LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.
UNITED STATES OP AMERICA.
A History and Geography
MONTGOMERY COUNTY, Pi.
County and Township Government.
[EfisisnEd for the Use of Schaals andtha
J. K. HARLEY, M. E.,
Principal Public Schools, Conshuhocken, Montgomery County, Pa,
There is no geography of so much practical use as local
geography. , -
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by
J. K, HARLEY,
in the OflBce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
Copj'right, 18?-, b}- J. K. Haki^ey.
Preface, ^ . , . , 5
IS'oTE TO Second Edition, .8
Suggestions to Teachers, . . . , . . 9
History of Montgomery County, .... 13
General Descriptiox, . . • . , , ,31
Review Questions on the County, .... 33
Questions on State Georaphy, .... 37
Description of each Township, with Questions, . 39
Description of each Borough, 72
Township Government, 83
Borough Government, 90
County Government, 92
THIS is probably the first attempt ever made to
present tlie subjects of Local History, Geogra-
phy, and Government in the form of a text-book.
Although the idea and method are entirely new and
original with the author, the present work is an ear-
nest attempt to give to teachers, pupils, and others the
subjects in a form that can be used conveniently ; and
as such it is open to criticism, Avhich, it is hoped, will
be entirely fair and indulgent.
Object. — The work is designed as a text-booh on the
subjects named. It is to be studied and mastered, in
connection with maps, by the pupils in our county
schools. The subjects have thus far been taught
orally or by notes, if taught at all, and, with a view
to avoid inconvenience and to save the time of the
teacher, whose time is generally very limited, the
work is prepared. The object is, mainly, to prepare
a work suitable for class use.
Origin. — The work is an outgrowth of the school-
room and experience. The matter was originally
prepared by the author for his own classes, and has
been used by them. Primarily, it was given orally to
the classes, or in notes and outline, the pupils studying
therefrom. So inconvenient was this, and so much
valuable time used to a disadvantage, that the author
has resolved to put the matter in a printed form.
Importance. — The necessity of such a work cannot
be questioned. The subjects themselves demand it.
Local History, Geography, and Government are very
imperfectly understood, even by those who are pro-
ficient in all other branches of learning. All agree
that local geography is, practically, of more use to
the majority of people than the geography of Asia or
Africa ; it is evident that a thorough knowledge of the
government of a township and county is more useful
to all citizens than a knowledge of the Constitution of
the United States, the foundation of all law and gov-
ernment, however all-important it is. The demand for
a complete knowledge of these subjects becomes more
manifest every day. It is the hope of the author that
this work may meet the want and supply the de-
Mctliod. — The matter has been arranged in such a
way, it is believed, to be most conveniently studied.
It is difficult to present a text-book on any subject
that will meet the wants of all grades of classes ;
however, the author has endeavored to supply pupils
at the age ready to study these subjects with the
proper book. Special pains have been taken to employ
a simple, clear, and concise style, and avoid all rhe-
Origin of Matter. — Much of the matter has been
obtained by observation and actual investigation.
Several "Nvorks on the topics have been examined,
and, in some cases, the language partially followed,
and acknowledgments duly made. It is possible
credit should have been given where it has been with-
In conclusion, the author desires to express hi^
sincere thanks to friends for suggestions and critical
examination of manuscript ; also, to F. G. Hobson,
Esq., in rendering grateful assistance in preparing
the subjects of Township and County Government.
Hoping that the work will meet with favor, in which
is the author's highest rcAvard, it is respectfully sub-
mitted to the public. The Authoe.
Trappe, Pa., October 20ih, 1882.
NOTE TO SECOND EDITION,
THE first edition of this work having met -*vitn
much favor, it is by the earnest request of
teachers and friends that this, the second edition, is
published. This revision has been delayed for sev-
eral years in order to get the census returns of 1890,
and noting the recent improvements, and changes in
the political divisions of the county. All of these
matters have now been brought up to date.
The map in this book and the Author's large
school map of the county are entirely new, claiming
to be the only accurate maps made. The exact loca-
tion of every post-office, railroad, boundary line of
township or borough, parallels of latitude and long-
itude for every five minutes, etc., may be seen upon
the large map.
Advantage is also taken of this revision to make
a few changes in the subject-matter of the work and
the manner of presentiog it, all of which are con-
sidered an improvement.*
The book is thus respectfully submitted to an in-
dulgent public. J. K. H.
ConshohocJcen, Pa., September 20th, 1891.
* It is suggested that changes in the political divisions, and
others, may be written from time to time upon the blank
leaves placed into the book for that purpose.
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.
1. In teacliing tliis subject it is the opinion of the
author that the topical method is preferable. For
this purpose the outlines should be followed.
2. The historical part may be used for reading or
recitation, at the discretion of the teacher, and the
time to be devoted to this branch of study.
3. Be sure that pupils thoroughly understand this
department of geography, as well as township and
county government. With proper questions this may
4. The questions, as given in the work, are by no
means exhaustive. Every teacher must add such
questions, or change those given to suit circumstances,
so that all points may be fully brought out.
5. Pupils, in answering, should be required to give
them in complete sentences.
6. Teachers, in putting questions, should not state
them that a '' Yes " or a " No " simply will answer.
It is believed that only when pupils can discuss a
subject in their own correct language they under-
7. Teach geography and civil government by the
OUTLINE— MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
i. First Inhabitants.
1. Selling the Lands.
2. First White Settlers.
8. During the Revolution.
1. Warren's Tavern.
2. British enter Philadelphia.
3. Skippack Creek.
4. Battle of Germantown.
1. Washington's Retreat.
2. Americans at Whitemarsh.
5. The Surprise of Howe.
6. American Army at Valley Forge.
7. Baron Steuben.
MOXTGOMERY COUNTY. 11
11. Philadelphia Evacuated.
12. Americans leave Valley Forge.
13. Peter Muhlenberg.
14. Close of War.
4. Count}' Established.
5. Late War.
h. Philadelphia, Germantown, Norristown.
c. Philadelphia and Reading.
d. North Pennsylvania.
h. Stony Creek.
i. Chester Valley.
h. Northeast Pennsylvania.
I. Bound Brook,
n. Other railroads.
II. General Description.
12 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
2. Position and Extent.
7. Boroughs and Townships.
III. Statistics of the Census of 1890.
6. County Officers.
HISTORY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
1. Montgomery County was originally settled by a
race of Indians who called themselves the Lenni
Lenape, or Original People, and also by the Woapa-
nachki, or the People from the East. They assumed
these names from a belief that they were superior in
all respects to any of the neighboring tribes. They
occupied the territory from the Hudson to the Susque-
hanna Rivers, and therefore lived on both sides of the
Delaware and Schuylkill ; and for this fact the early
white settlers gave them the name of Delawares.
These Indians were tall, straight, and well-propor-
tioned, with fine Poman features, and they were very
friendly to the English. All the Indian names now
existing in the county are the following: Consho-
bocken, GoshenhoppeD , Macoby, Manatawny, Methac-
tou, Penaepack, Perkiomen, Sciota, Sanatoga, Skip-
pack, Tacony, Towamencin, and Wissahickon. These,
with their burial-grounds in various parts of the
county, and the occasional stone relics found in the
14 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
fields, are now about the only mementos of a long-
2. The earliest purchase by William Penn of any
part of what now is Montgomery County was made
June 25th, 1683, of Wingebone, for all his rights to
lands lying on the west of the Schuylkill, beginning at
the lower falls and up to the end of his rights. The
next purchase was made July 14th, 1683, of Secane,
Idaquoquehan, and others, for all the land betw^een the
Schuylkill and Chester Elvers ; and, at the same time,
the land lying between the Schuylkill and Penncpack
was bought of Malebore and others. On June 3d,
1684, the land lying along the Perkiomen was pur-
chased of Maughaiigsin, with the promise on the part
of the Chief never "to molest any Christians that may
settle thereon." Soon after other lands were bought
on both sides of the Pennepack, and extending in a
northwest direction "two full days' journey." Thus
all the rights and titles of the Indians to any part of
what now is ]\Iontgomery County was finally extin-
guished by purchase.
3. The Dutch and Swedes, who settled the eastern
part of Pennsylvania, had established some trading-
posts within this county between 1623 and 1665.
Pecords of the Plolland Company show that a great
beaver trade was carried on in 1656 along the Schuyl-
kill ; and for its successful operation were erected
several forts. The Little Schuylkill in consequence
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 15
was called by the Delaware Indians " Tamaqua," sig-
nifying the beaver stream. The English, in 1664,
conquered the whole country, and though the Dutch
and Swedes had made settlements along the banks
of the DelaAvare and Schuylkill, and held large quan-
tities of fertile lands, the English from this date became
the principal actors in the settlement of this part of
4. William Penn received his grant of the province
of Pennsylvania, March 5th, 1681, and landed at
New Castle, October 27th, 1682, and eleven days
after arrived in Philadelphia. At the first Provincial
Assembly, held in Philadelphia in March, 1683, it
became necessary to j^ass a number of laws to render
the government effective. Amongst the rest the
province was divided into three counties — Philadel-
phia, Chester, and Bucks — and their respective boun-
daries settled. These were the first three counties
created in the State of Pennsylvania. Emigration
began to increase as early as in the summer and fall
of 1683. During the few years following several
AVelsh Friends settled in the present Tov.Tiship of
Lower Merion. About the same time the English
Friends commenced settling in the present Townships
of Cheltenham, Abington, Plymouth, Springfield, and
Whitemarsh, and several years later in Upper Dublin,
jMoreland, and Horsham. Some Welsh also settled
about 1690 in Whitemarsh and Plymouth, and, in
16 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
1697 and a few years following, in considerable num-
bers in Gwynedd. They commenced settling in
Montgomery Township in 1710, and a few years later,
to some extent, in Hatfield and Limerick. A few
Germans from Germantown settled in Springfield and
Whitemarsh before 1690, and after 1708 their settle-
ments became more extended. In 1709 several settled
in the present Townships of Limerick, Kew Hanover,
and Pottsgrove. Bo great had become their increase,
that in 1734 considerably over one-half of the popula-
tion of the county were Germans, and about one-fifth
Welsh. Of all the early settlers the German element
has shown the strongest attachment to the soil, and
the result has been in all the lower townshij^s an im-
provement in the land and a steady increase in their
number as landholders. Montgomery County thus
was peopled by English, AVelsh, Swedes, Germans, and
Irish. Though holding different religious opinions,
they resolved to live peaceably with each other, and to
labor diligently to improve their possessions till they
have become as we behold and enjoy them at this
5. Important events of the Eevolutionary War
transpired within the present limits of ISIontgomery
County. After the disastrous battle of Brandy wine,
fought on the 11th of Sej^tember, 1777, Washington
retreated to Philadelphia, and took post at German-
town, a few miles north of the city. Undismayed by
MONTGOMEKY COUNTY. 17
his reverse, he resolved to risk another engagement.
Accordingly, on the 15th of the month, he re-crossed
the Schuylkill and marched toward the scene of the
late struggle. Two days later he met General Howe
near Warren's Tavern, on the Lancaster Turnpike,
about twenty miles from Philadelphia. For awhile
the two armies manoeuvred, the enemy gaining the bet-
ter position ; then a spirited skirmish ensued, and just
as a great battle was about to take place, a violent tem-
pest of w^ind and rain swept over the field. The com-
batants were deluged, their cartridges soaked, and
fighting made impossible. Before dawn of the next
day, Howe marched to the Schuylkill ; when there
they beheld the breastworks of AYashington's army
on the opposite side of the river. Howe turned sud-
denly about and hurried up stream along the right
bank in the direction of Reading.
6. Washington pressed up the left bank, crossed the
Schuylkill at Parker's Ford,* hoping to be able to
confroDt the enemy while on their passage up the
river. P)ut the movement of the British was only
feigned, for as soon as they ascertained that the
Americans were near Pottstown, they crossed the
Schuylkill at Fatland Ford (now Pawling's Bridge),
en the night of September 22d, and hastened to Phila-
delphia, which they entered on the 26th without oppor
* Parker's Ford crossed the Schuylkill where the Lawrence-
ville bridge now stands, a little above Limerick Station.
18 MONTGOMERY COUXTY.
sition, and the main division of the British army
encamped at Germantown.
7. After several days' rest, Washington broke up
his camp near Pottstown to take up a strong position
and within a convenient distance from the British.
He encamped en the Skippack Creek, about tvrenty
miles northwest from Philadelphia. Here he was
joined by the troops that had been detached under
General Wayne, and by the Continental troops that
had been ordered from Peekskill, and also by the
Jersey militia. By the clcse of the month of Sep-
tember, Washington's army numbered about 18,000
troops. The American army, at this time, was in
wretched condition for want of clothing and shoes.
Upward of 1,000 men were actually barefooted, and
performed their marches in this condition.
8. General Howe, on taking possession of Phila-
delphia, dispatched a large division of his army to
capture Forts Mifflin and Mercer, on the Delaware.
