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History and Government
of New Jersey
DANIEL C. KNOWLTON, Ph.D.
SUPERVISOR OF SOCIAL SCIfiNCES, HIGH SCHOOLS, NEWARK, N.J.
A Supplement to
ELEMENTARY AMERICAN HISTORY AND
James Albert Woodburn, Ph.D.
PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN HISTORY AND POLITICS IN INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Thomas Francis Moran, Ph.D.
PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AND ECONOMICS IN PURDUE UNIVERSITY
LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.
FOURTH AVENUE AND 30TH STREET, NEW YORK
PRAIRIE AVENUE AND 25TH STREET, CHICAGO
Copyright, 1918, by Longmans, Green and Co.
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
OF NEW JERSEY
By DANIEL C. KNOWLTON, Ph.D.
Supervisor of Social Sciences, High Schools, Newark, N. J.
HOW NEW JERSEY BECAME A STATE
Earliest Settlers. In the seventeenth century two nations laid
;laim to what is now New Jersey. This was the time when all
he great European nations were seeking, by the planting of
;olonies, to secure a firm foothold in North America. Although
he voyage of Cabot had given England a shadowy claim to
he whole Atlantic seaboard south of Labrador, the Dutch
md the Swedes threatened to drive a wedge between her New
England colonies and those further south by planting them-
selves at the mouth of the Hudson and along the lower waters
)f Delaware Bay. A glance at the map will show how New
[ersey is naturally marked off from her neighbors north and
lOuth by these two deep gashes in the Atlantic coastline.
Beginning with the settlement of New Amsterdam, the
Dutch West India Company began slowly to penetrate the
nterior of America by way of the Hudson. At the same time
hey planted a few straggling settlements on the Jersey side
)f New York Bay and laid claim to the entire coast southwards
the mouth of the Delaware. What is now New York State
:laimed their attention in the main and they gave little thought
New Jersey. A patroonship or great estate, running into
mndreds of acres, was granted to a Michael Pauw. Besides
5taten Island, this included the land upon which now stand
^^oboken and Jersey City. Pauw, however, took compara-
ively little interest in his tract and sold out his rights.
lOPYRIGHT, I918, BY LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. •
m 30 »9i8
ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
DUTCH A.\U SWEDES
The Dutch settlers were very slow to take up a residence in
New Jersey. By 1664 they had small settlements at Paulus
Hook and Bergen (both within the present limits of Jersey
City), and also at Hoboken, Pavonia, and Weehawken. A
few settlers had built themselves homes on Newark Bay, but
the actual settlement had progressed so slowly that when the
Dutch were forced to give up New Netherlands, few traces of
their occupation remained.
They were interested enough in
maintaining their claims to this
region to oppose the efforts of the
Swedish government to plant a set-
tlement on the Delaware. King
Gustavus Adolphus, a farsighted
man, sought to secure for Sweden a
foothold on the Atlantic coast and
sent out a colony which made a set-
tlement on the present site of the
city of Wilmington. Although this
colony was within the state of Dela-
ware, the region claimed as New
Sweden took in the eastern bank of
the Delaware, or a part of South
Jersey. As early as 1623 they had
attempted to settle at Gloucester, but were driven away.
The Dutch finally sent out an expedition under Peter Stuyve-
sant in 1655, and put an end to any possibihty of New Jersey
or Delaware becoming a dependency, or colony, of Sweden.
Changing Masters. Meanwhile, the English had watched
with a jealous eye the progress of the Dutch colonies in New
Netherlands, and when war broke out in Europe in 1664 be-
tween the English and the Dutch, Charles II sent an expedi-
tion under Colonel Nicolls to seize New Netherlands. The
Dutch made but httle resistance and New York and New Jersey
came under the EngUsh flag. The Duke of York, a brother of
. : ©CI.A5n8348
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY
4 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
King Charles II, was made proprietor of the conquered territory.
Although it was seized by the Dutch when war broke out again
in 1673, it was restored to the English the following year and
remained in their hands from that time forward.
The name New Jersey was now given to that part of the
conquered territory, bounded on the east by the Atlantic and
on the west by the Delaware and on the north by a line drawn
from the Hudson at the forty-first parallel of latitude to strike
the Delaware at 41° 40'. These are the boundaries of the
present state. This land was ceded to Sir George Carteret
and to Lord Berkeley by the Duke of York even before it was
captured and was considered by one who knew the country to
be the best part of all New Netherlands.
Carteret had served King Charles I, the father of the Duke,
most acceptably during the great Civil War in England as
governor of the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel, where
he had held out to the very last against the parliamentary
forces sent to take it. The Duke of York felt that he owed
him a special debt of gratitude because in 1650 he had turned
his own family from his castle on the Island in order to make
room for the Duke and his retainers.
Lord Berkeley was a brother of the famous governor of Vir-
ginia who had so much trouble with the colonists under Bacon
and had been a governor of the Duke in his youth. He had
recently lost (1662) a grant of £3500 which he had spent in
purchasing the rights of a certain Earl of Sterling on Long
Form of Government. New Jersey and the Carolinas which
were colonized at this same tune (1664) represented a new
kind of colony. Their settlement was more like a business
venture. The proprietors undertook to make them a paying
proposition and thought of Httle else. Philip Carteret, a
nephew of Sir George, was appointed governor of New Jersey.
Before he set out from England, the new proprietors showed
their anxiety to secure colonists by offering special inducements
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 5
to any who would accompany him. These efforts resulted
in the planting of a settlement at Elizabethtown, which was
named after Lady Carteret. On his arrival he found some
Dutch and Swedes at Bergen and some Enghsh exiles from
Long Island and Connecticut at Shrewsbury. These had come
here because of their desire to escape religious persecution,
Landing of Carteret
A painting in the Courthouse at Newark. The proclamation announcing the
change of ownership is being read in the presence of the governor. Note the
costumes worn at this time.
and they had purchased their lands from the Indians. The
proprietors drew up such a Hberal form of government for- the
colony that settlers migrated there all the way from New Eng-
land, founding the tow^n of New Milford, later known as Newark
and settling also at Piscataway and Woodbridge. These
were Puritans and their number increased to such an extent
that the colony resembled in many particulars, especially in
the emphasis upon religion, the Puritan settlements in New
England. The Puritan settlers of Newark had come, as they
expressed it, "to be of one heart and consent, through God's
blessing, that with one hand they may endeavor the carrying
on of spiritual concernments, as also civil and town affairs
according to God and a godly government." A legislature
was granted by the proprietors, but this soon made so many
6 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
claims upon the governor for rights and privileges that it was
dismissed. For seven years the people were without a legal
The Division of the Colony. An effort on the part of the
Duke of York to take back his grant, and trouble with the colo-
nists, led to a division of the colony into East and West Jersey.
(See map, page 73). Until 1702 it was a question what was
to be the future of this strip of our Atlantic seaboard. Lord
Berkeley sold his share, known as West Jersey, to some Quak-
ers for one thousand pounds; and eight years later (1682), soon
after the death of Sir George Carteret, the other portion, known
as East Jersey, fell into the hands of William Penn and twenty-
four associates. The rights of Carteret were sold at pubUc
auction for £3400. The new owners were not all Quakers, as
Scotch Presbyterians were to be found among their number.
In 1688 James II placed East and West Jersey, along with
New York and a part of New England, under the rule of Edmund
Andros, hoping to unite several of the colonies into a powerful
state; but when he was driven out of England in 1688,
his representative was seized and imprisoned, and thus ended
his schemes for a single great colony in this region. With
this exception, each of these divisions of New Jersey down to
1702 had its own separate history and government.
West Jersey. The more important of these seems to have
been West Jersey. Its new Quaker proprietors gave the people
a charter which was a remarkable document. It granted the
most liberal terms to Jerseymen, including freedom of worship,
trial by jury, the right to petition the government and open
courts for the trial of offenders.* Even arbitrary imprison-
ment for debt was forbidden. When these arrangements are
compared with the privileges enjoyed elsewhere in the new
world, they will appear to be most unusual.
The colonists were given a legislature or law-making body
to which they elected representatives. These were paid and
had full liberty to say what they pleased. The proprietors
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 7
did not try to govern the colony directly, but placed the power
first in the hands of commissioners, and later appointed a gov-
ernor. In order that the people might be thoroughly satis-
fied with this new form of government, it was submitted to
them for approval. By so doing it was recognized that the
people themselves are really the source of all power and that
it is through them and with their consent that governments
are created. '' We lay," said the Quaker framers of this docu-
ment, '' a foundation for after ages to understand their Kberty
as Christians and as men, that they may not be brought into
bondage but by their own consent, for we put the power in the
people." This form of government continued as long as West
Jersey remained a separate colony.
'Two of the proprietors of West Jersey had seen service under
Oliver Cromwell. They were quite successful in persuading
settlers to emigrate to their colony and in 1675 founded the
city of Salem, the first permanent settlement on the East side
of the Delaware. Two years later, in 1677, four hundred
Quakers came over from England and founded Burlington,
which soon became the most important commercial center
of this region until the rise of Philadelphia. About this time
ships were sailing for West Jersey once in two or three months,
landing settlers and freight at Burlington. The price for the
passage was five pounds for each adult and forty shilhngs a ton
East Jersey. The people of East Jersey were not so fortu-
nate in having the management of their affairs placed in their
own hands. They too received a form of government from
the proprietors of the pro\dnce, but it granted them less privi-
leges than those which they had enjoyed before the colony
was divided. There was considerable emigration from Scot-
land into East Jersey. Perth Amboy was settled at this time,
its name suggesting its Scotch origin. This was the capital
of East Jersey and was an important port, a collector of cus-
toms residing there.
ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
New Jersey comes under the Rule of the English Govern-
ment. In 1702 the proprietors of each colony sold back their
rights to the English government because they felt that the
colonies were unprofitable. The colonists had given them con-
siderable trouble by constantly demanding new rights and
privileges. Relations with their neighbors,
annoying, especially with New York.
