were despatched to the 
monasteries of Monte Cassino and Cava for conver- 
sion. Frederick sent the Archbishop of Eeggio aiid 
Eichard the Marshal to seize the heretics at Xapk^.* 
' We are moved to vengeance,' so he writes on the 
28th of February, 'hearing that heresy, like a 
canker, is creeping through our realm, and that it 
has reached Naples and Aversa. We are the more 
grieved, since the plague is found so nigh to the 
seat of the Empire and the Apostolic See.' Tlie 
Archbishop of Eeggio some time afterwards made 
inquisition at San Germano after suspected Paterines 
The Pope kept a watchM eye upon the daring muti- 
neers, who had ventured to show themselves so near 
the head-quarters of Orthodoxy. Writing to the 
Abbot of Cava in March, he says : ' Venomous rej>- 
tiles rage the more they are hurt We commit the>v* 
heretics to you, that they may not poison those wh- 
listen to them. Put them in irons, in dimgeons that 
have no windows, that none may visit them ; thtir 
victuals may be let down to them through a liitli' 
hole in the roof. Allow them to be instructed ; ii 
one of them escapes, you shall answer it' Wliil^ 
giving these benevolent orders for the safe cust<.»'iy 

* Hie. San Gennano. 

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of the Southern heretics, Gregory was equally atten- chap. 
tive to the state of the Apulian clergy, who have ^' 
never been in much repute for genius or holiness. 1231-1236. 
One man had gained the See of Potenza by simony, 
and had robbed a neighbouring Church ; the Arch- 
bishops of Bari and Trani were to send him to Bome 
to explain his conduct Gregory, as his letters 
prove, suspended the Archbishop of Benevento for 
having been lax in examining a suffragan Bishop, 
and bade him be more careful in future.* 

Von Salza had informed the Papacy of his invita- 
tion to Culm. He returned in April from Ger- 
many, where his Order was taking fast root ; the 
Duke of Masovia had already called seven of the 
brethren to his aid.f It might have been thought 
that this Transalpine mission would have caused a 
i^eparation between Brother Hermann and his Kaiser; 
but such was not the case ; the friends usually con- 
trived to meet at least once a year, and the good 
Knight was employed by Frederick, as before, on 
embassies for the good of Christendom. The perse- 
cuted Hospitallers professed themselves ready to 
place their fiefs in Hermann's hands, until umpires 
should decide the dispute between their Order and 
the Emperor ; an offer which the Pope eagerly em- 
braced. Frederick, who was at Melfi in May, made 
little diflSculty in transferring an Abbey of the Bene- 
dictines, disgraced by the evil life of its inmates, to the 
Cistercians, for which he received the thanks of the 
General Chapter of the White Order. He now broke 
\nth two old friends. Baynald, the Viceroy of 1228, 

♦ Regesta of Gregory for 1231, Middlehill MSS. 
t Raynaldus. 

II 2 

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s-t fc ^^~ 

-,. ^- TL.T.: 1.-^ u- -\.-Ji . t:.« V. 

1^.-. I "v z. r iiT IT 

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was sent by the Pope to rescue the tottering Latm chap. 

Empire on the Bosphorus, whither the gallant old '. — 

Champenois sailed with an anny from Venice. 1231-1236. 

Frederick now found himself obhged to raise the 

siege of Antrodoco, which was held by Berthold.* 

He sent Von Salza into Lombardy, to pave the 

wiy for the Imperial Diet at Eavenna, to be held 

later in the year. The Pope wrote to Frederick, 

exhorting him to put on the spirit of charity. 

The correspondence between the now reconciled 

friends was very brisk. In March, the King 

of Sicily had asked the Papacy to restrain the men 

of Ascoli in the March, who had seized on some 

of his fiefs. Gregory in return complained that 

the King's Justiciaries were throwing priests into 

prison and robbing men ; ' Our faithful people 

can scarcely breathe ; the Justiciaries pretend 

that they are offended, in order to provoke you to 

offence, if they can. We have enjoined the Bishop 

of Beauvais, the Euler of the Anconitan March and 

of the Duchy of Spoleto, to correct what has been 

done to your prejudice ; do you act in the like way 

with your Justiciaries.' 

Af^irs in Palestine also required constant watching, 
hi February, Gregory had written to the Grand 
Master of the Templars, rebuking him for breaking 
the Truce which Frederick had made with the Sara- 
cens, and for acting against the will of Frederick's 
Bailiff He remarks with truth, that in consequence 
of this piece of folly the King of the Persians will 
find the road to conquest more easy. In August, 
the Pope once more writes to Frederick : ' You say 

* Ric. San Gcrmano. 

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- tii_- . :»r T-.c hkh i : '^ywzz 

"—. -- : — i-T" ' zi'^n^z zur "rzii .•:»<&.. -^ in ihevjy 

:. .r 1- ' ^^ • -: 'i^'i ':t :• c»r : t>.-; -!:•:* LfL.liari 
:-. -j--=^.- Zx iL -rrr ;•: lit I' •]•<% lie X.nLt-.'i; 

I*. ' - :L::i^ ^^'Y -i-^^^- •■- ^— J* * - f' ■-'^ ^^ army of 
:. • « .illy. I . • • ^Vtnr, 4rri 1500 cro^»ow- 
!.':•:.* ^-' r - •- ^"^ ^ 'J^ *-*-*• ^^ Emperor skclJ 
!• r :• cin: HTj L..i:_':ttriT ^11 an anuv: otherwix-. 

• Clr-E- r i*citE.rir en- 

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if it went ill with him, let him look to himself.* CB^. 
The Marquess of Este and the Count of San Boni- 

fezio took the lead at Bologna, the head-quarters of 1231-1236. 
the League. Frederick long afterwards aflSrmed that 
the Pope himself had been the mainspring of this 
warlike movement, and that Gregory had sent both 
messengers and letters to the Lombards, as some men 
could bear witness, who were on the side of the 
rebels in 1231.f 

In October, Frederick sent Binaldo of Acqua- 
viva to the aid of Viterbo, which was now beginning 
a long war with Eome ; the Apostolic city resolved 
to tax her Churches for the strugglcj In November 
the Emperor left Apulia after completing his legis- 
lative toils, and took the road to Fano. Here he 
confirmed the new Count of Gueldres in the posses- 
sions enjoyed by the father of this noble, investing 
Aylhard, one of the favourite Teutonic Order, as the 
representative of the absent Count. Frederick then 
arrived at Kavenna, where he was probably sur- 
roimded by the Traversari, Tignosi, Manardi, and 
Anastagi, the fine old houses of the country, whose 
places were usurped seventy years latter by beggarly 
upstarts, ' bastard slips of old Eomagna's line.'§ 

His letters to the various cities of Italy had already 
gone forth, commanding the attendance of their de- 
puties at the Diet to be held at Bavenna on the feast 
of All Souls. He declared that he had convoked 
this assembly by the advice of the Papacy, that his 
son King Henry and all the Princes of Germany were 
expected, that the object in view was to appease 

• GaL Flammiu t See his letters for 1239. 

} Ric. San Germano. § Dante, Puiig. XIV. 

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L 'T^ - 1 

•: T_ . 

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a zealous Ghibelline, besides Berard the Archbishop chap. 
of Palermo, Frederick's best friend in the Kingdom. ^ 
Many Lombard and German Prelates were also pre- 1231-1236. 
sent ; among them was Siffrid, the youthful Bishop 
of Eatisbon, who was cousin to the Archbishop of 
Mayence, and who this year became Chancellor of 
the Empire.* The Duke of Saxony, the Duke of 
Carinthia, the Duke of Meran, the Landgrave of 
Thuringia, the Count of Nassau, Gebhard von Am- 
stein, the Legate of the Empire in Italy, Werner von 
BoUanden, and Godfrey von Hohenlohe, were also 
at their Kaiser's side, and saw him wear the Crown 
of the Empire on Christmas-day. But Frederick 
missed many of those who had welcomed him to 
Germany in the famous 1212. His old friends, the 
King of Bohemia and the chivalrous Duke of Austria, 
had both died in 1230. Another ancient partizan, 
the Duke of Bavaria, a hero of Damietta, had been 
murdered in 1231 by a madman ; a foolish report 
was spread that Frederick had instigated the crime, 
and had fetched an assassin from the East ; the Old 
Man of the Mountain was said to have been the 
Kaiser's accomphce in this ruffianly deed.f There 
was a new Landgrave of Thuringia, a new Arch- 
bishop of Mayence, the nephew and namesake of that 
Siffrid who had crowned Frederick, and a new 
Archbishop of Cologne in the room of the deeply- 
mourned Engelbert. A new race of men was 
springing up in Germany, who had borne no part 
in the great transfer of the Empire from the Guelfe 
to the Hohenstaufens, and who grumbled because 
the edicts, which regulated the Fatherland, were 

• Alb. Trium Fontium. f Godefrid. Colon. 

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li ^r^-r :_ 

«_ «:ir.c ^. 

t a. .r 

. » «. 1 

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office was over, she would for the future elect no chap. 

one displeasing to the Emperor. Nothing was 

settled at Eavenna ; the Genoese went home, where 1231-1236. 
Frederick's ordinance caused great tumults. He de- 
spatched John of Keggio, a Judge of his High Court, 
with letters to Genoa ; the envoy gave them fair 
words in the Town Council, but repeated the harsh 
edict Frederick would not be defied ; in the next 
year, 1232, he sent orders into Sicily to seize the 
Genoese and their wares throughout the Kingdom. 
Genoa was in an uproar ; one party wished to join 
the Lombard League. The State equipped a fleet 
to protect her children at Tunis, whose expulsion 
Frederick had enjoined. This fleet ruled the sea; 
the Emperor's Marshal had to fly to Tyre with a few 
men, the rest of his army being either killed or taken. 
Frederick now took a milder course ; he despatched 
Thaddeus of Sessa and the Judge of Bari to Genoa 
with letters, and bade the burghers rejoice at his 
victories in the East. If they would only send 
envoys to him, he would release all the Genoese in 
his hands, together with their goods. Two envoys 
were accordingly sent, and were well received; they 
procured letters to the authorities throughout the 
Kingdom for the attainment of their object. Frede- 
rick talked of his Imperial mildness, saying that he 
did not disdain to temper justice with clemency, and 
that his Highness would be placable for the fiiture, 
He hoped that Genoa would obey him, even as she 
had obeyed his predecessors in the Empire.* 

Other towns of Northern Italy were found by the 
Emperor more comphant than Genoa. On the 14th 

* Bart. Scriba, Ann. Genucn. 

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cmp. of January, 1232, he hdd a Council in the Arch- 
bishop's Palace at Bavenna, which was attended l>y 
the Podestas and envoys of Parma, Modena, Cremona, 
Pavia, and Tortona; they all joined in concertiii^ 
measures against the Milanese.* The Bishops of 
Batisbon and Osnaburg, the Abbot of Molk, ih 
Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, the Patriarch of Aquileia, 
and the Archbishop of Bremen, procured valuable 
privileges from FredericL He took under his special 
protection the inhabitants of Comacchio, calling theiu 
* his own fishermen.' The first important edict, whirl 
was the fruit of the Diet of Bavenna, bears the duu- 
of January, 1232. * We quash,' Frederick says, ' in 
every town of Germany all statutes, made by bui^ht rs 
or by guilds, against the will of their Bishops. No 
other money than the local coin is to be used. Wc 
recall aught that we or our forefathers have done to 
the prejudice of the Empire or the Princes. A fine 
of fifty pounds of pure gold is the penalty of traiiiJ- 
gression.' Frederick is now courting the higher 
powers at the expense of the cities ; he himself say? 
that he desires to give the most ample interpretation 
to the privileges of the Princes ; later in his Ufe l.c 
will be found courting the burghers in his stnuniA 
with their superiors. 

Heresy next claimed the attention of the Diet 
The Stedingers, so called firom a town in FrieskiA 
had risen against the Church, maddened by persecu 
tion. The Northern heretics had many brethren in 
Italy, who were increasing every day, sheltered by 
the stormy factions of the time. On the 22n(l of 
February, these men were placed under the ban t»f 


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the Empire ; they were debarred from the learned chap. 

professions ; their goods were confiscated ; all per- ! — 

sons suspected by the Church were held guilty imtil 1231-1236. 
they had proved their innocence, which they were 
bound to do. In this hideous fashion the usual rule 
of justice was reversed, which considers a man inno- 
cent until his guilt be proved, whoever his accuser 
may be. All Podestas and Temporal Lords were to 
help in the work of rooting out the heretics, whose 
houses were to be destroyed. A fresh decree was 
issued from Bavenna in March. Liquisitors were 
appointed by the Apostohc See, and the heretics 
were denied their common-law rights throughout 
Germany, which boasted of its having been hitherto 
always sound in the faith. 'The Dominicans of 
Wurzburg,' says the Emperor, ' are our deputies in 
this matter ; they are to be protected from all oppo- 
nents ; there exists in Germany a new and unwonted 
infirmity of heretical wickedness.' Even children 
were now punished if they did not come forward to 
inform against their own parents. 

These edicts are in the spirit of the time; the 
Church was infallible, and whoever dared to dissent 
from her decrees was a heretic, out of the pale of 
the law, food for fire, to be knocked on the head like 
a wolf, wherever taken. The first half of the Thir- 
teenth century was the golden age of persecution, of 
that spirit of rehgious bigotry which seems likely to 
disgrace human nature, as long as the world shall last 
This foul spirit is of very early date in the history of 
Christianity ; it was rebuked by our Lord Himself, 
though mankind have chosen to take pattern rather 
by the savage request of His two disciples than by 
the mild words of reproof used to restrain the pair. 

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CHAR Intolerance had ftdl play even in that early age 
which saw the Cross overthrow the idols of Paganism. 

ii3i>i3d«. Yh^ yi^ reached its highest point at the time of 
which we are now treating ; would that it had stc^ 
pod there ! It is by no means confined to Bome ; 
indeed, save two or three himible Protestant sects, 
aU forms of Christianity, when entrusted with power, 
have encouraged the most horrible results of the 
proverbially bitter theological hatred. We have all 
sinned alike in this matter. The Spanish Inquisition, 
the Irish Statute Book of the last century, and the 
Lithuanian persecutions of our own day, all bear 
witness to the fact that every dominant creed has 
been fully persuaded of the truth of that accursed 
doctrine, the right of the temporal magistrate to 
enforce his spiritual convictions on the mass of the 

The excuse of blind zeal may be pleaded for 
others ; but what shall we say of Frederick ? His 
conduct in Palestine, if we beUeve the Moslem chro- 
niclers shows that his fiuth was not with him a very 
strong principle even in theory, certainly not in 
practice. Yet here we find him taking the lead in 
the most intolerant coimsels. The probable truth is, 
that he looked upon the Paterines as forming a great 
part of his rebeUious Lombard subjects. For every 
Paterine that was burnt, there would be one traitor 
the less ; Lombardy was a hive swarming with both 
heretics and rebels. The Emperor would most likely 
have made no objection, had the Popes been so blind 
to their own interest as to inflict on Lombardy the 
doom of Languedoc, and to pour in hosts of blood- 
thirsty crusiulers under some new De Montfort The 
Stedingers indeed, as &r as we know, were loyal 

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(Dbjects, to whom Frederick had written in terms of chap. 

krann approval ; yet he was now forced to throw 

^em, as well as the hated Italian Paterines, into the 1231-1236. 
bargain of persecution struck with the Church. 

