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^Ij VV. 313,4- 










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Th8 rigJU if IVantlaiion i§ retervtd. 


4f. '6ri. '. 


OCT 1 1940 / 

<f</f^:'. ^ •■.•.■//''■ -" 

■ I 









Accession of Cambjses — he invades Egypt (oh. 1). Description of Egypt — 
Antiqnity (2). Seats of learning (3). Inventions, &c. (4). Description 
of the coontry (6-13). Agricnlture (14). Boundaries (15-18). The Nile 
— Caoses of the inundation (19-27). Sources (28). The Upper Nile 
(29^1). The interior of Libya (32). Oomparison of the Nile and Ister 
(33, 34). Oustoms of the Egyptians— their strangeness (35, 36). Re- 
ligious customs (37-48). Connection of the religions of Egypt and Greece 
(49.57). Egyptian Festivals (58-64). Sacred animals (65-67). The 
Crocodile (68-70). The Hippopotamus (71). Otters, fish, &c. (72). The 
Phoenix (73). Sacred and winged serpents (74, 75). The Ibis (76). 
DaUy life of the Egyptians (77-80). Dress (81). Divination (82). Oracles 
(83). Practice of Medicine (84). Funerals (85-90). Worship of Perseus 
(91). Customs of the marsh-men (92-95). Egyptian boats (96). Routes 
in the flood.time (97). Anthylla and Archandropolis (98). History of 
Egypt — ^M6n (99). His successors — Nitocris — Mcoris (100, 101). Sesostris 
—his expeditions — his works in Egypt (102-110). His son, Pheron (111), 
Proteus— story of Helen (112-120). Rhampsinitus (121, 122). Doctrine of 
metempsychosis (123). Cheops — his pyramid (124-126). Chephren (127, 
128). Mycerinus (129-133). His pyramid— history of Rhoddpis (134, 
135). Asyohis (136). Anysis — Sabaco (137-140). Sethos — ^invasion of 
Sennacherib (141). Number of the kings (142, 143). Greek and Egyptian 
notions of the age of the gods (144.146). The Dodecarchy (147-152). 
pBammetichuB (154-157). Neco, his son (158, 159). Psammis, son of Neco 
(160). Apries, son of Psammis — his deposition (161-169). Tomb of Osiris 
(170). Egyptian mysteries (171). Reign of Amasis (172-177). His favour 
to the Greeks (178-182) Pago 1 






1. The Egyptiaju from Aaia. 2, Egyptian and Celtic. 3 Somitio oharacter at 
Egyptian. 4. Eridenoea of on older langna^ than Zend aod Sanscrit. 6. 
Ba or Pa, and Jfa, priinitive cries of infanta, made into father and mother. 
6. m for b, 7. Bet not to be prononnced hy bh ontatored child. 8. Bo^ 
name of bread in Egypt. 9. The st^iry told 1<i Herodotne. 10. Claim of tlw 
Scythians to be an early race ... Page 27S 



—Chap. 4. 

I. The 13 moDtliB in Egypt, i. Tenrs nf 3(>0, 365, and 3651 ^7^. 3. The thro; 
■eaeons. 4. LcDgth of the year corrected. 5. Sothic year. 6. The yeai 
of 365 days. 7. The dates of kings' reigns. 8. The Square or Sothio year, 
9. The Lnnar year. 10. The Arab year. 11. The Jewish year. 12. Inter- 
oalation of the Egyptians and Greeks 271 



Different orders of Gods. 2. The groat Goda of the first order. 3. Th' 
second order. 4. Place of Ee, or the Sun. 5. Claasifioation of the Goda 
6. SabiuBm not s part of tUe Egyptian religion. 7. Pantheism. 8. Nanir 
of Ite, Pbroh, and Pharaoh. 9. Poiiitioo of Re in the second order 
10. Rank of Osiris. 11. Children of Sob. 12. The third order. 13. Tbi 
other moat noted deities. 11. Otbor Guda. 15. Foroign divinities 
16. Chief God of a city and the triad. 17. Deities multiplied to a. grea 
eit«nt — the nnitj. 18. Offloos of the Deity— characters of Jopilei 
19. Reaemblancea of Gods tu be traced from one original. 20. SnbdiviBiot 
of tlie Deity— local Gods. 21. Personifications— Nature Gods. 22. Saorei 
tieea and monntains. 23. Common origin of roligioaa systems. 24. Groel 
philosophy. 25, Creation and early atate of the earth 28 



"WHiJf xasiB wiB Kmo,"to. — Chap. 13. [G. W.] 

1. BiBeof tlieNilel6cabitH. 2. Differed in diJfcrcDC parte oF Egypt. 3. Otdcrt 

Kilometer. 4. The lowerioK of tlu! Nile in Etbiopia hy the giving v/itj of 

the rocks at SilsiliR. G. Ethiopia affcxsted bj it, bnt not Kg^pt bolow 

BilsiliB. 6. OUiBF Nilometen and meaanceiuente. 7. Length of the Egyp- 

Itbnonbit Paga 297 


and Domotio, the two sorts of letters written from right to left. 
Is. Hieroglyphics. 3. Three kinds of writing. 4. Hieratic. E. Demotic, or 
f «naboriai. 6. The three cbamotera. 7. First use of demotic. 8. Of ajro- 
bolic hieroglfphics : the ikonogmphic. 9. Tho tropiral. 10. The enigniatiQ. 
11. SjDibolic bUo put with phonetio bierogljphica. 12. Detorminatiree after 
the word, or name of an object, 13. Initial letters for the whole words, to 
be called £imit«d initial iitfns. 14. DistiiiGt from other "mixed signs." IG. 
SjUabic signs. 16. Medial towoI placed at the end of a word. 17. Eai'liest 
use of hioroglyphioa. 18. Mude of placing hieroglyphics. Ifl. First letter 
of a word taken as a chaniotflr. £0. Determinative eigna. 21, Tho; began 
with repreaentatiTO dgoe. 23. The plnral nnmber. 23. Abstract ideas. 
a. Phonetic system found necessary. 25. Some parts of the verb. 26. 
NegatiTB sign. 27. Invention of the real alphabetio writing PhtBnioian. 
2S. Greek letters. 29. Diganuiia originally written. 30. Sinaitic insorip- 
tioua not of the Israelites. 81. Tan nsed for the cross. 32. Uaterials nsed 
for writing npon. 33. The papyms ... 301 

^^^ Oymiiastic 

^H^ 4. ifora and draughts. 


.liSTlC COBTISTB." Oh»p. fll. [G. W.] 

B. 2. OamD of ball. 3. Thimblo-rig and other games. 
5. Pieces for draughts. 6. Dice. 7. Other 


"nioiiiTiT nasT CAai to be khowm id toipr. wbcncb it p*bbed ibio 

OBXici," — Clap. 109. [G.W.] 

J, Qrc^ks indebted to Egjpt for early leeaoos in science. 2. Invention of goo- 

oetiy. 8. Surveying, geography. 4. Early advancement of the Egyptians 

n soienoe. 5. Tholes and others went to study in Egypt. 6. Pythagoras 


boiTowoil mach from Egypt. 7. Holiooeotrio ByHtem. 8, Hevivod by Ooper, 
nicaa. B, FjlJingarag and Solon in Egypt. 10, Great genins of the Greeki. 
11. HerodotuB onprojodiced. 13. The diaL 13. The twelve hours. 14. Tha 
divieion of the day by the Jews, GreekB, n-nd Romnns. 15. The EgyptiaM 
had 12 hours of day and ot night 16. The week of seven daja in Egypt 
17. The Azteo wsek uf nlno days. 18. The wveo-day dividoD in Egypti 
19. The nnuiber eeren. 20. Division, by ten. 21. Qreek and EgyptiaHi 
month and year of three puis I^[e 3Sf 


^ IC. oriGIFT. [G.W.] 

1. Fabulous period of bistory — Rule of the Gods — Name of Menesi Buppoaed 

to be Mizmim — Believed to be a real person by Che Egyptians, and to hai* 
toanded Memphis. 2. This and Momphia— Egyptians from Asia — Msmphiil 
older than Thebes. 3. Proeodonco of Upper Egypt. *. Eiu-liast notice at 
TheboB — Absenoe of early buildingB. 6. Cont«mponiry kings — Arrauga* 
mcnt of the early dynasties. 6. Dncertainty of the early ohronologj — Dati 
of the Eiodos. 7. Ist, ^d, and 3rd dynastieti — Menee and his Bncoeasorft 
8. In the seeond dynasty saored animalB worabipped j and womea allowed 
to hold the sceptre. 9. 4th aod 5th dynaatisH. 10. Civiliaod cuBtoms fs 
the early Fynunid period — Mount Siuu — Shafn bailt the 2nd pyranudi 
II. 6tb dynasty— The preoomeo of kings. 12. 7th, 8th, and Bth dynasties— 
The Enmteja. 13. 11th dynasty —Contemporary kiags. 14. 12tb dyuaatj 
— Osirtaaea ni. trsatod aa a God. 15. The labyrintli. 16. The 13tl 
dynasty in Ethiopia. 17. Shepherd dynaa ties—The Hyk-sos expelled 
18. The 18th dynasty— The horse from Asia. 19. ThoChmes I., 11., and IIL 
and Qneea Amnn-nou-het. 20. GonqnostB of Tliothmea lU.— His tuona 
monts. 21. AinunD[)h III. and Queen Taia— The Stranger kings — Con 
quests of Amnnoph 111. 22. Country and features of the Stranger king) 
—Belated to Amonopb. 23. Expelled from Egypt. 21. King Horu* 

25. The 19th dynasty— Bemosei, Setboa. and Bemoscs tho Groat- Attad 
and defence of fortreaaes — Fithom and Bo^mses — Canal tu the Hed See 

26. aoth dynasty— Eeraeses III.— His oouqueats and wealth — His soni 
£7. 21st and 22Dd dynasties— Priest kings. 28. ShealioKk, or Shishak- 
Conquers Jadaia-Name of Yudah Uclcki (kingdom of Judah). 29. King. 
names ou tho Apis stels. 30. The 23rd dynasty — ABsyrian names of th 
Sheshonk family. 31. Tho 24th dynasty — BocchoriB the Salte — Power n 
Assyria increasing. 32. The 2fith dynasty of the SabaooB and Tirhakl 
83. The 26th dyuaaty— Psarametiobng sacoeeded Tirhakl*— Correction of Ih 
chronology— Ho married an Ethiopian princess. 34. Warof Fs^mmeticho 
and desertion of his troops. 85. Soccoodcd by Nooo. 36. Cireamnftvig) 
tion of Africa— Defeat of Joaiah. 87. Power and fall of Apnea- ProbabI 
invasion of Egypt and subatitution of Amaais for Apries by Nobuehac 
ncizar, 38. Amaais— Flonriahiug state of Egypt— Privileges granted to th 
Oreelffl- Treaty with Cnssus— Persian invasion. 39. Defeat of tho Egy] 


t of Cambjsea at flrst bnroane. 40. Egypt beromo a 

I pleraian province — S7th or Persian djruiaty — Hevptt ct the ERyjitians. 

41. 2Stli uid 29111 dynaatiea of Egyptiana. 42. 30tb dj-naatj ol EgyptianB 

— Nectaoebo II, defentod. 43. OchOB rsooTored Egypt- **■ Dnmtioo of 

the Egyptian kingdom ... Pago 335 


[G. B. 1876.] 

,. 39* 


CftBiei of qnanel betireeii Perda and Egypt — Nitetia story C^-S). Aid lent fay 
PhancB (4). Poasage oif the Deaurt (6.9). Invasion of Egypt — Pgamineni- 
tne king (10). Unrdar of the chjldreo of Phouee — Battle of Feluainm (11), 
Egyjitian and Fenian sknlU {12}. Siege and capture of Uemphie— «Db> 
miBHon of the Libyans and CyrenEcans (13). Treatment of Pganmieuitiia 
(14, 15). Treatment of the body of Amaeia (IG). EipeditioDS planned by 
Cwnbyses (17, 18). Phoenicians rotnsa to attauk Carthago (19), Embaaay 
to tbe Bthiopiona (30.24). Expedition fails (25). Failure of the eipedi. 
tion againat Ammoa (£6). Severities of Cambyses towards the Egyptians 
(27-29). Eia Dutrageons conilact towards the Peraians (30.36). His 
treatment of Crcenas (36). His madnGBS (37, 3S). History of Polyoratea 
— his oonnection with Amasis (39-43). He sends shipB to asaist Cambyaea 
(44). Berott of the crawa — Samoa nttaokod (45). Aid sought from Sparta 
tnd Corinth (46, 47). Story of Periander (48-63). Sioge of Samoa (&4.66). 
fM« of the rebels (57-59). Wonders of Samoa (SO). Bevolt of the Magi 
— lUtnrpation of the Paendo-Smprdis (61). The newa reaches Cambjsee — 
hii wDOnd, speech, ond death (62-60). Reign of the Magna (67), HJB 
detection by Otanea (68, 69). OtaDoa Donapires— amTal of Darius (70). 
Debate of the conapiratora (71-73), Fate of PreiaapeB (74, 75), Over- 
Umw of the Magi (76.79). Debate on the beat form of goTeniment 
(80-82). Decision of Otonea (S3). Privilcgea of tbe Sii (81). Darius 
Obtaina the kingdom (85-87). His wiros (88). Diviaion of tbe Empire 
into twenty Satrapies (89-93). Amomit of the tribute (94-97), Cnetoma of 
the Indiana (98.105). ProdnotiTeneaa of the earth's extremities (lOti.116), 
The riTW Aws (117). Fate of Intapliemea 018, 119). Slory of Onutea 
•Dd Polycrates (120-125). IMniahment of Orcotcs (126-128). Democfdea 
oI CioUma cnrea Oanna (129, 130). His former history (131). His in- 
Bnenm — he cnrea Atoasa ()32, 133), Atosea at his ingtigatiou requpsts 
Dvins to invade Greeoo (134). Pereiana sent to explore the coaata— 
DcmoddM McapCB (135-138). Pcraian eTpedilion againat Samoa to eslab- 
149). Revolt, and reduction of Babylon by tbe stratagem 
68). Puniabmcntof thorebela(159). Reward of Zopynui 





. Alilnt. — Uyljtta or Alitta, from u-eUiS, "to bear chtldreD." 2. Had different 
DBmen in different comitiriea. 3. A. Nature .Goddeoa. 4. Tbe STriaii God- 
dess. 5, Tlie Pftphian VennH, or Urania, identified with Aiitarte and 
AnaitiB. 6. Taunt, or Anata. 7- Diana of EphGBue. 8. Tlie mother and 
child. D, Alitta and Elissu. 10. Gods of tlio Kiiouds. II. Mant the 
motber. 12. Jano-Lncinu, Diana, and A^tarte. 13. Europa and Codmni, 
14. Somiramis tbo dovB. 15. Dorcoto or Atac^tis. 16. Athara and 
Athur. 17. Inscription at Caervorran, and names of the Syrian Goddeu. 
18. Ftgnre of Ast&rte. 10. BaoJ, Moloch, and other deities of Sjria. SO. 
Aroles, MeUcertes, or Heronlos. 21. Eiminou, and other Syrian dcitin — 
Some intnjdoced into Egjpt Page 537 


. Ordioar)r thooiy on the enhjeot — the revolution a Median oatbrealc. 8. 
Proofs to the oontrary — (i.) from the inaoriptions^(ii.) from the general 
t«Dor of ancient history. 3. Cnaonnd basis of the thoory — the Uagi not 
Modes. 4. The rerolation really religious. 5. Proof uf this from the 
Inscriptions. 6. Boligious ideas connected with the namo of Darins 548 


1. nnifoimitj of Oriontat GoTcmments. 2. Satrapial system of Persia. S, 
Danger of revolt — safeguards. 4. Power and wealth of the Satraps. 
6. Institntion of Eoyal Jadgoa. 6. Tix'itj of the royal ravonue. 7- ThI 
border Satraps. S. Extra-satrapial dependuncics. 9. Satrapies not alwayi 
geographically continuous. 10. Modes by which the subjection of th< 
conquered races was main tain ed ^ (i. ) Disarming — (il.) Tranaplantation— 
(iii.) Maintenance of a standing army. 11, Position end power of the 
Mouateh. 12. Privileges of tbo Pel-sians. 13. Gradations uf rank among 
them 561 




1. Difficulties of the snbjeot. 2. Great extent of Babylon according to ancient 
writers. 3. No traces of original enceinte, 4. General plan of the existing 
rains. 6. Their position on the left bank of the Euphrates a diffionlty — 
modes of meeting it. 6. Canal between the northern and the central ruins. 
7. Mound of Bahily the temple of Belus — its present state. 8. Proofs of 
the identity. 9. Mounds of the Kasr and Amrdm, the ancient palace. 10. 
Site of the g^reat reservoir. 11. Palace of Neriglissar, and embankment of 
NahuniL 12. Triangular enclosure, of the Parthian age. 13. The BirS' 
Nimrud — its present appearance. 14. Original plan of the Birs, 15. Its 
ornamentation. 16. The Birs rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar — his account of 
the restoration Page 670 

KoTB A. — Standard Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar 587 

Note B. — Babylonian Besearches of M. Oppert 688 

Note C. — The Great Inscription of Darius at Behistun 691 

( ^ ) 


Westam Aiia »t the dme of Herodotiu 
Fltm of Heliopolig (oh. 8, Bk. ii.) 

Bnins of Babaatia (oh. 13S) 

Planof S»t8(oh. 170) 

The World of Herodotoa 

P. 13, ch. 10. 

Uip of tbs conntrr afanil Uu moDthottlM Blver Adialollb 

P. 18, ch. 14, note '. 

(1.) Ths owiHT onrliUklng the plongbhig and Hiwiiw of U 


(1.) Ploughing KCM. 0ns nun dilTM lbs oisn, tb« otber 
lUierlitlH wordUM. ••ploDgbi"uidtbeo(h«rbleraglfpb]csB 

oftheoieo. (Onnp. tlw •romfcnl w p. 11) 

P. 19, ch. 14. 

CI-) PlongtUng ind hoeing. A Bnull b»m) aunds ax the end of the fnrroin. sltlwr 

loldi the plough. Over the 
m to refer lo ths "drlnQg " 
.. (nxnt at On PtfTomi^.') 



P.S5,ch. 35,iiote'. 


(10 VBtMri l»m,(OU.el«fDaithoInm«*lUi(»loBn<l 


.>»»^b...i» ■ 

lauB Mbon blm u be warka. Tim ihnttle (K) Ii not Unovn. but dttirt Hi 

Uiread thioDgh ■ 

bKkitird* uid ftirwirdi b; • book at odi imd. u Is mil done In 

weaving the 

WoW, whHIIe. ■ 
C7*el<,.) ■ 

(1.) But Um loam 1* iKlaw tbe womui u tbey work. Pigs, 

and 8 making *™ul.verU,« ■ 

OH who iwlrti iha li^Bdle : u d 1> iha •nnl AiU, '■ to tolai " .. 

{Jte~.ifa.wn.) ■ 

P. 66, ch. 35. note *. 


CXo. L) A l^iKcn nuklDg an oRertDg vltb ■ King ... 

... (n^.) ■ 

P. 57, ch. 35, ib. 


P»o. □.) Wan™ whotwW . Wgh oIBm 1p lie Mrri« of Am 

p :-the Fallacldea or Japltflr. ■ 


tHo, m.) Womm ImWlBg • putHmlM afflce IB tho tuBoral M 


P. 58, ch. 85, ib. 

(So. IV.) A (cnnnoDT [WTlonned by ■ mm and a vomui ... 

... {j*«&fn 

P. 50. ch. 36. note '. 


(■ rwla. CJW»'.) 

P. 69, cli. 36, ib. 

^K (lla.IOKiiullngIliedoagliw!lht)»hvid 


^^k (Xo. a) Kseadlog dough with the tKt 



Hm.61,cb.36, iiote>. 

^K Mod. of «rlllnginunbm(fD(n right to left i also lo Indlio and 



?. G2,ch.3T,>. 

(iri>.L) DiesoflhapriaU 

... (I*.l«,.) 

P. 63, ch. 37, ib. 

i (»fl. IL) Lapanl-itln dr«i of the Ugb-prieM alM A» 

... (7*rt«.) 

^V (Hs. III.) Some prinu oOlduIng in a ehoR kilt 

... (IV6«.) 

^K (Jfe-IF.)Olhefd«««ofprl«l. 

... tr***"-) 

^H.U,cfa.37, ib. 

Cnmnn JhHeynL) ■ 

^H (ng.l.)Tlud]vlilaiuofllHiaiiw.otllierealilu. 

^,ch.3T. note'. 


.. en**-.) ^^J 



TKlt of Uw high-print ■' San." 




(ng. 1 .) A wTltir^ palMU , (Bg. 1) tbo cnMt or JMIte i and 

(Hg. »o u« 

™pafllh..i™. ^^M 

P. (19, eh. 38, note'. 



-gn«.»rdrd« ^J 




t»o. L) Tbefcreleg and other JotoU. 


P. 70, ch. 39. ib. 


(Bo. It.) The fbreleg, the *«iJ, Ihe heart, a whole gooM. 

nd otlnr oTerlnga of bnad. V 

*«wtMhUt.*e {B 

n'liiA Jr<i«ui>,/nni> nHiAo.) ■ 


P. 71, ch. 39, note*. 

(No. in.) Aii*iiiDUlalRr«dwltlii*a>iI.ili«li)r«lfg,hurt,uidrili(,udi«Ma-b(nl. 
(No. tV.) 'ntitiodilniiUiapaar EgTptlu (TMei.) 

P. 73,ch.41,aoW» 

Caw-bMdsd Goddw EW. 

P. 75, ch. 42, note*. 

TegeublH. ?!■(. S. *, giHUdt L >. B, rofliamu <a jtfl ; 3 mat uaijumon fig*. 

P. 77, di.42, nMe'. 

Huu or Amnn-tl « Tbiibn. 

P. 82. cK 44, note*. 

(Put 1.) aiHi-Moinn (GHJ SlUMiL) 

(Puts.) OUH-Uow«g (Aftei.) 

Tb« Hina occui at Ihs tomtx abonl tha Prnmldi, ottbe time of Stutn, ibont 3tM k-C. 

P. 87, ch. 48, note*. 

f«Moi»u nippiiMd to tw of 1*7, but iMllj of tha Omvobmlui, or (it OaPeriplocaSiaaume. 

P. 87, 88, ch. 48, ib. 

(Fig. 1) Tha thjmH ud l«rpud-iUn ; (I) Ihe tbrnns itou ; (a) lun> nippoaed to be Itj ; 

(4} laiTM biTlsft Ilia cbtiwtai of thoaa of tha PiripUica 

P. 88, ch. 48, note". 

(No. Ul.) Hhp, fOSIu, donbla-plpa. Ittb, Umbositiia 

P. 89, ch. 48, ib. 

(No. 1.) Hade: two harpa, ■ flnls, and i pipe. uMI toIoh 
(He.n.)lUUUi7bud: (I)tn 






P. 113, ch. 67, note*. 

The ichneiimofi 

P. 119, ch. 72, note*. 

(So. L) The ozTrhinchiis in brooie. 

(No. n.) The lepidotiis in bronae. 

(No. IIL) Men fishing 

P. 120, ch. 72, ib. 
P. 121, ch. 72, ib. 

(No. y.) A gentleman flahing, seated on a cluir upon a boat 
P.122, ch.72, note*. 

The Nile goose and a line, signifying '^aon." 
P. 122, ch. 73, note K 

(Figs. 1 and 2) The pure soul; (3)the Pboeniz 
P. 126, ch. 77, note 7. 

Glass bottles for wine 

P. 127, ch. 77, note •. 

Drying and preparing fish 

P. 128, ch. 77, note ». 

(No. L) Clap-neto 

(No. IL) Net-traps for birds 

P. 129, ch. 77, ib. 

(No. III.) Catching and preserving geese 

(nmi» at Sakkdra.) 

(Bent Hauan,) 
(Ibmb at Me Pr^imULi.) 

• • • • •• ^*nKV9m* J 

!•• ••• ••• ^' f*©I^D#»^ 

(Beni Baoion and T%ebe*.^ 
(Ibsid at the Pyramids.') 

• •• ••• ••• ^-^ n^K^S^*^ 



Fig. a. ei\J<rin8 silence by patting his hand over his mouth. (The finger, as of Harpocrates, is 
not the sign ofsilenoe, as generally supposed.) (IKebet.) 

P. 130, ch. 78, note *. 

Figure of Osiris introduced at a party. 

P. 133, ch. 81, note^ 

(No. I.) Linen dress with a fringe, and two others. (No. 11.) Various dresses. 
P. 134, ch. 82, note K 

The hours of day and night (Sakkdra.) 

P. 130, ch. 84, note *. 

£x-voCo8 of an arm and ear (Tfubes.) 

P. 138, ch. 86, note ^ 

(No. I.) W«men throwing dust on their heads In token of grief ' {7%ebet.) 

(No. II.) Men beating themselves before a mummy in honour of Osiris (Tfubet.) 

P. 140, ch. 86, note ». 

Butchers sharpening their knives on a ttuL (The same is represented at the tombs about 
the Pynunids of earlier times.) (3%«6«.) 

P. 141, ch. 86, note \ 

Knives for killing a victim. 

P. 143, ch. 86, note ^ 

(No. I.) liturgies performed to mummies (71kete«.) 

P. 144, ch. 86, ib. 

(No. n.) Otho* services, and female relations weeping (3%e&e«.) 



P. 146, cL 61, note*. 

Nime of Egypt, Ebnn, or Chnst 

P. 149, oh. 92, note"*. 

PnwiitlDgCDMtawlUiDfcUu«otlotiu-ll«nn,Maie;>ltooiDUt (neftct.) 

P. 150, cIl 92, note'. 

"na Jfjfn^haii NtlumbOj orlDdUnlotoa (Avm Roman S^lpture.) 

P, 164, ch. 96, note'. 

(No. I.) Prot»blemcidBofKciirlngtheFluikiaruicl«nt NUeboiM. 

P. 165, ch. 96, ib. 

(No. n.) HiUng ■ boU, uid UitdlDg It with pipyTTU Uiuli ...(nrntblalOtPtramuU.') 
(No. m.) SaU Uke tbU of ft Chlnege boM, with the doable miM tt tnlj til 

P. 166, oh. 96, note*. 

Boat, appmntlj of flrwood, with the onul eall 

P. 167, ch. 96, ib. 

(No. IV.) BoUa with Hill wrooglit wlifa colonra 
(No. V.} OulUTiUon of Su. ud proceH of nuklDg 

P. 168, oh. 96, note*. 




I of the d 

159, ch. 96, ib. 

(No. n.) A grallemui b ■ bo«t wUb > i 


y ^hI bt I^JpC Add Afayrfft ftir morliiE Iftrf«' 
^1 -(CO Eopllsi nldwn— <!, T, 8, ».) Foa 


H, •ml •oUlera.^H).) Men ciirylng 

«r mitt. — (11,) Othofl curytng fome liaplemBiit& — (11.) Tukmflatflra or inper- 

hWniVrH [11. It. it. l&l SapcrtoUndniU and pertupa nllib of ibbd. la tlie ddIuidiu 

it htrrngJTpbla u> Ifac gxtnmu! rigbt Um tuma manUonsd la ths " atsraupoIiCe," am] lha( 

'Ucn Ihla Iamb ia bewn Is tha Umaslona ruck. 

189, ch. 124, note*. 

P.201, ch. 126, note =. 

Hade otnmatniaiDg ■ Fjnvald. 12T,notei. 

NuBa of SWb, Standi. Snplila, or Qieopt ; ud uf Kou-Sbutu. 

P. 205. ch. 129, note*. 

^■ihB of MeacJiana. or Uycerliiiu. 

P.209,cli. 134, note'. 

Sortiob of pa/t af the tbird PTTvaid, Biiawjq j tba oriEinol pnjiugp ^ 135, note 8. 

P.213. ch. 130, note". 

Bti(k PjTMnld of Hawiia. 

P.2U. ch. 136, Dole 1. 

Btkk-makiog u Thrbea. ■bowlBg be 

P,233, ch. 152, noU'. 

P.236,ch. 155, note*. 

La Ecrp^iui tMDpla, at 

(Ko- ]-) Tba prat Hrpent Apap or AphDpbia, lying dead I 
(So. II.) Apbajdili. Id a bamao fona. pleicad bj Ibe tpuu 
Lefindof Almoo. or Atnm-fto, IbeSou, and Apbopbla kL 

P-ffllch. 175, note'. 

(Xa. L) Tha buniaD-bad«l 
(No. n.) The nmbeadod i. 

P.282,ch.l75, ib. 

(Sa. m.) Tbe ba«k-buded ipbti 
CXe. tr.) Tbe wbiiBl bmate i|rii 
(!h. T-) AUidIdu uddul. 
(So, VL) Audro4pblni repmenl 
(Ma. TC ) Fire o(h« labulmui an. 

llf4 pmaatltiK tlieniEiflTFB before 




P. 268, ch. 181, note'. 



P. 269, ch. 182, note". 

Artltli paintlDg on panA ud roloaring k tutne ; iue tboui MM B.r. 


P. 270. ch. 182, ib. 



P. 272. ch. 182, note '. 

A ™l«, proUbl, Of ll.e.. .ork«i -l«. v^ou, ™,™r,d d.v.^ 



CHAPTBB n. !>. 2T<J. 

ThB TwdTs Eot«1" Monl**, f.prMMd intlerogliphi™. 

m. m. p. 288. 

HirjrtgljpbtM ilpUfUng " pr«jer." 

CH. V. p. 303. 

Tb. HDUmce " In the 3nJ r«r. «th month of Ih. wM,™ <..<. M«4r^), Ih 

JOth d.j. of Kb 

PWlemy i " In hleragLyphlc, [n hltmic. >iid In d™Mlr. 

ca. y. p. 315. 

CH. VI. p. 320. 





CH. VI. p. 321. 

CS<..m.) Ai.niii«e.ii«ofb»n 


{No. IV.) 0.m6 wilh » ho»p 


(No, V.) OuM «pp»™nlj lo ti7 who ghoU rtw Brat ftom Uic groiiiid 


OH. VI. p. 322. 

(Nn. Vl) TmnbUng womsn 


(N0.V1I.) ltoMngb«*ofHnd 


(Hn. Vni.) FhU of tDnbllDg, with Uie piiis ■ OKkluts. 'f hsy ire, u 

MMl, wBrom. 


CH. VI. p. 323. 

{So.n.)TiiitiiWf-ng, i«»..o. 


(Nu.I.) 0«w"o''»»^">dDdduidevni 


{No,XL) BdU-Bght 


(No. XIL)Giun«o(ilnii*iU 


CH. VI. p. 324. 



{No. XIV.) PtK« (or the game of dnughu. 

(No. IV.) Othar plocw for driughu. 

(No. XVI.) a«nl ot »t imknawn gi<de. -ilh the men In the di.*cr. 


JMotI-. (Wlecito 

CH. VI. p. 325. 

(No, XVn.) Another bcurd 


(No. XVni.) An ankno-n gime i ind 4 mui Mudlng on bl> held 


(So. XIX.) Olhtr unfcnowo gitna ... 




CH. VIII. p. 338. 

Amngement of the first 19 dynasties, showing the oontemporaneonsness of some of them. 

CH. vm. p. 340. 

Arrangement of the 1st and 3rd dynasties. 

CH. vni. p. 364. 

Name of the King Resi-toti, or Besttot, who fbUowed King Horns ... (^Apit tablet.) 

CH. vm. p. 380. 

Name of FsammeUchos L 

Names of 'I^peBntiq>es (?), wife of Psammetichas L, and of the Ethiopian king Peeonkh and 
his qq«n Amnnatis, her father and mother (^Ihebei and Cfebel Berkd.) 


P. 411, ch. 13, Dote^ 

Name of Memphis, ** the white building/' and ** Men-nofre, the land of the Pyramid." 
P. 418, ch. 18, note «. 

Cooks patting geese into a boiler iTbnib near the Pjframid.) 

Cooks roafiting a goose and cutting np meat (jib.) 

P. 420, ch. 20, note «. 

The Helix lanikina. 

Statue of a Goddess found in Syria holding a shell in her hand. 

P. 426, ch. 26, note«. 

Name of Hebi, the dty of the Great Oasis. 

P. 428, ch. 28, note «. 

Name of Apis or Hapi. 

P. 429, ch. 28, ib. 

Figure of Apis-Osiris. 

Bronze figure of the Bull Apis. 

P. 438, ch. 37, note». 

Two figures of the pigmy-god Pthah-Sokar-Osiris. 
P. 453, ch. 54, note ^ 

Plan of Samos. 

P.458, ch. 60, note". 

Ground-plan of the Heraum, or temple of Juno, at Samos. 
P. 466, ch. 68, note ^ 

View of the Great Mound of Sus, the ancient Susa. 

P- 490, ch. 97, note *. 

(1.) Logs of ebony and ivory brought by Ethiopians as part of the tribute to the Pharaohs. 

(2.) Ethiopians with an ebony club like those now used in Ethiopia. 
(3.) The modem ebony clubs of Ethiopia. 

?oOt,ch. 115, note ^ 

I^ of tin found in Cornwall, and now in the Truro Museum. 


EssBjr L p. 640. 

(Ha.l.)OoiUaMwtth»dilU.lhimlrUlimiDCTpnu (/« Oi 1 

(Mo. 1.) Ua ud BafB «t Bgrpt. 
P. 542. 

(No. 3.) Eutna foand Id lUU. (sppgagit (o b* aC AMuU, er Vtoia, of Rooua Umib. 
P. 514. 

(No. 4.) Flgon of AMHt^ fimnd ta EtnulA. 

P. 645. 

(No.t.) TuoliMitafinalitliUlliimliiCypna (,!» Un Tliri» JiHiium. 

Essay IV. p. 671. 

Chut of tbe inliu of BtbjlOD (n«a Ovt. SMfl Siinei-. 

P. 575. 

Ratontko of n pMtlan nf tnclant Bibflaii. 

P. 676. 

View at Um moonil of BoMI, or uicluit tanjUa of Btloi. 

P. 579. 

Put of the Xur. or udeDl ptlK« of Hobooludiuau'. 

P. 580. 

Fresmenl of > IrteM boo tba tbovt ptlMt. 
P. 582. 

Ortfliul pUn of the Mn-JHimd, looonUiiglolhaeaaJecWinof Mr.Ltjiid. . 




1 . On the death of Cyrus, Cambyses his son by Cassandane 
da.xighter of Phamaspes took the kingdom. Cassandane had 
iiod in the lifetime of Cyrus, who had made a great mourning 
foir her at her death, and had commanded all the subjects of 
his empire to observe the like. Cambyses, the son of this 
lardj and of Cyrus, regarding the Ionian and iEolian Greeks as 
^^ssals of his father, took them with him in his expedition 
gainst Egypt ^ among the other nations which owned his 

^ The date of the expedition of 

Cambyses against Egypt cannot be 

^^o<X with absolute certainty. Ma- 

^etho, whose authority is of the 

gT^atest importance, gave Cambyses, 

according to Africanus (ap. Synoell, 

P- Hi), a reign of six years in Egypt, 

vHich would place his invasion in 

BC. 527. Eusebins, however (Chron. 

Can. Para i. p. 105), reports Manetho 

differently, and himself agrees nearly 

^ith Diodoms (i. 68), who puts the 

expedition in the 3rd year of the 63rd 

O^Tapiad, or B.C. 525. This date, 

^liich is the one ordinarily received, 

»8. on the whole, the most probable. 

It is carious that Herodotus, whose 
Pnocipal object, in Books i. to v., is 
to trace the gradual growth of the 
Pewian power, should say nothing 
directly of the first four years of 
Cambyaes, omittiiig thereby so im- 

TOL. n. 

portant an event as the subjection 
of Phoenicia, which was certainly ac- 
complished by him. (See below, iii. 
34>, and comp. note to Book iii. ch. 19.) 
This period probably contained, be- 
sides the submission of Phoenicia, and 
of Cyprus, the reduction or submis- 
sion of Cilicia, which lay in the same 
quarter. Cilicia which was inde- 
pendent of the great Lydian kingdom 
(supr^, i. 28), and which was not 
reduced, so far as appears, by either 
Cyrus or Harpagus, — for the contrary 
statement of Xenophon (Cyrop. i. i. 
§ 4), who ascribes to Cyrus the con. 
quest of Cilicia, Cyprus, Phosnicia, 
amd Egypt (!) deserves no credit — 
must have been added to the empire 
either by Cambyses or by Darius, 
and is most probably a conquest of 
the former. These events would 
servo to oo3upy Cambyses during his 


2. Now the Egyptians, before the reign of their king 
PsanuaetichuB, beheved thenmelveB to be the most ancient of 
mankind.* Since Psammetichus, howevar, made an attempt 
to dificover who were actually the primitive race,' they have 
been of opinion that while they sorpaas all other nations, the 
Phrygians sorpass them in antiqnity. This king, finding it 
impoBsible to make out by dint of Inquiry what men were the 
most ancient, contrived the following method of discovery : — 
He took two children of the common sort, and gave them over 
to a herdsmen to bring up at his folds, strictly charging him 
to let no one utter a word in their presence, but to keep them 
in a sequestered cottage, and from time to time introdaee goats 
to their apartment, see that they got their fill of milk, and in 
all other respects look after them. His object herein was to 
know, after the indistinct babblings of infancy were over, what 
word they would first articulate. It happened aa he had antici- 
pated. The herdsman obeyed his orders for two years, and at 


the end of that time, on hie one day opening the door of their 
room and going in, the children both ran up to him with 
oatstretched arms, and distinctly eaid "Becoa." When tliia 
firat happened the herdeman took no notice; but afterwiirda 
when he observed, on coming often to see after them, that the 
word was constantly in their mouths, ho informed his lord, 
and by his command brought the children into his presence. 
Pftiunmetichus then himself heard them say the word, upon 
which he proceeded to make inquiry what people there was 
who called anj-thing "becos," and hereupon he learnt that 
" becos " was the Phrygian name for bread.* In consideration 
of this circumstance the Egyptians yielded their claims, and 
admitted the greater antiquity of the Phrygians. 

3. That these were the real facts I learnt at Memphis from 
the priests of Vulcan. The Greeks, among other foohsh tales, 
relate that Psammetichas had the children brought up by 
women whose tongues he had previously cut out ; but the 
priests said their bringing up was such as I have stated abovt>. 
I got much other information also from conversation with 
tlipse priests while I wan at Memphis, and I even went tT 
I fleliopohs and to Thebes,^ expressly to try whether the pricBts 
I ot those places would agree in their accoimts with the priests 

'Tbeiroril jS/koi liaa been ibonght 
njutdltcd with tbo GortnaD "bnckea" 
»h1 ogr " bake." Lohspo, however. 
Hitinn doabt on thia coDDCiion, and 
MRjUla > rotmaticn from tho Sitnurit 
L BM jnu-, whioh becomeB (be nays) in 
' WKk ttw-ti, Latin toq-ao, GeraiBD 
' •'Wn, OUT " cook," Servinn ppc-en, 
fc- (See hi* EasBy ' Debor die Ljkia- 
™b luohritteu, nnil die AJten Spra- 
«W Klain Aneng,' p. 369.) Bat (his 
tMBnioD. which ni»y be allowed, ddPB 
'otpnrant the other from being alBO 
'^ See on this point, and on the 
Poei*! mbJTOt of the Pbrygiiui tan- 
fWi the Essaya appended to Book !. 
••/ii., "On the Ethoio Affinities 
tfDwNUioniof Western Asia." § \2. 
ullw itoiy biu RDy truth in it, tbe 
^iUm probably (na Larofaer ob- 

' The nKme of Tbobea ie almoit 
olwByit written in the plnrnl by the 
Greeks and Bomans— eiiSoi, Thebie— 
bnt Pliny writes, " Thcbe porianini 
ocntom nobilia fama." The Egyptiaii 
nnme of Thebp« wim »n ••<■ A'l^ 11 

" head," 

p, or A'pe, the 
This, with thn ,, 
feminine article, becBJne T>p£, am 
the Memphitio dialect Tbap£, pro- * 
noanced, aa by the Copts, Thaba, J 
whence eii0« in lonio Greek. The I 
oldest koowD monninenta in Weetem J 
Thebai wore of An mn. in -ho I. at ^ 
Kamnk, and of hiu BncorEsor Oilr- 1 
tsaen I., who ruled imme'lately after 
the Gtb djiiai;ly ended al MemphI*, 
about n.c. SOW— [Q. W ] 


at MemphiB. The Heliopolitans have the reputation of beinl 
the best skilled in history of all the Egyptians.* What the^ 
told me concernmg their religion it is not ray intention U 
repeat, except the names of their deities, which I believe 
men know equally. If I relate anything else concerning thea 
matters, it will only be when compelled to do bo by the courai 
of my narrative.' 

4. Now with regard to mere human raattera, the account 
which they gave, and in which all agreed, were the folloW' 
ing. The Egyptians, they said, were the first to discover th) 
Holar year, and to portion out its course into twelve partA 
They obtained this knowledge from the stars. (To my 
they contrive their year muoh more cleverly than the Greekij 
for these last every other year intercalate a whole month,^ ba 
the Egyptians, dividing the year into twelve months of thirt] 
days each, add every year a space of five days besides, wherel^ 
the circuit of tho seasons is made to return with uniformity.' 
The Egyptians, tbey went on to affirm, first brought into 
tho names of the twelve gods,'" which the Greeks adoptei 

■ UollofKiliB was tho great bcbI of 
louTiiiig.iimilhBnQiTiiraitj o( Egypt; 
uid tb&t it WBB one of ifae oldest 
tritieH ia proved by Iho obelisk o! Obif- 
taMn I. ot the IZlh dvnaBt;. Bee 
lielow note ' on oh. B.— [G. W.] 

' For inntanoe»of the rewrvB whioh 
HenHtotoa here promisea, «ee ch&ptera 
■V5, 46, 47, 4S, 61, <i2, 65, 81, 132, 170. 
uad 171- The aecreoy in matters of 
religion, wblch wub uo doubt eqjoined 
npon Herodotna by the Egyptian 
prieita, did not aeoui atrango to a 
Qreefc, irho iraa aooUBtomed to it in 
the " myaterioB " of his own ooontiy- 

> Vide eupri, i. S2, and lee note ' ad 


" Tbia at onco provca they inter- 
calated the qnarter day. makiufi their 
year to DonBiBt of S6hi daye, withoQl 
whiob the bcosoub Guold not rotnm to 
the aamo periods. Tlic fiu-t of Eoro. 
datoa not undBrataDding their motbod 
Qf intercBluliun duos uot argne (■■ 

Gognet nema to think) that 
Bgyptiana were iguurant uf it. Th«( 
having flxed tbe Sothio period i 
1322 B.C., and oacortainpd that 140| 
Sothio were equal to 1461 Tolgar 
"vi^cne" years, aa well as the atata 
menta of ancient anthors, decide th 
qneation. But for the date of a king' 
reign they naod the old year of SB 
days 1 and the months wore not r 
oncd from his aoecHsion, but w«re pM 
ofthe cnrrent year. Thna, ifbeoai 
to the throne on the 10th of the Ii 
mimth of the year, or Mesbr^, 
would date in the lat year, the 1! 
mouth, tbe 10th day ; and bia aeco 
year would bo in the following nion 
Thotb, or S5 daya after bis aoceasir . 
Tho JewB appear to have dona tb 
same. (See the Appendix to 

BD0k,CH.ii.)-[G. W.] 

'" Some snpposB thoBO to bo tb 
twelre Gods of Olympuo, the same M 
tho ConseuteH of the Homana, ipnt 
by Yorro, 





■from tliem ; and first erected altara, images, nod temples to tlie 
LGods ; find also first engraved upon stone the figures of animalH. 
In most of these cases tbey proved to me that what they said 
was true. And they told me that the first nian* who ruled over 
Egypt was Men,* and that in his time all Egypt, except the 
Thebaic cantun, was a marsh,* none of the land below lake 
Moeris then showing itself above the surface of the water. This 
is a distance of seven days' sail from the sea up the river. 
5. What they said of their country seemed to me very 

Jmo. VtM*. ttiatn^ CcrM, DUiit, Vram, 

Bod that tboy do not rt-ter to auy ar- 
_ nngemeDt of the Egyptisn l-antheon; 
I in ch. 115 Huruiiotua distincllj 
tntioiw the three ordt^ra of E^yptiaa 
r»t two mamntiag of eight 
1 twelse, and the tJiird"born of 
> twplVH."' He alK> ebowa how 
t older Bomo were oonaidereil in 
. in Greece i Pan being one 

f Uie eight oldest, and Hercules of 
' I twelve ; and says (ii. M) that 
«B "God quit* nnkacwn 
j»tho EgypliouM." Again in oh. 4he 
Vatinctlj states they had tnelve 
■-■'- The Ktruacana had twelve 
. Goda ; the Koinsna probably 
derived that numher from them.— 
<SBe notH? ID Appeudii, CH. iii, S 1.)^ 

AODording to the chronological 
"-'» of the Egyptians the Gods 
s represented to hare reigned 
~ld aftar them Honen tbe 
: and the suae is found re- 
n the Turin Papyrns of Kings, 
as in Manatho and other 
llanethu gives them in this 
-1. Vuk-*n (Pthah) ; a. Helios 
>),tbe8un;3. AgathodB3in<in(Hor. 
"IT posaibly Noam) ; 4. Chronos 
i 6. Oiiria ; C. Typhon (properly 
i Mil 7- Honu. In tbe Papy- 
' thOTB remain only Seb, Oairia, 
"■ " I, Thotb. rhmei, (or Mei 
'«*"). and apparently Horns 
• IdODger), who WIS "the last 

God who reigned in Kgvpt." (See 
n. • eh, 48, n. » ch. SS. and Tn. P. W.. 
p. 7-11.) Uenea (Menai) is repre. 
sented by aomn to have been a con. 
qoeror; bnt the Egyptians did not 
then obtain poaacBsion of the vatlcv 
nf the Nile fur the first time i for he 
was from This, and their early immi- 
gration from Asia happened long 
before. On the eslabliahment of 
royalty, luxury appears to have been 
introduced into Egypt, and Tne- 
phochlbos Crochnatis of Pint, do If. 
8), the father of Boochoris of the Mth 
dynasty, put np a curse "againit 
Meinis" (Menes) iu a temple at 
Thebes for having led tlie EgjptianB 
from their previous simpU^- and fi'Dgai 
habits. Diodoma (i. 4a) says aim 
that UoDoa was the first who intro- 
dnced tbe warship of tbe Gods, anil 
BOcrificoB, the use of litters, ooncbes. 
and rich carpets. Cp. Cicero, Tnet-. 
IHsp. V. 33. See App. ca, viii.— 
[G. W.] 

' Herodotus docs not call this king 
Hones, or Ucnsa (as DIodoms, L 45), 
bnt M£n. The Egyptian form is ITna 
Bcoording to Bnuseu and Lepsias. 

' Note, besidua Che improbability of 
such a change, the fact that Henea 
was the repatod founder of Memphis, 
which is far to tho north of this lake ; 
and that Bosiris, near the coast (the 
ropDted burial-place of Osiris), Bnlo. 
Pcluainm, and olbor towns of the 
Delta, were admiltod by the Egyp- 
tinns to bo of tbe earliest dale.— 


reuonaiple. Fw uxy one vbo aces Egypt, witboat faavi 
beard • word about it beCore, mitBt pefcene, if he has onlyJ 
common povetB of obaenaticRt, that th« Egypt to which tlu 
Greeks go in th«ir ahipe is ao acqaired eoimtiy, the gift c 
the river.* The same ta true of tb« land abore the lake to tbt 
distance of three dajs' Tojage, oonceniiiig which the Egjptiana 
Ba7 nothing, hot which is exactly the same land of country. J 
The following is the general character of the region. Ii^ 
the first place, on approaching it by eea, when you are still wi 
day's s&U from the land, if yon let down a sounding-line jot 
will bring op mad, and find yourself in eleven fothoms' water^ 
which shows that the soil washed down by the streAm extends 
to that distance.^ 

* Vi^ iobk, eh. 10, utd note ad , 
luo. Ths tbecTj had been gtarted bj ' 
Heoatasna, who nudo eae Ot tfao emme 
cKprafrioii- (See AtTi»n,Eip. Al.T. 6.) ; 

[Henxlotiu abeenw that Uie i«ine , 
■night be Hud of the coddIj-j aboTo 
(uc three dkjs' sail ; mid eisctl; the 
nme Appe&nnce mi^bt haro Htruck 
bim thronghoDt the whole lallp; o{ 
the Nile. Bat tfaoogh the depth of 
the Bail has groatlj incrcoBed, and is 



ililTeront porta of the telUcj. the first 
ilopoHit did not take placu after nuui 
I'lietod in Egj-pt ; and aa marine pro- 
■InCtionB have not been met witli in 
iioring to tho depth of 40 feet in the 
nulta, it in erideut that iU Boil was 
dopoeited from the vary fint on a 
ii]iaoo aircad; above the lerel or the 
Uoditerrencan. The fommtioD of tb« 
Doita of Egjpl is not like that of 
Homo other rivera, where the land haa 
liuon protmdod Far into the Bca ; oa 
Iha oDDlrar;, the Nile, after pniauinK 
s throagh tho allttvisl euil, 

8 tho B 

north of the Lake Mrerie aa it did in 
iheago of the earl/ tinga of K^P*' 
'■"he aitHB of the oldoet eition are aa 
iioar tho TCD-Bhoro an when they wore 
iuhnbitod ot old; and jot the period 
iiiiw elapepd ainco eome of them were 
huilt ui iioarlj doDblo that hclween 

Ueoea andHerodoiDii. I have al[«a4f 
iji aauther work explained the em* 
neons nutioD o[ the Ptiiinjs 1. having 
oDoe been disUuic &om Egypt (At. E^ 
W. ToL i. p. T), bv showing that th| 
nfttne AJyvrrat in Homer vgui&e^ 
(not the coiinlt7, but) the "Nilej* 
tor Iho FharoB I. and tho const d 
Alexandria being both rotk, the di* 
tanoe between them laa always beet 
the same. Another great reason Ihi 
tho Delia not encroBchiag on the ■« 
is that tbe land ia alwaya ainkinl 
along tbe north coast of Egypt (whih 
it rises at tbe head of tfae Bed Sea) 
and there ia evidence to ahow tin 
the MediterroneaD fana eDomoched 
and that tho Delta baa lost instead o 
gaining, along the whole of its eiten 
from CanopoH to Pelaainm.— 0. W.] 
' The distance yon see tbe MeditM 
ranean discoloored by the Nile dariq 
the inmidatiun is Tory great, and tb 
same takes place in a minor degree O 
the mouths of rivers on the fiyrial 
const, bat withont tboir forming an, 
deltas I uur is the shallow sea (^ tb 
coast of Egypt mora a part of tb 
Delta of the Nile new than wha 
sounded in Horodotna' time, abo« 
2300 years ago; and 11 orgyiea (o 
fathoma) at a day's sail from th 
eonet wontd alarm a sailor even at th 
l>rtaont ilay. For you only come in* 





6. The length of the country along shore, according to the 
boimda that we assign to Egypt, namely, from the Plinthinetie 
gulf" to Lake Serbunis, which extends along the base of Mount 

:iu3, ia sixty schcenes.' The nations whose territories ore 
.ty measure them by the fathom ; those whoso bounds are 
loBB confined, by the furlong ; those who have an ample 
territory, by the parasang ; but if men have a country which 
is very vast, they measure it by the schoene.* Now the length 
of the parasang is thirty furlongs,* but the schcene, which is 
an Egyptian measure, is sixty furlongs.' Thus the coast-line 
of Egypt would extend a length of three thousand six hundred 

7. From tlie coast inland as far as Heliopolis the breadth 


11 fBthoras waler at aboat 13 or 13 
milea oil the oouet, aboat Abookir ; 
uul at 26 OT ao milea ;oa have 60, "JO, 
SO, and 90 fathoma, with eaod aod 
nod. At 6 or 6 milOB from the moath 
of the Nile the n&ter ou the mrface is 
nearly freah, and tho bottom moittlj a 
■tiS rood. The longeet day's sail, 
tccotdiug to Hdrcdotna (iv. 86), ia 
iOO itwlia, abont 79) ETiglinfa milen. 
or (infti, oh. S) 640 stadia, uboDt 61 
hero the BonndingB would be 
least the eame Dumber of latbomB. 

* PUnUiiii^ was a town near the 
- Hareotii (Strabo, xtU. p. 1133 ; 
I. i*. c. 6; Sc;lai. Forip. 105). 
it tho lake, tw well se the bay, 
'itnei called " FJinthiDctan." 
Thft name " Arapolea," given in Pliny 
(t. 10) la this lake iaeTidently a false 
nading, It sbuald be Bacotia, and 
■ ■* o Aleiandrin.— [Q. W,j 

■cIkbdc, an Egyptian laea- 

Twitid from 30 and 32 to 40 

according to Pliny (r. 10, lii. 

ad Stiabo diatiDctly eayB (ivii. 

it was of Tariaua leoglliB in 

parts of Egypt. Herudotus 

WB* equal to 60 stadia, making 

' of the coast 3600 etadia, 

600 fact to the atadinm, 

ore than 400 Gng. m. The 

of the ooMt from the Bay 

of Ptinthind at Tapoairis, or at Plin. 
thins, even to the eoJitprn end of tho 
Lake SerbAuis, is by tho shore little 
more than 300 Eog. miles. Diodoms 
eBtimat«a the breadth of Egypt by the 
coast at £000 stadia; and Stiubo 
gives only 1770 stadia from I ho 
Temple of Jupiter Castas at the Ser- 
bonio Lake to Pharos, which, added to 
200 (Stadia to Tapusiris, make 1U70 
stadia. The real distanoo from Coaias 
to I'tinrDB is abont 1944 sladia, and 
from PhoroB to TaposirU or to Plin- 
thin^ nearly 260, being a total of 
about 220-1 stadia.— [G. W.] 

' Some might imagine this to be 
confirmed by modem CDstnm : the 
Gnglish measortng by miluB, the 
Fronch by leagaos, the Germans by 

onr mile in length : bnt this will not 
)iol(i good generally, and the Knssiaii 
werst ia only about two-thirds of an 
English mile, or 11B7 yards.— [Q. W.] 

' See note on Book v. ch. S3. 

' This would be more than 36,000 
English feet, or nearly 7 miles. 

[The Greek rxaltat, "rope," is the 
same word which BigniHes rosh, of 
which ropes are still made in E^y|it 
and in other coantrieB; and it has been 
eingnlorly transferred to tlie ikein of 
OUT modem measure for thread and 
■ilk,— G. W.] 



of Egypt IB conBiderable ; the conntry is flat, without apringH, 
and full of swamps.* The length of the route from the eea up 

< Heliopolis atood ou the otlgo of 
tl>e doHort, about 4) miloa to the E. of 
the aptii of tho Del1« ; but the alia- 
vial liLDd of thu Deltu extended 5 
milsa farther to tbe eoBtward of that 
I'it;, to wlULt is now tbe Birtet-el- 
Hng. The moniilMDa to the 8. of 
UatiopulJB cloBJng in to tbe westward 
luwonle the Nile mako tbo valley 
nniToir in tbat part, and thrcmghout 
ilie rest of its conrBe from tbe S. 
The Bouthem puiut of tbe Delta ep- 
pe»n fomieilf to have extended fur- 
Iber np tlie riTer (i.e. south) than at 
pcvBent, and to have been nearly 
oppoaite tbe modero Tillage of 8hoo- 
hra (see M. Eg. W. vol. i. p. 401.) 
At Ibe lioiD and long after Cairo wui 
founded, the Nile ran more to the 
i-astward, as Hr. Laue has hLuwd, 

The oconnialstion of ailavial loil at 
the bue of llio obelisk of Oairtanc^n at 
HeliopoliB, aa aronud the Bittini; 
(.'oloiai in the plain at Tbebea, has 
been often appealed to for dotec- 
uiining the rise at the allnnal soil 
wiUiiu a oortain period, bat as there te 
no pDHHibility of OBOortainiiig bow for 
it Blood above the roach of the innij- 
diitioD wbcD Srst pnt ap, wo have its 
ban far any calcutation. The water 
of the inondation bavins been for 
nifCB kept onti according lo Kgypiian 
uiistom, frum tbe enolosore in which 
the temple Btood, the accnmolation 
of deposit there was the more rapid 
when in after times the waler was 
admitted, which readily occoants for 
" BO great a IbicknCBS of one kind uf 
aoiiinient without any sign of snccoa- 
nlte depOBition," whiob leeniB to hare 
jirusentod a difficnity to Mr. Hornor. 

1 hare aupposed the deposit to have 
been raised at Elephantine abont i) 
feet in 1700 years, and at Thebes 
about 7; bat this is very nncertuia. 
The iDcreaBe is of oonrse much leas 
the rurthor you descend the valley, 
and at the month of the Kile it is 
very sotnll ; fur it ia there leeaoned 
tiir more than in the inuio docrtaai.ig 

ratio ae betweon Elephantine and 
Heliopolis, owiog to the greater exteni 
of land, east and west, over whiob th* 
ioandatii n Eprvads, so that ju a seutioB 
repreFienting the aocnmulated soil and 
the levnl of the low Nile, the angle ol 
inclination wonld be ninch smaller 
from tbe apfli of the Delta to tbe sea, 
than from Thebea to the Delta. 
"Thna," as Mr. Homer Bays, "while 
Ibo rise of the rirer at the island ol 
Roda is 21 fc?ct, near Banianyeh, abonl 
65 miles in a direct line H. of the opea 
of the Delta, tbe diObrence between Uu 
highest and lowest water i« about U 
feet, and at RoKetta and Damietn 
Dot mure than 42 inches." The NiU 
at Asooon is aaid to be 300 foot abon 
its level at Cairo, and S65 above th( 
Uediterranoan. The distance troa 
the Uoeetta month to Cairo is 1S4 
miles, from Cairo to Asooan 678, fol 
lowing all tbe bends of the river 
which gives a total of T3£ mJles troK 
the sea to the firat Cataract. 

According Iv H. Linant, the volniai 
of water ponred daring 2i hours inb 
the Mediterranean by the Nile, whai 



e DmmLtlu bnitcta 
Crtric ia«IKS . . 
Wgh . . . . 

Siodt, which is 
Aeouan to Tars 
iwrs fonnd tha 

. n.«3a,u».*i» 

. tH,M<.MUM 


. tT«.31T.«3S.««« 



abont half-w^ 
j>eh, the Frew 
in orery secioa 

e then 

laof » 

point is B78 cDbia mttres • 
low Nile, and 10,247 at high NiU 
and, according tu U. Linant, at Cai( 
414 cubio mfttcoH at low, and 9140, ■ 
high Nile. (See Mr. Hornor'a Memd 
in Trans. Boyal Bocioty, vol. 141 
p. 101-138.) 

The average fall of the river bl 
tween Aaonan and Cairo is •' tittl 
mora ihati half a foot in a mile, vi 



to Eeliopolis is almost exactly the same as that of the road 
which nms from the altar of the twelve gods at Athens " to the 
temple of Olympian Jove at Pisa.* If a person made a 
calcination he would find but a very little difference between 
the two routes, not more than about fifteen furlongs ; for 
the road from Athens to Pisa falls short of fifteen hundred 
^longs by exactly fifteen/ whereas the distance of Heliopolis 
from the sea is just the round number.^ 
8. As one proceeds beyond Heliopolis^ up the country, 

0*54 feet, and from the foot of the 
Pint Cataract to the sea is 0*524 feet 
in a mile ; " but from Cairo to the 
Dunietta month, aocording to the 
nine aathority (ib. p. 114), *'the 
average fall is onlj 3f inches in a 
Bile/'— [G. W.] 

'The altar of the twelve gods at 
Athens stood in the Forum, and seems 
from this passage and from one or 
two inftcriptions (Rose, Tab. xxxii. p. 
251 ; cf. Boeckh, Corp. Ins. i. i. p. 32) 
to have served, like the gilt pillar 
(mt7Iiaritim aureum) in the Forum at 
Kome, as a central point from which 
to meaEure distances. It was origi- 
nally erected by Pisistratos, the son 
of the tyrant Hippias, bat was after- 
wards enlarged and beautified by the 
Athenian people. (Thncyd. vi. 54.) 
Adjacent to this altar was the en- 
rloi?ure where votes for ostracism 
were taken. (Leake's Athens, p. 163, 
note ^) 

* This mention of Pisa is cnrions, 
considering that it had been destroyed 
Ku long before (B.C. 572) by the Eleans 
(Pancan. vi. xxii. § 2), and that it had 
certainly not been rebuilt by the close 
of the Pcloponnesian war (Xen. Hell. 
HI. ii. § 31, comp. vii. iv. § 28). Pro. 
bably Herodotus intends Olympia 
itself rather than the ancient town, 
which was six stadcs distant (Schol 
£ul Pind. 01. X. 55) in the direction of 
Harpinna (Pans. vi. xxi.-xxii.), and 
therefore doubtless in the vicinity of 
ihe modem village of Mirdka (see 
\^hke*a Morea, ii. p. 211), with which 
8' uie ai« inclined to identify it. 

(MGller'B Dorians, ii. p. 468. E. T.; 
Kiepert, Blatt vii.) 

* The correctness of this measure, 
ment, as compared with others in 
Herodotus, or indeed in the Greek 
writers generally, has been noticed 
by CJolonel Leake (Journal of G^> 
graph. Soc. vol. iz. part i. p. 11). 
There is no reason to believe that the 
road was actually measured, but it 
was so (requcntly traversed that the 
distance came to be estimated very 
nearly at its true length. 

® Fifteen hundred furlongs (stades) 
are about equal to 173 English miles. 
[The real distance of Heliopolis from 
the sea, at the old Sebennytic mouth, 
is about 110 miles, or 100 in a direct 
line.— G. W.] 

' The site of Heliopolis is still 
marked by the massive walls that 
Burrounded it, and by a granite obe- 
lisk bearing the name of Osirtascn I. 
of the 12th dynasty, dating about 
3900 years ago. It was one of two 
that stood before the entrance to the 
temple of the Sun, at the inner end of 
an avenue of sphinxes ; and the ajiex, 
like some of those at Thebes, was 
once covered with bronze (doubtless 
gilt), as is shown by the stone having 
been cut to receive the metal casing, 
and by the testimony of Arab history. 
Tradition also speaks of tho other 
obelisk of Heliopolis, and of the 
bronze taken from its apex. Pliny 
(36, 8) supposes that Mitres, tho first 
king who erected an obelisk, held his 
court at Heliopolis, and that tht^so 
mcnuments were dedicated to the 


Egypt becomes narrow, the Arabian range of biUs, which has 
a direction £roiu north to south, shutting it in upon the one 
Bide, and the Libyan range upon the other. The former ridge 

runa on without a break, aud Htretches awuy to the sea called i 
the Erjtbriean; it contaiiiB the quarries^ whence the stone 
was cut for the pyramids of Memphis : and this is the point 
where it ceases its first dii'ectiou, and bends away in Uw 

Sun ; bat that dopendsd npon what 
God tho temple belooged to, the ebc- 
liake at Tbebea being erected U> 
Aronn, and in other places to other 
deities. The aame of HeliopoliH was 
fii-n-re, " the abode of tbe Son," from 
irhich tbe Hebreir On or Afln cor- 
rupted into Aven (Giek. nx. 17) waa 
taken, and which waa trajialatod 
Snn" (Jerem. iliii. 13). The Arabs 
called it Ain Sbeme, " [onntaiD of the 
Son," ftata tbe apring there, irhich 
the crednloHB ChriBlians believad to 
haie been salt until the Yirgin's visit 
to Egypt. Tho Arabic name of the 
. Matariek. 

mina of the hotuea, which, like that 
of Bnbastia, stood on a higher IcfiI 
than tbe temenoB, owing to their 
foiiiiilatlona baring been raised titUD 
time to time, while tho tomple re- 
mained in its original Bit«. InStnbo'i 
time the bonHss were ahown where 
Plato and Endoms lired while atnd;- 
iag onder the priests of HellopDlii; 
bnt tbe citj., which hnd tor •¥" 
been the seat of learning, Io»t i" 
importaBce after the accession or Ihi 
Ptolemies; and the srboolB of ii"- 
Sndria took the place of tho uicinot 
oolleges of Hehopolia (see Stub. 
iTii.)- Tbo walls are in some plscH 
donble, bnt throngbout * — 



manner above indicated." In its greatest length from east to 
west it ia, as I have been informed, a distance of two months' 
joomey ; towards the extreme east its skirts produce frauk- 
incense. Such are the chief features of this range. On the 
Libyan aide, the other ridge whereon the pyramids stand, is 
rocky and covered with sand ; its tUreetion is the same as that 
of the Arabian ridge in the first part of its course. Above 
Heliopulis, then, there ia no great breadth of territory for such 
a country as Egypt, but during four days' sail Egypt is 
narrow ; ' the valley between the two ranges is a level plain, 
and seemed to me to be, at the narrowest point, not more than 
two hundred fiu-longa across from the Arabian to the Libyan 
hills. Above this point Egj'pt again widens.* 

apiivea of HenelBna. Bot the pro. 
tnbilitr ia that aoEce EgTpCian Dame 
n&a Gonrerted bj the Greeks into 
TroJA, and b; the Arabe into TcKira ; 
ud we JBAj perhapl ascribe to it the 
Bnw origiD aa the " Tyrian camp " at 
UemphiA mentioaed bj Herodotaa 
Im note ■ on oh. 112). The omplu}'. 
■ent of the stone is the pyrBmidB, 
ud lbs rnunee of the earl; kings 
loiind therp, show that these qnarriea 
wets atrawl; ased b; the ancient 
Egjptiuu team the time of tho 1th to 
ll» loth dynasty (as well as aFtor 
'^Al pf^nod), uul oonseqneDtlj darinf^ 
'bi Shipherd oCLiipntion uf Memphis. 
Ik, (rDD I4blet was the represeatation 
III s lar^ stone on a tlodge drawn by 
mm, httTiBg the name of Aoiosis 
IAebh). the firit king of the 18th 
ijiVlf : and on others the dato o( 
0" 4£ad yeaf of Amun.ui-he III. (of 
'W Ulh ilynasty) and the aames of 
'>t«r kinEB. The qoorrioa are still 
•«W by the modern Egyptiims, 
""I this erf>n -Joined magnesian limc- 
"oM is ascd lor floors of roaiDs and 
'oroihBf bnildingpurposas. — [G. W.] 
' Tlial is, towards the Erythneau 
^ or Arabian Golf. [The bend of 
'^ nonntain is really wLero Cairo 
'■•m •(ands, whenoa it rona towards 
' Red Ses. The notion of Herodo- 
' rni»clitig its ertent to tho E. was 

VBgnc, and ha evidontly ooofannds, 
or connects, it with the peninsula 
of Arabia^ the country of incense ; 
thoDgh he speaks of the mouutain- 
rango on the E. of the Nile eitendini; 
Bonthwarda along- the Red Sea. Its 
breadth from the Nile to tho Hed Sea 
direct is 82 miles in lat. S(f. incnus- 
ing to 175 in lat. 24°.— G. W.] 

' That is, from Heliopolis sonth- 
nnrd ; and he says it becomes broader 
again beyond that point. His 200 
stadia are abont 22^ to 23 miles, llie 
whole breadth of tho valley from the 
Eastern to tho Western hills is only 
from 12 to 16 miles. This most bavo 
appeared a very great change nflnr 
leaving the spacious Delta, a level 
plain, withoDt any mountains being 
eeen to the E. or W. The four days, 
reckoning, aa he does, 640 stadia to a 
day, would be about 245 Eng. m., or 
to about the vicinity of Sioiit ; bat it 
□annot be the spot, whore ho thinks 
the valley "widens;" for, according 
to hia oalcnlatioa of nine days lo 
Thebes, that wider port wonld be loss 
than half-way, or about Gabel Aboo. 
faydeh, and this last wonld agree Etill 
Iess with his description of the in- 
creasing breadth of tho valley, which 
is there only 7 miles from tho Eastern 
to the Western hilla.— [Q.W.] 

' Compare the descrlptiun of BcvIjx 


9. From HeliopoliB to Thebes is nine days' sail up the 
river ; the distance is eighty-one schcenes, or 4860 furlongs.* If 

ivc now pTit together the PCTml mr^'iiiroTiirTil? of thr (vroTitrr 
we shall find that the diw(ain-o Liloiiy shore i^, as I stutfd 
above, 3600 furlongs, and the distance from the sea inland to 
Thebes 6120 furlongs. Further, it is a distance of eighteen 
liundred furlongs from Thebes to the place called Elephantine. 

10. The greater portion of the country above described 
seemed to me to be, as the priests declared, a tract gained by 
the inhabitants. For the whole region above Memphis, lying 
between the two ranges of hills that have been spoken of, 
appeared evidently to have formed at one time a gulf of (hn 
sea.* It resembles (to compare small things with great) tlifl 
parts about Ilium and Teuthrania, Ephesus, and the plain of 
the Maaander.' In all these regions the land has been formed 
liy rivers, whereof the greatest is not to compare for size witii 
any one of the five mouths of the Niie,^ I could mention other 

Cuf. », 10. 



tints also, fax inferior to the Nile in magnitude, that have 
cSeded very great changes. Among theee not the least is the 
AebdoiiB, vhich, after passing through Aeamama, empties 
itulf into the sea opposite the islands caUed Ecbinades,' and 
iiB already joined one-half of them to the continent.^ 

^WmRtic, which Herodotiu ebjb, 

MM aame among the ednoated 
Gnaka, ooiuist ot tvro closters, linked 
logMliet by Iho barren and mgged 
fftoU. The northern oltuter oon- 
hiu 15 or 16 ialandH. the principal 
t' whicb is Dhrayondra. The soDtbem 
ccuttioc only fire or Bin tlie moat 
inpratut are Otid, Uakri, and Fr6- 
•ma. Thej were till lately British 
ittpradmciea, being- included in the 
Imiu ialanda. Except Ox id, they all 
li? north of the present month oF the 
Achelous (Aspro). See Loato'B Nor- 
llura Greece, vol. iii. pp. 30, 31. 

timeB tormed fresh land at its month 
with Terj great rapidity is certain, 
from the testimony ot variona writers 
besides Herodotns. Tbaoydidea (ii. 
102), Boylai (Peripl. p. 81), and 
Btrabo (i. p. 87), all apeak in eqnally 
strong terms on the subject. TTiuoy. 
dides eren conjeotures that in a short 
space of time all the Echinades would 
beoome portions of the continent. 
This prediction has failed ; and at 
present, owing probably to the projec- 
tion of the ooaat and the sweep of the 
onrrent round it, the adranco of the 
land is very slow and gradnal. (Leake, 
iii. p. 570.) So far as appears, no 
ialund has been added to the shore 
since the time of Strabo. Col. Lenka 
indeed says that he could only find 

liU, ehlcBj sltar Kiepnt. 


11. In Arabia, not far from Egypt, there is a'long and 
narrow gulf running inlajid from the sea called the Eiythnean,' 
of which I will here set down the dimensiona. Starting from 
its innermost recess, and asing a row-boat, yon take fort; 
days to roach the open main, while yon may cross the gulf at 
its widest port in the space of half a day. In this sea there ia 
an ebb and flow of the tide every day.' My opinion is, that 
Kgypt was formerly very much such a gulf as this — one gnlf 
piinetratod from the sea that washes Egypt on the oortb,' and 
t'xti'Jided itself towards Ethiopia; another entered &om the 
ttouthoni ocean, and stretched towards Syria; the two gulfs 
rati into the laud so as almost to meet each other, and left 
h('twiH>n them only a very narrow tract of country. Now if 
the Nih) should choose to divert its waters from their present 
bod into this Arabian gulf, what is there to hinder it from 
bi'ing fillod up by the stream within, at the utmost, twenty 
thuusAiu] years ? For my part, I think it would be filled in 
half the timo. How then should not a gnlf, even of much 
, have been filicJ up in the ages that passed before 

Chaf. U, 12. 



12. Thus I give credit to those from whom I received this 

'WJcount of Egypt, and am myself, moreover, strongly of the 

same opinion, since I remarked that the country projects into 

the sea further than the neighbouring shores, and I observed 

that there were shells upon the hiUs,^ and that salt exuded 

from the soil to such an extent as even to injure the pyramids ; 

and I noticed also that there is but a single hill in all Egypt 

vhere sand is found,* namely, the hiU above Memphis ; and 

ftrther, I found the country to bear no resemblance either to 

its border-land Arabia, or to Libya * — ^nay, nor even to Syria, 

' The shelU imbedded in rocks have 
^ to mach absurd reasoning till a 
^ late time; and the aocoracy of 
fitrsbo's judgment is the more snr. 
pHsing since his mode of accounting 
^or the aphearings and snbsidings of 
tht Isnd, and the retirement and en- 
croschments of the sea, as well as the 
gradoal changes always going on 
from snbterraneoas agencies, accord 
with oar most recent discoveries. 
"The reason/' he sajs, "that one is 
raised and the other subsides, or that 
the sea inundates some places and re- 
cedes from others, is not from some 
being lower and others higher, but 
because the same ground is raised or 
depressed . . . The cause must there- 
fofe be ascribed either to the ground 
onder the sea, or to that inundated by 
it, but rather to that below it. . . . 
and we ought to draw our conclusions 
from things that are evident, and in 
tome degree of daily occurrence, as 
deluges, earthquakes, and (volcanic) 
eruptions, and sudden risings of the 
land under the sea . . . and not only 
islands but continents are raised up, 
and large and small tracts subside, 
some being swallowed up by earth. 
qoakes." (Strabo, i. p. 74 et seqq.) 
On Volcanos, see Lyell's Princ. of 
Geol. vol. i. chs. 2 to 5.— [G. W.] 

*The only mountain where sand 
abounds is certainly the African 
range, nnd though there are some 
lofty drifts in one place on the oppo- 
site side, just below the modem Suez 
road, the eastern part of the valley of 

the Nile is generally free from it. It 
does not, however, encroach on the 
W. to the extent that some have 
imagined ; and if downs of sand have 
been raised here and there along the 
edge of the cultivated land, the 
general encroachment is greatly in 
favour of the alluvial deposit. In 
Ethiopia the sand has invaded the W. 
bank, but this is owing to the fall in 
the level of the Nile mentioned in 
n. ^, ch. Ill and App. ch. iv. 4. — 
[G. W.] 

• It is perfectly true that neither 
in soil nor climate is Egypt like any 
other country. The soil is, as Hero- 
dotus says, "black and crumbly." 
The deposit of the Nile, when left on 
a rock and dried by the sun, re- 
sembles pottery in its appearance and 
by its fracture, from the silica it con- 
tains ; but as long as it contains its 
moisture it has the appearance of 
clay, from its slimy and tenacious 
quality. It varies according to cir- 
cumstances, sometimes being mixed 
with sand, but it is generally of a 
black colour, and Egypt is said to 
have been called hence "black," from 
the prevailing character of its soil. 
The analysis given by Regnault in the 
Description de I'Egypte is — 

11' water. 

9' carbon. 

6* oxide of iron. 

4- silica. 

4' carbonate of magnesia. 
18' carbonate of lime. 
48' alumen. 


^^^v P^^^^^^^^^H 



which forms the seaboard of Arabia ; bat whereas the Boil o 
Libya is. we know, sandy and of a reddish hoe, and that c 
Arabia and Syria inclines to stone and clay, Egjpt has a so 
that is black and crumbly, as being alluvial and formed of th 
deposits brought down by the river from Etliiopia. 

13. One fact which I learnt of the priests is to me a strati 
evidence of the origin of the comitry. They said that vhi 
Misria was king, the Nile overflowed all Egypt below Memphi 
as soon as it rose so little as eight cubits. Now Moeria bt 
not been dead 900 years at the time when I heard this of ti 
priests ; * yet at the present day, unless the river rise sixtea 
or, at the very least, fifteen cubits, it does not overflow i 
lands. It seems to me, therefore, that if the land goes i 
rising and growing at this rate, the Egj-ptians who dwell beb 
lake Mteris. in the Delta (as it is called) and elsewhere, n 
one day, by the stoppage of the inondatione, suffer permanen 
the fate which they told me they expected would some tJi 
or other befall the Greeks. On hearing that the whole la 
of Greece is watered by rain from heaven, and not, like tb 
own, inundated by rivere, they observed — " Some daj t 

That the Boil of Libya ia red and 

iron, esjicciiklly at the Little Oasis, 
makes il in ■oma parts like that of 
DeTonsh[re.-[G. W.] 

• This wDDid make the date ofHisrui 
aboat 135S B.C. ; bat it Doithi^r aKr»a 
with the age at Anmn-in-he III. of 
the Labyrinth, nor of Thothmea III., 

MtcriB, nor of Maire, or Pbjh (Apap. 
poB) of the 6th dynasty. The Mfflrie. 
however, from tBhom (fc«w daUi om 
(.,tc«lai»d. appears to have been Me- 

and wan filed aa the Sothio period 

fallinn short of that anm hy 33 yoors. 

It is reasonable to snppose that by 

ITfcris bo would refer to that king 

■ who was to remarkable for his atton- 

tion to the levels of the Nile, ab 
by hia making the lake oalled a 
him ( and who, from the record 
Bemnch. and from hia name b 
again found in the Liibyiiutli (b^ 
LepaioB). ia shown ta hav« 1 
Amnn.b.ho IIL ; but it Mb date i 
be taken from Herodotns, it will 
BCounI with this kioK of the 
dynaaty, who lived about 1500 J 
before the historian j and the K 
tiane were not in the habit ol 

two or more kinps, to whom the r 
of Mceria bad bten given by 
Gr«eka; aa the statne of Amiu 
and a palaoa and a tomb of 
Remeaes, were ascribed to Mon 
See note' on ch. 100, note' oi 
1*2, and note ' on ch. 1*8.— [G, 



Greeks will be disappoiDted of their grand hope, nnd then 
they will be wretchedly hungry; " which was as much as to 
say, " If God shall some day see fit not to grant the Greeks 
rain, bnt shall afflict them with a long drought, the Greeks 
will be swept away by a famine, since they have nothing to 
rely on bat rain from Jove, and have no other resource for 
water." ' 

14. And certes, in thus speaking of the Greeks the Egyp- 
tians Bay nothing but what is true. But now let me tell the 
Egyptians how the case stands with themselves. If, as I said 
before, the country below Memphis,* which is the land that is 
always rising, continues to increase in height at the rate at 
which it has risen in times gone by, how will it be possible fur 
tiie inhabitants of that region to avoid hunger, when they will 
certainly have no rain,' and the river will nut be able to over- 

it the present 
intrioB which 

' ThiB iTBCmblea 

niJkrk of (he E^Tpti 
Liv refEarcting thoai 
I ■f"Ti'l for water oi ^ 

' This with the Drlta HorodotSB 
■ -'■njB to consider the only part miaed 
'jy the Bunaal deposit (oCti) -yip fori 
i ivfonfu'ni), which is of conree erro- 
tenaa. us th«< BlIuTiam ia left tlirough. 
Ml the rftlley from Abjaeiuia to the 
*,._[a, W.] 

* Pomixntius Idela calla Egypt 
"liWT»eiperi imbrinn] i" nod Proclus 
Mjv if ihowent fell in Lower Egypt 
IW wvra oonfined to thnt digtHct, 
•nd bearj rain waa a prodig7 in the 
TlMJiali]. UerodotnB indeed afflrma 
(iii. 10) tbmt rain at Thebes portended 
toow great calamity, and the coa- 
qoen of Rgypt by the Peraiona wns 
t^ringtil to have tiv-ea forutold by this 
^T-.Qtto&l pbenomenoD at tbnt place. 
It Upper Eg'vpt ehowera only oconr 

oat fir? or six times in the year. 
It oTery Bfleen oclwenty yeeja heavy 
. i.Q folia there, which will accoont 
( r (Iw deep rarinoscet in the valteya 
' ibe Theban hillH, about the Tomba 
. : the Kings ; in Lower Egypt rain ia 
i:«'t« fieqncnt ; and in Alexandria it 
u as abondant in winter aa in tlie 

south of Earope. These ran'nDS, nod 
the precnntiona taken to protect Iho 
ruufs of the temples at Thebes against 
rain, show that it fell there of old oa 
DDW ; bat a continaation of hoary rain 
in Upper Egypt, or even nt Cairo, for 
two or threo days would be ooo.^idered 
a great wonder, and wonld canae 
nuuiy boDBea to fall down, as in 18i.S. 
(Cp. Eiod. ii. IS, where the hail- 
Btorm is not said to have been tbo 
only one, bat anch aa wae nnlike any 
before it in Egjpt.J Tho Eastern 
dosert. between the Nile and the Kcd 
Sea, where the numntains ore higher, 
is freqnently viaited by heavy rain 
and thnnderstonna in the winter, 
tbongh the olimata ia drier than the 
valley of the Nile i and evi'ry (our or 
five years the torrents run down to 
the Bod Sea on one aide nnd lo the 
Nile on the other. In leas than a 
month's time after thta the beda of 
those torrents are covered with green 
herbs and nomerona amall flowers, 
and the Arabs take their flocks to 
graze there till Ibe Khamwien winda 
and the hot son of Uay have dried 
them up, and nothing remains except 
a few ococia-trccB and the nsual han1y 

of tho, 

irid diil 


flow their corn-lauds ? At preeeBt, it mast be oonfeBBed, they 
obtain the fruits of the field with lesB trouble than any other 
people in the world, the rest of the Egyptians incladed, sioce 
they have no need to break op the ground with the ploogb, 
nor to use the hoe, nor to do any of the work which the rest 
of mankind find necessary if they are to get a crop ; * bnt the 

are pcnrcrl; nnv ipriiKn in Che rallcj 
of tho Kile, and tha few found there 
an' pmbolJy caiiBcd by tbe flltraCion 
»f ilin Nile-»Bter through the soil.— 
[G. W,] 

' That the laboDr for gmiriDg corn 
itM Ices in ERypt than in other conn- 
criejt ia ceiininl}' trae ; ood id the low 

lands of the Delta, to which Hfm- 
dotes here alladea, u well u in Ihe 
bollowB away from the rirer, near tba 
edge of the desert, where the lenl l( 
the land ii tbe lowest, thej probebi; 
dispensed with the plough, u it i^ 
prosent dajt, and simply dragged l>>» 
mud with bnsbes after the seed M 




t, drivini? in 

and on th 


ta about MrHi- 

mbpr of 8 

phis. Tbi 



nod Uiodoi 

Hand Co 



l» cvnsid 


nbour K-89 


they wore 




p. 14. 



ibandman waits till the river has of its own accord spread 

efine the bonndaries of a farm or 
I, as with the Jews (Dent. zix. 14), 

and sometimes an estate was sepa- 
rated from its neighbour hj a large 


itself over the fields and withdrawn again to its bed. and then I 
sows his plot of ground, and after sowing tnms his swine into I 
it— the swine tread in the com' — after which he has only to 1 

canal, Crom whjcb BTnaller chaimela 
dutribntod the water ia proper direo- 
tiooa through the Seldn. When the 
NUb was low, the water wu niaed by 
the pole and backet, the ihaiUtif of 
modem Ejcypt, and b; other memiu ; 
aad this sttention to artificiBl irrigs- 
tioo, instead of depending for it on 
rain, ia alladed to in Denteronomr 
li. 10. There is one instuioe, and one 
00I7, of mm drawing the plough in 
BgTpt. The painting, which ii tram 

a tomb at Thcbee, is preeerYVtd id the 
LonvTe. Two men are at the end uf 
the pole, and Iwo others poll a rope 
attached to the ba«e where the hiuidle, 
pole, and share amte : another holda 
the plough as osnal, and the 
the scene is Uke that in other mgil. 
caltutal sabjeete. with the hoeing, s( 
ing broadcast, and the hureat ope 
tioua. See ^^t. under Pbanoha, 
78.— [Q. W.] 

in the tomb*, though goats are 



await the harvest. The swine serve him also to thrash tiie 
grain,* which is then carried to the gamer. 

Chaf. 14-15. 



15. If then we choose to adopt the views of the loulans ^ 
concerning Egypt, we must come to the conclusion that the 
Egyptians had formerly no country at all. For the lonians 
say that nothing is really Egypt * but the Delta, which extends 

^ Uie threshing instmxnents of Oman 

(m in Isaiah), and the oxen he offered 

to Barid were donbtless those that 

^ been j-oked to it. The modem 

%7ptian Ndreg is drawn by two oxen, 

*od consists of a wooden frame, with 

tbiBB axles, on which are fixed cir. 

colsr iron plates, the fint and last 

itaring each fonr, the centre one 

tiiree plates ; and these not only force 

out the grain bat chop the straw as 

the machine is dragged over it. M. C. 

A. E., ToL ii. p. 55. It appears to be 

Tery similar to the tribtilum of the 

Romans mentioned by Varro (de Be 

mstici, i. 52), who describes it as ''a 

frame made rongh by stones, or pieces 

of iron, on which the driver or a 

weight was placed, and this being 

drawn by beasts yoked to it pressed 

cmt the grain." The "plostemum 

Poenicom" was doobtless introduced 

into Spain by the Phcenicians. — 

[G. W.] 

^ Under the general expression of 
*' lonians " in this passage, Ilerodotns 
has been thonght to mean principally, 
if not solely, Hecataeos. (Miiller ad 
Hecat. Fragm. Fr. 295 and 293.) 
Col. More shows satisfactorily (Litera- 
tore of Greece, vol iv. p. 148, note *) 
that this is not the cose, since tho 
persons here spoken of divided the 
world into three parts (infr^, ch. 16), 
Hecata?as into two. (See the map, 
note to Book iv. ch. 36.) Perhaps the 
allasion is to Anaximander, who as a 
geographer had preceded UecatsDns. 
(Strab. i. p. 10 ; Agathemer, i. 1.) 

* There is no appearance of the 
name " Egypt *' on the ancient monu- 
ments, where the country is called 
**Cbemi," represented in hieroglyphics 
by the tail of a crocodile. Chomi, 
** the black hmd,*' " the land of Ham," 
or of Khem (the Egyptian God Pan, or 
the Generative principle of Nature) is 
■aid by Plntarch to have been bo 
called from the "blackness of the 

soiL*' Khem is sing^ilarly like the 
Greek xc^tal. Ham (Kham), the He- 
brew name of the patriarch, signifies 
also "soot," and is like the Arabic 
hentf hamif " hot ; " and the Hebrew 
Mm (or kh6m), signifying brown (or 
black), as in Gen. xxx. 32, 40, is also 
"burnt up." ^gyptns was in old 
times the name of the Kile, which 
was so called by Homer (Odys. iv. 
477 ; xiv. 257) : and Strabo (xvii. p. 
69i) says the same was the opinion of 
Nearchus. Manetho pretends that the 
country received the name from 
.^gyptus, a surname of King Sethos 
(or Sethi). Aristotle thinks that 
" JEgypt was formerly called Thebes," 
and Herodotus states, in opposition to 
the opinion of the " lonians," that 
" Thebes {i.e. the Thebaid) had of ol<I 
the name of Egypt." And if this is 
not confirmed by the monuments, tho 
word " Egypt " was at all events con- 
nected with Coptos, a city of the 
Thebaid. From Kebt, Koft, or Cop- 
tos, the modem inhabitants have been 
called Copts : its ancient name in 
hierogljrphics was Kebt-hor; and Mr. 
Poole is evidently right in supposing 
this to be the same as the Biblical 
Caphtor. He thinks the name "Egypt" 
composed of ATo, " land," and T^wros ; 
and is to be traced in tho Ai -Caph- 
tor, " land (or coast) of Caphtor," 
in Jeremiah (xlvii. 4). Tho word Cop- 
titic is found in a Gnostic papyruf, 

j supposed to be of the second century 
(see note' on ch. 83). Egypt is said 
to have been called originally Actia, 
and tho Nile Actos and Siris. Upper 
Egypt, or the Thebaid, has even been 
confounded with, and called, Ethiopia ; 
perhaps too by Pliny (vi. 35; seo 
note* on ch. 110) ; Nahum (iii. 9) 
calls Ethiopia and Egypt tho strength 
of No (Thebes) ; and Strabo eavd 
(i. p. 57) that Mcnelaus* journey to 
Ethiopia really meant to Thobe^. 

I Tho rccdcra name Musfr or Jft.r is tha 


along shore 
to the Pelus 
BtretcheB iii 
Nile divides 
Pelusium ai 
accounted E 
But the Del 
persuaded, i 
recently, if 1 
they had for 
the world? 
experiment 1 
fifBt speak. 
came into 
lonians call 
the human 
of the popu 
raained in th 



from the Watch-tower of Perseus." as it is called, 
iac Salt-pans,' a distance of forty schtenes, an<l 
and as far as the city of Cercasorus,'' where the 
into the two streams which reach the sea a1 
d Canobus respectively. The rest of what ii 
gypt belongs, they say, either to Arabia or Libya 
a, as the Egyptians affirm, and as I myself at 
formed of the deposits of the river, and has onl 
may use the expression, come to light. If, then 
merly no territory at all, bow came they to be B 
as to fancy themselves the most ancient race i 
Surely there was no need of their making th 
vith the children to see what language they wouL 
But in truth I do not believe that the Egyptian 
eing at the same time with the Delta, as tb 
it ; I think they have always existed ever siafl 
race began ; as the land went on increasing, pai 
ation came down into the new country, part n 
eir old settlements. In ancient tunes the Thebas 

samn an the Biblical Mimim, i.e. "the 

two MiH-B " applied to Egypt, which 

^m corroapondg to " the two regiong " of 

^L Ihe Boolptareiii but the word Mirr 

^M Uoos not ocenr on the monnmenta. 

^1 Mr. Poole notices the meaning of the 

■^ Arabic Miar, "red mnd," and the 

name Rahab, "the prond," given to 

Kgypt in the Bible. On Csphtor, bod 

Dent. ii. 23; Amos Li. 7. See noto« 

on ch. 106.— [Q. W.] 

^ • This tower Bt™d to Ihe W. of tho 

^L Canopic mouth ; and, aa Eennell aap- 

^1 [wsee, on the point of Abonldr. not, aa 

^M .'Itrabo thinks, on a mudy point at the 

^1 Bolbitino mooth. The Canopic was 

^1 by Boms mlled tho Heracleotic month, 

H from the city of Horcnlea (aee n.> oh. 

■ 113). Tlio name Oanopna. written 
^m more correotlj by Uerociotos KdvsAoi, 
H said to signify xp^to' Rafoi, has been 

■ dorived from kahi noub, "golden 

■ land." The term "Canopic," applied 
H to aepnlchrsl vaaea with a baman 

■ hoad, is quite arbitiarr.-[Q. W.] 

' The Greek, like the modern, nam 
of Feloainm, ia thought to haie bed 
dorived from the mnd that BurrDundai 
it, «,Ai. in Greek, and T«n in A»^^ 
aignifying " mnd." It ia now o»IM 
Tnenaft. It i», however, very probiM 
taken from tho old Egyptian nun 
and not Greek. Lurcher oonBider. M 
TopiKtlai to be called from the ej 
balmed mummies preaerTod Lheri 
bat tho name evidently appllei 1 
the aalt-paoa. aa in ch. 113, whai 
Horodotna mentiona others nma t| 
Canopic roonth.— [G.W.] Lepsinfl ad 
^eatfl that Polnsinm meana " Phili 
tine-town" (Chronologie der ^t(7\ 
ter, vol. i. p. 3*1), and rejfardB it as 1 
cjiUed beuanse it woa the laat bni 
held by tho Hykaoa, whom ho belief! 
tn have boon Philistines, before th^ 
Bnal eipnlsion from Egypt. 

to »y wWch form Herodolna Ij 





bore the name of Egypjt, a district of which the entire circum- 
feience is but 6120 furlongs. 

16. If, then, my judgment on these matters be right, the 

lonians are mistaken in what they say of Egypt. If, on the 

contrary, it is they who are right, then I undertake to show 

that neither the lonians nor any of the other Greeks know how 

%o count. For ihey all say that the earth is divided into three 

parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya, whereas they ought to add a 

fourth part, the Delta of Egypt, since they do not include it 

either in Asia or Libya.* For is it not their theory that the 

Nile separates Asia from Libya ? As the Nile, therefore, splits 

in two at the apex of the Delta, the Delta itself must be a 

separate country, not contained in either Asia or Libya. 

17. Here I take my leave of the opinions of the lonians, and 
proceed to deliver my own sentiments on these subjects. I 
consider Egypt to be the whole country inhabited by the 
Egyptians, just as Gilicia is the tract occupied by the Cilicians, 
and Assyria that possessed by the Assyrians. And I regard 
the only proper boundary line between Libya and Asia to be 
that which is marked out by the Egyptian frontier. For if we 

•Though Egypt really belongs to 
the oontiDent of Africa, the inhabi- 
^ta were certainly of AJsdatio origin ; 
Md the whole of the valley of the 
Nile has been peopled by the primeval 
immigration of a Cancasian race. 
This seems to be indicated also by 
the Bible history, where the grand- 
Fons of Noah are made the inhabitants 
of Ethiopia, Egypt, Libya, and Canaan ; 
^od Jaba, according to Pliny, affirms 
^^ reason that the people of the 
banks of the Nile from Syene to 
XeroS, were not Ethiopians (blacks) 
bat Arabs. Till a later time half 
Egypt was ascribed to Africa, " which 
extended to the sources of the Nile " 
(Strabo, ii. p. 170), and " the Tanais 
and Nile were the limits of Asia" 
(Plin. iii. Prooem.) ; but more reason- 
able people, says Strabo (i. p. 51), 
think the Arabian Gulf the proper 
separation of the two continents 

rather than the Nile. Ptolemy gives 
both banks of the Nile to Africa 
(iv. 5). Herodotus justly blames 
the inconsistency of making Egypt 
belong to neither continent, and of 
considering the country and its peoplo 
a new creation. In Book iv. chs. 
89 and 41, Herodotus does not mean 
to exclude Egypt both from Asia 
and from Libya, as he shows by 
mentioning the ships of Neco sail, 
ing from the Arabian Gulf round 
Libya to the Mediterranean coasts of 
Egypt (ch. 42) ; he treats Libya as 
a distinct region, lying W. of Egypt, 
and makes Egypt itself the division 
between it and Asia. But in a geo- 
graphical point of view his description 
is very unsatisfactory. Diodorus 
seems to think that Horodotns mado 
the Nile the boundary of Libya. — 
[G. W.] 



take thn boundary-line commonly received by the GreekB,"* ve 
must regard Egypt as divided, along its whole length from 
Elephantine and the Cataracts to GercaBoms, into two pftitei 
each belonging to a different portion of the world, one to Asia, 
the other to Libya ; since the Nile dividee Egypt in two from 
the Cataracts to the sea, running as for as the city of 
Cercagdms ' in a single stream, but at that point separating 
into three branches, whereof the one which benda eastward is 

"Tliiit is, the conrso of the Kile; 
TTlticli is made Iho bonndaiy by Strabo 
(ii. p. 170). MelB (i. 1, 8, and 4), Dio- 
njeinii PericBetea (1. 230), and, in ana 
place, by Agathomer (L 1). Sojlai 
(Peripl. p. 105) and Pliny (H. N. v. 9) 
agrtsi with Herodotna in osaigningthe 
whole of Egjpt to Asia. Ptolemy 
(Qeog. i. 1) is the Erst eitant geo- 
grapher who fonnnlly aaBiRiiB the Bod 
Sea and the iBthmoB of Baez as the 
tme bonndarv. In this be ia followed 
by the Armenian Geography (| IG), 
&nd, in hia dMeription of tho three 
oontiueotB, by Agathpmer (ii. 6, 7). 

' Sfmbo calla it Cercpaora, otbora 

Beliennytic, passed by tho moilrtii 
town of Maasoorah, and theoee n"' 
iog by Mendes (from which it W" 
called) entered the sea to Iha W. <'' 
the TaniHc. The BolbitiDB teaoi'' 
Has tbat of the modern Roeet^.' 
brunch, oa the Bncolic or Phatme*'", 
was that of Domietta. and the lin*'^' 
parts of both theae brancbos '"^ j 
artificial, or made by tho hud '- 
man ; on which aceonnt, thongh Her** 
dotaa mcntiona sevpn, be CDnfiaes ll'^, 
nnmber of the monthg of the Nile ^ _. 
flie. These two artificial oatlcta c^ 
the Nile ore the only ones now remaii* 
iag, tho others hating either diir^ ' 


called the Pelusiac mouth," and that which slouta to the west, 
the Canobic. Meanwhile the straight course of the Btream, 
which comes down from the upper contitry and meets the apex 
of the Delta, continues on, dividing the Delta down the middle, 
and empties itself into the sea by a mouth, which ia as 
celebrated, and carries as large a body of water, as most of the 
others, the month called the Sebennytic. Besides these there 
are two other mouths which run out of the Sehennytic called 
respectively the Saltic and the Mendesian. The Bolbitine 
month, and the Bucolic, are not natural branches, but channels 
mad« by excavation. 

18. My judgment as to the extent of Egypt ia confirmed 
by an oracle dehvered at the shrine of Ammon, of which I 
had no knowledge at all until after I had formed my opinion. 
It happened that the people of the cities Marca" and Apis, who 
live in the part of Egypt that borders on Libya, took a disHke 
to the rehgious usages of the country concerning sacrificial 
Mumols, and wished no longer to be restricted from eating the 
flesh of cows,* So, as they believed themselves to be Libyans 
and not Egyptians, they sent to the shrine to say that, having 

■irugen went ilIIowimj to enter. See 

iiole'onch.lTS.— [G.W.] 

■ From Uie Gfoek won! for " month," 
T^to, or from the Latin ostium, the 
Aitba bare given the name oateim or 
■ •jMm to faoh of the montha of the 
^li'i With it« regular plntal luhattim. 
Tl« ii prefixed from the repngnance 
"' AnUe to words beginning with s 
followed by wiothcr conBonnnt. Thna 
K« llil French liaa ><Iatile, icole. (tat, 
111" 8p»iiish ispejo, aud even the 
lUliui places lo instead of il bcfuro 

' Tlie tonn of M&rea stood near the 
l*'t^ toithioh it gave Che nsme Mareo- 
tu (««e tiute * ch. 6). It was cgIf. 
bMtd (or the wine prodoced in ita 
riohulj, which appears to be incladed 
in the "wineof the Northern count I 
•0 Dfleit DientioDed in the lists of 
lAoinga in the Egyptian tun 
Slabo uja, " in thia UisCrict is 

groateBt abundance of wine," which ia 
confirmed bf AthenmuB, vsXA^ S) n 
irifil Tfjii YJji' Taintx jffirtAiit. Virgil 
(Oeorg. ii. 91} aays, " Snnt Thaeico 
vices, BQDt ot MareoCidea albis ; " and 
Cheexproasionof Horace, " lytnphatam 
Jfarenfico," meaning " Egyptian wine," 
poinCa iC out as the moet notod of tbab 
country. AChemeaB ecyt, " its colour 
is white, ita qualit; Hicclleat, and it 
ia ewe<!C and ligbt, with a fragrant 
bodqnet, by no moaua astringent, nor 
atFeccing the head ; " and Strabo givDs 
it the additional merit of koeping to a 
great age. AthenaiuB, howoTor, con- 
sideiB it inferior to the Teniotic ; and 
that of Authjlla appears to have bocu 
preferred to it and to all others. Seo 
bi'low n.> on oh. 37. D.' on oh. 60, and 
D.'oncb. 77.-[G.W.] 

' Though oian were lawful food to 
the Kgyptiana, cows and heifers were 
forbidden to be killed, either for tliu 


nothing in common with the Egyptians, neither inhahil 
t'.ie Delta nor using the Egyptian tongue, they claimed to 
allowed to eat whatever they pleased. Their request, however, 
was refused by the god, who declared in reply that Egypt 
the entire tract of country which the Nile overepreads am 
irrigates, and the Egyptians were the people who lived beloi 
Elephantine,^ and drank the waters of that river, 

19. So said the oracle. Now the Nile, when it overflow! 
Hoods not only the Delta, but also the tracts of country on boti 
aides of the atreani, which are thought to belong to Libya 
Arabia,* in some places reaching to tlie extent of two dayi 
journey from its banks, in some even exceeding that dietanoi 
but in others falling short of it. 

Concerning the nature of the river, I was not able to gail 
any information either from the priests or from others. I 
particularly anxious to learn from them why the Nile, at tfa 
commencement of the summer eolstioe, begins to rise, 



i Stra! 

I Atbor 

8 ropreButitcil undor tba fci 
VI a BpotUid oaw, and to wbogB temple 
ut Atarbecbia, " the city of Athor," aa 
nerodotaa &fter?riu-dH showg, tbe 
bodies of Vboae that died were oairied 
(cb. 41), It ia, howuTcr, very eicusB- 
ble ID him to cimfuimd tbe two God. 
deaaeB, a« thify olten osBnme each 
other's attribatoa, and it ia then 
diflionlt to dietin^inb them without 
the hiercglyphio legends. Seentito^ 
im ob. 40, and noto* on ch. 41.— 
[G. W.J 

> Sjeao and Elepbiuitin^ were the 
real fhratjer of Egypt on Ibo 8. ; 
Hffypt oatonding " from the tower 
(Migdol) of Syene" to the aaa (Eaek. 
ijtii. 10). Whon the frontier waa 
cirt^nded HOathward by the conqaeata 
of the Pharaohs, lower Ethiopia to tbu 
Bcoond catBTOct (tbe modam Nnbia) 
was Itill coDBidered oat of Egypt, 
thoagb port of its doroinioDS ; and tbe 
pLioca llinro are oftfln designated as 

' By the "tracts thoagbt to belM 
to Libya and Arabia." Harodot) 
meana the lands about tbe lake 
Otis, and those on the onnsl which oca 
munical^d with tbe Red Sea, as wa 
as on tbe E. bank of tba Foliuji 
branoh.~[G. W.] S 

' HerodutoB was snrpriaed that tl 
Nile should rise in the snminer sols^ 
and become low in winter. In ti 
latitude of Hemphia it begins lo rU 
at the end of June; abont the lOJ 
of Aogust it attains to the heig) 
rcquistto fur cutting the canals aq 
aduiitttug it into tbe interior of ti 
plain ; and it ia generally at ita higha 
abont the end of Septembor. Tfa 
makea from 92 to 100 days, as Hetl 
dotus states. At the Cataiacta t] 
firat rise ia pGrccired some Ua 
sooner, about tbe end of May or ti 
beginning of Jane, whiob ]e>d Sfina 
to say that " the first inorease ot l) 
Nile was observable about the ialaw 
of Philie." But in proportion SkS ji 
go higher into Ethiopia, the icond 
tion is earlier, and at Khartoom , 
brglna about the 2nd of Hay, t 



wmtinuea to increase for a hundred days — and why, aB soon as 
that number ia past, it forthwith retires and contracts itn 
stream, continuing low during the whole of the winter until 
the summer solstice comes round again. On none of these 
points could I obtain any explanation from the inhabitants,*' 
though I made every inquiry, wishing to know what was 
commonly reported— they could neither tell me what special 
virtue the Nile has which makes it so opposite in its nature to 

ne, '■ early in Ajiril." 
tea happens that it 
md thou fftllH again 

"o pmserve 

W.tare the nfpJ&r inniiclatioi 
'>liich » owing to partial miiu in 
■,.? apper part of ita eotme. In 
i^'Tpt tho fint cbuigo from tbe pre- 
1 cleoroeBB of the atream in Kftv 
I- ohiorved in it> red and tnrbid 
i ijliRu. and it coon aFteriranls assumes 
3 eneD appearance, when tbe water 
IS no loDgBT couBiderod whalcsome. 
^v thi* reaaoD a eappi; previouHlj 
l>id op in jara wsa tbea used bj tho 
Mnent Egyptians ootil it reosaamed 
\ Incfaid bat wholesomo red ooloor 1 
^Ichetpluns an exa^eratod remark 
•fAiiiijde* (Otat. Egypt, vol. ii.) that 
are the only people 
•atcr in jars, and cal- 
„ as others do that of 
"iu. It was not long before the 
■to of the rirer became wholoaome 
Win, lad the latter part of his asser- 
<w.l»ipB0tingit8 improvement by ago 
"tat prawrred in jori, ia only one of 
■W UtitbeseE in whiah the Greeks 
lioligbted. In large resenjoirj it may 
^ bpl Iwu or three years, as in noma 
^<"aet of Cairo, bnt not impnirBd like 
"iDe. Tbongh very wholesome, the 
■>t«r of the Mile iionietim« diBagrces 
'utifew days with atrangoni, or with 
rddos who have aojoEimed for a few 
inoiithi in tbe desert ; whjoh acoonnta 
for (b« PersiaDS having brought water 
lato igjfil from Anu, and agrees with 
tbannaark of AthenEDus (Deipn. ii. p. 
tlVwho attrifaates it lo the nitre it 
("alainl. On the Bnppoeed oqiuoh of 
inmuUtion, net Enr. He), i. 3 1 Athen. 
'. p. 87S aeq. ed. Bip. ; and Polmerina 

n. ia Oudendorp's Lacan, b. x. 215 

' The cause of tbe inaodstion is tbe 
water that falta during the rainy sea- 
son in AbyEeinia ; and the range of 
the tropical rains eitenda even as far 
N. as latitude 17° 43'. Homer was 
therefore right in giving to the Nile 
the epithet of SjIitet/ot itoto^To, and 
the passages quoted from the Euran 
relating to " the water sent by God 
from Heaven," inscribed on the Milo- 
meter uf the islo of Boda, show that 
the Arabs were at a very early time 
cotreotly inform e<1 respecting the 
cause of the inundation. In the high, 
lands of Abyssinia the ratna oontlnao 
from the middle of Juno to the middle 
of September, but at the houtccs of 
the White river the rains seen) to set 
in about the middle of March, and 
also to last three montlis. The Babr- 
el-Azrek, together with the more 
northerly Atbom, and their tributary 
streams, continue their supply of 
water from Abysainia nntil the cud of 
the inundation. The two main branohea 
of tbe SoQthem Nile arc the £ahi--el- 
A'biad and the Bahr-el-Airek, which 
unito at the modem Khartoifm, a new 
town on the point of land, about )60 
miles tothe N. of Senear; hut though 
the latter is the smaller of the two, it 
is the one which poasesHea the real 
chaiacteristioa of the Nile, having 
the same black alluvial deposit, and 
the same bcneSoont properties when 
it inundatea the land. II10 White 
river, on tbe oontrary, has a totally 
diilerent character, and its watem 
poBsessnone of those fertilizing qiukli. 
ties for wbiob the Nile is celebmted j 

^O 'lliKoRIKS 01' T]\y. (iUKKK^. ButiK II- 

all other streama, nor why, unlike every other riyer, it gives 
forth no breezes' from its Burface. 

20. Some of the Greeks, however, -wiehing to get a reputa- 
tion for cleTemess, have offered explanations of the phenomena 

and this ia probnbly the reaeou wliy 
the Bouroe of the Ab^'Bainian branch 
line been bo ofMo laaked upon as Che 
real " tonntain of the Nile." The 
names (Babr el) Abiad and Airek ap- 
pear to Higuif; the "white" and 
" blaak" rather than the "white " and 
"blue" (river). For tbongh Armed 
is ooiuroonlj pnt in opposition to 
Abiad (fts "blat'k" and "wtiite'"), 
Airek, which is properly " bine," ia 
also n*ed for wbat we call "jot 
blook ; " and Ht>strdn Atrek IB a "daric 
black," not a ■' bine horse," It is 
true that "blue" ia applied to rivore, 
aa Nil ai. " blue water'' (or" river") 
a the IndnB, and the Sotlej it still 



the 1 

o be Riven to the Abjs 
nuian Diancn <o di£tiii|i:aiBh it from 
the Wcaf«™ or White Nile. Ncel. or 
Nil, itself ei[^ilies " bine," and indigo 
is thorefore " Neeleh ; " but the word 
ia Indian, not Arabic, Nils in Sanscrit 
boing: " blue." Though ihe Grocka 
called the river " Nile," oa the Araba 
do, that name ia not found tti tbe 
hieroglyph I cB, where the God Nilus 
and the river are both cialted " Hapi." 
That (fod, howover, ia oolonnjd blue. 
The Hindoo Puranaa also call the Nile 
)t an old Eg'yp- 

^ian, Tar. Hist. il. 33). NHiii !• 
not taken from Nahror Nahl, "river;" 
but Nahr, "rivor," is applied to tha 
Euphrates, and Nahl to a ravine or 
torrent-bed, hh (in 2 Kin^ iiiv. 7) to 
the " tarreni JEgypli." Nobl is not a 
"river," but, like Nullah, a "mvine," 
in India. Cp. Nahr, Nar, Noro, and 
other names of rivora, the Nercldi, 
&c. (See n. ' on ch. &0-) For bloat 
applied to water, cp. fi^Aav Dtoy of 
Homer. The Nile was said to have 
received its name from King Kilo*; 
bat tbis is donbllesa a fable; and 
Homer calls it -£gyptue. The soorces 
of the While Ndo a™ still (18fi2) un- 
known ; and rcocut discoveries aeem to 
assign a different positioo from that 
conjopturod by the eiplorera sent by 
Mobnmmed Ali, who bronght it from 
tbo eoatward, at the bock or S. of the 
Galla mountains ; as did a very intel- 
ligent native of the Jinima oonntry I 
met at Cairo, wboafErmed that he had 
oroasod the \Vhito river in going froa 
bis native land to Adderay or Hurror 
and tbo Som&uli district, on his way 
to the port of Berbcra. Sencoa'l 
deBoriptioD of the Upper Nile, " msg- 
nsa aoUtadinea pervn^tna, ot in 
palndes diffoens, gcntibna apai^ua'^ 
might suit the chnraetcr of tbo White 



"f tdfl river, for which they have accounted in three different 
!''«)■!>, Two of these I do not think it worth while to speak of, 
fnrtlier than eimply to mention what they are. One pretends 
tliattlie Etesian winds' cause the rise of the river by prevent- 
% the Nile-water from runniDg off into the aea. But in the 
liist place it has often happened, when the Etesian winds did 
uot iilow, that the Nile has risen according to its usual wont ; 
'ind further, if the Etesian winds produced the effect, the 
"liier rivers which flow in a direction opposite to those winds 
""Kilt to present the same phenomena as the Nile, and the 
uiDre BO as they are all smaller streams, and have a weaker 
cuirent. But these rivers, of which there are niai\y both in 
Sjria' and Libya, are entirely unlike the Nile in this respect. 

21. The second opinion is even more unscientific than the 
one JQst mentioned, and also, if I may so say, more marvellous, 
It is that the Nile acts ao strangely, because it flows from the 
i»«ean, and that the ocean flows all round the earth," 

22, The third esplanation, which is very much more 
I'UuBille than either of the others, is positively the furthest 
irom tie truth ; for there is really nothing in what it says, 
iiiiymore than in the other theories. It is, that the inundation 

□soscd bj the 

' The Bnnniil !1.W. itinde blow from 
Im HsdiieiTBoean daring the inandii- 
' "r^: but ihej are not the cauie of 
''' rits of tho Nils, thoagh tbo; help 
'< 'L iDikil dogree to impedo its oanrBe 
' "'iliwinls. Far the utTigatioii of 
■li Hfw they «re inraltiablo, as well 
la (or itw he^th at the inhabitanti ; 
tndkrerj Ikr^ bout could scarcely 
womd the river dnriof; tbo iDimdatian 
nnlm tided by them. Nor oan they 
'"' Old to canas the iniindaUoii by 
''^^■□^ the clouds to Abyusinia, aa 
■ Hie of the Nile begins beforo tlioy 
I IS, (bough they may add to the 
.■^iiaibyUterBbowera.— [G. W.] 

' It it fXHiiblB to Justify this state- 
am, which at lirst sight ssema nn- 
lr»n by omsidCTUig that the direction 
if the Eleaan winds was north- 
J nther than north. (Ariat, 
W. ii. 6i Diod, Sic. i. 39.) Tbie 

was natartil, as the 
mah of tho uir fi 
Dean and Egenn, to fill up tho vacuum 
caaaed by the tarefactioQ of the 
atmoephFire ovei' tho deeert lands in 
tho ueishboorhood of the see, vrhioh 
desert lands lie as much in Syria and 
Arabia on the east, as in Africa on 
the HDoth. Thon^h Syria thcrofon ' 
has only a torrent-bed genemlty dry 
(the Wady si Ansh, or Eiver of Egypt) 
whioh faces the north, it baa many 
rivera which the Etoaian winds might 
aFFect, all those, namely, which face 
the west. 

' That the Nile flowed from the 
ooeon, and that the oocan flowed nil 
rODtid the earth, were certainly 
opinions of HecatEBOS (Fr. 27S). It 
is probable, thsrDfore, that his ao- 
count of tho inondation is Lore in- 



of the Nile is caused by the melting of bdowb.* Not, ; 
Nilo flows out of Libya,^ through Ethiopia, into Egypt, 
it possible that it can he formed of melted snow, ruimi 
it does, from the hottest regions of the world into 
countries ? Many are the proofs whereby any one eapi 
reasoning on the subject may he convinced that it is mc 
likely this should be the case. The first and strongest 
ment is furniahed by the winds, which alwaj-s blow ho 
these regions. The second is, that rain and frost are nn 
there.' Now, whenever snow falls, it must of neceseit 

• This woe the opinion of Anax- 
Bgonui, as tb11 aa "t hii papii Ea- 
ripidei and otbere, (Diodor. i. S8; 
Enripid. Helena, beg*. ; Seneca, Nut. 
ganat. iv. 2; Ptol. Geo;;, it. 9.) 
Herodotaa and Diodurua are wrong in 
sapposing snow i^oald not be foond on 
mann tains in the hot climate ot 
Africa; perpetual snow ia not con- 
lined to ccrttuDlalilades; and ancient 
and modern diacoverica proTS that it 
is foaod in tho rangea S. of Abys- 
sinia. Nor IB the heat aloaya there 
what HemdotnB imaginea; and the 
oold of winter is ofteD eenaiblj felt in 
the plaina of Ethiopia abont Gebel 
Borkel, far distant from high moun- 
tains, IhonRh the theriDocnetoT does 
not range bolow freezing. " The 
lower limit of perpetnnl auow is not 
a more fnnction of geogropbical lati- 
tnde, or oC mean annoal tempciBture ; 

within the tropics, that the anow.ljne 
reaches ila greatest elevation above 
the level of the sea." (Hnmboldt, 
Cosmos, i. p. 828.) At the equator, 
on the Andee ot Qnito, the limit is at 
15,790 feet above (he aea; on the 
southern decllTitT of the Himalaira it 
lies at ]2,9BZ Wt.aodon the northern 
declivity at ll.>,630; and the volcano 
of Aconcagua in lat. 82° 30*, which 
was fonnd ■■ to be more than 1400 ft. 
higher than Chimboraio, was once 
seen free from snow." (p. 329.) See 
also Lyell'a Pr, of Geologj, o. vii. — 
* ThM IS from Centml Africa, which 

woa and still is the opinion 
geographera. There appeal 
reason to place the sonroe 
■' White Nile" to the 9. of ll 
ainion ranges, between lat. V 
N, ; thODgh D branch does ooi 
the W., called Adda or Jengel 
seem to be two nameB of tl 
Btream.— [G. W.] 
' Herod olns wa 
rainy Eeaaon in Sennlr and th 
of Abyaainia, nor did be Icno 
Abjvainian snow. This is m 
in the inscription of Ftolem 
delphoa at Adnlis, 
bejond Ibe Nilo, " to the dp 
man's knee." (See Plin. ' 
Vincent's Periplns.) T 
rains do not extend as far £ 
DarSheg£«h (ShaikMh) 
bend of the Nile, where shot 
Blocma only occur oMnnonftI 
rail J abont the beginning of tb 
tion, and where a whole jf 
timcspassoswitbontrain. Th 
rains begin about the end of 
beginning of April on tlio W 
in iat. 1° N., and bMh the W 
Blue Niles begin to rise at E 
the arat week in May. llit 
there is then very onheolt 

r the n 

The r 

ny boors, but with int< 
clear weather and a strong soi 
B vapour that causes a bad U 
vegetatioB is very rapid and ' 
That part of the valley im. 
to the N. of the range of tht 
then infested with clouds o: 



'ithin five days ; ' bo that, if there were snow, there must 
be rain also in those parts. Thirdly, it is certain that the 
natives of the conntry are black with the heat, that the kites 
nnii the swallows remain there the whole year, anci that the 
fraoes, when they fly from the rigours of a Scythian winter 
fldck tliither to pass the cold season.® If then, in the conntry 
shpiiee the Nile has its source, or in that through which it 
flnws, there fell ever so little snow, it ie absolately impOBsible 
Ibiit any of these circnmstanees could take place. 
23. As for the writer who attributes the phenomenon to the 

Ir-ctplo^ne — bnt they do not t>i. 
■■; into the i1ei«rl. PhilostnilTiB 
I AjmlL Tyiui. a. 9) Htya he dies 
:<ii mMC to giiiiii»7 the bddws ot 
Klhiopiuu. or the hiiln of the 
j_r .. L_^ [jg erideutly diebo- 

' the ■ 

1 ofti 

te of Ibe two braacjies rising 
.: I'lN luu) time at Khartaom is the 
' • n liiat falltt nt no great distance 
n, (but Jifwt. The effect of the 
' ■""' tnotlMTl;- nuns u feic after. 
■""'i'. CnlVuilhenes, Ihe pnpil of 
'''-intte. and sfternards A^thiwr- 

' 'i'- lod Scrfttw, alcribateil thi) ionii- 
■' ■'■■'W In I hp rainy season in Ethiupia; 
'"' "Tnctly, (or it it cimicd by thi?, 
'' '1 nn| by Uie melting of raov. See 
'..kneoii. Epil. it. 89; Diod. i. 41 ; 
^'fTibtMrii. p. 1121.— [O.W,] 

I lutvefDundoolhiDg in any writer, 

■nrot of modem, to conBiin, or so 
" "'•■h M 1(1 explain, this aaaortion. 
' ■'"■ " '" to have noticed it 


! of " 

r rapid ^ne- 

(Epitoni. lib. viii. c. 3) . 
oni nil ramarka oa the sabject are 
^. It docs not appear that at 
pnHQt, either in Asia Minor or in 
*iioliBm Italy, nia necesaarily fol- 

rfdsyi. Bnt the meteorolo(ty of tlio 
"■Uliies boidering on the Uediter- 
RUmii liM DO donbt onder^tone great 
obuiinaainoe (he time of Herodotas, 
Ib Mme parta of Eogland there is a 
■Tipg, that "three days of white 
Best are nnv to bring rnin." 
' Cnnea and other wnding birds are 

but far 
spring i 

he winter in Upper Egypt, 
□ore in Ethiui>ia, and in 
unonse Sights of atorka 
ilba) collect together, whioh 
after Bcuring ronnri in cirelea at a 
great height, return for the sammer 
to the North. Prom the migmtion of 
(^ratiea to Ethiopia arose tlie fable of 
the Cranes and IVgniies. Tho Ardca 
cinorea and ganwtta, the platalea or 
spoonbill, the pelican, and some others 
remain the whole year in Egypt. 
The Gma cinorea (crane) winters in 
Ethiopia abont Oabcl Berkel. This 
last has been HtranRely mistaken for 
an ostrich at Beai Uasaan. and is pro- 
bably the Gras nndelernuned by 
tuckering (p. 169). The Ibia is rarely 
seen eioept near the Lake Mensateh, 
where ducks, coots, and uumerona 
water-fowl abound, Tho avooet was 
a native of Egypt as early as the ISth 
dynasty. The Namidian demoiselle 
(AnthropoJiiet Firjoj is found, but not 
common, in Upper Egypt. Kites re- 
main all the winter, and swallowi 
also, though in small nnmbers, ereo 
at Tbebes. The swallow was alwayi ' 
tho harbinger of spring, as iu Grei-oo 
and the rest of Europe ; and the snb- 
jeot is represented on Greek rafes, 
where a youth eictaims "Behold tho 
swallow ! " and another answen 
'■ Then it is now spring." (See Pn- 
notla's Bilder ant. Lebens, pi. ivii, 
f!f{, 6.) Boys (as lilr. Camby observes) 
wont about in Rhodea to colleot gifts 
on the retnm of the swallow, as for 
the " grotto " at the beginning of onr 




ocean,' his account is involved in such obscnrity, that it 

of no river cEilled Ocean, and I think that Homer, or one 
the earlier poets, invented the name, and introiluced it in 
Ilia poetry. 

24. Perhaps, after censuring all the opinions that have bo 
put forward on this obscure subject, one ought to propose soi 
theory of one's own. I will therefore proceed to explain wli 
1 think to be the reason of the Nile's swelling in the summ 
time. During the winter, the sun is driven out of his usi 
course by the storms, and removes to the upper parts 
Libya. This is the whole secret in the fewest possible word 
for it stands to reason that the couotry to which the Sun-g 
approaches the nearest, and which he passes most direci 
over, will be scantcst of water, and that there the streai 
which feed the rivers will shrink the most. l 

25. To explain, however, more at length, the case is thi 
The sun, in bis passage across the upptr parts of Liby 
affects them in the following way. As the air in those regies 
ia constantly clear, and the country warm through the abaoi 

oyater aeoaon. though with groaler 
pretenaiona, aa Athcnffiafl, quotiog 
ThooKDie, nhowa {viii. p. 360), aiDoe 

off what WM not (fnmled to their re. 
qaeet :— " We will go oway if joa 

□over let fuu uluue. We will either 
cnrry oB the door, or tho lintel, or the 
woman who »H» within ; she ia small, 
and we can eaaily lift her. If ,on 
glTB any gift, let it bo large. Open, 
open the door to the awallow, for wo 
are not old men, but bojs.''— [G. W.] 
' The person to whom HarodotnB 
alludca ia HooatB-ns. Ho msntiona it 

PontuB, tliat the ocean flowed round 
the whole earth (B. iv. ch. 8). That 
the Nllo fluwixt tram the Ocean waa 
maintoined by Hccatatna, and by 
EuthTinenea of Mnmeillo (Pint, do 
IL PliiL iv. 1), who related that. 

"having sailod round Afnok, 
foDDd, oa lOQ); as the Etesian in 
blow, the water forced into Uio H 
canacd it to overflow, and that wl 
they oeMcd, the Nile, no loagtv 

The toito of the water of the bm 1 
also Bwoot, and the animala ■"■"■1*1 
thoBBintheNile." Thia mi«t»ke 1 
owing to another river on the ooail 
Afiica haTiug been fonnd to prod 

name " Ocean" haviog been niven 
the Egyptians to the Nile don 
appear to be connected with the 
mark of Horodotiu, u it ia 
notiood by him bnt by Diodornt 
96). and Hmodotua sayj he " w 
knew of a river being called Omi 
Wo aoe from Pint. Plae. Ph. iv. 1, 1 
EudoiuB knew that the ammner 
wintar HCaaona were different in 



'■! cold winds, the sun in bis passage across them acts upon 

tlitm exactly as he is wont to act elsewhere in summer, when 

liis path is in the middle of heaven — that is, he attracts the 

ffater.' After attracting it, he again repels it into the tipper 

regjons. where the winds lay hold of it. scatter it, and reduce 

it to a vapour, whence it natnrally enough comes to pass that 

Ihe winds which blow from this quarter — the south and south- 

liesi — are of all winds the most rainy. And my own opinion 

is tiiat the sun does not get rid of all the water which he 

Jraws year by j-ear from the Nile, but retains some about 

liim. When the winter begins to soften, the aun goes hack 

mm to his old place in the middle of the heaven, and proceeds 

fo attract water equally from all countries. Till then the 

otber rivers run big, from the quantity of ruin-water which 

tbfy bring down from countries where so much moisture falls 

that all the land is cut into gulUea ; but in summer, when the 

■i'lowers fail, and the sun attracts their water, they become 

1. The Kile, on the contrary, not deriving any of its bulk 

■lu rains, and being in winter subject to the attraction of 

fun, naturally runs at that season, unlike all other 

I'^iiua, with a less burthen of water than in the summer 

'-. For in summer it is exposed to attraction equally with 

otber rivers, but in winter it suffers alone. The sun, 

r^fore. I regard as the sole cause of the phenomenon. 

->''. It is the sun also, in my opinion, which, by heating 

. 9pac« through which it passes, makes the air in Egypt so 

. There is thus perpetual summer in the upper parts of 

I I'va. Were the position of the heavenly regions reversed, 

til that the place where now the north wind aad the winter 

fare their dwelling became the station of the south wiud 

and of the noon-day, while, on the other hand, the station 

* Hondotai tlocB not here allade lo 
lUM notion of the son beinR "/«* 
(7 water," bat to the moistiire it 
WmcU ulirch u carried by the winda 
l« tAe 8., and then returuod in tiie 

^^V E3i^^^^^HI 


of the Bouth wind became that of the north, the oonseqiien 
would be that the bud, driven from the mid-heaven by tl 
winter and the northern galea, would betake himself to tl 
upper parts of Europe, as he now does to those of Libya, ai 
then I beheve his passage across Europe would affect the lBt| 
exactly as the Nile is affected at the present day, I 

27. And with respect to the fact that no breeze blows frft 
the Kile, I am of opinion that no wind is Hkely to arise ' 
very hot coimtriea, for breezes love to blow from some 0^ 

28. Let us leave theao things, however, to their natifl 
course, to continue as thoy are and have been from the be^ 
uing. With rt'gard to the Kource» of the Nile,' I have fon 

■ Tho aouccPii of the great eastern 
brttnoh of tho Nile hnve long Imon dig. 
ooverod. Tliej were first visited by 
the I'ortngQeae Jesuit, Father Lobo, 
and aflerwortls by Bruce) those of the 
WUte riTer (ina still (1862) unknown 
(aeoaboven.'onch. 19). Harodotns 
ttffinns that of all the persona lie had 

oept a scribe of the sacred treasury uf 
Minerva at Sals, who said it rose from 
a c«rtiiin abyss beaoath two pointed 
hills between Sycne and Elephao- 

ia his narrative, Bi it involves tho qnes. 
tion of his having visited the ThebaM. 
Ho soon afterwards (ch. 29) asserts 

yet, thoQgh BO much interastod aboot 
this great qnostion, and persoaded 

joking, ha did not when at Elophan- 
tini look or ii.qaire whether the Nile 
aotaoUy rose beneath the peaked hills 
of Crophi and Mophi. nor detect the 
fallacy of the atory about the river 
flowing from the same eoareo north- 
vrards into Egypt and southwards into 
Ethiopia. Its oourse was as well 
known in bis day at Elephantin-S as 
now. This, and tho tact ot hia 
making so mueh of the Labyrinth, 

have eioited bis ailmiratioa in t 

argue against !iia hanng been 
Thebes and Elephantinj ; and Ktf 

peeled to apeak of it as an ia 
rather than as a "city." It ia, I 
ever, possible that his omituJ 

which to tMs day aioite Uie *rM 
of all who see thom. may hare 1 
owing to their having been 1 

Orophi and Mopbi are like Um 
meaning words used in joke, or ii 
nursery, by Oricntaia, at the pri 
day: the second repeating the ■ 
of tho first, and always begin 
trith n^ as "fersh morah." ". 
malta." Ac. Crophi and Mopl 

" bad ■■ and " good."— [G. W.] 