At this time there were probably about
New Englanders, and Scotch Presbyterians
too, were often
in East Jersey,
and not over 4000 settlers
in West Jersey. These last
were mainly Quakers.
Large herds of cattle
roamed the broad lowland
meadows. There was com-
paratively little foreign
trade and very little man-
ufacturing. The people
were generally loyal to
the government, the taxes
were light, and public sal-
aries small. With Penn-
sylvania and New York
as buffers against any
attack they were in no grave danger from the Indians.
Struggle to Control their Own Affairs. For a time New
Jersey was placed under the same royal governor as New York,
but had its separate council and assembly. The old divi-
sion into East and West Jersey was still recognized in choosing
members for the assembly, the people in each division selecting
twelve. Only those owning property were allowed to vote or
hold office. The colonists did not like to think that they were
a part of New York and so kept petitioning the English gov-
ernment for a governor of their own. More than thirty
years passed before this request was granted (1738). Lewis
Interior or a Quaker Meeting House
This interior presents a sharp contrast to
that of the modern church. Such buildings
were numerous in the parts of the state
settled by the Quakers.
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY g
Morris, who became governor in 1738, was largely responsible
for this. Among the changes which were introduced at this
time, perhaps the most important was the combining of
the council and assembly into a legislative body of two houses,
^ith this date the separate history of New Jersey may be said
The spirit of the people at this time was shown in their quarrels
with the governor over the question of how much power was
to be exercised by him and how much by the people themselves,
rhis same spirit is to be seen throughout the early history
Df the colony and shows how devoted the colonists were to the
^deal of liberty. This explains the prominence of New Jersey
n the struggles between the colonies and England later.
The French and Indian Wars in New Jersey. The French
md Indian Wars made it necessary for the people of New Jersey
^o provide for their own defense and for that of their sister
:olonies. On the whole the people of New Jersey showed them-
selves both eager and willing to do their share. They showed
Derhaps less jealousy of their neighbors than did some of the
3ther colonies. Governor Morris testified to this, saying
:hat they showed " a due regard both for the rights of govern-
nent and the liberties of the people." In the midst of quarrels
*vith their governors they voted money and raised troops for
defense against the common foe. Because of opposition to
the quartering of soldiers on the people, barracks were built
3y the legislature at BurHngton, Trenton, New Brunswick,
Perth Amboy, and Elizabeth town. A great service was ren-
dered the colony by Governor Francis Bernard when he called
I meeting of Indian chiefs at Easton, Pennsylvania, and won
their good will, thereby saving the western frontier from some
Df the raids which brought death and destruction to other
colonies. Then, too, the people of New Jersey had been careful
from the beginning to purchase their lands from the native
inhabitants. David Brainerd's work as a missionary among
the Indians near Freehold, like that of John Eliot in New
lO ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
England, helped to win their friendship and prevented any
uprisings against the population. During this struggle New
Jersey showed little interest in any plan for uniting the colonies.
Governor Fletcher, who had been commissioned governor of
Pennsylvania and New Jersey and military head of Connecticut
during the first of these wars, reported to the home government
that the small colonies were as much divided on a plan of union
as Christian and Turk. New Jersey was not represented in the
Albany Congress in 1754.
Character of the People. The people were still largely devoted
to farming, living in villages or in some cases in spacious and
elegant country houses. In many of their towns. New Eng-
land customs were to be found. One of the most interesting
of these was the practice of giving over the care of the poor to
the persons who made the lowest bid for their maintenance
at a public auction. In these towns they were very much op-
posed to stage plays, cock fighting, and card playing, and
passed strict laws against such practices.
New Jersey at the Outbreak of the Revolution. The greatest
of New Jersey's governors was the last man to be appointed
to the ofhce by the king of England, William Franklin, the
son of the famous Benjamin Franklin. This was at the time
when the King of England was trying to enforce the Stamp
Act in America. The new governor sided wdth the English
government, as did many of the colonists. So many of the
young men went into the government service either in the
colony or in England and so many others were educated in
the mother country or married there that families were now
divided, some of the members upholding the king, while
others strongly opposed his tyranny. The patriots were
strong enough, however, to control the legislature and to send
delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. " Sons of
Liberty " were formed to resist the tax, and mobs " burned
efhgies, erected gallows, and threatened any one who should
attempt to use the stamps."
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY ii
When the situation between the mother country and her
colonies became more tense and strained in the years imme-
diately before the outbreak of the Revolution, these patriots
were to be found among the active supporters of the non-im-
portation agreements, sending sympathy and aid to the people
of Boston when they heard that the English government had
closed the port. A meeting was held in Newark in June, 1774,
to organize for resistance, and, as the members of the committee
chosen here were from Elizabethtown, this town became the
headquarters of the patriot movement. Delegates were sent
to the first Continental Congress; a committee of correspond-
ence was appointed for the colony as a whole; and committees
were appointed in some of the counties.
This step was soon followed by meetings in the different coun-
ties to elect delegates to attend a convention at Trenton on
May 23, 1775. These delegates, immediately upon coming
together, insisted that they were the real governing body of
the colony, and proceeded to organize an association for the
defense of the colony. At the same time they provided for a
militia force. Later in the year they arranged for a more
representative gathering of the patriots and this congress,
which was held at Trenton, placed itself in close touch with
the Continental Congress. From this time on the colony was
independent of England. Although the delegates who at-
tended the Continental Congress had been instructed to oppose
any plan for independence, those who were present a year
later enthusiastically supported the Declaration of Independ-
ence. The day before this, on July 3, 1776, the patriots
it home had drawn up a constitution for the new state of New
Jersey. This was the work of some of the most prominent
men at the time, including such men as Witherspoon, Hart,
Clark, Paterson, Dickinson, and Frelinghuysen. It remained
in force without change for almost three quarters of a cen-
tury — a record surpassed by only one other state of the original
12 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
Trouble with the Tories. The situation of New Jersey
made her play a very prominent part in the fighting, and her
separate history was soon merged with that of the country
at large. While their fellow colonists were fighting in Massa-
chusetts, the state was having trouble with the Tories. The
people of New Jersey had split into two parties, each violently
opposed to the other. Civil war followed. '^ Neighbors fought
neighbors with the ferocity shown in the border states during
the Civil War." At first the Tories took a pledge not to pay
any of the taxes or obey the orders of the government. The
provincial congress was inclined to be lenient with them, but
such large numbers left the state to take sides with the British
or remained to plot its destruction that they were forced to
take more vigorous measures against them. These Tories
had their headquarters in the northeastern part of the state
and on Staten Island, and as the British troops occupied this
territory they became bolder.
The Campaign of 1776. One of the most important campaigns
of the entire Revolution was that of 1776. When Howe
landed at New York in 1776, Washington had been forced to
abandon the city, slowly retreating northwards up the Hudson
and fimally crossing to the Jersey side. After the battle of
White Plains he fell back across the northern part of New
Jersey by way of Hackensack and Newark, which he reached,
November 22. Here he spent five days. The outlook was
discouraging. News came of a dangerous uprising of the Tories
in Monmouth County and a battalion had to be sent there to
stamp out the revolt. As Washington left the city on the
28th, the enemy's advance guard entered at one end while he
was passing out at the other. He fell back, by way of Eliza-
bethtown, Woodbridge, Springfield, and Scotch Plains, iipon
New Brunswick and from there retreated to Trenton, closely
pursued by Howe and his forces. He finally reached the oppo-
site bank of the Delaware, where he was safe for the time being,
as Howe had no boats to pursue him. On his march through
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 13
tie state, Howe was greatly aided by farmers who apparently
eld their loyalty very cheap and were willing to supply the
across ^ew Jersey
SCALE OF MfLES
:roops with produce in exchange for British gold. Wash-
ngton's forces were steadily dwindling in number and the
Dutlook was very dark.
The Tories were active at this time and did everything in
their power to interfere with the plans of the patriots. With
14 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
their help, pamphlets prepared by Howe were circulated in
New Jersey, and had it not been for the outrages committed
by the British and Hessians on their march through the state,
it is very possible that thousands would have been won over
to the Tory side.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton. The fortunes of the little
army under Washington were entirely changed by the begin-
ning of the next year. His army had been reinforced to the
extent of several thousand men and now numbered about 6000.
The British troops had been stationed in winter quarters
at three points. New Brunswick, Trenton, and Bordentown.
Washington decided to attack one of these. Crossing the
Delaware on Christmas night, the patriot army under his
leadership inflicted a severe defeat upon the Hessians sta-
tioned at Trenton under Colonel Rail, killing their com-
mander, capturing 1000 prisoners, and returning successfully
to the Pennsylvania side. This attack was made under the
greatest difficulties. Washington had planned with two of
his generals to strike the British lines at three points, but
the river was so filled with ice that he was obliged to make
the attempt alone with a small force, his army numbering not
more than 2400. It was four o'clock in the morning before
they succeeded in landing on the Jersey side.
Recrossing the river a few days later, Washington occupied
Trenton (December 30). Cornwallis, who had hurried south
from New York on the news of the defeat at Trenton, boasted
that he would now '' bag the old fox." Arriving late in the
afternoon of January 2, he made an attack upon the American
forces holding the bridge across the Assanpink, but failed to
force a passage. He encamped opposite Washington's army,
intending to attack in the morning. Washington was too
prudent to risk a battle with so large a force. He therefore
left his campfires burning, and under the pretense of digging
earthworks to protect his forces, slipped away with most of his
army to attack the force which Cornwallis had left behind at
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY
WH^^^' vs~ V^'-^
^^^^ ' - ---'-^'^iM^BilP^^
Princeton. The fighting took place just outside the town, but
in the final struggle some Hessians took refuge in old Nassau,
the original building of Princeton College, barricading the
doors. A cannon was
brought to the scene and
they soon surrendered. A
cannon ball is said to
have cut King George's
head out of his framed
Washington had won a
brilliant victory. Before
Cornwallis could follow
him with his army, he had
made his way to the
heights at Morris town,
where Cornwallis did not
dare to follow him. Corn-
wallis retired to New Brunswick. By these defeats Wash-
ington rescued the reater part of New Jersey from the in-
vading British forces. Only three towns remained in their
hands, New Brunswick, Perth Amboy, and Paulus Hook.
