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Full text of "The History of Herodotus: A New English Version"

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HISTORY 



HERODOTUS 

A Srw ENCILTSII TEBSIOS, EDITED TUTn COPIOOa NOTM AMD IPrRHDIl^ES, 

ILMSTRATnCQ THE IIISTOBT AND GEOGBlFHt Of UKBODOTta, FBOX 

THE 1I(WT RECENT SOVBCES OF lyFOBHATIOH "4D mBODVlNQ 

THE CHIEF RESULTS, UISTOKICAL IXD ETIUijG&iPBICA^ 

nil I LI I KAVE DEES OBTAINED in THE rBOQBEdB 

QF ClXEirDIllI AXD HIEBOOLTnUCUi 

DISCOVEHT. 

15t GEORGE EAWLINSON, M.A., 

ca;.-ijS of lAsrEiiin-uy, ani> cau!>e>( PBOFtasoB OP anc-ie;nt uiironT 

IN Tllll 1'N1VEI:?<(TY or OXFORIL ^ 

A9SISTE11 BT 

SIAJOR-nESKEAL SIK UBNM^ RAWtl JTSOS, K.C.B., 



IN roUR VOLUMES.— VuL. IV. 
FOURTH EDITIOS. 

WITH MAPS AN!> ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MUREAl', ALBEMARLE STREET. 

IfiRO. 

n« rilAl ({^ Tninifiiltan ft rorrwl. 






Hl\' 3 Ifab3 



UID CHAKIKO Clou 






M, AuiimlK Snur. t«>DOK. 

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Mil. MURRAY'S 

GENERAL LIST OF WORKS. 



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ABEBCUOUI}liC (Jmiv). F.n.|ulriM conMnliiir the laUllccliul 
ACLA.Vt) (Ssr. C'uihlki). INipiilar Arnouitt of ilio Mnonon au4 

ADHlKAtiTI rUbLlCA'i'lO.N'S; i«a«d Ijj iUr«clioB of tb« Lorila 

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Ruuiiiof, /.Miuitr- Vu). i.;ir>. t.1. Vol, lI. III. v<'i. Ill '"•. 
A MANUAi. urnciKSTit'ic bNituinv.un ii» ij~ai ■[■••nw.. 

Srs. ta, M. 
OREKSIWlCIt AHTIiriKOMICAl. O IIS KX VAT I ON 8, IMl U IS4;. 
Hd IHt tn mi> «i4>l 410, Wf. «uh. 

OREKNWicu abtho.numkal KEHvuTS.iui IB ih:o. il«. ■•• 

■Kll. 

MAOMKTICAI. ANI> IICTEOIU>l^ai«AI. OMSKVATIOHS IBM 

UUIS. Bnfaltu. HlhcH. 
MAOKEriCAL AXtl UETEOIMUOOICAL REStXTt. latilu !»:.. 

ATTXH WICKS ro OBSCRVATIOKB. 

im. liv^ulUiDi of Vtno anil Cotlota In TlDi*. Sf. 

UMS Viulnco* at lUV Sun, f nun Utaarii.UuBi iut>il4 Id IKK, (> 

atl. «•. 
IBU, LtBfllada of Tilmttii [('bMBaiui'Irin.ll, it. 
WIT. nootfilM of AUulmuili. It. 

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1M0. ltc4uo1IOD vt tfHp Tboruomol'r OliHrrttiont. Si, 
IIM. [1. rlao uf ClnuDil on! BullIllIiKi 01 Itsjd uOacmtnr), 
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Uttk I. Orrntloiiivf '^I^K-inrtor jH^^t*r add B«(j>rb- ItL 

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111. ItawctpUoDof <l» UtHi l^uaUilal. 3>. 
IRTI. Wavr T-1<w°|i>. ». 
IMTl. Ilstululoiuif ll>4 liDinl nhwnili'17. ti. 
(I'M It. >iliaY*WV''4UI.<i<iHorv»%lM->a. (l»lftl«.l 01. 



LIST OP WORKS 



AMomALTT Pdsuuti».x* — matin Hdi. 

CarB«rOa*<ll*p*Ob«(rWUu(SUTL>4jnBt}I tEMHIBdti. 

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[fANNYSl-TU.N a IIAVKK81NE.4. 

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LAX'fl TABLES roK FIMDINQ THE LATITUDB AMD LANOI- 

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^ AflTKONOUICAt. ODaSHVATIOSa IIADK AT OOT- 

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MAOnOAL AI-MA:4Ai-&(Mr 1Mtl0K«S. V.aAH*h. 

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■8ErnER0-« TABLES *>r CouionM Lnrti DiiTtnBt. IT71. 

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tRa>u*auM.w>iiosTAHH. trv. rolls. 5i.w. 

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TAIIl.tK or L0OAKITII>IN. •'O. «!•, 

TIUirB AtTH'iNOMrCAL OBSEKVATIOHB fot Um LOHinrm 
■fltintHi inn On A>. 

CKKoNiiMllTkli'AI. (iB»KIITATIol«» (Br 0«niM.™» 

VESl'S tat JL'flTEtli OiMBTiTKm »f, MnpitM >tU> U» Ti'uta. 

Owln. 1WI tlH. V 
fWALKB ANII IIAYLya ASTKOKOMICAL OBHeXVATK-HB. 

tilt. *!. »!• 
— ^^ Br.|il'LT1<>?t OF AaTBOSOHtCAL OlifiRRVAT'oNK 

■AManiBuciKiutlwii'sui. lI«4~inL llbA. tID. Kb.M 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV, 



HISTORY OP HERODOTUS. 

a,tiom of Darini «a»Uwl ai«*«o (1). Hi* *Dn» diipnte Uto neoeuton 
(2). Appcviitnoiuot X«f!M« (3). Death of Dnriiu (4). XrmtargeaU} 
Uinok Grc«oa (ft). InMaonco ot OnonMiritv* (S). BciIdrIjod of KR^pt 
(7) . Xcrtca ■«iewblg« m ootDoit— bis >p«mih (B), Addroi nt Unnloniua 
(0). 8p«oh o( ArtklMUiua (10), Boplj at Xi-riM (II). XmcJ vmIm 
(12-Ii}. CDUaquT nilli ArulMiiiM (16). Tha TixJdti apjiniu* to Ait». 
I {17> IS). nwpMatiaiw of Xerxa*(10). UogmlDilo of Uio axpedi. 
I (20, 81). CitMl of AUio*— skill uf Uie Phcnioiwu (iX-Zi). CoUoe. 
I of H«t«« (S5). Xn-ioi^ marcl) fmm Oritulla (M). Storj «( rj-thina 
I Ljrdiu (n-89). Host^ of Iho ann^ (8t)). XorcM r««diM Sanlii (31), 
i»U> MBt off (33). Bi^go at Abjiloa (XS. 3t). Xoixo* luhM tte 
llMpont (SS). Ooattmvtiam of tli» Itrid)[e (3U). Tba iirm; lenrM 
<li> (37). TroMiwmt of Pytblot' wb (3tl, U>). Ordor of tliu muoh 
{40^41). H«atalhnnig))Mr*ia (IS). Xerxm atlWf {43"). Xantrnwimw* 
Um WMlmMtt (Ml. DialopM irltti ArMlanni (MSS). Xonea* AddroM 
bt tho ehlof pBiMtM (S3), LiUiCiun luid pni7«ir of Xonna (Si). Pmw^ 
«f tbsU«ll>H^nt(&S,fiO). Pmdi|;iM (57). Ua(«htiomSMtMkiDori(Diw 
(Sn, £9). Usinbari^ at th* •imj' (GO). Kotloiu «DDinor«tod-~tha Per- 
■laiu— tboit drea* nod armiUarB (til). The- l['.>dM, Ciuiuiia, and Ujrr, 
,citriwn« (03). Hw Ajayriaoii aud Ckaldannn (^). Tho Daotrlatut and 
(61). TlM ladiaai (<»). Tim Anana, I"!)!!)!!*!!!, Ao. ((HI). Tlia 
[■■OBIS Saiangtam, Ac. (I>7}. Tlia Uliaai, Ac. (6S>. The Arabiaim and 
tlw BtbfepiaM of Libya (6U>. Tlw Elhiupunii of Aua (TO). Tho Libyan* 
Fl^ Tk* Fftphlogoiiiaaa, Plirj-^iaiu, aoil Armeniuia (72, 71). Tho 
liua aad Tltnoisoa (7-1, 76). The Criulj-bioiii, Oabaliaui, Ao. (76, 77). 
)lloMfaittM,U«m,C»khian«.Jto.(78,7'J). Tb« IiOaiKlm (SO). Offlom 
mill CuniMBdon in «hiof (HI, S::). "Immortal*' (S3). Nalion* nUoh 
nmWwil aanlrrfWSS). OmtllBgentii (o Ibo ll«ot— <1.) PhomlcliUia. (ii.) 
ttjftiatm (89). (Hi.) C^^mm (90). (i*) Cniclana and (r.) Pamphjrliaiu 
(rl) LycioM, (rll.) Doriooa, and (riii.) Cnrla&i (91, S3), (ix.) 
li'uiaiw, (i.) ^oUaa*, and (li) l!*llo«poaliaBi ((■«>. lUHnva (96). Ooiii' 
inasdm o( tho oaral [orco <97, Wq. An«ini*i« (ItO). Xmxoi mTiam hia 
(oMM (10(9. Ocnawlto DoimuMiu (101). ^»oh of Domanloa (103). 

TOU IT. 6 



dta 



IV 



CONTEXTS OF VOU IV. 



THE SEVENTH BOOK— eenlfnwi 



I!«IiIt of Xentu (lOS). TitnttMntoa' opiniciii of the Bpartani (lOl). 
XaxM loaTM DddKOi (lOS). UMcsnies ud BogM (lOG. 107>. Xem*' 
maroli from Doriwa* (lOS), Paaugo of tho Henn* (109). Thnkciaa 
trlbM aloDB thv niuM (U'l-H!). Mwoh lliroaKh I'aranin <113). Fum^o 
o( UioSlt7iiu>n (114). Jikich to AcAotltai (tl5, IIG). Uoatli kiid fanttnU 
of AfUoliONM (117). PrciinruioaB for feeling th« tnaj (118, M9). Witty 
ramuk of Uogacfaon (ISi)). Dniur of tlia nuirah (,ISI). Funga tbrongh 
tba OmuI (122). Cuano of tbo (loot (1^3). Amral ta Ui« Tbsraa^o 
<Mt (lU). Hm oanwU Mta<!k«d hf lion* (1Z(, li:6> Xoriaa ivKthm 
Ttanu (iS7i. Two mlnuxwa into Tbeusljr (ISS). Dcaoriptioii of 
ThoNftlf — tho P*D«a( uiil iCt tribulartoii (1£9). Tho wn^ to ■ubmorsa 
TlioouUy (130). Staj of Xcnta in Fiona (131). TrMUniont ot Pvraian 
fcuuld* (13S, 133). Stoij of SportUM Bad Bnii* (Ut-UT). Alarm of 
Um QrMln (IStt), PktriK>tia aouiucc o< Uio AtlMi^ftu*— tho Ailiuni&n^ 
tho Surioun ot UtWMO (139). WsmiiiK of tbo oiwla <140). Tlie mcond 
oroclo (I'll, 14S). ThnmlitoclM (143). Propofal <if Tliambtoclu to build ft 
dc«t (I'U). Tlio Gtvclu aiako up tfaor qmmU (liG). Xonn' trvutmoDtof 
ILu Gnwk (piix (IW, 117). Qivok wabamj to AigM — rejily of tliu Argira 
coiineQ (148). Sp«tta rejoota tt»it oBor (149). AIUmioo botwoen Fwite 
•nd ArsM (150-1G3). Onok embwaj- to Sidl/— uiaMtrr of Gdu (lU). 
Bioturj of 0«ki (104). Oub> boooiiM* Itin^i of G*U (IGfi). UaIcm lijn. 
cnao hia capital (ICC). Spcooh of tho Qrm^ «ai*ofa (l&T). OotoTa uuwo* 
(16S). iDdigiutwn of Bjagnu (159). UdIo'i rt-iil; to him (lOO). AdilroM 
of tho Atfconuw onvo; (1^1). Gclu't fin&l niMwur (16S). C&dnnu «Mit bjr 
Oolo to Dolphi (IDS, lU). Intwlioa ol Oolo to halp tfao Onralw— Cortluk- 
fiaiani intrnda Sioily {UH). S*feU sad dlwfqNuuiao of Homiloftr (lUli, 
IST). ProsiiaM d tha Coicrnnaiu — tLolr ftcluii txoiduct (ICS). Enibouy 
l«Crota (llMQ. HytUo hitlorj of Itiimt — gTcatxit kaomi xlaagbtiT of 
GmoIb (ITti). Miiiomnot of Cn:to<lTl). Onekxtccap/ liio defile of 
llMDpd (172)- Bmmoo of Ihnr loatteg the poM {173> ITl). Cinoka raitilra 
to dofund Aitamialnni anil Tbcrmopybs— dtacifptlos of tliMa plaoM (17S. 
177). (]r««let»iUl*od topnj tothtiitiad* (170). Advimco of tbo roratan 
■kot{lT9). Finl PDOOimlKF (ISO-lSXt. Stele jibcoil oa tbo "Ant" (1S3). 
EatinU* ot Uio FiDdiaa liiroot (ISt, ISS), Number uf tbo bo«t sJtOKHbnr 
(18Q> Biren iuniSoiou far Uw aapfif (1C7). Tint Uorm — lo« to tbft 
Rn^D llMt (188, 1H»). BniidunenC cl Anicboclc* (19U). Tho (lorm 
OOMO* (Idt). ThnckB^lTiag t«Kpptiuio "tbo Skviour" (1U2). Teniaoa 
■a«uoo to Apbota) (IU3). Orenka (oJco flftoen kbipa (liU). Fioe of 
Aridolia (19&). XeriM' mItsmoo thiongh TboMaly (IW). Tcmplo of 
LftphpUu Jupltor (197). DoKripUon of Uolii (IPS). Pu* at Thor- 
nwpjrlB 0S9, 1900). Podtloa of tho two umioi (SOI). Enninurntion ol 
tha Omelc traopa (803, SJO). DMOont of Lsonldaa (lOt). Thu Uii«» 
bwidrad(2W). 8{an«aakoopUioaintaia(S0e). I>biuci (SOT). Umutua 
•p/ Mat by XcriM (S09). Xerua qntatiou Donumtiia (9)9). Flnit 
bjrtho Uoiet (210). Sooaod attack by tko - IsunortaU " (211). 



