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History and Geography 


Scranton and Its Vicinity 

Compiled from: 

Hollister's History of the Lackawanna Valley 

Craft's History of the Lackawanna Valley 

Murphy's History of Lackawanna County 



Supervisor of Intermediate Grades 

Illustrations by 
Terrence F. Gallagher, Sr., Art Supervisor 

Richard F. McNichols, Superintendent 

Scranton Public Schools 

Scranton, Pa. 

3 7+Z31 



Scranton is a city which is more than 100 years old. 
Scranton is located in the north central part of Lacka- 
wanna County. It lies on both banks of the Lacka- 
wanna River, a small stream which arises in New York 
State and empties into the Susquehanna, nine miles 
below the city. 

Lackawanna County is in the northeastern section 
of Pennsylvania, It has a close tie historically with 
Luzerne County for it was once a part of it. The 
counties also were originally part of both the Pennsyl- 
vania and the Connecticut Charters. Active settlement 
in the Lackawanna Valley did not take place until after 
the Revolutionary War. 




Early Settlements in Lackawanna and Wyoming Valleys 

Before 1650 the Puritans, Pilgrims and Dutch had come to 
settle the new land of America. As late as 1750 in the Lacka- 
wanna and Wyoming Valleys, which lay but forty miles west of the 
Delaware, no white man had set foot. The Lackawanna Valley 
varies between four and six miles in width and is thirty-five miles 
in length. The river from which it takes its name flows into the 
Susquehanna. The Susquehanna River forms the Wyoming 

These valleys were part of the trail between the southern 
Indian tribes and the headquarters of the powerful Six Nations at 
Conondaga in New York state (now Syracuse). The Six Nations, 
made up of the Mohawks, Senecas, Onondagas, Oneidas, Cayugas 
and the Tuscaroras, had conquered all the Indians in the territory 
lying between the Great Lakes and the Hudson River and made 
tribes from as far away as the Florida Everglades pay money to 
them. When payment was refused the Six Nations punished 
them. Among those conquered by the Six Nations were the Dela- 
ware Indians who lived along the Delaware River. 

When the Quaker settlement at Philadelphia needed more 
room, William Penn bought the land on both sides of the Dela- 
ware River from the Delaware Indians. The Monseys, a branch 
of the Delawares, moved westward over the Warrior's Path and 
settled on the banks of the Lackawanna, ten miles north of its 
mouth. The settlement was called Capoose's Meadow or 
Capoose's Village. They came before 1700 and some were here 
when the first white explorer entered the valley in 1754. The 
tawny cabin dwellers were nomadic in that they went north from 
Capoose to Wyalusing and other points along the Susquehanna, 

but they had cabins here at Capoose for winter dwelling and wig- 
wams for summer. This was their home point, and with good 
reason. The rich silt from the river made fertile soil for their 
gardens of corn, onions, cantaloupes and beans. In the river, with 
hooks made of bone, they could catch perch, pike, shad and trout. 
In the woods nearby, with stone-tipped spears, they could catch 
pheasants, ducks, turkeys, rabbits, moose, elk, deer, beaver and 
muskrat for meat. Panthers, bears and otters gave additional 
skins for clothing. 

These Indians were a temperate people, eating only as they 
were hungry, having no set meal time. Their habits were peaceful. 
They were governed by Capoose. The village lay in back of what 
is now Weston Field. Notes were posted in Indian sign language 
on a huge apple tree that stood just on the present site of the 
Scranton Transit car barn. The spot is now marked by a memorial. 

Settlements by Susquehanna Company 

In 1742, the remaining tribes of the Delawares, who had not 
moved when they had sold their land to the Whites, were forced 
by the Six Nations to abandon their lands along the Delaware and 
move to the Wyoming Valley. The Six Nations had a treaty with 
Penn and upon being informed that the Delawares had not only 
sold the land, (which being a conquered tribe, they had no right 
to do), but had then refused to vacate it, they roundly punished 
the Delawares and forced them to keep their agreement. The 
power of the Six Nations can be realized when, at their word, the 
Delawares vacated the land and moved to the point where the Six 
Nations decided they should live. The new Delaware settlement 
was on the Susquehanna at what is now the flats below Wilkes- 
Barre, some twenty miles from Capoose's Village. 

In 1754, hunters who had wandered to the Susquehanna 
Valley, went back to Hartford to their homes in Connecticut and 


told the neighbors of the beautiful valley over the mountains. The 
hunters were quick to recognize that wherever they would search, 
they could find none more beautiful. They told of the broad fertile 
plains, the hunting and fishing opportunities, the beautiful lakes 
and rapidly running streams with their sparkling falls. These 
stories so interested the people that they formed a group called the 
Susquehanna Company, which sent out commissioners to explore 
the territory and establish friendly relations with the Indians who 
lived here. 

Conflict Between Pennsylvania Proprietors and the Susquehanna 


News of these actions on the part of the Susquehanna Com- 
pany came to the ears of the Governor of Pennsylvania and he 
immediately sent a commission to the Six Nations to buy the lands 
in the valley from them. (The charters of Pennsylvania and Con- 
necticut conflicted over the land from the 41° to the 42° parallel 
of latitude. The Lackawanna and Wyoming Valleys lie between 
the 41° and 42° parallels of latitude. The king had stated in the 
charter that, in order that as little trouble as possible arise with 
the Indians, the settlers should pay the Indians for the land. 
Possession, of course, was very important in ownership. The Six 
Nations refused to sell either to the Pennsylvanians or to the Sus- 
quehanna Company of Connecticut because they had already 
given the land to their own tribes, the Delawares and Shawnees. 
The Susquehanna Company decided to claim the land by settle- 

Pennsylvania proprietors protested to the Governor of Con- 
necticut, but his answer was "my people have a right to settle 
there." This so angered some Pennsylvanians, that it was sug- 
gested that a large force of Pennsylvanians go to the Wyoming 
Valley, take all Yankees (Connecticut people) captive, ship the 
women and children back to Connecticut by way of Philadelphia 

by boat and hold the men captive for bail. This plan shows the 
strong feeling that existed between Connecticut and Pennsylvania 
over the Valleys. 

The Pennsylvanians decided to stop the Connecticut settlers 
by obtaining the friendship of the Indians in the Valleys so that 
they would show enmity to any but Pennamites. (Pennamites were 
Pennsylvanians.) To show proof of Pennamite friendship toward 
the Indians, white men sent by the governor from Easton came 
into the valley and built ten long houses for the Indians, planted 
crops for them and returned to their homes in Easton. The plan 
was successful. All Connecticut newcomers to the valley were 
discouraged until the summer of 1762 when twenty Yankee men 
came to the Wyoming Valley, built houses and planted crops. In 
the fall they returned to Connecticut for their wives and families. 

When the settlers returned in the spring of 1764, they found 
their houses burned and their crops destroyed. They rebuilt and 
replanted but the Indians attacked in October of that year killing 
every man, woman and child. The Pennsylvania colony made no 
effort to punish the Indians. 

In 1768, a conference was held between the Six Nations and 
the Pennamites at Oneida. At this time the Six Nations sold to 
Pennsylvania, the land in Lackawanna and Wyoming Valleys. 
The Connecticut colonists, upon hearing this disappointing news, 
decided that in order to strengthen their claim forty people above 
the age of twenty-one years should immediately go to Wyoming 
and settle by February first. In the following spring two hundred 
more were to go. Five men were put in charge of affairs and in- 
structed to build a road that was to follow the Warrior's Path from 
the Delaware River through the Wallenpaupack lands, down the 
Moosic Mountains and by way of Capoose's Village to Wyoming. 
Five towns, each five miles square, were to be laid out. 


Upon the arrival of the first forty Connecticut settlers the 
Pennamites arrested them, took them to Easton, where they were 
released on bail by friends they had in Easton. They immediately 
returned to Wyoming and built a fort. The fort built by the first 
forty was later called Forty Fort. 

In March one hundred fifty more settlers came to the Valley 
of Wyoming. In Capoose's Meadow where Bariboza was now 
chief, Capoose having died, the Indians watched with interest as 
all of the new immigrants passed by and continued to the mouth 
of the stream. Many were the signal fires that burned from the 
top of Bald Mountain and were read and answered from Camp- 
bell's Ledge, two of the highest mountain tops in the area. 

In 1771 Isaac Tripp, then a young man of thirty-five years, 
built for himself a cabin just south of Capoose's Meadow on a hill 
above the Lackawanna River. In 1774 he bought three hundred 
seventy-five acres of land from the Connecticut Susquehanna Com- 
pany. His son took over the farm when Isaac Tripp, Sr., was 
scalped at Wyoming. The British during the Revolutionary War 
offered large rewards for the scalps of leaders in the colonies but 
the Indians at first refused to scalp Tripp, saying he was a good 
man. He was a Quaker and more than fair in his dealings with 
the Indians. At one time when they caught him they painted him 
and let him go. When Tripp washed off the paint, they felt he 
had broken his agreement with them and so they scalped him, but 
they may have changed their mind because the British had doubled 
the reward for his scalp. 

When we say that Tripp bought the land, we mean that when 
lots were drawn by the first settlers, this stretch of land which was 
farthest up the valley fell to him and he paid for it. The area sur- 
rounding Capoose's Village did not attract the earliest settlers. 
There was not the wide plain here that could be found in the 


Wyoming Valley. In the center of the land on the east side of the 
river was a large frog pond, a marshy region unfitted for farming. 

By 1785, the Indian trails had heen widened and well marked 
with blazes that showed direction. One of the most interesting 
land marks was the signal tree that stood on a mountain top north- 
east of Wyoming. Its bare trunk, shooting up into the air far 
higher than its companions did, had at the top, foliage of such 
scantness that it gave the appearance of an umbrella with a huge 
handle. When the immigrants from Connecticut saw it, they 
knew they were close to their journey's end. 

Three roads led out of the village of Capoose. The first went 
south from the village to a point just nine miles below the present 
site of Scranton (along North and South Main Avenue) to the 
Indian town of Asserughney (now Coxton) at the fork where the 
Lackawanna meets the Susquehanna. The second road went 
northwest (up Market Street) through Leggett's Gap and the 
Abingtons to Windsor (just east of Binghamton in New York 
state). The third road plunged eastward through what is now 
Dunmore, over the tops of the Moosic Range, through Little 
Meadows and the Wallenpaupack lands, over the Delaware River 
and then across the Hudson River to Connecticut. 

As the white men came into the valley, the Indians in the 
tradition of their father, Capoose, peacefully started westward, 
leaving few relics behind them. Among the relics remaining were 
bowls made of soapstone that were beautifully colored. As soap- 
stone was found no nearer than New Hampshire or Maryland, 
such a relic would show that these Indians wandered long dis- 

In 1795, a group of people looking for Indian remains, found, 
just north of the East Market Street Bridge, mounds which were 



signs of Indian graves. Upon examining the mounds, they found 
them to be part of an Indian burying field. As one of the mounds 
seemed to have been prepared with special attention, and con- 
tained a great quantity of those implements used by the Indians 
it was supposed to have been the grave of the chieftain, Capoose. 
Arrows, stone vessels, tomahawks and knives, stone mortars and 
pestles for pounding corn into samp and nasasamp have been 
found near these graves. 

There was not in the township of Providence in the year 1776 
as many as three houses in a group or even as many as two within 
sight of each other. It took much courage and strength to settle 
this region. Land was cheap and fertile but it was heavily wooded. 
The trees had to be cut and the stumps uprooted. When the fields 
were planted, the squirrels and raccoons, that abounded in the 
region, became pests. 