He now issued a proclamation requiring all those who had
recently taken an oath of allegiance to the English government
to either swear allegiance to the United States or to retire to the
British lines. The result was the flight to New York City of
many who had assisted the invaders.
Leaving his winter quarters on May 28, 1777, Washington
marched to Bound Brook, only ten miles from the British head-
quarters at New Brunswick. There was some moving about
of Howe's forces in the hope that he might persuade Wash-
ington to give battle under conditions which would be favorable
to the British. Washington was not to be caught in this way,
and the fighting was soon shifted to the neighborhood of Phila-
delphia. Howe had decided to attack the rebel capital, and
The oldest building of Princeton College,
named in honor of WilUam of Orange, built
in 1756. The Continental Congress sat here
from June 30 to November 4, 1783.
ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
now moved his forces through Rahway to Perth Amboy and
from there to Staten Island, in preparation for this great stroke.
In spite of the efforts of Washington, aided by troops from
New Jersey, Howe occupied Philadelphia in 1777 and Wash-
ington spent the winter of 1777 and 1778 at Valley Forge.
The Battle of Monmouth. In 1778, after hearing the news of
the approach of the French fleet, the British decided that it
was unwise to remain in Philadelphia. Sir Henry Clinton,
who had replaced Howe,
planned to lead his army
back to New York across
New Jersey, as there were
not ships enough to take
them there by water.
Washington now saw his
opportunity to strike a
hard blow before the
British could reach New
York; it might even be
possible to cut off a part
of the army. As Clinton
marched towards Mon-
mouth Court House
(Freehold) on his way to
Sandy Hook, Washington
sent Lee to attack him.
Lee, however, played a
traitor's part and, instead of obeying the orders he had received, ,
began to fall back with his troops before they had really come-
to close quarters with the British. A terrible disaster might!
have been the result, had Washington not come upon the scene
at this time. '' What is the meaning of all this? " he shouted.
" His tone was so fierce and his look so threatening that the
traitor shook in his stirrups and could make no answer."
Taking charge of the army, he succeeded in checking the
Old Tennent Church
One of the oldest churches in the state, com-
pleted in 1753. The Battle of Monmouth
raged a mile and a quarter to the southeast
of it on a Sunday morning and the building
was probably used as a hospital for the
wounded. Washington met the first Ameri-
cans returning from the battle not far from
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 17
advancing British and saved the situation. But the opportu-
nity for which he had so long been waiting had been lost. The
British safely withdrew to Sandy Hook and from there to
An interesting story is told of this battle. It was a hot
sultry day. A young Irishwoman of twenty-two was bringing
water from a near-by
spring to her husband,
who was serving one of
the guns. He was in-
stantly killed by a shot
from a British gun and
the order was given to
remove the gun, as there
was no one to serve it.
His wife, hearing the
order, dropped her bucket
and seized the rammer^
vowing she would avenge
bis death. She served the
sfun with such skill and
P% ^' nL!
!/ " W i
5^^- - . i\
/ "■ . ^ft A*
^^ f*^ ~
Washington's Headquarters at
A fine specimen of a colonial house, built in
1772, now fitted up as a museum. Among
the other trasures to be found here is Wash-
ington's original commission as commander
of the American army, signed by John
courage throughout the
battle that she was brought before Washington by Gen-
eral Greene. He was so pleased with her bravery that
be is said to have given her a commission as sergeant and had
ber name placed on the pay list for life. The heroine of this
incident was known as Molly Pitcher. Some say that this
was not her real name, but a nickname given to her because
she carried water to the wounded during the battle. This was
the last important battle of the Revolution on the soil of New
The Battles at Springfield. The flame of battle still burned
in the northern part of the state because of its nearness to the
British headquarters at New York. Washington spent the
winter of 1779-80 at Morristown. The year 1780, made famous
ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
by Arnold's treason, was one of gloom for the patriot cause, as
the people of America did not realize just how much they had
accomplished. Arnold's treason came as a great shock. The
troops at Morristown were starving, and a mutiny broke out
on May 25 th, news of which was
circulated by spies at the British
headquarters in New York. General
von Knyphausen, who was in com-
mand, thought it an opportune time
to make a dash across Jersey and
secure Morristown, which was im-
portant because of its magazines. He
had handbills printed encouraging
treason and succeeded in distributing
these among the American forces,
hoping that they would surrender
without a blow. But he '^ reckoned
without his host," as they gave his
troops such a warm reception at
Springfield that the attempt was
abandoned. The commander of the
British forces fell mortally wounded
by a shot from a Yankee rifleman at
Elizabethtown. The attempt was re-
peated a little later by Sir Henry
Clinton. This promised to be more
serious for the Americans, as Clinton
had succeeded in drawing off a part
of Washington's troops to Pompton, in the belief that he was
planning an attack upon West Point. A second time Spring-
field proved the turning point. The battle was fought near
the church and when the militia ran out of wadding for theiij
rifles. Parson Caldwell rushed out of the church with a load oi
hymn books, shouting ^'Put Watts into them, boys! " Westfield
Little Egg Harbor, and Toms River were also scenes of mino]
Minute Man, Springfield
This monument stands just
in front of the church from
which Parson Caldwell is
said to have carried the hymn
books. The struggle was along
the road in front of the church.
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 19
engagements, but from this time forward the South proved to
be the great battleground.
Weakness of the Articles of Confederation in New Jersey.
Before the war was over, the colonies found it necessary to plan
for a stronger government than that provided by the Second
Continental Congress. They had therefore drawn up the
Articles of Confederation under which the colonies were gov-
erned to the close of the war. At the close of the war it was
clear that if the union was to continue, something must be done
to strengthen the central government. Each colony sought
to lay its own taxes on commerce, and New Jersey, lying be-
tween the two great ports of New York and Philadelphia, was
compared to a cask tapped at both ends. New York also
became jealous of the large trade in butter, eggs, and vegetables
which was carried on by Jersey merchants and made it a rule
that any market boat coming from Jersey should pay entrance
fees, as might be the case with ships coming from abroad. The
Jersey legislature was so angry that they proceeded to tax
New York $1800 a year for the lighthouse at Sandy Hook.
This was not the only difficulty between the colonies that
called for a reorganization of the government. There was a
craze for paper money. The New Jersey legislature wanted
to issue a half a million paper dollars, but the governor vetoed
the bill. The people of Elizabethtown were so angry that
threats were made to burn him in effigy. At the next session
of the legislature the governor relented, but the people of the
state soon found that they could not circulate this money either
in New York or in Pennsylvania.
When Congress called for $3,000,000 from the states in
1785, New Jersey refused to pay its share of $166,716. This
created such a stir at the capital that a committee of Congress
was appointed to appear before the legislature in order to per-
suade them to consent to the payment. It was argued that
such action on their part revealed the weakness of the cen-
tral goverimient and made it appear in a sorry light to the other
20 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
colonies and to the nations of Europe. New Jersey yielded,
but her action at this time illustrated the attitude of most of
the colonies towards the government set up by the Articles of
New Jersey Ratifies the Constitution. It was just such
problems as these which led to the calling of the Annapolis
Convention. Although this convention accomplished little
besides arranging for the one at Philadelphia next year, the
New Jersey representatives were willing to go much farther in
arranging for better relations between the colonies than were
some of their sister states. At the Philadelphia meeting, re-
membering what they had suffered from Philadelphia and New
York, the New Jersey delegates stood out for a plan of union
which would give the small states a better representation in
the national government. This plan was laid before the con-
vention by a former governor, William Paterson, and was
known as the New Jersey plan. It provided for the amend-
ment of the Articles of Confederation, but failed to establish
a strong central government which would secure prompt action
from the states. Long and bitterly did Paterson champion
his plan. Finally, the convention agreed to a compromise
whereby the small states should be equally represented in the
Senate. When the constitution finally came before the states
for adoption. New Jersey was the third state to ratify the docu-
ment. Unlike so many of the states at this time in which the
struggle over ratification lasted for months, hardly a week was
spent in discussing the new document.
QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
On an outline map show the claims of the Dutch and Swedes to New
Jersey. How much larger was New Netheriands than New Jersey?
How did New Sweden compare in size with New Jersey?
Look up Peter Stuyvesant's career as governor of New Netherlands.
What advantages were offered to early settlers of New Jersey? (Read
Hart, "American History told by Contemporaries.")
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 21
4. Write an imaginary account of the experiences of one of the settlers
arriving with Carteret.
5. Look up the story of the founding of Newark. (See Pierson's "Nar-
ratives of Newark" or Urquhart's "History of Newark.")
6. What colonies in New England had already been settled when New
Jersey became an English colony? Why should New Jersey have
been preferred to these.
7. How did William Penn come to be interested in America?
8. Indicate on a map, the territory ruled by Andros.
c . Compare the proprietary government of New Jersey with proprietary
government in the other colonies.
10. Look up the principal events of the Indian wars and note how near
they came to New Jersey.
11. Compare New Jersey with Massachusetts or Virginia in her opposi-
tion to the king. What special reasons did a Jerseyman have for
opposing him ?
12. Look up the part taken by your community in the Revolution. How
near was it to the events described here? Look for graves of revo-
lutionary veterans in the cemeteries in your neighborhood or monu-
ments erected in their honor with the inscriptions upon them. Write
the story of its part in the Revolution, using this material.
13. How did New Jersey illustrate the need for a stronger government
than the Articles of Confederation provided? Compare her needs
with those of other colonies.
REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READING
1. Stockton, F. R., "Stories of New Jersey," pp. 9-82, 93-203.
2. Knowlton, D. C, "Government of New Jersey," Chapter 1.
3. Pierson, D. L., "Narratives of Newark," Chapters I, III-IV, XV-XVI,
XXII-XXIV, XXVII, XXXII-XXXVI.