Germantown was thus considerably weakened, and
AYashingtcn resolved to attempt a surprise. The
same plan of attack which had been so successful at
Trenton was again adopted. Washington jhaving
been informed through friendly emissaries of the di-
vided condition of Howe's army, arranged a time and
plan of attack. He so disposed his troops that the
divisions of Sullivan and Wayne were to march down
the main road and enter Germantown by way of Chest-
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 19
nut Hill ; tlie divisions of Green and Stephens pro-
ceeded do^vn the Lime Kiln Road, and reached the
town at the market-house ; General Armstrong was
ordered to march dow^n the Ridge Road and attack
the enemy on the left ; in like manner Generals Small-
wood and Foreman Avere to march down the old York
Road and attack the right of the enemy. The divi-
sion of Lord Sterlino; and the briorades of Generals
Is; ash and JNIaxwell formed the reserve corps. This
excellent . plan having been made, Washington
broke camp on the Skippack (in the vicinity of
Wentz's Church), and moved the several columns
toward the enemy shortly after dark on the evening
of the od of October. The attack was made early
on the morning of October 4th. There was much
severe fighting, and at one time it seemed that the
British would be defeated ; but they gained possession
of a large stone house — "Chew's Mansion" — and
held it. A foolish attempt to dislodge them gave the
enemy time to rally. On account of a heavy fog,
prevailing at the time, and probably more on account
of the inefficiency of the commanders of the flanking
columns to co-operate with the attack ujion the centre,
the tide turned against the patriots and the day was
lost. Washington, that same night, marched his
men to Pennypacker's mill (near Schwenksville) on
the Perkiomen. He placed his wounded and disabled
soldiers in hospitals wherever he could establish them,
20 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
using for that purpose churches and other public
buildings between Perkiomen and Reading.
9. As soon as Washington's forces had recovered
from the shock of battle and were in a fit condition-
to move, he proceeded, with his army, to Whitemarsh,
twelve miles from the city. Lines of defense were
here thrown up, some of which are etill to be seen
near the village of Fort Washington, on the North
Pennsylvania Railroad. The defenses were thrown
up October 20th, winter was approaching, and the
patriots began to suffer for food and clothing.
Howe, knowing the distressed condition of the Ameri-
cans, determined to surprise their camp, but failed by
reason of his plans having been discovered and com-
municated to the American army.*
* General Howe had established his headquarters on Second
Street, Philadelphia, and directly opi^osite lived William and
Lydia Darrah, members of the Society of Friends, at whose
house the council of war was held. On the 2d of December, the
Adjutant-General told Lydia that they would occupy a certain
room of her house and remain late, and that they wished the
family to retire to bed early, adding that when they were ready
to go away they would call her to let them out. She, accord-
ingly, sent all her family to bed ; but, as the officer had been so
particular, her curiosity was excited. She took off her shoes, jnit
her car to the Iccy-hole of the rioo?-, and overheard an order read
for all the British troops to march out late on the evening of
the tth and attack General W^ashington at Whitemarsh. On
hearing this she immediately returned to her chamber and lay
down. Soon after, the officer knocked at her chamber door, but
she rose only at the third summons, pretending to be asleep.
Her mind was agitated, and supposing it in her power to save
the lives of thousands of her countrymen, she determined, by
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 21
10. The campaign closed at Whitemarsli on the
11th of December, 1777. Washington, after confer-
ring with his principal officers, and due deliberation,
concluded to go into winter-quarters at Valley Forge.
The main division of the army crossed the Schuyiklil
Kiver at Swede's Ford (now NorristoAvn).
11. The sagacity of AVashington had pointed to a
strong position for his encampment. To the security
of the river and hills the additional securities of for-
tifications were added. UjDcn the recommendation
of Congress, the whole army engaged in religious
services, and observed the day with public thanks-
some means, to convey the information to General "Washing-
ton. Accordinglj-, on tlie following morning, she obtained a pass-
port from Lord Howe, and left the city on the pretense of going
to villi for fiour. Having passed the Eritish lines, she was met
by an American officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Ci'aig. To him she
disclosed her secret, after having obtained from him a solemn
promise never to betray her individually, as her life might be
at stake with the British. The Colonel immediately acquainted
Washington with what he had heard, and Lydia returned home
with her flour. The British troops went to the intended attack
and returned in a few days. The next evening the Adjutant-
General called upon Lydia, as he wished to ask her some
questions. She now supposed she was either suspected or be-
trayed. He earnestly inquired whether any of her family were
up the nightheand the other officers met. She told him they all
retired at eight o'clock. He observed : " I knoAV you were
asleep, for I knocked at your door three times before you heard
me. I am entirely at a loss to imagine Avho gave General Wash-
ington information of our intended attack, unless the walls of
the house could speak. When w^e arrived near Whitemarsli
we found all the cannon mounted, and the troops prepared to
receive us, and xve have marched hack like a parcel of fools."
22 MONTGOMERY COUXTY.
giving and praise. The next day the men were di-
vided into companies of twelve to build for themselves
a hut fourteen by sixteen feet. The whole number
of men was 11,098 when the encampment commenced,
while the British army, at the same time, contained
33,73G men. The condition of the American army
in their encampment at Valley Forge during the
winter of 1777 and '78 was truly distressing. The
soldiers suffered intensely from the want of clothing,
food, and proper shelter. Many became sick, and
thus added to the misery. The patriotism and bravery
of the soldiers were shown in fighting the evils in
their midst as well as the enemy upon the field.
Washington here saw his darkest days, and much was
added to their gloom when the miserable conspiracy
headed by Generals Gates, Conway, and MifHin to
remove him from his command became known. But
the alienation was only for a moment ; the allegiance
of the army remained unshaken, and the nation's
confidence in the troubled chieftain became strono;er
than ever. The news of Burgoyne's surrender and
the treaty of alliance with France was received with
great rejoicing in the American army. It inspired
the patriots with new zeal and energy that they might
carry on the war to a successful issue.
12. It was during the spring of 1778 that Baron
Steuben, a veteran soldier and disci2)linarian, from the
army of Frederick the Great, came and joined him-
self to Washington's army, and thus rendered in-
valuable service in drilling the troops.
13. Colonel John Lacey, of Bucks County, was com-
missioned a Brigadier-General January 8th, 1778, and
took command of the militia between the Delaware
and Schuylkill Rivers. His orders were to watch the
enemy and protect the inhabitants, and for that pur-
pose he took station at Warwick about the middle of
January, later at Graeme Park, and next at Harts-
ville. From this place he proceeded to Hatboro,
about half a mile east of w^hich he formed his camp. His
forces numbered about 450 men, a part of whom only
w^ere armed, and at times suffered for the want of pro-
visions. The British havmg obtained information of
General Lacey's camp, the arrangement of his forces,
and the places of his patrols ; and as he had been
active against the enemy, concluded his capture would
be an object. Accordingly, a regiment, called the
"Queen's Rangers," numbering 800 men, under
Colonel Abercrombie, was sent to capture him. They
left the city by the Middle Road and below Huntingdon
Valley separated. One division under Major Simcoe
proceeded up the Welsh Road to the upper corner of
Moreland, then across to Horsham meeting-house,
thence on the road to Hatboro. Colonel Abercrombie'-s
division entered the Byberry Road, which led directly
to Lacey's camp. General Lacey and his forces were
entirely surprised, as they had not been sufficiently
24 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
watchful. They continued retreating and fighting
for two miles, when they suddenly turned into the
wood which protected them from the enemy. General
Lacey attributed his misfortunes to the disobedience
and misconduct of officers of the scouting parties.
The Americans lost thirty killed and seventeen
wounded ; the British loss was trifling — some six or
14. On the 17th of May, Sir Henry Clinton suc-
ceeded Sir William Howe* in tlie command of the
British army in Philadelphia, the latter having re-
signed and returned to England. On the 18th of
June, the British evacuated Philadelphia, and re-
treated across New Jersey to Kew York. Previous
to the evacuation, Washington dispatched La Fayette
with 2,000 choice troops to take position at Barren
Hill to watch the enemy. He crossed the Schuylkill
at Matson's Ford (Conshohockeu) about noon on the
18th of May, and proceeded to the EidgeBoad, thence
to Barren Hill, where he took post one-fourth of a
mile west of the church. Hov»e, having been in-
formed of La Fayette's position, at once formed a plan
to surprise and cut him off. For that purpose Howe
sent General Grant, on the night of the 19lh, with
5,000 troops, to gain the rear of La Fayette's position.
They proceeded from Philadelphia directly to Flour-
town, thence to the present village of Broad Axe,
* Howe, however, did not sail till some time in June.
MONTGOMEEY COUNTY. 25
thence to Plymouth meeting-house, Avhere they I\alted
at daylight the next morning. While the movement
Avas in progress on the left, General^rey with a strong
detachment advanced up the Eidge Turnpike and took
possession of the ford next below Matson's on. the
Schuylkill, while the main body under General
Howe advanced to Chestnut Hill.
15. During the night cf the 19th, Captain jMcClane
cf La Fayette's command captured two prowling Brit-
ish grenadiers at a place then called Three Mile Eun.
From these men the Captain learned of the move-
ments of Generals Grant and Grey. Immediately
conjecturing the purpose of the enemy, he sent Cap-
tain Parr and some troops to check the advancing
column up the Schuylkill, and another in the direc-
tion of Chestnut Hill, while he himself, at lightning
speed, hastened to the headquarters of La Fayette to
apprise him of the danger now^ evidently surrounding
him. The young Marquis conceived of skillful manoeu-
vres by "svhich he conducted his troops, artillery and
wagons safely to Matson's Ford, which he crossed in
safety, leaving the enemy in sight on the opposite side
of the river.
16. Washington, in his camp at Valley Forge, had
been apprised of the movement against La Fayette at
Barren Hill, when he at once put his army in readi-
ness to move at his command. Accompanied by his
aids and field officers, he rode to the top of the hill,
26 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
from the summit of whlcli lie could witness the scene
of action through a field-glass. He soon saw that the
entire detachment had crossed the Schuylkill in safety.
17. Immediately upon the evacuation of Philadel-
phia by tlie British, their route having become known
to AVashington, he ordered Major-Gencral Charles
Lee, with the advance of the army, consisting of six
brigades, to follow the retreating enemy. General
Lee left Valley Forge on the 18tli of June — the same
day the British left Philadelphia — nnd on the 20th
crossed the Delaware at Carroll's Ferry, Washing-
ton, w ith the main body of the army, broke camp on
the I'Jth, and arrived at Doylestown in the evening,
where he encamped for the night. His march hither
was much retarded by heavy rainfalls. On the 20th
the entire army crossed the Delaware, and en the 28th
the memorable battle of Monmouth was fought. Thus
it ^^■ill be seen that the Continental army occupied
Valley Forge six months, having formally encamped
there on the 17th of December, 1777, and left the 19th
of June, 1778.
18. Proudly may we remember that General Wash-
ington gave one of the most important commands at
Valley Forge to General Peter Muhlenberg, of Trappe.
He was in the halnt of occasionally visiting his father
at Trappe, and f t that purpose ha would start in the
evening and return early next morning. These visits
became known to the enemy, and on one occasion he
MONTGo:\rErwY county/ 27
was saved from being ca23tured only by tlie fleetncss
of his horse.
19. From official reports it is ascertained that
Washington and his army spent five days less than
nine months within the present limits of Montgomery
County. Eemains of the entrenchments then thrown
up may be seen on the hills of Whitemarsh and Up-
per ^lerion to this day.
20. The devolution at last came to a close and the
country obtained its independence. Peace reigned
supreme. Industry soon brought prosperity. Up to
this time the whole county was comprised in that of
Philadelphia, where the county affairs were trans-
acted. It was a long distance for those attending to
them to travel, and at so great inconvenience, in con-
sequence of which petitions were signed praying for
tlie formation of a new county. These were consid-
ered and acted upon by the State Legislature ; and,
accordingly, a laAV was passed Sei^tembcr 10th, 1784,
"for erecting part of the county of Philadelphia into
a separate county, named and hereafter to be called
Montgomery." Thus did the present county, rich and
populous as it now is, spring into existence one hun-
dred and seven years ago.
21. By the same act, a committee was appointed
" to purchase and take assurance to them, in the name
of the Commonwealth, of a piece of land* situated in
* The land purchased by this committee, cliiefly belonged to
the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania.— J?uc>t,
28 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
some convenient place in tlie neigliborliood of Stony
Creek, contiguous totlie Schuylkill, in Norriton Town-
ship, and thereon to erect a Court-House and Prison."
Thus the large and populous borough of Norristown
was founded and became the county seat.
22. In the late war, Montgomery County responded
nobly to the respective calls made both by the Gen-
eral and the State Governments. According to sta-
tistics, the total number of men furnished was about
7,850, including substitutes, re-enlistments, cavalry,
and those in the naval service. Of the brave men
w^ho, in the national defense, left the county, many
fell on the field. In the Public Square at Korristown
stands, to their lasting honor, the *' Soldiers' Monu-
ment," a silent yet eloquent cenotaph.
23. The centennial of the formation of the county
was celebrated at Norristown in September, 1884.