One other edict was issued from Bavenna. Frede- 
rick made a decree in favour of his liegeman, the 
Count of Provence : ' Vassals ought to obey their 
lords ; this law is to be in force for ever in Provence 
and Forcalquier ; none of the Count's feudatories are 
to stir up war against, or to attack the said Count.' 
The legislation of Eavenna was all in favour of the 
high aristocracy, whom the Emperor looked upon as 
the best guardians of peace and order. Lombardy 
was swayed by democracy, and was a chaos of war 
and turmoil. 

hi the month of February, Cardinal Otho and the 
Bishop of Palestrina had gone to Bologna as the 
Pope's Legates, to enforce peace in the North. They 
seem to have effected their object by the beginning of 
March, when they sought Frederick at Kavenna. He 
had no longing to behold either of them ; the Bishop 
he always distrusted ; the Cardinal had done his 
best to raise Germany against its Sovereign a few 
y'ears before. Hearing of their approach, Frederick 
rode off in the afternoon of the 7th of March with a 
5mall body of knights, and afterwards sailed up the 
Po toLoreto. Here he foimd the Venetian envoys, of 
vhom he asked leave to visit the shrine of St. Mark 
^ith his retinue. This request being granted, he set 
mt on his voyage.* He afterwards complained 
)itterly of his having been driven by the disobedient 
^mbards to embark on the stormy Adriatic in the 

• Chron. Placentinum. 

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CHAP, boisterous month of March.* He met with a noble 

reception at Venice, and made costly oblations ui 

1231-1236. gQij and jewels at the high altar of St. Mark's, 
which he perhaps compared with the mosques 1r 
had seen in the Eastf Overlooking the lukewarm 
support which the State had given him in his latu 
Crusade, he bestowed many privileges on the Vene- 
tian merchants, who bought wool in Sicily; they 
were especially anxious that their stranded ve-MrL- 
might be protected from Apuhan wreckers, but a: 
the same time warned the Emperor that posterity 
would impute his concessions to fear.;J; Frederick 
was equally bountiful to the Monastery of St Ni- 
cholas on the Eialto, and to the Abbey of St (jeorge. 
Venice must have recalled to his mind his grand- 
father's long struggle with the Lombards, which 
was here brought to an end. The Doge at this tiuio 
was James Tiepolo, whose son Peter happened to Ix* 
Podesta of Treviso. The Emperor wished much t»» 
get that city into his hands, but Peter withstood all 
his attempts.§ 

In the same month, Frederick went byAquileia to 
Cividale di Friuli, where the Patriarch had a palace 
in order to meet King Henry. The interview mu>t 
have been a painful one, for the young man, remove! 
from his father's eye for the last eleven years, anl 
deprived of his watchful guardian Archbishop Engcl- 
bert, had fallen into bad courses, and had disgu.>to(i 
many of his subjects in Germany by his e\il hlV. 
He had wasted the ample revenues which the Ein 
peror had placed at his disposal ; the lands of i^ 

• See hie letters for 1239. f Godefr. Colon. 

X Chronicon. § Dandola 


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Empire were pledged in the most reckless way, order chap 

was no longer maintained, and the roads were not 

safe for travellers.* Henry was a bad son ; it was 1231-1236. 
rumoured that in the previous year he had invited 
envoys from Milan to his Court and had made a 
league with them against his own father. The cause 
of this imnatural conduct is said to have been jealousy 
of his half-brother Conrad.f Frederick seems to 
have demanded security for Henry's future good 
behaviour, as in April we find the Prelates and 
Princes of the Empire issuing the following declara- 
tion. ' The throne of the Empire is set upon our 
shoidders, and we derive some reflection from its 
brilhancy. At Cividale di Friuli, King Henry 
begged us to mediate with his father on his behalf : 
we therefore make oath, that if the King does not 
keep the Capitularies, which he swore to his father 
that he would keep, we will be at the Kaiser's bid- 
ding, and we shall be absolved from our oath to 
Henry. This we swear at the urgent request of the 
King.' Henry himself wrote to the Pope on the 
same subject, stating that he had of his own free 
will engaged to execute his father's commands, to 
honour his father's friends, to do nothing in pre- 
judice of his father's rights ; should he fail in his 
promise, he was to become an excommunicated man. 
In return for this open acknowledgment, the Em- 
peror allowed his son a more complete authority 
over Germany ; which turned out to be a most im- 
politic step.J 
Frederick was now surrounded not only by those 

• Ann. Argentin. t ^^^- Patavinus. 

X See Henry's letters for this year, 1232. 
VOL. I. K K 

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CHAP, members of the Diet who had followed him fn^iu 
Eavemia, but also by several Princes who were fre>h 

1231-1236. from Germany, such as the Archbishops of Mayencv 
and Salzburg, and Meinhard, the younger Count i»f 
Goritz. He kept Easter in company with his iH.Hi 
and the other Princes at Aquileia, where he solemnly 
invested Archbishop Sifind with the superiority 
over the Abbey of Lorsch. He paid especial resjxvt 
to the Abbot of St Gall, whom he lodged nearer tn 
the Palace than the rest of the nobles.* In May, 
the Court returned to Cividale di Friuli, whence tlio 
following most weighty decree was issued by tl.c 
Kaiser. 'The shoulders, upon which the Head is 
placed, are deserving of honour. Be it known tht:i 
to the present and to posterity that we, meeting i:i 
this place our beloved son, and being asked by tin 
Princes of the Empire to confirm the Edict given hy 
him in their favour at Worms last year, decree, tliat 
no new Castle is in future to be built by us, or by 
any one else on any pretext, upon Church Lanel< : 
no new customs are to annul the old ones ; no c»i;c 
is to be sued at any Court of which he does nut 
approve ; old roads are not to be removed without 
consent given ; each of the Princes is to have the oM 
customary fiefs and jurisdictions in his own lan(l> : 
no one is to change his residence without his lord'> 
consent ; Pfahlburghers are to be driven out of tbo 
walls of towns, where they intrude ; taxes on th« 
peasants, received in wine, com, and money, are t^ 
be remitted ; the serfs of the Princes are not to U 
harboured in our cities, whither tliey may ha^' 
escaped ; we give safe conduct to tlie Princess tiiP^vJ 

* Cc>nr, de Fabsiria. 

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our lands ; no guilty men are to be received into our chap. 
cities ; if any such be there, they are to be driven 

forth ; the coinage is not to be debased ; and our 1231-1236. 
towns are not to extend their jurisdictions.' As 
usual, the burghers are curbed, and the Princes and 
Prelates are protected by the Kaiser. 

From TJdine an edict in the same spirit was put 
forth against Worms, one of the free cities of the 
Empire, which was rising slowly but surely to im- 
portance ; leave was granted to its Bishop to pull 
down the town hall, the site of which was to be 
handed over to the Church. This decree is a type 
of the spirit of Frederick's political system at this 
time. The Bishop of Worms is described as a wise 
man, who had been refused money by his flock for 
his journey to Eavenna ; they preferred to send their 
own envoys on a bootless errand, for the Kaiser, hear- 
ing from the Bishop that all Episcopal authority was 
at an end, declared that such a state of things must 
last no longer. This decree, and also an excommu- 
nication, was launched at the high-spirited burghers, 
who destroyed their beloved town hall, one of the 
finest buildings in Germany, rather than allow it to 
l)ecome a standing menace to their hberties in the 
hands of the Bishop.* On the other hand, the 
Count of Holstein obtained a confirmation of the pri- 
\nlcges of the new city of Hamburg. The Emperor 
and his Court now removed to Pordenone. The of Worms was here protected against another 
enemy, the young Duke of Bavaria, who had refused 
to appear at the Diet ; one Gennan Count was placed 
under the ban for robbing the Bishop of Kati.<l)on, 

• Aun. Woruiat. 

K K 2 

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v^^r.ii : 

■ixu cie: 





• r 





1 ~ *"- -» - ^ 








i It •;! 



1» 'i ^TT ZST^.ttT ^y 

r ri^TTLi-Ct^ wii^ 1. IjrAntr •=!Lt«2:»=:?i z::.> by Freccr^ k 
TTjiLi SLiiT Li'J-:^ :t Fri:i!:>=^ V :■ r»rc^ frrm eiirr 
.»* r-r-ni- r-T ;:«ir^ v^tT'-r *: re *irl:crei by the uthcr 
•L«It^ y : IhriLg-itr wni iisr SZnz -if Fr.j-2ind ira? to 
''•^ zuiiLr ^7 ^iil^iT larrj iriilrc: ie onscnt c»f the 
»'j2r:r, Tl-r '".tLLi W1& ^ik-rii •:-£! Fr^^rick's b^rhaJf by 
& G-rTTZivz. v1.:tii rie Li.i :ir::ft inio the BiJiopno 

I: EiAy be aikeil. viy ile Eziperor should have 
trzrr.^ o:n of LL? way f:-r the sake of Tisitmg Porxle- 
n-^Qe. He Li 1 liikea this step, because he had found 
it odierwife iiiip":»s=r:.Ie to have an interview with 
Frtfierick, the new Imke of Austria. This Printv 
<-tand* out quite by himself from the common run 
of German Princes ; he was the strangest of all the 
strange characters with whom the Emperor had to 
(hsuL The Duke had succeeded his heroic fatlier 
nearly two years before this time ; he had just Ixxn 
knighted, and is described by the contemporary vern*- 
makers as resembling Paris and Absalom in beaut}*, 
while in valour he might be compared to Hector or 
Judas MaccabsBUs-f He kept a tight hand over his 
subjects ; indeed it was hard to distinguish his justicv 
from tyranny. He had not the least respect for the 
ties of blood ; his own kinsmen and connexions un- 

• S<»c the note of Huillard-Br^hoUes on this Treaty, 
f 8c*c the monkish rhymes incorporated with the Histoi}* ^ i 
the Archbishops of Selzburg, in Pertz. 

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derwent as much at his hands as any of his enemies, chap. 
He is accused of foul outrages upon the honour of ^' 

women, and of dire cruelty towards his vassals. He 1231-1236. 
made no difference between the convent and the 
castle. Unable to remain at peace, he was always 
embroUed with his neighbours in Germany, Hungary, 
or Bohemia. The Kaiser himself was treated by him 
with very scanty reverence ; indeed Frederick, usu- 
ally so courteous to his German Princes, was pro- 
voked into calling the Austrian, ' that mad youngster.' 
The Duke had refused to attend the Diet at Kavenna, 
or even to appear at Aquileia ; the Emperor, making 
allowance for his vassal's boyish years, and being 
resolved to become acquainted with him, turned out 
of his road to visit Pordenone, which belonged to 
the Duke. The young mutineer, who could not well 
refiise to do the honours on his own lands, at length 
condescended to meet his Kaiser. Frederick received 
him most graciously, gave him fine horses and other 
presents, and promised him 8000 marks in order to 
solder up a quarrel which had been fastened upon 
him by King Henry, respecting the dowry of Mar- 
garet, the Duke's sister.* 

Frederick had contemptuously turned his back on 
the Pope's Legates at Eaverma, much to their dis- 
composure; they had however been active in en- 
forcing peace throughout Lombardy, the Trevisan 
March, and Eomagna, and envoys had been sent for 
that purpose to Padua. He had expressed his dis- 
pleasure at his enemies having frustrated his Diet at 
Bavenna, which had been convoked for the aid of 
the Holy Land and for the good of the Empire. 

• See Frederick's letters in 1236. 

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CHAP. They had moreover prevented his son and the 

German Princes from coming through Lombardy. 

1231-1236. 2g ^gg QQY^ distributing much gold and silver among 
his Northern vassals, and was already fixing a day 
for an attack on the rebels.* The League on the 
other hand began to be dismayed, protesting that it 
had only acted in self-defence ; the Pope undertook 
to mediate. Hermann von Salza, as usual, was Fre- 
derick's ambassador on the occasion, and peace was 
made at Padua on the 13th of May, each party 
promising to abide by the decision of Rome. The 
evil day was thus put off for four years longer. 

One more event marked the Emperor's sojourn at 
Pordenone. Among all the nobles who flourished m 
the North of Italy, none were more powerful than 
the Lords of Eomano. The founder of the house 
had been settled in Italy by his countryman, the 
Emperor CJonrad the SaUc, about two hundred years 
before this time. In the beginning of the Thirteenth 
Century, the chief of the family was Eccelin, known 
sometimes as the Monk, at other times as the Heretic, 
For in liis old age, weary of the storms of life, ho 
had withdrawn to a hermitage, after having made 
over his Trevisan estates to his elder soa EcceUn, 
and his possessions in Vicenza to his yoimger scm 
Alberic. The old man only came forth from his 
retreat to curb the violent measures to which his 
children were prone. They were at enmity with the 
Lombard League, having been tricked by the crafty 
Guelf statesmen; they therefore became staunch 
friends of the Imperial cause, to which Eccehn, 
bom in the same year as Frederick, always stood 

• Chronicon. 

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true.* This youth began his career soon after the chap. 
untoward Diet of Cremona in 1226. He entered ^ 
Verona at the head of the Ghibellines, to the cry of 1231-1236. 
'Long Uve CavaUer Eccelinl' The city was for 
many years the prize for which he and the Count of 
San Bonifazio, the local head of the Guelfs, were 
struggling.f Alberic in the mean time became Po- 
desta of Vicenza. These men were so eager to bid 
for any support, that they were actually ready to 
denoimce their own father, Eccelin the Monk, to the 
Inquisition, on the old man's becoming suspected of 
a leaning towards the Paterines. J He died, leaving 
his estates as already described ; and his two sons, 
Eccelin and Alberic, fought against their many sur- 
rounding foes, the Marquis of Este, the Count of San 
Bonifazio, and the Lords of Camino. The brothers 
were in dose alliance with SaUnguerra, an aged 
warrior who had married one of their sisters, and 
who had driven the house of Este from Ferrara. 

Eccelin and Alberic were very different in charac- 
ter. The former was bold, clear-sighted in poUtics, 
and staimch to the side he had chosen as his own. 
He had a most commanding intellect, and his coun- 
sels, whether in war or peace, were sure not to be 
slighted. He was a first-rate soldier, and could over- 
awe his enemies with a glance ; he was however 
superstitious, as many found to their cost.§ Covetous 
of power, he was unscrupulous as to the means by 
which it was won or kept. His merciless cruelty 
and his callousness to human suffering brand him as 
an enemy to mankind. Women quite as much as 

• Gerard ManriiiiuB. f Rolandini. 

X Raynaldus for 1231. § Antonio Godi. 

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CHAP, men, were by him handed over to death and to the 
most agonizing tortures ; for Eccelin cared not for 
beauty ; his whole soul was centred on i)ower, the 
only lust to which he was prone. When young, his 
seeming mildness imposed upon many; but he 
soon threw off the mask, after raising himself to 
greatness.* Unhappy Italy has groaned under many 
tyrants, from King Mezentius down to some of her 
present rulers ; but on the whole, not one of them 
has been able altogether to equal the atroddes of 
Eccelin da Eomano. Well does he deserve tlie place 
in HeU given him by Dante, a lake of seething 
blood ! f He was wont to say, that he had heard in 
his sleep these words from the Almighty : ' Take thy 
sword, and avenge me on my foes in the Trevisan 
March ; for I have chosen thee for their scourge.' J 
He certainly paid Uttle heed, either to the voice of 
God, or to the excommunications so often thunden^l 
against him by the Popes, during the thirty yeare of 
his tyranny. 

The yoimger brother Alberic was revengeful anil 
cruel, though in this respect outdone by his betUT- 
known brother. If Eccelin was Moloch, Alberic 
was Belial. He had a passion for women, and he 
seems also to have been greedy of gold. He was 
accused on one occasion of showing cowardice in the 
field, but justified himself by quoting a saying of his 
grandfather, who would rather have had it said, * Here 
Eccelin ran,' than that people should point out the 
spot where Eccelin was killed or taken. § The wicked 
brethren were aware that their fall was impendiiur. 

• Ant. Godi. f I>ante, Inferno, XII. 

X Imago Mundi. § Gerard MauriaiuA. 

