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History and Government 
of New Jersey 




A Supplement to 



James Albert Woodburn, Ph.D. 



Thomas Francis Moran, Ph.D. 



Copyright, 1918, by Longmans, Green and Co. 





Supervisor of Social Sciences, High Schools, Newark, N. J. 


Earliest Settlers. In the seventeenth century two nations laid 
;laim to what is now New Jersey. This was the time when all 
he great European nations were seeking, by the planting of 
;olonies, to secure a firm foothold in North America. Although 
he voyage of Cabot had given England a shadowy claim to 
he whole Atlantic seaboard south of Labrador, the Dutch 
md the Swedes threatened to drive a wedge between her New 
England colonies and those further south by planting them- 
selves at the mouth of the Hudson and along the lower waters 
)f Delaware Bay. A glance at the map will show how New 
[ersey is naturally marked off from her neighbors north and 
lOuth by these two deep gashes in the Atlantic coastline. 

Beginning with the settlement of New Amsterdam, the 
Dutch West India Company began slowly to penetrate the 
nterior of America by way of the Hudson. At the same time 
hey planted a few straggling settlements on the Jersey side 
)f New York Bay and laid claim to the entire coast southwards 
the mouth of the Delaware. What is now New York State 
:laimed their attention in the main and they gave little thought 
New Jersey. A patroonship or great estate, running into 
mndreds of acres, was granted to a Michael Pauw. Besides 
5taten Island, this included the land upon which now stand 
^^oboken and Jersey City. Pauw, however, took compara- 
ively little interest in his tract and sold out his rights. 



m 30 »9i8 



The Dutch settlers were very slow to take up a residence in 
New Jersey. By 1664 they had small settlements at Paulus 
Hook and Bergen (both within the present limits of Jersey 
City), and also at Hoboken, Pavonia, and Weehawken. A 
few settlers had built themselves homes on Newark Bay, but 
the actual settlement had progressed so slowly that when the 
Dutch were forced to give up New Netherlands, few traces of 
their occupation remained. 

They were interested enough in 
maintaining their claims to this 
region to oppose the efforts of the 
Swedish government to plant a set- 
tlement on the Delaware. King 
Gustavus Adolphus, a farsighted 
man, sought to secure for Sweden a 
foothold on the Atlantic coast and 
sent out a colony which made a set- 
tlement on the present site of the 
city of Wilmington. Although this 
colony was within the state of Dela- 
ware, the region claimed as New 
Sweden took in the eastern bank of 
the Delaware, or a part of South 
Jersey. As early as 1623 they had 
attempted to settle at Gloucester, but were driven away. 
The Dutch finally sent out an expedition under Peter Stuyve- 
sant in 1655, and put an end to any possibihty of New Jersey 
or Delaware becoming a dependency, or colony, of Sweden. 

Changing Masters. Meanwhile, the English had watched 
with a jealous eye the progress of the Dutch colonies in New 
Netherlands, and when war broke out in Europe in 1664 be- 
tween the English and the Dutch, Charles II sent an expedi- 
tion under Colonel Nicolls to seize New Netherlands. The 
Dutch made but httle resistance and New York and New Jersey 
came under the EngUsh flag. The Duke of York, a brother of 

. : ©CI.A5n8348 



King Charles II, was made proprietor of the conquered territory. 
Although it was seized by the Dutch when war broke out again 
in 1673, it was restored to the English the following year and 
remained in their hands from that time forward. 

The name New Jersey was now given to that part of the 
conquered territory, bounded on the east by the Atlantic and 
on the west by the Delaware and on the north by a line drawn 
from the Hudson at the forty-first parallel of latitude to strike 
the Delaware at 41° 40'. These are the boundaries of the 
present state. This land was ceded to Sir George Carteret 
and to Lord Berkeley by the Duke of York even before it was 
captured and was considered by one who knew the country to 
be the best part of all New Netherlands. 

Carteret had served King Charles I, the father of the Duke, 
most acceptably during the great Civil War in England as 
governor of the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel, where 
he had held out to the very last against the parliamentary 
forces sent to take it. The Duke of York felt that he owed 
him a special debt of gratitude because in 1650 he had turned 
his own family from his castle on the Island in order to make 
room for the Duke and his retainers. 

Lord Berkeley was a brother of the famous governor of Vir- 
ginia who had so much trouble with the colonists under Bacon 
and had been a governor of the Duke in his youth. He had 
recently lost (1662) a grant of £3500 which he had spent in 
purchasing the rights of a certain Earl of Sterling on Long 

Form of Government. New Jersey and the Carolinas which 
were colonized at this same tune (1664) represented a new 
kind of colony. Their settlement was more like a business 
venture. The proprietors undertook to make them a paying 
proposition and thought of Httle else. Philip Carteret, a 
nephew of Sir George, was appointed governor of New Jersey. 
Before he set out from England, the new proprietors showed 
their anxiety to secure colonists by offering special inducements 


to any who would accompany him. These efforts resulted 
in the planting of a settlement at Elizabethtown, which was 
named after Lady Carteret. On his arrival he found some 
Dutch and Swedes at Bergen and some Enghsh exiles from 
Long Island and Connecticut at Shrewsbury. These had come 
here because of their desire to escape religious persecution, 

Landing of Carteret 
A painting in the Courthouse at Newark. The proclamation announcing the 
change of ownership is being read in the presence of the governor. Note the 
costumes worn at this time. 

and they had purchased their lands from the Indians. The 
proprietors drew up such a Hberal form of government for- the 
colony that settlers migrated there all the way from New Eng- 
land, founding the tow^n of New Milford, later known as Newark 
and settling also at Piscataway and Woodbridge. These 
were Puritans and their number increased to such an extent 
that the colony resembled in many particulars, especially in 
the emphasis upon religion, the Puritan settlements in New 
England. The Puritan settlers of Newark had come, as they 
expressed it, "to be of one heart and consent, through God's 
blessing, that with one hand they may endeavor the carrying 
on of spiritual concernments, as also civil and town affairs 
according to God and a godly government." A legislature 
was granted by the proprietors, but this soon made so many 


claims upon the governor for rights and privileges that it was 
dismissed. For seven years the people were without a legal 

The Division of the Colony. An effort on the part of the 
Duke of York to take back his grant, and trouble with the colo- 
nists, led to a division of the colony into East and West Jersey. 
(See map, page 73). Until 1702 it was a question what was 
to be the future of this strip of our Atlantic seaboard. Lord 
Berkeley sold his share, known as West Jersey, to some Quak- 
ers for one thousand pounds; and eight years later (1682), soon 
after the death of Sir George Carteret, the other portion, known 
as East Jersey, fell into the hands of William Penn and twenty- 
four associates. The rights of Carteret were sold at pubUc 
auction for £3400. The new owners were not all Quakers, as 
Scotch Presbyterians were to be found among their number. 

In 1688 James II placed East and West Jersey, along with 
New York and a part of New England, under the rule of Edmund 
Andros, hoping to unite several of the colonies into a powerful 
state; but when he was driven out of England in 1688, 
his representative was seized and imprisoned, and thus ended 
his schemes for a single great colony in this region. With 
this exception, each of these divisions of New Jersey down to 
1702 had its own separate history and government. 

West Jersey. The more important of these seems to have 
been West Jersey. Its new Quaker proprietors gave the people 
a charter which was a remarkable document. It granted the 
most liberal terms to Jerseymen, including freedom of worship, 
trial by jury, the right to petition the government and open 
courts for the trial of offenders.* Even arbitrary imprison- 
ment for debt was forbidden. When these arrangements are 
compared with the privileges enjoyed elsewhere in the new 
world, they will appear to be most unusual. 

The colonists were given a legislature or law-making body 
to which they elected representatives. These were paid and 
had full liberty to say what they pleased. The proprietors 


did not try to govern the colony directly, but placed the power 
first in the hands of commissioners, and later appointed a gov- 
ernor. In order that the people might be thoroughly satis- 
fied with this new form of government, it was submitted to 
them for approval. By so doing it was recognized that the 
people themselves are really the source of all power and that 
it is through them and with their consent that governments 
are created. '' We lay," said the Quaker framers of this docu- 
ment, '' a foundation for after ages to understand their Kberty 
as Christians and as men, that they may not be brought into 
bondage but by their own consent, for we put the power in the 
people." This form of government continued as long as West 
Jersey remained a separate colony. 

'Two of the proprietors of West Jersey had seen service under 
Oliver Cromwell. They were quite successful in persuading 
settlers to emigrate to their colony and in 1675 founded the 
city of Salem, the first permanent settlement on the East side 
of the Delaware. Two years later, in 1677, four hundred 
Quakers came over from England and founded Burlington, 
which soon became the most important commercial center 
of this region until the rise of Philadelphia. About this time 
ships were sailing for West Jersey once in two or three months, 
landing settlers and freight at Burlington. The price for the 
passage was five pounds for each adult and forty shilhngs a ton 
for freight. 

East Jersey. The people of East Jersey were not so fortu- 
nate in having the management of their affairs placed in their 
own hands. They too received a form of government from 
the proprietors of the pro\dnce, but it granted them less privi- 
leges than those which they had enjoyed before the colony 
was divided. There was considerable emigration from Scot- 
land into East Jersey. Perth Amboy was settled at this time, 
its name suggesting its Scotch origin. This was the capital 
of East Jersey and was an important port, a collector of cus- 
toms residing there. 



New Jersey comes under the Rule of the English Govern- 
ment. In 1702 the proprietors of each colony sold back their 
rights to the English government because they felt that the 
colonies were unprofitable. The colonists had given them con- 
siderable trouble by constantly demanding new rights and 
privileges. Relations with their neighbors, 
annoying, especially with New York. 

At this time there were probably about 
New Englanders, and Scotch Presbyterians 

too, were often 

10,000 Quakers, 
in East Jersey, 
and not over 4000 settlers 
in West Jersey. These last 
were mainly Quakers. 
Large herds of cattle 
roamed the broad lowland 
meadows. There was com- 
paratively little foreign 
trade and very little man- 
ufacturing. The people 
were generally loyal to 
the government, the taxes 
were light, and public sal- 
aries small. With Penn- 
sylvania and New York 
as buffers against any 
attack they were in no grave danger from the Indians. 

