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A History and Geography 



County and Township Government. 

[EfisisnEd for the Use of Schaals andtha 
G-Eneral Reader 

J. K. HARLEY, M. E., 

Principal Public Schools, Conshuhocken, Montgomery County, Pa, 


There is no geography of so much practical use as local 
geography. , - 




f' Jo/ 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by 


in the OflBce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Copj'right, 18?-, b}- J. K. Haki^ey. 


Preface, ^ . , . , 5 

IS'oTE TO Second Edition, .8 

Suggestions to Teachers, . . . , . . 9 

Outlines, 10 


History of Montgomery County, .... 13 
General Descriptiox, . . • . , , ,31 
Review Questions on the County, .... 33 
Questions on State Georaphy, .... 37 


Description of each Township, with Questions, . 39 
Description of each Borough, 72 


Township Government, 83 

Borough Government, 90 

County Government, 92 

Statistics, 105 


THIS is probably the first attempt ever made to 
present tlie subjects of Local History, Geogra- 
phy, and Government in the form of a text-book. 
Although the idea and method are entirely new and 
original with the author, the present work is an ear- 
nest attempt to give to teachers, pupils, and others the 
subjects in a form that can be used conveniently ; and 
as such it is open to criticism, Avhich, it is hoped, will 
be entirely fair and indulgent. 

Object. — The work is designed as a text-booh on the 
subjects named. It is to be studied and mastered, in 
connection with maps, by the pupils in our county 
schools. The subjects have thus far been taught 
orally or by notes, if taught at all, and, with a view 
to avoid inconvenience and to save the time of the 
teacher, whose time is generally very limited, the 
work is prepared. The object is, mainly, to prepare 
a work suitable for class use. 

Origin. — The work is an outgrowth of the school- 
room and experience. The matter was originally 
prepared by the author for his own classes, and has 



been used by them. Primarily, it was given orally to 
the classes, or in notes and outline, the pupils studying 
therefrom. So inconvenient was this, and so much 
valuable time used to a disadvantage, that the author 
has resolved to put the matter in a printed form. 

Importance. — The necessity of such a work cannot 
be questioned. The subjects themselves demand it. 
Local History, Geography, and Government are very 
imperfectly understood, even by those who are pro- 
ficient in all other branches of learning. All agree 
that local geography is, practically, of more use to 
the majority of people than the geography of Asia or 
Africa ; it is evident that a thorough knowledge of the 
government of a township and county is more useful 
to all citizens than a knowledge of the Constitution of 
the United States, the foundation of all law and gov- 
ernment, however all-important it is. The demand for 
a complete knowledge of these subjects becomes more 
manifest every day. It is the hope of the author that 
this work may meet the want and supply the de- 

Mctliod. — The matter has been arranged in such a 
way, it is believed, to be most conveniently studied. 
It is difficult to present a text-book on any subject 
that will meet the wants of all grades of classes ; 
however, the author has endeavored to supply pupils 
at the age ready to study these subjects with the 
proper book. Special pains have been taken to employ 


a simple, clear, and concise style, and avoid all rhe- 
torical ornament. 

Origin of Matter. — Much of the matter has been 
obtained by observation and actual investigation. 
Several "Nvorks on the topics have been examined, 
and, in some cases, the language partially followed, 
and acknowledgments duly made. It is possible 
credit should have been given where it has been with- 

In conclusion, the author desires to express hi^ 
sincere thanks to friends for suggestions and critical 
examination of manuscript ; also, to F. G. Hobson, 
Esq., in rendering grateful assistance in preparing 
the subjects of Township and County Government. 
Hoping that the work will meet with favor, in which 
is the author's highest rcAvard, it is respectfully sub- 
mitted to the public. The Authoe. 

Trappe, Pa., October 20ih, 1882. 


THE first edition of this work having met -*vitn 
much favor, it is by the earnest request of 
teachers and friends that this, the second edition, is 
published. This revision has been delayed for sev- 
eral years in order to get the census returns of 1890, 
and noting the recent improvements, and changes in 
the political divisions of the county. All of these 
matters have now been brought up to date. 

The map in this book and the Author's large 
school map of the county are entirely new, claiming 
to be the only accurate maps made. The exact loca- 
tion of every post-office, railroad, boundary line of 
township or borough, parallels of latitude and long- 
itude for every five minutes, etc., may be seen upon 
the large map. 

Advantage is also taken of this revision to make 
a few changes in the subject-matter of the work and 
the manner of presentiog it, all of which are con- 
sidered an improvement.* 

The book is thus respectfully submitted to an in- 
dulgent public. J. K. H. 

ConshohocJcen, Pa., September 20th, 1891. 

* It is suggested that changes in the political divisions, and 
others, may be written from time to time upon the blank 
leaves placed into the book for that purpose. 



1. In teacliing tliis subject it is the opinion of the 
author that the topical method is preferable. For 
this purpose the outlines should be followed. 

2. The historical part may be used for reading or 
recitation, at the discretion of the teacher, and the 
time to be devoted to this branch of study. 

3. Be sure that pupils thoroughly understand this 
department of geography, as well as township and 
county government. With proper questions this may 
be ascertained. 

4. The questions, as given in the work, are by no 
means exhaustive. Every teacher must add such 
questions, or change those given to suit circumstances, 
so that all points may be fully brought out. 

5. Pupils, in answering, should be required to give 
them in complete sentences. 

6. Teachers, in putting questions, should not state 
them that a '' Yes " or a " No " simply will answer. 
It is believed that only when pupils can discuss a 
subject in their own correct language they under- 
stand it. 

7. Teach geography and civil government by the 
synthetic method. 


I. History. 

i. First Inhabitants. 

1. Selling the Lands. 
2. First White Settlers. 

1. Settlements. 
8. During the Revolution. 

1. Warren's Tavern. 

2. British enter Philadelphia. 

3. Skippack Creek. 

4. Battle of Germantown. 

1. Washington's Retreat. 

2. Americans at Whitemarsh. 

5. The Surprise of Howe. 

6. American Army at Valley Forge. 

1. Condition. 

2. Conspiracy. 

7. Baron Steuben. 

8. ColonelJo-hiai 



11. Philadelphia Evacuated. 

12. Americans leave Valley Forge. 

13. Peter Muhlenberg. 

14. Close of War. 

4. Count}' Established. 

5. Late War. 

6. Improvements. 

1. Turnpike. 

2. CanaK 

3. Railroads. 

a. Pennsylvania. 

h. Philadelphia, Germantown, Norristown. 

c. Philadelphia and Reading. 

d. North Pennsylvania. 

e. Perkiomen. 

/. Colebrookdale. 
g. Doylestown. 
h. Stony Creek. 
i. Chester Valley. 
j. Plymouth. 
h. Northeast Pennsylvania. 
I. Bound Brook, 
m. Newtown. 
n. Other railroads. 
II. General Description. 
1. Name. 


2. Position and Extent. 

3. Surface. 

1. Drainage, 

2. Soil. 

4. Population. 

5. Resources. 

6. Industries. 

7. Boroughs and Townships. 

8. Education. 

III. Statistics of the Census of 1890. 

1. Townships. 

2. Boroughs. 

3. Schools. 

4. Banks. 

5. Newspapers. 

6. County Officers. 

7. Post-offices, 



1. Montgomery County was originally settled by a 
race of Indians who called themselves the Lenni 
Lenape, or Original People, and also by the Woapa- 
nachki, or the People from the East. They assumed 
these names from a belief that they were superior in 
all respects to any of the neighboring tribes. They 
occupied the territory from the Hudson to the Susque- 
hanna Rivers, and therefore lived on both sides of the 
Delaware and Schuylkill ; and for this fact the early 
white settlers gave them the name of Delawares. 
These Indians were tall, straight, and well-propor- 
tioned, with fine Poman features, and they were very 
friendly to the English. All the Indian names now 
existing in the county are the following: Consho- 
bocken, GoshenhoppeD , Macoby, Manatawny, Methac- 
tou, Penaepack, Perkiomen, Sciota, Sanatoga, Skip- 
pack, Tacony, Towamencin, and Wissahickon. These, 
with their burial-grounds in various parts of the 
county, and the occasional stone relics found in the 



fields, are now about the only mementos of a long- 
departed race. 

2. The earliest purchase by William Penn of any 
part of what now is Montgomery County was made 
June 25th, 1683, of Wingebone, for all his rights to 
lands lying on the west of the Schuylkill, beginning at 
the lower falls and up to the end of his rights. The 
next purchase was made July 14th, 1683, of Secane, 
Idaquoquehan, and others, for all the land betw^een the 
Schuylkill and Chester Elvers ; and, at the same time, 
the land lying between the Schuylkill and Penncpack 
was bought of Malebore and others. On June 3d, 
1684, the land lying along the Perkiomen was pur- 
chased of Maughaiigsin, with the promise on the part 
of the Chief never "to molest any Christians that may 
settle thereon." Soon after other lands were bought 
on both sides of the Pennepack, and extending in a 
northwest direction "two full days' journey." Thus 
all the rights and titles of the Indians to any part of 
what now is ]\Iontgomery County was finally extin- 
guished by purchase. 

3. The Dutch and Swedes, who settled the eastern 
part of Pennsylvania, had established some trading- 
posts within this county between 1623 and 1665. 
Pecords of the Plolland Company show that a great 
beaver trade was carried on in 1656 along the Schuyl- 
kill ; and for its successful operation were erected 
several forts. The Little Schuylkill in consequence 


was called by the Delaware Indians " Tamaqua," sig- 
nifying the beaver stream. The English, in 1664, 
conquered the whole country, and though the Dutch 
and Swedes had made settlements along the banks 
of the DelaAvare and Schuylkill, and held large quan- 
tities of fertile lands, the English from this date became 
the principal actors in the settlement of this part of 
the country. 

4. William Penn received his grant of the province 
of Pennsylvania, March 5th, 1681, and landed at 
New Castle, October 27th, 1682, and eleven days 
after arrived in Philadelphia. At the first Provincial 
Assembly, held in Philadelphia in March, 1683, it 
became necessary to j^ass a number of laws to render 
the government effective. Amongst the rest the 
province was divided into three counties — Philadel- 
phia, Chester, and Bucks — and their respective boun- 
daries settled. These were the first three counties 
created in the State of Pennsylvania. Emigration 
began to increase as early as in the summer and fall 
of 1683. During the few years following several 
AVelsh Friends settled in the present Tov.Tiship of 
Lower Merion. About the same time the English 
Friends commenced settling in the present Townships 
of Cheltenham, Abington, Plymouth, Springfield, and 
Whitemarsh, and several years later in Upper Dublin, 
jMoreland, and Horsham. Some Welsh also settled 
about 1690 in Whitemarsh and Plymouth, and, in 


1697 and a few years following, in considerable num- 
bers in Gwynedd. They commenced settling in 
Montgomery Township in 1710, and a few years later, 
to some extent, in Hatfield and Limerick. A few 
Germans from Germantown settled in Springfield and 
Whitemarsh before 1690, and after 1708 their settle- 
ments became more extended. In 1709 several settled 
in the present Townships of Limerick, Kew Hanover, 
and Pottsgrove. Bo great had become their increase, 
that in 1734 considerably over one-half of the popula- 
tion of the county were Germans, and about one-fifth 
Welsh. Of all the early settlers the German element 
has shown the strongest attachment to the soil, and 
the result has been in all the lower townshij^s an im- 
provement in the land and a steady increase in their 
number as landholders. Montgomery County thus 
was peopled by English, AVelsh, Swedes, Germans, and 
Irish. Though holding different religious opinions, 
they resolved to live peaceably with each other, and to 
labor diligently to improve their possessions till they 
have become as we behold and enjoy them at this 

5. Important events of the Eevolutionary War 
transpired within the present limits of ISIontgomery 
County. After the disastrous battle of Brandy wine, 
fought on the 11th of Sej^tember, 1777, Washington 
retreated to Philadelphia, and took post at German- 
town, a few miles north of the city. Undismayed by 


his reverse, he resolved to risk another engagement. 
Accordingly, on the 15th of the month, he re-crossed 
the Schuylkill and marched toward the scene of the 
late struggle. Two days later he met General Howe 
near Warren's Tavern, on the Lancaster Turnpike, 
about twenty miles from Philadelphia. For awhile 
the two armies manoeuvred, the enemy gaining the bet- 
ter position ; then a spirited skirmish ensued, and just 
as a great battle was about to take place, a violent tem- 
pest of w^ind and rain swept over the field. The com- 
batants were deluged, their cartridges soaked, and 
fighting made impossible. Before dawn of the next 
day, Howe marched to the Schuylkill ; when there 
they beheld the breastworks of AYashington's army 
on the opposite side of the river. Howe turned sud- 
denly about and hurried up stream along the right 
bank in the direction of Reading. 

6. Washington pressed up the left bank, crossed the 
Schuylkill at Parker's Ford,* hoping to be able to 
confroDt the enemy while on their passage up the 
river. P)ut the movement of the British was only 
feigned, for as soon as they ascertained that the 
Americans were near Pottstown, they crossed the 
Schuylkill at Fatland Ford (now Pawling's Bridge), 
en the night of September 22d, and hastened to Phila- 
delphia, which they entered on the 26th without oppor 

* Parker's Ford crossed the Schuylkill where the Lawrence- 
ville bridge now stands, a little above Limerick Station. 



sition, and the main division of the British army 
encamped at Germantown. 

7. After several days' rest, Washington broke up 
his camp near Pottstown to take up a strong position 
and within a convenient distance from the British. 
He encamped en the Skippack Creek, about tvrenty 
miles northwest from Philadelphia. Here he was 
joined by the troops that had been detached under 
General Wayne, and by the Continental troops that 
had been ordered from Peekskill, and also by the 
Jersey militia. By the clcse of the month of Sep- 
tember, Washington's army numbered about 18,000 
troops. The American army, at this time, was in 
wretched condition for want of clothing and shoes. 
Upward of 1,000 men were actually barefooted, and 
performed their marches in this condition. 