Colonel Mnra (Lit. of Groeoej 
iv. p. 387) compares the Crophi 
Mophi of the Saitie scribe to tlx 
and Magog " of out own niwswj 
Ihology." appni'ently forgetting 
tho worda Oog and Magog come 

Itov. 13. B). The formation o 
moaning or absurd words by nie< 
a rhvoiing repetition, together 
the obangB ot tho initial lalUrto 

C^. 26-28. 



110 one among all those with whom I have conversed^ whether 

Egyptians, Libyans, or Greeks,^ who professed to have any 

bowledge, except a single person. He was the scribe^ who 

iept the register of the sacred treasures of Miaerva in the city 

of Sfufs, and he did not seem to me to be in earnest when he 

said that he knew them perfectly well. His story was as 

follows : — " Between 8yen6, a city of the Thebais, and 

Elephantine, there are'* (he said) ''two hills with sharp 

ocmical tops; the nsime of the one is Cophi, of the other, 

Mophi. Midway between them are the fountains of the Nile, 

fountains which it is impossible to fathom. Half the water 

nms northward into Egypt, half to the south towards 

Ethiopia." The fountains were known to be unfathomable, 

he declared, because Psammetichus, an Egyptian king, had 

made trial of them. He had caused a rope to be made, many 

thousand fathoms in length, and had sounded the fountain 

with it, but could find no bottom. By this the scribe gave me 

mon in onr own language. With as 
the second word begins ordinarilj, not 
with m, bnt with the labial nearest to 
m, viz. b, or with its cognate tenuis 
p. Examples of this usage are — 
hftrly 'burly, hocus-pocus, higgledly-pig- 
jledy, hubbub, niminy-piminy, namby- 
pamby, Ac. In hugger-mugger, and 
pdl-msll, we keep to the Oriental 
usage, and employ the m. In helter. 
tkelter, hum-drum, and perhaps a few 
other words, we adopt an entirely 
difEerent sound. 

' This was one of the g^at pro- 
blems of antiquity, as of later times ; 
and CsDsar is even reported to have 
nid: — 

** tpes sit mihl c«rU vMendl 

XOiAoos ikmtes, bellam civile relinquam." 

— Lnc. Phars. x. 191. Cp. Hor. iy. 

at xir. 46 :— 

- Fontinm qoi oeUt origines 

8ee abore, note* ch. 19.— [G. W.] 

*The scribes had different offices 
and grades. The sacred scribes held 
s high post in the priesthood; and 
the royal scribes were the king's sons 

and military men of rank. There 
were also ordinary scribes or notaries, 
who were conveyancers, wrote letters 
on business, settled accounts, and 
performed different offices in the 
market. The sacred scribes, or hiero* 
grammats, had also various duties. 
Some, as the one here mentioned, were 
scribes of the treasury, others of the 
granaries, others of the documents 
belonging to the temple, Ac. The 
scribes always bad with them a bag, 
or case having wooden sides, orna- 
mented with coloured devices gene- 
rally on leather, and a pendent leather 
mouth tied by a thong to hold the 
ink palette with its reed -pens, the 
papyrus-rolls, and other things they 
required, which was carried by an 
attendant slung at his back; but in 
the house a box was sometimes used 
in its stead. Lucian says (Macrob. 
s. 4) they were remarkable for lon- 
gevity, like the Brachmanes (Brahmins) 
of India, and others, owing to their 
mode of life. (Of their dress and 
duties, see note ^ ch. 37, figs. 8, 9, and 
woodcut note« ch. 177.)— [G.W.]. 


to anderstand, if there was an; truth at all in what he Baid, 
that in this fountain there ore certain strong eddies, and a 
regurgitation, owing to the force wherewith the water dashes 
against the mountfunB, and hence a Boonding-line oumot bo 
got to reach the bottom of the spring. 

29. No other information on this head could I obtain from 
any quarter. All that I succeeded in learning further of the 
more distant portions of the Nile, by ascending myself aa high 
as Elephantine, and making inquiries -concerning the puts 
beyond, was the following : — As one advances beyond Elephau' 
tine, the land rises.' Hence it is necessary in this part (tf the 
river to attach a rope to the boat on each side, as men hanuBS 
an ox, and so proceed on the journey. If the rope snaps, tiie 
vessel is borne away down stream by the force of the cuneat. 
The navigation continues the same for four days, the rirer 
wuiding greatly, like the Meander,* and the distance traversed 
amounting to twelve schcenes. Here you come upon a smooth 
and level plain, where the Nile flows in two branches, round 


&D island called Tachompso,' The conntiy above Klciphantiiie 
■a inhabited by the Ethiopians, who posseBS one-half of this 

the month of the lAki 
uyf, through gmrea of buoarisk, 
loirard Milt^tns, proceeding by the 
t%ht wing of the thfatrc in mcuci to 
(he (eo, which ia in view, and distant, 
M we ixiinpnted, about eight miles." 
tTrmrels, i. ch. 53.) A. good repre- 
•mtation of these sinuositiea will be 
foond in the Ionian Antiquities (rol. 
!. ch. iii. phite 1). By the age of 
Aognstus the word " UKundor " had 
nnne to be nsed in ite modern generio 
■CBW (Strab. lii. p, 835 ; Virg. ^n. 
». 261). 

'The diBtsnces given by HerodotoB 
■n< i dkya through the district of 
DodecaschoMiiu to TachompBo Isle, 
■'iPo 40 days by land, then 12 days 
' 5 lont. to Uero^, altogether 66 days. 
'■.1? Xile, howerer, ia not tortnona like 
>'' Miconder, nor is there any great 
■Lid befiire that near KotiwIeo, and 
' itie of Taehompm ia nDCcrta,in; 
ci u he ipeaka of \le being inhabited 
'^nlj by Egyptians, partly by Ethio- 
[iiu. it is poraible that fas may 
i>e cmfoiuided it with Phil;e, whiah 
''■nba calU "an abode common to" 
'■'we Iwo people. Ptolemy places 
'^'iaeamjto uppoaile Pselcie, where a 
"W E{7ptiBD fortroHH of very early 
liie RiU remains, and which must 
'"m cwtiuaed to be a atroDg post 
I tbr time of the Bomane. It was 
-•> I^lds that Potronins dnfeated 
ik ^eiaU of Cnndooe, before ho 

HflMtia Kapiu .111 . . nutix 171 Am 

advanced to Napata, and the island 
mentioned by Strabo, to which the 
roated enomy nwam for protection, 
waa perhaps the Tachompao of Herod- 
otaB. IE so, that island has since 
been carried away. The large laJte, 
said to bare been in its rioinity. waa 
merely the open NQe {a reach being 
probably called, as it now ia, a" lake " 
or birkeh) ; and from thenoe was a 
march of 40 days by laud to that 
part where the Nile waa again navi- 
gable (at the island now called Tombos, 
on the frontior of Doagola). From 
this was a soil of twelve days more 
to Heroe. The omission of all men. 
tioD of Napata, the old latpital of 
Ethiopia, by the informant of Herod- 
otus, might at first sight lead ns to 
suppose tho laad-joamey was Uirough 
the desert (to Aboo-Hamed) ; bnt the 
distance of 12 days thenoe Ui HeroS ia 
far too mnch; and Herodotus evi- 
dently speaks of the journey by the 
river-side to the spot where the Nile 
waa again navigable. Qabel Berkel 
is apparently the " m<3red mountain " 
mentioned by Strabo (icvi.), and it 
is always BO called in the hieroglypbioa. 
The distances from S}6n6 to Napala, 
and from this to Merofi, do not agree 
with the position of Gebel Berkel, and 
it Napata was plaoed lower down at 
Old Dongola, that position wonld agree 
better with thennc' 
They are— 

n lo Old DmigDla . . 

I Aomaii mile may be reckoned 
BO foW : for though I found 4785 

itR length, by meainring two, 
cd by milestones, on the crast of 
, and other authorities give it 
and 4828, or 4820 feet, Caval" 
la has shown it to be 4861 Eag- 
loct, ur mitree 14ST-730. The 

remains at Gebel Berkel, and 
say pyramids near it, argue that 

it was the capital, unless indeed it I 
was merely the " holy hill," like thflt'l 
of Sarabat el Khadom in the penin- 
sula of Uonnt Sinai, ehoseu by Iks 1 
Egyptians as early as the reign of ] 
Osirtaaen I. If " the small city of I 
Nnpala" stood at Old Dongola {roF 
merly called Dankala), which was evi- 
dently the site of un ancient town, 
and has lung been the capital uf that 

island, the Egyptians occQp;ing the other. Above the ialuid 
there is a great lake, the shoreB of which are inhabited by 
Ethiopian nomads ; after passing it, yon come again to the 
stream of the Nile, which nms into the lake. Here yon land, 
uid travel for forty days along the banks of the river, since it is 

part of Ettiopiii, this might ficcooot 
fur Uen]£ having a «itiul&r name, 
" DuDkalah." On the other h&ad, the 
distaccr, 80 Rotoan milmi. titna Ter- 
g^doiii to KapBla. agrees well with 
tliat ftum 0I<1 Ouugola to Gebel 
Borkel : and the iai^ island (now 
Taagul or Taugix) jiut abuvo Old 
DoDj^la might aaawer to the I. of 
Gat^nitea. Un the whole, there is 
good reason for placiog Napala at 
Oobel Berkol i and it ia ime of the 
greoteat ermra to BUppoac the anoienls 
mtut alwajB be right iu their dia- 
I«Dcaa, or in aoj nther infonaatioa. 
lie name fi-ape-t aeoms to BJgoifT' 
"orA[H!-t"or " Tape," a« if it were 
dorC red from or an offset "of Thebea" 
(in Harria'a ScAndatds) ; and it was 
Dot Dnusoal to gi^o the names of 
Egyptian oilira to tbiie of Ethiopia, 

The diatanoea given hj Pliuj ai 

TtaCD U Ucne h 

Cw.lS. MEBOE. 4t 

impoBsiblp to proceed further in a boat on account of the sharp 
J^aks which jut out from the water, and the sunken rocka 
'ticb abound in that part of the streain. When you have 
passed this portion of the river in the space of forty days, yon 
io m board another boat and proceed by water for twelve days 
more, at the end of which ijpie you reach a great city called 
Ut^roe, which is said to be the capital of the other Ethiopians.^ 

' This [g ia contTsdistinctiou to the 
nii^u, which in thia inslanoe may 
fcito been merely a oorroption of 
' .'•'jbiila'," since an agrionltnral 
"i|ila Donld not h«ve buea nomudo. 
' ■ L tliongh late writeis pretend that 
'' VoluUe vrere a Libjitn people, 
'nilaci>d into the VHJIej of the Nile 
-■--:<■! tlie BoDuui Empire, it is oridcut 
n ihe natno waa of earlj date and 
' ;b ipiwi. haring been taken from the 
''III headed deitj, piinoipaUj wor- 
■'■ppwJ there, Nonb, Noum, or Non, 
'■'" Hu the Great God of Ethiopia 
h :>j the moct remote perioda (aoe 
It now, moA App. en. iii. § 2). 
iii^ ■»» eridentlj a oormption of 
~^'' ^K7Pti>ui name for aoathGrD 
Elbiiqria or Nobia, "Ethauah" or 
"EUmh,'' Uis iia beiof; snbHtitotvd 
^ »*, • ■omul the Greeks oould 
Btidnc write nor prooonnoa. The 
taeb (tike the A»ba) often adopted 
* mti haTing some ngnlfication in 
•Wr on langnBge, if it resembled a 
"■Mga ane, and Uie Groek dcriration 
<iAM44 » on a par with that of Isib, 
fnm ,1m,. " knonledfre " {Pint, do la. 
■1), and numj others. The ie]e of 
Vmi. formwl by three Tiver», oa 
Su»b<> and Josephna state, waa the 
[oauuDh contained between tbe 
iiain hnnch of the Nile on the west ; 
'•n .ltU|iiu or the modem Abiwoe 
^*ile, ur Bahr-el.AKreb, with itn triba- 
<BJ the Boliwt (probably the Asta. 
**»t, m the aoath ; and the Asta^ 
I'm*, now the A'tboiik uu the eaat ; 
■xd according to Btrabo (ivi. and 
>•>'. pp, 1U95, 1163) it had the form 
d ta oblimi; shield, meoauring 3000 
Kadia (at tea*t 341 miles) and lOOU 
Madia (ahmt 113) milctij in breadth 

(see Ftin. vi. 29). . The eity of Home 
stood Dear tbe modem Diuikalah. re- 
markable for its numerons pyramidB, 
27 m. N.B. of the modern Shendy. 
Napata was also the capital of Ethi- 
opia, and that too at a very remot43 
period ; and MoroS was probably the 
H«Lt of an iDdopendeot kinijdom. The 
appearance of the pyrainide of Dan- 
kalah indeed sbowe it to have been 
Ti!ry ancient, and after the Kgyptian 
kiriKB of tbe 12th and 18ch dynaetiea 
had ostabliehed themselves at Napata, 
Ueroe beoamo the Bole capital of the 
Ethiopian kings J and though Napatu 
was the royal seat in the time of the 
Sabacos and Tirhaka, Mcrofi was still 
the metropolia of Soptbom Ethiopia, 
aa it was tn the days of nrrodotas 
and of the Ptolemies i bnt it had lost 
all its impurtaiioe in the time of the 
Roman Empire. The pyi-ouiida of 
Noori doubtless belonged also to Na- 
pata, the neighbaoring ones at Gebel 
Berkel (Nupata) itself being of a 
rather mora recent data ; and though 
the pynunida of Dankulah have so 
great on appearance of age, tbe tro- 

of Noo 

of temples exist at 
Meroi) of an antiquity at ali com- 
parable to that of tbe eldest ones at 
Gebel Berkel. The notion oE Diodoma 
and Strabo that MeruS was built by 
Cambyses ia too extravagant to b« 
noticed. There are aome cnriouslj 
fortified lines on the hills about five or 
six miles behiw Gebel Berkel, com- 
nmnding the approaches to that place, 
by tbe rirer aad on the ahore, appa- 
rently of Ethiopian time. 1 believe 
they have not been uoticedi and I 


The only gods worshipped by the inhabitants ai'e Jnpiter i 
Bacchus," to wliom great honours are paid. There is 
oracle o( Jupiter in the city, which dii-ects the warlike 
peditions of the Ethiopians ; when it commands they gc 

B led t< 

tliBtn by peroeiT- 
ing their slono waIIb upon the irregn- 
Ikrl; indEntfd clib the; oovcr. TIie; 
«iteiid about hslf-a-mile ialond from 
the river, nnd from their fuUuwing 
every projecting comer of the hilla, 
the total nnmber of feet of wall is 
nearly 10,000; bat there are no tos. 
tiges of houeeH or other baildia^ 
withia the area they encloBO. — [G,W.] 
Mcroe is frequently mentioned 
nnder the name of Mimkh in the 
AaByrian irucriptiona. 

' Aninn and OairiB answered to 
jDpiter and Bacchus : anil both the 
Amun of Thebea and the ram-headed 
Nou (Nuiim, Nonb, or Knoph) were 
worshipped in Bthiopis, BoL it ii 
thtfl last deity lo nhom Hcrodotna 
iLlladeB ; lor ho sayB " the Egyptians 
call Jupiter Ammon," and iu later 
timea the ram-headed God was alBo 
Boppoeed to answer to Jupiter. TbiB 
ii shown by insoriptionH at ths Oasis 
and at 8yfinj, where ba waa wor- 
shipped ander the name of Jupiler- 
Atnnion.Cenobis, in company with 
Hale (Jano) and Anonl[6 (VeBla), who 
formed the triad of tho cataracts. 
(See note* oh. 43.) OsiriB, the God 
of Che deud, was wonbipped in 
Ethiopia, as thronghaot Kgypt. the 
religious rites of that oounlry having 
been borrowed from the Egyptians ; 
bat it cannot be said that thueo two 
were the only Gods of Ethiopia. 
Btrabo meationB the worship ot Iler. 
cnles, Fan, and Isis, ae well as a bar- 
— bario God, at Heme (ivii. p. 5G5} : and 

^^^^^ in the (cmplca ot that oonntty, 
^^^^^^ whether erocled by Elhiopiann or by 
^^^^^k Sftyptian monnrchs who ruled there, 
^^^^^K many othor (>(idB shared in^e wor- 
^^^^F ihip paid to the principal deity of the 
^^^^^ tanotnary. DoBidca many ot the 
P luaal K^fptian deities are some of 

I nnoommon form pecaliar to Ethiopia; 

I BJid at Wndy Onatayb is one with 

B three lion's heads and four arms, more 

like an Indian than an Egyptian i 
though he wears a head.dmw I 
mon t-i Gods and KingK. espadall 
and Roman times. Ha 

tho Amun 
headed Noum or Nonb hold Uw 1 
conepionouB places there. Iq 
tho ram-headed God wa* the f 
deity tliroughont Ethiopia; aiul tlM 
a lion. headed God is found at Afl 
as well OS at Wady Owatayb, tlM 
no appeoranoo of hiB hating bM 
the tianio early nge as Noam, Mid 
kiofi whose name oocara on 1 
temples is of late time. It ia to i 
two, Jupiter and OsiriB, that (^ 
alludes when ho says, " the EthioH 
acknowledge two Gods, one immj 
the ciiuBB of all things, the fl 
mortal, who lias n" — ~- " — * 
properly whose nai 
ihe mysterious Osiris, w ho t 

Cup. », 30. 



^' and in whatever direction it bids them march, thither 
8taughtway they carry their arms. 

90. On leaving this city, and again mounting the stream, 
in the same space of time which it took you to reach the 
capital from Elephantine, you come to the Deserters,^ who 

^ eirtb, and, dying, had becomo the 
j>dge of men in a fiitare state. He 
>bo mentiona other inferior Goda. — 
[6. W.] 

'The inflnenoe of the priests at 
Mero£, through the belief that they 
ipake the commands of the Deity, is 
■OTB folly shown by Strabo and Die- 
donis, who Fay it was their custom to 
iend to th.e king, when it pleased 
them, and order lUm to put an end to 
inmself, in obedience to the will of 
^ oracle imparted to them ; and to 
mch a degree had they contrived to 
enslave the understanding 
of thoee princes by super- 
stitions fears, that they 
were obeyed without op. 
position. At length a king, 
called Ergamenes, a con. 
temporary of Ptolemy Phil, 
adelphus, dared to disobey 
their orders, and having 
entered "the golden chapel" 
with bis soldiers, caused 
them to he put to death in 
his stead, and abolished 
the cnatom (Died. iii. 6 ; Strabo, xvii. 
P- 1163). Ergamenes had "studied 
the philosophy of Greece," and had 
the sense to distinguish between 
PriMtly rule and religion, knowing 
that blind obedience to the priests did 
^ signify obedience to the divine 
*^; but these vested rights on 
"•n's credolity seem to have been 
•ftcrwards revived among the Ethio. 
P«n«, and the expedition sent by Mo. 
'■•ouned Ali up the White Nile learnt 
that the same custom of ordering the 
uQg to die now exists among some of 
their barbarous descendants. The 
I'^oie of Ergamenes is found in the 
temple of Dakkeh, in Nubia.— [G. W.] 
*Tbe descendants of the 240,000 
•Wwters from Psammetichus lived, 
^cctqrling to Herodotus, 4 months' 

journey above Elephantii^^ (ch. 31), 
froni which Merod stood half-way. 
He reckons (oh. 29) 56 days from 
Elephantine to Merod, the double of 
which would be 112, instead of 120 
days; and Merod being half-way 
would require the country of the 
Automoli to be in the modem Abys- 
sinia. They were called *A<r/ulx* ^^ 
allusion to their original post on the 
"left," not of the king, but of the 
Egyptian army, the cause of their 
desertion (see following note). This 
word may be traced in the ahemal, 
"left," of the Arabic; and Esar, a' 
city mentioned by Pliny, 17 days from 
Mero6, where the Egyptian deserters 
lived 300 years, is remarkable from 
having the same signification in Arabic, 
yesdr being also "the left." Some 
have derived the name of Axum in 
Abyssinia from *Aa'fjuLx' According 
to Strabo (xvii. p. 541) thoy were 
called Sembrites, or SebritsB, meaning 
" strangers," which may either be 
compounded of the Egyptian shemmny 
"stranger," and heri (or mberi) 
" new ; " or be taken from the name of 
the country they inhabited, Saba; 
for " Sembrites " is the same as 
" Sebrites," mb beingoften pronounced 
simply b. It is remarkable that 
Strabo places the country they in- 
habited, called Tenesis, inland from 
the port of Saba (xvii. p. 530). They 
lived in an island above that of Meroe, 
and in his time thoy were subject 
to one of the many queens who at 
various periods ruled Ethiopia : for 
there was a queen Candace in the time 
of Petronius ; and this title, rather 
than name, passed, according to Pliny 
(vi. 29), from one queen to another 
for many years. The monuments of 
Gebel Bcrkel, and other places, also 
show that queens frequently held the 
sceptre in Ethiopia ; but the quoon of 



War the name of Asmach. This word, translated into oar 
language, m«anB " the men vho stand on the left hand of the 
king. "' These Deserters are Egyptians of the warrior caste, 

Skeba in Solomon's time, claimed by 
the Abj-uiniiuiB, was cvideuUj oot 
from tbit country, (or Sboba wbb pro- 
bably in tbe aoulhoni port of Arabia, 
uid the Arabiaiu, like tho Elhiopians, 
were (reqnently goTemod by qneena. 
(See note to Book iii. oh. 107). Tbe 
name Saba tub; ptnnt out a ooniieiiun 
with the country whuro the /ion-god 
WBB worshipped (saba iDBSjiiiig " lion"); 
and JosephOB (Aotiq. ii, G) sajB that 
Saba waa a nomr? of Mcrof. The with- 
drawal of the Egyptian troops to 
Ethiopia ia readily explained by tbe 
intoroounc that had »o long subsisted 
between the two «>aDtrios. The royal 
family of Kthiopia wna often related 
-by morria)^ to that of Egypt, which 
accounts for eome prinoes of Cosh 
having the title " royal son " in the 
Theban scnlptuiea (though these are 
mostly EgyptioD Ticeroyi, and sons of 
Pharaohs) ; sod tbe (act of tbe royal 
Buooeiieion buving been oi ' ' ' 

paiiit<d I'eam mo tiding when in pnimit 
of the deserters. These Greeks wore 
the luruans and Cariana taken into hi* 
pay, in order, ai Uerodotiu was teld 
(ch. I5£)i to aid in dethTomiig hit 
colleagues, though in reality from tbe 
oilvantago of employing the Greek) 
against the increasing power of his 
J^indc neighbours (see note' on cL 
152). The first Greckfl known to the 
Egyptians being lonians led to tbe 
name Ionian being afterwards ofled bv 
them for all Urecks. as n-e lied in the 
Kosetia stone, and other docomenla. 
The AsialicHi for a similar reaan. 
called the Greeks "loniami," "tbo 
nne of Jaran," Ionia in the Nakhsb- 
i.Rustam Inscription it "YaTani," 't 
Fuiui, and the ancient Greeks V 
Btill known in Arabic as the "7°' 
naoii" or '■ Innani." The inscriptio'i 
states that Psajumetiehns himM" 
went as far as Eluphantiue, theGi«li* 
beinH sent forwanl with some of b>* 



idio, to the number of two hundred and forty thousand, went 
orer to the Etliiopiana in the reign of king FBammetichua. 
The eaose of their desertion was the following: — Three gar- 
risons were maintained in Egypt at that time/ one in the 
city of Elephantine against the Ethiopians, another in the 
Pelnsioc Daphnie,^ against the Syrians and Arabians, and a 
third, against the Libyans, in Maxca. (The very same posts 
are to this day occupied by the Persians, whose forces are in 
garrison both in Daphna and in Elephantine.) Now it hap- 
pened, that on one occasion the garrisons were not relieved 
during the space of three years ; the soldiers, therefore, at 
tbe end of that time, consulted together, and having deter- 
mmed by common consent to revolt, marched away towards 

'Cing FnunaLichiu haviog oome to 
Qepbsatini, tbose wlit> were with 
PamWiclina, Uie Km of Theoclea, 
noie this. Thej Bailed, and come to 
fitits Korkia, to where the nver 

1"^ if) ... . the E^jptian Aimiais. 

I "liler ia Damearohon, thp hod of 

^ "irtnchns, and Pelephiu (?) Che bod 

L-iUD)n»" (P). (This Ph looka 

li'.T like iho old K ot Q.) In tlie 

,i..ii plaoe MO BeTeral other inacrip- 
.', some of the samo atyle and 

' ", am] ntben writtan bj FhiBDi- 
''■\iii in theii laugoB^, the date of 
'luch ia unkDown. If this was the 
^I. inatead of the let PaammetichoB, 

'<hD Xgjplina Amoaia " mav have 
l«a the general, aflenrorda king of 
E^Tpti fgr HerodotDB, who oul^men- 
ivtu one hammetxchiu, may have 
tinra wrong in anppoaJDg the doaer- 
tina of the tmopa look place under the 
aa tt Neoa Thia would brini; the 
<^ of the inscription within SOO 
tc. (See note ' on cb. 161, and hist, 
tuioc App. ea. liii. § 34.) There is a. 
("in at Thrace ot date about 550 B.C. 
■Iiicli has the O (in Millingea), tbongU 
QWf mnnh later have not the long 
■ttnlt. Cdini and vbbcs are 
ttlhcriliea against their use, oa 
ucUo stjle was imitAled to a 
■inr, Some insoriptiuDs, oa tha 
fHidia in the British HoBeuui, 

iBle ns *33, hoTe no H nor O. The H 
ia X3, and the ¥ is «2 ; and it hoB 

been sappoeed that there waa no CI 
in public dooameota till the archon- 
ship of Euclid. B.C. 403. Bat the 
long vowela were used earlier by the 
Greeks of Asia Mieor. The 11 and Z 
were changed Co ai and C in the age of 
the later Ptolemiea, and were re-intro- 
dnced in the reign of Adrian.— [Q. W.] 
For B further noCitH> of the Great In- 
Bciiption of Abooaimbel, see Note at 
the end of thia Book. 

* It waa atwnyB the caatom of the 
EgyptiauB to have a garrison stationed, 
&B Herodbtna ataLos, on the frontier, at 
Elephantine, at Dapbnai of Pelnainm, 
and at Marea ; hot in the time of the 
Tictorioua kinga of the 18th dynasty 
others were stationed at Semneh, 
abare the leuond caCantot, and alao ' 
fnrtlicr sonth Id Upper Etbiopia, bb 
well aa in vnriooa pHrts of Asia, whore 
thoy hod extended their oonqnosta, 
which laat were only finally taken 
from them in the time of yoco II., 
the BOD and anoceaaor of this Psam- 
metiohoR.— [C- '^■1 

' DaphDiB, Daphne, or Daphnes was 
16 Itomun milea from PeloBiuni, ao. 
cordiDg to the Itinerary of Antoniniu. 
It was the TahpSiObes of Soriptore. 
Soe lov. xliii. 8j Ezok. xn. IH,— 
CO- W.] 


Ethiopia. Psammetichas, informed of the movement, Hi 
out in pursuit, and coming up with them, besooght them with 
many words not to desert the gods of their ooiuiti7, nor 
abandon their wives and children. "Nay, bat," said one 
of the deserters with an unseemly gesture, " wherever we go, 
we are sure enough of finding wives and children." Airived 
in Ethiopia, they placed themselves at the dispoeal (d the 
king. In return, he made them a present of a tract of laod 
which belonged to certain Ethiopians with whom he vae at 
fend, bidding them expel the inhabitants and take possession 
of their territory. From the time that this settlement was 
formed, their acquaintance with Egyptian manners has tended 
to civilise the Ethiopians.' 

31. Thus the course of the Nile is known, not only throne- 
out Eg}-pt, but to the extent of four months' journey either by 
land or water above the Egyptian boundary ; for on calca- 
liition it will be found that it takes that length of time to 
travel from Elephantine to the country of the Deserters. 
There the direction of the river is from west to east.' Beyond, 




<» a visit to the oracular shrine of Ammon,® when it chanced 
that in the coarse of conversation with Etearchos, the 
Ammonian king, the talk fell upon the Nile, how that its 
soorces were unknown to all men. Etearchos upon this 
mentioned that some Nasamonians' had once come to his 
court, and when asked if they conld give any information con- 
tenmg the uninhabited parts of Libya, had told the following 
tile. (The Nasamonians are a Libyan race who occupy the 
Sjrtis, and a tract of no great size towards the east.^) They 
said there had grown up among them some wild young men. 

' This wms in the modem Oasis of 
See-wmh (Siwmh), where remains of 
^ temple are stiU seen. The oracle 
loDg oootinned in great repute, and 
tWgh in Strabo's time it hegan to 
loK its importance (the mode of 
(ii^ination learnt from Etroria having 
■nperseded the consultation of the 
^tant Ammon), still its answers 
*ere sought in the solution of difficult 
()BtttioBs in the day<^ of JuTenal, 
''tfter the cessation of the Delphic 
onde." In consulting the God at the 
(kdi of Ammon, it was customary, 
ttys Quintus Curtius, " for the priests 
to carry the figure of the God in a 
gilded boat, ornamented with nume- 
"Mis silTer paterae lianging from it on 
^ sides, behind which followed a 
ti^ia of matrons and Tirgins siugiug a 
oerUin uncouth hymn, in the manner 
of the country, with a view to propi- 
tiate the deity, and induce him to 
retBrn a satisfactory answer.** See 
^boat or ark of Nou (Xef) in the 
Temple of Elephantine in PI. 56, 57 of 
^- Tonng and the Eg^yptian Society. 
^ the appearance of the God he says, 
''id quod pro Deo colitur, non eandem 
effigiem habet, qnam vulgo Diis arti- 
fio^ acooounodaverunt, umbriculo 
iDUime similis est habitus, smaragdis 
^ gemmis ooagmentatus ; '* but the 
^otd umbriculo has perplexed all 

All the cultivable spots, abounding 
^'th springs, in that desert, are called 
Wth ; the chief uf which are the See- 

wah, the Little Oasis, the Wah sur. 
named e' Dakhleh, i.e., "the inner," 
or western, and the Wah el Khargeb, 
"the outer Oasis," to the east of it, 
which is the Great Oasis. The others, 
of £1 Haya, Farafreh, and the Oases 
of the Blacks, in the interior, to the 
I westward, are small, and some of them 
I only temporarily inhabited ; but those 
; above mentioned are productive, and 
abound in palms, fruit-trees, rice, 
barley, and various productions. They 
are not, as often supposed, cultivated 
spots in the midst of an endless level 
'. tract of sand, but abrupt depressions 
I in the high table-land, portions of 
J which are irrigated by running 
streams, and, being surrounded by 
cliffs more or less precipitous, are in 
appearance not unlike a portion of 
the valley of the Nile, with its palm- 
trees, villages, and gardens, trans- 
ported to the desert, without its river, 
and bordered by a sandy plain reach- 
ing to the hills that surround it, in 
which stunted tamarisk bushes, 
coarse grasses, and desert plants 
struggle to keep themselves above the 
drifted sand that collects around 
them.— [G. W.] 

* This word seems to be " Xahsi 
Amun" or " Negroes of Ammonitis," 
or Northern Libya; Xahsi being the 
Egyptian namo for the Negroes of 
Africa. See my note on ch. 182, Book 
iv.— [G. W.] 

> Vide infra iv. 172, 173. 



of ceztain chiefs, who, when they came to man's 
idnlged in all manner of extravagancies, and among 
ngs drew lots for five of their number to go and ex- 
desert parts of Libya, and try if they could not pene- 
ther than any had done previously. (The coast of 
ong the sea which washes it to the north, throughout 
3 length from Egypt to Cape Soloeis,^ which is its 
point, is inhabited by Libyans of many distinct triben 
B688 the whole tract except certain portions whicli 
) the Phoenicians and the Greeks.^ Above the coast- 

mppofled by Bennell to be 
Hyiiear Mogador, on theW. 
cioa; but, with great defer- 
bigh an anthoritj, I am in- 
hink it Cape Spartely near 
the Penian Sataspes, con- 
Xerzes to undertake the 
ind Africa, is said, after 
oQgb the Straits of Gib- 
lam of Hercules) and doa. 
Libyan promontory called 
have steered southwards, 
) aontherly course evidently 
) Book iv. ch. 42). Hero- 
measures the breadth of 
1 Egypt to the extreme end 
bem coast, not to the most 
eodland to the soath of it, 
he is not likely to have 
id Aristotle (De Mundo, 3) 
Greeks measured the ex- 
rica E. and W., only along 
m coast, by sayinj? " it ex- 
he Pillars of UercnleB.' — 

B, the Cyrcnaica, and the 
I of the Phoinicians and 
ans, or more properly the 
^^e N. and W. coasts. Poeni. 
I Phoenices were the same 
;he race, oi, or oe, and u 
e same sound in Greek. 
an signified properly the 
'arthage, as Tynans did the 
ns of Tvrc : '" for the Phooni- 
1 themselves from the name 
vns, Tyrians, Sidonians, &c. 
i " city,*' was first applied 
from which Hercules ob- 


talned the title of Melcarthus, or 
Melok-Kartha, "Lord of the City," 
corrupted into Melioertes or Heli- 
cartus, "who," Sanchoniatho says, 
" was Hercules," and who in a PhoD- 
nician insciiption at Malta is called 
Adonin Melkarth Baal Tznra. Miy 
•rpa mpho piK "our Lord Melkarth, 
Baal of Tyre." 

Carthagena (Carthagina, Carthage) 
was Kartha Yena, the "new city" 
(irair^ x6\is)f in oj>po6ition to the 
parent Tyre, or to Utica, i.e. Atikn, 
the " old" (city), which was founded 
before by the Phoenicians on the 
African coast about B.C. 1520, or ac- 
cording to VcUeius Paterculas (i. 2), 
at the same time as Mcgara, B.C. 1131. 
I Utica was probably not so called till 
after the bnilding of Carthage (as 
Musr-el-Atika rccoivod that name 
after the foundation of the n(!W MuKr, 
or Cairo). The "new town," Cartha- 
gena, was the "nova Carthago" of 
Dido (Ovid, Ep. Dido to ^n. ; Virg. 
-^En. i. 366) ; bnt it was founded B.t'. 
1259, long before Dido's supposed 
time. Some think it was built more 
than two centuries after Cades and 
Tartessus in Spain, and VelleiuK 
Patercalus says Gadea was a few 
years older than Utica. lie date^ 
the building of Carthage by Elissa, 
or Dido, 60 years before Home, or 813 
B.C. (i. 6) ; but his autliority is of no 
weight. (Cp. Justin, xviii. 5.) Car- 
tha is tho same as Kiriath, coraioon 
in Hebrew names. Some object to 
the above derivation of Cartha-jenn, 


50. CBOSSmo THE DESEBT. BooiU. | 

liiie and tlie country inhabited by the maritime tribes, Libjri | 
is full of wild beaatfl ; while beyond the wild-beast region then i 
iH a tract which is wholly SEUid, very scant of water, ani I 
utterly and entirely a desert.* The young men therefore, de- j 
({patched on this errand by their comrades with a pl^itifol I 
supply of water and provisionB, travelled at first through the 
inhabited region, paBsing which they came to the wild-beut 
tract, whence they fiiiaUy entered upon the desert, which they 
proceeded to cross in a direction from east to west. After 
jom-neyiug for many days over a wide extent of sand, they 
came at last to a plain where they observed trees growing; 
approaching them, and seeing firuit on thom, they proceeded 
to gather it. While they were thus engaged, there came upon 
them some dwarfish men,^ under the middle height, who seized 

bccnnse jena or i/ma, " new," is not a in Africn, but tlic Niisamonos pmtalJj 

Somitio, lint e. Turk or Tartar nord, only knew of BOino bj report. Tbote 

BDd is properly ymgi or yukii uiiij to the B.W. or Abygiiiiua are calM I 

they prefer the Greek Corohcdo an Uokoa. Dr. Kropf gsjs Ibsf biiv 

tho DBuiQ of tho city, doriTing it from dark oMra complexions, and live in t 

Caer or Car, anil litdiili or hedilh, completely BHvago state, hnrinj 



(hem and carried them off. The Nasamonians could not 
understand a word of their language, nor had they any 
acquaintance with the language of the Nasamonians. They 
were led across extensive marshes, and finally came to a town, 
where all the men were of the height of their conductors, 
and black-complexioned. A great river flowed by the town,® 
nmning from west to east, and containing crocodiles. 

33. Here let me dismiss Etearchus^ the Ammonian, and 
his story, only adding that (according to the Cyrenaeans) he 
declared that the Nasamonians got safe back to their country, 
and that the men whose city they had reached were a nation 
of sorcerers. With respect to the river which ran by their 
town, Etearchus conjectured it to be the Nile ; ® and reason 
favours that view. For the Nile certainly flows out of Libya, 
iividing it down the middle, and as I conceive, judging the 
unknown from the known, rises at the same distance from its 
tnouth as the Ister.® This latter river has its source in the 

Somer, who represented them living 
tiy the sources of the Nile, whither 
^e cranes retiring from the winter 
lad snows of the north bronght 
ilaoghter and death on the Pygmasan 
race. He thinks that certain little 
Doen of Ethiopia were the origin of the 
fable (xvii. p. 1162), as Aristotle does 
(H. An. viii. 12), who calls them Tro- 
srlodytse. Pomp. Mela (iii. 8) places 
them very far south, and speaks of 
their fighting, with the cranes, " pro 
ntis frugibas." (Cp. Strabo i. p. 53 ; 
mL p. 1162.) ^lian (Hist. An. 
XT. 29) has a fable of Juno taming 
their qneen " Gerana " into a crane. — 
IG. W.] 

* It seems not improbable that we 
Have here a mention of the river 
^'iger, and of the ancient refh'esenta- 
tire of the modem city of Timbuctoo. 
See Blakesley ad loc. 

^ If Etearchus was not a corruption 
of a native name, he must have been 
A Greek, probably from that Oasis 
Having been conqnered by the Cy- 
rennans.— [6. W.] 

* This large river, which traversed 

the centre of Africa, and abounded in 
crocodiles (ch. 22), probably repre- 
sented more than one of the rivers 
which run to the Atlantic from 
Central Africa ; and the marsh or 
lake it traverBod was in like manner 
not confined to the Tchad, or any par- 
ticular one of those regions. Ono of 
Strabo's lakes, from which the Nile 
comes in the East (xvii. p. 1110), as 
well as his large lake Pseb6a, ai>ovc 
Meroe, was evidently the modoru 
Dembea of Abvssinia, the Coloe Palus 
of Ptolemy's Astasias, through which 
the Blue (or Black) Nile runs. See 
Plin. viii. 21, " Lake Nigris," and v. 9 ; 
and compare Strabo, xvii. p. 1162. — 
[G. W.] 

' The meaning of this passage has 
been much disputed, but Schweig- 
hseuser's final decision upon it (Lex. 
Herod, ad voc. yiirpov), which is hero 
followed, may be accepted as fairly 
satisfactory. Herodotus docs not in- 
tend any such exact correspondency 
between the Nile and the Danube as 
Laroher (note ad loc.)y much less such 
as Niebuhr (Scythia, p. 40, Engl. 



country of the Celts near the city Pyrene, and nmi 
the middle of Europe, dividing it into two portio 
Celts live beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and bord 
Cynesians/ who dwell at the extreme west of Euro] 
the Ister flows through the whole of Europe before 
empties itself into the Euxine at Istria,^ one of the c 
the Milesians.^ 

Trans.) and Dahlmann (Life, p. 65) 
imagined. He is only speaking of 
the comparative length of the two 
streams, and conjectares that they are 
equal in this respect. Herein no 
donbt he exhibits his over -love of 
symmetry (see note to Book iv. oh. 
181) ; bat it is qaite unnecessary to 
suppose, with Niebuhr, that he con- 
fiidered the two Bt roams to corres- 
pond in all 'poitits, and bocauso the 
Nile mode an angle in its course above 
the country of the Dosertera (ch. 31), 
regarded the Danube as making a 
Himilar anglo in the upper parts of 
Thrace. There is absolutely no indi- 
cation of his having entertained any 
such notion. His j)lacing the sources 
of the Danube in the country of the 
Celts, near the city Pyrene, implies 
no doubt a considerable error as to 
the region from which that river 
llowB, but it is interesting as exhibit- 
ing a dim acquaintance with the name 
and position of tlie Pyrenean range, of 
which not onlv HecattDus, but even 
Scylax (Peripl. pp. 3-4), seems to 
have been ignorant; and which is (I 
believe) first mentioned by Polybius 
(ill. xxxix. § 4, &c.). 

* The Cynesians are mentioned 
again in iv. 49 as Gynetes. They are 
a nation of whom nothing is known 
but their abode from very ancient 
times at the extreme S.W. of Europe. 
Heroddrus of Ueraclea, a contempo- 
rai*y of Socrates, who appears to have 
jwssesKed a fair knowledge of the 
S]^anish Penin?iula, si)oko of them 
(Fr. 20) as dwelling the furthest to 
the W. of all tho Spanish nations, 
and said they were bordered upon to- 
wards the N. by the Gletes (FA^Tf j, 

query ? roX^roi, Celts.) 
geographers (Strabo, Flix 
they are ig^iored alto 
cnrionsly enough they r 
Avienus, a writer of the f 
after ChriFt, nearlv in the 
ments, on the banks of 
Quadiana. (Ora Maritin 

* If the Danube in i 
Herodotus entered the 
Istria, it nmst have chang 
very greatly since he wr 
Ister, or Istriopolis (as 
variously called) was si 
the modem Knstendje, 60 
the most southerly of tl 
present mouths. The nai 
edly remains in the mod* 
on the road from Kost^nt 
dagh, but the ancient towi 
been nearer the coast— 
Karaglak. (See Strab. ▼ 
Anon. Peripl. Pont. Ei 
Ptolem. iii. 10; Itin. Ant 
It is perhaps conceivabl 
Danube niav once have U; 
branch from the angle ii 
near Eassova to the Blac 
Kostendjpy in the line of tl 
ship-canal ; but if so, gf 
tions in the height of the 
have taken place within 
period, since at present th 
is separated from the vi 
Danube by a range of 1 
elevation is at tho lowest ] 
300 feet. 

' According to Scymnni 
21) Istria was founded ab< 
of the Scvtliian invasion < 
633). Pliny calls it a mc 
city ("uibs pulcherrima, 




S4. Now as this river flows through regions that are 
inhabited, its course is perfectly well known; but of the 
Botirees of the Nile no one can give any account, since Libya, 
the country through which it passes, is desert and without 
inhabitants. As far as it was possible to get information by 
inquiry, I have given a description of the stream. It enters 
Egypt from the parts beyond. Egypt lies almost exactly 
opposite the mountainous portion of Cilicia,* whence a lightly- 
equipped traveller may reach Sinope on the Euxine in five 
days by the direct route.* Sinope lies opposite the place 
where the Ister falls into the sea.® My opinion therefore is 
that the Nile, as it traverses the whole of Libya, is of equal 
length with the Ister. And here I take my leave of this 

85. Concerning Egypt itself I shall extend my remarks to a 
great length, because there is no country that possesses so 
niany wonders,'' nor any that has such a number of works 

* Cilicia was divided into two por- 
ticos, the eastern, or " Cilicia cam- 
pettria,*' and the western, or " Cilicia 
•ipaE." (Strab. xiv. p. 954.) Egypt 
wei not really lie " opposite " — that 
■, in the same longitude with — the 
^ter region. It rather faces Pam- 
pbylia, but Heix>dotu8 gives all Africa, 
ii ^ as the Lesser Syrtis, too 
••rterly a position. (Vide inlr^, iv. 
179, note.) 

*8npri, i. 72, snb fin. 

• This of course is neither tree, nor 
Mtr the truth ; and it is difficult to 
Kftke out in what sense Herodotus 
■cant to assert it. Perhaps he at- 
tiched no very distinct geographical 
iMaiiing to the word " opposite." 

' By this statement Herodotus pre- 
|Hrts his readers for what he is about 
t9 relate ; but the desire to tell of the 
vwden in which it differed from 
*& other countries led Herodotus 
Id indulge in his love of antithesis, 
n that in some cases he confines to 
*M sex what was done by both (a 
iBigBlar instance being noted down 
^ him 80 an invariable custom), and 

in others he has indulged in the mar- 
vellous at a sacrifice of truth. If, 
however, Herodotus had told us that 
the Egyptian women enjoyed greater 
liberty, confidence, and consideration 
than under the hareem system of the 
Greeks and Persians (Book i. ch. 136), 
he would have been fully justified, for 
tlio treatment of women in Egypt 
was far better than in Greece. The 
assertion of Nymphodoms that Sc- 
sostris, fearing the people, who had 
become very numerous, might revolt 
against him, obliged the men to adopt 
the occupations of women (in order to 
enervate the whole race during his 
reign), is too ridiculous to bo worth 
contradicting. In many cases where 
Herodotus tells improbable tales, they 
are on the authority of others, or mere 
hearsay reports, for which he at once 
declares himself not responsible; and 
he justly pleads that his history was 
not only a relation of facts, but the 
result of an "/<rTopio," or "inquiry," 
in which all he heard was inserted. 
We must, however, sometimes regi*et 
that he did not use his own judgmc nt 



which defy description. Not only is the climate differen 
that of the rest of the world, and the rivers unlike anj 
rivers, but the people also, in most of their mannei 
customs, exactly reverse the common practice of ma 
The women attend the markets ® and trade, while the n 
at home at the loom ; ^ and here, while the rest of the 
works the woof up the warp,^ the Egyptians work it 

nnd discard what must havo shown 
itself nn worthy of credit and of men- 
tion. For wc gladly allow that when 
he doe« offer his own reflections they 
are sound ; and too nmch credit can- 
not be given him for being so far 
above prejudice, and superior to many 
of the Greeks, who were too apt to 
claim the honour of originating things 
they borrowed from others, or to 
derive fix)m Greece what was of older 
date than themselves ; as, for instance, 
Thoth (Mercury) having gone from 
Aixjadia " to Ej^ypt, and given laws 
and learning to the Egyptians" (Cic. 
Xat. Deor. iii.) ; and Actinus, the son 
«'f Sol, being an astronomer who went 
from Greece to Egypt, where he 
founded the city of Ileliopolis. Hero- 
dotus also shows more fairness and 
judgment than those who claim for 
the (ireeks many inventions and ideas 
evidently boiTowed from the country 
they visited for instruction, and who 
forget to attribute to the Greeks 
some of their great merits : — as the 
♦•mancipation of the human mind from 
the trammels of fixed and unvarying 
lulos, which cramped genius and pre- 
vented improvement ; the invention of 
real history ; i he establishment of taste 
in arts and literature; and that de- 
velopment of the mind for which 
modem nations are so nmch beholden 
to them. Jn art, too, Greece was un- 
rivalled, and was indebted for it to her 
own genius ; nor from the occasional 
adoption of some hints in architecttire 
and ornamental designs, as well as 
rertain branches of knowledge, at an 
rarly period, can the origin of Greek 
tatite bo ascribed to Egypt or any 
other country. — [G. W.] 

* The market-place was a 
outside the walls, generally in 
space, beneath what was aft 
the citadel or the acropolis; 
see in the old sites of Greek 
Roman towns, as at Rome 
whence perhaps called Fonv 
same is still the case in some c 
at the present day, as at Ca 

This first antithesis is an 
of ITorodotus confining to one i 
applies to both ; and the so 
show that sedentary occnpatit 
ffwre followed by women than 
— [ G. W.] 

^ This is one of the passage 
author where his words so c1< 
semble those of Sophocles as 
suspicion of plagiarism on 
side or the other. See note ' 
32; and vide infrk, iii. Hi 
ancients generally seem to I 
lieved the charge of effemiuacj 
by Herodotus against the Eg 
Various writers repeat it, i 
(Nymphodorus) declares its 
(See the Scholiast on Soph, i 
337 ; and compare the advice 
have been given by Creesus in 
suprk, i. 155.) 

* The foregoing remark, 
general conclusion is drawn ft 
ticular and rare cases, appliei 
this, as the Egyptians so; 
pushed the woof upwards, boh 
down ; and also to their i 
carrying burthens, for men 
always carried them on their at 
or on a yoke, like that non 
in Europe (see woodcut fig. 4 : 
on ch. 13G), aud rarely on thei 
except bakers, as in other oo 




the women likewise carry burthens upon their shoulders, while 
Ibe men carry them upon their heads. They eat their food 
oat of doors in the streets,' but retire tor private paiposeB to 
tfaor houses, giving as a reason that what is unseemly, but 
necesBary, ought to be done in secret, but what has nothing 
Diueemly about it, should be done openly. A woman cannot 

g Teij few iiutonoet oeoor of a 
1 bearing ■ burthen on her 


and conid not be mentioned in cod. 

tradiBtinctioa to a Oreek caatom. The 

EgTptiana generally dined at a amall 

round table, baTing 

leg (Bit ■■ 

the t 

Dopodioni), at 

jiersonB sat, and the; 
ate with t^eir fingei's 
like the Greeks and 
the modem Arabs. 

placed npOD the table, 
and before eating it 
woB their cub torn to 
say grace. (Joseph. 
Antiq. li!. 2. 12 ; see 

n At - - - - 

415.) Atho- 

/ \\ ml V\ 1**) speakB of the 
' l' 3\ ..npl™u.™« of .. 

' bpTptian foast, 
"'''■'• ' Ea\s thoy had 

'That they BometimeB ate in the I kind of dinner or supper "at wl 
■^Ht is not to be doubted ; but this 1 there was no table tlio tlislics be 
•« onlj the poorer clasf", as in other I brouglit rouod — G, W.] 
P«nB of ancient and modr— " 


nerve the priestly office,* either for god or goddesa, but i 
are priests to both ; sons need not support their put 

* Tbongb men hold tho prieBthood 
io Sgjpt.aa in other conntrica, womoD 
were not excluded from certain impor- 
tant iluticB in the Icoipli'S, as Ileru- 
iMna alKO ehuws (cha. 51, 56) { the 
queens made olferinga with the kingBj 

I'ltid tho iiKoiumcDti', nx ncll as IKu- 
ilorus, 8liiiw that an unlur of womcii, 
oliOHCn fn>iu thL> pi'iiiei|tal fnmilicB, 
were cmplojed id tlie nfrviiTi) of the 
KodH. It ia uf titcae that Dioilnruii. 
iind even UoroilotuH (i. 11S3), h&TS told 
ntoriuH tho aliaunlity of irUioIi <a aiiffl- 
oiently ei-idct'.t when we coiiaidcr that 
qaoviis and nuiiien of the higliesl rank 
lield tho office in tho temple of Amuiii 
and it is j)ii>bBhlo that tlicne went 
iiiRiiiherii lit B, sacred ciilloKe, into 
whicrh thny entereil on lUu duath of 
their huHbiind)!, in order to deVute 
thenwelvea to roliitious duties. It 
wM perhaps then (hat they rooeiTcd 
tho litis of "divine wife,'' or "god's 
wifoi" which from the following for. 
niuln— "the royal daughter, the rojal 
wife, tho divine (god' a) wife, the god's 
iHother," wotdd refer to her relation' 
ship to a king; as iu> office could make 

nnj one the motfter of Amnn. 
widow of AmoB, however, seeni 1 
c»lled " Goddess wife ot Ami 
which would show them to bs ipc 
of the deity. They wera aln ■< 
"god's hand," and "god's (thedi 
star." Their chief afflM in ths 
gioDs ceremonies was to ring 
praises of the deity, playing oc 
rious instraments ; in the tempi 
highest of their order, as qae«Di 
princesses, held the sittia; bb 
Thebes they wore called the mini 
and chiefs of tho women of A 
(On the PHllocideB, see At. Eg 
vol. iv. p. 203.) A sort of mon 
iostitution seems to havo origil 
in Egypt at an early time, an 
have beeii imitated afterwards 1 
tho real oonvcntnal system wai 
on foot by the Christians in the I 
country. Cp. the Vestal virgin 
Romp. (Spo woodcQt So. II., 


Uorolotas (ii. U) speaks of 
women, belonging to the Temp 
Jupiter at ThelKts, who founded 
oracles of Ammon and Dodonn; 
priostosseB are montioncd on tlie 
setta stone, and in the papjn 
U"Annstaflv. (See At. Eg. W. i 
p. 2GI.) XoT can this bo ascrib 
innovations, among a people so jei 
as the Egyptians of the interfei 
of foreiguerg in their religion 
must, huwovor, be observed tha 
woman, except tbu queon, attend 
the grand processions of a king's 
nntion, or on similar occasions] 
there is no ceremony in which wi 
took the part they did at the I 
Ihenaio festival of Atliens. The n 
nicnts, however, show they did ftl 
in proCvBsinns in honour of Athc 
well as of BubastiB {infri. ch. 
and in the funeral pageants wi 
performed a ^reat part, being 
Hummers for the dead, independi 
of thoac hired, as at the present 
Two, indeeil, held an important i 
on that occasion. (Woodcot No. 
figa. 1, 2.) 



unless they choose, but daughters must, whether they choose 
or no.* 
86. In other countries the priests have long hair, in Egypt 

There was also a ceremony per- 
bnned bj a woman and a man, each 
^Mog the end of a rope tied in a 
knot round a wooden pillar, the 

pointed end of which thej stmok 
against the ground ; and this appears 
also to have been of a religiooa cha. 
racter connected with the dead. (No. 




their heads are shaven ; " elsewhere it is customary, i 
ing, for near relations to cut their hair close ; the E 
who wear no hair at any other time, when they lose i 
let their beards and the hair of their heads grow 1 
other men pass their lives separate from anir 
Egyptians have animals always Uving with them 
make barley and wheat their food ; it is a disgrace t 
Egypt,® where the grain they live on is spelt, which 

IV.) Women wore not therefore ex- 
cluded from the service of religion ; 
and the fact of qnccns holding the 
Fceptro Raffices to prove it, every mo- 
narch being privileged, and obliged, 
to become a member of the hierarchy, 

No. IV. 

and to be initiated in the nivsteries. 
I)iod<)ru8 alHo describes Athyrtis, the 
daughter of SeflOBtrij*, so well versed 
in divination that she foreiold to her 
father the future success of his arms. 
— [G. W.] 

* Of the daughters being forced to 
support their parents instead of the 
HODS, it is difficult to decide ; but the 
improbability of the custom is glaring. 
It is the son on whom the duty fell of 
providing for the 8er\'ice8 in honour 
of his deceased parent ; and the law 
of debt mentioned by Herodotus (in 
ch. 13f>) contradicts his assertion here. 
— [G. W.] 

" The custom of shaving the head as 
well as beard was not confined to the 
priests in Egypt, but was general among 

all classes ; and all the me 
or caps fitting close to 
except some of the poore 
this the Egyptians wen 
** KafniK0fji6enrras *Ax<uo6s 
custom of allowing the ! 
in mourning was not 
Egypt; and Plutarch (< 
267) says that in misfortu 
women cut off their hair, 
let it grow, contrary to tl 
custom. He prol>ably m< 
negliyently ; for in mo6 
Greeks wore their hair 
h'^? ; young men and tt 
Beards began first to 1 
Greece in the time ol 
(Pint. Lysand. 1.) Th 
making a baldness betw 
for the dead (Dent. xiv. 1 
forbidden by the Mosaic 
Egyptian, but Syrian. — [ 

' Their living with anil 
contradicts a previous 
their eating in the street 
trary to fact ; and if Her 
associated with any who i 
lodged, he must have kt 
company during his staj 
[G. W.] 

* Their considering it : 
to live on wheat and bar 
extravagant ; and thoii( 
cultivated the holcus 
doora), and poor peopi 
used it, as at the prese 
they could not afford wl 
it does not follow that tb 
obligatory, or ever ad( 
Egyptian of rank; and 
of Herodotus is much o: 
Dr. Johnson's definition < 

Cbikk. ciBcuHcisioy. 59 

iM. Doogb they knead with their feet ; ' but they mix mud, 
ud e?ea take up dirt, with their hands. They are the only 
tieoplein the world — they at least, and such as have learnt the 

It ii not known what the olyra 
nUj waa ; Pliny shows it vms not 
liot, Dor the same «■ les, as Hera- 
dttot EQppoeed, anil it was probably 
Iht dam of modem EgTpt, vfaicb ia 
>be (uly grain besidea wheat and 
tiriej Ttpretentcd in tbe icalptarea 

(thoDgh thia baa been thought to bo 
" flai "). (See At. Eg. W. toI. ii. p. 
897.) Pliny (iriiL 7) myB, '■ farina 
.iGgypto ei olf ri conflcitar," but not 
of conrae to the eiclosion of other 
groin, as be notices wheat and barley 
there, and adds (xviii. S), ".£gjptas 

™li wheat and barley —i. .,- 

'*»er Egypt long before Herodot 

liw (Eiod. ii. 31, 32), and the paint- | 

'fl of (he Tbebaid prove that they | 

■fB grown extensively in that part j 

<5 the coantrv } they were among the 1 

oftrings in the templpB ; and the | 

eus o( wheat aftorwards oS'cred to I 

(^ gods as the staple production of I 

^Tpt, shows bow great a tbIqo was | 

■ti on a gnun which Herodotus would I 

laid ni to snppoae was held in alihor- [ 

'niM. It is reoiarkabla that though ' 
oats an nnknown in Egypt the wild 
- e.— ro.W.l 

the mnd was also mixed with the feet, 
after having; been broken up with the 
hoe, Bs we Hte in the representation of 


' niat they trod the dougrh with 
ttdr feet is true, fashioning it after- 
wards with the band into cakes; bat 

the briclimakfirs at Thelws. See wood- 
eat, figa. 11, 13, in note' on ch. 136.— 
[G, W.] 



practice irom them *^who use circmnciBion. Their men veu 
two garments apiece, their women but one.' They pat oa 
the rings and fasten the ropes to saila inside ; ■ others pot 
them outside. When they write* or calculate/ instead of going, 
like the Greeks, from left to right, they move their hand from 
right to left ; and they insist, notwithstanding, that it is thef 

1 Tiflo infri, ct. 104. 

" Tho mon having two dreesos, ond 
tte womeo one, gires nn crroneooa im- 
prasBiDii. The naoal droM of men was 
B long appcr robe and a abort kilt bo- 
aealh it, tho former boing laid aside 
when at work ; while womeo bad mily 
the long fobp. When un entriii npper 
Burmpnt waa worn oypr these the men 

1 threi 

the y 

1 that 

instead of limiting the latter 
he should have givcu to men always 
onu mure garmant than thp wotoen. 
Bee woudcutn in doI«b on cha. 33, 37, 
and 81.— [G. W.] 

* The Greek siUai gDOerally eorre- 
Bpondi'd to onr " atnys " of tho mast, 
" " ' "■ " )B<i lo " sheeU." 

tinned li; tlie Eli-uso-anB, Ui« f^J 
imitatOTB of the Groeta, lo a raj 
late period. Dr. Brogsch vcrj ingt- 
nioasly obaervoe (Gram. Drtaol. Ff 
IB, 16). that though in Demotic ll« 
general direction of the wririujr «•* 
frnni right to left. Bach indiodm) 
Itucr was formed froin left lo rigbt, 
as ia evidoEt in the nnfiniubed eoils <l 
borixoatal letters when the ink luiti 
intbepon.— [G.W.] 

' In writing niimberii in HienUic 
and Enchorial they placed the it 

ana i^ncaonai tuey pjao»u tuv iuimp . 
to the left, that is last, ac- ,,i>n J 
cording to their mode of mil l ■ 
writing from right to left. I 

Thna 1851 would stand S^K (| 


practise circumcision for the sake of cleaiilmess, eonfiideriiig 
it better to be cleanly than comely. The priests shave thai 

the Etrict rules iiujtitiitc4i ta (?iiEure it, 
HerodotuB Buon afliTnurds hi;s Cho 
prientfl iFOahed tbtMUEielveH twio<: every 
day and twico ererj- night in cold 
water; and Perpliyrr (de AbBtin. iv. 7), 
bceides (bres mblutions every daj', 
nnd nil oecasionnl one nt night, men- 
tions a gTBiDd coremenf ef purifica- 
tion protionB to their fasts, many of 
which lasted forty -two duys, or even 
longer, during which lirao Ihey ab- 
HlAiDod entirol; from animal food, 
from herbs, and Tugetablea, and aboi 
all, from the indulgence of the p&a- 
BioDB. The same motive of cleanli 
led them to praotise circmuci. 
which Herodotus afterwards ment 
Nor was this confined to the priesta, 
ni wo Icnm from the mnmmiea and 
from the ecalptnree, where it is mado 
u distinctive mark between the E^p- 

d theti 

; sjid inlMst 

Egypt oontaincd mmj 
foreign settlers, it was looked nponu 
a distinctive sign between the ortlo- 
dan EgrptioD and the straager, dr tW 
noD -conformist. tiooD therefbiewM 
allowed to stady all the secret) it 
Egyptian knowledgie nnleas Iheytsd 
snbmitted to this nt« : and thiipo 
bably led to the notion tint th 
priests alone were cironmcised. 1" 
institution in Egypt reaches to ll* 
roust remote antiquity ! we find iter- 
isting at the cnrlieat period of whidi 
any monnments remain, more Oaa 
S-lOO year? before onr era, and tbeR 
is no reason to doubt that it itUi 
still enrlier.-[C.. W.] 

' The dress of the priests cMuiiKai 
as Herodotng states, of linen (ch. Ml: 
but he does not say they were as- 


wbok body every other day, that no lice or other impure thing 
m»j adhere to them when they are engaged in the service of 
the gode. Their dress is enturely of linen/ and their shoes of 

hd (u lonie b*Te 


rgbe; and whether walking 


or officiatiog 

ID the temple. 


TC permitted 

e (fannent. The high-prieBt 

Kjltd Stm alwAVB won 

a leopard-Hkm 

orer the line 

ot office. (No. II.} Platarcb 


s. A) ogreea 

«Hth Uorodoluu 

□Bc of the temple. Bat thefS were 
probablj the eacred robes for the 
Btstnes ot the gods (Pint, do la. a. 
78) ; and the priests loay odI; hare 

'^f no much pains (0 
'"■rfrom tlicLr bodj. (o wear 
"*ie ot the wool or ha r of r 
"«l BO Egyptian WB« allowej 
'>tup!e without taking oS h h onte 
*»Umc].iak (Her. ii. 81) nor could 
• he buried in dothea ot that n a 
'"ill. Bdc though th» r ander gar 
*■" WIS of linen, it d U not pre ent 
'W wearing an upper one of cotton. 
f^T (lii. 1) affirma that cotton 
'^Maciwere particularly agreeable lo 
■^ prieal* ; and the Rosetta stooe 
■Met that " notton garments " were 
■qiphed b; the goTemmeikt for the 

(Plut de Ih B 3 Apol Metam I b 
II.). The EktP^i^i ^Qd Jewish priests 
wore the only ones (eioppt perhaps 
tlioFB of India) whoso drCBSes were 
ordered to be of linon. That worn 
by tho former was ot the finest texture, 
and the long robe with full Bleeree, 



the papyrus plant : ' it is not lanfol for them to w< 
dress or shoes of any other material. They bathe t¥ 

which oorered the bodr and descended 
to the mnkles, was perfectly trans- 
parent, and placed orer a short kilc 
of thicker qnalitr reaching to the 
knees. Some wore a long robe oi 
linen, extending from the neck to the 
anklew, of the same thick substance, 
and some oflBciated in the short kilt 
alone, the arms and legs being bare. 
Some again had a Ion? thin dress, like 
a loose shirt, with full sleeves, reach- 
ing to the ankles, over which a 
wrapper of fine linen was bonnd, 
covering the lower part of the bodv, 
and falling in front below the knees ; 
the hicraphon>s, while bearing the 

sacred emblems, freqnen 
kmg f nil apron, tied in froi 
bands, and a strap, ala 
pa s s ed over the shonlder 
it ; and some prieets w 
smock reaching from belc 
to the feet, and support 
neck by straps. (No. L fi| 
head was frequently bare, 
covered with a wig or a 
bnt in all cases the head 
shaved. They had » 
mode of goufEreying 1 
dresses (also adopted in 
judge from the ancient sta 
vases, as well as in Etna 

No. V. 

impressed upon them the waving linos 
represented in the t«iintinirs, and this 
was done by means of a wowlen 
instrument, divide<l into scjrmeutal 
partitions 1 4 inch bniad on its upper 
face, which was held by tho hand 
while tho linen was pressed upon it. 
One of them is in the Museum of 
Florence (fij^. 2 gives the real size of 
the divisicms). 

Tho fine texture of the Egyptian 
linen is fully proved by its trans- 
parency, as represented in the paint- 
ings, and by the statements of ancient 
writers, sacred (Gen. xli. 42 ; and 
2 Chron. i. 16) as well as profane, 
and by the wonderful texture of a 
piece found near M(!mphis, part of 
which is in my possession. In general 
quality it is equal to the finest now 
made ; and for the evenness of the 
threads, without knot or break, it is 

far superior to any a 

manufacture. It has in tl 

threads, or 270 double thp 

warp, and 110 in the w« 

parity which, as Mr. Th* 

serves, belonged to the 

** system of manufacturt.' 

Eg. W. V9I. iii. p. 120, 

mentions four kinds of Un 

larly noted in Egypt, the ' 

Pelusiac, the Butine, and 

tvritic ; and the same finei 

turo was extended to tl 

Egypt, which were so d< 

they could pass through a 

and a single person coa 

sutRoient number of them i 

a whole wood. (Plin. xix. 

Byssus, see note* ch. 86.) 

parent fineness of the linet 

men and women in the 

painting84«calls the remarl 



% in cold water, and twice each night ; besides which they 
oterre, so to speak, thousands of ceremonies. They enjoy, 
Iwweyer, not a few advantages.^ They consume none of their 

(fc Beoef. TiL 9) on '* sericas Testes/' 
toQatk that a woman appeared ajB if 
•bd.~[G. W.] 

'Hieir fiandalB were made of the 
fipTTDs, or of other kinds of Cyperus ; 
la inferior qnalitj being of matted 
|i|oi-leaTefl ; and they either slept on 
iomple skin stretched on the ground 
(^Mt. in Homer. IL xyi. 235), or on 
* wicker bed made of pakn-branches 
•to Porphyrv very justly says were 
««ned hai (de Abstin. iv. 7). On this 
"(d>tead, which was simiUur to the 
ttfoi of modem Egypt, made of the 
^oe materials, a mat or a skin was 
Hft»d for a mattress, and their head 
*ai supported by a half cylinder of 
•ood in lien of a pillow. These 

piUows are frequently found in the 

•^ttbs, made of acacia, sycamore, or 

*ttiarii?k wood, or Fometimes of ala- 

"•«t*r; and they are represented 

•owoff the furniture of an Egyptian 

ttMwion, in the Tombs of tho Kings, 

together with the richest sofas and 

fameuih. They are still used in 

SUuopia, and also in places distant 

frttn the Nile, in Japan, China, the 

Western Coa*»t of Africa, in Otaheite 

(Tahiti), and other places. But soft 

pillows and lofty couches were also 

adopted in Egypt, to which last they 


mounted by steps. Cp. 2 Kings i. 4 j 
Ps. oxxxii. 3 ; Prov. vii. 16.— [G. W.] 

' The greatest of these was the para, 
mount influence they exercised over 
the spiritual, and consequently over 
the temporal, concerns of the whole 
community, which was secured to 
them through their superior know- 
lodge, by tho dependence of all classes 
on them for the instruction they chose 
to impart, and by their exclusiye 
right of possessing all the secrets of 
religion which were thought to place 
them far above tho rest of mankind. 
Nor did their power over an individual 
cease with his life ; it would even 
reach him after death ; and their veto 
could prevent his being buried in his 
tomb, and consign his name to lasting 
infamy. They thus usurped the 
power and place of the Gods, whose 
will they affected to be commissioned 
to pronounce ; and they acted as 
though the community had been made 
for their rule, and not their own office 
for the benefit of tho community. 
Priestcraft indeed is always odious, 
but especially when people are 
taught to believe what the priests 
themselves know to be mere fable; 
and the remark of Cato, "It appeal's 
strange that one priest (auj^iir) can 
refrain from laughing when he looks 
at another," might well apply to tliosc 
of Egypt. (Cic. do Nat. Deor. i. 26; 
de Biv. ii.) It must however be 
admitted tliat they did not make a 
show of great sanctity, nor 8et them- 
selves above the customs of society, 
in order to increase their power over 
it; they were good husbands and 
fathers, and they showeil the higliest 
regard f(^r all social duties. Man- 
kind too, had not then been on- 
lightened by Christianity ; and the 
Egyptian hierarchy had the merit of 
having enjoined, practised, and (mi- 
sured morality, and contributed great- 
ly to tho welfare of the peoi)lo they no 
long governed. — [G. W.] 



own property, and are at no expense for anythiiig ; * but every 
day bread is baked for tbem of the eacred com, aod a plentiful 
supply of beef and of goose's flesh is assigned to each, and 
tilso a portion of wine made trom the grape.* Fish they an 
not allowed to eat ; * and beans, — which none of the EgyptianB 
ever sow, or eat, if they come up of their own aeoord, either 
raw or boiled^ — the priests will not even endure to look aa, 

' ThBj wereoicmpt rmm toiea. and 
wore provided with a dailj allowanoo 

Pharaoh, b; Iho odviDC of Jcnoph, touk 
all the land of the EgTptiaoatn lien of 
uum IGen. ilrii. SO. 2Z), the land of 
the pi-ioata waa exempt, and the toi of 
the fifth part of the prodace yia» not 
levied a}x>a it. Diodoma (i. 73) saja 
the land wiui divided into three por- 
tiona, one of nhioh belonged to the 
king, another to the priesta, and the 
third to the military cnHte.— [Q. W.] 

' UerodutQB is qnito right iu saylug 
thej- were allowed to driok wine, nud 
the aasertiou of Plntarch (dn la. a. 6) 
(bat the kin^ (who were also of the 

eaton b; the rest of the EgTptiaiU 
they were forbidden to the prj^itt, 
and when on the 9ll> day of tlif lil 
month (Thoth), a religions oereniHi; 
obliged all the people to eat a fnoi 
Rih before the door of their baaet, 
the prieats were not even then bi- 
pocktd to conform to the gemml (i* 
torn, but were contented to burn tt»in 
at the appointed time (PluL de Ii.i 
7). The principal food of the priMl* 
as Diodoraa jastly etatea, whs bonf u^ 
(joosa, and the ga»etle, ibex, oryit, im^ 
wild-fowl were not forbiddeo; b"* 
they " abatained from moat sorla <■ 
pulse, frain matton, and awtnc'i fli^'<> 
Bolenin porifieatiof* 




since they consider it an unclean kind of pulse. Instead of a 
single priest, each god has the attendance of a college, at the 
head of which is a chief priest ; ® when one of these dies, his 
BOD is appointed in his room. 

foriadden in the Thebaid, which is 

tke most wholesome meat in Egypt ; 

lad we can only gappose it was owing 

toiheep having been few in number 

It the time the law was first made ; 

*^ thej were anxious to enooorage 

^ breed for the sake of the wool, and 

feiied to lessen their number, as was 

^ oise with the cow both in Egypt 

lod India. The name K^ofios was also 

Applied to the seeds of the Nelnmbinm 

or Indian Lotus. See note ^ on ch. 92. 

-[d W.] 

This is fully confirmed by the 
milptures. They were not, however, 
always replaced at their death by their 
xms ; and though this was often the 
case, a son might become a priest of 
ftoother deity, and have a higher or 
lower grade than his father. He could 
also be a priest during his father's 
lifetime, and numerous sons could not 
expect the same office as tboir father. 
The eon of a priest was generally a 
prieet also ; and when an elder son 
succeeded to the same office held be- 
f<jre by his ^ther, it is very possible 
that he inherited the same dress of in- 
vestiture, which was also the custom 
of the Jews (Exod. xxix. 29) ; but a 
priest's son might be a military man. 

The priests had various grades. The 
chief priests held the first post, and 
one of them had an office of great im. 
portance, which was usually fulfilled 
by the king himself. He was the pro- 
phet and officiating high priest, and 


had the title of " Sem," in 

addition to that of high priest, and 
he was distinguished by wiBaring a 
leopard's skin over his ordinary robes. 
(See n. * ch. 37, woodcut No. II.) He 
does not appear to have ranked above 
chief-priests, being mentioned after 
them on the Bosetta stone, but to 

have been one of them in a particular 
capacity. He might also be a ohief- 
priest of one Gk)d, and 8em of another ; 
and one in a tomb at Thebes is called 
" chief -priest of Amun, 8em in the 
temple of Fthah, superior of the 
priests of the upper and lower coun. 
try ; " and his father was chief -priest 
without the additional office of 8em. 
The prophets were particularly versed 
in all matters relating to the cere- 
monies, the worship of the Gods, the 
laws, and the discipline of the whole 
order, and they not only presided over 
the temple and the sacred rites, but 
directed the management of the sacred 
revenues. (Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. p. 
758.) In the solemn processions they 
had a conspicuous part ; they bore 
the holy hydria or water- jar, which 
was frequently carried by the king on 
similar occasions, and they with the 
chief-priosts were the first whose 
opinion was consulted respecting the 
introduction of any new measure con- 
nected with religion, as we find in the 
decree of the Rosetta stone, which 
was " established by the chief priests 
and prophets, and those who have 
access to the adytum to clothe the 
Gods, and the pterophorao, and the 
sacred scribes, and all the other 
priests .... assembled in the temple 
of Memphis." Some of the principal 
functionaries " in the solemn proces- 
sions " are thus mentioned by Clemens 
(Strom, vi. p. 757) : " The singer 
usually goes first, bearing the symbols 
of music, whose duty is said to be to 
carry two of the books of Hermes .... 
he is followed by the Horoscopus, 
bearing in iiis hand the measure of 
time (hour-glass), and the palm 
(branch), the symbols of astrology 
(astronomy) .... next comes the 
Hierogrammat (sacred scribe) having 
feathers on his head (see woodcut fig. 
9, note ^ on ch. 37), and in his hands a 
book (papyrus) with a ruler (palette) 

38. Male kine are reckoned to belong to Epaphns,' and i 
therefore tested in the following manner : — One of the prit 
appointed for the purpose searches to see if there is a sin 
black hair on the whole body, since in that case the beast 
unclean. He examines him all over, standing on his le 
and again laid upon his back ; after which be takes the tonf 
out of bis mouth, to see if it be clean in respect of 1 
prescribed marks (what they are I will mention elsewhere' 
he also inspects the hairs of the tail, to observe if they gr 
natiur&lly. If the animal is pronounced clean in all th< 
various points, tlie priest marks him by twisting a piece 
papyrus round his horns, and attaching thereto some sealii 

ill which is ink anil n rood for nritinK 
(flg, I), Ihon thn Etoliates, bearing tbe 
cubit ofjasttoo (fig. S), and the cnp ot 
libation {&g. 3) . . . and Inslly tha 
Prophet, the preaidonL of the temple. 

irho t^airiefl iu his boBom o water- 
followed bj persona bearing loara 
brpod." 8co pioceHsiun in pi. 7^ 
At. Eg. W. vol. ri. ; and belowi oa 

on oh. 68.— to. W.] 

* EpafihuB, HoTDdotns tajB (in oh. 
^68), i« iKo Greek nnine of Apis, of 
wblah it is pmbablj only a oormption 
(aeo alwi B. iii. ehs. ■^, 2S). In ein- 
nulling It bull fur Baarifice, he adds, 
thej admitted none but thoeo which 
were free fccm bloalc hairaj and 
lloitnonidcH statee that " if only two 
white or blncl: haire worn found Ijing 
upon each other, the animal was con' 
siderud unfit for aaoriflco " (Haim, de 
Vaocft raf&, o. 1). Thia ualls to mind 
the law ot the laraclitoH, commanding 
them to "bring a i«d heifer withont 
spot, wbarein wua no blemiah " (Numb. 
xix. 2), Bnt the scnlptnree ahuw that 
bulla with bluck, and rod, or white 
■pots, were commonly killed both for 
the altar and the table, and the oulj 
prohibition seems to have boon against 
killing heifers ; and 1« ensure a regard 

fbr tham thoy were held si 

below, n.' oh. il). It we 
Bcoount that Moaea propo 
three days into the deieK, ^ 
anger of tho Egyptiaus al^ 
raised on aeeing the laneliMJ 
ilce a heifer (Kiod. viii, 26) ; ^ 
this very opposite ohuica i^ a v 
they wer« mode unequirooallj- : 

generally aoppuae (see Lurcher, B 
and Blakesley ad loc.) ; for Herodi 
is there describing, not the ani 
which might be ottered to Apis, 
the animal which was regarded a^ 
incarnation of Apis. Perhaps we I: 
here, as in vii. 213, a mumise Uta 





day, which he then stamps with his own signet-ring.^ After 
ilus the beast is led away ; and it is forbidden, under the 
penalty of death, to sacrifice an animal which has not been 
marked in this way. 

89. The foUowing is their manner of sacrifice : — They lead 
the yictim, marked with their signet, to the altar where they 
we about to offer it, and setting the wood alight, pour a 
libation of wine upon the altar in front of the victim, and at 
the same time invoke the god. Then they slay the animal,® 

'llie sanction giyen for sacrificing 

> boll was by a papjma band tied hj 

^ priest round the horns, which he 

Bttmped with his signet on sealing- 

cUf . Documents sealed with fine clay 

tad impressed with a signet are very 

t^'nuDon ; bat the exact symbols im- 

pr^Med on it by the priest on this 

occasion are not known. Castor says 

fliej consisted of a man kneeling with 

^ hands tied behind him, and a 

sword pointed to his throat, which 

*^ probably this (of woodcut), though 

it h&s not been found on a seal. The 

claj used in closing 

and sealing papyri is 

of very fine quality. 

A similar kind was 

employed for official 

seals by the Greeks 

and Assyrians. On signet-rings see 

my note on B. iii. ch. 41. — [G. W.] 

' We learn from the sculptures that 
the victim, having its feet tied to- 
gether, was thrown on the g^und ; 
and the priest, having placed his hand 
on its head (as in Levit. i. 4; iii. 8), 
or holding it by the horn, cut its 
throat, apparently from ear to ear, as 
is the custom of the Moslems at the 


present day. The skin was then re- 
moved, and after the head had been 
taken away, the foreleg or shoulder, 
generally the right (as in Levit. viii. 
26), was the first joint cut ofE. This 
was considered, and called, the chosen 
part (Sapt), and was the first offered 
on the altar. (Cp. 1 Sam. ix. 24; 
Levit. vii. 33; viii. 25.) The other 
parts were afterwards cut up ; and 
the shoulder, the thigh, the head, the 
ribs, the rump, the heart, and the kid- 
neys, were the principal ones placed 
on the altar. The head, which Hero- 
dotus says was either taken to the 
market and sold to strangers, or 
thrown into the river, is as common 
on the altars as any other joint, and 
an instance sometimes occurs of the 
whole animal being placed upon it. 
We may therefore conclude that the 
imprecations he says were called down 
upon the head were confined to cer- 
tain occasions and to one ])articular 
victim, as in the case of the scapegoat 
of the Jews (Levit. xvi. 8, 10, 21), 
and it was of that particular animal 
that no Egyptian would eat the head. 
It may not have been a favourite 
joint, since we find it given to a poor 


No. i. 



tet-plaoe and a body of Greek traderB in the city, they 
' it there and sell it instantly ; if, however, there are no 
b amoim; them, they throw the head into the river. The 
soation ia to this effect : — They pray that if any evil in 
oding either over those who sacrifice, or over universal 
i, it may be made to fall upon that head. These 
iees, the imprecations npon the heads, and the libations 
tie, prevail all over Egypt, and extend to victims of all 
; and hence the Egyptians will never eat the head of any 

The disembowelling and burning are, however, different 
lerent sacrifices. I will mention the mode in nse with 
et to the goddess whom they regard as the greatest,^ and 

>t (eaol) folded doable, they 1 
portioDB of raw meat tbereon ; 
i nuD then burnt it □□ split 

and poaTed black wine on it, ' 

he Joaog men beside him held . 

ODged spits. When the legs, I 

(thighs and sboaldera) were burnt, 
and thejr bad tasted the " iaward 
parts," thej cnt the rest into small 
pieoea, and pnt them on skewers 
(spits), roastinfc them clcrerlj, and 
took nil off Bgain."— [G. W.] 

Todotna here evidentlj allndes 
, as he shows id chs. 69, 61, 
he speaks of her fSle at BoBiris; 
afterwarda cwnfoDtids her with 
(ch. 41). This is Tery ei- 
I in the historian, since the 
lea (tf thoee two Goddesees are 
« ckael; coonected that it is 
I to distingnish tbem in ths 
na, anieaa their jiajnea are 

directly specified. It was, however 
more to in lato than in early times 
and At Dendera Athor ha? very 
DBBrlf tho same appearance o-i Isie, 
thongh still a distinct Goddess, as ia 
shown by each of them having a 
temple at that place. Horodntus (in 
ch. 41) says that cows were sncrod to 
Tais, whose slatnea had the head of 
that animal ; but it was to Athor, the 


honour with the ehiefetit feetiTal. When they have I 
their steer they pray, and when their prayer is ended 
take the pauncli of the animal out entire, lea'ving the inte 
and the fat inside the body ; they then cut o£f the leg 
ends of the loins, the Hhoulders, and the neck ; and h 
Bo done, they fill the body of the steer with clean bread, I 
raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh, and other aromi 
Thus filled, they hum the body, pouring over it great 
titles of oil, Before offering the sacrifice they fast, and 
the bodies of the victims are being consumed they beat 
selves. Afterwards, when they have concluded this p 
the ceremony, they have the other parts of the vicUm f 
up to them for a repast. 

41. The male kine, therefore, if clean, and the male c 
are used for sacrifice by the Egyptians miiveraally ; bi 
females they are not allowed to sacrifice,'' since they are i 

liiis tlw bead of the epotted oow of 
Athor, or that thia Goddeu takOH the 
uume of Iflia. Plutorab saya Isjs was 
CBlled Motb, Athyri, and Methner (de 
Is. B. 56}. Tbat HerodutuB was roall; 
dcfttibing Alhor and not Isia ia ahown 
by tbe city where tlie cattio wero acnt 
Iwin); Alarbccbifl. (See belnw note' 
nn ch. 41). The Roman poeu uiodu a 
double error in confoonding laia with, and even with Jano, whence 
" iiivcl SahimiB vaccl." Great hon- 
iJiirs were also paid to the Cow of 
Aibor at MomemphiB, whore Vennn 
wan [lartienlnrly wiirshipped i nnd 
wherever ahe had a temple a Bacred 
Con WRB kept, as Strabo eajs wag the 
ciue A MomcmpbU aa weU aa other 
places in the Delta ; and at CbnBBB, a 
tmnll village in the Hennopolite noma 
nhero Tenna waa worubipped ander 
the title of Urania.— [G. W.l 

• The ouBtom of filling thebody with 
ralteB and Tariona things, and then 
bamjng tt all, calls to niiud tho Jewish 
bnmt offering (Levit. viii. 26, 26).— 


' In order to prevent tho b 
cattle from being diminiahe 
some mjBJ^rions reason beinga 
for it, the people wero led \a 

: have 

sniled I 

the general Byatem, a 
reason of manj things bein 
sacred may bo attribnted to ■ 
aary prccantirm. It is inde 
tinctly stated by Porphyry (de 
ii. a. 11), who saya, "the Bg 
aad PhiEnioianB wodM rati 
bnmao flesh than that of oi 
aceonnt of the valoe of the 
though they both BDcriGoe > 
bnlla )" and the same was d( 
the ori^n of a aimilar Bnpersl 
India. Id another place Pi 
(iv, 7) says tho same thing, a 
"that ceitain bulls were held 
same veneration, while othei 
preserved for labour." Somi 
ago no one was allowed to Idl 
in Egypt, and a perraisaion fi 
frovemment was required < 
slaughter of a bull; bat th 
degeuoratcd into a mere tax, ai 
and calves were permitted to t 
on the payment of a dutj. I 


OlAP. 40, 41. 



to Us. ' The statue of this goddess has the form of a woman 
lot with horns like a cow, resembling thus the Greek repre- 
seotations of lo ; ^ and the Egyptians, one and all, venerate 
eowB much more highly than any other animal. This is the 
reason why no native of Egypt, whether man or woman, will 
give a Greek a kiss,* or use the knife of a Greek, or his spit, or 

Uid Thibet the veneration for the 
00* is as remarkable as in Egypt, 
^oone also remarks, " In .^gypto et 
F^imtiDA propter bonm raritatem 
Bono Tsccam oomedit " (ii. adv. Jovin. 
7). Porphyry (de Abstin.) says the 
bsk w1k> sacrificed did not offer 
ionnals, but herbs and flowers ; and 
(de Sacrif . iL) flonr, honey, and fruits. 


' This name is evidently connected 
with Ehe, " the Cow," of the Egyp- 
tkm, which was given to one of 
their goddesses; but the remark of 

Eastathias that " lo, in the language 
of the Ai'gives, is the moon," is ex- 
plained by its being the Egyptian 
name lohf " the moon," which, though 
quite distinct from Ehe, agprees well 
with lo being looked upon by the 
Oreeks as the moon, and with the sup- 
posed relationship of the Egyptians 
and the Argives, who were said to 
have been a colony taken by Danaus 
from the Nile. lo is reported to have 
visited Egypt in her wanderings, and 
to have been changed into Isis, in the 
city of Coptos, where she was wor- 
shipped under that name. (See Died, 
i. 24 ; and comp. Ovid Met. i, 588, 
747; Propert. ii. Elog. 28. 17; and 
At. Eg. W. vol. iv. p. 382, 388, 390; 
vol. V. p. 195.) The story of her hav- 
ing given birth to Epaphus (the Apia 
of Egypt) was probably a later ad- 
dition : but her wandering to the Nile, 
like the fable related by Herodotus 
(Book i. ch. 5). points to the connexion 
between Egypt and Argos. The name 
loh, or Aah, written Iho, or Aha, is an 
instance of the medial vowel at the 
end of a word in hieroglyphics. (See 
below, n. *, and App. ch. vi. § 16.) 
— [G. W.] 

•The Egyptians considered all fo- 
reigners unclean, with whom they 
would not eat, and particularly the 
Greeks. ** The Egyptians might not 
eat bread with the Hebrews, for that 
is an abomination unto the Egyptians" 
(Gen. xliii. 32) ; and the same pre- 
judice is continued by the Hindoos, 
and by many of the Moslems, to the 
present day. But the last have gra- 
dations, like the ancient Egyptians, 
who looked with greater horror on 
those who did not cut the throat from 
ear to ear of all animals used for food. 

^^H ^^^^^^^^^H 


^^H his cauldron, or taste tlie flesh of an ox, known to be piii 
^^M has been cut with a Greek kuife. When kine die, the fol 
^^H is the manner of their sepulture : — The females are throi 
^^f the river ; the males are buried in the suburbs of the 
1 with one or both of their horns appearing above the i 

of the ground to mark the place. When the bodi 

1 decayed, a boat comes, at an appointed time, from the 

^^L colled Frosopitis,' — which is a portion of the Delte 
^^m Bchoenea in circumference, — and calls at the several c: 
^^r tiJ*o to collect the bones of the oxen. Prosopitis is a < 
1 containing several cities ; the name of that from whi 

boats come is Atai-bechis.* Venus has a temple there o 

' Some Boppose the town of Prosfi- 
pitis to hufe been b1»o culled Niuinm. 
The island wa« between the CBoopio 
and Sebennytic branebea, at the fork, 
and on the west eido o( the apei of 
the Delta. It was tbere tlutt the 

EgjptianB againnt the Peraiaas, were 
besieged, fi.c. 460-458. (Thocyd. i. 
109.) It is not to be supposed that 
all the bulls thot died in Etfvpt were 
carried to Atorbechis to be boned ; 
and tnooh less that all the bodies of 
heifers wura thrown into tbu rirer. 
Like other animals thej were em- 
balmed and buried in the place where 

parts of the ooontiy. The E^-ptians 
were partioolar in preventing uny- 

, by potrefttction conld taint the air ; and 
this was the reason of their obliging 
erery town t« embalm whatoyer died 
there. It is probable thot viUagos 
near Atarbechis sent the carcaaeH of 
bnllB to that city, which led Heiwlotas 
to Boppose that all places did ko; as 
other animaluwere bent from different 
Tillages in the neighbourhood to the 
chiot city, where they were sacred. 
To pollute the Nile with dead corcoses 
would huve been in the highest degn« 

tin this point j and Che notion of Hero. 

toTiurimM feeding the ontood 

river still remains in Egypt, ' 
the Moalems awear -by tl 
streom."— [G-W.] 

' AthoT being the Tenoi a 
Atarbeehis was translated A] 

athor, and b< or bgk, "oity 
oconra again in Baalbek, tb 
Baal, or the San (Heliopol") 
the Assyrian name of the 1 

posed to have been at the mod 
been, in the Ule of Prosfipitia, 

ot the Nile, on an offset of tl 
called Thermnthiac, which fol 
woetem, aa the Sebeonyt^a 

Natho. There wereother tow 

sifHiifiea, as Platoroh sajB, 
babitaHon," Thy-hor, or TftU 
SOP. the origin of the name 
who, however, was made into 
person (Plat, de Is. a. 56, . 
Afl the moming-slor she ISBI 

form of a spotted cvw, and 
evening-Btar she retired beh 
night. She also representei 
and in thi« Mpaoity reoonrad 




ity. Great numbers of men go forth from this city and 
ed to the other towns^ where they dig up the bones, 
1 they take away with them and bury together in one 
The same practice prevails with respect to the inter- 
of all other cattle — ^the law so determining ; they do not 
iter any of them. 
Such Egyptians as possess a temple of the Theban 
or live in the Thebaic canton,^ offer no sheep in sacri- 
but only goats ; for the Egyptians do not all worship the 

setting into her arms as he 
behind the western mountain 
ea. It was from this that the 
1 part of the city was called 
8, ** belonging to Athor," who 
1 over the west. (On Athor 
Eg. W. vol. iv. 386 to 394.) 
mt importance is shown by the 
:tie8 dedicated to her in Upper 
rer Egypt, as well as temples 
' plaoes, from the earliest times 
Ptolemies and Csesars; and 
was the great goddess of 
ia and other countries. — [G.W.] 
the cantons or nomes of Egypt 
i 7 on ch. 164. It has errone- 
een supposed that each nome 
Espt distinct from the others 

difference of religion and 
It is true there was a chief 

the nome ; bat cities of 
i nomes were often dedicated 
same deity ; and even a city 
lave a chief god who was not 
of the nome, as Eileithyia was 
city within the nome of Apol- 
s. The nnmerons divinities 
»ped thronghout Egypt were 
mitted as contemplar gods in 
•t of the couitry. See note ' 
chapter.— [G. W.] 
ep are never represented on 
tar, or slaughtered for the 
ht Thebes, though they were 
veare for their wool ; and Plu- 
ays "none of the Egyptians 
»ep, except the Lycopolites" 
i. 8. 72). Goats were killed, 
t Theban gentry seem to have 
Ml the ibex or wild goat, the 

oryx, the gazelle, and other game. 
These, however, were confined to the 
wealthier classes ; others lived princi- 
cipally on beef, Nile geese, and other 
wild fowl; and some were satisfied 
with fish, either fresh or salted, with 
an occasional g^oose or a joint of meat ; 
and the numerous vegetables Egypt 
produced appeared in profusion on 
every table. Lentil porridge was, as 
at present, a great article of food for 
the poor, as well as the raphanvs (Jlgl) 
(Herod, ii. 125), *' cucumbers (or 
gourds), melons, and leeks, onions, and 
garlick " (Num. xi. 6), of which the 
gourd (kuSf Arabic kHz), melon (ahtikh, 
Arabic hatikh), onion (hual, Arabic 
husl), and garlick (t6m, Arabic t6m) 
retain their names in Egypt to the 
present day. They had also fruits 
and roots of various kinds; and 
Diodorus (i. 80) says that children had 
merely " a little meal of the coarsest 
kind, the pith of the papyrus, baked 
under the ashes, and the roots and 
stalks of marsh-weeds." Beef and 
goose, ibex, gazelle, oryx, and wild 
fowl were also presented to the gods ; 
and onions, though forbidden to the 
priests, always held a prominent place 
on their altar, with the^i^l (rapbanus, 


eame gods,' excepting IsSs and Osiria, the latter of wht 
Bfty IB the Grecian BacchuB.* Those, on the oontrai 
possess a temple dedicated to Mendes,' or belong; 

Ggs. T, 8), and gonrilB {Sga. 6, 6), 
grapes, figs (cBpeoiatly of Ihe fljctt- 
luuro, BgB. 3, 4), cam, and TU-ioaB 
flowers, (See cb. 39, woodcut No. II.) 
Wine, milk, beer, and a profnaion of 
uikes Bud broad, also formed part of 
Uiu uBcringB.Bnd ineenne true presented 
at every great Bacrifice.— [G. W.] 

' Thongh each citj fakd its pro- 
siding deity, mnny othere of neigh- 
bunring and of diatikiit tonus wore nlao 
ndniitted to its temples as oontemplar 
gods, Bjid none wcra positively ei- 
cloded except some local divimtieB, 
and certain bdiuuiIb, whose eanotity 
was confined to pnrlionlBr plaoBB. In 
one oity Aman wua the ohief deity, as 
Qt Tbebea; in another Fthah, as at 
Memphis ; in another Re (the san), dh 
at Helicpolis ; and some cities which 
were oonBoomlcd to the eame deity 
were diatingmahed by the affix " the 
great " " the leaaer," as Aphroditopolis, 
aod Dioapolis, Magna, and Parva. 
Many ^aJn bore a name not taken 
from the chief god of the plara j but 
every city and every Banctnary bod 
ila presiding deity, with oontemplar 
gods, who were members of the gene- 
ral Pantheon — those of a neighbonring 
town generally holding a conspicnona 
poat in the temple, after the chief 
deity of the plaoe. Each tiiwn hod 
also a triad oamposed of the great 
god of the place and two otber 
membera. Many local deitioa scarcely 
wont beyond their own city or noma ; 
and some animala, aaored in one pro- 
vince, were held in abborrenco in 
another. Thas, the inhabitants of 
OmboB, Athribia, and the Northern 
Crocodilopolia (afterwards called At- 
sinoe), near tbo Lake MsEria, honoured 
the crocodile I thoaoof Tentyria, Hera.- 
cleopolis, and ApoUinupoliH Magna 
were its avowed enemies^ and oa the 
OrobitoB fought with the Tentyrites 
in the canse of tbeir sacred animal, 
•0 a war was waged between the 

OiyrhinohitPB and Cynopolit' 
sequence of tbo former havin 
dog, to avenge an aSroat □ 
the Cynopolitee, who bad bi 
table the sacred fiah at Osy 
(Pint, de Isid. V. 44.) The ; 
theae local honoura was not i 
connected with religion; and 
tity of the crocodile, and o 
fiah, at Crocodilopolia, Oxy 
and other places diatout 
Nile, was instituted in order 
the inhabitants to keep np t1 
worshipped < 

weU D 


judge of the dead, ail wen 
amenablH to his tribunal ; bi 
not be said that be and In* 
only deities worshipped tl 
Egypt, ainco Amun, Pthah, 
other great gods, and many a 
second, as wcU as of the th: 
were universally venerated.^ 

• See below, note ' on oh. • 
ris," sayB Diodorus, " has I 
sidered the same aa Sanpia, 
Pluto, or Ammon ; others ha» 
him Jupiter; many Pan;" 
endoBvoura to identify him 
sun, and Isia with the (OO 
these notiuna were owing to 
ties being traced in the atb 
certain gods of the Greek a) 
tian I antbeona, and one o 
aessed some that belonged U 
Thus the principal cbanK;t«c 
was that of Pluto, because 
Judge of the dead, and ruler c 
or Hades; and he wsa soppo 
Bacohna, when ho lived on s 
taught man to till the hmd.— 

' The muonds of Aihmow 
canal leading to Minialeh, i 
site ot MendoB. The Ore 
sidered l^n to be t»th Hb 
Khom; they called Cbsmmia 
Egypt Paoopolia, and gave t) 
of the Mcudosian nome Ur 
waa said by Henidotw {^^ 





Ifendesian canton, abstain from offering goats, and sacrifice 
sheep instead. The Thebans, and such as imitate them in 
their practice, give the following account of the origin of the 
coBtom : — " Hercules, " they say, " wished of all things to see 
Jore, but Jove did not choose to be seen of him.® At length, 
irhen Hercules persisted, Jove hit on a device — to flay a ram, 
and, cutting off his head, hold the head before him, and cover 
himself with the fleece. In this guise he showed himself to 
Hercules." Therefore the Egyptians give their statues of 
'npiter the face of a ram : ^ and from them the practice has 

^ figured with the head and leg^ of 

• goat. Unfortunately no monoment 

tBoins at JL^Aimotm to give the name 

ttd form of the god of Mendee ; bnt 

it is certain that he was not Khem, 

the " Pan of Thebes " (n&K %h^v), 

vho had the attribntes of Priapna, 

uid was one of the great g^s. Man- 

<Ioo again (or Mont), whose name 

Appears to be related to Mendes, had 

tbe head of a hawk : and no god of 

the Egyptian Pantheon is represented 

With the head and legs of a goat. 

The notion is Greek ; and Jablonski 

is qaite right in saying that Mendes 

did not sig^fy a '* goat." There is a 

tablet in the British Mnsemn (No. 

%5/5) with a goat represented much in 

the iame manner as an Apis ; bat the 

legend orer it contains no reference 

to Mcndefl. Khem, like the Greek 

Pan, was *' universal nature ; " and as 

he presided orer everything generated, 

he was the god of vegetable as well 

as animal life ; and though the god of 

gardens had with the Greeks another 

name, he was really the same deity 

under his phallic form. — [G. W.] 

* This fable accords with the sup- 
posed meaning of the name of Amun, 
which Hanctho says was ^' conceal- 
ment ; '* but the reason of the god 
laving the h^td of an animal would 
apply to so noiany others, that it ceases 
to do BO to any one in particular. 
Hecatasos derived Amun from a word 
signifying " come/' in allusion to his 
bdng invoked (Plut. de Isid. 5. 9) ; 
and lamblichna says it implies that 

which brings to light, or is manifested. 
Arnold means " envelope " and amovne 
is " come."— [G. W.] 

• See above, notes ^, •, on ch. 29. 
The God Noum (Nou, Noub, or Nef), 
with a ram's head, answered to Jupi. 
ter, and he was the first member of 
the Triad of the Cataracts, composed 
of Noum, Sate, and Anoak^ (Jupiter, 
Juno, and Vesta). Amun again was 
also considered the same as Japitcr, 
because he was the King of the Gods ; 
and it was from his worship that 
Thebes received the name of Dios- 
polis, " the city of Jovo," answering 
to No- Amun or Amiinna of the Bible 
(Jer. xlvi. 25 ; Ezek. xxx. 14, 15, 16), 

and Noum, 

the Amun-6i (" abode 
of Amun"), 

or Amun-ei Na (" the 
great abode of Amun ". 
or"Amun-^i" only?) of 
the sculptures. Amun 
having both some of the attributes of 
Jupiter, naturally became confounded 
by the Greeks ; and the custom of one 
god occasionally receiving the attri- 
butes of another doubtless led them 
into error. The greatest interchange, 
however, was between Amun and 
Khem ; but as this was only at The- 
bes, and little known to the Greeks, 
the same misapprehension did not 
take place, and Khem by the Greeks 
was only considered to be Pan. Yet 
Pan again was supposed by them to 


passed to the Atnmonians, who are a joint colony of Eji 
and Ethiopians, speaking a language between the twoj 
also, in my opinion, the latter people took their A 
Ammonians, since the Egyptian name for Jupiter iu 
Such, then, is the reason why the Thebans do not m 
rums, but consider theni sacred animala. Upon onJ 
the year, however, at the festival of Jupiter, tliey slayj 
ram, and stripping off the fleece, cover with it the n 
that god, as he once covered himself, and then bring in 
statue of Jove an image of Hercules. When this In 
done, the whole assembly beat their breasts in mouzj 
the ram, and afterwards bury him in a holy sepulchre."j 

43. The account which I received of this Hercul 
him one of the twelve gods.' Of the other HercnJ 

be Mondes \ &Dd the tiro names of 
Amim and Amont^, given to the fi&me 
god, vronid probably lave perplexed 
tbo Greeks, if they hud happened to 
parcoive that ttdditioutl title of Aman. 
It is. however, only right to bbj that 
tho EthiopiBng freqaently gave the 
nrune of Amim to the ram-hended 
Nonm, and, being their greatent god, 
w»H to tliero what Japiler was to the 
GrmikB. See my note on Book iv. oh. 

' Here again the Bame oonfuaion 
nconrs, from tho DlaioiB at two gods 
to the ehnrooter of Heronlea — Shorn, 
the third member of the Thebau 
Triad, nnd Uoai, who is called " Son 
of the Sun." Tho hitter was the god 
of SobennytUB, where he was known 
UDiter tho name of Oem, Bem.or Qem- 
Doati, whence the Coptic appellation 
of that city Oemnonti- There was 
KDOther Herocleopolia, the capital of 

,, whicl 

now tnarked by the moandA of Ani- 
sieh, the Hnt* of the CopU, b little 
to the south of the entrance to the 
Fydom. Uoni sppeara to be the 
Rplendonc or force of the eon, and 
henoe the god of power, a dirine 
attribato— the Greek Hercules being 
Btrongtb, a gift to man. The Kgyp. 
tian UeronlM wna the ahitraet idea of 

divine power, and it ii 

snri'rising that Horodoto* at 
nothing of the Greek Herii 
waa a hero nnkaown in Kn 
canneiioD between strengtn 
nukjr be traced even in th« I 
pellation of Heronlea. jU( 
patronymic (token froni fa; 
father AlemiB) and the nM 
mother Alomiena, were deri 
iXrii, " strength i " and Hon 
even bo related to t^e 8a: 
htirh, " heat," or " bnming- 
gona to the Tentoiuo hoc, 
and perhaps to oor, " lighi 
brew, or to the Hor (Horaa) i 
The Etrugcans called him I 
Ercle. In tlio Hebrew, " 
recalls tho name of Sem, tha 
Hercnlea. Hercules being 
the twelve laboorB at tha I 
may hare been derived I 
twelve signs of tlie aodiao. . 
OS HorodDtosi Havrobina, ai 
Htate, was partiealarly wonl 
Tj-re i " bnt,- adds Haorobi 
Egyptians veneiat« him with 
sacred and angnat rites, and 1 
the period when his worship 
adopted by them as beyond 
of all memoriala. He ia br 
have killed the Giants, wh. 
eharatter of the raloor of thi 


79 the Greeks are familiar, I could hear nothing in any 
]Murt of Egypt. That the Greeks, however (those I mean who 
||i?e the son of Amphitryon that name), took the name ^ from 
the Egyptians, and not the Egyptians from the Greeks,^ is I 
think clearly proved, among other arguments, by the fact 
that both the parents of Hercules, Amphitryon as well as 
Alemena, were of Egyptian origin.^ Again, the Egyptians 
fiselaim all knowledge of the names of Neptune and the 
Dioficori,' and do not include them in the number of their 

tooght in defence of Heaven ; " which 
>eoordfl with the title of a work called 
"Senmathis," written by ApoUonides 
9 Horapina (in Theophil. Antioch. ad 
Attolyc. 2. 6), describing the wars of 
^ Gods against the Giants, and re- 
^ the Egyptian title of the god of 
S^bennytns. Cicero mentions one 
Oercole* who was " Nilogenitus ; " 
^ Herccles was derived by the 
^ixeeks from the Phcenicians rather 
^ from Egypt. See note ^ on ch. 
Hind note* ch. 171.— [G. W.] 

* Herodotns, who derived his know- 

Uge of the Egyptian religion from 

tbe professioiial interpreters, seems to 

bfe regarded the word " Hercales " 

H Egyptian. It is scarcely necessary 

to lay that no Egyptian god has a 

name' fmm which that of Hercules 

can by any possibility have been 

formed. The word {'Hpcuckris) seems 

to be pure Greek, and lias been 

reMonably enoogh derived from 'Hpa, 

"the goddess Jnno,'*and kX^os "glory " 

(see Scott and Liddell's Lexicon, p. 


* See the last note but one. The 
tendency of the Greeks to claim an 
indigenoas origin for the deities they 
borrowed from strangers, and to sab- 
stitate physical for abstract beings, 
readOy led them to invent the story 
of Hercales, and every dignua %*indice 
noduM was cat by the interposition of 
kia marvelloos strength. Even the 
Aimbs call forth some hero to acconnt 
for natoral phenomena, or whatever 
wooderfnl action they think right to 
attribute to man ; and the opening of 

the Straits of Gibraltar is declared by 
Edrisi to have been the work of Alex- 
ander the Great; any stnpendoas 
bailding is asbribed to Antar; and 
Solomon (like Melampns in Ghreek 
fable) is supposed to have explained 
the language of animals and birds — a 
science said by Fhilostratus to have 
been learnt from the Arabs by Apol- 
lonius Tyanasus (i. 14). In order to 
acconnt for the discrepancies in the 
time when Hercales was supposed to 
have lived, the Greeks made out three, 
the oldest being the Eg^yptian and the 
son of Jove, another of Crete, and the 
youngest was the hero, also a son of 
Jove. Some Latin writei'S (as Yarro) 
increased the number to forty-three. 
The Cretan Hercules was also related 
to the god of Egypt ; and the latter, 
as Moui, was intimately connected 
with the funeral rites, and was gene- 
rally painted black in the tombs of 
Thebes.— [G. W.] 

* The parentage of the former was 
Alcrous, Perseus, Jupiter, and Danai^, 
Acrisius, Abas, Lynceus (who married 
a daughter of Danaus), ^gyptus, the 
twin-brother of Danaus, the son of 
Belus. Alemena was daughter of 
Electryon, the son of Perseus. This 
accords with what Herodotus men- 
tions (ch. 91) of Perseus, Danaus, and 
Lynceus having been natives of Chem. 
mis, and connects them all with the 
sun.— [G.W.] 

^ Herodotus is quite right in saying 
that these gods were not in the Egyp- 
tian Pantheon. See note' on ch. 60, 
and noto» ch. 91.— [G. W.] 





^da ; but bad they adopted the name of any god &om tht 
GreekB, tbese would bave been tbe likelieBt to obtain nutio^, 
since tbe EgyptianB, as I am well convinced, practised naiigi^ 
tion at tbat time, and the Greeks also were some of then 
mariners, so tbat tbey would bave been more Ukely to knol 
the names of these goda than that of Hercules, Bnt tb 
Egyptian Hercules is one o[ their ancient gods. SeventMl 
thousand years before tbe reign of Amasis, the twelve gO( 
were, tbey affirm, produced &om the eight : ' and of thH 
twelve, Herenles is one. 

44. In tbe wish to get the best information that I could fl 

' This is the mppoBod period from 
HeronleB to Amaaia ; ajid 15,000 i 
reckoned from Bai-cboB to Ail 
(oh, 115), AoourdiD^ to Uanotbo, tlio 
£ boltered that the god< 
reigned on earth before tneii. The 
Bret were Vnk-au, Hie Sen, Agfttho- 
dEemtin, ChrunuB (Satam), OBiris, 
Typhon (or Seth), Horng (whiob four 
lost are foDUd also in tbia ordorin Che 
TnrCn PspyniH). The royal antbority 
then contieaed through a long Birc- 
ceaaioB to Bytia (or Bites), occnpying 

Then itlti Ihr Ooda rolgiud 

Olh»rkiiigs ■ '..'.'. IfllT 
u dClxr I ?} UcmphlW k Ingt 1 1 90 

which agrees very nearly with the 
sum givoQ by Ea»ebiuR, from ttane- 
(he, of 24,900, from the beginmug of 
the i«ign of Tnlcan to Henes. 

Synacllm, agnia, od the sathority 
of Manotho, givoB the reigns of the 

I. Mm the d 

In this list tbe relatiTe pomtioM 
Oairis (Baochus) and Hercoles do 
agree with tho f!tal«tuent id H' 
dotna ; and in dedncting tbe mm 
12,294 + em (to the end of Hem 
teign)=12,974 from tho tot«l rnU 
the gods, or S4,9So, we havo 11,1 
jearB ; and this added to the 879S 
Munetho's lists, from 
end of AmaBiB, gives 14,760 Jfl 
from Hen^alcB, or 15,418 years ft 
OairiB to the end of Amasis. B«l 
Boffioiuntly appears from tbe 
in tbe above list that it is not « tho Egyptians calculated 
this maimer; and the Tniin Fapji 
gives, after Horns, Thoth (wIm Ma 
to have reigned 722fi year*), 
Tbmei, and apparently Horns 
yonnger) ; after whom sc 
the first King Menes; or 
of demi-gnda, folltiwcd by the 
Menus. It is however poasil 
Herodotus was told of some lial 
lar to the one above. See Tn. F. 
p. 7 to ll.-[Q. W.] 




lattersy I made a voyage to Tyre in Phoenicia, hearing 
ras a temple of Hercules at that place/ very highly 
ed. I visited the temple, and found it richly adorned 
number of offerings, among which were two pillars, one 
B gold, the other of emerald,^ shining with great 

;emp1e of Hercnles at Tyre 

ancient, and, according to 
8, as old as the city itself, or 
ra before his time, i.e. about 
Hercnles presided over it 
i title of MeUcarth, or Melek- 
"king" (lord) of the city. 
3* on ch. 32.) Diodoms also 
eaks of the antiquity of Her- 
td his antiquity is fully estab- 

spite of the doubts of Flu- 
De Herod. Mai.). The Fhos- 
ettled at the Isle of Thasos, 
nt of its gold mines, which 

discovered there (Herod, vi. 
Ipollodor. iii. 1), as they were 

to visit Britain for its tin. 
B Bays the Thasians being of 
A origin, coming with Agenor 
er Phoenicians from Tyre, 
I a temple to Hercnles at 
They worshipped the same 

as the Tyrians (Pansan. v. 
'), and Apollodorus (iii. 1) 
lat Thasos, son of Poseidon 
j), or, according to Phere- 
f Cilix, going in quest of 
'ounded the Thracian Thasos. 
went to Phoenicia, Cilix to 
Cadmus and Telephus to 

The Helcarthus mentioned 
reh (de Is. s. 15) as a king of 
ind his queen Astart6, were 
rules and Astart4 (Yenos) of 
he latter called also Saosis 
nanoun, answering to the 
une Athenais. The Temple 
les is supposed to have stood 
tiill close to the aqueduct, 
^ mile east of the modern 
dch last occupies part of in. 
re taken by Alexander. The 
oarks the site of the early 
I the Temple of Hercules at 
I the oldest of that deity in 

that of Venus Urania, or 


Astart^, at Askalon, was the oldest of 
that goddess. 

In 2 Maccabees iv. 18, 20, mention 
is made of a great game every fifth 
year, kept at Tyre, with sacrifices to 
Hercules. The absurdity of connect- 
ing the name Melicortes with "honey," 
as in the Gnostic Papyrus, is obvious. 
(See note ' on ch. 83.) The sea doity, 
Melicertes of Corinth, afterwards 
called Palaamon, was only an adapta- 
tion of a foreign god. The Tyrian 
Hercules was originally the sun, and 
the same as Baal, " the lord," which, 
like Melkarth, was only a title. Her- 
cules and Venus (Astarte) were really 
nature deified, one representing the 
generating, or vivifying, and the other 
the producing principle ; hence the 
mother goddess. The sun was chosen 
as the emblem of the first, and the 
earth of the second, or sometimes the 
moon, being looked upon as the com- 
panion of the sun. This nature system 
will explain the reason of so many 
gods having been connected with the 
sun in Egypt and elsewhere; as 
Adonis (Adonai, " our Lord ") was the 
sun in the winter solstice. — [G. W.] 

* This pillar is mentioned by Theo- 
phrastus (Lap. 23), and Pliny (H. N. 
XXX vii. 6). The former expresses an 
opinion that it was false. 

[It was probably of glass, which is 
known to have been made in Egypt at 
least 3800 years ago, having been 
found bearing the name of a Pharaoh 
of the 18th dynasty. The monuments 
also of the 4th dynasty show the same 
glass bottles (see woodcut, fig. 7, p. 129) 
wore used then as in later times, and 
glass-blowing is represented in the 
paintings from the 12th to the 26th 
dynasty, and also in those of the 4th 
at the tombs near the Pyramids. 
Various hues were g^ven to glass by 

brilliancy at night. In a conversation which I held vith 
prieats, I enquired how long their temple had been built, 
found by their answer that they, too, differed from the Gred 

the EgyptiimB, and this invention be. 
oame in after times a, great favourite 
at Borne, where it wbs Toach Bought 
for omamentnl purjNiflos, for bottli-B 
and otber common utensils, and evi>n 
for windows, one of which was dia. 
oorered at Pompeii. (Camp. Seneca. 
£p. 90 ; do Beoef. rii. 9 ; and de TI&, 
iii. 40.) Tlie manafactaro appoara to 
bare been introduced under the Em- 
pire. They also ont. ground, and en- 
giATod gliLSB, and bad even the art of 
introducing gold between two Bnrfaccs 
of the Bubstanet! ; spacimenB of all 
whicb I have, as well as of false 
pearls from Thebes, scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from real ones, if buriad 
the same number of years. Pliny 
OTen speaks of glass being malleable. 
The gloss of Egypt was long famona 
(Athen. xi. p. 784 c), and oontinued so 
to Iho time of tlio Empire. Strabo 
(ivi. p. 1077) mcntion.s its many 
ooloors, and one very perfect kind 
which could only be nuule with a par- 

tionlar vitreous earth f 
ceantry ; and the ruias 
naces are atiU seen at the Kst 
Lakes. Of all stones, saja Pliny, 
emerald was the must easily iniif' 
(xxvii.l3)i and theoolosmsot 8« 
in the Egyptian Labyrinth, 9 oi 
(between 13 and 14 feet) high. I 
others meutioncd by Pliny (raiva 
were doablleaa of glass ; like the *i 
Xvri of Herodotus (infro, oh. 69. ' 
At. Eg. W. vol. iii. p. 88 to II 
There seems every probability i 
glass wBB first invented in Egypt ; I 
fires lighted freqnoofly on the sal' 
a country producing natron, or 
carbonate of Boda, would 1>e ) 
likely to disclose the secret UoM'^ 
solitary acoideoC of sailors I 
blocks of natron for snpporting 1 
saucepans on the sea-shoie of & 
as stated by Pliny (uivi, 65). PI 




Thpy Baid that the temple was bailt at the same time that tlie 
nl\ was founded, (uid thiit the foundation of the city took place 
t>^'J thousand three hundred years ago. In Tyre I remarked 
aiKitlicr temple where the same god was worshipped as Uie 
Thasian HerctUea. 9o I went on to Thasos,* where I found a 
irmijle of Hercules wliich had heen biiilt by the Fhceniciaiis 
»h(i colonised that island when they sailed in search of 
Ewojia.' Even this was five generatious earlier than the 
time when Hercules, son of Amphitryon, was bom in Greece, 
These researches show plamly that there is an ancient god 
Hercules ; and my own opinion is, that those Greeks act most 

'HiBiOfi, which ^t1 reboma i 
' "IV, iati tituill iitl&iiil off theTtiracii 
■■<••'■ appoaite to the mouth of tl 
-'"-iiu [KaroMu). It ncema to bave 
'i-'-B 1 trrj emlf Phmnicioii eattlement 

' Thu BigniStw cxplaring the " west- 

'■m luub," Eoropa beivif Ereb (the 

Anbtc ;karl>), " tb« weal." It is the 

"■nte wort ta Ecelios, or " darkueas j " 

uut Europa ie said to be x^P" ''^' 

""■•t, 1| vmrtirA — EofHfir, iritin-tn'rii'. 

'Hmjch. comp. E^. l|>b. iu Tuar. v. 

'-''< I The esme wonl occura in Be- 

' X, where 3^ iigiiilu<B "mixed, ' or 

>-~'^f colour," and ie applied to tho 

■ ■liing.aiid Bon-Betting, to the niTon 

1 lo the Arabs; — "the mingled 

■■■i'lc (Arabs) that dweU in the 

•n-" (Jprem. xxv. 20, 24.) Tho 

IT n( Enropa woa reoJly Phtenioian 

uiatioo. repieaeolcd as a princess. 

'~r\erl UfCnl^ their first and nearest' 

' 'If, bjr Jupiter, mider the form of 

'iill. wherp she becBine the mother 

' Minoe. Hence Eoropa is called bj 

■' w (IL DT. 321} a daii|ghter of 

vtiii, whom some confider her 

■I'ler; and his royago to Africa in 

-■n-h df Earapa (" the west") points 

L ^ I'lia&itfiaii eolonisation there also- 

j^ W* no t» no donbt th&t tho name 

• * 4» " Amba ■' WM also givea from 

I I'M'tinBg Bt the vmttgmmnst part of 

^ ; and their mni woid Oharb, the 

>Vv^" £g another form of the OT\ip- 

-' »mitie <u»me Arab. The Arabs 

write the two i_ij* Gharh, uvc Aval ; 
and Ihoir ghordb, "crow," nuirirerB to 
the Hebrew 3Tjj, " raren ; " which last 
is called by tbeia jAonit NogA, "Noah's 

The n 

a Arab, " Western," 

may either have been giren them by a 
Bemitio people who lived more to thu 
Ea«t, or eren by themselrea. The 
Ambs called the North " Shemdl," or 
'' the left," I.e. looking towards iiin- 
riao; and Yaneri means "the right.' 
The Portngnoso title, " Prince of Ibo 
Algarrea," is from al Oharb, " the 
West." I'he Egyptiuui called Hades 
"Amenti;" and the name for the 
"West," Ement, shows the same rola- 
iionsbip as between Erebus and the 
West, Again. " Hesperia," the Greek 
name for Italy, woa the "West," like 
the fabled pudens of the Hesparidoa ; 
and the Phosniuians, Greeks, and 
others, talked of " the Wett " ns we do 
of " the EmI." Tlie name of Codmns, 
the FhienieiBn who gave letters tu 
Qreeeo, ia of siniilar import ; and he is 
a mythical, not a real, persona*^. His 
name Sadni sigmfies the " East," as 
in Job i. 3, where B«nt Ktidm are 
" aoDB of the East," and Oadmns was 
tberafore reputed to be a brother of 
Eortipa. Kikdm, or Endt^m, also 
Btgnifias "old" in Hebrew, as in 
Arabic ; and the name in this sense loo 
might apply to Cadmus. In Semitio 
louguages the East, old, he!" 

3-> f^Pard. a /-mt 

related.— [G. W.] 

ftc, ( 



wisely who build and maintain two temples of Herooles,' ii 
the one of which the Hercules worBhipped is known b; tbi 
name of Olympian, and hse sacrifice offered to him as an in 
mortal, wliile in the other the honours paid are such as an 
due to a hero. 

45. The Greeks tell many tales without due inTestigation 
and among them the following silly &ble respecting Heranl« 
— " Hercules," they say, " went once to Egypt, and there tbi 
inhabitants took him, and putting a chaplet on his head, lei 
him out in solemn procession, intending to offer him a saorifiei 
tu Jupiter. For a while he submitted quietly ; but when thej 
led him up to the altar and began the ceremonies, he pnt fortt 
his Btrength and slew them all." Now to me it seems thai 
suc]i a story proves the Greeks to be utterly ignorant of th 
character and customs of the people. The Egyptians do nol 
think it allowable even to sacrifice cattle, excepting sheep ant 
the male kine and calves, provided they be pure, and alM 
geese. How, then, can it be believed that they would sacrifiM 
And agiiiu, how would it have been posBiblo fm 



Hercules alone, and, as they confess, a mere mortal, to destroy 
•0 many thousands ? In saying thus much concerning these 
matters, may I incur no displeasure either of god or hero ! 

^6. I mentioned above that some of the Egyptians abstain 
from sacrificing goats, either male or female. The reason is 
ibe following : — These Egyptians, who are the Mendesians,* 
consider Pan to be one of the eight gods who existed before the 
Welve, and Pan is represented in Egypt by the painters and 
the sculptors, just as he is in Greece, with the face and legs of 
* goat.* They do not, however, believe this to be his shape, 
^ consider him in any respect unlike the other gods ; but they 
represent him thus for a reason which I prefer not to relate. 
The Mendesians hold all goats in veneration, but the male 
loore than the female, giving the goatherds of the males 
especial honour. One is venerated more highly than all the 
^, and when he dies there is a great mourning throughout 
*D the Mendesian canton. In Egyptian, the goat and Pan 
We both called Mendes. 

47. The pig is regarded among them as an imclean animal, 
80 much so that if a man in passing accidentally touch a pig, 
he instantly hurries to the river, and plunges in with all his 
clothes on. Hence, too, the swineherds, notwithstanding that 
they are of pure Egyptian blood, are forbidden to enter into 
any of the temples, which are open to all other Egyptians ; 
and further, no one will give his daughter in marriage to a 
swineherd, or take a wife from among them, so that the swine- 
herds are forced to intermarry among themselves. They do 
not offer swine ^ in sacrifice to any of their gods, excepting 

mg the Egyptians (as in chaps. 46, 
121, 126, 131, and other places). On 
^— nfn sacrifices in old times, see 
Kite» on ch. 119.— [G. W.] 

* In the original, " with the face of 
a goftt, and the legs of a he-goat,*' — 
which seems to be a distinction with- 
out a difference. No Egyptian god is 
really represented in this way (At. Eg. 
W. i. p. 260) ; bat the goat, according 
to some Egyptologers, was the symbol 

and representative of Khem, the Pan 
of the Egyptians. (See Bnnsen's 
Egypt, vol. i. p. 374, and compare 
notes ^, ', on ch. 42.) 

* The pig is rarely represented in 
the sculptures of Thebes. The flesh 
was forbidden to the priests, and to all 
initiated in the mysteries, and it 
seems only to have been allowed to 
others once a year, at the fete of the 
full moon, w^hen it was sacrificed to 


Bacchus and the Moon, whom they honour in thia way at the 
name time, sacrificing pigs to both of them at the Bame full 
moon, and aftem-ards eating of the flesh. There is a reaBoa 
alleged by them for their detestation of swine at all otlter 
seasons, and their ose of them at this festi-ral, with which I 
ftm well acquainted, but which I do not think it proper to 
mention. The following is the mode in which they sacrifice 
the swine to the Moon : — As soon as the victim is elain, the tip 
of the tail, the spleen, and the caul aie put together, mi 
Imving been covered with all the fat that has been fonnd in the 
nnimal's belly, are straightway burnt. The remainder of the 
flesh is eaten on the same day that the sacrifice is offered, 
uliich is the day of the full moon : at any other time the^ 
would not BO much elb taBte it. The poorer sort, who cannot 
ufTord live pigs, form pigs of dough, which they bake and offs 
in sacrifice. 

48. To Bacchus, on the eve of his feast, every Egyptian 
sacrifices a hog before the door of his house, which is then 
given back to the swineherd by whom it was furnished, and 


g that the Egyptians have no choral dances.' They 
I, instead of phalli, another invention, consisting of 

' it i» evident tii«t the 
1 not nndentand the nature 
TptiBn gods, and m&ny of 
I related bj them in the 
Oairiii are at vmiiance with 
DCDta of Bgjpt, BecohDB 
r the god of the Qreeks who 
ia to Onria, and hia djiDK 
■gain, hii being pat into e 
thivwn into the aes, and 

the inatractiona he g>ve b 
are eridontly derived trom the atolj 
of Oairia ; and the ^' hiaioriea on which 
the m(»t solemn feaeta of Baoohns, 
the Titania and Nuktelia, are founded, 
exactly oorreapond (aa Flntaroh eaja, 
de la. ■. 36) with what are related of 
the cntting' to pieoea of Oviria, of hia 
rising again, and of hia new life." 

ica secamone, often appear 
tn rites. For iw ia not a 
.he Nile, thoaffh Plutarch 
I there called chenoeiris. or 
Odria" (deln. a. 37i Diod. 
the leavcB being sometimes 
d hairr, are in favonr of 
: (fi?. 4). It 

ion the form of palm-trees, and othera 
of the thyriut. 

The adoption ot the pine-cone to 
head the spear of Bacchus originated 


(ribnted to 
««a of lodi: 
FOm the aadepia* acida, 
,yi a divine part in the 
1 ii mentioned in the Zend- 
Pergift. (aeeJoar. Americ. 
.L iii. No 2, p. 299.) 
rvDB is shown bv Plutarch 
taff {fig- 1), often bound by 
which the spotted akin of a 
inapended near the figure of 
r it ia the aauie that the 
t, clad in the leopard akin 
ie* in the procc&sions (Pint. 
»), Another form of it is 
hf a water-plant (similar to 
f. 8), to which Athenffna I in 
p. )96) evidently alludes ! in 
eaka of aome colntnns bav- i ac 

tho uae of the resinons matter i 
M vrinc-BkiuB, and Bftcrmarda ii 
iphuro; bat the thyrana waa a 

images a cubit high, pulled by strings, which i 
earry round to the villages. A piper goes in front ; 

roproeentod as b- spear having lie 
point '■ oonccolud in try leaves ; " 
" I'ampinois agiUit velntaiD frondibos 

hoitam." (Orid, Hot. iii. 667; comp, 
li. 27, An- Diodor. iii. 64. Atheo. 
Doipn. xlv. Gil A.) ThoB the poets 
genomllf describe it, as well as the 
paintings dd Grook votes : and if the 
pinB-ooQB was preferred for stabtea of 
Baccbaa, that was probably from ita 
being better suited to sonlptaro. Tbo 
resemblance of the neln-u, and tbo Se- 
mitic name of the leopard, nimr, Ib 
Btriking, tbo oar of Baccboa heiDfi 
drawn by leoparda j and Boehart 
poiots to the analogy betneen Ne- 
brodefl, a title of Bacchaa and Kimmd, 
■who ia called by Philo-JodEcDs " Nh- 
brM." Tbo pine-cone was adopted 
by the Arabs aa an ornament in arphi- 
t«ctQre at on early time, and passed 
thenoe to Cashimre abamlB and em- 
broidecy.— [G, W.] 

' The reailing x'V^" ^byb ia prefer- 
able to x'^f't i<T *''B Greeks did 
BBcHRce a pig at the festivals of Bac- 
ohna, as theii' antfaora and Bcnlptnree 
■how. The Tptmii oonsisted of on oi, 
a flheep, and a pig, like the Boman 

Od. IX. 160, raye the Ithucaua sacri- 
ficed three pigs at the feast of tbo 
new moon.— [Q. W.J 

" The inBtmment uaed was probably 
the double-pipe ; bnt some considor it 
the flote (properly the rto^iauAoi, or 
oUigua UUa), which WM also ftn 

Egyptian inBtmmeDt. 
by men (fig. 8 : and w 
ch. 58, figs. 3, 5), bat tha 1 
mere fieqnently by womisv 
cut No. III. fig. 3.) Tbo l| 


ClAP. 4B, 49. 