Struggle to Control their Own Affairs. For a time New 
Jersey was placed under the same royal governor as New York, 
but had its separate council and assembly. The old divi- 
sion into East and West Jersey was still recognized in choosing 
members for the assembly, the people in each division selecting 
twelve. Only those owning property were allowed to vote or 
hold office. The colonists did not like to think that they were 
a part of New York and so kept petitioning the English gov- 
ernment for a governor of their own. More than thirty 
years passed before this request was granted (1738). Lewis 

Interior or a Quaker Meeting House 

This interior presents a sharp contrast to 
that of the modern church. Such buildings 
were numerous in the parts of the state 
settled by the Quakers. 


Morris, who became governor in 1738, was largely responsible 
for this. Among the changes which were introduced at this 
time, perhaps the most important was the combining of 
the council and assembly into a legislative body of two houses, 
^ith this date the separate history of New Jersey may be said 
to commence. 

The spirit of the people at this time was shown in their quarrels 
with the governor over the question of how much power was 
to be exercised by him and how much by the people themselves, 
rhis same spirit is to be seen throughout the early history 
Df the colony and shows how devoted the colonists were to the 
^deal of liberty. This explains the prominence of New Jersey 
n the struggles between the colonies and England later. 

The French and Indian Wars in New Jersey. The French 
md Indian Wars made it necessary for the people of New Jersey 
^o provide for their own defense and for that of their sister 
:olonies. On the whole the people of New Jersey showed them- 
selves both eager and willing to do their share. They showed 
Derhaps less jealousy of their neighbors than did some of the 
3ther colonies. Governor Morris testified to this, saying 
:hat they showed " a due regard both for the rights of govern- 
nent and the liberties of the people." In the midst of quarrels 
*vith their governors they voted money and raised troops for 
defense against the common foe. Because of opposition to 
the quartering of soldiers on the people, barracks were built 
3y the legislature at BurHngton, Trenton, New Brunswick, 
Perth Amboy, and Elizabeth town. A great service was ren- 
dered the colony by Governor Francis Bernard when he called 
I meeting of Indian chiefs at Easton, Pennsylvania, and won 
their good will, thereby saving the western frontier from some 
Df the raids which brought death and destruction to other 
colonies. Then, too, the people of New Jersey had been careful 
from the beginning to purchase their lands from the native 
inhabitants. David Brainerd's work as a missionary among 
the Indians near Freehold, like that of John Eliot in New 


England, helped to win their friendship and prevented any 
uprisings against the population. During this struggle New 
Jersey showed little interest in any plan for uniting the colonies. 
Governor Fletcher, who had been commissioned governor of 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey and military head of Connecticut 
during the first of these wars, reported to the home government 
that the small colonies were as much divided on a plan of union 
as Christian and Turk. New Jersey was not represented in the 
Albany Congress in 1754. 

Character of the People. The people were still largely devoted 
to farming, living in villages or in some cases in spacious and 
elegant country houses. In many of their towns. New Eng- 
land customs were to be found. One of the most interesting 
of these was the practice of giving over the care of the poor to 
the persons who made the lowest bid for their maintenance 
at a public auction. In these towns they were very much op- 
posed to stage plays, cock fighting, and card playing, and 
passed strict laws against such practices. 

New Jersey at the Outbreak of the Revolution. The greatest 
of New Jersey's governors was the last man to be appointed 
to the ofhce by the king of England, William Franklin, the 
son of the famous Benjamin Franklin. This was at the time 
when the King of England was trying to enforce the Stamp 
Act in America. The new governor sided wdth the English 
government, as did many of the colonists. So many of the 
young men went into the government service either in the 
colony or in England and so many others were educated in 
the mother country or married there that families were now 
divided, some of the members upholding the king, while 
others strongly opposed his tyranny. The patriots were 
strong enough, however, to control the legislature and to send 
delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. " Sons of 
Liberty " were formed to resist the tax, and mobs " burned 
efhgies, erected gallows, and threatened any one who should 
attempt to use the stamps." 


When the situation between the mother country and her 
colonies became more tense and strained in the years imme- 
diately before the outbreak of the Revolution, these patriots 
were to be found among the active supporters of the non-im- 
portation agreements, sending sympathy and aid to the people 
of Boston when they heard that the English government had 
closed the port. A meeting was held in Newark in June, 1774, 
to organize for resistance, and, as the members of the committee 
chosen here were from Elizabethtown, this town became the 
headquarters of the patriot movement. Delegates were sent 
to the first Continental Congress; a committee of correspond- 
ence was appointed for the colony as a whole; and committees 
were appointed in some of the counties. 

This step was soon followed by meetings in the different coun- 
ties to elect delegates to attend a convention at Trenton on 
May 23, 1775. These delegates, immediately upon coming 
together, insisted that they were the real governing body of 
the colony, and proceeded to organize an association for the 
defense of the colony. At the same time they provided for a 
militia force. Later in the year they arranged for a more 
representative gathering of the patriots and this congress, 
which was held at Trenton, placed itself in close touch with 
the Continental Congress. From this time on the colony was 
independent of England. Although the delegates who at- 
tended the Continental Congress had been instructed to oppose 
any plan for independence, those who were present a year 
later enthusiastically supported the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. The day before this, on July 3, 1776, the patriots 
it home had drawn up a constitution for the new state of New 
Jersey. This was the work of some of the most prominent 
men at the time, including such men as Witherspoon, Hart, 
Clark, Paterson, Dickinson, and Frelinghuysen. It remained 
in force without change for almost three quarters of a cen- 
tury — a record surpassed by only one other state of the original 
thirteen, Massachusetts, 


Trouble with the Tories. The situation of New Jersey 
made her play a very prominent part in the fighting, and her 
separate history was soon merged with that of the country 
at large. While their fellow colonists were fighting in Massa- 
chusetts, the state was having trouble with the Tories. The 
people of New Jersey had split into two parties, each violently 
opposed to the other. Civil war followed. '^ Neighbors fought 
neighbors with the ferocity shown in the border states during 
the Civil War." At first the Tories took a pledge not to pay 
any of the taxes or obey the orders of the government. The 
provincial congress was inclined to be lenient with them, but 
such large numbers left the state to take sides with the British 
or remained to plot its destruction that they were forced to 
take more vigorous measures against them. These Tories 
had their headquarters in the northeastern part of the state 
and on Staten Island, and as the British troops occupied this 
territory they became bolder. 

The Campaign of 1776. One of the most important campaigns 
of the entire Revolution was that of 1776. When Howe 
landed at New York in 1776, Washington had been forced to 
abandon the city, slowly retreating northwards up the Hudson 
and fimally crossing to the Jersey side. After the battle of 
White Plains he fell back across the northern part of New 
Jersey by way of Hackensack and Newark, which he reached, 
November 22. Here he spent five days. The outlook was 
discouraging. News came of a dangerous uprising of the Tories 
in Monmouth County and a battalion had to be sent there to 
stamp out the revolt. As Washington left the city on the 
28th, the enemy's advance guard entered at one end while he 
was passing out at the other. He fell back, by way of Eliza- 
bethtown, Woodbridge, Springfield, and Scotch Plains, iipon 
New Brunswick and from there retreated to Trenton, closely 
pursued by Howe and his forces. He finally reached the oppo- 
site bank of the Delaware, where he was safe for the time being, 
as Howe had no boats to pursue him. On his march through 


tie state, Howe was greatly aided by farmers who apparently 
eld their loyalty very cheap and were willing to supply the 

Wasliington's Retreat 
across ^ew Jersey 


:roops with produce in exchange for British gold. Wash- 
ngton's forces were steadily dwindling in number and the 
Dutlook was very dark. 

The Tories were active at this time and did everything in 
their power to interfere with the plans of the patriots. With 


their help, pamphlets prepared by Howe were circulated in 
New Jersey, and had it not been for the outrages committed 
by the British and Hessians on their march through the state, 
it is very possible that thousands would have been won over 
to the Tory side. 

Battles of Trenton and Princeton. The fortunes of the little 
army under Washington were entirely changed by the begin- 
ning of the next year. His army had been reinforced to the 
extent of several thousand men and now numbered about 6000. 
The British troops had been stationed in winter quarters 
at three points. New Brunswick, Trenton, and Bordentown. 
Washington decided to attack one of these. Crossing the 
Delaware on Christmas night, the patriot army under his 
leadership inflicted a severe defeat upon the Hessians sta- 
tioned at Trenton under Colonel Rail, killing their com- 
mander, capturing 1000 prisoners, and returning successfully 
to the Pennsylvania side. This attack was made under the 
greatest difficulties. Washington had planned with two of 
his generals to strike the British lines at three points, but 
the river was so filled with ice that he was obliged to make 
the attempt alone with a small force, his army numbering not 
more than 2400. It was four o'clock in the morning before 
they succeeded in landing on the Jersey side. 

Recrossing the river a few days later, Washington occupied 
Trenton (December 30). Cornwallis, who had hurried south 
from New York on the news of the defeat at Trenton, boasted 
that he would now '' bag the old fox." Arriving late in the 
afternoon of January 2, he made an attack upon the American 
forces holding the bridge across the Assanpink, but failed to 
force a passage. He encamped opposite Washington's army, 
intending to attack in the morning. Washington was too 
prudent to risk a battle with so large a force. He therefore 
left his campfires burning, and under the pretense of digging 
earthworks to protect his forces, slipped away with most of his 
army to attack the force which Cornwallis had left behind at 



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Princeton. The fighting took place just outside the town, but 

in the final struggle some Hessians took refuge in old Nassau, 

the original building of Princeton College, barricading the 

doors. A cannon was 

brought to the scene and 

they soon surrendered. A 

cannon ball is said to 

have cut King George's 

head out of his framed 


Washington had won a 
brilliant victory. Before 
Cornwallis could follow 
him with his army, he had 
made his way to the 
heights at Morris town, 
where Cornwallis did not 
dare to follow him. Corn- 
wallis retired to New Brunswick. By these defeats Wash- 
ington rescued the reater part of New Jersey from the in- 
vading British forces. Only three towns remained in their 
hands, New Brunswick, Perth Amboy, and Paulus Hook. 
He now issued a proclamation requiring all those who had 
recently taken an oath of allegiance to the English government 
to either swear allegiance to the United States or to retire to the 
British lines. The result was the flight to New York City of 
many who had assisted the invaders. 