OOSTKNTS OF VOL. IT. 



THE SEVENTH ^OOK—ttmlinvcd. 

I of ]CerxiM<£12). t:|>hialM teUnor the inoiuit«ia-i«th (318,114). 
IjrihnuM KDt with EphialUa (2IE>). Tlio |>»i1i ilotorib*)! (SIS). Pmrngt 
F Uw PaniuM (2L7, S18>. Looniilai ditmlaiiw thg aiUm (219). Bdmou* 
TfiaAiiuns (StO). Oia'iaot of Hue Thoqiiooii xai Tliulnui 
iMt ODDillct— doth ot LniiUm (8U, BSl). Struggle oni itit 
4/ (3*5). B«aivk at Ditooon {S28). Alphooa and Mara (827). la. 
ripUona {£28). BUar ot Arinbiili^iniijt (S39S31>. Condacc uiA Uta of 
iThebwu (233). Xcmx' cnUoqvy mth Ilomanlna (131. g3fi). ObJ»0' 
of Aoliomimw (230). Hvply of XoriM (£37). Hia truktmont of 
LwnidM' tigdj (SSil). Ooxo u>d Uie waiod t&liluC (239) ... .„ 1^1 



APPENDIX TO BOOK VU. 



ESSAY L 

'iui TBI oucimm nmM owruiraD vnxiic Titt mriRZ or iiaxn. 

O^DMal lUrbdon oT tbo pmvtneo— Euiern, TrMtorn. CmiUhI. 2, Tribci 
lint ivqttini fmihcr oonndurMian, diiolly thoae <i( thtt Sue Mul Kurth. 
S. AaoDaBt (it lUa EiwtArs Tribo* — vii. (t.) Thw Uyivaaioiia — (ii.) Tbn 
fWitUana— (ill.) Tlio Ohoiawlnwi (U.) The Bogdiana— (v.) Tha Ariana— 
(rL)Th*Dactrian>«— (TiJ.}Tha^U— (viti.) Tbo Sacw— (ix.) TbeCkipiaQi 
— ((.} Ttia SafiMtkaiM— (xi.) Tho Sanni^iiB— (lii.) Tlio Tluuiutnnuia— 
(sUi.) Tho PacitjWH— <*!▼.) The Satucyilian*— (tv.) Tliu Ganilariana 
xL) Tho Dadk(»— (xTiL) Tlii> Api»rji»— (iriii.) Tlw Cntpmri— (xix.) Tho 
■ — (tx.) no FkriotnlMM— (ul.) Tba Etlilopiooi of AiIil 4. 
lcrf(lMiI?oMhMmTribea~v>z. (i-) "niD Uomhi— (ii.) Tho llbuyiii 
(111.) Tbo Macrtne* (iv.) th* Hmrnwoi— (t.) Tho Uitrea— (ri.) The 
IrtriaiMi (-'i ) Tbn Sa|M>lra^(viil.) Tho AlarodiaDii.— (ii.) Tbn Untion^ 
~(s.) Th) CiapiMi*— (li.) 11m nnaiaa— (lii.) Tho PaDlinintlii— (xlil.) Tha 
T>aritie. i. Obaenre tribra of lbs WMtum and Cuotnil districtB— (<.} 
Th* Uwoniano— (ti,) TW Cabaliaaa — (iii.) Tbu IIjK<aiiic« or DyMiLDNi — 
(It.) Tlw Lliiyn*— (t.) The Ortbooorybniitea— (rl.) Tbo rarlcanlniu ot Ibu 
iwlcapj .„ Fkgo 188 



ESSAY II. 
Q> IBS UBiT moKxTioN* or tiib nHHtciiirfc 

DiroraltTef optalMRCothn tnliject — fTctght of Uie iurt[vm««U in faronrot 
» niKnttloii. £■ Two Tlnnn of ibo migntion — tbo iRinilitrnnti Hnmiton — 
BmiltM. 3; Soppinod idcntltj* iJ tho Hucoiciiuii nith the CiHiM(ii<ni — 
Mgnnunbi in ila (a>o«r. *. Ai^uaioaia to tbo contmry. 5. Tbn ThO' 
nkriaaa ditUool frao) th« Canaasiue; 6. Early nioTtaiieDt of namitea I 



A 



C0NTKST8 OP VOU IV. 



B»b7lM(t U> tilt IbdiMrniiau. 7. Similar mooDmoot of 8«niit«a i 
qaonily—Thi* Un tk» miftrMian of the Flicndeiaiia. S. Ovnr-wiMlotn 
etnbo and Joitiii. 9. UoToni* ([rofiBd* (br n>j«ulin)c tli« mjgtukn— (i.) 
GUane* of Soriptnr><~(ii.) Aathorilj o( a»— >.~-i.ii..„_ y^ -nimHrn of 
tgromula. la Probablo dal« ot Um nigiutiim ._ „. „ £36 



BSSAT III. 



as Tsm ii^KODijtx* or nKEODnnra, [n.o.] 

1. Tb« &!l«it<di&n* of Hcmlotiu idnitiflod with iho U/arda or pHifJn of Ariir*t. 
L Tns jKiailiun uf tbo Hcfarovr Arimt. 3. Connectitin of tho Ctanla at 
tlWH pftrU wiUi llio Bkhylcoiiaii Buri ar nv Akdai. 4, BoMnnblaaoa ol tlia 
wtidng amployod by Uu> tiro tsco*, and probobUt eoanoctkin of tlieif 
langVkgM 2U 



4 



Hon JL — Nakhah-i.Rattam Iiuoriptioa .„ 
N«TI B.— nuailjr Ttm of tho lohtDituniUw ... 



200 

263 



niSTOBY OF HERODOTDS. 



THI ItOIITfl DOOI, BHTTTLtlt CBAMtl. 

Hm Oroak floot kI Aitomlaiiim (1). Tho c«miiuuid«r, Borjrbirulai (1, 3). IVis 
eoediag* of Tbonililacloi (i, 0). Appnoob of tho Pnniiaua (i^ Ship* 
•Mt ronnd Biibcok (i). Stur^ of St^lliBa th« DiTor (^. Coancil of th* 
Crocl: Caplaitu (9)- Ff r*t bnttlo at ijtomiciam (If'i 1 ' )■ Terriblo atona , 
(t!, 13). SMOBdangaganDiit (I'l). TlurdMienKomsnt(lG.lS). Stnt^^om 
of Tbomiitodo*— Orwlo of Dnou <19-!3> AdTsucw of tho I'Undau Don 
(23>> Poraan aBtlon tint Thaimapylat (34, Itfi). DoMrtM* from Aroadlm 
(S6> Foniui* ioTada Phoela— tran of Pboeiitna Mid ThManliana (37-31), 
Slight of Iho Pboeiana <S1). Th6ir towna bnist (33). DiTDdan of tli« 
FcvMn f«vM (34). AtUekoD Dolplii — (liaoc.nifi(iiTO of tbo FcndMia (35. 
39> Tho Qnfiian Haot uetion U Sftlamla (10). Tho Athene* quit 
AitJoa (11). Nation* wmpoalnff Uia Gmihui Beat (4S.4A). I^p»«l 
wttiMlnnl lo til* tathoiaa (19). Tha Pcniun ranch AtJiona (50, 6|) 
AUwik on Uia AeropoUi (6!, &S> ll*M«i{a tu Arlabantu (51). PntdlKr 
c( th* aaorad olito (GS). Oivaka naolva la aatl lo tha Uihmna (Ml), 
Baggfticm of Bfnoifplilliia (S7). T)iaiiiblool«a appliaa l« Koirbiodpt (M. 
00). Adcdmantiia and Thonuatooloa (Gl, CS). I><i(#railiinikia of Karj. 
biMUa (63, M). Omn of tha olonil of ilait (CS). Ponlaa Hcot at Phalo. 
iiun(Oa> X^neaaoonaalM hia oBiitalna (OTX Spaooh of Artomina (fid), 
amActfao «f th« Uog At it (fi)> Adnuuw of tha Hniaaa (7D, 71). 



C0NTE.VT8 OF VOL IV. 



Vil 



iU Uio laUimi* (73). Inhftbitanta o( tb» Pahrpoonnto (73). Tim. 
«Md^« at SMhmi* ^i). SitMa^bbi cf TheiabiMaloii ('G> Pffr>iw« 
MMpf PajUaUaB (7Q. Trath uf pn^beoiM <7T}. OuntODUoD nt tlia 
Onwk MpUln* (7S)- Arriiml of Ariitiilni (70). Iliii eonftniiDOS wiih 
TliMttifortoi (eo, 81). nepATBttOin* fw th« flgU (83. MX ll»tUo of 
SUhom (St-S9). pMiiioa ot Xvmm' mM (00). Rant d tho PorviuM 
(91). Ki|>lniu ot fol.nritat (S3). Condnct of Aawiniu (US), Storjr of 
AilcinuutM' fllglit (IH). Siplolt oT ArirtidM (»]. PmjNinUnM M 
nam tba igkt (9G). Hsunun-r mat Ut Penia (8T> VvnUa am, 
wngfn (96). BSsol of Uii> tulicK* (M). Miirdoiuiiir Bdvic* t« XnntM 
(100). X«nM eoeialM vitti ArlomJain (101). Anomiiria'tuMwin- (10!). 
pMOeedidBa of X«nM (100, IM). Storjr ol Ilcnnatiinaa (105, lOK). 
fMstana ull to (lio naOwpont (lOT). FiopMod pnwiit (106). Thumii- 
todetf wlTioa (109). Hit mMMg« to iho king (110). Sii^v of Andre* 
(111). DiniulitoalM (fktbera conltibntioiw (11^. Liiio ctf Perriko nilrot 
(113). SatkfMttion for th» dMUi of Loonidu (114). Xirua' nutrvh to 
UiD QcDoKpont— toSeringi of Ibe *niiT (11I>)- Story d k Thnuiati king 
(116). PMMgatoAbjrdMOnX Mi* Acoooiit ot Xoru^ rolurn (11"- 

111!0> Onciui oflorics* to the god* (131, US). PriM of voloo' (1S3). 
HoBont* {Mid to ThomiitocliM (l&i)> SnTT-of 'l'iiiii.Hlnma*(l£(i). Aita- 
bHU I>ji B«S« to FoliilMft (lliO, 127). ASiiir ut Tiiaaxoiiiu (!:!»> $!<«» 
ni*cd (]I9> Pmiui a««t u Sunn* (130). QreoEku flont kt Egfiiu (lUl). 
EmbaMir ■'' BwedMni tho Chuu (13S). Kj« conjnilt« tfao cumclo* (133. 
ISi). ilbiiian ot AloxBDdcr, aoo of Am^tw, to Atbciia— IcgtmJ of Pee- 
aiMM (13IV130). 8pM«b of Aleouidoi (IW). Couutor (pHn-'li of Spariiui 
unbauBikn (M, l-tSX Autwnr of tbo Atbcciaiu to Al«mi<I'^r<l 13). 
To tho SparUn ODTOT* (IW) „ ruga SIH 
m nxm nous, t i miixo cituon. 

Uuddtdna in«LnbH •(taiiut Aibom (I). AdrJcoof the TIikImuiii (!). llMiioiiini 
aolvn AthaiM(a). Mbsion of UlLr7l^bill« (4, Ck. AthmilBn «nba«rr to 
8p*rl* (6). Addraa of tha Alhuaian <iiiru]rs (T). IMajr ot tlu) Ephora 
(tl)- Riqwditiun Mat out (!^ 10). Antwm' (o tlie onroj*(ll). Itwdoniiw, 
mmiiil by tbo Arifinq, rotnittn (IS, 13). I^lrlhvlll point rMobad by 
r«nliii» (1 ly Uardoniaa cDcsmp* on tho Ampna (IS). Story rnlatul hf 
Tbtnuider (19). P>ii^;«t of tha Fhuciuui (IT, IS). Uuoh of rdopon- 
■wilM fnMi lh« blbiuiii {1!>). fine i-nKaffvinont — Mnsittina alaln <20- 
It). P(nhn hmMtniiou* (21). GrM>l:i> mor* towanU flatam (SS). 
Kunhallins ct tho natlou— rival clainu of the Togetuu Mid tbo Atlicoihuu 
(SO, S7). Lafc wiBfc Bccordrtl to the Athmiiuii — Army nod nombcni of 
Ifaa «Ui« (nxiiNi (SS, 29). Amount (4 OteUc armjr (30). runittna mor- 



HISTOEY OF HEBODOTDS. 




TiU 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. 



atwl]»d tij MM^onia* (SI. 33). GrsiM'Bn •ootiuajer Tixuneatit — Lb 
hiitor; (33-3S). UMdanina* Kiothsajpin', tl«fpiuitnitai (37). Poniwia cM 
oB the Onnk oenTcj-a [3S-40|. Punisns hold a oonnDil uf wnr (f I, 43). 
OthI* of BmU (43). Gr«afca >r*rn»l bj Alniitculur of Mitn^lon (44, 4G}. 
Tho Spwrtam and Atbonuiu cluaga placM (4fi, 47). Uuiloiilu iDamlU 
tha Sfsftana (4S). PsniaiuohokB tin faantaiii of Qu;g»]ihia (40), Jlovo. 
■nont to Mro4 (SO-GS). Obiliiucjr o( Amompharatas (G3.Gfi). ItoU«*t of 
PbniOLniiM (C6v ^7)- UnTdoniui' tiMMh thorea|ian (66). FwniaBi pur«ii« 
thn Giwlo (69). Battle at Platoa— doatb of Uardoniiu (OO-SS). OomdiiM 
of Arlabwiu (60). Bcsatiiuii atrtigslo with AtbonloM (0?). Qeocnl 
ftffbt (08). Seixnid battle at tbe ontnoeliod ounp (69. 70). Pn>ir«M of 
thoMstmidliiciMrtiH (71). Cundoet oTOkUientn (73). AthooiaD moM 
dutiaKiutlLed, SophnoM— liia CDDdntrt and tato (T3.Tu). A ladf'a ^pead 
U niiiMiiiju (76). ArriTol of Manlinnanii and Klouu (77). Evil oodomI 
of I.ani|KiD (78, 70). DiapaMkl of the boot? (80). IWtiona hl'I aput for 
tha f:i>dii-^i>tril)Btion of ths i«niaui(l»r (81). A Pnrflaii and a Sporten 
■appor (Sa). WonilcTi of (bn bnttlo-nnld (S3>. ClMdortuis burial «f 
Uanlnniaii (8i). Gravos of tho ikin (85). BiBKD of Tb«>b«a (Sa.88> 
FUght of ArMbun* (B9> LtotjiriiiilM iiLvi[«d by thn Samiiuia (90, 9I)b 
OdplioiiiDa and Eranliui (9SJISJ. Grcoln proceed to Samoa — rcnias anay 
at UyoaU (96). BatUs of HjcaU (DT-103) Fnto of the ]'or«inna (lOi). 
The palm of bntToy aaai^oed lo the Athcniuiui (IQS . Giv^k* aail ta Uia 
&«UaqMmt (1O0)l FcniaaareUeattaSardia (107). IctrigiiGa of Kerxe* 
~6M of llaalatM (lOH-ltS). AtbonUna \ay ticgo to SvatoB— lal* of 
(EoWuii— pniuiluoDat of Artajroto* (lll-IiO), Atbmiaiu rntarn, brlng- 
iiilC with ibom tho aboro-aaUH dI Xtmtn' brid][ee (131). ArtoinbaiM and 

Cjnt (lES) „ ... _. rw »?» 