At this anniversary were displayed the products of
the various industries of the county, many old and
rare relics, and the customs and manners of former
days. Literary exercises and splendid parades
formed an important part of the proceedings.
1. The improvements in the county from its organ-
ization are marked. The Philadelphia and Lancaster
Turnpike, running through the southern portion of
Lower Merion Township, was the first road of the
kind constructed in Pennsylvania. It was com-
menced in 1792 and finished in 1794. The German-
town and Perkiomen Turnpike was commenced in
1801 and completed in 1801: ; the Cheltenham and
Willow Grove, in 1803, and completed the following
ycuv; the Chestnut Plill and S^mng liouse, in 1804
and 1805 ; the Perkiomen and Peading, between 1811
and 1815; the Pidge, in 1812 and 1816, and the
Spring House and Bethlehem, in 1814. The total
number of miles of turnpike road in the county is
about two hundred.
2. The Schuylkill Navigation Company was incor-
porated March, 1815. The canal, one hundred and
ten miles in length, extending from Fairmount, Phila-
delj^hia, to Port Clinton, Schuylkill County, was
commenced innnediately after its incorporation, and
finished in 1826, at a cost of nearly three millions of
dollars. It is not much used now.
3. The Pennsylvania Railroad (6 miles in the
county) was first built by the State from Philadelphia
to Columbia, and opened for use April, 1834. In
1857 the State sold its right to the Pennsylvania
Eailroad Company, under whose control it now is.
4. The Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown
Railroad (7 m.) was commenced in 1831, and opened
to Norristown in August, 1835. In 1856, the Com-
30 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
paiiy bi.ilt a large depot at Xorristown, rnd laid the
entire road ^vith a double track.
5. The Philadelphia and Heading Eailroad was
incorporated April 4th, 1833, and opened for travel
to Reading in 1839, and to Pottsville in 1842.
6. The North Pennsylvania Hailroad was completed
to the Lehigh River in 1857. . The other railroads of
the county are as follows: Colcbrookdalc, running
from Pottstown to Barto Station ; Doylestown, from
Lansdale to Doylestown, Bucks County; Perkiomcn,
from Perkiomcn Junction to Ailentown ; Stony Creek,
from Norristown to Lansdale; Chester Valley, from
Bridgeport to Dmvningtown ; IMymouth, from Con-
shohocken and intersects Vv'ith the N. P. at Orelan<l ;
Northeast Pennsylvania, branch from the N. P.,
through Abington and Moreland, and through Bucks
County ; Delaware and Bound Brook, through Ab-
ington and Moreland, to the Delaware River and
New York, and the Newtown Railroad, through
Cheltenham and Abington, with the Schuylkill Di-
vision of the Pennsylvania, opened to Reading in
1884 and to Pottsville the next year; the Trenton
cutoff, branch of the Pennsylvania, from Glenloch,
Chester County, through the lower part of INIont-
gomery to Trenton, N. J. Other roads are under
construction. There are now finished and in use no
less than 236 miles of railroad in the county, one-
half of which is double track. These, with the
numerous telegraphic lines, are important factors in
the modern improvements of the county.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY.' 31
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
1. Name. — The name Montgomery was given to
this county in honor of the gallant General Eichard
Montgomery, of the Continental army, who fell,
mortally wounded, at the battle of Quebec, December
2. Position and Extent. — ^Montgomery is one of
the southeastern counties of Pennsylvania. It is
bounded on the northwest by Berks County, on the
northeast by Bucks and Lehigh, on the southeast by
Philadelphia, en the southwest by Delaware and
Chester.* Its area is 484 square miles, or about
3. Surface.— Its surface is generally rolling;
hilly ia the northern part, along portions of the
Perkiomen, Skippack, Branch and Swamp Creeks.
Through Hatfield, Towamensing and Gwynedd it is
4. Drainage.— The Schuylkill Piver washes the
western shore of the county for about forty miles,
flowing in a southeasterly direction. It is spanned
by fifteen bridges. These are now free.
The Perkiomen, with its numerous branches, drains
half of the area of the county. Itrises in Lower Milford
Township, Lehigh County, and is about thirty miles in
* From the irregular position of the county, it is regarded
best to bound it as above.
dl2 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
length. The word, Perhiomen, means a cranberry
Other streams of the county are the AYcst Branch,
Macoby, Swamp, Deep, Northeast Branch, Skippack,
Mingo, Stony, Pennepack, and AYissahickon.
5. Soil. — The soil of the county is generally of a
good quality, especially along the Schuylkill and
Perkiomen. In Upper Dublin, Springfield, White-
marsh, Plymouth, and Upper I^.Ierion the limestone
6. Population. — Montgomery County uas (1890)
123,290 inhabitants, being, in population, the eighth
in the State. It has more inhabitants to the square
mile than any other county in Pennsylvania, but
In the nortliern section, the German language is
still nuich spoken ; whi e in the southern section,
comparatively few can speak it.
7. Rksources. — The water-power afF>rded by the
numerous streams, nature of the soil, metals, min-
erals, and i)ositi<»n of the county, constitute its natural
res'iur.es. These give rise to the varied and exten-
sive eniploynients of the people.
8 Industries — The chief occupation is farming.
Dairy products are the principal, \\hich find a ready
matket in Philadelphia and the larger borougln.
Tvliunerous creatneries are in operation, which manu-
facture large quantities of butter, mainly f>r Phila-
delphia markets. Not a sufficiency of all grains is
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 33
raised for home consumption. The manufacture of
iron, cotton and woolen goods, macliinery, etc., is car-
ried on in the larger boroughs. Iron-ore mining, and
marble and limestone quarrying, form a considerable
branch of industry.
9. Boroughs and Townships. — There are fifteen
incorporated boroughs in the county, and thirty-three
townships. These form eighty- three election dis-
tricts and fifty-four * school districts.
10. Education.— There are 469 public schools in
the county (1891). There are several flourishing
institutions for higher instruction. Montgomery is
among the foremost counties in the State in educa-
tional interests. The public schools are receiving
due attention, and are in a flourishing condition.
Many of the districts (28) have adopted a Graded
Course of Study, under which the schools are making
much progress. The system was first formally adopted,
in Lower Providence, on June 6th, 1882, and the
first class in the county was graduated, under the sys-
tem, on May 9th, 1883. The school term averages
REVIEW QUESTIONS ON THE COUNTY.
1. Give an account of the Indians who originally
lived in the county.
*0f this number, fifteen are boroughs, six independent school
districts, and thirty-three townships.
34 MONTGOMERY COUiNTY.
2. Give the Indiau names now iu existence in the
3. In what purchase was Montgomery County in-
4. Who was WiHiam Penn ?
5. Who was Peter Muhlenberg?
6. AVhat prevented the battle at Warren's Tavern ?
7. What was the condition of the army at White-
marsh ? Valley Forge ?
8. What were the names of the different fords
across the Schuylkill, and where were they ?
9. Where is Valley Forge ?
10. AVhen was the county organized ?
11. Describe the establishment of the county seat.
12. Discuss General Lacey.
13. Tell the story of the revelation of the proposed
attack of the British upon Whitemarsh.
14. Describe the attack upon La Fayette at Barren
15. Who principally settled in Montgomery
16. When was Philadelphia evacuated?
17. How long was the Continental army at Valley
Forge ? in the county ?
18. What part did Montgomery County take in
the late war ?
19. Name the different turnpikes in the county.
20. How many miles of turnpike in the county?
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 85
21. When was the Schuylkill Navigation Company
22. From and to what places does it extend ?
23. When was it finished ? What did it cost ?
24. Name the railroads of the county.
25. Discuss the Pennsylyania Railroad.
26. Discuss the Philadelphia, Germantown and
27. Discuss the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad.
28. Discuss the other railroads of the county.
29. Bound Montgomery County.
30. What townships of the county border on the
Berks County line ? Lehigh County line ? Bucks
County line? Philadelphia? Delaware County line ?
Chester County line ?
31. What townships in Berks County border on
Montgomery County ?
Ans. — Douglass, Colebrookdale, Washington, and
32. In Lehigh County ?
Ans. — Lower Milford.
33. In Bucks County ?
Ans. — Milford, Rockhill, Hilltown, New Britain,
Warrington, Warminster, and Southampton.
^;i.s.— The City of Philadelphia.
35. What townships in Delaware County border on
36 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
Ans. — Haverford and Kadnor.
36. In Chester County ?
Ans. — TredyfFrin, Schuylkill, East Pikeland, East
Vincent, East Coventry, and North Coventry.
37. Name all the townships in the county in their
alphabetic order and locate each.
38. Which is the largest? smallest?
39. Name the creeks in the county, and tell in
what part they are.
40. What river?
41. Name the boroughs in the county and locate
42. What is the population of the county ?
43. What boroughs in Chester County, immediately
across the county line ?
44. In Berks County?
45. Name all the bridges you can that cross the
Schuylkill. The Perkiomen.
46. Where is the limestone region ?
47. Where are the iron-ore regions?
48. What other metals are found in the county and
49. What do you understand by a county seat?
Ans. — A county seat is the place w^here the courts
are held, and the county officers transact their busi-
50. What is a township seat ?
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 37
Ans. — A township seat is the place where the elec-
tions are held, and the township officers generally
meet to do their business.
51. Who are the present county officers?
QUESTIONS ON STATE GEOGRAPHY.
1. Name the counties of the State in their alpha-
betic order, and give the county seat of each.
2. Locate all the different counties.
3. Give the population of each county.
4. Name the cities of the State, the p)opulation of
each, and in w^hat county located.
5. Name the counties bordering on the bounding
6. What counties of the bounding States border on
7. Name the counties on the east side of the Sus-
quehanna River. West.
8. Name all the railroads of Pennsylvania you can,
9. By what railroad w^ould you travel to the follows
ing places :
a. From Norristown to Lancaster ?
b. From Allentown to Fi^anklin ?
c. From PottstoAvn to Corry ?
d. From Bridgeport to Carbondale?
e. From Lansdale to Altoona?
38 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
/. From Norristown to Kew York ?
g. From Jeukintown to Pittsburg ?
10. Name the counties in which iron is found. Coal.
11. How many Normal School Districts in the State,
and where is each school located ?
12. Name all the colleges of Pennsylvania, and in
what county each is located.
Description of the Townships and Boroughs
OF Montgomery County.
1. Position and Extent. — Abington Township is
situated in the extreme southeastern part of the county,
and joins Philadelphia on the southeast. Its area is
15.5 square miles, or 9,920 acres. Population, 2,703.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally
rolling, and Edge Hill is the most considerable eleva-
tion. The Pennepack Creek flows through the eastern
part, and receives several tributaries from this town-
3. Resources. — The soil is a fertile loam, and where
the limestone abounds is among the best in the county.
In the northeastern part the limestone and iron-
ore belt commences and extends in a southwestern
direction to the Schuylkill.
4. Industries — Farming, the manufacture of lime,
and mining iron-ore for the neighboring furnaces
constitute the princi^Dal industries.
40 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
5. Education. — There are ten schools in this town-
ship, and it is among the forenoost townships in edu-
cation. The term is ten months.
6. Villages. — The borough of Jenkintown is ifi
the southwest central part. The villages are Abing-
ton, Mooretown, the township seat, and Weldon.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Abiugton. 2. What
railroads in the township? 3. What creek in the
township? 4. Name and locate the villages. 5.
Name the post-offices in the township. 6. Name the
present township officers.*
1. Position and Extent. — Like Abington, this
township is situated in the southeastern part of the
county. It is noted for its great numbers of fine
country residences. Its area is 8.5 square miles, or
5,440 acres. Population, 4,746.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is consider-
ably rolling. The Tacony Creek, rising in Springfield
and flowing through Cheltenham and Abington,
empties into the Delaware. It has numerous tribu-
taries in this township.
3. Eesources. — The soil is rich and productive,
being composed of loam and gravel. The various
* This and similar questions may be answered by tlie pupils
of tliat township, or by referring to tlie Author's County Map.
Some of tlie questions are omitted for want of space. Tho
newer railroads are not noted in the text on account of the
necessity of making too extensive changes in the plates.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 41
Strata of rocks, as exposed by cuttings of tlie N. P.
Ivailroad, afford a very iiue geological study.
4. Industries.— Farming, gardening, and manu-
facturing which is extensively carried on, are the prin-
cipal industries of the people.
5. Villages.— The villages are Shoemakertown,
the township seat. Edge Hill, Cheltenham, Waverly
Heights, and Ashbourne.
6. Education. — There are eighteen schools in the
township, with a term of ten months. All of the
schools are graded.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Cheltenham Township.
2. What is the township seat ? 3. What railroads
in the township? 4. What creeks? 5. Name the
present townshii3 officers.
1. Position and Extent. — This township is situa-
ted in the northAvestern portion of the county. Its
area is 15 square miles, or 9,600 acres. Population,
2. Surface. — The surface is rolling and the soil
red shale. The principal streams are Swamp, West
Branch, and Middle Creeks, which afford some water-
3. Industries. — Farming is the chief business of
the people. A few engage in mining and manufac-
42 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
4. Villages. — The villages are Gilbertsville, the
township seat of the western district, Douglass, and
Engleville. There are ten schools, term six months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Douglass Township.