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unless they could gain support from some strong hand. chap. 
They knew that the Emperor was now not very far ^' 
from Treviso, at Pordenone, and thither Alberic has- i23i-i23«. 
taied. He met with a most gracious reception, and 
told Frederick that Verona was ready to acknowledge 
the Emperor as her master, having already under 
Eccelin's guidance stood a siege from the Coxmt of 
San Bonifazio and the Lombards. Frederick was 
overjoyed, knowing the importance of Verona, and 
remembering how her strong walls had barred an 
inroad of his German allies in 1226, when she was 
in the hands of the Lombard League. But he 
prudently made answer to Alberic ; ' It is weU ; still 
I have not men enough with me to hold Verona. 
It would bring the greatest shame on our Imperial 
ilajesty, if our subjects were to besiege us there, 
or to withstand us. But it is our pleasure, that you 
defend the city up to a certain time, and then we 
will come with such a fearful host of men, that none 
will dare to withstand us.* Alberic promised this 
for himself and his brother, and Frederick, taking 
ship for Apulia, sailed from Aquileia southwards.* 

While the Emperor is on his way back to his fa- 
vourite Kingdom, it will be convenient to look forward 
aUttle, and to give a sketch of the affairs of Lombardy 
and the Trevisan March during the three years which 
followed his visit Disimion was the curse of North- 
em Italy. Every city was ranged against its neigh- 
bour; scarcely a year passed, without local wars 
waged with the bitterest rancour. The Church now 
took up the cause of peace and order ; in the year 
after Frederick quitted the North, a famous Domi- 

* Gerard MaurisiuB. 

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The Bolognese in vain besought the General of the chap. 

Preaching Order to allow John to remain with them. 

He was made Legate of the Pope in Lombardy and 1231-1236. 
in the March. He visited the great city of Padua, 
where the magistrates received him with due honours. 
His influence soon spread over the whole of the 
Trevisan March ; he altered the statutes of the cities 
at his pleasure, and threw open the prison doors ; 
nobles and burghers aUke crowded to hear the holy 
Dominican ; even the Lords of Eomano inclined, or 
stjemed to incline, their minds to peace. After 
preaching at most of the large cities, John of 
Vic^iza gathered an assembly on the plains of 
Paquara, near Verona. All the towns between 
Venice and Brescia, Treviso and Parma, were there 
r^resented. The great nobles and the Bishops, 
among them the Patriarch of Aquileia, hung upon the 
lips of the Preaching friar. He took for his text the 
Words, ' Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto 
you ; ' and on this noble theme he thimdered from a 
lofty pulpit, in a voice miraculously loud. He dic- 
tated a treaty of peace which is still extant, and 
confirmed it by bestowing the daughter of Alberic 
of Romano on the son of Azzo of Este. Thus 
Ghibelline and Guelf were united by a happy tie ; 
and this wedding, which took place before the bride- 
groom was twelve years old, wrought an imexpected 
cfiange in Italian politics six years later. John was 

Modo salta, modo aalta, 
Qui coelorum petis alta 1 
Saltat bte, saltat ille, 
Resaltant cohortes nullc, 
Saltat chorus Dominarum, 
Saltat Dux Venetiarum.* 

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T?? 4:Wt MT .^ 

"• T-::.' 

rtu. Tn^ 'V'i:^ r' Z.'^t.-i :t i 

=1. li-*i.-in. 

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?tatue on horseback may yet be seen outside the chap. 
B^letto at Milan, with a Latin line underneath of L_ 

terrible import* In 1234, the Milanese offered a 1231-1236. 
most daring insult to Frederick. He was sending an 
dephant, with several camels and dromedaries, to his 
byal Cremona. The rivals of this city came forth 
with their Carroccio to seize the strange animals, 
but could only succeed in capturing the keepers. 
One of Frederick's bitterest enemies at Milan was 
Hairy of Monza, a warlike hero of very great personal 
strength, sumamed the Fire-kindler,f and a devoted 
adherent of the Delia Torre party. He and others 
established in this year the Company of the Brave, 
ft band sworn to combat Frederick.J There was 
evidently little hope of peace continuing in Italy, 
whatever efforts the Pope or his Legates might 
make. But the crowning outrage was yet to come. 
King Henry had long before this time forgotten 
tD the promises of amendment made by him to his 
father when they met at FriulL He received at his 
Court men who had been banished by the Emperor, 
such as Kaynald the Duke of Spoleto ; he complained 
of his &ther, an^ strove to gather adherents from 
any quarter. He made advances to the Duke of 
Austria and to the King of France, but his grand 
aim was to get the German cities on his side, these 
having always been slighted by the Kaiser. Stras- 
burg, most of the towns on the Upper Ehine, and 
even Spires, declared for him ; two or three Pre- 
lates also took the oath of allegiance to the ill-feted 
Prince. Not finding as many partizans as he could 

* Qui Bolium struxit, Catharos ut debuit uxit. 
f Mettcfuoco. X Ann. Mediolan. 

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CHAP, wish to the North of the Alps, Henry sent envoys to 

■ Milan, with the project of an alliance against tlie 

1231-1236. Emperor. One of these was Anselm von Justingcn. 
Marshal of the Imperial Court, the very man who 
more than twenty years before this time had gone to 
Palermo with the news of Frederick's election to the 
Empire. Late in December, 1234, the treaty wa^ 
made between King Henry on the one hand, and the 
Marquess of Montferrat, Milan, Brescia, Bologna, 
Novara, and Lodi on the other. Among the wit- 
nesses who signed was a son of the Marshal, and 
Fagano Delia Torre. Cremona and Favia were 
specially marked out for the vengeance of tlie 

After thus forestalling the march of events in 
Lombardy, we return to Frederick, who sailed back 
to his Kingdom late in May, 1232, capturing s^wne 
pirates on the voyage.* Having reached Melfi, Ik- 
sent an envoy to Gregory with assurances of Li> 
readiness to fight on the Fapal side against the relxl- 
at Eome; for the Holy Father had suspected the 
Emperor of stirring up the Boman populace aiiJ 
bribing the Senator. Owing to tlie delay of Gi!^ 
hard von Amstein, Gregory put off the settlement vi 
the Lombard dispute until November. In the me:^. 
time, a brisk war was going on in the East, wht a* 
John of IbeUn, mindful of Frederick's treachenu- 
conduct in Cyprus in 1228, had garrisoned Acre 
against the Emperor, and had won a battle against 
Marshal Eichard. Frederick assembled an army fi'r 
the succour of Acre, as a part of the city was ^1i:- 
holdmg out for him. He also accused his old euei.jy 

• Godefr. Culon. 

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the Patriaxch of having been at the bottom of the chap. 

whole business; Gregory accordingly recalled Gerold, '- — 

and stripped him of his Legateship.* ' We wonder/ 1231-1236. 
the Pope says, 'what has induced men to rebel 
against our beloved son Frederick! His child at 
least is guiltless. Let not the Uttle flock of the Lord 
break out into strife ; if you need enemies, there are 
Saracens at hand.' The Knights of the Hospital were 
entrusted with the task of quelUng these disturbances 
in the Holy Land. Another miUtary Brotherhood, 
which was achieving the conquest of Courland and 
Livonia under the gallant Volquin, obtained a Charter 
from Frederick about this time, to which Von Salza 
was witness. The affairs of the Kingdom were now 
becoming more settled. The Count of Acerra was 
pressing on the siege of Antrodoco at the head of a 
large body of troops, gathered from the different 
parts of the realm. Landon, the Archbishop of 
Il(^gio, a most loyal Churchman, was translated to 
Messina. Eoger of Aquila, a very old enemy of 
Frederick's, died this year, and was buried in the 
garb of a monk in the Monastery of Fossa Nuova. 
His lands, lying near Fondi, were instantly seized by 
the Crown, but Itri, a spot in the mountains well 
known to travellers, held out as long as possible for 
his son Geoffrey, who fled to the Pope. Gregory 
was at this time upon imusually friendly terms with 
Frederick, of whose help he stood much in need, 
owing to the war that had broken out between 
Eome and Viterbo. Each of the two potentates en- 
deavoured to aid the other. A Papal chaplain was 
sent to accomplish the surrender of Gaeta, but this 

• Raynaldus. 

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CHAP, was delayed until the next year. The Emperor on 
^' his side ordered his vassals to hurry to the rescue of 
1231-1236. ti^e Church ; with this view he strove to put an 
end to the quarrel between the CJount of Provence 
and the burghers of Marseilles, who were backed by 
the Count of Toulouse. Frederick also sent a mt;s- 
sage to his Burgundian vassals, reminding them that 
it was very long since they had performed any service 
for the Empire, and summoning them to his side for 
a warlike enterprise in the May of the next year. He 
was probably planning a campaign against the unruly 
Bomans. He once more sent provisions to Anagni 
for the use of the Pope, who, mindful of his late pro- 
mise to respect the rights of the Empire, was now 
discussing those rights vrith special envop iroiu 
Lombardy ; while Vinea and Morra represented their 

Frederick was holding his Court at Precina, when 
a suitor came from the North in the person of the 
Chronicler Gerard Maurisius, a notary of Ticenza 
and a staunch Ghibelline, devoted to the house of 
Eomano. He obtained for his patrons on this owa- 
sion a charter, sealed with the Golden Bull; f<>r 
their services were fresh in Frederick's memory. 
The document ran thus ; ' Having before our eyc> 
the pure faith and sincere love of EccelindaKoman«> 
and Alberic his brother, our tried hegemen, wl^' 
have jeoparded their persons and goods for us, aiil 
seeing their constancy and their toils in our behtJf, 
we take them, their Castles, and their goods uiuKr 
our protection. Let no person, of whatever rank U 
may be, do them harm ; if any one attempts it, h^ 

* Hie. San Germana 

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shall pay 200 pounds of gold, one half to our Trea- chap. 
sury, the other half to the sufferer.' The Arch- ^' 
bishops of Palermo and Capua were among the wit- 
nesses to this Charter. ' I got it,' Gerard tells us, 
' without orders, and at my own cost, and I am still 
waiting for my reward.' Frederick's courtiers must 
have been highly amused at the lawyer's officiousness 
and self-importance, supposing that he ever contrived 
to make his way into the ante-chamber. At the 
same time, Frederick wrote to the Bishops of Padua, 
Vicenza, and Treviso, on behalf of the Lords of 

In January, 1233, he summoned all the Barons of 
his Eealm to PoUcoro, where they were to assemble 
by the 1st of February for an expedition against the 
rebeUious island of Sicily. Lucera and Naples were 
further strengthened, and new Castles were built at 
Trani, Bari, and Brindisi ; but the walk of Troja 
were pulled down. The Emperor passed the two 
first months of the year on the Eastern coast. 
His affairs were prospering ; the captive Eaynald 
was led up to the walls of Antrodoco, in order to 
induce his brother Berthold to surrender the town. 
It was given up in July, after having stood out for 
two years; and both Eaynald and Berthold were 
allowed to quit the Kingdom, where they had once 
held high command. Frederick was at Pohcoro in 
March, when he made over the city of Gaeta, still in 
rebeUion, and also some nobles who had taken the 
side of the Church, to his son Conrad, then a child 
of five years old. Later in the year, Gaeta returned 
to her allegiance, and her citizens, at the request of 
the Pope, took the oath to Frederick and Conrad. 
Her crimes had been great; she was therefore 

VOL. I. L L 

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CHAF. deprived of her elective magistrates, and underwent 
the infliction of a custom-house. In the following 
year, all her towers, except four, were pulled down.* 
Thus vanished the last traces of the troubles of 

Frederick seemed to be still on good tenns with 
the Pope at the b^inning of the year 1233. He 
had thus written from Fredna ; ^ The Empire and 
the Papacy ought to be for ever united ; they are 
the two swords, to which the Apostle referred ; but 
Mother Church possesses the sheath of both. They 
should never be parted ; far be it from us to sunder 
them ! We promise to sharpen them against those 
who pervert the faith and rebel against the Empire.' 
Gregory now resolved to put this devotion to the 
proof ; he called on the Monarch for aid against the 
enemies who were attacking the Holy See, siDoe 
Frederick was her feudal vassal But an outbreak 
in Sicily was distracting the vassal's attention and 
making him deaf to the calls of his LonL The Pope 
had written to Frederick so early as the 3rd of 
February from Anagni, bidding him come to the 
rescue without delay, and speaking of the madmai 
who were working against the dignity of the Iknpire. 
A week later, Gr^ory thus wrote ; * We were re- 
joiced to hear that you were coming ; but it was with 
the greatest sorrow that we learnt that you were turn- 
ing towards Sicily, throwing aside the affairs of the 
Empire and oiu: defence. We looked to you as the 
chief Defender of the Church; nothing ought to 
have prevented you from coming to us I ' Gregory, 
moreover, was of opinion that even if the Emperor 

* Ric. Sui Germano. 

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had been unable to come himself, he might at least . chap. 
have sent his generals. ^ 

In the previous year, a sedition had broken out at 
Messina, the townsmen taking offence at the appoint- 
ment of Eichard of Montenero to the office of Jus- 
ticiary for Sicily, and accusing him of oppression. 
This movement seems to have become general 
throughout the Eastern parts of the island. Frederick 
flew to the point of danger, eager to crush the mischief 
while still in the bud ; at the same time he excused 
himself to the Papacy, by saying that he was unwilling 
to lose his noble island. Having no hope of succour 
from Apuha, Gregory made peace with his rebellious 
Romans without consulting Frederick, who had de- 
clared war against them at the Pope's instigation ; this 
was a breach of the law of nations of which the 
Emperor afterwards complained.'* 

Frederick entered Messina in April at the head of 
his troops. He assembled the unruly burghers in 
the Cathedral, and there pardoned them all, high and 
low. But a loathsome act of mingled cruelty and 
treachery was to follow this seeming clemency. After 
a few days the Emperor, ' not treading in the foot- 
steps of the great Princes whose words are never 
recalled,' wreaked his vengeance upon the revolter8.f 
Some were happy enough to escape, others lost their 
goods ; the Archbishop of Palermo obtained the vine- 
yard of the traitor Temonerio. Many were sen- 
tenced to a cruel death ; Martin Mallone, the ring- 
leader of the sedition, and several of his accomplices 
were hanged or burnt alive. Syracuse and Nicosia 
underwent a similar punishment.;]! Two months 

• See the letters for 1239. f Chron. breve Vaticanum. 

X Ric. San Gennano. Ap. ad Malaterram. 

LL 2 

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^li^ i;iii L.'VTi'-^ 1 ZT^ai roejr:- 

- l.r -'r-rLUrT^ iZ : Lt*- Ti- X. iur iIj?^ ZLTT lic- '■"i.- 

'^ i-Jiuc i«> T" >* <£-- "7* ■"•*«>* ntc » ••-* -•*-.< it^3tn» *" ; 
Hl- v--^-?-r f T^n-zs. r*-r;^ir»:a Fr=oer:»:k o i- 

i* in jL-utlc Tn^i :a itf r~ rti -r .*♦ 

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engaged to fiirnish 500 knights for the next Crusade, chap. 
The Emperor, on being asked to send letters con- 
firmatory of his desire for peace, promised to despatch 
Hermann Fon Salza, the only man who could be 
trusted with the business. Writing in confidence to 
the Bishop of Ostia, Frederick complained of this 
treaty with the Lombards, since his Holiness had been 
strangely indifierent to the honour of the Empire. If 
the Pope's award were made pubUc, Kings and Princes 
would in future be unwilling to make him their um- 
pire. The Emperor's correspondent, a mild Pre- 
late, could do nothing for him, and Gregory excused 
the Lombards for not having sent their 400 knights 
according to agreement in aid of the former Crusade, 
on the ground that Frederick had not sailed at the 
appointed tima Li August^ • the Emperor wrote 
firom Castro Giovanni, in Sidly, engaging to keep the 
peace with the Lombards, according to the conditions 
dictated by the Pope. The Count of Acerra was 
stationed at Cremona, to watch over his master's 
interests in the North. 