4 

I 

J 



iSon A.— On tho luoripUon upon the Dslpbio Tripod 
i of Antliot* and Editiona qaatod in the Kutca ... 
Indaflt .■« „• •■• H4 H. ... *M 



.. PASO 474 
.. Ac* 487 



( i^ ) 



LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



3bip to IDBrfni* tb« XrkAi oI XonM 
Tbmti at DmtIiu (atUir Kor Porter) 



18 
SS 

30 



|KLoUI>i>dbySlrGardti«rW>IUiwuB 33 



Ditto 
Ditto 



Alto 
ditto 



nmow ot SmnMJhorib >m1 DMi(u(B(W [•«7»ril lud Km Porter) 
1^A& c^ Cuia) of Atlua ,,, .., ... .,. 

Dorle (colli) ... ... ... .« 

NagfnPcnott Sitaof AbTclot (from iha 

Vmt) 

SiWot Xonoa^ llndg«),oppodta Mngini 

Fbiat 
Vofin Foiat, A1>t<Io« (firom Um £mi) 
n>ni«n diariot (froin pinwpoUi) ... ... 

Pmiaa fpMr (<UiU)} ,.. ... ,., 

CtMt of Um oooatry ftbont Tr07 

PaniHi oeliiArM, bolt, and nhimtk (from Pcraepelia) 

Ponian aeiuar»t. (Iram (find tli» iliaoUi ... 

PtriBMi Wurioni (from PantpcJU) ... 

Ittorin ud JLMcon Wurinrv ... ,., 

ijtetio and AirioM Wnrrion 

"I'H"''"' )iiMd.diew letter LAjnrdj ... ... 

%)rpt«m ■Utido 

■Kn>tiu«U«Ui », 

SUTpUui dkggvr 

AMiyriMB beloMU^ BMM, bii<I shtFlilii (alU* Lik;nti1) 
gejrtluMi paaJiwI c«p> knil btiilo.»x« ,.. 

AAcienl bow (fmn n nr«<k tmo) ... .,. 

i-.i,.:,<.liui (ban l^nriHilii) .„ .„ 

tA bom luiil amnn .„ ,„ ... 

<.. ..^ Xm {troat FvnuwVia] „, ». 

Rl^|4l>ii ooDOT* aliJAU „, ... 

f •imitdmggtn, ■lt!p>Bpr*n, anil eanclot 

(B •mle-annoaT uid ahioU 



... Fk|t* 4 



31 
<S. 
40 
41 
43 
GO 
A. 
C& 
G6 
87 
fi9 
ib. 
60 
A. 
61 
€3 

et 

a. 

66 
73 
!6 
78 
77 
?8 



d 



LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FUtD of Thennopjlea and the adjacent conntiy 



163 



Hooth of the Corjcian Care 

Interior of the CorjciBn Cave . . . 

Delphi from the Eaat 

Delphi from the West 

Honct PomaflBiiB and the hill above 

Delphi, with the village of Chrjed 

and the port (Satin) below 
Castalian Spring 
Chart of the Channel between the 

maiiilaQd and S&lamia, and 

position of Xeraes' Seat 
View from the Bite of Xenai' Seat / 
Flan of the conntiy aboat Plateea 
Egyptian javBlinB 
Egyptian maceB 
Egyptian bowB ... 
Egyptian Bheathed swords 
Annatnre of Egyptian Boldiera 
Assyrian wicker shield, archer, and ahield-beorer 
Stand or podeatal of the Delphio tripod 
Stand of Delphio tripod, now at Constantinople 



Sketched by Sir Gardiner Wiliiinaon 886 



Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 



Ditto 
Ditto 



Ditto 
Ditto 



ditto 


... 287 


ditto ... 


2H8 


ditto 


... 289 


ditto 


... S90 


ditto ... 


292 


ditto ... 


8S7 


ditto 


... 318 




391 


... 


... 899 


* ■«! 


400 


•kl 


... 401 




401 


- ... 


... 40B 


. ... 


4Sg 


■•1 


... 487 


. 


«a 



TUB 



HISTORY OF HERODOTUS. 



THE SEVENTH BOOK, ENTITLED POLyMNU. 



L 1. Now 'n-hen tidings of tho battlo that bad been fonglit at 
MoratlioQ ronobed thb oam of King Diirius, the son of Hyti- 
taspes,* bis ang«r ngainst the Athenians, which had bc«ti 
already rouscil . hj th«ir attack npon Saixlis,' vasod sttU 
fitrc«r, »nd he became more than ever eag«r to lead an army 
against Greece. Instantly bo sent off moBsengerB to mnku 
procUmntioQ through the se^'oral Btatea, that fresh levies 
vere to be rueed, and thoBO at an uierea»cd rate ; while itliipB, 
borsea, provisiong, and transports vera Ukeviso to ho for- 
nished. So tho m«n publishid his eommauds ; and now all 
Asia waa in conuaotioo by the space of tliroe years, while 
evorywhoro, as QrcMo was to be attacked, tlio best and 
brsvi.-»t wore enrolliKl for the service, and had to mako their 
preparations acoordingly. 

After this, in tho fourth year,* tho 1^3'ptiBiiB vhnn Ova- 
hod euslarod Mvoltod from the Foniuu; vberea|KHi 



•iqaa, ToLi. in.lU, 1I4. If oU that 
Mt nif I* IJUiiu iMm introdntod 
■IMIi, u " tto aon of HystupM," baC 
»Im Arla^lllln* ia ^. 10. nuniantuB 
too is ra-inimdnccd a* " tbo tun <4 
ArUton" (oli. 9), and UMdonina H 
" Out ton of QobrToi " (cb. ft). 

* (htpts, T. 100.108. 

* AC. «87- Tho imtkoniiie t» iaclo- 
riTtf, M vaoDJ. )tr. Bla]in*l'>j'a vivw 
(note'* on Book rii) ii jinfonble to 
Hi. CUntcMi'* lF.li.,Tal.u. pp.:&.83). 




In wrli ir«nMft1 l^riM, ' iimki 
Iftdirklo llikt w« Imvo licro iLo 
'Weiniuug of oLat, in Ua bM draft at 
Mir nir, wu nsindffrtindMit yaKv;." 
- lo Ufl." !>• mJ4*. " lb* Dfac-le ^ tb* 
work of H*rodota* sp to Uiia point 
ttmf alDun b« mtwdvd oa « awrv 
<n(ra4«c<to^ to* tho mora eoioplei* 
oadontMidli^ c< wbM toUtnn." Vide 

rou IT. 



k 



L 



db 



DARIUS' 80S8 DISPCTE THE SUCCESSION. Book Ttl. 



Dariu!) waa more liot for -tvar than orer,* an<1 eoraoetly 
deaired to march an anny sgainBt both adTenariM. 

S. Mow, as h« wus about to lead forth his lovira agaiast 
Egypt anil Athens, a flerco cont«nti(ui for the sovereign power 
arose among his sons; stnee th« hiw of tfao Pt<rit:iK]i8 wiu, 
that a king muat not go out vitb Im amty, until lin baa 
appouiti-d one to succeed him upon tlie throne.* Darius, 
before Ii(i ohtuiucd the kingdom, had had three sonn bom to 
him from his former wife, who was a daiii;hler of Gobryas ; 
while, Hincc he hcgnu to reign, Atossa, the daughter of C^Tua, 
had homo him four. Artabaxancs was the eldest of the fir: 
funily, and Xorxes of tlio si^ond. Tbcso two, therefore 
htiag the sons of lUiTerent mothers, were now nt variitnce 
Artabazaiuia claimed the crown as the eldest of all the 
children, becanse it was an eetablisbed custom nil over tha 
world for the eldest to have the pre-tuninence ; while Xerxot, 
on the other hand, nrged that he was sprung firom Atossa, th< 
daughter of C\tug, and that it was Cyrus who had won the 
Persians their freedom." 

8. Before Darius bad pronounced on the matter, it hap- 
pened that DemaratUB, the sou of Ariston, who had been 
deprived of his crown at Sparta, and had afterwards, of 



he ^ 
le 



* Probabtjr tke moll tit Vtnvt wna 
MtribttUd to Uw niMbuiatioo* at the 
Oranka. It In not linpoaublc that tlio]' 
11M7 tnro ncloAll}' fonuntod U. 

'^An Alliuion to lbi« ouilum <■ inkd* 
in tbo Ont b^ok (ch, SOS), Id <oa- 
Bonou trilh the cippdiiion of C;rn» 
Mlptliiit Iha UHnsoUe. That it iru 
tax oaa£noil to Iha Pmlomi ttppMTt 
fraH MKiUvr pboK, «bM« Ckmu* ■• 
hM to kiire fawn uotninntctl to the 
a«o«M*l(ia b; AlrKtto* (i. 03). Ptn. 
Ureh, kltcT mcotianuig tbo Ptniui 
OuMoei, adiU lk*t tbo monorcli doalg- 
tmlM haul lb* rijcbl «f Mkiajt anj booa 
ttiBt h* «lK>ao of lh» actual kinfc, wbo 
MM oblleed lo vnul it, luilew it ws* 
InpoMlUo (Atlonfi. c. S6). If the 
ndo KM itnllr alwaj-a obwrn^, Duint 
MM bam ^Migiotod • lUCOeMor at 



tbo tima uT ha axptdilica agaiaat 
Bcrtfaian*. 

* Thia wM pfaUbtr tli« ml vlfU 
oa whloh ibo eUn of XnnM i««t«d. 
X«rM* wat of tbn blocxi at Cf ma 
ArUbaano* wan mil. In (be ~ 
tlio bar«(tiUi7 inniiacC u parlioi 
atrong and acuitiTo. Onrioa 
prrhapa, to aone ntlcnt, in riKhl 
wife AtoHMh and In dafaalt o( 
■Colo of Ihi) blood (if ihs conqtinnr. 
At liJB dulh Uia eldait ^madaoB of 
CTTOa (oold not but bo tbn InffltJnialo 
racMaaor. It ta (Mbabla Uiat tho 
kiDc** power of ohooiinit hit tiuccrnor, 
if it Miitad at all. waa confitmj wltttln 
TOty napiflw lltnita. (W. lint. Al* (. 
p. 181, D^ L^iia, p. 809, K . nborr tba 
abaolnt* daun e( tha oldimt too (« 
•ncoecd l» aiininad aa eorUiit,) 



rt«d. 

m 



Citu-. 1~L 



DUTH OP DARtUS. 



cnm aooord, gone into hnnUhm(>nt, come ap to Saea/ and 
thoro littord of the qanjrel of tlie prinoes. Hereupon, as 
report wyn, he vent to Xenee, and adviood him, in addition 
to all that bo bad urged In-rorc, to pk-ad— that at th« time 
vhvn ho vtiB bom Dariii!) wna alrendy king, and bore nilo 
orer the Feruons; but when Artabazanea cnma into the 
irorld, he vas a more private person. It would therefore be 
DciUier right nor eeemly that the crown should go to another 
in preference to himself. " For at Sparta," said Dcmaratus, 
b; vay of en^^estion, " tlio law is, tlint if a king has aoat 
before he cornea to tho throne, and another bod is bom to 
him afterwardB, the child no bom is heur to hta fiither'a 
kingdom."' Xerxes followed this counsel, and Darius, per- 
soadcd that ho lutd justice on bis side, appointed him hia 
Moceasor. For my own part I beliere that, even without 
this, the erown would have gone to Scrxee ; for Atossa vas 
all-powerfuL' 

4. Darius, when he had thus appointed Xerxes his heir, was 
itttnd»I to lead forth bis armiee; but he was prevented by 
doatl) while his preparations were still proceeding. Be died 



'Bonn, T). TO. CIokIu dcclxrvd 
iW OoawiUDi did not Of l» Itin 
P>nUui*tiIlilii'ri*>i!iiof Xorxiw, wkcoD 
Im inl ;niiivtl nl Ihc II<^ne•p(lnt (Cxo. 
PcM. { 33) 1 Imt hi* aatharitj- OMTiM 
M Mcht Kgsiiui tlia dUtinct (Md- 
Boogp at HcTodotM. 

* Tb« Ul« Iwn iilti«(liu»d {tlioiuih 
BMVptod Ii^FIbUikIw AHuora. 1. ■. c), 
dwM Mt Kicni to ll>T» bo«D CTodiM 
by oar uHmt g umI Ii is indefd VMy 
donMal whailior the Uw of laccouion 
•b BpMU wu anch m <■ ctaicd. It 
haibooD Jiutljr nuukod (Gmw, tol. 
T.p. !, no«a) UiAt oBMdolN iarftlinK 
Bmar^lin villi a hotitioM impcot- 
ooM un fmjimil in ncmdotan. an-l 
a»V pmbnbly Iikto Ih«i raorivod hy 
hbn trvox the U|w o( tliat niosucli'* 
4M«iml>Ma, who vntm Ml^xl a«i lh« 
CalMM. Itt Uw cities of II»ll<nrTia Mod 
'flnaJkiiwia (not rerfinAiua nml -?'■<>■ 
ibnalki aeoifm Zm. Auk. til «iii. 



S IT. with X«n. Hell. nt. I. $ «>, lira 
tuwn* which iuvd btpn giT«it 1^ Xeiimi 
to DeamTBtoa on U* iMom tnm the 
eiMditicin of^tnit Gnco*. 

PtnUrch*! ttoj of th* di»i<iit« bn> 
ti>«wi tha brotbim (Da Fni. An>. ii. 
p. 489), thongh (CJTC* ■!«> by Jnatio 
(ii. 10), 1* (iDtllled to DO attoiitioa. 