The few houses that were in the township were made of logs, 
the doors were made without boards and the windows without 
glass. Skins were used for doors, greased paper, for windows. 
News came to homes in the form of a yearly almanac. There were 
in all only thirty-five houses in the township, mainly occupied by 
New Englanders. The families met together for log fellings and 

Pennamite Wars 

While things were peaceful in the Lackawanna Valley, there 
was constant friction in the Wyoming Valley between the Con- 
necticut Yankees and the Pennamites. Three times during the 
year 1769, the Pennamites drove the Yankees from their settle- 
ment. In 1770 the Yankees drove the Pennamites out three 
times. In 1771 there was a severe battle with much loss of life. 
In this battle the Yankees were successful and the Pennamites left 
the valley. 


These battles from 1769 to 1771 comprised the battles of the 
First Pennamite War. The colonists appealed to Connecticut to 
take them under their protection. They were at first refused but 
in 1774, the request was granted and the Wyoming Colony became 
known as Westmoreland and was attached to the county of Litch- 
field in Connecticut. For awhile, peace existed in the valley and 
many new immigrants came to settle. 

In 1778 during the Revolutionary War the Wyoming Valley 
settlement was attacked by a force of English and Indians who 
came down the Susquehanna River from New York State. The 
fighting men of the valley were away with General Washington's 
army and only the old and the very young were left to defend their 
homes. The Wyoming settlers met complete defeat. Though the 
English general was generous in his terms of surrender, the Indians 
went completely beyond his control and plundered and killed until 
not one settler was left in the Valleys. This was known as the 
Wyoming Massacre and a monument memorializing the horrible 
incident has been erected at Wyoming, (near the airport). When 
General Washington heard of the massacre, he sent General John 
Sullivan on a special expedition to punish the Indians. Through 
this expedition, the power of the Six Nations was permanently 

When Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown and the govern- 
ment of the United States was set up, Pennsylvania authorities 
asked that a court be established to decide on the ownership of the 
Lackawanna and Wyoming Valleys. By the Treaty of Trenton, 
Pennsylvania was given the land in the Wyoming and Lacka- 
wanna Valleys as far north as our present boundary. 

Though the Treaty gave title to the land as a whole, it did 
not state what should happen to individual titles to land and 
Pennsylvania interpreting it to mean that all Connecticut people 


had no longer a right to the land in Pennsylvania sent a Commis- 
sion to give them notice that within a year they had to leave the 
valley and further, that if they would do so peacefully, land in the 
western part of Pennsylvania would be given to them. The Penn- 
sylvania Government did this in order to allow Pennsylvanians 
who had title to these lands to occupy them. The Connecticut 
settlers indignantly refused to leave their homes. They had vali- 
antly struggled to build them out of the wilderness. They had 
bravely fought to protect them against the English during the 

Upon receiving this refusal, Pennsylvania sent a party of 
rangers under Justice Alexander Patterson to the valley. The 
action of this group is a blot on the records of Pennsylvania. The 
soldiers were placed in the settlers homes without the consent of 
the owners, were allowed to take what they pleased, turned one 
hundred fifty families out of their homes and forced five hundred 
people to travel out of the settlement over the Moosic Mountains 
to the Delaware without giving them either food or other neces- 
sities. Babies, old people, and the sick were forced into fatigue, 
hunger and exposure. 

News of angry resentment of these acts reached Pennsylvania 
authorities and a committee appointed to investigate reported that 
an army should be sent to Wilkes-Barre to force Patterson and his 
soldiers to disarm. A force, under John Armstrong, arrived and 
told the Connecticut sympathizers that, if they would surrender 
their arms, he would disarm Patterson. When they did surrender 
their arms Armstrong perfidiously had them marched to Easton to 
jail. Public opinion finally forced the Pennsylvania rangers to 
withdraw in 1784 and the valley was left in peace, but a peace 
underneath which smoldered a justifiable thirst for vengeance. 
This action terminated the Second Pennamite War. 


The leader behind the movement that drove the Pennsyl- 
vanians out in 1784 was Colonel John Franklin, (originally a Con- 
necticut Yankee), one of the leaders in the Revolutionary War. 
In 1785, the Connecticut settlers petitioned Congress to reopen 
the case of the Connecticut and Pennsylvania boundary, claiming 
that the decision was unfair. While Congress had it under con- 
sideration, John Franklin came to a bold resolution. He hoped 
to make an independent state out of the Lackawanna and Wyo- 
ming Valleys. Many prominent men in Connecticut who thought 
the Treaty of Trenton unfair, offered to help him. The Old Sus- 
quehanna Company reorganized to provide money and men for 
the army. Ethan Allen came all the way from Vermont to help 
his Connecticut friends, now in Pennsylvania. If it had not been 
for the level-headed thinking of a few of the citizens and the wise 
leadership of Timothy Pickering who was sent here by the United 
States Government, we might now be an independent state. 

Pickering persuaded the Pennsylvania authorities to make 
the Wyoming Valley a separate county and not a part of North- 
umberland as it had been heretofore. Franklin was captured and 
sent to Philadelphia until the young county had a chance to get 
started. When the people saw that they would all be treated 
equally as Pennsylvanians, they became satisfied and no longer 
desired revenge. Franklin was released and became one of the 
outstanding leaders of the new county. This was the third and 
last Pennamite War. 

The Growth of the Villages 

With peace came rebuilding. The first house to be put up in 
Razorville, the former site of Capoose's Meadow, was Enoch 
Holmes's. It stood at the corner of Oak Street and North Main 
Avenue. Daniel Waderman of Germany was the second settler. 
He was one of the Hessians, hired by the king of England to fight 
the Colonists during the Revolution. He was captured near Phila- 


delphia. He promised to become a worthy citizen, if he were 
allowed to go free. He first lived in Lancaster. He bought a strip 
of land in Providence Township hoping to make a better living. 
By 1796, there were only three houses in the village of Razorville. 
Providence Township was the northern township laid out by the 
Susquehanna Company. It extended from Pittston to Blakely. 

Deep Hollow on the eastern bank of the Lackawanna River, 
one mile south of Capoose's Village, resounded with the stroke of 
the advancing ax. A number of settlers in the Valley had bought 
and paid both the Susquehanna Company and the Penn estate for 
their lands, but in order to restore harmony they repurchased land 
from Pennsylvania. 

The first settler to live in Deep or Dark Hollow (Central 
Scranton) was Philip Abbott from Connecticut. He came here 
before the Revolution, was one of those who escaped from the 
Indians during the Revolutionary War and was imprisoned during 
the Pennamite War. When he returned to the home that had 
been destroyed several times, he rebuilt it, and since the farms of 
the surrounding territory raised rye and corn which had to be 
carried to Wyoming for milling, decided to build a grist mill on 
the west side of the Roaring Brook just below the present site of 
the Cedar Avenue Bridge. 

The construction of the mill was marked by rude simplicity. 
Two millstones cut from the granite of an adjoining ledge were 
placed one above the other and were joined by an iron spindle. 
These crushed the grain. The spindle twirled by its attachment of 
skins to the mill wheel that lay in the river and was turned by the 
current of Roaring Brook. The crushed grain fell on a bolt made 
of stretched deer skin perforated with sieve like holes that separated 
the flour from the kernel. The bolt was worked by hand. 


The river was between the mill and the majority of the farms, 
but it could be forded in summer and it froze over in winter. The 
mill succeeded to such an extent that it soon needed a larger 
capacity. To this end, Philip Abbott took his brother, James, and 
Reuben Taylor in as partners. Reuben Taylor built a cabin just 
below the mill in the forks of the brook and the river. He had a 

large wheat farm there also. In 1789, the three partners sold out 
to Seth and John Howe. In the meantime, John Stafford had built 
a saw mill on the Creek that bears his name. 

In 1796, on the heights below Razorville and west of the 
Lackawanna a farm had been built by Joseph Fellows. The home- 
stead was on South Main Avenue just opposite what is now 


Oxford Street. The farmer had built a rough ford of planks across 
the Lackawanna at the flats where the water was sluggish, in order 
to take his grain to Howe's mill. The men from Razorville helped 
with its construction and the planks were obtained from Stafford's 
lumber mill. 

A part of Hyde Park had been set aside, years before, for 
religious and school purposes by the Susquehanna Company. A 
preacher built his home on the plot in 1794. Just east of North 
main Avenue at Lafayette Street was its location. When the 
Susquehanna Company lost its rights, the preacher surrendered 
the property to the trustees of Providence Township. The as- 
sembly men of Providence Township in 1797 leased the school 
reservation (from Swetland Street to Scranton Street and from the 
river to Ninth Street) to a citizen for a thousand years. This lease 
deprived the schools of untold hundreds of thousands of dollars 
from land sales and coal rights. 

The Howe family, Seth and John, had a domestic tragedy in 
1797. They sold their grist mill to Ebenezer Slocum and James 
A. Duwain and left the valley. The Slocum family were early 
Yankee settlers of Wyoming. Ebenezer was the crippled child, 
who escaped capture when his sister, Frances, was captured by 
the Indians. (See appendix.) Their father was scalped by the 
Indians during the Revolutionary War. The partners, Slocum 
and Duwain, were strong and ambitious. 

They improved, enlarged, and added a distillery to the mill. 
They also built a saw mill above the grist mill on the brook. Just 
back from the river, they built a smith shop. In 1800, James 
Duwain withdrew, discouraged by the floods that washed out the 
two dams for the mills. Benjamin Slocum took his place. 
Thriftily, the Slocums had a "dam build bee" which the farmers 
for miles around attended. The mills were necessary to the 


farmers for grinding their grain and milling the fine oak and pine 
timber that wooded these hills. In the same year as they built the 
new dam they added an iron forge. Each of the Slocums built his 
house facing the river. 

Except for these homes and a few houses of the workmen, 
Slocum Hollow was a wilderness. Just in back of their property 
as late as 1810, they cleared a space to raise sheep, ( where Lacka- 
wanna Avenue and Adams Avenue is now located), but the 
wolves and panthers coming from the tamarack swamp killed 
them. They gave up. Where the Lackawanna station now stands, 
there was a huge wheat field. The Slocums tried to name the 
place Unionville, replacing the name Dark Hollow. The latter had 
been derived from the contour of the land and the heavy growth 
of pine trees around here. The name Unionville did not gain 
popularity and the place came to be known as Slocum's Hollow. 

The grain mill continued to be a fair source of income, as did 
also the distillery business, but because of the limited demand for 
lumber, the saw mill was not as profitable. The iron forge did 
well at first, but the cost of transporting the iron to its market in 
the large cities, such as New York, Philadelphia and other places 
along the Atlantic seaboard was so high that it could not be sold 
at a profit and meet the price of iron from sources that were nearer. 

It was evident even at this early date that the locality needed 
good transportation. In 1817, an effort was made to improve the 
navigable possibilities of the Lackawanna River so that goods 
could be shipped down the Lackawanna into the Susquehanna to 
Chesapeake Bay and then to seaports on the Atlantic seaboard. 
It was found that canals were too expensive. Water transporta- 
tion was much cheaper than land transportation. 

Deep Hollow had a good quality of iron ore on the banks of 
the river, and a splendid source of charcoal in its pine forests, 


(coal was not used here for smelting iron until 1836) , but the town 
was isolated. Even Warrior's Path from Connecticut to the Sus- 
quehanna by-passed what is now Central Scranton. 

Earliest Coal Mine 

While the people of our vicinity were pondering the problem 
of transportation, events in the outside world were working to 
help us. Only England supplied the bituminous coal which was 
used for making steam power. v Duriiig-xhje_Wax-o£4^12J3etween 
the U, S. and England no bituminous coal could be imported and 
charcoal became very expensive. Industry was at the point of 
being ruined. 