49. Melampus,* the son of Amytheon, cannot (I think) have 
^ ignorant of this ceremony — ^nay, he mast, I should 
^ceive, have been well acquainted with it. He it was who 
Qtrodaced into Greece the name of Bacchus, the ceremonial 
f his worship, and the procession of the phallus. He did not, 
owever, so completely apprehend the whole doctrine as to be 
ble to communicate it entirely ; but various sages since his 
me have carried out his teaching to greater perfection. 
till it is certain that Melampus introduced the phallus, and 
lat the Greeks learnt from him the ceremonies which they 
3w practise. I therefore maintain that Melampus, who was 

wise man, and had acquired the art of divination, having 
ecome acquainted with the worship of Bacchus through 
nowledge derived from Egypt, introduced it into Greece, with 

few slight changes, at the same time that he brought in 
arious other practices. For I can by no means allow that it 
> by mere coincidence that the Bacchic ceremonies in Greece 
'e 80 nearly the same as the Egyptian — they would then 

It in n.^, ch-. 58), and one or more 
*i»acal instrnments were present at 
very Egyptian procession. The clap- 
*^ of hands and the crotalay the 
^ttbourine, and the harp, were also 
'^^nanonly introdaced on festive occa. 
'008, aa well as the voice, which 
ooetimes accompanied two harps, a 
'Ogle pipe, and a flute ; and when 
"Idiers attended, they had the tmm- 
«t and dmm (woodcut No II. figs. 
• 2). A greater variety of instru- 
lenta was admitted at private parties ; 
» harp of four, six, seven, to twenty- 
mo gtrings ; the guitar of three ; the 
Te of five, seven, ten, and eighteen 
rings ; the double-pipe, the flute, the 
Bare and the round tambourine, the 
/tala or wooden clappers, were very 
nmon there ; but cymbals appear 
have been mostly used by the min- 
elfl of certain deities. The lyres 
re of very varied sharp tone, and 
J may be supposed to answer to 
nabl,' sambnc, and ** ten "-stringed 
or of the Jews. The varieties of 
» in Nos. IV., v., and VI. may 

serve to illastrate some of the nume- 
rous instruments mentioned by Julius 
Pollux (iv. 9), AthenaBus (iv. 25), and 
other ancient writers. The sistrum 
was peculiarly a sacred instrument, 
and it was to the queen and princesses 
that its use was entrusted, or to other 
ladies of rank who held the impoi-tant 
office of accompanying the king or the 
high priest, while making libations to 
the gods. See above, note * on ch. 
35, and At. Eg. W. vol. ii. p. 222 to 
327 on the music and instruments of 
the Egyptians. — [G. W.] 

' Either Melampus, as some main- 
tain, really existed, and travelling 
into Egypt brought back certain cere- 
monies into Greece; or he wsts an ima- 
ginaiy personage, and the fable was 
intended to show that the Greeks bor- 
rowed some of their religious cere- 
monies from Egypt. The name 
*' blackfoot " would then have been 
invented to show their origin. The 
name of Egypt, C/ienii, signified 
"black."— [G.W.] 


hftve been more Greek in their character, and less r< 
their origin. Much less can I admit that the E^ 
borrowed tlieae customs, or any other, from the Greel 
belief is that Melampus got hia knowledge of the: 
CudmuB the Tyrian, and the followers whom he broug 
Phcenicia into the country which is now called Bteotis. 
fiO. AlmoBt all the names of the gods came into 
from Egypt.* My inquiries prove that they were all 

' The Betllement of a bodj of 
PhcBoioiaDS in the coontiy called aCter- 
worde Bieotia, ia reganled b; Herodo- 
taa Be on undoubted fa^t. {Bee, bi 
Bidea the preaont pBBBdge, v. 57-! 
whnre the GephyrmanB me referred t 
this migTBition.) He does not, hon 
ever, aeem tu luiTe hod a, vary dintiiict 
notiOQ Ba to the □oorvo by which the 
atrancerB rencUed Greece (cempare ii. 
44, with if. 117). Some modems, aa 
C. O. Hilller (Orchom. ch. jv. pp. 113- 
12E), Weloker (Ueber sine Kreliseho 
Colonie in Tbuben), and Waehsmntb 
(Antiq. i. 1, § 11), entirely diBoredit 
the whole aUir? of a Phrenician settle- 
nienl, which they regard as the inven- 
tion of a late era. Othera, ac Hr. 
Grote (Hiat. of Qrcece, vol. ii. p. 357), 
profeas their inability la determine 
the qneation. Bnt the weigbt of 
modem authority ia in favour of the 
truth of the tradition. (See Niebuhr'a 
Leoturea on Ancient Hiatory, vol. i. p. 
80 1 Tbirtwall'a Hiat. of Greece, vol. i. 
cb. 3, pp. es.9 ; Kenrick'B Phomicia, 
pp. 9B.100; B&hr, note on Herod. - 
E7, Aj:.) The priDciinl argnmeuta t 
thiB Bide are the following :— 1. Tl 
nnantmoaB trudition. 2. The faat that 
there was a race called Cadmeians at 
Thebes from very early timea, claim- 
ing a PhiBnidaa descent, combined 
with the further fact that" Codmeian" 
would bear in tho PhoGuician tougne a 
meaniug unintelligible to mero Greeks, 
bnt whioh in Clio early legend it 
cerlwnly intended to have, — Cad 
coming in aoareh of Europe being 
clearly OTp Ktdirm, •• the Eaat," seek. 
ing lo dieoover ai^ Ereb, " tbe WeBt.' 

S. Tbe fact that the early « 
Tbebea was that of Phcaaioii 
as the Cabin (see nole'oi 
and Minerva Onca (C(. PauH 
S 2, and XXV. § 6; ^schyl. 
153 and 496; Enphor* 

Bys. ad ^ 



'OTTa, Ac.). And. 4. T 
ronce of a namber of Semitiil 
the provincial dialect of B 
'EAitlt for Ztti or the Bnp: 
{compare Heb. n^ " God " 
" woman " or " girl ■' (Heb. 
man" or " danghter '") j ix^ 
pare the luaof IheTalmod),) 
uf capacity which the Fen 
Boeotians scorn both to hare 
from the PhinnicianB (cf. 
Acharn. lOH, Hesych. ad td 
and ixirat, Pollux, v. 164), 
pomegranate " (comp. Arabi 
Ac. The name Thebes itae' 
tolerably near to van Thtbei ( 
60), a Caniiaoite town, wldoh i 
call SiiBvi, thaogh thia rea 
may be accidental. Boohait, 
ideniiGca the two namoB, Hi^ 
Thebes as so called from iti 
V3, since it was aitnatod in 
(See his Geograph. Sao. 
book i. oh. 16.) The oamolM 
of these argnments must be A 
be very Rrnat. 

' See below, note • on oh. 6 
is DO doubt that the Oreeka I 
aometiroea tbe nnmeii, Bomel 
attributes, of their deitiea frai 
bat when HocodotuB says the 
the Ore«k gods wore always 1 
Egypt, it is evident that ha 
niean tbej were the sama^^ 

[ believe, from the Felasgi, except Neptune. Of him 
their knowledge from the Libyans,* by whom he has 
rays honoured, and who were anciently the only people 
1 a god of the name. The Egyptians differ from the 
ilso in paying no divine honours to heroes.^ 

ires in other places (chaps. 
18, 144, 156) the Egyptian 
hich those verj goda agree, 
mentions in Egypt. Nep- 

Dioecnri, the Graces, and 
rere certainly not Egyptian 
lat Jano was Sate, Vesta 
od Themis was not only an 
goddess, bat her name was 
1 Thmei, the Egyptian god. 
roBtice " or '* Truth ; " from 

Hebrew derived the word 
, translated in the Scptna- 
\^fia. The name Nereids 
itly borrowed from the idea 
r ; " and thongh the word is 
sd in nip^f, ** moist," in 
le Nereidiii, t^aphs, "liquid," 
other words in ancient 

has been retained to the 
%jt through some old pro- 
, and rtp6¥ or ytpph, still 

water" in the Bomaio of 
reece. Comp. the Indian 

"water," and the divine 
rayan(a), i.e. ** floating on 

" at the beginning of time 

' Comp. the two deities Ai^vin, hav- 
ing no particular names, but called 
simply Ai^vinau^ ** the two horsemen," 
found in the Vodas of India and in 
the Zend-Avesta. (Jour. Americ. Or. 
Soc. vol iii. No. 2, p. 322.)— [G. W.] 

* Cf. iv. 188. 

^ Herodotus is quite correct in say- 
ing the Egyptians paid no divine hon- 
ours to heroes, and their creed would 
not accord with all the second and 
third linos of the Golden Verses of 
Pythagoras : 

*ABavaro¥t fiiv wp&ra 0eovf vofitf 4k d<aKc<irrai 
Tt/Ko* icai «ifiov opKov* iwetr* ' HpMar urfavovK^ 
Tovf TC Karax9o¥iovt ^ifit iai^ovaVt ivtroua 

No Egyptian god was supposed to 
have lived on earth as a mere man 
afterwards deifleil (infra, n.', ch. 143) ; 
and the tradition of Osiris having 
lived on earth implied that he was a 
manifestation or Aisitar of the Deity 
— not a real being, but the abstract 
idea of goodness (like the Indian 
Booddha) . The religion of the Egyp. 
tians was the worship of the Deity in 

11 1 • 11 •! J. J •-- Al •• • 

I 1 1 ■,' 




51. BesideB those which have beoD here mentioned, there 
are many other practices whereof I shall Bpeak hereafter, 
which the Greeks have borrowed from Egypt.' The pecoliaritj, 

was like tlie Ditoh Imperator oF the 
Biiman!>, nui) a reuprct was felC fnc 
him wb<-n good, nhii^h made tlium 
Bucrifico all their cleBTeat interosta for 
hiB BerTJoe : he vrnfl far above all in[>r- 
tale, aa the head of the religion and 
the fltato ) and hia fnnerol waa cete- 
bratod with anusnnl ceremonieH (Dio- 
dor. i. 71, 72.) Bnt thU was Dot 
dirioe worship. They did however 

t tlie ei 

IT of a 


WemB a degree of yenerat 

preseotativeB of deities, 
groafl Hopersfitioji, as types and rtjlioa 
have ofl«n done ; and thoanh tbe Hoa- 
lema forbid all "partnership" with 
the Deity in adoration, even thoy can. 
not always prevent a bigoted vonem- 
tion for a saint, or for the snppored 
footstep of " the Prophet."— [G. W.] 

Ii admi 

I the 

monies (chapa. 81, B2) and science 
come from the same source. This it 
also etatoH by manj ancient wciun. 
Lncian (de Dei Syr.J eaya ' the Egyp- 
tioBS are reputed the Grst men wbu 
had a notion of the gods and a know- 
ledge of sacred affaire and 

sacrod names." The same ie nwn- 
tioned by the oracle of Apollo qooleJ 
by Kuiiebias. Comp. lumbliohng (<te 
Myst. B. 7, oh. v.), and othen. Ari- 
stotle (de Ccelo, ii. 12) ahimf the oUi- 
gaCionsof theOrwkatothe Egyptiui 
and Babylonians for information re- 
specting all the heavenly bodiei; ud 
these two people are ruentiontd by 
Cioero (de Div. i. 42), Pliny (vii. S6|. 
and others as the great and earliett 
astronomers. Herodotna (snpra, A. 
4) HMcriboB to the Egyptians the in- 
vention of the year, as well a* ga^ 
metry! and Haorobios saya IW 
CH>sar was indebted lo Egypt fm hii 

Cbaf. 61. 



hofwever, which they observe in their statues of Mercury they 

did not derive from the Egyptians, but from the Pelasgi ; from 

ihem the Athenians first adopted it, and afterwards it passed 

from the Athenians to the other Greeks. For just at the time 

irhen the Athenians were entering into the Hellenic body,^ the 

Pelasgi came to live with them in their country,® whence it 

was that the latter came first to be regarded as Greeks. 

Whoever has been initiated into the mysteries of the Cabiri ® 

^ Chaldaaftna to Egypt, whence it 
pfooeeded to Greece." (See n.', ch. 
1J8, and App. ch. Tii.)— [G. W. ] 

' Vide sapra, i. 57, and 58, note *. 

' The Pelasgi here intended are the 
Tyrrhenian Pelasgi, who are men- 
tnned again, ir. 145, and yi. 138. 
(See Thncyd. iv. 109 ; and cp. Ap. to 


* Nothing is known for certain re- 
specting the Cabiri. Most anthorities 
»gree that they varied in number, 
tod that their worship, which was 
▼oj ancient in Samothrace and in 
PhiT^a, waa carried to Greece from 
tbe former by the Pelasgi. Some 
believe them to have been Ceres, Pro- 
ierpine, and Pinto ; and others add a 
fourth, supposed to be Hermes ; while 
otlierB suppose them to have been 
Jupiter, Pallas, and Hermes. They 
were also worshipped at an early time 
in Lemnos and Imbros. Some think 
they were an inferior order of gods, 
bat were probably in the same man- 
Der as the third order of gods in 
Egypt, who in one capacity ranked 
even above the great gods. The name 
Cabiri was doubtless derived from the 
Semitic word Jfcobir, ** great," a title 
applied to Astart'^ (Venus), who was 
also worshipped in Samothrace, to- 
gether with Pothos and Phaeton, in 
the moBt holy ceremonies, as Pliny 
Mvs (xxxvi. 5) . The eight great gods 
of the Phoenicians, the offspring of 
one great father, Sydik, the ''just," 
were called Cabiri, of whom Esmoun 
was the youngest, or the eighth (as 
bis name implies) ,the s^moixn, " eight," 
of Coptic, and the "theman** or 



L«j of Arabic, and rcbtf 

of Hebrew. This Esmoun was also 
called Asclepius. Damascius says, 
*Ot« 6 iv Bripin^ ^triv * K<TK\rrKihs oitK 
dirrtp "EWhv oM Aiyiimos iiWd ris 
iirix*^pios *o7tn^. ^ZaBiKtp ykp iyivovro 
ircuhts oti AioffKo^povs iptirfyf^vai icol 
Kafielpovs. Ouros KdWi<rros &y 04ay 
Kot vtcuflas I9t7v i^idyacrros, ip^fifvos 
y4yo¥tVj &$ <pri(riy 6 fivOos, *A<rrpoy6ris 
Otov ^oiyiaariSy firirphs dfwy, EiwB^s re 
KvirijyfTtTy iw raiaZt rats ydiraxs iwtiBii 
iBfda-aro r^v Bthv avrhv iKKvvntytrouffav 
Kol <p4vyoyra iiriZtti)KOv<Tay koL f|8i} Kcera- 
\7i\^ofi4vriVy hirorffjLVft ireKtKd rifv ahrhs 
avTov 'waiBo<nr6pov ^xxriv, 'H 8^ r^ wiBa 
irtpuiKyi)(raffa kolX TlaxSava icoAcVcura rhu 
vtayiffKoy r^ re ((aoySytp 04pfx^ iufa(<oirv 
p^ffoffa Ofhy 4irulr}<r€yf "Efffiovyoy virh 
^oty'iKay uyo/jLtuxfifyoy 4ir\ Tp 04 p fir} rrjs 
^(WTjs. Oi 8e rhy "^Ea-fjiouyoy ^hoov i^iov- 
ffty ipfiriyfvfiy^ Sri liySoos ^y r^ ^aSjK<i> 
waus. Damaseii Vit. Isidori (h Photio 
Excerpt.), 302. This mention of Es- 
moun with Palestine reminds us of 
the account in tho Bible that tho 
Philistines came of an Egyptian stock. 
Ashmonn would thus bo made a son 
of Mizraim fcorap. Sanchoniatho), as 
in Arab tradition. Herodptus men- 
tions the Egyptian Cabiri at Memphis 
(iii. 37), whose temple no one was 
permitted to enter except the priest 
alone : they were said to be sons of 
Vulcan or Pthah (as the Egyptian 
Asclepius called Emeph, or Aimothph, 
also was), and, like that god in one of 
his characters, were represented as 
pigmy figures. It is not impossible 
that the Cabiri in Egypt were figured 
as the god Pthah. Sokar-Osiris, who 
was a deity of Hades ; and the three 
names he had agree with the supposed 


will understiiiid what I meaji. The SamothraoiaiiB received 
these mysteries from the Pelasgi, who, before they went to lirt 
in Attica, were dwellers in Samothraee, and imparted thei 
religious ceremonies to the inhahitants. The Athenians, then, 
who were the first of all the Greeks to make their statues o 
Mercury in this way, learnt the practice from the Pelasgians $ 
and by this people a religious account of the matter is given^ 
which is explained in the Samothracian mysteries. 

52. In early times the Pelasgi, as I know by informatitnt 
which I got at Dodona, oflfered sacrifices of all kinds, and 
prayed to the gods, but had no distinct names or appellatio&4 
for them, since they had never heard of any. They called 
tbem gods (8toi, disposers), because they had disposed an( 
arranged all things in such a beautiful order.' After a lonf 

nnmber of the Oabiri ot Sumolhraoe. 
The nomber 8 mi([ht nlao ba thought 
la Hccocd with that of the eight great 
goiU of Egypt. {Sue my note on 
B. iii. ch. 37.) Oilvtiunmayn, the 
Coptic and modam name of HermO- 
polia in Egjpt, signifying the "two 
oightfl," waH GOQiieolAd with the titlo 
of Thoth or Horraoe, "lord of the 
eight regions."— [Q. W.] 

'The same dcriyation ia given by 
EostathinH (ad Ham. U. p. 1148- 
51), and by Clonipnt of Aleiandria 
(Strom, i. 29. p. 137) ; bat tho more 
general belief of the GreekB drived the 
word 0t&T from Siir, " cnrrern," booanae 
the gods Cret worahipped ware the ann, 
moOD, and Htare. (Sea Plat. Cratyl. 
p. 397, C. D. Etym. Uogn. od too. 
Sifti, ClemenB, Alex. Cohort, ad Oont. 
p. 22, Strom. W. 23, p. 633.) Both 
these denmtions ore pnrely fanoifnl, 
hoviog reference to thn Greek lan- 
guage only, wheretm Bibi is a form of 
^H a very aneient woi^ oommoiv to a 

^B nnmber of tho Indo-Enropean tongnes, 

^1 nod Dot tu be piplaiacd from any uno 

^H of them ai&giy. The earliest form of 

^H the word wonld Haem to be t.he Doric 

^M and .dkilio ittti, afterwarda written 

^M Ztis. This by omiBsion of the cr, be. 

^M came Sum. Dyous and dma, Gk. Atis, 

^^H Alii, and Bisi, Lat. Otui and dimu. 

r<ithDsninn dieifas,i[o. fitii isai 

softened form of Atit or deiu, analo 
gong to ^f SSof, '^iBo^, ; Biv, SaaMT 
Sa^ ; Mpait, dan; Bipa, tfrif ; A 
door; Ac. With the words Ztlt ■ 
eiit we may connect the old Gorn 
God 7,io, or Tius, whoso name mider i 
latter of the two forms appean in i 
word Tttesday. Sanscrit scholars (Ji . 
these many modilicationa of a nngl 
word to an old root d<i-. which tha 
tell na means " to shine," and I>yM 
the first snbstajiliTe formed frnm tU 
rerb. meant " light," or " tha shinui 
BOD," one of the earliest ohjeoM ( 
vrorabip in most oonntrios. Dava is' 

more abstract sense than d^aus, bma 
" bright, brilliant, divine," and tbenC 
passing on to the mere idea of Od 
8t&t in Groek, and Dous in Latiti, ■ 
the exact eqiuvolents of this ter 
(See PrvfesBorMai UiillQr'H article ' 
Compamtive Philology in the Bdi 
bnrgh Review, No. 192, Art. 1. p| 

The slatomont of Herodotna t 
the Polusgi "called the God« ( 
bcoaiuo they had disponed and 
ranged all things in anch a beantiM 
order," shows that hu oonsidered than 
to have apoken a language neorlj 
akin to the Greek. ] 

Cbap. 51-58. 



lapse of time the names of the gods came to Greece from 
Egypt, and the Pelasgi learnt them ; only as yet they knew 
nothing of Bacchus, of whom they first heard at a much later 
date. Not long after the arrival of the names they sent to 
Mmsnlt the oracle at Dodona about them. This is the most 
uieient oracle in Greece, and at that time there was no other. 
To their question, '' Whether they should adopt the names 
that had been imported from the foreigners?" the oracle 
replied by recommending their use. Thenceforth in their 
sacrifices the Pelasgi made use of the names of the gods, and 
from them the names passed afterwards to the Greeks. 

58- Whence the gods severally sprang, whether or no they 

had all existed from eternity, what forms they bore — these 

are questions of which the Greeks knew nothing until the 

other day, so to speak. For Homer and Hesiod were the first 

to compose Theogonies, and give the gods their epithets, to 

allot them their several offices and occupations, and describe 

their forms ; and they lived but four hundred years before my 

time,* as I believe. As for the poets who are thought by some 

to be earlier than these,® they are, in my judgment, decidedly 

^Hm date of Homer has been va- 

rioodj stated. It is plain from the 

o^JTOflnons which Herodotns here 

INS that in his time the general 

belief assigned to Homer an earlier 

dsfte than that which he considered 

tbe tme one. His date would place 

tfae poet abont B.C. 880.830, which 

is very nearly the mean between the 

ovliest and the latest epochs that are 

ismgnad to him. The earliest date 

that can be exactly determined, is 

ftat of the author of the life of Homer 

■mllj poblished with the works of 

HerodoCiu, who places the birth of 

ths poet 022 years before the invasion 

«( Xerzee, or B.C. 1102. The latest 

it tbat of Theopompns and Enphorion, 

^iliok makes him contemporary with 

0|get— therefore b.c. 724-686. (For 

^Btter partioalars, see Clinton's F.H. 

^l pp. 146-7 ; and Ap. p. 359.) Pro- 

"■bOity is on the whole in favour of a 

TOL. n. 

date oonsiderably earlier than that 
assigned by our author. 

The time of Hesiod is oven more 
doubtful, if possible, than that of his 
brother-poet. Ho was made before 
Homer, after him, and contemporary 
with him. Internal evidence and the 
weight of authority are in favour of 
the view which assigns him a com- 
paratively late date. (See Clinton, i. 
p. 359, n. o.) He is probably to be 
placed at least 200 or 300 years after 

* The " poets thought by some to 
be earlier than Homer and Hesiod" 
are probably the mystic writers, Olen, 
Linus, Orpheos, Mussbus, Pamphos, 
Olympus, Ac, who were generally 
accounted by the Greeks anterior to 
Homer (Clinton, i. pp. 341.4), but 
who seem really to have belonged to a 
later age. (See Grote, vol. ii. p. 161.) 


later writers. Id these matters I have the anthority of t 
priestesses of Dodona for the former portion of my state 
ments ; what I have said of Homer and Hesiod is my o 

54. The following tale is commonly told in Egypt concemiI^ 
the oracle of Dodona in Greece, and that of Ammon in Libyib 
My informants on the point were the priests of Japiter at 
Thebes. They said "that two of the sacred women were onat 
carried off from Thebes by the PhcBnicians,* and that the storj 
went that one of them was sold into Libya, and the other ii 
Greece, and these women were the first founders of the oradei 
in the two countries." On my inquiring how they oam« to 
know so exactly what became of the women, they answered 
■'that diligent search had been made after them at the time^ 
but that it had not been found possible to discover where thej 
were ; afterwards, however, they received the informatioi 
which they had given me." 

55. This was what I heard from the priests at Thebes; a 
Dodona. however, the women who deliver the oracles relat 
the matter as follows: — "Two black doves flew away froi 
Egyptian Thebes, and while one directed its flight to Libj4 
the other came to them.^ She ahghted on an oak, and sittii^ 
there began to speak with a human voice, and told them t 
on the spot where she was, there should thenceforth be __ 
oracle of Jove. They understood the announcemejit to bi 
from heaven, so they set to work at once and erected tlJ 
shrine. The dove which flew to Libya bade the Libyans tf 
establish there the oracle of Ammon." This Ukewise is M| 

IB tho Dl 

it Dote, This outing 
on pneateflBoa from Thebes is of 
oonrao a fnble. It may refer to tho 
Bending ant and ealabliBhing bji oraolo 
in the nowly-diHeoTered West (Europe) 
throngh tho Phteniciana, the mer. 
ohantB and eiplorera of those daja, 
>Tho were in allianoe with Egypt, sup- 
pliod it with ruttii; of the prodnotiaaB 
it reqairod from otbor conntnea, and 
GEiabled it to export its numnfactorea 

Lwo doToa appear to o-_. 

thia tradition with tho PhcBnidM 
ABt4urt£, who appears to be the Bad 
tia or Diong of Bjblus. If the ii«| 



oracle of Jnpiter. The persons from whom I received these 
particnlars were three priestesses of the Dodonaeans,^ the 
eldest Promeneia, the next Timarete, and the youngest 
Nieandra ; and what they said was confirmed by the other 
Bodonadans who dwell around the temple.^ 

S6. My own opinion of these matters is as follows : — I think 
that, if it be true that the Phoenicians carried off the holy 
women, and sold them for slaves,^ the one into Libya and the 
other into Greece, or Pelasgia (as it was then called), this last 
must have been sold to the Thesprotians. Afterwards, while 
^dergoing servitude in those parts, she built under a real oak 
a temple to Jupiter, her thoughts in her new abode reverting 
—as it was likely they would do, if she had been an attendant 
in a temple of Jupiter at Thebes — to that particular god- 
Then, having acquired a knowledge of the Greek tongue, she 
8et np an oracle. She also mentioned that her sister had been 
sold for a slave into Libya by the same persons as herself. 

'Were it not for the traditions of 
^ priest esses that Dod6na was in- 
debted to Egypt for its oracle, we 
^old at once digcredit what appears 
•0 rery improbable ; but the Greeks 
wonid scarcely hare attributed its 
origin to a foreigner, nnlera there had 
been some foundation for the story ; 
nd Herodotus maintains that there 
was a resemblance between the 
oracles of Thebes and Dod6na. It is 
Bot necessary that the stamp of a 
foreign character should have been 
itrcmgly impressed at Doddna; and 
the injflaenoe of the oracle would have 
been equally great without the em- 
ployment of a written langus^e, or 
any reference to particular religious 
doctrines with which those who con. 
ndted the oracles of Amun, Delphi, 
and other places did not occupy them- 
•elTee.— [O. W.] 

' The temple of Dod6na was de- 
•trojed B.C. 219 by Dorimachus when, 
being chosen general of the ^tolians, 
he raraged Epiros. (Folyb. iv. 67.) 
Ko remains of it now exist. It stood 
si the base of Mount Tomams, or 

Tmams (Strabo, vii. p. 476 ; Plin. ii. 
103), on the borders of Thesprotia, 
and was said to have been founded by 
Deucalion. The name Timaret^ is 
here given by Herodotus to one of the 
priestesses. Strabo says the oracles 
were given out by a class of priests, 
called Selli (the Helli, according to 
Pindar), who were remarkable for 
their austere mode of life, and thought 
to honour the Deity by a bigoted 
affectation of discomfort, and by 
abjuring cleanliness ; whence Homer 
says, n. xvi. 233— 

Zcv ivof AwdMyalct ntXaofiK^f rvi\69i vaiMv 
Aa»3«tfVf|r /icdtMV dv<rxein4poV an<pi 6i Z<XXo< 
Zoi vaiowr' Iriro^^Tai avurroirodcf't xoM<>< **'*'<>■ 

— in which impure piety they were 
very nnlike the cleanly priests of 
Egypt. The sacred oaks of Dod6na 
call to mind those of the Druids. 
The ^nrffhs is not the beech, but an 
oak, so called from its acorn, which 
was eaten. — [G. W.] 

■ Comp. Joel iii. 6, where the 
Tyrians are said to have sold Jewish 
children *'to the Grecians." (Beni. 
lonim.)— [6. W.] 


57. The DodonieaiiB called the women doves becaose thef 
were foreigners, and seemed to them to make a noise like 
birds. After a while the dove spoke with a human voice, 
because the woman, whose foreign talk had previously sounded; 
to them like the chattering of a bird, acquired the power 
speaking what they could understand. For how can it be' 
conceived possible that a dove should really speak with thfti 
voice of a man ? Lastly, by calling the dove black 
Dodouffians indicated that the woman was an Egyptian. And 
certainly the uhoractei' of the oracles at Thebes and Dodonft 
is very similar. Besides this form of divination, the Greeke 
learnt also divination by mean of victims from the Egyptians. 

58. The Egyptians were also the first to introduce solemn 
assemblies,' processions, and litanies* to the gods ; of 

"Solemn MBembHea' 
a Efiiypt, and 
kinds. Tbe gntnd aaBemblies, or groat 
pBoegjrieH, were hotd in tbe largo 
h&lls of the principal temploe, &nd 
the king presided at them in person. 

Their celebration wM ftpparentlf I 

yearly, regulated by the Sotbic, or I 
by the vague year; and others at tha I 
new tnooofl, when they were coo- ] 
tinued for ssTersl saocessiFe dsyi,'! 
and again at the foil moon. ThovJ 

^H were inferior panegyrieH in hononr ol 

^H different deities every day during 

^H certain moothe. Some groat pane. 

^H gyries seem to havo been held artei 

^H very long iierioda. Many other 

^H monies alno took place, at which the 

^H king presided ; the grMt««t of which 


wbieh the Greeks were taught the use hy them. It Beems to 
me a sufficient proof of this, that in Egypt these practices 

(Brt of tmaopj. Thej wera mttended 
bf the dhief priest, or propbet, dad 
ta tb« loopaid akin ; thejr were bcmte 
<n the ihonlden of neTsnl prie8t«, by 

for tbe purpoee. The same mode of 
carrjiag the ark was adopted by the 
Jewa (JoahuA iii. 12 ; 1 Cbrtm. it. £, 
and 16j 2 Sam. it. Zi; 1 Egdr. i. 4) , 
and the goda of Babylon, as welt aa 
of Egypt, were boTce and "get id 

ipoleios (Met, ji, 250) dcBcribes the 

I tbe biKb p 

t hold- 

a band a lighted torch, 
ffr, ftnd Bulphnr. after which the 
Imered) scribe read from a papyma 
■^otaiii prayerv, in presence of the 
•iieiDblpd pastophorij or roetnbera of 
the Bacrod CoUego ; nhich agrees 
mil with the ceremony described on 
the monument a. 

ScHne of the sacred boats or arka 
contaiDed the emblems of life and 
•lability, which, when the veil was 
di>wD aside, w«r« partially aeen ; and 

others contained the sacred beetle of 
the ano, overshadowed by the winga 
of two Gf^orsa of the goddesa Thmej, 
or "Tmth," which call to mind the 
chembim (kembim) of the Jews, The 
shrinea of some deities differed from 
those of others, though moat of them 
had a mm'a bead at the prow and 
stern of the boat ; and that of Pthah- 
Sokar-Osiria waa marked by ita singn- 
lar form, the centre haviiig the head 
of the hawk, his eiablem, rising from 
it in a shrood, and the prow termina- 
ting in that of an oryi. It wM 


have been eetablished from remote antiquity, while in Graeo* 
they are ouly recently known. 

59. The Egyptians do not hold a single solemn assembly, 
but several in the course of the year. Of these the chief, 
which is better attended than any other, is held at the city of 

oarried in the earn 

prieaU. The god 

tliB Greok Charm , 

par etceilence of the saored bontt 

Vighaa is of tlic Indian 

ray note 

i. oh. 37. ai 

n Pthah-Bokar- Osiris, 

u the ark of laifl, b 


Tlie Nilott, or FesHral of the Innn- 
dation ; tho harveflt ; the ffltoa in 
honoar of tho ifoia ; the royal birth- 
days ; and other antmal as well as 
monthly fostiralfl, were oelDbratod 
with ^eatspleadonr ; and thoprooea- 
Hion to the tentplea, when tho dedica- 
tory offoringB were preaonted by the 
kin)(, or by the high priegt, tho pnblio 
holidays, the now moons, and nnmo- 
rous occBBional fAtes, kept through- 
ont the j-ear, as woll as the many 
tuBembliea BQOoessirely held in diEor- 
ont oitiea throngbont the coaatry, 
fully iaatifiod the remark that the 
EsTptians paid greater 

divine matters than any other pM^ita. 
And theso, as HerodotOB obBorreai had 
been already eetabliflhod long 
any sirailar oastom existed in Greoos. 

-fa. w.] 

' The mode of approaohing tha 
deity, and the corenioDiea performed 
in the Bulemn procesaiona rariod te 
Egypt, as in Greeoa (Prool. Chresbih 
math. p. 381, Gd.), vrhoro psnoiH 
eoDietimes sang hymns to tha amai 
of the lyre, aometimeii to tho finte, 
and with dances. These last nera. 
tho TtpoiiSui, which, as well a* tha 
former (aee woodoat I jn oh, 48), at« 
reproaeutod on the monnments at 
Egypt. Sometimes tho harp, gnita^- 
and flntoa, were played while the bif^, 
priest offered inoenao to Iho gocla.i 
Tbo song of the Egyptian prieata wsif 
oalled in their langna^e Paaan (Claai.' 
Paidagng. ill. 2), whioh is evidontlff 
an Egyptian word, havins the ortiol*' 
Pi' preiiKod-— [G- W.] 



Bubastis* in honour of Diana.' The next in importance is 
that which takes place at Busiris, a city situated in the very 
middle of the Delta ; it is in honour of Isis, who is called in 
the Greek tongue Demeter (Geres). There is a third great 
festival in Siu[s to Minerva, a fourth in Heliopolis to the Sun, 
a fifth in Buto ^ to Latona, and a sixth in Papremis to Mars. 

60. The following are the proceedings on occasion of the 
assembly at Bubastis : — ^Men and women come sailing all 
together, vast numbers in each boat, many of the women with 

'Bnbastifl, or Fteht, oorresponded 
to the Greek Diana. At the # ■ 
Specs Aitemidofl (near Beni 
Hunn) she is represented r 
M a lioness with her name ^ 
" FlMht, the lad J of the care." 
At Thebes she has also the 
betd of a lioness, with the 

oame Pasht, thos written 


At Bubastis the name of the chief 
^oddesB whose figure remains appears 

to read Bnto, and is thus ^ 
Titlen ^ 


Aod here she may have the character 

of Buto or Latona. They both have 

the fsame head, though it is difficult to 

distingnifih between that of the lioness 

and the cat. It is indeed probable 

that both these animals were sacred 

to and emblems of Pasht. The notion 

of the cat being an emblem of the 

moon was doubtless owing to the 

Greeks eappoeing Bubastis the same 

M Diana, but the moon in Egypt was 

t male deity, the Ibis-headed Thoth ; 

and another mistake was their con- 

ridering the Egyptian Diana the sister 

of Apf>llo. Remains of the temple 

and city of Bubastis, the " Pibeseth " 

(Pi-basth) of Ezekiel xxz. 17, are still 

«een at Tel Basta, " the mounds of 

Pasht/* so called from its lofty mounds. 

(See below, n. •, ch. 138.) At the 

Speos Artemidos numerous cat mum- 

Diiefl were buried, from their being 

sacred to the Egyptian Diana. — 
[G. W.] 

' Herodotus (infra, ch. 156) sup- 
poses her the daughter of Bacchus 
(Osiris) and Isis, which is, of course, 
an error, as Osiris had no daughter, 
and the only mode of accounting for 
it is by supposing Horns, the son of 
Osiris, to hare been mistaken for the 
sun, the Apollo of the Greeks, whose 
sister Diana was reputed to be. The 
goddess Bubastis, or Pasht, is called 
on the monuments " beloved of Pthah," 
whom she generally accompanies, and 
she is the second member of the great 
triad of Memphis. Bubastis, the city, 
was only the Egyptian name Pasht, 
with the article III prefixed, as in the 
Hebrew Pi-basth ; and the change of 
P into B was owing to the former 
bein^ pronounced B, as in modem 
Coptic— [G. W.] 

* Vide infra, note ' on ch. 155. The 
Groddcss mentioned at Babhstis should 
be Buto; as her name occurs there, 
and so frequently about the pyramids, 
which were in the neighbourhood of 
Letopolis, another city of Buto, or 
Latona. The city of Buto Herodotus 
here speaks of stood between the Se- 
bennytic and Bolbitino branches, near 
the Lake of Buto, now Lake Boorlos. 
The Sebennytic branch appears here 
to have been divided into several 
channels, as one of them passed, 
according to Herodotus and Ptolemy, 
near to Buto, which was at no great 
distance from the Canopic branch, 
where it separated from the Bolbitine. 
(See Rennell, ii. p. 168).— [G. W.] 



castanets, which they strike, while some of the men pipa 
during the whole time of the voyage ; the remainder of thi 
voyagers, male and female, sing the while, and make i 
clapping with then* hands. When they arrive opposite an] 
iif the towns upon the banks of the stream, they approach ths 
shore, and, while some of the women continue to play 
sing, others call aloud to the females of the place and loa^ 
them with abusQ, while a certain number dauce, and 
standing up uncover themselves. After proceeding in this 
way all along the river-course, they reach Bubastis, vher^ 
they celebrate the feast with abmidant sacrifices. MoiS 
grape-wine ^ is consumed at this festival than in all the rest of 
the year besides. The number of those who attend, counting; 
only the men and women, and omitting the children, amouuta, 
according to the native reports, to seven hundred thousand. 
61. The ceremonies at the feast of lais in^the city of Busirif^ 


' This ia to be diBtiognlshed from 
lieer, o/i-oi nfifflwot, " barie)' -wine." 
both of which were modu in great 
ijnantitieB in ERypl. Tha moet noted 
were those of MareutiB, Authjlla, 
FlinthiDi?, CoptOB, and the Teniotic, 
Sebennytic, and Aloxnniirion ; and 
m&nj were Doliced in the cflerings 
□iHdo in the tomba and teniples of 
'^STPt- Among Cliem wine of the 
" Morthem Country" ia mentioned, 
and that long before the Greeks car- 
ried wine to E^ypt. In later timoa, 
when the prejadioea of the Egyptiana 
had begun to relai, a trade iras cetab- 
* liahed with the Greeka, and E((ypt 
I'eceived wino from Grecoe and PbtB- 
nicia twice every year (Herod, iit. 6), 
and many Grecke carried it direct to 

note 'on 37 j and on beer, n. ', ch. 77. 
On the wines of Egypt, see At. Eg. 
W. »oL ii. p. 158 to 170.) The wine- 
presaea and ofTeriogB of wine in the 
tomba at the Pyrumids show wino waa 
made in Egypt at least aa early aa the 
4th dynnaty.— [O. W.] 

• Thore were aeTeral ploceB called 
Bnairis m Egypt (Diod.i. 17 i i. 83; 
Pliu. r. lOj and nxri. 12). It sig. 

niflcB the bnriBl-plaoo of Osirii, asd 
therefore corresponda in meaning 
Tapoxiris, a Greek name giren to 
other town on the aea-coaat to tha 
of Alexandria. Many places QlaJm __^ 
honoor of haring the body of Olml 
the chief of which wuro Uemphi^ 
Baairie, Philsa, Tapoairie, and Abydl 
(Flat. dels. a. 21). The BiidriB ma 
tioned by Herodotna stood a litUs I 
the 3, of Sebcnnytna and the model 
Abooseitr, the Coptic Buiiri, of wUa 
nothing now reraaina but KnDe graoH 
blecka ainoe a«ed aa the threahoU 
of doorB, and a few atones, uoe ■ 
which is of very early time. Tliia is 1 
aepnlohral moooment, probably ot th 
time of the 4th dynasty, w^cdi hi 
tbe fimenil eye on eaoh aide. Thn 
waa alao a Bnaiiis near tbe Pframid 
which gave its name to the ntodM 
Abooair, near wbioh the bnrial-plM 
of Apia, ocdled Apis.Oairia, hat ^t«| 
been discovered. The city of Isisin 
lower down the river, and it 
probable that the fete of Isis 
there tlion at Busiris. It is ni 
Bebayt, and ita site is marked by tti 
miua of a granite temple, t' 
one, eioept that at Babaatii, 




been already spoken of. It is there that the whole 
itude, both of men and women, many thousands in 

ci tliat beantifiil sod oostlj 
ial, which was doabtleas thonght 
7 to snooeed " the yerj It^rge 
e to Isia'* mentioned by Hero- 
—for it was built during the 

of the Ptolemiee. It was for- 

oalled Isenm, and by the ancient 
iaos Hebai or Hebaity of which 

always called in the scnlptores, 
Mistress.** Hehai sig- 

a "panegyry," or as- 
y,aiid this was the real 
ng of the name of the 
Osiris is also some- 
called in the legends 

"Lord of the land of 
.*' There was another 
it town, in Middle 
., apparently conse- ^-r^ 
1 to Isis, the mine of ^^ O 

are now called Hayhee. 

wall at Behdytj probably once 
tf the sekos, is a remarkable baa- 
of the ark of Isis, in the centre 
ich the Goddess sits on a lotus- 
', a female standing on either 
ith outstretched wings ; below 
tne three are kneeling, and under 
re the Goddess or Genius Mert 
t, with the usual four kneeling 
I (one with the head of a man 
LTce with jackals' -heads) beating 
elres, illustrating what Hero- 
lays in cb. 40. This was done 
loor of Osiris, whose death was 
ted, as that of Adonis (Adoni ; 
idg. i. 5 ; Josh. X. 1) by the 
kS, alluded to in Ezckicl (viii. 
-" There sat women weeping for 
As/' This last name, moaning 
ealed," may be related to the 
I of Egypt, who answers to '* Sol 
s ; " and the mention (in £zek. 
6) of men worshipping " the 

(though it should have been 
est, lather than towards '* the 
) seems to confirm this. (See 

and' on chaps. 85 and 171.) 
mple of Bebayt is now so com- 

destroyed that it is difficult to 
lin its exact plan; the stones 

are thrown together in the greatest 
confusion, and a man can go down 
beneath them to the depth of 12 to 15 
feet. None seem to be in their origin 
nal places, though some of the door- 
ways can be traced ; and fragments 
of cornices, and ceilings, with the 
usual white stars on a blue ground, 
lie in a mass heaped one on the other. 
The force and labour employed in its 
destruction must have been very 
great. All the remaining sculptures 
are of the time of Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus, and it is probable that the 
temple was rebuilt in his reign of 
those unusual materials, which would 
have justified the remark applied by 
Herodotus to that of Bubastis, that 
many temples were larger but few so 
beautiful, and which prove that the 
Egyptians then, as before the time of 
Herodotus, sought to honour Isis with 
monoments worthy of her importance. 
The sculptures in relief on the granite 
show the inmiense labour bestowed 
upon them, and some of the hiero- 
glyphics on the architraves are 14 
inches long. On the cornices are the 
names of Ptolemy alternating with 
three feather ornaments forming an 
Egyptian triglyph, and one of them 
has the heads of Isis alternating with 
kings' names. The large colamns 
were surmounted by heads of Isis, 
like those of Dendera, but with tho 
remarkable difference that they were 
of granite ; and on tho bases of tho 
walls WAS the not unusaal row of 
figures of the God Nilas, bearing vases 
and emblems. The sculptures mostly 
represent offerings made to Isis (fre- 
quently with the emblem of Athor), 
to Osiris, Anubis, and the crocodile- 
headed God ; and tho hawk-headed 
Hor-Hat is figured in one place loading 
up the King to the presence of Isis, 
who is styled '' defender of her brother 
(Osiris)." A crude brick wall sur- 
rounded the temenoa or sacred enclosure, 
in which the temple stood, and whicli 
had as usual stone gateways. — [G.W.] 


BoOi Tt 

number, beat tbemBelves at the close of the sacrifice, in honour 
of a god, whose name a religions ecniple forbids me i 
mention,^ The Carian dwellers in Egypt proceed on thiB 
occasion to still greater lengths, even cutting their faces witii 
their knives,® whereby they let it be seen that they are nol 
Egyptians but foreigners. 

62. At SsSb' when the assembly takes place for the sacri 


' This wsfl Oairis i and men are often 
reproBentcd doing this in the psint- 
iDfl^ of the tombs. Seo the preceding 
note, and n. \ chap. 85.— [G. W.] 

' The (■nstom of cultiog Ihomselvee 
WHS not Egyptian ; and it is therefore 
evident that the command in Leviti' 
COB (lii. 28; ui. 5) against making 
"anj cnttingB in their Beeh" was net 
diroated against a enstom derived 
from EgTpt, but from Syria, where 
the worshippers of Baal " cat them- 
solves after their mamier with knives 
and lancets" (lances), 1 Kings Eviii. 
28. ^[G. W.] 

'The Bite of SaTB is marked b; 
lofty mounds, enclosing a bi«ico of 
groat eitont. (See n. ', eh. IfiS, and 
n. •, ch. 170.) ItH modem name Sa. 
OT, " Sa of the etone," 
from the rains formerij there, shows 
it was derived from the ancient Ssa, 
or Sals, of which Neith (Minerva) ia 
said in the legends to be the " His- 
tress i " showing that Plato ia right in 
calling Neith the UinervH ot 
>W4 Saia (Timaraa, p. 22, A.). 
^^* She ia Bometimes called Neit- 
■ H i Ank, or Onk, in which wo 
' Z..Q reeogniBe Onka, the name 

J^ given to the BcBotian Minerva, 
according to Plutarch, and 
coaBrroed by .facbytoa, who oalla her 
Onka Pallan, and speaks of a gate at 
Thebes, cailed Onctean after her (Sept. 
D. Tbob. 487). It is bIbo called On- 
cDoan by Apollodorus; but Eoripides, 
Paasanias, and Statins call it Ogygian. 
The Bohnliaat on .dlsohylDB says Cad- 
mus founded a temple there l« the 
Egyptian Minerva, who was callod 
OncKia. This temple and name are 
alsu mentioned by Che Bohol. Pind. 01. 
ii. U, who BSya the name ia Fhmnician. 

also calls it Fhrenician ^ 
12, 2), and naes it as as ai^Dmont 1 
pnve Cadmns was a PhtDidoiaii 
not an Egyptian, as some sopp 
(See Gale and Selden). But Onk 
the name of the Sgyptiao Vesta, 
into Anonki by the Qreeks. wl 
shown to be a character of Ninth t 
Minerva by the hierogtyphii 
AnouVA was a very ancient gcddM 
and the third penon of the triad I 
the l!rst cataract. Nepthya, NU>-H 
('■ the lady of the honso"), haa ^ 
the title of Ank in a legend at 
dera ; siie was also a oharoeter 
Vesta, with whom she agreoe 
daughter of Saiuni and Hhc« (I 
and Netpo), and was pmtectra~ 
the hearth ; one of many proofs 
much the deities of different 
bavo in common with each 
Nepthys being connected with Ml 
as Isis, the mother ot the <A3d, 
with Ifouf, "tho mother" godda 
Plntarch (de Is. a. 9) mentioni an ] 
Boription in tbe temple of UioerrS 
" I am everything which hai ' 
which ia, and which will be, 
mortal has yet lifted my veil ; " ll 
he is wrong iu considering tha il 
nnvoiled or the nnmarried goddeaatl 
same m IsU. and in saying the latt 
waa called by the Eyypiiana "^thntd 
HigTufying "I proceeded fmm myBoU 
(de Is. B. 63). Nor did the Sgyptia 
nttribnto the gift of th« oliTe 
Minerva, but to Mercury (Di<odor. 
16). Still lose is ZHk. " olivo," at « 

Hebrew (the Arabic 2fl," 

"o!ire") related to the 
Neith is often represented witb 
and arrowa, being, as Prooloa 
Tim.), goddess of war aa wc 
philo»aphy ; and her holding t 




fioes, there is one night on which the inhabitants all bum a 
mtdtitade of lights iq the open air round their houses. They 
086 lamps in the shape of flat saucers filled with a mixture of 
oQ and salt,^ on the top of which the wick floats. These bum 
the whole night, and give to the festival the name of the Feast 
of Lamps. The Egyptians who are absent from the festival 
observe the night of the sacrifice, no less than the rest, by a 
general lighting of lamps ; so that the illumination is not con- 
fined to the city of Sais, but extends over the whole of Egypt. 
And there is a religious reason assigned for the special honour 
paid to this night, as well as for the illumination which accom- 
panies it. 

68. At Heliopolis ' and Buto ' the assemblies are merely for 
the purpose of sacrifice ; but at Papremis,* besides the sacri- 

tre of the male deities is consistent 
with her being " ap<r(v60ri\vs" Pliny 
AjB Minenra was armed to show that 
both male and female natures can 
pomie erery Tirtne. Some think 
'A^iri a transposition of the Egyptian 
J^. — ^G. W. ^ 

^The oil floated on water mixed 

with salt. This fdte of lamps calls to 

Bond a Chinese as well as an Indian 

CQitom. It is remarkable that Homer 

BMotioiis no one bnt Minerva with an 

oil-lamp (Odys. xix. 34) ; and her 

figure ifl sometimes attached to the 

oprigfat terra-cotta lamps of the Etms- 

mm. (See Batrachom. 179, Strab. 

ix. 896, Pint. Sympos. yiii. 716 E, 

?aiMao. i. 26, 7.) There was a festival 

nr nuse of torches at Athens (Aristoph. 

WmgpB 1203, Progs 131, 1087, 1098, 

and Sch.), but this was qnite different 

from the f^te of lamps at SaTs. Strabo 

(ix. p. 574) speaks of the old temple 

of Minerra Polias in the Acropolis of 

Athena, in which a lamp was always 

kept bnn&ing. The Minerva and Vnl. 

can of Athena were supposed to have 

been derived from Egypt.— [G. W.] 

' Plntarch asserts that when the 
sacrifices were offered at Heliopolis, 
DO wine was allowed to be taken into 
the temple of the son ; bnt this may 

only signify that they were forbidden 
to drink it in the temple, "it being 
indecent to do so nnder the eyes of 
their lord and king" (de Is. s. 6). 
See note 5 on ch. 37.— [G. W.] 

' See n. * on ch. 59 and n. ^ on ch. 

* Paprdmis is not known in the 
sculptures as the name of the Egyp. 
tian Mars ; and it may only have been 
that of the city, the capital of a nome 
(ch. 165) which stood between the 
modem Menzaleh and Damietta in the 
Delta. It was here that Inaros routed 
the Persians (infra, iii. 12) ; and it is 
remarkable that in this very island, 
formed by the old Mendesian and the 
modem Damietta branches, the Cru- 
saders were defeated in 1220, and 
again in 1249, when Louis IX. was 
taken prisoner. The deity who seems 
to have borne the most resemblance 
to Mars was Mandoo; Banpo (sup- 
posed to be Remphan) and Anta being 
the god and goddess of war. Honu- 
rius, a name of Mars, which is also 
unknown in the sculptures, may be 
a corruption of Horns. The hippopo- 
tamus was sacred to Mars, and is said 
to have been worshipped at Paprdmis 
(ch. 71). Macrobius considers Mars 
the sun, which agrees with the charac- 



flees and other rites which are performed there as elsewhi 
the following custom ia observed : — Wlien the sun is gel 
low, a few only of the prieste continue occupied about 
image of the god, while the greater number, armed wil 
wooden clubs, take their station at the portal of the tempi 
Opposite to them is drawn up a body of men, in namber al 
a thousand, armed hkii the others with clubs, consisting 
persons engaged in the performance of their tows. The 
of the god, which ia kept in a small wooden shrine covei 
with plates of gold, ia conveyed from the temple into a hci 
sacred building the day before the festival begins. The 
priests still in attendance upon the image place it, tog( 
with the shrine containing it, on a four-wheeled c 
begin to drag it along ; the others, stationed at the gateway) 
the temple, oppose its admission. Then the votaries coa 
forward to espouse the quarrel of the god, and set upon tl 
opponents, who ai-e sure to oETer resistance. A eharp 

ter of Uandoo or Mandoo-Re (Satorn. 
i. 19). Some BOpixne the fortified 
tdwu of Ibrtem (PrimiB-parrQ) to bsve 
been eallBd from him.— [G, W.] 

' Tilts wtia of unuBQol oacucrence in 
tho Egyptiaci acolpturcB ; but a repro. 
sent&lioD of a car bearing a small 
shrine in a boat, foniid on the band- 
beloDging to Gignor 
to be aimihir to the 
' uientioued by Herodotus, n'itb 


Btead of being tlie stan 

ftdoitf. Four. wheeled . . 

moo in many ceiintriea. The La 
name peluritum is derived, ha FmI 
aaya, 6oni pelor " fonr "' in Oscbb, a 
rit (rota) " wheel." PetSr it a 
form of quatuor, tha Gothio 
^olio PisuTtt, Sanscrit ~" 
[Q. W.] 



with dabs ensnes, in which heads are commonly broken on 
both sides. Many, I am convinced, die of the wounds that 
tbey receive, though the Egyptians insist that no one is ever 

64. The natives give the subjoined account of this festival. 
They say that the mother of the god Mars once dwelt in the 
temple. Brought up at a distance from his parent, when he 
grew to man*s estate, he conceived a wish to visit her. Ac- 
cordingly he came ; but the attendants, who had never seen 
hun before, refused him entrance, and succeeded in keeping 
him out. So he went to another city and collected a body of 
m^, with whose aid he handled the attendants very roughly, 
and forced his way in to his mother. Hence they say arose 
the custom of a fight with sticks in honour of Mars at this 

The Egyptians first made it a point of religion to have no 

converse with women in the sacred places, and not to enter 

them without washing, after such converse. Almost all other 

nations, except the Greeks and the Egyptians, act differently, 

regarding man as in this matter imder no other law than the 

brutes- Many animals, they say, and various kinds of birds, 

may be seen to couple in the temples and the sacred precincts, 

thich would certainly not happen if the gods were displeased 

at it. Such are the arguments by which they defend their 

practice ; but I nevertheless can by no means approve of it. 

In these points the Egyptians are specially careful, as they are 

indeed in everything which concerns their sacred edifices. 

65. Egypt, though it borders upon Libya, is not a region 
abounding in wild animals.^ The animals that do exist in the 

* This was thought to be eztraor- 
dinarj, becaofle Africa abounded in 
wild aaimalB (infra, ir. 191-2) ; but it 
was on the west and south, and not on 
the confines of Egypt, that they were 
niuDeroas. Though Herodotas abstains 
from sajing whj the Egyptians held 
some animals sacred, he explains it in 
degree by observing that Egypt 

did not abound in animals. It was 
therefore found necessary to ensure 
the presonration of some, as in the 
case of cows and sheep ; others were 
sacred in consequence of their being 
unwholesome food, as swino, and cer- 
tain fish ; and others from their utility 
in ^destroying noxious reptiles, as the 
cat, ichneumon, ibis, vulture, and 


ootmtry, whether domesticated or otherwise, ate all regarded 
as sacred. If I were to explain why they are consecrated to 
the several gods, I should he led to speak of religions matt^ 
which I particularly shrink from mentioning ; the poisti 
whereon I have touched slightly hitherto have all been intro- 
duced from sheer necessity. Their custom with reepect to 
animftlw is as follows : — For every kind there are appcnnted 
certain guardians, some male, some female,' whose buBinees 
it is to look after them ; and this honour ^ is made to descend 

falcon tribe: Or for somo particular 1 
pnrpoee, as the crocodile was sacred 
in places distant from tho yil?, irhere . 
the c»nala required keeping up. The 
same is stated by Porphyry {de Baori- [ 
ficiis) and Cicero (Nat. Door. i. 36), 
who says that the custom of " repre- 
f^ntiDs ihi (Toda ^ith tb^ beadfl of 

iotroducei) in order that the people i 
might Bbstttio from eating tliuoi, or I 
tor BOOie otbcr mjslerioos reason." 
" 1 this they i ' 

in Cairo, from funds left for ths inr- 
pose. See At. Eg. W. voL t. p. 165- 

[G, W-] 

' Herodotas and Diodonu agnsm 
representing- the office of feediaglb 
sacred animals bh an bonourable act ■ 
■*and BO far," says Diodorust "v* 
they from doolinit...' or f—'ii? m)-™"! 

pride tlir-maelTos upon it, p^ing ■" 
procession thniugli the tonna >»" 
country, with tbe distingoisbingmwki 
if their ocoopation. aa it they " 

lUKtNQ OF vowa 

from bther to son. The mbabitants of the TariouB cities, 
when they have made a tow to any god, pay it to his animala 
in the way which I will now explain. At the time of making 
the TOW they Bhave the head of the child,* cutting off all the 

EU^ to have beem pennittad during 
Oa iga dT the PfaanohB, when the Uw 
m ttrtmg, the re»I object better 
ndvitood, and the priesta were inoie 
iotanated in momtaumig their aatho- 
ti^, uid in piQTeuting an ezpoBnre of 
lUr ^i t am -, and no opinion oan be 
tmcd of the EgyptiuiB or their cdb- 
lOBi when in the degraded state to 
■Ucb thej had fallen under 

For, B 

De Panw 


nch eioeaaeB were oommitted in old 
tnn ae, than to expeft the modem 
icnruM of Bnrope to make war on each 
Mkcir in order to maintain the pra- 
tninence of their taints and patrons " 
lEtch. IDT lea %. et Chinoia, i, 146). 
itt whaterer ma; hare been the 
shgtnal motive, there is no donbt that 
Ou effect of this sanctitj of animals 
■•> onl; what mi);bt havo been fore- 
Kan, and like the dirision of the deity 
mlo Tmriona forms and attribates, or 
At adoration of an; bnt the Sapreme 
Being, could not poBgibly end in any. 
tluBg bnt saperBtitioQ and error. And 
t^gh Flntarch (do 1b. b. 6) thinks 
lliat "the religiona rites and cere, 
■niiea of the Egyptians were never 
iW)tDl«d on irrationBl grounds, or 

gods, the Egyptians, at least the 
greater part <j them, have not only 
filled their religions worship with 
many contemptible and ridiODloDS 
rites, bnt have given oooasion to 
notions of the moat dangerons oon- 
sequenoe, driving the weak and simple- 
minded into all the eitravaganoe of 
snperstitioQ. See At. Eg. W. vol. 
V, p. 91-114; and compare note' on 
oh. 87.— [G. W.] 

• Thongh Egyptian men shaved their 
heads. boyB had several tufts of hair 
left, aa in modem Egypt and China. 
Princes also wore a long plaited lock, 
tailing from near the top of the head, 
behind the ear, to the nock. This waa 
the sign of childhood, and naa given 
tc the infant Harpocnttea. To it 
Lncian alludes when he says (Narig. 
3), "It ia a Bign cf 
nobility in Egypt, 
for all free-born 
youths to plait their 
hair until the age 
of puberty," thongh 
in Greece " tho hair 
twisted back and 
plaited is a sign of 

The lock i 

vom by 

not always real hair, bnt 

appended to the wig I hey 

9 plaited to reaenible 


hair, or else half, or Bometimee a third part, which they thai 
weigh in a balance against a BUm of silver ; aud whatever soin 
the hair weighs is presented to the guardian of the animals. 
who thereupon cuts up some fish, and gives it to them for food 
— such being the stuff whereon they are fed. When a ma 
has killed one of the eacred animals, if he did it with malit 
prepense, he is punished with death ; ' if unwittingly, he hi 
to pay such a fine as the priests choose to impose. When a 
ibis, however, or a hawk is killed, whether it was done & 
accident or on purpose, the man must needs die. 

66. The number of domestic animals in Egypt is very greij 
and would be still greater were it not for what befals the cati 
As the females, when thsy have kittened, no longer seek tfa 
company of the males, these last, to obtain once more thefi 
companionship, practise a curious artifice. They seize tb 
kittens, carry them off, and kill them, but do not eat then 
afterwards. Upon this the females, being deprived of th( 
young, and longing to supply theii' place, srek the males onfl 
more, since they are particularly fond of their offspring. Ol 
every occasion of a fire in Egypt the strangest prodigy ooci 
with the cats. The inhabitants allow the fire to rage as 

hair, aomotimes within s oororing 
fa«tj9Iioil to the eido dF the head- 
drcBS. One of these, worn by b Prinoe 
BcmeseB, was highl}' omameDt«d. 

-ro. w.] 

' The Inw was, ae Herodotne aays, 
agninst a person killing them on pur- 
poae; but the prejudiced populace in 
aftor times did not alwaya keep within 
the law 1 and Diodoroa declares that 
if any perBon IdHed an ibie, or a cat, 
even aointontionally, it infallibly coat 
bim his life, the multitude ooUeoting 
and tcnring him to picoee ; for fear of 
wbioh calamity, if anybody fonnd one 
of tbom dead ho Btooil at a diatanoe, 
and callinpf with a lend voice made 
every dciiionBtration of grief, and pro- 
tested that it waa fonnd UfeleaH- And 
to anch an oitont did they carry this, 
that theyeoold not bedoM>rred by any 
reprOBeutatioa Inun their Cwn magig- 

trates from killing a Roman n 
aooidenlally canned tba death of » 01 
(Diod. i. 83). This vonfirmH the at 
mont in a previone note {eh. 66, not. 
of tho chan^ Btiice the tiino of fl 
FharaohB. A. similar prejodioe aill 
in India in favonr of their saorad M 
mala. Cicero aaid it wbb a ot^ 
offeDCu in Egypt to kill "on ibis,! 
aap, a cat, a dog. or a crooodill' 
(Tubc. Diq>. v. 27} ; bnt the otm 
dilc was not saered thn>ii|!^ll011t td 
conntry. Ptntaruh montiolU tliA iU 
hawk, cynooephnlug, and (be ^ij^ I 
the animals in nniveiital eatinu 
thronghont Egypt, to which the 
dog, cow, imltnre, and aep ah 
bare been added. Great reapeot in 
also paid lo the jackal, aathe embla 
of Ai^Dbis : but many othere meral 
enjoyed local honoura.— [G. W.' 

Cbap. 6&-G7. 



pleases, while they stand about at intervals and watch these 
anunals, which, slipping by the men or else leaping over 
them, rush headlong into the flames.^ When this happens, 
the Egyptians are in deep afiUction. If a cat dies in a private 
house by a natural death, all the inmates of the house shave 
their eyebrows ; on the death of a dog they shave the head 
and the whole of the body. 

67. The cats on their decease are taken to the city of 
Bubastis,' where they are embalmed, after which they are 
buried in certain sacred repositories. The dogs are interred 
in the cities to which they belong, also in sacred burial-places. 
The same practice obtains with respect to the ichneumons ; * 

' Tbe Tery measures adopted bj the 
EgTptians to prerent the cats being 
^f^nt frightened them (as Laroher 
i^ipQies), and made them rush into 
tfce dinger.— [G.W.] 

'Cftts were embalmed and buried 
^hen thej died, except perhaps in 
^e neighbourhood of Bnbastis; for 
*e find their mummies at Thebes and 
^'ther Egyptian towns, and the same 
Biaj be said of hawks and ibises. At 
IWbee numerous ibis mummies are 
found, as well as in the well-known 
ifais-mummy pit of Sakkara ; and 
oowB, dogs, hawks, mice, and other 
inimals are found embalmed and 
boned at Thebes. They did not there- 
fere cany all the cats to Bubastis ; 
the shrew-mice and hawks to Bute; 
or the ibis to Hermopolis. But it is 
very possible that persons whose 
rri^^ions scmples were very strong, 
or who wished to show greater honour 
to one of those animals, sent them to 
be buried at the city of the god to 
wham they were sacred, as individuals 
soBietames preferred having their 
bodies interred at Abydus, beoause it 
mm the holy burial place of Osiris. 
This explains the statement of Hero- 
doiOB, as well as the fact of a great 
■■mber of cat mummies being found 
at tbe Speos Artemidos, and the 
Bvmber of dog mummies in the Cyno- 
polite nome, and of wolf mummies at 
Lyoopolis. In lome placet the mum- 

vou n. 

mies of oxen, sheep, dogs, cats, seiw 
pents, and fishes, were buried in a 
common repository; but wherever 
particular animals were sacred, small 
tombs, or cavities in the rock, were 
made for their reception, and sepul- 
chres were set apart for certain ani- 
mals in the cemeteries of other towns. 
— [G. W.] 

* The viverra ichneumon is still very 
common in Egypt, particularly on the 
western bank, from the modem Geezeh 
to the Fy<5om. It was supposed to be 
sacred to Lucina and Latona. Hera- 
cleopolis was the city where it was 
principally honoured ; and its hostility 
to the crocodile, in destroying its eggs, 
was the cause of the ill-will that sub- 
sisted between the Heracleopolites 
and the people of the neighbouring 
nome of Crooodilopolis (the modem 
Fydom). Its habit of destroying eggs 
is well known ; and this is &cquently 
represented in the paintings of Thebes, 
Beni Hassan, and Sakkara. It is now 
called nims, or Qot, i.e. (Kot) P/ia- 


radon, " Pharaoh's cat,'* probably from 
the reverence it formerly received in 
Egypt. This was from its hostility to 



the hawks and shrew-mice, on the contrai'y, are conveyed 
the city of Buto for burial, and the ibises^ to HermopoUa 
The bears, which are scarce in Egypt,* and the wolves, which 
are not much bigger than foxes,' they bury wherever thej 
happen to find them lying. 

68. The following are the peculiarities of the crocodile:—' 
During the four winter months they eat nothing ; ^ they 


catfl ; and above all from itn antipatli; 
to serpoDts, wbioh it cDiiainlf ha.a a 
romacltablo facilit; of deHD-oy jog. 
^lisn, and othei- ancient nritera. have 
orarloaded the troth with so man/ 
idle toleB, that the feata of the iahaen- 
mon appear altu^th(>r fabatong ; tho 
deBtniotion of tha orocodile'a egga 
having been convortnd into a direct 
attack on the crocodile jtaolf, and a 
ODirasa of mad against a snalie having 
been thonght necessaiy to ncooont for 
what ia really dune by its eiti-eme 
qniokneBs. See At. Eg. W. vol. il. 

p. 31, and vol. y, p. 1*9 to 157 

[Q. W.] 

• Theae birda wereaoorcd to Thoth, 
the god of lettoTB, and tho moon, who 
oorreapoaded to Meronry, being the 
iDtermediate agent between the gods 
and man. He wan particnlarly wor- 
shipped at Hennopolis Magna, now 
Oihmoonayn, in Coptic Shmoun B, or 
the " two Eights," in allaaioa to his 
Utle of " Lord of the eight rogioiu," 
oommon in the hieroglyphic legenda. 
On tile edge of tho desert, west of that 
place, are many pita where the aacred 
ibises were buried. HermopoUs Parva, 
now Damanhour in the Delta, wna 
also a city named after this ged. 
Another, called Ibenin, nearly opposite 
AoAriR, waa either aocred to, or woa 
tbe barial-plooe of, the ibiij and 
ChunpoUioD supposed it reortived the 
name of Nibia from Ma.ii.hip, or 
u-hip " the place (irity) of the ibia," 
which in ERvpt waa called Bip. {See 
below, note » on ch. 76.} The Cyno- 
oepholuH npo was also aocred to Thoth. 

-ro. w.] 

• It is very evident that boars were 
not natives of Egypt ; they are not 
npresented among the onimalB of tbe 

ind no instance o 

he BoulptnreB, eioept oa I 
ounoaity Drought by foreignera. Ther" 
people are the Rot-Ti-no (divided b 
tho Egyptians inte " upper and lower "^ 
who lived by Mesopotamia ; and tin 
cumieg of the bear front tbe naig^ 
boorhoixl of the Enphnttee aoooHi 
well with the present hahilat of th* 
small light. ooloared Vram SyruCM.-a 
[G. W.] 

' Herodotna ib quite cm 
ing that wolves in Egypt w 
larger than fon '" '" "' 

s all c 

1 of I 


and which is represented in thejuall 
tnroB of 0ppor and Lov 
The wolf is an animal of Upper OM 
Lower Egypt. Its Egyptian nama wa 
•' Ou6ruk:'—[_0. W.] 

* If tho crocodile rarely ootnei M 
of tbe river in the cold weaUtsr, b( 
oaose it &uds the water wannw tha 
tbe eitemal air at that saason, thM 

torpid all that time, thongh, like d 
tbe l:xard tribe, it can eiist a loq 
time without OHling. and I bave ki 
them live in a house for throe nu 
without food, Bleeping moat of tfal 
timoi indeed, when the wealbtir ii^ 

Domes out of the water It 
sand -banks, and there daring I 
groat beats of the summer it aloq. 
with its month wide open towards II 
wind. In Herodolns' time croood*'" 
freqaeutcd the lower part of the } 
more than at present, and may bi 
remainod longer under water i ' 
latitude. Indeed for man; i 
tbey have little opportunity of b 
aeon, iiwing b " - ' '--' 

Chap. 67, 68. 



four-footed, and live indiflferently on land or in the water. 

The female lays and hatches her eggs ashore, passing the 

greater portion of the day on dry land, but at night retiring to 

the river, the water of which is warmer than the night-air and 

the dew. Of all known animals this is the one which from 

the smallest size grows to be the greatest : for the egg of the 

crocodile is but little bigger than that of the goose, and the 

young crocodile is in proportion to the egg ; yet when it is full 

grown, the animal measures frequently seventeen cubits and 

eyen more. It has the eyes of a pig, teeth large and tusk-like, 

of a size proportioned to its frame ; unlike any other animal, 

it is without a tongue ; it cannot move its under jaw, and in 

>ng tbeir faToarite sand.banks. Thej 
^0 not now freqaent the Nile below 
B^i Hassan, and thej are seldom 
Men north of the latitade of Manfa. 
^. Tbeir eggs, as Herodotns says, 
ue 1^ in the sand, often nnder the 
^k, and hatched by the heat of the 
ion ; and the great disparity between 
the animal when fall grown, and its 
original size in the egg, is remarkable, 
since the latter only measores three 
inches in length and two inches in 
In^th (or diameter), being less than 
that of the goose, which measures 
3} by 2|. The two ends are exactly 
iiike. When formed, the young croco- 
dile lies within with its tail turned 
foimd to its head; and when full 
^wn it becomes nearly 70 times 
knger than the egg^ the crocodile of 
^rypt attaining to the size of 20 to 22 
feet. In Ethiopia it is larger; and 
Herodotofl gives it 17 cubits ( — 25.^ 
feet or 29, if by the cubit of the 
Kilometer) in Egypt, or even more. 
Its small eyes are long, which makes 
Herodotus compare them to those of a 
pig, and they are covered by a thin 
pellocid (nictitating) membrane, men. 
tioned by Plutarch (de Is. s. 75), 
which passes over them from the 
oaier comer, and continues there 
while it sleeps. It is perfectly true 
that it has no tongue ; and the throat 
is cU sed by a thick membrane which 
is only opened when it swallows ; but 

the story of its moving it3 upper jaw 
is owing to its throwing up its whole 
head when it seizes its prey, at the 
same time that it really moves its 
lower jaw downwards. The strength 
of its skin, particularly ou the back, 
where it is covered with scales, has 
made it useful for shields (as Pliny 
says of the Hippopotamus, "Torgoris 
ad scuta galeasque impenotrabilis'), 
which are still made of it in Ethiopia. 
Though the scales serve to indicate 
the two species knoAvn in the Nile, 
they differ very little in their position; 
and the black and groon colour of the 
two crocodiles is a more evident dis- 
tinction. The notion of this animal, 
which catches fish, not being able to 
see under water, is contrary to all 
reason, as is the annoyance to wliicli 
Herodotus supposes it subject, of 
having its mouth invaded by leeches. 
The story of the friendly offices of Llio 
Trochilus appears to be derived from 
that bird's uttering a slirill note as it 
flies away on tho approach of man, 
and (quite unintentionally) warning 
the crocodile of danger. In its range 
of long tusks the two end ones of the 
lower jaw pass through corresponding 
holes in the upper jaw, near the nose, 
when the mouth is closed. These are 
formed by the teeth growing long, 
there being as yet no such holes while 
tho animal is young. — [G. W.] 



this respect too it is singular, being the only aiiimiil in tbfll 
world which moves the upper jaw but not the under. It has 
strong claws and a scaly ekin, impenetrable upon the back. 
In the water it is blind, but on land it is very keen of eifilit. 
As it lives chiefly in the river, it has the inside of its mouth 
constantly covered with leeches ; hence it happens that, while 
all the other birds nnd beasts avoid it, with the trochilns it 
lives at pea^e, since it owes much to that bird : for tlift' 
crocodile, when he leaves the water and comes out upon ths 
land, ia iu the habit of lying with hia mouth wide open, facing 
the western breeze : at such times the trocbilus goes into hia 
mouth and devours the leeches. This benefits the crocodile^ 
who is pleased, and takes care not to hurt the trocbilus. 

69. The crocodile is esteemed sacred by some of thft: 
Egyptians ; by others be is treated as an enemy.* Those whoi 

K era 

H ben 

' See above, note >, on ch. 42. 
Btmbo Bpenka of a Bitcred crocodile 
kept at CrucodilopoHs (aftervrarda 
called Arsinos) callo<l Svchus, which 
was fed by the prieats with the 
bread, meat, and veiae contribatpd hy 
gtrangera. This name was eTidentlj 
taken from Savak, the onicodile- 
headed god— and that mentioned by 
HerodntoB, " Champic!," waa the 
Egyptian mtafi, or tinidh, which may 
be traocd in the Arahio temsah. The 
Greeks prefixed the x ^ '■^^Y i>o™ 
ohauge the h of Arabia into a bard k, 
as "kagi" for " ftaji," Ao. At Cropo. 
dilopolifl, and at another town of the 
BODie name above Hermopolis, at 
Ombo«, Coptos, Athribia (called also 
Crocodilopolifi), and even at Thebea, 
and some other plac«H, the crocudilo 
WBB greatly hononrud ; and jElian 
(i. 24) Bays that their nambers in- 
oreasod so much that it was not aafe 
for any one to wash his feet, or draw 
water at the river near those towns ) 
and no one eonld iraik by the Btream 
Omboa, CoptoB, ur Arsinoc, without 
eat oaation. Herodotoa Hayn the 
sacred OTooodiles of the Crocodilupolite 
B wore buried in the lower cham- 
of the Labyrinth (infia, ch. 146). 

The TontyritcB, and the poopla «t 
Apollinoyiolts, Heraeloopolis, and ' 
is land of Elephant ine, looked upon th— 
with pnrticnlar aversion, and the mubC 
hatred wa» ghoim to them wbenevfT 
they were considered typea of tlM 
Evil Being. The skill rf the Tenty- 
rites in deatmyinK them ma well 
known, and their faoilitj i 
powering them in the water ia attib 
bated by Pliny (viii. 36) and SaneM 
(Nat. Qoooat .iv. 2) to their oonnm. 
as well aa to their deatority, tM 
crocodile being " timid before W* 
bold, and most ready U . . _ 

who were afraid of it." The troth aC 
the skill of the Tsntyritea waa e 
tested at Rome : and Strabo aaya tbef I 
went after them into a bank of nuMfl 
pn-pared for the pnrposp, bad ea-l 
tangling them in a net dragged thair 
to its nbelving edge and t^k agiii 
into the water, in the proaenoa o 
namcruaa apectatora. Mnmtsiei o 
ciiKwdiles have been fonnd at Thobai 
and other plaoea, bat principally al 
the larg^e natural cave near Haabdel 
(opposite Manfuloot), near whioh it itj 
probable that some I 
Btoud where they were partionlaruj 
-[Q. V ■• ■* 



live near Thebes, and those who dwell around Lake Moeris, 
regard them with especial veneration. In each of these places 
they keep one crocodile in particular, who is taught to be tame 
and tractable. They adorn his ears ^ with ear-rings of molten 
stone* or gold, and put bracelets on his fore-paws, giving him 
daily a set portion of bread, with a certain number of victims ; 
and, after having thus treated him with the greatest possible 
attention while alive, they embalm him when he dies, and bury 
him in a sacred repository. The people of Elephantine, on 
the other hand, are so far from considering these animals as 
sacred, that they even eat their flesh. In the Egyptian 
language they are not called crocodiles, but Ghampsaa. The 
name of crocodiles was given them by the lonians, who re- 
marked their resemblance to the lizards, which in Ionia live 
m the walls, and are called crocodiles.® 

70. The modes of catching the crocodile* are many and 
various. I shall only describe the one which seems to me 
most worthy of mention. They bait a hook with a chine of 
pork and let the meat be carried out into the middle of the 

' The crocodile's ears are merelj 
*nall openings without any flesh pro- 
jecting beyond the head.— [G. W.] 

'By molten stone seems to be 

iBeant glass, which was well known 

to the Egyptians (see note ® on eh. 4i), 

*8 it was aUo to the Assyrians (Lay- 

»rd*8 Xineveh and Babylon, pp. 196-7, 

ic.) and Babylonians (ibid. p. 503). 

' KpoK^iXos was the term given 
by the lonians to lizards, as the Por- 
taguef« al legato " the lizard " is the 
origin of onr alligator. The lonians 
tre here the descendants of the Ionian 
ioldiers of Psammetichas. The croco- 
dile ia not the Leviathan of Job xli. 
as some have supposed. Isaiah, xxvii. 
1, calls " Leviathan the piercing ser. 
p«it," and "that crooked serpent," 
corresponding to the Aphophis or 
" great serpent " of Egypt, the em- 
blem of sin.— [G. W.] 

* One, which is now adopted, is to 
fasten a little pnppy on a log of wood, 

to the middle of which a strong rope 
is tied, protected to a certain distance 
by iron wire, and this, when swallowed 
by the crocodile, turns, on being pulled, 
across its throat. It is then dragged 
ashore, and soon killed by blows on 
the head from poles and hatchets. 
They have another mode of catching 
it. A man swims, having his head 
covered by a gourd with two holes 
for his eyes, to a sandbank where the 
crocodile is sleeping ; and when he 
has reached it, he rises from the water 
with a shout, and throws a BfHjar into 
its side, or armpit if possible, when 
feeling itself wounded it rushes into 
the water. The head of the barbed 
spear having a rope attached to it, the 
crocodile is thereby pulled in, and 
wounded again by the man (and his 
companions who join him) until it is 
exhausted and killed ; and the same 
method is adopted for catching the 
hippopotamus in Ethiopia. — [G. W.] 




stream, wlii!e the Inuiter upon the bank holds a living pig, 
which he belahtnire, Tho cnicodiie hears its cries, and, making 
for the sound, encounters the pork, which he instantly swallow-B 
down. The men on the shore haul, and when they have got 
him to land, the first thing the hunter does is to plaster hia 
eyes with mud. This once accomplished, the animal is 
despatched with ease, otherwise he gives great trouble. 

71. The hippopotamus,^ in the canton of Paprcmis, is a 
sacred animal, but not in any other part of Egypt. It may 
be thus described : — It is a quadruped, cloven-footed, with 
hoofs like an ox, and a flat noae. It has the mane and tail erf 
n horse, huge tusks which are very conspicuous, and a voice 
like a horse's neigh. In size it equals the biggest oxen, and 
its skin is so tough that when dried it is made into javelins* 


' Thie Finimal was FormBrly common 
in Ef^Tpt, bat is now rar»i; Boen Da 
low as the Beoond cstaraut. The ohaee 
of the hippopntuuns naa a faronrite 
BmasemeDt. It n-na entaiiglcd by a 
running nooHe. nnd then aCmck by a 
Bpear, to tlie barbed blade of which n 
Btrong line waa fastened. On striking 
it the shaft left the blulo, the Hne 
ranaiag on a reol was let ont, aod it 
was then dragged bock again to rc- 
cnive other spear.wonnda till it was 
Bxlianated, when the ropes of the va. 
riooB blades wore nsed to geCDni it. 
(Cp. Diodor. i. 35 ; see pi. it. At. Eg. 
W. vol. iii. p. 71.) The description 
of the hippopotamuB by Horodotuit is 
far from oorreot. Its feet are dividod 
ink) foar short toes, nob like the hriof 
of ftu or i the teeth certainly project, 
bat it has no mnne, and ita tail, almost 
trilateral at the end, is very nnlike 
that of a horse ; nor dona it neigh, the 
noise being between luwing and gmnt- 
iag, lla toe far exoenla that of the 
InrgBit ox, being, when full Hfrown. 
from 11 to IB ft. long. Shafts of 
jareUns (op. i. 52) may possibly hare 
boen made of the bide, bat it ia better 
suitod (or whips (now called corb-i^) 
and shields, both which were made of 

Plinj justly says, " ad scuta galea^qae 

impeuetrabilis " (riU. 26). Its Bgyi^- 
tian name wan opt, with the articla 
p-opt. It it said to hare beon tMr«d 
to Hara (oh . 63) , probably the pigmr 
deity armed with sword and ahidd' 
(At. Eg. pi. i:li. pt. 1). It 1 


a hippopo- 
itamped on tha 
oakes nsed in the sacrifices of tbs 
festival for the rotnm of IsJs trott; 
Pbconioia, on the 11th of Tybi (Plut 
do Is. a. 60). It was probably tba 
bthmiitk of Job (il. la) that -eateCh 
grass like an oi," and " lioth . . . . ia 
the corerC of the rei>d and fona." Sm 
Gesenius, Heb, Lex., where the woii^ 
is thought to be Kgyptian, p-sAc-mh^ 
'- Che wator.ox." Shields »!« bUI^ 
mode of its hide by the EthiopiaaK 
and Blacks of Africa as of old, aa wall 
aa of the crooodile, giraffe, and bnll'l 
bide.— [G. W.] 

' According to Porphyry (ap. " 
Prmp. Bt. X. Hi. p. 1«S B.) - - ^ 
dotns (raoaferred his aocoiiati ot 
the phosnix, the hippo potantna, and 
the mnde of oatohing the crooodaq 
bridily trnin UocatiDas, making only I 
few verbal alterations. It a poutbtt 
that the staWmeut tnay be tme U 
rejard) the two quadrupeds, thoo^ 
one w<mld think that Uen>di>tus migU 
have hod oqoal means nf penuod 

Cui.70-7t. FISH OP THE NILE. II9 

72. Otters ' also are fonnd in the Nile, and are considered 
uered. Only two sorts of fish are Tenerated,^ that called the 

with tlie surlier writer. 
In the CMC <d the pbcetiiz, farpbjrj'K 
wcDDDt eamtot he receired, for it it 
eridMit tbst Herodotna drew directly 
tnm (be Egypldkn piotnree. He bajb, 
■onorer (infra, oh. 99), that alt hie 
moDDt of %7pt is the recalt of his 
"n idea* and obeerrationa. This, 
kiwefer, maj be an exaggeration. 

'The name iwitpai ia indefinite, 
Ui the otter ia imkiiowii in Egjrpt ; 
IM Ammiamia HaroelUnTia (nil. ii ; 
V- 138) eiplaina it bj ahmning that 
lh« "hjdriia waa a kind ol ichnen- 
Ma!" Bod thaogh Herodotos was 
uweof the eiiatenoe of the ichnea- 
no, he may eaaitj have mietaken it 

for the otter, aa modem trarellera are 
known to do, on aeeing it coming out 
of the river.— [G. W.] 

• The fiah particularl; ioored were 
the OxTThiDohiui, the Lepidotni, and 
the PbagntB or eel ; and the Latna 
was sacred at Latopolia, aa the iSteatea 
at Elephantine. The Oxjrhinehoa, 
which gave ita name to the ottj where 
it waa partioQlarly honoared, had, aa 
ita name ahowa, a " pointed noae." and 
was the game ae the modem Mizdeh, 
the Hormjraa OiTrhinohna. It ia 
often fonnd in bronie. So higbl; waa 
it revered at OijThinohna that a 
quarrel took plaoe between that city 
and the people of Cynopolis, in con. 

Cmai, 72. 



lepidotns and the eel. These are regarded as sacred to the 
Nile, as likewise among birds is the vulpanser, or fox-goose.^ 

Mqnenoe of their haring eaten one ; 

>od no Oxjrhinchite wonld eat any 

otlier fiah taken by a hook, leet it 

ibould hare been defiled by having at 

laj time wonnded one of their sacred 

fiib (Hat. de la. rii. 18, 22). The 

I^pidotnfl was a scaly fish, bat it is 

uoertain whether it was the Kelb-el. 

Bilir (Salmo dentez), the Kisher (or 

Oiflher), a name signifying " scaly," 

tbe Perca Nilotica, or the Benny 

(Cjprinos Lepidotos) ; and the bronze 

Rpresentations do not clear np the 

<Ioeiti(m, thoogh they favoar the 

cl&ima of the last of the three (see 

Plttt. de Is. s. 18). The Phagrus or 

^was sacred at Syene and at Fha- 

ponopolis, and the reason of its being 

acred at this last place was evidently 

in order to indace the people to keep 

i»P the canal. Of the habits of some 

fiah of Ejjrypt, see Strabo, xv. p. 486. 

" is nncertain what species the Latns 

and MsBotes were, and uSlian thinks 
the Phagrns and Hsdotes were the 
same fish (see At. Eg. W. vol. t. p. 
253). Bnt all people did not regard 
these fish with the same feelings, and 
all kinds are represented as caaght 
and eaten in different parts of Egrypt. 
The people, not priests, ate them both 
fresh and salted, and fishing with the 
hook, the bident (At. Eg. W. vol. iii. 
p. 41), and the net, are among the 
most common representations in the 
painting^ of Thebes and other places, 
and an amnsement of the rich as well 
as an occupation of the poor. Several 
fish have been found embalmed in the 
tombs; but it has been difficult to 
ascertain their species ; though this 
would not prove their sancity, as 
everything found dead was embalmed 
and buried to prevent its tainting tho 
air.— [G. W.] 

No. V. 

* This goose of tho Nile was an 
emblem of the Ckxl Seb, the father of 
Osiris; bnt it was not a sacred bird. 
It signified in hieroglyphics a " s<m,'* 
and oocors over the nomens of Pha- 
raohs with the Sun, signifying " son 

of the sun." HorapoUo protends that 
it was so used because of its affection 
for its young ; but though it does dis- 
play great courage and cunning in 
protecting them, it was not adopted 
on that account, but from the phonetic 

78. They have aleo another Bacred bii-d called the phcenix,* 
which I myself have never seen, except in pictures. Indeed* 
it is a great rarity, even in Egypt, only coming there (fiecord- 
ing to the accounts of the people of Heliopolis) once in fivS 
hundred years, when the old phcenix dies. Its size and ap^ 
pearance, if it ia lite the pictures, are as follows: — The plum' 
age is piirtly red, partly golden, while the general make and 
size are almost exactly that of the eagle. They tell a story of 
what this bird does, which does not eeem to me to be credible: 

itial of 

dnced. Part of tbe 
£(ith clmptor of the 
t^inereal ritnal trans. 
liUcd tij Dr. HinckB contaioB this 
tlc^rmn, utladed t« in tbe Orpliio Cob- 
iringony : " 1 urn the Egg of the Great 
Oockler. I hare pnitected the Great 
Egg laid by Seb in thu world : I grow. 
It grows in turn : I live, it lives in 
turn i I hreatbe, it breathes in turn." 
This Ut. Birch abow» to be ated on 
cufHiu of the period about the 12tb 
drnosty. (See Gliddon'a Otis Eg. p. 
83.) On the Orphia Cosmogony and 
the oonnection between the E^g and 
Chronns (Satorn, the Seb of Egypt), 
see Damasciua in Corj'e Fragmouta, 
p. 313; AriflUiphaneH (Binla 700) 
mentiona th^ egg produced bv " blscii- 
winged night." (Cory, p. '393, and 
HIS! Orpbie TTynin io Pnit«gonnH, p. 
^i.) As Seb and Ketije ansH-ervd to 

Batam and Rbea, their ohildren O 
and Isia, being broth Ev and aiateq, 
answered to Jnpiter and Juno, than^ 
they did not really bear any oUi 
re^emblaocc to them. Seb and Net] 
were the Earth and the Uoaven a] 

■ This biid 1 formerly sapposed « 
be the one represented on the nunn 
ments with hnman hands, and oftfl 
witb a inan'B bend and leg^ in H 
at titnde of prayer (6ga, 1, S), bnt it ft 
evident that Mr. Stnort Poole is ri(^ 
in considering tbe B»nno (tbe bird d 
Osiris) tbe true Phconii (6g. 3) ; and 
the former appears to bo the " pm 
eoul " of tbe long. Herodotn*, Taiir 
tnn, and Pomp. Mela fix its return tl 
600 years, which is evidently ftu a*^ 
tronamical period ; but Taoitu Mfl 
some give it 1461 years, whioli IKnnH 
tu the t'Dincidenoe of the 1460 iDt«» 
calsited with the 1461 vagne yeaiai 
and this is confirmed by ' 
placed at an eqnal dletanc 
betwocD oach Sothio period (or TM 
years before and after tlie dog'Mu) 
on the ceiling of the Mcmnoniom.-^ 
[G. W,] 

Chap. 78, 74. 



that he comes all the way from Arabia, and brings the parent 
bird, aU plastered over with myrrh, to the temple of the smi, 
and there buries the body. In order to bring him, they say, 
he first forms a ball of myrrh as, big as he finds that he can 
carry ; then he hollows out the ball, and puts his parent in- 
side, after which he covers over the opening with fresh myrrh, 
and the ball is then of exactly the same weight as at first ; so 
he brings it to Egypt, plastered over as I have said, and de- 
posits it in the temple of the Sun. Such is the story they teU 
of the doings of this bird. 

74. In the neighbourhood of Thebes there are some sacred 
serpents * which are perfectly harmless.' They are of small 

' The homed snake, vipera cerastes^ 
18 oommon in Upper Egjpt and 
throoghoat the deserts. It is very 
poiBonous, and its habit of burying 
it pelf in the sand renders it particu- 
larly dangerous. Pliny (N. H. viii. 23) 
notices this habit. Herodotus is cor- 
rect in describing it of small size, but 
the harmless snakes he mentions had 
donbtlees been miAQ so ; and Diodorus 
Tery properly classes them among 
renomooB reptiles. There is no au- 
thority from the sculptures for its 
being sacred, even at Thebes, though 
the asp is shown to have been a sacred 
snake. The frequent repetition of the 
ceraetes in the hieroglyphics is owing 
to its occurring so often in "he," 
" him," " his," and for the letter / in 
other words. It is found embalmed 
at Thebes, like other reptiles and 
animals which have no claim to sanc- 
tity, and in ordinary tombs, but not in 
the temple of Amun. Diodorus even 
thinks the hawk was honoured on ac- 
coimt of its hostility to these, as well as 
other, noxious reptiles ; and as Hero- 
dotus does not notice the asp, it is 
possible that he may have attributed 
to the cerastes the honour that really 
belonged to that sacred snake. The 
a<p or Haia was the emblem of the 
Goddeos Ranno, and was chosen to 
over gardens, from its destroy, 
rats and 'other vermin. Altars 
and offerings were placed before it, as 

before dragons in Etrcuria and Rome. 
It was also the snake of Neph or Noo, 
and apparently the representative of 
AgathodsBmon. In hieroglyphics it 
signified *' Goddess ; " it was attached 
to the head-dresses of gods and kings, 
and a circle of those snakes composed 
the " asp-formed crowns " mentioned 
in the Kosetta stone. Being the sign 
of royalty, it was called ^curiXiaKOi 
(basilisk), "royal," equivalent to its 
Egyptian name lercpus, from ouro^ 
" king." It is still common in gar- 
dens, and called in Arabic Ndsher. In 
length it varies from 3 to 4^ feet, and 
the largest I have found was 5 feet 
11 inches. It is very venomous. It 
resembles the Indian cobra {Naia tri- 
pudians) in its mode of raising itself, 
and expanding its breast ; but it ha^ no 
" spectacles " on its head. If Cleo- 
patra's death had been caused by any 
serpent, the small viper would rather 
have been chosen than the large asp ; 
but the story is disproved by her 
having decked herself in " the ix)yal 
ornaments," and being found dead 
" without any mark of suspicion of 
poison on her body." Death from a 
serpent's bite coujd not have been 
mistaken ; and her vanity would not 
have allowed her to ch(X).se one which 
would have disfigured her in bo fright- 
ful a manner. Other poisons were 
well understood and easy of access, 
and no boy would have ventured to 



size, and have two bornfl growing out of the top of the head; 
These snakes, when they die, are bm-ied in the temple ai 
Jupiter, the god to whom they are sacred. 

75. I went oiioe to n certain place in Arabia, almost exact^ 
opposite the city of Buto,* to make inquiries concerning ihtf 
winged Berpeuta.* On my arrival I saw the back-bones i 
ribs of serpents in such numbers as it is impossible to de- 
scribe : of the ribs there were a multitude of heaps, som 
great, some small, some middle-sized. The place where tht 


carrj an up in a baaket of Bgg, soine 
of which lie even oSerctl to thu guards 
na be pnsscd, and Pintaroh (Vit. 
Anton.) sbowB tliat the atcrf of the 
asp was doabtad. Nor is the Htatae 
carried In Augustus' triumph nhiob 
had an asp upon it aaj proof of hia 
belief in it, ginoe that snake was thp 
emblem of Egyptian royalty : the 
statne (or the crown) uf Cleapatra 
eonld Dot have been without one, and 
Chig waa probablj tbe origin of tho 
whole Btory.— [G. W.] 

' Tha bite of the cerftstOB or homed 

— the cerastes, tho nap (ir 
naia, and tbe common viper. Stcnbo 
(xv. p. 1004) mentiouB large vipers in 
Egypt, nearly 9 cubits long, but the 
longest asp does not oiceod 6 feet, 
and that is very unnsnal.— [G. W.] 

* This city of Buto waa different 
from that in the Delta. Some think 
it was at Uelbdyt (Bubastis Agria), or 
at Ahb<u,iek.~-IG. W.] 

' The winged serpents of Herodotus 
hnvo puizlwi many pcrsong from tha 
time of PansaniBa to tho present day. 
Isaiah (xn. 6) meiitioos the " lif^rf 
flying serpont," The Egyptian aonlp. 
tures represent some emblematic 
snakee with bird's wings and bnman 
legs. The Draco )io!on« of Linnaous 
has wings, wluch might answer to the 
description giren by Herodotus, bat it 
does not freqaent Egypt, Tho only 
flying cmature the ibis coald be ex- 
peeted t« attack, on its flight into 
Egypt, »nd for trhicb it would have 

been looked npou as a partioular ben 
factor to Egypt, was the locust i U 
the HwanoB of tUeso large deatmotii 
insects do oome from the east. 1 
Syria I have seen them just bMoht 
in tho spring still imuble to fl J i M 
some idea of the sixe and deaUraetin 
ness of a flight of locostA DUy 1 
derived from the fact of a ■wmn 
settling and covering the groiuid ft 
a distsjice of 41 milEH. It n Dngnh 
that Herodotus ehoald not haTO mM 
tioned Inonsts, flights of which ■■ 
seen in winter, sprltag. 
and among tbe many monstors, 
animals, and birds represented ip 
Egyptian painttogs, so eitraordinaq 
a Borpeut could nut be unnoticed. TT~ 
locusts and the real exislenoo of 
Draco volant may 
story; and, 

that can bo said is (hat Her 
saw a heap of bonea witbont h 
asoeitAinod, beyond rcpcrt, how 
come tbcfe. I^nsaniaa seema ' 
convinced himself of thor e 
by boheving ii 

a seorpion with win)j:a tike ■ 
lirought by a Phrygian (ix. i 
There is, however, no doubt tl 
ibig dettroycd anakea j 
foond the skin of one partly di^ 
in the inteatinea of one c' 
mnnuniod birds. Its food a 
BJBted of bootlai, which luive 1 
found in another speuimnn. 
rodotns, B. iii. cb, 108, n 
deBoribes the winged aorpmU i 
Arabia.— [G. W.] ' 

Chip. 74-76. 



bones lie is at the entrance of a narrow gorge between steep 
mountains, which there open upon a spacious plain communi- 
cating with the great plain of Egypt. The story goes, that 
with the spring the winged snakes come flying from Arabia 
towards Egypt, but are met in this gorge by the birds called 
ibises, who forbid their entrance and destroy them all. The 
Arabians assert, and the Egyptians also admit, that it is on 
account of the service thus rendered that the Egyptians hold 
the ibis in so much reverence. 

76. The ibis is a bird of a deep-black colour, with legs like 
a crane ; its beak is strongly hooked, and its size is about that 
of the landrail. This is a description of the black ibis which 
contends with the serpents. The commoner sort, for there 
are two quite distinct species,® has the head and the whole 
throat bare of feathers ; its general plumage is white, but the 
head and neck are jet black, as also are the tips of the wings 
and the extremity of the tail ; in its beak and legs it resembles 
the other species. The winged serpent is shaped like the 
water-snake. Its wings are not feathered, but resemble very 
closely those of the bat. And thus I conclude the subject of 
the sacred animals. 

' The first described by Herodutns 

li aU black, was the one which fought 

against the (winged) serpents. It is 

the Ibis Falcinelltu (Temm.), or glossy 

ibis. The colour is a reddish.brown 

ihot with dark-green and purple ; the 

lifle 1 foot from the breast to the end 

of the taiL The othei* is the " Name- 

«tMf Ibis," or " Ibis religiosa " of 

Bodem naturalists, the Aboo Hannes 

of BrtuyBf which is white with black 

pinkms and tail ; the head and part of 

the back being without feathers, as 

deacribed hj Herodotus. This is the 

so frequently found embalmed in 

Its body measures 12 inches 

IB length, and 4^ in diameter, and the 

beak 6 inches. The leg from the knee 

to the plant of the foot is about 4|^ 

inches. (See Garier's Theory of the 

Earth, Jameson, p. 300.) Both species 

have a curved beak. The great ser- 
vices the ibis rendered by destroying 
snakes and noxious insects were the 
cause of its being in such esteem in 
Egypt. The stork was honoured for 
the same reason in Thessalv ; and even 
now the Turks look upon it with such 
good-will that it would be considered 
a sin to kill one ; on which account it 
feels so secure that, in Asia Minor, it 
builds its nest on the walls and houses 
within reach of man ; and to the 
credit of the Turks it must be said 
that they treat animals in general 
much more kindly than Europeans. 
A similar regard is paid to storks in 

The ibis was sacred to Thoth, the 
Egyptian Hermes. See above, note • , 
on ch. 67.— [G. W.] 



77. With respect to the Egyptians tbeinBClves, it in t 
remarked that those who live in the com country,' dovotinf 
themselves, as they do, far more than any other people in th< 
world, to the preservation of the memory of past actions, an 
the best skilled in history of any men that I have ever met. 
The following is the mode of life habitual to tbem ; — -For threa 
successive days in each month they purge the body by meaiu) 
of emetics and clysters, which is done out of a regard for theij 

' This is in contradiEtinctioa lu the 
maTBh-laiwlB .andaignifieBUppor Egypt , 
HB it includes the oitj of Chommia ; 
but when he eaya they havo no Tinea 
in the oonutry, sod onlj drink boer, 
hia Btatement ia opposed to fact, iind 
to the ordinarjr habits of the Rgyp' 
tianH. In the QoiglibourboDd of 
Memphis, at Thcbea, and the pliices 
betwDen those two oitiea, us well aa at 
EileiChjitu, alt com'grniring districts, 
they ate nheaten bread and oultivated 
Ihe riuS' Hend^jtoa m&y, therefore, 
have had in view the oorn-oauntry, in 
the interior of the broad Delta, 
where the aJliiTia] soil waa not well 
snited to the vine, and where Sebenny- 
tOB alone waa noted for its 
Most of the other vineyards we 
Mareo, and jii plaeoi similarly 
nted nanr the edge of the desert, 
where the light soil wm better snited 
to them ; though grapea for the table 
were prvdnced in all parts of the 
conntiy. Wine mm anirsrsally ased 
by the rich thronghont Ggj'pt, and 
beer supplied its place at the tables of 
the poor, nut because " they bad no 
Tines in their conntry," but becnnee it 
was eheaper ; and the same was their 
reason for eating bread mode of the 
Holeiur lorghum (or Doora) like the 
peusantB of modem Egypt, and not 
because it waa " the greatest disgrooe 
to eat wbenten bread." (See aboro, 
note " on ch. 3G.] And that wine waa 
known in Lower as well as Upper 
Egypt is shown by the Israelites 
mentioning the desert Bn a ploee 
which hod " no figs, or tiine*. or pome- 
granatea" in contradistinction to 
Egypt (Gen. iL 10; Numb. u. G.) 

WincB of rarions kinds were ottoredi 
the temples ; and being Tecy gen 
rail; placed by the altar in glw 
bottlea of a, particular shiLpe, thu 
camo to represent in hieraglyiittil 
what they contained, and to signil 
" wine," without the word Hae 

■Avfip-'i-' M' • 


deed he uses it (or tKwu; " 
>r " small jag," whieh t1 
Qms tn require, and whi«li 
'35 D. (See note on oh*. I 
Another reading b 
tfTir .... oi«xo^in»». Athenw 
(i. p. 33 K) describes the EgyptlK 
as mnch addicted to wine, on his 
and on theanthority of Dio; and ai 
(i. p. 34 a) that Hcllanicna ^nej 

37, and f 



beolth, Bince they hare a pereiiasion that every diaeaBe to which 
men are liable is oocasioned by the substances whereon they feed. 
Apart irom any Buch precaiitionB, they are, I believe, nest to 
the Libyans," the healthiest people in the world — an effect 
of their climate, in my opinion, which has no sudden changes. 
Diseases almoBt always attack men when they are exposed to 
I change, and never more than during changes of the weather. 
They hve on bread made of spelt, which they form into loaves 
c^led in their own tongue cylUstis.' Their drink is a wine which 
they obtain from barley,* as they have no vines in their country. 
^ykindB of fish they eat raw, either salted or dried in the sun.' 

! 'Tbair health was attribatablo to 

I "Wr liring: in the dry atmnaphere of 

I ^ imen, where sickiiesB js j-arel; 

Ban, ag the Arabs show win now 

En there. See note • on oh. 84.— 


'AihcD^QS (X. p. 418 1} aajB the 
EpplruiB were great eatpre of breml, 
W hid a kind oaUed CylWatia. This 
« ifflnns on the authority of Hoca- 
^L He algo Bpeaks of a '* sabacid 
hiid of the Eiryptiane, called Cyllaa- 
<■>. mentioned by AristophaneB in 
ik Danaida ; " and addn, '' Nicandcr 
Moitiona it as made of barley " (iii. 
P- 1U|. Hegychins says, KO\XcuiTit 
tfru Tii ir Ai-yinrTfi iwb ^iCir i( 
iiifu.— iG. W.J 

' Thin i» the alnj Mpt«,m of Xcno- 
pba. DiodoroB (i. 34) mentions it as 
"a bpfeisgo from barley called by the 
EgyptiaiM lylAiu," which ho thinks 
"boi much inferior to wine." Atho- 
BKu (i. p. 34 A : I. p. 418 I) oalla it 

" mBcerated barley ; " and says Aris- 
totle sopposea that men dmnk with 
wine lio on their faces, bnt those 
with beer on their backs. He cites 
Hocatgeos respecting cbe nse of beer 
in Egypt, whoao words are, t^ K/itSat 
»it ri wi/ia itaTakinuBi. I have foond 
the rosiduD of some malt at Thebes, 
once used for tnakinfj beer. Xenophon 
(Anab. if. 5) speaks of a sort of 
fonnity of beer in Armenia drnnk 
throni^h reeds having no joints.^ 
[G. W.] 

' The custom of diyint; flab is fro- 
qnently represented in the scnlptnros 
of Upper and Lower Egypt. (On the 
fishoriea, see n. * cb. 149.) Finhing 
was a Eavonrite amoscment of tho 
Egyptians ; and tho skill oE Hports. 
men was shown by spearing fish with 
the bidont. The fishermen by trado 
caught them in long drag-nets, tho 
lino being confined to poor people, and 
to those who " oast angle " * 

Quails ' also, and ducks and small birds, they eat uncooked 
merely first salting tbem. All other birds and Esbes, exceji 

toent ( and a lurge do able -handled I need tho wicker trap of modem Egrf 

landiDg-unC wb» oinploved fur Bhoftlx iind Indin. Tt is u bnekel nlxiut ■ 

of flmall frj. It is hIso probable that ) feet bipb, entirely open at the lKjtl«M 

wbea the innndaliun retired, tho;; ' wbere it is ]ilH)nt li feet n-ide, laj 

Chip. 77. 



ing those which are set apart as sacred, are eaten either 
roasted or boiled. 

with a smaller opening at the top 
sboQt 8 inches in diameter ; and 
b^ put down into shallow water, 
whatever fish is enclosed within it is 
taken ont by the man who throsts his 
*nn through the npper orifice. See 
At. Est. w. vol. iii. p. 41 and 53-68.— 
[G. W.] 

' Q nails were caught, both in Upper 
and Lower Eg^'pt, like other birds, in 
large clap-nets and in traps (woodcuts 
I. and II.) ; and at Rhinocolura, on the 
etlge of the Syrian desert, the culprits, 
banished by Actisanes to that spot, 
caught them in long nets made of 
split reeds (Diod. i. 60). The catch- 

TOL. n. 



78, In social meetings among the rich, when the 
f nded. a servant carries round to the several guesi 
ill which there is a wooden image of a corpse,* c 
painte^l to resemble nature as uearly as possible, ab( 
or (wo cubits in length. As he showa it to each gne 
the servant eavB, " Gaze here, and drink and be n 
when TOO die, snch will you be." 

79. The Egrptiaiis adhere to their own national 
and adopt no foreign usages. Many of these cu 
worthy of note : among others their song, the Lin 

sue, •Irrin^. ond caltintc ot biids are 
ft^nentlT rvproaenlcd m tbe sculp- 
lun«- (Woodcut 1IL)-[G. W.j 

* Th« li^rr inUnlacod >t gappcr 
Kns <if • niamniv in the osaal furm of 
U^iri^ either tftamtipg. or lying OD & 

object of the enstoai n 
with a view to teach n 
□ne another, and to afuii 
which t«iid to mnke tb 
lite too long, when iu rei 
short " (see Plat, de la. 
Sept. Sap. C:onYi?-, p. 146 
B&latKTj adrioe waa often 
and the senKe of it perrei 
who copied tbe caHtom : 
godly" in JadB<a nsod it 

Chap. 78, 79. 



is sung under Tarious names not only in Egypt but in 
Phoenicia, in Cyprus, and in other places ; and which seems 
to be exactly the same as that in use among the Greeks, and 
by them called Linus. There were very many things in 
Egypt which filled me with astonishment, and this was one of 
them. Whence could the Egyptians have got the Linus ? It 
appears to have been sung by them from the very earliest 
times.' For the Linus in Egyptian is called Maneros ; and 

^^ODoor alwajs given to Osiris — ytwp- 

y^^ «i)prr^f, Movtr&w /AoBrrrfis. Some 

think the "son of the first king" 

OMaai Horns, the son of Osiris ; and 

tbe name might be Man-Hor. Indeed 

there i^peara in the hieroglyphics to 

^ this legend, " Men-Be, the maker 

of hjmnB," which wonld apply to Re, 

the nm. Hntarch (de Is. s. 17) states 

thtt tbe song was suited to festivities 

^ the pleasures of the table ; and 

^^ that Maneros was not a name, 

oot a complimentary mode of greeting, 

^ a wish "that what they were 

^gaged in might turn ont fortn- 

irttely." Pausanias (ix. 29) says that 

*Jnn8 and Adonis were sung ti)gether 

^ Sappho, and thinks that Ilomer 

o»ention8 him (H. xviii. 570) ; though 

ethers refer Xiyor to the flaxen cords 

of the Ijrre (on the shield of Achil- 

fef) :-. 

lfUf>6€» iCiAip((c' \ivov 6' vw6 naXov aetde 
XtwraX4p ^»if* 

vhen having gathered the grapes, they 

danced to the air. Athenseus (Deipn. 

xiv. p. 620 a) says, " Nymphis speaks 

of a yooth having gone to fetch water 

for the reapers, who never returned, 

and was lamented by different people. 

la Egypt he was called Maneros." 

The name Linns was related to aXXivov, 

m ezpreonon of grief {ciktud fwi 

9 tmax 9iT€, Mosch. Id. 1), partly com- 

poanded of the usual exclamation a7, 

mad some think of the Hebrew lun, 

•*to complain" or "murmur." (Cp. 

ExDcL XT. 24 ; and meltnim, " murmur- 

" Numbers xiv. 27.) But the 

of Linus, like that of Maneros, 

not neoesaarily of grief; and 

Euripides (cited by Athenrous, xiv. p. 
619 c) says Linus and Ailinns wore 
suited to joy also. Linus and Maneros 
were probably the genius or imperson- 
ation of song. The Egyptians now 
use " ya laylee ! ya layl .' " as a chorus 
for lively songs, meaning " O my joy ! 
O night!" alluding to the wedding- 
night; "ya laylee, doos, ya laylee/" 
" O my joy, step, O my joy ! " alluding 
to the dance. Cp. Hobr. Hallel, " sing- 
ing, praising," whence hallelu-iah. — 
[G. W.] 

® The Egyptian songs and hymns 
were of the earliest date, and, like 
their knowledge of painting and sculp- 
ture, were said to bo 10,000 years old ; 
but Porphyry hints at the reason of 
their origin being attributed to Isis, 
for it wcw in order to ensure respect 
for them that " they were preserved 
through successive ages as the actual 
poems of that Goddess." (Plato's 
Laws, book ii. p. 790.) Some have 
supposed their songs were of a mourn- 
ful kind, and the charaoter of the 
Egyptians to be the same; but the 
term " magis moestiores " applied to 
them by Ammianus Marcellinus is not 
consistent with their habits of buf- 
foonery, love of caricature, and natural 
quickness, nor with the opinion of 
Xenophon, confirmed by Polybius 
(v. 81), who says, of all people they 
were the most addicted to raillery. 
(Cp. Her. ii. 60, 221. See At. Eg. W. 
ii. p. 264. 442.) This is inherited by 
their successors ; as well as " grati- 
tude for favours conferred on them," 
which Diodorus (i. 90) says was most 
remarkable in the Egyptians. — [G. W.] 


thej told me that Maneros was the only son of their first kinj 
and that on his untimely death lie was honoured by \ 
Egyiitians with these dirgelike strains, and in this way t 
got their first and only melody. 

80, There is another custom in which the Egyptia 
semble a particular Greek people, namely the Lacediemoniaiifl 
Their yoimg men. when they meet their elders in the streets 
give way to them and step asida;^ and if an elder come i] 
where yoimg are present, these latter riae from their seat^ 
In a third point they differ entirely from all the nations Q 
Greece. Instead of speaking to each other when they meet h 
the streets, they make an obeisance, sinking the baud to t^ 

81. They wear a linen tunic fringed about the lege,^ 
called calamrU; over this they have a white woollen f 
thrown on afterwards. Nothing of woollen, however, i 
to their temples or buried with them, as their religion forU 

' A similar respeat in paid In ago hj 
cK? CliinesQ and Japaneao, and even 
\>y tlie mudorD Egyptians. la this 
tlio OreekB, except tlic Lao«dieiuo- 
nians, were wanting; and the iroll- 
known inatanop at the theatre, moo- 
tionod by Plntaroh, ngreea with what 
Herodatua saya of them. The Jews 
wore omnmanded to "riHO np before 
the hoary hend and hooonr the faoo of 
the oM man" (Levit. lii. 32). The 
mode of bowing with their hand oi- 
teuded towards the knee agrees with 
the Bcutptures; one hand waa then 
placed on the other ahanlder or on the 
heart, or on the montb, to keep the 
breath from the face of a superior. 
(Bob woodcnt in note ' to oh. 177.) 
Some even prostrated themselves on 
the (^ronnd bofuru great personagea, 
" in obeiHaooe bowing themselvos to the 
oHrth" (Gen. ilii. 26, 28). and knelt 
or " bowed the knee " before them, aa 
the people were ordered to do before 
Jnoph (0«n. xli. 43). And it is 
worthy of remark tliat the word 

•abrek " 


applied in Arabic to the kneeling 

of a came! ID the prtwont day. 
rikbek, "knee," dcimiia, a "1' 
from kneeling in prayer.) 
king or a, statue of a God, thn M 
held np both arms, and utterad IB 
clamatioti, probably rea 
lo triumphe, and lo Bacche, at ll 
times.— [G. W.] 

* The g^real use of linan h 
notioed above (see n. ' oh. 3J). 
fnngea were Ibe endi of tha Ihl 
(see wooduDt T{d. I. figs. 7, 9^ )l 
37). In some women's dr 
fringes were also left, but t ... 
also more frequently hemmed. ' 
Bhirt given by Profeaaor Ko "' 
(p. 113. No. T. ag. 1), has the ^ 
The same oQEtom was adopted ^^ 
Israelites (Num. iv. 3B), wbo wt 
ordered to sew a bine riband OB ^ 
fringe of the border; whioh a 
mind the blue border dyed with in 
found on some Egyptiiu 
that of the Israelites « 
prevent its tearing. The wooUsn «| 
garment wsaonly womin " 
(see At. Eg. W, vol. iii. 
361). and the prejudice E 


it. Bere their practice resembles the rites called Orphic and 
Bacchic, but ■which are in reality Egyptian and Pythagorean ; ■ 

■> in nci«d places ia perh^w the J mo«t naa&l dresaea of mea are those 

"uiiD of its not being repreeeoted in showD in No. II., belon. For thoee 

ti" ptinlin)^. The name Calaairis is of tbe priesthood, aee above n. ' ch. 

"ppoed to be KliuAr (nAaap). Tbe \ 37. The" wbite "aandal (^iuji((i),Baid 


I" be worn by the Ef^yptian {and I and the Pythagorean, bcinR the flame 

^tbnu'ui) priests, is perhaps of lute as tbe Egyptian, Bufflricntly proves 

I'M.— [G, w.] whence they were derireil. See above, 

'The fact of these, tbe Bacchic, i note ' od ch. 51.— [U. W.] 

1 34 


for no one initiated in these mysteries can I»e buried 
woollen shroud, a religious reason being assigned fo 

82. The Egyptians likewise discovered to which of tht 
each month and day is sacred ; ^ and found out from tt 

' This maj' partly bp traced in the ' 
naiiioa of aomo ot the Dionlhs, as ' 
Thoth, Athor, and Poohona ; and on a 
ooiliDK of tfas Uemaoniaia at Thcibos, 
and DD anntlier at Edfoo, each has 
a god to which it belongs. Somo 
fluppiwo they indicals tfae festirals of 
tbo guda ; but thia nonjd limit tho 
reativftls to twplta in tho year. It is, 
howBvor, Bingnlar that tho roootha are 
not called by thone naniea, bnt are 
doHijfnatod, sa nanal, aa the lot, Snd, 
3n). and 4tb montliB of tbo tht^ 
BoEWoua. {8eo n. on ch. i in the Ap., 
ca. ii.) Tho Romans also mado their 
twolio gods preaido otgt the mouths ; 
anil tho dayH ot tbo week when i 

still in use among the Cliiiu.« 
tho nwf of 7 daya in E^ypt. sc 
ch. 109 in Ap. CH. Tii.) The 
Idana had 13 faoocs of night ac 
day, and each had its peonliar 
or ^oddeos, rcprOBenlcd with s 
her head, called Xao, " hour.' 


Cup. 81-68. 



of a man's birth, what he will meet with in the course of his 
life,' and how he will end his days, and what sort of man he 
will be — discoveries whereof the Greeks engaged in poetry 
have made a use. The Egyptians have also discovered more 
prognostics than all the rest of mankind besides. Whenever 
a prodigy takes place, they watch and record the result ; then, 
if anything similar ever happens again, they expect the same 

83. With respect to divination, they hold that it is a gift 
which no mortal possesses, but only certain of the gods : ® thus 

tbetimeof Psammetichns II., and in the 

tombe of the 20th Dynasty at Thebes. 

"Hie word " honr ** is said to be found 

M ttrly as the 5ih Dynasty (see Lep- 

>>Q5,BaDd ui. Abth. ii. BL 72, 76), and 

with the name of King Assa.— [G. W.] 

' Horoscopes were of very early nse 

^ %Tpt (Iambi. 8, 4), as well as the 

JMerprctation of dreams ; and Cicero 

(De T)iv. i. 1) speaks of the Egyptians 

*Dd Chaldces predicting f atnre events, 

J8 Well as a man's destiny at his birth, 

"T their observations of the stars. 

^is was done by them, as the monu- 

J^^tg show, by observing the constel- 

**^iona that appeared on the eastern 

ooriion at the moment of his birth, 

^ any event they wished to decide 

*boot, took place. The fallacy of 

predicting? a particular death from the 

"wccndant " at the time of any one's 

birth has been well exposed by Cicero, 

who agke, " Were all those who fell 

ii Canme bom under the same con. 

etellation, for thev had all one and the 

same death ? " (be Div. ii. 47.) In- 

terprcters of dreams were often 

resorted to in Egypt (Exod. xli. 8) ; 

and Diodoms (i. 25) says the prayers 

of the devont were rewarded in a 

drctun bv an indication of the reme- 

dies an illness required. Cicero (De 

Faioi, 6) speaks of the belief that 

"any one bom at the rising of the 

Dogiitar conld not be drowned in the 

aoa."— [G. W.] 

' Yet the Egyptians sought to " the 
idohi, and to the charmers, and to 
them that had familiar spirits, and to 
the wizards" (Is. xiz. 3). Herodotus 

probably means that none but oracles 
gave the real answer of the deity ; and 
this would not prevent the " prophets" 
and " magicians " pretending to this 
art, like the fidm-tis of Greece. To the 
Israelites it was particularly forbidden 
"to use divination, to be an observer of 
times, or an enchanter, or a witch, or a 
charmer, or a consul ter with familiar 
spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer." 
(Deut. xviii. 10, 11.) It is singular 
that the Hebrew word nahashy " to 
use enchantments," is the same as the 
Arabic for "serpent." A Gnostic 
Papyrus in the British Museum, sup 
posed to be of the 2nd century, and 
found in Egypt, mentions divination • 
" through a boy with a lamp, a bowl, 
and a pit," very like what is now 
practised in Egypt and Barbary ; and 
the employment of boys of old ia 
mentioned by Origen and others. It 
also contains spells for obtaining power 
over spirits, for discovering a thief, for 
commanding another man's actions, 
for obtaining any wish, for preventing 
anything, Ac. Others in the Leydcn 
Museum contain recipes for good 
fortune, for procuring dreams, for 
making a ring to bring good fortune 
and success in every enterprise, for 
causing separation between man and 
wife, giving restless nights, for making 
oneself loved, &c. Magical tricks 
were practised of old also (Exod. vii. 
11), and they probably became more 
general in later corrupt times. (See 
Publ. Cambridge Ant. Soc. 8vo. No. 2.) 
Apnleius also mentions the magic of 
Egypt.— [G. W.] 


they have an oracle of Hercules, one of Apollo, of Minerra, of 
Diana, of Mars, and of Jupiter. Besides these, there is the 
oracle of Latona at Buto, which is held in much higher reptile 
than any of the rest. The mode of delivering the oracles is 
not uniform, hut varies at the different shrines. 
84. Medicine is practised among them* on a plan of 

to have beeo treBt<>d in nny I'tlfr 
iTBf . Bat deviations fram, mi t(- 
prored additionfl to, the aacrod pre- 
BciriplioaB mnv ocCKsioDallf made^ 
and the prohibition was only to pn^ 
VBDt the experiiiumtB of yooDg piK- 
titicpners, whom Iliny considers ibe 
only jMirsiina privileged to kill b bo" 
with imponity. Ariitolle indeed mp 
" the Egyptian physipiaiiB ware il- 
lowed after the thii^ day to nllci Um 
prescribed by anthotin, 

* Not oTily was tho etndy of tnedi- 
cina of very early dote in EeyP'- 1™* 
medical men there were in ancb 
rcputo that they were sent Tor at 
varion* times from other countries. 
Their knowledge of medicine ifl oele- 
linited by Homer (Od. iy. iSO), who 
deenribes Polydamnn, the wile of 
Thnnis, as fpTing medicinal plants "to 
Helen, in Egypt, a tiountry producing 

an infinite nnmber of drugs 

whore each pbyaician poBBeaaes know- 
ledge Bbore all other men." " O 
virj[in dnnghter of Egvpt," says Jere- 
miah (liri. 11), " in vain shnlt thon 
use many medicines." Cyrus and 
Darina both sent to Egypt lor medioal 
men (Her. iii. 1, 132) i and Pliny 
' ■ . B) Boys 

1 befor 


selves the responsibility " (Polil. i"- 
11). Eiperionre gradually ttassbt 
them many new rctaedics: and tiii 
they had adopted a methcd (of «<• 
very old slaoding iu modern pr«cti») 
of steppintf teeth w 



separation ; each physician treats a single disorder, and no 
more : * thus the country swarms with medical practitioners, 
some undertaking to cure diseases of the eye, others of the 
^^if others again of the teeth, others, of the intestines, and 
8ome those which are not local.® 

l82) ; and we may conclude that they 
*we obliged to treat the poor gratis, 
on OQnsideration of the allowance paid 
them as a body by government. This 
^ again become the costom in 
(Modem) Egypt. Herodotus (ii. 77) 
^ Diodoms (i. 82) mention some 
"wthods of treatment ; but poor and 
^'n^erstitious people sometimes had 
'^nrse to dreams, to wizards, to dona- 
twns to sacred animals, and to exvotos 
^ the gods ; and the model of an 
^a leg, an eye, or an ear, often 
^'^^ed Uie accidental cure and the 
^ent credulity of an individual, as 
™ some countries at the present day. 
Cbanns were also written for the 
^TeduIoQs, some of which have been 
'wind on small pieces of papyrus, 
*luch were rolled up and worn as by 
the modem Egyptians. 

AoooQcheurs were women; which 

^^ learn from Exodus i. 15, and from 

'he 9cnlpturcs ; as in modem Egypt. 

^e Bedouins of the desert still retain 

4 hiowledge of the properties of the 

iDedidnal plants that grew there, 

*ith some of which they supply the 

druggists of the towns. It is to the 

Arabs, who derived it from Egypt and 

India, that Europe is indebted for its 

first acquaintance with the science of 

medicine, which grew up in the school 

of Salerno ; and a slight memento of 

it is still retained in the Arab symbols 

iMed by our chemists. Pliny (vii. 56) 

ftays ** the stady of medicine was 

claimed as an Egyptian invention ; by 

others attributed to Arahas, the son of 

Babylon and Apollo."— [G. W.] 

^ The medical profession being so 
divided (as is the custom in modem 
Enrope). indicates a great advance- 
ment ci civilisation, as well as of 
mwiicinal knowledge. The Egyptian 
doctors were of the sacerdotal order, 
like the embalmers, who are called 

(in Genesis 1. 2) " Physicians," and 
were " conmianded by Joseph to em- 
balm his father." They were of the 
class called Paatophori, who, accord- 
ing to Clemens (Strom, lib. 6) being 
physicians, were expected to know 
about all things relating to the body, 
and diseases, and remedies, contained 
in the six last of the sacred books of 
Hermes. Manetho tells us that Atho- 
thes, the second king of Egypt, who 
was a physician, wrote the anatomical 
books ; and his name, ti'anslated Her- 
mogenes, may have been the origin of 
the tradition that ascribed them to 
Hermes, the Egyptian Thoth. Or the 
fable may mean that they were the 
result of intellect personified by Thoth, 
or Hermes. It is difficult to under- 
stand how their having " physicians 
for particular members of the body, 
and for particular diseases, affords 
another proof how rigidly the subdi- 
visions of the castes were kept sepa- 
rate** as Heeren imagines, for they 
were of the same class; and our 
modem custom does not certainly lead 
to such an inference. In the Hcrmaic 
books a whole chapter was devoted to 
diseases of the eye. — [G. W.] 

• Pliny thinks the Egyptians were 
subject to numerous diseases (xxvi. 1) ; 
but in this he differs from Herodotus 
(ii. 77). Luxury, and disregard to 
the regimen they followed of old, may 
have caused a change in later times, 
when leprosy, elephantiasis, and other 
diseases became common in Egypt ; 

** EAt Eleph&B morbui*, qui propter flumina Nili 
Gignitur ;9':gypto in medlA, neque pneterea 
usquam."— LucBET. vi. 660. 

for Herodotus (ch. 77) shows how 
careful they were of health, and Dio- 
dorus (i. 82) says ** Btpairt{Hjv(ri rk 
(Tt&fiara KKvfffioTs^ koX yTjffrtieuSf Kcd 
in4rois,*' as well as by abstinence; 
being persuaded that the majority of 

■^j. Tile L-'l:--'r^z b I'-i Traj in irhich liny conduct tbeii" 
tnoanuDgj ' and their loneral- : — On the death in any house of 
a man of conse^oence. forthwith the iromen of the family be- 
plaster their head?, and someumes even their £&ees, vitfa mud ; 
and then, leaving the b-.-dy indoors, sally forth and vander 
throngh the city, ^th their dress fastened by a band, and 
their bosoms bare, b-eatin^ themselves as they walk. All the 
female relations join them and do the same. The men too. 

:ci>s::CE &cd men Uid ■romm have tbeir dmacs 
EBctVDed br ■ band nniid the wsist. 
r. and thimr- Ih» br«««i Iwing buv, a« described by 
cfipn repre- Hnolctiis. Fur sevpnty days (Gcn- 
; (chro the L 3), t>r, according to aamt, aerentj'- 

niloT Ihe bodv bad bocn reiooTed to 
the tomb it itrs not nnDsaal for tin) 
near rplBtiona to eibibit (ok^ki ol 
prie!, when the litnrgicig, or aerrica 
for (he deniJ, were pcrfonned bj tbe 
prieftd, liT besting tbeiDM>lTe* on Ibe 
breast in prosoncc of the mnmrny. 
"Smitiog themselveB on the breAst" 
wiu a common token of grief in the 
Gast (Luke zziii. 48) which oontinoet 
to the present daj. (See woodcnt 
abore, and in n. * ch. &8; and oomti. 
Al. Ek- W. vol. V. page 269.) The 
Egyptians did not "cat tbeauelTn" 
in mourning ; this was a Syrian 
custom, and forbidden to the Jew*. 