' Thongb DMin* liiwl mvorsl wives 
{*u|int, tii. SS, cote '% it in proboble 
tliM ha tiiMl Imt oao ijucmi, nunulj, 
Atoan. TUii If the tola nbNitvcir 
than ii * ira^lD, and wh olnwly tho 
ciutcm of thv I'prsiMi oout. (Cf. 
Eitlltn i. 9, ii. 4, Aci i infra, it. 109 1 
Ctcnaa, Eio. Pur*, f 20, te, i Plat. 
Jutmx. i. pp. 307. 3US ; An^ns, Bip. 
AIM. 11. 11, !£.) Tba ■mnV ot Atou* 
would nMonllf Maora her tb[a pi«I>. 
tlon, wliich ia marked \>y har MJUCJ 
plarod M tlio liuad ot llir virM >a 
Bouk y. oil. 88. 



\ 



8I70CBSSION Of XFJtSig. 



Bom Tit 



in (he jeor folloving * tL« revolt of Egypt and Uic miitt«rs 
lore related, ftft«r haviag reigned in all &ix and thirty years,' 

iving tho revolted Egyptians and tbe Atbeniona alike on- 
;>uO)shed. At hia death the kingdom passed to bis boo 
Xene8. 

fi. Now Xerxes, on first mounting the throne, tos coldly 

spoficd towards the Grecian var, and made it his buaineeH to 
an nriuy agiitust £g}'pt. But Mardoniua, tlie eon of 

Dbryas, who was at the court, and had more inlluonco with 
him than any of the other Persians, being his ovn cousin, the 



'b«. 468. Dfttia* lud pfrpured 
fhk lOMb In the neigfabosAotid «1 
IBMpolk, wbnv it nkj MO bo —m. 
It phe«d <n * reoMt «f ill* r«ck, 



(ColpCsrcd •■ appeon below, and wiUi 
Uw iMoriplion wbirJi )■ glron in Kw* 
A. M U>« md or (hia Book. 




TmbarikrfM. 



■ Tbia DKBiber ia con£nM4 bjr ths 

koMt ol Ptolomj (Mcf-. B^nt. t. 14). 

' aad bj UaiiMW (Pn^mmla 68 und 

tt), Mrini wrlgBod h«iii Ibo begin. 

plsg «t KA Ml to ifa* and ol kc. 



'Me. (&M OlMtui'B F. n.. nJ. ti. p. 
SiS.) Cualaa, wilk Ml onul iooor- 
raoUiBaa, gaTa U> Dadu a rein of 
<nlr SI 7«>» {Fm. be. S 1»). 



Oair. 44 



nS IS CRORD TO ATTACK GREECE. 



child of a sister of Barias, plied him with discourses like the 
following : — 

"Master, it is not Jltting that thoy of Athons escape Boot- 
free, after doing the Pcrsiaoii such gront injury. Complete 
the vork vhich thon hast now in haud, and tlitn, whea the 
pride of Kg^t is brought low, load an army again»t Athens. 
So shalt thou thyself have good report among men, and others 
sbftll fear hiTC-afier to attack thy country." 

Thus far it was of vengeanco that ho epoko ; but sometimes 
be would rarj" tho theme, aud obserro by the way, "tllftt 
Europe was a wondrous beautiful r«gion, rich in all kinds of 
cultivated troos, and tho noil excellent: no one, eava the king, 
was worthy to own such a land." 

6. All this be said because he longed for adventures, and 
hoped to become Satrap of Greece under the king ; and after 
a while bo bad hia way, and perauaded Xerxes to do according 
to his desires. Other tbingn, however, occurring about tho 
^tome time, helped bis persuasions. Por, in tho first place, it 
dionced that messengers arrived from 'Ihessaly, sent by tbe 
AleoailiD,' Thessaliaa kings, to invite Xerxes into Greece, and 
la proiuiflo him all the assistance which it was in their power 
to give. And furtbur, tho risistnttida), nbo liad come up to 
Gosft, hold the same language as tbo Atouadw, and worked 
npoD him even more than they, by means of Onomacritun 
of Athcus, an oracle-monger, aud the sajuu who set forth tbe 



' Tlin Al«sMllB wnv th« roTiil fanulj 
rf I^rMMt, u U pUiD fnoD UcradotM 
(lur. '"' nnd PUto (McMh p. TC^ 

1* . '.im, a» Ftarwloa, im 

ih^-. :-.n> bora mdtr Ui*ir in. 

aaon«« fef. Utrmaah'a PdU Ant. 
f 1T8. note'*). Th«7 derl*«d their 
KkDW rnrni Aknu tbo rcdUrcd 
(A vrt^if), «rba ia iiicitbi>nQd by Via- 
tmnA (Do Pml. Am. li. p. 4V!> m 
bnrinKi>l>lati>>i) lti»«Dr»t«igri>tj'b;r ili« 
ehstoo o4 tbe Dsl|itiiD ntaclo. Thejr wdid 
pUNM of iMiuinX wd of Um Uta, 
«*i«9 hereiik witli tbaaKxlaa^mlflcfin* 
et lb* Qraek tjrmaM (Plat. Moo. L ■.<!. ; 



Had. IVth. K. S : FTin««t. Tit. Soph. t. 
srt Z, kc.). Their poircT in Thoualjr 
Iiul«id till tha tim* o( Philip, wbo 
■IMok«d Uio tnardarw* td Aluandtr 
«r rh(*« Bl tb«ar itwlixntioQ (ef. 
Diod. Sio. iri. 14). Eaphorion of 
CtuUcia WTMe a Ui(<«7 oT thi» bunilr 
(ilaltd'a tr. Uivt. Gr. rtH. m. pp. 
71. 73), 

Thu intitatiim wlilcb tbo UirM tm»- 
then, Thonz, BuTpjIa*. and Thnai- 
dtni, gvra to Xoimo (iafi*, ix, BB), 
WM not gcncrallf ocoeptalito le Uudr 
oonntiTincu (inM) eh. 17X)( 



INFLUENCE OF OKOMAC&ITt», 



Buoi VII, 



jirapheciee of MueJBUs in their order.* The Pisistratids liad 

noaelf been at enmity vrith this man, bat miidti up the 

'quarrel before the; removed to Susa. lie was bonitthed from 

Athens by Hipparchus, the eon of PisistrataB, because be 

ffoistcd into tbtt writinf^ of Mus»us a prophecy that tlie 

' ifilanda vhich lie off Lcmnoe would one day disappear in the 

sea. Lasas of Hermione ' caught him in the act of so doing. 

For this cause HipparchuB baniehed him, though till then they 

I had been the closest of friends. Now, however, he went up to 

Sum with the eons of Pisistratus, and they talked very 

adiy of him to the king ; while he, for lu» part, n-lionuvor 

I was in the king's company, repeated to him cvrtaiik of the 

eloe ; and wliilu bo took cant to pass over nil tliat »polto of 

disaster to tlio barbarians, brought forward the passages 

whioh promised tliem the grcatt-et auecoHS. " 'Twos fated," 



< or HoMHU^ H of Orphctti. wilk 

IiwImm Ua BUD« to oommanlr }^m), 

^■MTMlr aajrUiiiw b knuim. Slnbo 

bt. P. sag} eaib him » TVncliD, 

loMM (bd TDc.) k nitii* of RIooabL 

kOMapw* Bwi«c**>- ^ voo.). U*. 

flMMM H»do hiol the tenili uicelt«r 

[of Uomer Ofr. 10). All pcAap* Umt 

b» aud with ocrtiuiitj l> tbat 

|po*ma b*li«Tnd t« tm (uiciiot w«r« 

tfluiteat nsder liia tMaa k* fnr\f am 

\»ji!. 6S0. T1i«»o won fhhBx anc\et, 

tnottatlMl/ po. A hTnwW C<r«« 

rii ntMloned (Pnoaftn i. xilL $ 7). 

I'and alM |Ki4tn« iwltiB« fiiitli tlm ««y 

*tf mains iUmwo* (AriM. Una. 973, 

«<t. Ikrilip). IkQMniM bcHofCd that 

Uia liirma to OoM mm ^mhJod, bat 

UiM oil tbo Mlior pooma oMriUil t« 

^ii«Baa wfro fat|r»riM of Ononift. 

[oriUM lloKiir U 1^ *(«afta<' aJ^ 

, tn /ill it i r m 4t Ai|i4nfa ^iM* 

hU« M/< — 1. 1- ■■ e-). OaewMTitM «»• 

f kIm MgsnM by Man* m tb> ■uUuv 

«f Uie ncK* aMjtibnl la Orpbeo* 

(OlMk. Ala. Stmitb i. n. MTj Sen. 

ibp. PjtttIl UypoCjp. ilL 4, p. IIS, 

pS.) It waa qaMlioar^ nbcthar Uu- 

^MMia or OfplMV* inraoMd Ilia hcota. 

natar (CnL IV. 10). 



V* LMD«of Hormtoiiawkaa Ijrloand 
ditbjrnwnbic |>out uf Ibo hiclMat rop«U>. 
He m« aiuj to hava ba«D the an* 
■itvotor U PMar (Hioik. Has. Tit. 
Pind.), and to bavo oonieadod with 
Iha klCT SimoaldM (ArtMAfih. Vaap. 
1304, ed. BoUm). Sm* t«cb»ad 
him MnDBg 11m aara aagta of Oraaw 
(QMi^pp. Ft. S; Behel. ad, Arittofdi. 
1. a. «^). Ba wrota ft trtatian Mi nuufa 
(ibiil. t oomp. Flotkrith, M»«. it p. 
11U, B.), and alao Colteia dialMioal 
dupotAiioiu, tbs produoe pcsfaapa of 
hk intaroouna wttfe XonapMnoi (Plst. 
Da Titloa. pod. ti. p. 930. P.). IhildM 
(ad too. iTMXialiMrmUM) makaa Iiia 
tha tnl iaTentocof th« Cyclic OhocM. 
(Compat* SeboL ad Ariit. Ar. ItOO). 
UtraUomo, bi« aatlTo town, v«a tbo 
oapiUI of a dialrict nUliyl Ucrmloitif, 
nkiah ailjoined tba atalca o( TnMan 
Bad EpUaonui hiuBiiiaa ba« left a 
daaerlpUaa of It (ii. sntT. { I fiJl) 
oaiD|il4{vlj >dmff}r^ tt witb Um 
Dwlcrn Kartri, athich Um «a tlw IHHl 
coau of tba rolopoanaw, oppoaito 
llf ilfio. Um wall* tvaiala, and w^mj 
faundatloua ot tha audoU I«MptM. 
((idl'i iloraa. p. IWi Lmbo-R Muraa. 
roL ii. M. 4«], 46S) C'Drlliw' EWcFp. 
mL ii. p. 4».) 



4 





Ca*r. 6-ft. 



XERXES 1SSP.UBLES A COLtNai. 



y 



I 



he folil Xerxes, " that n Porsian should bridgo tho HeiDMpoQfc 
and march an army from Asia into Greece." Whil© On 
macritus tlius plit-<) Xmos with Itis oraolos, tho PisiHtratida 
and Alcuudio did not cihiro to proos ou bim tbuir udrice,* 
till at Inst tho king ;i(ild<.-d, aud agrood to lead forth an 
expedition. 

7. Firutf hoTeTer, Id the year foUoirinf; the death of 
Paritui,'' he marched against tiiosa irho had rerolted from 
him; and hanng toducvd tliem, and laid all Epyjit amlet 
a hi harder yoke tliaa cTor his fatlier had put upuu it, he 
gaT9 iho gOTemmont to Aotuemcnes, vho wis hin own brother, 
and SOD to Darius. This Achmncnes vas nftcrn-ardB nluiu 
ia his government by Inarms, the son of Psammetichns. a 
Libyan.' 

6. (S 1.) After Egypt was snbdned, Xerceii, being nbouttj 
to taku in liAnd tho expedition against Athens, called'togi'the 
an aasemkly of the nobk'^t Pontianii, to leam their op)nion8,J 
and to lay before them his own doHigos.* So, when the men 
vero met, the king npake than to them : — 

" PersiAns, I shall not be the first to bring in among yoa a 
new custom — I shall but follow one which hau come down to 
OS from our forefathers. Merer yet, aa our old men asoure me, 



* TboM nrn pntLAbI;r tho pMnuirfoiM 



tttf-M tiflm- MiMi JT, it n iU> m'T« 
•a*t»> ]*•««■ In al]^ iW y itttfim 
MaJ al^^i.*. wrf* ** *»<*» <•>*'- aM'- 
nttlf If t,t»t»t U^^^^ nXUm t»*m m»ttr 

■tftlL_l4. 

'...-. ASS. Swr " ■ ".. 4, 

* V iilc' Hi{ir*. ii:. hi) atiae 

tuKl illelfttCll; Kl'ii :■■•:■■ ainit; IcttKH, 

Oanipiin< Hi. 1^, vriih 'rliu«}r<l. L 10(, 
100, 11(1 1 >B(1 Di'xl. S'tf. xi. 74. Ki>n>- 
dMna, whca Id ^KJI't. hkil «Ma th» 
bMUn-Ai'ld when A«iiBui«aM n« 
•Un, Oil] wliitD wKfa Um bnnc* u( 
Ue iMlalNiUiiM. CtnlM^ <riili liia 



aaaal incarMatiHiM, «nlU AeluDmaoiMj 
bj tt>« ittlTDoyiBic AchwnwnidM, : 
tiiiik«v bim a ton initaail of ft broth 
nt X«mM. Aa XcrxM wm bora, MfJ 
Uio ofttliiMl, la B.C. US, tho voftr i ~ 
tho ftoaeMdoB at Oarinii, bo could 
•Oftrcriy luvo bad • Btoini-np moi iit^ 
s.c. 48&, wbiii ho ira« al Iho ntnMt 
tbirtr-ux yuan of aco. 

* TbCBO (pMcluMi bxvn sonrcctlj I 
Ugtuir hl*Uiric«I «ban>ct"r tlinii thcwl 
of Ih* eouf^nton in tl>n thinl boofe 
(lupra, iii 80^ now^. Th<7 mnit I 
ouaiiilerc^ tunrarcT, M «mbod}ri«f 1 
t'miait M iroU lu Qmok Tfewi of tlw 
etrcniniitAOC'M oul tri whicJi Iha war 
ani*u. aad lb* rouli<ii{« of thot* i>hit 
«o)pig«d in it. Ori^vUl rrapoot lar 
tajitUy flriyt« to ctuDcnU* ScrsMj 
(fym all bJuiu. 