4. Urquhart, Frank, "Short History of Newark," Chapter I.
5. Tomlinson, E. T., "A Jersey Boy in the Revolution." "Washington's
Young Aids." "Boys of Old Monmouth." "In the Hands of the
6. Otis, James, "Morgan, the Jersey Spy." "With Washington at Mon-
2 2 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
NEW JERSEY BETWEEN 1789 AND THE CIVIL WAR:
A STATE IN THE MAKING
New Jersey in Washington's Time. When the new govern-
ment went into operation in 1789, with Washington as its first
president, New Jersey continued to be governed by the con-
stitution which had been drawn up at the time of the break
with England. Only property owners were allowed to take
part in the government, but this arrangement was no different
from that which was to be found in other states. Washington
himself came of an aristocratic family, and in those days no
one thought it strange that the working classes should be denied
a share in managing their affairs.
The constitution had been drawn up in such a hurry that for
a long time women had the same right to vote as men, as the
constitution did not specify that the right to vote should be
restricted to the male property owners. Burlington was the
capital of the state until 1790, when Trenton became the seat
Many of the people of the higher classes .lived like Southern
planters on large estates. In some cases they kept negro slaves.
In colonial times from eight to ten per cent of the population
were slaves. Soon after New Jersey was reunited, in 1702,
slaves were introduced into the colony in great numbers as a
result of the interest of one of the governors in the Royal African
Company, which was organized to bring them from Africa.
These were more numerous in the eastern part of the state.
In this section considerable trade was carried on, and Perth
Amboy was gradually becoming an important seaport. There
was also trade with New York City and Philadelphia, but this
was mainly in farm products. By 1800 this part of the state
was turning out large quantities of flour fropi the mills and
was producing cider, leather, and lumber.
The people in the western part of New Jersey lived mainly
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY
by agriculture, raising large quantities of wheat, horses, and
sheep. Even in colonial times glass making was carried on in
South Jersey. -Iron and copper also were mined and made
into bars. As early as 1685 there were iron mills in Monmouth
County; these were the property of Lewis Morris. In 1750
Morris and Warren counties were the centers of this industry.
Speedwell Iron Works
Located near Morristown and one of the earliest and most famous manufacturing
enterprises in the state. The engine of the Savannah, the first steamship to cross
the Atlantic (1819), was built here, as were also parts of the first American loco-
motive and the first cast-iron plow.
The people had to depend largely upon ferries and post roads
to transport their goods.
In 1 79 1 there were six post offices in the state located at
Newark, Elizabeth town, Bridgeton (now Rahway), New Bruns-
wick, and Trenton. The state was divided into thirteen coun-
ties with a mixed population in 1800 of about 200,000. This
was one twenty-sixth of the entire population of the United
States at that time. The northern part of the state and the
portion near Philadelphia were most densely populated. At-
tention had already been directed to education, and two of
the oldest colleges in the country were located in New Jersey,
ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
Princeton, originally called the College of New Jersey, founded
in 1746, and Rutgers, known as Queen's College, founded in
Party Strife. The Methodist revival under Whitfield about
1740 had won many converts, and these were now counted
among the most enthusiastic supporters of the interests of the
people. The state took an active
part in the struggle between the
Federalists and Anti - Federalists,
later known as Republicans. In
1789 New Jersey was a stronghold of
the Federalist party, as was shown
by the readiness with which the
state ratified the constitution. As
time passed, however, the Republi-
can party gradually grew in power
and they succeeded in 1801 in elect-
ing their first governor, Joseph
Bloomfield. The death of Hamilton
at the hands of Aaron Burr at Wee-
hawken, and the loss of William
Livingston, the first governor of the
state and a prominent Federalist,
did much to weaken the party in
the state. Only the extreme north-
ern and southern portions supported Jefferson in 1800; the
electoral vote went to Adams.
The War of 1812 and the Transportation Question. The-
people of the state had not interested themselves in the building
of ships, and New Jersey therefore had little to lose by English
and French interference with American shipping during the
struggle between Europe and Napoleon. It was opposed to
declaring war against England in 181 2, and, when war actually
broke out, was very much concerned over the defenselessness
of its coast. As the natural highway between New York and
ACROSS NEW JERSEY
Compare these routes with the
present railroad systems.
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 25
Philadelphia, it was exposed, with its neighbors north and
south, to the danger of an attack from the sea. The state
had already taken steps to improve the highways which con-
nected these two great cities. This new danger aroused them
to renewed efforts. One of the earlier routes by road between
Philadelphia and New York brought the traveler first to Bur-
lington or Bordentown, then to Paulus Hook, and from here
Newark Stage for New-York.
A FOUR HORSE STAGE iviU leave Archer Gif-
ford't, in Newark, every morning (except Sunday)
Qthalffafi Ji'veo* clock y and nvill leawe P envies Hooi at $
o'clock in the afternoon for Nenvark — This arrangement
gi<ves time/or doing huftnefs in the city, and the cooleft
hours for travelling, Paffengers choofng this conveyance
may apply for feats to Jo HH Boa i> at A* Gifford*s.
Iff y. N. Cumming.
An Early Stagecoach AdverIisement ^
Note the route covered by this stage and the equipment used.
he crossed to the New York side. It meant at least a day's
journey, at a cost of something like six dollars a trip. By 1804
a turnpike was built from Trenton to New Brunswick. Later,
in 1809, the route was changed somewhat as the result of the
introduction of the steamboat. The Union line of wagons and
1 From A Brief History of New Jersey. Copyright 1 910 by Edward S. ElHs
and Henry Snyder. American Book Company, publishers.
26 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
stages made the trip first by steamboat from Philadelphia to
Trenton, then by wagon or stage along the Trenton-New Bruns-
wick turnpike, and finally by water down the Raritan to New
York. After the war the legislature showed its great interest
in road building by granting permission to several companies
to construct roads.
As to New Jersey's actual part in the war, her militia responded
readily to the call of Governor Bloomfield in 1812 for 5000
troops and again to Governor Pennington's request for 5000
in 18 14. Some of these were on. duty at Paulus Hook and
at Sandy Hook but saw no real service. Two of her citizens
became famous in the sea fighting of the time, William Bain-
bridge of Princeton, who commanded the Constitution when
she captured the Java, and James Lawrence of the Chesapeake,
who is best remembered for his dying cry as he was carried
below, " Don't give up the ship."
The Canal and the Steamboat. In the period of our history
when the national government was interesting itself in such
internal improvements as the Cumberland Road and the Erie
Canal, New Jersey was developing every means of commu-
nication which seemed to promise to advance the trade and
industry of the state. In 1824 the Morris Canal was built be-
tween Easton and Newark. In 1830 the first boat passed
through Newark. This was considered a great engineering
triumph, particularly the mclined plane by which boats were
brought down into the city from the hilly ground to the west
of it. In 1830 the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company was
launched with $1,000,000 of capital. As far back as 1804 a
canal had been planned connecting the two rivers and the
route located. Twelve years later the governor made a strong
appeal for action, but it was not until 1838 that the canal was
ready for use.
In the early days of the steamboat when John Fitch was
experimenting with steam, the legislature had granted hun
the sole right to navigate the streams of the state for fourteen
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 27
Aears. One of his steamboats actually sailed the Delaware,
naking a speed of seven miles an hour. Fitch, however, did
lot succeed in making the enterprise pay. The liberality of
:he state in granting him such a valuable right is but another
llustration of how important the people regarded the develop-
nent of the proper means of communication within their bor-
iers. In 1803 Colonel John Stevens of Hoboken operated a
jmall boat propelled by steam on the Passaic.
Finally in 1809 steamboats began to ply regularly on the
Raritan and Delaware Rivers. One of these, the Phoenix,
A^as built by John Stevens in 1806 and was used between New
Brunswick and New York. A monopoly was held by the
[amous inventor Fulton and one of the Livingstons, which
gave this concern the sole right to the use of the Hudson and
New York Bay. This interfered seriously with the business
of the Phoenix and other boats. In 1809 there were regular
steamboat sailings on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays at
seven a.m. between Philadelphia and New York. Borden-
town was reached at one; then the journey was continued by
stage to New Brunswick, where the traveler spent the night,
to continue his journey at six o'clock the next morning by
steamboat to New York. By 18 10 the journey was made in
twenty-six hours and the fare was five dollars.
The First Railroad. When the railroad appeared. New
Jersey was immediately interested. As early as 18 15 permis-
sion had been granted to a company to erect a railroad from
the Delaware near Trenton to the Raritan at or near New
Brunswick. This was before the days of the locomotive, and
it is not clear therefore what kind of a railroad the company
proposed to build, as their plans were never carried out. When
the locomotive proved its usefulness, enterprising people in
the state planned for a railroad between Camden and Amboy.
This was in 1830, and in 1832 the first section was built and
operated between Bordentown and Hightstown. Robert Stevens
was sent to England to secure the locomotive and rails for the
28 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
new road, and during his journey " produced or perfected the
American or Stevens rail." The locomotive known as " John
Bull " was shipped in parts, and it fell to the lot of an American
mechanic, who had never seen one in operation, to assemble
The first railroad train presented a curious picture. '' A
tender had been made from a converted four-wheel flat car,
First New Jersey Railroad Train
Note the stage bodies on carriage trucks. This train was operated for the first
time November 12, 183 1.
the tank being a large whisky barrel and the supply of water
conveyed to the boiler by short sections of leather hose. At-
tached to the locomotive wxre two four-wheeled coaches, built
to be drawn by horses, if need should arise. These coaches
were practically carriage bodies, three doors to a side."
By 1834 a line of railroad across the state had been completed
between Camden and Perth Amboy. Four years later a parallel
line was built from New Brunswick to Jersey City and from
New Brunswick to Borden town. The Camden-Amboy shops
for the manufacture of locomotives were soon opened at
Hoboken. These supplied the models for the building of "Old
Ironsides " by Mathias Baldwin, the founder of the great
Baldwin Locomotive works at Philadelphia.