-[0. wo 

Cha?. 85, 86. 



similarly begirt, beat their breasts separately. When these 
ceremonies are over, the body is carried away to be embahned. 
86. There are a set of men in Egypt who practise the art of 
embalming, and make it their proper business. These 
persons, when a body is brought to them, show the bearers 
^ous models of corpses,® made in wood, and painted so as 
to resemble nature. The most perfect is said to be after the 

' These were in the form of Osiris ; 
>Bd Dot only those of the best kind, 
hot all the mummies were put up in 
^e same position, representing the 
deoeued as a figure of Osiris, those 
^7 excepted which were of the very 
I»w people, and which were merely 
^^pped up in mats, or some other 
^^moQ oorering. Eren the small 
^^henware and other figures of the 
"^ were in the same form of that 
"^tj, whose name, Herodotus, as 
'^^^ had scruples about mentioniog, 
^ haring been admitted to a par- 
ticipation of the secrets of the lesser 
%8teries. Diodorus says (i. 91), 
' The most expensive mode cost a 
^ent of silver (nearly 250?.), the 
*wmd twenty-two minso (90Z.), and 
^te third was very cheap. When the 
price had been agreed upon, and the 
body given to the embalmers, the 
scribe marked on the left side of the 
body the extent of the incision to be 
made, and then the * paraschistes* 
(diittector) cut open as much of the 
flesh as the law permitted with an 
Ethiopian stone (flint), and imme- 
diately ran away, pursued by those 
prefcnt with bitter execrations, who 
pelted him with stones. One then in- 
trodooed his hand and took out all the 
▼isoera, except the kidneys and heart; 
another cleansed them with palm wine 
and aromatic preparations, and lastly, 
after having applied oil of cedar, and 
other things to the whole body for up- 
wards of thirty days, they added 
mjrrhf cinnamon, and various drugs 
for preserving the body, and it was 
restored to the friends, so well pre> 
served that every feature might be 
recognixed." On this it may be 

observed, 1st, that the opening in the 
left side is perfectly correct ; and over 
it the sacred eye represented on a flat 
piece of lead, or wax, was placed ; and 
through it the viscera were returned. 
Four wax figures, of the four genii of 
Amenti, were also put in with them, 
when the viscera were not deposited 
in the vases, which are so often found 
in the tombs. Of these four vases one 
had a h'd representing the head of 
a man, another had that of a Cynoce- 
phalas, another of a jackal, and the 
fourth of a hawk ; and in these the 
viscera of first-class mummies were 
generally deposited. The first held 
the stomach and largo intestines; the 
second the small intestines ; the third 
the lungs and heart (showing Diodorus 
to be in error) ; and the fourth the 
gall-bladder and liver. 2nd. Herodo- 
tus and Diodorus are not justified in 
confining the modes of embalming to 
three, since the mummies show a far 
greater variety, and the prices muvst 
have varied in like manner. 3rd. The 
execrations against the " paraschistes" 
could only have been a form, if really 
uttered, which seems very doubtful. 
4th. The features could not be recog- 
nized, being covered with numerous 
folds of cloth, and the only face seen 
was that of the painted mummy case. 
The statement of Porphyry that the 
intestines were thrown into the river, 
after an invocation to the sun, is un. 
worthy of belief. Everything belong- 
ing to the body was bnried, and 
apparently even the sawdust, used for 
absorbing the water that washed the 
intestines, which was put up into 
small linen bags, and deposited in 
earthenware jars. — [G. W.] 



Book n. 

mnnner of bim whom I do not think it religious to name in' 
connection with such a matter ; the second eort is inferior to 
the first, and less costly ; the third is the cheapest of all. 
All this thp embalniers explain, and then ask in which way it 
is wished that the corpse should be prepared. The bearers 
tell them, and having concluded their bargain, take their dfr- 
pftrtnre, while the embalmers, left to themselves, proceed t 
their task. The mode of embalming, according to the moefc 
perfect process, is the following ; — They take fii-et a crooked 
piece of iron,' and with it draw out the brain through thd 


■ The mammieB nlFoi^ ample evi- 
doDce of the broin having beini ei- 
Imotocl ihrongh tbe noatrila j and the 
"drnga" were emplojed to clear out 
nbat the inBtroineiit ooald not touch. 
Thora can bo no doubt that iron nss 
naed in Egypt, thongh it is not pro- 
Hurvod there, nor in any other oountry, 
bojond a certain timp. The bine 
ooloar of Bwordu, and other H-eaiimis 
in the pnintod tombs of Thebes, shuWB 
that the Egjptinna usi'd iron, nr steel, 
OS well lu bronie; and tliia lust wna 

also employed by the HoniMis Mlj 
EtniHctuis, loDK after iron implemenll 
and DTiDH yrnre oommoa. Inm wS 
kDonm in the days of Job (xxriit S) 
HoBOB mentioDB TnbaJ Cain, Uift il 
Btmt^tor of every artificer in brass an 
iron (Gen. ir. 23), and compares Xgjt 
to an "iron furnace" (Dent. ir.Sq 
Og Sioff of Beshan, wbo lived abM 
1450 n-c, had a bcdstesd of iitll 
(Dcut. iii. II) ; and Homer iihowa til 
qncnc-hing of iron to ciue-harden ] 
irna ivetl kiion n. when he adopts it ■ 

a simile, and comparea the hisBing 
noiBC produced by pioroiog the eye of 
Polyphemua to tho efTeot of plnnging 
the heatml metal in water. (Od. jx. 
391.) Thrasyliaa (Clem. Strom, i.) 
agreoB with the Arnndelian marbles 
in anpposing that iron was bnown 
long boroie the Trojau war; and it 
wonld be inconsistent to snppose that 
the most civilized nation of those dnys 
coald have been ifj^nonuit of it even if 
the paintings of 'Diebea did not prove 

its nse. We even nee bntchers ahupk 
onin^ their knives en a steel taat * 
to their aprnu; and wejqjons o( 
b]uD-o(ilonrt>d metal were r^re 
in comnioD nse long before the 
war. In metaltorgy the G£ 
poseessed some secrets scarcely : 
to OB; for they had the 
enabling copper to cnt stoi 
hardening it by on alloy, and of gtni 
to bronie blades tho elasticity of ' 
with great hardness '' ' 

Chap. 96. 



nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is 

cJeared of the rest by rinsing with drugs; next they make a cut 

&Iong the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone,^ and take out 

the whole contents of the abdomen, which they then cleanse, 

washing it thoroughly with palm wine,^ and again frequently 

with an infusion of pounded aromatics. After this they fill the 

cavity with the purest bruised myrrh, with cassia, and every 

sort of spicery* except frankincense, and sew up the opening. 

adf^. In Asia the ChaljbeB were 
noted for their iron works, by which 
they obtained great profits (Xenoph. 
Anab. 8.T.); and Pliny (vii. 56) ascribes 
the inTention of steel to the Idssi 
Dactyli of Crete.— [G. W.] 

' Ethiopian stone either is hlark 
llint, or an Ethiopian agate, the ose of 
which was the remnant of a rery 
primitiTe cnstom. Flints were often 
employed in Egypt for tipping arrows, 
in lieu of metal heads. Stone knives 
hare been found in Egypt, which 
many people had, as the Britons and 

others, and even the Romans. (Liv. 
i. 24.) The Ethiopians (Her. vii. 69) 
had reed arrows tipped with agate, or 
pebbles, "on which seals were cut," 
and which, known to us as " Egyptian 
pebbles," are in great abundance in 
Dongola and other districts. (See my 
n. on B. vii. ch. 69.) The knife used 
in Egypt for sacrificing was generally 
of tempered iron, exactly like that of 
the Romans (so often repreriented on 
their altars), one of which, in my 
possession, is 11^ inches long, by 2 in 
the broadest part. (Fig. 4.) — [G. W.] 

- The wine and pith (jumdrj or kulhf 
** heart/' in Arabic) are mentioned by 
Xe&opbon. (Anab. ii. 3.) He is right 
in saying that when taken from it the 
tree withers. In the Oasis they still 
make this wine, which they call 
Idichgeh, They merely tap the centre 
of the date, where the branches grow, 
and the juice runs off into a vase 
trnMUmed there to receive it. — [G. W.] 

'The '^spioery, and balm, and 

myrrh," carried by the lahmaelites 
(or Arabs) to Egypt were principally 
for the embalmere, who were doubt- 
less supplied regularly with them. 
(Gen. xxxvii. 25.) Other caravans, 
like the Midianite merchantmen (Gon. 
xxxvii. 28), visited Egypt for the pur- 
poses of trade; and "the spice mer- 
chants" are noticed (1 Kings x. 15) 
in Solomon's time. See my n. B. iii. 
ch. 107.— [G. W.] 



Then the body is placed in natrum* for seventy days,' and 
covered entirely over. After the expiration of that space of 
time, which must not bo exceeded, the body is washed, and 
wrapped round, from head to foot, with bandages of fine linen 
cloth,' smeared over with gum, which is nsed generally by the 

' Nol nitre, bat tliP sabcftrbonftte of 
b<jJb, which abounija at the natron 
lokei in the Lybian desert, ani) nt El 
HeKB in Upper Egypt. This com- 
pleted the nsnaJ mode of embalming ; 
but Boiue fow appear to hfive boon 
prepurod with w&i und tanning, by 
whiub the limbs wore leas rigid, and 
rufaiuod jfrcBt flexibility. Dr, Gran. 
villelinem&do some intereBting cxpc-ri- 
monta on proaerving bodies by that 
pii>ceB>, in imitBtion of one broaght 
from Egypt, pnibably ot Ista time; 
fur B description of whicb I refe^r lo 
his work. Mr. Pattigrow «lao (p. 73) 
mentiiina a, child preserved with wax. 


' This inclndcd the whole period of 

don's Hone .Tlgj-ptiacte and M. Eg. 
W. to!, i. p. S-U^.) Ou biinneD, see 
n. ' on B. i. oh. 179.— [G. W.] 

' Not cotton. The microMope b«9 
decided (what no one erer doabted in 
Egypt) that the mDmmy.clotbs am 


. The emiwimi 


qaence of the nse of the irord hyrn^ 
Pansanias nnoqairocBlly describe! it 
aa cotton, and grovrin^ in Eli*. On 
the other hand, the Hebrew lAiuil is 
translated Byasns in the Septaagiat 
version, and in tiiir own, ^' fine liaun" 
(Ki. niv. 1), JUany couaidBT it linen, 
and Julias Pollux calls it a aoit of 
Indian flax. Herodotoa again apaakt 
of the (linen) mninmy-clotlu aa " byi- 
Hjne sindon," and both be and J. 
PcUnx cat) cotton " tree wool." Soow 
indeed think tbia last una silk -. biil 

Chap. 86. 



Egyptians in the place of glue, and in this state it is given back 
to the relations, who enclose it in a wooden case which they 
have had made for the purpose, shaped into the figure of a man. 
Then fastening the case, they place it in a sepulchral chamber,*^ 

t&d he even calls asbestns "linen." 
" Komash/' properly " linen," is used 
is the same waj by the Arabs for all 
stnib. It is aJso reasonable to sup- 
pose that ancient, like modem people, 
^j have been mistaken sometimes 
^ot the exact quality of the stuffs 
thej nw, since the microscope was 
Kqoired to set us right. Sindon may 
possibly be taken from "India," or 
from the Egyptian "shent" (see n.* 
OQch. 105). Clemens thinks byssine 
gvments were invented in the time 
<rf Semiramis, king of Egypt (Strom. 
i- p. 307). The Egyptians employed 
pnn for the bands, or mummy-cloths, 
bnt not for other purposes where glue 
*w required. They also stained them 
^th carthamus or safflower. The 
cnstom of swathing the body with 
t^Aodages was common also to the 
JeTg, as well as the process of em- 
balming it with spices (Luke xxiii. 56; 
John xix. 40). Their mode of ban- 
daging the dead body is shown in the 
cue of Lazarus (John xi. 44) ; and 
the early Italian masters have ropre- 
soited it more correctly than many 
of later time. The lege, however, 
were bandaged separately, &s in the 
Gneoo.!^^yptian mummies, since ho 
*'came forth'* out of the tomb. — 
[G. W.] 

' This was not in their own houses, 
bat, as Herodotus says, in a room 
made for the purpose, which was 
attached to the tomb. In the floor of 
this room the pit was sunk, often to 
the depth of more than 40 feet, where, 
alter certain services had been per- 
formed by a priest before the mummy, 
it was finally deposited. In the mean. 
time it was kept (as he says, upright) 
ia a moreable closet, and occasionally 
taken ont to receive those priestly be- 
sedictioafl ; or it stood within an open 
canopy for the same purpose, the 
reSa^oDfl weeping before it. A less 




upright against the wall. Such is the most costly way of 
embalming the dead. 

87. If persons wish to avoid expense, and choose the second 
process, the following is the method pursued : — Syringes are 
filled with oil made from the cedar-tree, which is then, with- 
out any incision** or disembowelling, injected into the abdomen. 
The passage by which it might be likely to return is stopped, 
and the l)ody laid in natrmn the prescribed number of days. 
At the end of the time the cedar-oil is allowed to make its 
escape ; and such is its power that it brings with it the 
whole stomach and intestines in a liquid state. The natrum 
meanwhile has dissolved the flesh, and so nothing is left of 
the dead body but the skin and the bones. It is returned in 
this condition to the relatives, w^ithout any further trouble 
being bestowed upon it. 

c^xpciiHivo kind of tomb hn<\ not tho I recosp, at *' tho side of the pit." Those 
clinmbor, but (.iil\ the ])it, whidi was , who were considonMl worthy wer« 
proiR'ily tho j)l!ir«M)t' scjmUuns ihou^'h i bnriod in the tomb they had made, or 
the name "toiiil)" is jiUvnvrt npi>liod . jmrchaaed, at a very tiiffh price; but 
to tho apart iiuMit al)ovo. Tho coflin wicked people were forbidden the pri- 
or inuTniiiy-casp was jilaood at tlie vilego, as if undcserv'injr of burial in 
l)ottom, or ill a latoral chamber or , consecrated ground. — [G. W.] 



No. IT. 

♦* Second-class mnnnnics without any 
incision are fouml in i\n' tombs ; but 
the openinj;^ in t.lio side* was made in 
many of them, antl orcasitmally even 
in thoHC of an inlVritir (piali<y ; so that 
it was not o\clu>ivfly confined to 
mummies of tho i'wM ohiss. Tliere 
were, in fact, many gradations in 

each class. The mummies of Greeks 
may generally be distinguished by the 
limbs being each bandaged separately. 
On Embalming, see Rouger's Notice 
Bur los Embaumemcns de8 Ancieni 
Egy])tiens ; Pottigrew's Ilistory of 
the Egyptian Mummies ; and At. ISg. 
W. vol. V. p. 451 to the end. — [G. W.] 




88. The third method of embahning,* which is practised in 
the case of the poorer classes, is to clear ont the intestines with 
aclyster,^ and let the body lie in natmm the seventy days, after 
which it is at once given to those who come to fetch it away. 

89. The wives of men of rank are not given to be embalmed 
immediately after death, nor indeed are any of the more 
beantifnl and valued women. It is not tiU they have been 
dead three or fom: days that they are carried to the embalmers. 
This is done to prevent indignities from being offered them. 
It is said that once a case of this kind occurred : the man was 
detected by the information of his fellow- workman. 

90. Whensoever any one, Egyptian or foreigner, has lost 
his life by falling a prey to a crocodile, or by drowning in the 
liver, the law compels the inhabitants of the city near which 
the body is cast np to have it embalmed, and to bury it in one 
of the sacred repositories with all possible magnificence.^ No 
one may touch the corpse, not even any of the friends or 
relatives, but only the priests of the Nile,^ who prepare it for 

* Of these, as of the others, there 
were sereral Idnda, the two principal 
ones being ''1. Those salted and filled 
with bitnminoiis matter less pure than 
*1« others ; 2. Those simply salted/' 
Otherp, indeed, were prepared in more 
■iniple ways ; some were bo loosely 
pat up in bad cloths that they are 
•carcely to be separated from the 
ft'neB and earth in which they are 
boried, while others were more care- 
folly enveloped in bandages, and 
vr&nged one over the other in one 
cctzmKin tomb, often to the number of 
leveral hondreds. — [G. W.] 

' The word nsed here (trvpfjudii) is 
the name of the modenT/iy', or rapha- 
BBi ntiros (var. edalis) of Linnaeas 
{me note * on ch. 125) ; but the liquid 
hen mentioned seems rather to be 
a pofwerfol cleansing preparation. — 


' Tlie law whicli obliged the people 
to embalm the body of any one found 
I, and to bury it in the most ex- 
manner, was a police, as well 
a sanatory, regnlation. It was a 

VOL. n. 

fine on the people for allowing a 
violent death, even by accident, to 
occur in their district ; and with the 
same object of protecting life, they 
made it a crime to witness an attempt 
to murder, or even a personal attack 
of any kind, without endeavouring to 
prevent it, or at least laying an infor- 
mation and prosecuting the offender. 
It was not " because the body was 
something more than human ; " but 
to ensure the proper mode of embalm- 
ing, by having the money paid at 
once to the priests, and to prevent 
any evasion of the expense.— [G. W.J 

* Herc«dotus would lead us to infer 
that every city had its priests of the 
Nile ; but this was probably only 
when situated near its banks, as we 
do not find any of the:?e Nile temples. 

The city of Nilopolis, where the 
god Kilus was greatly worshipped, 
was in Middle Egypt, in the province 
of Heptanomis (afterwards called Ar- 
cadia, from the son of Theodosius). 
At Silsilis, too, Kilus (or Hapi-moou) 
was greatly honoured. Silsilis is re- 


Book 11. 


burial with their own bauds — regarding it as Bomotliing moro 
than the mere body of a man — and tbemselveB lay it Ln the tomb. 
91. The Egj'ptians are averse to adopt Greek customs, or, ui 
a word, those of any other nation. This feeling is almost uni- 
versal among them. At Chemmin,^ howcTcr. which is a large 
city in the Thebaic canton near Neajiolie,* there is a square 

tnarkablo for its Ibj^ qnarriCB nf I 
sutidstone, wbioh <nas used to build \ 
ucsrlf all tho tomplcn of E^^ypt, and 1 
rnr liaviog IwDn. t1]e place nbcro the ' 
Kilu bunt the barrier of ntck, and I 
lowered its level throughout itg course 
southward of that spot. (See n. on 
ch. 13, in App. CB. iv.) The Niloa. | 
aocording to Doliodoruii (,-Ethiop, lib. 1 
in,), was one of the principal festitnlB 
of Egypt. It wM celebrated abont 
tbe winter salBtice, vtien the Nitfl 
began to rise } and LibanioB pretends ' 
that the ritca were tliooifht of bo 
iniioh importance, that, noloM pcr- 
foriDod propnrly, the rivpr wonW not 
rigo to ite proper hoigbt. It wbh 
oelebrated by men and women in the 
imiHtal of eaoli nomo; which aeeniB 
to arpuc, like the statement nt Hero, 
dolus, that tho god Nilna had a loniple 
■in ovory large city ; and a wooden 
statue of the river god was carried in 
nrooOBsion tbroQHh the villages on that 

* Kbem, the god of ChemmiB, or 
Khemnio, being supposed W answer lo 
Pan, tJiia city was called Paiwpolie by 
the Greeks and Romans. The lion- 
headed goddess ThnphiH shared the 
hononrsof the sanctuar)- with Khetu, 
Mid is mentioned in a Greek Iniwnp. 
ti™ there of the 12lh year of Trajan, 
wlion the restored or newly-bailt 
tpraplo WM finished (owrrt *<f 9n) . 
BoneratiTe principle, or 
■ersalnntoro His name resembles 
,Bt of " Egypt.- wbioh Plutarch tells 
s was railed Chomi, " from the blaok- 
i*B of the soil," and the same word 
rw applied to the " black " or pnpil 
of the eye." (See n ' on ch. 16.) 
■his is confirmed bjtliehieri^lyph'-' ■ 


Khem, Cheoii, 

ir Kliomo, 

signifying " Kgyiit," and oorreBpond- 
iag to the " land of Ham," or Eiiem. 
It is singnlar that this town ahonld 
have bad the old name of the oountry, 
and anotlier, Coptos, have had that of 
KUKjil, wbioh is Koft, or Gypt, with 1 
the " Ai " prefixed. " Bgypt " is not % 
fonud in hieroglyphics as the name of 1 
the country; nor '"Nile" as [luU of J 
the river. The ancient Cheraniis <«r 
Khemi) is retained in the mndan 
Ekkmim. the inhabitants of which | 
were famed of old as linen t 
tarers and workers in Btoue. CbftDi, M 
" Egypt," was the orijgin of the woidl 
alchemy ttlie blafl; art) and of <dw-l 
mistry. The white bnll aoocnnpaiuMl 
Khcm. as in the pmceeaion «t Mt^" 
net Haboo ; and this accords with 
repreaontation of the Indian g<od 
presides oTergoaeratioa muunted 
white boll. (Sir W. Jonea, ToL 1 
p. 250.)— [G. W.] 

*The "niigAbouriiiiiNo^iolil" U* 
least ninety miles further Dp tba IV 
and aixty in a direct line. It __. 
been succeeded by the modem Kcad 
a uamo taken from the Qml: «u 
ri\it, the " Newtown " tit thoai du 
All tlie Egyptians had an arantinnll 
tho customs of the Greeks, as cf ■ 
atrangers ; and it is diilitmit to M 
dentand how the people of CI 

nhould have had a diKinmt 

towards thorn. The Btorisa of ll 
Greek Perfous having viaite 
his way to Lib}'a, and of 
instituted games at Cb 
fables, as is that iu Book 
of his having gire 
Persians. But there may hvnt In 
an Egyptian gnd. a ohonctM of I 
sun, whom the Grocks na|>pasad to' 
their hero ; and the mon^>r Medal 
whose head Perseus cot off, eridad 
toriii fruin lUe 

Cbxk 90, 91. 



enclosure sacred to Perseus, son of Danae. Palm trees grow all 
round the place, which has a stone gateway of an unusual size, 
snrmounted by two colossal statues,^ also in stone. Inside this 
precinct is a temple, and in the temple an image of Perseus. 
The people of Chemmis say that Perseus often apears to them, 
Bometimes within the sacred enclosure, sometimes in the open 
country : one of the sandals which he has worn is frequently 
found' — two cubits in length, as they afi&rm — and then all 
Egypt flourishes greatly. In the worship of Perseus Greek 
ceremonies are used ; gymnastic games are celebrated in his 
honour, comprising every kind of contest, with prizes of cattle, 
cloaks, and skins. I made inquiries of the Chemmites why it 
was that Perseus appeared to them and not elsewhere in 
Egypt, and how they came to celebrate gymnastic contests® 

TrphoQian figure of Egypt. (Cp. 

D^odorua, iii. 69.) The record of a 

colonj having gone to Greece from 

Egypt ("Khemi") may have led to 

tiie story about the people of Chemmis 

baring a friendly feeling towards the 

Greeln ; as that of Persons having 

niarried ABtart^, the daughter of 

Belas, may point to some intercourse 

with Syria. '* Perseus, according to 

the Persians, was an Assyrian." There 

ii a curious connection between Per- 

ttiu and Pharas (faras), " the horse : '' 

—the Pegasus sprang forth from 

Hedoaa when killed by PerseuH, as 

repreacnted on one of the metopes of 

Sehnns ; and Neptune, who introduced 

the hone into Greece, and Medusa, 

are both Libyan. Farraa signifies the 

"mare/* mad fares the "horseman," 

«rthe "Persian," in Arabic. In the 

■tory of Perseus and Andromeda, as of 

St George and the Dragon, the scene 

ii placed in Syria; the former at 

Jai^tbe latter near Beyroot.— [G. W.] 

* 8taiaes on the large stone propyla, 

or towers of the Propylasa, would be 

an anomaly in Egyptian architecture. 

The enclosure is the usual temcnost 

ani r uun ded by a wall generally of 

cnde brick, within which the temple 

•tood. Cp. the Welsh " Llan." The 

palm-txeee oonstitated the (prove round 

the temple, which was usually planted 
with other trees. Clemens therefore 
calls it liXffoSf and gives tlie name 
opyhs to the temenos. The courts 
surrounded by columns arc his av\ai. 
(See n. on ch. 155, and the woodcut 
there.) The court planted with trees 
seems to be the ' ' grove " mentioned 
in the Bible ; ashreh (1 Kings xv. 
13), ashi'reh (Deut. vii. 5), plm*al 
asherCth (2 Ghron. xxxiii. 3 ; Judg. iii. 
7) ; a word not related, as some think, 
to Ashterothf nor to asher, •* ten " 
(both which begin with ain, not nleph). 
The grove brought out from the house 
of the Lord (2 Kings xxiii. 6 and 7) 
appears to be like the emblematic 
grove, or table surmounted by trees, 
carried in procession behind the Egyp- 
tian god Khem. 

The word " highplace," "bemeh," 
n03 (1 Sam. ix. 12 ; 2 Kings xxiii. 15), 
is singularly, though accidentally, like 
the Greek jS^/xa.— [G. W.] 

^ The modem Egyptians show the 
footstep of their prophet, in default of 
his sandal, and an impression in stone 
— a petrified miracle. The dervishes 
at Old Cairo have the shoe of their 
founder, which might almost vie for 
size with the sandal of Perseus. — 
[G. W.] 

• See Note in Appendix ch. vi. 




unlike the rest of the Egyptians : to which tbev answered, 
" that Perseus belonged to their city by descent. Danaus s 
Lynceua were Cbemmites before they set sail for Greece, a 
from them Persens was deacended," they said, tracing l 
genealogy ; " and he, when he came to Egypt for the purpose ' 
(which the Greeks also assign) " of bringing away from lAhjt 
the Gorgon's head, paid them a visit, and a«;fcnowledged thei 
for his kinsmen — he had heard the name of their city : 
his mother before he left Greece — he bade them institnte i 
gymnastic contest in his honour, and that was the reason whj 
they observed the practice." 

i>2. The customs hitherto described are those of the Egyp 
tiaus who live above the marsh-country. The inhabitants in 
the marshes have the same customs as the rest, aa well l^ki 
those matters which have been mentioned above as in respe^s^ 
of marriage, each Egyptian taking to himself, like the Greeka 
a single wife ; ' bat for greater cheapness of living the maral 
men practise ce^rtain peculiar customs, such as these follow: 
They gather the blossoms of a certain water-lily, which | 
in great abundance all over the flat country at the time wha 
the Nile rises and floods the regions along its banks- 
Egyptians call it the lotus '"- — they gather, I say, the blossomf 

' Thero it no inatjuica on tlie moDa- 
niDnU of Egypt of a man haying more 
iUfto one wile at a time ; nor does 
UerodotuB mj, aa baa aometimea been 
iiTippowd, that this WBB the CQBtom of 
llio other Egyptians who lived aiWTe 
tho mardi countr;. Katber he itnpliea 
thii oontnTf. Fivm tha anperior treat- 
ment of women tbroughoot Egypt, 
frotn what we see of their aocialhabitfi, 
and from the qaecna being allowed to 
Bwmeil the throne, it ia very impro- 
bable that any man had more than 
one wife. Diodonu (i. 80) sayH the 
prioati wore only allowed one, whilo 
tho mat might have any nnniber i but 
this ia at variaaoo with his act^uunt 
of the marriupo oonlraot, allowing n 
wiiinan the control over her hasband 
(i. 27) ; and, if permitted by law, we 
uiuy be certain that few t<»k ad- 

vantage of it, since it 

to the rich aristooniry. and the p"* 

conld not afford to enjOT the prinlegt- 


'" ThiB NymphFea Lotoi frrowi »■ 
ponds and small chamiela in LIiB DtlH 
dnring the inDndatioii, which are irj 
daring the rc9t of the year} hot it it 
not found in the Nile itaelf. It W 
nearly the same aa oar 
lily. Ita Arabic name is niiAir, 
niU/er, or hefhnim tho " " ' _ 
aaoieufpi-aaluin," arpi-shneen,^! 
hieroglyphics. There aro two TS ' 
— the whif«, and that with ■ 
tinge, or the Nymphiea Cffimlea. 
Buddhists of Tibet and others 
it nenuphar. Thongh the fai 
flower of Egypt, there is nu ev. 
of itB having boon eacrcd j but 
god Nofr-Atmoo bore it on his hi 




of this plant and dry them in the ann, after which the; extract 
turn the centre of each blossom a Babstance Uke the head of 
1 poppy, -which they crash and make into bread. The root of 
the lotus is likewise eatable, and has a pleasant sweet taste : 
it is roond, aod aboot the size of an apple. There is also 
■ootlier species of the lily in Egypt,' which grows, like the 

ud tk ittiiie nu/ar i« probably related 
1° t'/r, "good," and connected with 
^ tillr. It waa tbongbC to be a 
Wcr of HideB, or Amenti ; and on it 
■lu Hirpocrate* is ofteii anted. He i 
**■ tke EgvpEiui .^nror^ or daj. 
■PriDg; Dot'the God of Silence, aa ' 
<hGT»ks nppoaed, bat S)cared with , 
^ bfti in hia moath, to sbow one of 
1^ Ubiti of childhood of which he 
"H the emblem. Henoe he reprS' 
■nied the beginning of day, or the 1 
"•und intuicT of tlie snn, which waa 
I'piaUj portrayed rising eiery mom- 
"m (mm that dower, or from the 
■utT; and this may hnre given rise 
'»llieK.tion of Proclus that the lotns . 

"Imualao aavs this Gon uf Isis was 
"^''tiod of bay." The Egyptian 
"^ 111 iodicnting silence was by 
fhdii; " the band on the moatb." 
'iCp. Ma :[»ii. 9.) The froa was niao 
"mbleni "of monaj yet inembi-ju. ' 

as HorapoDo and the Egyptian monu. 
menta show. The lotna flower wa.-^ 
always presented to guests at an 
Egyptian party ; and gartanda were 
put ronnd their heads and oecka ; — 
the " mnltnque in fli>nte oorpns*." 
(Cp. Hot. Od. i. 26 and 38; ii. 7; 
iii. 10; iT. 11. AthennnB, it. Orid. 
Fast. V, Anacreon, ode iv.) Ii is 
eiident that the lotus waa not bor- 
rowed from India, as it was the favon- 
rite pbint of Egypt before tbe Hindooj 
had established their religion there. 

Bosidea the seeds of the loins, poor 
people donbtless used those of olhec 
plants for making bread, like the mu- 
dera Egrptians, who used to coll«'t 
the small gminsof the Metrmhrianllie. 
tiium nndifinruni for this purpose ; and 
Diodoms (i. BO) says the n«ts and 
stalks of water-plants were a gre;il 
article of food among the lower clofif- 
of Egyptians.— ;;G. Wr 

' Perhaps ihe .\umphiKa .Vsfumfco, or : merly Beems t.> show it was not indi- 

Jtlaiiittiim, irbich is cummon in India, I genons in Egypt. Crocodiles and tin- 

bM which grows no longer in Egypt. , Nelnmbium are repreaeDted, with lli'' 

iad tbe care taken in planting it for- : Nile god, on the large statnc in tho 


lotiis, in the river, and resemblea the rose. The fruit springi 
lip side by Bide with the bloasom, on a separate stalk, and hat 
almost exactly the look of the comb made by wasps. I 
contains a number of seeds, about the size of an olive-stone 
which are good to eat : and these are eaten both green e 
dried. The byblus* (papyrus), which grows year after year i] 

Yntican at Rome, and in many Kodibd- 
Egypli«n sonlpturea (aee wooilont) ; 
but it ia reionrlinble that no ropresen. 
tation of the Neinmbium occurs in the 
sculptures ft nncipnt Eajpt, tlioiigh 
ihc common NjmpbaM Lotus oocnra 

■0 often. Pliny calls it Colocaaia. 
well OB Cyanon (ixi. 15). On t 
plants of Egypt, too DDin»ruDa 
mention hen, eee At. Kg. W. vol. 
p. 63 to as, and Dr. Pivkeritigr'a Phi 
UiBt. of Man, p. 368, Ao.— [G. W.] 

' This is tlieCi/jierus rapyrus, which, ' 
like the Nclnmbiuia, in no longer a ' 
native of Ejcvpt. It now only growa | 
in tho Auapue, near SyraciiHe, and it ia 
said to have been Tonnd in a atrenin 
on thi> coaat of Syria, as in Pliny'a 
time (xiii. 11}. Herotlotns ia wrong 
in calling it an annnal plant. The 
nae of the pith of its trianian^ar etnlk 
fur paper made it n very valuable 
plant [ and the right of growing the 
bcHt quality, and of selling the pnpyrtia 
made from it, belonged to the Govem- 
mont. It waa particnlarly cultivated 
in the Sebennytic nomo, and voriona 
ijuulttiea of the paper were made. It is 
evident that other Cyperi, and partion- 
larly the Cyperui dii'fs, were aome- 
linea confounded with the Fapyrui, or 
B^hlvt hiaraticiia ol Stmbo ; and when 
wR read of its being ased far mats, ' 
aaila, baakota, sandala, and other com- 

[nnii pDrjioaes, wc may ouadiide U 
this was an inferior kind menlJODcd' 
Strabo ; and somotimes a coum 
Cypema, which grew wild, aa mft 
Btill do, was Ihns rmployvd in ' 
Btead. It if. lioweTcr, eridcvt (1 
a variety of the papymi wu M) naa 
men being represented on tha mM 
nienta making smnll boata of H (l 
□. ' ch. 9S} 1 and we may oonclR 
thia was B conrscr end smaller Id 
not adapted tor pnptr. The beat « 
grown with great i;are. Fliny m 
the papyma waa not fonnd Bb> 
AlcxaQdrin. bccauw it was not ntl 
i-alfd there ; and the necesaitjr of t 
ia showo by IsaiaJi'a mentitm of "i 
paper reeds by the brooka . . . . ■ 
everything *Duti by the bcoola.' ( 
lii. 7.) Thia prophecy ia kUU BM 
remarkable from i^ declaring ttet 1 
papyrus shall no longer grow in i 

CtAF. 92, 93. 



the marshes, they pull up, aud, cutting the plant in two, 
ffifierve the upper portion for other purposes, but take the 
lower, which is about a cubit long, and either eat it or else 
wU it. Such as wish to enjoy the byblus in full perfection 
We it first in a closed vessel, heated to a glow. Some of 
these folk, however, live entirely on fish, which are gutted as 
won as caught, and then hung up in the sun : when dry, they 
»fe used as food. 

93. Gregarious fish are not found in any numbers in the 
nvers ; they frequent the lagunes, whence, at the season of 
hreeding, they proceed in shoals towards the sea. The males 
l^ad the way, and drop their milt as they go, while the 
females, following close behind, eagerly swallow it down. 
From this they conceive,® and when, after passing some time 
^D the sea, they begin to be in spawn, the whole shoal sets off 
^^ its return to its ancient haunts. Now, however, it is no 
longer the males, but the females, who take the lead : they 
swim in front in a body, and do exactly as the males did 
l^fore, dropping, little by little, their grains of spawn as they 
go, while the males in the rear devour the grains, each one of 
^hich is a fish.* A portion of the spawn escapes and is not 
swaUowed by the males, and hence come the fishes which grow 
^rwards to maturity. When any of this sort of fish are 
taken on their passage to the sea, they are found to have the 
leftside of the head scarred and bruised; while if taken on 

ooofltry, that it "shall wither, and 

«w driTen away, and be no more." 

"**ophra»tns is correct in saying it 

P*w in shallow water ; or in marshes, 

•wording to Pliny ; and this is repre- , 

*oted on the monnments, where it is | 

Priced at the side of a stream, or in 

•''igttted lands (see woodcut. No. III. 

%. 2, eh. 77, note * ; and the end of 

C». ▼. of the App.). Pliny describes 

^he mode of making the paper (xiii. 

H), by cutting thin slices of the pith 

ttd laying them in rows, and these 

^ng crussed with other slices, the 

whole was made to adliurc by great 

presiure. — [G. W.j 

^ Aristotle (de Gen. Auira. iii. 5) 
shows the absurdity of this statement, 
quoting IlerodotuH by name, and 
giving his exact words. C. Miillor 
has stmngely seen in the passage a 
fragment of ilerodonts I (See Fr. 
Hist. Gr. ii. p. 32, Fr. 11. 

** The male fish deposits the milt 
ajier tho female has deposited the 
spawn, and thus renders it prolific. 
The swallowing of tho spawn is 
simply the act of any hungry fish, 
male or female, who happens to find 
it. The bmisf^d hcids are a faV)l<'. — 
[G. W.] 


^^^^^^^^r ^^^^^^^^^^^^Bi^^^^^^^^i 

152 THE KIKI. BoMin 

their return, the marks appear on tbe tiglit. The reason iaj 
that as they swim down the Nile seaward, they keep close to 
the bank of the river upon tlieir left, and returning again up^ 
stream they still cling to the same side, huf^fjing it and brush-' 
iiig against it constantly, to be sure that they mifls not their- 
road through the great force of the current. When tbe Nil«. 
begins to rise, tbe hollows in the land and the marshy epotsr 
near the river are flooded before any other placos by the 
percolation of tho water through the river-hanks ; ' and these, 
almost as soon as they become pools, are found to bo full ol 
numbers of little tishea. I think that 1 understand how it ifl 
this comes to pass. On the subsidence of tbe Nile the yeaj 
before, though tbe fish retired with the retreating waters, they 
had iirst deposited their spawu in the mud upon the banks ; 
and so, when at the usual season the water returns, small fry 
are rapidly engendered out of the spawn of the precedinj 
year. So much concerning the fish. 

94, Tbe Egyptians who live in the marshes' use for tlu 
anointing of their bodies an oil made from the fruit of thf 

» fUFL-olMtion rapplies the wells in 
the allaiial soil, eren at the edge of 
the deiu^rti bat wherever there lire 
■ny hollows u>d dry poodB, these are 
mied, as of old, by oooals cat for the 

rusch the hollows and ponds by por- 
ooUtion, if do cutjuIh were mnde ; we 
know, however, that ibcBO were maoh 
more nnmorous in ancient than in 
modem Egypt. 

iish in the ponds was tiimply owing to 
these being aoppUcd by the canKla 
from the river, or by its overHowiug 
its banks (whiuh it only did in some 
few places, long after tho oanals had 
been opened), and the Bah naturally 
went in at th> ««,« f,™ with (be 
water.— [G. W.] 

rodotus with the iiihabilanls of the 
nianh-reglon ispivbably uwing lo the 

roRion in the revolt of Innnn, wlwi 
the Athenians, whom Eorodotna pn 

Persians iu the field, and with the lu 
of the Athenians made himself maik 

tieaa the Egyptian, his co-ounspiiBh 

marBh-diBtrict, the iobalrituita ^ 

of the Egyptians. Here he maiatuo 
himself even afl<>r the dehM 
InaroB and his Athenian alljn, «l 
seem to have made their last atand 

country. {See Thaeyd. i. lOS-11 
Herod, ii. 140, iii. 15. *n.) Bo 
d.itos, if he accompanied tho expa 
tiun, would thus have been brims 


Ci4P. 08-03. 



sillicyprium,^ which is known among them by the name of 
"kiki." To obtain this they plant the sillicypriimi (which 
grows wild in Greece) along the banks of the rivers and by the 
sides of the lakes, where it produces fruit in great abundance, 
iHitwith a very disagreeable smell. This fruit is gathered, and 
then bruised and pressed, or else boiled down after roasting : 
the liquid which comes &om it is collected and is found to be 
unctuous, and as well suited as olive-oil for lamps, only that 
H gives out an unpleasant odour. 

95. The contrivances which they use against gnats, where- 
with the country swarms, are the following. In the parts of 
Egypt above the marshes the inhabitants pass the night upon 
lofty towers,® which are of great service, as the gnats are 
unable to fly to any height on account of the winds. In the 
marsh country, where there are no towers, each man poBsesses 
a uet instead. By day it serves him to catch fish, wliile at 
liight he spreads it over the bed in which he is to rest, and 

This was the Ricinus communis, 
tjie Castor-oil plant, or the Palma- 
^'*»ri8ti, in Arabic Kharweh. It was 
known by the names of Croton, 
Trixis, wild or tree Sesamum, Ricinus, 
*nd (according to Dioscoridee) of 
ff^rtXt Kvwptovn which was donbtless 
the «ame as the aiXXuchrpiov of Hero- 
<iota3. It grew abnndantlj, according 
to V^y, as it still does, in Egypt. 
The oil was extracted either by press- 
iojj the seeds, as at the present day, 
w^ben required for lamps, or by boil- 
ii^ them and skimming off the oil 
that floats on the surface, which 
was thought better for medicinal pur- 
poses. Pliny was not singular in his 
taste when he says (xv. 7), " Cibis 
foBdum, incemis utile." It was the 
plant that gave shade to Jonah (iv. 6) 
•~Kiki6n, mistranslated ''gourd." 
lie Egyptians had many other plants 
that produced oil, the principal of 
which were the Carthamus tinctorius 
(orsafflower), the Sesamum orientale 
(or Sirnsim), flax, lettuce, Sehjam or 
coleseed (Brassica oleifera), and the 
Baphanns olcifer (the SejmQi. of 

modem Nubia), and even the olive ; 
though this . tree seldom producixl 
frm't in Egypt, except about the Lake 
Moeris, and in the gardens of Alex- 
andria. (Plin. XV. 3 J Strabo, xvii. p. 
1147.)— [G. W.] 

® A similar practice is foand in the 
valley of the Indus. Sir Alexander 
Bumes, in his memoir on that river 
(Geograph. Journ. vol. iii. p. 113, ot 
seqq.), says: — "The people bordering 
on this part of the Indus — between 
Bukker and Mittun Kote — live during 
the swell in houses elevated eight or 
ten feet from the gi'ound, to avoid 
the damp and insects which it occa- 
sions These bungalows are 

entered by a ladder ' (p. 137). 

[The custom of sleeping on the flat 
roofs of their houses is still common 
in Egypt ; and the small tower rising 
above the roof is found in the repre- 
sentations of some ancient houses in 
the sculptures. The common fishing- 
net would be a very inefficient protec- 
tion against the gnats of modern 
Egypt, thongh a not doubled will 
often exclude flies. — G. W.J 



Drefping in, goes to eleep uiidemeath. The gnats, which, 
lie rolls himself up in hie dress or in a piece of muslin, ai 
sure to bite througlj the covering, do not so much as attempi 
to pass the net. 

96. The veBsela used in Egypt for the transport of merchiu 
dise are made of the Acautha (Thorn),^ a tree which in i 
growth is very like the Cjrenaie lotus, and from which thei 
exudes a gum. They cut a ijuantity of plauks alwut 1 
cubits in length from this tree, and then proceed to their ship 
building, arranging the planks' like bricks, and attaehing them 

' Tliifl was Pliny's " Spina -/f.^TP- 
tin," cBllod by Athena'ua " Afanthn." 
aiid described by iiim (it, p. (180) as 
bearing a rotind fmil on small sUUkg. 
It is the modem BonI, or Mimosa 
(Acooia) Hilotiuai groTes of which 
]ire etill foand in Egypt, as Recording 
tci Strabo, AthenDsas, and othern, of 
old. Onm^Brabio is pnjduced from 
it, as from other mimnsaa or aauaaia 
uf Egypt and Etbiopia, particnlorly 
the (Se&leh or) AcAuia 8JtU, and thd 
{Tiilh or) A. gummif«ra, of tbe 
ilesert. llio AcaciOi Fnmesiftna (or 
Fitneh) and the A. lebbek {lebbeth) 
grow in the valle/ of tha Nile ; the 
HDiall Oilgil (with pods bke oafc-applos 
uad seeds like those of tho Sealcb), 
l*rhapB th« A. hetsrocnrpo, is found 
in the Oatis ; tho Ildrras (A. albida}, 
Sellem, and Slime, tooBtly in the 
Ababdeh desert, and a few of the i 
two first at Thebes; a sniatl onc<, 
nailed Omlfiod, is found abiint Belbays ; 
nnd a sensitiTC noacia (the A. aape- 
mta F| grows in Elhiopia on tbe bajiks 
of [he Nile ; perhaps the one men- 
lioned by Pliny (liii. 10) abont Mom. 
phia. By " Aliylug," AthenteuB raeaoB 
Abydns. The Shittim wood of Eio- 
>las was donbtloBs the Acacia B£al 
iSdydl) of the dosort. " Tho Cyrenalo 
h'tns" hero mentioned by Hcrodotns 
is probably the Tvlh, not that of the 
Lotophsfri, and is different from that 
of Pliny (xiii. 17. 19), See nij note 
on Book ir. ch. 177.— [G. W,] 

> The boats of the Nile are Htill 
built with planks of the toiil. The 

planks, arranged as HprodotBS Btol< 
like brick?, appear to hsTo been ti 
to several lont^ stoke?, fastened 
them internally (No, I). Somctht 



of the kind in slill donp, when llM 
miso an eiim bolwark abore ibegui 
wale. lu the largo bouts of bortbt 
the phknks were Bcuored by nails H 
bolts, which men ore repreeeiit«il I 
Che paintings driving into holes, jm 
vioutly driljod far theio. There in 


Ltirely of the papyras, 
together with lianda of the 
plant (No, I!.)— the "vessela 
mshes" mentioned in Isaiah 
(see Plin. \\. 22; vii, 16; i 
ThpophraBl. it. 9; Pint, do !■■ 
Lncan, it. 136) ; bat these m 


Chat. 9$, 96. VESSELS AND BOATS. 155 

by ties to a number of long stakes or poles till the hull ia com- 
plete, when they lay the cross-plankR on the top from side to 

•noe laila and ropea having been I one is represented with a sail, which 

nude of the papynu, but these were might be mado ot the papjraa rind, 

nuvlT- lued, eren en tlie Nile. In one and which appears to foid np like 

at the paJDtings at Kom el Ahmar | those of the Chinese {No. III.), and 

It it doable, which was nsnal in 
larTp boaia in the time of the 4tb and 

■illipr earlj dynaBlicB. That cloth 
--Ttlj, occasionally with coloured do- 

least as earl/ as the IStb and 19th 
dynasties, is not surprising, since the 
Egyptians were noted at a very ro- 
mete period fur the maouroctare of 
linon and other cloths, and ciported 
sailcloth ti "■ '" ■ 

7.) Hempen (Hcnidut. vii. 25) and I nteilo from the stn hr fibre of the 
palm ropes are also shown by the I palm-tree aro frcfqaently ti.und in the 
nxmnmentB to have been adopted for tombs. This last was probably the 
■II the tackling of boats. The pro- kind most generally ased in Egypt, 
rem of mAkuig tbem is found at Beni and is still very commoD there, as tho 
II MM II and tt Thebes; and ropes I cocoa-nnt mpes are in India. — [|Q. W.] 


side. They give the boats no ribs, but caulk the Beatus withj 
ptipyrus on the iDgide. Each has a single rudder,' which i 
driven sti-oight through the keel. The mast is a piece i 
acoutlia-wood, and the sails are made of papyrus. These boa) 
cannot make way against the current unless there is a brisll 
breeze ; they are, therefore, towed up-stream from the ahore :% 

' The Inr^ bouts hod g(>tiorall; a 
single rodder, which roaerabled a 
\img oar, and tramracd na a beam at 
tbe Btom. iaBtiuict.s of wbioh occur in 
man; oonntries at llie prcseat day i 
liut Quui; had two rnddeni, ud^ at 
uach aiilp, nour the ateni, Butpeadcd 
at tlio KBnvmle (sue out No. I. in n. ', 
oh. 9(tJ or iluag troai a post, as a 
pirnt, on which it turned, Tho noall- 
siiod bonis of bnrthen wore muBtlv 
fitted with' two ruddcra; and ons in- 
(twice ocoara of throe on the Miioe 
side. On tlio rudder, aa on the boiva 

very distant conntrioa as early ai tho 
tlmo or the IHth dynasty: and dsal 
wu then nst<d fur uU cominon pnr- 
jioaoi, as well dj the native syoamore. 
Tho hulls uf iMMiU were even some- 
tiiuGB niudu of deal ; and it would 
liava boon atrangH if Ihoy bod not 
dlacorercd how mach more it wag 
adapted for tho maHta. lu tho timo 
of tho 1th, 6th, and tther tarlj- dynaa- 
tios tho mast wag double i but this 
was gflTien up as oumbroua, and was 
not Dsod after the acoegaion of the 
18tL,or oven of the 12tU dynastv.- 
LG. W.] 

t from tkall 

Egypt J but 

use of the stone in coming i 

done hy gaspending it 
while the lamoriHk rait ti 
head ii digpenmtd with, 
trivanoe Herodotns menttoi 

BO mnoh to increaH the b[. 

keep the boat straight, by ufcrinKfl 
large and buoyant '■ ' 
When the ro 

and biFQtB n 
they I 

■ ElU™ 
I hrundaide [ 


down -stream they are managed as follows. There is a rail 
belouging to each, made of the wood of the tamarisk, fastened 
together with a wattling of reeds ; aud also a stone bored 
through the middle, about two talents in weight. The raft 
fastened to the vesHcl by a rope, and allowed to float down th< 
stream in front, while the Btone is attached by ajiother rop< 
astern.* The result is that the raft, hurried forward by 
current, goes rapidly doivn tlie river, and drags the "baris' 
(for BO they call this sort of boat)' after it ; while the stone 

I Blomfield'i iu)(« 

*A pre 

L practice almost eotirel; Bimilar 
is doBoribed by Col. Chesney bb pre- 
vailing to LhiB day on tho Enphratoe. 
Spraking of the kvfah, or ronnd river- 
boat {of which a represpntation vnt 
giveo. vol. i. p, 318), he Bays :— " Theae 
boats ill deBoending the river have a 
boodle of hordlca attached, which float 
ID odTBTico, and a atone of the weight 
of two Ifilonta dragB along the bollom 
to gQide tiiem " (vol. ii. p. 640). 

' jliBchylua hod need this word be- 
for(< Herodutna nn the proper terto for 
nn Egjiptian boat. Ct. Snppl. 815 and 
BBS. He had bIbo poetically eitendpd 
il to the whole flc«t of Xones (PcrB. 
S55). Eoripidea need it as a Joragn 
tei-m. (Cf. Iph. in Anlid. 207. ^op- 
fldpuui Bif'i") Affer«'ardB it came 
to he n niFro valiant fur rXn7or. (Sue 

1 .£Kbyl. Pa 

[I had supposed Baris to niM 
" Boat of the Snn." (At. Eg. toL 
p. 413, note.) Baris baa envneotH 
been derived from Bai, a " pJ 
branch," which had oertoinlj 1 1 
meaning (and which is even tued 
John lii. 13, T^ Si'a T«r pairl 
"palnj branches"), hot Oiiu, or 
a " boat," is a different word, thoi 
a fireek would write it with a $, 
vela. Tlio name Bans is vteA 
Plutarch (de Is. b. 18, TaiublirliaB 
MyBt. a. 6, ch. V,), sud olUejs, Th 
was an Kgyptian boat with a <<al 
called by Blrabo thalamegtiB, or t 
iBniireruB (ivii. pp. 1134-S), a 
by the povomora of pnmnpea 
viBiting Upper Egypt i and a simi 
one was employed in the fniM 
prucei<Bions on the eacred Ll 
of the Dead (No. 1). There 1 


& h i-J\tld\i^^ 



which is pulled along in the wake of the veBsel, and Ues dMj 
in the water, keeps the boat fitraight. There are a ■ 
number of these veBsels in Egj'pt, and some of them are i 
many thousand talents' burthen,* 

ol<Hi a amall kind of boat, nit)i a 

wire towed bj their eervauta npoo 
tlio laVet la their pleaeare groDuda 
(Sa. II.) Bat all their laige boats 

bud iMibina, ofl^ii of great height ) 
fliie, and uvea common market bo 
nere fnTDishMl with tliem, and »a 
t-iitntly TiNim; to hold cnttle ■ 
T&riotia goods (No. IV.),— [G.W.j 


.. rv. 

' Tho Rixe of boate on the Nile 
rarios now aa of old ; and Bomo used 
fur carrying oom, which aaa ihiIj 
navigate tbo Nile dnring the innnda- 
lion, are rat^ at from 2000 to 4800 
anloba, or aboat lO.OOO to Si.OOO 
biubola' burthen. The ehipa of war 
of thu anoient Egyptians wVre not 
generally of grent size, at l^ast in tbo 
oarly timeH of the 18lh ood 19th 
difnoeties, when they had a HJngle 
row of from 20 to 44 or 50 oars, and 
were similar to tho " lung shipg " and 
wirrtiiiSrrtpiH of tbo Greeks, and the 
gatleyB of tbo Mediterranean dnring 
tbe middle a^e. Somo were of mach 
larger dimeoBions. Diodorus men- 
tiiine one of cedar, dedic&ted b; Seaos- 
tris tu the god of Thcben, Tnenauring 
280 cnbitH (from 420 to 478 feat) in 
length I and in later times they were 
remarkablebuth for length and height ; 
one bailtby ftolomy Phi I opator having 
40 banks of oa», and meaaaring 280 
cabita (about 470 feet) in length, 38 
in breadth, and 48 onbita (abont 83 
faet) in height, or &3 fn>m the keel 
to the (op of the poop, which carried 

sailors, beaides 4000 roweia, ■ 
near 3000 aoldiera. (Pint. Vit. Dbd 
Athen. Deipn. t. p. 204) Pliny, 
56, who nientiunB one of 40, i 
another of 60 banks of oarfl.) At 
nKDB Bays Pbilopator boilt auoll 
oaed on theHilG. half aBtadinin(ab 
300 feet) long, upwards of 40 oal 
brciad, luid nearly 30 hi)[h : ftod "' 
number belonging to Ptolemj . 
dclphuft Dxceodod thoae of any 
king (v. p. 203), be baring two at 
bankii, aneof2fi,fonrof 14, tiro of: 
fonrteen of 1 1 , thirty of 9, Uiirtj-aM 
of 7, five of 6, seventeen qainqBemn 
and more than twice that nnmber I 
qnadrireiuea, trirenieB," ic. H« tJi 
describes Hiero'a ship of 20 
sent aa ■ pre sent to Ptolemy 
200, 207). It is singnlar th^ 'i 
Egyptian, ABsyrian, Greek, or Bi 
monument represents a galley of 
than one, or nt most two tien of ots 
except a Roman pajnting found ia l) 
Orti Famesiani, which gives one wjl 
three, tbongb triremes and qoitMin 
remes were the moat generally 
ployed.— [G. W.], 07. 



97. When th« Nile OTerflowe, the country is converted into 
tsea, and nothing appears but the cities, which look like the 
islftnds in the Egean.' At thia season boats no longer keep 
the course of the river, bnt sail right across the plain. On 
the voyage from Naacratis to Memphis at this season, yon 
pasB close to the pyramids,' whereas the nsnal course is by 

' Thii ii perfect! J true ; Kod it itill I longer risea u in the daTB of Hero- 
hapiKDi Ed those jean when the in. dotns, tad foretell the gradual de- 
uida(ioauTer7 hifth- Though Sav&ry oreaae of the inandation, it has been 
ud Mhen nppoM tha wftter no | MtiefaoUirf to see tt 

dnmbcd by ibe hiBtorian, aa late aa j ia during theae high innudatione that 

LH. line. Seneca eaya, " MBJnrqne we aee the peasniitB renjning their 

^itii l^ntibns, qno minns terramm cattle from the flooded lands, aa de- 

•unuorident." (Nat. Qowat. iT.2.) It I scribed in the old paintinga.—[Q. W.] 

* When the VHe ia at thftt heittht. 
Data ^ui go acroaa conntrj, aa Hero. 
k*«a atBtea, withont keeping to the 
atam. As Herodutaa aaja that in 
-tw-g to Naoormti* from Uie Canopio 

TDL. n. 

month von i>ibii> Iit AnthfJla and 
Arohacdnipoliti, it is clear that these 
towns alood to tbe west oC the Cano- 
pic branch.— [G. W.] 



the apex of the Delta, aud the city of Cercasorua.' Ton can 
sail alBO from the maritime town of CaQobus acroea the dat 
NaucratiB, passing by the cities of Anthylla' and Archandropolis. 

98. The former of these cities, which is a place of note, if 
assigned expressly to the wife of the ruler of Egypt for th( 
time being, to keep ber in shoes,* Such haa been the cnstoiq 
ever since Egypt fell mider the Persian yoke. The otijer cit^ 
seems to me to have got its name of Archandropolis from 
Ai'chander the Phthian, son of Achteus,' and Bon-in-law of 
Danaus. There might certainly have been another Archander; 
but, at any rate, the name is not Egyptian.* 

99. Thus far 1 have spoken of Egypt from my own obaei 
vation, relating what I myself saw, the ideas that I forme 
and the results of my own researches. What follows rests o 
the accounts given me by the Egyptians, which I shall no' 


' See ttboTO, nute ', ch. 17. 

< The ncif^bbDDi'houd of Anthylla 
wai oolebniled fur its vriue. probably 
(ram tbo Buil being light. It xtnod t 
Iba west af tliB CEtnopic brtmoh, d( 
nl Gynmcopolia, bs Lari;her EappOBsi . 
bnt farther inliLad. On the wines of 
E^rypt, Bee notea on oha. 18, 37, and 
60.— [G. W.] 

* AthenEeaB (i. p. 33 F) bh^ 
find hor in yjrdftrs" (ordresa). Tlalo 
□aes tbo same oxprcssion ivbon 
aagi " a territory in Peraia wm 
sparl; for and called the (jaeea'a girdle, 
anether for her roil, and othora foi 
(he roat of hvr uppiLrel," The reve 
nneH of the Lake Mceris, which tren 
BottlHl on the qavena or Egypt far 
the pnroliaae of ointnienta, jewela, and 
other objects connected with l.he toi- 
lette, aniounted, oa Diodoroa luiyH (i. 
6S), to a talent evoiy day (aeu note' 
on ch. Ita) ; which, added to those of 
Anthylla, Roulit be a hondBotno allow- 
ance for "pin-money." Bnt a tnlont 
could not have bocn raised daily from 
that DDO fiahery, and it would more 
probably inc^lude all those in Egypt, 
if it were necessary tu bolievo that 
auuh a anni wna allowed to the qoeona. 
It wna the cuatom of the l*erBiau 

kings to assign the roroauea of 
Ha piD-money to the qqeens {Xi 
Anab. i. i.S; Plato, Aloibiad. LV 
123. O.), and thoy readily transfeml 
those of the Egyptians to tboirowa) 
but HerodotDB seema to say it w«| 
entity after the Pertuau conquest tli 
the ruTanaeB of Aiithylla were so ■ 
plied. See Cio. Verr. iii. 33, and col 
inire Com. Sep. Vit. ThemiBt. 10. 
[a- W.] 
' It woold perhapa be more 

render tbi« 

I, " ArchaiuU^ 
id gnutdvni « 

if Fhlhins, and gnutd«m ■ 
AuhEODaj" bnt aa Pausaniaa i ' 
Archaodor tbe son of Aclueiu ■ 
Phthian, Binoe ho bricgB him i 
Fhthidtia to the Poloponuwe (A 
i. g 3), Bod OB the words of Hendol 
will boor the meaning given ia 
teit, it seems beat to translate 1 ' 
thia way. According to Fkoaani 
(I. B. 0.) Arc bander married 1 
daughter of Danans, and had i 
whom he colled Holanastes, i 
of his change of ounntry, 

' TbJB remark of Horudottu ja 
joat, and Arebander wu 
oorrnptod by the Greeks : 



repeat, adding thereto some particulars which fell under my 
own notice. 

The priests said that Men was the first king of Egypt, ^ and 
that it was he who raised the dyke which protects Memphis 
from the inundations of the Nile. Before his time the river 
flowed entirely along the sandy range of hills which skirts 
Egypt on the side of Libya. He, however, by banking up the 
nver at the bend which it forms about a hundred furlongs 
south of Memphis,* laid the ancient channel dry, while he dug 
a new course for the stream half-way between the two lines of 
hills. To this day, the elbow which the Nile forms at the 
point where it is forced aside into the new channel is guarded 
with the greatest care by the Persians, and strengthened 
every year ; for if the river were to burst out at this place, 
and pour over the mound, there would be danger of Memphis 
being completely overwhelmed by the flood. Men, the first 
king, having thus, by turning the river, made the tract where 
It 18 used to run, dry land, proceeded in the first place to 
build the city now called Memphis,'' which lies in the narrow 

' Maoetho, Eratosthenes, and other 
*Titere, agree with Herodotus that 
MeD or Menea (the Mna, or Menai, of 
^ monuments) was the first Egyp- 
^ king ; and this is confirmed by 
the lists of the Memuonium, or Ke- 
», at Thebes, and by the Turin 
papyrus. The gods were 
said to have reigned be- 
fore Menes, which some 
explain by supposing them 
the colleges of priests of 
those deities. Menes is 
called by Manetho a "Thi- 
nite." After his reign 
the kingdom appears to 
been divided, and the remaining 
of the Ist and 2nd dynasties 
in Upper Egypt, while the 
MT and 4th ruled at Memphis ; as Dr. 
Hincka and Mr. Stuart Poole have 
MKgested. See Hist. Not. App. ch. 
▼iii. and Tn. P.K.W. pp. 29, 31, and 58. 

— [G. W.] 

* The dyke of Menes was probably 

near the modern Kafr el lydtf 14 milefl 
south of Mitrahenrnj, where the Nile 
takes a considerable bend, and from 
which point it would (if the previous 
direction of its course continued) run 
immediately below the Libyan moun- 
tains, and over the site of Memphis. 
Calculating from the outside of Mem- 
phis, this bend agrees exactly with 
the hundred stadia, or nearly 11^ 
English miles, Mitrahenny being about 
the centre of the old city. No traces 
of these dykes are now soen. — [G. W.] 
"^ The early foundation of Memphis 
is proved by the names of the kings of 
some of the oldest dynasties being 
found there ; and the precedence of 
the upper country may have been 
owing to Menes being from This, a city 
of the Thobaid near Abydus, to which 
Thebes succeeded as the capital of 
Upper Egypt. Phtah, or Vulcan, was 
the god of Memphis, to whom the 
great temple was erected by Menes. 
The lake was the one on which the 



part of Epypt ; after which he further excavated a lake out; 
side the town, to tlie north and weat, communicating with thfl 
river, whicli was itself tlie eastern boundary. BeBides thes< 
works,* he also, the priests said, buUt tlie temple of Vulcai 
wliich stands within the city, a vast edifice, very worthy d 

100. Next, they read me from a papyrus the names of thro 
hundred and thirty monarchs,' who (they said) were his e 
cessors upon the throne. In this number of generations thert 

fnneral ceremonies were perfontied, 
and which the dead oroased on the 
way to the tombs, bh at Theben j ond 
thiti, lua DiodoniB bb;s (i. 92, 96). was 
thf origin of the Aohomaiiui Lots of 
the Greeks, whieli ho eoems to think 
tras called Achenuia at Momphla. 
The name of Memphis was MaDofre, 
or MoQ-nofr, " the plfloe (or haven) of 
Kood men," aooording to Plutarch 
(B. 21), or "the abode of the good 
Btie," nieBuini; OsiriB; and this has 
been retained in the Cnptio MeB, 
MemB, Menrjfre, and Panonr. and in 
the modem Mannitl: of tho Delta. It 
'was also called the " land of the pyra- 
mid " and "of the white wall." or 
" hnildintr." Bee note on B. iii. ch. 
13.— [G. W.] 

» Neilher MeneB nor hia immediale 
BiiuDOBSors have left any monuments. 
Hia name ia only mentioned on thoBC 
of a mach later date. The names of 
the kin^B of the 4th dynasty are at 
the Pyramids, and of the 6th mostly 
in Lower and Middle Egypt ; the Srd, 
4t)i, and Cth being Ucmphitee. Those 
of the Enpntefs (or Ntentefs), and 
Othera of the 9tb HeracleopoUtiB dy- 
nasty, are fonnd at Thebes and else- 
where ; partii^nlnrlj at HemonlhiB. 
The 9th was tantpmporary with part 
of the eth, the 6th, 11th, and 12th ; 
and the monumentB of the kinga of 
the two last are foand at Thebes. 
Osirtaaen 1., the leader of the 12th, 
ruled the whole of Egypt, and it wbb 
while this Dioepolite dynasty mled 
that the Shepherds come into Epfjpt 
and obtained posBOBsion of Uempfais. 
During the reign of the 13th they 

extended their conqansts into the Tla 
bajd, when the Egyptian kings tiM 
refnge in Ethiopia, wbere thair muM 
are found j and it n-aa not till tfa 
aoeession of the 18th that AmoeJB, Ik 
leader of that dynasty, expelled Ul 
Shepherds from Egypt, and made th 
whuli? coon try into one kingdoa 
(See Hist. Not. in App. ch, toLJ-^ 
[Q, W.] 

' That ia from Uenen to Mceri^ wl« 
had not been dead 900 yean. whM 
HerodotDs wb« in Egypt abont 8.0 
455 (sapm, oh. 13). This would maU 
the dale of McEria less than 1350 B.& 
and mitrht correspond with the en t 
MenophroB B.C. 1322, who wemi I 
be the kinff he here calls Uiaria, di 
Mendea of Djodoms (i. 61 and W) 
The name Mceris was evideDtly at' ' 
buted to seToral kings (see noW 
ch. 13). The MtPris here n 
conld not have lived before 
founders of the Pyramlda and the firt 
Seaostris i the S30 kings ahoald tlie 

tore inolade all the kings of I 

E)0ptian dyniutiea to the tima ■ 
Monopiires, aud this being the giM 
Egyptian era will account for I' 
reign of that king being mentioi 
BO often as one from whioh they dal 
eTButs. The nutuber of 330 long 
which appears also lo be given b; 
Turin papyrus, wjm evidently U 
from the sum of all the H' 
end of the ISth dynasty, 
acccEBion of Bemea 
indeed gives little 
kings from Menes to the 
18th dynasty, though bis i 
very oncertiuu; and hia 

CiAP. 99, 100. 


1 65 

were eighteen Ethiopian kings,^ and one queen who was a 
native ; all the rest were kings and Egyptians. The queen 
bore the same name as the Babylonian princess, namely, 
Nitocris.* They said that she succeeded her brother ; ^ he had 

oomes within four of Africanns. At 
an erents, it is erident that the 330 
kings cannot be calculated from 
Veoea to Amnn-m-he III. (the Modris 
of the Labjrinthf and the Lamaris of 
Hanetbo). Ab there are onlj 204 
kingB from Henes to Lamaris, the 4th 
^mg of the 12th dynasty, and far less 
if ooDtemporaneousn^s be allowed 
for; and though Amnn-m-he III. was 
the real Moans of the Labyrinth, these 
caZ«ti2atiofig o/ time were not made to 
him, bat to a mach later reign, — the 
fixed chronological period of Mono- 
phreg, who by mistake has been con- 
founded with Hoaris. (See notes on 
ehs. 13 and 124.) The Sesostris who 
owne *' after them" coald not be 
Setostris of the 12th dynasty, as he 
reigned before Amnn-m-he III. (the 
leal Moeris) ; and this mast refer to 
the later (supposed) Sesostris, or 
Sethos, whose exploits, together with 
tboge of his son Bemeses II., have 
been attributed to one king, under the 
name of Sesostris. See note ^ on oh. 
102.-[G. W.] 

* The intermarriafires of the Egyp- 
tian and Ethiopian royal families may 
be inferred from the sculptorea. 
"The royal son of Kush" (Cush, or 
Ethiopia) is also often mentioned, 
aometimes holding the oflSce of flabel- 
him-bearer on the right of a Pharaoh ; 
though this title of " royal son " pro- 
bably belonged to Egyptian princes 
who were viceroys of Ethiopia; 
Coreign princes being merely styled 
"chiefs." But the Ethiopiaos who 
mi on the throne of Egypt may have 
dainoed their right either as descend- 
aatfl of those princes, or through 
iBtermarriages with daughters of the 
Fbaraoba. The eighteen Ethiopian 
kiiiga were probably the early Sabacos 
of the Idth dynasty, one of whose 
nanM*ff Is found on a statue in the Isle 
€i Argo, and another at Semneh, in 

Ethiopia, who ruled there while the 
Shepherds were in Egypt. It was 
this right of the female members of 
the royal family to the throne that 
led so many foreigners who had 
married Egyptian princesses to assert 
their claims, some of which were suc- 
cessful.— [G. W.] 

3 The fact of Nitocris having been 
an early Egyptian queen is proved by 
her name, Neitakri, occurring in the 
Turin papyrus, and as the last sove- 



reign of Manetho's 6th dynasty. There 
was another Nitocris, of the 26th 
dynasty, written Neitakri, with the 
usual name of the goddess Neit)). 
Eratosthenes translates Nitocris 
** Minerva Victrix." It is remarkable 
that Nitocris of the 26th dynasty 
lived about the same time as the 
Babylonian queen. The name is per- 
fectly Egyptian. The queen of 
Psammetichus III., a daughter of his 
predecessor, had the same name as 
the (supposed) wife of Nebuchadnez- 
zar ; and it is not impossible that the 
famous Nitocris may have been 
another of the same name and family, 
demanded in marriage by the king of 
Babylon on his invasion of Egypt. 
See note on cb. 177) and historical 
notice in the Appendix. — [G. W.] 

* This would seem to be Menthesu- 
phis II., the fifth king of Manetho's 
6th dynasty, who reigned only a year 



Bon.L n. 

been king of Egypt, and was put to death by bis snbjecte, who 
then placet! her upon the throne. Bent on avenging his death, 
flhe devised a ciuming scheme by which she destroyed a vast 
number of EgyptiauH. She constructed a spacious under- 
ground chamber, and, on pretence of inaugurating it, con- 
trived the following : — Inviting to a banquet those of thflj 
Egyptians whom she knew to have had the chief share io 
the murder of her brother, she suddenly, as they were feasting* 
let t)ie river in upon them, by means of a secret duct of larga 
size. This, and this only, did they tell me of her, except that, 
when she had done as I have said, she threw herself into 8 
apartment full of ashes, that she might escape the vengeano*': 
whereto she would otherwise have been exposed. 

101. The other kings, they said, were personages of no nots 
or distinction,* and left no monuments of any account, with 

' Their obnonrity waa owing to 
Efrypt being piirt of the time under 
tho dominion of tbo Shepherdfl, who, 
finding Egypt divided into severBil 
klDf^oDiB, or prinoipnlitiea, invaded 
t.ho c:ountr7, and flnccoeded at lenf^h 
in dispueeciiiting the Mnniphite kings 
of their torritoriea. Their invaaion 
neams to buve originated in aome 
claim to the throne, probahly throngh 
proriouK mamnguB. Tbia would ac- 
nount for their boing aometimes in 
allianoe with the kinga of the roat of 
the oonntry i for their conqnoat 
liaving been mode " without a btiltle." 
na Manetbo «>ya; and for its not 
having weakened the power of Egypt, 
which that of a foreigo enemy woald 
have done. They came into Egypt 
nboDt the beginning of the 12th 
dynaaty, but did not extend their 
dominion beyond Lower Egypt till 

=-- LLby*. 

tbe end of that dymuty. They t 
ruled oont^mporaneooBly with 
Tth, Sth, lOtb, I3th, and lUh dji 
ties, till at length the whole of tl 
^gypt'Bu power becoming veMed 1 
one native king Amei (called Ame*' 
and Tetbmoeia by Uanetho ai 
Josephua), who was the Gnt of tl 
18th dynasty, tbe Shepherda w« 
driven out of the conntry, and ll 
Theban or Dioepolite kings ruled 1] 
whole of Egypt. It is atill nnoerta 
of what race the Shepherda i 
Some are called by Uanetbo T" 
ciana. (See Hiatarical Notice 
App.) EtinebiDB (Dhton. p. ST) ■ 
Fbcenii and Cadmai going from Kg 
tian Thebes reigned over Tyi» L^^ 
Bidon. which might apply to the eipri 
BJon of the " Phienician ShiipherQ*' 
from Egyp^- ^"^ '•^b reUtkmahip « 
Egypt and Phcenicia is pointed aul 1^ 


Agcnof, Klnf of PIiobi 


Chaf. 100-102. 



the exception of the last, who was named McBris.^ He left 
several memorials of his reign — the northern gateway of the 
temple of Vulcan, the lake excavated by his orders, whose 
dimensions I shall give presently,* and the pyramids built by 
him ill the lake, the size of which will be stated when I describe 
the lake itself wherein they stand. Such were his works : the 
other kings left absolutely nothing. 

102. Passing over these monarchs, therefore, I shall speak 
of the king who reigned next, whose name was Sesostris.^ 

*See note * on ch. 13, and note * 
onch. 100. 
• Infra, ch. 149. 

^ The original Sesoetris was the first 

^ of the 12th djnastj, Osirtaaen, 

or Seeortaaen I., who was the first 

K^at Egyptian conqoeror; bnt when 

Oniei, or Sethi (Sethos), and his son 

S^esee II. snrpaased the exploits 

of their predecessor, the name of 

Sesostria became oonfoanded with 

Sethos, and the conqaeats of that 

kJDg, and his still greater son, were 

■•cribed to the original Scsostris. 

Th»8 explains the assertion of Dicsoar. 

ohns that Scsostris was the successor 

of Horus, mistaken for the god, bat 

^Bany the last king of the 18th 

^JBarty. For those two kings did 

*ncoeed Homa (the reign of Remeses I., 

t^€ father of Sethi, being so short as 

^ be overlooked), and their nnion 

^er one name, Sesostris, is accounted 

for by Bemeses II. having ruled con- 

jointly with his father during the 

**riyand principal part of his reign. 

*r. Poole very properly suggests that 

Manetho's *'2^a«j 6 ica2 '?(fjL4<r<rns" 

riwuld be " 2. . . icol P. . ." This is re- 

paired also by the length of their reigns 

(that of the 2nd Remeses being from 

Q to 66 years) ; and by the age of 

Hemeses ; and the sculptures at 

Kamak show that he accompanied 

His father in his early campaigns. It 

■eems too that in the first Sesostris 

two kings, Osirtasen I. and III., were 

comprehended ; as several were under 

the name of Mceris. Strabo (xv. p. 

978) makes Sesostris and even Tear- 

con (Tirhakah) both g^ into Europe. 
The great victories over the Scythians 
could not be attributed to the early 
Sesostris, though some ruins near old 
Kossayr (see n. ch. 158) prove that in 
the reign of Amun-m-he II., who 
reigned for a short time contempo- 
raneously with Osirtasen I., the Egyp- 
tians had already (in his 28th year) 
extended their conquests out of Egypt, 
having defeated the people of Fount, 
with whom the kings of the 18th and 
19th dynasties were afterwards at 
war. The people of Fount were a 
northern race, being placed at Soleb 
and elsewhere with the Asiatic tribe?. 
They appear to have lived in Arabia ; 
probably in the southena, as well as 
northern part; and their tribute at 
Thebes, in the time of Thothmos III., 
consisted of ivory, ebony, apes, and 
other southern productions ; partly 
perhaps obtained by commerce. Ele- 
phants and brown bears were also 
brought by the northern race of 
Rot-ii.n, or Rot-h-no, who come next 
to Mesopotamia in the list of con- 
quered countries. Osirtasen I. pos- 
sessed the peninsula of Mount Sinai, 
already conquered in the age of the 
4th dynasty, and extended his arms 
far into Ethiopia, where his monu- 
ments are found ; and this xhay be the 
expedition alluded to by Diodorus as 
the beginning of his exploits, unless 
he had in view the conquests of 
Sethi and Remeses II., which reached 
still farther south, continuing those of 
Amenoph III. in Ethiopia and the 
Soudan. Some think Osirtasen III. 



He, the priesta said, first of all proceeded in a fleet of sbipa of 
war from tbe Arabian gulf aloug the sbores of the Etjtbneaii 
Sea, Bubduing the nations as he went, until he finally re&cbei] 
a sea which could not be navigated by reason of the fihoaU.* 
Hence he returned to Egypt, where, they told me, he coUecteil 
a vast armament, and made a progress by land across ths 
continent, conquering every peoi»le which fell in his way. In 
the countries where the natives withstood his attack, and fought 
gallantly for tbeir liberties, be erected pUlars,^ on which 1 
inscribed bis own name and country, and bow that he ha<t 
here reduced tbe inhabitants to subjection by the might of biv 
arms : where, on tbe contrary, they submitted readily an4> 

a treated 


woe SeBostriB, because he 
with diviDB hoDonm aa the 
uiodU uE TbotbDicB HI. ; hat tt 
have been fi-om Bume rights 
(hrtiDD being dorired from him, or 
Trom his having oBtsbliahed the 
frDntier on the Ethiopian tido at tbii 
spot ; though it ■eems also to accord 
with Hanethu'a nccnnnt of Soeostria 
lieiog oonBidered aa " the first (or 
Rroatost) after Oairia." But neither 

the third Oeirtasen bIiow bim to hare 
eqaallcd tho first ; and if be fited on 
8emneh u tbe frontier of Egypt, it 
WBfl within the limits of hiB predecEB- 
buf's conqueatB. Tbat Somnoh was the 
frontier dofenco against the £tbio- 
piana is abown hj ao inscription there, 
and by the water-gate in botb for- 
tresBOB being on tho Egyptian Bide of 
(he works. Tbe monnnieutB of Oair- 
toBeu 1. are fonod ovorywhere from 
the Delta to Ethiopia. (See HiBt. 
Notice in App. CH. viii.)— [Q. W.] 

' Tbia is porbopa an indication that 
tba Egyptians in tbe time of Hero- 
dotoB were aware of tho difficaltiea 
of tba navigation lowardg the moatha 
of the Indus. Tbe wafers of this 
rirer in tbe Qood-time diBootonr tbo 
■ea for three milea, and depudit vast 
qnontitiea of mnd, fonoing an orcr. 
shifting series of sboals and aballowa 
very dangeroas to tosbcIs (See 
Qe^ph. Joom. Tol. iii. p. jao). Tbo 

aloDg sliore to Suei (in: 
iv. 44), would have bningbt tbe kai 
ledge of these facte to the Egyptiaiui, il 
they did not poa^eas it befom. Th 
conquests of Sesoatrie in this direotioa 
BGoni til be pore fables. 

• These menuiriala, which belwig b 
"" " " """ found in Syria, tt' 

the r 

9 above the 

LycuB (now Nahr tl Ke!b). 
Bays a stela on the Red Sea 
hia oonqaesta over the Troglodjt 
(b. ivi. p. 1093). The hononi p 
by Seaoatris to those who reaistsd 
arms, and fought courageoul^, 
one of many proofs of the civiUj 
habits of tho EgyptiaoB; and th 
sentiments contrast strongly witli ' 
omoltioa pmctiaed by tbe Aiu 
Donquerorg, who flayed olive and I 
tured those who opposed them, m 
Torka bave done in more recent till 
(See Layord'a drawing, and the Ki 
veh sculptures in tbe British Hnaenta.] 
The Tictories of Eomeaea II. ore mpn- 
sented on the monnmenta of TbebM| 
and it is worthy of notice that 
QermonicuB visited them no mentioa 
was mode of SeBostris as the f 
oonijneror, but of Rhamaes, the 
king, whose sculptnres he was ^i 
by the prieata. (Taoit. Ann. H. GO.) 
The miBtake is therefore not RgTptiuk 
-[G. WO -' 

GiAP. 102-104. 



without a struggle, he inscribed on the pillars, in addition to 
these particulars, an emblem to mark that they were a nation 
of women,^ that is, unwarlike and effeminate. 

103. In this way he traversed the whole continent of Asia, 
whence he passed on into Europe, and made himself master 
of Scythia and of Thrace, beyond which countries I do not 
think that his army extended its march. For thus far the 
pillars which he erected are still visible;^ but in the remoter 
regions they are no longer found. Eetuming to Egypt from 
Thrace, he came, on his way, to the banks of the river Phasis. 
Here I cannot say with any certainty what took place. Either 
te of his own accord detached a body of troops from his main 
*nny and left them to colonise the country, or else a certam 
number of his soldiers, wearied with their long wanderings, 
deserted, and established themselves on the banks of tluK 

104. There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an 

* Kiepert (as qnotod by M. Tezior, 
^ Hinenre, ii. p. 306) concludes 
fiTMn this, that Herodotus had seen 
the Thracian stela). Bnt Herodotos 
^ not say so ; and snoh a point is 
^^itainly not to be assnmed without 
^^f^oici warrant from his words. It 
u to the last degree improbable that 
^^•OBtris, or any other Ef^^ptian con- 
<l'»ttor, ever penetrated through Scy- 
^ into Thrace. The Egyptian 
P'i'^ did not even advance such a 
ikim when they conversed with 
^»«nninicua (Tacit. Ann. ii. 60). The 
^^*«essii8 is the furthest limit that 
^ possibly be assigned to the Ba- 
"'^n^e conquests, and the Scythians 
''^ned must have dwelt witlun that 

' If it be really true that Sesostris 

'^ a oolony on the Phasis, his object 

^y be explained in the same manner 

^ tint of the Argonautic expedition ; 

i>otk being to obtain a share of that 

^Boitive trade, which long continued 

to flow in that direction, and was the 

object of the Genoese settlements on 

the Bbck Sea from the thirteenth to 

the fifteenth century. The tratle 
from India and Arabia took various 
channels at different periods. In 
Solomon's time, the Phcenicians harl 
already brought it through the Red 
Sea; and his offering them a more 
convenient n)ad thence through the 
Valley of Petra, enabled him to enter 
into an advautageoufl treaty with, and 
to obtain a bharo of the trade froiu, 
that jealous merchant people. The 
trade was frequently diverted into dif- 
ferent channels ; as under the Egyptian 
Caliphs, and at other times. But it also 
passed at the same poriiKls by an over- 
land route, to which in the earliest ages 
it was probably confined; and if Colchis 
was the place to which the former 
was directed, this would account for 
the endeavour of the Egyptian con- 
queror to establish a colony there, 
and secure possession of that import- 
ant point. The trade of Colchis may, 
however, like its golden fleece, simply 
relate to the gold brought to it from 
the interior.— [G. W.] Compare vol. 
i. Essay x. § 7, sub fin. 



Egyptian race.' Before I heard any mention of the fact frum 
others, I had remaiked it myself. After the thought had 
atnick me, I made inquiriea on the subject both in Colchiq 
and in Egypt, and I fonnd that the Colchians had a mor« 
distinct recollection of the Egyptians, than the EgyptiEins faai 
of them- Still the Egyptians said that they believed thi 
Colchians to he descended from the army of Sesostris. My o' 
conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they t 
black-skinned and have woolly hair,* which certainly s 



' Acoording to Agathiaa (ii, p. 55) 
the Laxia of the connlrj almnt Trebi- 
Hind are the Ipptimate dt!»M?iidantB 
ot tho nnciont ColcbiBna. Tbe lan- 
Knage of tbis race it Tanmian, and 
bears no partipnlar [^aemblance to 
tbatcf ancient Ggjpt. (Seo MQller's 
LanKOOgea of tbe Seat of War, pp. 

* HerodotaB also sllndeB in cb. 67 
to the blsf k coloar of tho Egyptians ; 
bot not onl; do the paintiage point- 
edly diBtingniab tbe Egyptians from 
tho blacks of Africn, and evon from 
the copper-colonrod EthiopianB, both 
of whom are ahown to have bean of 
the Bame hue an their descendantB : 
bnt tbe mnmmiea prove that the 
BgyptiauB were neither black Kor 
vi"oUy -haired, and the formation of 
tbe head at once decides thai they ore 
of Asiatic, and not of Arrican, origin. 
It la evident they conld not haTO 
changed in eolonr, an Lnrcber enp- 
poBos, from the time of Herodotus to 
that of AmmianDS Mnrcelliaas, who 
after all only Bays they are "miBtly 
dusky and dark" (nii. 16), bnt not 
"black I " for though the Ethiopians 
hnvo for more than 3000 ycarB inter- 
married with black wompu from tbe 
Soudaji, who form great part of thoir 
hartBtia, they slill retain tbeir copper 
coloar, irithoat becoming negroes ; 
and indeed this may serre aa a negn- 
tive datnm for those who speculate on 
change of oolonr in tbe human race- 
That the Egyptians were dark and 
their hair coarse, to European eyes, is 
trne ; but i( is difficolt lo explain tbe 
broiHl ttsicrlion of Uerodolui', eBpo- 

cially as he nses the aaperlaiive 
tbe same word, " most woolly." . 
speaking of the hair of tbe Ethiopiia 
of tbe West, or tbe blacks of Afrioi 
(B. vii. ch. 70). The boir he bad d 
opportunity of seeing, as the ^gyf 
tians Bhated their heads and beardai 
and bWkners of oolonr is, and alwi -^™ 
waa, a very oonventiaiBl term ; 
tbe Hebrews even caBCd the An._.^ 
" black," tedor, the " oedrei " of Plinv 
though "tip may only moan of a dart 
or annbnmt bne (Tlin. —' — ^ 


i. oh. 101). The neg 
the paintings of 1 
be miElnken ; and tbe Egyp 
■ a __. f_:i -^ heighten the ai' 
(eil race by givii 
le of hide ifac nil 

cnlons nddition of a tail. Egypt wM 
called Cbcmi, " black," tmm t£« o ' 
of tbe rich soil, not from that of tka 
people (see note ' on ch. IG). 



^ bat little, since several other nations are so too; but 
Norther and more especiaUy, on the circumstance that the 
Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only, 
Dfttions who have practised circumcision from the earliest 
timeg. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine ^ them- 
sdves confess that they learnt the custom from the Egyptians ; 
Mid the Syrians who dwell about the rivers Thermodon and 
Parthenius,' as well as their neighbours the Macronians,^ 

«f (dd. The tact of the Egyptians 
'Bpreientuig their women yeUow and 
^ ineii red BuiBoee to show a grada. 
^ of hue, whereas if they had been 
^ black race the women would have 
*wm blaok also.— [G. W.] 

'Herodotus apparently allades to 

^ hwB. i^estine and Philistine are 

Um ame name. He may be excused 

fornpposing that the Jews borrowed 

noiincision from the Egyptians, since 

^bey^d not pfactioe it as a regular 

^ oniversal oostom until after they 

*ft Bgypt, which is proved by the 

>Kw gfeneration in the wilderness not 

bemg circumcised till their arrival on 

^plains of Jericho (Joshua v. 5, 7), 

^boQgh Uie custom had been adopted 

*7 the Patriarchs and their families 

'wm the time of Abraham. Even (in 

W^nrii. 22) our Saviour says, "MOses 

g»Te yon circumcision (not because 

« M of Moses, but of the fathers) " ; 

*^ toy writer of antiquity tnight 

Jtttorally suppose that the Jews bor- 

Jp^edfpom Egypt a rite long estab- 

"*k«J there ; for it was already 

J'^'ootm at least as early as the 4th 

Jyj*«ty, and probably earlier, long 

!*ft*e the birth of Abraham. Herodotus 

''Justified in calling the Jews Syrians, 

••they were comprehended geographi- 

**lly under that name ; and they were 

J^^^tted to " speak and say before the 

^ God : A Syrian ready to perish 

^ my father, and he went down into 

^JV^ and sojourned there with a 

^1 and became there a nation . . ." 

(^t zxvi 5). Pausanias (i. 5) speaks 

of the " Hebrews who are above 

tile Syrians,** 6wip %(f^v. Syria com- 

|V)eheDded the whole country from 

^ passes of Cilicia (now Aiauna) to 

Egypt, though parts of it were separate 
and distinct provinces. See note on 
Book vii. ch. 72.— -{G. W.] 

* The Syrians here intended are un- 
doubtedly the Cappadocians (supra, i. 
72, 76), in whose country the river 
Therm6don is commonly placed. (Scy- 
lax. Peripl. p. 80 ; Strab. 12. p. 792 ; 
Plin. H. N. vi. 3 ; Ptol. v. 6.) It is 
curious, however, to find in such a 
connection a mention of the Parthe. 
nius, which is the modem Chati 8u, or 
river of Bartariy a stream considerably 
to the W. of the Halys, ascribed by 
the geographers either to Paphlagonia 
(Scylax. p. 81 ; Strab. xii. p. 787 ; 
Plin. H. N. vi. 2) or to Bithynia (Ptol. 
V. 1). Herodotus elsewhere (i. 72) 
distinctly states that Cappadocia lay 
entirely to the E. of the Halys, and 
that the region to the W. was Paphla- 
gonia. The limits of the countries, 
no doubt, vary greatly in ancient 
writers (cp. Xen. Anab. V. v.-vi., with 
Scyl. Peripl. 1. s. c.) ; but with so dis- 
tinct an expression of his views on the 
part of Herodotus in one place, it 
seems impossible that in another he 
can have intended to extend Cap- 
padocia three degrees further to the W. 
I should therefore incline to think, 
either that the name is corrupted, or 
that a different Parthenius is meant — 
the name being one which would be 
likely to be given by the Greeks to 
any stream in the country of the 

^ The Macronians are mentioned by 
Xenophon (Anab. IV. viii. § 1) aa 
situated inland at no great distance 
from TrApezus {Trehizond). Strabo 
(xii. p. 795) agrees with this, and in- 
forms us that they were afterwards 




aay that they have recently adopted it from the Colchians 
Now these are the only nations who use circumcision, and i 
is plain that they all imitate herein the Egyptians.^ Witt 
respect to the Etliiopians, indeed, I cannot decide whethei 
they learnt the practice from the Egyptians, or the Egyptian 
from them' — it is undoubtedly of very ancient date in Ethiopil 
— but that the others derived their knowledge of it fron 
Egypt is clear to me from the fact, that the Phceuiciana 
when they come to have commerce with the Greeks, cease t 
follow the Egyptians in this custom, and allow their childrei 
to remain micircumcised. 

105. I will add a further proof of the identity of the Egyp 
tians and the Colchians. These two nations weave their linei 
in exactly the same way, and this is a way entirely unknown 
to the rest of the world ; they also in their whole mode of liJ 
and in their lan|^age resemble one another. The Colcbia 
linen* is called by the Greeks Sardinian, while that vhit^ 
comes from Egypt is known as Egyptian. 

106. The pillars which Sesostris erected in the conqoere 
countries have for the most port disappeared ; hut iu the pai 
of Syria called Palestine, I myself saw them still standings' 

They o 

called Sanni, 
94, and vii. t 

' Circnmcision was not pmctisod b; 
the FbilistiueB (1 Sam. liv. 6 : ivii. 
£6 i xpui. 27 ; 2 Sam. i. 20 ; 1 Cliron. 
X. 4), nor by the goneralily of the 
Phcetiioiiuia ; fur while it la said of 
Pharaoh (Eiet. mi. 18; iiiii. 83) 
that he ehonld " lie in the midit at 
the nnoircnmoiaed," and Edom (iiiii. 
29) "witJi the ittiDircatticised," Elam, 
HeBhooh, Tobal, and (be ZidoniaiiH 
{iKiii. 24, 30) " go down nnciroam- 
oised." Joaephas (Antiq. 

iH that 

o olhera in Syria ' 

oircnmciBed but the Jbwb. The AbyB- 
Biniaua Btill rutain the rite, tLoogh 
they ax& Chrifitiang of the Copt Choruli. 


* It baa biien already abown tbnt 
the EthiopiaDB bormired their rcli. 
giona iiutitatioiui from Egypt. — Sea 

notog • on oh. 29, and ' on ob. 3a— 
[Q W.] 

' Colobig waa famonB tor its li 
It was taken to Sanlia, and beiq 
thoDoe imported received the ni 
Sardian. ^afSenxhr, " Sardinian,' 
may be a miataVe Tor Xafitiarir. Tk 
best ltiii!D nets for htinting pnipoH 
are said by J. Pollux to haTB Ooal 
from £)|:vpt, Colcbia, Cartiwg*, < 
SardiB (Onom. 6. 4. 26). It i* pa 
Bible that the linen of ColobU B^ 
have had the Egyptian name Siadifll 
or shfnt, and that tbia may bars b 
converted into Sardan. (See no 
on ch. 86). fiindOD vma aim a 
BometimeB to signify " Indian." (PlilL 
vi. 20).— [G. W.] 

' The Bteiee Been by Herodotu n 
Syria were donbtleSB those c 
rock oeEir Berytus {BfYrnat), at tht 
month of the T.rcna (JVahr #1 £fHj 

Chap. lW-106. 



^tli the writing above mentioned, and the emblem distinctly 
^'sible.' In Ionia also, there are two representations of this 
prince engraved upon rocks,* one on the road from Ephesus to 

^Jpaved by Bemeses II. : one is dedi- 
«ted to Amnn, another to Pthah, and 
a third to Ke, the gods of Theboa, 
*«nphi8, and Heliopolis, the three 
principal cities on his march through 
%pt. Almost the only hieroglyphics 
^^^ traceable are on the jambs of the 
tablets, which have one of the nsoal 
formulas- "the good god," or " Phrah 
(PWaoh) the powerful .... king of 
'jnys, Remoscs, to whom life has been 
pTen like the snn;" but the lines 
wlow the figure of the king, who 
*J»78 the foreign chiefs before ihe god, 
•wi which should contain the mention 
w his rictories, are too much defaced 
to be legible. The doubts of M. de 
^olcy respecting the genuineness of 
^heee etelaB are extraordinary in these 

Close to them are stelae of an Assy- 
nan king, who is now found to be Sen- 
*^herib, who built the great palace at 


Mr. Layard (Ninevjeh and Babylon, 
P- 355, note) mentions colossal figures 
w an Egyptian sphinx and two priests 
^^Tved on a rock above the city of An- 
tioch.-[G. W.J 

Accordinj? to the record seen by 
"wodotns, Sesostris considered the 
Pf^Ie of Palestine a cowardly race. 
J^ the power of Egypt they must 
**^ been insignificant ; and though 
«* ambers of the Philistines made 
^J»na troublesome to the Israelites, 
^ are not represented as the same 
^Uant people as the Anakim (Num. 
«in. 28, 33 ; Deut. ii. 21 ; ix. 2), who, 
bemg far less numerous, were con- 
quered by Joshua (Josh. xi. 21, 23), 
a remnant only remaining in Gaza, 
Gath, and Ashdod ( Azotus) . In Amos 
(ix. 7) the Philistines are said to have 
ftoB from Caphtor. (See Hist. Not. 
ipp. CH. riii. § 17.) 

Jotephna (Antiq. Tiii. 10. 2) applies 
this bad compliment to the Jews, and 
tapposes it was recorded by Shishak, 
to whom Behoboam gave up Jerusa- 

lem without resistance. He thinks 
Herodotus has applied his actions to 
Sesostris.— [G. W.] 

* A figure, which seems certainly to 
be one of the two here mentioned by 
Herodotus, has been discovered at 
Ninfif on what appears to have been 
the ancient road from Sardis to 
Smyrna. It was first noticed, I be- 
lieve, by the Eev. J. C. Eenouard. 
The height, as measured by M. Texier 
(Asie Mineure, ii. p. 304) is two 
French metres and a half, which cor- 
responds within a small fraction with 
the measurement of our author. Its 
general character is decidedly Egyp- 
tian, strongly recalling the Egyptian 
sculptures at the mouth of the Nahr 
el Kelb; yet there are points of detail, 
as the shape of the shoes, in which it 
is peculiar, and non-Egyj)tian. No 
figure has been found in Egypt with 
shoes of which the points have a ten- 
dency to turn up. Again, the clashr 
or " calasiris " (supra, ch. 81, note®) 
of an Egyptian is never striped or 
striated, in tho way that that of the 
Ninji sculpture is. The hat or helmet 
too, though perhaps it boars a greater 
resemblance to tho ordinary Egyptian 
head-dress of the kings and gods than 
to any other known form, yet wants a 
loading feature of that head-dress — 
the curious curve projecting in front. 
(See ch. 35, note^.) Thus tho sup- 
posed figure of Sesostris clearly differs 
from all purely Egyptian typos. It 
bears a bow and a spear exactly as 
described, only that the former is in 
the right and the latter in the left 
hand ; but this difference may only 
indicate a defect of memory in our 
author. There are not now any traces 
of hieroglyphics upon the breast of the 
figure, but as this portion of the rock 
is much weather-worn, they may have 
disappeared in the lapse of ages. 
Some faintly-marked characters, in- 
cluding a figure of a bird, intervene 
between the spear.head and the face, 


Phoctea the other between Sardis and Smyrna. In each caw 
the figure is that of a man, four cubits and a Bpun high, 
with a spear in hia right hand and a bow in his left,^ the ri 

thieii H. Ampere is snid to trace I really Eg-jpLiiui ; bnt there seems lo 
e of tbe titles of Kameees the M any rate no doubt that it is ddq 
at, KoBelilQi and Eiepvrt hsTe the figures Boeo bj Herodcitiu. I 

itioned whetlicr the sculpture is ' believed by him to repreEcut Seso*; 


Boch-SclllptDrt 11 FilUflt DMLT SmjTIM. 

ie. (See the remarks of M. Texier, i one ot tliPBe is an Egj-ption. tl 
Bie Mincnre, vol. ii. pp. 30S, 306.) nn KtUopiuu weapon. Both Wi 

* HcTodotoi evidentl; eoppoeea that | b; the two people ; but the h 

CiiP. 106. 



of his coBtome being likewise half Egyptian, half Ethiopian. 
There is an inscription across the breast from shoulder to 
shoulder,* in the sacred character of Egypt, which says, 
"With my own shoulders,'^ I conquered this land." The 
conqueror does not tell who he is, or whence he comes, 
though elsewhere Sesostris records these facts. Hence it has 
heen imagined by some of those who have seen these forms, 
that they are figures of Memnon ; ® but such as think so err 
^ery widely from the truth. 

<^i^red particularly Ethiopian, as 
»ell as Libyan, and "ToBh," f ^ 

^^ Coptic Ethaosh, waa a name given 
^0 Northern Ethiopia. The land of 
the nine bows waa a term applied to 



^'jJch was also called Phit, the 

'•Ujw." ii ^ 

^»phtuliini, the son of Mizraim, in 
^- X. 13, 18 the same as the Egyp- 
^*^ plural Niphaiat, " the bows." 

I hat and Lubim are placed together 

^fh Kthiopia and Egypt as the helpers 

^''"popQlous No," Thebes, in Nahum 

'^"- 9) : and in Ezekiel (xxx. 5), 

■f^thiopia (Kiish), and Libya (Ph At), 

*^ Ljdia (Lud), and all the (Arab) 

ttJingled people, and Chnb (KAb), and 

ii>e men of the land which is in 

^«grne," are to fall with Egypt and 

fthiopia. Ldd is not Lydia in Asia 

3(mar. Phnt, or Phit, may have been 

the Libyan side of the Nile thi-onghout 

E|rrpt and Nubia. It is remarkable 

cLat the Ethiopian bow is unstmng, 

that of Libya strung. (See note on 

Book iii. ch. 21.) The expression in 

hieruglyphics, " Phut Ethoeh," appears 

to be the western bank of Ethiopia. 

The bow carried by the Ethiopians in 

battle is like that of Egypt ; that in 

the name of Northern Ethiopia 

(•• Tofh **) resembles the bow now 

used in India. This Uist is even seen 

in the hand of one of Sheshonk's 
(Shishak's) prisoners. — [G. W.] 

* This is not an Egyptian custom, 
though Assyrian figures are found 
with anx)w-headod inscriptions en- 
g^ved across them, and over the 
drapery as well as the body ; and the 
Assyrian figures close to those of 
Bemeses at the Nahr el Kelb may 
possibly have led to thin mistake. — 
[G. W.] 

' The idea of strength was often 
conveyed by this expression, instead 
of " by the force of my arm " (cp. " os 
humerosque doo similis"). — [G. W.] 

^ Herodotus shows his discrimination 
in rejecting the notion of his being 
Memnon, which had already become 
prevalent among the Greeks, who saw 
Memnon everywhere in Egypt, merely 
because he was mentioned in nomor. 
A similar error is made at the present 
day in expecting to find a reference to 
Jewish history on the monuments, 
though it is obviously not the custom 
of any people to record their misfor- 
tunes to posterity in painting or 
sculpture. (See note * on ch. 136, 
and App. ch. v.) The Egyptians 
seem to have taken advantage of 
Greek credulity in persuading visitors 
that the most remarkable statue, 
tomb, and temple at Thebes, or Aby- 
dus, were made by the prince they 
usually inquired about, and with 
whose history they fancied themselves 
acquainted ; though Memnon, if he 
ever existed, was not after all an 
Egyptian, nor even from any part of 
the valley of the Nile. According to 
Diodorus (ii. 22) he was sent by 


107. This ScBostiis, tlie priests went on to say, upi 
iituni home, accompanied by vast multitudes of the ; 
wIioBe eomitries be had subdued,* was received by bis \>n 

t-ntamta, the 21st king of A^Hj-ria i 

- .of 

Kith I 
l<l,l)0(l Elliinpinnii nnd tlic game 
liiT »t ^QAnnn, nntl 200 chnriotH, to ' 
ni'fliiit Prinm (the Imjihcr of bin father 
'l'ilhl)nu^'). vflion boinf; kilkil in an I 
niiiliii!>iiuli> lij' tlK> 'litOHKiliaiiB, hia , 
Ifrily wni< nx-WOTcd ukI l-nrni by the 
Kihiupiniut. Thpno were Kthii'iiinns ' 
■>t' Avia, an<1 tlu'so uf Afrlcn did nut 
liiirn tbrir dcait. lIorodutuB also 
K]>r'akB of thi< imlRce ot Mtnuuiu, and . 
i-illH Safin a Meiuiiniiian t>ity (v. 53, 
:>1, nud vii. liil). Stinlio nml I>nu. I 
pnninH ofiTco with tInrcHlotns nnd llio- I 
ilorns in mnkirig KuML thp city (>f 1 
Itli^mnnn. It if nut im]KMKiblo tliat j 
th'! eastern Cafliilp?, »r Kt liio|>iaDH, 1 
vite thn oriitinul oulunizcrs M ibe 
Afrintn Cui>h, fnim tbo Ambiitn ^If, ' 
nud thnt tlie Gtbioiiinns niontiioicil I 
liy KnMi>l)ina fnim Mniiolho, "wlio 1 
iiigratud ipua Ibu river ludm au<l 

nre tho enmo naiup. Ono nf t' 
uf ltem«iC8 II, wna called Soi 
or ScmDDt. The uf i 
cannot wi'11 bare nriEen from t) 


it wuuhl bo ii|.plii>il 10 all I'tlu' 
not to an ejcavnle<I tomb.— [G 
■ It van the cnslntit of the Ef 
kinf;^ to bring their priMin 
Kgypt, and to employ thum in 
n-orka, na the Rcalplurci alioi 
prove, and as HitikIoius Btit' 
108). The Jews were emplo, 
the Baoio nay : fur thui^b I 
they oblnined (nniing-land) fu 
cattle in tlio land uf GMhcn 
ulTi. 34). iir the Uncolia, whur 
teniliil tlie kiii^'a berdi (Geo. 
fi, 27), they were ancrwanli tra 
IK'rfumi vnTiunfiiorTieed.likeOt 
Iiii<oner« of wnr ; when thei 
were made "bitter with liMdba 




whom he had made viceroy of Egypt on his departure, at 
DaphnaB near Pelusium, and invited by him to a banquet, 
which he attended, together with his sons. Then his brother 
pW a quantity of wood all round the building, and having so 
done, set it alight. Sesostris, discovering what had happened, 
took counsel instantly with his wife, who had accompanied 
™i to the feast^ and was advised by her to lay two of their 
8tt sons upon the. fire, and so make a bridge across the flames, 
whereby the rest might effect their escape. Sesostris did as 
she recommended, and thus while two of his sons were burnt 
to death, he himself and his other children were saved. 

108. The king then returned to his owti land and took 
^^geance upon his brother, after which he proceeded to make 
^ of the multitudes whom he had brought with him from 
the conquered countries, partly to drag the huge masses of 
fitoue which were moved in the course of his reign to the temple 
^' ^ ulcan — partly to dig the immerous cauals with which the 
whole of Eg}T^)t is intersected. By these forced labours the 
ciitire face of the country was changed ; for wdiereas Egypt 
had fcjrmerly been a region suited both for horses and 
carriages, henceforth it became entirely unfit for either.'^ 

«»inproWled aj^inst his autliority. 

Jf'iH.'tho c'llU hid name Aruiais, and 

*«^k:n;^Scth<te<is, or Kamoshcs (which 

*** the father's and son's names 

Jf**KDe<l to one person), and phices 

*"nin the l8th dynasty, though the 

'•'oes of Sethos and Kaiopses are 

'•Ptsted again at the beginning of 

*'>8 ll*th. Ho also says that ArmaYs 

•'W ctlled by the Greeks Danaas, 

*nat be fled to Greece and reigned at 

^^V»y and that Ramesses was chilled 

^;ij7ptiu. The monuments have en- 

•i^W OS to correct the enror respect- 

Bg Sethos and Rameses, who are 

•bwni to lie two different kings, 

iu her and son, and the lUth d^iiasty 

began with a different family, Rameses 

I., Sethos (S<>thi, or Osirei I.), and 

Samescs II. ; lloras being the last of 

the 18th. The fl:ght of Armais was 

perbaps confoanded with that of the 

VOL. U. 

" Stnmgcr Kin^s," who ruled about 
the closo of the 18th dynasty. Their 
expulsion appeal's to agree w^ith the 
story of Danaus leading a colony to 
Argos, which Armais, Hying from his 
brother, could not have done; and 
one of the of their kings was 
To6nh. The account given by Dio- 
dorus (i. 57) of Armais endeavouring 
to set fire to his bi*other's tent at 
night, is more probable than that of 
the two children related by Hero- 
dotus. Seo note * on ch. 101, and 
note * on ch. 182.— [G. W.] 

' It is very possible that the nam- 
ber of canals may have increat?ed in 
the time of Kameses II. : and this, 
like the rest of Herodotus* account, 
shows that this king is the Sesostris 
whose actions he is de.scribing. And 
here again, in his mention of the in. 
creased number of canals, Herodotus 


Though n flat country throughout its whole extent, it 18 now 
unfit for either horse or carriage, heing cut np by the canala, 
which are extremely namerous and run in all directions. 
The king's object was to supply Kile water to the inhabit- 
ants of the towns situated in the mid-country, and not lying 


evidently reported the decdii of an- 
oxher king, A>imn-m-he III. (Mmria of 
Ihe Lake), who is also coDBidercd a 
otaimanb to Ibe namo of Sescutrifl ,' 
though the 056 of oboriots will not 
MOord with hJB reiga. For it is evi- 
dent that in the time of the OsirtaaoTis, 
horaea and chariotB wero not Imown in 
Egypt ; and there is no notice of a 
horse or chariot, on an; niooutui>nt, 
before or dnrine the reipis (if tiiose 
Idtige, though tbo cuatuma of Egypt 
are ao fnlly portniyed in the paint- 
ings at Beni HsBBan, andanfficientlfeo 
in the lombg at the Pyramida for this 
omiBsion nut to haiu Iwon aooidentul. 
The first horapBBnd chnriola are repre. 
Hent«d at Eileithjin!!, and are ol' the 
time of Amca nr Amosis, ahont ISIO 
B.C. HoreeH are therefore Bnppoetd 
not to have been knuwn in Egypt 
before the IBIli dyonittj (see Dr. 
Piakerint^'a ' Raoea of Man,' p. 373} i 
iinlettH indeed tbe Sheplierd- kings in- 
trodnced them. They donbtloaa (»ino 
from Asia into Ejfyptj and though 
the Egyptians calleii a horse Hltinr 
(Hfar), tbey uaed for the " tnare " tho 
Semitic name nit, and oven tusim 
(with the female eign "t") for 
'■niareB," the same na the plnral of 
the Hebrew word dckAs. Tbe Jews 
appllpd it to a cbariot-borse, tho horse 
for riding being Fharai (Fanw) rTB 
(I Kings V. 6: Eiek. iivii. 18) : and 
the same oh the modem Arabic woni 
for " mare."' Fdrefis " horseman" in 
Arabic and in Hebrew (2 Sam. i. B). 

Tho oliariot again (oolled Djolte in 
bieroglyp hies— the Coptic ashvUe) is 
" Mtrliebat" in Hieratic, a Bemitio 
word agreeingr with tho Merkebetk 
re)3^ of Hebrew, which, like 
Seleb, 23-1, is derived from the 
Semitio re*f6, rrttb (to) "ride," 
cither on a hone, a camel, or a car. 

Mertcb in Atabic anRwcrs to " 
Cum " in French, and is applied 
boat as well aa a «UDet -, not t 
camel, as often aniipaacd, ia called 
the "ehip of the deaerl," bnt tha 
name ia rather ttansferred to ahipa 
tram cameU, which were kDo» 
Arabs long before ships. HetvM 
Beem lo have come originally t 
Aaia, whence they were introduced 
into Greece ; hot the Greeks niay har», 
obtained them first from Libjik 
Uesopotamift Bent herse« tu part al{ 
the IribBle to Thothmea IIL of th'^ 
18th dynasty, as well as the aeS^ 
Imnring people of Dppor and hcmWK 
Hot-n.n, or Rot-n-no{ the Babylo- 
niana Wd them for tbe PeiwuMt 
and in Solomon's time Egypt WM 
noted for its horses (3 Chron. ' 
in,37i 1 Kingai.29). The Arabs iS 
the army of Xerxea rode on oamda 
bat thoy were not the peophi t. 
Arabia, and it is nncerl«n wheUwe 
the fnmous Arab breed of boncB wi 
introdnced, or was indigeoona in til 
counCrr. The Shofti raeationed on U 
monnments are either an Ar»b IW 
in north Arabia, or srmthem8jnm,Wt 
Ihoy are placed in the lials of captin 
with the Ponot, who appear to bo -—^^ 
people of Arabia (see note ' m ok^ 
10!}- The Shaso are probacy tto 
Shea, the name given to the Sh 
herds, or " (Ujkjaos," " (regee) P 
toren ) " and as Barneses II. Ml !» 
with them on his expedition B( 
" Atesh," or " KudOFh," (hey a 
bo a people who liTod in, or 
Palestine. It is siDgolar that tkt 
title Hyk "mlcr" (which wm i* ' 
ftivon lo the Pliomohs), shollld fi 
the urook apply doubly to the 8k 
herd-kings. The horse was knowi 
India at least as early aa 1200 a.l^ 
beiog mentinucd in the Vedaa, ■ "' 
chariotB, bnt not for riding, — [G- W.J 

Our. lOS-110. 



npon the river ; for previously they had been obliged, after 
the subsidence of the floods, to drink a brackish water which 
they obtained from wells.® 

109. Sesostris also, they declared, made a division of the 
8oil of Egypt among the inhabitants, assigning square plots 
of ground of equal size to all, and obtaining his chief revenue 
from the rent which the holders were required to pay him 
year by year. If the river carried away any portion of a 
Dianas lot, he appeared before the king, and related what had 
happened ; upon which the king sent persons to examine, and 
determine by measurement the exact extent of the loss ; and 
thenceforth only such a rent was demanded of him as was 
proportionate to the reduced size of his land. From this 
practice, I think, geometry first came to be known in Egypt,* 
whence it passed into Greece. The sun-dial, however, and the 
gnomon ^ with the division of the day into twelve parts, were 
received by the Greeks from the Babylonians. 

110. Sesostris was king not only of Egypt, but also of 
Ethiopia. He was the only Egyptian monarch who ever ruled 
over the latter country.® He left, as memorials of his reign. 

'The water filtrates through the 

^iotial soil to the inland wells, where 

'^ is sweet, though sometimes hard ; 

*^ a Btonc reservoir of perfectly 

'^eet water has lately been found, 

belonging to the temple of Medeenet 

fiaboo, at Thebes ; but in the desert 

beyond the alluvial deposit it is 

brKkish, and often salt. See above, 

iL»onch. 93. — [G. W.] 

* See Ap. cH. vii. and n. • on eh. 51. 

* The gnomon was of course part of 
every dial. Herodotus, however, is 
correct in making a difference be- 
tween the yvwfMMv and the ff6\oi. The 
former, called also (rrofxciov, was a 
perpendicular rod, whose shadow in- 
dicated noon, and also by its length a 
particular part of the day, being 
longest at sunrise and snnset. The 
xiAof was an improvement, and a 
real dial, on which the division of the 
day waa set ofif by lines, and indicated 

by the shadow of its gnomon. See 
Appendix, en. vii. — [G. W.] 

® Tliis cannot apply to any one 
Egyptian king in particular, as many 
ruled in Ethiopia; and though Osir- 
tasen I. (the onginal Sesostris) may 
have been the firsty the monuments 
show that his successors of the 12th 
dynasty, and ot hers, ruled and erected 
buildings in Ethiopia. Nor is it cer- 
tain that Exinicses II. was the first 
who obtained possession of Napata ; 
and though the lions of Araunoph III., 
brought by the Duke of Northumber- 
land from Gebel Borkel, were taken 
from Soleb (the ancient name of this 
place being in the hieroglyphics upon 
them), it does not prove that the 
Egyptian arms extended no farther 
than Soleb in Amunoph's time ; and 
the name of a Thothmes was found jvt 
Gebel Berkcl, by the Duke of North- 
umberland and Colonel Felix. That 


the stone statues which stand in front of the temple of Vulcan, 
two of which, representing himself and liis wife, are thirty 
cubits in height,' while the remaining four, which represent 
his Bons, ore twenty cubits. These are tlie statues, in front 
of which the priest of Vulcan, very many years afterwards, 
woold not allow Darius the Persian" to place a statne 

of OsirtHsen I., on tbe aab^tnictioiiB 
of tbo Great Temple, ma; have boeo 
> later addition, not being in the 
Baolptnres. (See n. ' on cb. lOS.) 
Pliny sajH (ri. 29), " JIgjptiomin 
bellw Bltrita est iCthiopia, Ttcisum 
unperitando, denricndoqtie. Clam ot 
potens etiam naqne nd Trojana bella, 
HemDOne regnanle, ot Sjris impori- 
tBem (enm) . . . patet.' Be bas 
madea mistake BbontUemnon; bnttho 
osta are eithn- tboae of Tirbaka, 
or of the Kings of Thobes (somctimeB 
improperly inoloded in Ethiopia). 

Tho Effyptiana ovidently oTerran 
all Ethiopia, and port of the intcrioT 
of Africa, in the time of the IStb ajid 
19th dfuulioa, and liad long before, 
nndor the OflirtaaeuB and Amnn-m- 
hes, conqnered Negro tribes. Tbotli- 
mea I. recorded vicCoriea orer He- 
groes, on a rock opposite Tomboa, as 
Amnnopb III. did at Soleb, over 
many aonthem diatricta of Africa ; 
many of which aro called *^ Dnr" as 
at tiio present day. JL-unntes 11,, 
who bnilt port ot the Great Temple nt 
Bebel Berkel, extended his anna fnr- 
ther than Amnnoph ; and the Grat 
Osirtasen overran a great portion of 
Ktbiopia more than six oentoriea 
before. Even Osirtasen HI. obtainnd 
Fiotoriea over Negroes which are re- 
corded at Bomueb j though he appoaru 
to be the first who made that place 
the frontior; and to tlus the begin- 
ning of autnal ruU in Ethiopia may 
have been appUed j for ha also has a 
claim to the name of Sesoalria. The 
Ptnlemios continned 

Aby»ainia} and tbe kinga of Elbiopia 
were in alliance with, or perhspa 
tribnlary to, them t bat tho nominal 
frontier was geuersily confined to 

Nnbia. The Bnmsas nwTBly t««Dd«d 
tbeir arms aonth, to prerent tW 
depredatioDi of tbe half-saraga 
Ethiopians; for in the time of Aih 
gnstiu, Petronioi only iBTaifed tiM 
conntry to SapalB, and relnr ' 
without making any pcrmaneal ■ 
qncsta. A fort, however, in the 
Sh&ikeeh, of Homon conatroctio^ 
showB that lat«r cmpcrora eiteldtd 
their rule beyond the second cataisc^ 
and kept Karrisooa Ihere. Ttentvf 
aaya not in hia time.— [G. W.] 

' As tho cobits found in E^fpt M 
I ft. 8i in., if Horodotna reckoned kf 
them tie would make tho atatnea miC4 
than 51 fl. high. A Caloasna ia lyinl 
at Hctophis of Ramases II., which h 
BDppoaed to be one of tbe two Iw^ 
ones bete mentioned, nnd its heigl4| 
when entire, woold be about 4S ft. 8 in, 
without the plinth, ur pedeital 01 
the other foar, SO cnbjl4 (above M ft^ 
hiph, one soems to have beeofOait' "-^ 
UekekyBn Bey; which if entiro w 

boubout 34i ft. All thoso pnint h, 

aitc of the temple ol Pthah.— {G- '''-1 

■ The name of Darius ocean in ihl 
BcnlptiirCB, and ^at part of the pn 
cipal Temple of El Khargeh, in ll 
Great Oaais, was bnilt trj him, t 
name being the oldest tliora. 

He aeems l-o bave troatttd the £0^ 
tiauB with far more oniferm h '~ 
than tho other Persian Icinga; 
though tbenameaof Cambj'ses,Xel 
and Arlaignea, ooeoron ■tgUe,«ta«Bl^ 
or vases, tboy are moatly rEoordi ct 
persona who lived dnring their raigo^ 
and arc not on any monuroenta orecM^ 
by them in Egypt. This acuxirds — "-'=™ 
bis indulgent treatment of tbe p 
mcnlioned by BErodcitus ; and (he T*i' 
mark of Diodorus tbnt "ho obtainttf 
while living the appellation of Diraa," j 




himself; "because," he said, "Darius had not equalled the 
achieyements of Sesostris the Egyptian : for while Sesostris 
tad subdued to the fuD as many nations as ever Darius had 
brought under, he had likewise conquered the Scythians,® 
^hom Darius had failed to master. It was not fair, therefore, 
that he should erect his statue in front of the offerings of a 
ting whose deeds he had been imable to surpass." Darius, 
ttey say, pardoned the freedom of this speech. 
HI. On the death of Sesostris, his son Pheron,^ the priests 

B justified by his having received on 
tbe monaments the same honours as 
^*>e old kings. The reply of Darias to 
the Egyptian priest is said by Diodo. 
donw (i. 58) to have been, "that he 
|M*<i not to be inferior to Sesostris, 
•' ho lived as long." Bat his mild 
SOTernment did not prevent the Egyp- 
tians from rebelling against him ; and 
^"ei'r impatience of Persian rule ha<^^l 
•^fore been the reason of Canib^-scs 
forsaking the lenient line of conduct 
he first adopt e<l when he conquered the 
cwiDtry. See Book iii. ch.l5.— [G. W.] 
* (See Justin, ii. c. 3.) The conquest 
o' the Scvthians by Sesostris is a 
qnestion still undecided. The monu- 
"sents represent a people defeated by 
n»naeses, whose name, Sheta (or 
^hita), bears a strong resemblance to 
^he Scythians ; but it is evident they 
^'^pd in I he vicinity of Mesopotamia, 
and not in the distant Scythia. It is 
Dot impossible that they were the 
Mine race, established there. (See 
iKite*on ch. 112.) A further exami- 
nation of the monuments shows that 
I was wrong in the extent I liave given 
(At. Eg. W., vol. i. p. 83) to the con- 
qoesta of the Egyptians ; but Diodorus 
extends their conquests still further, 
and speaks of the Bactnans revolting 
from the rule of Osymandyas. (Diod. 
L 47.) Strabo (xv. p. 978) says that 
** Sesostris and Tearcon (Tirhaka) ac- 
tually went into Europe." — [G. W.] 

* This name docs not agree with the 
•on or successor, either of Osirtasen I., 
of Sethos, or of Remeses. Diodorus 
(i. 59) callB him Seaoosis II., Pliny 

Nuncoreus. Pheron has been supposed 
to be merely a corruption of Phouro, 
" the king " (whence urajus, see note • 
on ch. 74). or of Pharaoh, properly 
Phrah, t.**. " the Sun," one of the roval 
titles. Some suppose Pheron to be 
Phiaro, " the river," retained in the 
modern Arabic Bahr, " the ocean " 
(comp. *ClKfay65y an ancient name of 
tho Nil«') ; and Phiaro is connected 
with the King Phuron, or Nilus, and 
with the ^gyptus of Manetho, " the 
Nile being fomierlv called jfEgvptus." 
(See n. 7, Son ch. li).) 

If tho Piiuron of Eratosthenes was 
really one of the early kings of the 
I3tli dynasty, it is possible that the 
sudden breaking down of the barrier 
of the Nile at Silsilis, and the moment- 
ary submersion of tho lands by the 
sudden flow of the water into Ejrypt, 
may be the destructive inundation 
mentioned by Herodotus. — [G. W.] 

Lepsiua regards this king as Ameno- 
phis or Menephthah III., tho Phai-aoh 
of tho Exodus. (Joseph, c. Ap. b. i. 
sub fin.) He finds his name in the 
Nuncoreus or Ncncoreus of Pliny (H. 
N. xxx\n. 11), which ho thinks that 
writer misread in his authority, mis- 
taking MENE*0HC for NENC°PEYC. 
He supposes Herodotus to have re- 
ceived his account of the king from a 
Semitic informant, who called him 
Phero, because he was the great 
Pharaoh of tho Jews. (Chronologie 
der ^gypter, p. 289.) In tliis case 
the impiety and blindness of tho mo- 
narch become traits of peculiar sig- 

said, mounted the throoe. He nndertook do warlike expedi- 
tions ; being stmck with blindness, owing to the following 
circnmstaiice. The river had swollen to the nnnsnal height of 
eighteen cubits, and had overflowed all the fields, when, a 
sudden wind arising, the water rose in great waves. Then the 
king, in a spirit of impious violence, seized hie spear, and 
burled it into the strong eddies of the stream. Instantly he 
was smitten with disease of the eyes, from which after a little 
while be became blind,' continning without the power of vision 
for ten years. At last, in the eleventh year, an oracolar 
announcement reached him from the city of Buto, to the 
effect, that " the time of bis punishment had run out, and he 
should recover bis sight by washing his evea with urine. He 
must find a woman who bad been faithful to her husband, and 
had never preferred to bim another man." The king, there- 
fore, firnt of all made trial of bis wife, but to no pm-pose— he 
continued as blind as before. So he made the exiierinient 
with other women, until at length he snccpeded, and in this 
way recovered bis sight. Hereupon he assembled all Itf 

Chip. Ill, 112. 



magnificent works; each is made of a single stone, eight 
eabits broad, and a hundred cubits in height. 

112. Pheron, they said, was succeeded by a man of 
Memphis, whose name, in the language of the Greeks, was 
Proteus.* There is a sacred precinct of this king in Memphis, 
which is very beautiful, and richly adorned, situated south of 
the great temple of Vulcan. Phoenicians from the city of Tyre 
dwell all round this precinct, and the whole place is known by 
the name of " the camp of the Tyrians." ^ Within the en- 
closure stands a temple, which is called that of Venus the 
Stranger.* I conjecture the building to have been erected to 

ntton it was dragged bj ropes np the 
inck'ned plaoe, and then gradnallj 
lowered into tho pit as soon as it had 
been tilted. (See the representation 
of the mode of raising an obelisk on 
the pedestal of that at Constantinople.) 
1^ name obelif^k is not Egyptian but 
Greek, from obelos, a " spit " (infra, 
ch. 135). The Arabs call it meselleh, 
a " pocking needle."— [G. W.] 

*Thi8 is evidently a Greek story. 
Diodorus (i. 62) says '* tho Egyptians 
called this king Cetes," which is also 
a Greek name. Herodotas has appa- 
rently transformed the God of the 
precinct (who seems to have been 
B^on, the Phoenician Fish -God, often 
worshipped together with Astarte) 
into a king who dedicated the pre- 
cinct.— [G. W.] 

• Many places in Egypt were called 
" camps,*' where foreigners lived apart 
from the Egyptians, as the " camps " 
of the lonians and Carians (ch. 154) ; 
of the Babylonians, afterwards occu- 
pied by a lioraan legion (Strabo, xvii. 
p. 1144) ; and of the Jews (Josephus, 
Ant. Jod. 1. xiv. c. 8, s. 2). Tho 
" Trojan " camp or village near tho 
quarries of the Eastern hills (Strabo, 
xvii. p. 1147) should probably have 
t)een the " Tyrian" called from the 
same people — the Phoenicians of Tyre 
mentioned by Herodotus ; and there 
is more reason to suppose that tho 
Egyptians had granted to that com- 
inercial people the privilege of resid- 
ing in a quarter of Memphis than that 

they were a remnant of Manetho*8 
" Phoenician Shepherds," who were 
expelled from Egypt after occupying 
the Memphite throne. The Egyptians 
seem also to have changed the name 
of SAr into Tur. (See note \ ch. 116.) 
The above mistake of Trojan for Tyrian 
is confirmed by the name of tho place 
being written in those quarries " the 
land of the Phoenix" or Phoenicians. 
" Tros Tyriusque " (Virg. ^n. i. 574) 
were not always kept distinct. — [G.W.] 
• This was evidently Astarte, the 
Venus of the Phoenicians and Syrians. 
Herodotus is correct in saying that 
nowhere else had she a temple dedi- 
cated to her under that name, and an 
intercourse with tho Phoenicians may 
have led to her worship at Memphis. 
The notion of her being Helen arose 
from the Greek habit of seeing Home- 
ric personages everywhere. (See note ' 
on ch. 106.) Tho Venus Urania of 
Chusae was Athor of Egypt. (See n. ^, 
ch. 40 ; and n. ^ , ch. 41.) Astarte is 
mentioned on the monuments as a 
Goddess of the Sheta or Khita. It is 
now generally supposed that this 
people were the Hittites, whose coun- 
try extended to the Euphrates. Joshua 
(i. 4) indeed shows that it reached to 
that river, when he says " from the 
wilderness and this Lebanon even 
nnto the great river, the river Euph- 
rates, all the land of the Hittites " 
(Khiti'ra) ; and " the kings of the Hit- 
tites and tho kings of the Egyptians *' 
are spoken of (2 Kings vii. 6) as the 


Helen, the daughter of Tjudaros ; first, because she, as I have 
heard say, jiassc-d some time at the coart of Proteas ; and 
secondly, hecause the temple is dedicated to Venus the 
Stranger; for among all the many temples of Veuaa there is 
no other where the goddess bears this title. 

113. The priests, in answer to my inquiries on the eobject 
of Helen,' informed me of the following particulars. When 
Alexander had carried off Helen from Sparta, he took ship 
and sailed homewards. On his way across the Egean a gale 
arose,* which drove him from his course and took him down 
to the 8c^ of Egypt ; hence, as the wind did not abate, he was 
carried on to the coast, when be went ashore, landing at the 
Kalt-Pans,' in that mouth of the Nile which is now calleil the 
Ciinoliic' At this place there stood upon the shore a temple, 
which still exists, dedicated to Hercules. If a slave runs awaj 
from his master, and taking sanctuary at this shrine gives 
himsolf up to the god, and receives certain sacred marls upon 

r of Hie 


bis person,* whosoever his master may be, he camiot lay hand 
on him. This law still remained michanged to my time. 
Hearing, therefore, of the custom of the place, the attendants 
of Alexander deserted him, and fled to the temple, where they 
sat as suppliants. While there, wishing to damage their 
master, they accused him to the Egyptians, narrating all the 
circumstances of the rape of Helen and the wrong done to 
Ifenelaus. These charges they brought, not only before the 
priests, but also before the warden of that mouth of the river, 
whose name was Thonis.® 

114. As soon as he received the intelligence, Thonis sent a 
niessage to Proteus, who was at Memphis, to this effect : 
"A stranger is arrived from Greece ; he is by race a Teucrian, 
wid has done a wicked deed in the country from which he is 
come. Having beguiled the wife of the man whose guest he was, 
he carried her away with him, and much treasure also. Com- 
pelled by stress of weather, he has now put in here. Are we 
to let him depart as he came, or shall we seize what he has 
l^rought?" Proteus replied, ** Seize the man, be he who he 
^ay, that has dealt thus wickedly with his friend, and bring 
liim before me, that I may hear what he will say for himself.'* 

115. Thonis, on receiving these orders, arrested Alexander, 
^d stopped the departure of his ships ; then, taking with him 
Alexander, Helen, the treasures, and also the fugitive slaves, 
lie went up to Memphis. When all were arrived, Proteus 
asked Alexander, " who he was, and whence lie had come ? " 
Alexander rei)lied by giving his descent, the name of his 
countr\% and a true account of his late voyage. Then Proteus 
inestioned him as to how he got possession of Helen. In his 
^eply Alexander became confused, and diverged from the truth, 

'Showing they wcit; dedicated to 
the service of the Deity. To set a 
•^k on any one as a protection was a 
^ery ancient custom. Cp. Gen. iv. 15 ; 
^•k. ix. 6 ; and Revelation. The 
*ord " mark " in Ezekicl is tau. in 

tlie Egyptian sign of life. — [G.W.] 