6 



SfEECa OF XEUXES. 



Book VII. 



liaa our race reposed itself, since tbo timo vlios Cyrus ovor- 
came Aatyagea, and i*o we Pcrwans wmstwl tliu sccplro from 
tbo Medes. Now in all this God goides as ; and we, obeying 
his guidance, prosper greatly. Wliat need have I to tell you 
of tbo deeds of Cyrus and Cambyseo, and my ovn father 
Darius, bow many nations they conquered, and added to our 
dominions? I'e know right well what great things they 
achieved. JJut for niywlf, I will eny thai, from the day on 
which I mounted tbo tlironv, I have not ceased to consider 
by what means I may rival tlioite who have preceded me in 
this post of honour, and increase the power of Persia as much 
as any of them. And truly I have pondered upon this, until 
ut last I have found out a way whoreby we may at once win 
glory, and likewise get posseEsion of a land which ia as large 

' Bad as rich as our own — nay, which is even more varied in 
the fruits it hears — while at the same time we obtain satis- 

I .faction and revenge. For this canse I have now called yon 

rtogrthcr, that I may make known to you what I dueign to do. 
(i 2.) My intent is to throw a bridge over the Hvlleepont 
and march an army through Europe against Greece, that 
thereby I may obtain vengcauce from the Athenians for the 
wrongs committed by them against the Persians and against 
my &ther. Your own eyes saw the preparations of Darius 
against these men ; but death came upon liiui, and balki.-d hts 
hopec of revenge. In his behalf, tlierefore, and in behalf 
of all the Persians, I uncbTtako the war, and pledge myself 
not to reat till I have taken and burnt Athens, which has 
dared, unprovoked, to Injure me and my Catbor . Long stnoe 
they came to Asia with Ariiftagoros of MiUiuii. who won one 
of our slares, and, entering Sardis, burnt its templen and its 

I. sacred groves ; ' again, more lately, when w« made »4andbig 
upon their coast under DotiB and Artaphemes, how roughly 
they handled U8 ye do not need to he told. (§ 8.) For these 
reasons, therefore, I am bent upon this war; and I see like- 



I 



I 



> aapra. T. 100.10S. b ia Mt Ifkoly 
UiM X«noi iKxiliI hare pHtiewlniMd 



snhMtatkkL 



The «p«ooh it qiiU* 



.8,9. 



ASDBfSS OF SIABDOMtTEL 



VIM tb«rewiU) ocitod no fw adrantagefl. Once let ne sabdue 
tbis p«opU, and those ni'igliboiirs of theirs wbo liold tlio land 
of Felops tbo PLrygiftn,' aud we shall extend the Fvreian 
territory as ^ as God's heaTcn reaches. The aun vill then 
abioe on no land beyond our borders ; for I vill pass throngh 
EoToiie from ono end to the other, and with your aid moke of 
all the laoda which it euntuiiis one country. For thus, if what 
I hear be true, nfTairs ntand : The nations whcR-of I have 
spoken, once swept away, there is no city, no country K'ft in 
all tbo world, which w^ venture bo much as to withstand 
us in anna. By this course Uicu wo sball bring alt mankiud 
under our yoke, alike those who ore guilty and those who are 
iiuiocout of doing us wrong. (§ 4.) For yourselves, U you 
wish to pleaso nic, do as follows : When I announce the time 
for the army to meet together, hast«n to the mugter with a 
good will, every one of yon; and know that to the man 
who brings with him the most gaUont array I will give the 
gifts which our i>eop1e consider the most hououi-ubk.^ This 
tbvn h what ye have to do. Sut to sliow that I am not Bolf- 
wil^-d in this matter, I Jay tbo baslnoss before you, and ffyo 
you full leav© to speak your minds upon it openly." 
Xenoa, Laving so spoken, held his peace. 
0. ($ 1.) Wborenpon Mardonius took the word, and Eaid — 
" Of a truth, my lord, thou dutrt surpass, not only uU living 
Persians, but likowi«o thoso yet oaboru. Most true and right 
is OMb word tluit thou hast now uttered ; but best of all 
, thy nsolve not to let the lonians * who live in Europe — a 



V 



■ PcImwEi nOnd k Lfdiubr Flsxlor 
(Ot. I. 97), \ij UtcT • ranlhlMiMuaa 
iVr. B9). Ad hi* fBtb«r, TaiiUlna. i* 
kioK of SlTylom (Apoikd. ill. t. G), 
Pli^br's ■ODMBctature wonU wnot lo 
bt lb* BiMt Hurtct. 

*TU»lBCn. oh. I». 110(0 <. 

*ThI«ilM«f Uipunn "I(imlna'*far 
Ike Barofi'aa Onirl:,! iMnoicamial, but 
ifciniitiiiit'iii nf ifiii "liiiiUI inodHof 
•pMcK tod mu-ki Ilvnxkitoa for * 
KMB obwTTw of Little iwouliuitioi. 



Thai Uio lows Inev tlio Grc«ks at 
larirc under the namo of Jaran, or 
Jnruiim (O?;'), which i» eijaiikinat 
to lomuu l'Ufar*t), hnn been fro- 
qniini)/ ootlcfd ; bat it liAi oaljr ra* 
CDUlly Kpptiund from iho Inloriptioaa 
tW thofVr»i(ui*<liil Ibotsnio. Datina 
inclmlca tbn wlwla citcut of bia 
Onwian dunuDioni biuIgt tho ain^ 
tills of ynna (wbloh In tlio Bab^loi^ii 
tmwcript boroiDo* t'avanu), and thia 
■wt only in hla «arlior moauuiaiKa ub 




10 



ADDBCS3 OF IUBIK>XIU9. 



Book TIL 



worthless crcv— mock ns aof more. It were indeed s 
^ moQiitrouB thing if, nfU'r conquering and en8la\-iiiK tlio 8ao(B,* 
tbfl Indians, the Ethiox>iAUH, the Assyrians, and muny otbtr 
migbtj naUons, not for any vronj* tliat tlicy bad done as, 
but only to increase our empire, we should tlit-n allow tbo 
Grcfiks. who have done ns such wanton injury, to escape our 
Tengeance. What is it that wc fear in them? — not surely 
their nunihers? — not the greatness of their wealth? "We 
know the m&nner of their battle — wo know how veak their 
power is ; already have we subdued their children who dwell 
in our couutr}*, the louians, iEolians, oud Dorians. I myself 
have had experience of these men when I marched against 
them by the orders of thy father; and though I went as far us 
Macedonia,* and came but a little short of reaching Athens 
itself, yet not a soul ventured to coma out against me to 
', battle. (§ 2.) And yet, I am told, these very Greeks are wont 
I to wage wars agaiust one another in the mo»t foolish way, 
tbroagh sheer pcrrersity and doUishness. For no sooner 
is war pruchiimcd than Ihcy seiirch out th« smoothest oad 
fairest plain tliat is to be found iu oil the land, and thoro they 
assemble and fight ;^ whence it oomoe to pais that even 



, BaUilaB ud PUMpdfa, bat in Um 

f'l-Bo>(ain, nhieli bBlouga to » !&U) 

f period ill hit tviicn- lleni (wa looiaa 

. ftTo mcBliooed. um «! wlu'<A tttmda 

t'Icarl; for Asialie. Mid tJie other for 

EnivpcnQ Grcoc* (mw Sir D. lUiwlia- 

■on'* Itnlimtiin Umiioir. «h. iv. |k I!>7, 

eb. V. yi<. 2S0 kiiil SlU). H<'i>oo the 

dmnkliciTourict* of Uio «ipr«a>ioiiB, 

I'-'laJrax y^^- for "BoUm.^' is tho 

^.mevth (4 AtoMa in tW Ptnm of 

JOmUjin (L Ita) maA'-'laorai," tot 

[ " BcUmMv" or " Atboniaii." in thul al 

KAtiilofhiMM (L lOi). WliU tbo 
t BdioUMt Mlb»l>lt(irtiaMM(!i> mjwol 
^allllMfaMbariau (wJvm reh'tMitm 

'titm *t ffdpta^t ini^arr) iriis un. 

doaU«41}r Uve of liiit Pfniian*, nnr. 

tepa of tte Ailaikv ccikpr«IJr. [Tbo 



^ 



CTpma tlio FaitMii or Ttnitn. 8o« 
thn InicripCkinii jhiuiiu. — tl. C B.] 

* Appnrsntly Hanioniaa maea* (h* 
Soi lliuuin ol Knrofio, wham lie r«pn* 
>0D<> M reduced u> ii^fBTf hf (ill) wt- 
pcdiiion of Dkhna. Hla «iieiiii»n(tlaa 
Ii In>cr4 likckimrdilu k Ti'icalnr un1«ir. 
TfC-H-ting to tbo Soytliiui And IndJMt 
rv|i("liiiosB of Daria* (npn. ir. U), 
thu EiJiJopiaa expaditioB m Caiohyttt 
(liL S3), oad tfao BobjIeolMi nminiMt 
cl C7TIU. Duida tippMrs 10 t*** 
eloinurd SoyUuB na a ptu-l of bio do.. 
minicaiB. (Sna the JsKriplioa on bla 
t«nib.wbi!ro. Iwndci llic Socd AMiyii^ 
and the Saou^ bawmr.a, nsolher Bey- 
thia (Snlv) appMn in cwiBWJoa witk 
hi* birr MD^uvita.l 

* Rntm, ri. «. tt. 
f ll >« not Tcrv oloar on wbat hoM 

iB«ail;'GtH)iiuiVlilorT'tbUatat«iiwat 
iatoiuidod. CoruiulyititboMoMKuaa 



I 

1 



CaAV. 0, 10. 



SI'EECR OF ABTABANOS. 



II 



the conqaerois doporl mtli great \osa ; X iittj notliing of 

the ooaquered, for tiie; 01% destroyed altogctlier. Nuw Buntly, 

as UtD; ore all of one sp«ocb, tboy oagbt to iiitu-chan^o 

faorsl<U and maswngcrg, and mnkc up their diffi^rcitMS by any 

tnecDB ratlier tfaan battle ; or. at tbo worHt, if they must needs 

fight one against imotbur, (ho; ought to post tlK-mselres 

8» strongly as possible, and so try their qoanrelg. But, 

notnitliBtanding that they have ho foolish a moiuier of 

VirUuK, yet tbcae Greeks, when I led my army against tbem 

to the very borders of Slac^donia, did not so ntucb as think erf 

offering mo battle. (§ 8.) ^lio then vn]l daro, O king] to 

moet thoo in anns, vben tboa comtst vrith all Asia's varrion 

at thy back, and with all her ships ? For my part, I do not 

bvliove thfl Orcok {wople will be so foolhardy. Grant, 

jliowuwr, that I am mistaken herein, and tliat they are 

HboliHh cnoitgb to meet ns in open Ggbt ; in that ease they 

^Hj^li»m that thoro arc »o sacb Eoldiors in the vrbolo world 

^IBn). Nevertheless, lot us eparo no pains ; for nothing 

comes without troablo ; but all that men acquire is got by 

poinfltnking." 

^^ Wheu Mardonius had in this way softened the harsh spoc«b 

^Bjf Xerxes, ho too held bis peace. 

^V 10. The other Pentions wore Rllont ; for all feared to raise 
Pfewir voice againiit the plan proitosod to thi'ra. But Arta- 
bauos, the eon of HystaspeH, and onole of Xerxes, trust- 
ing to hifl relationship, was bold to !t|>eak; — "0 king!" ho 
said, "it is iutposHihle, if no more than one opinion is uttered, 
to make choice of the best : a man is forced then to follow 
whatevur advice may have been given him ; but if opposite 
^^p««<ibe8 an delivetod, then choice can ho cxorciHvd. In like 
^Kanner pore gold is not reoognined by itnclf; but whoa wo 
^Bwt it along with baser ore, we perceive which is the better. 

""■''■■ armiuii w«M eoinnoMdklinntt enl>r«)]r 

of cninlfir, which iwuld onlj ogii-nita 



ind JLmdlM wvn ot Spttta (et. Pu. 
mill*!. Uriii>Ti!»c and AruMlic), Ibu 
Meal < !'0B4 apfHantiohaTg 

boMlL. iiimanociliuws*'^'**'- 

IMbii u.e [cicnaoe to to timM nbra 



<HRi*ciiisntl7 in tboplaim of b cvonttj 
■o moaaliiiiieu oa Gi« 




13 



BPEBCH or ABTABANC& 



Book TIL 



I oouQEelled thy father, Darius, irho vas my ovn brother, not 
to attack the Scyths,^ a race of people who had no town in 
their whole land. IIo thought however to sabdue those wan- 
dering tribes, and would not listen to me, but m&rcbed an 
army against them, and crc ho returned homo lost mnny of 
his brarest warriors. Thoa art aboat, king ! to attack a 
people far superior to the Seyths, a people distingoished above 
others both by land and eeo. 'Tis 0t therefore that I should 
tell thee what danger tlion tnoorrest hereby. (J 3.) Thou 
sayest that thoa wilt bridge the Hellespont, and lead thy 
troopa tlirongh Europe against Greece. Now suppose some 
diaoster befall thee by land or sea, or by both. It may be 
even so ; for the men are reputed valiant. Indeed one may 
meuore their prowess from what ihvy have already done ; for 
fdien Datis and Artaphernes lud their huge army against 
Attica, the Athenians singly defeated them. But grant thtijr 
are not successful on both element:). SliU, if they man their 
ships, and, defeating ns by sea, sail to the Hellespont, and there 
destroy oar bridge, — that, sire, were a fearful hazArd. ($ 8.) 
And here tis not by my own mother wit alone that I con* 
jectnre what will happen ; but I remember how mirrowly we 
escaped disaster once, when thy father, after throwing bridges 
over the Thracian Bosphorus and the Istor, marched against 
the Scythians, and iht-y tried evc-ry sort of prayer to induce 
the lonians, who bad charge of the bridge over the Ister, to 
break the pasaage.* On that day, if Histisus, the king of 
Miletus, had sided with the oUicr princes, and not set him- 
eolf to oppose their views, the empire of the Persians would 
bare come to nought. Surely a dreadful thing ia this ev< 
to bear said, that the king's fortunes depended wholly on 
man. 

(1 4.) " Think tlien no more of incuiring so gzoot a danger 
when no need presses, but follow the adrioe I tender. Break 
op this meeting, and whon thou ba«t well considered the 



I 



)u]d 



* Sajira, Iv. EX. 