The Morris and Essex Railroad (now a part of the Lacka-
wanna system) was chartered in 1835 and began operations
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 29
h.Q following year between Orange and Newark. By 1838 it
lad been extended to Morristown and carried both passengers
md freight. The freight car was about " 25 feet in length,
resembling a modern ^j(lat car, but
ievoid of side boaiw!*^ or stakes."
Manufacturing. One immediate
effect of the War of 181 2 which w^as
telt in New Jersey, as in other parts
Df the country, was the impulse given
to manufacturing. In the town of
Newark, for example, there were
eighty-two distilleries producing each
year 300,000 gallons of '' Jersey Light-
aing " as it was called. There were
763 looms in operation and 9900
spindles. Besides these industries the
town could boast of ten paper mills,
three naileries, seventeen bloomeries,
and twenty-six carding machines.
One of the noted inventors of this Seth Boyden
period was Seth Boyden, who came gtatue erected in his honor
to Newark from Massachusetts about in Newark. The sculptor has
181 S. He produced a machine for represented him in his leather
apron with shirt sleeves rolled
makmg wrought nails, another for ^p, standing at his anvil. In
cutting files and brads, and still spite of his many inventions
another for cutting and heading he continued to work for wages
, __ , 1 M 1 r until too old to work.
tacks. He was also a builder of
locomotives. The patent leather industry owes its beginnings
to his inventive brain; and he was among the first to manu-
facture malleable iron, daguerreotypes, and steam machinery.
He assisted Professor Morse in perfecting the electric telegraph.
Several factories appeared in the state for the making of
glass, paper, and cloth. In the late thirties '' the silk\\^rm
craze " seized the people. This was a form of speculation, or
" get-rich-quick " scheme, which was very popular for a time.
ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
The state agreed to pay a bounty of fifteen cents for every
pound of cocoons, and by 1838, 200,000 mulberry trees had been
planted. One tenth of these were in the neighborhood of
Burlington. Silk companies were organized, but as the people
were more intent upon
planting trees than pro-
ducing silk worms the
bubble soon burst.
The panic of 1837 fell
with great force upon New
Jersey. All sorts of wild
schemes had been taken
up by the people in the
wave of speculation which
swept the country at this
time. The silk worm craze
was an illustration of this.
The people of New Jersey
did not begin to manu-
facture on an extensive
scale until the state had
recovered somewhat from
The HoiME of the Telegeaph
With the assistance of Alfred Vail the first
successful experiments were carried on in
this building of the Speedwell Iron Works on
January 6, 1838. This same month a pubHc
demonstration was given at the University
of the City of New York. Alfred Vail was
the son of the proprietor of the works, and
his father advanced money at his suggestion
to help the inventor.
these lean years.
The Democratic Revolution and the New Constitution.
Between 1830 and 1840 a democratic revolution began to sweep
the country. Andrew Jackson placed himself at the head of
a party which represented the interests of the common man,
and his election in 1832 was proof that the days of aristocracy
were numbered. New Jersey again was divided, as in the
early days of the struggle between Federalist and Anti-Feder-
alist. The old aristocratic constitution under which the people
had been governed had to be abandoned. In 1843 Governor
Haines, recognizing the justice of the claims of the people for
a better representation in the government, called a conven-
tion to prepare a new constitution. This met the following
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 31
year and drew up the present constitution, which was soon
The new constitution provided for three important changes,
all in the interests of the people. Property qualifications for
voting and holding ofBce were abolished. The vote was given
to all male citizens of twenty-one years of age or over, with
certain residence qualifications. The people could now elect
the governor, the choice of whom had formerly rested in the
hands of the legislature. A third change abolished most of
the powder which up to that time had been exercised by the
governor's council. It was no longer important as the highest
court in the state, or as an appointing body.
Dorothea Dix and the Prison Reform Movement. The same
reform movement which conferred political rights upon the
people by changing the constitution also showed itself in efforts
to better the condition of such unfortunates as paupers, idiots,
and the insane. Miss Dorothea Dix set out to make a thorough
investigation of the jails, poorhouses, and prisons, and the
people were shocked at the conditions she found in these. This
was before the days when a scientific study had been made of-
insanity and special institutions established for its treatment.
The poorhouses were crowded with these unfortunates, who were
either sadly neglected or brutally treated. One of these had
been insane for thirty years and had been out of his apart-
ment " but ten times in more than nineteen years "; another
was chained by the leg in a little cell which was heated only
by a small stove pipe passing through a corner of the room.
The pauper insane of Burlington County were kept in '' dreary
:onfined cells, insufficiently lighted, insufficiently warmed,
md pervaded with foul air to an intolerable degree."
The arrangements made for the poor were often a disgrace
to the community. The rooms were usually loathsome places,
tiardly fit for wild beasts. The jails were little better, crowded
IS they were in many cases with offenders of both sexes, of all
iges and nationalities. The jail was too often, as Miss Dix
32 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
puts it, '' the primary school and the normal school for the
state prison." Miss Dix's championship of the cause of these
unfortunate classes was rewarded by the erection in 1846 of
the first state institution for the insane and a general improve-
ment of the jails and poorhouses.
In 185 1 the hours of employment for children were limited
and it was forbidden to employ any child under ten. Orphan
asylums were established in many places. Temperance societies
were very popular between 1840 and 1845, especially in the
western part of the state, where the Quakers were numerous.
These were organized as lodges and offered certain privileges
to their members.
The Slavery Question and the Mexican War. A greater
reform movement than any of those just described was gradu-
ally taking shape in the country. This was the movement that
led finally, after a bitter struggle, to the abolition of African
slavery. In 1800 New Jersey had a larger slave population
than any other state north of Maryland except New York.
As early as 1804, however, the legislature had arranged for their
gradual abolition and their number declined until in 1840 there
were only 674 in the entire state. In 1850 there were still 236
negroes held in bondage, but they were really apprentices serv-
ing a longer term of years than was the case with the ordinary
apprentice. The abolition movement made some progress in
the state, especially among the Quakers. At one of their meet-
ings held in Pliiladelphia in 1776, they passed a resolution pro-
posing to '' deny the right of membership to such as persisted
in holding their fellowmen as property." A few abolition
societies were to be found among the Quakers and a few in
the neighborhood of New York, but the sentunent in favor
of abolition in New Jersey was not at all strong as compared
with New York and New England.
Opposition to the slave trade had brought this bad business
to an end as early as 1785; laws were passed later enforcing this
earlier measure. In 1820 the legislature passed resolutions
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 33
against the admission of Missouri as a slave state. A few
years later resolutions were passed approving some kind of a
colonization scheme as a means of settling the slavery question.
These resolutions were sent to the governors of the other states
and to the representatives of the state in Congress.
It was the extension of slavery into new territory rather than
the moral question which divided the country between 1840
and i860. At the time of the outbreak of the Mexican War
this question of the extension of slavery had become one of the
great questions pressing for a solution. This war was specially
favored by the Southern planters and slaveholders. New
Jersey was called upon to furnish one volunteer regiment.
The legislature of 1847 showed its hearty support of the war
by passing resolutions praising General Taylor and authorizing
the governor to present swords to four New Jersey officers who
were serving under him. Troops raised in the state reached
Mexico in time to join in the triumphant advance of General
Scott from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. While the struggle was
still on the legislature passed a resolution requesting their
representatives in Congress to use their best efforts to secure
the exclusion of slavery from any territory which might be an-
nexed to the United States. The year after the war they
again showed their attitude on the slavery question by con-
demning any further extension of the system and urging the
abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia.
New Jersey and the Struggle between North and South. In
the great campaign of i860, there seemed to be a division of
sentiment in New Jersey on the great question of the hour.
The contest here was between Douglas and Lincoln and the
campaign was an exciting* one, marked by parades and fiery
speech-making. So close was the result that the electoral
vote of the state was divided, four going to Lincoln and three
to Douglas. When a peace convention was called in 1861,
before the close of Buchanan's term, to devise means for
patching up the differences between the North and the South-
ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
Confederacy, New Jersey took an active part, sending
delegates and urging the acceptance of proposals which would
have yielded somewhat to the demands of the South.
New Jersey in the Civil War. When
the flag was fired upon, the situation
changed somewhat, but in 1862 New
Jersey was the only Northern state
which elected a democratic governor.
Again in 1864 her vote was given to
the democratic candidate for president,
General George B. McClellan, who
was then living in the state. Although
not giving her support to the republi-
can party, her citizens rallied loyally
to the defense of the flag, furnishing
ten thousand, more soldiers than the
number which the government ex-
pected. Joel Parker, who was the war
governor of the state (serving from
1862 to 1866), although a democrat,
showed himself so anxious to cooperate with the national
government that President Lincoln warmly thanked him for
his services in preserving the Union.
The best known of the New Jersey fighters was General
Philip Kearny, who had seen service in the Mexican War and
was killed in the Battle of Chantilly. A story is told of him
which illustrates the spirit of the Jersey troops. He had been
asked to undertake a difhcult and dangerous enterprise and
was given the privilege of selecting his men. When he was
asked what troops he preferred, his reply was, " Give me Jersey-
men, they never flinch! "
General Philip Kearny
Probably the best known New
Jersey fighter. Statue erected
by the city of Newark.
QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Compare the occupations of the people in the United States in Wash-
ington's time with the occupations of the people of New Jersey.
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 35
2. Point out the advantages of living in New Jersey at this time as com-
pared with other states.
3. Locate the places and sections mentioned as important at this time.
4. Look up the principles represented by the Federalists and the Re-
publicans. If you had lived in New Jersey at the time, which party
would you have supported and why?
5. As a Jerseyman would you have been in favor of the War of 181 2?
6. Describe an imaginary journey from New York to Philadelphia about
181 2, naming the places you would pass through and the interesting
things you would see.