The cnstom seems to be referred to 
by St. Paul (Gal. vi. 17). 

' Thonis, or Tiion, called by Herodo- 
tus governor of the Canopic mouth of 
the Nile, is said by others to have been 
the name of a town on the Canopio 
branch. See note* ouch. 113. — [G. W.] 



whereon the slaves interposed, coiifuted his statements, and 
told the whole history of the crime. Finally, Protens delivere<3 
judgment as follows : " Did I not regard it as a matter of the 
utmost consequence that no stranger driven to my country bj 
adverse winds should ever be put to death, I would certainlj 
have avenged the Greek by slaying thee. Thou basest oi 
men, — after accepting hospitality, to do so wicked a deed ! 
First, thou didst seduce the wife of thy own host — then, nol 
content therewith, thou must violently excite her mind, and 
steal her away from her husband. Nay, even bo thou weri 
not satisfied, but on leaving, thou must plunder the house in 
which thou hadst been a guest. Now then, as I think it ol 
the greatest importance to put no stranger to death, I euffei 
thee to depart ; but the woman and the treasures I shall not 
permit to be carried away. Here they must stay, till the 
Greek stranger comes in person and takes them back witb 
him. For thyself and thy companions, I command thee tc 
begone from my land within the space of three days — and 1 
, that otlierwiao at the end of thiil time you wil 



passage is in the BraTery of Diomed,^ and the words are as 

foUows : — 
" There were the robes, many-coloured, the work of Sid<Hiuxi women : 
They from Sidon had come, what time god-shaped Alexander 
Orer the broad sea brought, that waj, the high-bom Helen." 

In the Odyssey also the same fiact is allnded to, in these 

words : • — 

"Such, so wisely prepared, were the drugs that her stores affcvded. 
Excellent ; gift which once Polvdamna, partner of Thdnis, 
Gave her in Egypt, where many the simples that grow in the meadows. 
Potent to cure in part, in part as potent to injure." 

Menelaus too, in the same poem, thns addresses Telema- 

chus : ' — 

" Much did I long to retmn, but the Gods still kept me in Egypt — 
Angry because I bad failed to pay them their hecatombs duly." 

In these places Homer shows himself acquainted with the 
voyage of Alexander to Egypt, for Syria borders on Egypt, 
and the Phcenicians, to whom Sidon belongs, dwell in Syria. 

117. From these various passages, and from that about 
Sidon especially, it is clear that Homer did not write the 
Cypria.® For there it is said that Alexander arrived at Ilium 

TjTt; and Homer only mentions Sidon 
*nd not " Tyi-e.** as Strabo obfierves. 
It may be "doubtful which was the 
•netmpr.,lis cf Phopnicia," in later 
tunes ; Sidon, however, appears to be 
t^ older city (x\-i. p. 1075). Pin- 
t*thinicrht doubt the prreat antiquity 
^ Tyre, not being noticed by Homer 
^d " other old and wise men ; *' but 
^ in mentioned Viy Joshua (xix. 29). 
Q- Cartius (iv. 4) considers that both 
't and Sidon were founded by Agenor. 
^ modem Sidon is small, not half a 
^ in length, and a quarter in 
J^feadth.— [G. W.] 

*I1. vi. 2902. It has been qnes- 
tiooed whether this reference to a 
Portim of the Iliad as " The Brarery 
<^Diomed " can have come from the 
^d of Herrjdotus. (Valcknaer ad 
'oc. Heyne ad Horn. IL vol. viii. 
P- 787.) Bat there seems to be no 
iofficient reajson for doubting a poa- 


sage which is in all the MSS., and has 
no appiearance of being an interpola- 
ticm. As early as Plato's time por. 
tions of the Hiad and Odvssev were 
certainly distinguished by special 
titles (see Plat. Cratyl. p.' 428, C. ; 
Minos, p. 319, D.); and it is probable 
that the practice of so distinguish- 
ing them began with the early Bhap. 
sodists. The objection that the pas- 
sage quoted is from Hiad vi. and not 
Hiad v., which now bears the title of 
•* Diomed's Bravery," is of no import- 
ance, for our present division of the 
books dates from Aristarchos, and in 
the time of Herodotus a portion of the 
sixth book may have been included 
under the heading confined afterwards 
to the fifth. 

• Odvss. iv. 227-230. 
7 Ibid. iv. 351-2. 

• The criticism here is better than 
the argument. There can be no doubt 


with Helen on the third day after he left Sparta, the wiai 
having been favourable, and the sea smooth ; whereas iu thi 
Iliad, the poet makes him wander before he briuys her home 
Enough, however, for the pruseut of Homer and the Cypria. 

118. I made inquiry of the prieBte, whether the story whid 
the Greeks tell about Ilium is a fable, or no. In reply thei 
related the following particulars, of which they declared th( 
Meuelaus had himself informed them. After the rape i 
Helen, a vast army of Greeks, wishing to render heip t 
Menelaus, set sail for the Teucrian territory ; on their arriva 
they disembarked, and formed their camp, after which thef 
sent ambassadors to Eiiun. of whom Menelaus was one. Th 
embassy was received within the walls, and demanded til 
restoration of Helen with the treasures which Alexander hai 
carried off, and likewise required satisfaction for the wroDj 
done. The Teucrians gave at once the answer iu which the 
persisted ever afterwards, backing tljeu- asseriious sometimt 
even with oaths, to wit, that neither Helen, uor the 
claimed, were in their possession, — both the one and the otl 
had remained, they said, in Egypt ; and it was not jast 
come upon them for what Proteus, king of Egypt, was detnil 
ing. The Gret'ks, imagining that the Teucriaua were mere! 
laughing at them, laid siege to tJie town, and never resi 
imtil they finally took it. As, however, no Helen waa foonj 
and they were still told the same story, they at length heliev^ 
in its truth, and despatched Menelaus to the court of Protei 

119. So Menelaus travelled to Egypt, and on his anriTl 
sailed up the river as far as Memphis, and related all that 
happened. He met with the utmost hospitality, reoeivf 
Helen back unharmed, and recovered all his treasures. Aft) 
this friendly treatment Menelaus, they said, behaved mof 
unjustly towards the Egj-ptians; for as it happened that 
the time when he wanted to take his departure, lie w 

that Bomcr wbs not the anthor (>f the I 
miubling epio ciilloil ■ Tlio Cyprin.' 
Ifil. Arul. Poet. 23 ; Procl. 471.0, ed. ( 

Gaisf.) It WHS probnhly wnttoB 
SlBsiiitis, (Alhcn. rili. p. 334; Bet 
II. i. 6j TietzQi CUl. ii. 710.) 

Chip. U7-120. 



detained by the wind being contrary, and as he found this 
obstruction continue, he had recourse to a most wicked ex- 
pedient. He seized, they said, two children of the people of the 
country, and offered them up in sacrifice.® When this became 
known, the indignation of the people was stirred, and they 
went in pursuit of Menelaus, who, however, escaped with his 
ships to Libya, after which the Egyptians could not say 
whither he went. The rest they knew full well, partly by the 
inquiries which they had made, and partly from the circum- 
stances having taken place in their own land, and therefore 
not admitting of doubt. 

120. Such is the account given by the Egyptian priests, 
and I am myself inclined to regard as true all that they say 
of Helen from the following considerations : — K Helen had 
heen at Troy, the inhabitants would, I think, have given her 
op to the Greeks, whether Alexander consented to it or no. 
For surely neither Priam, nor his family, could have been so 
infatuated as to endanger their own persons, their children, 
and their city, merely that Alexander might possess Helen. 
At any rate, if they determined to refuse at first, yet after- 
wards, when so many of the Trojans fell on every encounter 
^th the Greeks, and Priam too in each battle lost a son, or 
sometimes two, or three, or even more, if we may credit the 
^pic poets, I do not believe that even if Priam himself had 
Wn married to her he would have declined to deliver her up, 
^th the view of bringing the series of calamities to a close. 
W was it as if Alexander had been heir to the crown, in 
which ease he might have had the chief management of 
^irs, since Priam was already old. Hector, who was his elder 
l^rother, and a far braver man, stood before him, and was the 

* This story recalls the " Sanguine 
P^Mstis ventos, et virgine C8D8&," of 
^irgil (Mn. ii. 116) ; and Herodotus 
^oallj records human sacrifices in 
Achaia, or Phthiotis (vii. 197). Some 
We attributed human sacrifices to 
*^ Egyptians ; and Virgil says " Qnis 
illaadati nescit Busiridia aras. (Georg. 

iii. 5) ; but it must be quite evident 
that such a custom was inconsistent 
with the habits of the civilized Egyp- 
tians, and Herodotus has disproved 
the probability of human sacrifices in 
Egypt by his judicious remarks in ch. 
45. (See note « ad loc.)— [G. W.] 


^^^^^^^^r ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 


Leir to the kingdom on the death of their father Priam. And 
it could not be Hector's interest to uphold his brother in his 
wrong, when it brought such dire calamities upon himself and 
the other Trojans. But tlie fact was that they had no Helen 
to deliver, and so they told the Greeks, but the Greeks would 
not believe what they said — Divine Providence, as I think, so 
willing, that by their utter destruction it might he made evi- 
dent to all men that when great wrongs are done, the gods 

is my view of the matter. 

121. (1.) When Proteus died, Rhampsinitus,* the priests in- 
formed me, succeeded to the throne. His monuments were, 
the western gateway of the temple of Vnlean, and the two 
statues which stand in front of this gateway, called by the 
Egyptians, the one Summer, the other Winter, each twenty- 
five cubits in height. The statue of Summer, which is the 
northernmost of the two, is worshipped by the natives, and 
has offerings made to it ; that of Winter, which stands 
towards the south, is treated in exactly the contrary way. 
King Rhampsinitus was possessed, they said, of great riches in 
silver,— indeed to such an amount, that none of the princes, 
his successors, surpassed or even equalled his wealth. For 
the better custody of this money, he proposed to build a vast 
chamber of hewn stone, one side of which was to form a part 
of the outer wall of his palace. The builder, therefore, having 
designs upon the treasures, contrived, as he was making th« 

' This IB evidently tho name of a 
BemcBM, and not of a king of an early 

HBmcsea Bientionud on the monameota 
wae a p«rann uf the family of AmosiB, 
the firat king of the 18th dynasty. 
Some chambe™ io Ihe groat temple at 

in., where the gold and silver rasas 
and other preoious things are por- 
trayod in the sculptaree, recall the 
treasury of RhampBinitna ; and it is 

£g. voii. I p.8S,ii.SdH, and in Mater. 

Hieni. p. 96) that these were tb* 
enme king. Diodonu mils liim B^am- 
phi». Herodotus snyii he crocUid lb* 
groat Propjlasa on the west of tlia 
lample of Pthab (Vulean). at Keu- 
phiB, which would also prove him t« 
have reigned after the founder, of the 
pyramids, and at least hb lal« as Ow 
18tb or 19th dyunsty, as those pn>. 
midal towera (called Propyl** by 
Herodotus) were not added to temple* 

Sob bolow, ch. 155, note *■— [G. W.] 



buflding, to insert in this wall a stone,^ which could easily be 
removed from its place by two men, or even by one. So the 
chamber was finished, and the king's money stored away in it. 
Time passed, and the builder fell sick, when finding his end 
approaching, he called for his two sons, and related to them 
the contrivance he had made in the king's treasure-chamber, 
telling them it was for their sakes he had done it, that so they 
might always hve in affluence. Then he gave them clear 
directions concerning the mode of removing the stone, and 
communicated the measurements, bidding them carefully keep 
the secret, whereby they would be Comptrollers of the Royal 
Exchequer so long as they lived. Then the father died, and 
the sons were not slow in setting to work : they went by night 
to the palace, found the stone in the wall of the building, and 
having removed it with ease, plundered the treasury of a 
roimd sum. 

(2.) When the king next paid a visit to the apartment, he 
was astonished to see that the money was sunk in some of the 
vessels wherein it was stored away. Whom to accuse, how- 
ever, he knew not, as the seals were all perfect, and the fasten- 
ings of the room secure. Still each time that be repeated his 
visits, be found that more money was gone. The thieves in 
truth never stopped, but plundered the treasury ever more 
and more. At last the king determined to have some traps* 
made, and set near the vessels which contained his wealth. 
This was done, and when the thieves came, as usual, to the 
treasure-chamber, and one of them entering through the 
aperture, made straight for the jars, suddenly he found hun- 
s^lf caught in one of the traps. Perceiving that he was lost. 

This story has been repeated in 
^^ Pecorone of Ser GiovaoDi, a Flo- 
'^tine of the fourteenth century, 
^iio gnbstitutofi a doge of Venice for 
Jj«king. Al«o in other tales. (See 
*^op*8 History of Fiction, vol. ii. 
P- 382.) A gecret entrance by a 
*orable ptone is a favourite notion of 
tlio Arabs, owing to many hidden 

passages in Egyptian temples having 
been closed by the samo means. — 
[G. W.] 

' Traps for birds and hyaenas are 
oft«n represented in the paintings (see 
above note \ ch. 77) ; but one which 
the robber and his brother were unable 
to open would require to be very Inge, 
niottsly contrived. — [G. W.] 




he instautly caUed bis brother, and telling bim ^hat hiu 
happened, entreated him to enter as quickly as possible arij 
cut off his head, that when bis bod; sliould he discova^l 
it might not he recognised, which would have the effefl 
of bringing ruin upon both. The other thief thought thi 
advice good, and was persuaded to follow it ; — then, fittini 
the etone into its place, he went home, taking with him hii 
brother's head. 

(3.) When day dawned, the king came into the room, anc 
marvelled greatly to see the body of the thief in the trap with 
out a head, while the building was still whole, and neithei 
entrance nor exit was to be seen anywhere. In this perplesitj 
he commanded the body of the dead man to be hmig up out 
side the palace wall, and set a guard to watch it, with ordon 
that if any persons were seen weeping or lameutuig near tht 
place, they should be seized and brought before him, Wher 
the mother heard of this exposure of the corpse of her son, 
Bhe took it sorely to heart, and spoke to her surviving child, 
bidding him devise some plan or other to get hack the body, 
and threatening, that if he did not esert himself, she would go 
herself to the king, and denounce him as the robber. 

(4.) The son said all he coitld to persuade her to lei the 
matter rest, but in vain ; she still continued to trouble him, until 
at last he yielded to her importimity, and contrived as follows : 
— Filling some skins -nith wine, he loaded them on donkeys, 
which he drove before him till he came to the place where the 
guards were watching the dead body, when pulling two or three 
of the skins towai'ds him, he untied some of the necks which 
dangled by the asses' sides. The wine pom-ed freely out, 
whereupon he began to beat his head, and shout with all his 
might, seeming not to know which of the donkeys he should 
turn to first. When the guards saw the wine running, de- 
lighted to profit by the occasion, they rushed one and all istsi 
the road, each with some vessel or other, and caught the liqttf 
as it was spiUing. The driver pretended anger, and lot 
them with abuse ; whereon they did their beat to pacify h 

CtA?. 121. 



until at last he appeared to Boften, and recover his good humour, 
drove his asses aside out of the road, and set to work to re- 
&i^nmge their burthens ; meanwhile, as he talked and chatted 
with the guards, one of them began to rally him, and make him 
Iftngh, whereupon he gave them one of the skins as a gift. 
I^ey now made up their minds to sit down and have a 
drinking-bout where they were, so they begged him to remain 
and drink with them. Then the man let himself be persuaded, 
and stayed. As the drinking went on, they grew very friendly 
together, so presently he gave them another skin, upon which 
they drank so copiously that they were all overcome with the 
liquor, and growing drowsy lay down, and fell asleep on the 
spot. The thief waited till it was the dead of the night, and 
then took down the body of his brother; after which, in 
mockery, he shaved oflf the right side of all the soldiers' 
beards,* and so left them. Laying his brother's body upon 
the asses, he carried it home to his mother, having thus 
accompUshed the thing that she had required of him. 

(5.) When it came to the king's ears that the thief b body 

was stolen away, he was sorely vexed. Wishing, tlierefore, 

whatever it might cost, to catch the man who had contrived 

the trick, he had recourse (the priests said) to an expedient, 

which I can scarcely credit. He sent his own daughter^ to 

* This is a curioiis mistake for any 
one to make who had been in Egypt, 
oincc the soldiers had no beards, and 
it waa the custom of all classes to 
share. This we know from ancient 
aathors, and, above all, from the 
flcolptiires, where the only persons 
who have beards are foreigners. Hero- 
dotoB even allows that the Egyptians 
ff bared their heads and beards (ch. 
36; cp. Gen. xli. 4). Joseph, when 
■ent for from prison by Pharaoh, 
" shared himself and changed his 
raiment." Herodotns coald not have 
learnt thia story from the Egyptians, 
And it is evidently from a Greek 
aoiirce. The robber would have been 
too intent on his object to lose time 

VOL. n. 

or run the risk of waking the guards. 
The disgrace of shaving nnjn's beards 
in the East is certainly very great, 
but they have them there, the Egyp- 
tians had not. — [G. W.] 

* This in a country where social ties 
were so much regarded, and where the 
distinction of ruval and noble classes 
was more rigidly maintained than in 
the most * exclusive community of 
modern Europe, shows that the story 
was of foreign origin. The arm of a 
dead man would have been difficult to 
obtain ; but the marriage of an Egyp- 
tian king's daughter with a man of 
low family and a robber was a gross 
fabrication even for a Greek cicerone. 
This and the stories of the daughter 


Book H 

the common stewB, with orders to admit all comers, bu 
to requii-e every man to tell her what was the cleverest ani 
wickedest thing he had done in the whole coarse of his life 
If any one in reply told her the story of the thief, she was t< 
lay hold of him aiid not allow him to get away. The daaghte: 
did as her father willed, whereon the thief, who was well awari 
of fliD king's motive, felt a desire to outdo him in craft am 
cunning. Accordingly he contrived the following jilan : — IIi 
procured the corpse of a man lately dead, and cutting off om 
of the arms at the shoulder, put it under his dress, and so wen 
to tl)e king's daughter. Wheu she put the question to him ai 
she had done to all the rest, he rephcil, that the wiekcdes 
thing he had ever done was cutting off the head of his brothe 
when he was caught in a trap in the king's treasury, and ih 
cleverest was making the guards drunk and carrying off th' 
body. As he spoke, the princess caught at him ; but the thit 
took advantage of the darkness to bold out to her the hand o 
the corpse. Imagining it to be bia own hand, she seized ani 
held it fast; while the thief, leaving it in her gi'&sp, mads | 
escape by the door. 

(6.) The king, when word was brought him of this i 
success, amaztid at the 'sagacity and boldness of the x 
messengers to all the towns m his dominions to proclfti 
free pardon for the thief, and to promise him a rich rew 
if he came and made himself known. The thief took tlie kil!] 
at his word, and came boldly into his presence; wbereupoi 
Rhampsinitus, greatly admiring him, and looking on bim a 
the most knowing of men, gave him bis daughter in marriu 
" The Egyptians," he said, " excelled all the rest of the \ 
in wisdom, and this man excelled all other Egj'ptians." 

122. The same king, I was also informed by the priajj 
afterwards descended alive into the region which the Gn 


Dt CbcopB, and of MyCPriniiB, oro ne I 
illnHtmtiTe of Grerk, BS thoea in tho 
Docameron ot Boccaccio am of ItaJian, 
ideas ; and the pleoonre it gaTS the | 

ireeka to repent aacb tslea i 
iogs oud tlioir dflDgbten aade ihei 
verlook thB improbability.— [O. W.; 


Chaf. 121-12S. BHAMPSIXrnrS DESCESrr ISTU HJJifiL 


• « 

• 'J^A-JTS^. 

call Hades,* and there played at dice vith Ccf>cs. ««:s 

winniiig and sometimes snffermg defeat. A&ct a 

returned to earth, and brought vith him a g^jt^iea 

^ft which he had received from the goddess^ Fnsn itj^ 

descent of Bhampsinitus into Hades, and ntsm %j e^riBi 

again, the Egyptians, I was told, institmed a fes^ 

they certainly celebrated in my day. On what 

that they instituted it, whether upon this or izp^n 

I cannot determine. The foDowing are the eercioucics : — On 

a certain day in the year the priests weave a mai^^e. aad 

binding the eyes of one of their number with a nEet. iLej pva 

the mantle upon him, and take him with them intr> iL<^ r-jstd- 

way conducting to the temple of Ceres, when they drpan acid 

leave him to himself. Then the priest, thus bifndSxgfed. is 

led (they say) by two wolves ' to the temple of Ceres, di^iant 

twenty furlongs from the city, where he stays awLile. a&r 

which he is brought back from the t-rmple by the w.-T-rr. ai>i 

left upon the spot where they first joined him. 

123. Such as think the tales told by the Egyptians '^r^ll-r 
are free to accept them for history. For my own |:<in. I 
propose to myself throughout my whole work faitLfoIly v> 
record the traditions of the several nation*. The EzTpiiarL^- 
maintain that Ceres and Bacchus* preside in tLe rr^imr 
below. The}' were also the first to broach the opini':!:. :La* 
the soul of man is immortal,' and that, when the l»dv die-, it 

* Hades was caHed in Egyptian 
Ament or Amenti, orer which Osiris 
presided as jadfi^e of the dead. Flo. 
tarcfa (de had. s. 29) supposes it to 
mean the "receiver and giver/' It 
corresponded, like Erebos, to the 
We«st, called Ement by the Egyptians, 
the place of darkness, where the son 
set (see note^ on ch. 44). By Ceres 
Herodotos means Isis, to whom she 
sappoeed to correspond. He 
to doubt that the festival oom- 
BDemorated that fabolons descent of 
the king ; and with good reason, as it 
ia Tcry nn-Egyptian.— [G. W.] 

^ Wolves ace not nneommon in 

Egypc. TbfT" are t^=t rr*«ihr> «t.f . * t 

aU>at eitzlv t,x br twc^ T:.*: a£.ac»' 
however, repriSe<Ex.:««3 in \:z,*r:.\i ii K/t 
a wolf; it is a y^)LxL \za en:t>tn cf 
Annbis, acd p^z.ied i>ia/:k. in^m cf 
its abcde there. Tne w/.f, f',x, aad 
dog, were all sacred to Ai.:ibift ; aad 
were treated alike, being fA xtd: vkojt 
genui. See aUove, ch, 67, tot^r*. — 

* Answering to Uib aad Orirvi, who 
were the principal deitie* cf Ajobenti. 

— ra w. 

• This was the great doctrine cf the 
Egyptians, and their beUef in it is 



Book IT. 

onttTs iuto the form of an animal^ which is bom at the 
moment, thence passing on from one animal into another, until 

etrrrwhonp piwUimed in the paint- 
ii^r* of the tomb$. v^<* -^*- E?- ^• 
pi. SS.> But tbe f^-^uls of wicked men 
aKhio a^tpoar to have saffered the dis. 
grace of entenns: the body of an 
animal, when. ** woicheil in the bal- 
ance'" he'fore the thbanal of Osiris, 
ihoT were pn>nouno?d nnwcrthr to 
enter the aKxie of the blesaed. The 
AHiI wa^ then ^K'nt bowrk in the body of 
a ric v'^ i^" ^**« •o^i the ix^aimunica- 
li^ Kftwvea hire ar.i the place he has 
K'ft i* *hv*wTa :o be ^*ai off by a figure 
h^^tiroT *w»y the croand with an axe. 
iNvr^^ V ""-xa^^"- l"h<i>. i. 1^» «iv¥ the im- 
WNHp;Ai.!T .-f the ?\x:* w»s Sr?t taa^t 
br l^'rxs'T\5e* V f Syrv^ik the pi>PO?pt*>r 
oi IN :hAc. ra?, ** w r.-oh w:»5 chiefly fol- 
K-WvV. «> v.: >\ > < -.v.>v^'-r\* : " bnt this 

• - - .■» « * 

*s :Vv^ >^-. .-.".; i':: },\':'\<zy. zucrc 

ov.\ .'' ,;*'^ X '. < 

V V 

mm •«% • « «* 

AV.t i.'.^^\^;>< V ".,-* " *. . WAS .1*>i.* 

" circle (orbit) of necessity ; " and be. 
sides the notion of the soul passing^ 
through different bodies till it returned 
again to that of a man, some imagined 
that after a certain period all erents 
happened again in the same maimer 
as before — an idea described in those 
lines by Virgil, Eclog. ir. 84 : 

**■ Aher «rH torn Tlphya, et altera qmm Tcbat 
I>pIe«K» HeroM, erunt HUm altera bella, 
AtqiK itemm ad Trcjam magnns mittctnr 

Pythagoras even pretended to recollect 
the shield of Euphorbas, whose body 
his soul had before occupied at the 
Trojan war. (Hor. i. Od. xxiii. 10; 
Ovid. Metam. xr. 160, 168; Philosl. 
Vit, Apollon. Tyan. i. 1.) The trans. 
miiTT-ation of souls is also an ancient 
N?'.:of in India; and the Chinese Bod- 
dh:s;< n"*prt*sent men entering tho 
Ivviies of varioa? animals, who in the 
mt^t gp^tosqne manner endeavour to 
make their limbs conform to the 
<har*e of their new abode. It was 
ever, a diH:'triDe of the l^harisees ac- 
vvr^liaj to Jt-»?ophus (Bell. Jud. ii. 8, 
14* : an-i of the Droids, thong^h th*>se 
o.^ndne-i tho habitation of the soul to 
hu-j'.ar. Uyiios (Ciesar. Comm. B. Gall. 
vi. 13: Tacit. Ann. xiv. 30; Hist. iv. 
ol: r>:.>i>r. r. 31; Strabo. iv. 197). 
rHto say? (in Vhaniro), "no souls 
w.'I rv?tiim to their pristine condition 
lili the exi^iratii-m of 10,000 years, un- 
ioss they be of such as have philoso- 
phiz«>i sincervly. These in the period 
of U\X> years, if they have thric«» 
ch\v«;^. this mo<.le of life in succession 

shall in the 3000th vear flv 

aw^jy to their pristine abode, but 
o:ht^r soafs being arrived at the end 
of tr.oir fir?t life shall be judged. And 
o: ir.^^«eo wh.'^ar^pjudsred, some proceed - 
'.r.c :o a subterranean place shall 
thore rtx^five the punishments they 
>^ve dosorved : and others being 
;u.:c*.v. favourably shall be elevated to 
a ooi:^::al place .... and in the 
liXVHh year each returning to the 

Cmaf. 128, 124. 



it has circled through the forms of all the creatures which 
tenant the earth, the water, and the air, after which it enters 
again into a human frame, and is bom anew. The whole 
period of the transmigration is (they say) three thousand 
years. There are Greek writers, some of an earUer, some of a 
later date,' who have borrowed this doctrine from the Egyp- 
tians, and put it forward as their own. I could mention their 
names, but I abstain from doing so. 

124. Till the death of Bhampsinitus, the priests said, Egypt 
was excellently governed, and flourished greatly ; but after him 
Cheops succeeded to the throne,^ and plunged into aU manner 

dectioB of a second life, shaU receive 
one igieeable to his desire. . . . Here 
i^tke soul sball pass into a beast, 
•nd igsin into a man, if it has first 
heen the tool of a man." This notion, 
Ifln tlkit mentioned by Herodotus, 
•PpesTB to have grown oat of, rather 
than to hare represented, the exact 
doetrins of the Egyptians ; and there 
>• every indication in the Egyptian 
Bcolptnres of the sools of good men 
being admitted at once, after a favonr- 
shi« judgment had been passed on 
tbem, into the presence of Osiris, 
whoBe mysterious name they were 
permitted to assume. Men and women 
were then both called Osiris, who was 
the abstract idea of ^ goodness," and 
there was no distinction of sex or rank 
when a sonl had obtained that privi- 
lege. All the Egyptians were then 
" equally noble ; " but not, as Diodorus 
(t 92) seems to suppose, during life, 
time ; unless it alludes to their being 
a privileged race compared to foreign 
people. In their doctrine of transmi- 
gration, the Egyptian priests may in 
later times have convertcnl what was 
at first a simple speculation into a 
conplicated piece of superstition to 
snit their own purposes; and one 
proof of a change is seen in the fact 
of the name of " Osiris " having in the 
earliest times only been given to 
deceased kings ; and not to other per. 
•ons.— [G. W.] 

^ Pythagoras is supposed to be 

included among the later writers. 
Herodotus, with more judgment and 
fairness, and on better information, 
than some modem writers, allows 
that the Greeks borrowed their early 
lessons of philosophy and science 
from Egypt. Clemens says repeatedly 
that "the Greeks stole their philo. 
sophy from the Barbarian" (Strom, 
i. p. 303 ; ii. p. 358 ; vi. p. 612, and 
el^where) ; and observes that Plato 
does not deny its origin (Strom, i. p. 
355) . The same is stated by Diodorus, 
Plutarch (de Is. s. 10), Philo, and 
many other ancient writers, some of 
whom censure the Greeks for their 
vanity and disregard of truth; and 
the candour of Herodotus on this sub. 
ject is highly creditable to him. It 
was not agreeable to the Greeks to 
admit their obligations to *' barba- 
rians," and their vanity led them to 
attribute everything, even the words 
of foreign languages, to a Greek 
origin. So too in religion ; and lam- 
blicbus says (De Myst. vii. 5), **the 
search after the truth is too trouble, 
some for the Greeka" — [G. W.] 

' It is evident that Herodotus, had 
the names of two sets of kings men. 
tioned to him ; the first coming down 
to the Theban Bemeses (Bhampsini. 
tus), the other containing the Mem- 
phite dynasties, in which were Cheops 
and the other bnildcrs of the pyra- 
mids, who were in fact older even 
than the Sesostris of the 12th dynasty. 


Book IT. 

of wickedness. He closed the temples, and forbade the Egjx** 
tians to offer sacrifice, coini>elUng them instead to labour, one 
and all, in bis service. Some were required to dra^ blucks of 
stone down to the Nile from the quarries in the Arabian range 
of hills ; * others received the blocks after they bad been 
conveyed in boats across the river, and drew them to the range 
of bills called the Libyan,' A liuodi-ed thousand men 

the mounltim on the B. of the 
behind Too™ and Mianrah ; ttiid hi 
glypliio ioHiLU-iptionB arc fannd tbei 
earlj kings. Ptolemj calls ihe nii 
Inin TpainaS Xliov upat, tram tha 
neighlKmriog rilloge of Trojii. The 
blocks need in boildiiig the pjrBmids 
were pmtl; from those qDairim. and 
purtlj- frum the nnmmalite rock of 
the Ijibfac hills, but the outer lajan 

The 330 kings were m 

entioned to him 

as the whole number i 


and Memphite lists i 

and detailed aooouni 

siou. Of these two 

lists UC glTOB 

merply thpso tinmeB ;- 

Tklnlla and niibaKi. 


UoTh. Ophrit 

Phpwn. A Bacilli 

Those who follow. Babaco aii 
are of later djnaslies. But even m™- 
ria is ooufouodad with a lator kin^. 
and the exploits of Sesostris belong 
prinui pally to Sethos aod his son 
RemeBfiB— thp first kin^s of the 19th 
dynasty, who as well as Fheron and 
RhaiDjisinitus were Theban princes. 
It is neoessary to mention this, to 
aooonnt for the apparent anachfoniBin ; 
bat other questions respecting the 
anccrssion of these Hemphito kings 
will bo nnnecessary here j and I shall 
only notice their order aa given by 
Herodotns. The name of Chcvps, 
perhapa, more properly Shitfo, or 
Shii/H, translated by Eratoathenea 
natiiTnii, bos been ingenionsly ei- 
plaincd by Frofussor Busellini oa " tlie 
long-haired," which the Egyptian 
ihafn or shi^H siKoificfl (from /o, 
"liir"). Cheops is written more 
yorrectly by Manctho " Snphis." Dio. 
doms cnlU him Chemmis or Ghembes, 
and places seven kings between him 
and RhampsinJlns or [themphia (J. 63 ; 
see not(-' on ch. 127)- The wiokedneis 
related of Cheops by Herodotus agrees 
with MaDetho'a account, " that he waa 
arrogant towards the Gods ; bnt, n- 

leotjng, wrote the Saercd Book." — 

n. W.] 
" The qnarries are still workca in 

id others, grained 

itmg 1 

) of t 

D of t 

Eastern JttigO 
ysvB iiui,c - un DO. a/. The pyramid* 
and the tombs aboQt them prore that 
■quarod atone and even granite had 
long been employed before the Mh 
dyuoBty; and from the skill they had 
arrived at in earring granite, we may 
conclude that hewn «tona most batS 
been naed even before the reign ot 
Toaorthma, aecond king of the Srd 
dynasty, who was evideotly the aMiat 
as Atbothis, the eon of Ueim. TlQ' 
pick, stone-saw, wedge, ohiBel, wtA 
other UxiIb wore already in oae whMl' 
the pyramids were bnilt.— [Q. W.] 

» The western bills being Bapeoiallf. 
appropriated to tomba inalltheplacod 
where pyramids were bnQt wQl ae-l' 
count for these raonnmcnts b^oc aai' 
that side of the Kile. The oboda at 
the dead was supposed to be the WmI«4 
the land of darluieitB where the salt; 
ended his course; and the Boalogx 
kept np by the names fnuiU, Uw, 

' weet," and Am. 

. tba 

regions of Dados 
ISZ). Some tombs 
bills, but this was because thoj 
poned to be near the river, and tlwi 
Libyan hills were too distant; andtlM' 
principal places of burial, as at TbobM 
aed Homphis, wore on the W. Thi. 
only pyramids oa the EL bank 

Iwonred constantly, and were relieved every three months hj a 
btth lot. It took ten yeara' oppression of the people to make 
^e citnBeway' for the conveyance of the stones, a work not 

%«rElliiopiB. Totnba of Egyptiaofl 
">'■£ Kldom fonnd in Nnbin may ho 
•^ lo their considering it "a 
■"•ign luid," ruid Iwing therefore 
™ed in the holy ground of Egjpt. 
u like manner muij preferred the 
id Abydna h> their 

a place of sepultarp, in order to be 
neor to Oairie.— [6. W.] 

' The remitina of two cnnaeways 
atiU exist — the northern one, which 
in the latest, corrtHipondinit with lh« 
great pyramid, at the olhor does with 
the third. The outer atones hare 

pnll^ down. BO that no 
11 (if " the Rgnres of nni- 
ifTDKl^pliics- It< length 
aOOO' or 3050 feet, liua 
aboDt 1424, though 
I time it meamrcd 1000 
Tei7 nearly corresponded 

wilh Ihe measnremcnt of Hcrodotni. ' 
It is now only 32 feet broad, littla 1 
more thnn hnlf Iho 10 orjryieB (at 1 
tuthoinH) of Hcrodolaa. bnt Ibo heigl* J 
of 86 feet exceeds his 8 orgyios. AnQ J 
aa the cnaBewBy must ncoossaril^fl 
hare been u high as the bill or plateaa ' 

zoo rntAMlD OF C7HE0PS. Bot 

much inferior, in my judgment, to tlie pvraniid ' itself, Thifl 
causeway is five furlongs in length, ten fathoms vride, and in 
height, at the highest part, eight fathoms. It is hullt of 
polished stone, and is covered with carvings of auimals. Ta 
make it took ten yeara, as I said — or rather to make the 
oauseway, the works on the mound * where the pyramid stands,' 
and the underground chambers, which Cheops intended as 
vaults for his own use : these last were huilt on a scn^ of ishuid, . 
surrounded hy water introduced from the Xite by a canal.* 
The pyramid itself was twenty years in building. It is a square, 
eight hundred feet each way,' and the height the same, built' 

to wbioh the Btoiie* wore omTeyed, 
Kod as HorodotuB priros 100 feet fir 
the btiight of the hill, which ia from 
BO to 65 English feet where the canss- 
Wkj joins it, hia 8 or^ieH or 48 feet 
mnat be on aTBrsight of the hiBtoriaii, 
□r of his Gopjiate. Thia causeway 
aorred for both the great pyramide. 
Rome, howavet-, attribute it to the 
CkliphB, becanae DiodoniB wys it had 
dieappenrett ia his time, owing to the 
snndj base on which it stood ; bnt tho 
gToand \& not of so eandy a natore as 
to caase ita fall, and the other oansc- 
way, leading to the third pyiamid, 
which the Caliphs conid have had no 
object in oonatrncting, ia of the same 
kind of mawmry. It is probable the 
Caliphs repaired tho northern one, 
when the stones of the pyramida were 
remured to erect modes, walls, and 
other buildings in CnJro. An openini;. 
covered over by a single block, was 
left for persona to paas tbrongb, who 
travelled by land daring the inunda- 
tion, wliicb stiU remnins in the sonth- 
em oaQBSway. — [G. W.] 

' The Dome of pyromid in Egyptian 
appears to be Irr-hr t but Mr. Konriok, 
in » note on ub. 136, judiaionaly ob- 
serves that " pyramid" is probably 
Greek on tho following authority : — 
"Btym. M. voe. niipafiU, ii ix imfiii 
Kal lifturei, Binrtp mrTafJs, 4 in atiri. 
luar «l /liKiToi." nufw^wi (he adds) 
waa another name for the same kind 
of cako . , . the naa o-fai* 

fotiliii (Athon. p. 646) ; tbe 
which was pointed and usee 
Bacchic rites, may be seen on I 
at the iw^ption of Bacchns by losro)^ 
in Hope's CoBtames, vol. ii. pi. EU. 
That the numo of the mBthr-maHfJi 
anlid was denved Crom sn abjeot of 
coDiDien lite, and not rice rrtA, nMf 
be argned from analogy 
a ftonii-lwIJ ; irf3o!, ndie 
irirot, a bo^'l top ; titurt^t, > hut* 
baodman's or gardener's rolUr. "" 
Aiabio ahram ur hdtom seems tc 
taken from the Grepk name.— £G. 

" This was levelling the top of 
hiH to form a. plalfocm. A piooi 
ivck was also left In the ceutiv u • 
nucleus on which tho pyramid WM 
built, and which may still bo B««a 
within it to the height of 72 feet *U>M 
the levol of the ground.— [G, W.] 

' There is no trace of a canal, 
is there any probability of one bariiig 
Qxisted, from the nppearance of tha 
rock, or ftem the poaitiea of the pjiK< 
mid, atanding aa it doea np«r~* ' 
100 feet above the level of the 
innndation.— QG. W.] 

' The dimensions of tbo grant pynb- 
mid were — eooh Ihce, T6G ft„ now ntt 
dnced to 733 ft-i original heighlwtiea 
entire. 480 ft. 9 in., now 4fi0 (t. 9 ii 
angles at the base, SI* 50'; aagl* 
the apex, Tt!* 20' ; it covenid an ai 
of 571,S36 square feirt, 
squnre font. 

Herodoti ' 

Cur. U^ us. PTBAIOD OF CHEOPS. 201 

«ntirelj of polished stone, fitted together with the utmost care. 
The Btosee of which it is composed are none of them less than 
thirty feet in length.' 

126. The pyramid was built in steps," battlement-wiee, as it 
IB eatled, or, according to others, altar-wise. After laying the 
itmea for the base, they raised the remaining stones to their 

pwura, or 800 (t., for e«ch f»ce. U not 
""J fir trom the troth u a. ninnd 
"HbW; bnt the hmght, whioh ho 
MJi «u the nine, ia far from correot, 
•od would require a very different 
•n»!l»(roBi 61° SO" for the •lope of the 
'■"•MO. W.] 

"riiap* Heivdolos does not inteiid 
'^Wl beight, wbioh he wonld hare 
■« "aiu of BieMnring, bnt the height 
« t!« tlopinK side, which ha may even 
li"M ueamred (inf™ eh, 1Z7) from 
iMa tf the anglei at the bue to the 
V- In this cnae his cBtimnCe would 
"Ot be M very wTong, for the Icnitth 
"f lie line from the apoi to the ground 
■I <0e of the alleles of the bii» would 
"•n exceeded 700 feot. 

"Tie nie of the Etonee varieii. Ho. 
>"«« allade* to thoae of the oatcr 
■"Ace, which an now gone; bat it 
BBT be doobted if all, even at the 
I"" pan, wore 30 feet in lenfRh. 
'ta (he mibji-ct of the pymmida we 
M. Ek. W. p. 319 to 371.— [ti. W.J 

' These Blep», or Bnccoaiiivo stajfoi, 
had their taoea nearly perppoilicalar, 
or at ao angle of abont 76°, and the 
lnu;^[ar space, formed by each pro- 
Jeclisg soDaiderably beyond the one 

inunediately above It, was afterwards 
(Ulcd in, thiu cvmpletmf; the general 
form of tho pyranud Ihis was first 
•OKKeMed by Mr Wild, who observed 
that *'if he had to baild a pyramid he 

ahonld pracoed in that manner;" for 
I had Bopposed it conftned to the 
Third Pyramid, instead of being a 
general system of oonstrnclion, (M. 
Eg. W. i. 349.) On each of theae 
Btsgea the inscbines Eerodotns men. 
tionB wore placed, which drew op the 
atones from one to (he other. Two 
ciplanations of " the upper portion of 
the pyramid being liniBbcd first " 
may be ^iTim — imothat it wna adding 
the pyramida! apei, and filling up the 
triangular spaces as they worked 
downwardB ; tlie other that (after the 
triangular spaces had been Sited in) it 
referred to their cutting away the 
projecting an^Iiia of the eConcs, and 
bringing the whole moss to a smooth 
level surface, which could only bo 
done *'aa they dtttcended, the step im. 
mediately below si ' 




worked " (as montioncil i 
M. Eg, W. i. 310). Dr. Lepaiua thinks 
thnt the size uf a pyrainiil shows the 
damtioD of thii king's reign who built 
it ; OB additions coold be nuule to the 
npiHght Hides of the stages at any time 
before the triongnliLr s|)nres were filled 
in ; but though a largo pyramid might 
require and pii>i'o a long reiga, wu 
cannot infer a short one from a small 
pyramid. Kor could the small pyra- 
mida be the niiclni of larger ones, 
which kings did not live to finish; 
and the Plan will show that want of 
space would ellcctaally prevent their 
builders hoping for such an eiteuaion 
of their moDumcntB. Any one of 
those before tlio Fimt (or the Third) 
Pyramid would interfere with i(. and 
with thi'ir smaller neighbours- 
It is a cariona quoatiun if the Egyp- 
tiana bruaght with them the idea of 
the pyramid, or Bopnlcbral monnd, 


places by means of macbines * formed of sbort wooden planks, 
The first machine raised tbem from the ground to the top oi 
the first step. On this tliore was another maeliine, whiclt 
received the stone upon its aiTival, and conveyed it to thi 
second step, whence a third machine advanced it still higher. 
Either they had as many machines as there were steps in the 
pyramid, or possibly they had but a single machine, which, 
being easily moved, was transferred from tier to tier aa tbo 
stone rose — both accounts are given, and therefore I mentioB 
both. The upper portion of the pyramid was finished first, 
then the middle, and finally the part which was lowest am 
neai-est the ground. There is an inscription in Egyptian' 
characters^ on the pjTamid whch records the quantity o 
radishes," onions, and garUck ' consumed by the labourers wh« 

wben thay migrated into llio valley ef 
tho Nile, and if it oiigiiuilcd in tho 
tiRDiD ideR aa ths tower, bnllt also in 
Gtagea, of Aasjrin, and tlie pagoila oE 
India.— [G. W.] 

* Tho DotioD of DiodoioB that mn- 
chinea wpro not fet invented is euffi- 
oicntlf di^roTed by coramoD sense 
and by the osrartion or BemdotuB. It 
is certain!; aiDgnlor that tba Egyp- 
tians, who have left behind them wi 
manj' records of their customs, nhoold 
hii»e Dniittod every eiplanation of 
their mode of raiaing the CDcinnoaa 
blocks tbty ased, Some have ima- 
t'inod inoliued pianos, without recol- 
lecting what their extent would be 
wben of anch a height and length of 
base ; end thongli the inclined piano 
may have been employed for some 
purposes, ag it was in sieges by the 
Assvrians and others, as a "bank" 
(2 Kings xix. 32 ; 2 Sam. xx. 1&), fur 
mnuiug ap the moveable towers 
against a perpendicular wall, it would 
be difficult to adapt it to tlie sloping 
faces of a pyramid, or to introdoce it 
into the interior of a large tcmplo. 
The position of these pyramids is vcij 
romarkablo in being placed so exactly 
facing the four cardinal points that 
the variation of the oomiiass may be 
uoennined from them. This 


wonid imply sonic astmnomjcal k 
ledge and enreful obstyrvatio] 
li«..-[U. WJ 

■ This most have been in I 
glyphios, Lbe roonm 
The outer stones being gone, ii . . ,^ 
possible to verify, or di8in«ni, tlu 
assertion of Herodotna, wiiioh, hmi 
ever, would have nothing impnjbaMe I 
it, provided tho record was not oanfin 
tolbesimpleinBcriptionhegiTB*. Til 
hieroglyphics were alreaiiy used lo 
before the pyramids were built id 01 
tain, as they were found bj CoUr 
Howard Vyse in the upper ohamtx 
he oponod, written en tlve bloolu b 
fore th^ were bnilc in, 
the name of Bhofo, or Shnfa (Sc . 
The enrsivpBtylo of these hieroglfphia 
shows that they had been in noe » lo 
bsforo. Tbo naoiea of the t 

I (Sophia 

iuEds on thoB 


the Gr.?at Pyramid wx 
of two kings ) and this m&j ezpl 
its having two chambers. (See n.' 
ch. 127.)— [G. W.] ^ 

■ This is the ltaphaiui» ratitw*, *• 
edKlie, of LinnajUK, the figl of mode; 
Kgypt, so much eaten by tba moda 
Be well as the ancient peaanntB. 
has been called " liorBe.rariiah," whil 
would have been pungent tviA tor tl 
Egyptians. Bnt. th»t root does a 

CuAf. 125, 126. 



constructed it ; and I jjerfectly well remember that the inter- 
preter who read the writing to me said that the money ex- 
pended in this way was 1600 talents of silver. If this then is 
a troe record, what a vast sum must have been spent on the 
iron tools ® used in the work, and on the feeding and clothing 
of the labourers, considering the length of time the work lasted, 
which has already been stated, and the additional time — no 
small space, I imagine — which must have been occupied by 
the quarrying of the stones, their conveyance, and the forma- 
tion of the underground apartments. 

126. The wickedness of Cheops reached to such a pitch 
that, when he had spent all his treasures and wanted more, 
he sent his daughter to the stews, with orders to procure him 
a certain sum — how much I cannot say, for I was not told ; 
she procured it, however, and at the same time, bent on 
leavmg a monument which should perpetuate her own memory, 
she required each man to make her a present of a stone 
towards the works which she contemplated. With these stones 
she built the pyramid which stands midmost of the three that 
are in front of the great pyramid, measuring along each side 
a hundred and fifty feet.® 

frow in the country. Strabo mentions 
fc^ntils, which doubtless constituted 
their chief food of old, as at present ; 
*nd it ia not probable that they were 
limited to the three roots mentioned 
I7 Herodotus. The notion of the 
Ifepgrapher that the rock contains 
lentils, the petrified residue of the 
food of the workmen, is derived from 
the small fossils contained in that 
Dommulite limestone. Their appear- 
ance misled him. — [G. W.] 

' Though garlick grows in Egypt, 
that brought from Syria is most es- 
teemed. Till the name " Syrian " 
was tabooed in Cairo, during the war, 
tb<J6e who sold it in the streets cried 
" Ti^ shdfMe;* " Syrian garlick ; " it 
was then changed to " infa e* fow,'* 
*• garlick is useful."— [G. W.] 

** Ircoi was known in Egypt at a 
Tcry early time. The piece of iron 

found by Colonel Iloward Vyse, im- 
bedded between two stones of the 
great pyramid, may have been placed 
there when the pyramid was built, or 
have been forced between theui when 
the Arabs were removing the blocks ; 
and there is other better evidence of 
the use of iron by the ancient Egyp- 
tians. See note* on ch. 86. — [G. W.] 
• In this pjTamid the name of king 
Mencheres (or Mycerinus ?) is painted 
on the flat roof of its chamber ; but his 
sarcophagus was found in the Third 
Pyramid. (See n. ^ ch. 129.) The 
story of the daughter of Cheops is on 
a par with that of the daughter of 
Rhampsinitus ; and we may be certain 
that Herodotus never received it from 
" the priests," whose language he did 
not understand, but from some of the 
Greek ** interpreters," by whom ho was 
so often misled. — [G. W.] 


127. Cheops reigned, the Egyptians said, fifty years, audi 
waB succeeded at his dGinitiO by Chephren, his brother.* 

Chephren imitatod the conduct of bis predecessor, and, Ukfl 
him, built a pyramid, which did not, however, equal the 
dimeneionu of bis brother's. Of this I am certain, for I 
meaHored thtim both myself. It bus no Bubterraneuus aparir 
ments, nor any canal from the Nile to supply it with water, 
&a the other pyramid has. In that, the Nile water, intro- 
duced through an arti&cial duct, surrounds -an island, whera 
the body of Cheops is said to he. Chephren built hiB 
pyramid close to the great pjTamid of Cheops, and of the 
same dimensions, except that hv lowered the height forty feeL 
For the basement he employed the many-coloured stone c ' 
Ethiopia.^ These two pyramids stand both on the same hiU« 

■ Uaoetlio mention* Sophia II., or 

Bon-Snphie, i.e. " brother ot SophiB." 
It is evident that two brother! oould 
not hare reigned suceessiioly 60 knd 
5Ct jeasK, or 63 and 66, according to 
Hanetbo; nor have built two saoh 
imtnense muanmoQls, caob reqnirinK 
H Itnig reign. Tliose two Sajihides ace 

of the monamente. They Bppear to 
hare ruled together dnring the grtifttcr 
pBrt of their reign, Biid Noa.Shufn or 
Sophia tl., having (arrived his bro- 
ther, was eoimidei'ed hie BUceesBor. 
Another king hu been thonght b; 
Kime to be Cephreo ; hiB naaie reads 


Bad u be ii called ■■ of the little pyra- 

mid," be bas been thought to be th^ 
builder of the tecoud. before it «i« 
enlarged. The name of Nomn^SbnC 
19 found on a rcreraed Btune in- ooa O 
the t<jmb« ne&r Ibe Second P_ 
vhioh bears in other parts the n 
of both these Sfanfns. 

Tho measnremeatA of the Si 
Pyntmid w; — pretent base, 69D R,] 
former barn (Recording to Cokod 
Howard Tj-ae), 707 ft, 9 in.; ptMD " 
perpendicolar height (calcnlatuiB d 
angle bST HT), 446 ft. 9 in. ; torm 
height, 454 ft. 8 in. 

Herodotas Bappoaes it was 40 {•■._ 
height tliBD the Great PyramiA 
■ ji- — onljMlb 

but the nsal diSersnt't.- 

It is liDgalar that QerraiDtiia ti 
no notice of tho epiuni, whioh 
tnade at least as early •■ tbe 1 
drnaaly, as it bears the nana 
Tbothmes IT. The Egyptians a* 
it Hor-b-kho, or Ke-ih.aho, " UiB 
in his roetiug. place " (the wealeni 
riiun). whioh wu oonrvrtod by 
Greeks into Armaohis.- [0. W.l 

' This waa rod grauite of 
and Herodotus appiars to bs 

myitig that the Ipwor tier wb* 

least iba c 

nhich waa all tbat be otnld •■ 

if OagDHHitB ^jn^l^H 

€■!?. 127-129. 



an eleyation not far short of a hundred feet in height. The 
reign of Chephren lasted fifty-six years. 

128. Thus the affliction of Egypt endured for the space of 
one hundred and six years, during the whole of which time the 
temples were shut up and never opened. The Egyptians so 
detest the memory of these kings that they do not much like 
even to mention their names. Hence they commonly call the 
pyramids after Phihtion,® a shepherd who at that time fed his 
flocks about the place. 

129. After Chephren, Mycerinus * (they said), son of Cheops, 
ascended the throne. This prince disapproved the conduct of 
his father, re-opened the temples, and allowed the people, who 
were ground down to the lowest point of misery, to return to 
their occupations, and to resume the practice of sacrifice. His 
justice in the decision of causes was beyond that of all the 

Ijing abont this pyramid show that it 

Has been partly faced with it. The 

ctfing which remains on the upper 

{«rt in of the limestone of the eastern 

hillg. All the pyramids were opened 

by the Arab caliphs in the hopes of 

finding treasure. Pansanias (iv. ix. 

S6) points at Herodotus when he says 

"the Grc^eks admire foreign wonders 

more than those of their own country, 

ami some of their greatest historians 

kave described the pyramids of Egypt 

with the greatest precision, though 

they hare said nothing of the royal 

treasury of Minyas, nor of the walls of 

Tiryns, which are not less wonderful 

than those pyramids." Aristotle 

(Polit. vii. 11) considers them merely 

the result of great labour, displaying 

the power of kings, and the misery in- 

ticted on the people ; which Pliny has 

re-echoed by calling them an idle and 

silly display of royal wealth and of 

▼anitj (xxxvi. 12). Later writers 

hare repeated this, without oven 

knowing the objcK^t they were bnilt 

for, and it would be unjust to suppose 

them merely monumental. — [G. W.] 

' This can have no connection with 
the invasion, or the memory, of the 
Shepherd kings, at least as founders 
of the pyramids, which some have 

conjectured ; for those monuments 
were raised long before the rule of 
the Shepherd-kings in Egypt. — 
[G. W.] 

In the mind of the Egyptians two 
periods of oppression may have gradu- 
ally come to bo confounded, and thoy 
may have ascribed to the tyranny of 
the Shephord-king« what in reality 
belonged to a far earlier time of mis- 
rule. It should not bo forgotten that 
the Shepherds, whether Philistines, 
Hittites, or other Scyths, would at any 
rate inva^le Egypt from Falestine, and 
so naturally be regarded by the Egyp- 
tians as Philistines. Hence perhnj>s 
the name of Pelusium (= Philistine, 
town) applied to the last city which 
they held in Egypt. (See Lepsiu?*, 
Chron. der Egypter, i. p. 341.) 

* He is called Mencheresby Manetho, 
and Mecherinus by Diodorus. In the 
hieroglyphics the name is 

which reads Men-ka-re, Men-ku-rr, or 
Men.ker-re.--[G. W.] 


former kings. The Egyptians praise him in this respect mora 
Itighly than any of their other monarchs, declaring that he no) 
only gave his judgments with fairness, but also, when any o 
was dissatisfied with his sentence, made compensation to hiim 
out of his own purse, and thus pacified his anger. Mycerinn* 
had established hia character for mildness, and was acting as I 
have described, when the stroke of calamity fell on him. First 
of all his daughter died, the only child that he possessed. 
Experiencing a bitter grief at this visitation, in his sorrow hd 
conceived the wish to entomb his child in some unusual way. 
He therefore caused a cow to be made of wood, and after thfl 
interior had been hollowed out, he had the whole surfacfl 
coated with gold ; and in this novel tomb laid the dead bod] 
of his daughter. 

130. The cow was not placed under ground, but continne 
visible to my times : it was at Saia, in tlie royal palace, whei 
it occupied a cliamber richly adorned. Every day there ar^ 
burnt before it aromatics of every kind ; and all night long I 
lamp ia kept burning in the apartment.* In an adjoiuiiq 
chamber are statues which the priests at S^a declared to repre 
aeut the various concubines of Mycerinus. They are colossi 
figures in wood, of the number of about twenty, and are reprfr 
sented naked. Whose images they really are, I cannot aaj— ' 
I can only repeat the account which was given to me. 

131. Concerning these colossal figures and the sacred con 
there is also another tale narrated, which runs thus : " M7oe< 
rinus was enamoured of his daughter, and offered her violei 
— the damsel for grief hanged herself, and Mycerinua entombdt 
her in the cow. Then her mother cut off the hands of all bai 
tiring-maids, because they had sided with the fatlier, aai 
betrayed the child ; and so the statues of the maids have t 

"This is evidently, from what fol- 
lows (see oh. 132). in honour of a 
deity, and oat of tho danglitor of My- 
cerinua ; and tlio fact of the EgyptiauB 
lamentiuK, and heating themBelTCB in 
honour of OairiB, sbows that the cow 
repreaented either Athor, or lais, in 

the chanit^ter of a Qoddesa of 
(Soe Plat, de Istd. et Oiir. a. 8 
Hcrodotna very properly donbta 1 
atorj about the dauf^hter and ths a 
cnbines of MycertnaB, whioh ho Uiii 
a mere &ble.— [Q. W.] 



bands.'* All this is mere fable in my judgment, especially 
what is said abont the hands of the colossal statues. I could 
plainly see that the figures had only lost their hands through 
the effect of time. They had dropped oflf, and were still lying 
on the ground about the feet of the statues. 

182. As for the cow, the greater portion of it is hidden by a 
scarlet coverture; the head and neck, however, which are 
visible, are coated very thickly with gold,* and between the 
homs there is a representation in gold of the orb of the sun. 
The figure is not erect, but lying down, with the limbs under 
the body ; the dimensions being fully those of a large animal 
of the kind. Every year it is taken from the apartment where 
it is kept, and exposed to the light of day — this is done at the 
season when the Egyptians beat themselves in honour of one 
of their gods, whose name I am unwilling to mention in con- 
nection with such a matter.'' They say that the daughter of 
Mycerinus requested her father in her dying moments to allow 
her once a year to see the sun. 

183. After the death of his daughter, Mycerinus was visited 
with a second calamity, of which I shall now proceed to 
give an account. An oracle reached him from the town of 
Buto,® which said, " Six years only shalt thou live upon the 
^arth, and in the seventh thou shalt end thy days." Myce- 
rinus, indignant, sent an angry message to the oracle, re- 
proaching the god with his injustice — ** My father and uncle," 
he said, "though they shut up the temples, took no thought 
of the gods, and destroyed multitudes of men, nevertheless 
enjoyed a long life ; I, who am pious, am to die so soon ! " 
There came in reply a second message from the oracle — ** For 
this very reason is thy life brought so quickly to a close — thou 
hast not done as it behoved thee. Egypt was fated to suflFer 
affliction one hundred and fifty years — the two kings who 

* The ^1d used hj tho Egyptians 
for overlsjing the faces of mammies, 
and ornamental objects, is often re- 
markable for its thickness. — [G. W.] 

"^ This was Osiris. See notes on 
chs. 60, 61, 85, and 130.— [G. W.] 
• See notes ', ' on ch. 155. 




prectd-ril thee upon the throce nnderstood this — thou hast 
not un»ler=t'»l i:."' Mvotrinns, when this answer reached 
him, perceiving that hL^ d*:om was fixed, had lamps prepared, 
which he li;zht^ everr day at exentime. and feasted and 
enjoyed himself uneeasinirly both day and night, moving 
about in the marsh-country* and the woods, and visiting all 
the places that he heard were agreeable sojourns. His wish 
was to prove the oracle false, by turning the nights into days, 
and so lining twelve years in the space of sii. 

134- He t«>3 left a pyramid, but much inferior in size to his 
father's.* It is a square, each side of which falls short of three 
plethra by twenty feet, and is built for half its height of the 
stone of Ethiopia. Some of the Greeks call it the work of 
Rhodopis* the courtezan, but they report falsely. It seems to 

• These were the resort of the 
w»;ri>.:,T Eiryr*.:ar.5 who wrii'r.r-i to 
'•ni'.v t..<r ; l-.r»!itir-=^r' «" f tcr cha?o. 

tirii'; < f ' r. :•< -.vriich. Ai.ysi?, 
Arnvn^rr.-. at.i ^ tr.L-r!- r!»d. — 'G. W." 

' '1 h- :r,- fi-':r"L\''.r.:- ' f t:.:* {'vraaiid 
arrr- ;< r.u'*i: ' f ia-o. 3:<3 f •:••.: : fumicr 
U'U'jt}t. ?«'•'■' ri.Ti'j TO C' 1. II. Vys*?. 
il5l0; j,rv-*.Lt p*r| '-r.'liiuiar hei^'ht, 
'J^y.i 7 ii. '.:.'- : f'.rrii'T h'ij"'.:. ;n"C«. rdinir 
to O I. If. Vy-^t', 21 SO: an^k- of the 
ca-iifji.', or. 11^ T'lir-tn? >ay> it was 
mui;h -mailer tlian that of ChcN-jp-?, 
U'injr 21 » f^-^t Hhort of .'{ ph-thra each 
UiCf; or 2V) f<*<.'t ; but this i^t'.H) little, 
aiKJ I'liiiy frivos it 303 Konian f»*et. or 
about 3.70 feet ; o>)i?orvinir at 
tho j-arne time that, thouirh Fmallor 
than thf? r»ther two, it was far more 
h^'autiful, on account of the granite 
tlint cfjsitfMl it ; which Ilonulotus 
Mu\ SfniVx> Hay reached only half- 
way up, or accor(linj( to Diod<trus to 
tlir« fitt<'«"nth tier. It now extends 
tU't f«*el II inches from the base on the 
Western, and 25 feet 10 inches on the 
NortlH-rn Kid(;. The gfnnile f-tones 
liave b<.'V«'ll<«(l ("dges, a common style of 
buildin;^ in K^yj)!, Syria, and Italy, in 
nncMcrit times ; and round the entnmce 
u Kpn('M lias b«'('n cut into the ^surface 
of the stonefl, us if to let in some 

ornament, probably of* metal, which 
h- r»? an inscription containing tlir's name, or some funonil soulp- 
f.;rt?. *in.::ar i*.- th< so in the small 
chan.ber? attached to the pyramids of 
G»'b^l Borkol. In this i>yramid wen* 
fonnd ihe name and coffin of Meu- 
cheri >. — ]G. W.^ 

• IltT real name was Dorieha, and 
Rhi^loiri^. 'the rosy-cheeked," was 
mere'.y an epithet. It was under this 
namr of Di.richa that she was men- 
tiontxl by Sappho: a*.d that Hei-o- 
df.tus was not mistaken in calling her 
Iih«-<h'pis. as AthenaMis snpposes 
(IH^pn. xiii. p. 5JH3 , is fully prt>veJ 
by Strain*. Khodopis when libi^rated 
remained in Ecyj't : where evt?n l»o- 
fore Greeks reported to that coontry 
foreign women often followed the 
occupatiims of the modem ** Almeh." 
They are figunnl on the monaments 
dancing ami playing tnnsical instru- 
ments to divert jvarties of gnests. 
and are disiingnishe<i bv their head- 
dress from native Egyptian women. 
The reason of her having been con- 
founded with Nitocris was owing, bs 
Zoega suggested, to the latter baring 
also been called "the rosy-cJlieeked," 
like the Ei^'ptian (^neon, who is de- 
eciibed by Eusebius (from Manetho) 
as '* flaxen haired with rosy cheeks.*' 


Qu that these persons cannot have an; real knowledge who 
Bbodopis was ; otherwise they would scarcely have ascribed to 

■*l»n'i rtory of I^ammetichiu being 
tha bog into whose lap the e^Ie 
fa^ed the nndal of Bhodopia, and 
cf Wmnriafre with him (^lian, Var, 
HiB-nii. 33). shows that he mistook 
tkaprinoM Neitakri of the 26th dj. 
BMtr, tbe wife of Pnmmetichas III., 
^ tlw ucieat Kitocrii (Neitskri). 
'"■ ■ " n ch. 100.) Btrabo, from 


whom .^IltaJi borrowed it. does not 
mention the name of the king, but 
EBf B that tbe pjramid was erected to 
the mamor; of " Dcricha, as she ia 
called by SJ^pho, whom others name 
RbodopS." (Strabo. irii. p. 1146.) 
Diodorns (i. 64) sars " some think tbe 
PTramid was erected as a tomb tor 
Bhodopis b; oertain monarchs who bad 

livred her," an idea borrowed from the 
iBeniioD of Psammeticbna and tbe 
twelTD monarchs or kings. The third 
pjTBinid was said by Ennobine and 
Africtinas to have been baiU by Nito. 
ons, the last of tbe 8tb dynasty ; and 
it is Terj possible that both she and 
Uenobens (Mycerinns) may bave a 
elaini to that monament. We know 
that the latter was buried there, not 
<ailj from Herodotas, bnt from the 
coIEd bearing his name found there 
by Colonel Howard Vyse. There in, 
bowoTcr, reason to belisTe the pyra- 
■ud was originallj' smaller, and after- 

voL. n. 

wards enlarged, when a 
was made, and the old (now the npper) 
passage to the chBmbor waa closed 
by tbe masonry of the larger pyramid 
bnilt over its month. Thia may be 
better explained by tho diagram, re- 
dnced from Colonel Howard Vyse's 
Plate. And thin renders it posaible, 
and even probable, that the third 
pyramid bad two occnpants, the lost 
of whom may baie been Nitocris. 
Hcrodotns ehows tbe impossibility of 
this pyramid having been built by the 
Greek Bhcdopis, because she lired in 
the reign of Ajnaais, very many years 


her a work on which iincounted treasures, bo to speak, must 
have been expended, Ehodopis also hved during the reign of. 
Amasia, not of Mycerinua, and was thus -very many years later 
than the time of the kings who built the pyramids. She was a 
Thracian by birth, and was the slave of ladmon, son of Hepliies- 
topoUe, a Samian. .^sop, the fable-writer, was one of her 
fellow-slaves.* That jEsop belonged to ladmon is proved by 
many facts — among others, by this. When the Deli)hians, in 
obedience to the command of the oracle, made proclamation 
that if any one claimed compensation for the mm'der of ^sop 
he sboidd receive it,* the person who at last came forward was 
ladmon, grandson of the former ladmon, and he received th« 
compensation, ^sop therefore must certainly have been the 
former ladmon's slave. 

1S5. Rhodopis really arriyed in Egj-pt under the oondaot (rf 
Xantheus the Samian ; she was brought there to exercise her ^ 
trade, but was redeemed for a vast simi by Charaxus, a Mytile- 
natan, the son of Scamandronymus, and brother of Sappho the 
After thus obtaitdng her freedom, she remained in 

ntler the death of the funndcrB of 
tliOM luoiiiuneDta ; but Lacan, not- 
wilfaatBudin); this, barics AmkBis him- 
■elf thorp, " Pf mmidom trnnnlia btuI- 
Boa AmaRin," and evea the Ptultimiea, 
who were not bom when Herodotua 
wrote his hiatorj'- 

bat neither time nor f&otsembaiTBas a 
poet.— [ a. W.] 

' .^Bop it said to have been, like 
Bhedopii, b Thraoian. (Her&clid. 
Pont. Ft. I. ! Sohol. nd Ariet, Av.iTl.) 
AcootdJDg to Eagavu (EV. 3), be was 
% native ot MeBSmbria. 

• Plntaroh (De seri Nam. Vind. 
p. 556, P.) telU na that ^eop, wbo 
whb od intiiuBto torma with Cnssna 
(cf. SnidB«), woB despatched by him 
to Dt'lphi, with erdere to make a 
mogiiifioeDt flaeriltco, and give tbe 
DelphiaDB fonr mime a-piooe. In con. 
•equonoo, however, ot n qoarrel whioh 
he had with them, Saap after his 

sacrifice gave the DelphianB nothing, 
bnt sent all the monej back to Sardia. 
Herenpon the Delphians got up a 
charge of sacrilr^ge ngainnt him, and 
killed bim bj throwing him down 
from the rock Hjnoipaia (infra, liii. 
39). The Sphohast on Ariitqihaiwa 
(Vosp. 1446} add», that the occaaioa 
of qnarrot was a jest of the poet's, 
who rallied the Delphians on their 
rant of landed properly, and " 

o depend on the 

for their doily food. Thoy oontnTtid 
ttioir revenge by hiding one of Iha 
sacred vessels in his baggage, and tban 
after his dopartnro pursuing him and 
diacovering it. To this hut fact Arii. 
tophanea aUudes. (Vesp. 1410-1, ed. 

' Cbaruaa, the brother of Bapphn, 
trnded in wine from Leebos, which he 
wu in tho habit of takioK to Naa- 
cratis, the entrepot ot all Greek ronr- 
chaudise. (Stiiibo, xviL, p. 1146.) 
It is probable that both hs and Rko- 

Cii?. 13i, 185. 



Egypt, and, as she was very beautifal, amassed great wealth, 
for a person in her condition ; not, however, enough to enable 
her to erect such a work as this pyramid. Any one who likes 
niajgo and see to what the tenth part of her wealth amounted, 
and he will thereby learn that her riches must not be ima- 
gined to have been very wonderfully great. Wishing to leave 
a memorial of herself in Greece, she determined to have some- 
thing made the like of which was not to be found in any temple, 
and to offer it at the shrine at Delphi. So she set apart a 
tenth of her possessions, and purchased with the money a 
quantity of iron spits,* such as are fit for roasting oxen whole, 
whereof she made a present to the oracle. They are still tp 
be seen there, lying of a heap, behind the altar which the 
Chians dedicated, opposite the sanctuary. Naucratis seems 
somehow to be the place where such women are most attrac- 
tive. First there was this Khodopis of whom we have been 
speaking, so celebrated a person that her name came to be 
familiar to all the Greeks ; and, afterwards, there was another, 
called Archidice, notorious throughout Greece, though not so 
much talked of as her predecessor. Gharaxus, after ransom- 
ing Bhodopis, returned to Mytilene, and was often lashed by 

dopis were lampooned by Sappho, 
nnce in Herodoins the word " fitv " 
seems to refer to the former, while 
Athenaens says it was Bhodopis. Ac- 
cording to Ovid (Her. £p. 15) this 
Sappho was the same whose lore for 
Fhacm made her throw herself from 
the Leacadian rock into the sea 
(Strabo, x. p. 811) : bat others men- 
tion two Sapphos, one of Mytilene, 

the other of EroFus, in Lesbos, 
(^lian. Yar. Hist. xii. 9 ; Atheneeos, 
Deipn. xiii., p. 596.)— [G. W.] 

* Similar spits, or skewers, of three 
or four feet long, have been f onnd in 
the Etmscan tombs, arranged in the 
same manner as the small ones still 
in use in the East. (See woodcat.) — 
[G. W.] 


Sappho in her poetry. But enongh has been said on the sub- 
ject of this courtezan. 

136. After MycerinuB, the priests said, Afijchis' ascended 
the throne. He huilt the eastern gateway ^ of the temple of 
VolcaQ, which in size and beauty fax surpasses the other three. 
All the four gateways have figures graven on them, and a vast 
amount of architectural ornament ; but the gateway of Asychis 
is by far the most richly adorned. In the reign of this king, 
money being scarce and commercial dealings straitened, a law 
was passed that the borrower might pledge his other's body' 

' The hieroglypliica! niima of this 
king 19 tint knuwD. U rcMiuibteB Uiat 
of the Sobacoe, obuie names wcr? 
represented by a crocodile, Sarai, the 
Greek aai>x°'- He could not be one 
of those of the 13tli dyuaaty, since 
Memphis tnn ihcn in the hands of 
the Shepherii-kinEWiioris he liltely lo ■ 
have beCD the Sabaoa who is said by 
Huietho to hare pot Bocchoria, the 
Saite, to dcsib. and whom Herodotus 
■pprnre tf mention in ch. 137 ; hot aa 

their sons, and the hiw wonld bite 
foreseen the possibility of there being 
many sons of one fothor. nnuiy «u 
forbidden, aa with the Jews (Ps.u.Si 
Lerit. xxv. 36, 37), and Moaiems; and 
tbe interest was not allowed to in- 
crease beyond double the original snm. 
The goods really belon^ng to the 
debtor might be seized, but not b 

person, since every 

looked apon as belonfpng ti 
ighl require hie 




to niee the sum lAereof he had need. A [vonso was ^- 
pended to this lav, giving the lender •otboaU- orer the attire 
Kpnlchre of the borrower, so that a man -mbo bxA up mooeT 
under this pledge, if he died without paving the delA, eonld 
not obtain bnrial either in his own ancestral tomb, <» in mbj 
other, nor could be daring his lifetime bury in his own tmnb 
Uy member of bis fiunOy. The same king, dedroas <rf cdipe- 
ing all bis predecessors apon the throne, left as a ntrainment 
of his reign a pyramid of brick.* It bears an inscripd^m. cut 
in stone, which nms thos : — " Despise me aot in comparison 

' The use of crude brick wv gme- 

nl in I^ypt, for dwellmg-luiBca, 
toabi, ■nd ordiD&ry boildiiigK, tlie 
"ilU of towna, fortrcoaea, and the 
nard CDcloanrefl of temples. Bad tor 
>!l potpoaM where itone was not re- 
■Jurpd, which laAt waa oeailj' ood- 
Siied lo temples, qoaje, and reaer- 
'nn. Eren totae mull ancKDi 
(fmplea were of crude bricks, which 
wre merely baked in ihe 
nm, and nerer bamt in carl j 
Phmonic times, A 
Bunber of people wen 
plofnl in Ihia eitenaiTe 
iMtare ; it was an occupation 
to which manT prisonen of 
■»r were condemned, who, 
liks the JeWB. worked tor 
tbe kin^, bricks bein^ n go- 
Temment mooopolj. Tbe'pro- 
ens is repreaeated at Thebea, 
wd is rendered doubly in- 
(n^sting from its exact cor- 
reapusdence with that described in 
Eiodns (t. 7—19), showing the hard. 
nesi of the woA, the tales of bricks, 
the bringing of the straw, and the 
Egrptdao taskmasters set orer the 
forei^ workmen. Ariglophaaea (Birds, 
1132, and Fro^, 1647) «peaks of the 
Egyptian bricklayers and laboDrers as 
noted workmen, bat withoDt describing 
the manD&ctuie of bricks. 

The Tbeban bricks of Thothmes 
m. measure 1 ft. by 075, and O-SB in 
thickness, weighing 37 lbs. 10 ois. ; 
and one of Anmnoph Til., in the 

BHtbh Mnsesai, ia 0-II-3 iMtes br 
0-3-^ and &3-9 in thickneB, aad 
weighs 13 lbs.; bat thtme ot ik 
Pnamid of Kowara a» I fi. 5 ia. br 
OS^ te <r»9, and 0-*^ thick, a^ 
weigh 46 lbs. 6 (Bs. 

They woe baqneotly namped wiih 
a kind's name whfle makmr as ^^^mn 
bnmt bracks were wiih i^ taiam of a 
gid, a place, a ccnsol, a legion, a 

YiirnTins think* thai crude 1 
were not fit for nse in Italy, till then- 
were iwoyanold; and the people of 
Ulica kept them for fire rean. 
(TiiraT. 2, 3.) Tfaoo^ the Jeiis are 
not distinctly meDiioned on the Egyp- 
tian moDHmeDti, and the copyists of 
Manetho hare confounded them with 
the Shephenls, it is not impoanble 
that the name of the city of Abaris 
may point to that of tbe Hebrewa, 
or Aharim Finas (Own. li. 16). — 

' The BupHiority of this orar Uaf 
Etone pyramids faiu been lappoaed H 
be io the ioTcntiou or ailnption of tfal 
■Tch, forming- Ibe root of itacl 
■nd pasffiges. Bat this would 
.A^chia to have livod st least beConr 
tlio 18tb djna^tjf arches being 
moD in the reign of Amnaoph I 

secood king of that dvnart/, 

possiLlj long bcforo liig time. Hen 
again Uerodotua Kppeara 




of Xeaio 

died m 



Tcar of 


into a lake, and the mud which da^e thereto was gathered ; 
and bricks were made of the mud, and so I wms formed.** 
Such were the chief actions of this prince. 

137. He was sncoeeded on the throne, they said, by a Uind 
man, a native of AnTsis ' whose own name also was Anrsis. 
Under him Egypt was invaded by a vast army of Ethiopians,^ 

founded an earlier and a later king. 

(On the earlr ose of the arch aee mr 

^i £g. pp. 16, 18, 19, 69, 70.) Sereral 

^ck prramidfl still remain in Egypt ; 

tbere are sereral small ones at 

IVbes ; bnt the largest are two near 

the modem Dashoor, or M ensheeh, 

*Qd two others at the entrance to the 

^joom, at lUahoon, and El Hawara. 

It seems these fonr were originallr 

Ctted with stone, and some blocla 

'noain projecting from the crude 

brick mass, to which the outer oorer- 

ing of masonry was once attached, 

nmilar to those in some of the old 

tombs near Bome. That at Hawara, 

which stands at the end of the labr- 

rinth, was built npon a nncleos of 

fock, like the great pyramid of 

Geeieh, which was foond by Colonel 

Howard Vyse to rise to abont the 

height of 40 feet within it.— [G- W/ 
'This may be £i.h-esi, "city 

(abode) of Isis, or Iseam." It could 

Dot be the Hanes of Isaiah (xxx. 4). 

See note on Book iii. ch. 5. — 'G. W. ] 

* This conquest by the Ethiopians 
points to the accession of the 25th 
dynasty, which, coming immediately 
tfter Bocchoris, the sole king of the 
24th, shows that the latter may hare 
been deprived of the throne by Sabaoo. 
He, and his successors, are given in 
Haaetho's list : — 

2Uk Djpuutjf <f <me 3ait€. 
" Boocboris " (the wIm). 

7&tk DfnoMty of Ethiopian fcmQif. 

** Sdbaco," SAbftkdo. SabMo I. 
" Sebecbon," SeTechan, SaIxioo II. 
*'Tence«," Tearcbas, Tirbaka (Tebrdc). 

It has been doubted which of the 
Sabacos was the So, or Sara, of 2 
Kings xrii. 4; and which Sabaco, or 
Sbebek, reigned first. Shebek I. 
appears, from Mr. Layard's discovery 
of his name at Kojui\jik, to be 80. A 

PsammeddisB reig&ed direcur after 
Tirhaka; to that ii a poasfcie that 
Xecho, the father of 
was a contemporary cf Sabac 
Herodotns states 4ch. 153i. On 
dates, and the supposed era of 
cherib, see Hiss. XotJoe in App. ch. 
TiiL § 33. While the two Sahaeos 
poaseiUed the ooantrT. ScephiBathis, 
Xechepsos, and Xecho L may lare 
asffuizted a nominal rezal power; 
though the twelve kirgs ocuSd ctdr 
hare been chiefs cf ncmes. ct diftricts 
in the Delta. 

When the Egyptians menticn kings 
who did nothing meznorab!e. cr the 
rule of a prie«t>kii:g like Se:bo«- cr 
twelve Idnirs ruling ihe conntrr ; and 
ulien the mcnumer.ts ibiw that 
nothing was done worthy cf record, 
or that kings with the title of priest 
ruled in some part of the country, or 
that a priest dedicated a monument 
instead of a king, there appears eri. 
denoe of foreign rule in Egypt. We 
see this at the time of the shepherd 
invasion, before the aooeasion of the 
18th dynasty ; again, before and after 
the accession of the 22nd and 23rd, 
both foreign dynasties, and about the 
24th, as well as before the 26th, in 
the time of the sccalled twelve kings. 
The^ twelve kings or monarchs ooold 
not have governed the whole of 
Egypt, nor could they have made the 
labyrinth, as Herodotus states <ch. 
148), which had evidently been erected 
long beff/re. 

The diaoovery of the steUe in the 
Apis tombs by M. ICariette now shows 
that Psammetichns I. was the imme- 
diate Bucceeaor of 'Hrfaaka.— [G. W.] 




led I.y Sabaeia,* their king. The blind Anysis fled away to 
the mareh-country, and the Ethiopian was lord of the land for 
fifty years, during which his moJe of rule was the following : — 
When an Egyptian was guilty of an offence, his plan wae not 
to punish bim with death : instead of bo doing, he sentenced 
him, according to the nature of his crime, to raise the groand 
to a greater or a less extent in the neighbourhood of the city 
to which he belonged. Thus the cities came to be even morft 
elevated than they were before. As early aa the time of 
Sesostris, they had been raised by those who dug the canals 
in his reign; this second elevation of the soil under the 
Ethiopian king gave them a very lofty position. Among the 
many cities which thus attained to a great elevation, non* 
(I think) was raised so much as the town called Bubastia, 
where there is a temple of the goddess Bubastis, which well 
deserves to be described. Other temples may be grander, and 
may have cost more in the building, but there is none so 
pleasant to the eye as this of Bubastis. The Bubastis of the 
Egyptians is the same as the Artemis (Diana) of the Greeks. 
138. The following is a description of this edifice :" — Except- 

' HcrodotuB mentiuDB ooly one Sa- 
baco, but the monumentssndManotlio 
iiotipp t«o, tlio Sabnkfin and Bebiobfis 
iSewinhoM) of Ktanctbo. called Shebek 
ID the hierog:lyphicg. Ono of thege in 
Che samo as So (Savfi), Ihe oontompo- 
raiy of Hoaeft, KinR of larHBl, who ia 
raid (Ed 2 Kings xrii. 4) to have nuido 
B treatj with the King of l^KTpi, and 
lo bave rofaaed the aoDoal tribnt« to 

hakah, tbe Tarohou, or Tarachai, ot 
Manotho. Tearohon ot Strabo, and the 
Tohrak of (ho Licmglyphics, ia noticed 
in 2 Kings lii. 9, and laaiah Etivii.9, 
aa King of Ethiopia, who bad ooine 

Afwjrin. It h»« bMn eaid that Saba- 
con has not been fonnd on the Egyp- 

kiiifc tnentioned by the Greoks is met 
with, ilnce tho orthfiffmphj of all 
differs from tho Greek form. A niono- 
mcnt at Bakkira gii-P« the name ot 
(he leoond Sabaco, Shebek. or 8o»e- 

ol.on.-[G. W.] 

• This accoont of the position of tk« 
temple of Bubastis is tbt? accnnt* 
I'bo height of the muaod, ths site a 

houses, from which yon look dowl 

one would remark on viating tb 
remains at Tel Basla. One stletri 
which Horodolns mentions as leadinj 
to the temple of Merenry. is qni» 
apparent, and his length of 3 itadi 
falls abort of its tfial length, which i 
2250 feet. On the way is tho sqaM 
he sprakfl of, 900 feet from the tempi 
of Faabt (Bnbaatis), and appormtl 
200 feet broad, thoogh now mm) 
rednced in size by the fallen mala^ 
of thehonwsthatanrronndedit. Son 
fallen blocka mark the position of th 
temple of Uercury; but the renuui 
of that ot Pasht are rather mora A 
tensive, and show that it mnimn 
aboat too feet in length. We ma 
readily orodit the aflgertiou 0* Hera 

CiAp. w-ia9. 



ing the entrance, the whole forms an island. Two artificial 
channels from the Nile, one on either side of the temple, 
encompass the building, leaving only a narrow passage by 
which it is approached. These channels are each a hundred 
feet wide, and are thickly shaded with trees. The gateway is 
sixty feet in height, and is ornamented with figures cat npon 
the stone, six cubits high and well worthy of notice. The 
temple stands in the middle of the city, and is visible on all 
sides as one walks round it ; for as the city has been raised up 
hy embankment, while the temple has been left untouched in 
its original condition, you look down upon it wheresoever you 
we. A low wall runs round the enclosure, having figures 
engraved upon it, and inside there is a grove of beautiful tall 
trees growing round the shrine, which contains the image of 
the goddess. The enclosure is a furlong in length, and the 
same in breadth. The entrance to it is by a road paved with 
stone for a distance of about three furlongs, which passes 
straight through the market-place with an easterly direction, 
and is about four hundred feet in width. Trees of an extra- 
ordinary height grow on each side the road, which conducts 
from the temple of Bubastis to that of Mercury. 

139. The Ethiopian finally quitted Egypt, the priests said, 
by a hasty flight under the following circumstances. He saw 

dotns respecting its beaatj, since the 
frlK>le was of the finest red granite, 
and was sorronnded by a sacred en- 
cloeiire aboat 600 feet sqnare (agree- 
ing with the stadium of Herodotns), 
beyond which was a larger circuit, 
measuring 940 feet by 1200, contain- 
ing the minor one and the canal he 
mentions, and once planted, like the 
other, with a grove of trees. In this 
perhaps was the osnal lake belonging 
to the temple. Among the sculptures 
are the names of a Goddess, who may 
be either Babastis or Bato (see notes 
on ch. 59), and of Bomeses II., of 
Osorkon I., and of Amyrtasas (?) ; and 
as the two first kings reigned long 
before the risit of Herodotus, we 
know that the temple was the one he 

saw. (See M. Eg. W. vol. i. p. 427- 
4530.) The columns of the vestibule 
had capitals representing the buds of 
water-plants'; but near|tho old branch 
of the river, the modem canal of 
Mo3z, is another column with a palm- 
tree capital, said to have been taken 
from this temple, which has the 
names of Rcmcsos II. and Osorkon I. ; 
and was when entire about 22 feet 
high. Amidst the houses on the N.W. 
side are the thick walls of a fort, 
which protected the temple below ; 
and to the E. of the town is a large 
open space, enclosed by a wall now 
converted into mounds. Osorkon is 
said to have been called Hercules by 
the Egyptians.— [G. W.] 



in hia sleep a vision : — a man stood byhia side, and eonnseUed 
liim to gather together all the priests of Egypt and cat every 
one of them asunder. On this, according to the account which 
be himself gave, it came into his mind that the gods intended 
hereby to lead him to commit an act of sacrilege, which would 
be sm-e to draw down upon liim some punishment either at the 
hands of gods or men. So he resolved not to do the deed Bng- 
gested to him, but rather to retire from Egypt, as the time 
during which it was fated that he should hold the country had 
now (he thought) expired. For before he left Ethiopia he had 
been told by the oracles which are venerated there, that he was 
to reign fifty years over Egypt. The years were now expired, 
and the dream had come to trouble him ; he therefore of his 
own accord withdrew from the land. 

140. As soon as Sabacoa waB gone, the blind king left tlw 
marshes, and resumed the government. He had hved in thd 
marsh-region the whole time, having farmed for himself t 
island there by a mixture of earth and ashes. While he re- 
mained, the natives had orders to bring him food tmheloiowii 
to the Ethiopian; and latterly, at his request, each man had 
brought him, with the food, a certain quantity of ashes. 
Before Amyrtseus,'' no one was able to discover the site of t 
island,* which continued unknown to the kings of Egypt wh© 
preceded him on the throne for the space of seven hundred 
years and more.' The name which it bears is Elho. It iB 
about ten furlongs across in each direction. 

' See note on Book iii. oh. 17. 

■ This island sppeara to havo etood 
at tbs &.E. comer of tbc lake of Bnto, 
now Lako Boorioj.— [0. W.] 

' The 700 joore before AmyrtiBnB 
would biiag the time of this king to 
aboat 1155 n,c., nhicb onght to point 
to the flight of some kinp ; bat it does 
not Bgree with the period of the She- 
■honks of the 22nd dynuiit;, who are 
enppoaed to hare been of aa AEa;ri&n 
family. The interral coulil not be 
c&loalntcd from AnyuB, Hinoo from the 
beginning of the first Sabaoo'a reign to 

tlie defeat of AniTrtmas was on); a.^ 
period ot 260 joara.— [G. W.] 

Niebuhr, following PeriioDiua, pHK 
poaea to rend 300 fur 700 (Tortbtf^ 
remarking thut these signs ani ofMB 
oonfoimded. (Leotarca on Anciea^ 
HisloTf, vol. i. p. 68, noie.) It coi 
tAinI; does seem almost incredible IkB 
HerodDbng shoold hare committal 
the gross chrDDologicnl error involni 
in tho text as it stands, especially • 
his date for Psauunetiolins iato neai^ 

Chjlp. 189-141. 



141. The next king, I was told, was a priest of Vulcan, called 
SethoB.^ This monarch despised and neglected the warrior 
class of the Egyptians,^ as though he did not need their ser- 
vices. Among other indignities which he offered them, he 
took from them the lands which they had possessed under all 
the previous kings, consisting of twelve acres of choice land for 
each warrior. Afterwards, therefore, when Sanacharib, king 
of the Arabians ^ and Assyrians, marched his vast army into 
Egypt, the warriors one and all refused to come to his aid. On 
this the monarch, greatly distressed, entered into the inner 

^ No mention is made hj Herodotus 
of Bocchoris (nor of his father Tne. 
phachthns, the Technatis of Plutarch) ; 
and the lists of Manetho, as well as 
Diodoros, omit the Asychis and Anysis 
of Herodotos. Sethds again, whom 
HerodotoB calls a contemporary of 
Sennacherib, is nnnoticed inManotho's 
lists ; and as Tirhaka was king of the 
whole country from Napata in Ethi. 
opia to the frontier of Syria, no other 
Pharaoh could have ruled at that time 
in Egypt. We may therefore con- 
clude that Herodotus has given to a 
priest of Pthah the title of king. The 
miraculous defeat of the Assyrian 
king mentioned both by the Egyptians 
and the Jews is remarkable. Some 
have attributed the destruction of his 
army to a plague ; but plague does 
not destroy upwards of 185,0()0 men in 
one night. The omission of all notice 
cf Tirhaka by the Egyptian inform. 
ants of Herodotus may have been 
owing to jealousy of the Ethiopians. 
The Assyrians defeated by Tirhaka 
are represented at Medeenet Haboo in 
Tbeb€», and in his temple at Gobel Ber- 
kel, wearing cross- belts. — [G. W.] 

' The same spirit of insubordination 
may have been growing up among the 
soldiers which afterwards broke out in 
the reign of Psammetichus ; but it 
could not have had any effect while the 
Ethiopian kings of the 25th dynasty 
ruled the country (see note ^ on ch. 
152). It is not impossible that it had 
already been the cause of the intro- 

duction of the Ethiopian rule ; and the 
desertion of the troops to Ethiopia in 
the reign of Psammetichus may have 
been connected with a similar but 
unsuccessful attempt. There could 
not have been any Egyptian king 
contemporary with the 25th dynasty, 
since the Sabacos (neither of whom 
gave the throne to the Egyptians) 
were succeeded by Tirhaka. — [G. W.] 

' It is curious to find Sennacherib 
called the " kiug of the Arabians and 
Assyrians " — an order of words which 
seems even to regard him as rather 
an Arabian than an Assyrian king. In 
the same spirit his army is termed 
afterwards " the Arabian host." It is 
impossible altogether to defend the 
view which Herodotus here discloses j 
but we may understand how such a 
mistake was possible, if we remember 
how Arabians were mixed up with 
other races in Lower Mesopotamia 
(see Essay x. in vol. i. § 11), and what 
an extensive influence a great Assy- 
rian king would exercise over the 
tribes of the desert, especially those 
bordering on Mesopotamia. The 
ethnic connection of the two great 
Semitic races would render union 
between them comparatively easy; 
and so we find Arabian kings at one 
time paramount over Assyria (Beros. 
Fr. 11), while now apparently the case 
was reversed, and an Assyrian prince 
bore sway over some considerable 
number of the Arab tribes. 


sanctuary, and, before the image of the god, bewailed the fata 
■which impended over Iiim. As he wept he ftiU asleep, and 
dreamed that the god came and stood at his side, bidding bim 
be of good cheer, aud go boldly forth to meet the Arabian host, 
which would do him no hurt, as he himself would send those 
who should help him. Sethos, then, relying on the dream. 
collected sucli of the Egyptians as were willing to follow him, 
who were none of them warriors, but traders, artisans, and 
market people ; and with these marched to Pelusium, which 
commEtndB the entrance into Egypt, and there pitched bia 
camp. As the two armies lay here opposite one another, there 
came in the night a multitude of field-mice, which devoured 
all the quivers and bow-strings of the enemy, and ate the- 
thongs by which they managed their shields,* Nest morning 
they commenced their flight, and great multitudes fell, ae they- 
had no arms with which to defend themselves. There sta 
to this day in the temple of Vulcan, a stone statue of Sethda^ 
with a mouse in his hand,* and an inscription to this effect — ' 
"Look on me, and learn to reverence the gods." 

142. Thus far I have spoken on the authority of the Egyp* 
tians and their priests. They declare that from their fira^ 
king to this last-mentioned monarch, the priest of Vulcan, was 
a period of three hundred and forty-one generations;' such, a" 
least, they say, was the number both of their kings, and t 
their high-priestH, during tliis interval. Now three hundred 



1 rcpreaenlBtic 
intended, see toI. i. i 

' If anj particDlar reverence was 
paid to mice at Merophis, it probably 
BTUso from some otber mfBterioiiH 
rensan. Thpf were emblema of the 
geneniting nnd perhaps of the pro- 
(iaoing principle; and some tbonght 
them to be endued with prophetic 
power (a morit attributed noir in some 

(See B. iv. note on ch. 192.) Tho 
people of Troaa are said to hare 
revored mice " t>ec«nje they gnawed 
the bowstrings of their enemies " 
(Enst. XL i, 80), and ApoUo, »bo was 

nf him U 
r his fooC 

ottHed Smintbeus (from a/iireat, t 
"monBo"), was represented On ooiM 
of AJeiandriH Troas with a moose il 
biB hand (Milller, Anc 
There was hIeo a statuo of h 
Scopas -with a m' 

in bis temple at ChrysS (Strabo. I 
p. 41 6) , cummemorBti re of tbeir " goMW- 
ing tbo Icatbem parts of the enemT^ 
aruiH," or beoRnae (heir "aboandiii 
near the temple made them sw3l«d: 
bnt Apollo SniinthSD* (raa worahtpp 
in Greece dIbo and olher places, wlu 
argues BgainBt tho story of tbe 1» 
BtringH being Egyptian,— [G. W.J 

Chi?. 141-143. 



generations of men make ten thonsand years, three genera- 
tions filling np the centnry ; and the remaining forty-one 
generations make thirteen hundred and forty years. Thos 
the whole number of years is eleven thousand, three hundred 
and forty ; in which entire space, they said, no god had ever 
appeared in a human form; nothing of this kind had hap- 
pened either under the former or under the lat^r Egyptian 
kings. The sun, however, had within this period of time, on 
four several occasions, moved from his wonted course,^ twice 
rising where he now sets, and twice setting where he now 
rises. Egypt was in no degree a£fected by these changes; 
the productions of the land, and of the river, remained the 
same ; nor was there anything unuflual either in the diseases 
or the deaths. 

143. When Hecataeus the historian® was at Thebes, and, 
discoursing of his genealogy, traced his descent to a god in 
the person of his sixteenth ancestor, the priests of Jupiter did 

* From Menes to Sethos (or to Tir- 
i»*ka his contemporary), which he 
reckons at 11,3-JO years. The exactly 
■iinilar number of kings and high- 
priests is of course impossible. The 
v» of Menes is shown by the monn- 
loentB not to require a very extrava- 
gant date. It is to be observed that 
^1 generations, at the rate of three to 
a century, do not make 11,340, bat 
11,366} years.— [G. W.] 

^ This has been very ingeniously 
thown by Mr. Poole (Horss ^g^yptiacsB, 
p. 94) to refer to " the solar risings of 
•tars having fallen on those days of the 
▼ague year on which the settings fell 
in the time of Sethos ; " and " the 
historian by a natural mistake sap- 
posed they spoke of the san itself." 
This is confirmed by Pomponias Mela, 
who only differs in stating that the 
king to whose reign they calculated 
w&s Amasis.— [G. W.] 

* This is the first distinct mention 
of Hecatsas, who has been glanced at 
ukore than once. (Vide supra, chaps. 
21, 23.) He had flourished from about 
B.C. 520 to B.C. 475, and had done far 

more than any other writer to pave 
the way for Herodotus. His works 
were of two kinds, geographical and 
historical. Under the former head he 
wrote a description of the known 
world (rijj vcptoSov), chiefly the result 
of his own travels (Agathemer. i. i. p. 
172), which must have been of con- 
siderable service to oar author. Under 
the latter he wrote his genealogies, 
which were for the most part mythical, 
but contained occasionally important 
history (vide infra, vi. 137). The 
political influence of Hecataeus is 
noticed by Herodotus in two passages 
(v. 35, 125.) He is the only prose- 
writer whom Herodotus mentions by 
name. The term Koyoroihsf which 
he applies to him both hero and in 
Book v., I have translated " histo. 
rian " rather than " chronicler," be- 
cause in Herodotus the word implies 
no disrespect, being the term by which 
he would probably have designated 
himself. " Prose-writer " is perhaps 
its most literal meaning, as it is anti- 
thetical to hroiroihs, "a writer of 


to tdzn exsedr as tfa^y aflowwds did to me, thoo^ I i 
DObotMofBy funily. They led BW otto Oe iim«r suictiuiy 
irinck ia a qmeioDS chunber, sad ohowed me a mnltitode c 
eobmal rtataus, in mod, iMA Iha^ eosBted up, aad found ti 
ft to tlw «ia«t Bmnber di^ Ittd wd; the e 


Cor enaj liigh [iiJiiil dsrii^ ha EiBtnu to set up iaa statse H 
the te^ife. Ai Qtej ahe^ed me the Sgane and nekoned 
tern v^tbej amani me thai each «■« tiu eon of then 
f wea dui s faim ; and this Oej wpeettd thnm^Kntt the vhol 
I tha matuLiitetiuu of the priest '. 
S tin Atj had eomideted the »erie« 
B pnMtg hia genealogy, mioitioned a god i 
Ui aztee^ aaeailor. the prieeta omwa e d their genealogy ti 
hk, gaiBg Ih i mth this firt, and ie6iaiig to allow that ao] 
■as «•• anr hon of a god. Ihetr «4o6saI figores w 
furh tt«y aid. a PSrtani, hoa of a Piromis,* and I 
■■■kr ef thaa «aa thice hoafad and Eartr-Sre ; thnmgl 
the whole eena Firdaiis faHmad Firomis, and the line t 
Ml na ap cxtber to a god or a hao. The irotd Pirfimit nuQ 
W nadovd " gewthroaii.'* 

144. Of soeh a natnre were, tfwy said, tb« beinj 
Mated bj tfaeae images — tbej- vts» my far ind«^ from beiii| 
gede. However, in the times anteziDr to tb«n it was otheo^ 
wise; thai EcTpt had gods lor its nkn,^ who dwelt npon thfl 
earth with men, one bcjog always enpRme above the reel 

gti r*^mi.uiw bjtlw ■ 

*nn«ErpliMaJM^rifietfedthe I i 

Ow Go^Mtte ft 
befcn Mtmet. T 
I the jMfijrxaaiiBlBoHmwtba J 
' tbe mn of Omtw <•« note * ch. ^ ■ 
„ I Dotc ■ cL 99). TUi Bona ma d 

Um «Mik rf tW I---T - in«iwliil I cUB-Hcns.lbetKotherofOaui^a 



The last of these was Horns, the son of Osiris, called bj the 
Greeks Apollo. He deposed Typhon,' and mled orer Egvpi 
as its last god-king. Osiris is named Dionysus (Baechns) by 
Uie Greeks. 

145. The Greeks regard Herenles, Baeehns, and Pan as the 

youngest of the gods. With the Egyptians, contrariwise. Pan 

is exceedingly ancient,' and belongs to those whom they call 

'' the eight gods," who existed before the rest. Hercnles is 

one of the gods of the second order, who are known as " the 

twelve ; " and Bacchus belongs to the gods of the third order, 

whom the twelve produced. I have already mentioned how 

many years intervened according to the Egyptians between 

the birth of Hercules and the reign of Amasis.^ From Pan 

to this period they count a still longer time ; and even from 

Bacchus, who is the youngest of the three, they reckon fifteen 

thousand years to the reign of that king. In these matters 

they say they cannot be mistaken, as they have always kept 

count of the years, and noted them in their registers. But 

from the present day to the time of Bacchus, the reputed son 

of Semele, daughter of Cadmus, is a period of not more than 

sixteen hundred years ; to that of Hercules, son of Alcmena, 

is about nine hundred; while to the time of Pan, son of 

Penelope (Pan, according to the Greeks, was her child by 

Mercury), is a shorter space than to the Trojan war,^ eight 

hundred years or thereabouts. 

' Tjphon, or rather Seth, the brother 
of Onrifl, was the abstract idea of 
" erwU," ae Osiiii was of " good ; " and 
in after times many fables (as Plutarch 
sboirs) arose oat of this opposite nature 
of the two Deities. For both were 
adored until a change took place 
reelecting Seth, brought aboat appa> 
rentlr bj foreign influence. (See 
note ' on ch. 171.) It is singular that 
names so like Typhon should occur in 
other languages. In Arabic Tyfoon 
(like T v fits) is a whirlwind, and Tufin 
is the " Deluge ; " and the same word 
occurs in Chinese as Tjf ong. On the 
different oomstractiona put upon the 

fable of Osiris and Tjphon, see notes ' 
and * on ch. 171.— [G. W.] 

' See note ^ on ch. 4, note * on ck, 
42, and note ' on ch. 43. 

* Supra, ch. 43. 

* The dates for the Trojan war rarf 
almost two centuries. Duris placed 
it as early as B.C. 1335 (Clem. Alex. 
Stromat. i. p. 337i A.). Clemens in 
B.C. 1149. Isocrates, Ephorus, Demo- 
critus, and Phanias, seem to hare 
inclined to the later, Herodotus, Thn- 
cydides, the author of the I^ife of 
Homer, and the compiler of the Parian 
Marble, to the earlier period. The 
date now usually receired, B.c. 11S8, is 

ft^»— it lN li l i |. it»«»l 
|- lt «.i.i « .i mm 


Mrf*M^IM^»lMI !*»llip 

■ ^ «S» 
imr Tliin a Libn ; 

•In Ml i DM IfjM B 

<»1MIN«>tmO-Ui MvHv.iiLSTi 
Tkt.M^ti.aOit Ond.KM.n. M). 

bdik »• b-at by (Mrii, iB - 
of th>t «f Kgivpt, wco. ui 

EnptMB ongin M (he 
lt3> (Si- 7), jinking ,. . 

'nl the citws. wWch kn „ 

Kjtm IS the lu^to uuj niojt mIc. 

he may prefer < 
mininB kboot tb^m has bea 
bne gods had been public^ 
Gnece^ as ms tlie case wit] 
Ihiiiiiiii. son of Semel^, i 
hsTC beat said that the li 
-wka kve flw names of ceitai 
il Baednia, aeooarding to th 
bom than be ma sewn np ii 
off to Mj«a,* above Egypt, i 

- K- »> 1. ._^ 

r"*w M oB^ Bheckos Vyrnn^, bm 
mptaoaathcirwiutoj.alltd KjM|f 

- "of-i 

-Sj« . 

' M f^in ajv Bd in one piBcn bkrw, a 

■> Anba, EtUofM, E^jpt, Babrlo 

lh nb i>. Thnce, Themalj, CSlioB 

. Mid ilMMt tke PugroiD, k place 
Brim ; ' to «ych ink; be kdi 
K^«% rwai'ia (Sdn). IpuUiq^ 
Khod. ir. HOh 9S3), ud I%i7P>> i^l 
tbn rinr SMgariiu. (EnMMli. 1 
KoBT*. RBries. 940. "- ■ ^..-J^ 
Hob. D. ¥i. 133; D. ii. W» ; Sntq 
EkeeL SW ; Soph. Astig. 1131 ; Stxtit 
IT. 687, 701 ; Dkm. Pcrifg. 688, J ' *^ 
llMi ScAoL ApoD. Bbod. iL S 
lUl.) Plmr (Ti ai) e>jm "Kyi 


aibaoi pl eii n t ladue adaoribnnt, 

*>eai|Be Hovb Libera pstri an . _^^^ 
nda oriRO fatafaB lotis f enune (^iVf 

■ditH " PK» ,, 18 UTS ■' SCTthA 

m (rii. 63). Tbe HinduM hurt ■ 

OBabm of kkTing " bolj billa ~ i 
*«f7 razij dale, knd comma) t 
^jptans. Jnrs. Greeks. Mid 
pH^le. Gebel Berkel in Ethio 
klwaj-s railed " the bol> hill ' « 

Ihete (see i. f on cb. !9)j 

CiAP. U6, 147. 



Ethiopia; and as to Pan, they do not even profess to know 
^liat happened to him after his hirth. To me, therefore, it is 
quite manifest that the names of these gods became known to 
ibe Greeks after those of their other deities, and that they 
<X)imt their birth from the time when they first acquired a 
bowledge of them. Thus far my narrative rests on the 
aceoants given by the Egyptians. 

147. In what follows I have the authority, not of the Egyp- 
tians only, but of others also who agree with them. I shall 
speak likewise in part from my own observation. When the 
Egyptians regained their liberty after the reign of the priest 
of Vulcan, unable to continue any while without a king, they 
divided Egypt into twelve districts, and set twelve kings ^ over 
them. These twelve kings, united together by intermarriages, 
iiiled Egypt in peace, having entered into engagements with 
one another not to depose any of their number, nor to aim 
at any aggrandisement of one above the rest, but to dwell 
together in perfect amity. Now the reason why they made 
these stipulations, and guarded with care against their infrac- 
tion, was, because at the very first establishment of the twelve 
kingdoms, an oracle had declared — ** That he among them 
who should pour in Vulcan's temple a libation from a cup of 
bronze,® would become monarch of the whole land of Egypt." 
Now the twelve held their meetings at all the temples. 

bj the Jews, Cbrietians, and Moslems 
to this day ; and pilgn^magee to it will 
readilj accoont for those inscriptions 
ealled Sinaltic, which are evidently 
not Jewish, hot of a sea-faring people 
of that coast, since they have left 
Minilar records in the same langaage 
at the watering-places on the Egyptian 
side of the Bed Sea as far S. as lat. 
2Sf* and 27^ W, where the Israelites 
oonld never have been (see App. ch. v. 
§ 80).— [G. W.] 

7 The sarcastic observation that as 
they ooold not exist without a king, 
they elected twelve, most have been 
Mnosing to the Greeks. They were 
probably only governors of the twelve 

VOL. n. 

principal nomes, not of all Egypt bat 
of the Delta, to which Strabo gives 
ten and Ptolemy twenty-foor, and 
which in later times contained thirty- 
five, including the Ou$>i8 of Ammon. 
(Sec note* on ch. 137, and n." ch. 164, 
of the Nomes of Eg\'pt.) Pliny speaks 
of sixteen nomes of all Egypt who met 
in the Labyrinth (xxxvi.l3); and Strabo 
(xvii. p. 558) states that the nnmber of 
nomes corresponded to that of its cham- 
bers, when it was first boilt. — [G. W.] 
• This should not have been remark- 
able if those cups were so commonly 
nsed in E^ypt as Herodotus says. See 
note* on ch. 37.— [G. W.] 


H 148. To bind tbemselvea yet more closely together, it seemed J 
^M good to tliem to leave a common monmnent. In purauancej 

■ of thia resolution they made the Labyrinth which lies a littlel 
H above Lake Mceris,^ in the neighboarhood of the place calledB 

■ the city of Crocodiles.' I visited this place, and found it tol 

■ Burpasa description ; for if all the walls and other great works ■ 
H of the Greeks could be put together in one, they would not fl 
H equal, either for labour or expense, this Labyrinth ; * andl 

H > The pmtitioo of tho natural lake is 
H well known ; but M. Linant has die- 
H ooverod that of the artificial Harris, 
^1 near the site of Crooodilopolis, now 

■ Mtdtmet-tl-FgoSm. It has long formed 
^M part of the oultivnted plain of the 
H Fyo-im, and Pliny's nsing the word 
^H "fait" shows it was no longer naod 
^M in his time. It was an eitensive 
^H reHemoir sconrcd by dams ; and from 
^H it ehannels conreyed the water in 
^M different dirsctions to all parts at that 
H inland province. A email reservoir 
^H at the modem town, a very humble 

■ imitation of the Lake Hfcria, snpplica 
^1 in the same manner the variooH 
^M itreams that irrigate the Pyodm ; and 
^1 the ancient lake being a work of man 

■ acMXirdE with Pliny's " Mleridia laous 
H boo est foBSB grandis/'as well as with 

the assertion of Horodotna. The other 
lake, now Birkot-cl.Kom, is formed 
by nature, and received in former 

lands had ber>n irrigated by the chan- 
nels from the artificial iSwris. Sec 
M. Linout'a Uemoir on his interoating 
and imporlant discovery.— [G. W.] 

' Afterwards called ArainoS, from 
the wife and aistar of Ptolemv Pbila- 
delphus, like the port on the Sed Sea 
(now Saoa). The reason of the croco- 
dile hoing sacred in this inland pro- 
vince was to ensnro the maintenance 
rf the cnnols, aa De Pauw obacrvea 
(vol. ii. pt, iii, ». 7, p. 122.)~{G. w.i 
• The admiration eipressed by Ha. 
^t nrflrjtns lor tbn Labyrinth is aingular, 
^H when there were ao many far more 

H which he takea no notice, ll was 

probably tbo beauty of the stone, th^ 

peculiarity of its plan that slnicfc bin 
BO muob. ILemaina of the white aloiM 

in the npper part ; they are a hari 

columns of red granite with bm 
capitals ore perhaps those allnded h 
by Pliny, wbo snppoaea them pec 
phyiy. Stiabo gives iho length a 
tbo Labyrinth u a sladinm, whid 
agroea very nearly with the actni 
measurement, and makes the pyrwni 
at the end of il i plethra. or 400 fe* 
square, and the same in height, whia 

300 feet (see note ' on ch. 136). n 
oicavfttiona made by the Fmara 
commission have ascertained tboeiM 
aixe and plan of the Labyrinth. Tt 
oldest name found there wa« of Ann 

and whose immediate prodoceaaor Ll 
maris (or Labaris) is said by Haoetb 
to have mode the Labyiinth. Perh^ 

Greek writers (see note ■ on ob. U 
andnoto>onoh.lOO). Qliddon thilil 
Labyrinth -mm so called from Laban 

well the position of the Idt^rintl 
and his distance of 100 stadia tnN 
Arainoe agrees very well with tin U 
English miles from the centre of 1 
mounds to the pyiwiiid of Hawfii 
DiodoruB colls the founder of tt 
Labyrinth Mendca ; and Pliny {an 


Chap. 148. 



yet the temple of Ephesus is a building worthy of note,* 
and BO is the temple of Samos.* The pyramids likewise 
surpass description, and are severally equal to a number 
of the greatest works of the Greeks ; but the Labyrinth sur- 
passes the pyramids. It has twelve courts, all of them roofed, 
with gates exactly opposite one another, six looking to the 
north, and six to the south. A single wall surrounds the 
entire building. There are two dijfferent sorts of chambers 
throughout — ^half under ground, half above ground, the latter 
built upon the former ; the whole number of these chambers 
is three thousand, fifteen hundred of each kind. The upper 
chambers I myself passed through and saw, and what I say 
concerning them is from my own observation ; of the under- 
ground chambers I can only speak from report : for the 
keepers of the building could not be got to show them, since 
they contained (as they said) the sepulchres of the kings who 
built the Labyrinth, and also those of the sacred crocodiles. 
Thus it is from hearsay only that I can speak of the lower 

to king Petesucns, or TithoSs, shows 

that it stood near the frontier of the 

Crocodilopolite nomo (or Pyo<5m) ; as 

)u8 expression *' primus factns est " 

impUes that it was added to by other 

kings. This was nsonl in Egyptian 

Bonoments; and the names of more 

than (me king at the Labyrinth prove 

it was the case there also. If the 

namber of chambers was equal to that 

of the nomes of Egypt, it mast have 

varied greatly at different times (see 

note^ on ch. 164).— [G. W.] 

'The original temple of Diana at 
KphesoB seems to have been destroyed 
by the Cimmerians (see the Essays 
appended to Book i., Essay i. § 14) in 
their great incursion during the reign 
of Ardys. The temple which Hero- 
dot^is saw was then begun to be built 
by Cbersiphron of Cnossus and his son 
Metagenes, contemporaries of Theo- 
doras and RhoDCUs, the builders of the 
Samian Heneum. (Cf. Yitruv. pra)f. 
ad lib. vii. ; Strab. xiv. p. 918 ; Plin. 
H. N. xzxvi. 14.) These architects 

did not live to complete their work, 
which was finished by Demetrius and 
Peonius of Ephesus, the robuilder of 
the temple of Apollo at Branchidea. 
(Vitruv. 1. s. c.) The architecture of 
the temple of Cbersiphron was Ionic. 
(Vitruv. iii. 2.) It was, according to 
Pliny, 220 years in building. After 
its destruction by Eratoati-atus in the 
year of Alexander's birth (Plut. Alex, 
c. 1 ; Timaous, Fr. 137), the temple of 
Diana was rebuilt with greater mag- 
nificcnce, and probably on a larger 
scale, than before ; as the dimensions 
given by Pliny considerably exceed 
those which observation assigns to 
the Heraium of Samos, while the 
HeraDum was in the days of Herodotus 
"the largest of Greek temples " (^f*^* 
iii. 60). No traces remain of this 
much-admirod fabric (Chandler, vol. i. 
p. 153), unless the ruins noticed by 
Mr. Hamilton, near the western extre- 
mity of the town (Asia Minor, vol ii. 
pp. 24, 25) , are admitted to mark its site. 
^ Vide infra, iii. 60, note. 



chambers. The upper chambers, however, I saw with 
own ejee, and found them to excel all other human produi 
lions ; for the passages through the houses, and the varied 
windings of the paths across the courts, escited in me infinite 
admii'ation, as I passed from the coiirts into chambers, and 
from the cbambcrs into colonnades, and from the colomiades 
into fresh houses, and again from these into courts unseen 
before. The roof was throughout of stone, like the walls ; and 
the walls were carved all over with figures ; every court was 
sun'ounded with a colonnade, which was built of white stones, 
exquisitely fitted together. At the corner of the Labj-rin 
stands a pyramid, forty fathoms high, with large figui 
engraved on it ; which is entered by a subterranean passags 
149. Wonderful as is the Labyrinth, the work called 1 
Lake of Mceris," which is close by the Labyrinth, is yet nu 
astonishing. The measure of its circumference is sii 
schoenes, or three thousand six hundred furlongs, which 
equal to the entire length of Egypt along the sea-coast. ' 
lake stretches in its longest dii-ection from north to south, i 
in its deepest parts is of the depth of fifty fathoms. It 
manifestly an artificial excavation, for nearly in the cent 
there stand two pyramids,* rising to the height of fifty fathoi 
above the surface of the water, and extending as far beneal 
crowned each of them with a colossal statue sitting upon 
throne. Thus these pyramids are one hundred fathoms hi^ 
which is exactly a furlong (stadium) of six tmndred feet : t 
fathom being six feet in length, or four cubits, which is G 
same thing, since a cubit measures six, and a foot foi 
palms.'' The water of the lake does not come out of C 

' See noto' to the preceding- ohap- 

• No trocca rBmoin of Ihea^ py™- 
niicla. The mius at Bi£limoo show 
from their tormH, ond frocn the anglp 
of their walla, GT', that they were not 
pj-mmida ; nnlesa b, triangnlBT facing 
niade up the pyramid (eoe ob. 125, 

' The measnuBB of Herodotw 
nlmust nil (IrawD cither from . 
of llie humnn body, or fn>m b 
ooticins oasily performable. His a 
eat mpiuinre is the Simi^ot, or 
get's breadth," four of which go 
the noAiuBxrt {"palm" or •■ hi 
breadth"), while three psimi n 
the nri9(^4 ("span"), ud foot 

Chap. 148, 149. 



ground, which is here excessively dry,® but is introduced by a 
c&nal from the Nile. The current sets for six months into the 
hke from the river, and for the next six months into the river 
from the lake. While it runs outward it returns a talent of 
silver daily to the royal treasury from the fish that are taken ; * 

("foot"). The T^xw* (" cubit," 
or length from the tip of the fiDgers 
(0 the elbow) is a foot and a half, or 
two gpans ; the Ipyvid {** fathom," or 
Itngth to which the anuB can reach 
wh^ extended) is four cubits, or six 
feet. The wkiifMw (a word the deriva- 
tionof which is uncertain) is 100 feet; 
and the ariZtgp (or distance to which 

a man could run before he required 
to stop) is six plethra, or 600 feet. 
These are the only measures used by 
Herodotus, besides the schoene and 
parasang, by which he found distances 
determined in Egypt and Persia res- 
pectively. The following table will 
exhibit his scheme of measures : — 

* mniTVMVT* 

1 vaXaitfT^ 

I ovifa^^. 

1 vovr. 

1 ■■ijxW' 

1 opfvia. 

1 fXiOpov. 






























1 crdbtov. 

* This is the nature of the basin on 
which the alluvial soil has been depo- 
sited; but it resembles the whole 
▼alley of the Nile in being destitute 
of springs, which are only met with 
'D two or three places. The wells are 
all formed by the filtration of water 
from the river. In the Birket-el*Kom 
are some springs, serving, with the 
a&noal supply from the Nile, to keep 
np the water of the lake, which in the 
deepest part has only 2/i feet, and it 
is gradually becoming more shallow 
from the mud brought into it by the 
canals.— [O. W.] 

* A gi^at quantity of fish is caught 
erm at the prraent day at the mouths 
of the canals, when they are closed 
and the water is prevented from re- 
turning to the Nile. It afibrds a con- 
siderable revenue to the government. 
It is farmed by certain villages on the 
banks, and some idea may be formed 

of its value by the village of Agalteh 
at Thobes paying annually for its 
small canal 1500 piastres, equal till 
lately to 212. The custom of farming 
the fisheries was probably derived by 
the Arab government from the ancient 
Egyptians ; but El Makrisi mcntionsit 
as of comparatively late introduction. 
(See Silv. de Sacy's Relation de 
I'Egypte, par Abd-al-latif, p. 283, note.) 
Herodotus reckons the revenue from 
the fish of the Lake Moeris at a talent 
of silver (193/. 155. English,orassome 
compute it, 225?., or 243Z. 15s.) daily; 
and when the water flowed from the 
Nile into the lake at 20min8e (642. 125., 
or 8U. I5. Sd.), amounting at the 
lowest calculation to more than 
47,0001. a-year. According to Diodo- 
rus (i. 62) this was part of the pin- 
money of the queens. See n. ' ch. 98. 
-[G. W.] 


bat when the current is the other way the return sinks to one- 
third of that sum. 

150. The natives told me that there was a subterranean 
passage from this lake ^ to the Libyan Syrtis, running west- 
ward into the interior by the hills above Memphis. As I could 
not anywhere see the earth which had been taken out when 
the excavation was made, and I was curious to know what had 
become of it, I asked the Egyptians who live closest to the lake 
where the earth had been put. The answer that they gave me 
I readily accepted as true, since I had heard of the same thing 
being done at Nineveh of the Assyrians. There, once upon a 
time, certain thieves, having formed a plan to get into their 
possession the vast treasures of Sardanapalus, the Ninevite 
king,* which were laid up in subterranean treasuries, pro- 
ceeded to timnel a passage from the house where they lived 
into the royal palace, calculating the distance and the direc- 
tion. At nightfall they took the earth from the excavation 
and carried it to the river Tigris, which ran by Xineveh, con- 
tinuing to got rid of it in this manner until they had accom- 
plished tbeir purpose. It was exactly in the same way that 
the Egyptians disposed of the mould from their excavation, 
except that they did it by day and not by night ; for as fast 
as the earth was dug, they carried it to the Nile, which they 
knew would disperse it far and wide. Such was the account 
which I received of the formation of this lake. 

151. The twelve kings for some time dealt honourably by 
one another; but at length it happened that on a certain 
occasion, when they had met to worship in the temple of 
Vulcan, the high-priest on the last day of the festival, in bring- 

* Horodotna here evidently alludes ' * It is nncertain which Afisyrian 

to the natural lake, now Birket-el- king is hero intended. The Greeka 

Korrif not to the artificial Moeri:?. The j recognized two monarchs of the name 

belief in underground communications | — one a warrior, who is perhaps Asihur- 

ifl still very prevalent in Egypt (as in , izir-paly the father of the Black Obe- 

other countries) to the present day ; ' lisk king : the other the volnptuary, 

and might very reasonably arise from who closed, according to them, the 

what wo see in limestone formations. long series of Assyrian soYeroigns, 
— [G. W.] 



ing forth the golden goblets from which they were wont to 
poor the libations, mistook the number, and brought eleven 
goblets only for the twelve princes. Psammetichus was stand- 
ing last, and, being left without a cup, he took his helmet, 
which was of bronze,® from oflf his head, stretched it out to 
receive the liquor, and so made his libation. All the kings 
were accustomed to wear helmets, and all indeed wore them at 
this very time. Nor was there any crafty design in the action 
of Psammetichus. The eleven, however, when they came to 
consider what had been done, and bethought them of the 
oracle which had declared " that he who, of the twelve, should 
pour a libation from a cup of bronze, the same would be king 
of the whole land of Egypt," doubted at first if they should 
not put Psammetichus to death. Finding, however, upon 
examination, that he had acted in the matter without any 
guilty intent, they did not think it would be just to kill him ; 
but determined, instead, to strip him of the chief part of his 
power and to banish him to the marshes, forbidding him 
to leave them or to hold any communication with the rest of 

152. This was the second time that Psammetichus had 
been driven into banishment. On a former occasion he had 
fled from Sabacos the Ethiopian,* who had put his father 
Needs to death ; and had taken refuge in Syria, from whence, 
after the retirement of the Ethiop in consequence of his 
dream, he was brought back by the Egyptians of the Saitic 
canton. Now it was his ill-fortune to be banished a second 
time by the eleven kings, on account of the libation which he 

* If this were so, and the other kings 
wore the same kind of helmet, the 
l^jptiaos would not have been ear. 
priaed at seeing men in similar armour 
coming from the sea (ch. 152). Bronze 
armour was of very early date in 
Egypt, and was therefore no novelty 
in the reign of Psammetichns. It is 
represented in the tombs of the kings 
at Thebes ; and bronze plates, forming 
pari of a corslet of scale armour, have 

been found bearing the name of Shes- 
honk, and are in Dr. Abbott's collec. 
tion. (See note on B. vii. ch. 89.) 
XdXKos is really " bronze," opflxa^os 
" brass." Objects liave been found of 
brass as well as of bronze in Egypt. — 
[G. W.] 

* On the Sabacos, Tirhaka, and 
Psammetichus, see notes ^ and ^ on ch. 
137, and Hist. Notice in App. ch. Tiii. 
§ 31-34.— [G. W-l 



had poured from his helmet ; on this occasion he fled to tht 
marHbee. Feeling that he was an injured man, and designing 
to avenge himself npon his perBecutors, PaammetichuB sent tl 
the city of Buto, where there is an oracle of Latona, the mo4 
veracious of all the oracles of the Egyptians, and havinl 
inquired concerning means of vengeance, received for aDswpr, 
that " Vengeance would come from the sea, when brazen m€B 
should appear." Great was his incredulity when this answ^ 
arrived ; for never, he thought, would brazen men arrive to ni 
his helpers. However, not long afterwards certain Cariax 
and lonians, who had left their country on a voyage 4 
plunder, were carried by stress of weather to Egypt, wbel 

were seen by the natives, one of whom carried the tidings i 
Psammetichus, and, as he bad never before seen men clad i 
brass, be reported that brazen mea had come from the a« 
and were plundering the plain. Psammetichus, perceiving i 
once that the oracle waa accomplished, made friendly advano* 
to the strangers, and engaged them, hy splendid promises, ( 
enter into his service. He then, with their aid and that of HH 
Egyptians who espoused his cause, attacked the eleven ai4 
vanquished them." i 

' Tho Aaajrian inacriptiona show 

by ibe Bid of troops scat to him from 

Asia Minor by Gvgoa. (Bob above, 

vol. i. p. 353.) Tlie story told to He. 

rodotua probably grew out of this taol. 

[ThiB WM in fact tho first time Ibol 

tba Egyptian PbaraoliB had reooo™, to 

Greek mercenarieH, aud began to fiaii 

their ntility ; Bad though the ancient 

1 Idnga in the glorioiu time* of Etrypfs 

L great power had foreign aniiliarioB 

■ (see noodcat, next page ; and that in 

■ note. B. fii. ob. ei, where three of 

■ these people arc etiemiea of Egypt), 

■ the army, like those of the rariem 

■ peditions of Xorics and other Pergian 
K nionarchs. But the intruduction of 

Qreek paid troops into tho E^yptj 
Birnrioe oicited tb? jealousy of 1 
natire aroiy (who could not hare bt 

nhown to them led lo the aefectita 
the Egvptiao troops (see note' oa4 
30). The Egyptiau army had lort 
former mililaiy ardour; and now U 
Syria was bo often threatened by | 
poverfnl nations ot Asia, it « 

seek to emi.loy foreigners, wh 
oonrago and fidelity hs oonJd tn 
(See Hist. Notice, App. CH. nii. G ] 
Herodotufl states that tboaa Gn 

loft it (SCO note'' oh. IIS). SU 

<W. Kit Its. 



153. Whm Paammetichns had thus become aole monarch 
rf Egypt, he built the southern gateway of the temple of Vul- 
cu in Memphis, and also a court for Apis, in which Apis ' is 
^it whenever he makes his appearance in Egypt. This 
watt is oppoeite the gateway of pBammeti(diiis, and is sur- 

^ p. liai) speaJc* of the emp\oj. 
ant of menooaij tioopt in Egjpt w 
»i M cnitom. That of Pnmmeti- 
du differed fiom the euiier ejateta 
ofuoOkriea ; it ma a sign of weak- 
■MiiUMl -wmM ta*al to Sgjft M to 
^>R%B (lee HaoohisTelli, Prina. a. 

™u took tbe Cimaiii into fau pay, 
■(fmg that tbe plmnee tbey wore od 
"vii helmets poioted to the oracle, 

wbioh bad naimd Temantbea, then 
king of BgTpt, against oooks. (Cp. 
Pint. Tit. Altai, or Carian oioBtB.) 
With them he therefore attacked 
Tamanthea, and hanog killed bim, 
gave thoee «oldieni a quarter in Hem- 
phis, Uieaoe oallod Caromempbis. Tho 
mercenary troops, or " hired men," 
in the time of " Neoho," are men- 
tioned in Jeremiah (ilvi. 21). — 

' This coDii was sarroondod by 
Oainde pillars, like that of Mcdoenet 
Hsboo at Thebes. Attached to it 
ware probably Ihe two stables, "dcln- 
bia," or " thalami," mentioood by 
niny (Tiii. 4fl) ; and Strabo {xvVi. p. 
B5S) says, " Before the sikos or cham- 
ber wbere Apis is kept Ji a Testibole, 
in which is another chamber for the 
motber of the sacred bull, and into 
(hi* reatibnle Apis i* 

trodacpd, particnlarly when shown to 
Btrnngcrs; at other times he is only 
seen throngh a window of tho sGkos. 
.... The tcraplo of Apis is close to 
that of Vulcan." Pliny pretends that 
the entry of Apia into tiio ono or tho 
other of tbe "delnbra" was a good 
or a bad omen. On Apis, one above, 
ch. SB, noto*, and compare B. iii. cb. 
28.— [G. W.] 


rounded Yfiiii a colonnade and adorned with a multitude of 
figures. Instead of piUars, the colonnade rests upon colossal 
statues, twelve cubits in height. The Greek name for Apis is 

154. To the lonians and Carians ^ who had lent him their 
assistance Psammetichus assigned as abodes two places oppo- 
site to each other, one on either side of the Nile, which 
roceived the name of ** the Camps." ® He also made good all 
the splendid promises by which he had gained their support ; 
and further, he intrusted to their care certain Egyptian 
children, whom they were to teach the language of the Greeks. 
Those children, thus instructed, became the parents of the 
entire class of interpreters* in Egypt. The lonians and 
Carians occupied for many years the places assigned them by 
Psammotiohus, which lay near the sea, a* little below the city 
of l^ubastis. on the Pelusiac mouth of the NUe.^ King 
Auiasis. loui: afurwards, removed the Greeks thence, and 
scttUil tlum at Memphis to guanl him against the native 
r.g\ ptiaus. From the date of the original settlement of these 
IHTsons in F.irypt. we Greeks, through our intercourse with 
theuK have ae^uiivd an aociu-ate knowledge of the several 
events in Kg^ptian history, from the reign of Psammetichus 
KKn\r.\\ai\ls ; but before his time no foreigners had ever taken 
up tb.iiv i\sidaue in that land. The docks where their 
vv\<sels were laid up. and the ruins of their habitations, were 
still to Iv seen in my day at the place where they dwelt 

Tb.t* Oair-.Ar.s stvr.-. :o have Kn^n •..!. *r >.*<»*«, i«-r« Ka^s mcXw^o^mm. 

t\ v.%\ c; ir»:^x"'V.»: ;:uiv.<c".xi^s ss :vrr. The Schcliast en Plato savs that they 

^vv.,v,> s\ 'vl » vs !:v:v. A \;"r\ i;.r'\ vi.uo, wcrv the first to engage in the occu- 

Av.,; SvO'Axv vN v.v.i\v,;v. :ho jrft^;;sV<o y^tkn, and quotas Ephoms as an 

k v.c AS tV.*\ >\o;v :>.c.r ox»r. n :.>:or!?. autbcritv. 
AvWAivj; '.x^ >v".Vv- vN.'r.-v.'.i'v:;;u rs, :r.o * Sor? cvto'cnch. 112. 