The Wurts brothers from Philadelphia, aware of the need of 
fuel for heating and for industry, remembered the black stones they 
had seen in explorations while vacationing along the Lackawanna. 
They came into the region and bought up much land where the 
black stones showed. The coal was lying on the surface of the 
ground and could be easily mined. The big problem was to ship 
it to Philadelphia and New York. The brothers' first idea was to 
carry it by oxen-pulled sleds to Jones's Creek, seven miles from 
Providence, where their first mine was attempted. From Jones's 
Creek, it would go down the Lackawaxen to the Delaware, and 
thence to Philadelphia and New York. 

The idea met with failure because the swollen waters of the 
Creek in spring carried the raft, on which the coal was loaded, at 
such a rate of speed that the raft tipped and the coal was thrown 
to the Creek bed. After several failures, the brothers came to the 
conclusion that only by building a gravity railroad from the Valley 
to Honesdale and by canal from Honesdale to the Delaware and 
Hudson Rivers could coal be shipped to the eastern markets and 
sold at a profit. (The gravity railroad was a train of cars that 
went down the mountain by gravity, was pulled along the level by 


horses and was pulled up the mountain by horses or by steam 
power. (See page 28.) 

The idea of building the gravity road and the canals was a 
good one but an expensive one. Through the efforts of the 
brothers, the necessary million and a half dollars was collected, 
and the Delaware and Hudson Canal and Banking Company was 
formed. The road was finished in 1828. Its western terminus 
was Rixie's Gap, now Carbondale, eighteen miles north of Provi- 
dence where the Wurts brothers had opened their first permanent 

Anthracite coal could now be shipped from the Valley to the 
eastern seaboard in abundance, but strangely enough, the public 
mind had not been accepting coal as a fuel. They had to be taught 
to use coal. Many would not take patience enough to learn how 
to use it. They would buy some, try it by placing the wood on 
top of the coal, and when it refused to burn, they would decide it 
was of no use. However, in spite of prejudice, it gradually found 
a steadily growing demand. Much of this growth could be attri- 
buted to the grates and stoves which were built to achieve the 
greatest possible results from use of the fuel (See the story of 
Judge Fell). 

In 1826, the Philadelphia and Great Bend Stage coach road 
was built. This road provided the first bridge across the Lacka- 
wanna. (Previous to this time there had been only public fords.) 
The road went east over the Moosic Mountains to what is now 
Elmhurst and Moscow, then east to and across the Delaware River 
to Philadelphia. Henry Drinker was the motivating force behind 
this project. 

Henry Drinker was also interested in the coal deposits in the 
Valley. He aimed to build a gravity plane railroad from the Sus- 
quehanna River to the Delaware Water Gap by way of Slocum 


Hollow. He had William Henry of Lancaster survey the route 
with him. Henry became as interested in the project as Drinker. 
They planned to extend the line forty-seven miles north to Great 
Bend, aiming to shorten the distance to New York state and so on 
to the West. He tried to get subscriptions in the locality but no 
interest was evidenced. From 1826 to 1836, Drinker and Henry 
tried to get financial backing for the road. 

During the big speculation days of Andrew Jackson's term in 
office they were successful in interesting a group of investors from 
New Jersey in the possibilities of building a road whereby coal 


could be shipped to the east and on the return trip, limestone and 
iron ore could be brought to the Valley for manufacture. (The 
good iron ore found here was limited and soon exhausted.) The 
investors' first interest was in building a blast furnace, along the 
Roaring Brook. The local people called the newcomers "Jer- 
sey ites." 


Coming of the Iron Industry 

The village of Slocum Hollow had fallen into decay since the 
retirement of the Slocums in 1828. Even the building of the North 
Canal from Pittston to the Village had not made it possible for 
them to remain in business. Dunmore had been settled in 1783 
by William Allsworth who on his way to the Susquehanna settle- 
ment decided to build an inn on the trail so that travelers coming 
over the Moosic Mountains might have a night's lodging. For 
many years the town had been called Buckstown. Providence, 
(formerly Razorville) was the largest settlement in the Lacka- 
wanna Valley. Hyde Park hadn't at that time achieved the status 
of village. 

The people in the four settlements did not take the intentions 
of the "J erse yrt es " too seriously and their skepticism seemed justi- 
fied in the beginning for the "Jerseyites" had poor luck. First the 
cost of land and blast furnaces, and the erection of laborers' homes 
exhausted their capital. They began with a deficit, covered by a 
mortgage. Secondly, the new stack on the blast furnace was defec- 
tive. The hot air ovens had to be multiplied, the machinery 
changed and the services of men, who had experience with using 
anthracite in smelting iron, had to be procured from Danville. 
Thought of a railroad had to be postponed until more capital was 
available. It wasn't until the spring of 1843, three years after the 
first work was done on the new furnace that the ore poured out 
into the molds. The output had increased and the quality of the 
ore was good. 

Hope once again lived but to be dashed to the ground. The 
depression of 1837 caused by the land speculation throughout the 
country had cut building activity. Lackawanna Iron, the name 
of our product, had no reputation and those who were buying 
desired to buy a product with which they were familiar. One of 
the investors in the Lackawanna Furnace was George Scranton. 


It was due to additional capital from his brothers that the business 
was able to survive. In the first years of the Company's existence, 
the lone industry was the changing of iron ore into iron. 

Because of the high cost of transportation (the iron and coal 
from the region had to be drawn by oxen nine miles to Archbald 
where the Delaware and HudsonVGanal Company's Railroad had 
been extended, while the limestone had to be drawn from Danville 
by way of the North Canal), the iron could not be sold in the 

eastern markets at a profit. Iron was a bulk product and required 
much room so the investors decided to change the iron into a 
manufactured article, here at its source. In this way, the Rolling 
Mill and Nail Factory came into being. 

In 1846, the Erie Railroad was building a line from New York 
to Binghamton. In that time the thin rail which covered the 
wooden track was called a T rail. T rails were made in England. 
The "Jerseyites" had the idea that T rails could be made at Slocum 


Hollow. The Erie Railroad was glad to give them the contract, 
because the cost of transportation from England was expensive. 
New equipment had to be built. Investors were obtained by float- 
ing a new stock issue and Lackawanna Iron Works was com- 
pleted in 1847. 

Prosperity followed in the wake of the new industry for the 
new rails were satisfactory. People who had bought stock at 
various times came into the valley to see the project in which they 
had invested. They became interested in the coal lands in the 
valley and many purchased some of these lands, causing land 
values to rise in price. 


Slocum Hollow began to grow rapidly enough to cause jealous 
concern in her rivals, Providence and Hyde Park. On the south 
side of the Roaring Brook, three hundred workman's houses had 
been built. In 1843, William Henry had begun calling Slocum 
Hollow, Harrison, but the name never gained popularity. Many 
people called the place the Lackawanna Iron Works, but in 1848 
when the first post office was established, the place was called 
Scrantonia, later shortened to Scranton. 


The postponed aims of the company to build a railroad from 
the Valley to the Delaware River was now brought to the front. 
Colonel George Scranton added the proposal that it should be a 
locomotive road. (See story of Stourbridge Lion.) His idea was 
adopted. The money for the railroad was subscribed in 1847 and 
the line was completed in 1851. The first locomotive to run on 
the new road was the Spitfire. This railroad was the beginning of 
the present Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Rairoad. The 
iron enterprise had an active existence here for sixty years, creat- 
ing, from raw material, products valued at more than one and a 
half billion dollars. 

The new railroad opened the way for development of the coal 
industry which was really the basic industry in Scranton's excep- 
tional growth in population from 

1840 five hundred 

1866 thirty thousand 

1910 one-hundred thirty-thousand 

Where there is work, the people gather. Where the first grist 
mill had stood, there were five immense blast furnaces. In the 
field where wheat had been planted, the Lackawanna Iron Com- 
pany shops were built. There was a nail factory, a rolling mill, 
mines with abundant anthracite coal of good grade and a railroad 
that connected the valley with the Atlantic Seaboard and with the 
North and West. The forecast for the future was rich with 

During the years 1866 to 1910, four other railroads located 
in Scranton. These were the Delaware and Hudson, the Jersey 
Central, the Erie, and the New York, Ontario and Western. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad and the 
New York Ontario and Western built Round Houses and black- 


smith shops for repairing their trains. These shops employed 
many people. 

New industries came to the city. Among these were the 
Dickson Manufacturing Company which made mine machinery, 
the Cliff Works which manufactured locomotives, the Scranton 
Silk Company (now the Sauquoit Silk Company) which received 
raw silk from Japan, soaked, tinted and wound the skeins on 
bobbins. The bobbin threads were then twisted into various 
thread groups, put back into skeins and shipped to the weavers. 
The Sauquoit Company now makes nylon thread. 

The Lackawanna Mills manufactured woolen underwear, 
red and ecru, long and short. They had their own button mill 
and their own box factory. The box factory is today the only 
one in operation. Capitol Records and Consolidated Molded 
Products are situated today on the site of the Lackawanna Mills. 
There were carriage shops which made sulkies, surreys and car- 
riages for horse pulled transportation. 

As the industries grew new people came to the city. By 
1925 Scranton had a population of 142,000. 

Anthracite coal, or stone-coal as it was called in the early 
days, was discovered about 1750 by a gun-smith of Christian 
Spring, a place near what is now Nazareth, Pa. He was asked to 
repair the guns of two Indians. He told them that they would 
have to wait three weeks as his supply of charcoal was exhausted. 
The Indians asked for a bag and they went into the forest. After 
two hours, they returned with as much stone coal as they could 
carry. The stones produced much better heat than the charcoal. 
They refused to tell where they had procured it. Their guns were 
repaired that day. 


The word "coal" was not mentioned on any map of Pennsyl- 
vania until 1770 when one published in Philadelphia had the 
word "coal" in two places. Pottsville and Minersville are now 
located at the points which were indicated. 

One of the first persons who used anthracite coal was 
Obediah Gore. He emigrated from Connecticut in 1769. Being 
a blacksmith by trade, he was interested in the black stones found 
by the Indians. He succeeded in using the anthracite coal in his 
blacksmith shop after repeated trials. He is believed to have been 
the first white man in this section to have used anthracite coal. 

"The first coal mining company in the United States was the 
Lehigh Coal Mining Company, organized in 1792 by Col. Weiss. 
Whetstone, a blacksmith, used anthracite in Schuylkill in 1795. 
Coal was discovered in Carbondale in 1799. First coal shipped to 
Philadelphia was from Pottsville in 1800. Lehigh Coal Mining 
Company shipped two ark loads, about 30 tons, to Philadelphia, 
but couldn't sell it. It was finally used to build sidewalks. In 
1803 stone coal was burned successfully in a grate at Philadelphia, 
but this didn't seem to aid in the development of the industry. 
Another boat load sent to Philadelphia in 1806 from the Lehigh 
region couldn't be sold. Judge Fell successfully burned it in a grate 
at Wilkes-Barre in 1808, and recorded that it made a cleaner and 
better fire at less expense than wood. This really began the coal 
trade from the anthracite region."- — Stevenson 

Jesse Fell, afterward Judge Fell, a blacksmith of Wilkes-Barre 
was the first person to discover the possibilities of anthracite coal 
for home use. He placed wood in the fireplace in his home and 
then, when it had ignited, he placed a quantity of coal on it. This 
was done late at night because he feared being made fun of by his 
neighbors. Early in the morning, he was astonished to find a 
bright fire burning. This was February 11, 1808. There was 


great rejoicing throughout the valley over this discovery. It 
silenced every criticism as to the foolishness of trying to make 
"stones" burn. People now began to realize that the Wyoming 
Valley had great wealth in its stores of coal. 