8. General Howe, on taking possession of Phila- 
delphia, dispatched a large division of his army to 
capture Forts Mifflin and Mercer, on the Delaware. 
Germantown was thus considerably weakened, and 
AYashingtcn resolved to attempt a surprise. The 
same plan of attack which had been so successful at 
Trenton was again adopted. Washington jhaving 
been informed through friendly emissaries of the di- 
vided condition of Howe's army, arranged a time and 
plan of attack. He so disposed his troops that the 
divisions of Sullivan and Wayne were to march down 
the main road and enter Germantown by way of Chest- 


nut Hill ; tlie divisions of Green and Stephens pro- 
ceeded do^vn the Lime Kiln Road, and reached the 
town at the market-house ; General Armstrong was 
ordered to march dow^n the Ridge Road and attack 
the enemy on the left ; in like manner Generals Small- 
wood and Foreman Avere to march down the old York 
Road and attack the right of the enemy. The divi- 
sion of Lord Sterlino; and the briorades of Generals 
Is; ash and JNIaxwell formed the reserve corps. This 
excellent . plan having been made, Washington 
broke camp on the Skippack (in the vicinity of 
Wentz's Church), and moved the several columns 
toward the enemy shortly after dark on the evening 
of the od of October. The attack was made early 
on the morning of October 4th. There was much 
severe fighting, and at one time it seemed that the 
British would be defeated ; but they gained possession 
of a large stone house — "Chew's Mansion" — and 
held it. A foolish attempt to dislodge them gave the 
enemy time to rally. On account of a heavy fog, 
prevailing at the time, and probably more on account 
of the inefficiency of the commanders of the flanking 
columns to co-operate with the attack ujion the centre, 
the tide turned against the patriots and the day was 
lost. Washington, that same night, marched his 
men to Pennypacker's mill (near Schwenksville) on 
the Perkiomen. He placed his wounded and disabled 
soldiers in hospitals wherever he could establish them, 


using for that purpose churches and other public 
buildings between Perkiomen and Reading. 

9. As soon as Washington's forces had recovered 
from the shock of battle and were in a fit condition- 
to move, he proceeded, with his army, to Whitemarsh, 
twelve miles from the city. Lines of defense were 
here thrown up, some of which are etill to be seen 
near the village of Fort Washington, on the North 
Pennsylvania Railroad. The defenses were thrown 
up October 20th, winter was approaching, and the 
patriots began to suffer for food and clothing. 
Howe, knowing the distressed condition of the Ameri- 
cans, determined to surprise their camp, but failed by 
reason of his plans having been discovered and com- 
municated to the American army.* 

* General Howe had established his headquarters on Second 
Street, Philadelphia, and directly opi^osite lived William and 
Lydia Darrah, members of the Society of Friends, at whose 
house the council of war was held. On the 2d of December, the 
Adjutant-General told Lydia that they would occupy a certain 
room of her house and remain late, and that they wished the 
family to retire to bed early, adding that when they were ready 
to go away they would call her to let them out. She, accord- 
ingly, sent all her family to bed ; but, as the officer had been so 
particular, her curiosity was excited. She took off her shoes, jnit 
her car to the Iccy-hole of the rioo?-, and overheard an order read 
for all the British troops to march out late on the evening of 
the tth and attack General W^ashington at Whitemarsh. On 
hearing this she immediately returned to her chamber and lay 
down. Soon after, the officer knocked at her chamber door, but 
she rose only at the third summons, pretending to be asleep. 
Her mind was agitated, and supposing it in her power to save 
the lives of thousands of her countrymen, she determined, by 


10. The campaign closed at Whitemarsli on the 
11th of December, 1777. Washington, after confer- 
ring with his principal officers, and due deliberation, 
concluded to go into winter-quarters at Valley Forge. 
The main division of the army crossed the Schuyiklil 
Kiver at Swede's Ford (now NorristoAvn). 

11. The sagacity of AVashington had pointed to a 
strong position for his encampment. To the security 
of the river and hills the additional securities of for- 
tifications were added. UjDcn the recommendation 
of Congress, the whole army engaged in religious 
services, and observed the day with public thanks- 
some means, to convey the information to General "Washing- 
ton. Accordinglj-, on tlie following morning, she obtained a pass- 
port from Lord Howe, and left the city on the pretense of going 
to villi for fiour. Having passed the Eritish lines, she was met 
by an American officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Ci'aig. To him she 
disclosed her secret, after having obtained from him a solemn 
promise never to betray her individually, as her life might be 
at stake with the British. The Colonel immediately acquainted 
Washington with what he had heard, and Lydia returned home 
with her flour. The British troops went to the intended attack 
and returned in a few days. The next evening the Adjutant- 
General called upon Lydia, as he wished to ask her some 
questions. She now supposed she was either suspected or be- 
trayed. He earnestly inquired whether any of her family were 
up the nightheand the other officers met. She told him they all 
retired at eight o'clock. He observed : " I knoAV you were 
asleep, for I knocked at your door three times before you heard 
me. I am entirely at a loss to imagine Avho gave General Wash- 
ington information of our intended attack, unless the walls of 
the house could speak. When w^e arrived near Whitemarsli 
we found all the cannon mounted, and the troops prepared to 
receive us, and xve have marched hack like a parcel of fools." 


giving and praise. The next day the men were di- 
vided into companies of twelve to build for themselves 
a hut fourteen by sixteen feet. The whole number 
of men was 11,098 when the encampment commenced, 
while the British army, at the same time, contained 
33,73G men. The condition of the American army 
in their encampment at Valley Forge during the 
winter of 1777 and '78 was truly distressing. The 
soldiers suffered intensely from the want of clothing, 
food, and proper shelter. Many became sick, and 
thus added to the misery. The patriotism and bravery 
of the soldiers were shown in fighting the evils in 
their midst as well as the enemy upon the field. 
Washington here saw his darkest days, and much was 
added to their gloom when the miserable conspiracy 
headed by Generals Gates, Conway, and MifHin to 
remove him from his command became known. But 
the alienation was only for a moment ; the allegiance 
of the army remained unshaken, and the nation's 
confidence in the troubled chieftain became strono;er 
than ever. The news of Burgoyne's surrender and 
the treaty of alliance with France was received with 
great rejoicing in the American army. It inspired 
the patriots with new zeal and energy that they might 
carry on the war to a successful issue. 

12. It was during the spring of 1778 that Baron 
Steuben, a veteran soldier and disci2)linarian, from the 
army of Frederick the Great, came and joined him- 



self to Washington's army, and thus rendered in- 
valuable service in drilling the troops. 

13. Colonel John Lacey, of Bucks County, was com- 
missioned a Brigadier-General January 8th, 1778, and 
took command of the militia between the Delaware 
and Schuylkill Rivers. His orders were to watch the 
enemy and protect the inhabitants, and for that pur- 
pose he took station at Warwick about the middle of 
January, later at Graeme Park, and next at Harts- 
ville. From this place he proceeded to Hatboro, 
about half a mile east of w^hich he formed his camp. His 
forces numbered about 450 men, a part of whom only 
w^ere armed, and at times suffered for the want of pro- 
visions. The British havmg obtained information of 
General Lacey's camp, the arrangement of his forces, 
and the places of his patrols ; and as he had been 
active against the enemy, concluded his capture would 
be an object. Accordingly, a regiment, called the 
"Queen's Rangers," numbering 800 men, under 
Colonel Abercrombie, was sent to capture him. They 
left the city by the Middle Road and below Huntingdon 
Valley separated. One division under Major Simcoe 
proceeded up the Welsh Road to the upper corner of 
Moreland, then across to Horsham meeting-house, 
thence on the road to Hatboro. Colonel Abercrombie'-s 
division entered the Byberry Road, which led directly 
to Lacey's camp. General Lacey and his forces were 
entirely surprised, as they had not been sufficiently 


watchful. They continued retreating and fighting 
for two miles, when they suddenly turned into the 
wood which protected them from the enemy. General 
Lacey attributed his misfortunes to the disobedience 
and misconduct of officers of the scouting parties. 
The Americans lost thirty killed and seventeen 
wounded ; the British loss was trifling — some six or 
seven wounded. 

14. On the 17th of May, Sir Henry Clinton suc- 
ceeded Sir William Howe* in tlie command of the 
British army in Philadelphia, the latter having re- 
signed and returned to England. On the 18th of 
June, the British evacuated Philadelphia, and re- 
treated across New Jersey to Kew York. Previous 
to the evacuation, Washington dispatched La Fayette 
with 2,000 choice troops to take position at Barren 
Hill to watch the enemy. He crossed the Schuylkill 
at Matson's Ford (Conshohockeu) about noon on the 
18th of May, and proceeded to the EidgeBoad, thence 
to Barren Hill, where he took post one-fourth of a 
mile west of the church. Hov»e, having been in- 
formed of La Fayette's position, at once formed a plan 
to surprise and cut him off. For that purpose Howe 
sent General Grant, on the night of the 19lh, with 
5,000 troops, to gain the rear of La Fayette's position. 
They proceeded from Philadelphia directly to Flour- 
town, thence to the present village of Broad Axe, 

* Howe, however, did not sail till some time in June. 


thence to Plymouth meeting-house, Avhere they I\alted 
at daylight the next morning. While the movement 
Avas in progress on the left, General^rey with a strong 
detachment advanced up the Eidge Turnpike and took 
possession of the ford next below Matson's on. the 
Schuylkill, while the main body under General 
Howe advanced to Chestnut Hill. 

15. During the night cf the 19th, Captain jMcClane 
cf La Fayette's command captured two prowling Brit- 
ish grenadiers at a place then called Three Mile Eun. 
From these men the Captain learned of the move- 
ments of Generals Grant and Grey. Immediately 
conjecturing the purpose of the enemy, he sent Cap- 
tain Parr and some troops to check the advancing 
column up the Schuylkill, and another in the direc- 
tion of Chestnut Hill, while he himself, at lightning 
speed, hastened to the headquarters of La Fayette to 
apprise him of the danger now^ evidently surrounding 
him. The young Marquis conceived of skillful manoeu- 
vres by "svhich he conducted his troops, artillery and 
wagons safely to Matson's Ford, which he crossed in 
safety, leaving the enemy in sight on the opposite side 
of the river. 

16. Washington, in his camp at Valley Forge, had 
been apprised of the movement against La Fayette at 
Barren Hill, when he at once put his army in readi- 
ness to move at his command. Accompanied by his 
aids and field officers, he rode to the top of the hill, 


from the summit of whlcli lie could witness the scene 
of action through a field-glass. He soon saw that the 
entire detachment had crossed the Schuylkill in safety. 

17. Immediately upon the evacuation of Philadel- 
phia by tlie British, their route having become known 
to AVashington, he ordered Major-Gencral Charles 
Lee, with the advance of the army, consisting of six 
brigades, to follow the retreating enemy. General 
Lee left Valley Forge on the 18tli of June — the same 
day the British left Philadelphia — nnd on the 20th 
crossed the Delaware at Carroll's Ferry, Washing- 
ton, w ith the main body of the army, broke camp on 
the I'Jth, and arrived at Doylestown in the evening, 
where he encamped for the night. His march hither 
was much retarded by heavy rainfalls. On the 20th 
the entire army crossed the Delaware, and en the 28th 
the memorable battle of Monmouth was fought. Thus 
it ^^■ill be seen that the Continental army occupied 
Valley Forge six months, having formally encamped 
there on the 17th of December, 1777, and left the 19th 
of June, 1778. 

18. Proudly may we remember that General Wash- 
ington gave one of the most important commands at 
Valley Forge to General Peter Muhlenberg, of Trappe. 
He was in the halnt of occasionally visiting his father 
at Trappe, and f t that purpose ha would start in the 
evening and return early next morning. These visits 
became known to the enemy, and on one occasion he 

MONTGo:\rErwY county/ 27 

was saved from being ca23tured only by tlie fleetncss 
of his horse. 

19. From official reports it is ascertained that 
Washington and his army spent five days less than 
nine months within the present limits of Montgomery 
County. Eemains of the entrenchments then thrown 
up may be seen on the hills of Whitemarsh and Up- 
per ^lerion to this day. 

20. The devolution at last came to a close and the 
country obtained its independence. Peace reigned 
supreme. Industry soon brought prosperity. Up to 
this time the whole county was comprised in that of 
Philadelphia, where the county affairs were trans- 
acted. It was a long distance for those attending to 
them to travel, and at so great inconvenience, in con- 
sequence of which petitions were signed praying for 
tlie formation of a new county. These were consid- 
ered and acted upon by the State Legislature ; and, 
accordingly, a laAV was passed Sei^tembcr 10th, 1784, 
"for erecting part of the county of Philadelphia into 
a separate county, named and hereafter to be called 
Montgomery." Thus did the present county, rich and 
populous as it now is, spring into existence one hun- 
dred and seven years ago. 

21. By the same act, a committee was appointed 
" to purchase and take assurance to them, in the name 
of the Commonwealth, of a piece of land* situated in 

* The land purchased by this committee, cliiefly belonged to 
the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania.— J?uc>t, 


some convenient place in tlie neigliborliood of Stony 
Creek, contiguous totlie Schuylkill, in Norriton Town- 
ship, and thereon to erect a Court-House and Prison." 
Thus the large and populous borough of Norristown 
was founded and became the county seat. 

22. In the late war, Montgomery County responded 
nobly to the respective calls made both by the Gen- 
eral and the State Governments. According to sta- 
tistics, the total number of men furnished was about 
7,850, including substitutes, re-enlistments, cavalry, 
and those in the naval service. Of the brave men 
w^ho, in the national defense, left the county, many 
fell on the field. In the Public Square at Korristown 
stands, to their lasting honor, the *' Soldiers' Monu- 
ment," a silent yet eloquent cenotaph. 

23. The centennial of the formation of the county 
was celebrated at Norristown in September, 1884. 
At this anniversary were displayed the products of 
the various industries of the county, many old and 
rare relics, and the customs and manners of former 
days. Literary exercises and splendid parades 
formed an important part of the proceedings. 


1. The improvements in the county from its organ- 
ization are marked. The Philadelphia and Lancaster 



Turnpike, running through the southern portion of 
Lower Merion Township, was the first road of the 
kind constructed in Pennsylvania. It was com- 
menced in 1792 and finished in 1794. The German- 
town and Perkiomen Turnpike was commenced in 
1801 and completed in 1801: ; the Cheltenham and 
Willow Grove, in 1803, and completed the following 
ycuv; the Chestnut Plill and S^mng liouse, in 1804 
and 1805 ; the Perkiomen and Peading, between 1811 
and 1815; the Pidge, in 1812 and 1816, and the 
Spring House and Bethlehem, in 1814. The total 
number of miles of turnpike road in the county is 
about two hundred. 