• SBjin, W. 133, 190-13$. 



r.ia 



8PESCU or ABTJkMXVS. 



'3 



latter triUi tbyself, and Rettlcd what tbou wilt do, declare to 
thy resolve. I know not of uui^ht in the vodi that so 
profits a man ae taking good counsel with himself; for «tcd if 
thinga fall oat against oni^'s hopes, still one has ootuiHelled 
wU, tbongh fortuoo has made the counsel of none effect : 
vhercaa if a man oonnsela tU and lack follows, he has gotten 
a niod^, but hiii counsel is none tha 1m8 ailly . (} 6.) Seeet 
thoa how God with his Uglituiitg smitos always the bigger 
animals, and will not suffer them to wax insolent, while tho«e 
of a lesMF hulk ohafe him not ? How likewise his bolts fall 
ftver on Uio highest bonses and the tallest trees ? Bo plainly 
doea be love to bring down ervrything that emits itself. 
Thus ofttimes a mighty host is diHcomfiUd by a few nieu, when 
God in his jealoUBy sends fear or storm from heaven, and 
they polish in n way unworthy of tbem. For God allows no 
ona to hare high thoughts but himself.* (\ G.) Again, hurry 
always brings about disasters, from which huge sufftriugs 
ore wont to arise; but in delay lie mnny advantages, not 
apparent (it may be) at first si^t, but hucU us In course of 
time are sixn of all. Saoh then is my counsel to thoc, 
king I 

() 7.) " And thou, 3f ordonins, son of Go1)rya8, forbear to 
speak foolislily conoeming the Qreoks, who are men that ongbt 
not to be lightly esteemed by us. For while thou revilest the 
Greeks, tbou dost encourage the king to lead his own troops 
against them ; and this, ss it seems to me, is what thou art 
epeciaUy striving to accomplish. Heaven send thou succeed 
not to thy wish I For slander is of all evils the most terrible. 
In it two men do wrong, and one mun has wrong doiio 
to him. The slauderer does wrong, forasmuch as he abuses 
a man behind his back ; and the hearer, forasmuch as ho 
belieres what he has not searched into thoroughly. The 
man slandered in hia absence suffers wrong at the bands of 



■ Sm note * <B Book i. di. Si, and 

Mmpara 111. to. Hr. Orate bu cono 

ilu tm ilio nligiaw lMDp«r 




of HorodotM In tvtemxca to tlio 
pnomt puMg* (HUt. of GrMc*, vol. 
r.p.8). 



ftEPLT or XEBXES. 



Boox TU. 



both : for one brinnis agaimHt him a lalse cltarf;i> ; and Uio 
other thinkfl hiiu ao evil-doer. (§ 8.) If, however, it muHt 
needs be that we go to war with this pcofde, at leaxt allov tLo 
king to abide at home in Persia.* Then let thee and me both 
stake our childron on th« issue, and do thou chooM oQt thjr 
mtsn, and, talking vriUi thc'v whatt!vc<r uumLcr of troops thou 
likeet, lead forth our armies to battle. If things go well for 
the king, as thoa Hajest thoy will, kt mo and my children 
be put to d<^ath ; bat if thoy fall out as I prophesy, let tby 
children suffer, and thyself too, if thou shalt come back alire. 
But sbouldest tbou refuHfi tht» wager, and Btill renolre to 
march an army against Greece, ouro I am that some of thoM 
whom thou lenvest behind thee hero will oso day recoire tbo 
sad tidingx, that Mardoiiiua ha^t brought a great disaster apoa 
the Persian people, and lies a prey to dogs and birds some- 
where in the land of the Athenians, or else in that of the 
LAC«da)moniaiis; onless indeed thou shalt have perisliod 
Boonor by the way, eiperiencing in thy own person the might 
of those men on whom thon wooldest fain induce tbo king to 
make war." 

11. Thuii spake Arlabanus. But Xerxes, fnll of wrath, 
replied to him — 

" Artabanns, tbou art my other's brother — that shall eun 
thee from receiving the duo meed of thy silly words. One 
sbame however I will lay upon thee, coward and fiunt-bearted 
as thon art — thou shalt not oome with mo to fight those 
Greeks, bat Hhalt tarry here with the women. 'Without tby 
aid I will accomplish all of which I spake. For l«t me not bo 
thoaght the child of Darius, the son of Ilystaspes, the son 
Arsames, the son of Ariaramnes, the son of Teiapes, Uio eon 
of Cyrus,* the son of Cambyses, the son of Teispes, the son ot 



I 



I 



* AnxMrrortfaanfotyoftlwklMg 
i( MjHiriKll.r Mraag unoDg U>* Oriva. 
!■)■. wlwc« " Ifca p«raem «t the monuvb 
!■ lb* oontowl jxriBt mxa-l wKinh vtittf. 
Uiiw *im rorolrw" (Koonm** An 



yJtm et AiteMlKb <fiite, viii. 10^^ 
•nd Ik* oBOiMiaenl w«rB»l of Xon» 
•0 (ooa u dkBRW thna<«Dcd. X 
«&rlDS in Ui« Fdiw, dow not abow 
•Coital Bppncwtiaa of tUa rrallnn. 
* Hen Ihan oas critio hM tuiiiiinl * 




Cur. 10, 11. 



REP1.T OF XEEXES, 



tS 



Ae hg meoeg, if I take not rengeaoce on Ui« Atlitmans. Full 
well I know that, were we to reomia at refit, yet would Dot 
tb^, bat wotilJ moEt certainly inrade our country, if at least 
it bo right to judgo from wbat tbey hare already done ; Tor, 
reaflmbtir, it woti tlicy vbo tired Sardis and attacked Asia. 
80 now retreat is on both sides impossible, and tbu cboico lies 
between doing and suffering injuty ; either our enipir« muftt^ 
pass under the dominion of the Greeks, or tlicir land beoomi 
the prey of the Persians ; for there h no middle coarse left in 
this quarrel. It is right then that we, who have in times pa»t 
received wrong, ehoiild now avenge it, and that I should 
thereby discover what that great rtBk* is which I run in 



Iki vnniBKof tUspaJB^a raoUKn^, 

JaudatL Pita. f. US3) ; bnt It ro- 
natBad tor aodei* Jiitcawmy ta ft<va 
Otrtaisty tu tboir oonjwton*. The 
|«i»>lnjj et Umelf irhifb Dnniii 
nwed M W eo^tmtri on lh« nwks of 
BaUMvi ibuntinc* nbwlstclr tht 
*'"~*'~ 'r^ |[*"m''~*" baiirDon a*ix« 
■ad Atjimiinma, rnnng wtat liaJ 
ban ttmify •aniMd, tlurt CkanmiM 
«f C^rQi Bad CafflfevMB do ve* b*fang 
to ifao (icm «t Dariw, but ua throwit 
byJCraxM Into III* lid of hamwton 
ia (tekl cf bit inot&R- AlMM, tte 
^ ■■ Sl i i w al I^Tu. It u pvaobh 
tbal tb« Int erigiiainj- (Uwd tbu y- 



ta* 'A/<rj|it>«t, TM 'AfiOfiiiiriU!, rau 
T'fwfH, leal K^'pDu, tuu ILit>S^<ri(«, 
Tav Kiyav, *4v KOfUBultv, Tor T<lmar, 
T«5 'AxaiR/rHi yfjitrAt, s. r. A. Tlia 
dmiU* (icKvrrtaM cf Uw namM uf 
Cj^ma acA Cviabjtm liciag ni y poa u l 
to bo a Butako of tbo oopjittM, cob 
Cjm* and dmbjaca DSky ba*a baes 
ml rack oqC ; tkay woold estniallj taka 
with them Um iin|iattaaii wotdsa' 
wldoli wooU b« thinxbt to ba alM 1 
niataka, or at l«aM would act b« and 
Mood I and thna IkaowMgo but ba* 
oUainad it« praaal torn. Atanvntti 
th«c« i« tiiifadoabi UiBt tbm t«alg 
alcfcy na aa f olknra 1 — 



»)., 



.1 



Cyrankaanal. 



ArtvkJKoek 






I 
Duta 



I 

AtOM. 



Xbus. 



Tba 00I7 donbtfal nana in Uda Sit U 
(iaC ■< CiiaibjruM, Ibc EuhrR- of th* 
alitr C;Tiia, fur which Uicra i* no 
Mt«a«ilMnt7tliaBDu)datM(L ■.£.). 



For Iha fnll pnealocj of Ika 
Menidn an Kotc B. in Uia A; 
tottuiBock. 
* Xanoi tttera hen to tim «adi« 



l5 



XEBxes vtmos. 



Bme til 



marching ftgain^t tfacse mm — mon whom PciloiM Uie Pbry^an, 
a tmmI of m; for^fatbern,' 8ubdu«d no atterly, that to tbii 
da; both th« land, and the people who dwell tbereio, alik* 
boor the name of tli« conqueror ! " 

12. Tbna far did the Bpeakinj? proceed. AfUrwnrds ovoning 
foil : and Xerxes b«gan to find the advice of Artnl>nnu» groAtlj 
diftqaiet him. So he thought upon it daring the night, and 
conclndcd at last thnt it woe not for bis advantage to lead an 
army into Oree«R. When be bad thus made op bis mind 
anev, bo foil a«lcep. And now he saw in the nigbt, as the 
Fenians declare, a Tieioa of tbia natnre — ho tbougbt a tall 
and beaiitifal man stood over him and Baid, '* East thoa tben 
changed thy mind, Persian, tuid wilt tboti not lead forth tby 
boftt against the Gre«liH, aftvr commanding the Porsians to 
gather together their Icvivh 7 Be eiire thoa doest not well to 
change ; noi is tb«ro a man horn who will approve thy oon- 

(dact. Hie course that thoa didst di-tormine on daring the 

[day, lot that be followed." After thus speaking the man 

I seemed to Xerxes to fly away. 

18. Day dawned ; ami the king made no acconnt of this 
dream, but called together the same X'ersians as before, and 

Ispake to them as follows : — 

" Men of Persia, forgive me if I alter the resolve to whiob 
I came so latC'ly. Consi<Ier that I have not yet rcaebed to the 
foil growth of my wisdom, and that tbey who urge me to 
engage in this war leavo mo not to myself for a moment. 
When I heard the advice of Artabanus, my yonng blood end- 
dtiinly boiled ; and I ttpake words against him little befitting his 
years : now however 1 confess my fault, and am resolved to 



DMtt of lb* ipNoh of ArlkbaDW, »nd 
ilw poril* tluc* pnt fontttiil (4apn, ch. 

lerodetat MlinM ths begiBninf 

^ Hiatorr tl«t Uia Ptnimm* iMt» 

' »d Ailk ud rII tU aMiona m 

«wn •lw»7« irkr 'Aai«r ml Ti 

hiftimttrT* Una ttttuvrrm *t tlJ^vai, i. 

4). In thk agttU XmM m «um1« to 



ItMared 
ItMr 



claim TolofM Uio PbT7K>*ii U ■ Fem'aa 
nma\. ti>aui[b M llw tUno whoa Pd- 
lopt <aooardiiig to tke trndltloo) ouua 
to Otmm (ftb. a-c. UOO), tLo IVniwi 
tnboi wcM probkblj eetifliicd an ynt 
wiiUn the Ckipian IHt«a, or perhlpa 
hml nM fv^a nnorgad frutn thnie 
nriinitira nal* WjoDil tba Utadioo 
Koo*h Moao Intnl. 



■*r. 11-lG. XBRXBS' OOLLOIJCT WITH A1tTABAMC& 



17 



dIJot his coansel. UixIerHtand. tlien, that I have changed 
ay ii)t«nt with respect to currying wur into Greece, and ceaae 
■ trouble yoonwlvos." 

Whfii tlicy heani these vrorAe, the Pcrsiana were foil of joy, 

id, falling down at tho feet of Xorics, made obeisance to him. 

14. Bnt vlien night came, ogatn the same vision stood over 

Urxee as he slept, and sai<I, " Son of Darins, it aooms tboa 

bast open]y before all the Persians renounced tlie oxpoditioD, 

Qg tight of my words, as though thou hndat not heard 

them spoken. Enow there-fore and bo well ussitred.thattmlcss 

tfaoQ go forth to Ihe war, this thing shall happeu unto tliee — 

as thoa art grown mighty and puissant in a short space, 

80 likowiw ahalt thou within a Uttle time be brought low 

^indeed." 

^B 16. Then Xcrxos, greatly frightened at tlio vision which be 
^Btad set-n, sprang from his couch, and iti-nt a mosscngcr to call 
^B^iilxLutiR, who eamo at the Rummona, when Xerxes spoke to 
him in these words : — 

" Artabanus. at tho moment 1 acted foolishly, when I gave 

lee ill words tn rotum for thy good advice. Howt^vcr it was 

at long eT« I rcponted. and waft eonvinoed that thy counsel 

> imeb OS I ought to follow, lint I may not now act in this 

f, greatly as I desire to do so. For ever since I repented 

and changed my mind a dream has baonted mo, which dis- 

' ai^mnvs my intentions, and has now jost gone from me with 

JHttuvRts. Now if this drc-am is sent to mo from God, and if it 

HU indv'f'd his will that our troopH should march aguiust Greece, 

Uioa too wilt have the aamo dream come to thee, and receive 

the same ooiuraands as myself. And this will bo most sure to 

bsppen, I Utink, if thou pnttest on the dress which I am wont 

to wear, and then, after taking thy seat upon my throne,' liest 

down to sleep on my bed." 





* B^nTMantfttiona etf the PerrfMi 

Ma found en tlu IVn«poliU& 

In gvDcml tliMMtcr It 

to h*iv nMmUod ih* AaqrkD ; 

TOt. IV. 




bnl it W1M IcH olabonUi, tuiil furlhor 
diMisitaubod (nan tho AiMjriBti bj • 
narlcod di^crraio* In nlmoal all th* de- 
tolU. 8m tbvannoxod vroodcut,p,U. 





iS 



XERXES COU^VT WITU ARTJUUSCS. Boos TIL 



IG. Such Trere the vorAs of Xerxes. Artabanus would not 
at first yield to tlio cununund ol tho klug ; for ho de>cmed 
himeetf unworthy to eit upon tho royal throne.' At tho hut 
hovoTor ho vm forced to give way, and did aa XerxeB badv 
him ; bat fir»t ho npake thim to the king ; — 

" To me, sure, it Becms to matter little whether ft man is ' 
vise himsolf or willing to hearken to such as give good adTic«. 
In tbee truly are fuuud both tempers ; hut the couuii«]8 of «vO 
m«n lead theo astray : they aro liko the gales of wind which 
vox tho BCBk— cJbo tho most useful Uiing for man In the whol« 
world — and suffer it not to follow the bcut of it« own nature. 
For myself, it irked me not bo much to be rejiroAched by theo, 
aa to obftc-rve, that when two coursea were placed before the 
Persian people, one of a nature to Increase ttieir pride, tb« 
other to bomble it, hy ehowing them how hurtful it is to allow 
one's heart always to coTot moro than one at present poseesses, 
thou modest choice of that which whs tho worst both for thy- 
self and for the Persians. (§ 2.) Now tboa sayeet, that from 



' BittinK vjicti the kJDg'i Ummo ti 
ta,'.i\ to littrAboMi anOlbBoeptuiiidiftblo 
wiUi dwUi in IVai* (()■ Cnrt. nii. 4, 
1 1? I Tklor. Uu. T. 1, p. 1?7 1 rrontia. 