Frederick paid a visit to Palermo, which had evi- 
dently not been drawn into the late rebellion. He 
ordered his Justiciaries to hear the complaints of the 
clergy, and to do whatever justice demanded on their 
behalf, saying that he would provide for the correction 
of abuses. Some of the Prelates appeared at Teano, 
but none of them made any complaints. Their in- 
fluence over their flocks seemed to be waning; a 
letter was sent to the Bishop of Caserta concerning 
the Paterines and their abettors, who were in great 
force in the neighbourhood of Naples ; all heretics 
were to be doomed to the stake.* After a visit to 

* Bic. San Germano. 

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Frederick held a Court at Syracuse. Here 
ie zai izrih an important edict, to the intent that 
hjoe- j£ zhe subjects of the Kingdom should many 
izrtirysr^ whLziut his special hcence, on pain of con- 
i!«cx33c of all the ofiendei's goods. He was now 
iii:rx!z^ master of his own Beafan on either side of 
:ie Fco ; i» C4ie moved hand or foot without his 
irLsr, a* Ox P:<je remaiked* 

Zht year 12S4 opened with another Court at 
V-^'^KTu, Li Fti-ruanr, the Emperor left Sicily for 
f^5r,iz>i far>e z:U> Apulia, which was suffering fiom 
A v-CT hsrl wii;:er: thousands <rf sheep had died 
fr CL ii*r e5e:*s rf nun and starvation ; trees perilled, 
iui wii a'~.a> arid birds were found dead in the 
«ii:w. L: :he Xo-rth of Italv all the fruit trees were 

lel iz,! m the next year wine was so scarce, that 
i wa? grrea up even at wedding feasts.* On the 
i\»i cf March, Fi^defkk came to see the new Castle 
II rrarl+ He next visited the Terra di Lavoro, 
wbert be rsarted out with his own hand the plan of 
a Caf^ wiich was to be built at Capua, and he 
<creirLh-€oed lie one he had already built at Naples. 
L: Atc£L he wroce once more about the Treaty 
wii:i w;as lo be made with the Lombards ; but the 
F:oe b*J olher bosinesB on his hands. Gr^iys 
trao^ wiih hi? Boman subjects had not lasted very 
ircar : he had again been driven from his See ; but 
if £«xDe was against him, her fierce enemy Viterbo 
^[^ fee him. Indeed, for the greater part of this 
ceonirT, the Pope was most usually to be found at 
Anaiiai, Kieti, Viterbo, or Perugia ; any where, ex- 

^SSc Sui6«nDaD0. 

PataTiDiis Mod. Riccobaldi Femrifli. 

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cept at Eome. Even Innocent the Third, the con- chap. 
queror of the world, had been unable to keep his 
own diocese in proper subjection. The Author 
of Gregory's life calls Eome *a city of raging 
beasts.' That Pope had taken refuge at Eieti, 
where Frederick, unsummoned, sought an inter- 
view with him in May, bringing the child Conrad, 
whom he deigned to tender as a hostage. At this 
time, Conrad was the only son left to comfort the 
Emperor, for the offences of Henry were glaring, in 
spite of all the promises of amendment made at the 
late Diet in Northern Italy. The Emperor was most 
anxious to keep the Pope steady to his side, which 
was the chief cause of the present interview. He 
repeatedly sat at the Papal table. He called on God 
to witness the sincerity of his desire for a complete 
union between himself and the Church. He thought, 
as he afterwards said, that Fortune had smiled upon 
him, in giving him this opportunity of proving his 
steady devotion. Both Gregory and his courtiers made 
unboimded professions of good-will towards the Em- 
peror ; the Uttle Conrad was sent back to the King- 
dom ; a hostage was not needed. Frederick was urged 
to marry again, for the sake of his spiritual and tem- 
poral interests, and the Pope promised to find a suit- 
able bride. The Emperor now, after having gained 
a favourable hearing, explained the cause of his strife 
with the Lombards, and of another quarrel he had with 
the Anconitans. FeeUng sure of success in his suit, 
he disbursed large sums of money from his treasury, 
more than 100,000 marks of sUver, as he himself 
said ; he gathered a large army of Italians and Ger- 
mans, though the Transalpines were only allowed to 
pass through jealous Lombardy after letters to that 

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CHAP, eftect had been sent thither by the Pope. Frederick 
endeavoured to restore quiet in Germany, by order- 
ing all the nobles to swear the peace lately established 
at Frankfort Since he was aiding the Pope in Italy, 
Gregory in return strengthened the hands of his 
friend in Germany. He wrote to the good Arch- 
bishop of Treves, exhorting him to place in a strong 
light the sin of disobedience to parents before the 
eyes of £ing Henry, and to proclaim the youth ex- 
communicated for peijiuy, should he prove rebellious. 
Much business connected with Germany was trans- 
acted at RietL Among other suppliants, Conrad of 
Thmingia, who afterwards succeeded Von Salza in 
the Grand Mastership of the Teutonic Order, came 
and obtained a Charter for a hospital at Marbuig, 
which had been built by his sister-in-law, St Eliza- 
beth of Hungary. 

Meanwhile the Boman rebels had sent envoys 
throughout Tuscany and Sabina, stirring up a gene- 
ral revolt Frederick asked leave of the Pope to 
call upon Spoleto and the March for aid ; he posted 
his army at Montefiascone, which, as well as Eadico- 
fani, had been fortified by the care of Gr^oiy. The 
Papal Commissioner was Cardinal Eegnier Capocci, 
who must have known the ground well, and who was 
one of the most active men in the Sacred College, a 
zealous patron of learning, and the founder of tlie 
Dominican convent of Viterbo. He, more than any 
other of the Cardinals, may be called Frederick's 
contemporary, since he was raised to his high office 
in the year that Frederick first quitted Sicily ; and, 
he died but a few months after the Emperor's own 
decease. By Eegnier's advice, Bispampani, a Boman 
garrison near Toscanella, was blockaded for two 

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months.* But the Emperor scandalized the Church chap. 
party by interchanging civilities with the enemy, and 
by his unseasonable amusements. * He joined him- 
self to the foe, bestowing gifts and honours on the 
Eomans, following the chase, and exchanging armies 
for dogs, the sceptre for hunting spears ; instead of 
attacking the enemy, he practised his triumphant 
eagles in catching birds ; he gave the Romans a cer- 
tain day for evacuating Rispampani, which he saved 
from ruin ; he was thought not to have ridden, but 
to have flown, back to his Kingdom.' Thus writes 
'Gregory's Biographer ; the Pope himself afterwards 
ai^erted that he possessed written proofs of Frede- 
r^k's treachery. , He accused the Emperor of having 
shamelessly fled before the enemies of the Church 
at Viterbo, and of having neglected to relieve one 
of his own garrisons, besieged before his very eyes. 
There was another quarrel between the Pope and 
Emperor. When at Eieti, Gregory had refused to 
give up to his ally Citta di Castello. This was 
against the advice of his brethren, and against terms 
before arranged ; but the Pope justified his reftisal, 
saying that he had only received 50,000 marks for the 
town. ' See how this most Holy Father of ours 
loved us I ' cried Frederick ironically some time after- 
wards. The burghers of the town in question took 
the matter into their own hands ; they broke their 
oath of fealty to the Church, and gave themselves up 
to Frederick. Gregory asserted on the other hand, 
that he had been always ready to do justice and to 
listen to the advice of his brethren ; but that the 
Emperor's envoys had declined a trial.f 

* Ric. San Germano. f ^^ ^^^ letters for 1239. 

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CHAP. The troubles in the Holy Land had also engaged 
the attention of both Emperor and Pope in August 

1231—1236 • i» 

' The Archbishop of Eavenna, a strong partizan of 
Frederick's, had in that month been sent to the East 
as Apostolical Legate, with orders to put down the 
sedition raised by John of Ibelin, and to restore the 
Kingdom of Jerusalem to its rightful King and to 
his son Conrad, the true heir. The Archbishop, 
furnished by Frederick with fiill powers over all his 
subjects at Acre, went beyond the Papal instructions, 
and laid the Holy Land under an interdict, on ac- 
coimt of an appeal against himself having been made 
to Eome. Gr^ory took alarm; he was already 
stirring up Christendom to a fresh Crusade, as the 
truce made with Sultan Kamel was now half over ; 
he feared that these proceedings in Palestine would 
delay the passage of the Pilgrims, and that the sol- 
diers already there would depart to their homes ; he 
therefore withdrew the interdict, after taking secunty 
from the nobles of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. 
Frederick afterwards made this one of his chief 
grounds of complaint against Gregory, adding that 
the Pope had refused to send letters to Palestine, in 
consequence of which reftisal much bloodshed and 
burning of churches had ensued. The Crown of 
Jerusalem was rather a barren honour than a profit- 
able possession to the Emperor.* In the next year, 
Gregory sent a letter to John of IbeUn, who was 
besieging Tyre, after his attempts on Acre had been 
defeated. Peter de Vinea and the Bishop of Patti 
had come to the Pope, asking him to confirm vrhst 
the Archbishop of Eavenna had done. But Gr^7 

• See the letters for 1239. 

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wrote to Frederick ; ' The men of Acre will now submit chap. 
to Kichard your Marshal in the name of yourself and 
your son, lay down their arms, and depose the Cap- 
tains they have elected ; a sentence of excommunica- 
tion will be proclaimed against them. We think 
that there is danger of heresy ; we have therefore 
relaxed the interdict.' These men of Acre appear to 
have set up a repubUc and to have forsworn both 
Frederick and Conrad. They placed themselves 
whoDy in Gregory's hands ; he went fiirther and 
wished to make a truce between the Emperor and 
the King of Cyprus, who had not forgotten 1228. 
The success of the approaching Crusade was much 
endangered by these constant bickerings.* 

While the Emperor was hastening back to his own 
Kingdom, the Pope withdrew in the other direction 
to Perugia. He kept some German nobles at 
Viterbo, and these chiefs routed the Eoman army 
with great slaughter, after it had revictualled Eispam- 
pani. Many of the conquerors however fell; Conrad 
von Veingen, who had helped Frederick in suppress- 
ing the Sicihan revolt, was among those slain.f The 
whole of Sabina was reduced, but Gregory was fiilly 
alive to the dangerous temper of the Eomans ; they 
wished, as he said, to raise a republic on the ruins of 
the Church. He therefore wrote to the Kings of 
Spain and the Duke of Austria, who sent him large 
sums of money. All the Princes of Germany were 
invited to lead their troops to the aid of the Pope in 
March, and to serve for three months. The Arch- 
bishop of Eouen was summoned from France, and 
the old Bishop of Winchester from England ; each 

Raynuldiis. f Godefr. Ck)lon. 

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CHAP, in a militaiy rather than in a clerical capacity. The 
Count of Toulouse had already arrived in Italy, tn 
serve under the banner of his old enemy. Gregory 
now sent envoys to the recreant Frederick, once 
more urging a peace between him and the Lombards, 
so that the expected Crusade might not be inter- 
rupted. The Emperor placed the whole business, 
as usual, in the hands of the Pope, who was assured 
by the Lombards that they would not break the 
peace. He wrote to them on the 27th of October, 
drawing their attention to the cries of the Holy 
Land. If it was to be succoured, the Emperors 
right hand must be strengthened by the help of 
Lombardy, so abounding in men and wealth. The 
Pope would not allow any harm to be&ll the states, 
but they must all set their seals to the bond which 
Gregory's own chaplain would bring theuL On 
returning home, Frederick threw into prison for a 
short time one Walter of Aversa ; this man, thinking 
to curry favour with his master, had been harassing 
certain subjects of the Kingdom, whose past conduct 
had been disloyal Some hamlets in Apulia were 
destroyed. And now the news from Gtermany 
was becoming worse and worse ; the sedition raistJ 
there by Henry against his father was the common 
talk. The yoimg King wrote a letter to the worthy 
Bishop of Hildesheim in September this year, giving 
his own version of the cause of the quarrels between 
himself and the Kaiser. * We withstood the PqxN* 
said Henry, ' when he wished to depose our father a 
few years ago; we blockaded Cardinal Otho, the Papd 
emissary, in Strasburg, and we forced the old Duke of 
Bavaria to acknowledge our father's authority. We 
afterwards constrained the young Duke of Bavaria 

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to do the like. We held a grand Diet at Frankfort, chap. 
whither such a crowd of Princes came as had not — ^ — 
been seen for a very long time.* By the advice of 
these Princes we ordered the destruction of certain 
Castles where lawless deeds were done. Wicked 
men took occasion of this to sow discord between 
ourselves and our father, who, alas I lent his ear to 
them too easily, wrote to us most harshly, and with- 
drew from us the privileges he had long allowed us to 
enjoy. He commanded us to repair all the damage 
we had done to the Hohenlohe brethren, and he forced 
us, much to our discredit, to give up the hostages we 
had taken from the Duke of Bavaria and the Mar- 
grave of Baden. Our father lends himself to the 
plots of any nobles and vassals who seek his Court, 
and he grants them letters directed against us. He has 
now begun to threaten that he will not receive our 
letters, if we are in the least neglectful of his orders. 
He has procured our excommunication from the 
Apostolic See, without our having been cited or con- 
victed of any wrong. We have now sent the Arch- 
bishop of Mayence and the Bishop of Bamberg, the 
noblest envoys whom we could employ, to the feet 
of the Kaiser, begging him to restore us to his favour. 
We call upon you and upon all the Princes of the 
Empire to help us. God the Searcher of all hearts 
knows, and the Princes of Germany know, that from 
the time that we could distinguish between good and 
evil, we have done nothing to displease our father.' 

In this letter Henry takes care not to mention the 
agreement made at Cividale in 1232. He is also silent 
as to another groimd of complaint which his father 

• This was held in February, 1231. 

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CHAP, had against him ; namely, Henry's vrish to divoTx:c 
his wife Margaret of Austria, and to take a Bohemian 
bride in her place.* Frederick, fully alive to the 
dangers that threatened the Empire, wrote a letter 
to his German subjects in these terms ; ' We grieve 
to hear of the evil state of your land ; but we will 
endeavour to correct it. We desire you to swear 
to the Peace of Frankfort.' In November he was 
visited at Foggia by Sifind the warlike Archbishop 
of Mayence, to whom he had sent a most urgent 
summons, and also by the Margrave of Baden and 
the Bishops of Bamberg and Eichstadt ; these nobles 
were witnesses to various edicts protecting the Ger- 
man Prelates, The Abbot of Tegemsee procured an 
injunction, restraining the new Duke of Meran and 
the Count of Tyrol from oppressing his Monasteiy ; 
the brethren had prudently elected Frederick as their 
advocate. It is remarkable that even at this date 
the Emperor still calls Heniy, * our dearest son.* 
The career of the King was now speedily drawing to 
its end ; Germany was weary of him, and Lombardy 
could give him httle help. His father had already 
written fix)m Precina in November, overturning an 
edict put forth by the rash youth against the Mar- 
grave of Baden, for the purpose of wresting some 
towns from that noble. The Emperor however had 
another more pleasing subject to engage his thought*. 
He had now been a widower for six years and a 
half, but he was at this moment seeking the hand of 
his third Empress, a daughter of England, whom 
Gregory had, according to his promise in the pa>t 
summer, chosen as Frederick's bridaf At Foggia, 

• Ann, Wormat. f See Frederick'* letters for 1235. 

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an the 15th of this month, the Emperor gave full chap. 

powers to his trusty Peter de Vinea to act as his 

proxy at Westminster. The document opens with 

in eulogium on the wedded state and its advantages. 