7. Describe the first steamboat and an imaginary trip with John Fitch.
8. Locate the line of the first railroad and describe an imaginary trip
between two important points upon it.
9. Explain why Andrew Jackson's election marked the beginning of a
democratic revolution, and why one was needed in New Jersey.
10. Would you class New Jersey as a free or slave state in 1850? Why?
11. Make irquiries as to the part taken by your community in the Civil
War. Look for graves of veterans with inscriptions. Possibly
there is a monument in memory of the boys who enlisted. Look
up the battles in which they took part. Write the story of their
part in the War.
REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READING
1. Stockton, F. R., "Stories of New Jersey," pp. 83-92, 204-254.
2. Pierson, D. L., "Narratives of Newark," Chapters XLI-XLIII, XLVI.
3. Urquhart, Frank, "Short History of Newark," Chapter II, pp. 108-117.
4. Lee, W. B., "New Jersey as a Colony and as a State."
5. "Legislative Manual of State of New Jersey,"^ published annually
by the State.
NEW JERSEY SINCE THE CIVIL WAR
The State as a Business and Manufacturing Center. The
period that followed the close of the war, with the exception
of the crisis of 1873, was one of great prosperity for the country
at large and for New Jersey in particular. New Jersey soon
became one of the leading manufacturing states in the entire
country. In 19 10 the output of her factories was reckoned at
1 Recommended only for teachers.
36 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
Showing Resources and
Chief Industrial Centers
L.L. POATESCO. ,N^Y..
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 37
$1,000,000,000. Only four states excelled her in the value of
their manufactured products. These included silk goods (in
which the state is an acknowledged leader), foundry products,
refined petroleum, copper, iron and steel, pottery, chemicals,
leather, malt liquors, rubber, and cotton and woolen goods.
Encouragement was given to railroad building, especially
after 1873, and the state is now
covered with a network of about
2500 miles of railroads. These
form parts of at least four great
systems: the Pennsylvania; the
Delaware, Lackawanna, & West-
ern; the Lehigh Valley; and the
The development of manufac-
turing also directed attention to
the use of waterways for carrying
goods. The rapid growth of New
York City had made the Jersey
side of New York Bay, with the
territory lying behind it, a great
shipping center. The possibilities
of Newark Bay as a port have
been discussed, and it is very
likely that it will be used to
relieve the heavy traffic now car-
ri,ed on from the piers on the New
York side. When President Roose-
velt directed the attention of the
country to the conservation of its resources and the greater use
of its inland waterways, a plan was formed for the construction
of a great ship canal across the state from Trenton to Raritan
Bay. This was to be one link in a great inside waterway from
Boston along the Atlantic Coast to Florida. A beginning was
made for carrying out the scheme when the Cape Cod Canal,
Thomas A. Edison
Since he built his laboratory at
Orange in 1886 the great inventor
has been closely connected with
the industrial development of the
state. The kinetophonograph and
the nickel iron storage cell have
been perfected since he moved to
38 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
connecting Massachusetts Bay with Long Island Sound, was
opened in 19 14. The New Jersey coast for many years past
had been looked upon by mariners as particularly dangerous,
and the state very early interested itself in establishing life-
saving stations at different points. The ship canal will make
it unnecessary for ships sailing along the coast to run the risk
of shipwreck in the shallow waters off New Jersey.
New Jersey has been linked much more closely to New York
by the building of the McAdoo or Hudson tunnels under the
Hudson River. A tunnel for vehicles of all kinds has been
proposed and will probably be the next step in binding the two
Trusts in New Jersey. The earliest form of trust was the
Standard Oil Company, which was first organized in Ohio.
When this was declared illegal, it broke up into several com-
panies. One of these was the Standard Oil Company of New
Jersey. The laws of the state were so favorable to companies
that sought to control various lines of business that New^ Jersey
soon came to be looked upon as the home of the trust. All
sorts of corporations were formed within its limits. Perhaps
the largest of these is the United States Steel Corporation.
Some of these became powerful trusts and figured prominently
in the struggle between the national government and big busi-
ness in the years when Roosevelt and Taft were in office at
Washington. The very fact that New Jersey is so near to
New York and Philadelphia makes it naturally a center for
big business enterprises, not only with branches in these great
cities but throughout the whole country.
The Reform Movement of the Twentieth Century. Up to
about 1905 New Jersey had the reputation of being one of
the slowest states to adopt any kind of reform measures. The
people clung to their old ways of doing things long after other
states had abandoned them altogether. They believed, for
example, that the government should have as little as possible
to do with business carried on in the state, but should allow it
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 39
to develop freely and without interference. The laws of the
state were decidedly favorable to business and rather neglect-
ful of the working classes and the common people. The gov-
ernment was even accused of being entirely in the hands of the
A few public- spirited men began to work to bring about a
change. They did their work so well that when Mr. Woodrow
Wilson was elected governor in 1909 after a bitter fight, he was
able to secure the passing of some much-needed laws. These
placed New Jersey among the progressive states of the union.
Reforms provided by the New Laws. The old corrupt method
of nominating candidates for ofhce in caucuses and conventions,
under the eye of bosses, was abandoned and in its place came
the direct primary, as it was called. The voter was able to
express his choice for office without fear of the consequences
of his act. Those running for office were obliged to keep an
accurate account of what they spent and were not allowed to
spend their own or other people's money freely to carry an
election. A new form of secret ballot was introduced which
also tended to do away with political corruption.
The powerful corporations which supplied the public with
such necessary things as light, gas, and water, and the rail-
roads upon whom the people were so dependent for cheap and
satisfactory service, were placed under the supervision of a
group of men known as a Public Utilities Commission, with
power to fix the rates and fares charged, and in general to see
that the public was not imposed upon in any way.
A law known as the Seven Sisters' Act, because it was really
made up of seven closely related measures, helped to drive
trusts from the state and to force big business enterprises to
consider the interests of the common people. This measure
served as a pattern for Mr. Wilson's legislation against the
trusts when he became President.
Laborers were protected in their work against loss of life or
limb by laws compelling all employers to pay them for injuries ;
40 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
or to make it easier for their families by payments of money
in case of death by accident. Pensions were to be paid out of
the state funds to widows who were left with children dependent
upon them. Children were protected while they were young
against the evils of the factory.
Interest in Education. At this time changes were made in
the state school system. Education was one of the matters in
which the people of the state had always taken great interest.
The example had been set by both the Dutch and Puritan settlers
of New Jersey. The first record of a school in New Jersey
was one in Bergen in 1662. Woodbridge appointed a school-
master in 1669, and in 1676 Newark chose John Catlin to be
the instructor of her children. From the very beginning the
Quakers, or Society of Friends, provided for the education of
their children. In 1682 the assembly at Burlington set apart
the revenues from the island of Matinicunk in the Delaware
for the support of a school. The legislature in East Jersey in
1693 passed a law which made it possible for the people in
their town elections to select three citizens to hire teachers and
fix their salaries.
The beginnings of the present system of free pubjic schools
dates back to 181 7. When the second constitution was drawn
up in 1844, it made liberal provisions for educating the children
of the state, insisting that all children " between the ages of
five and eighteen years " should have an education at the public
expense. State money was set aside as a permanent fund
for this purpose; only the interest was to be used to provide
schools. This fund has been added to from time to time until
it now amounts to $4,000,000. Money is also provided gener-
ously by taxation, and the schools of the state, are now among
the best in the country. Normal schools have been established,
and Rutgers College has been made the state college for the
teaching of agriculture and the mechanic arts. Free scholar-
ships in this college are offered by the state to students inter-
ested in carrying their education beyond the high school grade.
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 41
\ college for women was opened in the fall of 19 18 in connec-
tion with Rutgers College.
QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
E. Consult the map showing the resources of New Jersey. How have they
helped develop certain parts of the state? Your own community?
What has the state or the United States done to develop these?
I. What other states are rivals of New Jersey in manufacturing? How
does she rank?
\. Note the routes of the railroads mentioned. How have they affected
the growth of the state? What other roads serve the state?
|.. Compare the changes which follo\A ed Mr. Wilson's election as governor
with those which followed the election of Governor Haines as to their
5. Define a "boss." Look up the power of the "boss" in other parts of
the United States (Tweed for example) .
). Compare the efforts to handle trusts in the United States with similar
efforts in New Jersey.
^ Who was the national "trust-buster"? the state "trust buster"?
1. How would you have felt about these changes if you had been engaged
in business at the time? How much would your particular locality
be interested in these changes?
p. In how many different ways is New Jersey trying to educate its
REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READING
[. Knowlton, D. C, "Government of New Jersey."
2. Hosford, H. E., " Woodrow Wilson and New Jersey Made Over." ^
3. Lee, W. B., "New Jersey as a Colony and as a State." ^
\. "Legislative Manual of the State of New Jersey." ^
THE RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF CITIZENSHIP
IN NEW JERSEY
The People of New Jersey. The responsibility for making
New Jersey '' safe for democracy " and a worthy representative
Df all that is best in American life rests with the people who
Live within its borders. The population of the state in 191 5
1 Recommended especially for use of teachers.
42 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
was 2,844,342. One million of these people live in the two
northern counties of Essex and Hudson. Many of these are
engaged in business in New York City and simply eat and sleep
on the Jersey side. A considerable proportion of the popula-
tion are foreigners, or the children of foreign-born parents.
It is estimated that there are about half a million voters in the
state. As has already been indicated, New Jersey laws have
tried to make it possible for the people of the state to control
their own affairs and rid themselves of bosses and other bad
influences in politics.