The first coal burned in the City of Scranton was discovered 
by H. C. VonStorch of Providence. In 1812, the spring rains 
washed the dirt from the surface and a coal vein was exposed. 
He made a grate and used the coal successfully. 

By 1812, anthracite coal was found in abundance on the 
upper waters of the Schuylkill. Two four-horse wagon loads of it 
were sent from Mill Creek to Philadelphia and sold there with 
little effort. Among those who purchased some were the Wurts 

William and Maurice Wurts came to this valley in 1812. 
They explored the valley in search of coal. They wanted to pur- 
chase Mr. Von Storch's interests but he did not care to sell. They 
were able to purchase other lands up and down the valley. In 
1822 they were mining coal on the Lackawanna where the city of 
Carbondale now stands. 

The Gravity Railroad 

The first railroads built in this area were called gravity rail- 
roads because wherever possible the force of gravity was used as 
power. Like other railroads they were made by laying down ties 
and placing tracks on top of the ties. The ties of this railroad 
were made of hemlock and were laid ten feet apart. Upon these 
ties were placed the rails made also of hemlock bars which were 
twelve inches high, six inches thick, and between twenty and thirty 
feet long. These tracks were fastened to the cross ties with 
wooden pegs. Bars of iron, two and a half inches long and one 
half inch thick were put on the top and inner edge of these rails. 


They were fastened to the hemlock with iron screws and were 
called strap rails. The phalange of the wheel rested on these iron 
bars, saving wear on the wooden rail. 

The cars that ran on this railroad ran on a four-foot-three- 
inch gauge so they had to be narrower than our present railroad 
car in width. They were one half of our present box car in length. 
(An example of the passenger type car that later ran on the gravity 
railroad can be found at Nay Aug Park, just back of the musuem 
on the road to the Zoo.) 

On the long planes, of which there were five, the cars of coal 
were pulled up the mountain plane by a stationary steam engine 
that supported the weight of the coal, while two wheels placed in 
tandem let down empty cars that counterbalanced the weight of 
the cars. All cars went down the plane by gravity and were con- 
trolled by brakes. On the level the cars were pulled by mules or 
horses. In some cases the horses became so used to riding down 
that force was needed to make them pull the cars when they be- 
came stuck on the down grade as sometimes happened when ice or 
heat warped the rails. On the short planes, counterbalance or 
horse power was used to climb the plane. 

On level stretches of ground, the construction of the road 
bed was comparatively easy, excepting where narrow valleys were 
met. In such cases, trestles were built to preserve a level surface 
because the cars could not run up one hill and down the other side 
of narrow valleys. The whole road was made up necessarily of 
levels and planes. When the surface of the ground did not con- 
form to the level or the plane of the proposed road bed, posts were 
driven into the ground and the ties were placed on the tops of the 
posts. This type of construction was used for differences of four 
feet or less between the proposed road bed and the actual surface 
of the ground. Whenever larger differences were met a trestle 
of hickory wood was built. 


In the early days, the cars were attached to the engines by 
iron chains, but there were so many breaks in the chains causing 
serious accidents that hemp ropes dipped in tar soon replaced 

This road was completed in 1830 and continued in use for 
more than sixty years. The Pennsylvania Railroad later built a 
gravity road from Pittston to Hawley by way of Scranton. It was 
patterned after the Delaware and Hudson. 

Stourbridge Lion 

When the gravity railroad was first thought about, it was 
planned to use a locomotive on the levels. With this in mind, the 
Delaware and Hudson Company wrote to one of their men, 
Horatio Allen, who was then on business for them in England and 
told him to buy three locomotives. Locomotives were then un- 
known in the United States. England alone had had some success 
with them. Allen followed orders and the three locomotives were 
shipped from England. What happened to two of them has never 
been known but the Stourbridge Lion which was the name of the 
third, arrived safely in Honesdale where the trial run was to 
be made. 

The name, Stourbridge Lion, was given to the locomotive 
because its boiler had been built somewhat in the shape of a lion, 
and had been manufactured in Stourbridge, England. It had a 
four-wheel drive. The engine was a plain, stout work weighing 
about seven tons and could travel four miles per hour with a train 
of thirty to thirty-six cars loaded with two tons of coal each. The 
firebox (wood burner) was within the boiler with a pipe extend- 
ing to the front to give off smoke. The cylinders were vertical and 
had two large sweep arms that were attached to the two wheels on 
either side. The cylinders were forced, piston-like, up and down 


by the steam coming from the boiler that surrounded the firebox. 
It generated nine horsepower. 

When the locomotive arrived in Honesdale, it was placed on 
the Delaware and Hudson railroad. August eighth, 1829, was 
the day of the first run and it was the first run of a locomotive in 
America. From Honesdale the road ran over a high trestle that 
had an uneven track because of the warping of the hemlock in its 
construction. Quite a crowd had gathered to view the attempt, 
but there was no alacrity to climb aboard for a ride. Horatio 
Allen boarded the locomotive alone and having gotten up enough 
steam to put the locomotive in motion, he heroically made the run 
as far as Seeleyville and then returned to Honesdale, amid loud 
cheers. The locomotive was a success. Its weight had easily 
pressed down the warps in the wood. But strangely enough, it 
was never used. 

It was eventually taken apart and the engine was used in 
Carbondale in a machine shop. It was later reconstructed and 
sent to the Smithsonian Institute in Washington. A replica of it 
is in a siding just east of the Lackawaxen Bridge (concrete) in 

Mr. Allen in 1851 spoke of his experience in running the 
monster for the first time as follows: — 

"When the imagination has attained to some conception of 
the scene, let us seek to go back to the time when only one of these 
iron monsters was in existence on this continent, and was moving 
forth, the first of his mighty race. When was it? Where was it? 
And who awakened its energies and directed its energies? It was 
in the year 1829, on the banks of the Lackawaxen, at the com- 
mencement of the railroad connecting the canal of the Delaware 
and Hudson Company with their coal mines, and he who addresses 
you was the only person on that locomotive." 


"The circumstances which led to my being left alone were 
these: The road had been built in the summer, the structure was of 
hemlock timber, and the rails of large dimensions, notched on toe- 
caps placed far apart. The timber had cracked and warped, from 
exposure to the sun. After about five hundred feet of straight 
line, the road crossed the Lackawaxen creek on a trestle-work 
about thirty feet high and with a curve of three hundred and fifty 
or four hundred feet radius. The impression was very general 
that the iron monster would either break down the road or that 
it would leave the track at the curve and plunge into the creek. 
My reply to such apprehension was, that it was too late to con- 
sider the probability of such occurrences; that there was no other 
course but to have the trial made of the strange animal which had 
been brought here at such great expense but that it was unneces- 
sary that more than one should be involved in its fate; that I would 
take the first ride alone, and that the time would come when I 
should look back to this incident with great interest. As I placed 
my hand on the thro-valve handle, I was undecided whether I 
would move slowly or with a fair degree of speed; but believing 
that the road would prove safe, and preferring that if we did go 
down, to go down handsomely and without any evidence of 
timidity, I started with considerable velocity, passed the curve in 
safety, and was soon out of hearing of the cheers of the large 
assemblage present. At the end of two or three miles, I reversed 
the valves and returned without accident to the place of starting, 
having thus made the first railroad trip by locomotive on the 
Western Hemisphere." — J. A. Clark. 

The Story of Frances Slocum 

Among the early settlers who came to settle in Wilkes-Barre, 
was Jonathan Slocum, his wife and their eight children. One 
day in November 1778 while Mr. Slocum and the older children 
were at work in the fields and while the events of the Wyoming 
Massacre were still fresh in the minds of both Whites and Indians, 


three Indians drew near to the Slocum cabin. Only one entered 
the house where he saw little five-year-old Frances hiding under 
the stairs. He threw her over his shoulder and joined the other 
Indians. Mrs. Slocum tried to stop them but they would not 
listen to her. That was the last that she ever saw of her daughter 
Frances. Not many days after Frances was taken, Mr. Slocum 
was killed by Indians. The brothers of the lost Frances searched 
everywhere for her but without success. 

Fifty-seven years later, in an Indian village in Indiana, an 
Indian Agent, Colonel Ewing found Frances Slocum. She was 
the widow of an Indian chief and her name was Ma-con-a-quah. 
The Indians had always been kind to her. Two of her brothers 
went to see her. She desired to remain with her children and 
grand-children. Members of the Slocum family saw her a number 
of times afterward. She died in 1847 at the age of 74 years. 

Where Are the Gold, Silver and Lead Mines 

In addition to their relics, the Indians of our region have left 
a legend of a gold mine, a silver mine and lead mine that are sup- 
posed to exist in the Wyoming or Lackawanna Valleys. 

In 1766, the Six Nations complained to the proprietary 
Government at Philadelphia of white persons who had dug into 
a silver mine, twelve miles above the Delaware town of Wymanick 
(Wyoming?) and carried away in canoes, three loads of ore. They 
held this silver to be the property of the Indians. They suspected 
an Indian trader by the name of Anderson. 

John Teal, a German, who died in 1794, gave credence to 
this story. He had lived among the Oneidas and understood their 
language and held their confidence. When their chieftain was 
dying, he called Teal to him and told him the location of the mines. 
He said that the Indians had always hoped to return to the valley 
and had well hidden the entrances to the mines, but that they 


could at last see that their hope was fruitless. The chief gave the 
location of the mines to Teal. The silver mine was, he said, on 
the northeast side of the Lackawanna above a high ledge or moun- 
tain, half an hour's walk from the River Susquehanna, twelve 
miles above Wyoming. The chief described the gold mine as being 
under a ledge of rocks, a few miles above Wyoming Valley at a 
point where a rock of the height of an Indian covered a spring. 

To give additional authenticity to the story, in 1778 a young 
man had been captured by the savages in the valley and was carried 
to the top of a mountain from where he could see Wilkes-Barre 
in the distance. At dusk the Indians removed a large rock from 
the earth. Underneath the rock was a spring from which the 
waters had been so arranged as to flow off underground so that 
the spring seemed to originate much further down the valley. This 
spring was stirred up and a handkerchief placed over the outlet. 
When the handkerchief was removed, it was covered with a yellow 
sediment, which was carefully placed in a vessel. When the 
Indians reached Albany, the yellow sediment was exchanged for 
supplies. Upon later release, the young man went over the area 
carefully but could never find the spring. 

The lead mine was supposed to be at the mouth of Tuscarora 
Creek half a mile from where it enters the Susquehanna. Both 
the French and Indians used the lead for bullets during the Revolu- 
tionary War but several companies have since exhausted time and 
money without success in finding it. 

Old names of Scranton 

Deep Hollow or Dark Hollow— 1788 Philip Abbott. 
Unionville — 1794 The Slocums. 
Slocum Hollow — 1816 Honoring the Slocums. 
Lackawanna Iron Works — After the building of the blast furnaces 
in the forties. 


Harrison — 1841 Named after William Henry Harrison then Presi- 
dential candidate. 

Scrantonia — 1850 This name was given in honor of its real 
founders who brought the iron industry here. 

Scranton — 1851 The name was shortened to Scranton, a name 
that has never been changed. (Providence and Hyde Park 
were merged into the incorporated city of Scranton in 1866.) 

The Lackawanna County Court House 

The Lackawanna Iron and Steel Company deeded to the 
county the present Court House Square. The ground for the 
court house was broken on April 14, 1881. The land was a deep 
swamp and thousands of dollars had to be spent on excavations 
before the hard-pan bottom was reached. Some people remember 
when the square was a skating pond in the winter. It is said that 
cranberries grew in the swamp and that they could be seen frozen 
in the ice. 

The First Street Car Lines 

A street car line, with horses for pulling power, was opened 
between Scranton and Providence in 1866. Other lines were soon 
built to Hyde Park and Green Ridge. 