Frederick then goes on thus ; * After various nego- 

tiatioDS carried on for us by the Pope, we have sent 

Master Peter de Vinea, the Judge of our High Court, 

whoee loyalty and industry have deservedly endeared 

him to us, to ask the Princess Isabella of England in 

marriage, and we promise that we will treat her with 

Imperial honour. Heniy, the Archbishop of Cologne, 

is also joined in this commission. Peter de Vinea is to 

asedgu to the bride as her dowry the Valley of Ma- 

zara with all its appurtenances, and the honour of 

Monte San Angelo ; for other Queens of Sicily have 

had, according to custom, both of these districts 

as a dowry. This is to be assigned to her on her 

wedding-day. Brother George de Merk is also our 

special Envoy; he is not to be content with less than 

30,000 marks of silver, as the dowry of the Prin- 


On the 9th of December, Frederick took the Pope's 
advice on his English project He says ; * We are 
sending Peter de Vinea to England on the business 
of our wedding ; and a Prelate, whomsoever Her- 
mann von Salza may judge fit for the duty, is to bring 
the Princess to us. In case our future distance be 
an obstacle, we think that you ought to regulate the 
dowry, and the place where it is to be paid, for per- 
haps the King of England may not now be able to 
pay. We leave to you the sum, and the time at 

• She had been proposed, ten years before, as the bride of 
Frederick's son. 

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CHAP, which it is to be disbursed.' Frederick acted wiselv 
in referring any money matters connected with Eng- 
land to Gregory. None knew better than the olJ 
Pope how great a strain our country would bear 
upon its finances. Early in December, he wrote 
to England, in furtherance of Frederick's project. 
Gregory's Biographer assures us that the Eoman 
Church alone could have procured the Princess Isii- 
bella for the Emperor, by influencing her devout 
brother. King Henry the Third. 

The great event of the year, 1235, was Frederick's 
journey across the Alps, to overwhelm the partizan> 
of his rebellious Absalom. He must have heard of 
the league formed by Henry with the Milanese, late 
in the previous year ; it was high time to restore 
order in Germany. The Pope gave his help to 
the good work by exconmiunicating the headstrong 
youth, who was the cause of all the mischief. Gre- 
gory thus wrote to the German Prelates on the 13th 
of March ; ' We have long had experience of the 
devotion of our dearest son in Christ, the Emperor 
Frederick. His son Henry, unmindful of the Divine 
love, a scomer of human affection, is a rock of offence 
to the Emperor. Bring the youth back to the right 
path; in these times there should be peace, for the 
sake of the Holy Land. We absolve all men from any 
oaths they may have taken against the Emperor.' Tlie 
Archbishop of Salzburg, who had held that See long 
before 1212, and who had ever been on the side <>t 
Frederick, published the excommunication again>t 
the rebel. Moreover, some of the German Bislx^j^ 
were suspected of disloyalty to their Kaiser ; tlieir 
conduct was to be inquired into by the Bisbop oi 
Eatisbon, the Prefect of the Imperial Court ; and thev 

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were to present themselves at Eome within two chap. 
months' time. The Bishops of Augsburg and 

Wurzburg, and the Abbot of Fulda, were among ^3i-i236. 
the accused. Certain Canons, who had gone to 
Milan on Henry's behalf, were suspended and smn- 
moned to appear before the Pope. Surely a great 
improvement had been wrought in the morals of the 
Lateran, within a century or thereabouts. Hildebrand 
and his successors had not been ashamed to harass 
that luckless Emperor, Henry IV., by stirring up 
against him his own sons. But in the present case 
Pope Gr^ory refuses to abrogate the Fifth Com- 
mandment ; more than this, he gives his hearty 
co-operation to the wronged father. The Koman 
annalist says ; ' Frederick set forth, as if he had 
been the Legate of the Church, strengthened by 
letters from her.'* No tampering with the young 
King can be laid to the charge of the Pope ; in later 
years the Emperor, when raking up against Gregory 
every old score he can call to mind, abstains from 
accusing his enemy of having abetted Henry. 

Frederick prepared the way for his appearance 
in Germany by a circular addressed to the Princes. 
He reminded them of their tried loyalty to himself, 
and of the obligations by which his son was boimd 
to the Germans. But the youth, in spite of his 
father's repeated injunctions to the contrary, had be- 
gun to lay hands on the Princes, whom Frederick 
caUs the pupils of his eyes. Henry had been un- 
mindful of the oath taken at Friidi, had feared 
neither God nor man, and had forced his father's loyal 
subjects to give him hostages. The Emperor had 

• Gregorii Vita. 

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CHAP, thought it his duty to impart the pamfiil details to 
all his Princes, that by their services some check 
might be given to the now rapidly spreading disease. 
Worms was the only city on the Upper Bhiae that 
had stood faithful to its Kaiser. It accordingly re- 
ceived a letter of thanks for the stubborn refusal it 
had given to take a disloyal oath, in spite of cajo- 
leries and threats. The Kaiser would soon come 
into Germany, would hold all his faithful burghers 
harmless, and would richly reward them, just as 
King David had repaid his loyal subjects after crush- 
ing his wicked son's revolt. Their sorrows would be 
only for a moment ; let them imitate the persever- 
ance of their forefathers, and hold out a little longer. 
Frederick was well furnished with money for his 
Northern expedition. He had not only levied the 
usual January taxes, but had borrowed lai^e sums 
from the monasteries, which he still continued to &- 
vour. He had also allowed some of the Apulian 
prisoners to ransom themselves from their prison at 
Canossa ; others of them underwent punishment He 
kept Easter at Frecina, and then made ready for his 
journey to the North. He took with him his second 
son Conrad, that boy being now his only hope. He 
started from his Kingdom in April, having first sent 
Hermann von Salza to the Fope. The G>unt of 
Acerra, the Archbishop of Falermo, and a few others 
followed their Lord as far as Fano, whence they re- 
turned, after receiving many directions as to the 
government of the Kingdom. In May, Frederick 
with a very few attendants set sail from Bimini for 
Aquileia-* That same month, having crossed the 

• Bic. San Geml^o. - 

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Alps near Canale, he was at Neumarkt in Styria, chap. 
where he was attended by three German Prelates, ^* 

the Duke of Carinthia and the Duke of Lorraine, 1231-1236. 
besides Von Salza. He had come without an army, 
trusting to the simple loyalty of the German Princes 
and to their attachment to the Kaiser ; he calculated 
aright. One exception there was however to the 
prevalent good feeling. The young Duke of Austria 
met Frederick at Neumarkt, and with great shame- 
leasness requested a loan of 2000 marks for his wars 
with Hungary and Bohemia. Upon this being refused, 
he burst out into violence and told the Kaiser to his 
&ce that he would never serve him more. Frederick 
was willing to overlook this petulance in a stripling un- 
accustomed to control ; besides, he could not afford 
to break with a Prince who was Lord of Austria, 
Styria, and Camiola, and who was able to bring 
30,000 men into the field. He gave him fair words, 
calling to mind probably the way in which the 
Duke's grandfather had treated King Eichard of 
England.* The King of Bohemia was willing to 
submit to the Emperor's mediation, but the Duke's 
unbearable pride and folly stood in the way, and a 
bloody battle in July was the result.f 

On the last day of May, Frederick was received at 
the Styrian Abbey of Admont, to which he had al- 
ready granted a Charter.;!; He thence passed on to 
Batisbon, after having been met by the Bishop of 
that city, the Chancellor of the Empire. The faithful 
nobles of Suabia and a vast number of Princes came 
pouring into Batisbon. The Duke of Saxony ap- 

• Sec Froflerick's letters for 1236. f Cliron. Erphord. 

X Chron. Admont. 

u u 2 

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CHAP, peared, and the Duke of Bavaria proved himself a 
^ loyal subject, thus discountenancing the reports which 

i2di-i2a«. traced his other's death to the wiles of the Kaiser. 
The Duke had indeed heavy groimds of complaint 
against King Henry, who had overrun his lands and 
forced him to give up his son as a hostage ; King 
Henry's father on the other hand had endeavoured 
by reiterated injunctions to undo this mischief^ 

From Batisbon, where he seems to have woa the 
hearts of the Chapter, Frederick marched westward 
to Nuremberg, and granted to the Bishop of Passau 
the right of the axe and the sword over all criminals 
worthy of death. Another edict was issued in &voar of 
Von Salza's Order ; every benefit conferred upon it by 
the faithful was viewed by Frederick as a service 
done to himself. Henry's rashly undertaken rebellion 
was now a thing of the past ; the Margrave of Baden 
was cheered by the approach of his rightful Lord, 
whose defence he had so manfully undertaken ; and 
the faithful burghers of Worms were relieved from 
any future fears of a siege by the rebel party, such 
as they had stood in ApriLf The hopes of the in- 
surgents were soon at an end. The Kaiser made a 
triumphant progress through Germany, where he had 
not been seen for fifteen years ; yet not the leas on 
that account did his loyal subjects hasten to his side. 
Young Henry was forsaken by the men he had bribed 
to revolt ; they fled to their castles, leaving him to 
act upon the advice of Von Salza, the usual peace- 
maker, and to throw himself upon his fether*s mercy. 
Frederick was greeted by twelve Prelates when he 

* See Henry's letters for 1234. 
t Ann. Aiigentin. Ann. Wonnat 

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entered Worms on the 4th of July. Among these chap. 

was Landolf, the Bishop of the city and the chief 

abettor of the revolt^ whom the Emperor ordered to 1231-1286. 
get out of his sight.* The Bishop of Hildesheim, an 
old and tried Mend, was soon able to report to Pope 
Gregory, that owing to the favour of Bome, the Em- 
peror had found all the Princes of Germany, great 
and small, ready to do his bidding, and that all 
thought of resistance had been given up. In the 
same letter, the glories of the coming Diet of May- 
ence were foretold. 

A short time before, Frederick had addressed 
a letter to the Lombards, in which he related how 
he had been joined by his Princes near Udine, who 
had made haste to swear fealty to their Lord ; how 
great had been the concourse of loyalists at Eatisbon, 
where he had received good news of his EngUsh 
bride ; how at Nuremberg he had been able to de- 
mand unconditional surrender from his rebellious 
son. A great Diet was to be held at Mayence on 
the 15th of August. Let the Lombard nobles and 
cities send honourable ambassadors thither, to con- 
found the hopes of all rebels, and to animate the 
Princes to the estabhshment of the weal of the Em- 
peror and of Italy. 

The unhappy Henry had in the mean time achieved 
his own ruin. He disdained to accept the terms of 
submission proposed by his father, or to give up the 
stronghold of Trifels, lately the prison of an English 
King. He resolved to escape from Worms ; but the 
Kaiser at once threw him into a secure prison and 
thence transferred him to the neighbouring Castle of 

* Ann Wormatien. Ann. Aigentin. 

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CHAP. Heidelberg, which was held by Henry's bitter enemy 
^ the Duke of Bavaria, as Count Palatine of the 

123H236. Bhine. Thence the youthful rebel was sent under a 
strong guard into Apulia, by the direction of the 
Patriarch of Aquileia.* The King's two sons shared 
their father's prison ; neither of them make any 
great figure in history, although according to our 
ideas they were the Emperor's rightful heirs. Mar- 
garet, Henry's ill-used wife, dedined to follow her 
husband into Apulia. 

The deposed King was transferred from one Castle 
to another, until at last, about seven years after this 
time, he dashed himself to the ground from his horse 
while being removed across the mountains from Ni- 
castro to Martorano. His attendants brought the 
dying man to the latter place, and he was buried in 
the Cathedral of Cosenza.f Frederick wrote a pa- 
thetic letter on the death of his firstborn, who was 
the only rebellious son ever known in the annals of 
the Hohenstaufen House. * The feehngs of the &ther 
overpower those of the Judge, and we are forced to 
bewail the death of our eldest son. Cruel fathers 
may perhaps wonder that Csesar, unconquered by 
public foes, should be mastered by domestic sorrow ; 
yet every Prince is subject to Nature, which recog- 
nizes neither Kings nor Kaisers. We confess that 
though we could not be bent by our son when aUve, 
we mourn him when dead. We are not the first or 
the last, who have wept for the deaths of undutiful 
sons. We order you to celebrate his frineral rites 
with all devotion, and to conmiend his soul to God^s 

* Godefir. Colon. Chron. Erphord. 
I Cbron. breve YaticaDUin. 

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mercy with masses, that you may show sympathy chap. 


with our sorrows, as you exult in our joy.' 

Warned by the evil habits which had led Hemy 1231-1236. 
to his ruin, the Emperor was unusually particular in 
the training of Conrad. Many a letter of fatherly 
advice did he address to his second son. Towards 
the end of 1238, Frederick thus admonished the 
boy, from whom he had but lately parted. ' High 
birth alone is not enough for Princes ; they ought 
to be diligent in the pursuit of virtue. They 
cannot rise above their fellow-mortals, unless they 
outstrip them in prudence. listen to the voice of 
Solomon, my son ; be a true King ; for if we Mon- 
archs are without wisdom, we are ruled by others 
instead of ourselves being rulers. Kings are bound 
to be wise ; they are more teachable than others, 
owing to their noble blood ; and their folly is often 
the ruin of their people. You, the King of the Eo- 
mans Elect, have more depending on you than other 
Kings have ; you should therefore swiftly chmb the 
ladder of study and reach wisdom. Lay aside your 
dignity ; you must be a scholar, not a King or Kaiser, 
under your master's rod. Eejoice the heart of your 
£Either ; shrink not from discipline, and be a true 
King.' A year after despatching this letter, which 
was garnished with many texts from the Proverbs, 
Frederick ordered two saddles to be made for Conrad 
at Messina, one adapted to a palfrey, the other to a des- 
trier. A shield was also ordered for the young King's 
squire, who was five years older than his master. 
Conrad gave his father some trouble, on approaching 
the awkward age of seventeen. The Emperor, who 
probably called to mind the very different feats per- 
formed by himself at that age, was loud in his com^ 

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CHAP, plaints against the German guardians of his son, who 

had concealed the youth's insolent vices until these 

1231-1236. jj^^ become notorious. He ordered CJonrad's fidse 
fiiends to be sent, whether willing or not, to the Im- 
perial Court, commanding their place to be suppUed 
by trusty and virtuous Officials of the Empire. An 
improvement was soon seen in the boy; for his 
father thus addressed him. * You are our joy, god- 
like ofi&[»ing of Caosar's noble blood, since you are 
daily progressing in years and knowledge. Scorn 
double-tongued slaves, and love honest men ; give no 
ear to the flatterers and detractors who creep around 
the doors of the powerful; honour the Prelates 
faithful to our Empire and the priests of God ; take 
pleasure in the ruggedness of knights and knight- 
hood ; be afiable to yoiu: subjects, truthful, and a 
lover of peace. We do not forbid hawking and 
hunting, the customary amusements of Kings, at tlie 
right time and place ; but do not make yourself so 
familiar with huntsmen and crossbowmen as to 
allow them to encroach on your Eoyal dignity. Pay 
respect to ourselves, and cleave to the counselloi^ 
we have given you. Take warning by the rashness 
of your brother Henry, who, listening to perverting 
flatterers, fell from his seat, which you have acquired 
from us. Be obedient to us, that our glory may be 
increased by the possession of a wise son.' This ad- 
mirable advice was not wasted on Conrad. 

While all Germany was welcoming Frederick, the 
project of the English marriage was being duly carrii^d 
out. The Emperor's envoys, one of whom was Peter 
de Vinea, came before King Henry the Third at 
Westminster, produced their master's letters, and 
asked the hand of the Princess Isabella, begging for 

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a speedy decision. The King debated the matter chap: 
with his Prelates and nobles for three days ; and on 
the 27tii of February the request was granted, no one 
raising any objection. Isabella was brought from 
the Tower of London, where she had been kept in 
strict seclusion ; she is described as beautiful, modest 
as becomes a maiden, and remarkable for her dress 
and manners. The foreign envoys, who had asked 
to see her, gazed on her for some time, and then, 
after declaring her to be most worthy of their Em- 
peror's bed, gave her a ring in his name, and she 
sent him, another through Peter de Vinea. The 
Ambassadors all shouted ' Long live our Empress 1'* 
King Henry promised to pay the money for her 
dowry in sterling marks by six instalments, and to 
provide all things suitable to the lady's rank ; if he 
failed, the Pope was to constrain him to the due per- 
formance of the agreement. Among the witnesses 
to the contract were Eichard Earl of Cornwall, the 
King's brother, and the famous Hubert de Burgh. 
The Archbishop of Cologne was to imdertake to 
bring the Princess back to England, in the event of 
Frederick's death before the marriage could take 
place ; and the King fixed the 17th of April for the 
wedding day. Could Peter de Vinea, during his stay 
at Westminster, have interchanged thoughts on law 
and government with young Bracton ? It is hardly 
probable ; the learned Ambassador must have been 
too impatient to rejoin his master to make a long 
sojourn in England. 