2. The Schuylkill Navigation Company was incor- 
porated March, 1815. The canal, one hundred and 
ten miles in length, extending from Fairmount, Phila- 
delj^hia, to Port Clinton, Schuylkill County, was 
commenced innnediately after its incorporation, and 
finished in 1826, at a cost of nearly three millions of 
dollars. It is not much used now. 

3. The Pennsylvania Railroad (6 miles in the 
county) was first built by the State from Philadelphia 
to Columbia, and opened for use April, 1834. In 
1857 the State sold its right to the Pennsylvania 
Eailroad Company, under whose control it now is. 

4. The Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown 
Railroad (7 m.) was commenced in 1831, and opened 
to Norristown in August, 1835. In 1856, the Com- 


paiiy bi.ilt a large depot at Xorristown, rnd laid the 
entire road ^vith a double track. 

5. The Philadelphia and Heading Eailroad was 
incorporated April 4th, 1833, and opened for travel 
to Reading in 1839, and to Pottsville in 1842. 

6. The North Pennsylvania Hailroad was completed 
to the Lehigh River in 1857. . The other railroads of 
the county are as follows: Colcbrookdalc, running 
from Pottstown to Barto Station ; Doylestown, from 
Lansdale to Doylestown, Bucks County; Perkiomcn, 
from Perkiomcn Junction to Ailentown ; Stony Creek, 
from Norristown to Lansdale; Chester Valley, from 
Bridgeport to Dmvningtown ; IMymouth, from Con- 
shohocken and intersects Vv'ith the N. P. at Orelan<l ; 
Northeast Pennsylvania, branch from the N. P., 
through Abington and Moreland, and through Bucks 
County ; Delaware and Bound Brook, through Ab- 
ington and Moreland, to the Delaware River and 
New York, and the Newtown Railroad, through 
Cheltenham and Abington, with the Schuylkill Di- 
vision of the Pennsylvania, opened to Reading in 
1884 and to Pottsville the next year; the Trenton 
cutoff, branch of the Pennsylvania, from Glenloch, 
Chester County, through the lower part of INIont- 
gomery to Trenton, N. J. Other roads are under 
construction. There are now finished and in use no 
less than 236 miles of railroad in the county, one- 
half of which is double track. These, with the 
numerous telegraphic lines, are important factors in 
the modern improvements of the county. 



1. Name. — The name Montgomery was given to 
this county in honor of the gallant General Eichard 
Montgomery, of the Continental army, who fell, 
mortally wounded, at the battle of Quebec, December 
31st, 1775. 

2. Position and Extent. — ^Montgomery is one of 
the southeastern counties of Pennsylvania. It is 
bounded on the northwest by Berks County, on the 
northeast by Bucks and Lehigh, on the southeast by 
Philadelphia, en the southwest by Delaware and 
Chester.* Its area is 484 square miles, or about 
309,760 acres. 

3. Surface.— Its surface is generally rolling; 
hilly ia the northern part, along portions of the 
Perkiomen, Skippack, Branch and Swamp Creeks. 
Through Hatfield, Towamensing and Gwynedd it is 
comparatively level. 

4. Drainage.— The Schuylkill Piver washes the 
western shore of the county for about forty miles, 
flowing in a southeasterly direction. It is spanned 
by fifteen bridges. These are now free. 

The Perkiomen, with its numerous branches, drains 
half of the area of the county. Itrises in Lower Milford 
Township, Lehigh County, and is about thirty miles in 

* From the irregular position of the county, it is regarded 
best to bound it as above. 


length. The word, Perhiomen, means a cranberry 

Other streams of the county are the AYcst Branch, 
Macoby, Swamp, Deep, Northeast Branch, Skippack, 
Mingo, Stony, Pennepack, and AYissahickon. 

5. Soil. — The soil of the county is generally of a 
good quality, especially along the Schuylkill and 
Perkiomen. In Upper Dublin, Springfield, White- 
marsh, Plymouth, and Upper I^.Ierion the limestone 
soil jDrcvails. 

6. Population. — Montgomery County uas (1890) 
123,290 inhabitants, being, in population, the eighth 
in the State. It has more inhabitants to the square 
mile than any other county in Pennsylvania, but 

In the nortliern section, the German language is 
still nuich spoken ; whi e in the southern section, 
comparatively few can speak it. 

7. Rksources. — The water-power afF>rded by the 
numerous streams, nature of the soil, metals, min- 
erals, and i)ositi<»n of the county, constitute its natural 
res' These give rise to the varied and exten- 
sive eniploynients of the people. 

8 Industries — The chief occupation is farming. 
Dairy products are the principal, \\hich find a ready 
matket in Philadelphia and the larger borougln. 
Tvliunerous creatneries are in operation, which manu- 
facture large quantities of butter, mainly f>r Phila- 
delphia markets. Not a sufficiency of all grains is 


raised for home consumption. The manufacture of 
iron, cotton and woolen goods, macliinery, etc., is car- 
ried on in the larger boroughs. Iron-ore mining, and 
marble and limestone quarrying, form a considerable 
branch of industry. 

9. Boroughs and Townships. — There are fifteen 
incorporated boroughs in the county, and thirty-three 
townships. These form eighty- three election dis- 
tricts and fifty-four * school districts. 

10. Education.— There are 469 public schools in 
the county (1891). There are several flourishing 
institutions for higher instruction. Montgomery is 
among the foremost counties in the State in educa- 
tional interests. The public schools are receiving 
due attention, and are in a flourishing condition. 
Many of the districts (28) have adopted a Graded 
Course of Study, under which the schools are making 
much progress. The system was first formally adopted, 
in Lower Providence, on June 6th, 1882, and the 
first class in the county was graduated, under the sys- 
tem, on May 9th, 1883. The school term averages 
8.49 months. 


1. Give an account of the Indians who originally 
lived in the county. 

*0f this number, fifteen are boroughs, six independent school 
districts, and thirty-three townships. 



2. Give the Indiau names now iu existence in the 

3. In what purchase was Montgomery County in- 
cluded ? 

4. Who was WiHiam Penn ? 

5. Who was Peter Muhlenberg? 

6. AVhat prevented the battle at Warren's Tavern ? 

7. What was the condition of the army at White- 
marsh ? Valley Forge ? 

8. What were the names of the different fords 
across the Schuylkill, and where were they ? 

9. Where is Valley Forge ? 

10. AVhen was the county organized ? 

11. Describe the establishment of the county seat. 

12. Discuss General Lacey. 

13. Tell the story of the revelation of the proposed 
attack of the British upon Whitemarsh. 

14. Describe the attack upon La Fayette at Barren 

15. Who principally settled in Montgomery 

16. When was Philadelphia evacuated? 

17. How long was the Continental army at Valley 
Forge ? in the county ? 

18. What part did Montgomery County take in 
the late war ? 

19. Name the different turnpikes in the county. 

20. How many miles of turnpike in the county? 


21. When was the Schuylkill Navigation Company 
organized ? 

22. From and to what places does it extend ? 

23. When was it finished ? What did it cost ? 

24. Name the railroads of the county. 

25. Discuss the Pennsylyania Railroad. 

26. Discuss the Philadelphia, Germantown and 
Norristown Railroad. 

27. Discuss the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. 

28. Discuss the other railroads of the county. 

29. Bound Montgomery County. 

30. What townships of the county border on the 
Berks County line ? Lehigh County line ? Bucks 
County line? Philadelphia? Delaware County line ? 
Chester County line ? 

31. What townships in Berks County border on 
Montgomery County ? 

Ans. — Douglass, Colebrookdale, Washington, and 

32. In Lehigh County ? 
Ans. — Lower Milford. 

33. In Bucks County ? 

Ans. — Milford, Rockhill, Hilltown, New Britain, 
Warrington, Warminster, and Southampton. 

34. Philadelphia? 

^;i.s.— The City of Philadelphia. 

35. What townships in Delaware County border on 
Montgomery ? 


Ans. — Haverford and Kadnor. 

36. In Chester County ? 

Ans. — TredyfFrin, Schuylkill, East Pikeland, East 
Vincent, East Coventry, and North Coventry. 

37. Name all the townships in the county in their 
alphabetic order and locate each. 

38. Which is the largest? smallest? 

39. Name the creeks in the county, and tell in 
what part they are. 

40. What river? 

41. Name the boroughs in the county and locate 

42. What is the population of the county ? 

43. What boroughs in Chester County, immediately 
across the county line ? 

44. In Berks County? 

45. Name all the bridges you can that cross the 
Schuylkill. The Perkiomen. 

46. Where is the limestone region ? 

47. Where are the iron-ore regions? 

48. What other metals are found in the county and 
wdiere ? 

49. What do you understand by a county seat? 
Ans. — A county seat is the place w^here the courts 

are held, and the county officers transact their busi- 

50. What is a township seat ? 


Ans. — A township seat is the place where the elec- 
tions are held, and the township officers generally 
meet to do their business. 

51. Who are the present county officers? 


1. Name the counties of the State in their alpha- 
betic order, and give the county seat of each. 

2. Locate all the different counties. 

3. Give the population of each county. 

4. Name the cities of the State, the p)opulation of 
each, and in w^hat county located. 

5. Name the counties bordering on the bounding 

6. What counties of the bounding States border on 
Pennsylvania ? 

7. Name the counties on the east side of the Sus- 
quehanna River. West. 

8. Name all the railroads of Pennsylvania you can, 

9. By what railroad w^ould you travel to the follows 
ing places : 

a. From Norristown to Lancaster ? 

b. From Allentown to Fi^anklin ? 

c. From PottstoAvn to Corry ? 

d. From Bridgeport to Carbondale? 

e. From Lansdale to Altoona? 


/. From Norristown to Kew York ? 
g. From Jeukintown to Pittsburg ? 

10. Name the counties in which iron is found. Coal. 

11. How many Normal School Districts in the State, 
and where is each school located ? 

12. Name all the colleges of Pennsylvania, and in 
what county each is located. 


Description of the Townships and Boroughs 
OF Montgomery County. 


1. Position and Extent. — Abington Township is 
situated in the extreme southeastern part of the county, 
and joins Philadelphia on the southeast. Its area is 
15.5 square miles, or 9,920 acres. Population, 2,703. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally 
rolling, and Edge Hill is the most considerable eleva- 
tion. The Pennepack Creek flows through the eastern 
part, and receives several tributaries from this town- 

3. Resources. — The soil is a fertile loam, and where 
the limestone abounds is among the best in the county. 
In the northeastern part the limestone and iron- 
ore belt commences and extends in a southwestern 
direction to the Schuylkill. 

4. Industries — Farming, the manufacture of lime, 
and mining iron-ore for the neighboring furnaces 
constitute the princi^Dal industries. 



5. Education. — There are ten schools in this town- 
ship, and it is among the forenoost townships in edu- 
cation. The term is ten months. 

6. Villages. — The borough of Jenkintown is ifi 
the southwest central part. The villages are Abing- 
ton, Mooretown, the township seat, and Weldon. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Abiugton. 2. What 
railroads in the township? 3. What creek in the 
township? 4. Name and locate the villages. 5. 
Name the post-offices in the township. 6. Name the 
present township officers.* 


1. Position and Extent. — Like Abington, this 
township is situated in the southeastern part of the 
county. It is noted for its great numbers of fine 
country residences. Its area is 8.5 square miles, or 
5,440 acres. Population, 4,746. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is consider- 
ably rolling. The Tacony Creek, rising in Springfield 
and flowing through Cheltenham and Abington, 
empties into the Delaware. It has numerous tribu- 
taries in this township. 

3. Eesources. — The soil is rich and productive, 
being composed of loam and gravel. The various 

* This and similar questions may be answered by tlie pupils 
of tliat township, or by referring to tlie Author's County Map. 
Some of tlie questions are omitted for want of space. Tho 
newer railroads are not noted in the text on account of the 
necessity of making too extensive changes in the plates. 


Strata of rocks, as exposed by cuttings of tlie N. P. 
Ivailroad, afford a very iiue geological study. 

4. Industries.— Farming, gardening, and manu- 
facturing which is extensively carried on, are the prin- 
cipal industries of the people. 

5. Villages.— The villages are Shoemakertown, 
the township seat. Edge Hill, Cheltenham, Waverly 
Heights, and Ashbourne. 

6. Education. — There are eighteen schools in the 
township, with a term of ten months. All of the 
schools are graded. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Cheltenham Township. 
2. What is the township seat ? 3. What railroads 
in the township? 4. What creeks? 5. Name the 
present townshii3 officers. 


1. Position and Extent. — This township is situa- 
ted in the northAvestern portion of the county. Its 
area is 15 square miles, or 9,600 acres. Population, 

2. Surface. — The surface is rolling and the soil 
red shale. The principal streams are Swamp, West 
Branch, and Middle Creeks, which afford some water- 

3. Industries. — Farming is the chief business of 
the people. A few engage in mining and manufac- 


4. Villages. — The villages are Gilbertsville, the 
township seat of the western district, Douglass, and 
Engleville. There are ten schools, term six months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Douglass Township. 
2. What creeks in the township? 3. Name and 
locate the villages. 4. AVhat post-offices in the 
township? 5. What townships in Berks County 
opposite Douglass? 


1. Position and Extent. — Franconia is situated 
in the northeastern part of the county, joining Bucks 
County. Its area is 14.875 square miles, or 9,520 
acres. Population, 2,258. 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is generally 
level. The soil is r^d shale, and in some parts of a 
clayey nature. The Northeast Branch of the Perki- 
omen, the Skippack, and Indian Creeks flow through 
the township and furnish water-power. 

3. Industries. — Farming is the principal business. 
The North Pennsylvania Railroad passes through the 
township for a distance cf 21 miles, with stations at 
Souderton and Telford. 

4. Villages. — The villages are Telford, Souder- 
ton, Franconiaville, and Franconia Square, the town- 
ehi^^ seat. There are ten schools, term six months. 


Map Questions. — 1. Bound Franconia. 2. Name the 
villages and locate them. 3. What railroad in the 
township ? 4. What streams in the township ? 5. 
What is the township seat ? 6. Name the post-offices. 
7. Name the present township officers. 

* Frederick. 