2. What creeks in the township? 3. Name and
locate the villages. 4. AVhat post-offices in the
township? 5. What townships in Berks County
1. Position and Extent. — Franconia is situated
in the northeastern part of the county, joining Bucks
County. Its area is 14.875 square miles, or 9,520
acres. Population, 2,258.
2. Natural Features. — The surface is generally
level. The soil is r^d shale, and in some parts of a
clayey nature. The Northeast Branch of the Perki-
omen, the Skippack, and Indian Creeks flow through
the township and furnish water-power.
3. Industries. — Farming is the principal business.
The North Pennsylvania Railroad passes through the
township for a distance cf 21 miles, with stations at
Souderton and Telford.
4. Villages. — The villages are Telford, Souder-
ton, Franconiaville, and Franconia Square, the town-
ehi^^ seat. There are ten schools, term six months.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 43
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Franconia. 2. Name the
villages and locate them. 3. What railroad in the
township ? 4. What streams in the township ? 5.
What is the township seat ? 6. Name the post-offices.
7. Name the present township officers.
1. Position and Extent. — This township is situa-
ted in the northern part of the county. Its area is
15 square miles, or 9,G00 acres. Population, 1,850.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling,
and in some places hilly. In the southern part the
elevations are called Stone Hills, and are covered with
huge rocks called bowlders. The Perkiomen and
Swamp Creeks are the principal streams furnishing
3. Industries. — Agriculture is the principal indus-
try. There are also different manufactories. Copper
mines are found in the southern part, and they were
worked about 1830.
4. Villages. — The villages are ZieglersviPe, Green
Tree Hotel, the township seat, Perkiomenville, Fred-
erick, and Spring Mount.
5. Schools. — In the township there are ten schools.
Tlie term is six months.
IJap Questions. — 1. Bound Frederick Township.
2. Name the villages and locate them. 3. Name the
44 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
post-offices. 4. What is the population? 5. Who
are the present township officers ?
1. Position and Extent. — This is one of the
central townships of the county. Area, 19.25 square
miles, or about 1,240 acres, having been reduced by
the incorporation of the boroughs of Lansdale and
North Wales. Population, 2,367.
2. Surface. — The surface is rolling, and the soil
clay, approaching loam, and is well cultivated. The
Wissahickon flows through Gwynedd, receiving several
tributaries that rise in the township.
3. Industries. — Farming is the occupation of the
people. The North Pennsylvania Railroad passes
through the township for a distance of six miles, with
stations at Penllyn and Gwynedd. The Stony Creek,
for three and a half miles, with stations at Acorn,
Lukens, and Kneedler.
4. Villages. — The villages are Spring House,
toAvnship seat of upper district, Penlyn, Gwynedd Cor-
ners, township seat of lower district, and the borough
of North Wales, taken wholly from this township.
5. Schools. — There are six public schools in the
township. Term, nine months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Gwynedd. 2. What
can you say of the shape of the township ? 3. Name
the railroads of the township. 4. Who are the
present townsliii) officers? 5. Name the township
1. Position and Extent. — Hatfield is the central
township on the northeastern line of this county.
Eleven square miles, or 7,040 acres, is its area. Popu-
2. Physical Features.— The surface is generally
level ; the soil of a clayey nature. The Neshaminy
Creek rises in Hatfield and flows through Bucks County
into the Delaware. Several branches of the Skip-
pack also rise in this township. This is the culminat-
ing township in the county, judging by the direction
the streams of water flow.
46 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
3. Industries. — The occupation of the peoi:)le is
farming, with some manufacturing. The North Penn-
sylvania Raih-oad passes through the township for
about four miles, with a station at Hatfield; and the
Doylestown branch, three miles, with a station at
4. Villages. — The villages are Hatfield, the town-
ship seat, Line Lexington, Colmar, and Hockertow^n.
5. Schools. — The townshiphaseightpublic schools,
including the independent district of Line Lexington.
They have a seven months' terra.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Hatfield Township.
2. Name and locate the villages. 3. What post-ofhces
in the townshij^ ? 4. AVhat borough ? 5. What rail-
roads ? 6. Name the present township officers.
Position and Extent. — This toAvnshij) is situated
in the eastern part of the county. Its area is 9,966
acres, or 15.5 square miles nearly. Population, 1,239.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally-
level and the soil a loam. The West Branch of the
Neshaminy drains part of the township. The Pcnne-
pack rises in the township.
3. Industries. — The people are engaged in farm-
ing, with some manufactures.
4. Villages. — The villages are Prospectville, the
to-^nship seat, Horshamville, and Davis Grove^
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 47
5. Schools.— Horsham has three public schools
^Yith a term of ten months.
3Iap Questions.— 1. Bound Horsham. 2. What
county to the east ? 3. What can you say of the
shape of the township ? 4. :^ame the yillages. 5.
The present township officers.
1. Position and Extent.— Limerick is in the
northwestern part of the county joining the Schuyl-
kill on the west. It is the third township in size in
the county, having an area of 14,101 acres, or about
22 square miles. Population, 2,224.
2. Natural Features.— The surface is rolling,
and in the northern part hilly. Stone Hill is the
highest elevation. There are also steep hills in the
western part along the Schuylkill. The soil is of red
shale and clay. The streams are few.
3. Industries. — The people engage in farming,
with some manufacturing. The Philadelphia and
Beading Bailroad traverses the entire length of the
township along the Schuylkill, and has stations at
Liufisld and lioyersford.
4. Villages. — The villages are Limerick Centre,
the township seat, Limerick Square, LId field, and
Fruitville. The borough of Boyersford is also in
48 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
5. Schools. — There are thirteen public schools in
this township with a term of six months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Limerick Townsliip.
2. What township in Chester County that joins Lim-
erick? 3. What is the tow^nship seat? 4. What
villages and borough in the township ? 5. What rail-
road? 6. How many schools in the township?
1. Its Rank. — The township derives its name from
Merionethshire, a county in Wales, where some of
the first settlers came from. Formerly, Uj^per and
Low^er Merion constituted one towmship, but were
divided previous to 1734. It ranks as the largest and
most populous township in the county, and is noted for
its internal improvements. Its nearness to Philadel-
phia gives it a ready market for all its farm produce.
2. Position and Extent. — It is situated in the
southern part of the county. Its area is 22.5 square
miles, or 14,400 acres. Population, 10,362.
3. Natural Features. — The surface of Lower
Merion is rolling, and in the eastern part hilly, afford-
ing beautiful scenery. Mill Creek is the largest stream.
4. Industries. — Farming, market gardening, and
manufacturing are the occupations of the people.
Lower Merion is more largely engaged in manufactur-
ing than any other township in the county. The
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 49
PeDnsylvania Railroad j^asses within the townshij^ for
a distance of six miles, and has stations at Merion,
AYynnewood, Ardmore, Haverford, White Hall, Bryn
Mawr, and Rosemont. The Philadelphia and Read-
ing Railroad passes through the township for a dis-
tance of seven and a half miles, and has statioT^s at
Pencoyd, West Manayunk, Roseglen, and West
5. Villages— The villages are Bryn Mawr, Gen-
eral Wayne, Merion Square, Haverford College,
Merionville, Ardmore, Overbrook, Libertyville, and
6. Schools.— Lower Merion has twenty-three
public schools, all of which are graded. Term, ten
Maj:) Questions. — 1. Bound Lower Merion. 2.
What townships in Chester County touch Lower
Merion ? 3. What railroads pass through the town-
ship? 4. Xame the post-offices in the to^^Tiship.
5. What are the township seats? 6. Wlio are die
present township officers ?
1. Formation and Extent.— Lower Pottsgrove
is the southern part formed by the division of Potts-
grove Township. It is situated in the northwestern
part of the county, bordering on the Schuylkill.
50 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
This township has an area of about 9? square miles,
or 5,900 acres. Population, about 875.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally
hilly. The elevations are Ringing Hill * and Crooked
Hill. The soil is red shale, and fairly productive.
Sprogle's Run and Sanatoga Creek drain the greater
portion of the township.
3. Industries. — Farming is the chief occupation
of the people. The Philadelphia and Reading Rail-
road has a station at Sanatoga.
4. Villages and Schools. — The villages are
Crooked Hill, the township seat, and Sanatoga.
There are five schools with a term of six months.
1. Position and Extent. — This is the most cen-
tral township in the county, fronting on the Schuylkill.
Upper and Lower Providence constituted one town-
* Ringing Hill, with its ringing roclvs, constitute one of the
natural curiosities of Montgomery County. These consist of a
solid bed of trappean rocks. They are exceedingly hard ; when
struck with a hammer they ring like iron, producing all har-
monious sounds, A'arying with the size aiid shape of the rock.
The largest may Avcigh from five to twenty-five tons each. A
number of impressions, as tracks of horses and other animals, '
and even of the human foot, are distinctly outlined. The Ger-
man inhabitants of the place call this elevation Klinglcberg,
signifying Ringing Hill.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 61
ship, called Providence, i^revious to 1805, when it was
divided. The name was given by Penn, probably in
honor of his mother's family. The area of this town-
ship is 9,143 acres, or about 14.3 square miles.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is undu-
lating and the western part slopes gently toAvard the
Schuylkill and Perkiomen. Along the Skippack
Creek it is slightly hilly. Methacton Hill begins in
the eastern part and extends eastward through Wor-
cester. The township is drained by the Skippack
Creek and Mine Kuu, which flow into the Perkiomen
on its western boundary. The soil is generally of a
red shale, and productive.
8. Industries and Resources.^ — Farming is the
chief occupation of the people. The township is very
ricli in mineralogical specimens; copper, lead, and
their sulphates and oxides are found, some specimens
of which are very beautiful and rare. Copper was
mined some years ago near Shannonville, shafts were
sunk, and an amount of ore raised, but these mines are
now not iu operation.
4. Villages. — The villages of Lower Providence
are Eagleville, the township seat, Shannonville, Evans-
fcurg, and Providence Square.
5 Schools. — The township has seven schools, all
of w^hich are graded. Term, eight months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Lower Providence. 2.
52 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
Kama r.nd locate the villages of the towDship. 3.
What toAviiship in Chester County opposite Lower
Providence? 4. What minerals are found? 5. Name
the present township officers.
1. Position and Extent. — This township is situ-
ated north of the centre. It has an area of 14
square miles, cr 8,960 acres. Population, 1,755.
2. Natural Features. — The surface is gently
undulating, with a few hills along the Branch Creek,
v/hich flows through the northwestern part. The
Indian and Skippack are also streams of the town-
ship. The soil is of red shale Avith some clay.
3. Industries and Formation. — Farming wdth
some manufacture is the business of the people. What
now constitutes Upper and Lower Salford was origi-
nally called Salford, a name derived from a town and
several parishes in England. It was separated into two
tow^nships previous to the formation of the county.
4. Villages. — The villages are Ilarleysville, Led-
erachsville, the township seat, and ]\Iainland.
5. Schools. — The township has ten public schools.
Term, six months.
Map Quesiions. — 1. Bound Lower Salford. 2.
What streams in the township ? 3. Name the post-
offices. 4. How many schools? 5. Who arc the
present township officers ?
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 53
1. Position axd Extent. — Marlborough is situ-
ated in the northern part of the county. The area is
nearly 15 square miles, or about 8,500 acres. Popu-
2. Physical Features. — The surface is hilly in
the western and rolling in the eastern part. The soil
is of red shale or clay. The torrnship is drained by
the Perkiomeu, East Swamp, Kidge Valley, and Ma-
coby Creeks. -
3. Industries, — The manufacture of powder and
oil is largely carried on, together with farming, as the
chief industry. The Perkiomen Kailroad has a course
of 3i miles i.i the township, with stations at Green
Lane, Perkiomen, and INIcLeans.
4. Villages. — The villages are Sumneytown, the
township seat, Hoppenville, and Marlboroughville.
5. Schools — The township has five public schools,
and a terra of six months. The Sumneytown Acad-
emy is situated at that place.
Ilajy Questions. — 1. Bound Marlborough Town-
ship. 2. What townships in Bucks County join Marl-
borough? 3. What streams in the township? 4.
Name the villages and township seat. 5. Name the
post-offices. 6 . Who are the present township officers ?
7. What railroad passes through Marlborough?
•54 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
1. Position and Extent. — Moreland is the inosi
eastern township in the county. Its area is nearly 17
square miles, or 10,900 acres. Population, 1,889.
2. Natural Features. — The surface is undulat-
ing and the soil a productive loam. Edge Hill crosses
the centre of the township. The Pennepack Creek,
with tributaries, drains Moreland.