Leaving his winter quarters on May 28, 1777, Washington 
marched to Bound Brook, only ten miles from the British head- 
quarters at New Brunswick. There was some moving about 
of Howe's forces in the hope that he might persuade Wash- 
ington to give battle under conditions which would be favorable 
to the British. Washington was not to be caught in this way, 
and the fighting was soon shifted to the neighborhood of Phila- 
delphia. Howe had decided to attack the rebel capital, and 

Old Nassau 

The oldest building of Princeton College, 
named in honor of WilUam of Orange, built 
in 1756. The Continental Congress sat here 
from June 30 to November 4, 1783. 



now moved his forces through Rahway to Perth Amboy and 
from there to Staten Island, in preparation for this great stroke. 
In spite of the efforts of Washington, aided by troops from 
New Jersey, Howe occupied Philadelphia in 1777 and Wash- 
ington spent the winter of 1777 and 1778 at Valley Forge. 

The Battle of Monmouth. In 1778, after hearing the news of 
the approach of the French fleet, the British decided that it 
was unwise to remain in Philadelphia. Sir Henry Clinton, 

who had replaced Howe, 
planned to lead his army 
back to New York across 
New Jersey, as there were 
not ships enough to take 
them there by water. 
Washington now saw his 
opportunity to strike a 
hard blow before the 
British could reach New 
York; it might even be 
possible to cut off a part 
of the army. As Clinton 
marched towards Mon- 
mouth Court House 
(Freehold) on his way to 
Sandy Hook, Washington 
sent Lee to attack him. 
Lee, however, played a 
traitor's part and, instead of obeying the orders he had received, , 
began to fall back with his troops before they had really come- 
to close quarters with the British. A terrible disaster might! 
have been the result, had Washington not come upon the scene 
at this time. '' What is the meaning of all this? " he shouted. 
" His tone was so fierce and his look so threatening that the 
traitor shook in his stirrups and could make no answer." 
Taking charge of the army, he succeeded in checking the 

Old Tennent Church 

One of the oldest churches in the state, com- 
pleted in 1753. The Battle of Monmouth 
raged a mile and a quarter to the southeast 
of it on a Sunday morning and the building 
was probably used as a hospital for the 
wounded. Washington met the first Ameri- 
cans returning from the battle not far from 
the door. 


advancing British and saved the situation. But the opportu- 
nity for which he had so long been waiting had been lost. The 
British safely withdrew to Sandy Hook and from there to 
New York. 

An interesting story is told of this battle. It was a hot 
sultry day. A young Irishwoman of twenty-two was bringing 
water from a near-by 
spring to her husband, 
who was serving one of 
the guns. He was in- 
stantly killed by a shot 
from a British gun and 
the order was given to 
remove the gun, as there 
was no one to serve it. 
His wife, hearing the 
order, dropped her bucket 
and seized the rammer^ 
vowing she would avenge 
bis death. She served the 
sfun with such skill and 

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Washington's Headquarters at 
A fine specimen of a colonial house, built in 
1772, now fitted up as a museum. Among 
the other trasures to be found here is Wash- 
ington's original commission as commander 
of the American army, signed by John 

courage throughout the 
battle that she was brought before Washington by Gen- 
eral Greene. He was so pleased with her bravery that 
be is said to have given her a commission as sergeant and had 
ber name placed on the pay list for life. The heroine of this 
incident was known as Molly Pitcher. Some say that this 
was not her real name, but a nickname given to her because 
she carried water to the wounded during the battle. This was 
the last important battle of the Revolution on the soil of New 

The Battles at Springfield. The flame of battle still burned 
in the northern part of the state because of its nearness to the 
British headquarters at New York. Washington spent the 
winter of 1779-80 at Morristown. The year 1780, made famous 



by Arnold's treason, was one of gloom for the patriot cause, as 
the people of America did not realize just how much they had 
accomplished. Arnold's treason came as a great shock. The 
troops at Morristown were starving, and a mutiny broke out 

on May 25 th, news of which was 
circulated by spies at the British 
headquarters in New York. General 
von Knyphausen, who was in com- 
mand, thought it an opportune time 
to make a dash across Jersey and 
secure Morristown, which was im- 
portant because of its magazines. He 
had handbills printed encouraging 
treason and succeeded in distributing 
these among the American forces, 
hoping that they would surrender 
without a blow. But he '^ reckoned 
without his host," as they gave his 
troops such a warm reception at 
Springfield that the attempt was 
abandoned. The commander of the 
British forces fell mortally wounded 
by a shot from a Yankee rifleman at 
Elizabethtown. The attempt was re- 
peated a little later by Sir Henry 
Clinton. This promised to be more 
serious for the Americans, as Clinton 
had succeeded in drawing off a part 
of Washington's troops to Pompton, in the belief that he was 
planning an attack upon West Point. A second time Spring- 
field proved the turning point. The battle was fought near 
the church and when the militia ran out of wadding for theiij 
rifles. Parson Caldwell rushed out of the church with a load oi 
hymn books, shouting ^'Put Watts into them, boys! " Westfield 
Little Egg Harbor, and Toms River were also scenes of mino] 

Minute Man, Springfield 

This monument stands just 
in front of the church from 
which Parson Caldwell is 
said to have carried the hymn 
books. The struggle was along 
the road in front of the church. 


engagements, but from this time forward the South proved to 
be the great battleground. 

Weakness of the Articles of Confederation in New Jersey. 

Before the war was over, the colonies found it necessary to plan 
for a stronger government than that provided by the Second 
Continental Congress. They had therefore drawn up the 
Articles of Confederation under which the colonies were gov- 
erned to the close of the war. At the close of the war it was 
clear that if the union was to continue, something must be done 
to strengthen the central government. Each colony sought 
to lay its own taxes on commerce, and New Jersey, lying be- 
tween the two great ports of New York and Philadelphia, was 
compared to a cask tapped at both ends. New York also 
became jealous of the large trade in butter, eggs, and vegetables 
which was carried on by Jersey merchants and made it a rule 
that any market boat coming from Jersey should pay entrance 
fees, as might be the case with ships coming from abroad. The 
Jersey legislature was so angry that they proceeded to tax 
New York $1800 a year for the lighthouse at Sandy Hook. 

This was not the only difficulty between the colonies that 
called for a reorganization of the government. There was a 
craze for paper money. The New Jersey legislature wanted 
to issue a half a million paper dollars, but the governor vetoed 
the bill. The people of Elizabethtown were so angry that 
threats were made to burn him in effigy. At the next session 
of the legislature the governor relented, but the people of the 
state soon found that they could not circulate this money either 
in New York or in Pennsylvania. 

When Congress called for $3,000,000 from the states in 
1785, New Jersey refused to pay its share of $166,716. This 
created such a stir at the capital that a committee of Congress 
was appointed to appear before the legislature in order to per- 
suade them to consent to the payment. It was argued that 
such action on their part revealed the weakness of the cen- 
tral goverimient and made it appear in a sorry light to the other 


colonies and to the nations of Europe. New Jersey yielded, 
but her action at this time illustrated the attitude of most of 
the colonies towards the government set up by the Articles of 

New Jersey Ratifies the Constitution. It was just such 
problems as these which led to the calling of the Annapolis 
Convention. Although this convention accomplished little 
besides arranging for the one at Philadelphia next year, the 
New Jersey representatives were willing to go much farther in 
arranging for better relations between the colonies than were 
some of their sister states. At the Philadelphia meeting, re- 
membering what they had suffered from Philadelphia and New 
York, the New Jersey delegates stood out for a plan of union 
which would give the small states a better representation in 
the national government. This plan was laid before the con- 
vention by a former governor, William Paterson, and was 
known as the New Jersey plan. It provided for the amend- 
ment of the Articles of Confederation, but failed to establish 
a strong central government which would secure prompt action 
from the states. Long and bitterly did Paterson champion 
his plan. Finally, the convention agreed to a compromise 
whereby the small states should be equally represented in the 
Senate. When the constitution finally came before the states 
for adoption. New Jersey was the third state to ratify the docu- 
ment. Unlike so many of the states at this time in which the 
struggle over ratification lasted for months, hardly a week was 
spent in discussing the new document. 


On an outline map show the claims of the Dutch and Swedes to New 
Jersey. How much larger was New Netheriands than New Jersey? 
How did New Sweden compare in size with New Jersey? 

Look up Peter Stuyvesant's career as governor of New Netherlands. 

What advantages were offered to early settlers of New Jersey? (Read 
Hart, "American History told by Contemporaries.") 


4. Write an imaginary account of the experiences of one of the settlers 

arriving with Carteret. 

5. Look up the story of the founding of Newark. (See Pierson's "Nar- 

ratives of Newark" or Urquhart's "History of Newark.") 

6. What colonies in New England had already been settled when New 

Jersey became an English colony? Why should New Jersey have 
been preferred to these. 

7. How did William Penn come to be interested in America? 

8. Indicate on a map, the territory ruled by Andros. 

c . Compare the proprietary government of New Jersey with proprietary 
government in the other colonies. 

10. Look up the principal events of the Indian wars and note how near 

they came to New Jersey. 

11. Compare New Jersey with Massachusetts or Virginia in her opposi- 

tion to the king. What special reasons did a Jerseyman have for 
opposing him ? 

12. Look up the part taken by your community in the Revolution. How 

near was it to the events described here? Look for graves of revo- 
lutionary veterans in the cemeteries in your neighborhood or monu- 
ments erected in their honor with the inscriptions upon them. Write 
the story of its part in the Revolution, using this material. 

13. How did New Jersey illustrate the need for a stronger government 

than the Articles of Confederation provided? Compare her needs 
with those of other colonies. 


1. Stockton, F. R., "Stories of New Jersey," pp. 9-82, 93-203. 

2. Knowlton, D. C, "Government of New Jersey," Chapter 1. 

3. Pierson, D. L., "Narratives of Newark," Chapters I, III-IV, XV-XVI, 


4. Urquhart, Frank, "Short History of Newark," Chapter I. 

5. Tomlinson, E. T., "A Jersey Boy in the Revolution." "Washington's 

Young Aids." "Boys of Old Monmouth." "In the Hands of the 

6. Otis, James, "Morgan, the Jersey Spy." "With Washington at Mon- 




New Jersey in Washington's Time. When the new govern- 
ment went into operation in 1789, with Washington as its first 
president, New Jersey continued to be governed by the con- 
stitution which had been drawn up at the time of the break 
with England. Only property owners were allowed to take 
part in the government, but this arrangement was no different 
from that which was to be found in other states. Washington 
himself came of an aristocratic family, and in those days no 
one thought it strange that the working classes should be denied 
a share in managing their affairs. 