The first electric street railway of Scranton was built and 
operated by the Suburban Electric Street Railway Company and 
ran from Franklin Avenue and Spruce Street, up Spruce Street 
to Washington Avenue and out Washington Avenue to the point 
where the I. C. S. building is now located. The first car was oper- 
ated on November 29, 1886. As there was but one motor, the 
car had to be turned on a turntable at the end of the line. This 
first car was lighted by six electric lights. The road is now part 
of the system of the Scranton Railway Company. This company 
had at one time eight street car lines and twenty-six bus lines. It 


serves a population of 270,000 up and down the valley. Since 
1954 it has become exclusively a bus line. 

Local and State Place Names 

Blakely — This borough was named for Captain Blakely a com- 
mander of the United States Sloop during the War of 1812. 

Capouse — The name of one of the city streets of Scranton, named 
from the Indian Chief Capoose who lived here before white 
people came. 

Carbondale — The name indicates a valley or dale containing coal. 
"Carbon" an element in coal. "Dale" a low place between 

Duryea — Named for Abram Duryea of New York who bought 
coal lands here. 

Dunmore — Named for an Englishman whose family name was 
Dunmore. Formerly it had been called "Bucktown" because 
of the number of deer found there. 

Delaware (River) — Named for Thomas West, twelfth Baron de 
la Warr, governor and first captain-general of Virginia who 
spent his time and money establishing the Virginia Colony. 
Lord de la Warr "passed the capes" of the Delaware in 1610. 

Delaware (Indians) — The Indians living upon the banks and 
tributaries of this river were called Lenni — Lennape Indians, 
but from the time that the river was named they were called 
the Delaware Indians. 

Drinker — A section of land lying between the Delaware and the 
Lackawanna known as Drinker's Beech was so called because 
there were vast numbers of beech trees growing upon it and 
the lands were owned by Henry Drinker. 

Forty Fort — Named for the fort built by the first forty settlers who 
came to the Wyoming Valley from Connecticut. 


Gettysburg — Named for James Gettys who bought a large tract of 
land and laid out a village which he called Gettys-town. 

lHazleton — Named from Hazle Township which was named from 
Hazel Creek. This stream flowed through Hazel Swamp and 
was noted for the abundance of hazel bushes growing along 
its banks. 

Harrisburg — Founded by John Harris. It was first called Harris's 
Ferry because he established a ferry across the Susquehanna. 

Honesdale — Named after Philip Hone. "Dale," a low place be- 
tween hills. Note: One of the first locomotive engines intro- 
duced and worked in America, called the Stourbridge Lion, 
built in England and was run for a while on a little railroad 
at Hone's Dale in 1829. 

Lackawanna — Indian name "Lee-haw-hanna." "Lee-haw" signi- 
fies the forks or point of intersection, "hanna" a stream of 

Leggett's Creek — Named for James Leggett who settled near the 
mouth of the Creek. 

Moosic — The Moosic Mountains take their name from the great 
herds of moose inhabiting them at the time of the earliest 
explorations by white people. 

Mauch Chunk — Named from the Indian name for a curiously 
shaped hill on the opposite side of the Lehigh River called 
Machk Tschunk or Bear Mountain. 

Monongahela — Named from the Indian name for the river "Me- 
naungehilla," river with sliding banks. 

Monsey — The name of one of the streets of Scranton. Taken 
from the Indian name of a tribe of Indians, Minsi or Monseys. 

Montrose — Dr. Rose bought a large tract of land here. He com- 
bined the French word "mont" with his family name, Rose. 


Nanticoke — Taken from name of a tribe of Indians, Nentigo. 

Nay Aug — Indian name, Nau-Yaug signifying noisy or roaring 

Old Forge — Named from an iron forge built here in 1789 by Dr. 
William Hooker Smith. 

Olyphant — Named in honor of George Olyphant of New York 
who was president of the D. & H. Canal Company. 

Pennsylvania — The name Pennsylvania means "Penn's Forest- 
land." The name was given in honor of William Penn's 

Philadelphia — The name selected by William Penn for the city he 
founded. It means "City of Brotherly Love." 

Pittsburgh — Named in honor of Sir William Pitt, an Englishman, 
who championed the cause of the oppressed colonies before 
the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. 

Pittston — Named at first "Pitts-town after Sir William Pitt (See 

Pocono — Taken from Indian name "Pocohanne" — a stream 
between two mountains. 

Pottsville — Named for John Pott who bought a large tract of land 
in 1816. 

Providence — Name taken from Rhode Island's capital, as thirty 
of the Susquehanna Company owning the "wild lands" came 
from the colony of Rhode Island. 

Scranton — Named in honor of the Scrantons who came here in 

Schuylkill — Name given by the early Dutch explorers meaning 
"hidden stream" because they passed its mouth without 
seeing it. 


Shamokin — Indian name meaning Schahamokink, "the place of 

Shenandoah — Indian name meaning "Great Plains." 

Shickshinny — This name is said to mean "five mountains." 

Susquehanna — Taken from the Indian name Sisquehanne, Sisku, 
mud, hanne, river. Some white people overheard some 
Indians remark at the time of a flood, Juh! Sisquehanne! 
which means How Muddy the river is! 

Tamaqua — Indian name Tamaque meaning "beaver." 

Taylor — This borough was named for Moses Taylor, a New York 
business man, who had extensive interests here. 

Throop — This borough was named for Dr. B. H. Throop, a 
pioneer physician in Scranton. 

Tunkhannock — This name has two interpretations (1) Tank- 
hanne, a small stream (2) Tagh4ca-nick, "forest or wilder- 

Wallenpaupack — Indian name meaning "deep, stagnant water." 

Wilkes-Barre — Named for John Wilkes and Isaac Barre. 

Winton — This borough was named for W. W. Winton who had 
coal interests here. 

Wyoming — Taken from an Indian name Maughwame, meaning 
"the large plains." Maughwan, "large" — Wame, "plains." 

City Government 

In 1866 by a charter from the state legislature, Scranton, 
Providence and Hyde Park were joined into one city with the 
name Scranton. 

When Scranton, Hyde Park and Providence were boroughs, 
each one had a burgess to govern it. When the boroughs became 


a city of the third class in 1865, a new government had to be 
formed. Under this government the city would elect a mayor, a 
clerk of the mayor's court, a treasurer and a marshall. Each ward 
(there were twelve) would elect its own two representatives to the 
Common Council, one representative to the Select Council and 
one alderman. The Councils made the laws of the city and levied 
the taxes. The mayor and marshall enforced the laws and the 
treasurer collected the taxes and paid the bills. The School Board 
from 1880 to 1911 was formed of one representative from each 
ward. It was a separate unit. 

In 1901 when the population of Scranton had risen to over 
100,000 the city automatically became a second class city. A 
second class city's government is the one we are living under today. 
The charts on pages 41, 42 and 45 are simplified diagrams of our 
type of city government. All the offices under "People" are elec- 
tive. All others are appointive. The Council passes laws and 
levies taxes. The tax collector collects city, property and insti- 
tutional taxes plus the school property tax. There is a central 
tax agency. The school district collects a wage tax. The School 
Board levies all taxes for free public education and sets up rules 
and regulations for the maintenance of the schools. These rules 
and regulations are administered by the four groups listed below 
them on the chart, page 45. 


Form of Government — Councilmanic Class 2A City. 

The mayor holds a mandate directly from the people and he 
can square off with the city council and dominate the adminis- 

The only real check on the mayor is the power of council to 
withhold appropriations. 


The mayor should be a civic leader — vitally concerned with 
all questions which concern or affect the community. He should 
be responsible for a progressive and efficient administration. 

Our City Plan 








Public Safety 

Public Works 


Ash • Garbage 


Street Repairs 

Planning Commission 

— Redevelopment — Legal Department I 

— Recreation Commission I *— | Purchasing Agent I 

City Treasurer 


Population— 125,080 

Of the total population in Scranton 79% were born in the 
United States. Of the other 21% the predominating nationalities 
are: Italian, Polish, Austrian, English, Welsh, Lithuanian, Irish, 
Russian, German, Czechoslovakian. 

There are 37,101 homes in the city of Scranton. 

There are eight banks and one trust company in the city. 
The latter is now part of a bank. One hundred forty churches in 
the city represent all the Protestant, Catholic and Jewish denomi- 
nations. Many of the churches were formed by nationality groups. 
Outside of anthracite mining there are 312 manufacturing firms. 
The Scranton Times and the Scranton Tribune are the two daily 


papers. In addition there is one Sunday paper and several week- 
lies. Eleven hospitals minister to the sick of the city. 

Scranton is the eightieth city in population in the United 

Superintendent of Police 

Two assistants, the Day captain and the Night captain 

Patrolmen — divided into precincts 
Traffic Squad 
Detective Squad 

Patrol duty is the most important element in police operations. 
They are in constant contact with the public — our first 
line of defense. 

Fire Chief 

Two fire chief assistants 
Four battalion chiefs 
Superintendent of Fire Alarms 

Engine Houses (Numbered as "Hose Co. No. — ) 
Rescue Squad — Ambulance 


Engineering Administration Motor Equipment Parks and Recreation 

Streets and Sewers Refuse Disposal Sewage Disposal Public Property 


Public Works is financed by current taxes — bond issues — 
special assessments for paves and sewers. 

The sewage of the city of Scranton is now deposited in the 
Lackawanna River. According to law, in the near future deposit- 
ing sewage in the streams of the state will be forbidden. The plans 
are now drawn up for a sewage disposal plant to be built on the 
river bank near South Washington Avenue. 

Parks are under the Public Works Department. There is a 
Superintendent of Parks. The following parks are scattered 
throughout the city: 

Nay Aug Park 

Weston Park and Weston Field House 

Oxford Plot 

Connell Park 

Robinson Park 

Harmon Field 

Fellows Park 

Under the Recreation Commission, there are thirty-five play- 
grounds with trained instructors provided for summer recreation. 
In 1945 a consultant found the city twenty-five years behind the 
times in comparison with cities of the same size. By 1952 recrea- 
tional facilities had so improved that Scranton is now comparable 
to cities of the same size. This was accomplished by the merging 
of the city and school district recreational facilities as recommended 
by the Recreation Commission. 


Food and Milk Quarantine Officer Laboratory and 

Inspector Vital Statistics 


Number — Five elected members. 
Term — Five years. 
Salary— $4000 per year. (Starting January, 1958, $5000.) 

Voting is a privilege which should not be taken lightly. Every 
citizen should realize that with this privilege comes the responsi- 
bility of choosing the best fitted person for the job, regardless of 
party. The citizen should study carefully the backgrounds of the 
candidates and vote for the one he feels can most fully meet the 
demands of the office. 


The School Board consists of nine directors elected by the 
people throughout the city. No salary is connected with the office. 
The Board appoints the Superintendent of Schools, Secretary of 
the Board, Superintendent of Buildings and Supplies, Solicitor, 
Supervisors, Principals and Teachers, Janitors, Engineers and 
Maintenance Men, Doctors, Dentists and Nurses. 

There is one Senior High School 

Central High School 
There are two Junior-Senior High Schools 
Technical High School 
West Scranton High School 
two Junior High Schools 

North Scranton Junior High School 
South Scranton Junior High School 
thirty-eight grade schools and one administration build- 
ing, containing all administrative offices and the Board 
Room, where all School Board meetings are held. 
There are approximately 16,000 children and 650 
teachers and administrative people in the system. 


Superintendent of Schools 


Medical Inspector 






Supt. Bldgs. & Equipment 


Maintenance Men 

Supply Employees 

Dist. Sec'y - Bus. Mgr. 