3. Industries. — Farming and market gardening
are the chief occupations of the j^eople. Manufacture
also receives attention. The Northeast Pennsylvania
Railroad passes through the township for three miles,
and stations are at Willow Grove, Heaton, Fulmor,
and Bonair ; and the Bound Brook, with a station at
4. Villages. — The villages are AVillow Grove, the
township seat of upper district, Morganville, Yerkes-
ville, Huntingdon Valley, and Sorrel Horse, township
seat of lower district
5. Schools. — There are seven public schools in the
township, with a term of ten months and 317 pupils.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Moreland. 2. What
can you say of the shape? 3. What toM'nshij)s in
Bucks County opposite Moreland? 4. What rail-
roads in the township ? 5. What streams? 6. Name
the villages and post-offices.
montgomery county. 55
1 . Position and Extent. — The township is in the
northeastern part of the county, joining Bucks. The
area is nearly 11.25 square miles, or 7,170 acres. Popu-
2. Physical Features. — The surface is level and
the soil loam and red shale. The township is drained
by the Wissahickon, rising near Montgomerj^dlle,
and the West Branch of the Neshaminy Creek.
3. Industries. — Farming is the employment of
the people, with some attention given to manufacturing.
4. Villages. — The villages are ]\Iontgomeryville,
and Montgomery Square, the township seat.
5. Schools. — There are four public schools in the
township. Terra, eight and oue-half months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Montgomery To\\'nship.
2. What townships in Bucks County join this town-
ship? 3. Kame the villages. 4. What creeks rise
in Montgomery Township? 5. Kame the present
1. Position and Extent. — New Hanover is in
the northwestern part of the county. Its area is 20.25
square miles, or 12,960 acres, being the fourth in size
in the county. Population, 1,728.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling
and the soil red shale and loam. The Swamp and
56 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
Deep Creeks, with tlieir brandies, drain the town-
3. Origin and Industry. — What is now com-
prised in the present townships of New Hanover, Upper
Hanover, Douglass, and Pottsgrove as early as 1734
was called Hanover Townshijo. This name Avas de-
rived from a capital and kingdom in Germany. Farm-
ing is the chief occuj^ation of the people.
4. Villages. — The villages in New Hanover are
Swamp, the townshij^ seat, Fagleysville, New Hanover
Square, and Pleasant Eun.
5. Schools. — There are eleven public schools in
the township, including the independent districts of
Swamp and Fagleysville. The schools have terms
of six, seven, and eight months respectively.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound New Hanover. 2. Name
the villages and j^ost-oifices. 3. What creeks in the
township ? 4. Who are the present township officers ?
1. Position and Extent. — Norriton is situated
nearly in the centre of the county. Its area is 8.G
square miles, nearly, or 5,500 acres. It is the third
smallest township in the county, having been decreased
by enlarging the borough of Norristown. Popula-
2. Natural Filatures. — The surface is undu-
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 67
lating, and the soil is of red shale and clay, and is
productive. Stony and Indian Creeks and a few
minor streams, drain the toAvnship.
3. IndustPwIES. — Farming and considerable manu-
facturing are the occupations of the people. The
Stony Creek Bailroad passes through the eastern j^or-
tion of the township and has a station at Hartranft.
4. Villages. — The villages of Korriton are Jeffer-
son"ville, the township seat, Norritonville, Penn Square,
5. Schools. — There are five public schools in the
township with a term of nine months, and are
Map Questions. — 1. Bound !Norriton Township. 2.
Name th« villages and post-offices. 3. What rail-
road in the township? 4. Name the present town-
1. Formation. — Perkiomen Township was divided
by decree of court March 19th, 1886, making the
Perkiomen and East Branch Creeks the dividing
line. The division west of these streams is now
Perkiomen Township, and the division east, Skip-
2. Position AND Extent. — Perkiomen is situated
in the northwest central part of the county. It is
58 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
the smallest township in the county, having an area
of about 5.5 square miles, or 3,600 acres. Popula-
3. Physical Features. — The surface for the most
part Is hilly. The soil is red shale, of a sandy nature,
and generally productive. The Perkiomen, with the
Lodle Creek, drains the township.
4. Industries. — Fanning is the principal occu-
pation. The Perkiomen Railroad extends through
the township for four miles, and has stations at
Rahn's, Gratersford, and Schwenksville.
5. Villages. — The villages are Schwenksville,
Gratersford, the township seat, and Ironbridge.
6. Schools. — There ai-e seven public schools, with
a graded course of study, iu the township. Term,
1. Position and Extent. — Plymouth is situated
south of the centre of the county. The area is nearly
8.25 square miles, or about 5,200 acres. Population,
2. Natural Features. — The surface is undu-
lating, and near the Schuylkill slightly hilly. The
soil is fertile and productive, being of a limestone
formation. Plymouth Creek is the largest stream in
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 69
3. Eesources. — The natural fertility of the soil,
immense quantity of limestone and beds of iron ore,
constitute its important resources.
4. Industries. — The industries are farming, burn-
ing of lime, and mining of iron ore, together Avith
some manufacturing. The Plymouth Kailroad passes
through the southern part, with stations at Ridge and
Plymouth, and the Norristown, Germantown, and
Philadelphia Kailroad in the southeastern part, with
stations at Mogee and Ivy Kock.
5. Villages. — The villages are Hickory town, tne
township seat, Plymouth Meeting, Harmanville, and
6. Schools. — There are six public schools in the
township, with a term of ten months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Plymouth Township.
2. AVhat railroads pass through the township? 3.
]^7ame the villages and township seat. 4. "What river
en the southwest? 5. Name the present toAvnship
1. Formation and Extent. — This is the eastern
portion, formed by the division of Perkiomen Town-
ship. It is situated northwest of the centre of the
county. The township has an area of about 12.25
square miles, or 7,900 acres. Population, 1,360.
60 MONTGOMEP.Y COUNTY.
2. Physical Features. — The surface of Skip-
pack is quite level, except aloug the Perkiomen.
The soil is of a clayey nature, but under good culti-
vation. The Perkiomen and the Skippack Creeks, with
their branches, drain the towns^hi];). Farming is the
occupation of the people.
3. Villages. — The villages are Skippackville, the
township seat, Lucon, and Harmony Square.
4. Schools. — There are seven schools, with a
graded course of study, in the township. Term,
1. Position and Extent.— Springfield Township
is situated in the southeastern part of the county.
Its area is about 6 square miles, or 3,840 acres, being
the smallest township in the county. In 1877 part
of the narrow strip running to the Schuylkill was
ceded to Whitemarsh. Population, 1,892.
2. Natural Features. — The surface is undulating.
The soil is fertile, being of an excellent limestone.
Branches of the Wissahickon Creek drain the town-
3. Hesources. — Great quantities of iron ore and
limestone are found in this township. The iron mines
are extensively worked and the ore sent to Spring
Mill, Conshohockcn, Edge Hill, and other places.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 61
4. Industries. — The principal are farming and
market gardening, also mining and some manafac-
turii]g. The Plymouth Railroad lias a course of two
miles in the township, Avith stations at Flourtown and
Oreland, where it connects with the N. P. Railroad.
The Korth Penns}dvania Railroad passes through the
township a distance of two miles, and has stations at
Edge Hill, Oreland, and Sandy Run.
5. Villages. — The villages are Flourtown, the
township seat, and Chestnut Hill.
6. Schools. — There are four public schools in the
township, with a term of ten months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound this township. 2. What
metal is found in this township? 3. What creeks in
the township? 4. Name the township seat. 5. How
1. Position and Extent. — Tow^amensing is situ-
ated nearly in the centre of the county. Its area is 9.63
square miles, nearly, orG 160 acres. Population, 1,140.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally
level and the soil red sliale and clay. The Skippack
and Towamensing Creeks, with their branches, drain
3. Industries. — Farming is the principal industry.
Manufacturino^ receives some attention.
62 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
4. Villages. — The villages are Kulpsville, the
township seat, and Union Square.
5. Schools. — There are six public schools in the
township. Term, six months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Towamensing. 2. Name
and locate the township seat. 3. What creeks in this
township ? 4. Has the township any railroad within
its borders ? 5. Name the present township officers.
1. Position and Extent. — Upper Dublin is in
the southeastern part of the county. It has an area
of 13.8 square miles, or 8,840 acres. Population,
2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling
and the soil of loam and limestone formation. Camp
Hill is an elevation extending through the north-
western part. Wissahickon Creek, with its tribu-
taries of Rose Valley, Pine, and Sandy Runs, drains
3. Industries. — Farming is the principal industry.
The mining of iron ore and manufacturing of lime
are also carried on. The North Pennsylvania Rail-
road passes through the western part for 1 2 miles and
has a station at Ambler.
4. Villages. — The villages are Fitzwatertown,
Jarrettown, the township seat of the loAver district ;
Three Tons, Upper Dublin, Dreshertown, Pennviile,
5. Schools. — There are six public schools in the
township, with a ten months' term,
Map Questions— 1. Bound Upper Dublin Town-
ship. 2. Name and locate the villages. 3. What
railroads in the township ? 4. How many schools in
the township ?
1. Position and Extent. — Upper Hanover occu-
pies the extreme northern corner of the county. Its
area is 22 square miles, nearly, or 14 260 acres, being
the second largest township in the county. Popula-
2. Natural Features. — The surface is undula-
ting and in some parts hilly ; the soil is chiefly red
shale. Hosensack Hill extends across the township,
and is the highest elevation in the county. The Per-
kiomen , Hosensack, West Branch, and Macoby Creeks
drain the township.
3. Industries. — Farm.ing and manufacturing are
the occupations of the people. The Perkiomen Rail-
road passes through the township, and has stations at
Palm, Pennsburg, Welkers, Hanover, and Hosensack.
64 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
4. Villages. — The villages are Palm, Kleinville,
Hillegassville, and Ked Hill.
5. Schools. — There are ten schools in the town-
ship. Term, six months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Upper Hanover. 2.
What creeks in the township ? 3. Name and locate
the vilhiges. 4. How man j schools ? 5. Name the
present township officers.
1. Position and Extent. — Upper Merion is in
the southwestern part of the county. Its area is 16
square miles, nearly, or 10,200 acres. Population i?
2. Natural Features. — The surface is generally
rolling, with high hills in some parts. The soil is of
limestone and loam, and very productive. The more
important streams are Gulf Creek, East Valley Creek,
and Mashilmac Creek.
3. Resources. — Upper Merion, througnout, is the
most fertile township in the county and first in its
natural wealth. Iron is obtained in abundance in
parts, and sent to mills at Port Kennedy, Valley
Forge, West Conshohocken, Swedesburg, and other
places. Lime is manufactured in great Quantities and
shipped to different markets. Many quarries of fine
marble also abound, which are extensively worked.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 65
4. Industries. — Farming, miuing, and manufac-
turing constitute the chief occupations of the people.
The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad j^asses through
the entire length of the township, and has stations at
Valley Forge, Port Kennedy, Merion, and Swedeland.
The Chester Valley Railroad, running from Bridge-
port to Downingtown, Chester County, has stations at
Shainline, Henderson, and King of Prussia. Several
short railroads running from the Schuylkill to the
mines and quarries were constructed by private enter-
5. Villages. — The villages are King of Prussia,
the township seat of the upper district ; Gulf Mills, of
the lower district; Port Kennedy, Swedeland, Mat-
sunk, Valley Forge, and Mechanicsville.
6. Schools. — There are twelve schools, graded,
and a term of ten months.
3fcq) Questions. — 1. Bound Upper Merion. 2.
What is the shape? 3. How many schools? 4.
What river oa the eastern boundary? 5. What
minerals are found ?
1 . Formation. — Pottsgrove Township was divided
in Upper and Lower Pottsgrove by decree of court
December 2d, 1889. The Charlotte Street (from
PottstowiO road, with its various courses to Swamp,
is the dividing line.
ij(j MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
2. Position and Extent. — Upper Pottsgrove is
situated in the extreme northwestern part of the
county. The area is about 9 square miles, or 5,680
acres. Population, about 1,010.
8. Physical Features. — The surface is generally
rolling. The soil is red shale, and in parts pro-
ductive. The Manatawny Creek,* rising in Rockland
Township, Berks County, and Sprogle's Run, drain
4. Industries. — Farming is the chief occupation
of the people, also some manufacturing. The Cole-
brookdale Railroad has a course of more than a mile
in the township*
5. Villages and Schools. — The principal vil-
lage is Half- Way, the township seat. There are six
schools, with a term of six months.
1. Position and Extent. — Upper Providence is
situated in the western part of the county. It has an
area of 18.9 square miles, or 12,096 acres. Popula-
^. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling,
and in some parts hilly. Black Rock Hill is in the
western part. The soil is red shale and well cultivated.
t Sisiiifies Ihe place where we drank.
The Mingo Creek and tributaries of the Perkiomen
drain the township.
3. Industries. — Farming and manufacturing are
the occupations of the people. The Perkiomen Pvail-
road has a course of six miles in this township, with
stations at Oaks, Areola, Yerkes, and Colleo-eville.
The Philadelphia and Pveading Railroad passes
through the western part, with a station at INIingo.
4. Villages. — The villages of Upper Providence
are Trappe, the township seat of the upper district,
College ville, Mont Clare, Quincyville, and Port Provi-
dence, township seat of the lower district.