1. Position and Extent. — This township is situa- 
ted in the northern part of the county. Its area is 
15 square miles, or 9,G00 acres. Population, 1,850. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling, 
and in some places hilly. In the southern part the 
elevations are called Stone Hills, and are covered with 
huge rocks called bowlders. The Perkiomen and 
Swamp Creeks are the principal streams furnishing 

3. Industries. — Agriculture is the principal indus- 
try. There are also different manufactories. Copper 
mines are found in the southern part, and they were 
worked about 1830. 

4. Villages. — The villages are ZieglersviPe, Green 
Tree Hotel, the township seat, Perkiomenville, Fred- 
erick, and Spring Mount. 

5. Schools. — In the township there are ten schools. 
Tlie term is six months. 

IJap Questions. — 1. Bound Frederick Township. 
2. Name the villages and locate them. 3. Name the 


post-offices. 4. What is the population? 5. Who 
are the present township officers ? 


1. Position and Extent. — This is one of the 
central townships of the county. Area, 19.25 square 
miles, or about 1,240 acres, having been reduced by 
the incorporation of the boroughs of Lansdale and 
North Wales. Population, 2,367. 

2. Surface. — The surface is rolling, and the soil 
clay, approaching loam, and is well cultivated. The 
Wissahickon flows through Gwynedd, receiving several 
tributaries that rise in the township. 

3. Industries. — Farming is the occupation of the 
people. The North Pennsylvania Railroad passes 
through the township for a distance of six miles, with 
stations at Penllyn and Gwynedd. The Stony Creek, 
for three and a half miles, with stations at Acorn, 
Lukens, and Kneedler. 

4. Villages. — The villages are Spring House, 
toAvnship seat of upper district, Penlyn, Gwynedd Cor- 
ners, township seat of lower district, and the borough 
of North Wales, taken wholly from this township. 

5. Schools. — There are six public schools in the 
township. Term, nine months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Gwynedd. 2. What 
can you say of the shape of the township ? 3. Name 
the railroads of the township. 4. Who are the 



present townsliii) officers? 5. Name the township 


1. Position and Extent. — Hatfield is the central 
township on the northeastern line of this county. 
Eleven square miles, or 7,040 acres, is its area. Popu- 
lation, 1,833. 

2. Physical Features.— The surface is generally 
level ; the soil of a clayey nature. The Neshaminy 
Creek rises in Hatfield and flows through Bucks County 
into the Delaware. Several branches of the Skip- 
pack also rise in this township. This is the culminat- 
ing township in the county, judging by the direction 
the streams of water flow. 


3. Industries. — The occupation of the peoi:)le is 
farming, with some manufacturing. The North Penn- 
sylvania Raih-oad passes through the township for 
about four miles, with a station at Hatfield; and the 
Doylestown branch, three miles, with a station at 

4. Villages. — The villages are Hatfield, the town- 
ship seat, Line Lexington, Colmar, and Hockertow^n. 

5. Schools. — The townshiphaseightpublic schools, 
including the independent district of Line Lexington. 
They have a seven months' terra. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Hatfield Township. 
2. Name and locate the villages. 3. What post-ofhces 
in the townshij^ ? 4. AVhat borough ? 5. What rail- 
roads ? 6. Name the present township officers. 


Position and Extent. — This toAvnshij) is situated 
in the eastern part of the county. Its area is 9,966 
acres, or 15.5 square miles nearly. Population, 1,239. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally- 
level and the soil a loam. The West Branch of the 
Neshaminy drains part of the township. The Pcnne- 
pack rises in the township. 

3. Industries. — The people are engaged in farm- 
ing, with some manufactures. 

4. Villages. — The villages are Prospectville, the 
to-^nship seat, Horshamville, and Davis Grove^ 


5. Schools.— Horsham has three public schools 
^Yith a term of ten months. 

3Iap Questions.— 1. Bound Horsham. 2. What 
county to the east ? 3. What can you say of the 
shape of the township ? 4. :^ame the yillages. 5. 
The present township officers. 


1. Position and Extent.— Limerick is in the 
northwestern part of the county joining the Schuyl- 
kill on the west. It is the third township in size in 
the county, having an area of 14,101 acres, or about 
22 square miles. Population, 2,224. 

2. Natural Features.— The surface is rolling, 
and in the northern part hilly. Stone Hill is the 
highest elevation. There are also steep hills in the 
western part along the Schuylkill. The soil is of red 
shale and clay. The streams are few. 

3. Industries. — The people engage in farming, 
with some manufacturing. The Philadelphia and 
Beading Bailroad traverses the entire length of the 
township along the Schuylkill, and has stations at 
Liufisld and lioyersford. 

4. Villages. — The villages are Limerick Centre, 
the township seat, Limerick Square, LId field, and 
Fruitville. The borough of Boyersford is also in 
thid township. 


5. Schools. — There are thirteen public schools in 
this township with a term of six months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Limerick Townsliip. 
2. What township in Chester County that joins Lim- 
erick? 3. What is the tow^nship seat? 4. What 
villages and borough in the township ? 5. What rail- 
road? 6. How many schools in the township? 
pupils ? 

Lower Merion. 

1. Its Rank. — The township derives its name from 
Merionethshire, a county in Wales, where some of 
the first settlers came from. Formerly, Uj^per and 
Low^er Merion constituted one towmship, but were 
divided previous to 1734. It ranks as the largest and 
most populous township in the county, and is noted for 
its internal improvements. Its nearness to Philadel- 
phia gives it a ready market for all its farm produce. 

2. Position and Extent. — It is situated in the 
southern part of the county. Its area is 22.5 square 
miles, or 14,400 acres. Population, 10,362. 

3. Natural Features. — The surface of Lower 
Merion is rolling, and in the eastern part hilly, afford- 
ing beautiful scenery. Mill Creek is the largest stream. 

4. Industries. — Farming, market gardening, and 
manufacturing are the occupations of the people. 
Lower Merion is more largely engaged in manufactur- 
ing than any other township in the county. The 


PeDnsylvania Railroad j^asses within the townshij^ for 
a distance of six miles, and has stations at Merion, 
AYynnewood, Ardmore, Haverford, White Hall, Bryn 
Mawr, and Rosemont. The Philadelphia and Read- 
ing Railroad passes through the township for a dis- 
tance of seven and a half miles, and has statioT^s at 
Pencoyd, West Manayunk, Roseglen, and West 
Spring Mills. 

5. Villages— The villages are Bryn Mawr, Gen- 
eral Wayne, Merion Square, Haverford College, 
Merionville, Ardmore, Overbrook, Libertyville, and 
West Manayunk. 

6. Schools.— Lower Merion has twenty-three 
public schools, all of which are graded. Term, ten 

Maj:) Questions. — 1. Bound Lower Merion. 2. 
What townships in Chester County touch Lower 
Merion ? 3. What railroads pass through the town- 
ship? 4. Xame the post-offices in the to^^Tiship. 
5. What are the township seats? 6. Wlio are die 
present township officers ? 

Lower Pottsgrove. 

1. Formation and Extent.— Lower Pottsgrove 
is the southern part formed by the division of Potts- 
grove Township. It is situated in the northwestern 
part of the county, bordering on the Schuylkill. 


This township has an area of about 9? square miles, 
or 5,900 acres. Population, about 875. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally 
hilly. The elevations are Ringing Hill * and Crooked 
Hill. The soil is red shale, and fairly productive. 
Sprogle's Run and Sanatoga Creek drain the greater 
portion of the township. 

3. Industries. — Farming is the chief occupation 
of the people. The Philadelphia and Reading Rail- 
road has a station at Sanatoga. 

4. Villages and Schools. — The villages are 
Crooked Hill, the township seat, and Sanatoga. 
There are five schools with a term of six months. 

Lower Providence. 

1. Position and Extent. — This is the most cen- 
tral township in the county, fronting on the Schuylkill. 
Upper and Lower Providence constituted one town- 

* Ringing Hill, with its ringing roclvs, constitute one of the 
natural curiosities of Montgomery County. These consist of a 
solid bed of trappean rocks. They are exceedingly hard ; when 
struck with a hammer they ring like iron, producing all har- 
monious sounds, A'arying with the size aiid shape of the rock. 
The largest may Avcigh from five to twenty-five tons each. A 
number of impressions, as tracks of horses and other animals, ' 
and even of the human foot, are distinctly outlined. The Ger- 
man inhabitants of the place call this elevation Klinglcberg, 
signifying Ringing Hill. 


ship, called Providence, i^revious to 1805, when it was 
divided. The name was given by Penn, probably in 
honor of his mother's family. The area of this town- 
ship is 9,143 acres, or about 14.3 square miles. 
Population, 1,374. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is undu- 
lating and the western part slopes gently toAvard the 
Schuylkill and Perkiomen. Along the Skippack 
Creek it is slightly hilly. Methacton Hill begins in 
the eastern part and extends eastward through Wor- 
cester. The township is drained by the Skippack 
Creek and Mine Kuu, which flow into the Perkiomen 
on its western boundary. The soil is generally of a 
red shale, and productive. 

8. Industries and Resources.^ — Farming is the 
chief occupation of the people. The township is very 
ricli in mineralogical specimens; copper, lead, and 
their sulphates and oxides are found, some specimens 
of which are very beautiful and rare. Copper was 
mined some years ago near Shannonville, shafts were 
sunk, and an amount of ore raised, but these mines are 
now not iu operation. 

4. Villages. — The villages of Lower Providence 
are Eagleville, the township seat, Shannonville, Evans- 
fcurg, and Providence Square. 

5 Schools. — The township has seven schools, all 
of w^hich are graded. Term, eight months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Lower Providence. 2. 


Kama r.nd locate the villages of the towDship. 3. 
What toAviiship in Chester County opposite Lower 
Providence? 4. What minerals are found? 5. Name 
the present township officers. 

Lo^VER Salford. 

1. Position and Extent. — This township is situ- 
ated north of the centre. It has an area of 14 
square miles, cr 8,960 acres. Population, 1,755. 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is gently 
undulating, with a few hills along the Branch Creek, 
v/hich flows through the northwestern part. The 
Indian and Skippack are also streams of the town- 
ship. The soil is of red shale Avith some clay. 

3. Industries and Formation. — Farming wdth 
some manufacture is the business of the people. What 
now constitutes Upper and Lower Salford was origi- 
nally called Salford, a name derived from a town and 
several parishes in England. It was separated into two 
tow^nships previous to the formation of the county. 

4. Villages. — The villages are Ilarleysville, Led- 
erachsville, the township seat, and ]\Iainland. 

5. Schools. — The township has ten public schools. 
Term, six months. 

Map Quesiions. — 1. Bound Lower Salford. 2. 
What streams in the township ? 3. Name the post- 
offices. 4. How many schools? 5. Who arc the 
present township officers ? 



1. Position axd Extent. — Marlborough is situ- 
ated in the northern part of the county. The area is 
nearly 15 square miles, or about 8,500 acres. Popu- 
lation, 1,151. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is hilly in 
the western and rolling in the eastern part. The soil 
is of red shale or clay. The torrnship is drained by 
the Perkiomeu, East Swamp, Kidge Valley, and Ma- 
coby Creeks. - 

3. Industries, — The manufacture of powder and 
oil is largely carried on, together with farming, as the 
chief industry. The Perkiomen Kailroad has a course 
of 3i miles i.i the township, with stations at Green 
Lane, Perkiomen, and INIcLeans. 

4. Villages. — The villages are Sumneytown, the 
township seat, Hoppenville, and Marlboroughville. 

5. Schools — The township has five public schools, 
and a terra of six months. The Sumneytown Acad- 
emy is situated at that place. 

Ilajy Questions. — 1. Bound Marlborough Town- 
ship. 2. What townships in Bucks County join Marl- 
borough? 3. What streams in the township? 4. 
Name the villages and township seat. 5. Name the 
post-offices. 6 . Who are the present township officers ? 
7. What railroad passes through Marlborough? 



1. Position and Extent. — Moreland is the inosi 
eastern township in the county. Its area is nearly 17 
square miles, or 10,900 acres. Population, 1,889. 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is undulat- 
ing and the soil a productive loam. Edge Hill crosses 
the centre of the township. The Pennepack Creek, 
with tributaries, drains Moreland. 

3. Industries. — Farming and market gardening 
are the chief occupations of the j^eople. Manufacture 
also receives attention. The Northeast Pennsylvania 
Railroad passes through the township for three miles, 
and stations are at Willow Grove, Heaton, Fulmor, 
and Bonair ; and the Bound Brook, with a station at 

4. Villages. — The villages are AVillow Grove, the 
township seat of upper district, Morganville, Yerkes- 
ville, Huntingdon Valley, and Sorrel Horse, township 
seat of lower district 

5. Schools. — There are seven public schools in the 
township, with a term of ten months and 317 pupils. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Moreland. 2. What 
can you say of the shape? 3. What toM'nshij)s in 
Bucks County opposite Moreland? 4. What rail- 
roads in the township ? 5. What streams? 6. Name 
the villages and post-offices. 

montgomery county. 55 


1 . Position and Extent. — The township is in the 
northeastern part of the county, joining Bucks. The 
area is nearly 11.25 square miles, or 7,170 acres. Popu- 
lation, 836. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is level and 
the soil loam and red shale. The township is drained 
by the Wissahickon, rising near Montgomerj^dlle, 
and the West Branch of the Neshaminy Creek. 

3. Industries. — Farming is the employment of 
the people, with some attention given to manufacturing. 

4. Villages. — The villages are ]\Iontgomeryville, 
and Montgomery Square, the township seat. 

5. Schools. — There are four public schools in the 
township. Terra, eight and oue-half months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Montgomery To\\'nship. 
2. What townships in Bucks County join this town- 
ship? 3. Kame the villages. 4. What creeks rise 
in Montgomery Township? 5. Kame the present 
township officers. 

New Hanover. 

1. Position and Extent. — New Hanover is in 

the northwestern part of the county. Its area is 20.25 
square miles, or 12,960 acres, being the fourth in size 
in the county. Population, 1,728. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling 
and the soil red shale and loam. The Swamp and 


Deep Creeks, with tlieir brandies, drain the town- 

3. Origin and Industry. — What is now com- 
prised in the present townships of New Hanover, Upper 
Hanover, Douglass, and Pottsgrove as early as 1734 
was called Hanover Townshijo. This name Avas de- 
rived from a capital and kingdom in Germany. Farm- 
ing is the chief occuj^ation of the people. 