Consulting Engineer 

Scranton from 1940 to 1950 suffered a population loss of 
approximately fifteen thousand people. Families left the city 
because there were not enough employment opportunities. Coal 
deposits were becoming depleted. The city is now struggling by a 
"LIFE" movement (Lackawanna Industrial Fund Enterprise) to 
encourage industries to locate here. To some extent the move- 
ment has been successful. 

Scranton has all the attributes that should make her a great 
city. The climate is healthful and temperate with no extremes, 
the average temperature being 49 degrees. The water supply is pure 
and abundant, clear sparkling mountain water from nine reser- 
voirs with an average capacity of 639,000,000 gallons. The trans- 
portation facilities include five major railroads, an interurban 
line, three motor lines and two airports with four airlines. Good 
motor highways lead in all directions. Schools and recreational 
facilities are of the best. 

Educational Opportunities and Cultural Opportunities 

We have an excellent elementary and secondary school system 
offered in Scranton. There are three institutions of higher 


The University of Scranton founded in 1888 offers the arts, 
science, business and engineering curricula. It is under the direc- 
tion of the Jesuit Fathers. 

Marywood College founded in 1915 offers the arts, sciences, 
music education and library science curricula. It is a Catholic 
College for Women, the first in Pennsylvania. 

Keystone Junior College is located at LaPlume, fifteen miles 
from the city, but is considered a Scranton Institution. It was 
founded in 1868. It offers preparatory courses in the arts, busi- 
ness and engineering and terminal courses in various phases of 
business administration, engineering technology, medical secretary 
and merchandising. 

The libraries in each elementary school classroom meet the 
specific needs of the children in the room. A minimum of fifty 
different titles is found in each classroom. In addition maps, 
globes, encyclopedia and dictionaries are made available. In each 
high school is found a collection of from 3500 to 5500 volumes. 
Magazines, pamphlets, pictures, maps, globes, college catalogs add 
to the source of information. 

The Albright Memorial Library at the corner of Washington 
and Vine with its four branches in Hyde Park, South Side, Green 
Ridge and Providence is Scranton's free public library. In any 
given year it circulates more than 200,000 books. 

Music has always played an important part in the cultural 
life of the city. The predominant settlers of this valley were of 
English, Welsh, Irish, German and Swedish descent. They sang 
and danced to the folk music of their ancestry and were not 
reluctant to invent tunes to answer certain needs. This exchange 
of folk music contributed in no small part to the good-will that 


was established by these early settlers, and which has prevailed 
throughout the years. 

To the Welsh we are indebted for two great musical institu- 
tions, the eisteddfod and the gymanfa ganu. The eisteddfod is a 
competitive festival. The gymanfa ganu is a consolidation of 
several churches in a community for the purpose of singing hymns 
under capable and inspiring leadership. 

During the early nineteenth century there was a great influx 
of people of German ancestry from the states of New York and 
New Jersey. To this group of settlers we are indebted for the 
organization of the Scranton Liederkranz, and Maennerchor 

The instrumental music of our city and vicinity kept pace 
with the progress of the vocal groups. A Carbondale Band was 
organized in 1839. In 1873, Providence, alone, boasted of two 

Mr. Robert Bauer in 1877 organized and conducted Bauer's 
Military Band. In 1894, a second outstanding band was organized. 
It was the Lawrence Band. 

The initial opportunity for the development of symphonic 
music in our city came in 1893. A string quartet was formed 
which was soon followed by the first Scranton Symphony Orches- 
tra in 1894. 

The racial complexion of our city was decidedly changed 
during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth. It was 
at this time that numerous immigrants from continental Europe 
made their appearance in Scranton. Prominent among these 
people were groups of Italians, Lithuanians, Slovaks, Hungarians, 
Russians, Ukrainians, and Poles. 


Many of these groups have made specific contributions to the 
music of our city, especially our choral music. 

It was the Italians . . . who sponsored our first interest in 

The Russian and Ukrainian groups brought to Scranton the 
appreciation of a fine a cappella singing and an interest in ballet. 

The early Polish inhabitants of our city organized fine choral 
groups and have presented interesting folk festivals in the authentic 
costume of their native land. It was the dance of the Polish race, 
the polka, that popularized the name of our state and city in recent 
years through the medium of the song, "The Pennsylvania Polka." 

It is fitting that we recognize some of the more widely known 
contemporary Scranton artists. Included on this list would be 
Mr. Thomas L. Thomas, who possesses a fine baritone voice. He is 
doing extensive work in radio in addition to his concert programs. 
We are justly proud of Miss Lillian Raymondi who won for herself 
a place on the Metropolitan roster with her lovely soprano voice. 
Her roles have been admirably sung and not infrequently attended 
by Scrantonians. Irma Galli-Campi, too, has gained recognition 
in the field of opera. Anne Crowley, one of our youngest artists, 
has appeared in "Oklahoma." In the field of composition we 
especially recognize the name of Jack Duro who has won several 
Phi Mu Alpha awards for his musical compositions. 

The Scranton Philharmonic Orchestra is our largest instru- 
mental organization today. It was organized in 1937 under the 
direction of Dr. Felix Gatz and Dr. Frieder Weissman is the 
present conductor. Several concerts are presented annually by the 
orchestra and each program features a guest artist. The regular 
series of programs is augmented by a series of youth concerts. 


Scranton has the distinction of being one of the first cities in 
the United States to foster the organized-audience plan for the 
promotion of good music. This idea is more popularly known as 
the community concert. The plan was first tried here during the 
concert season of 1928-1929. Today the association sponsors a 
series of fine concerts and has a membership of eighteen hundred 
people. These facts attest to Scranton 's endorsement of good 


Among the people who have remembered the city with gifts 

ORLANDO S. JOHNSON, one of the city builders and one 
of the great coal operators of the valley. He left to the city of 
Scranton the bulk of his fortune, to be used in founding a manual 
training school for the boys and girls of the city. More than one 
million dollars was available for the school. The trustees of the 
fund selected the Richmond estate as the site of the school. It is 
located on North Main Avenue, in the Providence section of 
the city. 

Mr. Johnson was born in New York City on January 24, 1847. 
At the age of seventeen, he came to Scranton. He became exten- 
sively interested in mining operations in this valley that were well 
managed and profitable. He married Mary Meylert, daughter of 
General Amos N. Meylert and a sister of Mrs. Joseph A. Scranton. 
For a number of years before his death he was an invalid. 

In his will, after providing for his widow and other heirs, he 
left the main part of his fortune "to establish and maintain a 
school for boys and girls where they would be taught the useful 
arts and trades — in order to enable them to earn a livelihood and 
become useful members of society." 


WORTHINGTON SCRANTON, descendant of the early 
owners of the Iron and Steel Works, and the family for which the 
city was named, gave $1,000,000 in trust, the income of which 
was to be distributed to the charities of the city each year. 

He also gave to the University of Scranton, under the respon- 
sibility of the Society of Jesus, a piece of land known as the 
"Scranton Estate" bounded on the west by Madison Avenue, on 
the north by Linden Street, on the east by Monroe Avenue, and 
on the south by Ridge Row, also the properties on the northeast 
and southeast corners where Linden Street intersects Monroe 
Avenue, and three properties on Piatt Place. Two of the latter 
are used as radio station WUSV, the college radio, "Aquinas" 
the school paper, faculty office and student residence. 

The University plans to build a residence hall on the north- 
east corner, a cafeteria on the southeast corner and on the 
estate proper, a science building, a library, a faculty residence, a 
chapel and an administration building. 

JOSEPH J. ALBRIGHT, a Moravian, was born in Warwick, 
Pennsylvania, September 23, 1811. When he was twenty-five 
he visited Slocum Hollow. As an expert iron manufacturer he 
was asked to give an opinion of the value of iron ore deposits 
found here. He found the ore low in iron content but when he 
noticed the large anthracite coal deposits in the region he advised 
his employers to invest in the anthracite coal industry. They did 
not take his advice. 

George W. Scranton brought Mr. Albright to Scranton years 
later as manager of the coal mines of the D. L. & W. Railroad. 
In 1866 he went over to the D. & H. as general coal sales agent 
and he remained there until 1877. He was one of the men who 
established the Scranton Gas and Water Company and he was a 
director in the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company. 


The Albrights had four children. Their home was at the 
corner of Washington Avenue and Vine Street, the site of the 
Scranton Public Library, which was built by the Albright children 
in memory of their parents and as a monument to the part they 
played in the development of Scranton. 

ISAIAH F. EVERHART. The Everhart Museum of Scran- 
ton, Pennsylvania, was endowed by the late Dr. Isaiah F. Everhart, 
who was born in Summit Level, Berks County, on January 22, 
1840. Dr. Everhart, after receiving his college training in Frank- 
lin and Marshall College, graduated in medicine from the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. He was a cavalry doctor during the Civil 
War. In 1868 he settled in Scranton. 

His inclinations were toward scientific hobbies — collecting 
stones, shells, wood, insects and birds of the region. 

Dr. Everhart Submits His Proposition to the City 

Dr. I. F. Everhart, through Mayor Dimmick, communicated 
to councils his plans about the museums he wished to donate to 
the city. This communication was accompanied by another from 
the mayor, in which he referred to Dr. Everhart as a public-spirited 
citizen. The communication submitted by Mayor Dimmick was 
as follows: 

Scranton, Pennsylvania 
February 5, 1907 
To the Honorable, 

The Select and Common Councils, 

City of Scranton, Pennsylvania 

Gentlemen: It is my privilege to transmit to your honorable 
bodies a communication from Dr. I. F. Everhart, in which he sets 
forth his desire to erect, endow, and give to the city of Scranton, 
a Museum of Natural History, Science and Art, the same to be 
located in Nay Aug Park. 


This gift, involving a total expenditure to the donor of two 
hundred thousand ($200,000) dollars, should have far-reaching 
effects, not only through its direct purpose, but also through the 
incidental, yet striking, evidence thus afforded, of high and loyal 
citizenship, a citizenship that recognizes the needs of a community 
and volunteers to meet those needs, and upon a large scale, from 
private possessions; a citizenship that should be an inspiration to 
all who believe that life involves duties to one's neighbor, as well 
as to one's self, and duties that are always commensurate with 
one's powers. 

Excerpts from Dr. Everhart's Letter 

Gentlemen: I propose to erect a museum of natural history, 
science and art, to be located in Nay Aug Park and to be known 
as the Everhart Museum of Natural History, Science and Art. 

I will donate my collection of forty years' work of the animals, 
birds, woods and seeds found within the state. To this I will add 
an endowment which shall go for the running expenses of the 

The museum shall be open to all who may desire to either 
give or loan anything that is worthy of a place therein, and the 
name of the donor shall be attached to all such gifts. 

Dedication Plaque 

The Museum of Natural History with a trust fund for its 
maintenance and later enlargement, was presented to the city in 
1908 by Isaiah F. Everhart. The trustees completed his program 
in 1928 by enlarging the building. 

"For the young and the old of this generation, 
and for all those who follow after us, I dedicate 

*The Museum has never received any financial endowment other 
than that which came from the original Everhart bequest. 


this Museum for their pleasure and instruc- 

Isaiah F. Everhart, M.D., 1908 


Birds — Classified according to A.O.U. (American Birds) and 

Early American Folk Art 
Primitive Arts — African and Oceanic 
Florescent Minerals 

Knight Coal Mural (Gift of Worthington Scranton) 
General Collections in the fields of Art, Science and Natural 


Present Day Opportunities > 

The Everhart Museum has specialized in the last several years 
in educational activities including workshop groups, docentry 
tours, special programs (films, lectures and recitals), lending of 
films and slides, consultation in fields of art and science. 

The Membership Program supports adult lecture series, how- 
ever, all events and services are open to the public without charge. 