The constitution had been drawn up in such a hurry that for 
a long time women had the same right to vote as men, as the 
constitution did not specify that the right to vote should be 
restricted to the male property owners. Burlington was the 
capital of the state until 1790, when Trenton became the seat 
of government. 

Many of the people of the higher classes .lived like Southern 
planters on large estates. In some cases they kept negro slaves. 
In colonial times from eight to ten per cent of the population 
were slaves. Soon after New Jersey was reunited, in 1702, 
slaves were introduced into the colony in great numbers as a 
result of the interest of one of the governors in the Royal African 
Company, which was organized to bring them from Africa. 
These were more numerous in the eastern part of the state. 
In this section considerable trade was carried on, and Perth 
Amboy was gradually becoming an important seaport. There 
was also trade with New York City and Philadelphia, but this 
was mainly in farm products. By 1800 this part of the state 
was turning out large quantities of flour fropi the mills and 
was producing cider, leather, and lumber. 

The people in the western part of New Jersey lived mainly 



by agriculture, raising large quantities of wheat, horses, and 
sheep. Even in colonial times glass making was carried on in 
South Jersey. -Iron and copper also were mined and made 
into bars. As early as 1685 there were iron mills in Monmouth 
County; these were the property of Lewis Morris. In 1750 
Morris and Warren counties were the centers of this industry. 

Speedwell Iron Works 

Located near Morristown and one of the earliest and most famous manufacturing 
enterprises in the state. The engine of the Savannah, the first steamship to cross 
the Atlantic (1819), was built here, as were also parts of the first American loco- 
motive and the first cast-iron plow. 

The people had to depend largely upon ferries and post roads 
to transport their goods. 

In 1 79 1 there were six post offices in the state located at 
Newark, Elizabeth town, Bridgeton (now Rahway), New Bruns- 
wick, and Trenton. The state was divided into thirteen coun- 
ties with a mixed population in 1800 of about 200,000. This 
was one twenty-sixth of the entire population of the United 
States at that time. The northern part of the state and the 
portion near Philadelphia were most densely populated. At- 
tention had already been directed to education, and two of 
the oldest colleges in the country were located in New Jersey, 



^^^^'^N^NEW YOF 

Princeton, originally called the College of New Jersey, founded 
in 1746, and Rutgers, known as Queen's College, founded in 


Party Strife. The Methodist revival under Whitfield about 
1740 had won many converts, and these were now counted 
among the most enthusiastic supporters of the interests of the 

people. The state took an active 
part in the struggle between the 
Federalists and Anti - Federalists, 
later known as Republicans. In 
1789 New Jersey was a stronghold of 
the Federalist party, as was shown 
by the readiness with which the 
state ratified the constitution. As 
time passed, however, the Republi- 
can party gradually grew in power 
and they succeeded in 1801 in elect- 
ing their first governor, Joseph 
Bloomfield. The death of Hamilton 
at the hands of Aaron Burr at Wee- 
hawken, and the loss of William 
Livingston, the first governor of the 
state and a prominent Federalist, 
did much to weaken the party in 
the state. Only the extreme north- 
ern and southern portions supported Jefferson in 1800; the 
electoral vote went to Adams. 

The War of 1812 and the Transportation Question. The- 
people of the state had not interested themselves in the building 
of ships, and New Jersey therefore had little to lose by English 
and French interference with American shipping during the 
struggle between Europe and Napoleon. It was opposed to 
declaring war against England in 181 2, and, when war actually 
broke out, was very much concerned over the defenselessness 
of its coast. As the natural highway between New York and 


Compare these routes with the 
present railroad systems. 


Philadelphia, it was exposed, with its neighbors north and 
south, to the danger of an attack from the sea. The state 
had already taken steps to improve the highways which con- 
nected these two great cities. This new danger aroused them 
to renewed efforts. One of the earlier routes by road between 
Philadelphia and New York brought the traveler first to Bur- 
lington or Bordentown, then to Paulus Hook, and from here 

Newark Stage for New-York. 

A FOUR HORSE STAGE iviU leave Archer Gif- 
ford't, in Newark, every morning (except Sunday) 
Qthalffafi Ji'veo* clock y and nvill leawe P envies Hooi at $ 
o'clock in the afternoon for Nenvark — This arrangement 
gi<ves time/or doing huftnefs in the city, and the cooleft 
hours for travelling, Paffengers choofng this conveyance 
may apply for feats to Jo HH Boa i> at A* Gifford*s. 

Iff y. N. Cumming. 

An Early Stagecoach AdverIisement ^ 
Note the route covered by this stage and the equipment used. 

he crossed to the New York side. It meant at least a day's 
journey, at a cost of something like six dollars a trip. By 1804 
a turnpike was built from Trenton to New Brunswick. Later, 
in 1809, the route was changed somewhat as the result of the 
introduction of the steamboat. The Union line of wagons and 

1 From A Brief History of New Jersey. Copyright 1 910 by Edward S. ElHs 
and Henry Snyder. American Book Company, publishers. 


stages made the trip first by steamboat from Philadelphia to 
Trenton, then by wagon or stage along the Trenton-New Bruns- 
wick turnpike, and finally by water down the Raritan to New 
York. After the war the legislature showed its great interest 
in road building by granting permission to several companies 
to construct roads. 

As to New Jersey's actual part in the war, her militia responded 
readily to the call of Governor Bloomfield in 1812 for 5000 
troops and again to Governor Pennington's request for 5000 
in 18 14. Some of these were on. duty at Paulus Hook and 
at Sandy Hook but saw no real service. Two of her citizens 
became famous in the sea fighting of the time, William Bain- 
bridge of Princeton, who commanded the Constitution when 
she captured the Java, and James Lawrence of the Chesapeake, 
who is best remembered for his dying cry as he was carried 
below, " Don't give up the ship." 

The Canal and the Steamboat. In the period of our history 
when the national government was interesting itself in such 
internal improvements as the Cumberland Road and the Erie 
Canal, New Jersey was developing every means of commu- 
nication which seemed to promise to advance the trade and 
industry of the state. In 1824 the Morris Canal was built be- 
tween Easton and Newark. In 1830 the first boat passed 
through Newark. This was considered a great engineering 
triumph, particularly the mclined plane by which boats were 
brought down into the city from the hilly ground to the west 
of it. In 1830 the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company was 
launched with $1,000,000 of capital. As far back as 1804 a 
canal had been planned connecting the two rivers and the 
route located. Twelve years later the governor made a strong 
appeal for action, but it was not until 1838 that the canal was 
ready for use. 

In the early days of the steamboat when John Fitch was 
experimenting with steam, the legislature had granted hun 
the sole right to navigate the streams of the state for fourteen 


Aears. One of his steamboats actually sailed the Delaware, 
naking a speed of seven miles an hour. Fitch, however, did 
lot succeed in making the enterprise pay. The liberality of 
:he state in granting him such a valuable right is but another 
llustration of how important the people regarded the develop- 
nent of the proper means of communication within their bor- 
iers. In 1803 Colonel John Stevens of Hoboken operated a 
jmall boat propelled by steam on the Passaic. 

Finally in 1809 steamboats began to ply regularly on the 
Raritan and Delaware Rivers. One of these, the Phoenix, 
A^as built by John Stevens in 1806 and was used between New 
Brunswick and New York. A monopoly was held by the 
[amous inventor Fulton and one of the Livingstons, which 
gave this concern the sole right to the use of the Hudson and 
New York Bay. This interfered seriously with the business 
of the Phoenix and other boats. In 1809 there were regular 
steamboat sailings on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays at 
seven a.m. between Philadelphia and New York. Borden- 
town was reached at one; then the journey was continued by 
stage to New Brunswick, where the traveler spent the night, 
to continue his journey at six o'clock the next morning by 
steamboat to New York. By 18 10 the journey was made in 
twenty-six hours and the fare was five dollars. 

The First Railroad. When the railroad appeared. New 
Jersey was immediately interested. As early as 18 15 permis- 
sion had been granted to a company to erect a railroad from 
the Delaware near Trenton to the Raritan at or near New 
Brunswick. This was before the days of the locomotive, and 
it is not clear therefore what kind of a railroad the company 
proposed to build, as their plans were never carried out. When 
the locomotive proved its usefulness, enterprising people in 
the state planned for a railroad between Camden and Amboy. 
This was in 1830, and in 1832 the first section was built and 
operated between Bordentown and Hightstown. Robert Stevens 
was sent to England to secure the locomotive and rails for the 


new road, and during his journey " produced or perfected the 
American or Stevens rail." The locomotive known as " John 
Bull " was shipped in parts, and it fell to the lot of an American 
mechanic, who had never seen one in operation, to assemble 

The first railroad train presented a curious picture. '' A 
tender had been made from a converted four-wheel flat car, 


First New Jersey Railroad Train 

Note the stage bodies on carriage trucks. This train was operated for the first 
time November 12, 183 1. 

the tank being a large whisky barrel and the supply of water 
conveyed to the boiler by short sections of leather hose. At- 
tached to the locomotive wxre two four-wheeled coaches, built 
to be drawn by horses, if need should arise. These coaches 
were practically carriage bodies, three doors to a side." 

By 1834 a line of railroad across the state had been completed 
between Camden and Perth Amboy. Four years later a parallel 
line was built from New Brunswick to Jersey City and from 
New Brunswick to Borden town. The Camden-Amboy shops 
for the manufacture of locomotives were soon opened at 
Hoboken. These supplied the models for the building of "Old 
Ironsides " by Mathias Baldwin, the founder of the great 
Baldwin Locomotive works at Philadelphia. 

The Morris and Essex Railroad (now a part of the Lacka- 
wanna system) was chartered in 1835 and began operations 


h.Q following year between Orange and Newark. By 1838 it 
lad been extended to Morristown and carried both passengers 
md freight. The freight car was about " 25 feet in length, 
resembling a modern ^j(lat car, but 
ievoid of side boaiw!*^ or stakes." 