5. Schools. — There are thirteen public schools in
the township, and four in the independent district of
The Trappe. They are open for seveu and eight
i¥cYjj> Questions.— 1. Bound Upper Providence
Township. 2. What railroads in the township ? 3.
What streams form part of its boundary ? 4. What
is the area ? 5. ^N'ame the present township officers.
1. Position and Extent. — Upper Salford is situ-
ated in the northeastern part of the county. It has au
area of 20 square miles, nearly, or 12,755 acres.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally
* Signifies tne place where we drank.
level, except in the western part, where Stone Hill
forms the highest elevation. This hill is covered with
large bowlders. The soil is chiefly red shale aud loam.
The Ridge Valley and East Branch Creeks drain the
, 3. Industries. — Farming is the chief employment
of tlie people. ManufacturiDg receives some attention.
The Perkiomen Railroad passes through the township:).
4. Villages. — The villages are Tylersport, town-
ship seat of the eastern district ; Salfordville, of the
western district, Branchville, and Mechanicsville.
5. Schools. — There are nine j)ublic schools in the
township, with a term of six mouths.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound tlie township. 2. What
creeks in the township? 3. What are the township
seats ? 4. Name and locate the villages.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 69
1. Position and Extent. — Whitemarsh is situated
in the southeastern portion of the county. Its area is
14.125 square miles, nearly, or 9,040 acres. Popula-
2. Natural Features. — The surface is undulat-
ing. The soil is a rich loam of limestone origin.
The Wissahickon,* ^vith branches, drains the town-
3. Industries. — Farming is the chief occupation.
Iron-ore mining, burning lime, quarrying marble, all
of which abound in great quantity and of excellent
quality, also form important branches of industry.
The Plymouth Railroad passes through the central
part and has stations at Plymouth Meeting and
Williams. The Xorristown Railroad passes along the
western border and has stations at Spring Mill and La
Fayette. The North Pennsylvania passes through
the eastern portion and has a station at Fort Washing-
4. Villages. — The villages are Barren Hill, tlie
township seat of the western district. Fort Washington,
of the eastern district, Plymouth Meeting, White-
* Signifies the catfish sti'eam, or the stream of yellow watez.
70 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
marsh, Marble Hall, Spring ]Mill, Lancasterville,
and Yalley Green.
5. Schools. — There are twelve public schools in
the township, all of Avhicli are graded. Term, ten
Mcqy Questions. — 1. Bound Whitemarsh. 2. Name
the creeks in the township. 3. What river bounds it
on the west ? 4. What metals are found ? 5. Name
the present township officers.
1. Position and Extent. — Whitpain is situated
southeast of the central part of the county. Its area
is 13.5 square miles, or 8,640 acres. Population,
2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally
level, and the soil is a loam and red shale. The Wis-
sahickon, with tributaries, drains the southern portion,
and branches of Stony Creek the northern portion.
3. Industries. — Farming is the principal industry.
The Stony Creek Railroad passes through the northern
part and has stations at Custer and Belfry.
4. Villages. — The villages of Whitpain are Centre
Square, the township seat, Blue Bell, Broad Axe,
Franklinville, and Washington Square.
Schools. — There are seven public schools in the
township. Term, nine months.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 71
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Whitpain Township. 2.
Xanie and locate the township seat. 3. What is the
shape of the township ? 4. Locate the railroads. 5.
Locate the villages.
1. Position and Extent. — Worcester is situated
in the centre of the county. It has an area of 15.75
square miles, or 10,080 acres. Population, 1,517.
2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling,
the soil red shale and under good cultivation. Zacha-
ria Creek is the most important stream in the northern
part. Branches of Stony Creek drain the southern
3. Origin and Industries. — Farming forms the
chief occupation of the people. Manufacturing also
receives some attention. The Stony Creek Railroad
crosses the eastern portion. The name Worcester is
applied from a city and county of the same name in
England. It is derived from the Saxon word Ceaster,
4. Villages. — The villages of Worcester are Cen-
tre Point, the township seat, Fairview, and Cedar Hill.
5. Schools. — There are seven public schools in
Worcester. Term, eight months.
Map Questions. — 1. Bound Worcester Township. 2.
72 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
What creek in the township ? 3. Name and locate
the township seat. 4. What township is in the centre
of the county ? 5. Name the present township officers.
1. Organization. — The borough of Ambler w^as
established by decree ot court June 16th, 1888. It
is situated in the southeastern part of the county at
the intersection of Gwynedd, Upper Dublin, White-
marsh, and Whitpaiu, from which townships its terri-
tory was taken. Population, 1,073.
2. Improvements. — The streets are being well laid
out and graded, and when finished will make an at-
tractive borough. The residences are generally hand-
some. The North Pennsylvania Kailroad passes
through the place, also a branch of the Pennsylvania.
3. Industries. — The business enterprise of the
borough is establishing various manufactories for
employment of the people.
4. Schools. — There are three public schools, with
a term of ten mouths.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 73
1. Organization. — Bridgeport is located in the
eastern part of U2:)per Merion Township on the Schuyl-
kill, opposite Norristown. It was incorporated by an
Act of Assembly February 27th, 1851. Population,
2. Improvements. — Various public improvements
add much to the business advantages and prosperity
of the borough. The canal of the Schuylkill Nav-
igation Company, passing through the borough, was
finished in 1824. The Philadelphia and Beading
Bailroad passes through tke place. Tlie Chester Val-
ley Bailroad connects with the Philadelphia and
Beading at this place and with the Pennsylvania
Central at Downingtown.
3. Industries. — The improvements give rise to
various kinds of business. There are several im-
portant manufactories, mills, and machine shops.
. 4. Schools. — There are seven graded schools, with
a term of ten months. A library was organized in
1858, and contains at the present time about 1,000
P 1. Organization. — Conshohocken is situated in
the southern part of the county, on the left bank of
74 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
the Scliuylkill. Its territory, one mile square, was
taken from Plymouth and Whitemarsh Townships,
and incorporated by an Act of Assembly May 15th,
1830. Population, 5,470.
2. Improvements. — The canal of the Schuylkill
Navigation Company passes throuo^h the borough.
The railroad to Norristown was finished through this
place in August, 1835. The Plymouth Railroad ex-
tends from this place to Oreland.
3. Indtjstries. — The manufoctories are extensive.
Large quantities of bar and boiler iron and boilers
are made. Considerable sheet-iron of excellent
quality is made. The man u Picture of castings, ma-
chinery, and iron pipe is largely carried on. Prints
and cotton and woolen goods are also manufactured.
4. Schools. — In this borough there are, including
the high school, fifteen public schools, also a large
parochial school. The school term is ten months.
1. Organization. — East Greenville was incorpo-
rated September 6th, 1875. It is situated in the
northern part of the county ; its territory was taken
wholly from Upper Hanover Township. Population,
2. Improvements. — The Perkionien Railroad
passes within the borough, thus affording easy com-
MOXTGOMERY COUNTY. 75
muDication with all points north or youth. It Avas
opened for travel in 1874.
3. Industries. — The naaniifacture of cigars and
dealing in general merchandise constitute the business
of the people.
4. Schools. — There are three public schools in the
borough, whose terms are eight months.
1. Organization. — Green Lane is the smallest
borough in the county. It is situated in the western
part of Marlborough Township, from which its terri-
tory was taken. It was incorporated by an Act of
Assembly December 10th, 1875. Population, 237.
2. Improvements. — Three turnpike roads meet in
the borough — Sumneytown and Springhouse, the
Perkiomen, and the Green Lane and Goshenhoppen.
The Perkiomen Railroad was opened to this place in
1872, and in 1875 to Emaus. Manufacturing is car-
ried on to some extent. There is one public school,
and a term of eioht months.
1. Organization. — Hatboro is situated in the
eastern part of the county, in Morclaud Township,
76 I\rONTGOMERY COUNTY.
from ydiicli its territory ^vas taken. It was incorpo-
rated August 26th, 1871. Population, 781.
2. Improvements. — The North East Pennsylvania
Eailroad, extending to Hartsville, passes through the
borough. Several important public roads intersect
3. Industries and Education. — The peoj^le are
engaged in various pursuits ; manufacturing is carried
on to some extent. The borough has four public
schools, and a term of ten months. The Union
Library of Hatboro was founded in 1755, and now
contains about 8,000 volumes. It is the oldest and
largest public library in the county.
1. ORGANiziTiON. — Jcnkiiitown was organized
December 8th, 187-4. It is situated in the soutli-
eastern part of the county, in Abington Township,
from which its territory was taken. Population, 1,609.
2. Improvements. — The North Pennsylvania Kail-
road passes witliin the borough limits, giving it many
business advantages, A library was established in
1805, and now contains about 1,400 volumes. There
are six graded public schools in the borough, having
a term of ten months.
1. Organization. — Lansdale was incorporated
August 24th, 1872. It is situated in the eastern part
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 77
of the county. Its territory was taken from Gwynedd
and Hatfield Townships. Popuhition, 1,858.
2. Improvements. — The North Pennsylvania Rail-
road passes through the centre of the borough. The
Doylestowu branch and Stony Creek Railroad connect
here with the main line, thus making the town an
important railroad centre and contributing largely to
its business prosperity. The borougli is growing
rapidly. There are eight public schools in the bor-
ough, with a term of ten mouths.
1. Organization.— Norristown, the county seat of
Montgomery County, was organized by Act of Assem-
bly March 31st, 1812. It is situated south of the cen-
tre of the county, on the Schuylkill River. Its
territory was taken from Norriton and Plymouth
Townships. The borough is divided into ten wards,
and has a population of 19,791.
2. Rank. — Norristowu is the largest borough in the
county. It is not surpassed by any town in Pennsyl-
vania in beauty of location, supply of excellent water,
arjd abundance of marble, iron, and limestone iu the
3. Improvements. — The improvements of Norris-
town are various and important. In tlie order of
time the Ridge turnpike was completed first; the
78 MOXTGOMERT COUNTY.
Schuylkill Navigation was the next to be opened, in
1826. The Company constructed a dam here v.hich
furnishes valuable -water-po^ver to several manufactur-
ing establishments. The Philadelphia, Germantown,
and Norristown Railroad was finished in 1835, and in
1856 laid with a double track. The Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad, on the opposite side of the river,
adds to the interests of the borough. The Chester
Valley, crossing the Swedes Ford bridge, forms a con-
nection Avith the Norristown road and the Pennsylva-
nia. The Stony Creek Railroad connects the Xorth
Pennsylvania with the Norristown. The Court-house,
built in 1851, of white marble procured in the county,
is one of the finest buildings of the kind in the State.
The Insane Asylum is situated a short distance north
of the borough and accommodates about 1,600 inmates.
There are many handsome residences, the streets are
regular and many are shaded, all of which combined
give an appearance of neatness to the borough not so
generally found elsewhere.
4. Industries. — Norristown has attained consider-
able importance as a manufiicturing town. The man-
ufacture of cotton and woolen goods, iron, glass, nails,
tacks, marble, and oil is largely carried on; there are
also saw and planing mills, flour mills, shirt factories,
and various other establishments.
5. Schools. — There are fifty-seven public schools
in I he borough, including: the high school, and a terra
of ten months ; also a parochial school.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 79
1. Organization.— This borough is situated near
tlie centre of Gwynedd Township. It was incorporated
August, 1869. Population, 673. :N^orth Wales is a
translation oi the Welsh name Gwiueth, from which
Gwynedd is a corruption.^
2. iMrROVEMENTS.— The North Pennsylvania Rail-
road passes through the borough. Local business is
much improved. There are five public schools.
Term, ten mouths.
1. Organization. — Pottstown is situated on the
Schuylkill, in the extreme northwestern part of the
county. It was erected into a borough in 1815. In
1888 the limits of the borough were extended, taking
in large portions of U])per and Lower Pottsgrove,
and is now the largest borough in area in the county.
2. Improvements. — The borough is beautifully
located, the land sloping gently toward the Mana-
tawny and Schuylkill. The streets are well laid out.
The improvements are rapid, handsome, and substan-
* According to Buck.
80 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
tial. The Philadelphia and Reading and the Penn-
sylvania railroads pass through the borough. The
Colebrookdale forms a connection at this })hice.
3. Industries. — The iron, steel, and bridge works,
machine shops, and numerous other minin* manufac-
turing establishments give enipl-oyment to the peo[>le.
4. Schools. — There are forty-eight public schools
in the borough, including a high school, with a term
of ten mouths ; also private schools.
1. Organization. — The borough of Pennsburg
was formed November 19th, 1887. It is situated in
the northern part of the county, near tlie centre of
Upper Hanover Township, from which its territory
was taken. Population, 627.
2. Improvements. — The Perkiomen Railroad
passes through the place. The manufacture of to-
bacco and a few other industries give employment.