«'\i-,\vvN;» V, v.\ V..r. «.r ".'.. :\- i^TS . tr * S^x"" cni of note * on ch. 164. 

Kjv^x aI'v. '.> *. . ,v u:.v;;:s:v\v; u; :"..> * The s:io chv-^en for the Greek 

>\ *,%NO ^S.v ;:.,' Sciv .. :u*. r.,s:.". iv.. camps sl.cxrs that they were thought 

Ku^;v.Vx'v V .-i-i':'. Av.»l vvv. V :':.or.v:o r.ixv><^rT ** a defence against foreign 

\ t Uow.o \,' \ y w\\ ' \:v':.\v': ■.-.> tr.vas.iC fr\ai the eastwaixi. (See 

vv.^Av/.x N\v Vo o? '.V.iV.; A* r..;vr:v;;> P.vxur, :. t^T.^ The Roman Scenar 

fo* v.iAvv.Arx M^:>'x>\ a* a^-jvat* ViTr".; ■»,.'-..•% were not very far from 

ti\-m tW ^fii i»oinn hne— thi*. — *G. W.'! 

Chip. 15S-15$. 



originally, before they were removed by Amasis. Such was 
the mode by which Psammetichus became master of Egypt. 

155, I have abready made mention more than once of the 
Egyptian oracle ; * and, as it well deserves notice, I shall now 
proceed to give an account of it more at length. It is a temple 
o/Latona,® situated in the midst of a great city on the Seben- 
nytk mouth of the NUe, at some distance up the river from the 
sea. The name of the city, as I have before observed, is Buto ; 
and in it are two other temples also, one of Apollo and one of 
Diana. Latona's temple, which contains the oracle, is a spacious 
building with a gateway ten fathoms in height.* The most won- 
derful thing that was actually to be seen about this temple ^ 

* Supra, chs. 83, 133, and 152. 
There were several other oracles, bat 
that of Bato, or Latona, was held in 
the highest repate. (See clu 83.) 

' Herodotus says that this goddess 
was one of the great deities (ch. 156). 
She appears to be a character of Maat, 
and may, in one of her characters, be 
Thriphis the Goddess of Athribis, 
where the Mjgale or shrew-mouse, 
w^hich was sacred to Buto, was said 
by Strabo to have been worshipped. 
I have seen a small figure of a hedge- 
hog with the name of Buto upon it. 
Bute, as Cham poll ion supposed, was 
probably primasval darkness. (See 
notes' and * on B. ii. ch. 59, and App. 
CH. iii. § 2, Maut.) Lucian (De De4 
8yr4, s. 36) says there were many 
oracles in Egypt, as in Greece, Asia, 
and Libya, the responses of which 
were given " by priests and prophets." 
The principal ones in Egypt were of 
Buto, Hercules (Gem), Apollo (Horns), 
Kinerva (Neith), Diana (Bubastis), 
Kara (Honurins, or more probably 
Kandoo, see note^ on ch. 63), and 
Jupiter (Amun, at Thebes; see chs. 
64, 57. 83, 111, 133). That of Besa 
was also noted, which was said by 
Ammianus Marcel linus to have been 
at Abydus, or, according to others, 
near the more modem Antinoopolis ; 
but it is uncertain who that Deity 
was. Heliopolis had also its oracle 
(Miiarob. Satnr. i^ 80) ; but the most 

celebrated was that of " Ammon " in 
the Oasis. The position of the city of 
Latona, near the Sebennytic mouth, 
was on the W. bank, between that 
branch of the Nile and the lake, about 
20 miles from the sea. The isle of 
Chemmis was in that lake. Hero- 
dotus is supposed to have been in- 
debted to HecatsBus for the mention 
of this island. (See Miiller's Fragm. 
Hist. Graec. vol. i.)— [G. W.] 

* This is the height of the pyramidal 
towers of the propylaeum, or court of 
entrance. The 10 orgyiaB, or 60 feet, 
is the full height of those towers, 
which seldom exceed 50. In front, on 
either side of the entrance, was 
usually a colossus of the king, before 
which stood two obelisks terminating 
an avenue, or dromos, of sphinxes. 
Clemens confounds the propylasum 
with the pronaos. Pylon, pyl6n6, and 
propylon are applied to the stone gate- 
way, when standing alone before the 
temple ; and the same kind of entrance 
is repeated between the two towers 
of the inner court or propylaeum, 
immediately " before the door " of the 
actual temple, or at least of its portico. 
A stone pylon is also placed as a side 
entrance to the crude brick enclosure 
of a temonos. — [G. W.] 

' Herodotus says, "the most won- 
derful thing that was actually to be 
seen," because he considers that the 
wonder of the floating island, which 

CiAP. 166, 166. 



^&8 a chapel in the enclosure made of a single stone,^ the 
length and height of which were the same, each wall being 
forty cubits square, and the whole a single block ! Another 
Uoek of stone formed the roof, and projected at the eaves to 
the extent of four cubits. 

156. This, as I have said, was what astonished me the 
most, of all the things that were actually to be seen about the 
temple* The next greatest marvel was the island called 
Chemmis. This island lies in the middle of a broad and deep 
lake close by the temple, and the natives declare that it floats. 
For my own part I did not see it float, or even move ; and 
I wondered greatly, when they told me concerning it, whether 
there be really such a thing as a floating island.'^ It has 

be *' did not see " (cK 156), would, if 
true, hare been Btill more astonishing. 
* Acoording to these measnrements, 
•opposing the walls to have been onlj 
6 feet thick, and the material granite, 
ms in other monoliths, this monament 
'Would weigh upwards of 67S8 tons, 
being 76,032 cubic feet, without the 
oomice, which was placed on the roof. 
The reigns of the Psammetiohi and 
other kings of this 26th dynasty were 
the period of the renaissance or re- 
Tiral of art in Egypt, both for the 
•ixe and beauty of the monuments ; 
and though the sculptures are not so 
spirited as during the 18th and 19th 
dynasties, they have great elegance, 
aharpness of execution, and beauty of 
finish. It is singular that though the 
•cnlptores and paintings in the tombs 
near the pyramids are inferior to those 
of the best age, and though progress 
is perceptible in different times, there 
is DO really rude or archaic stylo in 
Bgypt ; there are no specimens of a 
primitiTe state, or early attempts in 
%rt, snoh as are found in other coun- 
tries ; and the masonry of the oldest 
monuments that remain, the pyramids, 
▼ies with that of any subsequent 
age, particularly in their exquisitely 
wrought granite. The art of Egypt 
was of native growth, and was ori- 
ginal and characteristic ; but the Egyp- 
tians, Eke all other people, borrowed 

occasionally from those with whom 
they had early intercourse; and as 
the Assyrians adopted from them the 
winged globe, the lotus, and many 
other emblems or devices, the Egyp- 
tians Bccm also to have taken from 
Assyria certain ornaments unknown 
in Egypt before and during the 12th 
dynasty. Among these may be men- 
tioned vases with the heads of a horse, 
a cock, a vulture, or an eagle (such as 
is given to the eupposcd Assyrian 
deity Nisroch), the knot, and the 
feather patterns, and perhaps some of 
the trappings of the horse, an animal 
apparently introduced from Asia. 
Even the Typhonian monster with 
feathers on his head, so common under 
the 22nd dynasty, seems to have 
some connection with Asia, as well as 
with Libya. Those devices first occur 
on monuments of the 18th and 19th 
dynasties, whose kings came much in 
contact with the Assyrians; and it 
was perhaps from them that the 
pointed arch of that time was copied, 
which, though not on the principle of 
the true arch, appears to have been 
cut into the stone roof, in imitatum of 
what the Egyptians had seen, as the 
round one was in imitation of the 
brick arches they had themselves so 
long used (see n.» ch. 136).— [G. W.] 

7 Ilccatapus had related the marvels 
of this island, which he called Chem- 



238 SIEGE OP AZOTUS. Boob ij 

a grand temple of Apollo built upon it, in which are three dis- 
tinct altars. Palm-trees grow on it in great abundance, and 
many other trees, some of which bear fruit, while others are 
barren. The Egyptians tell the following story in connection 
with this island, to explain the way in which it first came to 
float : — " In former times, when the isle was still fixed and 
motionless, Latona, one of the eight gods of the first order, 
who dwelt in the city of Buto, where now sho has her oracle, 
received Apollo as a sacred charge from Isis, and saved him 
by hiding him in what is now called the floating island. 
Typhou meanwhile was searching everywhere in hopes of find- 
ing the child of Osiris." (According to the Egyptians, Apollo 
and Diana are the chUdren of Bacchus and Isis ; " while 
Latona is their nurse and their preserver. They call ApoUo, 
in their language. Horns ; Ceres they call Isis ; Diana, Bubaa- 
tia. From this Egj-pUau tradition, and from no other, it must 
have been that ^achylus, the son of Euphorion, took the idea, 
which is foimd in none of the earher poets, of making Diana 
the daughter of Ceres.') The island, therefore, in consequeno© 
of this event, was first made to ^oat. Such at least is the 
account which the Egyptians give. 

157. Psammetichus ruled Egypt for fifty-four yeara, daring 
twenty -nine of which he pressed the siege of Azotus ' withoat 

dulily. (Fr. 2&t) There is a laoil 
ollnition to him in thia passage. 

* Apollo mw Horaii, the Min of Ids 
and UBiriB (C*rM and BlUwhnB) ; bat 
ho had no sister in Egyptian mylhc 
tog;, and IHona was Bubaetis or 
Panht, who appears to be ono of the 
gnnt deities, and wa* the wrond 
member ot the great triad of Mem. 

Kofi'o-Atuiop. The Diana of the 
Orwics nas daughter of Idtona ; and 
HerudutD* and Hlularob eay that ^s- 
Ohylus was the only one who mentioBa 
lier as Ceres, in imitation ot the Epvp- 
tiuis. ArocHs and even Hor-Hat 

L UBW0F to Apjlo, from their having a 

hawk's head libe Homa. Theylhens 
foro called the cilv of Hcir-IIat Apol. 
linopoUe MaiRw {EJ/o"). and that cC 

[G.W.] '^ "^ 
• ninaanias loporU this al» (tiii. 

following Herodotus. It is not a 

loc) that it was for revealing tU« 
secret {?) that .fBohflua wM acomed 
ot violating the niysteriea. The nao- 
tion of JiBchylmi in important, •• 
chowiDg that Uerodotos wm m, 
qnainted with his wril.iogs, 

sacred seriplnre. This showa how 
ranch the Egjiitinu power had dedioed 

Chaf. 156-168. 



intermission, till finally he took the place. Azotos is a great 
town in Syria. Of all the cities that we know, none ever stood 
80 long a siege. 

158. Psammetichns left a son called Needs, who succeeded 
him upon the throne. This prince was the first to attempt the 
construction of the canal to the Red Sea* — a work completed 

f^wiege a dty near the confines of 
%7Pt for BO long a time as twentj. 
luoe years, the armies of the Pharaohs 
in the glorioos days of the 18th and 
Idth djnasties being in the constant 
h*bit of traversing the whole coontrj 
from the Nile to the Euphrates. Dio- 
donu Bajs it was in the Syrian cam- 
pttign that the Egyptian troops de- 
Krted from Psaomietichos. The cap- 
tare of Azotos facilitated the adyance 
of his son Neco when he continued 
the war. The duration of the siege 
of Axotus was probably owing to its 
hanng reoeired an Assyrian garrison, 
heing an important adTanced point to 
keep the Egyptians in check ; and the 
king of Nineveh was perhaps pre- 
rented by circumstances at that time 
from Bendicg to succour it. For 
Tartan had been sent by " Sarg6n, 
king of Assyria/' and bad taken Ash- 
dod (Isaiah xx. 1). Tartan is thought 
not to be the name of an individual, but 
the title *' general/* The mention of 
Ethiopians and Egyptians taken pri. 
■oners by the Assyriana (Is. xx. 4) 
doobtless refers to the previous cap. 
tore of Azotus, when it held a mixed 
garrison (Egypt having then an Ethi- 
opian dynasty) which was compelled 
to surrender to the Assyrians. Ash- 
dod was the strong city of the Philis- 
tines, where they took the ark ^ into 
the boose of Dagon " (1 Sam. v. 2) ; 
and that it was always a fortified 
place is shown by the name, which signi- 
fies, like the Arabic shedeed, " strong." 
In the wars between the Egyptians 
and Assyrians it was at one time in 
the possession of one, at another of 
the rival power. Psammetichns reigned 
according to Herodotos fifty-foor 
years, and his 54th year occors on 
the Apis SteUe (see Historical Notice 

of Egypt in Appendix, ch. rilL § 33). 
— [G. W.] 

* Herodotos says Neoo (or Necdj) 
began the canal, and Strabo attributes 
it to " Psammetichns his son ; " bat 
the roins on its banks show that it 
already existed in the time of Beme- 
ses II., and that the statement of 
Aristotle, Strabo, and Pliny, who 
ascribe its commencement at least to 
Sesostris, is founded on fact. That 
from its sandy site it woold reqoire 
frequent re^xcavating is very evi- 
dent, and these successive operations 
may have given to the different kings 
by whom they were performe'l the 
credit of commencing the canaL It is 
certainly inconsistent to suppc^e that 
the Egyptians (who of all people had 
the greatest experience in making 
canals, and who even to the late time 
of Nero were tlie people consal^e^i 
about cutting throusrb tl>e liithmni of 
Corinth — Lucian; should have been 
obliged to wait for it- compIfrtioL t.'U 
the accession of the Pu>It-mie«. The 
authoritv of Herodotus! fcuffic;.« to 
prove that it was compl'^ie^l in his 
time to the Bed Sea ; and the Uiooo- 
ments of Remeres at a town on its 
banks prove that it exihted in his 
reign. Neco may have discontinoed 
the re-opening of it ; Darius nuiy have 
completed it. as Henxiotnif etaUrs, 
both here and in Book iv. ch. 39 ; acid 
it may have been re-open^:*! and im- 
proved by the Pt/vlemies, and at^in 
by the Arabs. In like manner, though 
the Alexandrian canal in attril/uted 
entirely to ICohammed Ali, this d/>«9S 
not prove that it was not the nafx^mnf/r 
of an older canal, which k'ft ty*. S.Us 
at another y/mU Tlie trade of Egyj/t 
was very great with ^/iher c>^jntrieii, 
to which she exported c<cn at a re- 


afterwards by Darius the PerBian ' — the length of which is foul 
days' joTiTDey, aud the width such as to admit of two triremec; 
being rowed along it abreast. The water is derived from tlu 
Nile, which the canal leaves a tittle above the city of Bubastis,' 

mote period t and wd Rnd fmm Allie- 
DKOS (ii. c. 3) that Bocchjlidea, wlio 
lired sbuut tbe time of FiciIaT, flpeaks 
of corn going to (iTogco in shipa from 
Egjpt, wliDD he Bays, " ail moQ when 
dmnk fancy they are kin^e, their 
houBOB are reepleudeut with gold and 
ivoiy, and oorn-bOBring Bhipa bring 
over tbe bright sen tbe abondant 
wealth of Egypt." Wheat is repre- 
ei?ntad as ita staple commodity, at the 
coronation of the oorlj Egyptian kings. 
The trade with Arabia b; Boa appears 
to haTebeouDpoDedafl early aatho 12th 
dynasty, and afterwards trade extended 
to India. But even under tho Ptolemies 
- tind Ctcsars it wu confined to the 
western coast and tbe islands ; and in 
Strabo'a time " few merchants went 
from Ei^ypt to the GangcB " (xt. p. 
472). The first Egyptian port on the 
Red Sea was probably .^nunm, afler- 
wards Philotera, so called from tfau 
yoongest sister of Ptolemy Pbiladel- 
phus (now old JConffjr) , at tho water- 
ing-place near wbioh are the motia- 
ments of Aumn-m-lie IL and Osirloseu 
n.-[Q. W.J 

* An inBcription of Darins in the 
Fersian Cuneiform cbaiacler is en- 
graTod upon the Suez Btone near the 
embouchure of the ancient canal. It 
reads : " IhiryavuBh naqa wniarka," 
" Darius tbo Great Kiug," (Behistnn 
Uemoir, vol. i. p. 319.) 

• Tho commencement of the Bad 
Sea oanal wa« in different plHCoB at 
various periods, In ttio tiine of Uero- 
dotni it left the Pclnsiao branch a 
little above Bnbastis ; it was after- 
wards snpplied with water by tho 
Amnis TrajanuB, which left the Nile 
at Babylon {near old Cairo) ; and tbe 
portion of it that remaiuB now begiDS 
a short diBtaooe from Belbays, wliioh 
is about 11 miles Boalh of Bubostis. 
Strabo mnat ha wrong in saying it 
■nai at Phacusa, which is loo low down 

tbe stream. The diftcronoe of 13 {• 
between tbe loTels of the Eed Si 
and Mediterranean is now proved ' 
bo on error. Pliny says that Ptolaa 
desisted from the work, finding tl 
Bed Sea was 3 cubit-s (1^ feel) higlM 
than tho land of Egypt; Lot, infi 
pendent of onr knowing that it wi 
already tiniehcd in Herodotus' tiiM 
it is obvioDB that a people accnitom^ 
to flloices, and every oontrivanor "" 
cessary for water of nuionB It 
would not be deterred by this, 
far (greater, difierence in the height t 
the sea and the Nile, and DiodcM 
eiprfflsly states that alniceswere oi 
struclcd at its moDth. It so, th 
were on account of the • 
levels, which varied iiia(«rially at hi 
and low Nile, and at each tide, of S' 
6 feet, in the Bed Sea, and to pre*a 
the Bou. water from tunting that 
the canal. Tho city of tho Eels, V 
groriopoliB, was evidently founded 
its banks to ensure tbe mainteoai 
of the canal. Tbe place of the si 
appears to be traaeablB near Sat 
where a channel in the rook hu ba 
cut to form the month of tbe tsn 
It is probable that the merofaandl 
was tmnsbippcd from the boats in t 
canal to those in the harbunr, on t 
other side of the quay, and that slnic 
were not opened except dnrin); ll 
inundation, when the stivam nu tn 
the Nile to the Red Sea. In the tn 
of (be Romans it was s ~ 
afterwards fell into dis 
choked up until tho caliph Onwr I 
opened it, in order to send SDppli«a 
Arabia, in record of which benefit 
received tbe title of " Prince of I 
Faithful," Emter el Mommem, w 
was continood to or assmned by I 
ancceseoiB. It was closed 134 — ' 
afterwards by El MnnsoorAbDol 
tbe 2nd Abbaside Caliph, to pi 
supplieB going to Medeeneh, tbta 




near Patumus, the Arabian town,^ being continued thence until 
it joins the Red Sea, At first it is carried along the Arabian 
side of the Egyptian plain, as far as the chain of hills opposite 
Memphis, whereby the plain is bounded, and in which lie the 
great stone quarries ; here it skirts the base of the hills run- 
ning in a direction from west to east ; after which it turns, 
and enters a narrow pass, trending southwards from this 
point, until it enters the Arabian Gulf. From the northern 
sea to that which is called the southern or Erythraean, the 
shortest and quickest passage, which is from Mount Gasius, 
the boundary between Egypt and Syria, to the Gulf of Arabia, 
is a distance of exactly one thousand furlongs.® But the way 
by the canal is very much longer, on account of the crooked- 
ness of its course. A hundred and twenty thousand of the 

the hands of one of the descendants 
of Ali; since which time it has re- 
mained closed, though £1 Hakem is 
laid to have once more rendered it 
narigable for boats, a.d. 1000. After 
that it was filled up with sand, though 
fome water passed during the high 
Kile as far as Shekh Han^ydik and 
the Bitter Lakes, until Mohammed 
All closed it entirely, and the canal 
DOW only goes to Tel e* Rigdbeh, about 
26 miles from Belbays. Its course 
was nearly due east for 35 miles from 
Belbays as far as Shekh Hanaydik, 
when it curved to the southward and 
ran by the Bitter Lakes to the sea. 
Its sea-mouth in early times was pro. 
bably further N. ; the land having 
risen about Suez. — [G. W.] 

* Herodotus calls Patumus an Ara- 
bian town, as l3dng on the east side 
of the Nile. Patumus was not (as I 
formerly supposed) near the Red Sea, 
bat at the commencement of the 
cbdbI, and was the Pithom mentioned 
in BIzod. i. 11. It waa the Thoum 
(Thoo) of the Itinerary of Antoninus, 
54 M.P. from Babylon, whose site ap- 
pears to be maHced by the ruined 
town opposite Tel el Wddee, 6 miles 
east of the month of the canal. From 
Thoom to the Bitter Lakes may be 


about 38 miles, and from Thoum to 
the sea about 80. Pliny reckons 37 
M.P. from the western entrance of tho 
canal to the Bitter Lakes, giving it a 
breadth of 100 feet and a depth of 40 
(H. N. vi. 33) . On its length, according 
to Herodotus, see following note. (i?o(3 
M. Eg. W. i. 310 to 316.) 

Pithom Dns is related to the word 
Thnmmim D*cn. which is translated in 
the Soptuagint " Truth," and is taken 
from the Egyptian Thuieij " Truth," or 
" Justice," whence tho Greek Oifxis 
and trvfjLos, The double capacity of 
the Egyptian goddess Thmoi is re- 
tained in Thummi//i. — [G. W.] 

• This Heixxlotus considers less than 
the length of the canal ; but his 1000 
stadia (about 11 Jj EngliSh miles at 600 
Greek feet to the stadium) are too 
much ; and he appears to have in- 
cluded in it the whole distance by 
water from the Mediterranean to tho 
Red Sea, both by the Nile and the 
eanal. The length of tho canal was 
about 80 miles, or, if measured from 
the Bubastite branch to the Red Sea, 
about 96. The shortest distance from 
the Mediterranean to tho Red Sea 
overland is about 76 miles. The line 
from Mount Gasius is not tho shortest, 
being about 90 miles. — [G. W.] 




Egyptians, employed upon the work in the reign of Needs, 
their lives in making the excavation J He at length desi 
firom his undertaking, in consequence of an oracle w 
iKiamed him " that he was labouring for the barbarian." ® 
Egyptians call by the name of barbarians all such as s] 
a knguage different from their oto. 

159. Xecos, when he gave up the construction of the ca 
turned all his thoughts to war, and set to work to build a 
of triremes,* some intended for service in the northern 
and some for the navigation of the Erythraean. These 
were built in the Arabian Gulf, where the dry docks in w 
they lay are still Tisible. These fleets he employed whei 
he had occasion ; while he also made war by land upon 
Svrians, and defeated them in a pitched battle at Magdo 

* Thi* calls to mind the loss of life :ie Alexs.:! Irian c&c&I wss soade 
I M. :..:■„:..•:.'. A-: : I -: "«^v ii:av iT:;-*- 
;>>t- :>.o :.-:v.V-.r> ^\u:Iy ex^^rirts 
^ -. > A' •■-.-—.-,• A'- 'li* 1« •*"•'•"* 

:v. . ■ . T .. - r-. Lif - :: ^ A ? : iia: tie v tt-: re 

1 ," f •. o. ■; -: •:. J : r: v"! J-- i f.. r : L-. rr . 
t":.:>i^ ''^1. >v :;i !:.':•:? fa:>vl ::■ Str..i 

»•--.•. »■ •« v ».- ■•" ^ I ■ ■ . • it • — •- -».- — ^— ■• 

•L • •■» '.»\v '— ^•»• • ■. • ""^ »■> CT ^ ■'.^'* '.■:'^*'4 

IV Wire: '/;.: A^:^ll::v' i-r\::.::i5. Bcrivr 

r;''. .:;V. Tv^ >.v..;' X-C-. ;.o cl as 
r « '.o ::.o N v.. •...:.>, w'no do no: oa'.I 
:' ;• ,< ' ^> iVrlv:>. It tj^tss aftorwarvis 
t\:;:;.iV. to. *:. : r.iyu-d ^v. ether 
•jxv. \\ 1: wr.> u>eA ly :ho Ejv; tians 
Ail rV.:',,» at '.iA>t as tl.o ISth dyi^asiy. 
1: •> vV.c .! v.AU} :r.>tar:v>:> cf rtxlu- 
:.K*a:.," , ! tV.o er-ctv-.l tr^ r,:. Bor 
Kn.w..; :vr':vr. a< Mar in 
>'.;v.v'ir .-.J. a ^t;>tr.v-t ci N.rt- Africa ; 
a; .i : o :^ a: .1 M ^v.r:*: tr^r.>r..utaV.o 
'.;:,• •'v >'. A r v.- ar. ." a ar. i Kar l>ar! ."a 
\*v V...'. Av; N ^--v^i'lv "wc". to t':.«> cv-a<: 
ot* U".r\-4rN v». ^V.' 

V;; *.: Vx S«''*..<tr.s ; Ar.:! Hor^.vio:u> 
^•.sMV> of :i;o .ix\*'K:=. or the s^tooks. 

wbepe the ahipe of Xeoo were : 
The Esryptians had one fleet c 
KeJ S«i, and another on the Me 
ranean : and their ships of wa 
rer^reseiited on a temple of Re 
Ui.— 'G. WV 

* The place here intended see 
be Me»riddo. where Josiali Ioj 
life, between Gilgal and Mourn 
mei. *.*n the road through 
ncrttwani*, and not Migdol (W 
v.- J', which was in Ecrypt. The 
larltv of the two names easily '. 
the mistake (2 Chi\in. xxxt. 
Xeoo had then eone ** to fiurht a 
Carclieniish by Euphrates," and < 
attacked him on his march, j 
•• valley of Me^ddo," ** as he wi 
airaiiist the king of Assyria t 
nver Etiphrates '* (2 Kings xxii 
Nevv- is there called ** Pharaoh (P 

The position of the Jews be 
the two ereat rival powers ei 
them to the resentment of th 
airaini^t whom they took part ; a 
the case with Uosea, king of '. 
when be sided with ** So, ki; 
Ej^y^^i,*' and Shalmaneser, ki 
As>AT:a,'* carried Israel awaj 
captivitv** ^2 Kings xvii. 4, 
[G. W.]* 

Taere were two cities known 

Chi?. 15g, 159. 



after which he made himself master of Cadytis,^ a large city of 
Syria. The dress which he wore on these occasions he sent 
to BranchidflB in Milesia, as an offering to Apollo.® After 
having reigned in all sixteen years,* Needs died, and at his 
death bequeathed the throne to his son Psammis. 

Jcwi by the name of Migdol (^ijo) ; 
CM, mentioned in Exodus (xiv. 2) 
and Jeremiah (xlvi. 14), was not only 
on the borders of Egj-pt, but was ac- 
twUy in Egypt, as is apparent from 
Ml passages. This is undoubtedly 
the Hagd6lus of classical writers, 
which i^peared in Hecatsous as '^ an 
Egyptian city" (w6\ts Aty^rov^ Fr. 
2^)) and which m the Itinerary of 
Aotonine (p. 14) is placed 12 Roman 
oules to the west or south-west (not Bihr says, vol. i. p. 921) of 
Peloaium. The other, called for dis- 
tinction's sake Migdol-cl (Sk-^i:d), 
was in the lot of Nnphtali (Josh. xix. 
88), and is fairly id(>utificd ^vith the 
"Magdala" of St. Matthew (xv. 39)" 
—the birthplace of Mary Magdalene. 
This place, which retains its name 
tlmoflt unchanged (Stanley's Pales- 
tine, p. 375), was on the borders of 
the Sea of Galilee, at the south, 
eastern comer of the plain of Gen- 
nesareth. Herodotus probably meant 
this last place by bis Magdulns, 
lather than the Magd61us of Egjpt. 
But he may well have made a con- 
fusion between it and Megiddo (iiip), 

just as " some MSS. in Matt. xv. 39 
tozii Magdala into Magedon " (Stan- 
lej, L a. c). 

' After the defeat and death of 
Joaiah, Neco proceeded to Carchemish, 
and on his return, finding that the 
Jews had put Jehoahaz, his son, on 
the throne, " he made him a prisoner 
at Biblah, in the land of Hamath, and, 
after having imposed a tribute of 100 
talents of silver and a talent of gold 
upon Jerusalem, he made his brother 
Eliakim (whose name he changed to 
Jeboiakim) king in his stead, carrying 
Jehoahaz captive to Egypt, where he 
died" (2 Kings xxiii. 29). Cadytis 

has generally been considered the 
Greek form of the name of Jerusalem, 
Kadeshf or Kadusha, "the holy" 
(given it after the building of the 
Temple by Solomon, and retained in 
its Arabic name El Kods), which was 
applied to other places, as Kadesli- 
Bamea, &c. ; but as Herodotus says 
(iii. 5) Cadytis appeared to him to be 
not much smaller than Sardis, as he 
probably never went to Jerusalem, 
and as he mentions the seaport towns 
from Cadytis to Jenysus, it is thought 
not to be the Jewish capital, but 
rather to lie on the coast. Toussaint 
thinks it was Gaza. Herodotus calling 
it a city of the " Syrians of Palestine ** 
(iii. 5) led to the conclusion that it 
was Jerusalem, as he seems to apply 
that name to the Jews (ii. 104) j but 
Cadytis is supposed to bo the Khazita 
taken by Shalmaneser, which was cer- 
tainly Gaza, or Ghuzzeh. He could 
scarcely have meant by Cadytis in 
ii. 159, Jerusalem ; and in iii. 5, Gaza. 
[G. W.] 

^ Neco's dedication of his corslet 
to Apollo was doubtless a compliment 
to the Greek troops in his pay, who 
had now become so necessary to the 
Egyptian kings. — [G. W.] 

For an account of the temple of 
Apollo at Branchidic, see note * on B. 
i. ch. 157. 

* The reverses which soon af terwai'ds 
befel. the Egyptians are not men- 
tioned to Herodotus. Neco was de- 
feated at Carchemish by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, in the 4th year of Jeboiakim 
(Jer. xlvi. 2), and lost all the territory 
'which it had been so long the object 
of the Pharaohs to possess. For " the 
king of Babylon took, from the river 
of Egypt unto the river Euphrates, 
all that pertained to the king of 
Egypt " (2 Kings xxiv. 7). This river 

3snsf OP 

Book II. 

I»50. Ill "i-r r:i:m n: r^onnnfs,* ambassadors from Elis^ 
^uaive*! in ^jt^x. 'Mustnr!'^ laas their arrangements for the 
•:\-ndtiet :i "iic .'l.7:ii;?u: .ri.meii wwe the best and fairest that 
i-i'Uiii '^e Lt':^liif'L i2ii fjjn^jbss ihat not even the Egyptians, 
"tIio 5nr^!L55tr*i iZL viiier r^mns in visdom, could add any- 
tliinii t : ii'rir T»frf«ri!tiL':n- Whuai these persons reached Egypt, 
azii cTrliinei il'r rfX5*:?i of their Tisrt, the king summoned an 
aMcnicLj :t ill tie wisest of the Egyptians. They met, and 
the EItaz-5 liTinz zrren them a ftxil account of all their rules 
ard rernLit: us with respect to the contests, said that they 
Lad c»:ne :o E^ypt f ?r the espess purpose of learning whether 
the EgTptiaii5 could improre the £iimess of their regulations 
in any particular. The Egyptians considered awhile, and 
then made inquiry, " U they allowed their own citizens to 
enter the lists ? " The Eleans answered, " That the lists were 
ojicn to nil Greeks, whether they belonged to Elis or to any 
f»tlier F-tat»'.'* lld-eupon the Egyptians observed, ** That if 
this w\i\ ^i). thtv (lejiarted from justice very widely, since it 

tLftt f'-ri:.' 1 t.'-'- ^■••:in<lnrv of the 
(f^uTitry fii *'-'<• N.E. side \y i-.e 
modem YA Art'-.-":.. Jornjsa'eni was 
aftcnran:^ trikon l-v N'O-iicbadnozzrir, 
acd the ]-.-i ••".0 vrorf- ltd» car'tiritv 

t^ Ribv: -' t.Vr. ::•:. 2>. 29, k»; '2 

KiciTS x\ V. rr.A xxy.), when sc-Tne 
.Tows do*: :o E^v:.: 2 Kinc- xxr. 26l, 
and soir.t'; :\: T.i'i.VKinht-?. or Daphiiap, 


f.^r:if.ed y >: Il-.r. ii. 11«, whore ike 
kir.iT of F.-T-n-: ].a\ a pr.laoe : and aUo 
a: Mijdo'. a: N«';h. ar:d in the land of 
r:itV.rv<s Jir. x'.iv. 1). T^';:s was in 
T..0 roic'.". vf Hi^T hra or Aprio?. See 
Hii^:. N ;:.>^ :r. App. to Book ii. — 

^ r>a:v.!".i< :s cV.Us? P>aniinotichns 
,l\<^n\a; k i:; '.ho >i":ilj>t;m^s, and T^-as 
N':ovwd* '. i V a third kint: of that 
r.:i'.;u\ wht >o wife >A-as oalltni Xitocri? 
(NoiiaoviV aiivl who>o dar.ghter 
njan*:od A'4V.n<i!«. iSiv m to * on oh. 
liV\^ r^;;n.v..:ii apjvars :o bo Psani. 
«\t»(iohus 11. of the nu numonts. — 

• This show-s the great repute of the 
Esrp'i*^!^ for learning:, even at thia 
tiznc. when they had greatly declined 
as a nation- — 'G. W.~ 

DicKioms transfers the storv to the 
reiini of Amasis. and says the answer 
was ciren by that king hiniself (i. 95). 
Plutarch tQnaest. Plat. vol. ii. p. lOOU, 
A| assisrns it to one of the wiae men. 
The real impartiality of the Eleans 
was eouerally admitted (of. Pint. Apo- 
phtheg. Reg.' p. 190, C. Dio Chrysost, 
Rhoii. p. 314, C), and is evidenced by 
the fact that in the only cc»nplete list 
of Olvmpian victors which we possess, 
that uf the winners of the foot-race or 
stadiam, Eleans occur but eii^ht times 
l>etwoen the origrinal institution of 
the games, B.C. 776, and the reign of 
Caracalla, a.d. 217, a period of 993 
years, or 249 Olympiads. Of these 
eigl)t victors, three occur within the 
first fire Olvmpiads, when the contest 
was probably confined to Elis and its 
immediate neighbourhood. (See Euseb. 
Chron. Can. Pars i. c. xxxiii.) 

CflAP. IflO, 16L 


was impossible but that they wool i faroTir tbeir crr^ c»T3=trr- 
men, and deal nnfaiilT bv (^f^eiisieis. If rhrr^z^e tL^T 

really wished to managie the games vith f&fisess. &=:! if 
was the object of their coming to Egn'^ ^^ J ^^^^^^^i tbezi 
to confine the contests to strangers, and aE:^ n> naSTre i-f 
Elis to be a candidate." Soch vas the adiice vLich ihe 
Egyptians gave to the Eleans. 

161. Psammis reigned only six years. He auaeke*! 'Eihiy- 
pia,^and died almost directly afterwards. Ap^i^. Lis 5<:<l^- 
mcceeded him upon the thrme, who, exD&pdng Psammetich::^, 
bis great-grandfather, was the most ^t^perons of all the kings 
that ever ruled over Egypt. The length of fcis reign t&s 
twenty-five years, and in the conrse of it he mareLed an army 
to attack Sidon, and fon^t a battle with the kin^ of Tyre by 
sea. When at length the time came that was fated to bring 
liim woe, an occasion arose which I shall describe more folhr 
in my Libyan history,' only touching it very Iriefiy here. An 

^The names of PsammencLos L 
ind n. f reqnentlr occur at Afocan, as 
well as that of Amasis. — 'G. W.~ 

* Apnea is the Pharaoh.Hoj'kra cf 
Jeremiah (xlir. 30), whose dethruie- 
ment seems to be thus foretold : ** I 
will give Pharaoh-Hophra, )ang of 
E^rpt, into the hands of his enemies, 
and of them that seek his life.^ Hij 
reign was at first rerr prosperoos, 
more so than that of anj ocber king of 
this djnastj, except his great.zrand- 
father, Psammetichus I. He sent ex- 
peditions against Cypras and Sidon, 
and engaged the king of Tjrre bv sea, 
and having taken Gaza (Jer. xlrii. 1) 
he besieged Sidon, and reduced the 
whole of the coast of Pbcenicia (Diod. 
L 68), and advancing to Jemsalem, 
forced the Chaldees to raise the siege 
(Jer. xxxTii. 5-11), thus recovering 
mnefa of the territory wrested firom his 
grandfather, Keco. Bat fortune then 
deserted him, and Kebachadnezzar 
returned to the siege of Jerusalem and 
took it in the 11th year of Zcfdekiah 
(J*»r. xxxiz. 1, 2). According to the 
account given bj the Egyptians to 

Herciiit^*- :i ira.* ar zz^fz-tt^tsIzZ €x- 
peditioTi *er.: r-j tin. z-z ^ijrrrzjt w*l:a 
caxued LisdcnrLf&n — Asj&^i^ w^ wa* 
sent to recall :Le Ezt-tcLsic rro*:^»» to 
their dssy. barir^ lake^ airatiazt cf 
iLai EDoreziLent lo z^':^^ '•^ iLr:sj*. 
wiieh be asc^^i^ tfter AzrSes bad 
reigTX»l, as M^irtLo ajs, 1&, cr, %c- 
oc-rding to H*rrr.»ic::L«. 25 year?. Tkt 
nacie cf Ho^hra, cr Aprl^^ HaipLra- 
bet), occcra cr» a f*w cct.'srMriit* ; 
bat anoiher kii.z, PeArLineticLai IIL, 
intervenes l>Ertwrr«i P'arr.Tr-e^ichTis II. 
(Psammie) and ATnasig, who** dasgb- 
ter was marr-ed to Amaeis. The reign 
of Psammei:ct:ii III. may Lave been 
included in iLit cf Aprle?. Amasis 
died in 525 e.c, and as Herodotus 
assigns him 44 years, which date is 
found on the n-onument*, his reign 
began at IcA^t as early as 569 b.c^ and 
probably much earlier; but these 
events, and the datf?s, are very uncer- 
tain. See Hi?t. Xotioe in App., and 
note •, ch. 1C9, and note *, ch. 177. — 
[G. W.J 

• Infra, iv. 159. 


Book tti 




ai-my despatched by Apriea to attack Cyrene having met with 
a terrible reverse, the Egyptians laid the blame on liim, 
imagining that he had, of mahce prepense, sent the troops 
into the jaws of destrnction. They believed he had wished a 
vast numbor of them to he slain, in order that he himself 
might reign \Tith more security over the rest of the Egyptians* 
Indignant therefore at this usage, the soldiers who returned 
and the friends of the slain broke instantly into revolt. 

162. Apries, on leaniing these circamstances, sent AmaBiB) 
to the rebels, to appease the tumult by persuasion, Uponr 
his arrival, as he was seeking to restrain the malcontents by 
hie exhortations, one of them, coming behind liim, put a helmet 
on his head, saying, as he put it on, tliat he thereby crowned 
him king. Amasis was not altogether displeased at th» 
action, as his conduct soon made manifest : for no sooner 
had the insurgents agreed to make him actually their king, 
than he prepared to march with them against Apries. Thai 
monarch, on tidings of these events reaching him, 
Patarbemis, one of his courtiers, a man of high rank, tO 
Amasis, with orders to bring him alive into his preBenca>t 
Patarbemis, on arriving at the place where Amasis waBj 
called on him to come back with him to the king, whereupon 
Amasis broke a coarse jest, and said, " Prj'thee take thai 
back to thy master." When the envoy, notwithstanding thil 
reply, persisted in his request, exhorting Amasia to obey th| 
Bummons of the king, he made answer, " that this was exact!] 
what he had long been intending to do ; Apries would have n 
reason to comjdain of him on the score of delay ; he wonU 
shortly come himself to the king, and bring others wiU 
him." ^ Patarbemis, iipon this, comprehending the intention 
of Amosis, partly from bis replies, and partly from the pra 
parations which he saw in progress, departed hastily, wishing 
to inform the king with all speed of what was going ( 

CotDpure tho nnEWpr of CyrnB to I 
Astja^s (i. 127), whioh bIiowb tbnt 
eommoDpIttce — the an^irer | 



Apries, however, when he saw him approaching without 
Amasis, fell into a paroxysm of rage ; and not giving himself 
tiine for reflection, commanded the nose and ears of Fatar- 
bemis to be cut off. Theii the rest of the Egyptians, who had 
hitherto espoused the cause of Apries, when they saw a man 
of such note among them so shamefully outraged, without 
a moment's hesitation went over to the rebels, and put them- 
selves at the disposal of Amasis. 

163. Apries, informed of this new calamity, armed his 
mercenaries, and led them against the Egyptians : this was a 
body of Carians and lonians,^ numbering thirty thousand 
men, which was now with him at Sais,® where his palace 
stood — a vast building, well worthy of notice. The army 
of Apries marched out to attack the host of the Egyptians, 
while that of Amasis went forth to fight the strangers ; and 
now both armies drew near to the city of Momemphis,* and 
prepared for the coming fight. 

164. The Egyptians are divided into seven distinct classes ^ 

* The Greek troops continued in the 
pay of the king. The state of Egypt, 
and the dethronement of Apries, are 
predicted in Isa. xix. 2, and in Jer. 
xliv. 30. (See Hist. Notice, in App. 
CH. viii. § 37.) As Amasis put him- 
self at the head of the Egyptian army, 
and Apries had the Greeks with him, 
it is eTident that the former was 
alone employed against Cyrene, either 
out of fear of sending Greeks there, 
or from their unwillingness to fight 
against a Greek colony. Amasis 
afterwards (infra, ch. 181) wisely 
courted the friendship of the Greeks 
of Cyrene.— [G. W.] 

' Manetho agreed with Herodotus in 
representing this dynasty (his 26th) 
as Saite. (Fr. 66 and 67.) That the 
family of ]?8ammetichus belonged to 
Sais had been already indicated, by 
what is related of the Saites bringing 
Psammetichus back from Syria (supra, 
ch. 152). 

* Momemphia was c/n the edge of 
the desert, near the mouth of the 

Lycus canal, some way below the 
modem village of Algam. Clemens 
(Pajdag. i. c. 4) says the Egyptians 
marched to battle to the beat of drum, 
a statement fully confirmed by the 
sculptures ; but the trumpet was 
used for directing their evolutions. — 
[G. W.] 

' These classes, i-ather than castes, 
were, according to Herodotus — 1. The 
sacerdotal. 2. The military. 3. The 
herdsmen. 4. Swineherds. 5. Shop- 
keepers. 6. Interpreters. 7. Boat- 
men. Diodorus (i. 28) says that, like 
the Athenians, who derived this insti- 
tution from Egypt, they were distri- 
buted into three classes : 1. The priests. 
2. The peasants, from whom the sol- 
diers were levied. 3. The artificers. 
But in another place (i. 74) he extends 
the number to five, and reckons the 
pastors, husbandnien, and artificers, 
independent of the soldiers and priests. 
Strabo (xvii. p. 541) limits them to 
three — the soldiers, husbandmen, and 
priests; and Plato (Timseus) divides 


— these are, the priests, the warriors, the cowherds, the 
Hwineherda, the tradesmen, the interpreters, and the boat- 
men, Theii- titles indicate their occupations. The warriors 
consist of Hermotybians and Calasirians," who come from 

them into aix bodiea — tho prieate, arti- 
Rcera, eliopberds, huntBmcn, bngbaud- 
men, and Holdiers. The sailora em- 
ploj-ed in akips of war appcnr to have 
been of the military olafis, as Herodo- 
tog (Book ix. oh. 38) shows them to 
have been of the Calasirieg and Her- 

From tbese different Btatements we 
ma; conoiude that the Egjptiftna 
were divided into five genenl clsBsea, 
irhicli were sabdivided agKiii, aa is tba 
casein Indiaeven with the casteB. The 
iBt was tho sacerdotal order ; ttio 
End Che eoidicrg and Bailors i the Srd 
jieosootH, or tbe agricoltoral class ; 
the '1th the tiadeamca; and the Sth 
the plobs, or common people. The 
1st conaii'ted of priests of vEricios 
IfrodGB, from Che poutiflB to the inferior 
fimctionnxieB employed in thet«mploB; 
the 2nd of soldiers aud sailors of tbe 
navy] tbe 3nl was subdivided into 
fanners, gardeners, bDnlBmeD, Nile- 
boatmeo, and oCherB ; the 4th was 
compoeod of artificers, and various 
tradeiraon, notarica, musiciona (not 
Elkcred), builders, scnlptors, and pot- 
ters ; and the 6th of pastors, fowlerB, 
fiBhermcn, tabonrerg, and poor people. 
Some of tbese again ware sabdividod, 
as pasMra into oiheniB, shepherds, 
gMBtberds, aod swiuehords; nhiob 
last, Bceoiding to Herodotus, were tlio 
lowest grade, oven of tho whole com- 
munity, since no one woold establish 
any family tie with them, and they 
cunld not enter a temple witbont a 
previons purification ; which icsembles 
Ihn treatment of swineberda in India 
at this day. 

Though Diodoms places the soldiers 
with the husbandmen, it iB more pro- 
bable that they ooustituted a class by 
Ihemselves ; not tliat tLeir following 
agricultural pursuits degraded them ; 
fur even a Hindoo soldier in like man- 
ner may cultivate laud without fear 

of reproach. According to Hegastha-- 
nes the Indioas were divided inta< 
Bevan castes ] tbey hare now four. 
(See Strabo, iv. p. 1118.) HoroJotUB 
says eaub person followed the profefc 
sion or oocopation of his father, «■ 
with tho Laoedirauonians (Book vL oh. 
CO) i bat it seems that, though a nu 
was frequently of the same dose ai 
ocoupation as his father, this w 
compulsory. Each person 
to one of the classes, and it it 
bable tliat he would follow an inferidi 
occupation, or enter a lower elMI 
than his father, uuloea ciicumsta 
rendered it necessary : bat the m 
tures show that sons sometime* d 
BO, and priests, soldiers, and c 
holding civil offices are (iiund omoo^ 
tbe members of Ibe same fomjlj 
The Ejjj'ptians bad not, thI^refo^e, n 
□.istes, but clasEe«, as has aires 
been shown by Hr. Birah and 
Ampere. Proofs of this, from t 
foDiilies of men in trade, and othcfl) 
are not bo readily established, ai Un 
monuments remain, eiicept uf p ~ 
and military men— the oristoon 

Qanrtera of a town wero s 
priatod to ceitajn trades (as n 
Cairo) ; benoe " the lealher-oittlen4| 
tho Hetnnonio," at Thebes, in ^^ 
papyraB of Anastasy. (Dr. Yoon^ 
DiBcov. in Eg. Lit., p. Gti.) The iT^ 
terpreters, Herodotus says (eh, 164, 
were the descendants of thnso Eg;p 
tians who had been taught Oreeb ^ 
tho lonians tu tbe service of Ffean 
tichoB, which would uertainly b 
rather to a class than lo a oute, ai 
bis statement (whether true or M 
roapecting the low origin of Amai 
shows he hud not in view castes, b 
classes.— [G. W.] 

' This name (as Mr. Biroh h 
sliown) is Klaslu', folloned by t 
figm^ of on aniher, or " 



different cantons,^ the whole of Egypt being parcelled out into 
districts bearing this name. 

165. The following cantons furnish the Hermotybians : — The 
cantons of Busiris, Sa'is, Chemmis, Fapremis, that of the 
island called Prosopitis,® and half of Natho.® They number, 
when most numerous, a hundred and sixty thousand. None 
of them ever practises a trade, but all are given wholly to war. 

166. The cantons of the Calasirians are different — ^they 
include the following: — The cantons of Thebes,^ Bubas- 

tkm of an Egyptian soldier ; bowmen 
being the chief corps of the army. 
The Calasiries were probably all, or 
mostly, archers. See note on Book iz. 
ch. 32.— [G. W.] 

^ The number of the nomes or can- 
toDB varied at different times. Hero- 
dotus mentions only 18 ; but in the 
time of Sesostris there, wore 86, and 
the same mider the Ptolemies and 
Caesars; 10, according to Strabo, 
being assigned to the ThebaKd, 10 to 
the Delta, and 16 to the intermediate 
prorince. This triple division varied 
at another time, and consisted of 
Upper and Lower Egypt, with an in- 
tervening province containing 7 nomes, 
and hence called Heptanomis. In 
after times an eighth, the Arsinotte, 
was added to Heptanomis ; and the 
divisions were, 1. Upper Egypt, to 
the Thebaica.phylak6 (^vAxiic^), now 
Daroot e* Sheredf. 2. Heptanomis, to 
the fcn-k of the Delta. And 3. Lower 
Egypt, containing the northern part 
to the sea. Pliny gives 44 nomes to 
an Egypt, some under other than the 
usual names. Ptolemy mentions 24 
in the Delta, or Lower Egypt, which 
under the later Boman emperors was 
divided into four districts — Angustam- 
idea prima and secunda, ^gyptus 1* 
and 2f^, still containing the same 
nomes ; and in the time of Arcadius, 
the son of Theodosius the Great, Hep- 
tanomis received the name of Arcadia. 
The ThebaTd was made into two parts. 
Upper and Lower, the line of separa- 
tion being P^nopolis and Ptolemals- 
Hermii ; and the nomes were then 
increased to 58, of which the Delta 

contained 35, including the Oasis of 
Ammon. These nomes were as on the 
following page. 

Each nome was governed by a Nom- 
arch, to whom was entrusted the 
levying of taxes, and various duties 
connected with the administration of 
the pro\ince. See Mr. Harris's 
Standards of the Nomes and Top- 
archies of Egypt. His discovery can- 
not bo too highly appreciated. He 
has also those of Ethiopia, which 
we may hope will be published. — 
[G. W.] 

^ Of Busiris, see note * on ch. 61, 
and preceding note. The Busirite 
nome was next to the Sebennytic, and 
to the south of it. Of Sa'is, see note ^ 
on ch. 62, and note » on ch. 170. Of 
Chemmis, see note * on oh. 91 ; it was 
in Upper Egypt. Of Papremis, see 
note * on ch. 63. Of Prosopitis, see 
note 1 on ch. 41.— [G. W.] 

* This was the tract between the 
Sebennytic, or Busiritic branch, and 
the Therm uthiac, which ran to the 
east of Xois.— [G. W. 

* It is singular that only two nomes 
of Upper Egypt are here mentioned, 
Thebes and Chemmis. But as Hero- 
dotus has mentioned so few of the 
nomes, it is more probable that he has 
overlooked some, than that no soldiers 
belonged to any nome in Upper 
Egypt but the Thoban and Chem- 
mite. The largest force was neces- 
sarily quartered in these northern 
nomes, being wanted for defence 
against the enemy from the eastward : 
but it does not follow that they were 
nearly all raised there. Besides the 


The Homes of the Delta, or Lo 




Modem NUM- 





1. Krifopolta 

1. RUtMIlM 

^^WeofMyKpbBri.) } 
R. TmH™ 

iliSE"^... ::: 

u. ni£iriM 

I*. AD.Tldl 

USSr-r' ::: 

1», Th.liJ.ofX.rtlio ... 

* £;3Sh^- v.: 

w. s*i»« .. 

tL l,1Hl.rtl»W» ... „. ... 

W M'lr'-iln '.'.'. 

t: H,-Hi.iv>irt 




ffSST:;; ::; :;. 

ssrr: :~ iii ;;; 

Sai";r-.?::: ::: 
nijho ;i; "! "; ..'. ..'. 

NtS« !" !!! !" "! 



H,'?lT.^i. I^I^v. 



ShfUiHui^k (!) 



AAmooo (() 




W«n.m (?) 

; S . '-^ Ecjpt uid Thebe*. voL I. p. 3M lo 
iinJ^H*r«inotBi».btglnii!ng ftom tbB SoTlh. 



1 Vudem^~l>IDF. 

' Mllnljcnii]. 

■TWUIM ... 

. H*Bl0l«I.rfta 

. M«le.^rt el FyJonu 


n« , 

.. i.rt^T"if» 


i I 



). IlM)>.Trties 



tis,^ Aphthis,® Tanis,* Mendes, Sebennytus, Athribis, Phar- 
bsBthus, ThmuiB, Onuphis, Anysis, and Myecphoris^ — this last 
canton consists of an island which lies over against the 
town of Bnbastis. The Calasirians, when at their greatest 
number, have amounted to two hundred and fifty thousand. 
Like the Hermotybians, they are forbidden to pursue any 
trade, and devote themselves entirely to warlike exercises^ the 
son following the father's calling. 

none of Thebes on the east, was the 
Pathyritic on the opposite bank, 
which contained " the Libyan suburb" 
of Thebes, or the " Memnoneia." (See 
Dr. Yonng, Disc. Eg. Lit., p. 66.) It 
w^ called Pa-Athor, "belonging to 
Athor" (Venus), who presided over 
the West The Theban and Chemmite 
inaT have been the two that fumisbed 
the troops of the Ethiopian frontier, 
and of the garrisons in Upper Egypt. 
According to Herodotus the whole 
force was 410,000 men. Diodorus 
(i- 54) makes it amount, in the time 
of Sesostris, to 600,000 foot, 24,000 
horse, and 27 chariots; but he pro- 
bably included in these the auxiliaries. 
-IG. W.] 
^See notes on chs. 59, 60, 138. 
' The position of this nome is un- 
certain.— [G. W.] 

* The city of Tanis is the Zoan of 
sacred Scripture, and the modem San 
or Zan, — the Garni (or Djami) or 
Athennes, of the Copts. It has exten- 
sire mounds, and remains of a small 
temple of the time of Remeses the 
Great, remarkable from its having at 
least ten, if not twelve obelisks. The 
name of Osirtasen III. found there 
(see Burton's Excerpta, pi. 38, 39, 40) 
ihows that an older temple once stood 
at Tanis : and tho gpreat antiquity 
of Tanis is also shown by its existing 
in the time of Abraham, and being 
founded seven years after Hebron, 
where Sarah died (Gen. xxiii. 2 ; Num. 
xiii. 22). In " the field of Zoan " the 
miracles of Moses are said to have 
been performed (Ps. Ixzviii. 12) ; and 
its present desolation shows how com. 
pletelj the prophecies against it have 

been fulfilled. (Ezek. xxz. 14; Isa. 
xix. 11 J XXX. 4).--[G. W.] 

* See note ^ on Mendes, ch. 42. Se- 
bennytus, the modem Semenood, has 
no remains, except a few sculptured 
stones, on one of which are the name 
and figure of the God. (See note ^ on 
ch. 43.) They are of the late time of 
Alexander, the son of Alexander the 
Great, in whose name Ptolemy Lagi 
was then Governor of Egypt. Seme, 
nood stands on the west bank of the 
modem Damietta branch. Athribis, 
now Benlia-eX-Assaly from its " honey," 
is marked by its mounds, still called 
Atreeb. Tho town was nearly a mile 
in length, E. and W., and three-fourths 
of a mile N. and S. It is on the E. 
bank of the old Sebennytio (and 
modem Damietta) branch. Pharbie- 
thus, now Harhayt (the same as the 
old name without the article P), is 
between 12 and 13 miles to the N. 
of Bubaetis. It stood on the Tanitio 
branch. The site of Thmuis is marked 
by a granite monolith at Tcl.Etmai, 
bearing the namo of Amasis. Its 
Coptic name is Thnumi. It stands a 
short distance to the south of the 
Mendesian branch. Onuphis is sup- 
posed to have stood on the Sebennytio 
branch, a little below its union with 
the Phatmetic channel, and a little 
to the W. of Anysis, probably at the 
modem Banooh. Anysis may be 
Iseum, now Bebayt (see note ^ on ch. 
61), about 6 miles below Sebennytus ; 
and the name is probably di-h-isi, 
" house (city) of Isis.^' Myecphoris was 
an island between the Tanitio and 
Pelusiac branches. See M. Eg. W., 
vol. i. pp. 399.452.— [G. W.] 


167. Whether the Greeks horrowed from the Egyptians 
their notions about trade, like so many others, I cannot say 
for certain.^ I have remarked thai the Thracians, the Scyths, 
the Persians, the Lydians, and almost all other barbarians, 
hold the citizens who practise trades, and their children, in 
less repute than the rest, while they esteem as noble those 
who keep aloof from handicrafts, and especially honour sQcb 
as are given wholly to war. These ideas prei^ througfaoat 
the whole of Greece, particularly among the Lacednmoniaus. 
Corinth is the place where mechanics are least despised.^ 

168. The warrior class in Egypt had certain special privi- 
leges in which none of the rest of the Egyptians participated, 
except the priests. In the first place each man had twelve 
arur(B * of land assigned him free from tax. (The arvra is a 
square of a hundred Egyptian cubits, the Egyptian cnbit 

* TTioso notions were not necesaarily I at Belplii. (I^nsaD. X. v. ad Ell.) 

boiTowed by oeo people from another, Finiilly, Corinlb became aowd for tkr 

being vfiry gonernl in a certain etata I peonlinr coniposition of its tiiwut, 

"V.] I which was regarded na betltc 

Chap. 167-169. 



being of the same length as the Samian.®) All the warriors 
enjoyed this privilege together ; but there were other advan- 
ces which came to each in rotation, the same man never 
obtaining them twice. A thousand Calasirians, and the same 
number of Hermotybians, formed in alternate years the body- 
guard of the king; and during their year of service these 
persons, besides their arurce, received a daily portion of meat 
and drink, consisting of five pounds of baked bread, two 
pounds of beef, and four cups of wine.^ 

169. When Apries, at the head of his mercenaries,* and 
Amasis, in command of the whole native force of the Egyp- 
tians, encountered one another near the city of Momemphis,® 
an engagement presently took place. The foreign troops 
fought bravely, but were overpowered by numbers, in which 
they fell very far short of their adversaries. It is said that 
Apries believed that there was not a god who could cast him 
down from his eminence,* so firmly did he think that he had 
established himself in his kingdom. But at this time the 
battle went against him ; and, his army being worsted, he feU 
into the enemy's hands, and was brought back a prisoner to 
Sai's,* where he was lodged in what had been his own house. 

^ On the Egyptian cnbit, see App. 
CH. iv. ad fin. It seems to have been 
rather more .than 20^ English inches. 
The ordinary Greek cabit was ISJ^ 
inches.— [G. W.] 

^ These 2000 spearmen, selected by 
turns from the army, as a body-gnard, 
had daily rations of 5 minsB (6lbs. 8oz. 
14 dwt. 6 grs.) of bread, 2 of beef 
(2 lbs. 8 oz. 5 dwt. 17 grs.), and 4 
arosters, or a little more than 2 pints 
of wine, during their annual service. 
The mina seems to have been 16j- oz. ; 
the talent about 80 lbs. Troy. The 
mina in hieroglyphics is called men, or 
mfux ; in Coptic, emna, or amna ; and 
the talent ginshdr. See P. A. Eg. W., 
vol. ii. p. 259.— [G. W.] 

^ See note * on ch. 163, and note ' 
on ch. 152. 

' See note * on ch. 163. 

* This was probably after having 

obliged the Babylonians to retire from 
before Jerusalem (see note ® on ch. 
161) ; for before the end of his reign the 
return of Nebuchadnezzar must have 
convinced him of his enemy's power. 
His pride is noticed in Ezek. xxiz. 3, 
8, 9. See note * on ch. 177.— [G. W.] 
* This was the roval residence of 
this 26th SaYte dynasty; and the 
sacred temenos, or enclosure, contain, 
ing the temple and the lake, was sur- 
rounded by massive walls of crude 
brick. Some houses also stood within 
it, bat the town itself was outside the 
walls. It was the custom of the 
Egyptians in the early periods to 
enclose their garrison towns with 
strong crade brick walls, generally 
about fifteen or twenty feet thick, 
and fifty feet high, crowned with 
battlements in the form of Egyptian 
shields, as a breastwork to the spacious 



but ^vas DOW the palace of Amasis. Amasis treated him vntk 
kindneas,^ and kept him in the palace for a while ; but finding 
hia conduct blamed by the Egyptians, who charged him with 
acting unjustly in preserving a man who had shown himsel 
Eo bitter an enemy both to them and him, he gave Apriea ovm 
into the hands of hia former subjects, to deal with as thej 
chose. Then the Egyptians took him and strangled him, hal 
having so done they hui'ied him in the sepulchre of hia fathera 
This tomb is in the temple of Minerva, very near the sanc- 
tuary, on the left hand aa one enters. The Saites buried a£ 
the kings who belonged to their canton inside this temple 
and thus it even contains tlie tomb of Araaais, aa well aa that 
of Apries and his family. The latter is not so close to the 
Banctuary as the former, but still it is within the temple. 


rampart, which n^ia BBoeaded by brood 
iiiclini>d plunes ; and the t^mplea hud 
aEimllj a, eBparnta encloanrc witlim 
this genoial oiromc. In their regular 
fortrcsaoa tho ontor wnlla were 
Btren^heoed with aqnara towers at 
intervals ; and parallel to the oater 
walla was a lower one or oircaiavnilla- 
tioB, diBtiint about twelve to fifteen 
feet, the object of which was to prc- 
Teot the eDBmy brioging hie battering 
rams, or other engjacs, directly against 
the main walla, before he had thrown 
down this advanced ono ; which, when 
the place was Hurrounded by a ditch, 
stood in the middle of it, aud aorred 
M a tenaille and ravelin. In larger 
fortlGcationa tho 6iUib bad both a 
scarp and coonterBcarp, and even a 
regular glnois (oa at Semnoh) ; noil 
tiie low wall in ths ditch waa of stone, 
as at Contra Paelcis. There was also 
n wall mnning ont at right aaglea 
from (and of equal height with) the 
main wall, which crossed the ditcli, 
for the purpose of raking it, by what 
we aboold call a " Ronldng fire." 
There was one uuun gate, between 
two towers; and on ttie river side 
was a water-gate, protecti^d by a 
corertway. This was a regular aya. 
tern of fortification i but after the 
a of the IlJtb dynasty these 

fortressea appear to have been seldoi 
built ; and the lofty atone lowers <l 
the Frnpyleea being added to tb 
tomples became detached forts 1: 
each oity, and an aaylnm lor wbl 
was moat piBCione, the sacred thing! 
the persons of the king and pri 
and tho treaanry, aa well as a [in 
tioa against foreign and domestic 
(Seo Ariatot. PoUt. iv. 11.) 
Thebea had no wall of cironiti 
hundred gates (a weakness in a i 
were those of the aomerous courts a 
its tomplea i and thongh the fortie«a« 
of Ptluaium, and other strongholds U 
the frontiers, still oontinnai] to V 
used, towua were seldoni enolMcd bj 
a wall, except small oi 

ling pof 


letter in the TrwieactioDS of ' 
Gooiety of Lit<?ratDre, vol. iv^ ns 
Heriei, on the level of the Vile u 
Emitian fortification.— [G. W.] 

•It has been thoDght that April 
may have continued to be naminall 
king, until Amasis hud soffieieotly ei 
tablished his power and reoonoiled tl 
Egyptians to his aBOipatian ; and U , 
latt^ years of bis reign may ham 
been included in " tho 44 years o 
Amasis ; " but the shortnesa of tha 
period, and the Apia stelai, dispmifl 
this.— [ti. W.] 



stands in the court, and is a spacious cloister, built of stone, 
tnd adorned with pillars carved so as to resemble palm-trees,^ 
and with other sumptuous ornaments. Within the cloister is 
a chamber with folding doors, behind which lies the sepulchre 
of the king. 

170. Here too, in this same precinct of Minerva at Sais, is 
the burial-place of one whom I think it not right to mention 
in such a connection.® It stands behind the temple, against 
the back wall, which it entirely covers. There are also some 
large stone obeUsks in the enclosure, and there is a lake ^ near 
them, adorned with an edging of stone. In form it is circular, 
and in size, as it seemed to me, about equal to the lake in 
Delos called " the Hoop." ^ 

* They are common in Egyptian 
temples, particularly in the Delta, 
where they are often of granite, as at 
Bobastis, and Tanis. The date-palm 
was not, as Dr. Pickering thinks (p. 
373), introduced into Egypt in the 
Hjksofl period, being represented on 
the tombs about the Pyramids of the 
4th dynasty, where rafters for rooms 
are shown to have been already made 
of it, as at the present day. The 
palm-branch was also the emblem of 
*" jears " in the oldest dates. It^ not 
being indicated at periods of which no 
reconis remain is no proof of its not 
being known in Africa then, or long 
befca^e; negative inferences are very 
doabtfol ; and the evidence of a plant, 
or an animal, being fonnd in ancient 
Egypt is frequently derived from the 
accidental preservation of a single 
monoment. See Dr. Pickering's vain, 
able work, the Baces of Man, p. 386, 
«eg.— [G. W.] 

^ Thifl was Osiris, in honour of 
whom many ceremonies were per. 
fanned at Sals, as in some other 
towns.— [G. W.] 

* This lake still remains at Sats, 
the modem Sa-eUHaga/Tf *'Sa of the 
•tone ; " the ancient name being Ssa. 
(See above, note > on ch. 62.) The 
atone casing, which always lined the 
ndes of tbase sacred lakes (and which 
may be seen at Thebes, Hermonthes, 
and other places), is entirely gone ; 

but the extent of the main enclosure, 
which included within it the lake and 
temple, is very evident ; and the mas- 
sive crude brick walls are standing 
to a great height. They are about 
seventy feet thick, and have layers of 
reeds and rushes at intervals, to serve 
as binders. The lake is still supplied 
by a canal from the river. Some 
ruined houses stand on a ground with- 
in the enclosure (at b d) near the 
lake, perhaps on the site of the palace, 
but of a much later time than Amasis. 
Many have been burnt. Their lofty 
walls in one part have obtained the 
name of El Kala, " the Citadel." It 
is difficult to ascertain the position of 
the temple of Minerva, as no ruins 
remain above ground, and you come 
to water a very short way below the 
sui-face ; the Nile being of higher 
level than in former times. It stood 
within a ** temenos" or inner sacred 
enclosure near the lake, probably 
about E in the plan. At g may have 
been the royal tombs. Other tombs 
are in the mounds outside near the 
modem village, at p, and at q beyond 
the canal to the westward, is another 
burial-place, of private individuals. 
The lake is no longer, if it ever was, 
" round," but oblong, measuring nearly 
2000 feet by 750. (See plan opposite) . 
-[G. W.] 

' The Delian lake was a famous 
feature of the great temple or sacred 



Book iL 

171. On tliis lake it is that the Egy])tiaiis represent I)y nigh 
his BufferiDgs * whose name I refrain from mentioning ; i 
this representation they call their Mysteries." I know wel 

enclosure of Apollo, whicli was the 
chief glory of (luvt island. It U cele- 
brated by the undent poet ThoogniB 
(B.C. 548) nnder tbe Bftmo appellution 
(rpox"'^'ll') &Bsigued it by Uerodotaa 
(Thcog^. 7) i and is twice mentioned, 
ouce aa r/iaxiiaaa (Hymn, ad Del. 
261), and once as irtpuryAi (Hymn, ad 
ApoU. 50), by CBlIimaolraa. Apollo 
woa BupjioBcd to have b«en bonk npoD 
its bonka. Lareher (oote ad lofl.) 
sbon-B gatiBfactorily that it wiiB siln- 
died within the aaered onoloBare J and 
decides with good reason iu faronr of 
its identity with the otd.) baaia dig. 
covered by HegHTB. Spon and Whoeler 
in 1676, of which an EiooonDt is given 
in their Travels (vol. i. p. 85, French 
Tr.). The dimcnaions, wbieh do not 
seem to have been aocnrntoty moa- 
snred, are reckoned at 300 pncoa 
(ISOOfeet) by 200 (1000 feet). It was 
thoH an oval, like the lake at Sail, and 
notvci'if different in ita diBicnsions. 

'The EpTptiaua and the Syrians 
bad each the myth of a (lying Godi 
bat they aelectcd a different phieuo- 
meoon for ita boals ; the femiDr the 
Nile, the Syrians, the aspect of natnra, 
or, as MoorobiaH ahowg (Saturn, i. 26), 
tbe anni which, dnring one part of 
tbe year manifesting its vivifying 
effects on the earth's enrface, Becmcd 
to die on the approach cf winter ; and 
henoc the notion of a God who waa 
both mortal and immortal. In the 
religion of Greece we Iraoo this mure 
obaonrely ; bnt the Cretans believed 
that Jnpit«r had died, nod even 
allowed his tomb (Cto. Nnt. Deur. 3), 
which nuido Callimactias, taking it 
literally, revile the Cretans " as 
liars !■' 

in epithet quoted by St. Pnnl from 

_ imenidoa. (Epistle to Titus i. 12.) 

This belief wns pcihape borrowed from 

Egypt or from Syria g for tbe Qreeks 

derided the notion of a Ood dying 
whence the remark of Xenophona 
and others to the EgyptianB. "If f 
believe them to be Gods, why do j 
weep for them i if they deaerre y 
lamontatioDB, wbv repnte them to 
GodaP" (Pint, do Is. 71.) They.fl 
the other bond, oommitted the ci 
of making men into Gods, and, i 
nndei^tanding the allegoncal views d 
the Egyptians and others, ran into C 
groasoat errors respecting those deiti 
whom they adopted. In Crete agai 
Apollo's grief for AtymniUBWHacomm 
morated " 'A*J\Aw Incpvx™' ipartii 
'Arifauir," as thatof Tenns for Adonil 
in Syria, where the women sitting ai 
weeping for Tammflz (Tamooc). u 
tbe Jews weeping in the hiah plaoB. 
wliea they Tell off to the idn1ali7 < 
their neighbonrs (Ezuk, viii. 6, 1h" 
Jorem. iii. 21), show the g«Mra) ca 
torn of the Syrtaoa. Tbe wnilJag 
the orthodox Jews, tbongfa not a 
nsmil, wiu of a different kind (Nun 
XXV. G), and was permitted exoopt i 
festivals. (Joseph, xi. SS.) 'n» I 
mentations of the Egyptiaua Ud 
theremnrkot Apuioiu*; ".Agyptionu 
nnminnm fana plena ptangorihnr^^ 
Orwca pleruaiqne chorois." — [G. W.] 
' The HofleringB and death of ~ ' " 

wore tbe great mystery of the 

tinn religion; and some traoeB of 
Bi'e perceptible among other peopli 
autiqnity. His being the divine go 
nesa, and the abetract idea of "good^ 
his manifeatation opon earth (like ^ 
Indian God), his death, and remrr 
tion, and hisoOiee aa judge of tliedt 
in a fntaro state, look like tbe eft; 
revelation of a fntnre manifeitatiiMi 
the deity converted into a mythologl 
cal fable ; and are not less remarinbti 
than that notion of the Egypt! 
mentioned by Plntarch (in 
Numie), that a woman might ooBceil 
by the approach of aomo divine spif 
A» Osiris signified " good," Typhon (c 
rather Beth) was "evilj" and tbe n 

CiiF. 171. 



tte whole course of the proceedings in these ceremonies,* but 
tbey shall not pass my lips. So too, with regard to the 

mrlBble notion of good and evil being 
hoihen is abimdantlj illoBtrated in 
th0 mdj ■oaiptnres ; nor was it till 
i ohaoge was made, apparently by 
ionignen from Asia, who held the 
doctrine of the two principles, that 
•nl became oonf oonded with sin, when 
the brother of Osiris no longer re- 
Mtfed diTine honours. (See At. Eg. 
W., p. 124 to 127.) Till then sin, 
"the great serpent," or Aphophis 
"the giant," was distinct from Seth, 
who was a deity, and part of the 

No. I. 

dirine system, which recalls those 

words of Isaiah (xlv. 7), " I form 

tW light, and create darkness ; I 

Mike peace, and create eyil ; I the 

Lord do these things;" and of 

Amos (iii. 6), " shall there be evil 

ii a city, and the Lord hath not 

tee it ?" In like manner the 

mythology of India admitted the 

owtor and destroyer as charac- 

ten of the divine Being. Seth 

VIS even called Baal-Seth, and 

Mide the God of their enemies 

■Iso^ which was from war being 

in evil, as peace in the above 

vwie is eqoivalent to good ; and 

is (Bsal) Zephon we may perhaps 

teMe the name of Typhon. In 

the same sense the Egyptians re- 

pranoted Seth teaching a Pharaoh 

the vse of the bow and other weapons 

ci destmctian which were producers 

€#eviL Sin, the giant Aphophis, as 

"the gveat serpent," often with a 


human head, being represented pierced 

by the spear of Horas, or Atmoo (as 

Be the " San "), recalls the war of the 

gods and gplants, and the .^ 

fable of Apollo (or the sun) 

and the Python. Comp. the 

serpent slain by Yishnoo. 

(See note on Book iv. ch. 

191.) Osiris may be said 

rather to have presided over 

the judgment of the dead, 

-than to have judged them ; he 

gave admission to the abode 

of happiness 
to those 
who were 
found worthy. He. was 
not the avenging deity ; 
he did not punish, nor 
could he show mercy, 
or subvert the judg. 
ment pronounced. It 
was a simple question 
of fact. If wicked they 
were destined to suffer 
punishment. A man's 
actions were balanced 
the scales against 



justice or tratb, and, if found wanting, 
he was excluded from future happi- 

No. II. 

ness. Thus, though the Egyptians are 
said to believe the gods were capable 
of influencing destiny (Euseb. Pr. £v. 
iii. 4), it is evident that Osiris (like 
the Greek Zeus) was bound by it ; and 



mysteries of Ceres, which the Greeks term "the Thesuuh 
phoria," ^ I know them, but I shall not mention them, except 

the wioked wore pnninhed, not becau«e 
ha rojected thcoi. but becaane tbey 
usri wicked. Each mBn'B congcieuoe 
ruluMsd from the ainfal bud;, waa 
his Oim judf^ : Knd ■elt-condemnntion 
hereartor fullowed ap the 7»S4> and 
bIi-X""" Btairrin enjoined on earth. 
Ttoth, therefore (or that part of the 
divine nature called intelloi:t and con- 
soienoo), weighed and condemned ; 
and Horns (who had been left oiT 
cai-tb to follow out the conqaeMU of 
hia father Ooirii after he had re- 
turned to heaven) ushered in the 
jaat to the diTiiio prmonce.— [G. W.j 
'These mysteries of OsirU, Hero- 
dotus my a, were iutradacod into 
Greece hj the daughters of DtuiBOB. 
(See note * on oh. 91, note ' on oh. 
107, note * on ub. 183, and Book vi. 
n. oh. 63.) The fables of antiquity 
had gonorallj seToral moHnings ; the; 
were either historical, physical, or re- 
li(tioiii>. The less instructed wore lod 
to beliOTO Osiris represented some 
uatacnJ phonomeoon ; as the inaoda- 
tion of the Nile, which disappearing 
again, and losing its effeots in the sea, 
wM construed into the manifesta- 
tion and death of the deity, destroyed 
by Typhon ; and tbo atory of his body 
having Ixien carried to Byblos, and 
that of the head which went annually 
from Egypt to that place, swimming 
OD the sea (Lucian, do Dei Syrd) for 
seven days, wore the allegory of the 
water of the Nile carried by the 
c'lrrontii to the Syrian ooast ; though 
t'ausnniaa (i. 12) fays they lamented 
Osiris, " when the Nile began to rise." 
His fabaloos history was also thought 
by the Greeks to be oonnected with 
the son ^ but it was not so viewed in 
early times by the Entyptinna ; and 
this was rather an Asiatic notion, and 
an instance of the usual adaptation of 
deities to each other in different rnj- 
thologios. Least of all was he thonf[hl 
to be B man deiSed ; and as Plutarch 
nys (de laid. s. 11, 80), "wo are not 
to euppoio the advontarca related of 

him were actually tnie, or ever htpt 
peaed iu tact ; " and the real meaniif^ 
of them was confined to those initiaUi 
into the higher mystertes. (See fan 
going note.) Tbo death of Adonis, ao^ 
of Bacchus, and the story of Osiri 
being enticed by Typbon to got iali 
a oheet. which floated down tlie Hvm 
and was oouveyeil to " Byblns Ii 
Fhinnioia," shows a close conuectia 
between different religions : and thi 
rites of Adonis wore performed in t^ 
temple of Venus at that plia"^ 
(Lucian, de Dei Syr.) Isis hBTin 
found the cheat, brought it back by M 
to Egypt, and oonoealed it till at 
could meet her sou Honu. In tl 
uieun time Typhon discovered it, an 
having out up (he body into foorteM 
pieoes, distributed them over diffenod 
parts of the country, Isis then wen' 
in a boat made cf papyrus mshes i 
quest of the scattered members, an 
having found them, buried them i 
various places, which acoonnts for tha 
many burial-places of Osiris, as h 
adventorea by water do for the n 
sentations on the lake of Sals. Tb 
portion of the mysteries imptu1«d B 
strangers, as to HerodotDB, Plutan^ 
and others, and even to Pythif ^^ 
was limited; and the more imps 
secrets wore not even revealed d 
"the prioata, bat to thoao only whi 
were the moat approved." (Clera. Alf 
Btrom. r. 7, p. 670.) ^^ 

On the roBcmblance of the IndiM 
Bama, his army of Satyrv, and bi 
conquest of India, see Sir VT. Jona|^ 
vol. i. p. 863. In the Vedae (writW* 
before the later notions about tranK 
migration of the sonl) is a deity oalla4 
Yamn, who bears a strong r»emblaaM 
to Osiris, being the ruler Of tbo dea* 
who gives a Tdsoe of happiness ber 
after to the souls of good men. Tl 
analogy is made more striking by Utf 
havinif lived on earth with bis sistM 
and wife Yami (as Osiria with Isis)* 
and they, like Adam and Eve, i 
the parenta of the bnjnan no«. 

Chap. 171, 172. 



80 far as may be done without impiety. The daughters of 
Danans brought these rites from Egypt, and taught them to 
the Pelasgic women of the Peloponnese. Afterwards, when 
the inhabitants of the peninsula were driven from their homes 
by the Dorians, the rites perished. Only in Arcadia, where 
the natives remained and were not compelled to migrate,^ 
their observance continued. 

172. After Apries had been put to death in the way that 
I have described above, Amasis reigned over Egypt. He 
belonged to the canton of Sais, being a native of the town 
called Siouph.^ At first his subjects looked down on him and 
held him in small esteem, because he had been a mere private 
person, and of a house of no great distinction ; but after a 
time Apries succeeded in reconciling them to his rule, not by 
severity, but by cleverness. Among his other splendour he 
had a golden foot-pan, in which his guests and himself were 
wont upon occasion to wash their feet. This vessel he caused 
to be broken in pieces, and made of the gold an image of one 
of the gods, which he set up in the most public place in the 
whole city ; upon which the Egyptians flocked to the image, 
and worshipped it with the utmost reverence. Amasis, finding 
this was so, called an assembly, and opened the matter to 
them, explaining how the image had been made of the foot- 
pan, wherein they had been wont formerly to wash their feet 
and to put all manner of filth, yet now it was greatly reve- 
renced. "And truly," he went on to say, "it had gone with 
him as with the foot-pan. If he was a private person for- 
merly, yet now he had come to be their king. And so he bade 
them honour and reverence him.'' Such was the mode in 

Jonm. Aznerioan Orient. Soo., vol. iii. 
No. 2, pp. 328, 386.— [G. W.] 

* See note on Book vi. ch. 16. 

* Compare viii. 73, and note ad loc. 
^ This place is supposed to have 

stood to the north of Sals, at Seffeh, on 
the east bank of the modem Rosetta 
branch. Plato thinks Amasis was from 
Sals itself (in Tim.) — Herodotns says 
he was of plebeian origin ; bat the 

two facts of his having become King 
of Egypt, and having married the 
daughter of a king, argue against this 
assertion : and Diodorus, with more 
reason, describes him as a person of 
consequence, which is confirmed by 
his rank as a general, and his being a 
distinguished member of the military 
class.- [G. W.] 



which he won over the Egyptians, and brought them to be 
content to do him service. 

173. The following was the general habit of his life : — From 
early dawn to the time when the fomm is wont to fill,* he 
sedulously transacted all the business that was brought before 
him : during the remainder of the day he drank and joked 
with his guests, passing the time in witty and, sometimes, 
scarce seemly conversation. It grieved his friends that he 
should thus demean himself, and accordingly ebme of them 
chid him on the subject, saying to him, — " Oh ! king, then 
dost but ill guard thy royal dignity whilst thou allowest 
thyself in such levities. Thou Bhouldest sit in state upon a 
stately throne, and busy thyself with affairs the whole day 
long. So would the Egyptians feel that a great man rules 
them, and thou wouldst be better spoken of. But now thou 
conductest thyself in no kingly fashion." Amasis answered 
them thus : — " Bowmen bend tht-ir bowa when they wish to 
shoot ; unbrace them when the shooting is over. Were they 
kept always strmig they would break, and fail the archer in 
time of need. So it is with men. If they give themselves 
constantly to serious work, and never indulge awhile in pas- 
time or sport, they lose their senses, and become mad or 
moody. Knowing this, I divide my life between pastime and 
business." Thus he answered his friends. 

174. It is said that Amasis, even while he was a private 
man, had the same tastes for drinking and jesting, and was 
averse to engaging in any serious employment. He lived in 


■ Id early timeB the Greeks divided 
tliQ dftj into three parts, lu Id Homer, 
Iliad, xii. Ill, 4<ir, Ulxv, f'o^*' 
iiaap. The diviBion, according to Dio 
Chryioatomnn Pe Glori40rat.67i flee 
also Jul. Follnx, Onom. i. 68) van mftA, 
sunrise, or earljr morn i mpi itA^floirtro* 
trfofir, market time (£i3Uoph. Anab, 
1), or forenoon, the third hour; ^m- 
••lltSpia, midday ; BiUn. or ripl Sfl- 
Aqr, afterDOOn, or ihe ninth hoar ; and 
inifa, evening, or aunBet. ThcBe are 
■nrj like the Arabio diTisiom at tlie 

proBent timo, for each of which thoy 
have a stated number of praycrai 
AuA/j. "morning '* (which tH also snb- 
cJivided into et fegr, "daybreak," 
answering to the Qreolc tftfitat, 
"dawn"); ddha, " f oponoon ; " dohr, 
"midday:" atitr, "aftomoon" (mid- 
way botweoQ nooD and Buxset] j and 
miQhreh, "smiBet;" after whiah i* 
tho KshpT, at one hoar and a half afMT 
ennscl, whuo the last or fifth set of 
daily prajera is said. — [Q. ff.] 

Chaf. 172-176. 



constant feasts and revelries, and whenever his means failed 
him, he roamed about and robbed people. On such occasions 
the persons from whom he had stolen would bring him, if he 
denied the charge, before the nearest oracle ; sometimes the 
oracle would pronounce him guilty of the theft, at other times 
it would acquit him. When afterwards he came to be king, 
he neglected the temples of such gods as had declared that he 
was not a thief, and neither contributed to their adornment, 
nor frequented them for sacrifice ; since he regarded them as 
utterly worthless, and their oracles as wholly false : but the 
gods who had detected his guilt he considered to be true gods 
whose oracles did not deceive, and these he honoured exceed- 

175. First of all, therefore, he built the gateway® of the 
temple of Minerva at Sais, which is an astonishing work, far 
surpassing all other buildings of the same kind both in extent 
and height, and built with stones of rare size and excellency. 
In the next place, he presented to the temple a number of 
large colossal statues, and several prodigious androsphinxes,^ 

• Not a '* portico/' as Larcher sup- 
poses, but the lofty towers of the 
Area, or Court of Entrance, which 
Herodotus properly describes of great 
height and size. See note^ on ch. 
155, and woodcut there. — [G. W.] 

^ The usual sphinxes of the drmnos, 
or avenue, leading to the entrance of 
the large temples. Sometimes kneel. 
ing rams were substituted for andro- 
sphinxes, as at Kamak, Gebel Borkel, 
and other places ; and sometimes lions. 

The androsphinx had the head of a 
man and the body of a lion, sym- 
bolising the union of intellectual and 
physical strength ; and Clemens and 
Plutarch say they were placed before 
the temples as types of the mysterious 
nature of the Deity. (Strom, v. 5, p. 
664, and 7, p. 671, and Pint. de. Is. s. 
9.) There were also tho criosphinx, 
with the head of a ram ; the hieraco- 
sphinx, with that of a hawk ; and some- 
times the paintings represented an 

No. I. 



besideB certain Btones for the repairs, of a most extaiordinu; 
size. Some of these he got from the quarries over against 

map. or aoine other sn&ke (see iroodont | of > womui sod > lioo, liks Uhm of 

below, No. Til. fig. 2), in liea of > Gieeoe i and if an inataooe ocean of 

beawl, attaohed to the body of a lion. thii it w«a a mai« e^noe^ aod ;n^ 

Bgjptian Bphinies were not oomposed | bably a foreign, ii 


tliree years to coiivey this block from tbe quarry to Saia : an^ 
in the eonveyauee were employed no fewer than two thoasand 
laboiu-ers, who were all from the class of boatmen. The 
length of this chamher on the outside is twenty-one cubits, ; 
breadth fourteen cubits, and its height eight. The measure- 
ments inside are the following :^-The length, eighteen cubits 
and five-sixths; the breadth, twelve cubits; and the height, 
five. It lies neai" the entrance of the temple, where it was left 
in consequence of the following curcumatanoe : — It happened 
that the architect, just as the stone had reached the spot 
where it now stands, heaved a sigh, considering the length of 
time that the removal had taken, and feeling wearied with the 
heavy toil. The sigh was heard by Amasis, who, regarding it 
as an omen, would not allow tbe chamber to be moved forward 
any further. Some, however, say that one of the workmen 
engaged at the levers was crushed and killed by the mass, and 
that this was the reason of its being left where it now stands, 

176. To the other temples of much note Amasis also made 
magnificent offerings— at Memphis, for instance, he gave the 
recumbent colossus * iu front of the temple of Vulcan, whichi 
is seventy-five feet long. Two other colossal statues 8tand o 
the same base, each twenty feet high, cai"ved in tbe stone < 
Ethiopia, one on either side of the temple. There is also ft 
stone colossus of the same size at Sais, recumbent like that 
at Memphis. Amasis finally built the temple of Isis, 
Memphis, a vast structure, well worth seeing. 

177. It is said that the reign of Amasis was the most pros- 
perous time that Egypt ever saw,'— the river was more liberal 

It nus uot eqiml tn weight to the 
Ki-anito Coloaans of Remesos at Thebes, 
Yfhich weighad npwanU of 887 tong, 
nnd it was far inferior tu the monuUth 
ot Bnto, which wb.r taken from the 
Mune quarries. See note * dd oh. 155. 

-[a. wj 

■ It was an aunsual position for ui 
FI^yptiBii Httttuo ; and this, aa well lu 
thu ulhor at Mi^mphie, and the mono- 

litb, may have bean toft on Iho gnmod^ 

in ounBCH|Dr?uou of the trnablea whiob 
came upon Egn>t 't (he tine i mat 
which tho Egj-ptuuia oaiiae»l«d froa 
Herodotus. Strabo apeaka of a CoUWi 
sita of a Hingte Btooe, lying before '' 
tlromoii III the temple al " 
in which tlia ball fights 
This may bo tho slatoe of . 
[0. W.J 
' Thia can only rolatu t 



to the land, and the land brought forth more abundantly for 
the service of man than had ever been known before ; while 
the number of inhabited cities was not less than twenty thou- 
sand. It was this king Amasis who estabhshed the law that 

temml state of the conntry ; and what 
Herodotus afterwards says shows this 
wma his meaning. The flonrishing in- 
ternal condition of Egypt is certainly 
proTed by the monuments, and the 
wealth of private indiridnals was very 
remarkable; bat Egypt had lost all 
its power abroad, and had long been 
threatened, if not actually invaded, 
by the Babylonians. Indeed the 
ciril war between Apn'es and Amasis 
had probably given Nebuchadnezzar 
an <q>portunity for interfering in 
Egypt ; and if Amasis was forced to 
pay tribate to the Babylonians for 
quiet possession of the throne, this 
might account for the prophecy in 
Ezekiel (ch. zxix.), which is so per- 
plexing, that Egypt should be given 
to Nebuchadnezzar, and bo "a base 
kingdom," raising itself no more to 
" mle over the nations. " Its being 
the basest of kingdoms, uninhabited 
forty years (v. 11), and its cities deso- 
late, appears to accord badly with the 
prosperous time of Amasis; if all this 
was to happen after the year 585 B.C. , 
when Tyre was taken, and conse- 
quently to extend into his reign 
(Ezek. xxix. 18). Still less could the 
captivity of Egypt date before the 
fall of Nineveh, as has been supposed 
from Nahum (iii. 8). The successful 
reign of Apries, and his obliging the 
Chaldseans to raise the siege of Jeru- 
aalem (Jer. xxxrii. 5), render it im- 
possible ; and the civil war between 
Apries and Amasis happening after 
the taking of Tyre, would agree better 
with the statement of Ezekiel (xxix. 
18) as to the time of Nebnchad. 
neszar's invasion of Egypt. That it 
took place is directly stated by 
Esekiel and Jeremiah (xliii. 10, and 
xlri. 13) : the opportunity for inter- 
ference was favourable for the Baby, 
lom'ans; and the mere fact of a tri- 
bate being imposed by Neboohad- 

nezzar would account for the great 
calamities described by those prophets, 
since to the Egyptians a tribute would 
be the utmost humiliation. Many tri- 
butes too were imposed on people with- 
out absolute conquest or invasion. The 
reference to the pride of Apries in 
Ezekiel (xxix. 3) also argues that it 
was at his downfall : and this is again 
foretold in Isaiah (xix. 2). There is, 
however, a difficulty in the forty 
years, occupying as they would so 
great a portion of the reign of Amasis. 
(See Hist. Notice, App. oh. viii., end 
of § 37.) During his reign, and be- 
fore 554) B.C. (when Sardis was taken), 
Croesus had made a treaty of alliance 
with Amasis, as well as with the 
Babylonians, at the time that Laby. 
netns (Nabonidus?) reigned in Baby- 
Ion (supra, i. 77) ; from which it might 
be argued that the Egyptians were 
bound to follow the policy of the 
Babylonians ; and the Egyptian pha- 
lanx in the Lydian army is mentioned 
by Xenophon. (See Cyrop. vi. ii. 10, 
and VII. i. 30-15.) Again, it has been 
supposed that the captivity of Egypt 
should rather refer to the Persian in- 
vasion, which could scarcely have been 
overlooked in prophecy ; but these 
denouncements did not allude to 
events about to happen long after the 
fall of Jerusalem ; they were to show 
the hopelessness of trusting to Egypt 
against the power of Babylon ; and 
the invasion of Egypt by the Persians 
had no connection with Jewish his- 
tory. Nor is it certain that 40 is 
always to be taken as an exact num. 
ber; its frequent occurrence in the 
Bible (like 7 and some other numbers) 
shows this could not be ; and 4, or 40, 
is considered to signify " completion," 
or '* perfection,** like the square, and 
the number 24 in Arabic. See Hist. 
Notice, § 38, and note ' on ch. 100, 
and on ch. 8, Book iii. — [G. W.] 



every Egyptian should appear once a year before the governor 
of his canton," and show hie means of living; or, failing to do 
so, and to prove that he got an honest livelihood, should be pot 
to death. Solon the Athenian borrowed this law from the 
Egyptians, and imposed it on bis countrymen, who have 
observed it ever since. It is indeed an excellent custom. 

178. Amasis was partial to the Greeks,^ and, among other 
favours which he granted them, gave to such as liked to settle 
in Egypt the city of Naucratis' for their residence. To those 

Chap. 177-179. 



who only wished to trade upon the coast, and did not want to 
fix their abode in the country, he granted certain lands where 
they might set up altars and erect temples to the gods. Of 
these temples the grandest and most famous, which is also the 
most frequented, is that called " the Hellenium." It was built 
conjointly by the lonians, Dorians, and -Cohans, the following 
cities taking part in the work : — ^the Ionian states of Chios, 
Teos, Phoc8Ba, and GlazomensB ; Bhodes, Cnidus, HaUcamas- 
SU8, and Phasehs^ of the Dorians; and Mytildne of the 
^olians. These are the states to whom the temple belongs, 
and they have the right of appointing the governors of the 
factory ; the other cities which claim a share in the building, 
claim what in no sense belongs to them. Three nations, 
however, consecrated for themselves separate temples — the 
Eginetans one to Jupiter, the Samians to Juno, and the 
Milesians to Apollo.^ 

179. In ancient times there was no factory but Naucratis 

the Egyptians, like those of the 
Chinese at the present day, but were 
a precaution against pirates landing 
on the coast, under pretence of trad- 
ing. (See notes' and ^ on chs. 112 
and 154.) The exact position of 
NMicratis is unknown. The name is 
Greek, like that of Archander (supra, 
ch. 98). Of the Naucratis garlands, 
see Athen. Deip. xv. — [G. W.] 

The story told by Strabo (xvii. p. 
1137) of the foundation of Naucratis 
by the Milesians in the time of Inmtis 
is entitled to no manner of credit. It 
may be questioned whether Naucratis 
was in any real sense "a Milesian 

* Fhas^lis lay on the east coast of 
Lycia, directly at the base of Mount 
Solyma ( Tdkhialu) . It was sometime s 
reckoned to Pamphylia (Flin. H. N. 
T. 27 ; Mela, i. 14 ; Steph. Byz. ad 
roe.), but more commonly, and by 
the best g^graphers, to Lycia (Scyl. 
Peripl. p. 94; Strab. xiy. p. 952; 
Ptolem. T. 3 ; Arrian. i. 24, Ac.) . Ac- 
cording to tradition, it was founded 
by LacioBi the brother of Antiph6muS| 

the Lindian colonizer of Gela. (He- 
ropyth. and Philosteph. ap. Athen. 
Deipn. vii. p. 297, F. and AristsBuet. 
ap. Staph. Byz. ad voc. r«Axu) This 
would place its foundation about B.C. 
690. There seems to be no doubt that 
it was a purely Greek town. 

The remains of Phasdlis are very 
considerable, and have been carofally 
described by Capt. Beaufort. (Kai-a- 
mania, pp. 59-70.) Its modem name 
is Tekrova. The part of the coast 
where it is situated abounds in woods 
of pine, which explains its ancient 
name of Pityussa. (See Steph. Byz. 
ad voc. ^aurriXls.) 

The other places here mentioned are 
too well known to need comment. 

^ That is, to the gods specially 
worshipped in their respective coun- 
tries. The great temple of Jupiter 
Panhellenius in Egina, briefly de- 
scribed by Pausanias (11. xxix. § 6), is 
well known to travellers. That of 
Apollo at Branchidse, and that of Juno 
at Samos, have been already noticed. 
(Supra, i. 157, ii. 148.) 

CsAr. 179-182. OFFERINGS OF AHASIS. 369 

ibe chief citizens. Wben the time came to complete the con- 
tract, Amasis was stmck with weaknees. Astonished bereat 
—lor he was not wont to be so aflSicted — the king thns 
•ddressed his bride: "Woman, thoa hast certainly bewitched 
tne — now therefore be sure thon shalt perish more miserably 
than ever woman perished yet." Ladic^ protested her inno- 
eence, bat in vain ; Amasis was not softened. Herenpou she 
made a vow internally, that if he recovered within the day 
(for no longer time was allowed her), she would present a 
statue to the temple of Venus at Cyren§. Immediately she 
obtained her wish, and the king's weakness disappeared, 
^tufuria loved her greatly ever after, and Ladice performed her 
vow. The statue which she caused to be made, and sent to 
Cyr^nd, continued there to my day, standing with its face 
looking outwards from the city. Ladice herself, when Gam- 
bles conquered Egypt, suffered no wrong ; for Cambyses, on 
learning of her who she was, sent her back unharmed to her 

162. Besides the marks of favour already mentioned, Amasis 
also enriched with offerings many of the Greek temples. He 
sent to Cyren6 a statue of Minerva covered with plates of 
gold," and a painted likeness' of himself. To the Minerva of 

chronology of the Cjrensaii kingg U 
■o obacue, that it U difficult to aa; 
vUsh monarch or moQarchs are ia- 
t«^ed. Perhaps BattnH the Happy, and 
AroenlafiB II., his son, hare the beet 
olaim. (See note on Book iv. ch. 163.) 
* Stones of thii kind 

common (infra, vi. 118). The most 
famona was that of Mincrraab Delphi, 
which the AthenianB dedicated frota 
the spoils of their victory at the Eniy- 
medon. (Paosan. X. it. § 3 ; Clitod. 
Fr. 15.) 
* The Egyptians had actual portraits 


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I <"-~: 

-T"^^ ^ "' 

-=:iCti/- '~'~~Ti.-^ 

' ^* 7^ — -^ 

^> Jl 

^^^" TJ 

^ 5 ^^t~ 

' ^"'^^ ^ 

^-^L ^^ 

V T 

:3:^~ — 

Cbap. 182. 



Lindas he gave two statues in stone, and a linen corslet ^ well 
worth inspection. To the Samian Juno he presented two 

of their kings at a very remote period : 
and thoee in the scalptnrea were real 
likenessee. That sent by Amasia to 
Cjrene was on wood, like the ir(yaiccf, 
or ypwpolL (tabnlsD), of the Oreeks ; and 
similar pictures are shown to have 
been painted in Egypt as early as the 
12th dynasty, nearly 2000 B.C. (Cp. 
Pliny zxzT. 8, vii. 56, where he says, 
** Gyg^es, the Lydian, first invented 
painting in Egypt.") In Greece pio- 
ti#e8 (often hung up in temples) were 
works of the best artists, frescoes and 
others on walls being an inferior 
branch of art ('* nulla gloria artifionm 
est, nisi eomm qni tabolas pinzere ; " 
Plin. xzzT. 10) ; and we may conolnde 
that in Egypt also the real artists 
were thoee who painted pictures. The 
bas-reliefo and paintings on the monu- 
ments were executed more mechani- 
cally, the figures being drawn in 
squares ; but in many cases the use of 
the squares was for copying the figures 
from smaller original designs oif the 
master-artist ; and some fig^es were 
drawn at once without the squares, 
and then corrected by the master. 
When in squares, 19 parts were given 
to the height of a man from the top of 
the head to the plant of the foot ; and 
so systematic was this method, that 
in statues Diodoms says (i. 98) the 
various portions of the same figure, 
made by several artists in different 
places, when brought together, would 
agree perfectly, and make a complete 
whole. In his time, however, the 
proportions had been altered, and he 
gives 21^ parts as the height of the 
figure. It seems, too, that they were 
somewhat different in statues and 
painted figures. These last also varied 
at times. The above, of 19 parts, was 
nsed in the best period of art during 
the 18th and 19th dynasties. The 
figures were then a little more elon- 
gated than during the reigns of the 
Memphite kings (a greater distance 
being given from the plant of the foot 
to the knee), and still more than under 

the Ptolemies, when an attempt to 
bring the proportions nearer to the 
real figure altered its character, and 
gave it a clumsiness, without any 
approach to greater truth. For the 
Egyptian style was quite conventional, 
and could never be subjected to any 
other rules ; and the Ptolemaic figure, 
as Dr. Lepsius observes, " was a bad 
imitation of foreign and ill-understood 
art." (See his letters from Egypt, p. 
117.) With the Greeks the length of 
the foot was the measure whose proper, 
tion to the entire height was genendly 
maintained" (Miiller, Anct. Art. p. 
392} ; but as in Egypt it is equal in 
length to 3 squares, or parts, it cannot 
answer for a figure of 19. And six 
of these feet coming only to the fore* 
head, which varied so much as to be 

" \i ^' \i o' ^®BB o^ another square," 
shows that neither the foot, nor the 
arbitrary and variable pK)int to which 
it was measured, could be any g^de. 
In the best period, from the ground 
to the knee was 6 parts or 2 feet; 
but the figure was greater in breadth 
as compared to its height in the 
pyramid period than during the 18th 
and 19th dynasty ; the distance from 
the ground to the knee, though 6 parts, 
was less than 2 feet, and the waist was 
nearly 3 parts (or 2|) ; while at the 18th 
dynasty period it was only 2 parts in 
breadth. In the old pyramid-time the 
length of the foot was ^ of the whole 
figure to the top of the head ; in the 
other period much less (3X6 being 
18) ; so that there must have been 
another standard ; and the great differ, 
ence was in the breadth, compared 
to the height, of the figpire ; a differ- 
ence in the numher of the squares is 
also said to have been met wiUu (See 
Handbook of Egypt, Route 29, Omhos,) 

There are some portraits painted on 
wood and affixed to mummy cases, but 
these are of Greek and Roman time, 
and an innovation not Egyptian.—^ 
[G. W.] 

* Some of these linen corslets were 


Btatues of himself, made in wood,' which stood in the great 
temple to my day, behind the doors. Samoa was honoured 
with these gifts on account of the bond of friendship subsist- 
ing between Amasis and Polycrates, the sou of ^aees : ■ 
Lindua, for no such reason, but because of the tradition that 
the daughters of Danaus * touched there in their flight from 

of very reinarkalile teitnre ; and He- 
rodotna {iii. 47) m^Dtions another 
preBonttd by Amaaia to tho Loci^ds!- 
monianB, which was earned off by the 
Stuouuis. It was oraamGiited with 
comerDiiB Sgnrea of anunals, worked 
in ^Id and cotton. Each thread was 
Wtrthy of admimtion, for though tetj 
fine, STsr; one was composed of 8^ 
other thr^H, all dlBtioct, tha qoolitj 
being similar to that dedicated to 
Hinerra at LindQB. Gold thread, it 
ahonld bo obaarved, is mentioned in 
Eiod. xiiiji. 3 for working in rich 

colonrs (see At. Eg. vol. iii. p. 128). 
It has been conjeotiiTed thai the " treo- 
wodI" of Herodotus was ailk; bnt 
cotton is oommonly afi^ for 
broidery even at the present daf. 
(See above, ch. 86, nole*.) A siWbr 
ooTBlet wilh figures of onimali is 
presented in the tomb of Beueaet 
at ThebeB, Lucas (Phar*. i. UXf 
mentions Iho needlework of Egypl' : — 

Quod NUihIb He 


PJloy (lii. 1) 

of Amaais, shown m the Temple ol 
MiuerTB at Bhodea," which 
to have been Dearly polled to piMM 
(aa it wonld bo now), ' '' ' ■■-*■- 
SOB threads."— [G. W.] 

" ThoBQ were not nnoo 

Diany have been found of kingti, 

preceded Ajuoaia in the same bail^ 
ingfl where grnnilo and other stntnaf 
of the same period were plaoeC 
Pansamaa (ii. IS) says " all anoiasl 
Hlatai^B were of wood, especial^ 
those of the Egyptians ; " ttnd if S 
Egypt they wore no proof of M 
tiquity, etiU the oldest there all 
were probably of wood.— [Q. W.] 

» Vide infra, iii. S9-43. 

< The flight of DaoaoB from Kgypt 

odotnfl, but by Manetbo 1 
'rs, and was credited both M 
(ka and Egyptians ; and it k 
ninly Toiy improbable (aa 
irick observes) that the Onjekft 
Id have traced the coIoiutati<B 
Vi-];oB, and the origin of oen 
J. tuEpypt, unless Ihorebadbi 
(- iinthority for the story. 1 
Illation of the Temple of L 
in Ubodes by the daiigfat«i« of 

CSAP. 182. 



the sons of JEgyptns, and built the temple of Minerva. Such 
were the offerings of Amasis. He likewise took Cyprus, 
which no man had ever done before,* and compelled it to pay 
him a tribute.* 

Danans, when fljing from Egypt, 
acc<n^ with the notion of colonisa. 
tion and religions rites passing from 
the Egyptians to the Oreeks; and 
the tradition of the relationship be- 
tween .^Bgyptns, Danans, and Belns, 
connects the three countries of 
Egypt, Greece, and Fhcenicia. See 
note \ ch. 101, and note ^ ch. 107. 

* Cypros seems to hare been first 
occnpied by the Chittim, a Japhetic 
race ((Sen. x. 4). To them most be 
attributed the foundation of the 
original capital, Citiom. Before the 
Trojan war, however, the Phoonicians 
had made themselves masters of the 
island, which they may hare named 
Cypros, from the abnndance of the 
herb Cyprus (Lawsonia alba), called 
in the Hebrew sq3, which is foond 

there. (Steph. Byz. ad voc. Kincpos. 
Plin. H. N. xii. 24.) Accoiding to 
Greek tradition, the conqaest was 
effected by a certain Cinyras, a Syrian 
king (Theopomp. Fr. Ill ; ApoUod. iii. 
xiv. § 3), whom Homer makes con- 
temporary with Agamemnon. (H. 
xi. 20.) His capital was Paphos. If 
we may believe Virgil, the CittaBans 
soon rejfained their independence, for 
Belns, the father of Dido (more pro- 
perly Mat gen, Menand. ap. Joseph, c. 
A p. i. 18), had again to reduce the 
island (-^n. i. 621-2), where, according 
to Alexander of Ephesus, he built 
(rebuilt ?) the two cities of Citinm and 
Lap^thus. (See Steph. Byz. ad voc. 
AhrnOos.) A hundred and fifty years 
afterwards we find the Cittseans again I 

in revolt. They had renounced their 
allegiance to ^ulaeus, king of Tyre, 
and were assisted in their struggle by 
Shalmaneeer (Menand. ap. Joseph. 
A. J. ix. 14). After the fall of the 
Assyrian empire, Phoenicia seems to 
have recovered her supremacy, and 
thenceforth Cyprus followed her for- 
tunes ; being now attacked by Amasis 
as a sequel to the Phcenician wars of 
his predecessor (supra, ch. 161 ; cp. 
Diod, Sic. i. 68). So, too, when 
Phoenicia submitted to Cambyses, 
Cyprus immediately followed her 
example (infra, iii. 19). Concerning 
the Greek colonies in Cyprus, see note 
on Book V. ch. 104. 

* Dean Blakeeley says (note ad loc.) : 
*' It is impossible that Cyprus could 
have been reduced without a fleet, and 
Egypt did not possess one of her own.** 
He then proceeds to speculate on the 
quarter whence an auxiliary naval 
force was at this time procured, and 
decides in favour of Samos. But Neco 
had made Egypt a naval power (supra, 
ch. 159), which she thenceforth con* 
tinned to be. Under Apries she con- 
tended against Phoenicia (ch. 161), 
undoubtedly with her own ships, not 
with " some Hellenic auxiliary naval 
force," as Mr. Blakesley supposes. 
Her continued possession of a large 
navy after her conquest by the Per- 
sians is marked in vi. 6, where her 
vessels are engaged against the 
lonians, and a^ain in vii. 89, where 
she furnishes 200 triremes (the largest 
contingent, after that of Phoenicia) to 
the fleet of Xerxes. 


( 274 ) 

NOTE (p. 45). 

SiNCX the second edition of this work was published, the author has 
received from the Rev. J. W. Burgon a second very careful transcript 
of the Aboo-Simbel Inscription. It differs from the transcript of Sir 
G. Wilkinson in the following respects : — L The second and third lines 
are complete, the one ending with the word 6E0KA02 (for ecMcXovt), and 
the other with nOTAMOS ; 2. The last word is read as OTAAMA ; 3. The 
writing is altogether more upri^t than represented by Wilkinson ; 4. 
The name of Psammetichus is spelt with one M in the first line, and with 
two in the second ; 5. The following points are remarkable in the forms 
of the letters : — (a) the two strokes of the gamma sometimes form a right 
angle, sometimes an acute one ; (b) the cross in the middle of the iheta is 
sometimes upright, sometimes inclined, like the cross of an English X ; 
(c) the rho has generally its usual form, but on one occasion nearly 
resembles a Roman D ; {d) the upright stroke of the tan is sometimes 
carried a little beyond the line of the horizontal one ; (e) the upnion is 
generally a Homan V, but sometimes has the right-hand limb shortened ; 
(/) the chi is represented indifferently by an upright or an inclined cross. 
It may be added that Mr. Burgon did not notice any case in which the 
omega was represented (as Sir G. Wilkinson states) by an amicroti with 
a dot in the centre, . — (1876.) 



OF MAN-KIND."— Chap. 2. 

1. The Egyptians from Asia. 2. Egyptian and Celtia 3 Semitic character of 
Egyptian. 4. Eridences of an older language than Zend and Sanscrit. 6. 
Ba or Pa, and Ifo, primitive cries of infants, made into father and mother. 
6. m for b. 7. Bek not to be pronounced by an ontntored child. 8. Bek, 
name of bread in Egypt, d. The story told to Herodotus. 10. Claim of the 
Scythians to be an early race. 

If Egypt is not the oldest civilised nation of antiquity, it may vie 1. 
with any other known in history ; and the records of its civilisation, 
left by the monuments, unquestionably date far before those of any 
other country. But the inhabitants of the valley of the Nile were 
not the most ancient of mankind, they evidently derived their 
origin from Asia ; and the parent stock, from which they were a 
very early offset, claims a higher antiquity in the history of the 
human race. Their skull shows them to have been of the Caucasian 
stock, and distinct from the African tribes Westward of the Nile ; 
and they are evidently related to the oldest races of Central Asia. 
(See note " on ch. 15.) The Egyptian language might, from its 
grammar, appear to claim a Semitic origin, but it is not really one 
of that ^unily, Hke the Arabic, Hebrew, and others ; nor is it one 
of the languages of the Sanscritic &mily, though it shows a pri- 
mitive afEnity to the Sanscrit in certain points ; and this has been 
accounted for by the Egyptians being an offset from the early 
*' undivided Asiatic stock ; " — a conclusion consistent with the fact 
of their language being *' much less developed than the Semitic and 
Sanscritic, and yet admitting the principle of those inflexions and 
radical formations, which we find developed, sometimes in one, 
sometimes in the other, of those great families." Besides certain 



affinitjea nith the Sanscrit, it has others witli the Celtic, and thC' 
languages of Africa ; and Dr, Ch. Meyer thinks that Celtic ' 
all its non-Sanscritic featnres most strildiiglj' corresponds with th» 
old Egyptian." It is also the opinion of 'H. Miitler that the Eg;T|>- 
tian bears an affinity " tx>th to the Arian and Semitic dialects," 
from its having biten an offset of the original Asiatic tongne, which 
was their common parent before this was broken np into the 
Turanian, Arian, und Hemitic. 

In its grammatical constrnction, Egyptian has the greatest r&- 
semblance to the Sem.itic ; and if it has leas of this character than 
the Hebrew, and other purely Semitic dialects, this is explained by 
the tatter having been developed after the separation of the original 
tongne into Arian ajid Semitic, and by the E^pttan having retained 
a portion of both elements. There is, however, a possiUlity thai 
the Egyptian maj have been a componnd langnage, formed froni, 
two or more tifler the first migration of the race ; and foreign 
elements may have been then added to it, as in the case of soms 
other languages. 

It is also interesting to observe that while the Semitic langnage* 
are confined to the aonth-weat part of Asia, including Mesopota 
Syria, and Arabia, the same elements are met with in the languttges 
of Africa. 

Though Zend and Sanscrit are the oldest languages of the Indo- 
European family, still these two are offsets of an older primitirv 
one 1 and among other evidences of this may bo mentioned t~ 
changes that words had already undergone in Zend and Sanserif 
from the original form they had in the parent tongue; as ix 
number " twenty," which being in the Zend " VimH!" and in Sao- 
Borit " Vinaali," shows that they have thrown off the " d " of tlw 
original dva, " two," of dvisaiti, and of dvinsati (as the Latin 
" viginti " is a corrupted form of " dviginti ") ; and this is the mora 
remarkable as the original form is maintained in the " dvadesot," 
or " dvaes," of the Slavonic j and " twice " in Sanscrit is iJpm. 
Another evidence is obtained from the Sancrit verb asmi, " I am," 
where ganti, " they are," is put for amnii, Ac. 

The word " Bekos " is thought to be Phrygian; and Strabo^ 
following Hipponax, says it was the Cyprian word for bread, 
(.ii. p. 3«.) ^ ^ 

Larchor remarks that, deprived of its Greek termination, "os," 
and reduced to " Bek," it looks like an imitation of the bleating of 

Chap.L the word "BEK" EXAMINED. 2/7 

tlie goats, wliicli the children had been accnstomed to hear ; bnt it 
might rather be considered one of the two primitive sounds (ba or 
pa, and ma) first nttered by infants, which have been the origin of ^* 
the names of father and mother in the earliest offsets from the 
parent language of mankind : thns matar (Zend) ; matar (Sanscr,) ; 
mater (La4;.), and fi^p (Gr,) ; matter (Oerm.) ; m&tor (Slav.) ; mam 
(Welsh); nm (Heh, and Arab.); anmi4 (Tamil); eme "woman" 
(Mongol, whence the terminations of khanem and begnm) ; ima 
"wife " (Ostiak) ; ema " mother" (Finnish) ; ema " female " (Magyar) ; 

hime ^A yV| ( ** wife," " woman,'* and man (t-man, man-t), " mother " 


The same with ah, or pa ; and though it has been observed that 
Greek and Sanscrit have the verbs of similar meaning iriM and ^uU, 
pa and ma ; and that ircii^p, fi-frrnp, pilar, niatar, are regularly formed; 
the existence of the same roots in other languages claims for them 
a far earlier origin ; and they were borrowed from the first efforts 
of the infant's speech. 

It is remarkable that the two consonants which begin these 6. 
sounds " 6a," " 7»a," are commutable labials, " b " being frequently 
put for ** m," in many languages ; as in ancient Egypt, chnubis for 
chnumis ; Gemnoute changed into Sebennytus and Semenhoud ; 
the river Bagradas converted into Magradah ; the Mandela into 
Bardela, and many others ; and the modem Greeks, who have no 
" b," are obliged to introduce an "m** before a "p," to imitate the 
sound, — -fahrica being written by them phamprika. The natural 
sound, then, at the beginning of the word hek might have been 
proDOunced by a child, but not the " k," unless instructed to make 7. 
the necessary artificial effort ; and one untaught to speak would not 
have the power of uttering any but labial sounds. The fact, there- 
fore, of the children not being able to go beyond " be," the begin- 
ning of the word, renders the story doubtful ; and still less can we 
believe that the Egyptians gave precedence to the Phrygians from 
the use of the word hek; since their own word " oik," " ak," "cake," 8. 
" bread," or with the definite article poik (pronounced in Coptic 
hayk, like our word " haJce ") would be at once construed, by a 
people already convinced that they were the oldest of men, into a 
proof of their own claims; for those cakes of bread were used by 
the Egyptians in aU their offerings to the gods. The story, then, 9. 
may be considered one of the many current among the Greek 


i^enrmi in ^7pt> which were aimiUr to those concocted at tbi 
p.meM dftT in the" Fnnk quArtcr" of an eaatem city; and ni 
BAT acqoit Pauninetichas of ignorutoe of his own, aa well u o 

Aad iho^i^ Herodotns s&ja he Iflftmt tite story itself from thi 
ptw rt i i>f Memphis, it is evident that, being ignorant of the kognagt 
W wac M the metty of an intai>reter. 

jMsdn (ii. 1' and Ammiaunfl Marcellinns (xxii,15) also loentioi 
a qaMtva between the Egyptians and Scythians respectmg tbeii 
coBBparuiT* antiqnity, which was considered with some aboff ol 
reaaww t» end in EkTonr of the latter, as they inhabited those bigli 
tva^ 1^ Central Asia, natondly the first freed from the water tliti 
iMW cvnKti the eanli, and therefore the first inhabited ; and tbf 
aat^mitv i^ th« races of Central Ajsia is fnlly borne oot by moderi 

Chap. n. 





YEAR."— Chap. 4. 

(See note* on Chap. 51, and below, Appendix, Ch. viL) 

1- The 12 months in Egypt. 2. Years of 360, 365, and 365i days. 3. The three 
seasons. 4. Length of the yeai* corrected. 5. Sothic year. 6. The year of 
365 days. 7. The dates of kings' reigns. 8. The Square or Sothic year. 9. 
The Lnnar year. 10. The Arab year. 11. The Jewish year. 12. Intercala- 
tion of the Egyptians and Greeks. 

Though Herodotns does not call the twelve portions, into which the 1* 
Egyptian year was divided, months, it is certain that the original 
division was taken as among most other people from the moon ; 
the hieroglyphic signifying "month" being the crescent. The 
Egyptians had three years : one unintercalated, of 360 days ; and 
two intercalated, respectively of 365 and 365 j days. They were 2. 
divided into three seasons (" spring, sammer, and winter," accord- 
ing to Diodoras, i. 11), each composed of four months of 30 days ; 
and in the two intercalated years five days were added at the end of 
the twelfth month, which completed the 365 days ; the quarter day 
in the last of them being added every fourth year, as in our leap- 

The three seasons were thus represented with the four months 3. 
belonging to each : — 


nil, yk 



^m. A/WVV. 


II ^ 

4^ /wwv 



«^ /SA/W\ 

4. Cboeak. 

3. Athor. 

2. Paopi. 

1. Tboth. 




11 )K 


8. FhArmathi. 

7. Phamenoph. 

6. Mechir. 

6. TobL 



IX Umor^ 

11. Epep. 

10. Paonl. 

9. Pachons. 


The first eeason began ivitli the month Thotli (the first day of 
which, in the time of Angnatus, B.C. 24, coincided witU the Sfttli 
Aogust, 0.8. ), and was composed o£ the four montha Tliotb, Paopi, 
Athor, Cboeok ; the aecond of Tobi, Mechir, Phamenotb, Pbamm- 
thi ; the third of Pachons, Paoni, Epcp, and Meaor^ ; at the end of 
which were added the five days of the intercalated year. The 
names of the seasons appear to be, Ist, of the plants ; 2nd. of 
flowering, or harvest, and 3rd, of the waters, or innndation ; wbicb 
originally corresponded nearly to 1°, November, December, Jaunaiy 

4. and Febrnary ; 2°, March, April, May and June ; 3°, Joly, Angna^ 
September and October. But ae, in course of time, the h 
changed, and those of summer fell in winter, they found it nece»-. 
sary to make another correction; and for this purpose they resolved 
on ascertaining the period that elapsed between the retnm of ft 
fixed star to the same place in the heavens, which they perceived 
would not be variable as were their conventional seasons. Tbfl^ 

5. heliacal rising of tho dog-star, Sotbis, was therefore the point fixed) 
upon, and in litiO Sotbic (or 1461 of their vague) yeara, they' 
found that it rose again beliacally, that their seasons bad returned! 
to their original places again, and that they had lost one whols 
yoar, according to the calculation of 365 days. This showed then 
that the difference of a quarter of a day annually required that oi 

, day every four years should be intercalated to completo tho tm 
year ; and though they had already devised other means of fiiin 
the return of a certain period of the year, this was the first nesrij 
(i, accurate determi nation of ita length. The period when they fin 
began their observations, as well as that still more remote one wha 
the first intercalated year o£ 365 days came into nse, mast havi 
been long before the year 13^3 B.C.; and an inscription (ia th 
Turin Museum) of the time of Amnnoph I., the second king of th 
18th dynasty, mentions tho year of 365 days. Lepsius and II. d 
Rouge have also shown that tho five days were already noticed ii 
tho 12th dynasty, and that the rite of Sothis was celebrated at tlu 
same period. The heliacal rising of Sothis was therefore ascertained 
long before the year 1322 ; and the reputed antiquity of the intei* 
calary days is shown by their being ascribed, according to Stnihot 
to Mermes ; as well as by the fable of the five sons of Seb having 
been born on those days ; nor would the Egyptian kings hav* 
" sworn to retain the sacred year of 305 days vritbout intercalating 
any day or month," nulcBs the Sotbic year had been already the SQTTABE OB 80THIC TRAB. 281 

^^eniecL Herodotns also says tbat they were indebted to the «/arr 

*0T their mode of adjasting the year and its seasons. But there is ' - 

'^Maon to believe that the still older year of 360 days was retained 

for the dates of kings' reigns ; and that this nnintercalated year of 

360 days was the one nsed in their records and monumental stelae : 

thus, an Apis was bom in the 53rd year of Psanunetichns L, the 

19th Mechir, and died in the 16th year of Neco on the 6th Paopi, 

aged 16 years, 7 months, and 17 days. Now from 19 Mechir to 

6 Paopi are 210 days + H to the end of Mechir + 6 of Paopi= 227, 

or 7 montiis 17 days over the 16 years ; without any intercalary 

5 days. It is, however, possible that the 5 days were included in 

the last month of the year, and that it was a year of 365 days ; but 

there is no mention of the 31st, or any other day beyond the 30th, 

of Me8or6. 

The Sothic year of 365 J days was called the square year, the annus 8. 
guadrcUus of Pliny (ii. 47) ; and the same mentioned by Diodoms 
(L 50), Macrobius (i. 16), and HorapoUo. It appears to be repre- 
sented in hieroglyphics by a square J ^ instead of the sun J^ 

of the two vague years. The retention of the nnintercalated and 
intercalated vagae year would prevent the confusion which might 
have been expected from the older and later chronological memoirs 
having been kept in years of a different reckoning ; for it was 
always easy to turn these last into Sothic years, when more accurate 
calculations were required ; and this Sothic, or sidereal year, was 
reserved for particular occasions, as the old Coptic year is used by 
the modem Egyptians when they wish to fix any particular period, 
or to ascertain the proper season for agricultural purposes. 

The Egyptians had therefore an object in retaining the vague 
year, in order that the festivals of the gods, in course of time, might 
pass through the different seasons of the year, as Geminus the 
Rhodian (who lived in 77 B.C.) informs us. It is also evident, that 
without the accuracy of the Sothic year they could not, as Hero- 
dotus supposes, have fixed the exact return of the seasons. 

We may conclude, that the Egyptians had at first a lunar year, 9« 
which being regulated by the moon, and divided into 12 moons, or 
months, led to a month being ever after represented in hieroglyphics 
by a moon ; but this would only have boon at a most remote period 
before the establishment of the Egyptian monarchy ; and some 


migLt hence derive au a,rgument in faTour of the early use of hiero- 
gljphk-9, and Bappoae that they were invented before the introduc- 
tion o£ the solar moufJiB. In India also the Innar year was older 
than the solar. 

). Tbe lunar year bUH continncB in use among the Arabs, and other 
Moslems, and the origin of a month has been the Bamo in many 
countries ; but their year is only of 354 days. The Aztecs, again, 
had months of 13 days, of which 1461 made their cycle of 52 years, 
by which tlie aupemumerary quarter day was accurately adjusted. 
Bat though the Arabs always used lunar months, it has been ascer* 
tained by Mr. Lane, and by M. Caussin de Perceval, that their 
years wore intercalated for about two centuries, until tbe 10th year 
of the Hegira, when the intercalation was discontinued by Moham- 
med'a order ; so that the usual mode of adjusting Arab chronology 
with our own is not quite correct. 

1. It is a flingular fact, that Moses, in describing the abatement of 
the waters of the Deluge, calculates five mouths at 150 days (Gei 
viii- 3, 4), or 30 days to a month, being the same as the uninterea- 
lated Egyptian year ; the lunar however was that first used by the 
Hebrews; and, as in other languages, their name for th< 
signified also a month. The lunar year of the Jews consisted of 12 
months, which began (as with the Arabs) directly the new i 
appeared; they varied in their length, and in order to rectify tho 
loss of the 11 days, in the real length of the year, they added a 
tliirteenth mouth every third, and sometimes every second year, to 
make np the deficiency, so that their months and festivals did not 
(like those of the Arabs) go through tho various seasons of the 

i. Herodotus considers the intercalation of the Egyptians better than 
that of the Greeks, who added a montli at the end of every 2nd 
year, making them aJtercately of 12 and 13 months. This indeed 
would cause an eicess, which the omission of 1 month every 8tli 
year by tbe Gi-eeks would not rectify. (See Cenforiniui. de Die Nat. 
c. 18.) Herodotus calculates the Greek months at 30 days each, 
and the 12 months at 360 days, when he says 70 years, without it 
eluding intercalary mouths, are 25,200 days, i.e. 360 X 70, which, 
be adds, the 35 intercalary months will increase by 1050 days (35 
X 30), making a total of 26,250 days for 70 years. This wonld bo 
375 days to the year. (See n. ', ch, 32, Bk. i.) On the Greek l 
tercalation see Macrobins, Saturn, i. 14, who says the Greeks made 

Chap. II. 



their year of 354 days, and perceiving that 11} days were wanting 
to the trae year, they added 90 days, or 3 months, every 8 years. 
Strabo (xvii. p. 554) says the Greeks were ignorant (of the trae 
length) of the year until Endoxns was in Egypt ; and this was in 
the late time of the 2nd Nectanebo, abont B.C. 360 ; and Macrobins 
afiBrms that the Egyptians always possessed the tme calculation of 
the length of the year, — '*anni certns modns apud solos semper 
-^Egyptios fuit." (Satnm. i. 7.) He then mentions the primitive 
year among other people — as the Arcadians, who divided it into 
3 months ; other Greeks making it consist of 354 days (a lunar 
year) ; and the Romans under Romulus, who divided it into 10 
months, beginning with March. — [G. W.] 




THEM."— Chap. 4. 

1. DiSerent orders of Gods. 2, The great Gods of the Sist order. S. Tbs 
second order, i. I'laue of Be, ot the San. 6. ClaIai&(^BtiolI of the God*. 
6. BabwBm not a part of tho Egyptian religion. 7. Panthoiam. 8. Name 
of He, Phmh, and Pharaoh. 9. Position of Re ia the secotid order. 
ID. BAnk of Onrifl. 11. Children of Seb. 12. The third onier. 13. The 
other most noted deities. 14. OthoT Gods. 16. Forei^ diTim'tieo. 
16. ChiEf God of a citf and the triad. 17. Doitiea mnltiplicd Uj a great 
extent — the nnity. 18. OfBeea of the Deity— characters of Jupile 
10. ResemblanoeB of Gods to bo traced from one original. SO, SabdiTiaJo 
of tho Deity— local Gods. 21. PersoniJioatioaa— Nature Gods. 22. Sacred 
tree! and mountains. 23, Common ori|^D of rcligiooa syvtams. S4. Greek 
philosophy. 35. CroatioQ and early state of the earth. 