Manufacturing. One immediate 
effect of the War of 181 2 which w^as 
telt in New Jersey, as in other parts 
Df the country, was the impulse given 
to manufacturing. In the town of 
Newark, for example, there were 
eighty-two distilleries producing each 
year 300,000 gallons of '' Jersey Light- 
aing " as it was called. There were 
763 looms in operation and 9900 
spindles. Besides these industries the 
town could boast of ten paper mills, 
three naileries, seventeen bloomeries, 
and twenty-six carding machines. 

One of the noted inventors of this Seth Boyden 

period was Seth Boyden, who came gtatue erected in his honor 
to Newark from Massachusetts about in Newark. The sculptor has 

181 S. He produced a machine for represented him in his leather 

apron with shirt sleeves rolled 

makmg wrought nails, another for ^p, standing at his anvil. In 

cutting files and brads, and still spite of his many inventions 

another for cutting and heading he continued to work for wages 

, __ , 1 M 1 r until too old to work. 

tacks. He was also a builder of 

locomotives. The patent leather industry owes its beginnings 
to his inventive brain; and he was among the first to manu- 
facture malleable iron, daguerreotypes, and steam machinery. 
He assisted Professor Morse in perfecting the electric telegraph. 
Several factories appeared in the state for the making of 
glass, paper, and cloth. In the late thirties '' the silk\\^rm 
craze " seized the people. This was a form of speculation, or 
" get-rich-quick " scheme, which was very popular for a time. 



The state agreed to pay a bounty of fifteen cents for every 
pound of cocoons, and by 1838, 200,000 mulberry trees had been 
planted. One tenth of these were in the neighborhood of 
Burlington. Silk companies were organized, but as the people 

were more intent upon 
planting trees than pro- 
ducing silk worms the 
bubble soon burst. 

The panic of 1837 fell 
with great force upon New 
Jersey. All sorts of wild 
schemes had been taken 
up by the people in the 
wave of speculation which 
swept the country at this 
time. The silk worm craze 
was an illustration of this. 
The people of New Jersey 
did not begin to manu- 
facture on an extensive 
scale until the state had 
recovered somewhat from 

The HoiME of the Telegeaph 

With the assistance of Alfred Vail the first 
successful experiments were carried on in 
this building of the Speedwell Iron Works on 
January 6, 1838. This same month a pubHc 
demonstration was given at the University 
of the City of New York. Alfred Vail was 
the son of the proprietor of the works, and 
his father advanced money at his suggestion 
to help the inventor. 

these lean years. 
The Democratic Revolution and the New Constitution. 

Between 1830 and 1840 a democratic revolution began to sweep 
the country. Andrew Jackson placed himself at the head of 
a party which represented the interests of the common man, 
and his election in 1832 was proof that the days of aristocracy 
were numbered. New Jersey again was divided, as in the 
early days of the struggle between Federalist and Anti-Feder- 
alist. The old aristocratic constitution under which the people 
had been governed had to be abandoned. In 1843 Governor 
Haines, recognizing the justice of the claims of the people for 
a better representation in the government, called a conven- 
tion to prepare a new constitution. This met the following 


year and drew up the present constitution, which was soon 

The new constitution provided for three important changes, 
all in the interests of the people. Property qualifications for 
voting and holding ofBce were abolished. The vote was given 
to all male citizens of twenty-one years of age or over, with 
certain residence qualifications. The people could now elect 
the governor, the choice of whom had formerly rested in the 
hands of the legislature. A third change abolished most of 
the powder which up to that time had been exercised by the 
governor's council. It was no longer important as the highest 
court in the state, or as an appointing body. 

Dorothea Dix and the Prison Reform Movement. The same 
reform movement which conferred political rights upon the 
people by changing the constitution also showed itself in efforts 
to better the condition of such unfortunates as paupers, idiots, 
and the insane. Miss Dorothea Dix set out to make a thorough 
investigation of the jails, poorhouses, and prisons, and the 
people were shocked at the conditions she found in these. This 
was before the days when a scientific study had been made of- 
insanity and special institutions established for its treatment. 
The poorhouses were crowded with these unfortunates, who were 
either sadly neglected or brutally treated. One of these had 
been insane for thirty years and had been out of his apart- 
ment " but ten times in more than nineteen years "; another 
was chained by the leg in a little cell which was heated only 
by a small stove pipe passing through a corner of the room. 
The pauper insane of Burlington County were kept in '' dreary 
:onfined cells, insufficiently lighted, insufficiently warmed, 
md pervaded with foul air to an intolerable degree." 

The arrangements made for the poor were often a disgrace 
to the community. The rooms were usually loathsome places, 
tiardly fit for wild beasts. The jails were little better, crowded 
IS they were in many cases with offenders of both sexes, of all 
iges and nationalities. The jail was too often, as Miss Dix 


puts it, '' the primary school and the normal school for the 
state prison." Miss Dix's championship of the cause of these 
unfortunate classes was rewarded by the erection in 1846 of 
the first state institution for the insane and a general improve- 
ment of the jails and poorhouses. 

In 185 1 the hours of employment for children were limited 
and it was forbidden to employ any child under ten. Orphan 
asylums were established in many places. Temperance societies 
were very popular between 1840 and 1845, especially in the 
western part of the state, where the Quakers were numerous. 
These were organized as lodges and offered certain privileges 
to their members. 

The Slavery Question and the Mexican War. A greater 
reform movement than any of those just described was gradu- 
ally taking shape in the country. This was the movement that 
led finally, after a bitter struggle, to the abolition of African 
slavery. In 1800 New Jersey had a larger slave population 
than any other state north of Maryland except New York. 
As early as 1804, however, the legislature had arranged for their 
gradual abolition and their number declined until in 1840 there 
were only 674 in the entire state. In 1850 there were still 236 
negroes held in bondage, but they were really apprentices serv- 
ing a longer term of years than was the case with the ordinary 
apprentice. The abolition movement made some progress in 
the state, especially among the Quakers. At one of their meet- 
ings held in Pliiladelphia in 1776, they passed a resolution pro- 
posing to '' deny the right of membership to such as persisted 
in holding their fellowmen as property." A few abolition 
societies were to be found among the Quakers and a few in 
the neighborhood of New York, but the sentunent in favor 
of abolition in New Jersey was not at all strong as compared 
with New York and New England. 

Opposition to the slave trade had brought this bad business 
to an end as early as 1785; laws were passed later enforcing this 
earlier measure. In 1820 the legislature passed resolutions 


against the admission of Missouri as a slave state. A few 
years later resolutions were passed approving some kind of a 
colonization scheme as a means of settling the slavery question. 
These resolutions were sent to the governors of the other states 
and to the representatives of the state in Congress. 

It was the extension of slavery into new territory rather than 
the moral question which divided the country between 1840 
and i860. At the time of the outbreak of the Mexican War 
this question of the extension of slavery had become one of the 
great questions pressing for a solution. This war was specially 
favored by the Southern planters and slaveholders. New 
Jersey was called upon to furnish one volunteer regiment. 
The legislature of 1847 showed its hearty support of the war 
by passing resolutions praising General Taylor and authorizing 
the governor to present swords to four New Jersey officers who 
were serving under him. Troops raised in the state reached 
Mexico in time to join in the triumphant advance of General 
Scott from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. While the struggle was 
still on the legislature passed a resolution requesting their 
representatives in Congress to use their best efforts to secure 
the exclusion of slavery from any territory which might be an- 
nexed to the United States. The year after the war they 
again showed their attitude on the slavery question by con- 
demning any further extension of the system and urging the 
abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia. 

New Jersey and the Struggle between North and South. In 
the great campaign of i860, there seemed to be a division of 
sentiment in New Jersey on the great question of the hour. 
The contest here was between Douglas and Lincoln and the 
campaign was an exciting* one, marked by parades and fiery 
speech-making. So close was the result that the electoral 
vote of the state was divided, four going to Lincoln and three 
to Douglas. When a peace convention was called in 1861, 
before the close of Buchanan's term, to devise means for 
patching up the differences between the North and the South- 




Confederacy, New Jersey took an active part, sending 
delegates and urging the acceptance of proposals which would 
have yielded somewhat to the demands of the South. 

New Jersey in the Civil War. When 
the flag was fired upon, the situation 
changed somewhat, but in 1862 New 
Jersey was the only Northern state 
which elected a democratic governor. 
Again in 1864 her vote was given to 
the democratic candidate for president, 
General George B. McClellan, who 
was then living in the state. Although 
not giving her support to the republi- 
can party, her citizens rallied loyally 
to the defense of the flag, furnishing 
ten thousand, more soldiers than the 
number which the government ex- 
pected. Joel Parker, who was the war 
governor of the state (serving from 
1862 to 1866), although a democrat, 
showed himself so anxious to cooperate with the national 
government that President Lincoln warmly thanked him for 
his services in preserving the Union. 

The best known of the New Jersey fighters was General 
Philip Kearny, who had seen service in the Mexican War and 
was killed in the Battle of Chantilly. A story is told of him 
which illustrates the spirit of the Jersey troops. He had been 
asked to undertake a difhcult and dangerous enterprise and 
was given the privilege of selecting his men. When he was 
asked what troops he preferred, his reply was, " Give me Jersey- 
men, they never flinch! " 

General Philip Kearny 

Probably the best known New 
Jersey fighter. Statue erected 
by the city of Newark. 


Compare the occupations of the people in the United States in Wash- 
ington's time with the occupations of the people of New Jersey. 


2. Point out the advantages of living in New Jersey at this time as com- 

pared with other states. 

3. Locate the places and sections mentioned as important at this time. 

4. Look up the principles represented by the Federalists and the Re- 

publicans. If you had lived in New Jersey at the time, which party 
would you have supported and why? 

5. As a Jerseyman would you have been in favor of the War of 181 2? 


6. Describe an imaginary journey from New York to Philadelphia about 

181 2, naming the places you would pass through and the interesting 
things you would see. 

7. Describe the first steamboat and an imaginary trip with John Fitch. 

8. Locate the line of the first railroad and describe an imaginary trip 

between two important points upon it. 

9. Explain why Andrew Jackson's election marked the beginning of a 

democratic revolution, and why one was needed in New Jersey. 