There are three public schools, with a term of nice
1. Incorporation. — The borough of Royersford
was incorporated in 1879. It is situated on the
Schuylkill, in the southwestern part of Limerick
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 81
Township, from which its territory was taken. Pop-
2. iMrPvOVEMENTS. — The borough has increased
very rapidly since its organization. The streets are
■well laid out and Avell graded. The improvements
are generally fine and substantial. The Phiiadelpliia
and Reading Railroad passes through the borough.
3. Industries. — Stove and iron foundries, glass
works, and machine-shops are the important indus-
tries of the borough.
4. Schools. — There are eight schools in the bor-
ough, with a term of nine months.
1. Organization. — Souderton is situated in the
northeastern part of the county, in Franconia Town-
ship. It was organized December 15th, 1887. Pop-
2. Improvements. — The borough is growing. The
streets are being laid out and improved. Various
branches of local industry and business are carried
on. The ISTorth Pennsylvania Railroad passes through
the place. There are two public schools, with a
term of seven months.
1. Incorporation. — West Conshohocken is situ-
ated on the right bank of the Schujlkill, directly
82 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
opposite Consliohocken. It was incorporated in 1874,
and its territory was taken fioni Upper and Lower
Merlon Townships. Population, 1,6Q6.
2. Improvements. — The Philadelphia and Read-
ing Railroad passes through the borough. The rail-
road and canal on the opposite side of the river add
much to the business interests.
3. Industries. — The manufacture of iron is largely
carried on, for wliich the borough is principally
noted. Other establishments are also in operation.
4. Schools. — There are five public schools in the
borough. The term is ten months. There is also a
Township and County Government.
1. I)efinition and Orioin.
1. To hold i^roperty.
2. To elect officers.
II. Officees of a Township.
1. Justice of the Peace.
5. School Directors.
7. Town Clerk.
8. Board of Election.
III. Election Districts.
Section I. — Introduction.
1. Definition and Origin. — A township is a
subdivision of a county, having its locul officers. In
84 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
Euglraid a division of a parish is called a township,
from which the term came to be applied to a subdi-
vision of a county in the United States. In some
States, tow)i is of the same signification as township,
but the latter is more commonly used.
2. Powers. — A township may hold property within
its limits — both personal property and real estate.
The dilTercnt school-houses and lots constitute the
real estate lield by the township ; and the school fur-
niiure and implements used by the Supervisors, the
personal property. A township may sue and be sued.
The corporate powers are vested in the Supervisors
and School Board.
The citizens of a township have the power to elect
the several township officers on the third Tuesday of
February of each year. The township officers are
the folloAving : Justice of the Peace, Constable, Super-
visors, Assessors, School Directors, Auditors, Town
Clerk, and the Board of Election, consisting of a
Judge, two Inspectors, and Eegistry Assessor.
Section II. — Officers of a Township.
1. Justice of the Peace. — Every township and
borough is entitled to two Justices of the Peace.
The term of office is five years. Should a Justice of
the Peace die or resign, the vacancy is filled by ap-
pointment by the Governor of the State until the next
township election. Justices of the Peace may be re-
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. o-J
moved from office only by the Legislature. If tAventy
or more citizens j^etition for such removal, tlie court
of the county Avill take the evidence of witnesses in
writing and transmit tJiis to the Secretary of the
Commonwealth, who will lay the same before the
Legislature for its decision. The jurisdiction of a
Justice of the Peace is two-fold, both civil and
Civil Jurisdiction. — He has exclusive juris-
diction in nearly all cases where the sum demanded
by the plaintiff does not exceed $100. Where the
sum demanded is between $100 and $300 the plain-
tiff can commence proceedings either before a Justice,
or the County Court of Common Pleas. The judg-
ment of a Justice under $5.33 is final, but if over
that amount, any party aggrieved may appeal the
same to the Court of Common Pleas, where the case
will be heard anew.
Criminal Jurisdiction. — As his name implies,
this officer is indeed a peace officer. Upon oath
of any citizen, setting forth that any crime has been
committed, it is the duty of the Justice to issue a war-
rant to apprehend the criminal, and bring him before
said Justice. It is the duty of the Justice then to hear
the witnesses for the prosecution only. A Justice of
the Peace never hears the defense. If the Common-
wealth makes out a probable cause against the pris-
oner, he must put him under bail to appear at the
86 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
next Court of Quarter Sessions to stand his trial ; or,
in case the j)risoner cannot procure bail, he must be
committed to prison until the next court. Ten days
before the next term of court, the Justice must make a
return to said court of all criminal cases heard before
The Justice of the Peace is authorized to acknowl-
edge deeds and mortgages, and to act as Coroner
when the Coroner of the county is absent, or when
the office of the Coroner is more than ten miles dis-
tant from the place where the death occurred or the
body was found.
2. Constable. — A Constable is an officer hav-
ing power to preserve the public peace and good
order, and bound to execute the warrants of judi-
cial officers. He is elected for three years. He is
the executive officer of the Justice of the Peace, the
same as the Sheriff is the executive officer of the
court. He has power to make arrests on warrants
from the Justice, and for breach of the peace or any
crime coming under his own observation. He must
give public notice of township elections, at least ten
days in advance thereof; report to the court places
in which intoxicating liquors are sold contrary to law,
also gambling-houses in his township. Vacancies are
filled by appointment from the court.
3. Supervisors. — Each township annually elects
tv/o Supervisors, although any township may by vote
MOiTTGOMERY COUlirTY. ^7
determine on a greater number. Should a vacancy
occur the Court of Quarter Sessions can fill the same.
The duties of the Supervisors are to open all roads
ordered by the court, and keep them in good travel-
ing order ; to make bridges over small creeks, rivu-
lete, and deep gullies. They must erect index-boards
at cross-roads, with names of places and distances
to which said roads lead. Every taxpayer can de-
mand the privilege to work out his tax upon the
road, but no more. A Supervisor receives a salary of
two doUai-s per day for every day he is engaged in the
duties of his office, and a commission on the money he
actually handles. He must give a bond in double the
amount of tax to be collected. Supervisors must an-
nually submit their accounts to the Auditors.
4. Assessors.— Every township elects annually
one Assessor, and every three years two Assistant As-
sessors. Vacancies are filled by the County Com-
It is the duty of the Assessor proper to assess all
persons over twenty-one years of age and all prop-
erty, both real and personal. He makes a return of
his work to the County Commissioners, who levy the
taxes based upon such assessment. Their duties begin
on the day after the holding of the general election.^
5. School Directors.— Each tow^nship has six
School Directors, elected for a term of three years,
two are elected each year. When a vacancy occurs
S8 MONTGOMEPwY COUNTY.
in the Bor.rcl the remainiiif^ members have power to
fill such vacancy until the next annual election. The
term of office of School Directors commences on the
first Monday of June, when the Board should meet to
settle their accounts and organize for the next school
The duties of the School Directors are to establish
a sufficient number of common schools for the educa-
tion of every individual, between the ages of six and
twenty-one years ; to select sites for, and erect school-
houses ; to fix the length of school terms ; to fix sala-
ries, and appoint teachers, and lay such taxes as
may be sufficient to defray the expenses of the same ;
to grade schools when necessary ; to direct what
branches shall be taught ; to decide what text-books
shall be used, and to visit the schools at least once a
month. The studies to be pursued in the common
schools are left to the discretion of the Directors, who
are governed in their decision by the wants of the
6. Auditors. — Each township or borough elects
three Auditors, each for a term of three years, one
of whom is elected each year. Any two, if properly
convened, constitute a quorum. They meet on the
second Monday of March of every year to audit all
accounts of the Supervisors. The accounts of the
School Board are audited on the first Monday of
MONTGOMERY COUXTY. 89
7. Town Clerk. — Each township or borough has
one Town Clerk elected for one year. Vacancies are
filled hv the court.
The office of Town Clerk has almost fallen into dis-
use, and it now exists only in name. The law gives
him charge of stray cattle, and he may accompany
the Supervisor in his work on the roads, and act as his
clerk, for which he is suitably to be paid.
8. Board op Election. — Each election district
annually, at the township election, elects a Judge of
Elections and two Inspectors. (Each voter casts a vote
for but one person for Inspector, and the two having
the highest number of votes are elected.) These offi-
cers, together with two Clerks appointed by the two
Inspectors, constitute the Election Board, whose duty it
is to conduct all elections, decide who are entitled to
vote, keep a list of all votes cast, and count them at
the close of the polls, announce the result, and certify
the same to the County Court.
Each district also annually elects one Registry
Assessor, whose duty it is to prepare a list of all
voters, residing in his district two months before any
In some counties of this State there is an office of
To\\Tiship Treasurer, but in Montgomery County there
is no such office.
90 MONTGOMEPwY COUNTY.
Section III. — Election Districts.
Each tovrnship and borough constitutes at least one
election district. Some townships, on account of their
extent and number of voters, are again subdivided
into two or more election districts. The larger
boroughs are also divided into several wards.
Upon the petition of a majority of the freeholders
of any town or village, the Court of Quarter Sessions,
with the concurrence of the Grand Jury, has jurisdic-
tion to incorporate such territory into a borough, pro-
vided the acts of Assembly are complied with and the
same appears expedient to the court.
Every borough has power to sue and be sued, to
•make and use a common seal, and to purchase, hold,
and sell such real and personal estate as the purposes
of the borough may require.
Officers. — The officers of a borough are Justice
of the Peace, Constable, Assessors, School Directors,
aud Auditors, who are elected for the same terms
and ia the same manner, aud who perform the same
duties as the township officers of like name. In addi-
tion to these every borough elects a Burgess and Town
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 91
'^ The Burgess is elected annually. He is the
executive officer of the borough. It is his duty to
enforce all ordinances of the Town Council ; to pre-
serve order and maintain the peace of the borough ;
to remove nuisances, and exercise the power and juris-
diction of Justice of the Peace within the borough in
all criminal cases ; to punish vagrants ; sign all
ordinances, and have general supervision of the
The Town Council consists of six members,
elected for three years (two of whom are elected every
year), who have power and authority to legislate and
j^ass ordinances for the j)roper government and good
order of the borough ; to lay out streets and sewers,
and widen and straighten the same ; to prohibit the
erection of any building, or obstruction to the open-
ing or convenient use of the same ; to require and
direct the grading and paving of foot-walks ; to pro-
hibit noxious or offensive trades or businesses ; to make
regulations for the health and cleanliness of the
borough ; to light the streets ; to levy taxes to meet
the expenses of the borough, and to borrow money,
The Town Council elects annually a Clerk, Borough
Treasurer, and a Borough Surveyor, whose duty cor-
respond to those of township and county officers of
the same name.
Many of the older boroughs act under special
92 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
charters granted by the Legislature, and their govern-
ment differs greatly, each particular borough being a
law unto itself.
1. Definition and Origin.
II. Officers of a County.
1. Judge of the Courts.
2. District Attorney.
4. Clerk of Courts.
5. Pegister of Wills.
6. Recorder of Deeds.
9. County Commissioners.
10. County Treasurer.
11. Directors of the Poor.
13. County Surveyor.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 93
14. Jury Commissioners.
15. County Superintendent of Schools.
1 6. Prison Inspectors.
a. The Court of Common Pleas.
h. The Court of Quarter Sessions of the
c. The Court of Oyer and Terminer.
d. The Orphans' Court.
3. Trials by Juries.
1. Grand Juries.
2. Petit Juries.
Section I. — Introduction.
1. Definition and Origin. — A county is a cor-
porate subdivision of a State, having power to hold
property and maintain local government. The term,
ill meaning, is equivalent to the English aliire. Al-
though meaning the same, the terms are applied on
no uniform principle. The shires of England and
^•^cotland are also called counties; but in Ireland and
the British colonies, county is employed. In the
Enited States the various political divisions of the
States are called counties, except in Louisiana, where
94 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
similar divisions are called parishes. The divisions
of a county are toAvnships, from three or four to thirty
or forty, according to the size thereof. In Penn-
sylvania there are now G7 counties, and in the United
States about 3,650.
2. Powers. — A county may hold real estate and
personal property. It may make contracts within its
limits ; and it may sue and be sued. The corporate
powers are vested in and exercised by the County
Commissioners. Its qualified voters also have power
to elect the different county officers and members to
the State Legislature. Montgomery County, with a
part of Bucks, constitutes the Seventh Congressional
Section II. — Officers of the County.
1. Judge of the Courts. — The Judge of the
Court, properly speaking, is not a county officer. He
is an officer of a judicial district, which, although
usually composed of a single county, yet may be
composed of two or more counties. He presides at
all the courts held in his district, interprets the laws,
and carries them into effect. He sentences prisoners
convicted of crimes and perf )rm3 many duties im-
posed upon him by the law. Plis term of office is ten
years. Vacancies are filled by appointment by the
Governor of the State until the next general election.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 95
Montgomery County constitutes the Thirty-eighth Ju-
iicial District of Pennsylvania. It has two judges.