Stnt. Iv. 6, S 3). ArtabaniH wooU 
boaUota, not knowing wIioUmv Xws 
mifbt not Im litjriag • trap Ut lUn. 




]fltf.l«, 17. XEBXES' COLtOQirr WITH A]rrABAKV& 



19 




tba timo vlira tlion clMlsi Approve tbrt bottcr conrse, and give 
up tbe tliought of ^rarring against Greece, n dreun hu 
bftouted tbc«, sent by some god or other, vbicb nill not Huff^r 
thee to lay aside the expedition. But sncb things, my son, 
bare of a tmth nothing divino in thorn. The drefltDB, tbat 
wander to and bo among monlciiid, I will tell thee of what 
natnre tbey are, — I who bavo won so many more years than 
thou. 'Wbatovot a man has bc«n thinking of during the day, is 
wont to boTor round hioi in the viRionaof bis dreams nt uighu 
ow w« (hiring thc8« many days imnt bare hnd our hands full 
this enterpriitc. ($ 9.) If however the miitt«r bo not as I 
ppoBC, but Ood baa indeed eome part therein, tbou hnid ia 
i declared the whole tbat can be eaid concerning it — lut it 
Ten appear to me as it has to thee, and lay on mo tho same 
injoQctione. But it ought not to appear to me any tlio more 
if I put on thy cIotheH than if I wear my own, nor if I go to 
Bleep in thy bed than if I do so in Diine--suppoeing, I mean, 
tbat it is about to a])peiir at all. For this thing, be it what it 
may, that risits thee in tby slocp, eurely lb not bo far gone in 
folly as to 6<x mt<, and beeaofio I am dressed in tby clothcR, 
straij;htway to mistake mo for theo. Kow howorer our busi- 
ness is to see if it will regard me as of small account, and not 
voochsafd to appear to mo, whether I wear mine onu cIotliM 
or thine, while it keeps on haunting thee continually. If it 
does 60, and appears often, I should myself say that it was 
from God. For the rest, if tby mind is fixed, and it ia not 
possible to turn thm frum thy design, but I must needs go and 
sleep in tliy bed, well and good, let it bo even bo ; and when I 
baru (loDD w tliou wishost, tlien let the dream appear to me. 
Till BQcb tiino, however, I shall keep to my former opinion." 

17. Thus spalio Artnbanus; and when ho had so eaid, 
iliinkiiig to show Xerxes tttat his words were nought, he did 
accordiug to his orders. Having put on the garments which 
nuiH was wont to wear, an<l taken his soat niwn the royal 
, bo lay down to slci-p upon the king'n ovm bed. As ho 
tilers appeared to him the very same dream which bad 



20 



THK VISION APPEARS TO AETABASTa 



Book 




been Bcen by Xorxcs ; it ciune and tXood over Artabanos, and 
said: — 

"TIiou nrt the man, then, who, foigmng to b« tender of 
Xencx, B«ckc»t to dtsBuacIc bim from leading liig armies 
against the Greeks! But thou slialt not ««ca[Mi ftcatbless, 
oitber now or in titno to como, because thou bast souglit to 
prevent Uiat whioli is fated to happc^n. As for Xerxes, it has 
lieeu plainly told to tiimself what will befall him if he refoses 
to perform my bidding." 

18. In each words, as Artabanus tlioaglit, the ristOD 
threatened him, and then endeavoured to bam ont bifi eyes 
with ri-d-hot irons." At this he shrieked, and, leaping from 
his couch, hurTitd to Xerxes, and, sitting down at his side, 
gave bim a full uc>oomil of the i,-istoa ; after which ho wont on 
to Biwak in the words which f<dlow : — 

" I, King ! am a man who have seen many mighty om 
pires overthi-own by weaker ones ; and therefore it was that I 
fiunght to hinder ttiiHi from being quite corrivd away by thy 
youth ; since I knew how evil a tlitag it is to covet more than 
one possesses. I could romembei the expedition of Cyras 
against the Massagctn, and what was tho issuu of it ; I could 



4 



* Pottias eat Ilia aj^ 1>M bran In 
•n Mgm • coBmoa OriOBlal iinniah- 
BMmt. Tlie toiibwt insMnco on rNmrd 
U llinl (it ZtdoldoL. wlioao njatt wen 
pnt oot bf Jiotnickadnmnr {Junns. 
jauix, 7| Vi. II). Tlio inqmatf ot 
Om pnniAhMMut is tin tim* of tlie 
jnmgar Ojrma b indicKtod bj a p**- 
•o^a In XetwpiMn, wbM* It i* Mid 
thiU nwB dcpriTcd ot fiifiA for tboir 
cfinH war* a tcm m on «|>Ml*i'lo(*aX- 
Aiiiit i|r Ihb) ttloOK tliB bighwnri 
wltUs Ua gDTonnent (Amb. I. uc. 
lS)i Jiv oontianuiap bi laUx litne* 
ia bntImi) bf aaoh wrilor* m Atn. 
mknaa HatitOiaua (xxvii. 12) ncd 
PrcooplDii (OeBclL Fm. i. ll.p.SO). 

Mf. GrA* aoca ia ihii wbolo oajm. 
live DoUiing bnt "nUcliMa Imwtn. 
Mlon"— B«>»lAiM tmbooTingthadaop 
movietloa, alike of Gn«ln and of 



PMtlant, tint Di^bies tWiafk ditM< 
djrine iRi«r|>u>iiiiin onuM Iiatv bniciglit 
■bant Um- liwucMsiilentt/ Krait •nmU 
whicft wciv ogonDcIofl with Iha 
ttSpO^tlon nf Xorxnn (lIlnl. of Otsk*, 

T. pp. 13. 11). I inrllnv. with Bi^iap 
thiriwalt, to m^Kt a fooidatiDn n 
faei fcr the •toriiM tbkt wore Uild (lUA 
cf Gieooew vol. U. p. S&IV Tho wMk 
uladoT KvrxM mnj haru baon inpoMd 
BpM bj- a iiMtwIwl i^tKtn i and tbo 
BtroogR' one of ArtaLanot mar faav* 
beta mbdnod b/ Uircou. Thnt* la 
[tot aa7 cridraoo In i>huw IbM tha 
" arM aiu) inSuvtie* art at m«k " wcra 
tbow " of the Miuriait piriHtliood ;" but 
it ia nnt imprabakiia that an nupoaitica 
WW! mecMafallT pneltntd npoa tba 
eredaUIr of X«ncra bj- a afcilfallT 
dniHMl fkaiidoo the pan of tho triauta 
of Hanknioa. 



I 





CiAP. 17-19. 



XERXES RESOLVES OK THE WAR. 



21 







^ftiu 



3Ucct the iDftreh of Cambyses Bgoinst Uie EtliiopR ; I bnd 

, port in Ibo attack of l)nnii8 upon tlin Scytbs ; — beiiring 

tiDreforo nil Uteso tbings iii iiiiuil. 1 tbougbt witb mytii.<U tbat 

if tbou eboiiIclMt remain at peace, all men would dix'm Uioe 

fortunate. But as Uiis ioiimisti bas plainly como from above, 

lid a heavcn-Bont dvatruction 8«<:iiifi about to ovcrtako tlio 

Greeks, heboid, I cbnnge to nootbor mind, and alter my 

!its apon tbe matter. ])o thou therefore make known to 

Persians nbat the god bae declared, and bid tbem follow 

tbe orders which were first given, and prepare their kvies. 

'■c- careful to act 60, tbat the bounty of the god may not be 

liudurvd by elockncss on thy part." 

Thus spake tbi'so two togother; and Xerxes, being in good 
heart on account of tbo ^.iHiou, wbon day broko, laid all before 
tbePt-niana; wbiluArtabamis, who had formerly biv>n tbe only 
penon oi>cnly to oppose tbe expedition, now showed as opuoly 
that he favoured it. 

19. After Xerxes bod thus determined to go forth to tbo 

war, there api>earctl to biin in bis eleep yet a third \-iBion. 

Tbe Magi were consulted upon it,' and said that its meaning 

reached to tlie whole uartb, and tliat all mankind would 

^become bis servants. Now the vision which the king saw was 

^biis: ho dreamt that be was crowned with a branch of an 

^Hive-treo, and that houghs spread out from the oUve-branck 

^Knd covcrid the wbolo earth ; then suddenly the garland, as it 

lay upon bis brow, vanished. So when the Magi bad thus 

interpreted tbo vision, straightway all the Persians who were 

como togetlier departed to tbetr eevi:ral gowrumvnts, where 

each displayetl Uie greatoet zc<al, on tbe faith of tbe king's 

Ion. For all hoped to obtain for tbt-msolvos tbo gifts which 




Vide taps, i. ICQ; Mii oooipMV 
■If tiivluBt. j. S3, where tbo Uagi 
mill (o taTO propbonod. bom » 
no whicli Cf nw bid, that Lc would 
"TCigaforUiiKfroua. Fi>rtlieii*nn«t 
pnaUM unuoc tlw OrioeUl cMioa* to 
aUaad to diw wiu , miiI (« tvqaiM •■ >n> 
torpntoUwU of ilwut fiwm ilUa )>riu*t«. 



(■>■> Cion. xli. 9 1 Ktil IHii. ii. S i Ir. C. 
Whctlun- the Magi nnlly HIIihI «ucb a 

SMicinn at tho coort of Xvnoi i* > dif. 
■robt qnattioa, iknd c&nnot bo held lo 
boproivd li]rkiit<i>y wluohiiaridoDtly 
0* Utwek DriKiii. Th« •■ oliso crown " 
would kIuim ptoT« Oiit. 




S3 



MAOXITVDE OF THE EXPEDITION. 



BmkVIL 



bad been promimxl.* And so Xorxos gatbend together bis 
host, ransncking enrj eonMir of the cootinent. 

20. Iteckoning from tbo recover; of Egypt, Xerxes Bpcnt 
fonr foil years* in collecting bis bo«t, and making really all 
tbings tliat wen- needful for bis eoldit'n. It ffa« not till tbe 
clow of tbu fiflb year tbat be set (orib on bia marcb, aocom- 
pAoied by a migbty muititude. For of all tbe annametrfa 
vbereof any mention bos reaobcd oa, this was by far tbo 
greatest ;' insomncb tbat no otber expedition compared to 
thta soonu of any account, ncdtber tbat vbicb Darioa nnder- 
I took agaiast tbo Scythians, nor the expedition of tbe Soythiaiu 
(wbtcb the attack of Darius was dengoed to avenge), vben 
tbey, Uing in pursuit of tbe Cimmoriaos, fell upon tbe Median 



■ JbxDnSag to CVmIm (Kan. Van. 
S S% ad fla.) tlio meat haMOnbkcift 
tbu m P«m*B (Dald Mcwita from the 
kfaV mk • RotdoD Und-mill (n'^^V 
Xfi')^ but aieoordiaK to XDoopboa, 
who ii a better >mlwiity, thii «^ not 
«n«i«aBUi>«d in l)Mardliai]rfCft of 
boaoor, wtiicb ooonvM of • hono witk 
a f(Dlden bnillD, • KoMoit wejmdiMr, » 
cbkln kI goM (or tba nook, MntleU ol 
Iba Mmn, kiul » I'onifto {i.e. a UocUan) 
nba (Annth i. ii. I X9i riii. § 9) 
pftoiaHl.iitt.i). f S). TbcrecMibcao 
dMlit tlMt ibl« WM tlw tcgaUt Jtafla* 
liitbaBgo«IXBiu>]>bMi; bniiwUlolU 
g«iwml fMlura* wen fntMmd, It 
may pivboblr hamt T>ried in Mitaia 
)<atDU nl iliRcraitt tioica (c4. B«Umc 
ri. Vi 1 Kadni iii. tf) T\M. AiUxen. 






o. IS I Praoap. do BcD. Pen. i. 17, 
p. iV). U wo maj orodlt Loclao, tbe 
boTM ««• aioallj of tha NitMUB 
lirvR]. 

■ Taciow modea hare ba«n adopted 
et onlalaing the obnwkloBT "i th* 
fMTiDd batmsB (ke battle* of MaiallMn 
nail Balamia. All w>ooaat« a(it* ia 
•tatia; tbo intairal at ten jmn 
(noovd. i. tSi riat. Leg. ill. p. S99, 
C.i Mam. rte. 6S, 66; AmUd. 4S. 
U. p. SlI). the namban in fiamdo. 
Ina ars wiUi dittcnU; bccngbt wiUiia 
UiM ial«CTaL l^rkapa Uio follenriog 
•chMDo, which diSia«bBtili«bllr (root 
CUnMQ-a (P. D. T«]. iL c. H, p. aCKI). 
trill be fuDMl to acconl li-f^- b<-<li vrUb 
tbawcrdtof Uciodotiuaadnilbutfav 



BHCItaClbnlkea. PwpMiiliui umiuh *t i 



> <a(nd.nLI.) 



BadMMi ti Bgjt*. Xi-T-Vr ''"• B«vi. ta t-) 



llMia «! tiMuw. <>y Un,iTlfu. IJMnd.iU.*. CrOiua«(IMwi9-\ 






PnyuMlHt nattavM (III Ik* Btaik at cW r«r- 

(tlUTH) Xmm IKM h& ntRb IMm CMulU (- - 

- Kna&ilMMJtlUob BmUmoCIV'— ,7 



ntwnMae wa>M 0'*'** ■*><'■**■ 

_^^_^^__^_^____ (-pi>iiiiii»A 

^ ^^ f.'nIlrtlL'it. 

_^— — , . OFiitiUlWit 



< rtu fti* tlM mlualw ' 



* COBpam tbe leniMk of TbneydidMb 1- S3< *■> rr^rtftr tfymr /tijivrm 



Cur. ID-SI. 