10. Would you class New Jersey as a free or slave state in 1850? Why? 

11. Make irquiries as to the part taken by your community in the Civil 

War. Look for graves of veterans with inscriptions. Possibly 
there is a monument in memory of the boys who enlisted. Look 
up the battles in which they took part. Write the story of their 
part in the War. 


1. Stockton, F. R., "Stories of New Jersey," pp. 83-92, 204-254. 

2. Pierson, D. L., "Narratives of Newark," Chapters XLI-XLIII, XLVI. 

3. Urquhart, Frank, "Short History of Newark," Chapter II, pp. 108-117. 

4. Lee, W. B., "New Jersey as a Colony and as a State." 

5. "Legislative Manual of State of New Jersey,"^ published annually 

by the State. 


The State as a Business and Manufacturing Center. The 

period that followed the close of the war, with the exception 
of the crisis of 1873, was one of great prosperity for the country 
at large and for New Jersey in particular. New Jersey soon 
became one of the leading manufacturing states in the entire 
country. In 19 10 the output of her factories was reckoned at 

1 Recommended only for teachers. 


75° 30' 



Showing Resources and 
Chief Industrial Centers 


Cape May 


$1,000,000,000. Only four states excelled her in the value of 
their manufactured products. These included silk goods (in 
which the state is an acknowledged leader), foundry products, 
refined petroleum, copper, iron and steel, pottery, chemicals, 
leather, malt liquors, rubber, and cotton and woolen goods. 

Encouragement was given to railroad building, especially 
after 1873, and the state is now 
covered with a network of about 
2500 miles of railroads. These 
form parts of at least four great 
systems: the Pennsylvania; the 
Delaware, Lackawanna, & West- 
ern; the Lehigh Valley; and the 
Jersey Central. 

The development of manufac- 
turing also directed attention to 
the use of waterways for carrying 
goods. The rapid growth of New 
York City had made the Jersey 
side of New York Bay, with the 
territory lying behind it, a great 
shipping center. The possibilities 
of Newark Bay as a port have 
been discussed, and it is very 
likely that it will be used to 
relieve the heavy traffic now car- 
ri,ed on from the piers on the New 
York side. When President Roose- 
velt directed the attention of the 
country to the conservation of its resources and the greater use 
of its inland waterways, a plan was formed for the construction 
of a great ship canal across the state from Trenton to Raritan 
Bay. This was to be one link in a great inside waterway from 
Boston along the Atlantic Coast to Florida. A beginning was 
made for carrying out the scheme when the Cape Cod Canal, 

Thomas A. Edison 

Since he built his laboratory at 
Orange in 1886 the great inventor 
has been closely connected with 
the industrial development of the 
state. The kinetophonograph and 
the nickel iron storage cell have 
been perfected since he moved to 
New Jersey. 


connecting Massachusetts Bay with Long Island Sound, was 
opened in 19 14. The New Jersey coast for many years past 
had been looked upon by mariners as particularly dangerous, 
and the state very early interested itself in establishing life- 
saving stations at different points. The ship canal will make 
it unnecessary for ships sailing along the coast to run the risk 
of shipwreck in the shallow waters off New Jersey. 

New Jersey has been linked much more closely to New York 
by the building of the McAdoo or Hudson tunnels under the 
Hudson River. A tunnel for vehicles of all kinds has been 
proposed and will probably be the next step in binding the two 
states together. 

Trusts in New Jersey. The earliest form of trust was the 
Standard Oil Company, which was first organized in Ohio. 
When this was declared illegal, it broke up into several com- 
panies. One of these was the Standard Oil Company of New 
Jersey. The laws of the state were so favorable to companies 
that sought to control various lines of business that New^ Jersey 
soon came to be looked upon as the home of the trust. All 
sorts of corporations were formed within its limits. Perhaps 
the largest of these is the United States Steel Corporation. 
Some of these became powerful trusts and figured prominently 
in the struggle between the national government and big busi- 
ness in the years when Roosevelt and Taft were in office at 
Washington. The very fact that New Jersey is so near to 
New York and Philadelphia makes it naturally a center for 
big business enterprises, not only with branches in these great 
cities but throughout the whole country. 

The Reform Movement of the Twentieth Century. Up to 
about 1905 New Jersey had the reputation of being one of 
the slowest states to adopt any kind of reform measures. The 
people clung to their old ways of doing things long after other 
states had abandoned them altogether. They believed, for 
example, that the government should have as little as possible 
to do with business carried on in the state, but should allow it 


to develop freely and without interference. The laws of the 
state were decidedly favorable to business and rather neglect- 
ful of the working classes and the common people. The gov- 
ernment was even accused of being entirely in the hands of the 
business interests. 

A few public- spirited men began to work to bring about a 
change. They did their work so well that when Mr. Woodrow 
Wilson was elected governor in 1909 after a bitter fight, he was 
able to secure the passing of some much-needed laws. These 
placed New Jersey among the progressive states of the union. 

Reforms provided by the New Laws. The old corrupt method 
of nominating candidates for ofhce in caucuses and conventions, 
under the eye of bosses, was abandoned and in its place came 
the direct primary, as it was called. The voter was able to 
express his choice for office without fear of the consequences 
of his act. Those running for office were obliged to keep an 
accurate account of what they spent and were not allowed to 
spend their own or other people's money freely to carry an 
election. A new form of secret ballot was introduced which 
also tended to do away with political corruption. 

The powerful corporations which supplied the public with 
such necessary things as light, gas, and water, and the rail- 
roads upon whom the people were so dependent for cheap and 
satisfactory service, were placed under the supervision of a 
group of men known as a Public Utilities Commission, with 
power to fix the rates and fares charged, and in general to see 
that the public was not imposed upon in any way. 

A law known as the Seven Sisters' Act, because it was really 
made up of seven closely related measures, helped to drive 
trusts from the state and to force big business enterprises to 
consider the interests of the common people. This measure 
served as a pattern for Mr. Wilson's legislation against the 
trusts when he became President. 

Laborers were protected in their work against loss of life or 
limb by laws compelling all employers to pay them for injuries ; 


or to make it easier for their families by payments of money 
in case of death by accident. Pensions were to be paid out of 
the state funds to widows who were left with children dependent 
upon them. Children were protected while they were young 
against the evils of the factory. 

Interest in Education. At this time changes were made in 
the state school system. Education was one of the matters in 
which the people of the state had always taken great interest. 
The example had been set by both the Dutch and Puritan settlers 
of New Jersey. The first record of a school in New Jersey 
was one in Bergen in 1662. Woodbridge appointed a school- 
master in 1669, and in 1676 Newark chose John Catlin to be 
the instructor of her children. From the very beginning the 
Quakers, or Society of Friends, provided for the education of 
their children. In 1682 the assembly at Burlington set apart 
the revenues from the island of Matinicunk in the Delaware 
for the support of a school. The legislature in East Jersey in 
1693 passed a law which made it possible for the people in 
their town elections to select three citizens to hire teachers and 
fix their salaries. 

The beginnings of the present system of free pubjic schools 
dates back to 181 7. When the second constitution was drawn 
up in 1844, it made liberal provisions for educating the children 
of the state, insisting that all children " between the ages of 
five and eighteen years " should have an education at the public 
expense. State money was set aside as a permanent fund 
for this purpose; only the interest was to be used to provide 
schools. This fund has been added to from time to time until 
it now amounts to $4,000,000. Money is also provided gener- 
ously by taxation, and the schools of the state, are now among 
the best in the country. Normal schools have been established, 
and Rutgers College has been made the state college for the 
teaching of agriculture and the mechanic arts. Free scholar- 
ships in this college are offered by the state to students inter- 
ested in carrying their education beyond the high school grade. 


\ college for women was opened in the fall of 19 18 in connec- 
tion with Rutgers College. 


E. Consult the map showing the resources of New Jersey. How have they 

helped develop certain parts of the state? Your own community? 

What has the state or the United States done to develop these? 
I. What other states are rivals of New Jersey in manufacturing? How 

does she rank? 
\. Note the routes of the railroads mentioned. How have they affected 

the growth of the state? What other roads serve the state? 
|.. Compare the changes which follo\A ed Mr. Wilson's election as governor 

with those which followed the election of Governor Haines as to their 

5. Define a "boss." Look up the power of the "boss" in other parts of 

the United States (Tweed for example) . 
). Compare the efforts to handle trusts in the United States with similar 

efforts in New Jersey. 
^ Who was the national "trust-buster"? the state "trust buster"? 

1. How would you have felt about these changes if you had been engaged 

in business at the time? How much would your particular locality 
be interested in these changes? 
p. In how many different ways is New Jersey trying to educate its 


[. Knowlton, D. C, "Government of New Jersey." 

2. Hosford, H. E., " Woodrow Wilson and New Jersey Made Over." ^ 

3. Lee, W. B., "New Jersey as a Colony and as a State." ^ 
\. "Legislative Manual of the State of New Jersey." ^ 


The People of New Jersey. The responsibility for making 

New Jersey '' safe for democracy " and a worthy representative 

Df all that is best in American life rests with the people who 

Live within its borders. The population of the state in 191 5 

1 Recommended especially for use of teachers. 


was 2,844,342. One million of these people live in the two 
northern counties of Essex and Hudson. Many of these are 
engaged in business in New York City and simply eat and sleep 
on the Jersey side. A considerable proportion of the popula- 
tion are foreigners, or the children of foreign-born parents. 
It is estimated that there are about half a million voters in the 
state. As has already been indicated, New Jersey laws have 
tried to make it possible for the people of the state to control 
their own affairs and rid themselves of bosses and other bad 
influences in politics. 