2. District Attorney. — The District Attorney
is elected for a term of three years. His duty is to
frame all bills of indictment against persons charged
with crime, and is the officer of the Commonwealth,
who prosecutes and conducts all criminal cases in
3. Prothonotary. — The Prothonotary is clerk of
the Court of Common Pleas. He issues all writs
for the commencement of actions or suits of law, as
well as writs of execution for the sale of property,
either personal or real. He must keep dockets in
which is entered a complete history of every step
taken by either party in any suit or execution. He
also keeps a judgment docket, in which all judgments
are entered in their regular order. All these dockets
are open to the inspection of the public. The Pro-
thonotary is elected for three years.
4. Clerk of Courts. — This officer is Clerk of the
Orphans' Court and Court of Quarter Sessions of the
Peace. Each of these courts has separate dockets,
in which the proceediugs of each are kept. The Clerk
of Courts also keeps a record of the jurymen draAvn
and certifies the time of attendance of each to the
County Commissioners. All matters relating to the
opening, widening, or vacating of roads are recorded
and kept by him. He enters a record of the accounts
96 MONTGOIMEEY COUNTY.
of guardians of orphans, executors of wills, and ad-
miuistrators of estates in the Orphans' Court docket
after they are confirmed by the Court. The Clerk of
Courts is elected for three years.
5. Register of Wills. — The Register of Wills
holds J I is office for a term of three years. He grants
letters testamentary to executors and letters of admin-
istration to administrators. He examines and files
the accounts of executors, guardians, and trustees of
life estates. Wills are admitted to probate, recorded,
and filed by him.
6. Recorder of Deeds. — The Recorder of Deeds
is elected for three years. Vacancies are filled by ap-
pointment by the Governor. It is the Recorder's duty
to record all deeds, mortgages, and conveyances which
shall be brought to him fur that purpose. He must
enter every deed or writing in the order of time it
was presented. Every deed should be placed upon
record within six months of the time it was made.
Mortgages should be recorded as soon as delivered, as
they take precedence over each other in the order of
time in which they are placed upon record. The
Recorder also certifies, to any one ordering the same,
a complete search of all unsatisfied mortgages resting
uj^on any particular property.
7. Sheriff. — The Sheriff is elected for three years.
When a vacancy occurs in the office of the Sheriff' the
Coroner fills it until the expiration of the term. The
MOXTGCltERY COUNTY. 97
Sheriff is the executive officer of the Court. All wiits
directed to him by the court must be executed by him,
and a return thereof made to the court. He, Avith
the Jury Commissioners, draws the names of the jurors,
and the Sheriff summons them to attend court. He
gives notice of the time and place of general elections
and the qualification of voters.
8. Coroner. — The Coroner is elected every three
years. Vacancies are filled by the Governor.
The duties of the Coroner are almost exclusively
confined to holding inquests upon persons who have
died by violence or accident, or in a sudden or mys-
terious manner. He impanels a jury of six men,
who inquire into the cause of death, afler which a ver-
dict is rendered. In cases of crime the Coroner has
power to cause arrest and to commit to prison ; in
other cases neither the Coroner nor the jury have de-
fined responsibility, and may only recommend.
9. County Commissioners. — There are thi-ee
Commissioners elected in each county for a term of
three years. Each elector votes for two persons, but
the three having the highest vote are elected, thus
ahvays giving the minority party a representative.
Vacancies are filled by appointment by the remaining
It is the duty of the County Commissioners to deter-
mine the tax rate from statements of the Assessors,
and levy the county taxes. They must keep in repair
98 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
the court-house and prison, and build new ones when
authorized to do so. They must also build county-
bridges and keep them in repair. Road damages as-
sessed to property holders for land taken for new roads
or streets within the county are paid by the county
on warrants of the Commissioners. All bills against
the county must be proved by them before they are
paid by the County Treasurer. At the close of each
fiscal year they publish a statement of the receipts and
10. County Treasurer. — The County Treasurer
is elected for a term of three years. Vacancies are
filled by the Governor. The Treasurer receives and
holds all the money belonging to the county, and pays
the same on warrants drawn by the Commissioners.
He also receives taxes due the Commonwealth, such
as hotel and mercantile licenses, and pays the same to
the State Treasurer. It is also a part of his duty to
collect the county and State taxes, and for that pur-
pose sits in each district at a certain time and place
designated by himself.
11. Directors of the Poor. — There are three
Directors of the Poor in Montgomery County elected
for three years — one each year. Vacancies are filled
by the remaining Directors. They have the general
supervision of the Almshouse and of the poor of the
county. They elect the Steward and other officers, in
whom is vested the management of the Almshouse.
The expenses are paid by the County Treasurer by
orders drawn by the Directors. They also make a re-
port of the receipts and expenditures at the close of
each year. The Directors of the Poor of Montgom-
ery County act under a special law ; other counties
ha ye different laws.
12. Auditors. — There are three Auditors in each
county, elected for a term of three years. They are
elected in the same manner as the County Commis-
sioners. They meet at the county seat on the first
Monday in January of each year and audit, ad-
just, and settle the accounts of the Commissioners,
Treasurer, Directors of the Poor, and Prison In-
13. County Suryeyor. — The County Surveyor is
elected for three years. Pie surveys all unclaimed
land and adjusts the boundaries of townships. In
this county his duties are little more than nominal.
14. Jury Commissioners. — There are two Jury
Commissioners elected for a term of one year. Each
elector votes for one person, but the two having the
highest number of votes are elected. They, with the
Judge of the Courts and Sheriif, fill the jury wheel
with names of citizens of the county to be drawn as
jurors of the different courts. These names are drawn
from time to time by the Sheriff* in the presence of the
Jury Commissioners, as jurymen are needed for the
different sessions of the courts.
100 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
15. County Superintendent of Schools. — The
County Superinteudent of Schools is elected for a term
of three years by the School Directors of the various
districts of the county in convention assembled. Va-
cancies are filled by appointment of the State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction.
It is the duty of the County Superintendent to visit
the public schools of his county as often as practica-
ble ; note the methods of instruction and pjovernment
practiced ; inquire into the organization of the school ;
see that in every district the common branches shall
be taught and that scholars are pursuing the- proper
studies, and in sufficient number ; examine into the
clasiiiication and see that a uniformity of text-books
is ill use, and from such observations, oifer suggestions
and encouragement to teacher and scholars, as he may
deem necessary and expedient.
He nuist hold annual examinations of teachers in
the S3veral districts of the county, and hold a Teach-
ers' County Institute each year. He also makes an
annual report of the schools of his county and for-
\Yards it to the Department of Public Instruction at
IG. Prison Inspectors. — The Prison Inspectors
are appointed by the County Commissioners with the
approval of the Court. They elect the warden and
other prison officers, visit each prisoner at least once
a month, and have general supervision of the prison.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 101
Section III. — Courts.
1. Definition.— A Court, iu law, is a body in the
government to wliicli is delegated the public adminis-
tration of justice, when regularly convened at the
proper time and place.
2. Kinds.— Of the United States Courts there are
three in relative importance and jurisdiction, the Su-
preme, Circuit, and District Courts. In Pennsylvania
the courts are the following : Common Pleas, Quarter
Sessions, Oyer and Terminer, and Orphans' Court.
Any one aggrieved by the decision of any of these
courts may, in a proper case, have his case appealed
to the Supreme Court, the highest tribunal of the
State, where mistakes of the lower courts will be cor-
a. The Court of Common Pleas has jurisdiction to
try and determine all civil actions or suits. It has
jurisdiction in assigned estates, and in the naturaliza-
tion of foreigners.
h. The Court of Quarter Sessions has jurisdiction
to try all crimes and misdemeanors against the Com-
monwealth, except those over which the Oyer and
Terminer has exclusive jurisdiction. All bridges and
roads are authorized by this court, as well as the estab-
lishment of new townships, the boundaries and divi-
sions of election districts, of independent scliool
districts, and the filling of vacancies of tovrnship
102 MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
e. The Court of Oyer and Terminer tries all high
crimes, known as felonies, such as murder, arson, burg-
lary, robbery, and treason against the State.
d. The Orphans' Court has jurisdiction over the
estates of decedents ; settles and adjusts the accounts
of executors and administrators, and distributes the
estate among those entitled to it. This court appoints
guardians for minors, and has general supervision of
their estates. It also decides on the validity of a
will, or the right to administer to a decedent's estate,
upon appeal from the decision of the Eegister of
The regular sessions of the several courts of Mont-
gomery County are held the first and the second weeks
of the months of March, June, September, and De-
cember, at wdiich jury trials are held.
During the first weeks of February, May, August,
and November the courts are open for argument upon
questions of law before the Judge.
Special Courts may be called at any time by the
Judge for the trial of causes.
The Orphans' Court is open at all times for many
purposes which can be j^erformed by the Judge at
3. Trial by Juries. — Trial by jury is as old as
the common law of England, upon which all o»rlaws
are founded, and as venerable.
The Constitution of the United States, in Art. Ill,
MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 103
Sec. 3, provides that the trial of all crimes (except in
case of impeachment) shall be by jury, and in th6 4th
amendment — "In all criminal prosecutions the ac-
cused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public
trial by an impartial jury," and by the 3d amend-
ment, " No person shall be held to answer for a capital
or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment
or indictment before a Grand Jury." By amend-
ment VII — ^In suits at common law, where the
value in controversy shall exceed $20, the right of
jury shall be preserved. The Constitution of Penn-
sylvania in the Bill of Rights, Sec. 6, says : " Trial
by jury shall be as heretofore, and the right thereof
In Pennsylvania, where the amount in controversy
exceeds $5.33, a trial by jury is demandable.
In criminal cases the jury are judges of the law and
the facts, while in civil suits the jury's only province
is to determine facts disputed, v\diile the court declares
In Pennsylvania there are two kind of juries, \4z.:
Grand and Petit.
1. A Grand Jury consists of 24 men drawn
from the body of the county C^ny number between
12 and 23 being necessary to do business) to whom
are submitted bills of indictment against various
prisoners. It is the duty of the Grand Jury to inquire
from an examination of the witnesses of the prosecu-
tion if ix prima facie case is made out against the pris-
104 'MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
oner, such as to com23el him to answer. No witnesses
for the defense are heard before the Grand Jury.
They do their w^ork alone in privacy, and no one is
allowed to divulge what occurs in the jury room. If
12 or more of the members sitting agree that the
Commonwealth has made out such a plausible or rea-
sonable case, then they return the same "A True Bill."
If 12 of their number do not so find, they return it
"Not a True Bill." A Grand Jury is also authorized
to visit, inspect, and report upon the condition of the
public buildings of the county, and make such recom-
mendations as they may think right and proper. The
Grand Jury has nothing to do with civil suits.
2. Petit Jury. — A Petit Jury consists of 12 men.
A panel of 36 or 48 men are drawn to sit for one
week ; out of this number 12 are selected by lot to
try each case. They are then sworn, listen to the tes-
timony of both sides, and the speeches of the counsel,
after which the Judge charges them, giving them brief
instructions on the law governing the particular case.
They then retire and determine the matter. This
determination is called a " Verdict," which means a
true saying. In order to reach a verdict all 12 must
concur in the same finding.
In criminal cases they must be satisfied beyond a
reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the accused before
they can convict.
In the civil court the weight of the testimony must
determine the verdict.
Population of Townships — 1890.
Upper Hanover, .
Upper Sal ford,
Worcester, ^ .
East Greenville, .
National Banks of Montgomery County.
IMontgomery National Bank, of Norristown.
First National Bank, of Norristown.
People's National Bank, of Norristown.
National Bank, of Pottstown.
National Iron Bank, of Pottstown.
Perkiomeu National Bank, of East Greenville.
Farmers' National Bank, of Pennsburg.
National Bank, of Scliwenksville.
First National Bank, of Consbohocken.
Tradesmen's National Bank, of Consbobocken.
Jenkintown National Bank.
First National Bank, of Lansdale.
Hatboro National Bank.
Union National Bank, of Souderton.
National Bank, of Eoyersford.
First National Bank, of Ambler.
Bryn ]\Iawr National Bank.
North ^yales National Bank.
Ambler Gazette, .
News and Home News, .
News, . . . ,
Mirror, . ' .
Guide, . . . •
Beobachter (German), .
Norristown Daily Herald,
Herald and Free Press, .
Montgomery County Post,
Scliaylkill Valley Sentinel,
Daily Times, .
North Wales Record, .
Bauern Freund (German),
Daily News, .
Montgomery County Presse
Post-offices ix Montgomery County.
(September 1st, 1891.)
Name. Located in.
Abington, . . » . Abington.
Abrams, . » . . Upper Meriou.
Edge Hill, .
Greeu Lane, .
Gulf Mills, .
Fran COD i a.
King- of Prussia, .
Kulps ville, .
Merion Station, .
Mont Clare, .
Mo r wood,
* Branch office of Philadelphia, but in this county.
West Point, .
Money-order Offices in the County.
(September 1st, 1891.)
Abington Friends School, . . Abington.
Bryn Mawr College, . . . Bryn Mawr.
North Wales Academy, . . North Wales.
Ogontz Ladies' Seminary, . . Cheltenham.
St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, . Lower Merion,
The Hill School, .... Pottstown.
Ursiuus College, .... Collegeville.
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