For those interested in the Museum, and its full scope — it is 
strongly recommended that a visit be made to the Everhart 
Museum so that one may be aware of behind the scene activities 
which go into making present day opportunities possible. 

CHARLES S. WESTON and his sister, Mrs. Caroline Wes- 
ton Bird, the donors of Weston Field and Weston Park, were 
members of one of Scranton's pioneer families and were among 
Scranton's builders. They were born in Carbondale. Their par- 
ents moved to Scranton when they were very young children. 


They received their early education in the public schools 

At the sound of the name Weston one thinks of health, clean 
living and wholesome recreation. Mr. Weston and his sister have 
given to the city a lasting monument. It is a living monument 
that will continue to have a beneficial effect on the youth and the 
adults of the community. In 1915 they purchased a plot of 
ground and erected a recreation center, prepared baseball fields, 
tennis courts, dance pavilions, meeting rooms and gave it all to the 
city. In 1926, a swimming pool was added; plus an extra gift 
of $50,000. 

The Westerns' gifts have been the basis of a splendid recrea- 
tional program which has been developed through the years. 

These gifts were made by Mr. Weston and his sister in 
memory of their parents. 


41° 25' North Latitude. 

75° 40' West Longitude. 

Location in the State — Scranton is in the northeastern part 
of Pennsylvania. 

Location in the County — Scranton is southwest of the cen- 
tral part of Lackawanna County. 

Altitude — 753.51 feet above sea level. (A metal plate on the 
southwest corner of the Court House gives this.) 

The altitude of other places in the city is as follows: 
845 ft. — Main Avenue and Jackson Street. 
747 ft. — Sanderson Avenue and East Market Street, near 
No. 27 School. 


957 ft. — The Everhart Museum, near No. 42 School. 

942 ft. — Oram Boulevard, near No. 41 School. 

825 ft. — School Street, near No. 25 School. 

1036 ft. — Prescott Avenue and Ash Street^near No. 5 

892 ft. — Beech Street and Crown Avenue, near No. 30 

945 ft. — Cornell Street, near No. 43 School. 
682 ft. — South Washington Avenue, near No. 6 School. 
763 ft. — Pittston Avenue, near No. 3 School. 
920 ft. — Northeast corner of city adjoining Dunmore. 
1016 ft. — Southeast corner of city adjoining Minooka. 
1290 ft. — Northwest corner of city adjoining Chinchilla. 
1470 ft. — Southwest corner of city on mountain adjoining 

1770 ft. — Highest point within city limits on West Moun- 
655 ft. — Lowest point in the city near Taylor along the 

Distance to other places: 

Taylor 4 miles Binghamton .... 63.5 miles 

Old Forge 6 " Harrisburg 135 

Clarks Summit .... 7 " New York 135 

Carbondale 20 " Philadelphia .... 125 

Wilkes-Barre 17 " Buffalo 244 


Area — 20.5 square miles. 

Population (Census of 1950)— 125,000. 

Rank in the State — Fourth largest city in 1950. 







West Indian 
























South American 


' Czecho-Slav 









Scranton is located in a valley surrounded by mountains. 
These mountains are a part of the great Appalachian system 
located in the eastern part of the United States 

(1) Local names of mountains: 

Moosic Mountains, elevation 800 to 2120 feet. 
West Mountain, elevation 900 to 1770 feet. 

(2) Two natural outlets in these mountains: 

Chinchilla Gap (The Notch) — Northwestern part 
of Scranton formed by Leggett's Creek cutting a 
passage through the West Mountain. 

Nay Aug Gap — Northeastern part of Scranton 
formed by the Roaring Brook cutting a passage 
the Moosic Mountains. 


Scranton is located in a crescent shaped valley protected by 
mountains on both sides. The surrounding mountains protect 
the city from high winds, and influence the temperature and rain- 
fall, both summer and winter, causing wide departures in both 
within a few miles of Scranton. Because the mountains are so 
near to the valley, the climate is relatively cool in summer with 


frequent shower and thunderstorm type rain, usually of brief 
duration. The winter in the valley is not severe, sub-zero tem- 
peratures are not frequent, neither are sever snow storms. Much 
of the winter percipitation occurs as rain. The normal annual 
snowfall is only 43 inches. 

Some unusual weather which has occurred in Scranton 

(a) blizzard of '88 — rain changing to snow which continued 
for three days — winds with a velocity of 65 miles per 
hour. (March 11) 

(b) Billy Sunday Snowstorm — 17 inches of snow with winds 
of high velocity, March 1, 1914. 

(c) Greatest snowfall — 20 inches — January 19-20, 1936. 

(d) Coldest weather — 19° below zero — February 9, 1934- 

(e) Warmest weather — 103 degrees — July 8, 1936. 

In the 55 years existence of the weather bureau there have 
been only six days when the temperature exceeded 100 degrees. 

On September 29 and 30, 1924 Scranton had its greatest 

Three disastrous floods have occurred in the area: 
March 12 and 13, 1936 
May 22 and 23, 1942 
August 18 and 19, 1955 
Fortunately, severe weather is uncommon in this area. 
49.3° — Average temperature per year. 
40.49 — Normal rainfall per year. 
31 — Average number of days with thunder per year. 
131 — Average number partly cloudy days per year. 
151 — Average number cloudy days per year. 
83 — Average number clear days per year. 
Prevailing winds are southwesterly. 



The birds whose all-year round native habitat is found in the 
vicinity of Scranton are: 
Cedar Waxwing 
Roughed Grouse 
Ringed Neck Pheasant 
Downy Woodpecker 
Hairy Woodpecker 
Chickadee (Black-Capped) 
Blue Jay 

White Breasted Nuthatch 
European Starling 
English Sparrow 

Summer visitors to our area are: 
Cat Bird 
Indigo Bunting 
Scarlet Tanager 
Baltimore Oriole 

Red Winged Blackbird 
Blue Bird 
Song Sparrow 

Trees found in the forests within a five mile radius of Scranton 


White Pine 
White Oak 
Pitch Pine 

Wild Cherry (black and red) 


Red Maple 
Scrub Oak 
Scarlet Oak 
Chestnut Oak 

In the forests of our vicinity are found: 
Cottontail Rabbit 
White-tailed Deer 
Black Bear 
Star-Nosed Mole 

The Lackawanna River 
It rises in Wayne and Susquehanna Counties flowing in a 
southwesterly direction through Lackawanna County and enters 
the Susquehanna River at Pittston. 

Roaring Brook 

It rises in the southeastern part of Lackawanna County and it 
enters the Lackawanna River at Birch Street in the south side 
section of the city. The Roaring Brook is the brook that flows over 
Nay Aug Falls. 

Stafford Meadow Brook 

It rises southeast of Scranton and enters the Lackawanna 
River at Brook Street in the south side section of the city. 

Leggett's Creek 

It rises northwest of Scranton and enters the Lackawanna 
River near Marvine Avenue in North Scranton. 


The Water Supply 

The water supply of Scranton consists of natural, mountain 
water. The water system is unique because it is operated com- 
pletely by gravity. There are no pumps needed within the water- 
shed. Scranton is not the only city supplied by a gravity water 
system; Wilkes-Barre, New York City and Worcester, Massachu- 
setts receive their supplies of water in the same manner. 


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trv the 



Lake Scranton 

Probably the most remarkable part of the water system is 
Lake Scranton, which acts as a huge catch-basin, and may be com- 
pared to a water tank located on the roof of a factory building. 

Lake Scranton contains, when filled to capacity, over 2,500,- 
000,000 gallons of water. It has a depth of from 35 to 60 feet, 
and because of its existence Scranton could go 400 days without 
rain before the water supply would be completely exhausted. The 
total daily consumption of water in Scranton and Dunmore is 
24,000,000 gallons. 


Reservoirs of Scranton 

The following table gives the names, location, capacity, etc., 
of the reservoirs that supply Scranton with water. There are in 
all 18 reservoirs which supply water to Scranton's homes. Only 
the larger ones are named in the table. 









Sq. Mi. 




Dunmore and 
Roaring Brook 


Oak Run 


Madison and 








Roaring Brook 
and Madison 





Number 7 







Roaring Brook 





2,518,000,000 6.0 1282 Storage and 


Number 5 







No. 1 







So. Abington 
and Newton 






So. Abington 
and Scott 







The reforestation work of the Scranton-Spring Brook Water 
Service Company was begun in 1913 when white-pine trees were 
planted along Long Swamp Drive. This has been continued from 
year to year until the present total is 2,500,000 trees. Only conifers 
are planted, as the normal, natural growth of deciduous trees is 
very great. (Note: Conifers are trees that are evergreen having a 
cone for fruit, as the spruce, pine, etc. Deciduous trees are not 
evergreen. Their leaves fall every year as the maple, oak, etc.) The 
first plantings were entirely White Pine but in recent years Red 
and Scotch Pine, Norway and White Spruce and European Larch 
have been used. The great bulk of the early planting was on 
Stafford Meadow Brook near Scrub Oak Mountain. In 1918 
planting was begun around Griffin Reservoir. Today there are 
plantings of 3,300,000 trees. 

Trees are planted from 4 to 6 feet apart, the plantations 
averaging about 2500 trees to the acre. On the water company's 
total holdings of 23,000 acres, the work of reforestation is now 

The purpose in planting trees is the improvement of the 
watershed. This includes not only the improvement in quality of 
stream flow and the lessening of the dirt which the streams carry 
during flood, but also the appeal which the beauty of a forested 
watershed makes to the people. 


The purity of the supply is carefully watched at all times. 
Close attention is paid to keep the watershed area as free from 
pollution as possible. Over 21,000 acres of land have been pur- 
chased in order to keep the water pure. Much of this land has 
been reforested to make the watershed more attractive to the eye. 


Ownership of the reservoirs and the land around them enables the 
Water Company to keep off trespassers. 

Before the water enters the pipes at the distributing dams it is 
sterilized by chlorine gas to insure the absolute purity of the water. 

Final control of all this work rests in the laboratory where 
daily tests are carried out to determine the number and kinds of 
bacteria in the tap water in the city. Analyses are made every 
day of the water at the dams and of tap samples from the different 
sections of the city so that the condition of the water is known at 
all times. 

Local Geography of the Lackawanna and Wyoming Coal Field 

Many millions of years ago, the land that is now Pennsylvania 
was covered with a dense vegetation, far more dense than any 
tropical jungle of today. Giant tree-ferns, mosses of great size and 
grasses the size of our present forest trees covered the land. The 
atmosphere was heavy with moisture and carbonic acid gas; the 
heat was oppressive and plant life grew luxuriantly. 

Through ages these luxuriant plants flourished and died and 
sank into the swamps; new growths sprang up and followed the 
same course until layers of great thickness were formed. Ages 
passed, and the surface changed. The swamps sank lower, and 
the sea came in and covered the deposits of plants. Silt and sand 
were carried down by the rivers and spread over it. The beds sank 
lower; limestone was formed above and the layers of sand, silt and 
limestone caused great pressure and heat. 

The half-decayed vegetation slowly changed under this heat 
and pressure into different forms of coal. If there was a great deal 
of pressure, the beds of vegetation became anthracite coal; if less, 
bituminous coal. Still less heat and pressure formed lignite. In 


areas where almost no heat and pressure had been applied were 
formed beds of peat. In some coal beds are found traces of ferns, 
mosses and trees. Impressions of plants or animals found in coal 
are called fossils. 