1- It is evidont tliat some gods held a. higher rank thronghont tfaa 
country than others, and that manj were of minor importance, wbila 
■otne were merely local divinities, But it ia not certain thnt the 
grm.t goda were limited to 8, or the 2nd rank to 12 ; there are i 
proofs of some, repnted to belong to the 2iid and 3rd orders, hold- 
ing a higher position than this gradation wonld sanction, and two 
of difEereiit orders are combined, or substitnted for each other, 
ia not passible to arrange all the gods in the 3 orders as stated by 
Herodotna, nor can the 12 have been all bom of the 8 ; there was 
however some distinction of the kind, tho 8 agreeing with the 8 
Cabiri (i.e. " great " goda) of the Phcenicians (see note • on oh- -ll), 
and tho others with the 12 goda of Olympna, and the Consontee of 
the Romans ; though it ia uncerta-iu how this arrangement applied 

2, to them. Those who have the beat claim to a place among the 8 
Great Gods are,— 1. Amun; 2. Mant ; 3, Nonm, or Noo (Nonb, 
Nef, Kueph) ; 4. Sat^ ; 5, Ptbah ; 6. Neith ; 7. Kbem ; 8, Paaht, 
who seema also to combine the character of Bnto, under whose name 
she was worshipped at Bubtwtia. 

1. Amun, the Great God of Thebes, "tho King of the Gods," 
answered to Jupiter ; 2, Maul, the " Mother " of all, or the matem*! 
principle (probably the mot of Sanconiatho, see App. Book iiL 


Essaj i. § 3, 11), appears to be sometimes a character of Bato (La- 
tona), priraaBval darkness from which sprang light ; 3. Noum^ Nu, 
Nou (or Nou-bai? called also Nonb, Nef, Kneph, Cnuphis, and 
Chnubis, the ram-headed god), who was also considered to answer 
to Jupiter, as his companion (4.) Sate did to Juno, was the Great 
God of the Cataracts, of Ethiopia, and of the Oases ; and in later 
temples, especially of Roman time, he often received the name of 
Amun : — ^the " contortis comibus Ammon." (See notes on ch. 29, 
42, Book ii., and on ch. 181, Book iv.) There is a striking re- 
semblance between the Semitic nef, " breath," and the Coptic nibe, 
nifi, nouf, " spiritus ; " and between the hieroglyphic num (with the 
article pnum), and the irKcv/io, " spirit," which Diodorus says was the 
name of the Egyptian Jupiter. He was the " soul of the world " 
(comp. ^'mens agitat molem, et magno se corpore miscet"). The 
ram, his emblem, stands for hai '*soul," and hence the Asp also 
received the name of Bait. The " jK" " of Kneph is evidently a cor- 
rupt addition, as Knoub for Noub; the change of m and b in Noub 
is easily explained (see above, in ch. i. § 6) ; and the name '* Nonb " 
is perhaps connected with Nubia as well as with gold. The very 
general introduction of the ram*s head on the prow of the sacred 
boats, or arks, of other gods, seems to point to the early and uni- 
versal worship of this God, and to connect him, as his mysterious 
boat does, with the spirit that moved on the waters. He is said to 
be Agathodemon ; and the Asp being his emblem, confirms this state- 
ment of Ensebius. 

5. Pfhah was the creative power, the maker of all material things, 
'* the father of the gods," and assimilated by the Greeks, through a 
gross notion of the AritiiovpySs, or Opifex Mundi, to their HephaDstus 
(Vulcan). He was the god of Memphis. He had not so high a 
rank in Greece, nor in India, where Agni {ignis of Latin, oga/a 
" fire " of Slavonic) was an inferior deity to Mahadeva, or Siva. 

6. Neith, the goddess of Saos, answered to AthenS or Minerva ; 
she was self-bom, and i^cy^Avs ; she therefore sometimes had the 
sceptre given to male deities. (See note ^ on ch. 62, Book ii.) 

7. Khein, the generative principle, and universal nature, was 
represented as a phallic figure. He was the god of Coptos, the 
''iU«r ei)i3«y," and the Pan of Chemmis (Panopolis) — the Egyptian 
Pan, who, as Herodotus justly observes (ch. 145, Book ii.), was one 
of the eight great gods. Of him is said in the hieroglyphic legend, 
*' thy title is * father of thine own father.' " (See notes ' and • on 
ch. 42, and App. Book iii. Essay i. § 11.) 



pp. Boosts 


S. Fanlit, BubaetiB, luiBwered to Artomta, or Diana ; as at tb9 
SpeoB Artemidofi. 

It ia not easy to dctermino the 12 gtids of the 2nd order ; and I, 
only do thiB temporarily, as I hare long since done in my Materia 
Hieroglyphicft (p. S8) ; bnt I mnst not omit to state that they do 
not appear alwaya to have been the xame, and. that the children of 
the 8 great gods do not iieMtfarUy hold a place among thoee of ths 
2nd order. (For the forms of tUoae of the other goda, whose namei 
are mentioned below, see At. Eg. W., vol. v.. Plates,) 

The 12 deities of the most importance after the 8, and who may 
have been those of the 2nd order, are : — 

1. Tie,, Ka, or Phrah, the San, tlie father of many deities, 
combined with olhere of the lat, 2nd, and even 3rd order. 

2. Se6, Chroooa, or Saturn. He was also the Earth. Being the 
father of Oairis, and other deities of the 3rd order, he was called 
" father of the gods." The goose was his emblem. (See note • 
ch. 72.) 

3. Seipe, Rhea, wife of Sab. She was the Vanlt of Heaven, and 
was called " mother of the gods." 

4. Klicnw, the 3rd member of the Great Triad of Thebes, conu 
posed of Amnn, Mant, and Khons their offspring. He is snpposed 
to be a character of Hcrcales, and also of the Moon. In tba 
Etymologicum Magmim, Hercnlea ia called Chon. 

5. An<mke,, Estia, or Vesta, the 3rd member of the Great Triad at 
the Cataracts, composed of Nonm (Non), Sate, and Anonke. (Sc« 
note ^ on cb. 62.) Estia is Festia with the dtgamma. 

6. Atnifttt, Atmoo, Atum, or Atm, is "Darkness," the Son after 
sunset (comp, Atmeb, " darkness," Arabu:), sol infems, and called 
Be-Atum. Mr. Birch thinks him the negative principle, tern signi- 
fying " not." 

7. Moui, apparently the same as Gom or Hercolea, the splendour 
and light of the Snn, and therefore called a " son of Re." 

8. Tafne (Daphne), or Tafne-t, a lion-headed goddess, perbapa the 
same aa Thriphis, who is with Kbem at Athribia and Panopolis. 

9. Tholh, the intellect ; Hermes or Mercnry ; the Moon (Lnnna), 
a male god as in India ; and Time in the sense of passing period. 
Anubis is also Time, past and fntnre. (Plntarch de Is. s. 44.) 

10. Sauak, the crocodile- headed god, often called Savak-Re. 

11. iteitkyia, llitbyia, or Lncina, Seben, Seneb, or Neben. 

12. Mandoo, Mandou, or Mimt (Mara), qaite distinct from 


Mandnlis or Malonli of Kalabshi (Talmis), where both gods are 
represented. From him Hermonthis received its name. 

I had formerly placed Re among the 8 great gods, instead of 4* 
Pasht, or Bnbastis ; but the position she held as second member of 
the Great Triad of Memphis, gives her the same claim as Maat, the 
consort of Amnn. I am ijinch disposed to make a separate class of 
deities connected with Be ; who has a different name at his rising, 
at his meridian height, and at night. He is also the solar disc, and 
the shining snn or solar light ( TTbn-re). The Sun-worshippers, or 
Stranger Kings of the 18th dynasty, had a triad composed of 
Atm-re, Moui (solar splendour), and Be, Besides other characters, 
he is the soul of the world ; his title Be is added to the names of 
other gods ; and several deities are sons and daughters of the Sun. 
In these offices they are distinct from the deified attributes of the 
ideal, or primary god, which are necessarily of a different nature 
from the Sun-gods. There is at the same time a point of union 
between some of those attributes and certain characters of the Son, 
or Be ; who is connected with many gods of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
orders ; — Amun had the name Amun-Be ; Nou (or Noum) was 
Noum-Be, and even Atin-Be; and the additional title of Be is 
also assigned to deities of the 2nd order, as to Savak, Mandou, and 

In giving three orders I have been guided by Herodotus, though 5. 
it is evident the numerous gods of Egypt were not confined to that 
number. If such were the sole classification, the greater part of the 
deities would be altogether omitted ; and it is impossible to make 
them accord with his orders, even if we allow many of them to be 
repetitions of the same god under other characters. For some 
were characters of the deities belonging to the Ist or 2nd orders ; 
but even then they were distinct, and members of some other group ; 
as all the attributes of the one God became distinct deities. Nor 
can all those connected with the Sun be classified under one group. 
They may however claim a separate arrangement, like the Osiride 
family, which is supposed to form the 3rd order ; and this distinct 
classification of Sun-gods might be used to explain the nature of 
several important members of the Egyptian Pantheon. 

Though actual Sabaism was not a part of the religion of the 6. 
Egyptians, and the worship of the Sun and Moon was of a different 
kind, still it may have been connected with their earlier belief; 
which may be inferred from the idea of "prayer" being repre- 


Apf. BOOK'S 


soiitc'd in hieroglyphics by a man holding aphis hands, 
by a star. It in not impossible that when 
they immigrated into the VaUey of the 
Nile tht-y may have brought with them 
that Asiiitiu superstition, combined with 
Bome pnrer notions which they had of the 
Deity ; but afterwards having endeavoured 
to reconcile the notion of phyaical and 
material, with ideal and incorporeal gods, 
they abandoned their earlier mode of wor- 
shipping the Sun and Moon. This last 
seems to accord with their religion ns we see it on their l 
mente ; where the Sua was chiefly looked upon as the visible nepr»< 
sentative of the generative, or vivifying, pi-inciple of Natnre. Th« 
disc of the Son and the crescent of the Moon wore placed ^ 
emhlemti on the heads of gods, and elsewhere ; as the name ~ 
(" the San ") was appended to their titles ; and these deities n 
a worship, bnt it was not Sabaism, and no notice was taken of tfaa 
stars as objects of adoration. And when some "Stranger Kings'! 
from Asia re-introdnced the worship of the real Sun's disc, the I 
novation was odious to tho Egyptians, and was expelled for ertm 
with tho usurpers who had forcibly established it in the coonti^ 
Macrobius, indeed, endeavours to show that nearly all the god( 
corresponded to the Sun ; and ChKremon thinks " the Egyptiai 
had no gods bat the Son and planets ; and that all related t 
physical operations, having no reference to incorporeal and livin 
essences" (Eus. Pr. Evang. iii, 4). Bnt this correspondence wi 
distinct from Sabaism ; and if many gods did " correspond to tb 
Snn," still the Sahaoth worship of the Sun and stars was not tha 
religion of the Egyptians even in tho earliest times of which s 
monuments remain. Many deities were characters of the Sun ; and 
its daily course from its rising to its setting, and at different 
periods of the year (as well as certain phenomena — its supposed 
offspring), gave rise to beings who may be classed among Nature 
Gods ; as in the mythology of India and Greece. 

The Egyptians, as they advanced in religions speculation, adopted 
a Pantheism, according to which (while the belief in one Snprem 
Being was taught to the initiated) the attributes of the Deity wem 
Gefurated under various heads, as the " Creator," the divine wisdom, 
the generative, and other principles ; and even created thiugg^ 



wlucli were tiiooghi to partake of the divine essence, were per- 
mitted to reoeiye divine worship. 

The name of Be is remarkable for its resemblance to the ouro, 8. 
** light*' of Coptic, and the Aor of Hebrew (whence the Urim^ 
*/ lights "), and to Horns, and Aroeris (Hor-oeri, " Horns the 
chief"), to hof, "heat," to *pa, hora, " season " or "hour," as well 
as to the names of the Snn in several African dialects, as Airo, 
ayero, eer, niro, ghnrrah, and others. It is the same as *' Phrah," 
or Pharaoh, the Egyptian Pi-Be, 'Hhe Snn," MenvphUice Phra; 
which was first suggested by the Duke of Northumberland and 
Colonel Felix. Be had different characters : as the rising Sun he 
was a form of Horus ; at midday Be ; and Ubn-re, " the shining 
Snn ; " as the solar disc Atin-re ; when below the horizon Be-Atnm, 
Atmon, or Atnm, '' darkness." 

I have stated the reasons for placing Pasht (Bubastis) among the 
8 great gods in preference to Be ; and it would not only be incon- 
sistent to place the created in the same rank as the creator, but Be 9. 
has Athor as the 2nd member of his principal triad, and is himself 
the 2nd of a minor triad composed of Amun, Be, and Horus. 
Again, though Be is the father of many deities, he has no claim on 
this account; since Nilus, and even Ap6 (Thebes), are called the 
" father " and ** mother of the gods ; " Asclepius is a son of Pthah, 
without being one of the 12 gods ; and Nepthys is called daughter 
of Be in the same building where she is allowed to be the sister of 
Isis. These and similar relationships therefore prove no more 
regarding the classification of the gods, than do the facts of Pthah 
being called " father of the gods " (while one only, Asclepius, is 
mentioned as his son), and of Be not being called by that title, 
though there are so many deities recorded in the sculptures as his 
children. And if Be was not one of the 8 great gods, this does not ^^• 
necessarily place him in an inferior position, since Osiris, who was 
the greatest of all, and was with Isis worshipped throughout the 
country, belonged to the 3rd order. For Osiris had this honour 
from being the god whose mysteries contained the most important 
secrets ; his rites comprised the chief part of the Egyptian wisdom ; 
he was the chief of Amenti, or Hades, and he was a heavenly as 
well as an inferial deity. There was also an important reason for 
his being of the last, or newest order of gods; he related par- 
ticularly to man, the last and most perfect work of the creation ; 
and as the Deity was at first the Monad, then the Creator (*' creation 




Art. SooK . 


being God paasing into actiTity "), he did not become Oairis untfl 
man was placed upon tlie earth. He there nianifeated himseU 
also (like Booddha) for the benefit of man, who looked to him for 
happiness iu a future state. (See notes ', ^, ' on ch. 171, Book ii.) 
It onght, however, to bo obaerved that the same god may belong; 
to two difieront orders in two of his chftract^ra, and may be pro- 
daced from different parents. Even Maut is oneo called "dangbtev 
of lie," and Bm ia said to be " engendered by Khem," as Khem 
his own father; and Minerva at Sais proclaimed that "she pro- 
ceeded from herself.'' Bat these apparent inconsistencies ate 
readily explained by the nature of tbe Egyptian mythological 

1. I£ it ia necessary to confine the gods of the 3rd order to tha 
children of Seb, a 4th and other orders might also be admitted (as X 
have already suggested in the " Materia Hieroglyphica ") ; for since 
those of the 2nd order are limited to twelve, it would be denying 
the accuracy of Herodotus, without any authority from the monn- 
ments, to class any of the nnmerons deities that remain together 
with the twelve of the 2nd order. There are, however, aomo lists of 
Deities on the monuments, in which eight, or sometimes twelve, aro 
thus arranged; 1. Mandou, 2. Atmon, 3. Moni, 4. Tufne, 5. Sel^ 
6. Netpe, 7. Osiris, 8. Isis; or these eight with W. Setb, 10. Sep. 
tbys, 11. Horus, and 12. Athor. 

The 3rd order contains thechildrenof Seb and Netpe: — 1. Osiris. 
2. Axoeris, or the Elder Moras, "son of Netpe." 3. Scth (Typhon). 
4, Isis. b. NepthySj (N^b-t-6i, " lady of the bouse," corresponding 
to Vesta in one character {see note " on ch. 62) ; but wo may per- 
haps include in the same order the Younger Horns, the son of Osiria . 
and Isis ; as well as Harpocrates, their infant son, the emblem of 
childhood; and Anubis, the son of Osiris. The Younger Horns waa 
the god of Victory and "the defender of his father; " and iu like 
manner the Greek Apollo, to whom he corresponded, was repre- 
Bented as a "youthful god." (Comp. Lucian de DefL Syr.) 

^' Of the remaining deities tbe most noted were : — 1. Thmei, Mei, 
or Ma, in her two capacities of Truth and Justice, Al&haia &nd , 
Themis, called " Daughter of the Sun," sometimes represented with- • 
ont a bead, and who ought, perhaps, to belong to the 2nd order of 
Deities. 2. Athor (ci-l-Hor, " Horns 's mundane habitation ") Venus, 
often substituted for Isis, called " Daughter of the Sun," answering 
to the West, or the place where the setting Sun waa received into 

Chap. m. INFERIOB DEITIES. 29 1 

her arms. (See note ^ cb. 44, note ' ch. 122, Book ii., and App. 
Book iii. Essaj i. § 16.) 3. Nofr-Atmon, perhaps a variation of 
Atmou. 4. Hor-Hat, frequently as the winged globe, one of the 
characters of the Son, generally called AgathodaBmon. 5. Hacte 
(Hecate ?), a goddess with a lion's bead. 6. Selk, with a scorpion 
on ber be^d. 7. Tore, a god connected with Pthab. 8. Amnnta, 
perhaps a female Amnn. 9. Tpe, " the heavens." 10. Hapi, or the 
god Nilns. 11. Banno, the asp-headed goddess, perhaps a character 
of Agatbodasmon (see Calmet, PI. 69). 12. Hermes Trismegistns, a 
form of Thotb. 13. Asclepins, M6tpb, or '*Imoph,*' called "the 
son of Pthab," probably the origin of the Emeph of lamblicbns. 
14. Sofh, perhaps the goddess of Speech ; and about 50 more, some 
of whom were local divinities, as ** the Land of Egypt ; " *' the 
East " and " the West " (bank) ; A^, A^e, or Td^4, " Thebes ; " and 
the personifications of other cities. 

There were also various forms of early gods, as frog-beaded deities 14. 
connected with Pthab ; and the offsining of local triads, as Pneb-to, 
Hor-pi-re, and other forms of the infant Horns ; the Apis, a form of 
Osiris, who was the Sarapis (i. e. Osir-Api) of Memphis, and other 
representations of well-known gods, together with minor divinities 
and genii : as Cerberus, the monster who guarded Amenti, ** the 
region of the dead ; " the 4 genii of Amenti, with the heads of a man, 
a cynocephalus, a jackal, and a hawk ; the 6 spirits with the heads 
of hawks and jackals ; the 12 hours of day and night ; the 42 
assessors at the future judgment, each of whom presided over, or 
bore witness to a particular sin ; and the giant Apap ( Aph6phis) — 
'* the great sei-pent," and the emblem of wickedness. 

Many of the 50 gods above alluded to were certainly of late intro- 
duction; but those whose names 1 have mentioned were of early 
date, as well as many of minor note ; and for the figures of all the 
gods 1 must refer to my Anct. Egyptians. Some of them are called 
children of the Sun. There were also a few foreign deities, as 15. 
Banpo, the god of battles, and the goddess of war, Anata or Anta 
(see Appendix to Book iii. Essay i. § 21), Astarte, and others, who 
were of early introduction ; but the character given to Seth, who 
was called Baal- Seth and the god of the Gentiles, is explained by 
his being the cause of evil. (See note ^ on cb. 171.) The intro- 
duction of foreign gods finds a parallel among other people of an- 
tiquity, whose readiness to adopt a god from another religion is one 
of the peculiarities of Polytheism; and the complacency of the 
Bomans on this point is well known. 



TV. Boor ^fl 



In each city of Egypt one deity was the ctief object of waraliip 
ho was the goardian of the place, and ho had the most conapiciioii»i 
post in the adytum ot ita temple. The town had also ite particnlar 
triad, composed of 3 members, tho third proceeding from the other 
two i and the principal cities of Egypt, as Thebes and Memphis, 
had two of the great gods as the first mombere of their triads. They 
might be gods of any order, and tho 2 first members not neces- 
sarily of the first rank ; for one of the Ist, or of the '2ud order, mighl 
be combined even with a local deity to prodoce the 3rd of stiB 
inferior rank in the divine scale ; and theso in latter times becam* 
mnltiplied and bronght down to a very low order of beings, 
divine essence being thought to pervade, in a greater or less degree 
all the creations of tho deity. It was merely the eitension of the 
same idea ; as an instance of which the great divine wisdom might 
combine with tho geniun of a city to prodnce a king. And to show 
how tho divine and human natures of a king were thought to be dis- 
tinct, he was often represented offering to himself in the Egyptian. 
sculptures, his hnman doing homage to his divine character. 

With such views it is not snrpriaing that the Egyptians mollis 
plied their deities to an endless extent; and plants, and even stoni 
were thought to partake in some degree of the divine nature; bnl 
the notion that Egyptian gods were represented as animals and 
under the human form is quite erroneous, the latter being by 
the most usual. Originally, indeed, they had tho Unity, worshippoj 
under a particular character; which was the case in other countriM 
also, each considering him their protector, and giving him a pecnliW 
form and name, though really the same one God ; and it was only 
when foraaken by him that they supposed their enemies were 
mittcd to ti'inmph over them. (Comp. Joacphus. Antiq. Ind. viifc 
10, 3, of the Jews and Shishak.) Bot it was not long before thej' 
Gnbdivided tho one God, and mado his attributes into difforeok 
deities. In like manner the Hindoos have one supreme Being; 
Brahme (neuter), the great one, who, when he creates, becomw 
Brahma (masculine) ; when he manifests himself by the operatioft 
of his divine spirit, becomes Vishnu, the porvader, or Narayui, 
"moving on the waters," called also the first male ; when he dft^ 
strojs, liecomes Siva, or Mahadiva, " Great God ; " and as Brahm^ 
Viahnu, and Siva, is the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, whi 

ra to the regenerator of what only changes its fom^ 
reprodncing what he destroys. (See SirW. Jones, vol. i. p. 249; and 
Asiat. Ilea. vol. vii. p. 280; and my note ' on ch. 123, Book ii.) 


The same original belief in one God may be observed in Greek 
mjtliologj ; and this accordance of early traditions agrees with the 
Indian notion that ** truth was originally deposited with men, bat 
gradnally slumbered and was forgotten ; the knowledge of it how- 
ever returning like a recollection." For in Greece, Zeus was also 
universal, and omnipotent, the one Gt>d, containing all within him- 
self, and the Monad, the beginning and end of alL (Somn. Scip. 
c 6 9 Aristot. de Mund. 7.) 

Z*hs Kt^ak-fi' Zc^f lUffffOy Aibf ViK wdma rtrvKrai, (line 2.) 
*£y HpdroSt cTf AedfiMV 'y4y€rOf fUyas &f>x^' awdtrrwy, (line 8.) 
ndurra yhp iy fieydx^ I^vhs rciSc (ri^furri jccircu. (line 12.) 

Orphio Fragm. 

Z€^ Icrrcr aiff^p^ Zths 8i 7^, Zcirs 8* ohpisy6s* 

Zt6s rot rk wdarra. — ^^sch. Fragm. 295. 

(Comp. Clemens Alex. Strom, v. p. 603.) 

At the same time each of the various offices of the Deity was 18. 
known under its peculiar title. (See note A. in App. to Book i.) 
Jupiter was also prefixed to the names of foreign gods, as Jupiter- 
Ammon, Jupiter- Sarapis, Jupiter.Baal-Mark6s, and many others ; 
and though the Sun had its special Deity, altars were raised to 
Jupiter-the-Sun. He was also the manifestation of the Deity, like 
Osiris, who was the son of Seb, the Saturn of the Egyptians. Thus 
Osiris, Amun, and Noum, though so unlike, were each supposed by 
the Greeks to answer to Jupiter. Hesiod, too, calls Jupiter the 
youngest of the Gods ; as Osiris was in the 8rd order of deities, 
though the greatest of all ; and the correspondence was completed 
by both being thought to have died. This notion — common to 
Egypt, Sjria, and Crete, as to the Booddhists and other people — is 
one of many instances of the occurrence of similar religious views 
in different countries (see notes ', *, ch. 171) ; but there is also evi- 
dence of the Greeks having borrowed much from Egypt in their 
early mythology, as well as in later times, after their religion had 
long been formed ; and the worship of Isis spread from Egypt to 
(Greece and its islands, as it afterwards did to Rome. But the cor- 
rupt practices introduced at Alexandria, and more especially at 
Canopus, and thence carried to Europe, were no part of the Egyp- 
tian religion : they proceeded from the gross views taken, through 
ignorance, of certain allegorical representations, and were quite 
opposed, in their sensual and material character, to the simple ex- 
pression of the hieroglyphical mind of Egypt. 


9. It is ensy to perceive, in all the religions of antiqaitf, why >o 
many dirinities reaemble each other, irhy they differ in some pointe, 
and bow they may be traced to one original ; while others, being 
merely local, have a totally different character. Though they began 
by subdividing the one Deity, they sabtieqaently labonred to show 
that all the Gods were one; and this last, which was one of the great 
mysteries of Egypt, was much insisted npon by the philosophers of 
Greece. Even the names of some Deities show they came from one 
and the same, as Zens-Dios, Dis, lav, Jovi, Dias-piter, Dies-piter, 
Jopiter (lapeter P), lacchns, and Janna, who was said to bea character 
of Apollo, as Jana was Diana (Macrob, Satnrn. i. 5), correspondiog 
to E^cebns and Phcebe ; and Macrobins not only identifies moet of 
the Gods with the Snn, bnt makes Apollo and Baccbns, though so 
very dissimilar, the same (Satam. i. 20). Again, the Olymfian, or 
heBTenly, and the inferwl Gods were essentially the same ; Pinto 
was only a cbaract«r of Jnpiter ; and Ceres and Bacchns belonjred 
to both classes, in which they resembled Isis and Osiris. The sanie 
notion led to the belief in a Sol infems — a deity particularly Egyp- 
tian, and connected with the San-gods. 

I The Deity once divided, there was no limit to the nnmber of 

his attributes of varions kinds and of different grades ; aod in 

rypt prervtliiiiK that pai-took of the divine essence became a Go3. 


tions took place from central Asia. And if in after-times eacli intro- 
duced local changes, they often borrowed so largely from Hieir 
neighbours that a strong resemblance was maintained ; and hence 
the religions resembled each other, partly from having a common 
origin, partly from direct imitation, and partly from adaptation; 
which last continued to a late period. 

The philosophical view taken by the Gh'eeks of the nature of the ^* 
Deity was also different from their mythological system ; and that 
followed by Thales and others was rather metaphysical than reli- 
gious. Directly they began to adopt the inquiry into the nature of 
the Deity, they admitted that he must be One and Supreme ; and he 
received whatever name appeared to convey the clearest notion of 
the First Principle. How far any of their notions, or at least the 
inquiry that led to them, may be traced to an acquaintance with 
Egyptian speculation, it is difficult to determine ; Thales, and many 
more philosophers, studied in Egypt, and must have begun, or have 
sought to promote, their inquiry during their visit to the learned 
people of that age ; and in justice to them we must admit that they 
went to study there for some purpose. At all events their eariy 
thoughts could not but have been greatly influenced by an inter- 
course with Egypt, though many a succeeding philosopher suggested 
some new view of the First Cause; speculation taking a varied 
range, and often returning under different names to a similar con- 
clusion. Still, many early Greek philosophers admitted not only an 
ideal deity as a first cause, a divine intelligence, the ** holy infinite 
spirit " of Empedocles, or other notions of the One ; but, like Alc- 
jnfBon of Crotona (according to some a pupil of Pythagoras, according 
to others of the Ionian school), "attributed a divinity to the sun 
and stars as well as to the mind" (Cic. Nat. Deor. i.) Plato, too, 
besides the incorporeal God, admits " the heaven, stars, and earth, 
the mind, and those Gods handed down from our ancestors *' to be 
deities ; and Chrysippus, called by Cicero (Nat. Deor. L and iii.) 
the most subtle of the Stoics, extended the divine catalogue still 
farther ; which recalls the Egyptian system of a metaphysical and a 
mysterious view of the divine nature, and at the same time the admis- 
sion of a worship of the Sun. (See note * on chap. 51, and note on 
ch. 12:3, B. ii.) 

Of the Egyptian theory of the creation some notion may perhaps 25. 
be obtained from the account given in Ovid (Met. i. and xxv.) bor- 
rowed from the Pythagoreans ; as of their belief in the destruction 
of the earth by fire, adopted by the Stoics. (Ovid, Met. i 266 ; 




Seneca, Nat. QneBt. iii. 13 and 28; Plat, de Placit. Phil. iv. 7.) 
They even thought it had been snbjectto seveml catastrophes, 
" not to one delnge only, bnt to many ; " and believed in a varietj' 
of deatmctions " that have been and again will be, the greatest of 
these arising from fire and water " (Plat. Tim. pp. 4G6, 4G7). Thm 
idea that the world had snccessive creattoDH and deetmctions ta & 
expreBsl}^ stated in the Indian ManQ. 

But though Borne snbjeots in the tombs of the Icings, seem to 
point to the creation, perhaps also to the deatmction (aa well as to 
man's fntnre puniahment) of the world by fire, there are few direct 
indications of its creation beyond some mysterious all 
^ency of Pthah (the creator), or the representation of Nonm (Nef), 
the divine spirit, passing in his boat "on the waters," orfashiouiDg 
the clay on a potter's wheel. This last is also done by Pthah, 
which seems to correspond with the doctrine of Empedoclea, as well 
U with the notion expressed in Genesis, that tho matler already 
existed " withont form and void " (lohoo 00 boh<j(') ; and not that ii 
was then for the first lime caUed into oiistcnce. For (as Mr, Stuart 
Poole has observed) the same expression, tohoo on bohoo, la used in 
Jeremiah (iv. 23), where the land "withont form and void" > 
only ■' desolate." not destroyed nor brought " to a fall end " (?, 2"X 
but depopulated and deprived of light. (Cp. Ps. civ. 30.) 

They probably had a notion of the indefinite period that intep- 
vened between '' the beginning " and the creation of man, which is 
in accordance with the Bible aceonnt, as St. Gregory Naxianxcn 
and others have supposed, and which seems to be pointed out hf 
the Hebrew text, where in the two first verses the past tense of this 
verbs (" God created ") (harii) and " the earth teas without form '*) 
is used ; while in the 3rd, and some other verses, we have iamtr 
(" »aij9 "), and ihra {" createt ") ; for though these have a past sense, 
that conRtruotion is not a necemary one, and the verb might hav» 
been placed ii/ter, instead of before, the noun, aa in the 2ud verse. 
The creation of plants before aniuials, as in " the third day " of 
Genesis, was also an ancient, perhaps an Egyptian, belief; and 
" Bmpedocles says the first of alt living things were trees, thiik' 
sprang from the earth before the sun expanded itself." (Comp,' 
Plat, de Plac. Phil, v. c. 26). The tradition among the Hebrew! 
of the world having been created iu autumn was borrowed from 
Egypt, to which climate only (as Miss F, Corbaux has shown) tho 
idea that autumn was the period of the world's creation, or renewal, 
wouldapply.— [G. W.] 



"WHEN MGBBIS WAS KINO," Ao— Cbap. 13. 

1. BiMof theNilel6cfibita. 2. Diffesed in diiEeieiil puts of Egypt 3. Oldest 
Nflometer. 4. The lowering of the Nile in Etluoput bj the giring wmj of 
the rockB at SilsiliB. 6. Ethiopia affected bj it, bat not Egjpt below 
Silsilis. 6. Other Nilometers and measurements. 7. Length of the Egyp- 
tian cubit 

" When Mcsris was king,^* says Herodotus, " the Nile overfloufed att ^* 
Egypt helaw Memphis, as soon as it rose so little as 8 cubits ; " and 
tlds, he adds, was not 900 years before his visit, when it required 
15 or 16 cnbits to inimdate tlie country. But the 16 figures of 
children (or cubits, Lucian. Rhet. PrsBC. sec. 6) on the statue of the 
Nile at Rome show that it rose 1 6 cubits in the time of the Roman 
Empire; in 1720, 16 cubits were still cited as the requisite height 
for irrigating the land about Memphis ; and the same has continued 
to be the rise of the river at old Cairo to this day. For the propor- 
tion is always kept up by the bed of the river rising in an equal 
ratio with the land it irrigates; and the notion of Savary and others 
that the Nile no longer floods the Delta, is proved by experience to 
be quite erroneous. This also dispels the gloomy prognostications 
of Herodotus that the Nile will at some time cease to inundate the 

The Mekeeas piUar at old Cairo, it is true, is calculated to measure ^- 
24 cubits, but this number merely implies '* completion;" and it has 
been ascertained by M. Coste that the 24 Cairene cubits are only 
equal to about 16 or 16^ real cubits. The height of the inundation 
varies of course, as it always did, in different parts of Egypt, being 
about 40 feet at Asouan, 36 at Thebes, 25 at Cairo, and 4 at the 
Rosetta and Damietta mouths ; and Plutarch gives 28 cubits as the 
highest rise at Elephantine, 15 at Memphis, and 7 at Xois and 
Hendes, in the Delta (de Isid. s. 43). The Nilometer at Ele- 
phantine is the one seen by Strabo, and used under the Empire, as 
the rise of the Nile is recorded there in the 35th year of Augustus 
and in the reigns of other Emperors. The highest remaining scale 
is 27 cubits ; but it has no record of the inundation at that height, 



thongli PIntareh speaks of 28 ; and tbe highest recorded there is of 
26 CTibite, 4 palms, and 1 digit, This, nt the ratio stated by Plutarch, 
' would giTD little more than 14 at MemptiB ; but Pliny (v, 9) saya 
the proper rise of the Nile is 16 cubits, and the highest known was 
of 18 in the reign of Clandins, which wns eitraordinary and cala- 
mitona. Ammianns Marcellinus (22), in the time of Jalian, also 
says, " no landed proprietor wishes for more than 16 cobita." The 
same is stated by El Kdriai and other Arab writers. (See Mem. 
de I'Acad., toI. xyi. p. 333 to 377; M. Eg. W., p. 279 to 284; and 
At. Eg. W., vol. iv. p. 27 to 31.) The great staircase of Elephantine 
extends far above the highest scale, and measarea 59 feet, and witli 
the 9 steps ot the lower one, the total from the base is nearly 69 feet, 
while the total of the scales that remain measnres only about 21 
feet; but the cubits, 27 (ke) marked on the highest, answer to a 
height of 46 feet lOf inches, which shows that this was reckoned 
from a lower level than the base ot the lowest staircase. 

From all that has been said it is evident that the change from the 
time of Mteris to Herodotas could not have been what he Bnp- 
poses; and that the fall rise of the Nile about ^femphis was always 
reckoned at 16 cnbite. The 8 cubits in the time of Moeris were 
either calenlatod from a different level, or wove the rise of the river 
at some place in the Delta far below Memphis. 

The oldest Niloraeter, aceording to Diodoraa, was erected at' 
Memphis ; and on the rocks at Semneh, above the second cataract^ 
are some curious records of the rise of the Kilo during the reigns of 
Arann-ia-he III. and other kings of the 12th dynasty, which show 
that the river docs not now rise there within 26 feet of the height 
indicated in those inscriptions, Bnt this was only a local change, 
(jonfined to Ethiopia, and the small tract between the Brst cataract 
and Silailis; and it was owing to a giving way of the rocks at 
Silsilis. which till then had kept up the water of the Nile to a mnch 
higher level sonth of that point. For though the plains of Ethiopia 
were left without the benefit of the annual inundation, no effect 
was produced by it in Egypt north of Silsilis, except the passing 
injnry done to the land jnat below that place by the sudden msh of 
water at the moment the barrier was bnrst through. The channel 
ia atill very narrow there, being only 1095 feet broad ; and tradition 
pretends that the navigation was in old times impeded by a chain 
thi-own across it by a king of the country, from which the name of 
Silsil is thought to be derived. But though ffiisi^t signifies a "chaiu" 

Cbaf. IV. NILOMETERS. 299 

in Arabic, the name of Silsilis was known long before the Arabs 
occnpied Egypt; and it is not impossible that its Coptic appellation, 
Gt>lgel, may haye been borrowed from the catastrophe that occnrred 
there, and point to an earthquake as its cause ; or from a similar 
word, Oolgolf alluding apparently to the many channels worn by 
the cataracts there, or to the breaking away of the rocks at the time 
of the fall of the barrier. 

The change in the level of the Nile was disastrous for Ethiopia, 5. 
since it left the plains of that hitherto well-irrigated country far 
above the reach of the annual inundation ; and, as it is shown, by 
the position of caves in the rocks near the Nile, and by the founda- 
tion of buildings on the deposit, to have happened only a short time 
before the accession of the 18th dynasty, it is singular that no men- 
tion should have been made of so remarkable an occurrence either 
by Manetho or any other historian. The narrow strip of land in 
Nubia and Southern Ethiopia, as well as the broad plains of Dongola, 
and even some valleys at the edge of the eastern desert, are covered 
with this ancient deposit. I have seen water- worn rocks that prove 
the former extent of the annual inundation in spots often very dis- 
tant from the banks; and even now this soil is capable of culti- 
vation, if watered by artificial irrigation. Though this change did 
not affect Egypt below Silsilis, it is not impossible that the measure- 
ments of Mcsris may apply to other observations made in his reign 
in Egypt also ; and the discovery of the name of Amun-ih-he III. at 
the Labyrinth by Dr. Lepsius, shows that this was at least one of 
the kings to whom the name of Moeris was ascribed. (See note • 
on ch. 13, B. ii.) Other measurements are mentioned at different ^' 
times besides those under Mceris and in the days of Herodotus. 
A Nilometer stood at Eileithyias in the age of the Ptolemies ; there 
was one at Memphis, the site of which is still pointed out by tradi- 
tion ; that of Elephantine remains with its scales and inscriptions 
recording the rise of the Nile in the reigns of the Roman Emperors; 
a movable one was preserved in the temple of Sarapis at Alex- 
andria till the time of Constantine, and was afterwards transferred 
to a Christian church ; the Arabs in a.d. 700 erected one at Helwan, 
which gave place to that made, about 715, by the caliph Suley- 
man in the Isle of Boda, and this again was succeeded by the 
''Mekeeas" of Mamoon, A.D. 815, finished in 860 by Motawukkel- 
al-AUah, which has continued to be the government Nilometer to 
the present day. 



App. Boor II. 

7. The length of the ancient Egyptian cnbit and its parts may be 
stated as follows : — 

Of the NUomeier Of Memphis, 

of Elephantine, aooording to Jomard. 

1 digit or dactylns . = Bnglieh inches 0-7366 . . 0*73115 

4 „ Ipalm . . = „ 2-9464 .. 29247 

28 „ 7 „ 1 cubit = „ 20-6260 . . 20-47291 

The lengths of different Egyptian cubits are : — 

Millimitree. Eng. inches. 
The cnbit in the Turin Mnsenm, according to my measure- 

UJlwXl V ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• t«« 

The same, according to Jomard 

^uiObner ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

^^Jioi/ner ••• >•• i«* ••• ••• ••• 

Jomard's cubit of Memphis, mentioned above 

Cubit of Elephantine Nilometer, according to Jomard 

The same, according to my measurement 

Fart of a cubit found by me on a stone at Asouan 

The cubit, according to Mr. Perring's calculation at the P^mids, do. 20*6280 (P) 

Mr. Harris* cubit from Thebes 20*6500 

522^ or 20*5730 

622^ or 20 5786 

523 or 20*6180 

624 or 20*6584 

520 or 20*4729 

527 or 20*7484 


... about 21-0000 

From all which it is evident that they are the same measure, and 
not two different cubits ; and there is nothing to show that the 
Egyptians used cubits of 24, 28, and 32 digits.^— [G. W.] 

Seo Ancient Egyptians, W., vol. iv. p. 31. 




I. Hieratic and Demotic, the two sorts of letters written from right to left. 
2. Hieroglyphics. 3. Three kinds of writing. 4. Hieratic. 6. Demotio, or 
enchorial. 6. The three characters. 7. First nse of demotic. 8. Of sym- 
bolic hieroglyphics : The ikonographic. 9. The tn^icaL 10. The enigmatio. 
11. Symbolic also put with phonetic hieroglyphics. 12. Determinatives after 
the word, or name of an object. 13. Initial letters for the whole words, to 
be called limiUd initial signs. 14. Distinct from other " mixed sig^." 15. 
Syllabic signs. 16. Medial rowel placed at the end of a word. 17. Earliest 
nse of hieroglyphics. 18. Mode of placing hieroglyphics. 19. First letter 
of a word taken as a character. 20. Determinative signs. 21. They began 
with representative signs. 22. The plnral nomber. 23. Abstract ideas. 
24. Phonetic system foond necessary. 25. Some parts of the verb. 26. 
Negative sign. 27. Invention of the real alphabetic writing Fhcsnician. 
28. Greek letters. 29. Digamma originally written. 30. Sinaitic inscrip- 
tions not of the Israelites. 31. Tan nsed for the cross. 32. Materials nsed 
for writing npon. 33. The pa;pjTxia. 

These two kinds of writing, written, as he says, from right to left, 1. 
evidently apply to the hieratic and demotic (or enchorial) ; for 
though the hieratic was derived from an abbreviated mode of writ- 
ing hieroglyphics, it was a different character ; as the demotic was 
distinct from the hieroglyphic and the hieratic. The same is stated 
by Diodoms (i. 81), who says "the children of the priests were 
taught two different kinds of writing ;"...." but the generaliiy 
of the people learn only from their parents, or relations, what is 
required for the exercise of their peculiar professions, a few only 
being taught anything of literature, and those principally the better 
class of artificers." Herodotus and Diodorus consider the hiero- 2. 
glyphics merely monumental; but they were not confined to 
monuments, nor to sacred purposes. Clemens (Strom, v. p. 555) 
more correctly reckons three kinds of writing: 1, the epistolo- 3. 
graphic ; 2, the hieratic, or sacerdotal ; 3, the hieroglyphic, which 
was an ordinary written character like the other two, and originally 
the only one. He then divides the hieroglyphic into, 1, kyriologic 


(directly expressed by the first letter or initial of the n&ine of ths 
hicTogljpliio object), and 2, eywbiitic, which was either directly ex- 
pressed by imilalion, or written by tropes, or altogether ailegoricaU^f 
hy certain enigmat. As an example of the kyriologic, he Bays tbey 
make a. circle to repreaeut the "san," and "a crescent for ths 
moon," " according to thoir direct form ; " in the tropical method 
they substitute one thing for another which has a certiun resem- 
blance to it. It is therefore suited to express the praises of their 
kings in theological myths. Of the third or enigmatic an exampls 
may be gireo in their representing the planets from their motion 
by serpents, and the sun by a beetle (or more properly by a hawk). 
The scheme of Clemens may be thus represented: — 

EerpUui wrltfiig. 



KyrloL<«lc [pbuneUc, b] 

Lkuuographic or IdeogtApbio. 

Br Tropa. or iiwglrpblG. 


The hIerttUc, which was derivod from the hieroglyphic, was in- 
vented at least as early as the 9tb dynasty, and fell into disuse wbea 
the demotic had been introduced. It consisted of phonetic, and also 
of symbolic signs. It was written from right to left, and was the 
character used by the priosU and sacred scribes, whence its name. 

The dciiuilM or eiicAon'uI, the epistolograpbio of Clemens, wna a 
simplified form of the hieratic, and a nearer approach towards the 
alphabetic system ; though we find in it syllabic and some ikono- 
graphic or ideographic signs, as the palm-branch and sim for "a 
year," with others (see the following woodcut, which reads " the 
year 6, the month Mesor^, the 2Uth day," or "the tith year, the 20th 
day of the fourth month of the waters, of King Ptolemy ") ; and the 
several cbaractors still amounted, according to Brugsch, to 275, 
including ligatures and numerals, or perhaps even exceeded that 
camber. Plutarch is therefore wrong in limiting the number of 
letters in the Egyptian alphabet to twenty-five (de Is. s. 56). One 
great peouharity painted out by Brugsch is that demotic was used 
for the vnlgar dialect, and is therefore more correctly called dcmoHe 
than eiicltarial ; but it was also used in historical papyri. It waa 
also invariably written, like the hieratic, from right to left. 

The form of the hieroglyphic, the hieratic, and the demotic, dif- 


f ered more in some characters than in others, as maj be seen in the 
woodcut; where the transition from the first (sometimes through 
the second) to the demotic may be perceiyed. It is not qnite cer- 

flif<ii //y^r^wJ^ ^ Q< VXH "^ Ot i>^^- 

tain when the demotic first came into nse, but it was at least as 7. 
early as the reign of Psammetichus XL, of the 26th dynasty ; and it 
had therefore long been employed when Herodotus visited Egypt. 
Soon after its invention it was adopted for all ordinary purposes ; it 
was taught as part of an Egyptian education ; and after it, accord- 
ing to Clemens, they learnt the hieratic, and lagtly the hieroglyphic. 
Bat this gradation, if ever observed, conld only have been in later 
times; for in the early period, before the epistolographic, or 
demotic, was invented, the educated Egyptians most either have 
learnt the hieroglyphic, or the hieratic character, or have been left 
without any knowledge of reading and writing, which would have 
been tantamount to no education at all ; whereas we know on the 
contrary that hieroglyphics were commonly understood by all 
educated persons. Many too learnt hieroglyphics to whom the 
hieratic was not taught ; nor could the hieroglyphic have been at 
any time the last they learnt, since the invention of the hieratic was 
intended to enable the priest to possess a written character not 
generally known to the rest of the Egyptians. 

In symbolic hieroglyphics, 1. The ikonographic, representatumal^ 8. 
or vmitcUive hieroglyphics, are those that present the object itself, as 

the fun's disc, to signify the ** sun '* ^ ; the crescent i to signify 

the ^^moon;** a male and female figure apply to vfian and tooman 
when separate, and signify mankind when together, as in this g^ap 

^^ J > wi^ or without the word ** rot " {'^m^ankind "). 

2. The tropical hieroglyphics substitute one object for another, ^* 
to which it bears an analogy, as heaven and a star Jl ' for " night ;^' 


H leg in a trap J for " deceii ; " a pen and inistand (or writer's 
pallette) Hm for " writing," " to write," or n " torihe ; " and ft ma^ 


\l-ing hU own. head with an axe, or a clnb, for the " iwcfoid," — - 
^de being considered the most wicked action of a man. Agun^' 
snn is put for a " daij ; " and the moon for a " mon/A ; " a y ooth 



with hia finger to his mi 

bote aiid qiiii:er, a " soldior " (1^ ! * taB.n ponrini^ out a Ubation/iwn 

a vase, or merely the vase itoelf f 1, a "priett; " a man witli 

i hands bound behind his back, " a eaptiv< 


the ^Tottnd- 

plan of a house, a " temple " or a " hoiige," ^^ ; as a v<ilce signified 
tk" door ;" the firmamentjOi the ceiling of a room, st added with starB. 
" the heaven " ^b^ ; and a man raising kit hand, and calling ti 
another, was tho exclamation " oh," and the vocative " o " (beloit; 
p. 312), An egg ^ signified a " child," or " eon ; " a face " before,' 
or a " cAie/; " and a lion's fore part " the beginning," and the hin^ 
quarter " the enil," aa in this sentence, ^~^ JV ^*^ ^ f " In 
the beginning of tho year, (and) in the £^i |0 -% / ^ |^ «>4 
of the year." 
10. 3. Tho Biiigmalic put an emblematic figure, or object, in lieu o 

the one intended to be represented, as a hawk for the " ran " S 

a seated figure with a ciirued beard J for a " god." It is sometimes 

difficult to distinguish between tropical and enigmatic hieroglyphicsj 

as when the two water-plants 1 I are put for the " upj'er and lower 

ecwilry," being emblema of the two districts where they prina* 
pally grew. Upper and Lower Egypt. But it will be evident that 
the tropica] ia the nearest of the three to the phonetic, in compaat 
and power of eiprasaion, from its being able more readily to eipnos 
abstract ideas and facta. 

^^ and pc 

^^ abetnu 


These three kinds of what Clemens calls eymboltc (or more pit>- 11. 
iperlj figure-hieroglifphics, in contradistinction to kyriologic, phonetic, 
or letter-hieroglyphics)^ were either used ahne, or in company with 
tho phoneticallj- written word they represented. Thns, 1. the word 
Bej "snn," might be written in letters onty, or be also followed by 
iiie ikonog^ph the solar disc (which if alone would still have the 
same meaning Be^ " snn ") ; and as we might write the word 
" horse,'' and place after it a fignre of that animal, they did the 

same after their word htr, or hthor^ " horse " ■ •— ' ^^!|*l\* So too 
the word "moon," Aah^ or loh, was followed by the orescent, ■■f^^^ 

and rdt vX f " mankind " by the figore of a man and woman. 

Again, a man in the action of heating was placed either alone or 
after the verb to beat, " ^V' to have that meaning. In these cases 
the sign so following the phonetic word has been called a detemU' 12. 
native, from its serving to determine the meaning of what preceded 
it. 2. In the same manner the tropical hieroglyphics might be alone, 
or in company with the word written phonetically ; and the expres- 
sion " to write," skhai, might be followed, or not, by its tropical 
hieroglyphic, the '* pen and inkstand," as its determinative sign ; as 
the man killing himself might be preceded by the word shefty 
*' wicked." 3. The emhlematic figure — a hawk signifying the " sun " 
— might also be alone, or after the name "Ee" written phonetically, 
as a determinative sign ; and as a general rule the determinative 
followed instead of preceding the names, in which it differed from 
the Chinese and Assyrian systems. Determinatives are therefore 
of three kinds, — ikonographic, tropical, and enigmatic. 

This union of both phonetic and symbolic hieroglyphics is com- 
monly adopted, and may be considered the remains of the original 
pictorial writing combined with the phonetic system. 

Some hieroglyphics again are used as pure ikonographs, and 
phonetically also ; as the plan of a house, which with a line added 
to it answers for the letter e, in et L J I " house," though alone it 
also represented a " house," or " abode." 

Some which are tropical when alone are phonetic in combination, 
as the sign for '* gold " nouh also stands for the letter n. 

Some too, which are emblematic, are phonetic in words, as the 

VOL. n. X 


orocodOe'B tail, the symbol of "Egypt," when combined with 
owl " m," anawera to " kh " of the word khemi " Egypt," aa well 
of khame or liame " black." In these cases they are the inil 

13. letters of the words they represent ; so the guitar (or ntiil) aigniflfl 

•' good" whether standing alone I, or as the initial of the word nq^ 

" good " L ^^ ; and the fan, or crux antata, aigmfiaa " life " (< 

" living '"), whether it stands alone j or as the initial of the woi 

written pbonetioally in full 2. -^"^ ontA, or ankk. Bot these ai 

only used, each for its own particular word, and do not stand for « 
or o in any other. Moreover, they cannot be caUed ikonokrsphi 
otherwise the ijaitar woold sometimes signify what it represents- 
a " gnitar ; " nor can they be called determinatives, not being na 
to follow and determine the sense of the word, bnt forming part i 
it when written phonetically. Nor can they be classed among tl 
simple phonetic ehamcters, as tbey are only used in their on 
words of which they are the first letter, and not in any others whe 
the same letter occurs. Of the same kind is the " stand," or barred 
emblem of stability, which with a hand signifies 1 1 "io establish,' 
and which is not employed for t in other words. These may 
called limited initial sigiis. 

14. They may also be distinguished as apecijic aigiit, while others e 
ployed for any words are generic. They have been called " mixod 
signs " together with many others, some of which, however, are 
a different kind, and oaght to be placed in a distinct order ; as t 
human head with the mat and two lines reading life, "head," or 
" upon ; " for this is both ikonographic and phonetic. It stands fat 
a " head " as well as for the letter a, and differs therefore from tfaa 
guitar and others of limited force. This remark applies also 
others thttt have been ranked among "mixed aigna." 

I a. Besides the employment of one or more single signs for a letter 
there were some which stood for words of one syllable, in 
manner: a sign which was followed by one partacnlar vowe 
consonant, forming the word, was frequently placed alone (witbonl 
its complement) for the whole monosyllable; thus the hoe "If 
often stood for mer (or mar), without the moutk representing the 


and the spiked stand " M " stood for the whole or monosyllabic word 
men^ without the zigzag " n," that sometimes follows to complete it ; 
and in mes " bom " the first sign answering to " m " was put alone 
lor the whole word without the complementary " s." 

The Egyptians had also a singular mode of placing a sign, repre- 1^* 
senting a medial vowel, after the consonant it preceded in the 
word ; thus, for Aan they wrote ama ; for Khons, Khnso ; Canana for 
Canaan. It must, however, be observed that the exact vowel is 
rarely certain, as we are obliged to supply those that are unex- 
pressed ; and in Coptic they are so changeable as to give us little 
help. Sometimes, too, the consonant beginning a word was doubled, 
as 8sa, for 8a, or 8a^. (Perhaps also in 88iris for Osiris,) 

In hieroglyphics of the earliest periods there were fewer phonetic 
characters than in after ages, being nearer to the original picture- 
writing. The number of signs also varied at different times; but 
they may be reckoned at from 900 to 1000. 

The period when hieroglyphics, the oldest Egyptian characters, 17. 
were first used, is uncertain. They are found in the Great Pyramid 
of the time of the 4th dynasty, and had evidently been invented 
long before, having already assumed a cursive style. This shows 
them to be far older than any other known writing; and the 
written documents of the ancient languages of Asia, the Sanscrit 
and the Zend, are of a recent time compared with those of Egypt, 
even if the date of the Rig Veda in the 15th century B.C. be proved. 
Manetho implies that the invention of writing was known in the 
reign of Ath6this (the son and successor of Menes), the second king 
of Egypt, when he ascribes to him the writing of the anatomical 
books; and tradition assigned to it a still earlier origin. At all 
events hieroglyphics, and the use of the papyrus, with the usual 
reed pen, are shown to have been common when the pyramids 
were built ; and their style in the sculptures proves that they were 
then a very old invention. 

Various new characters were added at subsequent periods, and a 
still greater number were introduced under the Ptolemies and 
Cflesars, which are not found on the early monuments ; some, again, 
of the older times fell into disuse. 

All hieroglyphics, inclading the linear kind, or running hand 18. 
above mentioned, were written from right to left, from left to right, 
or in vertical columns (like Chinese), according to the space that was 
to be filled ; and the mode of reading was towards the faces of the 


animals, or figure 

"^ K. WWl " P^r&h, the might;," a 
who loves him," read from left to right 

bat if they faced the other way they would read from right to left 
Bs in the previous woodcnt of section 6. This is a general rule, t 
which there are very few exceptionB. 
10. The mode of forming the characters or phonetic signs was \q 
taking the first letter of the name of those objects selected to be tbft 
representatives of each sonnd, thas ; the name of an eagle, Akhonj 
began with the sonnd i, and that bird was taken as the sign for tfaaitf 
letter; an owl was chosen to represent an m, because it was th^ 
initial of ifojdnr/, the name of that bird ; and others in like manner; 
which may possibly eiplaiu the expression of Clemens, t4 ■ 
irrmxtia, "the first letters," in opposition to symbolic signs. Thi 
use of the first letters of words naturally led to the adoption ol 
many signs for the same character, and the hieroglj-phic alphabet 
was consequently very large. It is not, however, to be supposed 
that all the signs for one letter were employed indiscriminately ; 
the Egyptians confined themaelvca to particalar hieroglyphics i 

1 I •** thongh ./— _ 

Again, oukh^ 
me character!, 

writing certain words j thus Amun was written | 

would stand equally well for the mere letters A, M, i 
"life," and many others, are always written with the 

so that the initial ■T" alone stands for the entire word ; and if 

^ or a^B are both used for mai, or tneri, "loved," and othi 

letters have their synonyms, these variations are very limited, and 
are adopted with great discretion, thongh greater latitude is allow* 
in the names of foreign people. Each sign has even been thought 
to have its own inherent vowel, 
). Besides the restricted use of synonymous signs, another very im- 
portant index was adopted for separating words, and for pointiBg'' 
out their sense. This was the determinative sign already mentioned 
which was a figure of the object itself following the phonetic wori 
A particular determinative of kind was also given to objects belongi 
ing to a collective genns, as the sMa EUid tail M of an animal^ 


Cbap. V. PLURALS. 309 

" 6(w,"foUowing a word, denoted some " beast;" thus I '^'^^11^ 

ana, signified an ''ape." But the skin, " &a«," also stood for the 
word " skin," and it was therefore a specific as well as a generic de- 
terminative ; and it was also a determinative of the God ^^Besa." 
They also occasionaUj accompanied a word by another determi- 
native sign having the same sound ; as the goose after the name of 
Apis ; or the stone, **8t," that followed the name of the god Set or 
8eth; Ac. 

A group accompanied by a sign signifying " land " ^^; pointed 
out some district or tottm of Egypt ; as another indicative of a hUly 

country ^ a ^ stood for ^^ foreign land; " and a line or tooth, ^ was 
the determinative of a " region" Several expletives were also used 
for various purposes ; some as tacit signs being placed after sub- 
stantives, adjectives, and verbs, as the papyrus roll, ■—^g^iM* , and 
others denoting verbs of action, <&c. 

In the formation of this written language the Egyptians began 21. 
with what is the oldest form of writing, representational signs. 
The alphabetic system was a later invention, which grew out of 
picture-writing ; for, as drawing is older than writing, so picture- 
writing is older than alphabetic characters, and, as Bacon justly 
observes, "hieroglyphics preceded letters." But the Egyptians in 
their representational signs, did not confine themselves to the simple 
delineation of the object, merely in order to signify itself; this 
would not have given them a written language ; they went further, 
and represented ideas also, for two legs not only signified what they 
represented, but implied the notion of " walking," or " motion ; " 
and the former meaning might be pointed out by a particular mark, 
which showed that the object was to be taken in a positive sense : 

thus ->^ signified " walking," but -^^f^ was read " legs," which, 

in older times, was made by two separate legs ; and a huU signified 
"strong," but when followed by a half -circle and a line, it read 
simply " a bull." 

The plural number was marked by the same object thrice re- 22. 

peated, as j " God," |^ " Gods," or by three lines following 

it, |i ; but the Egyptians had no dual. (On their mode of writing 
numbers, see n. * on ch. 36, B. ii.) A circle or sieve, with two short 



r below it, signified "lie 

,,.. ® 

The female sign 

waa a small half-circle ^ after the won! (whether singular or 
plural) ; thus an egg or a gooae, signifying a " son," when followed 
by a hatf-circle, read " da-ugkler." 
t. By certain combinations they portrayed an abstract idea, and a 
verb of action was indicated by the phonetic characters that formed 
it being followed by an object representing the action: as 



"rimi," with l 

e and tean flowing from it. 

signified " (lo) weep," as well ss "weejim^" or " lanienlatuy. 

" build," or any " work ; " o 

, followed by the ralre of a 


door, wae " (to) open," though this hare nnd zigzag line without the 
valve would be a tense of the verb " to be." 

Sometimes the phonetic word was omitted, and the dctenninatire 
Rign alone portraj-ed the idea, as a paiV o/ ejo» signified "to tee" 
(without the word mei'o} ; a MToeleB stialie going into a hole signiflcd 
" to enter" as its reversed position meant " to covfi out ; " and many 
others of a similar kind. It sometimes happened (as in other lan- 
guages) that the same name applied to two different objecte, and 
then the aame hieroglyphic stood for both, as ^^^ '>eb fur"lard, 
and nihen, " a,\[;" m signified an "eyo"and "to make;" and, as 
Dr. Young says, however much Warhurton's indignation might ba 
excited by this child's system, it ia, after all, only one of the simple 
processes through which a written language may very naturally be 
supposed to advance towards a more perfect development. Embtema 
were also eitenaively employed : as the asp signified a Goddess ; the 
crowns of upper and lower Egypt the dominion of those two dis- 
tricta ; and several of the Gods were known by the pecnlinr emblenia 
chosen to represent them,— the ibis or the cynocephalus being put 
for the God Thoth; a square-eared fabulous animal for Seth or 
Typhon; the hawk for Be and Hoimis; the jackal for Annbia; and 

... But howevt 

coniplete the g< 

ingeniously numerous signs were introduced to 
ise, their mode of expresGing abstract ideas was verj 

chap.v. origin of alphabetic writing. 311 

imperfect ; and anotber step was required beyond the use of bomo- 
pbonons words, emblems, and positive representations of objects. 
This was the invention of the phonetic system already noticed 
(p. 307), which was evidently allied to the adoption of words of the 
same sonnd, the initial being taken instead of the whole word. Thns, 
when the names of objects began with a similar sound, either of 

them stood for the same letter : as ^^ and / for m ; a hoe and 


a tank of water for m ; /^ sioUj " a star ;" and sen, " a goose," for s, &c. 

Here, as already shown, is the germ of alphabetic writing ; and that 
a similar picture- writing was the origin of the Phoenician and the 
Hebrew, is proved by the latter having retained the names of the 
objects after their form could no longer be traced ; aleph, beth, and 
-gimel, signifying the " buU " (" chief," or " head "), the " house," and 
the "camel." The names of these are also traced in the alpha, 
beta, gamma of the Qreeks, who borrowed their letters from the 

It is not possible in so short a space to give even a summary of 5. 
the grammar of hieroglyphics ; for this I must refer to Champol- 
lion's " Grammaire Egyptienne ; " and I shall merely observe that, Ist, 
in combining the pronouns with a verb, a sitting figure of a man 
(or of a woman, or of a king) for " I " (or a small vertical line, or 
a reed-head, before the verb), a basket with a ring for " thou," a 
cerastes for "he," the bolt, or broken line ("*") for "she," and 

others, followed the verb, in this manner : — V f \ " ^ say ;" or 

• ^ "I give;" ~^I "thou sayest;" ^^-1 "he 

^7^ 5 " «A» I ** ^^^ ^7^ » " ^ " *^® ^^? ^y* ' 


Hii£'_'KjLrFHic «;atT«M*» 

Apf. Book. II. 

:^ :^. :^ 

"they say," 

Ki^^ mn Haa put for tbe twodb e*aee of tlie per- 
thej ue requiied. 
by m after Uh verb, »nd before 


«r "fee has ^ade ; ~ utd ifae mode of erpressing tlie passive 

" (ntttns esi). 
r fncrat^ 
I by &e uixiliary verb ao (or oa), " to 

htt," IdMcd by tke Mfl . 


at "I am iigr to MsJke,** cr " I wiQ walas.'' 31, d>r Rouge also ehtyns 
tbkt tke fslnre ia fonaed by pt'rfxuw t> to the root. 
4tlL The iwpwtJ TB aood is nsKsd by the interjection " Ob," 

ft figan Inlding f <xtk 

of calling, Wk\ or by 


5th. In tbe sabjanctive ih« verb immediately follows a tenso of 
tbe rerb "to giro," as (Osfaris) "gire tLoa that I may see" 

'^^J ; or the verb is preceded by n, " for," 

" that thon mayest see." 
■ Mat i» " Mu " in Berber ; and portiapa in NnimdJaii, as in HaaiuiKsa. 

Obap.V. invention OF LETTEBa 3 13 

6th. In tbe optative the verb is preceded bj the word 

• j I I mai. 
<^^Vr ■ ■ 7th. The infinitive is formed bj prefixing er to 
-«r%l" the root. 

8th. The participle present is generally determined bj a cerastes 
following it, or bj a bolt, or broken line (" s "), for a female ; and 

the same is expressed hj nt, " who : " as ^m " who 

saves," or " saving " (saviour) ; the plural by " u 


111 -^1 

instead of " ten." The participle past is formed by adding " <nit 
or " toi« " 10 ,^ : as I I " estabUahed." 


" (9 ^ : as TT ^ 

9th. The negative sign is a pair of extended arms with the palms 26. 
of the hands downwards g j ^ gi preceding the verb. 

From this may also be seen how the phonetic letters were nsed ; 
but even after their introduction the old representational picture- 
writing was not abandoned ; the names of objects, though written 
phonetically, were often followed, as already shown, by the object 
itself ; and though they had made the first step towards alphabetic 
writing, they never adopted that system which requires each letter 
to have only one sign to represent it ; and it was not till Christianity 
introduced the Coptic, which was a compound of Egyptian and 
Greek, that pure alphabetic writing became practised in Egypt. 

It has long been a question what people first invented alphabetic 27. 
writing. Pliny says, " Ipsa gens Phcenicum in gloria magna litera- 
rum inventionis " (v. 12) ; and Quintus Curtius gives the honour to 
the Tyrians ; Diodorus to the Syrians ; and Berosus, according to 
Polyhistor, makes Oannes teach it, with every kind of art and 
science, to the Babylonians (Eusebius, Chron. Can. v. 8) ; all of which 
point to the same Phoenician origin. And if the Egyptians called 
themselves the inventors (Tacitus, Ann. xL 14), and ascribed them 
to Menon (as Pliny says, fifteen years before Phoroneus, the oldest 
king of Greece, vii. 56), the claim to real alphaheiic writing is cer- 
tainly in favour of the Phoenicians, to whom also so many people 
are indebted for it, including the Greeks and Romans, and through 
them the nations of modem Europe. For while the Egyptians, in 
the hieroglyphic and hieratic, had (upwards of 2500 years before 
our era) the first germ of the alphabetic system, the Phcenicians, a 



r. BcME n. ■ 


highly practical people, first strack out the idea of a simple and 
regular cdphahd. It was to the old Egyptian mixed plan what 
printing was to the previons restricted use of signets and occasional 
combinatioaB of letters employed for stamping some docnmentfi ; it 
was a new and perfect process ; and if Phcenicia, nndcr the fabled 
name of Cadmns (" the East "), imparted letters to Greece (Herod. 
T. 58), this was long before Egypt adopted (about the 7th century 
B.C.) the more perfect mode of using one character for a letter in the 
demotic writing. It is singalar, too, that the Greeks imitated the 
Phcenicians in writing from right to left (a Semitic custom differing 
from the Sanscrit and some others in Asia), and afterwards changed 
it to a contrary direction, as in modern Enrope ; and it is possible 
that the Egyptians decided at last to confine ^henselves to that mode 
of writing from right to left from their constant intcrconree with 
their Semitic neighbours. The transition from the Phtsaician to 
the Greek may be readily perceived in the old archaic writing. 
(See next page, and on Cadmus see note ' on cb. 41.) 

B. Pliny (rii. 56) says, " Cadmns brought sixteen letters from Phoe- 
nicia into Greece, to which Palamedos, in the time of the Trojau 
war, added four more^©, S, *, X ; and Simonides afterwards intPo- 
dnced four — Z, H, *, Q. Aristotle thinks there were of old eighteen 
—A, B, r, a, E, Z, 1, K, A, M, N, O, H, P. S, T, Y, *, and that 9, X 
were added by Epicharmns rather than by Palamedes ; bnt bis * 
should rather be the O or Q of ancient Greek. Anticlides states 
that "fifteen years before Phoronens, the first king of Greece, a 
certain Monon, in Egypt, invented letters, .... but it appears that 
they were always used. The first who brought them into Latinm 
were the Pelasgi." Euseliius (Chron. Can. i. 13) says, " Palamedes in- 
vented the first sixteen letters— A, B, P, A, E, I, K, A, M, S, O. H, P, 
S, T, Y, to which Cadmns of Uiletns added three others— 9, *, X ; 
Simonidos of Cos two — H, D ; and Epicharmns of Syracuse three 
more — Z, S, ♦, wliich completed the twenty-four." Bnt they all 
forget that the aspirate and digamma H and F, were among the 
original letters ; and the double letters and long vowels were indi- 
cat«d (as at Aboosimhel) long before the age of Simonidea. The 
Etruscans had Z, 6, <^, X, and no S or + ; and they never added 
H, n. (See note = on ch. 30.) 

t. It is stiU uncertain when the Greeks first used letters ; bnt the 
absence of the written MoWc digamma in Homer is no proof that it 
ceased to be employed when the Iliad wos first written, since 



-«, -„ 




^^ « 



A /^/lA 

A A 





^ ^ 



















E e 




A y* 





s z ^ 










O®® ■^Q 





Z i t 






i H K 














M ty 








* > 





OO ♦ D 






n r 











4 ^ ?/^/^p 










n t'rA 

T t 

- T 



•& rt* 

oairrco mt mmc 




(See note * on ch. aO, and nole * db. 96, B. ii.; and ca eh. 19, & r.) 


srsAmc nrecRipnoss. 

Arr. Book 11. 



Tiptiona dating long after this introdnce the dig&mma. 
Tlie etyle nuied stightlf in diSerent part^ of Greece and Asia Minor, 
ftt Uie same time. Even if letters irere nsed so soon by the Assy- 
lUoB, as Plinj" tltinks (''lit«ms semper arliitror Assyrias faiBse," 
Ya. 56), thej could not hare been the origin of those in Qrcece. 

Indeed he adds, '' alii apad .^gyptios, alii apnd Sjrios, 

repertafi Tolont;" and it was the " Sfriana" (i.e. Phcenicians) who 
had a real alphabet.* Nor is there any evidence of the characters 
so much like Hebrew foond in Assyria having been nsed at a rerj 
remote period. Warbnrton (Div. Leg. vol. ii. b. iv. s. 4) Utinka 
"that Moaea brought letters with the rest of his learning from 
Egypt ; " bat the old Hebrew character was the Samaritan, which 
was closely allied to the Phoenician, and evidently borrowed from it; 
and that too before the Egyptians had purely alphabetic writing. 

30. It wonld be itJeresling if the so-called Sinaitic inscriptions were 
written by the Israehties, and were the earliest existing instance of 
alphabetic writing; but we are not <m lliai account jastified incoming 
to BDch a conclnsion ; and to show how unwarranted it is, I need 
only say that I have found them (beginning too with the same word 
■o common in those at Mount Sinai) on the western, or Egyptian, 
side of the Red Sea, near the watering-place of Aboo-Durtag ; and 
they appear also at W. tJmthnmmeriina (in the Wady Arraba), at 
Wady DthAhal (in lat. 28' *)'), and at the port of E'Gimahoh (near 
Oebel E'Zayt, opposite Ras Mohammed). They most therefor© 
have belonged to a people who navigated the Red Sea, and who fre- 
quented the wells on the coast. This was long after the era of the 

•^1 ' Exodoa ; and the presence of crosses, and of the Egyptian Tau, 
in some of the inscriptions at Mount Sinai, argues that they were of ik 

IChristiau age ; for the adoption of the Tan as a cross is shown, 
by its heading the numerous Christian inscriptions at the Great 
Oasis, to have been at one time very general in this pari of the East. 
32. Various materials were employed for writing upon, at different) 
times, and in diilorent countries. Among them were leaves, pith. 

* Tho vrritingB of Hobob dsto at 
lateat in tlie end of the l&tb centarj 
., and tbo FbrDDiciAQ leCters were 
, bably mDch older; so tbaC alpha- 
betio churaot^rB were oaed upwards 
at IBOO yoara B.C. The Aiian writin)(a 
are later than thjii ; and Sanscrit, fcDin 
iU letters facing to the left, whUo the 
words arc written frum left to right, 

givcB 841 eyidenoe of its having bcr. 
rowed lettPra from a Bemitjc source. 
Tliey are not turned, aa in the later 
Greek, to eoit the direotion of the 
words. In Zend the letters feoe to 
the left, as the words da; and some 
of them appear to bear a resemblance 
to Fhcenitiiiu) charactera, 


and bark of fcrees, used also at the present day, (whence liber and 
^arta,) papyrus or bjblus (whence Bible), cloth, bones, skins, leather, 
stones, pottery, metal, wax-tablets, and other substances. 

The Greek name h/pedpa applied to skins used for writing upon, 
which were adopted by the Persians also (Diod. ii. 32), has been, as 
Major Bennell ingeniously supposes, the origin of the Persian and 
Arabic word " defter," applied to an " account," or " memorandum- 
book." Parchment was invented about 250 B.C. by Eumenes, king 
of Pergamus (whence its name), who, wishing to emulate the Alex- 
andrian library, was unable to obtain papyrus paper through the 
jealousy of the Ptolemies. These Pergamena, the Roman mem- 
brana, were either skins of sheep, or of calves (vitulina, vellum). 
Pliny is wrong in supposing the papyrus was not used till the age 
of Alexander ; being common (together with the reed pen, palette, S3, 
and other implements of later Egyptian scribes) in the time of the 
oldest Pharaohs, at least as early as the 3rd and 4th dynasty ; he is 
equally so in saying that when Homer wrote, Egypt was not all 
firm land ; that the papyrus was confined to the Sebennytic nome ; 
and that the land was afterwards raised ; making the usual mistake 
about Pharos (see note * on ch. 5, Book ii.). Of old, he says, "men 
wrote on leaves of palms and other trees " (as now in Birmah, and 
other countries), "afterwards public records were on lead, and private 
on linen and wax ; " but all this was long after the papyrus was used 
in Egypt. He also describes the process of making paper from the 
papyrus (xiii. 11), and adds (xiii. 12), " the largest in old times was 
the Hieratic (for holy purposes) ; afterwards the best was called 
Augustan, the second Livian, the Hieratic being the third ; and the 
next was the Amphi theatric (from the place where made). Fan- 
nius at Rome made an improved kind, called Fannian, that not 
passing through his hands being still styled Amphitheatric ; and 
next was the Saitic, a common kind from inferior stalks. The 
Teniotic, from the part nearest the rind, sold for weight, not for 
goodness ; and the Emporetic of shops, for packing, not for writing 
upon. The outside was only fit for ropes, and that only if kept wet. 
. . . The breadth of the best is now 13 fingers (about 9| inches) 
broad ; the Hieratic two less, the Fannian 10, the Amphitheatric 9, 
the Saitic less, and the Emporetic (used for business) not above 6. 
In paper, four things must be looked to, fineness, compactness, 
whiteness, and smoothness. Claudius Csesar altered the Augustan, 
being thin and not bearing the pen, the ink too appearing through 


or FAFisraL 

Apt. Book n. 

iL He added a aBeond iBjor m tUekaoM^ aad made ilie Isvadlli a 
fool and li lootk or a cmhtL. . . . Ik ii made amooih or pofiriied 
wiA a (boar^a) tootih, or a didL** Btat aome ■laiiitB of papjnis were 
larger Aaa ilw bert ol BoaMn time; ilw Turin papjroB of 
nw at leaat 14| inchv m 1nad& ; tihk itm of ilie eaiij age 
of ftegnatBemeaea; a^ I bare aeen one of 17 aad anofliarof 18 
indwa. of ilie time of tibe 19tk dynal^. (See Aft. %. W^ toL HL 
^aBdl46tol51«lU;8eeB.«A S6» and n. > A 92. Book iL) 
— [G. W.] 

Chap.YI. games and PASTIMES. 319 



1. Gymnaatio oontests. 2. G^me of ball. 8. Thimble-rig and other gamea 
4. Mora and draughts. 6. Pieces for draughts. 6. Dice. 7. Other games. 

Gtmkastig contests were not confined to the people of Chemmis : 1. 

and contests of various kinds, as wrestling (No. I.), single-stick, and 

feats of strength, were common thronghont the country, at least as 

early as the 12th dynasty. Among their amusements was the game 2. 

of ball (so much esteemed by the Greeks and Romans also), which 

they sometimes played by throwing up and catching several ballB 

succ^sively, and often mounted on the back of those who had 

missed the ball (the 6roi, *' asses," as the riders were the /3«riAc7f , of 

the Greeks). (No. 11). They had also the sky-ball (obpayia) which 

they sometimes caught while jumping off the ground (as in Homer, 

Od. 9. 374). (No. III.) Other games were, swinging each other 

round by the arms ; two men sitting on the ground back to back 

striving who should rise first (No. V.) ; throwing knives into a block 

of wood, nearest to its centre, or to the edge ; snatching a hoop 

from each other with hooked sticks (No. lY.) ; a man guessing a 

number, or which of two persons struck him on the back as he 

knelt, perhaps like the Greek KoWa^urtUi (Jul. Pol. Onom. ix. 7); 

women tumbling and turning over ** like a wheel," described in the 

Banquet of Xenophon (see At. Eg. W., vol. iL p. 415 and to the 

end), for which necklaces and other rewards were given (Nos. VI., 

VIII.) ; thimble-rig (No. IX.) ; raising bags of sand (No. VII.), and 8. 

other pastimes ; among which were contests in boats ; fighting with 

bulls ; and bull -fights for prizes, which last are mentioned by Strabo 

at Memphis (No. XI.) Still more common were the old game of 

Mora ; comp. "micare digitis," the modem Italian mora (No. X., 4. 

Fig. 1 ; No. Xin., Fig. 2) ; odd and even (No. X., Fig. 2) ; and 

draughts, miscalled chess, which is ** Hah,** a word now used hj the 

Arabs for " men," or " counters " (Nos. XII., XIII.) This last was 

also a game in Greece, where they often threw for the move; 

whence Achilles and Ajax are represented on a Greek vase calling 

AND PASrUEa App. Book n. 

Cbap. YI. 



▼fM, r4w9pa^ BB tiiey play. This was done by the Bomaiis also in 
their Duodeeim Seripta, and Terence says : — 

" si ludis tesseris, 

Si illnd, qnod maxime opns est jaotn, non cadit, 
IHad qaod oeoidit forte, id arte at corrigas." 

Adelph. iv. 7, 22-24. 





I. Vin. I. 1. a. FetU ol Tumbling. 


a«u< it DrugbU. 

D. XT. PlacM lor DnughU. 




Bo«rd of a mkaown Oaas. 



Flftto aajB it was invented by Thoth, the Egyptian Mercniy (Phsedr., 
▼0I. iii. p. 364 tr. : T.), aa well as games of hazard. In Egypt 
dnnghts was a faTonrite among all ranks ; in bis palace at Medee- 
net Haboo, RemeeeB III. amnaee bimself by playing it with the 


women of his boneebold ; and ite antiquity is shown by itg being 
represented in the tombs of Beni Hassan, dating about 2000 years 
D.o. The pieces were nearly similar in form on the same board ; 5. 

one set black, the other white, of ivory, bone, or wood, and some 
have been found with bnman heads, differing for each side of the 
board. The largest pieces are IJ inch high, and IJ diameter. 

iX6 tnSMR QiMm Apt.BookIL 

. Dioe ua also met with, but of nnontuD date, probaUj Bomaii. 

There are two other games, ot whioh the boards have been dis- 
oorered in £^fpt, with the men. The former are 11 indies long 
by 8^ ; and one has 10 spaoee in 3 rows, or 80 sqnairaB j the other 12 
qiaoee in the apper part (or 4 spooea in 8 rows) with a long line of 
8 apaoea below, as an approach to it, reaemhliBg^e anangement of 
Oennan taotioe. The men, foond in Vba drawer of the boftrd itaelf, 
are in two sets, and of two diffovnt shapes (one like onr dioe-bozee, 
the other o6n!cal, bat both solid) ; and one set is 10, the other 9 in 
nomher; bnt tbe Utter may be imperfect. 

There were also other games, not easUf understood; thongh 
doabUesB very intelligible to the Egyptians who saw them so repre- 
■ented in tiie aonlptnres. (For the principal ^[yptaaa games, see 
M Bg- W., and P. A. At. Sg. W., toI. i. p. 189 to 211.)— [&■ W.] 





1. Greeks indebted to Egypt for early lessons in science. 2. Invention of geo- 
metry. 3. Surveying, geography. 4. Early advancement of the Egyptians 
in science. 5. Thales and others went to study in Egypt. 6. Pythagoras 
borrowed much from Egypt. 7. Heliocentric system. 8. Revived by Coper- 
nicus. 9. Pythagoras and Solon in Egypt. 10. Great genius of the Greeks. 
11. Herodotus unprejudiced. 12. The dial. 13. The twelve hours. 14 The 
division of the day by the Jews, Greeks, and Romans. 15. The Eg^yptians 
had 12 hours of day and of night. 16. The week of seven days in Egypt. 
17. The Aztec week of nine days. 18. The seven-day division in Egypt. 
19. The number seven. 20. Division by ten. 21. Greek and Egyptian 
month and year of three parts. 

That the Greeks should have been indebted to Egypt for their early i 
lessons in science is not surprising, since it is known that, in those 
days, Egypt took the lead in all philosophical pursuits. Thales, the 
first Greek who arrived at any proficiency in geometry, went to 
study there ; and his example was afterwards followed by others, 
who sought the best school of science and philosophy. Pliny's story 
of Thales (who was only bom about 640 b.c.) teaching his instruc- 
tors to measure the height of a pyramid by its shadow is sufficiently 
improbable; but that it should be repeated and believed at the 
present day is surprising ; and some appear to think the Egyptians 
incapable of making canals until taught by the Greeks. Equally 
inconsistent is the story of Pythagoras' theory of musical sound ; 
not only because he had visited countries where music had long been 
a profound study, but because the anvil (like a bell) gives the same 
sound when struck by different hammers, at least when struck on 
the same part. 

K Plato ascribes the invention of geometry to Thoth ; if lam- 2. 
blichus says it was known in Egypt during the reign of the gods ; 
and if Manetho attributes a knowledge of science and literature to 
the earliest kings ; these facts merely argue that such pursuits were 
reputed to be of very remote date there. The monuments, however, 
prove the truth of the reports of ancient authors respecting the early 
knowledge of geometry, astronomy, and other sciences among the 
Egyptians. Mensuration and surveying were the first steps that .. 



Apr. Book IT. 

led to geography ; and the Egyptians were not satisfied with the 
bare enumeration of couquei-ed provinces and towns i for, if we m&j 
believe Enatathina, " they recorded their march in mapn, which 
were not onlj given to t)ieir own people, but to the Scythians also 
to their great astonishment." 

*■ The practical resnlta of their knowledge hud sufficiently proved 
the great advancement made by them, agea before (ho Greeks were 
in a condition to study, or search after science. It was in Egypt 
that the Israelites obtained that knowledge which enabled them to 
measure and " divide the land ; " and it was the known progress made 
by the Egyptians in the various branches of philosophical research 

5. that induced the Qreeks to study in Egypt. Those too who followed 
Thales only varied the theories he bad propounded ; and the subse^ 
qnent viaite of others, as Pythagoras, Kudozus, and Plato, intro- 
duced fresh views, and advanced the study of phlloBophy and posi- 
tive science on the same grounds, but with greater knowledge, in 
proportion as they went deeper into the views of their teachers. It 
was doubtless from Egypt that " Thalea and his followers " derived 
the fact of " the moon receiving its light from the sun " (PlaL de 
Pluoit. Pbilos. ii. 28; Cic. de N. Deor. i.. and Diog. Loert. 8). 
which Anacreon has introduced into a drinkintf Ode (19), — 

Tlie same was Ihi! bL-lief of AriBtarcbus at a later time (Vitruv. 
ix. 4); and Macrobius (on Cicero's Somn. Scip. i, p. 44) says " Innam, 
<\atB luce propria caret, et de sole mutnatnr." 

No one will for a moment imagine that the wisest of the Greeks 
went to study in Egypt for any other reason than because it w8« 
there that the greatest discoveries were to bo learnt ; or that Pytba- 
goroa, or his followers (Plut. de P. Phil. iii. XI), snggested, from no 
previous experience, the theory (we now call Copemican) of the 
sun being the centre of onr system (Aristot. de C(b1o, ii. 13) ; or the 
obliquity of the ecliptic (see note * on ch. 51), or the moon's bor- 
rowed light, or the proof of the milky way being a collection of 
stars (Pint. PI. Phil. iii. 1 ) derived from the fact that the earth 
would otherwise intercept the light if derived from the sun, taught 
by Democritus and by Anaiagoras, according to Aristotle f Arist. 
Met. i, 8), the former of whom studied astronomy for five years in 
^gyp' (Diodor. i. 98), and mentions himself as a disciple of tie 
priests of Egypt, and of the Magi, having also been in Persia and 

Chap. VH. ASTRONOMY. 329 

at Babylon (Clem. Str. i. p. 304). The same may be said of the 
principle by which the heavenly bodies were attracted to a centre, 
and impelled in their order (Arist. de Ccel. ii. 13), the theory of 
eclipses and the proofs of the earth being round (ii. 14). These 
and many other notions were doubtless borrowed from E^j^t, to 
'which the Greeks chiefly resorted, or from the current opinions of 
the " Egyptians and Babylonians," the astronomers of those days ; 
from whose early discoveries so much had been derived concerning 
the heavenly bodies (Arist. de Coel. ii. 12). Cicero, on the authority 
of Theophmstus, speaks of Hycetas of Syracuse, a Pythagorean, 
having the same idea respecting the earth revolving in a circle 
round its own axis (Acad. Qnaest. ii. 39), which Diogenes Laertins 
says another Pythagorean, Philolaus, had propounded before him 
(life of Philolaus) ; and Aristotle (de Coelo, ii. 13) observes, that 
though the greater part of philosophers say the earth is the centre 
of the system, the Pythagoreans who live in Italy maintain that fire 
is the centre, and the earth being one of the planets rotates about 
the centre and makes day and night. And if Plato mentions the 
same, as Cicero says " rather more obscurely," yijy .... tlxovyJrnv W 
wtpX T^y hih 'Ttarrhs it6\ov rtrofi^yov (in Tim. 80, p. 530), it is probably 
owing to his having heard of it while in Egypt, without giving the 
same attention to the subject as his predecessor Pythagoras. This 
heliocentric system was finally revived in Europe by Copernicus 8. 
after having been for ages lost to the world ; though Nicolas of Cus 
long before his time, and perhaps some others, were acquainted with 
it ; and when Peru was conquered by the Spaniards it was found 
that the sun had there long been considered the centre of our 

lamblichus says Pythagoras derived his information upon different 0. 
sciences from Egypt; he learnt philosophy from the priests; and 
his theories of comets, numbers, and music, were doubtless from the 
same source ; but the great repugnance evinced by the Egyptian 
priests to receive Pythagoras, will account for their withholding 
from him much that they knew, though his great patience, and his 
readiness to comply with their regulations even to the rite of cir- 
cumcision (Clem. Strom, i. p. 302), obtained for him more informa- 
tion than was imparted to any other Greek (Plut. de Is. s. 10). 
Clemens says (Strom, i. p. 303) " Pythagoras was the disciple of 
Sonch^ the Egyptian arch-prophet (Plutarch says of Onuphis, and 
Solon of Sonchis the Sa'ite) ; Plato of Sechnuphis of Heliopolis ; 




and EiiJoiua the Cnidian of ConnptiB;" and be ropeats tbe story 
of Plato (Tim. p. 466, tr. T.), of the Egyptian priest, saying, " Solon, 
SdIor, you Greeks are always cbildren." .... which shows what 
the general belief was among tbe Egyptians and Greetca, respecting 
the source of knowledge in early times. Strabo indeed (ivii. p. 5o4) 
affirms that " the Greeks did not even know the (length of the) year 
till Eudosns and Plato went to Egy^it " at the late period of 370 B.C. 
(See also Diodor. i. 28, and 81, and what is eited by Eusebins, Prsep. 
Evang. X. p. 480, respecting' the visits of several Greeks; also Clcni. 
Strom. 1. 300, and Diog. Laert. Life of Thales, 15 ; and Cicero, Somn. 
Scip., who says " Plato jEgyptios onminm philofiophite disciplinnram 

10. parents secntus est.") The development given, in after times, by 
the Greek mind to what they learnt originally from Egypt, is wbnt 
showed their genius, and conferred an obligation on mankind ; and 
it is by keeping this in view, and by perceiving how the Greeks 
ftpplied wbat tbey learnt, that we shall do them justice, not by 
erronoonsly attributing to them the discovery of what waa alreaily 
old when tbey were in their infancy. (See n. '' ch. 85, n. * ch. 5] , 
n. » ch. 123.) 

11. Herodotus, on tliis as on other occasions, is far above the pre- 
judices of his countrymen i he claims no inventions borrowed from 
other people; and his repntation has not snfEered from the in- 
judicious accusation of Plutarch " of malevolence towards the 

32. " The yrJifAav and the wikos" says Herodotus, " were received by 
the Greeks from the Babylonians ; " but they attributed the inven- 
tion of the gnomon to Anaximander, and that of various dials to 
EndoxUB and others ; some again ascribing them to Berosus (Vitrav. 
ix. 9). That the dial was of very early date is evident, since in the 
days of Hczekiah, between three and fonr hundred yeara before 
Eudoxus, and about one hundred years before Anaximander, it was 
known to the Jews, as is shown in Isaiah zxxviii. 8, and 2 Kings 
sx. 16, where the shadow is said to have been brought "ten degrees 
(matdth) backward, by which it had gone down on tbe dial {mStulh} 
of Ahaz." The Hebi-ew word, "step," "d^ree," nVlIO math or 
mftleh, ia the same as the Arabic ddraya, " step " or " degree," and 
the Latin •jrudiis i and is taken from alii, "to go np." Mr. Bosaii- 
qnet has explained the manner In which the sun during an annular 
eclipse caused the shadow to go ba^k in what be supposes to have 
been really a flight of steps, and fixes the date of it in January 6^9. 


At all events the use of the dial was known in Jadssa as early as 
seven centuries before our era, and it is not mentioned as a novelty. 
All that Anaximander could have done was to introduce it into 
Gh*eece, and adoptimi should frequently be substituted for " inven» 
tian** in the claims set up by the Greeks. Indeed they often 
claimed inventions centuries after they had been known to other 
people ; and we are not surprised at the statement of Plato, that 
** when Solon inquired of the priests of Egypt about ancient 
matters, he perceived that neither he nor any one of the Greeks (as 
he himself declared) had any knowledge of very remote antiquity." 
(Plat, in Tim. p. 467.) And when Thales is shown by Laertius 
to have been the first who was acquainted with geometry, some 
notion may be had of the very modem date of science in Greece, 
since he was a contemporary of CrcBSus (Herod, i. 75), and lived at 
a time when Egypt had already declined from its greatness, and 
more than seven centuries after astronomical calculations had been 
recorded on the monuments of Thebes. Clemens (Strom, i. p. 300) 
says Thales is thought by some to be a Phoenician, and quotes 
Leander and Herodotus ; but the latter only says his ancestors 
were Phoenician (i. 170). 

Vitruvius attributes the invention of the semicircular (concave) 
dial, or hemicyclium, to Berosus, the ChaldsBan historian, who was 
born in the reign of Alexander, which is reducing the date of it to a 
very recent period. This was a simple kind of ir6\os (for, as before 
observed, the it6\os is the dial, and yw^yMv merely a perpendicular rod 
which showed the time by the length of its shadow — see note * on 
ch. 109), and it was very generally used till a late period, judging 
from the many that have been found of Roman times. It consisted 
of a basin, xcjroy/s, with a horizontal yv^yMv in the centre of one end, 
and eleven converging lines in the concave part divided it into the 
twelve hours of the day ; the older dials having been marked by 
degrees, probably like that of Ahaz. The Greeks marked the divi- 
sions by the first twelve letters of the alphabet, and four of these 
reading ZHei, "Enjoy yourself," are alluded to in this epigram, 
ascribed to Lucian (Epigr. 17) : — 

*E{ £f>cu fi6x^ois Uayi&rttreUf ad 9^ /act* alniLs 
rpdfifuuri Sciio^/icvai, (fjOi Xiyovffi fip&rots, 

"Eudoxus," according to Vitruvius, "invented the Arachne (spider's 
web), or, as some say, Apollonius ; and Aristarchus of Samos the 
BcaphtS or hemisphere, as well as the disk on a plane ; " which (if he 



means a dial on a plane nnrfnco) was a still furt)v3r improvoment) 
and required greater knowledge for its constrGction. Tlie moe 
perfect hydraulic-clock was invented by Ctesibios, at AlexaadriEH ii 
the time of Ptolemy Energetes II. ; bat the more simple clepsydm 
was known long before, being mentioned by Aristophanes, and d^ 
scribed by Aristotle (Probl. see. 16, p. 933), and not being then ft, 
novelty. (See Athen. Deipn. iv. p. 174, and xi. p. 49"; VitrOTV, 
ix. 9; P!in. vii. 37, and ii. 76, on the Horologinm.) Herodotna, 

13. says the Greeks received the twelve honi-s from the Babylonians, 
and the Jews arc supposed not to have adopted them till after tha 
captivity. The first mention of an honr ia certainly in Daniel 
(iv. 19), whore tbe name siih is the same as now used in Arabic ; for 
thongh eren there (as in iii. 6) the sense might rcqnire it to u 
only " moment," the use of the word " time " immediately beforo, 
shows that nah was a division of time, which is still employed by 
the Arabs in the same senae of " hour " and " moment." 

14. The Jews at first divided the day into four parts, and their night 
into tliree watches, and the mention of the dial of Ahaz proves thai 
they had also roconrse to a more minnte division of time ; bnt n 
honrs are specified ; and afterwards, when they adopted them, th 
numben'ng of their hours was irregular, as with the Arabs, being 
reckoned from sunrise to snnset. The Greek word Spa was nsed 
long before honra were introduced into Greece. Homer divides th« 
day into three parts (U. xii. Ill ; see note* on ch. 173) ; and at 
Rome it consisted of two, sunrise and sunset meridies or noon sepa* 
rating the two ; and the twelve equal parts were adopted B.C. 291. 

The natural division of the circle by its radios of 60* 
into sii parts, and into six more by the half of tfaoM 
parts, or by the same radius starting from the set 
diameter, CD, which crosses the first, ab, at right anglaa^ 
may have been the origin of this conventional divisioa 
into twelve parta ; as that into throe parts may have been the div^ 
s ion of the circle by the length of its diameter, or 120°. 

15. The Egyptians had twelve hours of day and twelve of night at» 
very early period ; bnt there ia nothing to show whetherthis divi^ 
sion was first used in Egypt or Chaldtea. The Greeks, however,. 
who frequented Egypt from the time of Thales, ought to have beeiL 
acquainted with the twelve hours there ; and their intercourse beinjf 
far greater, both for stndy and for trade, with Egypt than with 
Babylon, we might suppose them more likely to receive them from 



the former than from that inland city ; but an intercourse through 
Asia Minor may have brought them to Greece from the Babylonians. 

It has been a question whether the Egyptians had a week of 16. 
Boren days. Dio Cassius (writing in 222 a.d.) evidently shows that 
this was the case when he says: — ria Apas r^9 VW ««1 rvitrhs ^h 

vp^Tiyt ^Idl^ffros iipiBfitaf, ical iKtbniP fjAr r^ Kp6i^ Hicvs, r^r 8i Ircira r^ All, 
ul rphriw "Apt 1, Trrdpnjr 'HA(y, TiiiimtP *Appa9lrp, ^iniiif 'ILpfi^ icol kfiUiiriv ScX^yj;, 
nerik r^v rcC^ix tm^ k^Xmp Kott ^y 0/ Aiyiwrioi ofrr^r yo/J {bv<ri, ical rovro icat Mis 
v*h^at ndtras yiip o9r«s riis riffffapas icat ^kocim &pas ir^pitKOitVf cdp^o'cit r^v vp^irtiy 
r^s iwto6<nis iifi4pas &pay is r\» "HXiw a^ueofUrritr ical rovro Kot h^ iKtivmv rS»^ 
rurvdp«$¥ kqHl ^o<ny &poty jcar^ rhv ednhp rdis vp6cr0€r \Syor wpd^as, rp ScX^i^ r^y 
«]p4^y rris rplrris rifi4piu &paa^ iyoBiiatis, k' t» o9r« ica2 81^ rw Xonrwr vopc^vrp, rhp 
tpo^Korra ieanf Othp Udtmi iifi^pa K^rrcu, (Hist. Bom. XXXvii. 19.) 

This agrees with what Herodotus says (ch. 82) of days being con- 
secrated to certain Deities, though the fact of the Egyptians having 
reckoned by ten days may argue against it. It must, however, be 
observed that the division of the month into decads must date after 
the adoption of a solar year, and that weeks were the approximate 
result of the lunar division of time, which is the older of the two. 
Weeks were certainly used at a very early period, as we find from 
Genesis and the account of the creation ; and the importance of the 
number seven is sufficiently obvious from its frequent occurrence 
throughout the Bible. It was common to all the Semitic nations 
and to those of India ; but in China it was only used by the Budd- 
hists, who introduced it there ; and the Chinese as well as all the 
Mongolian races always had five-day divisions, and cycles of sixty 
years instead of centuries. The Aztecs of Mexico had also weeks 17. 
of five days, four of which made a month, and the year contained 
eighteen months of twenty days, with five days added at the end, 
which were unlucky, as one of them was in Egypt. They had also 
their astronomical computation by months of thirteen days, 1461 of 
which made their cycleuof fifty-two years, the same number as that 
of the vague years composing the Egyptian Sothic period. 

That the seven-day division was Imown to the Egyptians seems 1 8. 
to be proved by the seven-days* f6te of Apis (a fourth part of the 
number twenty-eight assigned to the years of Osiris* life) as well as 
by their seventy days' mourning for the dead, or ten weeks of seven 
days (Oen. 1. 3) ; and the seven days that the head took annaally 
to float to Byblus from Egypt (Lucian. de De& Syr.), the fourteen 
pieces into which the body of Osiris was divided, and his twenty- 
eighiy years, evidently point to the length of a week (4x7). The 



time of mortification imposed on the priests Issted from 

forty-two dajB (one to six weeks) : al fiy tmiir nt TiaaapiiHrTa, al U 
Tuinm irKfiavt, el SI ihAaamit, ouS/toti iiirrai rit irra Xtira^^riu (Porphjr. dfl 

Abstin.iv. 7), which shows the entire number to have been baaed on 
seven; and the same occurs again in the fortj-tvro books of Hermee, 
aa well as in the forty-two assessors of Amenti. Indeed the fre< 

19. quent occurrence of seven shows that it was a favourite number 
with the Egyptians lis with the Jewa ; and the Pythagoreans bor- 
rowed their preference for the hobdomal division from Egypt, 

20. There is no reason to conclnde the Egyjitians had not weeks of 
seven days becanse they divided their solar month into the 
natural division of three parts of ten each ; it would rather argue 
that the original lunar month was divided into seven-day weeks, 
and that the dccad division was a later introduction, when the 
months were made to consist of thirty days. And aa the monu- 
ments are all of a time long after the thirty days were adopted, the 
more frequent mention of a decad instead of the hebdomal division, 
ia readily accounted for. Moreover these months of thirty days 
still continued to be called "moons," as at the present day. Dioa 
Cassius also distinctly states that the seven days were first referred 
to the seven planets by the Egyptians, (Sec note ^ on ch. 82, and 
note on ch. 8, B. iii.) 

21. The Greeks, like the Egyptians, divided their month into three 
parts, and their year into three deeads of mouths, corre^onding to 
the three seasons of the Egyptians: and the Roman month consisted 
of calends, nunea, and ides, the periods before each being of diSerent 
lengths ; but they afterwards adopted the division of weeks, giving' 
the names of the sun, moon, and five planets to the seven days w6 
now use. The Egyptians had both the decimal and dnodecimal 
calculation, as the twelve hours of day and night, the twelve kings, 
twelve gods, twelve months : 12 X 30 = 3l30 days ; and 360 cups at 
Osiris' tomb in PhiJie ; 12 X G = 72 conspiratora against Osiris j 
and 12 X € = 72, which some fiK as tho number of days of tbo 
embalmed ; and instances of both methods of notation are found on 
the oldest monnmentfi of the 4th dynasty. — [G. W. 




1. Fabalons period of history — Role of the (xods — Name of Menes; supposed 
to be Mizraim — Believed to be a real person by the Egyptians, and to have 
fonndod Memphis. 2. This and Memphis — Egyptians from Asia — Memphis 
older than Thebes. 3. Precedence of Upper Egypt. 4. Earliest notice of 
Thebes — Absence of early buildings. 5. Contemporary kings — Arrange- 
ment of the early dynasties. 6. Uncertainty of the early chronology — Date 
of the Exodos. 7. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd dynasties — Menes and his soccessors. 
8. In the second dynasty sacred animals worshipped ; and women allowed 
to hold the sceptre. 9. 4th and 5th dynasties. 10. Civilised castoms in 
the early Pyramid period — Mount Sinai — Sliafre built the 2nd pyramid. 
11. 6th dynasty — The prenomen of kings. 12. 7th, 8th, and 9th dynasties—-* 
The Enentefs. 13. 11th dynasty — Contemporary kings. 14. 12th dynasty 
— Osirtasen III. treated as a God. 15. The labyrinth. 16. The 13th 
dynasty in Ethiopia. 17. Shepherd dynasties — The Hyk-sos expelled. 
18. The 18th dynasty— The horse from Asia. 19. Thothmes I., II., and III., 
and Queen Amun-nou-het. 20. Conquests of Thothmes III. — His monu- 
ments. 21. Amunoph III. and Queen Taia— The Stranger kings — Con- 
quests of Amunoph III. 22. Country and features of the Stranger kings 
— Related to Amunoph. 23. Expelled from Egypt. 24. King Horus. 

25. The 19th dynasty — Romeses, Sothos, and Remcses the Great— Attack 
and defence of fortresses — Pithom and Raamsos — Canal to the Red Sea. 

26. 20th dynasty — Remoses III. — His conquests and wealth — His sons. 

27. 21st and 22nd dynasties — Priest king^. 28. Sheshonkf or Shishak — 
Conquers Judaea — Name of Yudah Melchi (kingdom of Judah). 29. Kings' 
names on the Apis stelao. 30. The 23rd dynasty — Assyrian names of the 
Sheshonk family. 31. The 24th dynasty — Bocchoris the Saite — Power of 
Assyria increasing. 32. The 25th dynasty of the Sabacos and Tirhaka. 
33. The 26th dynasty — Psammetichus succeeded Tirhaka — Correction of the 
chronology — He married an Ethiopian princess. 34. War of Psammetichus 
and desertion of his troops. 35. Succeeded by Neco. 36. Circumnaviga- 
tion of Africa — Defeat of Josiah. 37. Power and fall of Aprios — Probable 
invasion of Egypt and substitution of Amasis for Apries by Nebuchadnez* 
j»r, 38. Amasis — Flourishing state of Egypt — Privileges granted to the 
Greeks — ^Treaty with Croesus — Persian invasion. 39. Defeat of the Egyp- 
tians — Conduct of Cambyses at first humane. 40. Egypt became a 
Persian province — 27th or Persian dynasty — Revolt of the Egyptians. 
41. 28th and 29th dynasties of Egyptians. 42. 30th dynasty of Egyptians 
— Nectanebo II. defeated. 43. Ochus recovered Egypt. 44. Duration of 
the Egyptian kingdom. 

In The early history of Egypt is enveloped in the same obscurity as 
that of other ancient nations, and begins in like manner with its 
fabnlons period. The oldest dynasty therefore given by Manetho is 
said to have been of the ** gods and demigods;'' and the list of kings 



in tte Tnrin papyrus conamonces also with the rule of the gods, tbe 
last of wlioiii woB Horns the son of laia and Osiris. And if in the 
Beven last names that remain of that veiy imperfect papyras the 
order of the gods does not exactly agree with Manetho, still there is 
sufficient to show that both acconnta were derived from the same 
source, universally acknowledged by the Egyptian priests. 

The mle of the gods has been supposed to he that of the priests 
of those deities, who governed the country before the election 
of a king, like the Judges in Israel ; bnt all accounts i^ree in con- 
sidering Menea tbo first kiug of Egypt. His name is mentioned in 
the sculptures of the temple of Remeses II. at Thebes, Oind in the 
Turin papyrus, as well as by Mauetho and other authorities ; and 
though the frequent occurrence of a similar namo (as Manes the 
first king of Lydia, the Phrygian Mauis, the Minos of Crete, the 
Indian Menu, the TibetAn Maui, tho Siamese Mann, the German 
Mannus, the Welsh Menw, acd others) may seem to assign him a 
place among mythical beings ; and though he has been thought to 
be Mizraim, a personification of the " two Misra," or provinces of 
Upper and Lower Egypt ; yet he was believed to bo a real person- 
age by the Egyptians themselves, and the events of his reign were 
accepted aa nndoubted facts. He was represented as having changed 
the course of the Nile, and founded Memphis on the sito- thaa 
artificially made for it, where he began the famous temple of Pthah 
(Vulcan) ; and the chnngo he made in the habits of the Egyptians 
was recorded by a stela put up by Tnephachthus, the father of 
Bocchoris, in the tfmpte of Amun at Thebes ; which proaonnced a 
curse against Mones for having induced the Egyptians to abandon 
their hitherto simple mode of life. 

Some might be disposed to doubt whether This, or any city in 
Upper Egypt, was older than Memphis ; and, as tho Egyptians were 
a people who immigrated from Asia into tho valley of the Nile, 
might conclude that they founded their first capital in Lower rather 
than in Upper Egypt, The whole valley indeed was peopled from 
Asia ; and to this day the inhabitants bear the evident marks of an 
Asiatic and Caucasian origin, Nor ia it necesaary to notice the long- 
exploded notion of civilisation having descended, together with 
hieroglyphic writing, from Ethiopia — a country always socially and 
intellectually inferior to Egypt, and where hieroglyphics were only 
properly written when directly copied from it. 

The colour and features, as well as the conformation of their 


skull, show tliat the immigration was one of those where a new 
race took entire possession of the land, scarcely if at all amalga- 
mating with the aboriginal population; and in this the difference 
between the later invasion by the Arabs is evident; for the old 
^Tptian character is still preserved, and the foreign Arab element 
has, after a lapse of many centuries, been mostly absorbed into that 
of the native race. There is always this marked difference between 
immigration and conquest, that in the latter the invaders are only a 
powerful minority, marrying the native women, and leaving the 
whole working population in the land ; though at the same time 
it is evident that the foreign admixture has the effect of changing 
the features, and even the colour, of the succeeding generations, 
which are retained long after all the other elements are absorbed ; 
and this explains the resemblance of character in the ancient and 
modern Egyptians, and the fact of the varied features of the latter 
differing so much from those both of the ancient Egyptians and the 

3- The monuments at Memphis are undoubtedly much older than 
those of Thebes ; but the precedence always given to Upper Egypt 
seems to prove that some other capital there was older than 
Memphis ; and though no monuments remain at This, still, from 
its being the reputed birth-place of Menes, and the chief city of the 
Thinite nome, as well as the royal residence of the first or Thinite 
dynasty, it claims the honour of having been the oldest capital of 

^' Both Abydus and Hermonthis, as well as other cities, were older 
than Thebes, which is not even mentioned on the altar of King 
Papi ; ♦ and the earliest evidences of the existence of Thebes are 
the tombs of the Enentefs of the 9th dynasty, and the vestiges of 
temples built by Amun'm-he L and Osirtasen, It is probable that 
Thebes succeeded to the smaller city of Hermonthis, as This gave 
place to Abydus ; and the absence of early monuments of the 3rd 
and 4th dynasties in Upper Egypt may be explained by Memphis 
having been the royal residence of the then great ruling dynasties ; 
while the monuments which preceded that age, from their insignifi- 
cance, and the transfer of the capital of Upper Egypt to a new 
site, have not been preserved, or were destroyed at the period of the 
Shepherd invasion. Nor can any argument be safely derived from 
the absence of monuments of a particular era ; for at the pyramids 

• In the Tnrin Museum. 


tliere arc no records of kings between the 5th and 26th dvnastiea 
except the name of Remeaea II. on the rock scarped to form t 
area half encircling the 2nd pyramid 1 and yet several hundred 
Pliftrftohs raled during that interval, many of whoso ■ 
fonnd in Upper Egypt. Again, no hiiilding remains of any eaHj 
Memphite king, oven about Memphis and the pyramids, except 
those monumentH themselvea and the neighbouring tombs; ani" 
with the exception of these, and the Labyrinth, some fragmeuts ant 
small ohjecta, some Rtelte, and the obeliaka of Osirtaaen I. at Helio- 
polis and in the Fy6oia, nothing is met with of old times before tho 
18th dynasty. This may be reasonably ascribed to the iavasioB; 
of the Shepherds, as the preeervation of the early tombs may be ex- 
plained by the feeling, common at all times, of respect for the dead. 
The names of kings and tho number of years given by Manethv 
are not all to be taken as of consecutive reigns ; for not only do v 
know, from the authority of Manetho, that there were contemporary 
"kings of Tbehais and of the other provinces of Egypt," bat the 
moiiuracuta thcmBclvea decide this point by the mention of tha 
years of one king's reign corresponding with those of another ; and 
by the representation of one king meeting another, generally as hia 
superior ; as well as by various statements in papyri and other 
documents. The manner in which the dynasties succeeded, and 
were reckoned, has been very ingenionsly explained by Mr. Stnart 
Poole (suggested as he states by Mr. Lane) ; and by this scheme 
the difficulty of the great lapse of time required for so many c 
aecntive Pharaohs, and tho occurrence of synchronous reigns, have 
been reconciled. According to it tho first nineteen dynasties wcra 
thns arranged : 


I V. ElephinUiia. 

I VT. I VIL p 

tX. HcTMlAapoUln. 




With regard to the ago of Meaes and the chronology of the 
Egyptian kings, all ia of ooorae very uucertain. No era is given by 



the monumeniB ; which merely record some events that happened 
nnder pazticalar kings ; and any calculation, haaed on the duration 
of their reigns giyen hy Manet ho, must he even more uncertain 
than that of genealogies. Anj endeayour to make the chronology 
of Egypt conform to the date of the Exodus, or any other very eariy 
event mentioned in the Bible, would also lead to unsatisfactory 
results, since the Bible chronology is itself uncertain— the different 
versions of it assigning different dates to the same events. If 
therefore we wish to examine any portion of Egyptian chronology 
with a desire to ascertain the truth, we must look for facts rather 
than depend on what are merely accepted as established opinions ; 
and be satisfied to wait for further information from such monu- 
mental records as may furnish us with astronomical data. Again, 
it is difficult to ascertain what periods accord exactly with those of 
other people ; nor indeed, if we knew the very reign in which the 
Exodus took place, could we determine for certain its date; and 
even the time of Shishak who invaded Judaea cannot be fixed with 
precision. If therefore I abstain from assigning dates to all the 
reigns of the Pharaohs it is owing to the uneertaioty of Egyptian 
chronology ; though I am inclined to think that the arguments 
used by the Duke of Northumberland for placing the Exodus after 
the reign of Bemeses II. have greater weight than my own in favour 
of the reign of Thothmes III.* 

It would certainly be more agreeable to the writer, as well as to 
the reader of Egyptian history, if the dates of the accession of each 
king and the events of his reign could be described as established 
facts, without the necessity of qualifying them by a doul/t ; but this 
cannot be done : and if it is necessary to break the thread of the 
history by conjectures, the uncertain nature of our authorities must 
plead an excuse. Indeed we may be well contented to have any 
approach towards the determination of events that happened in so 
remote an age. 

[First, Second, and Third Dynasties.'} — Menes, having rendered his 
name illustrious by improving the country, and even (according to 
Eusebius) by conquests beyond the frontier of Egypt, was killed by 
a hippopotamus, and was succeeded by his son Athdthis. The long 
reign of Menes, 62 years according to Africanus ((tr 9^) according to 
Ensebius), and that of Kenkenes, 31 (or 39), seem to argue that 
even in the time of Menes, his son Athothis ruled conjointly with 

* Mentioned in Chapter ii. of my At. Eg. vol. i, p. 77-Sl. 

340 FIRST TO App. Book TL 

him diiriDg the last 30 years of liU reign ; and Uie sam of the two, 
'M of Mcnes and '27 of Athiithis, accord exoctty with the 57 given 
by Africanna to AtbAthis : from which we may infer that Uenes 
reigned 32 years alone, and 30 conjointly with hia son, completing 
the 62 years of Africanns ; and that Athdthis having ruled 27 after 
hie father's death, his reign was calcniated by Africanns at (30 + 27) 
67 years. At the same time that Athothia shared the Thlnit« 
throne with hia father, Nekherophis (or NekherOkhis) was probably 
appointed to rule the new city Memplils and the lower country, and 
baring reigned 28 years (or two lees than AthSthis with his father 
Menes), Athftthia then succeeded to both thrones; and the two 
additional years of hia Ihlemphite rule, added to the 27 of his 
Thinitc, coincide with bis compnted reign of 29 at Memplua. For 
the 3rd dynasty rnled contemporaueoualy with the first, being an 
offset from it; and it is evident that its second king, Tosorthrus or 
Sesorthus, was the same as AthSthia ; — the latter being " the hnilder 
of the palace at Memphis, and a physician who wrote the booke on 
anatomy;" and Tosorthrus being " called Asclepins, from liia mcdic.J 
knowledge, the first who built with hewn stone, and a great patron 
of literature." This will be more clearly understood by the follow- 
ing contemporaneous arrangement of the let and 3rd dynasties : — 


^\ Mrnw, ' AtbiHbtK 
■Hi 39fun>.lun^ 37 nun 
^^^^^ ud jq wllb 1 ilMic 






It )■«». 






3rii i>r»utr 











The monTimeniB afford ns no information respecting the successors* 
of Menes in the 1st dynasty ; but if the account in Manetho of the 
learning of Athdthis be true ; if '* the Libyans revolted in the reign 
of Nekherophis, and submitted again through fear on a sudden 
increase of the moon ; '* and if Menes changed the course of the Nile 
(as Herodotus states), their power, and the advancement already 
made by the Egyptians in science, must have been considerable at 
that period ; and this is further confirmed by Manetho's account of 
Yeneph^ who lived little more than half a century after Menes, 
being the builder of the pyramids near Kokh6md. 

8. According to Manetho, it was during the reign of the second 
king of the 2nd dynasty, ElhsBekhds, or Cechdus, that " the bull Apis 
at Memphis, Mnevis at Heliopolis, and the Mendesian goat, were 
appointed to be gods ; *' and under his successor Bin6thrus *' it was 
decreed that women might hold the sceptre ; " f which right led in 
after times to many troubles and changes of dynasties, from the 
claims of foreign princes, both in Asia and Ethiopia, to the throne 
of Egypt, through their marriage with daughters of the Pharaohs. 

9. [Fourth and Fifth Dynasties,'] — The names of the kings of the 2nd b.c. 2450 
Thinite dynasty are supposed by Mr. Stuart Poole to be given in 

the uppermost line of the Abydus tablet ; and there is evidence of . 
some of them having ruled contemporaneously with those of the 4th 
(Memphite) dynasty : the fourth king, Useskef, being found together 
with Soris or ShurS, and Menkheres of the 4th dynasty, and with 
Osirkef&nd Shafre of the 5th ; while some of these, again, occur with 
Shufu, and others of the 4th and 5th dynasties. For the 5th, said to 
be of 9 (or according to Eusebius of 31) Elephantine kings, ruled 
at the same time as the 4th Memphites, and 2nd Thinites ; though, 
from their being so frequently found mentioned with the Memphite 
kings, it may be questioned whether they were really from Ele- 
phantine, and the name of this island was perhaps erroneously sub- 
stituted for that of some other place in Lower Egypt. 

It is not till we come to the kings of the 4th dynasty that we find 
any important records of persons who lived under the Pharaohs ; or 

* Dr. Lepsins makes Senofro the 
third king after Menes; bat he did 
not live till after Shnfn, as the tomb 
where his name occurs was erected 
some time later than the Great 

t This custom, and the inflnence of 
women, may have been derived from 

Africa, where women have so often 
held the sceptre ; and in Upper Eth- 
iopia, as in Western Africa, women stil) 
form the bodyguard of a king. The 
respect paid them, and their privi- 
leges, are shown by Fharaoh*s conduct 
to Sarah, by the scnlptores, and by 


sculptures illnBtmting the manners and cuatoms of the Egjptuins; 
and though some names of oarly kings oocnr in detached places, on 
BCarabffii, and other abjec(«, the monomenta do not afford any doe 
to their arrangement. 

Slmre wofi the leader of tho 4th dynastj ; and Us name, found 
by Mr. Perring on tho blocks built into tho northern pyramid of 
Abooseer, shows him to have been the founder of that monument. 
There are also other names of kings at Sakkdra of a very early date, 
Bome pt whom, as the first TaUkeri and Osir-n-re (Sisires), appear to 
be of the 2nd and 5th dynasties ; and one of them in the great 
pyramid of Sakkara ia not unlike the Chnubus-QnenruB of Erato- 
sthenes. Indeed it is rcasonahle to suppose, from their greater 
vicinity to Memphis, that some of tho oldest pyramids would be at 
that spot. 

This may be called the Memphite, or the Pyramid,* period. And ; 
not only docs tho construction of the pyramids, but the scenes 
depicted in the sculptured tomba of this epoch, show that the 
Egyptians had already the same habits and arte as in after times ; 
and the hieroglyphics in the great pyramid, written in the cursive 
character on the atones before they were taken from the quarry, 
prove that writing had been long in uae. The position too of each 
pyramid, corresponding as it does with the four cardinal points, and 
the evident object they had in view of ascertaining by the long line 
of one of its faces the retnm of a certain period of the year, prove 
the advancement made by the Egyptians in mathematical science; 
and all these evidoncea, being obtained from the oldest mouaments 
that exist, introduce them to us as a people already possessing the 
same settled habits as in later times. We see no primitive mode of 
life ; no barbarous customs \ not oven the habit, ao slowly abandoned 
by all people, of wearing arms when not on military service; nor 
any archaic art. And if some clumsy Ggnres have been found in 
the neighbourhood of Memphis, probably of the 3rd dynasty, their 
imperfections are rather attributable to the inferior skill of the 
workmen, than to the habitual style of tho period ; and rude figures 
were sometimes made long after tho ith dynasty. 

Whatever may have been the style of construction in the pyro- 
niids of Tenephes, certain it is that in tho 4th dynaaty, about two 

• Dr. Lepaiua mentions 67 Pjra. [ fortuniitB that tbe 67 Egyptiaa Fjra- 
mirls, whit-li noceHsarily reproneot n midi oonnot now bo traced, 
tkir^ uuuibcr of kiiigB; but it is un- | 


centuries after Menes, the blocks in the pyramids (of Geezeh), 
manj of which were brought from the Cataracts of Syene, were put 
together with a precision unsurpassed by any masonry of ancient or 
modem times ; and all these facts lead to the conclusion that the 
Egyptians had already made very great progress in the arts of civilisa^ 
lion before the age of Menes, and perhaps before they immigrated 
into the Valley of the Nile. In the tombs of the Pyramid-period 
are represented the same fowling and fishing scenes as occur later ; tbe 
rearing of cattle, and wild animals of the desert ; the scribes using 
the same kind of reed, for writing on the papyrus an inventory of 
the estate whicb was to be presented to the owner ; the same boats, 
thougb rigged with a double mast instead of the single one of later 
times; the same mode of preparing for the entertainment of guests; 
the same introduction of music and dancing ; the same trades, as 
glasS'hlowerSy cabinet-makers, and others ; as well as similar agricul- 
tural scenes, implements, and granaries. We also see the same 
costume of the priests ; and the prophet, or 8am, with his leopard's 
skin dress ; and the painted sculptures are botb in relief and 
intaglio. And if some changes took place, they were only such as 
necessarily happen in all ages, and were far less marked than in 
other countries. 

The greatest difference observable is in the form, and in some of 
the ornamental decorations, of the tombs ; though these are not 
owing to any inferiority in taste, or masonic skill, but rather to a 
local style, which differed in certain peculiarities from that of Upper 
Egypt. They are sometimes attributable to the period to which 
they belong ; for the peculiar doorways, and the round lintels, of 
the Memphite necropolis, are also met with in the Thebaid ; and at 
Raaineh, some tombs exhibit these and other features common to 
their contemporaries at the pyramids. 

In the Pyramid- period one remarkable fact may also be noticed, 
viz. that the Egyptian sculptors were not bound so rigidly to con- 
ventional forms in the human figure, as in after times ; for not only 
do their statues then bear a closer resemblance to nature, but the 
delineation of the muscles, as in the arms and legs, was more 
decided ; and the sitting figure of a scribe brought from Memphis 
(and now in the Louvre) shows how much more reality was given 
to the human form, than at a later (which was a more conventional) 
age. That figure, which has far greater truth and expression than 
any of (what is considered) the best period — the 1 8th and 19th 


djn&stieB — bears testimony to the sldll of the oarlj acolptors ; utd 
the style of the hioroglyphica, and the drawing ot the cattle and 
other animals, in the tombs, are often folly eqaal to those in after 
times. Thna then no signs are fonnd, on the earliest mannments, 
of a progress from infancy to the more advanced stages of art ; aa 
nothing in the cnstoma they represent shows the social condition of 
the Egyptians to have been very different at that early period. 

At the beginning of the 4th dynasty, the peninsnla of Uonnfi 
Sinai was already in the possession of the Egyptians, and iM 
copper-mines were worked by them ; and in the fact of King Shiiri 
(Soris) being represented at Wady Meghkra slaying an Asiatic 
enemy of the same race as those afterwards defeated by King 
Senofro (Senofr), we have evidence of early conquests ; thoogh they 
may not then have extended far beyond that peuinsnla. Of the 
Pharaohs of the 4th dynasty, the best known to ns from the monn- 
inents and from ancient writers, are Shire (Soris), Snphis (Cheops), 
and Snphis 11. (or Senanphia, a " brother of Snphis "), the Shufa 
and Nov^Shnfu of the monnments, and Menchercs or (Mycerinna) 
Men-ia-ri. The two Shufug were the builders of the Great Pyra- 
mid ; and that they reigned together is shown by the nnmber o( 
years ascribed to their reigns ; by their names being both foand 
among the qnarry-marks on the blocks naed in that monument ; by 
their being on the scnlptured walls of the same tomb behind the 
great pyramid; and by thispyraniid having two funereal cbamben, 
one for each king, i-ather than, as generally supposed, for the king 
and queen. The name of Men-ka-re was found in the 3rd pyra- 
mid, as his coffin attests, which is now in the British Mnsenm. 

The ovals of the fonr first kings of the 5th dynasty, Osirlc^ 
(Uaercheres), Shafre (Sephres), Nofr-rT-Ke-re (Nephereheres), ftnd 
Oe!r-ii-r6 (Sisires), have been fonnd with those of the ith dynasty 
and one of them, ShafrS, called in the sculptnres " of the littlo 
pyramid," appears to have been the founder of the second pyramid; 
but though he ought really to answer to the Cephren of Herodotaa^ 
the honour of founding the 2nd pyramid has been ascribed to the 
2nd Supliis. His reign was long ; and the names of more persons 
of rank, who lived under Shafre, are foand in the vicinity of tha 
pyramids, than of those who lived under the other Elephantine, 
Memphite, and Tbinite kinga. 

The names of Pharaohs of the Pyramid-period are not fonnd in 
the Theba'id, and rarely in Central Egypt ; and even where they do 

Chap.viu. sixth dynasty. 345 

occnr, it is not on any monuments erected by them, bnt only in 
tombs of individuals who lived in their reig^ ; as at Isbayda (nearly 
opposite Hermopolis), where Shufu and Osirkef are found together 
in the tomb of a man who was probably governor of the name at that 

[8i<ah Dynasty.']— ThoBe of the next, or 6th, dynasty of Mem- ^'^' ^^'^' 
pbites, are more frequently met with in Central, and even in Upper, 
Egypt, as in the Cynopolite nome, and elsewhere ; and in the tombs 
at Chenoboscion Papi (or Mair^ is found, together with Meren-re 
and Nofr-he^re ; and again with the last of these at Beni Moham- 
med-el-Kof6or. Papi also occurs at Mount Sinai and on the Kos- 
sayr road, and even at Silsilis, and with Tati on a rock at Eilei- 
ihyias ; though in the two last instances his name may have been 
merely inscribed by some visitor who lived at that period. Papi or 
Maire has been conjectured by Chevalier. Bunsen to be the Moeris of 
the Labyrinth ; and it is not impossible that he may have been the 
original king of that name. 

Other names, again, of kings of this dynasty are found at Sio6t 
and elsewhere, but merely on altars and small objects ; and if those 
in the tombs, and on stelae at Mount Sinai, the Kossayr road and 
Middle Egypt, show their rule to have been extensive, other monu- 
ments prove that the 11th dynasty reigned at the same time in 
the Theba'id; and king Sken-n-re of this dynasty is stated on a 
papyrus (according to Brugsch) to have censured Papt, who ruled 
in Lower Egypt, for having favoured the Shepherd invaders. But 
there appear to have been two kings of this name ; the Papi, how- 
ever, answering to the Apappus of Eratosthenes, Apap* the " giant," 
the Phiops of Manetho's 6th dynasty, who reigned 100 years, is the 
one most usually mentioned on the monuments. Though no buildings 
remain south of Syene of any king before the 18th dynasty, except 
the mined temples of Amun-m-he and Osirtasen at Thebes, the 
Labyrinth, and the pyramids and other sepulchral monuments 
(owing, as I have stated, to the invasion of the Shepherds) ; there 
are numerous tablets on the rocks, of that early age, which are 
of greater importance for history and chronology even than the 
temples, from their giving the dates of kings' reigns, and sometimes 
from their recording their victories over foreign nations; and 

* The Egyptian transposition of the 
vowel may reqnire Pajpij or Papa, to 

read Apap. Some think the other 
Papi to have been a Shepherd King. 



An. Boot IL 

tlirongb these we liavc obtained mncli inform at ion respecting tha 
chronology, and the contemporaneoaanesa of certain kings. 

From these too we learn the change introduced by King Papi, of 
adding a royal prenomen to his phonetic nomen. For before hia 
time, each Pharaoh had simply one oval (or cartouche) contAining 
his name ; and it was Papi who firet added antyal prenomen, catling 
himself Maire-Fapi. This innovation waa followed by all succeedin 
kiugs; and the pronoinen waa preferred for designating them, i 
preference to the name which often belonged to several kings. 
Thns the Thothmes, Amunophs, Remeses, and others, are more 
readily distingniahed by their prenomens than by their name. 
Kings are aJso recognized by their banner, or square-title. ~ 
custom of adding the prenomen waa likewise, as might be expcct«d, 
adopted by the kings of the 9th and llth dynasties, ruling as they 
did contemporaneously with those of the 6th ; and on a coffin of o 
of the later Enentffs of the llth dynasty, found at TUebes, tliii 
second oval was odded subseqaenily to the inscription containing 
Lis phonetic nomen, as in the case of Fapi at Cbenoboscion. The 
last Pharaoh of the 6th dynasty was Queen Nitocris; whose t 
is given by Manetho, and by the Turin papyrus j and with her 
ended the rnle of these Memphite kings. For at this period LowM 
Egypt was invaded by the Shepherds ; who, about 700 years after 
Menes, entered the country from the north-east, and at length 
sncceedod in depriving the Memphite princes of their tUrone. 