4. Villages. — The villages in New Hanover are 
Swamp, the townshij^ seat, Fagleysville, New Hanover 
Square, and Pleasant Eun. 

5. Schools. — There are eleven public schools in 
the township, including the independent districts of 
Swamp and Fagleysville. The schools have terms 
of six, seven, and eight months respectively. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound New Hanover. 2. Name 
the villages and j^ost-oifices. 3. What creeks in the 
township ? 4. Who are the present township officers ? 


1. Position and Extent. — Norriton is situated 
nearly in the centre of the county. Its area is 8.G 
square miles, nearly, or 5,500 acres. It is the third 
smallest township in the county, having been decreased 
by enlarging the borough of Norristown. Popula- 
tion, 1,236. 

2. Natural Filatures. — The surface is undu- 


lating, and the soil is of red shale and clay, and is 
productive. Stony and Indian Creeks and a few 
minor streams, drain the toAvnship. 

3. IndustPwIES. — Farming and considerable manu- 
facturing are the occupations of the people. The 
Stony Creek Bailroad passes through the eastern j^or- 
tion of the township and has a station at Hartranft. 

4. Villages. — The villages of Korriton are Jeffer- 
son"ville, the township seat, Norritonville, Penn Square, 
and Spriugtown. 

5. Schools. — There are five public schools in the 
township with a term of nine months, and are 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound !Norriton Township. 2. 
Name th« villages and post-offices. 3. What rail- 
road in the township? 4. Name the present town- 
ship officers. 


1. Formation. — Perkiomen Township was divided 
by decree of court March 19th, 1886, making the 
Perkiomen and East Branch Creeks the dividing 
line. The division west of these streams is now 
Perkiomen Township, and the division east, Skip- 

2. Position AND Extent. — Perkiomen is situated 
in the northwest central part of the county. It is 


the smallest township in the county, having an area 
of about 5.5 square miles, or 3,600 acres. Popula- 
tion, 1.024. 

3. Physical Features. — The surface for the most 
part Is hilly. The soil is red shale, of a sandy nature, 
and generally productive. The Perkiomen, with the 
Lodle Creek, drains the township. 

4. Industries. — Fanning is the principal occu- 
pation. The Perkiomen Railroad extends through 
the township for four miles, and has stations at 
Rahn's, Gratersford, and Schwenksville. 

5. Villages. — The villages are Schwenksville, 
Gratersford, the township seat, and Ironbridge. 

6. Schools. — There ai-e seven public schools, with 
a graded course of study, iu the township. Term, 
eight months. 


1. Position and Extent. — Plymouth is situated 
south of the centre of the county. The area is nearly 
8.25 square miles, or about 5,200 acres. Population, 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is undu- 
lating, and near the Schuylkill slightly hilly. The 
soil is fertile and productive, being of a limestone 
formation. Plymouth Creek is the largest stream in 
the township. 


3. Eesources. — The natural fertility of the soil, 
immense quantity of limestone and beds of iron ore, 
constitute its important resources. 

4. Industries. — The industries are farming, burn- 
ing of lime, and mining of iron ore, together Avith 
some manufacturing. The Plymouth Kailroad passes 
through the southern part, with stations at Ridge and 
Plymouth, and the Norristown, Germantown, and 
Philadelphia Kailroad in the southeastern part, with 
stations at Mogee and Ivy Kock. 

5. Villages. — The villages are Hickory town, tne 
township seat, Plymouth Meeting, Harmanville, and 

6. Schools. — There are six public schools in the 
township, with a term of ten months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Plymouth Township. 
2. AVhat railroads pass through the township? 3. 
]^7ame the villages and township seat. 4. "What river 
en the southwest? 5. Name the present toAvnship 


1. Formation and Extent. — This is the eastern 
portion, formed by the division of Perkiomen Town- 
ship. It is situated northwest of the centre of the 
county. The township has an area of about 12.25 
square miles, or 7,900 acres. Population, 1,360. 


2. Physical Features. — The surface of Skip- 
pack is quite level, except aloug the Perkiomen. 
The soil is of a clayey nature, but under good culti- 
vation. The Perkiomen and the Skippack Creeks, with 
their branches, drain the towns^hi];). Farming is the 
occupation of the people. 

3. Villages. — The villages are Skippackville, the 
township seat, Lucon, and Harmony Square. 

4. Schools. — There are seven schools, with a 
graded course of study, in the township. Term, 
seven months. 


1. Position and Extent.— Springfield Township 
is situated in the southeastern part of the county. 
Its area is about 6 square miles, or 3,840 acres, being 
the smallest township in the county. In 1877 part 
of the narrow strip running to the Schuylkill was 
ceded to Whitemarsh. Population, 1,892. 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is undulating. 
The soil is fertile, being of an excellent limestone. 
Branches of the Wissahickon Creek drain the town- 

3. Hesources. — Great quantities of iron ore and 
limestone are found in this township. The iron mines 
are extensively worked and the ore sent to Spring 
Mill, Conshohockcn, Edge Hill, and other places. 


4. Industries. — The principal are farming and 
market gardening, also mining and some manafac- 
turii]g. The Plymouth Railroad lias a course of two 
miles in the township, Avith stations at Flourtown and 
Oreland, where it connects with the N. P. Railroad. 
The Korth Penns}dvania Railroad passes through the 
township a distance of two miles, and has stations at 
Edge Hill, Oreland, and Sandy Run. 

5. Villages. — The villages are Flourtown, the 
township seat, and Chestnut Hill. 

6. Schools. — There are four public schools in the 
township, with a term of ten months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound this township. 2. What 
metal is found in this township? 3. What creeks in 
the township? 4. Name the township seat. 5. How 
many schools? 


1. Position and Extent. — Tow^amensing is situ- 
ated nearly in the centre of the county. Its area is 9.63 
square miles, nearly, orG 160 acres. Population, 1,140. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally 
level and the soil red sliale and clay. The Skippack 
and Towamensing Creeks, with their branches, drain 
the township. 

3. Industries. — Farming is the principal industry. 
Manufacturino^ receives some attention. 


4. Villages. — The villages are Kulpsville, the 
township seat, and Union Square. 

5. Schools. — There are six public schools in the 
township. Term, six months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Towamensing. 2. Name 
and locate the township seat. 3. What creeks in this 
township ? 4. Has the township any railroad within 
its borders ? 5. Name the present township officers. 

Upper Dublin. 

1. Position and Extent. — Upper Dublin is in 
the southeastern part of the county. It has an area 
of 13.8 square miles, or 8,840 acres. Population, 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling 
and the soil of loam and limestone formation. Camp 
Hill is an elevation extending through the north- 
western part. Wissahickon Creek, with its tribu- 
taries of Rose Valley, Pine, and Sandy Runs, drains 
the toAvnship. 

3. Industries. — Farming is the principal industry. 
The mining of iron ore and manufacturing of lime 
are also carried on. The North Pennsylvania Rail- 
road passes through the western part for 1 2 miles and 
has a station at Ambler. 

4. Villages. — The villages are Fitzwatertown, 



Jarrettown, the township seat of the loAver district ; 
Three Tons, Upper Dublin, Dreshertown, Pennviile, 
and Piuetown. 

5. Schools. — There are six public schools in the 
township, with a ten months' term, 

Map Questions— 1. Bound Upper Dublin Town- 
ship. 2. Name and locate the villages. 3. What 
railroads in the township ? 4. How many schools in 
the township ? 

Upper Hanover. 

1. Position and Extent. — Upper Hanover occu- 
pies the extreme northern corner of the county. Its 
area is 22 square miles, nearly, or 14 260 acres, being 
the second largest township in the county. Popula- 
tion, 1,977. 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is undula- 
ting and in some parts hilly ; the soil is chiefly red 
shale. Hosensack Hill extends across the township, 
and is the highest elevation in the county. The Per- 
kiomen , Hosensack, West Branch, and Macoby Creeks 
drain the township. 

3. Industries. — and manufacturing are 
the occupations of the people. The Perkiomen Rail- 
road passes through the township, and has stations at 
Palm, Pennsburg, Welkers, Hanover, and Hosensack. 


4. Villages. — The villages are Palm, Kleinville, 
Hillegassville, and Ked Hill. 

5. Schools. — There are ten schools in the town- 
ship. Term, six months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Upper Hanover. 2. 
What creeks in the township ? 3. Name and locate 
the vilhiges. 4. How man j schools ? 5. Name the 
present township officers. 

Upper Merion. 

1. Position and Extent. — Upper Merion is in 
the southwestern part of the county. Its area is 16 
square miles, nearly, or 10,200 acres. Population i? 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is generally 
rolling, with high hills in some parts. The soil is of 
limestone and loam, and very productive. The more 
important streams are Gulf Creek, East Valley Creek, 
and Mashilmac Creek. 

3. Resources. — Upper Merion, througnout, is the 
most fertile township in the county and first in its 
natural wealth. Iron is obtained in abundance in 
parts, and sent to mills at Port Kennedy, Valley 
Forge, West Conshohocken, Swedesburg, and other 
places. Lime is manufactured in great Quantities and 
shipped to different markets. Many quarries of fine 
marble also abound, which are extensively worked. 


4. Industries. — Farming, miuing, and manufac- 
turing constitute the chief occupations of the people. 
The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad j^asses through 
the entire length of the township, and has stations at 
Valley Forge, Port Kennedy, Merion, and Swedeland. 
The Chester Valley Railroad, running from Bridge- 
port to Downingtown, Chester County, has stations at 
Shainline, Henderson, and King of Prussia. Several 
short railroads running from the Schuylkill to the 
mines and quarries were constructed by private enter- 

5. Villages. — The villages are King of Prussia, 
the township seat of the upper district ; Gulf Mills, of 
the lower district; Port Kennedy, Swedeland, Mat- 
sunk, Valley Forge, and Mechanicsville. 

6. Schools. — There are twelve schools, graded, 
and a term of ten months. 

3fcq) Questions. — 1. Bound Upper Merion. 2. 
What is the shape? 3. How many schools? 4. 
What river oa the eastern boundary? 5. What 
minerals are found ? 

Upper Pottsgrove. 

1 . Formation. — Pottsgrove Township was divided 
in Upper and Lower Pottsgrove by decree of court 
December 2d, 1889. The Charlotte Street (from 
PottstowiO road, with its various courses to Swamp, 
is the dividing line. 


2. Position and Extent. — Upper Pottsgrove is 
situated in the extreme northwestern part of the 
county. The area is about 9 square miles, or 5,680 
acres. Population, about 1,010. 

8. Physical Features. — The surface is generally 
rolling. The soil is red shale, and in parts pro- 
ductive. The Manatawny Creek,* rising in Rockland 
Township, Berks County, and Sprogle's Run, drain 
the township. 

4. Industries. — Farming is the chief occupation 
of the people, also some manufacturing. The Cole- 
brookdale Railroad has a course of more than a mile 
in the township* 

5. Villages and Schools. — The principal vil- 
lage is Half- Way, the township seat. There are six 
schools, with a term of six months. 

Upper Providence. 

1. Position and Extent. — Upper Providence is 
situated in the western part of the county. It has an 
area of 18.9 square miles, or 12,096 acres. Popula- 
tion, 3,529. 

^. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling, 
and in some parts hilly. Black Rock Hill is in the 
western part. The soil is red shale and well cultivated. 

t Sisiiifies Ihe place where we drank. 



The Mingo Creek and tributaries of the Perkiomen 
drain the township. 

3. Industries. — Farming and manufacturing are 
the occupations of the people. The Perkiomen Pvail- 
road has a course of six miles in this township, with 
stations at Oaks, Areola, Yerkes, and Colleo-eville. 
The Philadelphia and Pveading Railroad passes 
through the western part, with a station at INIingo. 

4. Villages. — The villages of Upper Providence 
are Trappe, the township seat of the upper district, 
College ville, Mont Clare, Quincyville, and Port Provi- 
dence, township seat of the lower district. 

5. Schools. — There are thirteen public schools in 
the township, and four in the independent district of 
The Trappe. They are open for seveu and eight 
months respectively. 

i¥cYjj> Questions.— 1. Bound Upper Providence 
Township. 2. What railroads in the township ? 3. 
What streams form part of its boundary ? 4. What 
is the area ? 5. ^N'ame the present township officers. 

Upper Salford.* 

1. Position and Extent. — Upper Salford is situ- 
ated in the northeastern part of the county. It has au 
area of 20 square miles, nearly, or 12,755 acres. 
Population, 1,889. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally 

* Signifies tne place where we drank. 



level, except in the western part, where Stone Hill 
forms the highest elevation. This hill is covered with 
large bowlders. The soil is chiefly red shale aud loam. 
The Ridge Valley and East Branch Creeks drain the 

, 3. Industries. — Farming is the chief employment 
of tlie people. ManufacturiDg receives some attention. 
The Perkiomen Railroad passes through the township:). 

4. Villages. — The villages are Tylersport, town- 
ship seat of the eastern district ; Salfordville, of the 
western district, Branchville, and Mechanicsville. 

5. Schools. — There are nine j)ublic schools in the 
township, with a term of six mouths. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound tlie township. 2. What 
creeks in the township? 3. What are the township 
seats ? 4. Name and locate the villages. 



1. Position and Extent. — Whitemarsh is situated 
in the southeastern portion of the county. Its area is 
14.125 square miles, nearly, or 9,040 acres. Popula- 
tion, 3,516. 

2. Natural Features. — The surface is undulat- 
ing. The soil is a rich loam of limestone origin. 
The Wissahickon,* ^vith branches, drains the town- 

3. Industries. — Farming is the chief occupation. 
Iron-ore mining, burning lime, quarrying marble, all 
of which abound in great quantity and of excellent 
quality, also form important branches of industry. 
The Plymouth Railroad passes through the central 
part and has stations at Plymouth Meeting and 
Williams. The Xorristown Railroad passes along the 
western border and has stations at Spring Mill and La 
Fayette. The North Pennsylvania passes through 
the eastern portion and has a station at Fort Washing- 

4. Villages. — The villages are Barren Hill, tlie 
township seat of the western district. Fort Washington, 
of the eastern district, Plymouth Meeting, White- 

* Signifies the catfish sti'eam, or the stream of yellow watez. 


marsh, Marble Hall, Spring ]Mill, Lancasterville, 
and Yalley Green. 