The Constitution and its Amendment. The main outlines^ 
of the government of the state are to be found in the consti- 
tution which was drawn up almost three quarters of a century 
ago (see page 30). Representatives of the people at that time 
came together and laid down the framework of the govern- 
ment and, when they had completed their work, placed it be- 
fore the voters for their approval. Although it went into 
effect so many years ago, it has proved fairly satisfactory, al- 
though many people are now of the opinion that it should be 
thoroughly overhauled or revised by a convention selected by 
the voters for this purpose. Every effort to do this thus far 
has failed. The voters have been satisfied to change it by 

This method of changing the constitution is somewhat com- 
plicated and requires considerable time. An amendment must 
be proposed by the legislature. After it has been approved 
by the majority vote of two successive legislatures and pub- 
lished for a certain length of time, so that the people can be- 
come thoroughly familiar with it, it is placed before them at 
an election for approval or disapproval. If a majority agree 
to it, it becomes a part of the constitution. There is another 
requirement, however, which makes it possible to place these 
amendments before the people only at intervals of five years. 
Every five years the voters may be asked to pass judgment 
upon a single amendment or possibly a whole batch of amend- 


merits. The difficulty of really changing the constitution 
is shown by the fact that it has been amended only twice since 
it was adopted, once in 1875 ^^<^ again in 1897. Commis- 
sions were appointed to recommend changes to the legislature, 
and provisions forbidding gambling within the state and restrict- 
ing the power of the legislature were added. The present 
system of taxing the people was also established by this means. 

Taking Part in the Government. The right to take an active 
part in the management of its affairs has been conferred upon 
all male citizens twenty-one years of age or over who have 
lived in the state at least one year and in the county at least 
five months next preceding the election in wliich they wish to 
cast a vote. In order to vote the person who is qualified must 
first register, that is, he must report at the place where the 
election is to be held at a certain time and give the persons in 
charge his name and other information which the law requires. 
This is in order that no one may vote who is not really en- 
titled to do so. 

Every voter has the right not only to vote for those who are 
to fill the various offices, but he may also nominate men to 
run for office. He can even nominate the men who run for 
governor or United States Senator. This very often means 
much more to him than making a selection among the 

An election for the purpose of nominating men to fill offices 
is called a primary. These are usually held about one month 
before the regular election. When the voter appears at the 
primary, he is asked the party to which he belongs and is then 
given a ballot on which appear the names of all the men from 
that particular party who wish to be nominated. He retires 
to a booth and there makes a cross opposite the names of those 
he prefers. Each party has its own ballot box for these votes. 
A. person who wishes to have his name printed on the ballot as 
a candidate for the nomination must secure beforehand a cer- 
tain number of names to a petition requesting this. The voter 


makes his final selection for all the important state position 
at the regular election, which occurs on the first Tuesday aftei 
the first Monday in November. In cases where local office 
are to be filled the elections are sometimes held at other times 
The state is divided into districts, and there is a polling or vot 
ing place set aside in each district for the voters who live there 
The election is in charge of officers selected for that purpose 
They have charge of registration and every detail of the election 
The voter is handed a single ballot. This contains the name 
of all the candidates of the different parties for the position 
to be filled. The names are usually arranged in some orde 
under the office to be filled. After each name appears th( 
name of the party which the person represents. The vote 
retires to a booth and makes a cross opposite the name of th( L 
person of his choice. He then hands it to an election officer 
who places it in a ballot box. 

The votes are counted by the election officers when the elec- 
tion is over, the person receiving the highest number (or plural- 
ity) being declared elected. Votes are often recounted, oi 
'' canvassed," as it is called, by other officers in order thai 
there may be no question of who has been really chosen. 

The law inflicts heavy penalties upon those who try to votM^ 
more than once or who encourage others to cheat or engage in 
unfair practices at any election. Reference has been made tc 
this on page 460. So strict is the law that an employer canno 
inclose the pay check of his men in envelopes which have printec 
or written upon them the names of any candidate or any politica 
motto or any device used by a political party to influence thei 
vote. Big business organizations cannot contribute by nam< 
to the expenses of a campaign. Each candidate can onlj 
spend so much on his nomination and election. This amount 
depends upon the office which he seeks. For example, a can- 
didate for the governorship is limited to $2500 in securing 
the nomination at the primary, and the same amount in th( 
campaign for his election. In trying to secure a municipa 






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office $250 is allowed in each case, but the expense must noP 
exceed twenty-five per cent of a year's salary. ^ 

Law-making. The state form of government is very similaii'^' 
to that of other states. Laws are made by a legislature whichi^ 
consists of two houses. The upper house, or Senate, contains 
twenty-one members, one for each county. They are elected 
each year. The lower house, or assembly, is based upon popu- 
lation. There can never be more than sixty members, and e\'ery 
county must choose at least one. The number elected in each 
county is changed as the population grows and makes these, 
changes necessary. The two houses do not differ very muc 
as to what they can do. 

The legislature meets once a year, the second Tuesday 
January. It makes many of the laws which come close home 
to the people, as, for example, those having to do with educa- 
tion, taxation, the regulating of business, and the care of the 
poor and of the unfortunate. In general it tries to make the 
state a pleasant place in which to live. 

The state constitution and that of the United States place 
certain restrictions upon its powers to make laws, but these arer 
all in the interests of the people at large, preventing in many 
cases one individual from taking advantage of another. Other 
restrictions have to do with the spending of the people's money. 
The state cannot be burdened with a heavy debt without the 
consent of the voters. This means that in case the legisla- 
ture wishes to spend a large amount of money, as for example 
on a system of roads, the law must be submitted to the voters 
for their approval. Special laws cannot be passed to assist 
or favor some one person or locality. All laws must apply 
equally to all communities of the same kind. No one person 
or community can be singled out for legislative favors. 

The process of law-making is very similar to that in Congress. 
Each house has committees to which bills are first referred for 
consideration. When a committee reports favorably upon a 
measure, it is then discussed and voted upon in that house. 


ff it secures a majority vote it is turned over to the other 
louse, where it goes through the same process. If both houses 
kTote favorably upon it, it is submitted to the governor for his 

The State Officers and Their Duties. The carrying out of 
phe state laws is largely in the hands of the governor. He is 
:hosen by the voters for three years and cannot be reelected to 
succeed himself. This is because so much power rests in his 
lands. He appoints many of the state officers who are re- 
sponsible for the laws being put into effect. Probably his most 
mportant duty is to pass upon bills which the legislature may 
;ee fit to approve. His signature is necessary in order that 
che bill may become a law. If he does not approve it, the bill 
Tiust be passed again by a majority vote of both houses. If 
oy any chance he keeps a bill for five days (Sundays excepted) 
md the legislature is still in session, it becomes a law without 
lis signature. The governor, like the President, has some 
influence over law-making by his power to lay before the leg- 
islature when it assembles his suggestions as to what subjects 
Dught to be taken up. These suggestions are known as his 
'' message." If he is really the leader of his party, these 
will be acted upon, and new laws or changes in the old laws 
iwill be the result. He may also call special sessions of the 

Among the officers appointed by the governor are an attorney 
general, who gives his opinion as to the meaning of laws; a 
Commissioner of banking and insurance, who has general 
oversight of all banking and insurance companies which do 
business in the state; a commissioner of charities and correc- 
tions who is in charge of the prisons and such homes, hospitals, 
land the like as have been opened for the care of the insane, 
epileptics, and other unfortunates; the commissioner of labor, 
who collects such information as has to do with the workers of 
the state; and a state board of education with general charge of 
the school system throughout the state. 


Administering Justice. The state government provides 
complete system of courts for the trial of cases which have to 
do with state laws. There are courts which take care of suits 
for the recovery of damages Or for the enforcing of agreements; 
other courts try persons accused of crime and fix penalties in 
case they are judged guilty. The majority of all the crimes 
committed within the state are against state law and have 
nothing to do with the United States, such, for example, as rob- 
bery and murder. If the United States mail is robbed, then state 
courts would have nothing to do with it, as the carrying of the 
mail is something entirely within the control of the United 
States. The lowest court is a justice's court or a city court; 
the highest is the Court of Errors and Appeals. Between these 
there is a complicated system of courts which provide for all 
sorts of cases and allow of appeals from one court to a higher 
judge or group of judges. The judges of most of these courts 
are appointed, which makes them independent of politics 
and therefore more likely to give fair and impartial decisions. 
Special courts exist for cases having to do with property left 
by persons at death; other special courts known as Chancery 
Courts look after the enforcement of contracts or agreements. 
New Jersey justice has a reputation for being quickly admin- 
istered. Those who appeal to the courts for justice are spared 
the long and expensive delays that are so common in the trial 
of cases in the courts of the states. 

Some idea has already been given of what the state does 
for its citizens by means of this machinery. The services per- 
formed by these courts, these executive officers and the state 
legislature, are the real test of the effectiveness of the state 

What the State Does for its Citizens 

The very first article of the constitution points out that it 
is the business of the state government to protect individual 
rights, such as the security of the person against injury, the 


right to the property which he may own, and the right to come 
and go as he pleases so long as he does not interfere seriously 
with the rights of others. The large population of the crowded 
cities and suburban districts makes it necessary for the citizens 
of the state to exercise a spirit of cooperation; to work together 
for the interests of the whole community. Many of the things 
which the state does would be impossible without the joining 
together of the whole body of citizens in the enterprise. Much 
of the work of the state therefore has to do with providing a 
large and densely peopled community with those things neces- 
sary for their welfare and happiness which could not be secured 
by individuals alone, or would be difficult to secure because 
of the expense and labor involved. 

Public School System. Our public school system is an illus- 
tration. The money has been provided by the people of the 
state and they have created a State Board of Education to 
look after the whole state system of schools. This board ap- 
points a Commissioner of Education who selects four assistant 
commissioners to see that such schools as high schools and gram- 
mar schools, special schools, such as vocational and agricul- 
tural schools, and the like, are established and really serve the 
interests of the people. 

The state is divided into school districts, and each district 
makes provision for a school for the people who live there. 
Districts may be combined in order to provide better schools. 
This is often done in densely populated communities. The 
people of the community provide funds for the erection of 
schools and for hiring teachers, and select a board of educa- 
tion to look after school matters. The state board of educa- 
tion keeps in close touch with these districts through the county 
superintendents. These men are appointed by the state board 
and have general charge of the schools of the county, carrying 
out the orders of the board and enforcing some of the school 
laws. They have nothing to do with cities which employ super- 
intendents of schools. These make their reports directly to 


the state board. Attendance at school is compulsory between 
the ages of seven and fourteen, unless the children are taught 
at home or are unable to attend because of physical or mental 
defects. The state has also provided for a system of health 

Public Utilities. The state makes it possible for the local 
governments which are established by state laws to provide 
what are called public utilities, such as water, gas, and elec- 
tricity for the people at a small expense; to lay out parks; 
to provide playgrounds; to open public rnarkets and to render 
a great many other services of a like character. 