[Seventh, Eighth, Ninili. and Tenth bynastie».~} — In the mean time 
" other kings " ruled in various parte of Egypt, who were contem- 
poraries of the fith, and of part of the 2nd and 5th dynasties ; wbila 
the "th and 8th, dispossessed by the Shepherds, merely had I 
nominal mle in Lower Egypt ; and the !)th Heracleopolite dynasty 
held the Hermonthite district at the same time tiiat the lltll 
. 22tO. reigned at Thebes. Nor is it improbable that the name Heracleo- 
polite has been substituted for Hermonthite ; and the mistake may 
be acconnted for by the names of all those kings (except the last) 
beginning with the characters that constitute the title of Herenlesy 
or the God of Sebennytus; while the name of the lost, Mandolp, or 
Mantotp II., is the only one of tbem derived from Mandoo, or Mnn^ 
the God of Hermonthis. .At all events it is at Hermontliis that the 
records of those kings, the Enentefa or Nlenle/t, are found ; an& 
theb alliance with the kings of the llth Theban dynasty is sfaowa 
by some Enente/i having been buried at Thebes, 

chaf. vni. 




Of the 10th dynast J of Heracleopolites we know nothing, not 
even the names, either from Manetho or the' monuments ; bnt the 
ovals of several kings appear in the Turin papyrus, whose deeds 
not having been sach as to merit a place in history are unnoticed 
on the temples and stelaa. 

^Eleventh Dynasty,'] — That the kings of the 9th were contem- b.c. 22 10. 
porarics of the 11th, or the earliest Theban, dynasty is proved by the 
fact of the last King Muntotp II, being mentioned on a stela of the 
Kossayr road, together with the first Amun'ih'he, whom (as Mr. 
Stuart Poole has shown) he established in the kingdom ; and an 
EnerUeff one of his predecessors, has been found by Mr. Harris in 
some sculptures near SOsilis with the third king of this 11th 
dynasty, Muntotp I* in an inferior position to this Theban king. 
MwUotp L reigned at least forty-five years, as a stela at Turin, 
erected during his lifetime, contains the date of his forty-sixth 
year; and if not the leader of the 11th, or earliest, Theban dynasty, 
this Muniotp L was evidently the great monarch whom the Dios- 
polite Pharaohs placed at the head of their line ; for the list of kings 
put up by Remeses II., in his temple at Thebes, has no other inter- 
vening between Menes and Ames, the leader of the 18th Theban 
dynasty. Ames, again, traces from him, as in the tomb at Thebes 
recording the members of his family and of that of Amunoph I. ; 
and Thothmes I. and III., Amunoph I. and III., and Horus, as well 
as Sethi and his son Kemeses II., all Theban kings, mention him as 
if he were the founder of their line. 

Several stel® confirm the contemporaneousness of the kings of 
this period ; and the Turin papyrus shows that Amun-m-he I, the 
last king of the 11th dynasty, according to Manetho, was twice 
deposed by other kings. He was also contemporary with Muntop IL 
of the^ 9th ; and in the last part of his reign with Osirtasen /., the 
leader of the 12th dynasty,t whose 44th year coincided also with the 
2nd year of Amun-m-he IL, as the 35th year of Amun-m-he IL corre- 
sponded with the 3rd of the second Osirtasen, Other synchronisms 
likewise occur, which it is not necessary to notice more fully ; it is 
sufficient to show that Egypt at this period was not ruled by one 
* sovereign, and that the mention in Manetho of Theban and '* other 
kings " is confirmed by the monuments ; and if I have already 

* Whom I have called Manmoph in 
the Materia Hierogljphioa. 

t The ** iDstractioDB " of Amun.m- 

he I. to his son Osirtasen I. are pnb. 
lished in the *' Beoords of the Past," 
vol. i. pp. 11-16.— [G- B- 1875.] 

348 ELEVENTH TO AiP. EoosO. 

entered into certain details vpluch may appear tedious, I plead M 
my exense the importance of theee synchronous reigna, and of evciy* 

thing relating to the BucocBSion of the early kings; which will p«H 
bably receive further elucidation from the interesting papyrus u 
the possession of Dr. Abbott, contiuning as it does the namee of h 
SAcK-Ji-ra, an Enentef, and other kings hitherto unknown to na from 
Manetho and the monameuts. 

\_Twelfth I)ynasly.1~the Osirtatcng and Amun-rii-het were power- 
ful kings ; and Osirtagen I. is ahown by the remains of templea 
founded to have ruled the whole of Egypt, from the Delta to tlm 
second cataract: — an obelisk of his still stands at Holiopolis 
fallen one is in the Fyiiom ; and his name appears in the oldes 
portion of the great temple of Karnak at Thebes, in a mined temjdt 
opposite Eileithyias, and in another near Wady Halfeh. Sepulchrtl 
stelie bearing his name have also been found in the Necropolis 
AbydoB, and historical ones in other places ; and he even e 
tended his conquests into Ethiopia, A stela of the 28th year < 
Amun-m'he II. ^vas found at a watering-place in the desert n 
Eosaayr, recording his conijueats over the people of Pouiit, f 
another of Ot'iiasen II. at the same place, which was probably c 
nected with the trade of the Red Sea; and thongh the th 
Osirlasen has not left the anme nnmbcr of monnments as the 6rst a 
that name, yet many of his stelo9 are fonnd at Mount Sinai, 
Koasayr road, the first cataract, and other places ; and it is 1 
curiouH fact, that he is treated as a god by some of the kings of th( 
18th dynasty, as by Thothmes III. at Semneh, and by Thothinci 
IV. at Amada in Lower or Egyptian Ethiopia. 

It is difiictdt to assign a reason for this nnnaoal honour ; bol 
even thongh the first Osirtaaeuwas the original Sesostris, there m^ 
have been some events connected with Ethiopia which led to t! 
great respect paid to the memory of the third Osirtasen, and whid 
even gave him a claim to the name of that renowned conqueror! 
and the pecnlisr sanctity he enjoyed accords with Manetho 'a at 
of Sesostris, that " he was considered by the Egyptians the first (a 
greatest) after Osiria." The title "good" introduced into 
the variations of his name, may also have reference to this csoa 
lenee ; and it is possible that his conquest in Ethiopia in his StI 
year, and the establishment of the Egyptian frontier at Semn<3i 
together with his successes over the Negroes, may have made h 
conspicuous as a conqueror as well as a benefactor of his country 

Chap. VIIL 



and it is to this Sesostris that Herodotus appears reallj to allude, 
when he says he was the first king who ruled in Ethiopia. 

5. The acts of the next king mentioned hy Manetho accord still 
more correctly with what we learn from the monuments ; and his 
Lachares, or Laharis, *' who built the Labyrinth as a tomb for him- 
self in the Arsinoite nome," is evidently the Amun-m-he III, whose 
name has been found by Dr. Lepsius in that building. Some have 
thought the name Labaris to be the origin of Labyrinth ; but it is 
more probable that the reading in Manetho, fitft ty Adfiapu, should 
be futr h¥9h Mdpis; for he was the Moeris of the Labyrinth, and 
doubtless of the lake also; and the observations of the annual 
inundations at Semneh, made by Amun-m-he IIL, confirm the belief 
that he was the king whose grand hydraulic works ennobled the 
name of Moeris.* These last show that Amun-m-he^s dominion 
extended from Ethiopia to the neighbourhood of Memphis. The 
governors of nomes in central Egypt were also appointed at this 
period by the Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty, as we learn from the 
tombs of Beni Hassan and El-Bersheh ; where the names of the two 
first Osirtasens are found. In a tomb near El-Bershch is given the 
mode of drawing a colossus on a sledge, with gardening and other 
scenes; and the caves of Beni Hassan are well known for the 
numerous paintings that illustrate so fully the manners and customs 
of the Egyptians, and for the character of their early architecture, 
with its fluted columns, — the prototype of the Greek Doric. 

The oldest date, on the monuments, of Osirtasen J.f (the Seson- 
chdsis of Manetho), is his 44th year ; of Amun-m-he II. (Ammene- 
mes), his 35th; of Odrtasen II., his 3rd ; of Osirtasen III, his 14th; 
and of Amun-m-he III, his 44th : showing that of Manetho's dates, 
which are 46, 38, 48, 8, and 8 years, the two last are far too little, 
and that no reliance can be placed upon them ; but his order of 
these kings, Anmienemes, or Amun-m-he L, being the last of the 
11th, and Se8onch6si8, or Osirtasen I., the Ist of the 12th dynasty, 
is confirmed by the monuments and the Turin papyrus. 

L6, [^Thirteenth Thehan^ and Fourteenth Xotte, Dynasties.'} — The sue- b.c. 1860. 

* It was probably from the higher 
level of the Nile above Silsilis that the 
canal first led the water to the Lake 
Moeris (and to the general tank system 
of Egypt) in the time of this king; 
the river offering a gpreater fall of 
water before the rocks of Silsilis gave 

way. See n. ' oh. iii. and App. CH. 
iv. 4. 

t The two signs beginning his name, 
and that of Osiris, may be a doable s ; 
and hence Ssiris, or Siris, wonld stand 
for s, in Sethi. Sals, Sioat, Ac, have 
the double s. 


ceeding Theban dynasty, the 13th, appears to have been deprifed 
its antliority, even at Thebes ; and the discovery of the 
these kings in Ethiopia, many of whom had the Ethiopian 
Sabaco, together with the evidence of the old naonnmenta of Amiuk 
m-he I. and Oeirtasen I. having been thrown down at Thebes, argoft 
that they took refuge in Ethiopia when the Shepherds advanced 
into Upper Egypt, and seized its capital. Manetho indeed relat 
that the Shepherd- kings made long and constant attacks on tbi 
Egyptians ; which the Pharaohs of the 11th dynasty were still abl 
to withstand ; for one of them, Amun-m-he III. (as I have jnsf 
stated), retained all middle Egypt, including the modem FyiSon 
and it was probably not till the reign of his second successor, tl 
Skemiophris of Manetho, the last of the 11th dynasty, that tl 
Thcbaid fell into their hands. This, their gradual conquest of t! 
country, wOl account for different periods having been assigned I 
it, and to the duration of thoir role. And the flight of the Egypi 
tian kings into Ethiopia is evidently the origin of the story told I9 
Manetho, of a simitar event ; though his copyists, to snit their ou 
purposes, have attributed to a different cause, and to the later peril 
of "Amenophis," what really happened during the Shepherd i 
vaaion. Of the 14th dynasty, of Xoit«s, no names are given eith. 
by Manetho or the moauraents: though they appear to be me 
tioned in the Turin papyrus. 

\_Fifl6enth, Sixteenth, and Sevenleenik Di/tiattieM — Shepkerdt.'^— 
These invaders constituted the 15th, 16th, and 17th dynasties 
Manetho ; and the stat«ment that the 17tb was composed of an e<]ak| 
number of Shepherds and Theban kings is evidently erronenos. 
Their occupation of Egypt was probably owing, not to a mere love 
conquest, but to the desire of maintaining a right they claimed ttf 
the throne, through marriages with the family of the Pharaohs, 
to an invitation from some one of the inferior Egyptian princes wh« 
had been diBpoasessed of his government ; and either of these cadsbS 
would account for their having obtained possession of part of hovrei 
Egypt " without a battle," and for their having received assistanoe 
from some of the Egyptians. Nor waa their rule like that ot 
a people who had entered the country for the sake of conqneet } 
their religion was different, and they treated that of the Egypti 
with disrespect ; but they were at one time on terms of amity witk 
some of the kings of other parts of Egypt ; and they so angmentei' 
the power of the country they governed, that on their expnlsioiL 

Chap. vm. 



Egypt, instead of having suffered under their rule, rose immediately 
to that flourishing condition it enjoyed under the Pharaohs of the 
18th dynasty. But though the power of Egypt was not diminished, 
the people naturally regretted their native princes ; and even if all 
the cruelties said to have been perpetrated by these foreigners were 
exaggerated, still their usurpation, and the contempt with which 
they treated the religion of Egypt, made their rule odious and 
insupportable ; so that the name of Shepherd continued for ever to 
be '* an abomination unto the Egyptians." 

It is not easy to determine what race of people they were ; and 
they have been variously pronounced to be Assyrians, Scythians, 
Cushites (or Ethiopians) of Asia, Phoenicians, or Arabians. Man&r 
the calls them '* Phoenicians," and shows them not to have been 
from Assyria, when he says they took precautions against " the 
increasing power of the Assyrians ; " and the character of " Shep- 
herds " accords far better with that of the people of Arabia. Indeed 
the name Hyk-sos may be translated " Shepherd," or " Arab, kings; " 
hyh being the common title "king," or "ruler," given even to the 
Pharaohs on the monuments, and «Ao5, signifying " shepherd," or 
answering to Shaso, " Arabs." How any of the Arabians had suffi- 
cient power to invade, and obtain a footing in, Egypt, it is difficult 
to explain ; but it is well known that a people from Arabia, called 
PJuBuicians* or the red race, who were originally settled on the 
Persian Gulf, invaded Syria, and took possession of the coast ; and 
yTni1fi.r successes may have afterwards attended their invasion of 
Egypt, especially if aided by the alliance of some of its princes. 
The statement too of Amos (ix. 7), that the Philistines of Syria 
came from Caphtor t (which was a name applied to Egypt), may 
relate to this subsequent passage of another body of Phoenicians 
into Syria, after their expidsion from Egypt. 

Having held possession of Egypt 511 (or, according to the 
longest date, 625) years, the Shepherds were driven out by AmSs, 
or Amosis, the first king of the 18th dynasty; and the whole of the 
country was then united under one king, who justly claimed the 
title of Lord of " the two regions," or " Upper and Lower Egypt." 

* If the Fhoenicians are Hamiiea 
and Cushites, their coming from Arabia 
will accord with their being thought 
Arabians, and with the ** second " 
inTaaion of Egypt by a Coshite race 

(infra, § 23). 

f Copthor, or Eebt Hor, was the old 
name of Coptos, (See ch. 15, n, ' 
Book ii.) 



From that time the eventa raontioned by Manetho, and his 
Bion of kinga, freed from the confusion of contemporary 
might have been clear and satisfactory, had it not been for tl 
errors (often pnrposely) introduced by hia copyists, who endi 
voured to mix up the account of the sojourn of the laraelites, 
their Esodns, with the history of the Shepherds ; and the simjlaril 
of the names Amosis and Tethmosis (Aiihm.ea,* or Am^ 
Thothmes), added to the confusion. 
0. lEigkteentk Dijva^ty.'] — With the eighteenth dynasty commence*, 
a more oontinuoua monumental history of Egypt; bnt there is no 
authority from Manetho or the monuments for dividing the faistorr 
of Egypt into the " old, middle, and new Iringdoms : " nor was the 
whole of the country ruled by each king of the different dynasties 
in succession, during the period that elapsed from Menes to Amosis. 
Egypt had long beca preparing to free itself from the yoke of thai' 
Shepherds ; and weakened by Buccesaive defeats, and opposed to 
the united forces of the Thebaid and Ethiopia, under the energetia 
guidance of Amosis, those foreigners were unable to maintain their 
authority in the country ; and an inscription of the 22nd year o£ 
Amosis, in the qnarrtea of Masarah, saying that st/mea had been' 
out there by his order for the temple of Pthah at Memphis, as well 
as for that of Amnn at Thebes, proves that Lower Egypt had 
already been recovered from them. In the tomb at Kileithyias, of ft 
captain of the fleet of the same name as the king (Aahmes), thab 
ofBoer ia said to have gone to Tania during liis reign ; so that th« 
Shepherds must then have been wpellcd from the icAoie of tba ' 
country ; and Apion (according to Clemens) shows the Hyksoa wera 
driven from Avaria, their last stronghold, by Ames. This appcnra 
to bo confirmed by the inscription at Eileithyiae, and by Manetho'* 
stating that Tethmoaia (improperly pot for Amosis) reigned 25 yciar* 
after their departure, 

During his reign mention ia first made of the horae on the moun. 
raeatffl ; from which fact, and from its being often designated by the 
Semitic name HA), showing that it came from Asia, it haa been sup- 
posed that it was first introduced by the Shepherd-kiug«. If 
they may have been in a great degree indebted for theij- auccessftd 
invHition of Egypt to their horses and chariots ; and if they conferred 
this boon on the Egyptians, thoy may be looked upon as their beiie- 

I, lohmeg, or Ajnia, troiD nkich v 

le tlie iiatDEa of Aiu<n 

CiiAF.vm. AMUNOPH I. 353 

factors and the canses of their future power. Certain it is that 
neither at the tombs about the pyramids, nor at Beni Hassan, is 
there anj indication of the horse,* though the animals of the 
eonntry are so numerous in their paintings ; and it is singular that 
in after times Egypt should be the country whence horses were im- 
ported into Syria by Solomon's traders; and at the time of the 
invasion by Sennacherib it was in Egypt that the Jews were said to 
pat their trust " for chariots and for horsemen." 

Ames apparently claimed his right to the Theban throne from 
Muntotp L (as already stated), t SrS his successor Amunoph I. did 
from Sken-Ji're, a later king of the 11th dynasty ; and Amunoph I. 
is frequently represented with a black queen, Amis-nofri-are^ who 
appears to have been the wife of Ames, and one of the holy women 
devoted to the service of the God of Thebes. J She even had the 
office, held only by priests, of pouring out libations to Amun ; and 
a tablet found by Mr. Harris represents Amunoph 1. as the foster- 
child of this queen, at whose court Mr. Birch supposes that Aniis 
took refuge, while preparing to expel the Shepherds. Indeed it is 
the marriage of Ames with her which is thought to have united the 
two families of the 13th and 18th dynasties. There was also 
another queen of Ames, called Aahoip, a white woman and an Egyp- 
tian, who is represented with the black Ames-tiofri-are on the same 
monuments, at Thebes, and in the British Museum, but in an infe- 
rior position ; and this is readily explained by the greater import- 
ance of the Ethiopian princess. 

The perfect freedom of the country from all further attempts of b.c. 1498. 
the Shepherds enabled Amunoph I. to extend his dominions beyond 
the frontier ; and succeeding kings of this dynasty added to his con- 
quests both in Africa and Asia. It is also evident § that in his 
reign the Egyptians had already adopted the five intercalary days 
to complete the year of 365 days || ; as well as the 12 hours of day 
and night % ; and arches of crude brick are found at Thebes bearing 
his name, which proves that they were in common use in tombs at 
that period ; though all these three were doubtless of much earlier 

• See note » on ch. 108, Book ii. 

t Supra, § 13. 

X Qneens seem to have taken tHis 
office after the death of their hasbands. 
Am^-n'ofri-ar^ is styled "Qoddess- 
wifo of Amun." 

§ From a sepulchnJ box from 

VOL. a 2 a 

Thebes, now in the Museum at Turin, 
bearing bis name. 

II See Appendix to Book ii. cH. ii. 
on the use of the year of 365 days. 

f On a mummy case at Lcyden, 
having his name. « 



Afp. Book [L 

date tliaa tbo em of Amnnopli. He also added some new ch&mbea 
to the great temple of K&raa,k ; and bis nnme frequently occurs at 
Thebes, especially in tombs belonging to individuals who lived in 
his reign. 

Tho names of the kings of the 18th dynasty agree pretty well 
with those in Manetho ; bat not sufficiently to show that we cab 
rely implicitly on him for those in other dyoaBties, where the moniH 
ments fail us as gnides ; for his second king, Chebrva, JS not found 
on the monamonts, and there is some ancertainty about others even 
in this dynasty. 

Thotbmes I., the sncceasor of Antanoph, has left an inacripti 
at Tombos, in Ethiopia, recording his conqnesta over the Nahti 
(nogToea) in his 2nd year ; and the captain of the fleet already i 
tioned, who waa in tho service of tho Pharaoha from Ami^s to 
Thothmes II., records his having oaptared 21 men, a horse, and ft' 
ehariot, in the land of Nahfimyn, or Mesopotamia; so that tbs 
Egyptians must now have extended their arms far beyond their owb 
frontier. And when we find that Thothmes I. rnled over the land 
of the nine bnws, or Libya, we are not surprised that it should fc 
part of his dominions, since Manetho shows that the Libyans wcra 
already under the rule of Egypt as early as the 3fd dynasty. 
Thebes he made additions to the great temple of Karnak, where on« 
of his obeliflka ia still standing; and other monnments at Thebea' 
bear his name, as well as that of Thothmes IT., who made somfl' 
small additions to the temple of Karoak. But little notice is given 
of the warlike deeds of the second Thotbmes, beyond his main- 
tenance of the Egyptian rule in Ethiopia. 

Hia snccesaor, Thothmes III., made bimaclf far more conspicuous: 
by the nnmeroua buildings he erected in Thebes, and throughont^ 
Egypt, and by hia foreign conqueats. Bat in the early part of 
their reigns, both these princes (the second and third Thotlunoa) 
were associated on the throne with Qneen Jmun-not4-7(ci, 
appears to have enjoyed far greater consideration than either of' 
them, probably owing to her having the office of regent. For 
only are monuments raised in her own name, but she is represented 
ilressed as a man, and alone presenting offerings to the goda. Saoh 
indeed waa her importance, that she has been aapposcd to be • 
ired the country, perhaps even Semiramia, 
oa {Slrom.-p. 'i97) to have governed Egypt ; or, 
1 a more direct right t > the throne than tba 

L princess who conq 
who is said by Ciot 
at least, to have I 

Chap. Vm. 



Thothmes ; an4 Her title " Uben-t in the foreign land," * is singu- 
larly in accordance with the expression Uben-re, or Ubn-re, "the 
shining sun," discovered by Layard on a fragment at Nineveh, 
bearing that title of the sun in hieroglyphics. She was however an 
Egyptian princess ; and probably the Amensis of Manetho, who is 
represented to have been the sister of Amenophis, and to have 
reigned nearly 22 years. 

Thothmes III. having attained the requisite ago for mounting the 
throne, enjoyed a greater share of the royal power, and his name 
was admitted, together with that of Amun-nou-het, on some of her 
later monuments ; still he only held an inferior position, and he 
never obtained the chief authority as king daring her lifetime. 
On a statue of this period she is called his " sister ; " f but she was 
probably only so by an earlier marriage of his father ; and such 
was the hatred borne by Thothmes against her, that after her death 
he ordered her name to be erased from her monuments, and his own 
to be sculptured in its stead. But this was not always done with 
the care required to conceal the alterations ; and sentences of this 
kind frequently occur : ** King Thothmes, she has made this work 
for her father Amun." He succeeded, however, in having her name 
omitted from the list of kings ; and she is not mentioned even in 
those put up at a later time by Remeses II. at Thebes and Abydus. 
The most remarkable of her monuments were the great obelisks at 
Kamak, the largest erected at Thebes, one of which is still stand- 
ing ; and on the opposite side of the Nile she embellished the tomb, 
or rock- temple, of Thothmes I., beneath the cliffs of the Assase^f, 
erecting before it a granite gateway, and making many other exter- 
nal additions to its courts ; and numerous monum'ents were put up 
by her in other parts of Egypt. She ruled at least 15 or 16 year8,J 
and alone apparently during some portion of that time ; but there is 
a difficulty in determining the duration of these reigns, and the 
relationship of the two Thothmes. The Third raled for a short 
time after her death ; and though he commenced his reign after she 
had mounted the throne, he probably included the reign of Amnn- 
non-het in his own. 

* On a scarabsQfOS in my possession, 
found at Thebes. (For that of Nim- 
rond, see the Transactions of the 
B. 8. of Literature, 2nd series, vol. 
iii. p. 176.) 

t Now in the British Mnaeiun; 

fonnd at Thebes. 

X Her 16th year is found on a 
tablet in W. Mai^hara, given bj 
Laborde, and on the great obelisk at 


Tbe reign of Thothmes III. ia one of the most remarkable 
iastoTj of the Pharaohs.* He extended his arms far into Asia, 
from which he received a large tribnte, brought to Egypt by the 
chiefs of the nations he had triumphed over ; and who, as was the 
custom of those days, often agreed to make this acknowledgment of 
their defeat without yielding np their country to the yictoriotu 
enemy aa a conquered province ; t and the sacccsses ohtained by 
Thothmea over the Fount J (a nation of Arabia), the ffu/n (sapposed 
to be the people of Cyprus), the Mot-h-no, and the Sonthem Ethio- 

e commemorated on the monuments of Thebes. The exact 

position of these countries ctinnot be easily determined, hnt th^ 
arc evidently far from the confines of Egypt ; and the elephant and 
bear, horses, rare woods, bitumen, and the rich gold and silver 
vases, brought by the Ro(-w-n(i; the ebony, ivory, and precious 
metals, by those of Fount ; the gold and silver vases of the Kiifa ; 
and the cameleoparda, apes, ostrich feathers, ebony, ivory, and gold 
in dust, ingots and rings, from Ethiopia, show the distance from 
which they were brought, as well as the richness of the tribnte. 
The tight dresses, the long gloves, the red bair and blue eyes of the 
Sol-ii-iin § also proclaim them to be of a colder climate tbau Syria i 
though the jars of bitnmen (or " aifl" answering to the Arabic zi(t) 
appear to place them in the neighbourhood of the Enphrates or the 
Tigris, II The beauty of their silver, gold, and porcelain vases, at all 
events point them out as a people far advanced in tuxury and tasta. 
Other victories are also recorded, in the great t«mple of Kamak, 
over the people of Asia ; and besides the R-iU'h'no, the neigbbonring 
Nahara^a ( Mesopotamia), iSi'n^ar, and other countries are mentioned 
as having paid him tribute -, and he is reprcAented to have " stopped 
at Nliiieu (Nineveh), when he set np his stela in Naharayn, having 
enlarged the confines of Egypt."«(f 

• Several most importunt loBinp. 
tione beloD^ng t« tbe time of this 
king tmve bton recentlj pnblisliod in 
bbe " Eecorda of Hie PbbI." lol. ii. pp. 
19-fl*.— [G. R. J875.] 

t In some cases a rounfrymKyhaTe 
been called conquered (by tbe Kgyp- 
tiana, ABBjriBna, or otUerw), when in 
fact a victory had only been gnined ( 

iM niTTiK ; perbnpB i -' — ' 

army wu* bevond its ovn frontier. 

J There apputra to be a Ponnt of 
Bootbam, and another of MarChem. 

1 that 

Ambia. See note', oh. 1(% sad 
note<, oh. 108, Book n. 

^ See ihe oosiDiuPB of these and 
other pciiple in woodcats in nole oa 
ch. 61, Book vii. 

II See below, p. 358. 

^ For an Bcconnt of the conqueita 
of Thothmea HI. see Birch'n anoalt tt 
that king in Ibe Arcliseplopa, voL 
mt. pp. II6.I66. Sir H. KsirlinBon 
believes that the places heKS men. 
tinned were all in Weslem Ueaopo- 
tsauB, not far from the EnphiBilaB. 

Chap. Tm. 



Misled bj the similarity of the names Aahmes and Thothmes (and 
perhaps still more bj Aah, ^* the moon," being a character of Thoth), 
Josephns makes Manetho say that Tethmosis, or *' Thammosis, the 
son of Misphragmathosis/' drove ont the Shepherds ; bnt in 
another quotation from the same historian, he shows that Teth- 
xnosis was no other than the first king of the 18th dynasty ; and 
we have already seen from the acts of Ames, and his immediate 
saccessors, that Egypt was already freed from those enemies long 
before the accession of Thothmes III. and his Asiatic conquests.* 

The great additions he made to Kamak, and other temples in 
Thebes, and the remains of monuments bearing his name at Mem- 
phis, Heliopolis, Coptos, Ombos, and other cities in different parts 
of Egypt, show how much was done by Thothmes III. to beautify 
them, and to commemorate the glories of his reign ; and the style, 
as well as the high finish of his sculptures, were not much surpassed 
at any subsequent period. Indeed he seems to have taken a delight 
in architecture, like Adrian in later times ; and he has left more 
monuments than any Pharaoh except the second Remeses. And 
though, in the reversed capitals and cornices of the columnar hall 
behind his granite sanctuary at Kamak,t he displayed a caprice 
consistent neither with elegance nor utility, the pure style of his 
other monuments shows that (like the imperial architect), though 
occasionally whimsical, he was not deficient in good taste. 

It was during his reign that the two obelisks were made, which 
at a later period were transported to Alexandria ; two others are 
mentioned at Thebes, dedicated to the Sun, which no longer remain ; 
that now standing at Constantinople was also made by him ; and 
the handsome one which is now at S. Giovanni Laterano, in Rome, 
bears his name in the central, and that of Thothmes IV. in the 
lateral, lines. Of his other monuments a very remarkable one is 
the chamber called " of the Kings " at E[arnak, where he is repre- 
sented making offerings to sixty of his predecessors ; and not only do 
stone fragments, but the remains of crude brick enclosures, bear 
witness to the number of his buildings that once stood at Thebes. 
There are indeed more bricks bearing his name than that of any 
other king ; and it is in the tomb, where the tribute before men- 
tioned is recorded, that the curious process of brick-making is 

• Above, § la 

t ThiB sanctuary was rebuilt by 

Ptolemy, in the name of Philip 


represented, whicli tallies ao exactly witb tliat described in Eiodna,' 
His ovals also appear fnr more cocamonly on tUo smaller ecambiEi 
than tliat of any othGr Pbaraob ; and be is remarkable for the great 
variety in tbs mode of writing bis name, of wbich 1 have more thun 
thirty variationB. 

In Ethiopia fajs principal temples were those of Semneh and 
AitiBiia ; to tbp latter of which Tbothmes IV. made some additions j 
and at both places their predecessor, Osirtaseu III., of the I'2tli 
dynasty, received divine honours. t The two temples of Semneh 
were boilt at the beginning of bis reign ; and as offerings to tha 
temple made in his second year are there recorded, withont tha 
name of Amun-non-bet, Tbothmes III. must have been reigtung 
alone ; which shown that his regnal years were reckoned from her 
death, and were not included in their joint reign ; and this would 
be consistent witb the fact of bis having been very young when 
first associated with her on the throne. His first campaign, bow- 
ever, not occurring till bis 22nd rognal year, would argue against it, 
at lenst on other occasions, and would require him to have reckoned 
nlflo the years of bis divided rule ; and bis conqnests in Asia, men< 
tioned in the great tablet at Karnak, dat« in his 2£ttb, 30th, and 
33rd years ; though the first of them is styled bis litb expedition. 
His Gtb, in his 30th year, waa against the Kot-n-tio. In bis 33rd 
year he appears to have defeated the people of Lemanon also, who 
continued the same war; and this fact, and the name of NinioH 
(Nineveh), occnning with that of Naharaifn, and that of the Taka, 
in the Hitme UDigbbourbood, argue that " Lemanon " represents a 
country further inland than Mount Lebanon. J It ia followed by 
the hind of Siiignr ; and though the mention afterwards of the Ati, 
supposed to be h, bringing bitumen, appears to place these pcopla 
lower down the Kuphrate8,§ it is probable that most of them lived 
higher up to the North-west. Lemanon is also conpled with the 
Rot-ii-no, on a monument of the firat )S('/Ai'.|| 

The length of the reign of Tbothmes III. was far greater than ia 
reiutsented by Manetho, being about 47 yeara ; and the dates of bia 
43i'd and 47tb years are found on the monuments ; but tbis differ- 

twecD Babflouuid Csrchemisb. 

il The eliiets of the Bd-n-no u« 
BBiil [o Berre the King of Egjpt wiUi 
Ibeir lobijiu' (bodiee, or memlieni}, 
cutting doTm treee """ ' 

Chap. Vm. 



ence maj be attributed to bis baving sbared tbe kingdom witb 

AmtLn-notL-bet and bis brotber ; tbougb tbe dates of Manetbo are 

very uncertain from yarioas causes, and from tbe inaccuracy of bis 

copyists. Towards tbe latter part of bis reign Tbotbmes appears to 

bave associated bis son, Amunopb II., on tbe tbrone ; * but tbis king 

was not remarkable for bis conquests, or tbe monuments be erected. 

He made some additions to tbe great temple of Amun at Kamak ; 

and enlarged tbat of Amada in Nubia, wbicb was completed by bis »-c- 1414. 

son and successor, Tbotbmes IV. ; and bere, on a stela dated in bis 

3rd year, Amunopb bas recorded bis victories over tbe Upper Rot- 

n-no, and tbe Etbiopians. His name also occurs on a fallen block 

at tbe Isle of Sai, as well as tbat of tbe tbird Tbotbmes. 

Tbotbmes IV. bas left few monuments wortby of note, except tbe b.c. 1410. 
great spbinx at tbe pyramids, wbicb bears bis name, and appears to 
bave been cut out of tbe rock by bis order ; and bere again a simi- 
larity of name led Pliny to consider it tbe sepulcbre of Amasis. 
21. After tbe two sbort reigns of Amunopb II. and Tbotbmes IV., ^-c 1403. 
Amunopb III. succeeded to tbe tbrone ; but tbougb be calls bimself 
" tbe son of Tbotbmes IV., tbe son of Amunopb II.," tbere is reason 
to believe tbat be was not of pure Egyptian race, and bis motber. 
Queen Maut-in-shoi, was probably a foreigner. His features differ 
very mucb from tbose of otber Pbaraobs ; and tbe respect paid to 
bim by some of tbe '* Stranger- kings," one of wbom (Atin-re- 
Bakban) treats bim as a god in tbe temple founded by Amunopb at 
Soleb in Etbiopia, seems to confirm tbis, and to argue tbat be was 
partly of tbe same race as tbose kings wbo afterwards usurped tbe 
tbrone, and made tbeir rule and name so odious to tbe Egyptians. 
Tbeir attacbment to tbe memory of Amunopb is also sbown by tbe 
great respect tbey paid to bis widow. Queen Taia, wbose name some 
of tbeir queens adopted ; and in one place a Queen Taia is seated 
opposite Bakban, and in anotber is admitted by bim ^* to look at tbe 
flabellum of tbe sun."t Tbe worsbip too of tbe sun, witb rays 
terminating in buman bands, represented on a stela of Amunopb at 
Asonan, appears to indicate a connection between tbcm; J for it was 
tbe very worsbip establisbed by tbose Strangers. 

It is probably to tbis usurpation tbat Manetbo alludes wben be 

* A Btela in the Lejden Hnsenm. 
t Lepsiiu, Denk. Abth. iii. Bl. 100, 
X There is, however, an instance of 

the San so represented in the time of 
Bethi, the father of Bemeses II., on a 
stela on the Kossayr road. 


360 CONQUESTS OP AMUNOPH lit. Art. Boon II. 

speaks of the second invasion of Egypt, after the Shepherd time; 
and the flight of Amnnophis into Ethiopia is a mistake ariaing from 
the previous flight of a king of another name when the Shepherds 
advanced into the Thebaid. The sending of the leprona persona to 
the enlphur springs on the east bank of the Nile is also a misrepre- 
sentation of some real event ; and that it wns not a, mere htblo is 
proved by the recent discovery of those springs at Helwiin. 

Certain it is that the Stranger-kings did not obtain the throne till 
after the death of Amunoph III. ; and that his power and conqncets 
were very extensive is proved by the monuments, and by the 
records of victories, left by him throughout the valley of the Nile. 
At Thebes he added considei'ably to the great temple of Kamafc, 
and bnilt the principal part of that of Luxor, which is remarkable 
for its size and beauty : he also erected a very elegant one on the 
opposite bank, rendered famous by the two large sitting Colossi of 
its dronios, or paved approach, one of which has long been known 
as the " vocal Memnon." It was perhaps to connect these his two 
temples, on the opposite sides of the river, that bo made the "royal 
street " mentioned in the Theban papyri. He also adorned the 
island of E]ephantin6 with small but highly- finished temples ; and 
besides that of Sedtnga, he bnilt the beautiful temple of Soleb in 
Ethiopia, on the colnmns of which he registered the names of the 
many nations ho had vanquished in Africa and Asia ; thereby pro- 
claiming that he not only extended hia conquests still further sooth, 
but that ho had pushed the dominion of Egypt at least a« far 
as Solob. Among the Asiatic names are Fouiit, CarcheTiiUh, the 
fort of Atesh (or Kadesh ?), Naharayn (Mesopotamia), and many 

From this being a complete record of his conquests, we may con- 
clade that the temple of Soleb was erected towards the latter part 
of his reign ; but in one of the temples at Semneh he had prerionsly 
put up a memorial of his victories over the negroes 
which the Ahhei and others are mentioned ; and Semneh 
the frontier fortress on that side, it was considered 
tor Bnch a record.* The mode of noticing hia snccesses 
teristic; we read of "living captives 150 head, children 110 head, 

negroes 350 head negroes h^ head, children 265 head, total 

living 740 head ... 300 head . . . living head 1052 " Though 

Nartbumbcrlaad, aa well as his liona { firitiab Moseiuii. 

Chap. ynL 



he extended his arms mach further south than Soleb, and passed 
Napata, or (^ebel Berkel, his lions which were found there were not 
placed bj him in that city, but were originally at Soleb, as the in- 
scription upon them shows, and were afterwards taken by Tirhaka 
to adorn his Ethiopian capital ; and on one of the large scarabaei, 
so often used by him as records, he makes " his southern frontier 
KUiee (Karu or Kcdaa),* and his northern Ndharayn (Mesopotamia).'* 
In this same record f the name of his queen Taia is, as usual, intro- 
duced with his own ; and the marked respect he always paid her 
might have justified the notion of his having been indebted to her 
for his throne, had not the name of her father Ainia, and of her 
mother Tuia, been mentioned without any signs of royalty. The 
custom of using these large scarabsei as records was much adopted 
by Amunoph III. ; and one of them states the number of lions he 
slew on a particular occasion, as amounting to 102 ; and another 
describes a tank he made, 3700 cubits long and 700 cubits broad, 
for Queen Taia. 
22. Besides the remarkable fact that the features of Amunoph m. 
differed so much from those of the Egyptians, his tomb at Thebes 
is placed in a valley apart from those of the other Pharaohs, and in 
company with that of one of the " Stranger-kings " who has 
been variously called Skhai, Eesa^ Oaiee, and Ai, whose wife appears 
also to have been a Taia^ and who was probably the first of the 
seven who succeeded Amunoph III. on the throne. For it was at 
his death that they ruled, mostly with very short reigns ; and the 
only ones of note were the second of them, Amun-To6nh, and the 
sixth, Atin-re-Bakhan. The former has introduced his name into 
the temple of Luxor, afterwards erased by King Horus ; his name 
and sculptures occur in a rock-tomb behind the Red Convent near 
Itfoo ; and he is represented in a tomb at Koorna as receiving the 
visit of a princess of Ethiopia, with a rich tribute from that country. 
The other, who seems to have changed his name from Amunoph IV. 
to Atin-re-Bakhan, shows, from the number of monuments of his 
time at Tel-el- Amama, Apollinopolis-parva, Thebes, and Memphis, 
that his reign was long, and that he extended the arms of Egypt 
into foreign lands. Tel-el- Amama (supposed to be Psinaula) was 
the capital or royal city of these princes ; but after their expulsion 

* If this was C0I06, it was aboat 
100 miles to the E. or E.N.S. of 

t One in my posseasion, and another 
copied by Bosellini, mention her 


ita temples were ntterly destroyed by the Egyptians, as was every 
record of tlicse princes thronghoat tho conntiy ; and King Horns has 
used the stones of their monnmente, at Thebea, in the constrnctioo 
of the pyramidal towers which he pnt up on the 8. side of the great 
temple of Kamak. 

The tyranny of these kings, and the change they made in. the J 
religion, rendered them odiona to the Egyptians ; for they not only 
introdncod real sun-worship, to the ntter disregard of all the dejtioa 
of Egypt, but banished Amuo, the great god of Thebes, from the 
Pantheon ; and committed those offences against the religion uttri- 
bated by Uanetho to the Shepberds. But, in order in some meafore 
to reconcile the priesthood to the change, they adopted one of the 
foiTDB and names of the snn already acknowledged by the Egyp 
tiana; and Atiii-re, the solar disc, an ancient character of Re, waa 
selected by them as their god ; and this was partly from its repre- 
senting the physical snn, which they themaelves worshipped, and 
partly perhapa from ita name resembling that of their own deity. 
For that they were a foreign race, and not, as Dr. Lepsins supposiii, 
Egyptians who introduced a heresy into the religion of their 
country, is sofliciently evident from their peculiar features and 
strangely formed bodies ; and it is not improbable that they w 
■ Asiatic Cushites, or Ethiopians, who from intermarriage with th« 
Egyptian royal family claimed the throne they usurped ; and their 
despotic mle is ahown by the abject manner in which the soldiers 
and others in their service were obliged to crouch before them. 
These Cushites would accord with the Ethiopians said by Ensebina 
'■ to have come from the river Indus, and to have settled in Egypt '* 
in the time of Amunoph ; though we are not to suppose that the]^ 
came from the country said to belong to that race to the east of 
Persia, but rather from the Ethiopia of aouthem Arabia, know 
after times as Sheba ; and if this be true, it may account for tha 
Thebans poiiiting out the statue of Amunoph to the Greeks wliei 
they inquired after "the Ethiopian Memnon." If Amunoph HI,' 
was related to that foreign race, he did not become unpopular by 
making any of those religions changes which rendered Bakhan* 
and others so hateful to the Egyptians ; and Horns, who appcara U 
have been a son of Amunoph, may have reconciled them to his rulft' 

■ Aim-re -BakhaD, or Akhen-Atin- I perind; the lattf r acoorda with Aken- 

le (" Dio votar.v oC Atiu-re"). The cheros, placed at the end of the IStk 

foFtntir roBenihfcB the ApachooB of dynoatf. 

Monetho, bhough assigned to an earlier [ 

Cm yy. VIII. 

KIN'(; lIoKi'S 

l)j reinstating the religion and expelling the " Strangers " from the 
throne. And the fact of the features of Horns being still unlike 
those of other Pharaohs will be explained by his having inherited 
from his father some little of their foreign physiognomy. Manetho's 
accoant of their invasion, already alladed to, is evidently the same 
as that mentioned by Diodorns, who states that '* these foreigners 
being addicted to strange rites in their worship and sacrifices, the 
honours due to the gods fell into disuse ; " and that, " having been 
expelled, certain select bodies of thera passed over into Greece and 
other places, under the guidance of their chiefs, the most remark- 
able of whom were Danaus and Cadmus." And the resemblance 
of the name Danaus to Toonh, Manetho's mention of the expulsion 
of Armais or Danaus from Egypt at this very period, and the story 
of Danaus introducing into Argos the worship of lo (the name of 
**the moon " in the language of the Argives and of the Egyptians), 
appear all to point to the same event. 

The duration of their rule is uncertain ; bat a stone in their b.c. 1 
ruined city at Tel-el- Amarna, on which Thothmes IV.* is mentioned ^^7 
by Atin-re-6akhan, and the sculptures at Soleb, where Amunoph 
III. is worshipped by him, prove that he ruled after both those 
kings ; as the destruction by Horns of the monuments of Bakhan 
and the other usurpers shows they preceded that Pharaoh. 

They are not noticed in the lists of kings given by Manetho and 
the monuments, all which make Horns the immediate successor 
of Amunoph III. ; though it is possible that they may be repre- 
sented by the five kings [)laced, according to some versions of 
Manetho, between Horns and the 19th dynasty ; one of whom is the 
Armais or Danaus already noticed. Josephus, Africanus, and 
Eusebius give them as Achencherr6s, or Acherres ; Rath6tis, or 
Rathds ; Akench^r^, or Chebres ; Akencher^s, or Cherres ; and 
Armais, or Danaus. 
24. The 36th year of Amunoph III. is found in the sculptures, and 
he was succeeded by his son Horns (or Amun-vien-Hor-ih-heb), who 
on a monument at Thebes mentions "the father of his fathers, 
Thothmes III." It is at Silsilis, where he is represented nursed by 
a queen, that his features bear so much resemblance to those of 

* If he was the first who married a 
priDcesa of that race, this mention of 
him will be explained, as well as the 

foreign features of his son Amnnoph 
III., and of his grandson Horns. 

B.C. 1! 


Amanoph ; * and in the same place mention is made of his Tii:torii 

over the Cuslt, or Ethiopians of the Nile. Tbe eelectioa of this Epd 
for Betting up his triumphal records was probahly, connected wifl 
the opening of new quarries, aa those omaracutal tableta of Antn 
noph III. and Pthahmea at Sibilia were with the hewing and trsn 
port of stones from that extensive bed of saadatoue, which supplied 
materials for so many temples in Upper and Lower Egypt. Hoi 
made some additions to the great temple of Amun at Thebes, a 
to other temples of Egypt ; but his roiga was short ; and if in t 
36 to S8 years given to him by Manetho the whole period of t 
" Strangor-kiiigs " is included, some idea may be formed of t 
duration of their riile, which was pi-obably abont 30 years. Ou 
other king, named E-esi-toti, or Rcsi'-lol, ia shown by a stela found li| 
Mariette in the Apis tomb to have follovra 
)rua. He ia dtrabtleas the RnthStis or Rathas tt 
' m ^^ Manetho, according to Josephus and Africanas ; bn 
he ia not noticed in the lists on the monuments. Thi 
18th dynasty lasted about 180 years, taking the average of Manethol 
lista, or more probably 210 years ; from about the middle of tb| 
16th to the middle of the 14tli century B.C. It is probable that tb 
Exodus took place in the reign of Pthahmen, 

[Nineteenth Dytiasti/,] — With Reniescs I. began the 19th dynasty; 
His reign was of short duration, and the oldest date found on t~ 
monuments is his second year ; but he is remarkable as the head 
tlie honso of Kemoses, and the leader of this distinguished dynastjv 
Ho was of a different family from Horns and Amnnoph III., c 
restored the original and pure line of the Diospolitea, tracing 
descent from Amunoph I. and Queen Ames-uofri-ar^.t He 
left no records of his conquests, and few monuments, except 
tomb at Thebes. This last however marks the new d3masty, 
being in a different locality from that of Amunoph III., and 
being the earliest one made in that valley, which was thencefoi 
set apart as the burial-place of the Theban kings. But tl)9 del 
cioncy of his memorials was more than compensated for by those t 
his son Sethi I. (Sethos) and his grandaon the great Remesee, whoi 

' Tmoes of the onatonia of the 
StrBDger-ldngB OMj here b« obaeired 
in the aaiue abject demeanour of the 
Boldierg before Horns, anil perhaps in 
the tnaiiy pmblema of life and power 
depending like rajs from the mm above 

the Iring. 

t In ona plane at ThebM, Bemcai 
irorahipa a triad con^xwed nt Amtl^, and their cd^prft| 
Amnnopb L ^^ 

chaf. vm. 



long reigns were employed in extending the conquests of Egypt 
and in recording them on the numerous and splendid monuments 
they erected in every part of the country. And their grand 
achievements for eclipsing those of the original Sesostris, the name 
and exploits of that conqueror became transferred to Sethi (Sethos) 
and his son, both of whom were confounded with him ; and the 
resemblance of Sethos, or Sethosis, to Sesostris confirmed the error. 

In the first year of his reign Sethi overran Syria ; and in order to 
punish those people who had neglected to pay tribute to Egypt * 
during the rule of the successors of the 3rd Amnnoph, he took 
Canaan and various strongholds in the country, and re-established 
friendly relations with those who had remained faithful in their 
allegiance to Egypt. He also extended his conquests far into Asia ; 
and among the countries, over which he triumphed, and claimed 
dominion, are the Upper and Lower Rot-n-nOy Gannanda (?), 
Naharayn (Mesopotamia), and the Khita, supposed by Mr. Stuart 
Poole to be the Hittites, whose stronghold Atesh-f (Ketesh or 
Kadesh), he believes to be Ashteroth-Kamaim. These last people 
are also among the vanquished nations recorded in his sculptures at 
Kamak, as are the SJuiso, or Arabs, Pount, Naharayn, Singar, and 
about forty others ; among whom are the Cushites and other people 
of Africa. Later in his reign he waged war with the Tahai, a people 
whom Thothmes III. had already forced to pay tribute ; and the 
sculptures at Kamak show that he was then accompanied by his 
son Remeses, who after this was probably sent alone in command of 
an army against the Arabians and Libyans, as stated by Diodorus 
(i. 53). 

Among the grandest monuments left by Sethi is the great hall of 
Kamak, on the exterior walls of which are many beautiful sculp- 
tures recording his victories, and his personal valour in killing with 
his own hand the enemy's chief, as well as his return to Egypt 
amidst the acclamations of the priests and people. 

He also founded a temple on the opposite bank to his father 
Remeses I., which like the great hall of Kamak, and one of the 
largest buildings at Abydus, was completed by his son Remeses II., 

* Among them are the people of a 
hilly country abounding in trees, which 
from its name, Lemaium, or Remanon, 
has been sopposed to be Lebanon ; 
though, from its being mentioned with 
the Rot-n-no, it appears to be farther 

to the North-East, and connected with 
that people. See above, § 20. 

t In the land of ArrutTy Amatf or 
Omavy thought by some to be of the 

366 REMESES II. Are. Boon 11^ 

who appears to have shared the throne with him dnritiji; the latter 
part ot his reign. Many other grand monamenta bear his nam 
and conspicnouB among these is his tomb in the valley of the kin 
at Thebes, which for the beauty of its seatptures and of ita at 
cophagua of oi-iental alabaster, as well as for the richness of iti 
coloured details, far excels the rest of those spacious sepulchre 
and if some others surpass it in extent, not even that of Bemesea V., 
miscalled by the Greeka and Romana " of Memnon," and so bighl 
admired by them, can be compared for beauty with the tomb o 
Setbi. His long reign and life appear to have ended snddenly ; ftgi 
after he had complatcd this monument, he ordered an estra chambM 
to he added to it, which was never finished ; and the fignres left n 
outline prove that time was wanting to complete it. He is said t 
have reigned SI or 55 years, according to Manetho ; but the monoJ 
menta do not determine the nnniber. 

The reigns of Sethi and his son may be considered the Angnstu 
ago of Egypt, in which the arte attained to the highest degree e 
excellence of which tliey were there capable ; but as in other cotmi 
tries their culminating point is sometimoa marked by certain indi> 
cations of their approaching decadence, ao a little mannerism a 
elongated proportion began to be perceptible amidst the beantieg ol 
this period. Still the style and finish of the scatptnres, the wondeiii 
fnl skill in engraving the granite obelisks, the hieroglyphics t 
which are sometimes cnt to the depth of three inches, and the g 
of the figures (conventional as they were) far surpass those of a 
other epoch ; and the Bcmeseam, or palace-temple of Remescs IL, 
" in the western suburb of Thebes " (called the Memnonium), is tj 
far the bent proportioned building in Egypt. It is hero too that h" 
colossal statue of red granite of Syene once stood, towering »bom 
the roof of the temple, amidst the ruins of which it now lies 
trate and broken ; and this statue was remarkable as eicellin 
others in size and in the excellence of ita sculpture. He was tim 
■ Rsmeses to whom the title of " Miani'iji " was particularly applied|! 
and though Remeses Ifl. had the same title, it was in his prenomea,' 
not a part of his name ; and Bemeses II. has therefore the boat claitf 
to the name of '■ Bemeaes-Miamun." 

Distinguished as Remeses was during the hfetime of his fathw, 
he became still more remarkable after the death of Sethi, by hii 
extensive conquests, as well as by the numerous monuments whick 
he raised throughout the country ; and it is evidently by him, rathei 

Chap. VIII. 



than by his father, that the great works attributed to the Great 
SesostHs were executed, for which Diodoms says he employed so 
many captives — a statement confirmed by a record on the rocks at 
Aboosimbel. It was to these his monuments, in particular, that the 
attention of Germanicus was directed by the priests during his visit 
to Thebes ; and it was from them that his guides read to him the 
account of the tributes levied on foreign nations, which, in the 
words of Tacitus, were " hand minus magnifica quam qusB nunc vi 
Parthorum, aut potentia Bomana jubentur." ♦ But they were very 
properly shown to Germanicus as the memorials of Remeses, and 
not of Sesostris. 

It is particularly in the great temples of Karnak and Luxor, and 
at the so-called Memnonium, that the victories he gained over the 
enemies of Egypt are recorded ; the most noted of which were over 
the Khita, one of whose strongholds was protected by a double ditch, 
and by the river on which it stood. The wars waged against that 
people were long and obstinate ; and the extent of their dominions 
reaching from Syria to the Euphrates, and the large force of chariots 
and disciplined infantry they could bring into the field, rendered 
them formidable to the Egyptians in their advance into Asia. Nor 
have the sculptures failed to show the strength of the enemy in the 
attack made upon them by Remeses, or the skill with which they 
drew up their army to oppose him ; and the tale of their defeat is 
graphically told by the death of their chief, drowned as ho endea- 
voured to repass the river, and by the dispersion of their numerous 
chariots. This war took place in his 5th year,t as recorded at 
Thebes, and Aboosimbel ; and Remeses was probably satisfied in 
levying a tribute on that occasion, since another war broke out with 
the same people in his 9th year ; and the treaty made with the 
Khita in his 21st year, recorded at Karnak, appears also to have 
been consequent upon another campaign. 

It was during the wars with the people of Asia that Remeses 
inscribed the tablet on the rocks by the road-side above the Lycus, 

* These recordB no longer exist ; and 
the destmction of that part of the 
monnments that contained them will 
explain the reason why Thothmes III., 
with fewer conqnests than Bemeses 
H., has left more memorials of the tri- 
bates he levied on vanqoished enemies. 

f At this time he had ahreadj 
adopted the additional title, "ap- 
proved of the Son," in his prenomen. 
The idea of there being two kings 
called Remeses, who succeeded their 
father Sethi, has long been abandoned. 


A pp. Book IL 

1 Syria,* whicli, lite those of Sennacherib, and othen 
of later periods, prove the usual coast road to have passed hy that 
spot, from the age of the early Pharaohs to the time of the Bon 
and Arabs, as it does at the present day. The tablets of Remeses f 
dedicated, one to Amun the God of Thebes, another to Pthah 
of Memphis, the other to Ra of Heliopolis ; the two former th« 
deities worehippod at the capilals of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
last tlie god after whom he was named. 

Not only do the monnments, but several papyri, record the waiS 
he waged with the people of Asia ; and it ie in the Sallier papyri 
that mention is made of his war with the Kbita in his 9th yoar.^ Tba 
8 the Egyptians had to contend with were mostly the Earns 
in the time of Romesea II. as of Thothmea III. ; and the names o( 
the confederate people with the KJiita are read by M. de Rong6 
" Aradiut, Mason, Fatasa, Kaechkafch, Oeeon, GiirguufUan, Chirahe, 
Akiaa, Alesh, and Raka." Some of them were Syrian people; tha 
e wore probably the IlaUhii, abont Haleb (or Aleppo), but not 
the Chalybes of Asia Minor; and Afeeh was a strong fortress in 
land of Aiimr ; and the African ISerberi, Tukrourir.^ and others whom 
he conquered, were among those previously defeated by the third. 
Amunoph. In some of his northern wars Remesea was asaisted hj 
certain Asiatic tribes, who became allies of the Egyptians; as tha< 
Shairclawa, a people described aa living near the sea, a lake, or soma- 
large river, who continued to be in alliance with Egypt in the tima 
of the third Rcmeaea, when he extended the conqaests of his pre> 
decessors ; bnt onr limited knowledge of the geography of tho8a 
periods prevents onr fixing the exact position of these and other' 
eonntries, mentioned on the monnments. 

Some insight is given into the mode of warfare of that age, as 
well as into the moans of attacking and defending fortified places. ([ 
The scaling-ladder and lesfudo arielaria had long been in nse, even 
as early as the Onirtasens of the 12th dynasty. The latter consisted 
of a long pike {terehra or Tflnrarot), and a covering of framework 
(viiiea) supported on forked poles, which was sufficiently large td 


' If. do Shnic; JB incrcdnlciuB ; bat 
they aro bUII lliero, and in his next 
JDumcy be may pcrliape be fortanate 

+ I apply Htclro do movabla reoords, 
Ubieta to tlioee od rocks and nails of 

X B»e n InnBlatino of the Third 
Sallier Papjrns ia (.be " ReoordH ti 
the Past," vol. iL pp. 07-78.— [G. & 

e Botb are nnmps iis«d to tbu day. 

ll See note * OD oh. 169, Book u. 

Cbaf. yul great wobks of bexeses il 369 

hold aeyeral men, and served to coyer tHem as they mined the place, 
or made their preparations for an attack ; and it answered both for 
the *' tesittdo ad fadiendum^^^ and for that " qwE ad congestionem fot- 
9arum parcUttTy** mentioned by Vitmvins. While the miners were 
so engaged, the parapets were cleared by heavy showers of arrows ; 
and the same was done when the pioneers (the haltagis of an eastern 
army) advanced to break in the gates of the place with their axes. 
In some of these fortified towns there was an outer, or donble, or 
even a triple wall ; the ditches being famished with bridges, as at 
the fort of the Khita represented at the Memnoninm ; and the abut- 
ments of similar bridges are found in the ancient forts of Egypt. 
Bat these were evidently made of planks, represented in the sculp- 
tures by a flat surface, which were removed when the garrison had 
retired within the works before a besieging force. 

It was daring the repose he took between his different campaigns, 
and after their glorious termination, that Remeses erected the many 
buildings that bear his name throughout the Valley of the Nile. 
And the stela set up in his 35 th year, in the great temple of Aboo- 
simbel, was placed there long after its completion ; and speaks no 
longer of wars, but of the god, Pthah-Sokari, granting to him that 
the whole world should obey him like the Khita ; and alludes to 
his having beautified the Temple of Pthah at Memphis. Besides 
the temples and numerous statues be put up at Thebes and Memphis, 
the chief towns of each nome, and many of minor importance, were 
beautified with monuments erected by him, or in his honour ; and if 
he was really the king for whom the treasure-cities Pithom and 
Raamses * were built by the Israelites,t the unusual splendour with 
which he adorned the small temple at Tanis, where numerous granite 
obelisks bear his name, wiU accord with the fact of its b&ing one of 
his favourite residences in the time of Moses, when " marvellous 
things" were done "in the field of Zoan" (Tanis). J Even Ethiopia 
received its share of beautiful monuments ; and the rock temples of 
Aboosimbel still excite the admiration of travellers, for the variety 
of their sculptures and the grandeur of their colossi. At Napata 
(Gebel Berkel), the capital of Ethiopia, he also erected a temple, 

• Pithom appears certainly to bo 
taken from the name of Thmei, 
" Truth," the goddess who forms part 
of the prenomens of Eemeses and his 
father ; Baamaes (Bemeses) being his 

t According to the Duke of North, 
umberland's view of the Exodoi- 
period, mentioned above in § 5, 

X Psalm Uxviiu 12, 43; Iss. xii. 

VOL. n. 2 b 





afterwards enlarged by Tirhaka ; and notwithatanding tlie extent of 
his conquests in Asia, ho did not negliict to pnsh his arma mack 
farther into Upper Ethiopia, and the SondAo, than anjof hia prod»- 
ceaaora. Indeed it is with snrprisc that we see the evidence of thfl 
numerous monuments erected by Bemeaes II., even thoagh thoa» 
that remain must bear a very small proportion to the original i 
ber; more coloasal and other stntaea remain of his time than of ai^ 
other Pharaoh, and the two beautiful ones discovered at Memphis 
show that he adorned the templea of the northern capital with the 
same magnificence as those of Thebea. Tbey prove, too, that the 
Seaostria said by Herodotus to have put up the colossi at Memphis 
was this Remesea. 

He also nndertook the grand project of opening a canal from the 
Kile to the Red Sea, which from the monamenCs on its banks watt 
evidently finished by him ; and re-o}wned, rather than firat ( 
monced, by Neco, or by Darina, or by Ptolemy Philadelphns. Thia 
canal began a little above Bubaatis, near the town of Patamoa 
(Pithom). It was connected with the trade of the Red Sea ; and if 
RemeBes fitted out a Sect to protect that trade, and if the same 
before been done by the original Sesoatria, the statemcut of H£T(^ 
dotus that Sosostria " fitted ont long veasels " on that sea might apply 
to Voth these kings. Diodorus even pretends to slate the nombor, 
which he reckons at 400 galleys. 

Another extensive work, apparently attribatable to thja king, wai 
the wall, said by Diodorus to have been bnilt by Sesostrig, on both. 
sides of the valley, at the edge of the cnltivatcd land, w^ith a ■ 
to protect the peasants and their crops from the wandering Arabs; 
and th& crude brick remains of this wall are still visible in many 
parts of the country, particularly where it ran over the rocky gronnd 
on the eaat bank. It is now called Gisr el agoog, " the old ma " " 
or " old woman's dyke." By this the Ai-aba were prevented froni'i 
coming to the valley and obtaining com, except at certain pointtf 
where ingress and egrcsa were permitted; and a small body of tnmpa, 
or the peasants themselves, sufficed to prevent any disregard of theSA 

The partition of the lands and the canalisation of the country, 
attributed to Sesostria, would spply to the earlier king rather than 
to Roraeses II. ; though land surveying and all that related to tha 
cauala and the river were well known in Egypt long before the a[ 
even of the Osirtosens, as is sufficiently proved by the sculpturea i 


tlie pyramid-period, and, if the story is to be credited, by tbe cbai^ 
of the course of the Nile nnder Menes. 

The length of his reign is consistent with the nnmber of his monn- 
ments and the extent of his conquests ; and the mention of the 62nd 
year of Bemeses in the sculptures agrees with the 61 full years 
ascribed to him by Manetho. According to Josephus he reigned 
66 years. This accounts for his surviTing so many of his twenty- 
three sons, and being succeeded by the 13th, Pthahmen. 

The reign of his successor was not remarkable for any great con- b.c. 1245, 
quests ; and if some additions were made by Pthahmen to the monu- 
ments of Thebes, Memphis, and other places, they were not on the 
same grand scale as those of his father and of King Sethi. Pthdhmer^ b.c. 1237. 
se-Pthah, who succeeded Pthahmen, was probably indebted for the 
throne to his marriage with Taosiri, if she was really a daughter of 
Bemeses U. ; and so little was he regarded by the Egyptians, that 
his name is omitted from the Theban list of kings, and even erased 
from his sepulchre in the Valley of the Kings' tombs. 
26. [Twentieth Dynasty. 2 — The memory of the two following kings, b.c. 1232 
Sethi XL and III., is scarcely rescued from oblivion by the chambers 
and the avenue of sphinxes added by the first of them to the great 
temple of Kamak ; by their tombs, and by a few small monuments; 
and it remained for their saccessor Remeses III. to extend the arms 
of Egypt abroad, and to grace its cities with grand edifices, only 
surpassed by those of Sethi I. and the second Remeses. 

Indeed, his temple at MedeenetHaboo is one of the most interesting B.r. 1219. 
monuments in Thebes, the battle-scenes most spirited, and the history 
of his campaigns most important ; and if the style of the sculptures 
is not quite equal to those of Sethi I. and his son, their designs are 
full of spirit, and they are worthy of a king whose victories shed 
new lustre on the Egyptian name, and revived the days of conquest 
and glory. But the change he made in the mode of sculpturing 
the figures and hieroglyphics seems to have been the prelude to the 
decadence of art ; ^d though gradual, its decline became evident 
after his reign ; nor was the momentary impulse given to it by the 
Sheshonks, or what may be called the " revival " under the 26th 
dynasty, sufficient effectually to arrest its fall. The exquisite care 
bestowed on the sculptures at the latter period certainly did much 
to restore art for the time j" and we admire the truth and correctness 
of the drawing, the sharpness and beauty of the chiselling, in the 
sculptures of the Psammetichi and Amasis ; but it was the result of 



a great effort, and eren if it had not been etopped by circamBtaiiceri 
wonld have been insufficient to regenerate Egyptian art. 

The reign ot Remeaea III. isabright page in the history of Egypt- 
Penetrating far into Asia, he recovered the conquests that bad been 
neglected by his immediate predecessors, and even extended them 
into new countries, the namea of which arc previoasly unnoticed 
the monnmenta. But he does not appear to have attacked the K.bita^ 
though he maintained the same alliance with the iSVicim'iuitn 
Kiiniretana), who bad oasisttid Remeses IL in bia Asiatic wars ; aod 
allied with them and two other people (one oE whom was dtstiDi 
guishod by a high cap, not unlike that of the niodeni Tartais) hs 
defeated the liebn. a powerful people ; and afterwards inflicted ee 
chastisement on the Tokari, who, once his allies, had revolted from. 
bim. In this revolt they were joined by a portion of the maritims 
Shairelanii, in whose ships they sought refuge from tho conqueror^ 
after he bad chased them to the coast. But the Egyptians were 
HDCcesHfnl by water as ou land ; and the king, having brought rona4 
his fleet, snuk or captured their galleys and ravaged their coasts. 

These Shai'rHanii, or Khairelima, have been conjectured by Sir, 
Poole to be tho Cberetim, or Cretans, which is not impossible; 
thongb the nncortainty of these names, and onr ignorance of th« 
geography of the conntries overrun by the Egyptians, prevent our 
aiicertaiuiug the exact site of this and other wars recorded on tha 
monuments ; and it is prudent to abstain from any decided opinion, 
nutil further light is obtained from other documents. 

The march of Remeses, on leaving Egypt for this campaign, waa 
through several countries, some ot which were at peace with him 
and he is represented in one port traversing a jungle abounding in 
lions, before he reached the coast where hia naval victory was gained. 
Aft«r this, bo attacked several fortified towns, some snrrounded by 
water and defended by double walls, which wi-re speedily captured 
by escalade. 

In one of his conflicts with the Bebo, the loss of the enemy ia 

loi'ded by several heaps of hands, each amounting to 3000, showing 

the number that had been el: 
captives, each containing 1000 
condocted into his presence wbt 
presented by him, with the spoil 
off, to the god of Thebes, 

In the hats of countrieB, over nhich he claimed dominion, wer« 

1 the field ; and by two lines of 
nen ; and these last, baviug been 
I he ri'turiied home to Egypt, were 
ind various trophies ho bad carried 

Chap. ym. 



Naharayn (Meaopoiamis), Bot-n-no, ftnd other Aaatie districts ; the 
names of manj people of Africa conquered br hini are ako men- 
tioned in his temple at Medeenet Haboo ; * and the wealth he amassed 
was preserved in the treasniy there, which is probaUj the rerr one 
alluded to by Herodbtns as belonging to Rhampsinitos. Here vases 
of gold and silvor, bags of gold-dnst, and objects made of varioiis 
metals, lapis-laznli, and other valuables were deposited; and the 
wealth he possessed is detailed on the scnlptored walk of its several 


The longest date found on the monuments is of his 2oth vear; 
and with him closes the glorious era of Egyptian htstory. Kght 
more kings followed, bearing the name of Bemeses, the four first of 
whom were his sons ; but none of these equalled the renown of the 
second and third of that name. The third son of Bemeses III. has 
been supposed to be the one in whose reign the risings of Sot hii; are 
given, which would show him to have lived in the year ISl'l* i^ c. ; ^ 
and if this date could be positively assigned to the reign of iht sixth 
Bcmeses, and another to that of Thothmes II L, they would give as 
fixed periods of great importance for chronology. But that date fc^ 
Bemeses VI. presents a difficulty. 

The eighth Bemeses § is remarkable for' having maintained the 
conquests of Egypt abroad. He made some additions to the Great 
Temple of Karnak, and has left us some historical papyri ; and ins 
marked features, conspicuous from the high bridge of his nose, have 
satisfactorily proved that the Egyptians represented real portraits 
in their sculptures. He was not a son of Bemeses III., but appeani 
to have derived his right to the throne from being a descendant of 
Amunoph I. The tombs of these kings show that they did not 
neglect the arts. But little is to be learnt from the monuments 
respecting the deeds of the successors of the eighth Bemeses, many 
of whom bore the same name ; and the reigns of the last of them 
were probably disturbed by dissensions at home, which led to a 
change of dynasty. 
27. [Tweniy-Jlrst and Twenty-second Dynasties.] — The sceptre appears 

* As the notion, long since dis- 
carded, that this name is Medeene- 
Thaboo, and related to Thebes, has 
been revived, it is only right to state 
that it is decidedly an error. 

t The papjros of Mr. Harris, so re* 
markable for its great size, mentions 

the offerings and boildings made hy 
Remeses IlL ; bat a small portion ot 
it has as yet been opened. 

X I had supposed this king to be the 
9th Bemeses. 

§ The 7th in my ICateria Hierc 


Arr. Boo I 11. 

to hare passed, towards the close of the 21st djTiaatir, into tlie haodfl 

of military pontiffs; and the names of those "high-priests" occnr 
at a small lateral temple bolonging to the great pile of Eamak ; 
J that their rule was not local, or conGned to the Delta, 
but extended to Upper Egypt. They were Ainuii'ge-Pehor* Piottkh^ 
a PUhiim (perhaps the Osochor, Fsinachos, and Psuaonnee 
of Manetho), who had the titles and office of king, and were militAiy 
chiefs also, being called " Commanders of the soldiers." They seem 
to have been, as Manetho leads ns to snppose, Tanitcs; the high* 
priest of Am nn, PiWiani, being called "chief of Tanis (?) in the 
Delta," or "at Uvlai (Isenm) in the Delta." Some probably ruled 
in right of their wives. Thej were succeeded by Uie Shesliunks, 
who wore evidently foreigners, and, as Mr. Birch has conjectured, 
Assyrians ; t whose claims to the throne may have been derived aa 
usual from intermarriage with the royal family of Egypt, and havo 
been put forward on the failnre of the direct line. Indeed, She- 
sliuiii: I. seems to have married a daughter of Pitkam ; and be had 
the same title of "High-priest of Amun." Manetho calls the first 
of the tvtQ Shcshouk dynafities Bnbostitca, the second, or 2Srd 
dynasty, Taoites; and the Tanite lino seems to have been restored 
in rithai of the 23rd dynasty, whose name so nearly rcsemVilea th» 
Pisham of the 21st. Bubnstis, too, appears to have been the royal 
city of the kings of the ^'2nd dynasty ; and their names occnr titers 
as on other raonnments, with the title "son of Pasht" (or "of 
Bnto "), the goddess of that city. 

It was at a period a little preceding the accession of Shralioak (th« 
Shisbak of Scripture), that "Hadad, being yet a little child," 
having escaped from the slaughter of his countrymen, when David 
conquered the Edomites (1 Kings si. 15, 1"; I Chron. xviii. 11, 13; 
2 Sam. viii. li), '' fled unto Pharaoh king of Egypt," who gave him 
the sister of Tahpencs J the queen in marriage. And as neither 
tho queen of Pehor, nor of Pisham, had tliis name, we have evidence 
that the Phui'aoh hero alluded to was another king of the 2l8t 
dynasty, or some one who ruled at that time in Lower Egypt, 

The first Pharaoh of the 22nd dynasty was Shetkonk I. (Shishak), 

* I had snpposad him to be Boo- 

t Tiglnth-pileser I. i» anid by some 
to clmim the oonqaest of E^pt Bboat 
USOB.C. [SirH.liairliUBononDaiders 
tha Mutr of TiglBtb-pUeaar'a inBcrip- 

tion to be a portia 

above, vol, i. p. 461.-0. R. 1875.] 

I The Bsme neine oa the Iowa noar 
FL'tnsiam, called Daphnm bj Herodo. 



the eoDtemporaiy of Solomon ; and it was in his reign that Jeroboam 
"fled into Egypt, nnto Shishak king of Egypt, and was there till 
the death of Solomon " (1 Kings si. 40). He was the same who in 
the fifth year of Rehoboam (B.C. 971) invaded Jndtea, with a large 
Egyptian army, in which were also "the Lnhims, the Snkkiims, 
and the Ethiopians," and a corpa of 1200 chariots; and having 
taken the walled cities of Jadah, entered Jerasalem, pillaged the 
temple, and " the king's hoose," and " carried away alao the shields 
of gold which Solomon had made " (1 Chron. sii. 3-9). And the 
record of this campaign, which still remains on the outside of the 
great t«mple of Kamak, beara an additional interest from the name 
of "Yuda Melchi" (kingdom of Jndab), first discovered by Cham- 
pollion in the long list of captured disti-icts and towns, put up by 
Sbeshook to commemorate his anccess. 

This was the first time that Jerusalem was attacked by the Egyp- 
tians, who appear to have been friendly towards the Isi'aelites, and 
to have had no motive for going out of their line of march by the 
eea-coOiSt, while advancing against more distant and more powerful 
enemies. The Isi-aelitea, too, during the age of the great Egyptian 
conquerors, were not as yet fully settled "in the land;" and, having 
to contend with the people of Palestine, had no reason to come in 
contact with the Egyptians ; they were, therefore, preserved from 
any interference of the Pharaohs ; and in Solomon's time, when 
their power had become more extended, they were on terms of 
etrict amity with the Egyptians, as well as with the Tyrians ; and 
Solomon even married the daughter of a Pliaraoh. 

It is unfortunate that the name of this Pharaoh is not given ; but 
it is evident that even if the priestly kings had not increased the 
power of Egypt, they had not allowed it to decline altogether ; for 
knowing how acceptable the town of Gezer, belonging to the Ca- 
nsanites, between Jaffa and Jerusalem, would be to his son-in-law, 
Pharaoh took it, and destroyed the Canaanites there, and gave it 
" for a present nnto his daughter, Solomon's wife " (1 Kings ix. 16). 

Whatever may have brought about the change of policy in Egypt 
towards the Jews ; whether the intrigues of Jeroboam, in order to 
insure his own safety by weakening the power of the king of Jadah, 
against whom he had rebelled, or any complaint made by Rehoboam 
against the Egyptians for having favoored his designs; Sheshonk 
satisfied with plundering the treasures " of the Hoase of the 
and of the king's boase : " and Jeroboam may have held these 

out as an inducement to tbe Egyptian king to nnderttvke tfa 
dition. " Jemsalem " itself does not appear to have been p 
o^iug to the submission of Rehoboam ; bat Judtea remained 
qnered posBeaaion in " the band of Sbishak " (2 Cbrou. xii. 5 
and was, as we baTe seen, catalogned in the list of tbe domit 

Thongb the conqncets of Sbeshont were mncb less extensi' 
those of tbe Barneses, be baa paraded them with far greater 
in the long list of places, amounting to more than thirty tii 
number of those previouBly recorded by the great Egyptis 
quei'ors. Bnt they bave not the same importance, from the n 
of large districts, as the older lists ; and none of those conqui 
which the older Pharaohs justly prided themselves, are her 
tioned. "We look in vain for Carchemisb, Nahamyn, or tb 
n-no ; but this campaign is most interesting, from ita giving 
first and nearest approach to synchronous bifltory ; and wo 
fis within a few years the reign of Shcshonfc, if we knew ho 
be lived after Solomon's death, or if tbe year of his reign, in 
be invaded Jndam, had been recorded. He is said by Mani 
bare nUed 21 years; and tbe date of his 21st year is fooud 

Tbe ateliB discovered by M, Mariette, in the Apia bnrif 
near Memphis, give some very oaofnl information respect! 
snccesaion of the kings of this dynasty ; and even to tbo conq 
Egypt by Cambyaes ; bnt tbe deeds of tbe sacoessors of 8he«l 
seem to offer little of interest ; and though their names o< 
Thebes, Bubastis, and other places, nothing is fonnd worthy 
respecting tbem. 

The order of these kings of the 22nd, or Bnbaetit^fl 
according to M. Mariette 's Apis st«Iie, is : — ■ 

Sbesbonk I. (Sbisbak). V 

Osorkon I., his son, whose lltb year is on the monnnt 
Her-sba-seh, his son, according to M. Mariette's list. 
Osorkon II., bis son-in-law, whoso 23rd year is on a 

Sbesbonk 11., his son. 

Tiklat, TIglflth, or Takeloth I. (TacelotbiH). whose 15( 

is on the monnmenta. He married Keromama,, 

danghter of Her-sha-seb. 
Osorkon III., his son, whose 28th year is on 

and another monnment. 

Chap. Vin. 



Sheshonk III., his son, whose 28th (and 29th ?) year is on 

the monnments. 
Tiklat, Tiglath, or Takeloth II., his son. 

30. {_Th€ Twenty-third Dynasty'] — said to be of Tanites, consisting of a b.c. 818. 
collateral branch of the Sheshonk family — seems, according to the 

Apis stelsB, to be : — 

Pishai (or Pikhai). (Psammis of Manetho ?) 
Sheshonk IV., his son, who reigned at least 37 years, bnt 
who dees not appear to have been succeeded by any of his 

Petnbastes, whom Manetho places the first king of the 23rd 
dynasty, may have followed Sheshonk IV. ; as his name has been 
fonnd by M. Prisse, reading Amunrmai-Pet-Basht (or Pet-BiUo), and 
another by Lepsius reading Pet-se-Pasht Bat Petnbastes was not 
of the Sheshonk family. The Assyrian character of the names in 
the families of these kings seems to confirm the opinion of Mr. 
Birch, that they were Assyrians : Nimrot, or Nimrod, occurs more 
than once ; and Prince Takeloth {Tiklat or Tiglath) is called chief of 
the Mashoash^ a people of Asia mentioned among the enemies of 
Egypt in the time of the Remeses.* 

No allusion is made on the monuments to Zerah the Cushite, or 
Ethiopian, who was defeated by the King of Judah (b.c. 941 ?) ; an 
event which should have happened about the reign of Osorkon II. 
(2 Chron. xiv. 9) ; and it is difficult to understand how an Ethiopian 
prince could have invaded Judada, while all Egypt was in the hands 
of the Sheshonks ; unless, as some commentators suppose, Zerah 
was a king of Asiatic Ethiopia. 

31. [Twenty-fourth Dynasty.] — Bocchoris the Wise, who was more b.c 734. 
famed as a legislator than a warrior, is said by Manetho to have 

been the sole king of the 24th dynasty. He was the first who 
transferred the ruling house to Sais, afterwards restored, and con- 
tinued by the 28th dynasty until the Persian conquest. He was 
the son of Tnephachthus ; f whose curse against Menes % ^ coi^* 
sistent with the fact of his seeing the decline of Egyptian power, 
and with the common habit of attributing to some irrelevant cause 

* Tiglath or Diglath is the old name 
of the Tigris according to Joscphas ; 
the Diglit of Pliny, the Hidekel, or 
Digla, of Gen. ii. 14, Dan. z. 4, Eddekel 
of the LXX. [Bnt the " Tiglath " of 
the AssTTian royal names ''Tiglath- 

pileser " and " Tiglathi-Nin" is whoUv 
unconnected with this root. — G. It, 

t The name of Neith may perhaps 
be traced in this. 

X Above, § I. 



Apf. Booe IL 

(such &8 tlie accidental innorations of &a early king) tlie gradual 
fell of a nation; and ia only worth noticing, as iUnatrating the 
declining condition of Egypt during the age of Tnephachthas and 
hia son. 

It was abont thiB time that the foundation of Rome ia said to 
have taken place ; and great changca were beginning in Asia. The 
powerful tdngdota of Assyria was already preparing to sapplaut tlie 
rule of the Egyptians in Syria ; and a series of defeats and sue* 
cesses followed, until, in the time of Ncco, they seem to be reduced 
to the defence of their own frontier. After a reign of sis (or, 
according to some, of 44) years, Bocchoris Is said by Diodoras to 
have been deposed, by Manetho to have been burnt to death, liy 
Sabaco the Ethiopian ; though Herodotns states that the Ethiopian 
king came in the reign of Anysie (ii. 13?), and put to death Neco 
tlie father of PnamnietichuB. 

Biit besides this inconsistency, the tale of hia cmelty ia quite at 
variance with what Herodotns and Dlodorus (i. 60) both say of hia 
character, and of Sabaco'a retirement from the throne lest he 
ahonld commit an act of injustice (Her. ii. 13f), as well as with the 
respect paid by the kings of this Ethiopian dynasty to the customs 
of the Egyptian. The same character for humanity is aseribod to 
another Ethiopian, called by Diodorus Actisancs, whose name, how- 
ever, is not mentioned either by Slanetho, or the monuments ; and 
another of tbem, Tirhaka, who succeeded the Sabacos, and raised 
the military power of the country almost to its ancient level, 
showed, by the nnmerous monuments he raised, his respect for tha 
religion and the internal welfare of Egypt. 

[Tvienhf-Jiflli P;/7ins(j/.]— Three or four kingtt, who came from Na- 
pata in Ethiopia, formed the 2.5th dynasty. The first was Sabaco I., 
but it is uncertain which of the Sabacos, or Shfhr.kfi, of the monu- 
ments corresponded to the So, or Sava, of the Bible* (the Xiri^p at 
the Septuagint), who made a treaty with Hoshea, King of Israel :t 
an event which, involving the refusal of his tribute to the King of 
Assyria, led to the taking of Samaria and the captivity of the ten 

Of the brilliant reign of Tchrak their sacceasor, the Tirhalta of the 

" The namaof (iDEof thoaeShobeks I to correspond I 
has bfun found by Mr. Lavord at Manetbo. 
Koynnjik (uota ' on ch. 137, Book ii. i 2 Kings «ni 

of Ut^rodotna). The siwcmd appears j 

Chap. vm. 



Scriptures, snfficient evidence is afforded by the monuments of 
Thebes and other places, as well as of his Ethiopian capital, where 
he enlarged and beautified the great temple beneath the ** sacred 
mountain," now called Gcbel Berkel ; and the court he added to 
the temple of Medeenet Haboo in Thebes bears the memorials of 
victories which he claimed over the Assyrians. For it was during 
his reign that Sennacherib threatened to invade Lower Egypt, when 
Tirhaka advancing into Syria challenged the Assyrians ; and if the 
Egyptians concealed this fact from Herodotus, it was doubtless from 
their unwillingness to acknowledge the long rule of the Ethiopians ^ 
and the priest-king Sethos he n^entions may only have been the 
governor of Memphis and the Delta under Tirhaka. Indeed, if 
Sabaco was a contemporary of Neco, the father of Psammetichus, 
these Ethiopians may have ruled while Stephinathis, Necepsus, and 
Neco, placed by Manetho before Psammetichus I. in the 26th Saite 
dynasty, were governors of part of Lower Egypt, and among the 
12 nomarchs, or chiefs of provinces, called 12 kings by Herodotus. 
Ensebius, however, quoting Manetho, places an Ethiopian called 
Ammeres * before Stephinathis and his two successors. 

It may be generally observed that whenever the Egyptians spoke 
of a blank, or of the rule of ignoble kings, we are at liberty to 
conclude that a foreign dynasty was established in the country; 
and if any Egyptian prince exercised authority during the reign 
of Tirhaka, it must have been in a very secluded part of the 
marshlands of the Delta, as the monuments show his rule to have 
extended over all the principal places in Egypt. Moreover, the 
Apis stelce prove that Psammetichus I. was the solo and in- 
dependent ruler of Egypt immediately after Tirhaka, without any 
intermediate kiDg;t and an Apis, bom in the 26th year of 
Tirhaka, died in the 21st year of Psammetichus ; the reign of 

♦ Perhaps connected with Pi6nkhi 
and Qneen Amunatis. See following 
page. [Ammeres, who succeeds Tir- 
haka in Manetho, is probably his 
nephew or Rad-amon. See 
above, vol. i. p. 492, note*.— G. R. 

t This does not positively prove 
that no kings intervened between 
Tirhaka and Psammetichus I., as the 
latter may have included their short 
reigns in his own; and Sir Henry 
Bawlinson has discovered the namea 

of the twenty native nders who were 
appointed by the Assyrian king, Esar- 
haddon, to govern Egypt at this time. 
Vido*'Athena)um," Aug. 18, 1860, p. 
228. [A more complete examination 
of the inscription in question has 
shown that Egypt was subject to 
Assyria from about B.C. 670, when 
Esar-haddon conquered it, to B.C. 664, 
when Psanmietichus revolted, and by 
the help of Gygos of Lydia madehim- 
self independent. See above, vol. i, 
App. Essay vii. § 48,— G. K 1876.] 




App. Book : 

Tirlmka having continncd onlj ten monthfi and four daja after thi 
^^^ birth of that bull. 

I "^ Tbe discovery of tlieae monumenta by M. Mariette i 

I r moiit important for chronology. Like the stela of FlorenM 
I ^ tlioy limit our dates ; and they ahow that the hieroglyplu 
I A name of Psaouneticbus,* hitherto considered of the firs^ 
^"^ was really of the second of that n 

j^Timity-siitlh Jh/nasli/.'\ — The Florence Btela reckons only 71 j 
4 months 8 days from the 35tb year of Anoasis to the 3rd of Neco; 
if, therefore, the death of Amaeis is fixed in 5*25 B.Q., and if hisreigi 
only lasted 4i years, he must have ascended the throne 560 B.C. 
but this, at the longest calculation, will only bring the acccEsion a 
PsammetichuB I. to 664 B.C., allowing him a reign of -54 years, ■ 
given by Herodotus and Manetho, and confirmed by one of the Ap 
stelte. Another of the stelee, in the 26th year of Tirhaka, vihiti 
reckons 21 years to the 21st of Psammetichns I., shows that Ul 
beginning of Tirhaka's reign preceded the accession of PsammetichB 
by eiactly 26 years, and therefore fell into the year 690 B.C. ; lu 
the 50 years given by Herodotna to Sahaco should probably be tJ 
whole duration of the rule of the Ethiopian, or 25th dynasty. 

An importniit fact ia also toarut from the monumenta at Theb« 

respecting Psammetichas I., that he married T'lpeaitiapeii (?), tJ 

daughter of an Ethiopian king called PiAiJihi, or Feeoiik 

p» y- ruled at Napata ^— — _ _ _ _ 

|V (Gebel Berkel); ^ 

^^^J and this marriage 
resulted in the re- 
etorafjon of the Egyptian 
line of Sa'ite kings in the 
person of Psammetichns. 
This satisfactorily explains the retirement of the Ethiopian pnnceu 
from the throne of Egypt. I 

One of the firat measures of Psammetichns was to secure the ' 
frontiers of Egypt from foreign aggression ; and his foresight was 
evinced by hie acceptance of the services of the Greeks. But this 
excited the jealonsy of the native troops [ and the marked prefor 
he showed the Greeks on all occaaions inflamed their disconte 

■ Ferbajis mure properly FBamatilc (Fnatli) or pBamaliclioB. 



which n-aa further increased by the length of the siege of Azotna ; 
that strong place, defended by an Assyrian garrison, having only 
yielded to the arms of Paammetichua after it long eiege ; • stated to 
have lasted to the improbable period of 29 years. Already in nn 
excited state of mind, they received the additional affront of being 
placed in the left wing, while the Greeks occnpied the post of honour 
in the right ; t they therefore broke out into open revolt, and 
quitting the camp, united with the rest of the army in Kgypt ; 
which had become dissatisfied at a long detention, beyond the usual 
period of Bervice, in the border fortresaea of Marea, and Daphnre of 
Pelnanm ; and marching np to Elephantine on the southern frontier, 
they were joined by that garrison also, and then withdrew into 
Ethiopia.^ At first the king sent to recall them to their duty ; 
bnt in vain ; he therefore followed them himself as far as Elephan- 
tine, and despatched some of the Greeks to Lower Ethiopia, with 
his most faithfnl Egyptian adherents, to persuade them to return. 
Biiving overtaken them, they solemnly conjured them not to leave 
their country, their wivea, and their families ; but deaf to these en. 
treaties, they continued their march into the Upper country ; where 
they received the welcome they expected from the friendship snh- 
sistiog between the Ethiopians and Egypt, which bad iieen so recently 
ruled by their princes. Ont of regard, however, for the family 
ftlliance of the Ethiopian king with Psammetichufl, they were re- 
moved far from the Egyptian frontier, and Bottled beyond Heroic in 
certain lands allotted to them by the Ethiopian king; where their 
descendants long continued to live ; retaining their distinguishing 
characteristics of "strangers;" as the Turks left in Ethiopia, by 
Soltan Selira, in later times have done, from 1517 A.n. to the present 
century. It waa on this occasion that the iuscriptiou is supposed to 
have been written at Aboosimbel, mentioning the Journey of Psam. 
metichus to Elephantine. § 

This defection of the troops, though it did not precede the capture 
of Aaotas, prevented Paammctichus from continuing his conqnesta 
in Syria, and recovering the influence there which the Asayriana 
had wreat«d from the Pharaohs; and obliged him, aa Herodotua 

* Jostitjing its name, AsbilAili or 
Bhe<U«d, "the Btrong." (See note' 
cb. 167, Book ii.) 

t This appears to have been their 
thief gnewjoHX. 

J Their reputud munber of 240,000 

men IB eridcutl; an emgi^ratioii. 

§ Mentioned in note • on ch. 30, 
Book ii. HerodoCns taye Paammeti' 
cima hinmetf overtook tbpm, wkioh U 
not ptobubte. 

382 REVIVAL OF ART — NECO. App. Booi IL 

states (i. 104, 105), to purchase a peace from the Scythians, who 
hafing oTermn all Asia, and penetrated into Sjria, threatened to 
invade Egypt. 

The serviocs of the Ionian and Carlan soldiers were rewardod hj 
him with the gift of certain lands, called afterwards " the Camps," 
on the two opposite banks of the Pelusiac branch of tho Nile, below 
Bnbastis ; where they remained, till Amosis, wishing to employ 
them, removed them to Memphis. Psammetichos also entmsted to 
their care several Egyptian children, to he taught Greek, from whom 
the interpreters, in the days of Herodotns, were descended ; and this 
was the first time that the Egyptians relaxed tbeir laws against 
foreigners, and bccamo more faronrahly disposed towards them. 
The Greeks too then began to be better acquainted with tbe history, 
philosophy, and customs of tbe Egyptians ; though it is surprising 
that they have given ns Httte useful or reliable information respect- 
ing a country they considered ao ioteresting. With all their love of 
inquiry, and their enterprising qualities, they were not behind tho 
secluded Egyptians in prejudice against foreigners, whom they 
looked a pon as "barbarians;" and tbongb Herodotns shows they 
had now the opportunity of learning everything abont Egypt, they 
have not even given us the Tiiimes of all the kings of the 26th 
dynasty ; nor any eatistsctory account of the customs of the people. 

PsammetiehuH next tnmed his attention to the internal Gtat« of 
Egypt, and to the embellishmont of the temples. The arts were 
highly encouraged, and a fresh impnlGe being given to them dnring 
this and the subsequent reigns, a great improvement took place in 
the exei'ution and high finish of the sculptures; and this period may 
bo called the " renaissance " of Egyptian art.* To tho temples 
Psammetichns made great additions, in Thebes and other cities ; at 
Memphis ho added the southern court, or PropyltBom, of the t«mp1e 
of Priinh, and opposite it a magnificent edifice for Apis, where ho 
waa kept when pnblicly eihihitod ; the roof of which was supported 
by cologaal OsJride figures, 12 cubits high ; and it was at this period 
that tho Apis sepulchres near Memphis began to assume more im- 
portance and extent. 

PBammetichua I. was succeeded by his son Ncco (or Necho), 
whose first care wns to improve the commercial prosperity of Egypt, 
With this view he began to re-open tbe canal from the Nile to tho 
Red Sea, till being warned by an oracle that he was working for 
the Barbarian, he abandoned his project~-a reason mora prob&blo 

• Sea above, J 26. 


than the one assi^cd by Diodoma (i. 33) for Darins not completing 
h— " that the Bed Sea was higher than the land of Egj-pt ; " for the 
previouB completion of the c&nal tinder the second RemeBcs, and the 
eipcrienco of the Egyptians in sncli operations,* would have shown 
this to be an error ; like that in modern times of supposing the Red 
Sea higher than the Mediterranean. Nor, oven had it been so, 
would this have been an impediment ; as the nse of sluices, so well 
known in Egypt, would have removed it; and indeed they were 
actually adopted there to prevent the sea-wator from tainting the 
canal, as well as to obviate the effect of the inundation, and of the 
high tide of from five to six feet in the Red Sea. 

Neco ncit fitted out some ships, in order to discover if Africa was 
circnmnavi gable ; t for which purpose he engaged the services of 
certain Phosnician mariners; and he has the honour of having been 
the first to ascertain (ho peninsular form of that con tineut, about 
twenty-one centuries before Bartolomeo Diaz and Vuaco de Gama. 
After this, taking advantage of the unsettled condition of Western 
Asia, he endeavoured to re-establish the inSueuce of Egypt in that 
qnarter. and to eitend its conquests both by sea and knd. Ue 
therefore marched a formidable army into Syria, for the purpose of 
capturing Carchemiah on the Euphrates; when Joaiah, king of 
Jndab, wishing probably to ingratiate himself with the Babylonians, 
and disregarding the friendly remonstrances of Neco, vefitnred to 
oppose him in the valley of Mogiddo (2 Chron. xiiv. '2'2). The 
otter hopelessness of the attempt is described by the eiprcasion (in 

2 Kings iiiii. 29), " Pharaoh- Ncchoh slew him at Mogiddo, 

when he had seen him ; " and Neco continued his march to the 
Euphrates. This is probably the same event described by Hero- 
dotns, who says Neco met and routed the Syrians at Magdolns 
(Megiddo), and afterwards took Cadytia, a largo city of Syria. 
Returning victorioas from Carchemish, ho deposed Jehoahaz the 
Bon of Josiah, who had been made king, and having "put the land 
to a tribute ot an hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold," he 
made his brother Eliakim (whose name he changed to Jehoiakim) 
long in his stead, carrying away Jehoahaz captive to Egypt. But 
the power of the Babylonians had now become firmly established; 
and Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, throe years afterwards, " in 
the fourth year of Jehoiakim " (Jer. xlvi. 2), took from Neco " alt 
that pertained" to him, "from the river (torrent) of Egypt nnto 



the river Enphmtea " (2 Kings niT. 7) ; " and the king of Egypt 
came not again any more out of hia land." • 

Neco reigned 16 years, according to Herodotus — a number proved 
to be more correct than the six years of Manetho, by one of the Apia 
eteliB mentioning hia IGth year; and he was succeeded by his si 
Psammotichus II., the PsammiB of Herodotus, who made several 
additions to the tcmplea of Kju-uak at Thebee, and to those of Lower 
Egypt. The only reraartaWe oventa of bis reign were an cipedition 
into Ethiopia, at wluchtimc he erected, or added to, thesmail t«mple, 
on the east bank opposite Phils ; and the arrival of ati embassy from 
the Eleans, mentioned by Herodotus (ii. ItJO). Manelbo and Her 
dotus agree in giving him a reign of sii years. After him his son 
and successor Apriea reigned according to the latter 25, according 
to &[anctho 19 years ; whose bieroglyphical name is foond at Thebes, 
about PbiliP, at Memphis, and in various placea in Lower Egypt, as 
well as on an obelisk afterwards removed to Rome ; and one of the 
Apis Btolaj mentions a sacred bull, bom in the Ititli year of Neco, 
which wafl consecrated at Memphis at the end of the first year of 
PBammeticbns n.,t and died in the 12tb of Apriea, having lived 
nearly 18 years. He was the Pharaoh- Ho phra of the Bible, and ft 
contemporary of Zedekiah, king of Jadah, who had been made king 
by Nebuchadnezzar ; and who, hoping to throw off the yoke ol 
Babylon, made a treaty with Egypt, 

The successes of Apries promised well ; and ho was comudercd 3 
the moat fortunate monarch, who had ruled Egypt, since his great- 
grandfather Psammetichus I. (Herod, ii. llSl). He also sent an e 
podition against Cyprus ; and besieged and took Oaxa, and the city 
of Sidon ; defeated the king of Tyre by sea, and obliged " the Chal- 
dfeaoB that besieged Jerusalem " to retire ( Jer. xxxvii. 5), So elated 
was he by these successes, that he thought " not even a God contd 
overthrow him ; " which accords with the account of his arrogance 
in Bzekiol (ixix. 3), where he is called " the great dragon that lieth 
in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river ia mine o 
and I have made it for myself." But roversea followed, and the 
prophecy of Jeremiah — " I will give Pharaoh- Ho phra, king of 
Egypt, into the hands of Lis enemies, and into the hands of them 
that seek his life " — was fulfilled. According to Herodotns he had 
Bont an expedition against Cyrene, and hia troops being defeated. 

), Book ii 

1 the jear followiDg its birth. 


tliej attribnied their disgrace to the king, and revolted against him ; 
when Amasis, being sent by Apries to appease them, was induced 
to join the revolters. Upon this Apries advanced to attack them, 
with his 30,000 Ionian and Carian anxiliaries (whom he had ab- 
stained, out of prudent motives, from sending against the Greeks of 
Gyrene), and with the few Egyptians who remained &ithf ul to him ; 
and the two armies having met at Momemphis, Apries was defeated 
and carried a prisoner to Saas. Though treated kindly by his capijpr, 
the urgent remonstrances of the Egyptians shortly afterwards obliged 
Amasis to put him to death ; and he was buried in the royal sepul- 
chres of Sf^. 

Engaged in the war against Gyrene, Apries had not been at leisure 
to protect Jerusalem, from which his army had been immediately 
withdrawn ; and the Babylonians returned, besieged it in the 9th 
year and 10th month of Zedekiah (Jer. xxix. 1, and 2 Kings xzv. 2), 
and took it in his 11th year ; and having burnt it, carried away the 
remnant of the people into captivity, with the exception of those 
who were left under GedaHah, the governor of JudsBa appointed by 
Nebuchadnezzar, and who, on the murder of Qedaliah, fled into 
Egypt (Jer. xxv. 23-26). 

The threat of their being overtaken in Egypt, and of the throne 
of Nebuchadnezzar being set on the stones at Tahpanhes,* with 
that of the burning and carrying away of the gods of Egypt, and 
the breaking of the images in Beth-Shemesh (Heliopolis), appear to 
point to an actual invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar during the 
reign of Apries (Jer. xliii. 10, xliv. 1, 30) ; and the wording of the 
sentence shows that his "enemy," and they who "seek his life," 
apply rather to the king of Babylon than to Amasis. Berosus and 
Megasthenes also mention Nebuchadnezzar having invaded Egypt ; 
and to this the prophecy of Isaiah (xix. 2) may refer — " I will set 
the Egyptians against the Egyptians, and they shall fight every one 

against his brother ; city against city, and kingdom against 

kingdom The Egyptians will I give into the hand of a 

cruel lord, and a fierce king shall rule over them." For though it 
seems to relate to an earlier period, when Assyria was powerful (the 
prophecy being given soon after the time of Tirhaka), and mentions 
the Egyptians being captives of Assyria^ it is more likely to allude 
to the state of Egypt under Apries, and to the conquest of the 

* Daphnse of Pelnsiom. 

TOL. n. 2 c 

386 AMAHIS. Apr. Boos U. 

The tale then of AmaBis' rebellion BeemB onlj to have been used 
to conceal the trath that Apries was deposed by the Babylonians ; 
and tbis accords better with tbe fact of Ammin bein^ a person of 
rank, whicb is shown by the monnmente, and by Diodoms, and by 
bis marrying the danghter of Psammeticbns III. ; and lie probably 
came to the throne by the intervention of NebncbadneEUtr. The 
cnBtom of Eastern nations, and the instances in the Bible at this 
period, of kings set op by an invader in the place of their predeces- 
sors, on condition of paying tribute, are too nnmeroiiB not to render 
this highly probable ; and thus will be explained the otherwise per- 
plexing prophecy of the 40 years' hnmiliation of Egypt (Jer. xlri. 
13, 26 ; Ezek. zxiz. 10, 11). The greet desoUtion of Egypt, and iU 
being utterly waste and uninhabited 40 years, can only be a fignrative 
ezpreeaion, intended to portray the degradation of Egypt, and its 
fall from the high poaition it held before the invasion by Nebnchad- 
neisar; since the Bible itself tells ns that Hophra obliged the 
Babylonians to raise the siege of Jemsalem; and the reign of Amasis 
is shown by tho monnments, and by Herodotos, to have been one of 
the moat flonrishing periods of Egyptian history,* 

Of Paammeticbns III. some monnments remain at Thebes ; f bat 
his reign was not noted for any event of importance, and it is not 
quite certain whether he followed, or preceded, Apries. His qneen's 


booty, too, carried ofF by the Persians confirmB the atatemeut of the 
liLdorian ; and the reign oF Amasis was remarkable for tlie beunty, 
as well afi the number, of the monnments he erected throughout the 
e-onntrj, from the Cataracta to the Delta. Sais in particular was 
adorned with grand monuments; and the magnificent Propylieura, 
or court, of the temple of Minerva far excelled any other in eize and 
beauty, as well as in tbo dimenHions of its etonea. Before it Amasis 
placed eeveral large colossi, with a droirtos of gigantic androsphinxea, 
leading to the main entrance ; and here was the immense monolithic 
edifice described by Herodotus (ii. 175), which was brought from 
the Cataracts, a distance of 700 miles ; and which only fell short of 
that of Bnto in its dimensions (Herod, ii. lo5). At Memphis, also, 
the beautiful temple of lais which he built, and the which he 
placed before the temple of Pthah, and other monuments, were 
highly admired ; and a great monolttli bearing his name still remains 
at Tel-E'tmai, in the Delta, similar to, though smaller than, the one 
of Sais." 

Amasis did not neglect the military resources of Egypt, nor allow 
roccnt erenis to impair its power ; for he took Cyprus, and made it 
tributary to him (Herod, ii. 182 ; Diod. i. t*8) ; and the attention 
he bestowed on commerce increased the wealth of Egypt. The 
Greeks were particularly favoured by him, and their traders were 
permitted to settle at H'ancratis, on the Canopic branch of the Nile; 
where in Herodotus' time thoy still had a fine temple (ii. 182). 
The Egyptians, with their natural caution, forbad foreign vessels to 
enter any other than the Canopic mouth ; and affected at the same 
time to grant thereby a privilege to Naucratis as the Greek empo- 
rium ; but while their policy, in this respect, was not unlike that of 
the modem Chinese towards Europeans, they really adopted a wise 
procantion against Greek pirates, by whom tbo Mediterranean has 
been bo often infested, even to modem times, 

Amasis also entered into a treaty with Crcesust against Cyrus ; 
and Xeuoplion asserts that he sent him a body of 120,000 men ; 
which, formed into phalanxes of 10,000 men, each armed with huge 
shields, that covered them from head to foot, with long spoors, and 
with Bworda called koitU.i (the Egyptian siutpnh), resisted all the 
attacks of the Persians in their conflict with the Lydian king, and 
obtained for themselves honourable terms from Cyrus ; who gave 
them an abode in the cities of Lorissa and Cyllene, near Cunue and 

now » 00 ch. 176, Bogk ii. t See note » ou oh. 177, Book ii. 


tlie sea, wliere their descendants remained in tUe time of Xonophon.* 
Tbe Egyptian phalanz was donbtlcsa the origin of those afternrarda 
adopted in other armies, and of that which became so noted in th* 
days of Alexander. It was of very early date in Egypt ; and the 
large shields and the peculiar falchions {called stiopsh) are the same 
that are represented as belonging to the Egyptian heavy infantry u 
early aa the 6th dynasty. 

The treaty made with the enemy of Persia was certainly moi* 
connected with the anbscquent invasion of Egypt than the tals 
about Nitetis and Cambyses ; and if aid was actually given, u 
Xenophon relates, and a large force lost, the blow thereby dealt to 
llie power of Egypt would have been an additional inducement to 
the Persians to invade it. 

It was during the reign of Amaais tliat Solon is said to havB 
visited Egypt, as well as Thales and Pytliagoraa ; and liis friendship 
with Polycrates of Samos, and his subsequent abandonment of hii 
friend, are detailed by Herodotus (iii. 41, 43) ; though Diodoma 
afBrma that it was the injustice of Polycrates to his subjects which 
induced Amasis ti) desert him. 

His policy in cnltivating the friendship of the Greeks, thongll' 
events prevented his profiting much by it, was afterwards of use to. 
the Egyptians in their eSorta to throw off the yoke of Persia ; and 
the preparations now set on foot by the Persians to invade Egypt 
made bim more anxious to secure it. For, in fact, the son of Cynu 
only carried out the designs of bis father, when he made war upon 
Amaais. But before Cambysea reached Egypt, Amasis had died, 
and been succeeded by hia son Psammenitns, the Psammicheritos of 
Manetho, whose short reign of six months was cut short by the 
Persian conqneet, B.C. 525. 

The Egyptian king, with tbe Greek anxiliariea, had advanced to 
meet the invadev at Pelusinra ; but after a severe stmgg'le the Per- 
sians prevailed, and the Egyptian army fled to Memphis. Then 
shutting themselves up in the fortress cnlled "the White Wall, 
they awaited tho Persians ; but being niiahle to resist the conqneroiv 
the pla*!0 was taken by assanlt, and Psammenitus was made pri- 
soner. CambyscH, however, in accordance with Eastern cn3tom,t 
and the policy of the Persians, " who honoured the sons of king«. 

have doubted the troth of 1 

of Xonophon. which ia'at 

with that of Herodotne, i. 77- | 

+ As aoioEg the Turks i 




reinstated him on the throne as his viceroy, and even treated the 
Egyptians with great indulgence, confirming those in office in the 
same employments they had hitherto held; as is shown by the 
inscription on a statuette at Rome of a distingaished personage of 
the priestly order, which says that in going to Sais Cambyses pre- 
sented offerings to Neith, and performed the libations and cere- 
monies like those kings who had preceded him, turning out all 
those who had built houses in the temple of Neith, and purifying it 
for the performance of the customary rites. He also went into the 
holy places, and, apparently, to the tomb of Osiris, and seems to 
have been initiated like a Pharaoh ; receiving also that title with 
the Egyptian prenomen Bemesot " (" bom of the sun "), added to 
his nomen " Camhath ; " according to the custom of giving two 
ovals, or royal names, to each king. This accords with what Hero- 
dotus says of the Egyptians treating him as one with whom they 
pretended to claim relationship (iii. 2) ; and Herodotus even admits 
that Psammenitus was pardoned, and would have been allowed to 
govern Egypt as viceroy, if he had not acted deceitfully towards 
the Persians ; — a favour, he observes, afterwards granted by them 
to Thannyras the son of Inarus, and to Pausiris the son of Amyr- 
taeus (iii. 15). It was only after Cambyses had failed in Ethiopia, 
that he became incensed against the Egyptians, as has been shown 
by M. Letronne and M. Ampere. It was then that the calamity 
happened to Egypt, which is mentioned on the statuette (of " Ovi-O' 
Hor-soun ; ") and from its saying that Darius afterwards ordered 
him to return to Egypt while he was in Syria, it is conjectured that 
he was one of the medical men taken away by Cambyses, and that 
the office of " doctor " is mentioned among his numerous titles. 

[Twenty-seoenth Dynasty {Fersians).'] — Egypt now became a con- b.c. 525. 
quered province of Persia, governed by a satrap ; and Cambyses and 
his seven successors composed the 27th dynasty. The conduct of 
Darius towards the Egyptians was mild and conciliatory ; and the 
respect they paid him is shown by the monuments, and by the testi- 
mony of Diodorus. Many Apis stelsa bearing his name have been 
found in the sepulchres of the sacred bulls; and the principal part 
of the large temple in the Great Oasis was built by him, and bears 
his ovals, with the same honorary titles which (as Diodorus tells us) 
were granted to the ancient sovereigns of the country. Still the 
Egyptians, impatient of foreign rule, revolted from the Penians in 
the year before the, death of Darius, and succeeded in expelling 

390 28th and 29TH DYNASTIES Are. Boos IL 

them from the country ; bat in the second year of Xerxes they wero 
again reduced to sabjection, and Acbtemenes his brother was made 
governor of the country. 

In the fifth year of ArtaieneB (B.C. 458?) the Egyptians again 
revolted; and assisted by the Athenians they defied the force of 
400,000 men and the fleet of 200 sail Bent against them by Arta- 
Jterjefl. Headed by Inama the Libyan the son of Psammetichns, and 
AmyrtajnB of Saw, they routed the Persians with a toss of 100,000 
men ; and Acha-menes received his death wound from tho hand of 
Inarua. But Artaierrea resolving to subdue Egypt sent a still 
larger force, about four years after this, adding 200,000 men nnd 
300 ships to the remnant of the former army, under the command 
of Megnbyzua and Artaba/us; when after an obstinate conflict, 
Inarus being wounded by Mcgabyzus, the Egyptians were routed 
(b.o. i52 ?). InaruB, with a body of Greeks, having fled to Byblns, 
which was strongly fortified, obtained for himself and his com- 
panions a promise of pardon, but was afterwards treachoronsly 
crucified by order of Artaxenes, to satisfy Amytis and revenge the 
death of her son Acbtemenes. Amyrtteua, more fortunate than his 
coadjutor, escaped to the Isle of Elbo ; and in tho fifteenth year of 
Artaserxes (d.c. 44<9-8) the Athenians having sent a fleet to the 
assistance of the Egyptians, hopes were once more entertained of 
restoring him (o tlie throne. The project, however, was abandoned, 
and Egypt remained tranquil, It was probably abont this time 
that PsQsiris was made viceroy of Egypt by the Peraians — his 
father being still concealed in the marshes— and the post being a 
nominal one, surrounded as he would be by the Persians, it was a 
favour that entailed no risk on their authority. But it failed to 
reconcile the conquered to the presence of their conquerors. 

[Tu'eiitij-eiglifk and Twenly-tdnth Ihjnitstie».']—A.i length the hatred 
of Persian m!e once more led the Egyptians to revolt ; and in the 
10th year of Darius NothuB {B.C. 411 ?) they succeeded in completely- 
freeing their country from the Persians; when Amyrtiens became 
independent master of Egypt. His reign constituted the 28th 
dynasty. Amyrtfeua ruled six years, and having made a treaty with 
the Arabians, he rendered his frontier secure from aggression in 
that qnarter ; so that the sceptre passed without interiniplion into 
the hands of his successors,* the four Mendesian kings of the 29th 

Chap. TIIL 




dynasty. The first of these was Nepherites (Nefaorot of the hiero- b.c. 40i 
glyphics), who mled six years, according to Manetho.* In his reign 
Egypt enjoyed its liberty; and Nepherites was able even to send 
assistance to the LacedBemonians against the common enemy, thongh 
his fleet of 100 ships laden with com for their army haying pnt into 
Rhodes was captured by the Persians, who had lately obtained pos- 
session of that island. 

Acoris, his snocessor, reigned 13 years (b.c. 399-386). Having 
made a treaty with Evagoras king of Cyprus, and secnred the 
friendship of the Lacedaemonians, and of Ghkns, the son of Tamns, 
an Eigyptian who commanded the Persian fleet, he remained undis- 
turbed by the Persians ; and during this time he added considerably 
to the temples of Thebes and other places, and especially to the 
sculptures of one at Eileithyias left unfinished by the second 
Remeses.f Of Psammuthis and Muthis, who reigned each one 
year, and of Nepherites II., who reigned four months, little is 
known either from historians, or from the monuments; and the 
only one of them mentioned in the sculptures is the first, whose 
name Pse-maut ("the son of Maut") is found at Thebes. The 
dates, too, at this time are very uncertain ; and the accession of the 
next, or 30th dynasty, of three Sebennytic kings, is variously placed 
in 387 and 381 B.C. 

[Thirtieth Dynasty,'] — This dynasty continued 38, or according to 
Eusebius 20, years. The first king was Nectanebo (Nakht-neh-f), 
During his reign the Persians sent a large force under Phamabazus 
and Iphicrates to recover Egypt ; but owing to the dissension of 
the two generals, and the care taken by Nectanebo to secure the 
defences of the country, the Persians were unable to re-establish 
their authority, and entangled amidst the channels of the rising 
Nile they were forced to retreat. Nectanebo had, therefore, leisure 
to adorn the temples of Egypt, in many of which his name may still 
be seen ; and he was probably the last of the Pharaohs who erected 
an obelisk. Pliny, who calls him Nectabis, says it was without 

After 13 years (or 10 according to Eusebius) B.C. 369, Nectanebo 
was succeeded by Teos or Tachos, who, profiting by the disturbed 

death (b.c. 406), and 18 at his first 

* Diodoms mentions a Psammeti- 
chuB, who preceded Nepherites, or 


t I formerly supposed this temple 
to have been of an older king 


sliate of the dominions of Persia, and wishing atill further to weakea 
her power, entered into a, treatj^ with the Lacedt^mouians, and 
determined to attack her in Asia. The lacednmonians baring 
furnished a strong force, communded by Agesilans in pe-rson, and 
assisted by a fleet under Chabrias tho Athenian, Tachos .advanced 
into Syria, taking upon himself the sapreme direction of the expe> 
dition. But in the course of the campaign his nephew Nectanebo, 
nhom he had detached from the army with a large body of Egyptian 
troopB, made a party agaiiiBt him, and being assisted by his father, 
called also Nectauobo, who had been appointed governor of Egypt 
by Tachos during bis absence, openly revolted. Agesilans, already 
affronted at the treatment he had received from Tachos, gladly sap- 
ported the pretender ; and Chabrias, who had i-cfused to join him, 
having been recalled by the Athenians, Tachos was unable tc main- 
tain his autliority, and having fled to Sidon, and thence into Peraia, 
his nephew Nectanobo II, was declared king (b,c. 361). There was, 
however, a rival competitor in a Meudesian chief, who patting 
himself at the bead of the people, and favoorcd by the iucapacity of 
Nectonebo, would have succeeded in wresting the sceptre from his 
grasp, had he not been oppoBed by the talents of Agoailaos, who 
crushed him at once, and secnrcd Nectanebo on the throno. 

Though preparations were set on foot by Artaxorxes to reoover' 
Egypt, no expedition was sent thither by him, and dying in 363 B.C., 
he was succeeded by Ochus, or Artaxerxes 1X1., in whose reign soma 
attempts were made to reconqaerthe country, bnt without saccess; 
the consequence of which faiJarc was a confederacy between Nec- 
tanebo and the Phoenicians, who vrere thus encouraged to throw off 
the yoke of Persia. To aid them in their revolt, and expel the Per- 
Bians, Nectanebo sent them 4000 Greeks nndcr tho orders of Mentor 
the Rhodian ; bnt Ochus having soon afterwards pnt himself at the 
head of a formidable army, advanced into and overran all Phteniciaj 
and Mentor having deserted to the enemy, Nectanebo was forced to 
take meofinres for tho defence of his own country. Pelusiam was 
garriaoned by 5000 Greeks, and his army, composed of 100,000 men, 
of whom 10,000 were Greeks, prepared to repel the invader. And 
had it not been for the Wanders of Nectanebo, the Persians might 
have been again foiled, as their chief attack on Pelnsium was re- 
pulsed ; but Nectanebo, panic-struck on seeing the Persians occupy 
an unguarded point, and fearing lest his retreat should be out off, 
fled to Memphis. Pelnsium then surrendered, and Mentor, who had 


accompanied the Persians, having taken all the fortified places of 
Lower Egypt, Nectanebo retired into Ethiopia, and Egypt once 
more became a Persian province. 
^' [Thirty-firat Dynasty,'] — The reign of Ochns is represented to have b.c. 343. 
been most crnel and oppressive. Persecnting the people, and in- 
sulting their religion^ he ordered the sacred ball Apis to be roasted 
and eaten, so that the Egyptians, according to Plutarch, " repre- 
sented him in their catalogue of kings by a sword " (de Is. s. 2). 
He had recovered the country in his 20th year, and reigned over it 
two years, and being followed by Arses and Darius, these three 
compose Manetho's 31st dynasty, which was terminated by Alex- 
ander's conquest of Egypt (e.g. 382), and the rule of the Mace- 
donian kings. These constituted the Ptolemaic, or Lagide, dynasty ; 
and at length in 30 B.C. Egypt became a Roman province. 

Though Egypt had long ceased to be a dominant kingdom before 
the time of the Cs8sars, the duration of its power, without reckon- 
ing its revival as a state under the Ptolemies, was far greater than 
generally fell to the lot of other nations ; and when we compare 
with it the brief glory of the Persian empire to the conquest by 
Alexander, or that of Babylon, or even the whole period of Assyrian 
greatness, we find that Egypt continued to be a conquering state, 
and extended its arms beyond its own frontier for a far longer period 
than any of those countries ; and calculating only its most glorious 
days, from the reign of Thothmes III. to that of Neco, when it lost 
its possessions in Asia, it may be said to have lasted as a powerful 
kingdom upwards of 800 years. [For the various monuments 
erected by different Egyptian kings, see the Historical Chapter in 
my * Manners and Customs of the Antient Egyptians,' and my 
' Topography of Thebes,' and * Modem Egyptians.']— (G. W.) 


JP. Bi. IT., 


NOTE.-tG. E. 1875.] 

It hu been thought beat to retain the above sketch of the Earl/ 
History of Egypt unchangod. It will always have a value aa exprening^ 
the matured jndgment of one of the most judicioua and painstaking at 
English Egyptologers. At the present time, howeTer, it seems to thi 
general editor only fair to students, that they should have presented ta 
them, together with the views of Sir G. Wilkinson, the conclusions to 
which other savam have come on the subject of Egyptian history and. 
chronology. The views are up to a certain point so sLmilar, beyond that 
80 widely divei^eut, that the statement and comparison of them is 
best mode of showing to what extent Egyptian History and Chronology 
may be regarded as tolerably well established, at what point serious doubt 
begins, and where doubt changes into the wildest confusion and ui 
tainty. The views which it is proposed to consider, and tabulnt*. 
those, in the first place, of M. Mariette and M. Lenormant, with which 
Br. Brugseh in the main agrees ; secondly, those of the late Chevalier 
Biinsen, embodied in his great work, " Egypt's Place in Univeml 
History ; " and thirdly, those of what may be called " the Engliafc 
School," represented especially by Sir Gardner Wilkinson and Mr, 
Reginald Stuart Poole, the learned head of the Numismatic Depart- 
ment at the British Museum. These writers all agree in regarding tiw 
dynasties of Manetho as historical, and making them the basis of their 
respective schemes ; hut they all more or less depart from Maneiho^l 
numbcrB. The differences between them arise rawnly from the different 
views which they take as to the extent to which hfanotlio's dynastiei 
contemporary. M. Mariette, indeed, lays it down in the most formal way, 
that contemporary dynasties are wholly absent from Manetho's scheme 
but his follower, M. Lcnormont, gives np this view. He makes Hat 
eleventh dynasty contemporary with the ninth and tenth,* and tha 

' The oripina! work of U. Mnriette 
is not accessible to roc ; but I Rnd the 
following quoted from it by M, Lenor- 
numt (Histoirc Anoienne de VOrient, 
vol. i. pp. 323-4) ;^ 

" n y ent done IncontcBtablement en 

fi^ptedeadjniutiea Binmltan^; mai^ 

Mam^tJion Iti a rejMei poor n'admettre 

i oelles qni furent r^patiies legi- 

timeB, et ellei ne sont plus dam lei sortireDt lea »ix rvis de la 


listtt .... Lee prenve 
enrabondent et ont iti r 
grand nurobre pttr lea 1 
qui d^Dnlrenl }«« louta 
royatts tnimttr/ft par t 
Sfbermytiu ont octapi U (r 

* Histoire Anoienne de fOrieD 
:. p. 3M. " C'est do Th^bec q 


lourteenUi contempomy with the thirteenth.' Dr. Bnigsth goes further. 
He conuden the ninth and tenth dynaatiea to have been contemporary 
with tJie eighth and eleventh,' the fourteenth with the thirteenth,' the 
■oventeenth with the fifteenth, atrteenth, and part of the eighteenth,' and 
the twenty-fifth with the end of the twenty-fourth and the beginning of 
the twenty-aixth.' Baron Bonsen advances a step beyond Dr. Bragseh. 
He place* the second, fifth, ninth, tenth, fourteenth, siiteenth, and 
seventeenth in the hat of collateral dynaaties, regarding them as parallel 
to the third, the aiith, the eighth, and the fifteenth.' Finally, the 
~ " ■ Bgyptologera, SirG. Wilkinson and Mr. R. Stuart Poole, cany 
^ it the principle of contemporaneous dynasties still further than Baron 
Vnnaen. With them the third djuasty ia contemporary with the first,* 
tile second with the fourth and fifth,' the ninth, tenth, and eleventh with 
the sixth,' the twelfth and thirteenth (at Thebea), the fourteenth (at 
Xois), and the three shepherd dynasties, the fifteenth, sixteenth, and 
•eventeenth, with the seventh and eighth (at Momphia).* 

The question which of these vitrioua opiniona is to be preferred, the 
preeent writer cannot pretend to determine. He thinks, however, that 
V. Mariette's view — that none of Munetho's dynasties are contemporary— 
which is contrary to that of all the other authorities, must be given up, 
and that the real question must be regarded as one of degree, viz. to what 

d7nastie,appel& oltcntativeinGDt Entef 

Vli Xontouhotep, qii Wtlitenl (fnor- 

VfigiMnMiil cvntm Iti t^paratistei du 

■dbUma dywutui da Manilhon:' 

* Itud. p. 356. "Rieu ne s'oppose 
done fonnellemeiit & oe que nona 
adoptions I'opiDinn propos^ d^ par 
pluuenra frndita modoraes, et quA 
paratt la plus vrniismblnble, d'apr^ 
laquelle la qtutoniime djnaatie de 
HanJChoD, ori^iiiro de Xots, se aerait 
jlevie dsDB le Delta, «n competitinn 
avf( la Irriiiime dynasUt thdbaittt, 
peedaot toate la fin de celle-ci. La 
dinrfon ile l'Et}ypte en deum royouinej, 

■ Histoire d'fi^ypte, p. 4S. " Les 
detu dynaatieB de HdrBoUopuliB, la 
■senriitnie et la dixi^me, ne mnC que 
All moiiunl cnUatsralea am prici. 
Amtta." And again of the eame, 
eariier in the work (p. 47) ; " Nona 
poaimoa la roieni expUqaer cette dit- 
f Arenoa ^f £a ttup^ntum, de dynatHefi 
tviJimporaina daiia la Hante et daoa 
U Baaaa Sgypta." 

■ mA. p. 72. 

• Ibid. 

^ Ibid. p. 268. 

8 See E^T)t'H Place in UnivBrBal Hia. 
tery, vol. ii. " We haTO already cetab- 
lished the fact that tbe two dyima ties " 
(the second and third) "nut ordy com- 
monoed BimaltaDeonaly, but also that 
their length was the aame" (p. 106). 
" Tbe aasumption of the conBBCUtive- 
ness of the fifth and aiitb djTiBstieB 
leads to cndleaa abaurditios " (p. 206). 
"The kings of both the Herakleopolitan 
dynastiEs — tbe ninth and tenth — were 
contemporary with the Tbcban kings 
. . . , cpf the elerenth and twelfth 
dynaatiaa " (p. 239 i compare vol. iv. 
pp. i99-500). For the chronology of 
the Hyksue period, see vol. iv. pp. 
&10-512. corrected in vol. v. p. 63, 
where the entire period of the " Middle 
Empire" i« rednood to ouo of 350 

' See above, cfa. viii. § 7 ; and com- 
pare Biblical Dictionary, vol. i. p. 608, 
ad vi)o, BoiFT. 

> fiupra, cb. viii. % 9, 

> Snpra, ch. viii. §§ 13, 13. 

• Ibid. 31 16, 17, 



copious and exact to enable the iiKKiem critic to construct a scheme with 
any certainty (rum their details. Every attempt of this kind that has 
ever been made is to a large extent conjectural ; and the scliemeB on the 
subjoined table, aa well as all others, most be considered merely as bo 
many competing hypotheses. 

Egyptian history can be carried back with tolemble exactness, but not 
with much detai], excepting in occasional reigns, as those of Rameses II., 
S«ti I., and Thuthmes III., to the commencement of the eighteenth 
dynasty, from which time the whole country formed, with rare and brief 
exceptions,' a single kingdom. It is certain that there was a foreign 
conquest before this time, and that a people quite distinct from the 
Egyptians* had poBsession of the country for a considerable period. But 
the duration of their dominion, which is variously estimated at 260, 511. 
w>d 900 year*,' is wholly uncertain, and will probably never be deter- 
mined. That there was an ancient native kingdom before the conquest, 
may also ho laid down as an oscerttuned fact ; and numerous monuments 
may be pointed out, such as the Pyramids, very many rock tombs, the 
grand hydraulic works at the Fayoum, and a certain number of temples, 
which belong to this [leriod,' and are capable of conveying to us a good 
idea of its civilisation. Its duration cannot be estimated at much less 
than seven centuries,' and may perhaps have been longer i but no exact 
account can be given ; fur to lay it down ' that Eratosthenes had 

' The principal oiception ia in the 
lime o( tlif twonlj-.fiTHt (Tanitc) 
dynasty, vbna tlioni was ut Tbebea 
a oontemporary (eooerdotal) dynsaty, 
which held Upper E|^t (Lenonniuit, 
Manoel. vol. i. pp. 333. +19.431); bot 
it is also not impmbablo tbat in the 
Ethiopian time (B.C. 71't-6&l) tbeio 
were native sabordinate dyuusticH in 
Lower Egypt. 

' On Ihe probable nationality of the 
Hyksos, see above, cti. viii. § IT. 
CompAre Lenormnnt, Manoel, vol. i. 
pp. 3G0-31, and Bonscn, Egypt's Place, 

' The argnmenta fur the short 
period Arc well elated by Canon Cook 
(Speaker's Commentary, vol. i. pp. 
M7-8). Tbe niunber 260 resolta £nnn 
the list of Shepherd Kings ia Josephns 
(Contr. Ap. i. 14), beinfl: tbe stun of their 
reigns as giYen by him. Hanetho's 
nnmbvn for tbeNS reigns (as re- 
ported by AfriconuFt) raiae the amoont 
U> 88i. BuoD Bunson. thinks that 
ErBtosthenes reckoned the period at 
850 year* (Egypt's Place, vol. v. pp. 
58-61). Five htmdred and eleven is 

the dnrntion of the Shepherd rule, 
according to Manotho, as reporttd ^ 
Josephns (1. B. c.) i and this has been 
adopted by H. Lenormant in hia Chro- 
nological Scheme (Manuel, vol. i. p. 
321), and by Dr. Bragaeh (HiaUiire 
d'figypte, p. 287). The nnmber 900 
(or more eiactly Sfe3) is derived 
from the acuoont which was j^von of 
Manptho'a History by Afrioanoa (ap. 
SyncelL pp. 60, 61). This unuiber 

* Bee the work of U. do fiongf, 
noted above (p. 396, note "), and com- 
pare Lenormnnt, Manuel, vol i. pp. 
3Z3.343. An iasoription belonging to 
this early period is pabliabed in 
Beoords of the Past, vol, iL pp. 3-8. 

' This is the estimate of Sir G. 
Wilkinson and Mr. E. Stnort Poole, 
who give reepecLively GOO and 637 
years as that of the domtion of the 
monarchy before tbe Bbepherd inva- 
sion. (See above, oh. viii. § 7-17, and 
Biblical Diotiunary, vol. i. p. 508). 

' As Boron Banson does (Egypt's 
Place, vol. I, pp. 126-135 i vol. iv, pp. 
138.507 ; vol. v. pp. 48-61). 


materialB before him, from which he could deduce with certainty his i 
bor of 1076 years, ia to make a very iniprohahlo tLmumption. We mnit 
be content to know that aft«r a long period of native mle, nnder wbidi 
Egypt flourished greatly, sometimes united, BometinieB divided into two 
or more parallel kingdoma^ — a period which ia represented by the first 
twelve (or thirteen) dynasties of Manetho — a time of trouble supervened 
iuvoderB, whose hubits were nomadic, came in from the north-east, 
conquered more or leu of the country, and held it in subjection, having 
in some places native monarchs under them,° for some centuries ; after 
whioh the native Egyptians threw off their yoke, and the glorious timet 
of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties superveued. 

It will be observed (see the Table) that exoct chronology does not com- 
mence even with the eighteenth dynasty, the date for which varies 
among the best Egyptologers by a space little short of two centuries.* 
This arises chiefly from the fact that Manet