5. Schools. — There are twelve public schools in 
the township, all of Avhicli are graded. Term, ten 

Mcqy Questions. — 1. Bound Whitemarsh. 2. Name 
the creeks in the township. 3. What river bounds it 
on the west ? 4. What metals are found ? 5. Name 
the present township officers. 


1. Position and Extent. — Whitpain is situated 
southeast of the central part of the county. Its area 
is 13.5 square miles, or 8,640 acres. Population, 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is generally 
level, and the soil is a loam and red shale. The Wis- 
sahickon, with tributaries, drains the southern portion, 
and branches of Stony Creek the northern portion. 

3. Industries. — Farming is the principal industry. 
The Stony Creek Railroad passes through the northern 
part and has stations at Custer and Belfry. 

4. Villages. — The villages of Whitpain are Centre 
Square, the township seat, Blue Bell, Broad Axe, 
Franklinville, and Washington Square. 

Schools. — There are seven public schools in the 
township. Term, nine months. 


Map Questions. — 1. Bound Whitpain Township. 2. 
Xanie and locate the township seat. 3. What is the 
shape of the township ? 4. Locate the railroads. 5. 
Locate the villages. 


1. Position and Extent. — Worcester is situated 
in the centre of the county. It has an area of 15.75 
square miles, or 10,080 acres. Population, 1,517. 

2. Physical Features. — The surface is rolling, 
the soil red shale and under good cultivation. Zacha- 
ria Creek is the most important stream in the northern 
part. Branches of Stony Creek drain the southern 

3. Origin and Industries. — Farming forms the 
chief occupation of the people. Manufacturing also 
receives some attention. The Stony Creek Railroad 
crosses the eastern portion. The name Worcester is 
applied from a city and county of the same name in 
England. It is derived from the Saxon word Ceaster, 
signifying camp. 

4. Villages. — The villages of Worcester are Cen- 
tre Point, the township seat, Fairview, and Cedar Hill. 

5. Schools. — There are seven public schools in 
Worcester. Term, eight months. 

Map Questions. — 1. Bound Worcester Township. 2. 


What creek in the township ? 3. Name and locate 
the township seat. 4. What township is in the centre 
of the county ? 5. Name the present township officers. 


1. Organization. — The borough of Ambler w^as 
established by decree ot court June 16th, 1888. It 
is situated in the southeastern part of the county at 
the intersection of Gwynedd, Upper Dublin, White- 
marsh, and Whitpaiu, from which townships its terri- 
tory was taken. Population, 1,073. 

2. Improvements. — The streets are being well laid 
out and graded, and when finished will make an at- 
tractive borough. The residences are generally hand- 
some. The North Pennsylvania Kailroad passes 
through the place, also a branch of the Pennsylvania. 

3. Industries. — The business enterprise of the 
borough is establishing various manufactories for 
employment of the people. 

4. Schools. — There are three public schools, with 
a term of ten mouths. 



1. Organization. — Bridgeport is located in the 
eastern part of U2:)per Merion Township on the Schuyl- 
kill, opposite Norristown. It was incorporated by an 
Act of Assembly February 27th, 1851. Population, 

2. Improvements. — Various public improvements 
add much to the business advantages and prosperity 
of the borough. The canal of the Schuylkill Nav- 
igation Company, passing through the borough, was 
finished in 1824. The Philadelphia and Beading 
Bailroad passes through tke place. Tlie Chester Val- 
ley Bailroad connects with the Philadelphia and 
Beading at this place and with the Pennsylvania 
Central at Downingtown. 

3. Industries. — The improvements give rise to 
various kinds of business. There are several im- 
portant manufactories, mills, and machine shops. 

. 4. Schools. — There are seven graded schools, with 
a term of ten months. A library was organized in 
1858, and contains at the present time about 1,000 


P 1. Organization. — Conshohocken is situated in 
the southern part of the county, on the left bank of 


the Scliuylkill. Its territory, one mile square, was 
taken from Plymouth and Whitemarsh Townships, 
and incorporated by an Act of Assembly May 15th, 
1830. Population, 5,470. 

2. Improvements. — The canal of the Schuylkill 
Navigation Company passes throuo^h the borough. 
The railroad to Norristown was finished through this 
place in August, 1835. The Plymouth Railroad ex- 
tends from this place to Oreland. 

3. Indtjstries. — The manufoctories are extensive. 
Large quantities of bar and boiler iron and boilers 
are made. Considerable sheet-iron of excellent 
quality is made. The man u Picture of castings, ma- 
chinery, and iron pipe is largely carried on. Prints 
and cotton and woolen goods are also manufactured. 

4. Schools. — In this borough there are, including 
the high school, fifteen public schools, also a large 
parochial school. The school term is ten months. 

East Greenville. 

1. Organization. — East Greenville was incorpo- 
rated September 6th, 1875. It is situated in the 
northern part of the county ; its territory was taken 
wholly from Upper Hanover Township. Population, 

2. Improvements. — The Perkionien Railroad 
passes within the borough, thus affording easy com- 


muDication with all points north or youth. It Avas 
opened for travel in 1874. 

3. Industries. — The naaniifacture of cigars and 
dealing in general merchandise constitute the business 
of the people. 

4. Schools. — There are three public schools in the 
borough, whose terms are eight months. 

Green Lane. 

1. Organization. — Green Lane is the smallest 
borough in the county. It is situated in the western 
part of Marlborough Township, from which its terri- 
tory was taken. It was incorporated by an Act of 
Assembly December 10th, 1875. Population, 237. 

2. Improvements. — Three turnpike roads meet in 
the borough — Sumneytown and Springhouse, the 
Perkiomen, and the Green Lane and Goshenhoppen. 
The Perkiomen Railroad was opened to this place in 
1872, and in 1875 to Emaus. Manufacturing is car- 
ried on to some extent. There is one public school, 
and a term of eioht months. 


1. Organization. — Hatboro is situated in the 
eastern part of the county, in Morclaud Township, 


from ydiicli its territory ^vas taken. It was incorpo- 
rated August 26th, 1871. Population, 781. 

2. Improvements. — The North East Pennsylvania 
Eailroad, extending to Hartsville, passes through the 
borough. Several important public roads intersect 

3. Industries and Education. — The peoj^le are 
engaged in various pursuits ; manufacturing is carried 
on to some extent. The borough has four public 
schools, and a term of ten months. The Union 
Library of Hatboro was founded in 1755, and now 
contains about 8,000 volumes. It is the oldest and 
largest public library in the county. 


1. ORGANiziTiON. — Jcnkiiitown was organized 
December 8th, 187-4. It is situated in the soutli- 
eastern part of the county, in Abington Township, 
from which its territory was taken. Population, 1,609. 

2. Improvements. — The North Pennsylvania Kail- 
road passes witliin the borough limits, giving it many 
business advantages, A library was established in 
1805, and now contains about 1,400 volumes. There 
are six graded public schools in the borough, having 
a term of ten months. 

1. Organization. — Lansdale was incorporated 
August 24th, 1872. It is situated in the eastern part 


of the county. Its territory was taken from Gwynedd 
and Hatfield Townships. Popuhition, 1,858. 

2. Improvements. — The North Pennsylvania Rail- 
road passes through the centre of the borough. The 
Doylestowu branch and Stony Creek Railroad connect 
here with the main line, thus making the town an 
important railroad centre and contributing largely to 
its business prosperity. The borougli is growing 
rapidly. There are eight public schools in the bor- 
ough, with a term of ten mouths. 


1. Organization.— Norristown, the county seat of 
Montgomery County, was organized by Act of Assem- 
bly March 31st, 1812. It is situated south of the cen- 
tre of the county, on the Schuylkill River. Its 
territory was taken from Norriton and Plymouth 
Townships. The borough is divided into ten wards, 
and has a population of 19,791. 

2. Rank. — Norristowu is the largest borough in the 
county. It is not surpassed by any town in Pennsyl- 
vania in beauty of location, supply of excellent water, 
arjd abundance of marble, iron, and limestone iu the 

3. Improvements. — The improvements of Norris- 
town are various and important. In tlie order of 
time the Ridge turnpike was completed first; the 


Schuylkill Navigation was the next to be opened, in 
1826. The Company constructed a dam here v.hich 
furnishes valuable -water-po^ver to several manufactur- 
ing establishments. The Philadelphia, Germantown, 
and Norristown Railroad was finished in 1835, and in 
1856 laid with a double track. The Philadelphia 
and Reading Railroad, on the opposite side of the river, 
adds to the interests of the borough. The Chester 
Valley, crossing the Swedes Ford bridge, forms a con- 
nection Avith the Norristown road and the Pennsylva- 
nia. The Stony Creek Railroad connects the Xorth 
Pennsylvania with the Norristown. The Court-house, 
built in 1851, of white marble procured in the county, 
is one of the finest buildings of the kind in the State. 
The Insane Asylum is situated a short distance north 
of the borough and accommodates about 1,600 inmates. 
There are many handsome residences, the streets are 
regular and many are shaded, all of which combined 
give an appearance of neatness to the borough not so 
generally found elsewhere. 

4. Industries. — Norristown has attained consider- 
able importance as a manufiicturing town. The man- 
ufacture of cotton and woolen goods, iron, glass, nails, 
tacks, marble, and oil is largely carried on; there are 
also saw and planing mills, flour mills, shirt factories, 
and various other establishments. 

5. Schools. — There are fifty-seven public schools 
in I he borough, including: the high school, and a terra 
of ten months ; also a parochial school. 


KoRTH Wales. 

1. Organization.— This borough is situated near 
tlie centre of Gwynedd Township. It was incorporated 
August, 1869. Population, 673. :N^orth Wales is a 
translation oi the Welsh name Gwiueth, from which 
Gwynedd is a corruption.^ 

2. iMrROVEMENTS.— The North Pennsylvania Rail- 
road passes through the borough. Local business is 
much improved. There are five public schools. 
Term, ten mouths. 


1. Organization. — Pottstown is situated on the 
Schuylkill, in the extreme northwestern part of the 
county. It was erected into a borough in 1815. In 
1888 the limits of the borough were extended, taking 
in large portions of U])per and Lower Pottsgrove, 
and is now the largest borough in area in the county. 
Population, 13,285. 

2. Improvements. — The borough is beautifully 
located, the land sloping gently toward the Mana- 
tawny and Schuylkill. The streets are well laid out. 
The improvements are rapid, handsome, and substan- 

* According to Buck. 


tial. The Philadelphia and Reading and the Penn- 
sylvania railroads pass through the borough. The 
Colebrookdale forms a connection at this })hice. 

3. Industries. — The iron, steel, and bridge works, 
machine shops, and numerous other minin* manufac- 
turing establishments give enipl-oyment to the peo[>le. 

4. Schools. — There are forty-eight public schools 
in the borough, including a high school, with a term 
of ten mouths ; also private schools. 



1. Organization. — The borough of Pennsburg 
was formed November 19th, 1887. It is situated in 
the northern part of the county, near tlie centre of 
Upper Hanover Township, from which its territory 
was taken. Population, 627. 

2. Improvements. — The Perkiomen Railroad 
passes through the place. The manufacture of to- 
bacco and a few other industries give employment. 
There are three public schools, with a term of nice 


1. Incorporation. — The borough of Royersford 
was incorporated in 1879. It is situated on the 
Schuylkill, in the southwestern part of Limerick 


Township, from which its territory was taken. Pop- 
ulation, 1,815. 

2. iMrPvOVEMENTS. — The borough has increased 
very rapidly since its organization. The streets are 
■well laid out and Avell graded. The improvements 
are generally fine and substantial. The Phiiadelpliia 
and Reading Railroad passes through the borough. 

3. Industries. — Stove and iron foundries, glass 
works, and machine-shops are the important indus- 
tries of the borough. 

4. Schools. — There are eight schools in the bor- 
ough, with a term of nine months. 


1. Organization. — Souderton is situated in the 
northeastern part of the county, in Franconia Town- 
ship. It was organized December 15th, 1887. Pop- 
ulation, 679. 

2. Improvements. — The borough is growing. The 
streets are being laid out and improved. Various 
branches of local industry and business are carried 
on. The ISTorth Pennsylvania Railroad passes through 
the place. There are two public schools, with a 
term of seven months. 

West Conshohocken. 
1. Incorporation. — West Conshohocken is situ- 
ated on the right bank of the Schujlkill, directly 


opposite Consliohocken. It was incorporated in 1874, 
and its territory was taken fioni Upper and Lower 
Merlon Townships. Population, 1,6Q6. 

2. Improvements. — The Philadelphia and Read- 
ing Railroad passes through the borough. The rail- 
road and canal on the opposite side of the river add 
much to the business interests. 

3. Industries. — The manufacture of iron is largely 
carried on, for wliich the borough is principally 
noted. Other establishments are also in operation. 

4. Schools. — There are five public schools in the 
borough. The term is ten months. There is also a 
parochial school. 


Township and County Government. 


I. Introduction. 

1. I)efinition and Orioin. 

2. Powers. 

1. To hold i^roperty. 

2. To elect officers. 

II. Officees of a Township. 

1. Justice of the Peace. 

2. Constable. 

3. Supervisors. 

4. Assessors. 

5. School Directors. 
G. Auditors. 

7. Town Clerk. 

8. Board of Election. 

III. Election Districts. 

Section I. — Introduction. 
1. Definition and Origin. — A township is a 
subdivision of a county, having its locul officers. In 



Euglraid a division of a parish is called a township, 
from which the term came to be applied to a subdi- 
vision of a county in the United States. In some 
States, tow)i is of the same signification as township, 
but the latter is more commonly used. 

2. Powers. — A township may hold property within 
its limits — both personal property and real estate. 
The dilTercnt school-houses and lots constitute the 
real estate lield by the township ; and the school fur- 
niiure and implements used by the Supervisors, the 
personal property. A township may sue and be sued. 
The corporate powers are vested in the Supervisors 
and School Board. 

The citizens of a township have the power to elect 
the several township officers on the third Tuesday of 
February of each year. The township officers are 
the folloAving : Justice of the Peace, Constable, Super- 
visors, Assessors, School Directors, Auditors, Town 
Clerk, and the Board of Election, consisting of a 
Judge, two Inspectors, and Eegistry Assessor. 