Scranton has an abundance of anthracite coal. It lies in 
twelve beds or veins underneath the ground to a depth of about 
800 feet. These veins are found below the surface in the following 













The aggregate thickness of the coal is approximately 74 feet 
or nearly 1 foot of coal for every 10 feet of rock. The maximum 
thickness of coal veins is found in the vicinity of Gammon's Hill, 
near the Cathedral Cemetery, West Scranton, where every vein is 
found, providing in all an approximate thickness of 74 feet. In 
most localities only some of the veins enumerated above are 
present. The lowest spot where coal veins are found is just outside 
the Scranton city line in Dickson City (13 feet below sea level). 
This occurs in the No. 3 Dunmore Vein of Storrs Colliery, the 
property of the Glen Alden Company. 


Vein or Bed 


8 Foot 

8 Feet 

5 Foot 

5 ' 

4 Foot 

4 ' 


10 ' 


7 ' 

Big or 14 Foot 

14 ' 

New County 

5 ' 


8 ' 

No. 1 Dunmore 

2 ' 

No. 2 Dunmore 

4 ' 

No. 3 Dunmore 

4 ' 

No. 4 Dunmore 

3 ' 

The coal veins underneath the ground are lying approximately 
parallel to the general surface contour of the Lackawanna and 
Wyoming Valleys. They extend from one side of the valleys to 
the other and reach from one end of the Valley to the other. 
The northern point of the deposits extends to Stillwater above 
Forest City; the southern point to Shickshinny. This distance 
is approximately 56 miles. The width of the deposit of coal 
averages about 3i miles. Pennsylvania has a greater area of coal 
than that of the British Isles, Spain, France and Belgium combined. 

The approximate amount of coal shipped from Lackawanna 
County during the period from 1923 to 1928 inclusive was 1 10,- 
000,000 tons. The average yearly production during this produc- 
tion was 18,000,000 tons in Lackawanna County and 32,000,000 
tons in Luzerne County. 

How Coal is Mined 

A long, deep opening called a shaft is dug straight down 
through the ground until a vein or a layer of coal is reached. Then 
the miners dig along this seam, taking out the coal as they go. 
After the coal is dug or blasted loose, it is loaded into small cars 
and taken up through the shaft into a breaker. 

The Breaker 

When anthracite comes from the mine, it is a confused mix- 
ture of large and small pieces of coal and dirt. This mass is sub- 
jected to cleaning and separating processes in breakers, huge mills 
equipped with costly machinery where the coal is crushed, washed 
and separated into the various sizes required by the consumer. 
Not only is the coal broken up and segregated into sizes, but during 
this process the slate and other impurities are removed. The 
breakers represent an investment of between $2,000,000 and 
$3,000,000 each. 


Different Sizes of Anthracite 

1. Grate — Used for gas making and other manufacture. 

2. Egg — Used for large domestic furnaces; also gas making. 

3. Stove — Used in kitchen ranges, small furnaces, open grates. 

4. Chestnut — Used for kitchen ranges, base burners. 

5. Pea — Used for domestic furnaces and kitchen ranges. 

6. Buckwheat 

No. 1 — Used for heating boilers in hotels, public buildings, 
apartment houses, green houses, for furnaces equipped 
with proper grates and adequate draft. 

7. Buckwheat 
No. 2 or 

Rice — Used for steam making. 

8. Buckwheat 
No. 3 or 

Barley — Used for steam making. 

Industries of Scranton 

Scranton is a manufacturing center because: 

1. There are good transportation facilities for bringing raw ma- 
terials and for sending manufactured goods. 

2. There is an abundant supply of anthracite coal. 

3. There is an abundance of labor. 

4. There is a healthful climate. 

5. There is a good supply of electric power. 

6. There a good water supply. 

The industries of Scranton which give employment to the 
largest numbers of people (according to the Chamber of Com- 
merce, 1956) are in order of number employed: 

1 . Textile manufacturers 

2. Electronics 





Metals and metal products 




Graphic arts 


Weaving and throwing 


Food and kindred products 




Clay, glass and stone products 

Transportation and Communication 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western (The Lackawanna) 

Delaware and Hudson (D. & H.) 

Central Railroad of New Jersey 

New York, Ontario and Western 


Electric Interurban Railroad 

The Laurel Line, The Lackawanna and Wyoming Valley RaiL 
road Company, a local corporation used as freight line only. 

Street Buses 

The Scranton Transit Company, a subsidiary of the American 
Street Railway Company, a corporation that operates buses in 
many cities of the United States. 

Bus Lines 

1 . Greyhound Bus Line 

Scranton is on a direct line from New York to Chicago. 
This route goes from New York, through Scranton, Buffalo, 
Erie, Cleveland and Toledo to Chicago. From Chicago 
one may go on to points west. 


2. Capital Trail ways 

This bus company is made up of sixty-eight independent 
bus companies. From Scranton, connections can be made 
to any point within the United States. 

3. Martz Bus Lines 

This line has headquarters in Wilkes-Barre. Its buses 
come from New York and Philadelphia to Scranton and 
travel to Towanda, Buffalo and points west. 


Scranton has two airports, the Avoca and the Schultzville. 
The former, the largest in Northeastern Pennsylvania, has the mail 
contract and regular service by American, Colonial, Allegheny 
Lines, TWA, and Trans-Continental. 

Route No. 6 

This highway begins at Milford, near the Delaware River, 
comes over the Shohola Mountains, skirts the Wallenpaupack 
Dam, goes into Hawley, then Honesdale and Carbondale to Scran- 
ton. It comes into the circle at the end of Market Street and con- 
tinues northwest to Clarks Summit, Tunkhannock and Waverly. 
It is the main artery to Buffalo and the Great Lake District. 

Route No. 61 1 (Drinker Turnpike) 

This highway begins at Stroudsburg, comes northwest 
through Mount Pocono and Dunmore into Scranton, ending here. 
It comes down Green Ridge Street to Wyoming Avenue and so 
into the heart of the city. 


Route No. 1 1 (Lackawanna Trail) 

This highway comes south from Binghamton, Nicholson and 
Clarks Summit into Scranton. It comes into the circle, down 
Market Street, North Main Avenue, Providence Road, Mulberry 
Street, Adams Avenue, Cedar Avenue through Minooka, and 
continues south to Wilkes-Barre and Harrisburg. 

Route No. 307 (Morgan Highway and Moosic-Daleville Road) 

This highway is a shortened road through Scranton that saves 
traveling time for those transients on Route 611 and Route 6. It 
starts just west of Clarks Summit comes into Keyser Avenue, con- 
tinues to and down Market Street, North Main Avenue, Provi- 
dence Road, Mulberry Street, Wyoming Avenue, East on Lacka- 
wanna Avenue to Moosic Street and out passing Lake Scranton. 
It ends just east of Dalevile where it joins Route 611. 

The Northeastern Extension of the Philadelphia Turnpike 

The Northeastern Extension of the Philadelphia Turnpike is 
now under construction. It will speed transportation between 
Philadelphia and New York State and the North and West of the 
United States. It begins at Willow Grove outside of Philadelphia 
and at the present time definite plans find it terminating at Clarks 
Summit. Tentative plans include its extension to the Pennsylvania 
State Line just south of Binghamton, N. Y. 




Abbott, Philip _ — 15 

Allen, Ethan 14 

Allen, Horatio 30-31-32 

Allsworth, William 22 

Amusements (Early) 11 

Animals 6-11-59 

Asserughney 10 

Banks 41 

Birds 58 

Bucktown 22 

Capoose 5-9-10-14 

Carbondale 20 

Churches 41 

Climate 56-57 

— Discovery of Anthracite Coal..26-27-28 

— Early Users 27-28 

— Existence in the Lackawanna 

and "Wyoming Valleys 64 

— History 63-64 

— Making A Market 20 

— Sizes 66 

— The Breaker 65 

— The Mining of Coal 65 

Culture 46-47-48 

"Dam Build Bee' 17 

Deep Hollow 15 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 

Railroad 25 

Delaware and Hudson Canal and 

Banking Company 20-23 

Drainage 59 

Drinker, Henry 20 

Duwain, James A 17 

Early Business Ventures (1800-1840) 

— Distillery 17-18 

—Grist 15-16-17-18 

—Lumber Mill 17-18 

— Sheep Raising 18 

— The Iron Forge 18-21 

Early Homes 11 

Earliest Roads 10 

Erie Railroad 
— T-Strap Rail 23 

Education 44-45-46 

Fell, Judge Jesse _ 20 

Franklin, Colonel John 14 

Geographic Features 54-55-56 


— Council 41-44 

—Mayor 39-40-42-43 

— Line Departments 

— School District 44-45 

Gravity Railroad 

— Delaware and Hudson 

Canal 19-20-28-29 

— Pennsylvania Railroad 30 

Harrison (Scranton) 24 

Henry, William 21-24 

Holmes, Enoch 14 

Homes 41 

Hospitals 42 

Howe, John 16-17 

Howe, Seth 16-17 

Hyde Park 17-22-24 

Indian Relics 10-11 

Industries (1840-1930 
— Dickson Manufacuring Company.... 26 

— Iron Smelting 22 

— Nail Factory 23 

—Puddling Mill 23 

— Scranton Silk Company 26 

—The Cliff Works 26 

— The Lackawanna Mills 26 

Industries (1930-Present time) 

— Capitol Records 26 

— Consolidated Molded Products 26 

—Others 66-67 

Introduction 3 

Jerseyites 21-22 

Lackawanna County Court House 35 

Lackawanna Iron Works 24-25 

Lackawanna Valley 

— Early Occupations 5-6 

— Indian Crops 6 

— Location 5 

— Size 5 

Locomotive Road 25 


INDEX— (Continued) 


—Gold, Silver, Lead 33-34 

— Teal, John 33 

Names (Local) 34-35 

Names (Vicinity) 36-37-38-39 

News (Early) 11 

Newspapers 41 

Patterson, Justice Alexander 13 

Pennamite Wars 

—Early Conflict 7-8-9 

— First Pennamite War 12 

— Second Pennamite War 12-13 

— Third Pennamite War 14 

— Treaty of Trenton 12 

Pennsylvania Rangers 13 

Philadelphia and Great Bend 
Stage Coach 20 


— Albright, Joseph J 50 

— Bird, Caroline Weston 53 

— Everhart, Isaiah F 51 

— Johnson, Orlando S 49 

— Scranton, Worthington 50 

— Weston, Charles S 53 

Pickering, Timothy 14 

— Nationalities 21-41-56 


— Razorville 14-15-16 

— The Township 11-15 

—The Village 19-24 

Railroads 25 

Rixie's Gap (Carbondale) 20 

School Plot 17 

Scranton, George 22-25 

Signal Tree 10 

Six Nations 

— Composition 5 

— Conference with Pennamites 8 

—Defeat 12 

— Power 5-6 

Slocum, Ebenezer 17 

Slocum, Frances 17-32-33 

Slocum Hollow 18-22-23 

"Spitfire" 25 

Stafford, John 16 

Stourbridge Lion 25-30-31 

Street Car Lines 35 

Sullivan, General John 12 

Susquehanna Company 

— Bargaining With the Indians 6 

—Chartering 6-7-9-14-15 

— Discovery of the Land 7 

— Division of the Land 9 

Taylor, Reuben 16 


— Lackawanna River 18 

—Need 18 

—Other 67-68-69 

Treaty of Trenton 12 

Trees 58 

Tripp, Isaac 9 

Unionville 18 

Waderman, Daniel 14 

Water Supply 

— Purification 62-63 

— Reforestation 45-60-61-62-63 

Wyoming Massacre 12 

Wurts 19 

Conflicting Claims of Pennsylvania 

and Connecticut 4 

Mill 16 

Blast Furnaces 21 

Lackawanna Iron and Steel 

Company 23 

Puddling Mills 24 

Highways and Reservoirs in the 

Scranton Area 60 

Scranton, Then and Now 

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