The Emperor, on hearing how matters stood, im- 
mediately after Easter sent over the Archbishop of 

♦ De Wendover. 

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CHAP. Cologne, the Duke of Brabant, and many other 

. nobles. The bridal array of the new Empress was 

1231-1236. ^Q wonder of the age ; her Crown was of pure gold, 
studded with jewels, and adorned with the images of 
the four Martyr Kings of England, to whom Henry 
entrusted his sister's souL Bangs, necklaces, jewels, 
silks, fine bed-linen, golden goblets, and silver cook- 
ing-pots formed part of her equipment The orna- 
ments, we are told, would incite women to covet- 
ousness; the garments would almost distract the 
Emperor's thoughts firom his bride. But the English 
nation afterwards underwent heavy taxation to 
defray the cost of aU this magnificence. The King 
ordered ten galleys to be made ready for sea, to 
come fix)m Norfolk and Sufiblk ; if their tackle was 
not suitable, that of other ships was to be seized for 
the purpose.* The Bishop of Exeter was fixed upon 
to take charge of the bride on her journey ; he was 
an old Crusading comrade of the Emperor, who 
would be glad to talk over with him the march to 
Jafia and the squabbles at Jerusalem. The King's 
Seneschal, and a bevy of noble dames of the Court, 
were also the travelling companions of the Princess. 
After a grand feast at Westminster, the cavalcade set 
out Isabella and her ladies were mounted on am- 
bling palfireys, the saddles and bridles of which were 
richly fretted with gold The King and 3000 knights 
attended her. They slept at Eeversham Abbey, and 
on the next day, after kneeling before the shrine of the 
holy blissftd Martyr at Canterbury, they reached Sand- 
wich, then one of the great portsof the realm. The 
Empress bade a sorrowfiil £u:eweU to her brother, em- 


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barked on the 11th of May, and a vojSLge of three chap. 
days brought her up the Scheldt to Antwerp. There 

she was met by a large army, which Frederick had 1231-1236. 
sent to keep guard over her ; for it was said that some 
of the allies of Kong Louis were bent on carrying her 
off. The wedding indeed seems a breach of the 
Treaty with Prance, made at Pordenone three years 
before this time. Both the Pope and the Emperor 
had thought it needful to apologize to Louis for the 
English connexion, which the one had planned and 
the other had accepted. Frederick had thrown all 
the blame, if there was any, upon Gregory, and had 
reminded Louis of the friendship which the two last 
Eings of France had ever borne to the House of 
Hohenstaufen, and which need not now be inter- 
rupted. He had also made proposals for a meeting in 
order to draw closer the alliance. The pious Eing 
was evidently wounded at Frederick's conduct, al- 
though Louis refused to avenge himself, as he easily 
might have done, by abetting the revolt on the 
Upper Ehina 

The cities of North Western Germany had always 
been eager partizans of the Enghsh alliance. Isabella 
was therefore welcomed with the greatest enthusiasm. 
Ten thousand burghers of Cologne, dad in holiday 
garb and mounted on valuable horses, went forth to 
meet their beautiful Empress ; they raced, and gave 
proof of their skill in arms, assailing each other with 
lances or reeds. But the masterpiece of art was a 
procession of ships, which seemed to sail along the 
streets, the horses drawing them being shrouded 
from the eye of the public by silken cloths. Some 
clerks, sitting in the ships, tuned their musical in- 
struments to ravishing melodies. Isabella was led 

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CHAP, through the chief squares of Cologne, which had 
been decked out for her arrival Hearing that the 

1231-1286. noble matrons of the city, seated in then: balconies, 
were longing to see her countenance, she threw back 
her hood ; the populace, won by her gracious de- 
meanour, shouted blessings on her handsome face, 
and had no doubt of the fiiiitftil issue of her marriage 
bed. She lodged in the house of the Provost of St 
Gereon*, and was entertained by bevies of maidens, 
who sang and played tunes through the whole of the 
night. In the mean time armed men kept watch 
and ward on the walls of Cologne, lest K'ing Louis 
should interrupt the festivities. 

After Isabella had been six weeks at that oty^ 
she was sent for by Frederick, whose marriage had 
been delayed, owing to his having been occupied 
with the suppression of his son's rebellion. The Arch- 
bishop of Cologne and the Bishop of Exeter brought 
her to Worms, a triumphal journey of seven days. 
The Emperor was overjoyed at the sight of his bride, 
on whom Nature had lavished her choicest gifts, 
both of body and mind. The wedding took place 
on the 15th of July; four Kings, eleven Dukes, thirty 
Counts and Margraves, besides many Prelates, were 
presentf Frederick persuaded the Princes not to 
lavish their wealth upon buffoons, as was the 
usual custom on festive occasions, deeming it the 
height of madness. J He would not enter upon the 
duties of the marriage bed, until the exact hour 
had been fixed by his Astrologers. The wedding 
festivities lasted four days, at the end of which time 

♦ Godefr. Colon. 

1 1 wish Matthew Paris had told ub who the four kings wcie. 

j Godefr Colon. 

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the Bishop of Exeter and the other English envoys chap. 

returned home. Frederick sent three leopards to 1_ 

lis new brother-in-law, King Henry the Third, in 1231-1236. 
allusion to the Eoyal coat^of-arms ; these animals, 
which had been brought from the East, became the 
nucleus of the Tower menagerie. The Emperor also 
promised help against France, the present mistress of 
provinces on the Seine and the Loire claimed by the 
English Crown. He sent back Isabella's maids of 
honour, and being fiiUy persuaded of her preg- 
nancy, he entrusted her after the fashion of his Mo- 
hammedan friends to the care of hideous black 
eunuchs, ugly as masks, as the English chronicler 

This patriot takes occasion to reply to the ill- 
mannered sneers of the German genealogists, who 
would appear to have carped at Isabella's pedigree. 
It seems to have been taken for granted, that a 
Hohenstaufen Kaiser ought to wed no bride who did 
not bring him at least a Kingdom as her dower. 
Frederick the First had married the heiress of the 
Kingdom of Burgundy ; Henry the Sixth had married 
the heiress of the Kingdom of Sicily ; Frederick the 
Second had married the heiress of the Kingdom of 
Jerusalem, his first wife after he had been crowned 
Emperor. It was thought beneath him, the wealthy 
and mighty Lord of the whole Earth, as the Ger- 
mans fondly believed, to mate with a mere Princess. 
But the English monk turns round upon these envious 
snarlers, and points out Isabella's connexion with 
all the Eoyal houses of Europe. He then calls 
attention to her Enghsh honours ; she is a descend- 
ant of the illustrious King Alfred, and from that 
point he has no doubt but that her lineage can be 

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CHIP, tnced up to AdsiiL* Frederick himself seems to 
^ have been well satisfied with his Plantagenet Em- 

1231-U3C press ; ;^e was not ten years older than himself, as 
his first wife Cc»stance had heesi ; she was not a 
mere child of fifteen, as his second wife Yolande had 
heea at the time of her wedding. Isabella was in 
the fiill bloom of yonth and beauty ; she woa the 
hearts of all by her ready wit and gentle manners. 
Thus happily was renewed that bond between the 
two great branches of the Teutonic race, which 
^ould be the main object of eveiy statesman, and 
whidu after succesdve unions, fit)m the time of King 
Athelstane downwards^has besi once more knitted in 
our own day. Yet Isabella, though the representa- 
tive of England, was by birth and education French; 
she must have been astonished, on first entmng 
Germany, to hear the noble ladies and knights of 
her adopted land talking in a tongue akin to what at 
home was looked down upon as the low jargon of 
churls and villeins. 

The efforts of the German rebels to form an 
alliance with their Lombard brethren have already 
been noticed Frederick caught three Lombard 
envop in the North, whom he shut up for a year m 
one of his Castles, and then let them go unharmedf 
Tliis mildness is astoni^iing when we consider the 
provocation received, and the veiy harsh treatment 
experienced by the Messinese revolters two years 
before for a fsur less oflenca But Frederick in 
Alsace was always veiy diflerent tsxnm Frederick in 
Sicily. Anselm von Justingen, who had gone as 

* See De Wendover for all connected with the Empms. 
f Chronicon. 

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Hauy's ambassador to Milan, fled from the Kaiser's chap. 
Toigeance into Austria, and his Castle was destroyed.* 
Henry von Neifen had also been active on the side 
of the rebels, and had harassed and robbed the 
loyal Count of Hohenzollem, who now petitioned 
Frederick for compensation. Another leader of sedi- 
tion, I^eno Coxmt of Urach, made ready for a siege 
in his 8tix)ng Castle, and prevented Conrad von 
Hohenlohe and the other loyalists from taking 
Neifen. The Prelates, who had abetted Henry, 
went to Kome in obedience to the Pope's commands. 
Every trace of the late revolt seemed to be on 
the point of disappearance ; ,what remained to be 
done for the perfect good order of Germany was 
reserved for the renowned Diet of Mayence. 

This was inaugurated by Frederick on the 15th of 
August. It was the last exhibition of the Holy 
Roman Empire in all its old pomp and unity ; it was 
the last time that any Caesar saw both Germany and 
Italy at his feet, and was able to scorn the bare idea 
rf foreign interference with his realms, whether to 
the North or South of the Alps. Frederick had 
indeed sapped the foundations of the old system ; 
but the building of Charlemagne and Otho was still 
standing in aU its majesty, though the next few years 
would inflict sad ravages upon the time-honoured 
fabric. Some of Frederick's successors were tho- 
rough masters of Germany ; some exerted a momen- 
tary influence both in Germany and Italy, although 
scarcely a year passed in which foreign arms 
might not overturn their work and rend their do- 
minions asimder ; but not one Emperor for the last 

• Ann. Zwifiilt. 

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33: iitfnjg cw 
r- nu Tiir :l' r =iL*iizoirei It Turks, 

:^--r time r* in. ^i.rij-ira.:!. re iLiTencv:-, 

• *' u. '.> i^*' '.'1 ^' -*. T.-rs. u. 1 tp: I 't .las ziiiz-T *j"^- 

.■ X ^ '^.v '^i'\ — it^-U. Zjlt^ tlI*; ^ dn It'T TlS:> 
.■ i.rt::^ «/ ^r*-- .:. ifi. jl lie 3^>r^:iLT : ciri't-'^' *J 

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into his own hands, unless for an outrage on his per- chap. 
son or property. All unjust tolls are forbidden, and ^' 

those allowed are to be expended in repairing roads 1231-1236. 

and bridges. No frauds are to be perpetrated by 

those enjoying the right of coining. No safe-conducts 

are to be sold for money, unless the right be derived 

from the Empire ; Pfahlburghers are to be removed 

torn, the cities ; any one who gives a man in pledge 

is to be treated as a robber. 

The next Chapter must have struck home to Fre- 
derick's heart. * Ingratitude is always hateful, more . 
especially when a son turns against his father. Who- 
ever strives to eject his father from his possessions or 
makes a league with his father's enemies, is to lose 
all right to his paternal inheritance ; and if a son 
plots his father's death, he can never be restored to his 
rights. The son's abettors are to incur the doom of 
everlasting infamy. The father's cause may be pro- 
secuted by his next of kin.' 

Proscription, duly made by the Judge, is to entail 
outlawry. No town or city is to receive the pro- 
scribed, under the harshest penalties, which are set 
forth. Not only thieves, but receivers of stolen goods, 
are to be severely punished. By the last article, 
Frederick appoints a Justiciary in the Emperor's 
absence to preside over all causes, except those of 
Princes. This Official is to hold his place for at 
least a year, if well conducted. He is to take an 
oath to be an upright and incorruptible Judge, 
binder him is to be a lay Notary for aU causes 
bearing on proscription, the particulars of which 
are to be carefiilly set forth, and are to serve as 
precedents. This second Official is to take the 
same oath as his Superior. Frederick was evi- 

VOL. I. N N 

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the rude men of the 
fOTereignty of Law, as some- 
lh iLtir oM nadonal Rst-iight. But 
VLi.: Ir Li-i>l.ioed uiih the strong hand in 
Aj'illi vit? i!..: 5.> esLsSy pressed upcMi the Germans. 
Li a Tezy fr-B- Tear? from this date, the Fatherland 
i^Z in^ in::* ii? oli anarchy, and beheld every 
t^ ■ jl:'s^ r^^i i;;zr!>ei against his neighbour. The 
c:rr^ Were 5:£II nnier Frederick s frown, althougli 
Wjmis ir.'rL: Lave pleaded a claim to his highe^^t 
£iT:«wr5L TLese de?v'i5ed communities were the only 
f ^iTt C-: uie Genrjirk b>3y that appreciated his legii- 
Liii.o. Pni^ces and Prelates, knights and priests 
ir.'jL: hc-rv:aner bre^ik out into rebellion, but the 
citits, led by a sure instinct, stood fest by the side of 
the Kaiser. 

There was one other circumstance which made 
the Diet of Mayence for ever remarkable, aii<l 
which has a peculiar interest for Englishmen. Fi>r 
the last five generations two great Houses, thcbo 
of Hohenstaufoi and Guelf, had been struggling 
for the first place in Germany. Frederick the 
Duke of Suabia had fought against Heniy the 
Black ; King Conrad against Henry the Proud ; Fre- 
derick Barbarossa against Heiuy the lion ; Philij* 
against Otho. For a century and a half had thi- 
great wrestling match lasted, and the Ms had 
usually chanced to the Guelfe. For one momoii: 
indeed Otho had retrieved the fortimes of his hoitv ; 
but Otho had been forced to yield to a boyish rival 
That rival, now at the height of his power, wa.- 
willing to put an end once for all to the strife that 
had so long vexed the Fatherland, and to establiJi 
Otho's kinsman in a position, lower indeed, bu: 

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Hot much lower, than the Throne itself. The Chief chap. 
of the Guelfs, who bore Otho's name, was now con- 

tent to bow the knee before the Chief of the Hohen- i23i-i236. 
staufens. He had withstood the temptations of the 
Eomish Cardinal in 1229, and had since refrained 
fix>m taking any part in the late revolt ; he was ac- 
cordingly now rewarded by the Kaiser. Otho the 
younger swore fealty to Frederick on bended knees, 
and gave up to the Crown his allodial possessions,* 
including Luneburg. He placed both his hands in 
those of his Kaiser, and took the usual vassal's oath on 
the Holy Cross of the Empire. Frederick then granted 
back to him his possessions, now to be held of the 
Empire by feudal tenure ; and he moreover bestowed 
upon the Guelf the town of Brunswick, which the Em- 
peror had just bought from its Princely owners ; the 
tithes of Goslar were added ; the whole was created a 
Duchy with the much-coveted right of female suc- 
cession, and Otho was invested as first Duke with 
the ceremony of the banners. Every Prince, then at 
Mayence, set his seal to Frederick's Charter; the 
worthy Bishop of Hildesheim alone protested against 
any infringement on the rights of his See, to which 
Otho was a dangerous neighbour. The Kaiser 
begged that the day, on which he had augmented 
the Empire by adding to it another Prince, might be 
enrolled in all the annals of Germany.f 

Henceforward Otho and his successors the Dukes 
of Brunswick, laying aside aU thoughts of gaining 
the Imperial Crown, rooted themselves fast in their 
Duchy. They saw the rival race pass away for ever ; 

♦ Quod idiomate Teutonico vocatur Eygen. See Frederick's 
deed of gift. 

f Godefr. CJolon. Chron. Hildesheim. 