The State and the Laborer. The growth of industry has 
made it necessary for the state to look after the interest of the 
laborer by factory laws, by tenement house inspection, and 
the like. The worker is also protected by law against injury 
and death. 

Public Health. The health of the people has become a very 
important matter because of the crowded districts in which 
some of them live. This is safeguarded by a State Board of 
Health, which sees that the health boards which the state re- 
quires in the smaller divisions are taking proper precautions 
to guard against infectious and contagious diseases, and to 
remove conditions harmful to the health of each community. 
The health authorities are intrusted with the power of inter- 
fering under certain conditions in what used to be considered 
private family matters. Bulletins are published informing 
people as to the best ways to keep well. Food is inspected 
and certain rules must be observed as to wrapping it or exposing 
it to dirt and germs. Barber shops and ice cream parlors must 
be carried on according to rules laid down by state and local 

The State and the Farmer. The state government interests 
itself in the farmer and tries to encourage farming in every way. 
Bulletins are circulated; experiments are carried on at Rutgers 
College and other places in the interest of the farmer; and 


institutes are held at which important topics are discussed 
and advice given. 

Road Building. Attention is given to road building. Thou- 
sands of dollars are set aside to keep the roads in repair and 
to build others. A commissioner of pubhc roads is appointed 
to look after these and to collect facts about roads and road 
building which will be useful to the people. 

The State and the Business Man. The business man is 
served by the state in a variety of ways. He knows that the 
state government is behind the banks, securing him against 
loss by insisting that they be carefully managed. Big busi- 
ness organizations cannot become monopolistic. Investments 
in large corporations are made safer by laws which prevent 
them from engaging in questionable business practices. 

Governmental Divisions and Local Government 

The County. In order to carry out the laws more effec- 
tively and to provide for the needs of the people of every part 
of the state, New Jersey has been divided into twenty-one 
counties. These divisions are used largely for purposes of 
taxation and to secure a better administration of justice through- 
out the state. The principal county officers are the freeholders 
and a sheriff. The freeholders together form a board and 
act as a legislature for the county, making provisions for the 
poor, the insane, and those held as prisoners. The sheriff 
has the care of the county criminals and the county jail and is 
the most important official in the county. He is the county's 
chief executive officer. Each county has a county judge and 
a surrogate who preside over different courts. These judges 
and the prosecutor of the pleas, whose business it is to appear 
for the state as the lawyer against those accused of crime, are 
appointed officers; the freeholders and sheriff are chosen by 
the voters. So important is the office of sheriff that he cannot 
be reelected to succeed himself. 


County Divisions. Within each county are to be found 
smaller divisions known by various names and forming a com- 
plicated system. Every person residing within the state finds 
himseli under the immediate authority of officials representing 
either what is called a village, a township, an incorporated town, 
a borough, or a city. These do not differ very much as to the 
general plan of government; they differ rather as to what they 
do for the people of that community. Some of them are better 
suited for parts of the state which are thickly settled. A city 
government, for example, exercises many more powers and has 
a much more compUcated form of government than a town- 
ship or village. The principal officers are elected and these 
governments are all subject to laws made by the state legis- 
lature. In some cases, as with cities, the legislature has given 
them a charter defining exactly what they can do. In the 
township, which is to be found in those parts of the state where 
the people are few and scattered, the voters come together once 
a year to a town meeting. Here they elect their officers 
and provide for the needs of the town. They tax themselves 
to provide for such matters as tlie building and care of the 
roads and the poor, and make laws for the government of the 
district. The government of the other divisions is more repre- 
sentative, that is, the people seldom come together as a body 
but select men to act for them. This body may be called a 
board of trustees in a village, or a common council in a borough, 
incorporated town, or city. The principal officers in these 
divisions are a clerk, a collector, a treasurer, an attorney, one 
or more assessors, and constables or police officers. 

Commission Government. If the voters of these smaller 
divisions of the county wish it, they may have what is called 
commission government. A petition is circulated among the 
voters, and, if a sufficient number of names are signed to it 
an election is held to decide whether the government shall 
be changed. If the majority of voters are in favor of the change 
they proceed to elect commissioners. These are chosen with- 


out regard to party, that is, there can be no indication of what 
party they represent on the ticket. The voter may also exer- 
cise more than one choice in marking his ballot. Provision 
is made for four choices. The names of the candidates are 
arranged in alphabetical order. The ballot is divided into 
separate columns for each choice. The voter indicates his 
first choice in the first column and if he so desires may indicate 
others as his second choice and so on until he has used all 
four columns. He must not vote twice for the same candidate. 
When the votes are counted, if no candidate has received a 
majority of the first-choice votes, or if the full number of 
candidates (either three or five) do not receive a majority of 
the first choice votes, then the second choice votes are added to 
the first choice votes received. The same thing can be done 
with the third choice votes if there is still no majority. This 
is called preferential voting. There is no primary election to 
nominate. Names are placed on the ballot by securing suffi- 
cient names to a petition. 

This form of government is often preferred because it has 
the advantage of making the men chosen entirely responsible 
for the management of affairs. They act as a legislative body 
and at the same time see to the carrying out of the laws. Each 
one has a certain department to look after. For example, it may 
be either revenue and finance, or parks and public property, 
or public safety, or streets and public improvements, or the 
department of public affairs. In case there are five commis- 
sioners, each one is made responsible for each of these depart- 
ments; where there is a smaller number of commissioners the 
departments are combined. Another interesting feature of 
commission government is a plan by which a group of voters 
can draw up a law for the consideration of the city or borough 
or whatever it may be. They can also demand that laws passed 
by the commissioners shall be referred to them in certain cases. 
These arrangements are called the initiative and referendum. 
The voters may also recall any elective officer. To do this 


they must circulate a petition stating reasons for the step, and 
if these reasons satisfy the commissioners an election is held. 
The officer to be recalled shall be a candidate to succeed him- 
self; unless he wishes it otherwise. 


The average citizen is probably as much interested in the 
taxes which he is required to pay as in anything connected with 
government. He objects to a heavy tax being placed upon 
the community and he also objects if he does not seem to get 
back from the government a satisfactory return for the money 
he puts into it. The state has therefore tried to work out a 
plan of raising and collecting money which will be in . the in- 
terests of the taxpayer and at the same time supply the state 
with the needed money. The state alone spends between 
four and five million dollars every year. This is a small part 
of the money raised by taxes, as every community has its own 
local need's to supply and these call for thousands of dollars in 
addition. No tax is ever laid upon the people without their 
consent, whether it be for local purposes or for the use of the 
state as a whole. The state legislature fixes the amount to 
be raised for state purposes. In some cases they must secure 
the consent of the voters before such a tax can be collected. 
(See page 46.) 

Levying of Taxes. The law-making body of the county 
provides for county needs and the same thing holds true of the 
township, borough, or city, as the case may be. This money 
is provided mainly by taxes on real estate and personal property. 
Considerable sums are obtained by special taxes such as those 
on railroads, corporations, and taxes on property which has 
been inherited. Property is valued or assessed by officers 
selected for the purpose. It is a difficult matter to value 
property so that each community and each taxpayer bears his 
proper share of the burden. The value placed by the assessors 
of one community on the property there may be very high as 


compared with the value placed upon similar property in another 
community. To secure a fair valuation throughout the entire 
state, state and county officers meet to equalize assessments 
and properly distribute the burden. Certain kinds of property 
are not taxed, as, for example, public buildings, churches, schools, 
libraries, and charitable institutions. A rate is finally fixed of 
so much on every $100 worth of property. This provides at 
one and the same time for the needs of the city, the county, and 
the state. 

Collecting of Taxes. The taxes are collected by officers 
selected for this purpose. Each community has its tax col- 
lector, who receives the entire amount due from the taxpayer 
(except some of the special taxes) and after taking out the 
amount that has been raised for local needs sends the balance 
to the county collector. The latter, after deducting the amount 
of the county tax, turns over the state tax to the state treasurer. 
As an illustration of the way this money is divided, one com- 
munity in New Jersey collected $2.24 on every $100 worth of 
taxable property; 68% of this was kept by the community, 
20% went to the county, and 12% to the state. The special 
taxes are not counted in the tax rate and are often paid directly 
to state rather than to local officers. 

Relation of the State to the National Government. As these 
pages have shown. New Jersey has taken an important part in 
shaping the affairs of the nation as a whole. Although small 
in area, her dense population gives her an important place 
among the states of the union. The state is divided into twelve 
congressional districts and each of these elects a representative 
to the lower house of Congress. The voters of the whole state 
select the two United States Senators who represent its interests 
in the upper house of Congress. New Jersey has furnished 
two of our presidents, Grover Cleveland, who was born at 
Caldwell, but later took up his residence in the State of New 
York, and Woodrow Wilson, who, though not a native of the 
state, has long been one of its prominent citizens, first as a 


professor and then president of Princeton University, and later 
as governor of the state; from which ofhce he was called to the 
presidency. Although the average citizen does not feel the 
existence of the national government to the same extent as 
the governments of the state and of his locahty, its services to 
him are no less important, especially in times of crisis. 


1. By what arrangements have the fortunes of the state been placed in 

the hands of the people themselves? 

2. Why is it important that we should know a great deal about the state | 

government? What are some of the things the state does for the 
business man? the farmer? What in your judgment is the most 
important service it renders? 

3. How far do the people themselves control law-maLing? What kind 

of laws can the legislature pass? Mention some matter of interest 
to your community upon which it could legislate. 

4. What are the most important state officers and why? 

5. Who are the principal governing officers in your community? How 

are they chosen? What can they do? 

6. A man is arrested charged with a crime. Follow his case through to the 

highest court in the state. Do the same for a dispute between two 
men over some property. 

7. Which do you consider the more important state division, a county or 

one of its subdivisions like a township? Why? 

8. Inquire as to the officers who govern your community. Who make 

the laws? enforce them? interpret them? 

9. Look up the purposes for which money is raised in your community 

by taxation. Arrange these items in order of the amounts spent. 
Justify these expenditures of the people's money. 

For additional reading and facts as to the government of the state: 
Knowlton, D. C, "Government of New Jersey" and "Legislative Manual 
of the State of New Jersey." ^ 

1 Recommended especially for use of teachers. 

M^ -3ft 





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