The Constitution and its Amendment. The main outlines^
of the government of the state are to be found in the consti-
tution which was drawn up almost three quarters of a century
ago (see page 30). Representatives of the people at that time
came together and laid down the framework of the govern-
ment and, when they had completed their work, placed it be-
fore the voters for their approval. Although it went into
effect so many years ago, it has proved fairly satisfactory, al-
though many people are now of the opinion that it should be
thoroughly overhauled or revised by a convention selected by
the voters for this purpose. Every effort to do this thus far
has failed. The voters have been satisfied to change it by
This method of changing the constitution is somewhat com-
plicated and requires considerable time. An amendment must
be proposed by the legislature. After it has been approved
by the majority vote of two successive legislatures and pub-
lished for a certain length of time, so that the people can be-
come thoroughly familiar with it, it is placed before them at
an election for approval or disapproval. If a majority agree
to it, it becomes a part of the constitution. There is another
requirement, however, which makes it possible to place these
amendments before the people only at intervals of five years.
Every five years the voters may be asked to pass judgment
upon a single amendment or possibly a whole batch of amend-
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 43
merits. The difficulty of really changing the constitution
is shown by the fact that it has been amended only twice since
it was adopted, once in 1875 ^^<^ again in 1897. Commis-
sions were appointed to recommend changes to the legislature,
and provisions forbidding gambling within the state and restrict-
ing the power of the legislature were added. The present
system of taxing the people was also established by this means.
Taking Part in the Government. The right to take an active
part in the management of its affairs has been conferred upon
all male citizens twenty-one years of age or over who have
lived in the state at least one year and in the county at least
five months next preceding the election in wliich they wish to
cast a vote. In order to vote the person who is qualified must
first register, that is, he must report at the place where the
election is to be held at a certain time and give the persons in
charge his name and other information which the law requires.
This is in order that no one may vote who is not really en-
titled to do so.
Every voter has the right not only to vote for those who are
to fill the various offices, but he may also nominate men to
run for office. He can even nominate the men who run for
governor or United States Senator. This very often means
much more to him than making a selection among the
An election for the purpose of nominating men to fill offices
is called a primary. These are usually held about one month
before the regular election. When the voter appears at the
primary, he is asked the party to which he belongs and is then
given a ballot on which appear the names of all the men from
that particular party who wish to be nominated. He retires
to a booth and there makes a cross opposite the names of those
he prefers. Each party has its own ballot box for these votes.
A. person who wishes to have his name printed on the ballot as
a candidate for the nomination must secure beforehand a cer-
tain number of names to a petition requesting this. The voter
44 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
makes his final selection for all the important state position
at the regular election, which occurs on the first Tuesday aftei
the first Monday in November. In cases where local office
are to be filled the elections are sometimes held at other times
The state is divided into districts, and there is a polling or vot
ing place set aside in each district for the voters who live there
The election is in charge of officers selected for that purpose
They have charge of registration and every detail of the election
The voter is handed a single ballot. This contains the name
of all the candidates of the different parties for the position
to be filled. The names are usually arranged in some orde
under the office to be filled. After each name appears th(
name of the party which the person represents. The vote
retires to a booth and makes a cross opposite the name of th( L
person of his choice. He then hands it to an election officer
who places it in a ballot box.
The votes are counted by the election officers when the elec-
tion is over, the person receiving the highest number (or plural-
ity) being declared elected. Votes are often recounted, oi
'' canvassed," as it is called, by other officers in order thai
there may be no question of who has been really chosen.
The law inflicts heavy penalties upon those who try to votM^
more than once or who encourage others to cheat or engage in
unfair practices at any election. Reference has been made tc
this on page 460. So strict is the law that an employer canno
inclose the pay check of his men in envelopes which have printec
or written upon them the names of any candidate or any politica
motto or any device used by a political party to influence thei
vote. Big business organizations cannot contribute by nam<
to the expenses of a campaign. Each candidate can onlj
spend so much on his nomination and election. This amount
depends upon the office which he seeks. For example, a can-
didate for the governorship is limited to $2500 in securing
the nomination at the primary, and the same amount in th(
campaign for his election. In trying to secure a municipa
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 45
S^^O^^^w^. "" '** f'
" 'i PmBel -<
46 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
office $250 is allowed in each case, but the expense must noP
exceed twenty-five per cent of a year's salary. ^
Law-making. The state form of government is very similaii'^'
to that of other states. Laws are made by a legislature whichi^
consists of two houses. The upper house, or Senate, contains
twenty-one members, one for each county. They are elected
each year. The lower house, or assembly, is based upon popu-
lation. There can never be more than sixty members, and e\'ery
county must choose at least one. The number elected in each
county is changed as the population grows and makes these,
changes necessary. The two houses do not differ very muc
as to what they can do.
The legislature meets once a year, the second Tuesday
January. It makes many of the laws which come close home
to the people, as, for example, those having to do with educa-
tion, taxation, the regulating of business, and the care of the
poor and of the unfortunate. In general it tries to make the
state a pleasant place in which to live.
The state constitution and that of the United States place
certain restrictions upon its powers to make laws, but these arer
all in the interests of the people at large, preventing in many
cases one individual from taking advantage of another. Other
restrictions have to do with the spending of the people's money.
The state cannot be burdened with a heavy debt without the
consent of the voters. This means that in case the legisla-
ture wishes to spend a large amount of money, as for example
on a system of roads, the law must be submitted to the voters
for their approval. Special laws cannot be passed to assist
or favor some one person or locality. All laws must apply
equally to all communities of the same kind. No one person
or community can be singled out for legislative favors.
The process of law-making is very similar to that in Congress.
Each house has committees to which bills are first referred for
consideration. When a committee reports favorably upon a
measure, it is then discussed and voted upon in that house.
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 47
ff it secures a majority vote it is turned over to the other
louse, where it goes through the same process. If both houses
kTote favorably upon it, it is submitted to the governor for his
The State Officers and Their Duties. The carrying out of
phe state laws is largely in the hands of the governor. He is
:hosen by the voters for three years and cannot be reelected to
succeed himself. This is because so much power rests in his
lands. He appoints many of the state officers who are re-
sponsible for the laws being put into effect. Probably his most
mportant duty is to pass upon bills which the legislature may
;ee fit to approve. His signature is necessary in order that
che bill may become a law. If he does not approve it, the bill
Tiust be passed again by a majority vote of both houses. If
oy any chance he keeps a bill for five days (Sundays excepted)
md the legislature is still in session, it becomes a law without
lis signature. The governor, like the President, has some
influence over law-making by his power to lay before the leg-
islature when it assembles his suggestions as to what subjects
Dught to be taken up. These suggestions are known as his
'' message." If he is really the leader of his party, these
will be acted upon, and new laws or changes in the old laws
iwill be the result. He may also call special sessions of the
Among the officers appointed by the governor are an attorney
general, who gives his opinion as to the meaning of laws; a
Commissioner of banking and insurance, who has general
oversight of all banking and insurance companies which do
business in the state; a commissioner of charities and correc-
tions who is in charge of the prisons and such homes, hospitals,
land the like as have been opened for the care of the insane,
epileptics, and other unfortunates; the commissioner of labor,
who collects such information as has to do with the workers of
the state; and a state board of education with general charge of
the school system throughout the state.
48 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
Administering Justice. The state government provides
complete system of courts for the trial of cases which have to
do with state laws. There are courts which take care of suits
for the recovery of damages Or for the enforcing of agreements;
other courts try persons accused of crime and fix penalties in
case they are judged guilty. The majority of all the crimes
committed within the state are against state law and have
nothing to do with the United States, such, for example, as rob-
bery and murder. If the United States mail is robbed, then state
courts would have nothing to do with it, as the carrying of the
mail is something entirely within the control of the United
States. The lowest court is a justice's court or a city court;
the highest is the Court of Errors and Appeals. Between these
there is a complicated system of courts which provide for all
sorts of cases and allow of appeals from one court to a higher
judge or group of judges. The judges of most of these courts
are appointed, which makes them independent of politics
and therefore more likely to give fair and impartial decisions.
Special courts exist for cases having to do with property left
by persons at death; other special courts known as Chancery
Courts look after the enforcement of contracts or agreements.
New Jersey justice has a reputation for being quickly admin-
istered. Those who appeal to the courts for justice are spared
the long and expensive delays that are so common in the trial
of cases in the courts of the states.
Some idea has already been given of what the state does
for its citizens by means of this machinery. The services per-
formed by these courts, these executive officers and the state
legislature, are the real test of the effectiveness of the state
What the State Does for its Citizens
The very first article of the constitution points out that it
is the business of the state government to protect individual
rights, such as the security of the person against injury, the
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 49
right to the property which he may own, and the right to come
and go as he pleases so long as he does not interfere seriously
with the rights of others. The large population of the crowded
cities and suburban districts makes it necessary for the citizens
of the state to exercise a spirit of cooperation; to work together
for the interests of the whole community. Many of the things
which the state does would be impossible without the joining
together of the whole body of citizens in the enterprise. Much
of the work of the state therefore has to do with providing a
large and densely peopled community with those things neces-
sary for their welfare and happiness which could not be secured
by individuals alone, or would be difficult to secure because
of the expense and labor involved.
Public School System. Our public school system is an illus-
tration. The money has been provided by the people of the
state and they have created a State Board of Education to
look after the whole state system of schools. This board ap-
points a Commissioner of Education who selects four assistant
commissioners to see that such schools as high schools and gram-
mar schools, special schools, such as vocational and agricul-
tural schools, and the like, are established and really serve the
interests of the people.
The state is divided into school districts, and each district
makes provision for a school for the people who live there.
Districts may be combined in order to provide better schools.
This is often done in densely populated communities. The
people of the community provide funds for the erection of
schools and for hiring teachers, and select a board of educa-
tion to look after school matters. The state board of educa-
tion keeps in close touch with these districts through the county
superintendents. These men are appointed by the state board
and have general charge of the schools of the county, carrying
out the orders of the board and enforcing some of the school
laws. They have nothing to do with cities which employ super-
intendents of schools. These make their reports directly to
50 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
the state board. Attendance at school is compulsory between
the ages of seven and fourteen, unless the children are taught
at home or are unable to attend because of physical or mental
defects. The state has also provided for a system of health
Public Utilities. The state makes it possible for the local
governments which are established by state laws to provide
what are called public utilities, such as water, gas, and elec-
tricity for the people at a small expense; to lay out parks;
to provide playgrounds; to open public rnarkets and to render
a great many other services of a like character.