XH 2 

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CHAP, they themselves, after centuries of comparative ot- 
scurity, were invited to mount a throne fiar more 

1231-1286. gj^g^ jf j^ g^yig ^j^g j^gg unposing, thau that of the 
Hohenstaufens, and to sway dominions upon which 
the sun never sets. The Ghielfs had hitherto only 
waged unsuccessful war against the House of Suabia ; 
many centuries later they were called upon to do 
battle, not unsuccessfully, with Stuarts and Bourbons, 
Buonapartes and Bomanofis. The briUiant destinies 
of the House of Brunswick are owing, not so much 
to the courage displayed by it in every battle from 
Bouvines to Inkermann, as to the rehgion it has pro- 
fessed. It is curious to remark that even the first of 
its Dukes, Frederick's vassal, proved himself a foe to 
Eome, by ranging himself on the side of the perse- 
cuted Stedinger heretics.* 

On the 22nd of August, the day after Otho's ele- 
vation, Frederick wore the Crown of the Empire in 
the fine old Cathedral of Mayence, many parts of 
which date from his time. Nearly all the Princes 
surroimded him, whom with their attendants he in- 
vited after mass to a monster banquet, prepared at 
great cost in a plain near the city.f We can scarcely 
imagine a more lofty pinnacle of greatness than that 
upon which Frederick was now seated. He felt him- 
self justified at this time in demanding from the King 
of Hungary the arrears of tribute, which had not been 
paid for seven and forty years.J He knew himself 
to be the first Monarch in Christendom, both as to 
power and rank ; he was surrounded by his liege- 
men, the Princes and Prelates of Germany, who 
revered him not only for his own worth, but also 

♦ Anon. Saxo. f Godefr. Colon. J Alb. Trium Fondunu 

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because the glory of the Fatherland seemed in a chap. 
certain sense to be boxind up with the greatness of ^ 

his House. Their sires had followed its fortunes I23i-i23e. 
through weal and woe for a himdred years. One 
generation had marched to the siege of Damascus 
under Conrad, the first Hohenstaufen Monarch. An- 
other generation had aided Barbarossa in razing the 
haughty Lombard capital to the ground, had borne 
the holy relics of the Three Kings from Milan to 
Cologne, and had shared the disasters of their great 
Head at Eome and lignano. A third generation had 
followed Henry the Sixth to rifle the treasures of Pa- 
lermo, had seen the caged lion of England brought up 
before him for judgment, and had after his untimely 
death fought for his brother Philip against the rival 
House of Guelf. They themselves, the nobles who now 
surrounded Frederick the Second, could remember 
how the Boy from Sicily had come across the Alps 
at the bidding of Pope Innocent to win the Crown of 
the Holy Eoman Empire, and some of them had been 
his comrades in the Fifth Crusade, the only success- 
ful attempt upon Palestine within the memory of 
man. These adventurers could appreciate his cou- 
rage and conduct imder the most trying circum- 
stances. They now beheld him once more among 
them on the banks of their own Bhine. They all 
swore to back him in his next attempt to bring the 
insolent rebels of Lombardy to order. The Minne- 
singers, such as Walter von Vogelweide, were loud 
in praise of so noble a patron of their art ; they saw 
with joy that in spite of his long residence in the 
South he had not forgotten the old German lays 
which his forefathers had loved. From his time 
dates the modernized form of the Nibelungen lied,, 

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CHAP, and also the Sachsenspi^el, which marks the revival 
of the study of law. Every class and order of men 

1231-1286. looted upon him with favour. Princes, warriors, 
bards, and burghers, were ahke his loyal subjects. 
Even the Churchmen could not assail a Monarch 
with whom the Pope was now in strict alliance. 
Besides all this, Frederick had just received at the 
altar the hand of his fair young English bride, a 
lady whose beauty might gladden the heart of any 
King ; from which imion a race of new Hohenstaufen 
Kaisers might with confidence be expected, the 
future bulwarks of the Empire. It was a moment 
in which Frederick might fancy himself a god rather 
than a man. But, like the slave's whisper in the 
Eoman triumph, there was one thought which might 
have arisen in Frederick's breast, to remind him that 
after all he was but a mortal. He must have recol- 
lected with bitter anguish that his first-born, so long 
his hope and pride, was now on the road to a Southern 
prison, there to expiate an unnatural rebellion. Such 
was the only thought that could sadden Frederick's 
triumphant sojourn in the old city of Mayence. 

One of the chief objects of the Diet was the depo- 
sition of Henry. It is thought probable that at this 
time his half-brother Conrad was elected King in his 
stead, although the election was only made public 
two years later. Pope Gregory, who on the first of 
August had not known of Henry's second attempt at 
revolt and its consequences, wrote to remove the 
excommunication which had been inflicted, so soon 
as the youth should make compensation for the 
wrongs he had done to the soldiers of the Church. 
Letters also came to Mayence firom the Pope, exhort- 
ing the Princes of the Empire to induce their Head 

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to lay aside his wrath against the Lombards, and to chap. 
allow the Church to mediate between the Crown and ^' 

its turbulent subjects. The union of Christendom 1231-1236. 
would be the salvation of Palestine. It is said, that 
the Pope was at this very time intriguing against 
the election of Frederick's second son.* The Mo- 
narch, however, sent back word, that the Princes 
had taken an oath to help him against the Lombards 
in the April of the ensuing year. The warriors 
assembled had aU shouted and held up their hands, 
the old Germtm way of confirming an oath. Still, 
the Pope might setfle the business, if he could, by 

The Kaiser, while at Mayence, granted a charter 
to his old friend the Bishop of HUdesheim, who had 
crossed the Alps no less than four times on behalf of 
the Crusade.f A Count from Pranche-Comt^ com- 
plained to the Diet that his daughter Clemence was 
kept a prisoner by Egeno of Urach, a lover of strife, 
who had also robbed her of her share in the great 
Zahringen inheritance ; this outrage was redressed. 
On returning to Haguenau from Mayence, Frederick 
brought with him the Chancellor, the Grand Master of 
the Teutonic Order, and several other nobles. He sat 
in his Palace to administer justice, and found much to 
do in repairing the damage suffered by the loyalists 
during the late rebelUon. Godfrey von Hohenlohe 
was promised 1000 silver marks by Walter von 
Limburg as compensation for outrages undergone, 
and certain Castles were handed over by the aggressor 
as pledges to be kept until the instalments were paid. 
Louis von Schipf entered into an agreement with 

• See Frederick's letters for 1239. f Ann. Hildesheim. 

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CHi?. Gvifrey to par a like sum on the like account, and 

t-eEiIes this, made over to him the Castle of Vims- 

purz. which was then purchased from its new owner 
br the Bargrave of Nuremberg. All these transac- 
t:-:<i5 t^>k place in Frederick's presence at the Palace 
of Eagoenau ; he used to Taiy his toils by hunting 

In October we find him at Augsburg, where he 
was chief y employed in protecting monasteries from 
ii-ei- ^y neighb-jurs. He received back into his 
fiTi-iir ;he Bishop of the dty, who had been sum- 
in- :cr^i :#:• E«:-nie to answer the charge o( rebellion 
nile &g^v:r»^ him. At the same time Gregory had 
fen: lener? :o the Bishops of Batisbon and Hildesheim, 
izrzing ihem to proceed against the rebellious Pre- 
li:e. The Bishop of Wurzbuig and several of his 
Catc^is, who had g^one on the disloyal embassy to 
iClan, were not to be spared. The Bishops of 
Wc^rms, S:>iTe5, and Wurzbursr were made to under- 
tike a journey to Borne, there to beg pardon for 
iheir pas: oi^iuct. Hermann von Salza followed 
ihezu ani had to exert all his wisdom in order to 
prvveni ihe Pope, whose temper was not mellowed 
by are, fr:ai launching an excommunication against 
the Emperor. For Frederick had once more laid 
Kish hands on the Ark of God ; he had intermeddled 
wiih ihe funcdons of the Bishop of Worms, and had 
cepuied a Juo^ to act in the place of the Prelate. 
Yon Silza however promised Gregoiy to put an end 
to the GuarreL and brought back Landolf later in 
the year, for whom the Judge had to make way.f 
While at Augsburg, the Kaiser busied himself in 

• Eidi. Secon. f Annu Wannat. 

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destroying the Castles of the Bavarian robber-knights, chap- 
and in passing sentence of death on malefactors, high 
and low. He betrothed the daughter of Duke Otho 
to his son Conrad, but the bride was soon carried off 
by death. The Duke of Austria is said to have been 
aflfrighted at his own folly and at the Kaiser's wis- 
dom ; he would not however allow provisions to be 
supphed to the Court from his provinces.* Frede- 
rick ordered the Officials in the district of Stade to 
obey their new Lord, Otho of Brunswick, and com- 
manded the burghers of Stade to restore to him his 
rights. The Duke of Bavaria made an arrangement 
with the Abbot of Tegemsee in Frederick's presence. 
On the Ist of November a new Diet was held, when 
the King of Bohemia received 10,000 marks from 
the Imperial Crown for that part of Suabia which 
formed the inheritance of his Queen, Frederick's 
cousin.f Hermann von Salza procured grants for 
his Order both in Germany and Palestine. The ser- 
vices rendered by the Styrian towns in the spring 
were not forgotten. 

Towards the end of November Frederick returned 
from Augsburg to Haguenau, where he passed the 
winter. The Emperor of the Romans was in all his 
glory, and foreigners flocked to his brilliant Court 
not far from the Ehine. His cousin the Queen of 
Castile, who was herself a Hohenstaufen by birth, 
sent him some very fine horses and other costly 
gifts ; her death, which soon followed, was a great 
sorrow to him. The Count of Provence, at this 
time fifty years old, sought the honour of knighthood 

* Continuatio Sancrucensis. Ann. Salisbui^ 
I Godefr. Colon. 

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.:!4 TEX E55I»:-1T OF 

:^Ll3 I' ii*r LiZ.'if :•: tl-e iiLT«=r;^. Tie cicrer::'>nT had 

;i-c^M. '-^»^ ^^ :l^ •I'.'ZLii iv ?r.Te:>::e U5:;aZy died imme- 

r-r * «».c:*-i::-li^- lie Kii^ •:£ France and EciiLiDd, 
'i^lil h ^:±e: ir- ^ .? in ileir V:'.^=r"-^n to remain any 
^j.TLz^ zi a:: iii^ir p:«?ir:<i-* The Cvunt of Too- 
'y^:j^ iLr»> ^nr^el*^ to H^j'^^^i^t:* did b'Z'maire to 
F-'-r-InTj-k. in! r^:>r:TeI S^.ia Lim the March (rfPro- 
T^...:r. iJL-r V>--r,/— jz^ ie cinr c»f Carpentras, and 
Li.ij_T -irl-er M-aTLf: the G -unt vue at this time eDJoy- 
Izjs a iL-.n r^T::e the per9ecuti«:»ns of Eome 
tz'i Piris. Ai>:*Jier FnEn ?rr.-n, the Bish*.»p of Vi- 
^•er*. can^e l:»e::re hi* Lnperial Lord, and procured a 
cLin*^ ::r hi- Church. The Eiic^ of Valence in 
T^ihi ei:ir»ri:»i:tl the h.zL*z<:r oi knighthood for his 
trrji-er ie G:ui.t of ^Toy; Frederick found the 

Abi-zt the leg^^r. 'rg of the new year, 1236, Ha- 
g-iriLiu wi^ Ti^itr:*! by =«:nie less ourtly guests. The 
Chrisrl:ir,* at Fulia Lad risen upon the Jews and 
Lii Tr:v^-ra*r^I thirty-four men and women, upon 
the nsz^l charge of chilJ-murder for the purpose 
•: f eel' irtidng the Hebrew rituaL The bodies of the 
I- Ts, stili to r.ive fiiiitu victims to the Jews, were 
ctirriei to the Castle of Haguenau and buried there 
in gr^^t stiite. J Freierick found himself unable to 
cv:ti the ftiry ar^jus<tl in Germany; he therefore 
summoned an assembly of learned men from all 

• G-.irS-. C^kn- t See Frederick's ktiers for 1236. 

* Accuriir^ to cue accotml, Frederick took a bribe from the 
Jews and d: -a 'p. In ted the Chri^dan-s, aajing; *•![ the bojs are 
drad, go and hxxrj them, since thej are good for nothing elae.*— 
Richer, Sen^?m, 

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parts, and put a question to them. . Did the Jews chap. 
hold Christian blood to be a necessary ingredient ^' 

in their Passover ? if so, every Jew in the Empire 1231-1236. 
ought to be slain. Not one of the learned Doctors 
ventured to answer the question absolutely in the 
affirmative ; they were therefore debarred from 
carrying out the conclusion. This device of the 
Emperor saved the Jews for the moment, and put a 
large sum of money into his coffers.* The like 
massacres were going on in other countries ; in 
England, yoimg Hugh of Lincoln was soon to be 
enrolled in the Calendar ; in France, King Louis not 
long after this time ordered all the Hebrew books to 
be burnt The Pope was almost the only friend who 
came forward to shield the unhappy Israelites ; he 
was in consequence denounced by the fiery zealots 
of Christendom as a taker of Jewish bribes.f 

Frederick sent the news of the Fulda tragedy 
to his English brother-in-law by Walter of Ocra, a 
priest who was usually employed as the Emperor's 
ambassador to Westminster, and who afterwards rose 
to the highest honours in the Kingdom of Sicily. 
Henry the Third had given Walter a safe-conduct, 
which would take him through any part of England, 
Wales, or teland. J The King sent back two Jewish 
converts, to assist in answering Frederick's ques- 
tion as to the murderous nature of the Hebrew rites, 
Germany and England were still in alliance against 
Fi-ance. Henry had four years before expressed to 
Frederick his wish, that the County of Burgundy 
might be transferred to other hands.§ The Emperor 

*^Chron. Erphord. Annal. Argentin. f Raynaldus. 

X Rymer, for 1236. § Kymer, for 1232. 

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CHAP, in 1236 proposed to aid Henry in regaining all the 
French provinces which had been lost by the English 

1231-1236. Crown. He also demanded the presence of Eichard 
the Earl of Cornwall for the purpose of carrying on 
the intended war. But the English nobles declined 
to allow the heir presumptive to leave the Kingdom, 
offering however to Frederick any substitute he chose 
to demand. Later in the year, the Emperor sent a 
camel and eighteen valuable horses to King Henry, 
besides three mules laden with silks ; Earl Eichard 
had also a share in the Imperial bounty.* 

Frederick, always lavish in his expenditure, hit 
upon many questionable means of replenishing his 
exchequer. Thus there hved at Haguenau a man of 
low birth named WolfeUn, whose wisdom was in 
high repute. He was accused of grievous extortion 
committed upon his tenants and serfe ; but he spent 
the greater part of his treasures in building Castles 
throughout Alsace, and in surroimding the towns, 
such as Colmar, with strong walls. The Kaiser laid 
hold of Wolfelin and his sons, threw them into prison, 
and wrested 16,000 marks fix)m the ill-gotten hoards 
of the family. The Alsatian afterwards had leave to 
visit his wife, who undutifully smothered him in the 
night, in order that he might not betray where he 
kept his remaining treasures.f 

In March, Frederick left Haguenau for Strasburg, 
where, in the presence of many Prelates and Nobles, 
he put an end to a contest that had long lasted 
between himself and Bishop Berthold. Mulhausen 
was given up to the Crown in exchange for certain 
other towns. He then went to Colmar, a town which 

♦ M. Paris* f Richer. Senon. Ann. Arg^t] 

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in the previous year had beheld with wonder his long chap. 

train of camels.* How he got them across the Alps, 

we are not told. He bestowed an ample charter 128I-1236. 
upon the burghers of Strasburg, and abohshed in 
their favour the right of high-bom land-owners to 
seize on wrecked vessels. Eetuming to Haguenau, 
he invested the new Bishop of Eatzburg with his 
temporalities. In April, the Kaiser was at Spires, 
where he protected laymen against Churchmen, a 
practice at this time imusual with him. The Bishop 
of Trent had laid unlawful taxes on the men of 
Sopramonte, had carried off their goods, and had 
thrown them into dimgeons, where some of them 
had died. Frederick indignantly forbade this op- 
pression, and defined the exact amount of tribute 
to be paid henceforth by the vassals of the Bishopric. 
Four Prelates put their names to the merciful edict 
After making ready for his Italian campaign, and 
after sending on the vanguard of his army under 
Gebhard von Amstein, Frederick took part in a reli- 
gious ceremony. 