Section II. — Officers of a Township. 

1. Justice of the Peace. — Every township and 
borough is entitled to two Justices of the Peace. 
The term of office is five years. Should a Justice of 
the Peace die or resign, the vacancy is filled by ap- 
pointment by the Governor of the State until the next 
township election. Justices of the Peace may be re- 


moved from office only by the Legislature. If tAventy 
or more citizens j^etition for such removal, tlie court 
of the county Avill take the evidence of witnesses in 
writing and transmit tJiis to the Secretary of the 
Commonwealth, who will lay the same before the 
Legislature for its decision. The jurisdiction of a 
Justice of the Peace is two-fold, both civil and 

Civil Jurisdiction. — He has exclusive juris- 
diction in nearly all cases where the sum demanded 
by the plaintiff does not exceed $100. Where the 
sum demanded is between $100 and $300 the plain- 
tiff can commence proceedings either before a Justice, 
or the County Court of Common Pleas. The judg- 
ment of a Justice under $5.33 is final, but if over 
that amount, any party aggrieved may appeal the 
same to the Court of Common Pleas, where the case 
will be heard anew. 

Criminal Jurisdiction. — As his name implies, 
this officer is indeed a peace officer. Upon oath 
of any citizen, setting forth that any crime has been 
committed, it is the duty of the Justice to issue a war- 
rant to apprehend the criminal, and bring him before 
said Justice. It is the duty of the Justice then to hear 
the witnesses for the prosecution only. A Justice of 
the Peace never hears the defense. If the Common- 
wealth makes out a probable cause against the pris- 
oner, he must put him under bail to appear at the 


next Court of Quarter Sessions to stand his trial ; or, 
in case the j)risoner cannot procure bail, he must be 
committed to prison until the next court. Ten days 
before the next term of court, the Justice must make a 
return to said court of all criminal cases heard before 

The Justice of the Peace is authorized to acknowl- 
edge deeds and mortgages, and to act as Coroner 
when the Coroner of the county is absent, or when 
the office of the Coroner is more than ten miles dis- 
tant from the place where the death occurred or the 
body was found. 

2. Constable. — A Constable is an officer hav- 
ing power to preserve the public peace and good 
order, and bound to execute the warrants of judi- 
cial officers. He is elected for three years. He is 
the executive officer of the Justice of the Peace, the 
same as the Sheriff is the executive officer of the 
court. He has power to make arrests on warrants 
from the Justice, and for breach of the peace or any 
crime coming under his own observation. He must 
give public notice of township elections, at least ten 
days in advance thereof; report to the court places 
in which intoxicating liquors are sold contrary to law, 
also gambling-houses in his township. Vacancies are 
filled by appointment from the court. 

3. Supervisors. — Each township annually elects 
tv/o Supervisors, although any township may by vote 


determine on a greater number. Should a vacancy 
occur the Court of Quarter Sessions can fill the same. 
The duties of the Supervisors are to open all roads 
ordered by the court, and keep them in good travel- 
ing order ; to make bridges over small creeks, rivu- 
lete, and deep gullies. They must erect index-boards 
at cross-roads, with names of places and distances 
to which said roads lead. Every taxpayer can de- 
mand the privilege to work out his tax upon the 
road, but no more. A Supervisor receives a salary of 
two doUai-s per day for every day he is engaged in the 
duties of his office, and a commission on the money he 
actually handles. He must give a bond in double the 
amount of tax to be collected. Supervisors must an- 
nually submit their accounts to the Auditors. 

4. Assessors.— Every township elects annually 
one Assessor, and every three years two Assistant As- 
sessors. Vacancies are filled by the County Com- 

It is the duty of the Assessor proper to assess all 
persons over twenty-one years of age and all prop- 
erty, both real and personal. He makes a return of 
his work to the County Commissioners, who levy the 
taxes based upon such assessment. Their duties begin 
on the day after the holding of the general election.^ 

5. School Directors.— Each tow^nship has six 
School Directors, elected for a term of three years, 
two are elected each year. When a vacancy occurs 


in the Bor.rcl the remainiiif^ members have power to 
fill such vacancy until the next annual election. The 
term of office of School Directors commences on the 
first Monday of June, when the Board should meet to 
settle their accounts and organize for the next school 

The duties of the School Directors are to establish 
a sufficient number of common schools for the educa- 
tion of every individual, between the ages of six and 
twenty-one years ; to select sites for, and erect school- 
houses ; to fix the length of school terms ; to fix sala- 
ries, and appoint teachers, and lay such taxes as 
may be sufficient to defray the expenses of the same ; 
to grade schools when necessary ; to direct what 
branches shall be taught ; to decide what text-books 
shall be used, and to visit the schools at least once a 
month. The studies to be pursued in the common 
schools are left to the discretion of the Directors, who 
are governed in their decision by the wants of the 

6. Auditors. — Each township or borough elects 
three Auditors, each for a term of three years, one 
of whom is elected each year. Any two, if properly 
convened, constitute a quorum. They meet on the 
second Monday of March of every year to audit all 
accounts of the Supervisors. The accounts of the 
School Board are audited on the first Monday of 


7. Town Clerk. — Each township or borough has 
one Town Clerk elected for one year. Vacancies are 
filled hv the court. 

The office of Town Clerk has almost fallen into dis- 
use, and it now exists only in name. The law gives 
him charge of stray cattle, and he may accompany 
the Supervisor in his work on the roads, and act as his 
clerk, for which he is suitably to be paid. 

8. Board op Election. — Each election district 
annually, at the township election, elects a Judge of 
Elections and two Inspectors. (Each voter casts a vote 
for but one person for Inspector, and the two having 
the highest number of votes are elected.) These offi- 
cers, together with two Clerks appointed by the two 
Inspectors, constitute the Election Board, whose duty it 
is to conduct all elections, decide who are entitled to 
vote, keep a list of all votes cast, and count them at 
the close of the polls, announce the result, and certify 
the same to the County Court. 

Each district also annually elects one Registry 
Assessor, whose duty it is to prepare a list of all 
voters, residing in his district two months before any 

In some counties of this State there is an office of 
To\\Tiship Treasurer, but in Montgomery County there 
is no such office. 


Section III. — Election Districts. 
Each tovrnship and borough constitutes at least one 
election district. Some townships, on account of their 
extent and number of voters, are again subdivided 
into two or more election districts. The larger 
boroughs are also divided into several wards. 


Borough Government. 

Upon the petition of a majority of the freeholders 
of any town or village, the Court of Quarter Sessions, 
with the concurrence of the Grand Jury, has jurisdic- 
tion to incorporate such territory into a borough, pro- 
vided the acts of Assembly are complied with and the 
same appears expedient to the court. 

Every borough has power to sue and be sued, to 
•make and use a common seal, and to purchase, hold, 
and sell such real and personal estate as the purposes 
of the borough may require. 

Officers. — The officers of a borough are Justice 
of the Peace, Constable, Assessors, School Directors, 
aud Auditors, who are elected for the same terms 
and ia the same manner, aud who perform the same 
duties as the township officers of like name. In addi- 
tion to these every borough elects a Burgess and Town 


'^ The Burgess is elected annually. He is the 
executive officer of the borough. It is his duty to 
enforce all ordinances of the Town Council ; to pre- 
serve order and maintain the peace of the borough ; 
to remove nuisances, and exercise the power and juris- 
diction of Justice of the Peace within the borough in 
all criminal cases ; to punish vagrants ; sign all 
ordinances, and have general supervision of the 

The Town Council consists of six members, 
elected for three years (two of whom are elected every 
year), who have power and authority to legislate and 
j^ass ordinances for the j)roper government and good 
order of the borough ; to lay out streets and sewers, 
and widen and straighten the same ; to prohibit the 
erection of any building, or obstruction to the open- 
ing or convenient use of the same ; to require and 
direct the grading and paving of foot-walks ; to pro- 
hibit noxious or offensive trades or businesses ; to make 
regulations for the health and cleanliness of the 
borough ; to light the streets ; to levy taxes to meet 
the expenses of the borough, and to borrow money, 

The Town Council elects annually a Clerk, Borough 
Treasurer, and a Borough Surveyor, whose duty cor- 
respond to those of township and county officers of 
the same name. 

Many of the older boroughs act under special 


charters granted by the Legislature, and their govern- 
ment differs greatly, each particular borough being a 
law unto itself. 


I. Introduction. 

1. Definition and Origin. 

2. Po^Yers. 

II. Officers of a County. 

1. Judge of the Courts. 

2. District Attorney. 

3. Prothonotary. 

4. Clerk of Courts. 

5. Pegister of Wills. 

6. Recorder of Deeds. 

7. Sheriff. 

8. Coroner. 

9. County Commissioners. 

10. County Treasurer. 

11. Directors of the Poor. 
12'. Auditors. 

13. County Surveyor. 


14. Jury Commissioners. 

15. County Superintendent of Schools. 

1 6. Prison Inspectors. 
III. Courts. 

1. Definition. 

2. Kinds. 

a. The Court of Common Pleas. 
h. The Court of Quarter Sessions of the 

c. The Court of Oyer and Terminer. 

d. The Orphans' Court. 

3. Trials by Juries. 

1. Grand Juries. 

2. Petit Juries. 

Section I. — Introduction. 

1. Definition and Origin. — A county is a cor- 
porate subdivision of a State, having power to hold 
property and maintain local government. The term, 
ill meaning, is equivalent to the English aliire. Al- 
though meaning the same, the terms are applied on 
no uniform principle. The shires of England and 
^•^cotland are also called counties; but in Ireland and 
the British colonies, county is employed. In the 
Enited States the various political divisions of the 
States are called counties, except in Louisiana, where 


similar divisions are called parishes. The divisions 
of a county are toAvnships, from three or four to thirty 
or forty, according to the size thereof. In Penn- 
sylvania there are now G7 counties, and in the United 
States about 3,650. 

2. Powers. — A county may hold real estate and 
personal property. It may make contracts within its 
limits ; and it may sue and be sued. The corporate 
powers are vested in and exercised by the County 
Commissioners. Its qualified voters also have power 
to elect the different county officers and members to 
the State Legislature. Montgomery County, with a 
part of Bucks, constitutes the Seventh Congressional 

Section II. — Officers of the County. 

1. Judge of the Courts. — The Judge of the 
Court, properly speaking, is not a county officer. He 
is an officer of a judicial district, which, although 
usually composed of a single county, yet may be 
composed of two or more counties. He presides at 
all the courts held in his district, interprets the laws, 
and carries them into effect. He sentences prisoners 
convicted of crimes and perf )rm3 many duties im- 
posed upon him by the law. Plis term of office is ten 
years. Vacancies are filled by appointment by the 
Governor of the State until the next general election. 


Montgomery County constitutes the Thirty-eighth Ju- 
iicial District of Pennsylvania. It has two judges. 

2. District Attorney. — The District Attorney 
is elected for a term of three years. His duty is to 
frame all bills of indictment against persons charged 
with crime, and is the officer of the Commonwealth, 
who prosecutes and conducts all criminal cases in 

3. Prothonotary. — The Prothonotary is clerk of 
the Court of Common Pleas. He issues all writs 
for the commencement of actions or suits of law, as 
well as writs of execution for the sale of property, 
either personal or real. He must keep dockets in 
which is entered a complete history of every step 
taken by either party in any suit or execution. He 
also keeps a judgment docket, in which all judgments 
are entered in their regular order. All these dockets 
are open to the inspection of the public. The Pro- 
thonotary is elected for three years. 

4. Clerk of Courts. — This officer is Clerk of the 
Orphans' Court and Court of Quarter Sessions of the 
Peace. Each of these courts has separate dockets, 
in which the proceediugs of each are kept. The Clerk 
of Courts also keeps a record of the jurymen draAvn 
and certifies the time of attendance of each to the 
County Commissioners. All matters relating to the 
opening, widening, or vacating of roads are recorded 
and kept by him. He enters a record of the accounts 


of guardians of orphans, executors of wills, and ad- 
miuistrators of estates in the Orphans' Court docket 
after they are confirmed by the Court. The Clerk of 
Courts is elected for three years. 

5. Register of Wills. — The Register of Wills 
holds J I is office for a term of three years. He grants 
letters testamentary to executors and letters of admin- 
istration to administrators. He examines and files 
the accounts of executors, guardians, and trustees of 
life estates. Wills are admitted to probate, recorded, 
and filed by him. 

6. Recorder of Deeds. — The Recorder of Deeds 
is elected for three years. Vacancies are filled by ap- 
pointment by the Governor. It is the Recorder's duty 
to record all deeds, mortgages, and conveyances which 
shall be brought to him fur that purpose. He must 
enter every deed or writing in the order of time it 
was presented. Every deed should be placed upon 
record within six months of the time it was made. 
Mortgages should be recorded as soon as delivered, as 
they take precedence over each other in the order of 
time in which they are placed upon record. The 
Recorder also certifies, to any one ordering the same, 
a complete search of all unsatisfied mortgages resting 
uj^on any particular property. 

7. Sheriff. — The Sheriff is elected for three years. 
When a vacancy occurs in the office of the Sheriff' the 
Coroner fills it until the expiration of the term. The 


Sheriff is the executive officer of the Court. All wiits 
directed to him by the court must be executed by him, 
and a return thereof made to the court. He, Avith 
the Jury Commissioners, draws the names of the jurors, 
and the Sheriff summons them to attend court. He 
gives notice of the time and place of general elections 
and the qualification of voters. 

8. Coroner. — The Coroner is elected every three 
years. Vacancies are filled by the Governor. 

The duties of the Coroner are almost exclusively 
confined to holding inquests upon persons who have 
died by violence or accident, or in a sudden or mys- 
terious manner. He impanels a jury of six men, 
who inquire into the cause of death, afler which a ver- 
dict is rendered. In cases of crime the Coroner has 
power to cause arrest and to commit to prison ; in 
other cases neither the Coroner nor the jury have de- 
fined responsibility, and may only recommend. 