The State and the Laborer. The growth of industry has
made it necessary for the state to look after the interest of the
laborer by factory laws, by tenement house inspection, and
the like. The worker is also protected by law against injury
Public Health. The health of the people has become a very
important matter because of the crowded districts in which
some of them live. This is safeguarded by a State Board of
Health, which sees that the health boards which the state re-
quires in the smaller divisions are taking proper precautions
to guard against infectious and contagious diseases, and to
remove conditions harmful to the health of each community.
The health authorities are intrusted with the power of inter-
fering under certain conditions in what used to be considered
private family matters. Bulletins are published informing
people as to the best ways to keep well. Food is inspected
and certain rules must be observed as to wrapping it or exposing
it to dirt and germs. Barber shops and ice cream parlors must
be carried on according to rules laid down by state and local
The State and the Farmer. The state government interests
itself in the farmer and tries to encourage farming in every way.
Bulletins are circulated; experiments are carried on at Rutgers
College and other places in the interest of the farmer; and
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 51
institutes are held at which important topics are discussed
and advice given.
Road Building. Attention is given to road building. Thou-
sands of dollars are set aside to keep the roads in repair and
to build others. A commissioner of pubhc roads is appointed
to look after these and to collect facts about roads and road
building which will be useful to the people.
The State and the Business Man. The business man is
served by the state in a variety of ways. He knows that the
state government is behind the banks, securing him against
loss by insisting that they be carefully managed. Big busi-
ness organizations cannot become monopolistic. Investments
in large corporations are made safer by laws which prevent
them from engaging in questionable business practices.
Governmental Divisions and Local Government
The County. In order to carry out the laws more effec-
tively and to provide for the needs of the people of every part
of the state, New Jersey has been divided into twenty-one
counties. These divisions are used largely for purposes of
taxation and to secure a better administration of justice through-
out the state. The principal county officers are the freeholders
and a sheriff. The freeholders together form a board and
act as a legislature for the county, making provisions for the
poor, the insane, and those held as prisoners. The sheriff
has the care of the county criminals and the county jail and is
the most important official in the county. He is the county's
chief executive officer. Each county has a county judge and
a surrogate who preside over different courts. These judges
and the prosecutor of the pleas, whose business it is to appear
for the state as the lawyer against those accused of crime, are
appointed officers; the freeholders and sheriff are chosen by
the voters. So important is the office of sheriff that he cannot
be reelected to succeed himself.
52 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
County Divisions. Within each county are to be found
smaller divisions known by various names and forming a com-
plicated system. Every person residing within the state finds
himseli under the immediate authority of officials representing
either what is called a village, a township, an incorporated town,
a borough, or a city. These do not differ very much as to the
general plan of government; they differ rather as to what they
do for the people of that community. Some of them are better
suited for parts of the state which are thickly settled. A city
government, for example, exercises many more powers and has
a much more compUcated form of government than a town-
ship or village. The principal officers are elected and these
governments are all subject to laws made by the state legis-
lature. In some cases, as with cities, the legislature has given
them a charter defining exactly what they can do. In the
township, which is to be found in those parts of the state where
the people are few and scattered, the voters come together once
a year to a town meeting. Here they elect their officers
and provide for the needs of the town. They tax themselves
to provide for such matters as tlie building and care of the
roads and the poor, and make laws for the government of the
district. The government of the other divisions is more repre-
sentative, that is, the people seldom come together as a body
but select men to act for them. This body may be called a
board of trustees in a village, or a common council in a borough,
incorporated town, or city. The principal officers in these
divisions are a clerk, a collector, a treasurer, an attorney, one
or more assessors, and constables or police officers.
Commission Government. If the voters of these smaller
divisions of the county wish it, they may have what is called
commission government. A petition is circulated among the
voters, and, if a sufficient number of names are signed to it
an election is held to decide whether the government shall
be changed. If the majority of voters are in favor of the change
they proceed to elect commissioners. These are chosen with-
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY '53
out regard to party, that is, there can be no indication of what
party they represent on the ticket. The voter may also exer-
cise more than one choice in marking his ballot. Provision
is made for four choices. The names of the candidates are
arranged in alphabetical order. The ballot is divided into
separate columns for each choice. The voter indicates his
first choice in the first column and if he so desires may indicate
others as his second choice and so on until he has used all
four columns. He must not vote twice for the same candidate.
When the votes are counted, if no candidate has received a
majority of the first-choice votes, or if the full number of
candidates (either three or five) do not receive a majority of
the first choice votes, then the second choice votes are added to
the first choice votes received. The same thing can be done
with the third choice votes if there is still no majority. This
is called preferential voting. There is no primary election to
nominate. Names are placed on the ballot by securing suffi-
cient names to a petition.
This form of government is often preferred because it has
the advantage of making the men chosen entirely responsible
for the management of affairs. They act as a legislative body
and at the same time see to the carrying out of the laws. Each
one has a certain department to look after. For example, it may
be either revenue and finance, or parks and public property,
or public safety, or streets and public improvements, or the
department of public affairs. In case there are five commis-
sioners, each one is made responsible for each of these depart-
ments; where there is a smaller number of commissioners the
departments are combined. Another interesting feature of
commission government is a plan by which a group of voters
can draw up a law for the consideration of the city or borough
or whatever it may be. They can also demand that laws passed
by the commissioners shall be referred to them in certain cases.
These arrangements are called the initiative and referendum.
The voters may also recall any elective officer. To do this
54 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
they must circulate a petition stating reasons for the step, and
if these reasons satisfy the commissioners an election is held.
The officer to be recalled shall be a candidate to succeed him-
self; unless he wishes it otherwise.
The average citizen is probably as much interested in the
taxes which he is required to pay as in anything connected with
government. He objects to a heavy tax being placed upon
the community and he also objects if he does not seem to get
back from the government a satisfactory return for the money
he puts into it. The state has therefore tried to work out a
plan of raising and collecting money which will be in . the in-
terests of the taxpayer and at the same time supply the state
with the needed money. The state alone spends between
four and five million dollars every year. This is a small part
of the money raised by taxes, as every community has its own
local need's to supply and these call for thousands of dollars in
addition. No tax is ever laid upon the people without their
consent, whether it be for local purposes or for the use of the
state as a whole. The state legislature fixes the amount to
be raised for state purposes. In some cases they must secure
the consent of the voters before such a tax can be collected.
(See page 46.)
Levying of Taxes. The law-making body of the county
provides for county needs and the same thing holds true of the
township, borough, or city, as the case may be. This money
is provided mainly by taxes on real estate and personal property.
Considerable sums are obtained by special taxes such as those
on railroads, corporations, and taxes on property which has
been inherited. Property is valued or assessed by officers
selected for the purpose. It is a difficult matter to value
property so that each community and each taxpayer bears his
proper share of the burden. The value placed by the assessors
of one community on the property there may be very high as
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT OF NEW JERSEY 55
compared with the value placed upon similar property in another
community. To secure a fair valuation throughout the entire
state, state and county officers meet to equalize assessments
and properly distribute the burden. Certain kinds of property
are not taxed, as, for example, public buildings, churches, schools,
libraries, and charitable institutions. A rate is finally fixed of
so much on every $100 worth of property. This provides at
one and the same time for the needs of the city, the county, and
Collecting of Taxes. The taxes are collected by officers
selected for this purpose. Each community has its tax col-
lector, who receives the entire amount due from the taxpayer
(except some of the special taxes) and after taking out the
amount that has been raised for local needs sends the balance
to the county collector. The latter, after deducting the amount
of the county tax, turns over the state tax to the state treasurer.
As an illustration of the way this money is divided, one com-
munity in New Jersey collected $2.24 on every $100 worth of
taxable property; 68% of this was kept by the community,
20% went to the county, and 12% to the state. The special
taxes are not counted in the tax rate and are often paid directly
to state rather than to local officers.
Relation of the State to the National Government. As these
pages have shown. New Jersey has taken an important part in
shaping the affairs of the nation as a whole. Although small
in area, her dense population gives her an important place
among the states of the union. The state is divided into twelve
congressional districts and each of these elects a representative
to the lower house of Congress. The voters of the whole state
select the two United States Senators who represent its interests
in the upper house of Congress. New Jersey has furnished
two of our presidents, Grover Cleveland, who was born at
Caldwell, but later took up his residence in the State of New
York, and Woodrow Wilson, who, though not a native of the
state, has long been one of its prominent citizens, first as a
56 ELEMENTARY HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
professor and then president of Princeton University, and later
as governor of the state; from which ofhce he was called to the
presidency. Although the average citizen does not feel the
existence of the national government to the same extent as
the governments of the state and of his locahty, its services to
him are no less important, especially in times of crisis.
QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .
1. By what arrangements have the fortunes of the state been placed in
the hands of the people themselves?
2. Why is it important that we should know a great deal about the state |
government? What are some of the things the state does for the
business man? the farmer? What in your judgment is the most
important service it renders?
3. How far do the people themselves control law-maLing? What kind
of laws can the legislature pass? Mention some matter of interest
to your community upon which it could legislate.
4. What are the most important state officers and why?
5. Who are the principal governing officers in your community? How
are they chosen? What can they do?
6. A man is arrested charged with a crime. Follow his case through to the
highest court in the state. Do the same for a dispute between two
men over some property.
7. Which do you consider the more important state division, a county or
one of its subdivisions like a township? Why?
8. Inquire as to the officers who govern your community. Who make
the laws? enforce them? interpret them?
9. Look up the purposes for which money is raised in your community
by taxation. Arrange these items in order of the amounts spent.
Justify these expenditures of the people's money.
For additional reading and facts as to the government of the state:
Knowlton, D. C, "Government of New Jersey" and "Legislative Manual
of the State of New Jersey." ^
1 Recommended especially for use of teachers.
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