All Germany was at this time triumphing in the 
possession of a new Saint, whom Pope Gregory had 
lately enrolled in the Calendar. She came of a bad 
stock ; her father was Andrew, the very imsaintly 
King of Hungary; her mother was Gertrude of 
Meran, whose death had been brought about in 
1213 by unqueenly wickedness. These were the 
parents of the good Saint Elizabeth, one of those 
remarkable women whose piety did so much to miti- 
gate the harshness of the feudal times. She was 
married, while still a child, to Landgrave Loids of 

* Ann. Colmar. 

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THE msmr of 

riij r>E^ an nnumelr death at Brindisi in 
- l±i*- :«L ije err •>: Fre.ierlok's Crusade. Even be- 
■" i cf zzii jrrrril c€ :i:^ 'c»:*aes of her husband, which 
iTiTf ^siL z^isi fr:-^ Ar»ulix, she and her children 
-r^^^ iris: ic:: ix' c:*:-^ bv his brother Henrv. 
IIr^iI:»T'i cj il»r irr»rcit^i creatures whom her 
Iltij^ ':»:iizi~ 'zihi t"^ ie ;«:«ok refuge at Maibm^, 
in*: 15— r Ji^rr^er iip a wHing victim to the 
T-^ixiny :c €*:rz%L her nnhles confessor. She 
4iS r:2^ z*^iiZi^ lie scz:^zge?t instance on record 
re iiif siiirr irii^c:^;::':*! of a human intellect 
':»iirf iif wil *nf a feZ^w-creature Elizabeth 
iT'Ziz iLT^ inii i*^ -KTici^? redressed, for she was 
m^j^ ":«:ri V ii-f izLZ^-e^ii^ Patriarch of Aqnileia 
ULC 1: ijf w^irZir Pii-p of Bamberg; but she 
Tre5:^:ri*I 4 Z5r -x* I«:iiihf*>z2e drutlgeiy to the eaa^ 
:c zjjt 'S'i^cr-r. Sie denied kpers with her own 
iiizji. s:«:::ici: cd ci5r:i?dzg objects with whom no 
:ti»f Ti^ w^cl'l !i:ei»IIe, ani above all. yielded her- 
itjf ^r: nt^iklj ^^ eTdTT caprice of her Confessor, 
Trb: ::.:• i rrci ifr i-er ciildr^n, her attendants, and 
T^rCL lie jOi^LTT sc>:i c-tf nhxsey which she lavished 
x-« CL ^ xc wrcis. HfT dradi in 1231 was very soon 
i.l^-i^-l rj 1»^ CdLz?:cizai.xL Conrad, one of her 
l^u^'fTs br.clzTSw vir:^Ai the Pope at Perugia in 
li :4. i:ic ^nliLei lis tivour by alms-deeds. After 
rt:Lr:r liT-lc*i :o Gre^-^rys table, the ThnringLon 
rrxTirvi FT't^j real's eiirc'lsient among the Saints^* 

Cti i*r ir^ c/ iLiy, 1236, the rehcs of St Ehza- 
rti wc::\^ r^i:l^Ji:ei to their new resting-place in the 
Cl^zvl oc iLirixir^. The multitude assembled sur- 

• >f^ :i^ i»fTcis::':c* ot' Hrr bdi^N in Maiecken ; and her Lv 
r Tr-evo-o-* is. Can is ,i>» 

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passed anything within the memory of man ; twelve chap. 
himdred thousand persons are said to have been pre- ^ 
sent The Archbishops of Mayence and Treves and 1231-1236. 
the Bishop of Hildesheim had been charged by Pope 
Gregory with the office of translation. The Emperor, 
who never lost an opportimity of proving in public his 
zeal for the faith, opened the tomb of his cousin the 
Hungarian Saint, and placed a golden Crown fix)m 
his own treasury upon her head.* Her corpse, 
which of coiu^e wrought many miracles on the 
occasion, and whence oil was said to flow, was 
placed in a golden reliquary, where it remained 
until the Lutherans laid hands upon its treasures, 
the accumulation of three hundred years.f Frederick 
avowed himself a behever in the miracles wrought, 
which he noticed in a remarkable letter addressed 
to his friend EUas, the General of the Minorites. 
* Our Imperial Excellence cannot but be illustrated 
by the beams of the glory of our Eoyal cousin, for 
we rejoice that our Saviour came of the Koyal race 
of David, and the Books of the Old Testament 
prove that the ark of alliance can be touched by 
noble hands alone. But we call God to witness, 
that it is not the relationship or the noble birth of 
the Saint, but devotion alone, that causes us to pro- 
claim what we have seen with our own eyes. If we 
are proud that God has revived the old miracles in 
our time, owing to the merits of the Blessed Eliza- 

♦ * Dae was darbey Keyser Friderich, 
Der beweyset sich gar adelich ; 
Und opfert eine gulden Krone, 
Eine kostliche and schone. 

Old Song in Meneckeiu 
f Godefr. CJolon. and others. 

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TEE HlsrllpU OF 

\^^ ziit ;• y ve feel on iLe zr^Z'-zni o( temporal 
zLZ'jTr^^ i i : :k^fi tlit we are s5t irii-g to the glory 

Zlir: •7i:zr:i- wli ;! if 5cZ TC^iidfzig at Maibui^, was 
:«zli :-r^ ii-r bjir •: : Sc F"'r^.>.rih^ and invites a di- 
ZT-:^ c irj- : : "ii-r fwte :■: Gerrr^tr. aniitectiire during 
n- irs: Li-f :•: iLe TLzneeni Ce^r^iiT. Tne life of 
Tr-L-zi.kLijc*^^^:-: Mi'dle a V. :«^t e3Lac:iT with the 
2 ILdi. i^ :c rcz* K' r^l architecture, when the olJ 
y T.czsi ir.lts ii.i winl. w^ Lisd wholly given 
■^ij :: a rjiirr eleirii^ fcyle. Ezht years before 
Jrz'liz^jJsi^ iztlL. S:. Hj:^ •:: Gres-: rle began to build 
1-5 siLifly Li^iielrikl ai liz-xlz, the first finished 
fr»fzizjf:L :c ii.*r rpew scyje. Ten years after 
5"rr*iririij:f leiil z^L'c Kve Si^rer? of York Minster 
viTr :• CLT jr-:eL ibe lifC gr^eii e5:ri of the beautiful 
Hi-ry- 7r:rl>l. Xnirir^ the sevecn-^four years which 
^Li.Tftei itrCiTfiEri 11 So ar.i 12C'X England was^i Thl ije rirEs: chtirche? ie has ever seen. 
T: il:if^ iJTc rti' cii: ihe L^iv Chsriel of Salisburv, 
ri'f Zr^rrtenr :c ZIy« lie Ci>ir of Westminster* the 
Tnz:^:T> :c T.-ri. lie Xave of liDCohu the Portico 
,c lr':cr:»:*r>_fi^ 5Jii lie We?i fex>nt of Wells. 
Fri^«:'f £:>: ."i^es ler zj:i?;i glorious builJings to tlie 
si-zif i^r : wr z.eei lirily i^fer to Eheims, Amiens^ 
C . »-:iLzj:*r. i:ii iii.: linle gem^ the Holy Chapel of 
5- l-:«:..i5^ Zz. St?:.:-, ile onteniporair Cathedrals 
xC l'-:rg.>? izl 7:le5: wene s::»whr rising, for in that 
o:''-r-ry li^ rrcress ■:■: lie arts kept pace with the 
5l.^v^::^ :c r.e i*i.:::i^ arni5 sg^iinst the Paynim. It 
r...::!: live 'r^^^c: expe^^cei ;ia: Gennany, under the 

• n\> it~tT Lfc> i.:c Tts St<=: j-i:': li^-od. hm put cf h maj te 

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guidance of such an enlightened Prince as Frederick chap. 
was, would have produced during his reign build- ^ 
ingB at least as noble as those raised by her Western 1231-1230, 
sisters ; but this was not the case. The Empire 
seems most imwiUingly to have abandoned the old 
national style of architecture, in which Otho the 
Great and Conrad the Salic had dehghted. Some 
of the Churches built in Germany during the first 
half of the Thirteenth Century do indeed somewhat 
remind us of our own Early English, especially by 
the quatrefoil ornament, the banded columns, and 
the black marble so often used, answering to that of 
PurbecL Still the progress made at this time by 
Germany was certainly not equal to that made by 
England, France, and Spain. The beautiful little 
sexagonal Chapel of St. Matthias, which looks down 
upon the Moselle from the height above Cobem, and 
which is said to have been built by Crusaders, pos- 
sibly by some of Frederick's comrades, on a small 
scale reminds us of the Eotunda of the Temple 
Church in London, though the latter was built 
much earlier. The contemporary Abbey of Eomers- 
dorf near Coblentz, now turned into a hay-loft, has 
a Chapter-house and cloisters worthy of England. 
The central Decagon of St Gereon at Cologne, begun 
in 1201, shows how the pointed style was slowly but 
surely gaining ground upon the old roimd arch ; but 
at the same time St Cunegunda, a Church in the 
same city dedicated only two years after Frederick's 
death, proves how resolutely the Germans clung to 
their old national style, even while using the pointed 
arch to a limited extent ; and the same may be said 
of the noble Churches of Sinzig and Andemach, 
on the banks of the Khine. The cloisters of the 
VOL. I. 00 

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CHAP. Austrian Abbeys of this date are inferior to those 
of Salisbury. The beautiful liebenfirauenkirche at 
Treves, built between 1227 and 1243, by its banded 
columns and by the small circlets at the head of its 
tall windows carries back the mind of the English 
traveller to his own glorious Abbey at Westminster, 
both Churches alike showing the traces of French 
influence. But the example at Treves yields to its 
great English rival in two points ; it has no triforium, 
and its architect has not been able to withstand the 
temptation of introducing the old round arch into 
the upper story of its tower. ;-The Church of Alten- 
berg, so often referred to in Frederick's Charters, is 
of the same age. We now return to the point 
whence we started. Very similar to the last men- 
tioned Churches is the building erected over the 
relics of St. Elizabeth at Marburg, begun in 1235 
and finished in 1283. We see the same circlets in 
the heads of the windows and the same absence of 
the triforium, the want of which is almost the only 
thing that mars the perfect beauty of the Church, 
Before its completion a more glorious era had 
opened for German architecture ; the Nave of 
Strasbiurg and the Choir of Cologne were far ad- 
vanced, but with these we have nothing to do. 

On the day following the translation at Marburg, 
Frederick left that town for Wetflar, where he 
granted to his favourite town of Oppenheim the 
right to hold a fair for fourteen days aft^r Easter in 
each year, those who frequented it being taken 
imder the Imperial protection. The neighbouring 
city of Worms was stiU without its Bishop, who had 
gone to Eome with the other disappointed rebels. 
Frederick had replaced him by a Judge, Markward 

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von Sneite, who overawed the citizens and govemecj chap. 
them as he willed.* The Pope now wrote to the ^ 
Archbishop of Mayence to consecrate Landolf the 1231-1236. 
Bishop elect of Worms, after a commission had sat 
upon him; this turbulent Prelate returned late in 
the year from Eome, and put an end to the hopes of 
Ilenry of Catania, one of Frederick's subjects, who 
had aspired to Landolf 's chair.f 

In May the Kaber visited Coblentz, where he was 
very xmsuccessfiil in enlisting men for the impending 
Campaign in Italy ; he had better fortune afterwards 
in Suabia and Alsace, the two main strongholds of 
his influence.J He gave a Charter to the burghers 
of Cologne, whose rights were protected against all 
men, including their Archbishop. The Prelate of 
Treves was ordered to inquire into a fact stated by 
the men of Dortmund, that their old Charter had 
been burnt ; it was now renewed to them by Fred- 
erick. Two matters were at this time weighmg 
heavily upon him ; the war with Lombardy, and the 
war with Austria. The last months of happy peace 
which he was ever fated to enjoy were now speedily 
slipping away. 

After issuing a proclamation against the Lombard 
rebels, Frederick turned his attention to the Danube. 
The Duke of Austria had been true to his character. 
Ever since his accession six years before, he had 
lieaped insults upon the Emperor. He had been 
the same in 1235 as in 1232. He had reftised to 
appear at the great Diet of Mayence in the former 
year, entangling himself in a war with the 'K'ing of 

• Ann. Wonnat. f -Ajon. Wormat. 

^ Godcfr. ColoxL 

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according to his folly, and was at length to be chap. 

chastised. 1— 

Frederick went up the Khine from Coblentz, visit- 
ing Boppard and Wiesbaden, whence he turned 
aside to Frankfort. The Teutonic Order, the Church 
of St Servais, the Abbot of Heisterbach, and the 
burghers of Worms were partakers of his bounty. 
He then moved eastwards to Wurzburg and Werda. 
In June, another obstacle which had long confronted 
him, and which was to wear away the remainder of 
his life, started up in its full proportions. 





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^ JOHX XALOOLM LrBLOW^Aixifaor of 'Britiah India: iteBaoaandHiatoiT.' 



]^ THOKAS HU6H£S, Aatbor of 'Tom Bnywii*^ Sdiool-Dayif Ac 
Ckvwn 8fOi doOi, St. 6dL 




OF 1857. 

By JOHN MALOOLM LUDLOW, Barrister^t-Law. 
S Tola, fopw 8va eloth, 9c 

'The bcrt hMorieal Indin nuiml exirtivt OM tlMt ovght to te in tiM haadi orev«i7maa 
or rt/tuM OD the ladiaa qneeliow.*— g«A«iji««. 




]^ the late HENBT LU8HINGT0N» 

Chief Beoretury to the GoTenunent of Malta. 

With a BioesAPHicAL Pbsva.oi hj G. Stotxv Yxvibum. 

Crown 8ro. doth, Bt. 6(2. 

• A» the writn- wwrns with hli mihJeet, he rewshei a very janoominoo and oharMteriiUe degree of eMellcnce. 
The namtlve become* lively end cnphie, end the iMwnag* is full of eloqnenee. Perhepe themoet di AouU of all 
literary tedu-the tadi of giTinc mitorieal nnlty, dicnltr. and Intereet, to eveny eo reornt aa to be etUl eneum- 
bend with all the detalle with whkh newqiaperaTnTeet thenu-haa neirer been more raoeeMfkiU/ diMhaned. 
.... Mr.Luihinron.lna^7ihortooiniMai,showBthetomiwtvraandieqiienoeof thee^ 
the whole etory of the etrnnle and defeat of It^ a denee of nnlty and dramatlo Intereet which not one news- 
paper reader In tea thoueand ervr rappcaed it to p oeie e e.'-BATPmnAT Bbtibw. 


ROME IN 1860. 

Crown Sto. cloth* price 6«. ed, 

• The writfaic of the whole book la terte. direct, and, beeaiwe.of eonnd Judgment In le^eetlon of detail*, and th« 
toui abeenoe of waate writing, venr graphic Wxitlen la plain onaflbeted Knglldi, Intent everTwhera upon Ite 
eabject.'— £zAjffHsa, March tS, IWI. 

* So striking and apparantlj co IhlthAil a portrall. It la thg Rome of real lift he bae depletod.*>iraeTaTon 
March »,1W1. ^^ 

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Z-^ammd^ «xz tat Jjuv** ftrrsca fey K. C OITB. 





rMLwCltf «rta 






irflalfcii. With Fbnr lUiis. 



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