9. County Commissioners. — There are thi-ee 
Commissioners elected in each county for a term of 
three years. Each elector votes for two persons, but 
the three having the highest vote are elected, thus 
ahvays giving the minority party a representative. 
Vacancies are filled by appointment by the remaining 

It is the duty of the County Commissioners to deter- 
mine the tax rate from statements of the Assessors, 
and levy the county taxes. They must keep in repair 


the court-house and prison, and build new ones when 
authorized to do so. They must also build county- 
bridges and keep them in repair. Road damages as- 
sessed to property holders for land taken for new roads 
or streets within the county are paid by the county 
on warrants of the Commissioners. All bills against 
the county must be proved by them before they are 
paid by the County Treasurer. At the close of each 
fiscal year they publish a statement of the receipts and 

10. County Treasurer. — The County Treasurer 
is elected for a term of three years. Vacancies are 
filled by the Governor. The Treasurer receives and 
holds all the money belonging to the county, and pays 
the same on warrants drawn by the Commissioners. 
He also receives taxes due the Commonwealth, such 
as hotel and mercantile licenses, and pays the same to 
the State Treasurer. It is also a part of his duty to 
collect the county and State taxes, and for that pur- 
pose sits in each district at a certain time and place 
designated by himself. 

11. Directors of the Poor. — There are three 
Directors of the Poor in Montgomery County elected 
for three years — one each year. Vacancies are filled 
by the remaining Directors. They have the general 
supervision of the Almshouse and of the poor of the 
county. They elect the Steward and other officers, in 
whom is vested the management of the Almshouse. 



The expenses are paid by the County Treasurer by 
orders drawn by the Directors. They also make a re- 
port of the receipts and expenditures at the close of 
each year. The Directors of the Poor of Montgom- 
ery County act under a special law ; other counties 
ha ye different laws. 

12. Auditors. — There are three Auditors in each 
county, elected for a term of three years. They are 
elected in the same manner as the County Commis- 
sioners. They meet at the county seat on the first 
Monday in January of each year and audit, ad- 
just, and settle the accounts of the Commissioners, 
Treasurer, Directors of the Poor, and Prison In- 

13. County Suryeyor. — The County Surveyor is 
elected for three years. Pie surveys all unclaimed 
land and adjusts the boundaries of townships. In 
this county his duties are little more than nominal. 

14. Jury Commissioners. — There are two Jury 
Commissioners elected for a term of one year. Each 
elector votes for one person, but the two having the 
highest number of votes are elected. They, with the 
Judge of the Courts and Sheriif, fill the jury wheel 
with names of citizens of the county to be drawn as 
jurors of the different courts. These names are drawn 
from time to time by the Sheriff* in the presence of the 
Jury Commissioners, as jurymen are needed for the 
different sessions of the courts. 


15. County Superintendent of Schools. — The 
County Superinteudent of Schools is elected for a term 
of three years by the School Directors of the various 
districts of the county in convention assembled. Va- 
cancies are filled by appointment of the State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. 

It is the duty of the County Superintendent to visit 
the public schools of his county as often as practica- 
ble ; note the methods of instruction and pjovernment 
practiced ; inquire into the organization of the school ; 
see that in every district the common branches shall 
be taught and that scholars are pursuing the- proper 
studies, and in sufficient number ; examine into the 
clasiiiication and see that a uniformity of text-books 
is ill use, and from such observations, oifer suggestions 
and encouragement to teacher and scholars, as he may 
deem necessary and expedient. 

He nuist hold annual examinations of teachers in 
the S3veral districts of the county, and hold a Teach- 
ers' County Institute each year. He also makes an 
annual report of the schools of his county and for- 
\Yards it to the Department of Public Instruction at 

IG. Prison Inspectors. — The Prison Inspectors 
are appointed by the County Commissioners with the 
approval of the Court. They elect the warden and 
other prison officers, visit each prisoner at least once 
a month, and have general supervision of the prison. 


Section III. — Courts. 

1. Definition.— A Court, iu law, is a body in the 
government to wliicli is delegated the public adminis- 
tration of justice, when regularly convened at the 
proper time and place. 

2. Kinds.— Of the United States Courts there are 
three in relative importance and jurisdiction, the Su- 
preme, Circuit, and District Courts. In Pennsylvania 
the courts are the following : Common Pleas, Quarter 
Sessions, Oyer and Terminer, and Orphans' Court. 
Any one aggrieved by the decision of any of these 
courts may, in a proper case, have his case appealed 
to the Supreme Court, the highest tribunal of the 
State, where mistakes of the lower courts will be cor- 

a. The Court of Common Pleas has jurisdiction to 
try and determine all civil actions or suits. It has 
jurisdiction in assigned estates, and in the naturaliza- 
tion of foreigners. 

h. The Court of Quarter Sessions has jurisdiction 
to try all crimes and misdemeanors against the Com- 
monwealth, except those over which the Oyer and 
Terminer has exclusive jurisdiction. All bridges and 
roads are authorized by this court, as well as the estab- 
lishment of new townships, the boundaries and divi- 
sions of election districts, of independent scliool 
districts, and the filling of vacancies of tovrnship 


e. The Court of Oyer and Terminer tries all high 
crimes, known as felonies, such as murder, arson, burg- 
lary, robbery, and treason against the State. 

d. The Orphans' Court has jurisdiction over the 
estates of decedents ; settles and adjusts the accounts 
of executors and administrators, and distributes the 
estate among those entitled to it. This court appoints 
guardians for minors, and has general supervision of 
their estates. It also decides on the validity of a 
will, or the right to administer to a decedent's estate, 
upon appeal from the decision of the Eegister of 

The regular sessions of the several courts of Mont- 
gomery County are held the first and the second weeks 
of the months of March, June, September, and De- 
cember, at wdiich jury trials are held. 

During the first weeks of February, May, August, 
and November the courts are open for argument upon 
questions of law before the Judge. 

Special Courts may be called at any time by the 
Judge for the trial of causes. 

The Orphans' Court is open at all times for many 
purposes which can be j^erformed by the Judge at 

3. Trial by Juries. — Trial by jury is as old as 
the common law of England, upon which all o»rlaws 
are founded, and as venerable. 

The Constitution of the United States, in Art. Ill, 


Sec. 3, provides that the trial of all crimes (except in 
case of impeachment) shall be by jury, and in th6 4th 
amendment — "In all criminal prosecutions the ac- 
cused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public 
trial by an impartial jury," and by the 3d amend- 
ment, " No person shall be held to answer for a capital 
or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment 
or indictment before a Grand Jury." By amend- 
ment VII — ^In suits at common law, where the 
value in controversy shall exceed $20, the right of 
jury shall be preserved. The Constitution of Penn- 
sylvania in the Bill of Rights, Sec. 6, says : " Trial 
by jury shall be as heretofore, and the right thereof 
remain inviolate." 

In Pennsylvania, where the amount in controversy 
exceeds $5.33, a trial by jury is demandable. 

In criminal cases the jury are judges of the law and 
the facts, while in civil suits the jury's only province 
is to determine facts disputed, v\diile the court declares 
the law. 

In Pennsylvania there are two kind of juries, \4z.: 
Grand and Petit. 

1. A Grand Jury consists of 24 men drawn 
from the body of the county C^ny number between 
12 and 23 being necessary to do business) to whom 
are submitted bills of indictment against various 
prisoners. It is the duty of the Grand Jury to inquire 
from an examination of the witnesses of the prosecu- 
tion if ix prima facie case is made out against the pris- 


oner, such as to com23el him to answer. No witnesses 
for the defense are heard before the Grand Jury. 
They do their w^ork alone in privacy, and no one is 
allowed to divulge what occurs in the jury room. If 
12 or more of the members sitting agree that the 
Commonwealth has made out such a plausible or rea- 
sonable case, then they return the same "A True Bill." 
If 12 of their number do not so find, they return it 
"Not a True Bill." A Grand Jury is also authorized 
to visit, inspect, and report upon the condition of the 
public buildings of the county, and make such recom- 
mendations as they may think right and proper. The 
Grand Jury has nothing to do with civil suits. 

2. Petit Jury. — A Petit Jury consists of 12 men. 
A panel of 36 or 48 men are drawn to sit for one 
week ; out of this number 12 are selected by lot to 
try each case. They are then sworn, listen to the tes- 
timony of both sides, and the speeches of the counsel, 
after which the Judge charges them, giving them brief 
instructions on the law governing the particular case. 
They then retire and determine the matter. This 
determination is called a " Verdict," which means a 
true saying. In order to reach a verdict all 12 must 
concur in the same finding. 

In criminal cases they must be satisfied beyond a 
reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the accused before 
they can convict. 

In the civil court the weight of the testimony must 
determine the verdict. 




Population of Townships — 1890. 










Lower Merion, 

Lower Providence, 

Lower Salford, 





New Hanover, 

Perkiomen, . 

Plymouth, . 

Pott^grove, . 




Upper Dublin, 

1 024 



Upper Hanover, . 


Upper Merioii, 

. 3,405 

Upper Providence, 

. 3,529 

Upper Sal ford, 

. 1,869 


. 3,516 

Wiiitpain, . 

. 1,565 

Worcester, ^ . 

. 1,517 


Ambler, 1,073 

Bridgeport, . 



. 5,470 

East Greenville, . 


Green Lane, 




Jenkintown, . 



. 1,858 

Norristown, . 

. 19.791 

Noriii Wales, 

. 1,060 

Pennsburg, . 


Pottstown, . 


Royersford, . 


Souderton, . 


West Couslioliocken, 


National Banks of Montgomery County. 
IMontgomery National Bank, of Norristown. 
First National Bank, of Norristown. 



People's National Bank, of Norristown. 

National Bank, of Pottstown. 

National Iron Bank, of Pottstown. 

Perkiomeu National Bank, of East Greenville. 

Farmers' National Bank, of Pennsburg. 

National Bank, of Scliwenksville. 

First National Bank, of Consbohocken. 

Tradesmen's National Bank, of Consbobocken. 

Jenkintown National Bank. 

First National Bank, of Lansdale. 

Hatboro National Bank. 

Union National Bank, of Souderton. 

National Bank, of Eoyersford. 

First National Bank, of Ambler. 

Bryn ]\Iawr National Bank. 

North ^yales National Bank. 


Ambler Gazette, . 
News and Home News, . 

Providence Independent, 

News, . . . , 
Public Spirit, 
Mirror, . ' . 
Guide, . . . • 

Where published. 
Bryn Mawr. 



Towaiiiensing Item, 
Beobachter (German), . 
Republican, . 
Norristown Daily Herald, 
Herald and Free Press, . 
Montgomery County Post, 
National Defender, 
Daily Register, 
Scliaylkill Valley Sentinel, 
Daily Times, . 
North Wales Record, . 
Bauern Freund (German), 
Montgomery Ledger, 
Daily News, . 
Schwenksville Item, 
Montgomery Transcript, 
Neutralist (German), 
Independent, . 
Montgomery County Presse 


Where published. 
North Wales. 
Potts town. 

Post-offices ix Montgomery County. 
(September 1st, 1891.) 
Name. Located in. 

Abington, . . » . Abington. 
Abrams, . » . . Upper Meriou. 



Anise, . 
Areola, . 
Bala, . 
Belfry, . 
Blue Bell, 
Beban, . 
Broad Axe, 
Bryn IMawr, 
Cedars, . 
Ceutre Squai 
Congo, . 
Col mar, 
Davis Grove, 

Located in. 
Lower Merion. 
Lower Merion. 
New Hanover. 
Lower Providence. 
Lower Merion. 
Upper Salford. 
Morel and. 
Lower Merion. 

Upper Providence. 
Lower Merion. 
Upper Dublin. 



Eiirlington, . 
Eagleville, . 
East Greenville, 
Edge Hill, . 
Elroy, . 
Fairview Village, 
Flourtown, . 
Fort Wasliiugton, 
Franconia, . 
Frederick, . 
Grater's Ford, 
Greeu Lane, . 
Gulf Mills, . 
Haverford College, 
Hendricks, . 

Located in, 
Lower Providence. 
Fran COD i a. 
New Hanover. 
Upper Dublin. 
B )rouuh. 
Upper Merion. 
Lower Merion. 
Lower Salford. 
LoAver Merion. 
Upper Salford. 
Upper Hanover 



Hoyt, . 
Hoovertoii, . 
Huntingdon Valley, 
Iroubridge, . 
Jarrettown, . 
Jefferson ville, 
King- of Prussia, . 
Kulps ville, . 
Lafayette Hill, 
La Mott, 
Lucon, . 

Lower Providence, 
Merion Station, . 
Mont Clare, . 
Mo r wood, 

Montgomery Square, 

Located in. 
Hoi sham. 
Morel and. 
Upper Dublin, 
Upper Merion. 
New Hanover. 
Lower Selford, 
Lower Providence. 
Lower Selford. 
Lower Merion. 
Upper Providence. 
Lower Merion. 



New Hanover, 
Norristown, . 
North AYales, 
Oaks, . 
Ogontz School, 
Palm, . 
Pleasant Run, 
Plymouth Meeting 
Port Kennedy, 
Port Providence, 
Pottstown, . 
Providence Square 
Red Hill, 

Located in. 
New Hanover. 

Upper Providence. 
Lower Merion. 
Upper Hanover. 
Lower Merion. 
New Hanover. 
Upper Merion. 
Upper Providence. 
Lower Providence. 
Upper Hanover. 
Lower Merion. 

* Branch office of Philadelphia, but in this county. 



Rudy, . 
Rydal, . 
Salfordville, . 
Souderton, . 
Spring House, 

Spring Mount, 
Stowe, . 
Three Tons, 
West Conshohocken, 
West Point, . 
William Penn, 
Willow Grove, 
Worcester, . 

Located in. 
Upper Salford. 
Upper Salford. 
Lower Providence. 
Lower Pottsgrove. 
Upper Merion. 
Upper Dublin. 
Upper Providence. 
Upper Salford. 
Morel and. 
Upper Salford. 



Wynne wood, 

Located in. 
Lower Marion. 
Upper Provideuce. 

Money-order Offices in the County. 
(September 1st, 1891.) 

Bryn Mawr, 
College viile, 
Haverford College, 




North Wales, 




Private Schools. 

Abington Friends School, . . Abington. 

Bryn Mawr College, . . . Bryn Mawr. 

North Wales Academy, . . North Wales. 

Ogontz Ladies' Seminary, . . Cheltenham. 

St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, . Lower Merion, 

The Hill School, .... Pottstown. 

Ursiuus College, .... Collegeville. 

The End. 


014 311 571 9