CIKAL OP ATROIiL 



33 



^ 



terrifor;, and flubdo«d antl licid for a timft almont the vbole 
of Upper Asiii ;* nor, nfiain. Utut of tho Atridre anainst Troy, 
of which we hear tn story; uor that of the Mysians and 
Teachana, vhich vas etill earlier, wherein these nations 
crossed the Boaphorus into Enropo, and, after conqoerinR oil 
Xhraoe, prcesed forward till tliey oame to tho Ionian Sea," 
vhQo Boatbwatd they reached aa far as the river Penuns. 

SI. An these expeditions, and others, if Hnch there were, are 
as nothing compared with thia. For wnn there a nation in all 
Asia which Xerxes did not bring with him against Gbceoo? Or 
was there a river, except those of unnenal size, which saOlccil 
for bis troops to drink 7 One nation fomiabed shipa ; another 
was arrayed among the foot-soldiers ; a third had to supply 
hones ; a foorth , troniiportB fur the horse and men likewise 
for the transport scrrico ; a fifth, ships of war towards the 
bridged ; a sixth, ships and proi-tsions. 

22. Ajod in the first place, becaase the former Seet had met 
with so great a dieast«r about Athos," preparations were made, 
by the spoeo of about throo years, in that qaarter. A fleet of 
trin.-ines lay at EIiBoa in the Chomoncse;^ and from tliis 
station detachments were sent by the variotia nations whereof 
th« army was composed, which reUeved one another at tnter- 
Tolfl, and worked at a trench beneath the ksb of taskmasters ;^ 



*TUl«fcp(».i.103.1oni (v. 1,12. 

' Bjr th» "loBJui Sea" Hcrwlotii* 
mrwu thu Adriatic (ndit mipn. *L 
]3Ti and lnrn,iX'83)- With ropcot 
t« tbe (vpadllioa hern mntbiBcd 
gnM obvonHtv prnvkil*. Acconling 
to •nnu> wrilm iIm Kjainm wvn) 
llvBeiMaa, and lind Dtnno JnUi Ana 
tnni Kanpo (Smb. lii. ]>. ?SS: cT. 
Xanili. till. ¥t. '&; and Arlaaldor. 
■1^ itnK tit. t^ SM). OUim, nnj 
iNMig tiiGB UBRidalDa (aapra, i. 
171). afMii M hNva loak«d npoa (bo 
Urnlana aa a genatiw ArfMic mre, 
elualr akin to iIm Lr^iaM, wboM 
knKM|t« tbn Hj-raui tontrw ntnllT 
altted. Atvordingto Xb&Uiiu the 
HjliBtt dlttiecl wu fiifaXMiM aal »u[«- 




fi),}><ar (». S). W^t«r> <A tUa elaaa 
iwcntMid llio Mkllvivd UjHiau of tlii> 
KumjiMin ooalineat — of wlKim aonw 
tntv toUlnd upca tlio Daaobo (Stnb. 
liL pp. 800 and SUD), «b«M* Mba 
McMi of af t«T tioMa, otiwn is Slaot^ 
dunia (HoUanio. Tr. W)— to iat^ 
•ion* «f Uio Rnrapean contineitt from 
Alia. ProbaUUtf nn Ihn irholo io- 
«lit>M in tavoor of (hi* lauor view. 

* 8uptm Ti. 44. 

' for llic litDDticm ftud praxnl con- 
lUtion (4 ElviM. Tido iDiirn. vi, 140, 
wAa *, Comjiaro ftlao tlia map, lnfn, 
cb.'UL 

■Tti0iiaear»*^i>hipOQ tho part ot 
tho Fcniaa* toworiu tka nbjoot 
ualjcoiala again noted (inln, «b. GO) 



34 



CAKAL OF ATBO& 



Book VU. 



while the people dwelling about Atboe bore likewise a part 
in the labour. Two Persians, Bubar«8,' tlio son of Moga- 
bazue. And ArtachieeB, the eon of ArttBUs, soperloteudod the 
nudorUking. 

AUioit is a great and &imoa» mountain, iiihal>it«<i by men, 
aud stretching fiu* out into the sea. Where the inuiintain 

I ends towards the mainland, it forme a peniueuU ; and in this 
place there is a m^k of land about twelve furlonge across,* Ibo 
vh<Ao extent whemof from tbo sea of the Acanthians to that 
over against Tor6n^-, is a level plain, broken only b; a few 
low bills.' Here, ui>on tliis iiithmus where Athos qoAb, is 

, San^," a Greek city. InHide of Sane, and upon Athos itsolf, 
a number of towns, which Xerxea was now employed in 
disjoining from the coniinout : these are, Dium, Olophyxos. 
Acrolhoiim, ThyosuB, and Cleooffi.* Among these cities Athoa 
was divided. 



I 
I 



ftod ob. SSa ; romjua^ tin eh. 103 1 
and, Ml <liTi>ivn im the point. Xe*. 
iiait. III. i*. 6 SS). Ur. OroU ob. 

^MTVM (Biat. of QrMce, v. p. 31. iiol«) 
that II hwi ita iNuutlol aiiiontt th» 
iiioil«rn Tttrk*. To tlio U|[b.tijimluil 
Unwlu tUa dsKiBilalion miut hara 

.been galluv in tbe oxtreme. Tlo 
I'fCMtlc* had dcMMidad to (bo F*t. 

■ r'" — tttsai Ite Aiayriana {«o« I.ajmnl'a 
Ninvtvh acil Bnbylon, pp. 11(1.1 13). 

* Snpn. *. SI. QOtn ■ and '. 

' CaiiMiQ Spntt moMond tba lUi- 
UBOa nrMD •born ta (hoM, ai>d (onnd 
it to bo SOOO jHdt. or 12^ euditi 
(JoomU at Gacpaidk Soo. vol. via, 
p. 1«). 

* Hm larol plain tomuda Uio mm et 
ibe AMUUbbMi (m tbo aooompwiriiit 
njaa will ihoir) u ■ marlied t(«tim. 
Bofoad Uiit |iUia a x*aft> d knr hilla 
anmat tha lalhnni*, the groiMiit 

I lieigbt not eieooiUng- 61 (tot. Frooa 
^tbew hala, vt tha «outh aidtv • nitay 
I oott aloMK wUch tb* oevrw of 

J iBBy'bii (■iMrljr tnuwd (ibiil. 

I pp. tU, 147). Tbia nOef a stUl 

' known 10 tb* nativca \>j thit ixuns of 

itMtlM, i.». viMofoaa*, " lb* canal in 



front of lIoQ&t Atbof." (Soe Sir 6. 
DooF'n'ii Uoubl Alboa, pp. G6, G7.) 

> SoD^ wbidi nc<)tilMd aooio tnaa 
la tbo PalopouMBian war tn rapnkliiK 
Iht ansf at Btairfda* (Thncvd. It. 
109), wi» » ookar of the Andriaaa, 
and w«* (itnatoa on tbo •oulfceni 
coMt of tbo bUnuM, noar Ibo laootli 
of tbo oanal a( Xditm (UdiL)^ bu 
wfcfitb»roBiw«aM«Tnor iroat e i u aidg 
i» n» quito mirtabi. Cobatl Lonkw 
tlioaicbt that cartnin Umom nonr tin 
MriiGoial KLMOid (oallod fai tlio plan lb* 
"Tomb at AMociunoi") might mark 
tb* aito of Banii (Nvrtbvan UrMM. 
vol, lit. p. 1*4)1 bnl I tbnnM ratber 

K titer ftmn tbi* pi wage (bat tbo dtjr 
/ on tba WMIom aldo of Ibo oolthif. 
OapUin Bptalt doM sot tbink ifaM m 
Giwk town vTtt ocaupii.-il tbe bills 
obont Um "tomb of AitocluMa" 
<Jo«ni*I «f Qoognpb. Boo. voL xril. 
p. HO). 

* IVm cHio* ani ali tHNiticttod bf 
Th«e|didw <l. a. o.) and bjr Sovlu 
(PMipa. p. OS), tbe \tMnT of whon 
addi Hiotboc, Obandrln. [>iiuu, 
Tfajanw, Md CltcUD, appear to baT* 
bocn on tb» aoath eoMti Actatboftn 



Ciur.SS.». 



CAKAL or ATHOS. 



45 



S2. Note the manner in which they dug was the following : ' 
a Uuo n-ft8 drawn across by thu city ot Sauu ; and along this 
various uaUohb parctilli.sl out among UiomBelTes the 



Jm 1 



Ofapfayxoa eo tho wrtli. Aero- 
llMQn (Acr«4b(inl, >t«otdlng!to Klny. 
mt ■llaat«d cd tha nsiBlt of AUim 
(D. V. ir. 10). Thej wern. no* 4<)d 
nil, fiaAlI ftod ntiiiaiKirlan). {itacw. 

' Tbu wtuio >lorj nt llii> cankl bcrmb 
UiB Mthmiu ot Alfcca biu been cob- 
•Idcn^ ■ fobio b; WNM wrifMi (JyraB. 
X. 17a, I7«i PocnelMv Tol. IL putil. p. 
IM; C(niidnit7, TofagadABt b ilaot- 
doiM, T<il- ft. pp. ll>3, 161). Uuij 
Modern lnT«llur», bniriivcr, li«v» KiT«i 
KOOnBU of tba dittinut tiWMti whio)i 
«I tb» work (Chsi««Dl-CouJEiac, 



Tajro^ riitcTccqno, tom. it. putie L 
p. 148; Ltoko's KortlMin Gmvoo, iii. 
p. 14Si Bawvn's IConnt AtliM. Ac., p. 
VJ i Jiiumkt of Gaoffrnph. Sucivt)'. Tol. 
ivii.), CH|il>iu Spnilt ajijKmii t» hkm 
Burrojrad liiu iithinm with Ktnitcxnot. 
DOB. Bo foand dtitinot uppcnnuiccii 
vt Ibo loiaionl ouitiue. nluioat ncroas 
lMwholi>i>itail,onlv [Blling «hei«ttiia 
canal approacJind tli* lea, uid Mmu- 
wbfttindiiiLiacOyuuvkudiiitlMkllitriftl 
piniii n>:ril> nl tliu billH i lui Ihi.' (tcoum. 
puifiutc plnii, wbioh i> UkvD (rem bia 
camful >anof, olau-ly iliotra. TIm 




06 



BULL OF THE PHCENICUXa 



BokTIL 



work to bo done. 'When the trench grew deep, tlio workmen 
at tho bottom continuc«I to dig, while others handod tho earth, 
na it v&» dag out, to labourers placed liigbcr np upon ladders, 
and tliosc taking it, paased it on further, till it came at last 
to those at the top, who carried it off and emptied it away. 
All tJio other nations, therefore, except the Plicenicians. had 
double labour ; for the sides of th« trtiicli fell in continnidly, 
as could not but happen, since they made the width no greater 
ut the top than it was ritqiiircd to be at the bottom. But tho 
Pha-iiicimis nhowcd in this the skill which they are wont to 
exhibit in nil their nndertakings. For in the portion of the 
vork which was allotted to them they began by making tlie 
trench at the top twice as wide as the prescribed mensore, and 
then as they dug downwards approached the dioa nearer and 
nearer together, so that wbcn they rojichcd tho bottom their 
piurt of tlio work wna of tho eaiiie width as the ro&t. In a 
meadow near," there wns a piftoe of assembly and a market ; 
and hither great quoulitiea of corn, ready ground, were 
brought from Asia. 

2i. It HOms to me, when I consider this work, that Xones, 
ia making it, was actuated by a fLoliug of pride, wishing to 
flilplay the extent ol bis power, und to leave a memorial 
behind him to posterity. For nutwithstanding that it was 
opan to him, with no trouble at all,^ to hare had his ships 



obmI f«tin« A lina of noiub, from two 
Ut olglit fiMt <1mji Bad froa (oly to 
nbioty toiad, naartjr tnm one ao* to 
lb* uthcr. It WM " cot through bcda 
of iDKiaiy Muul« lud marla" (wliiclk 
woald ocoodM tur Uw blKoK >a ol tho 
btuklu), Mng pntmUr, whMV it «m 
Jwpti i , igi Bwre thtai «i»ty fecit h»low 
thfl natitMl •af*M of Ibd gnraad, n Ucit 
at Ita fclfllina pdn riw* oalj Ctij-un* 
f*ot abov* tho M* iet*l. It ww not 
1*0117 » pnat •nnk.bitl B Terr iM(7 one, 
MdaMKBtocljrbaTvtalwatnora than 
a jvar tu eomiiUto^ Coloaet l^xilie 
roKMit* ii n« o TOT politio [iroMadinffi 
oa Booonat uT tho dajijpwon* oboncAw 
it Um Baritfition kboat the praiaaiila, 



4 



ofpMiaillf oa ita McrthonMt.nhlili Fn* 
no hnrboius (rkla mpn>. <ri. i-l, uuioj. 
So alio Sir G. Uownu (p. U). 

* Tb« " DModow " ifilitiuM out odIt 
bo tho nlluTUl pkin ahont moBticMMl, 
when ItM tnoo* of tho taaal becuroo 
fkiat. 

' no light Atpi orihOMnoloala 1 
MsilT tranirportoil in thio wtij 1 
tho hnd. So freqoL'nt wni Iho p«MAic9 ] 
at Ihe lalhmnaof Corintli. llHttUiolbiD | 
tnrirmd by Tiwoflo BOtiiurnl thorn 
tlio propor nncDo of DicOcaii (afoXaar, 
Ileajcb. id TOC-). laltancvB ot tbo 
IMNMiro of ihipo in thit ytitj tire ahaa- 
dmnt ia the Gndc hutotiuu (of. , 
ThncTd. iu. Bl, ir. 8; PdIjU Iv. 18, t. | 



Cur. 23-18. 



COLLSCTIO^' OF STOBE& 



27 



drawn across tbo isthmus, yet bo issacd orders that a cannl 
fibouid t>« mudu through which tbo eca mif;ht Sov. oiu) thai it 
should bo of such a width as would ullow of two triremM 
passing throogb it abroost with tbo oars in action. lie Ukc- 
moo gave to the samo persons who wcro sot over tbo digging 
of tiK trench, the t«fik of makiiig a bridgo acruoa tbo riwr 
Stryison. 

25. While tfaou things were in progrese, be was having 
eabloB propared for hie bridgus, somo of papyrus and some of 
whitu flax,^ a busings which ho ontrosttd to tbo rbcvmoians 
find tlio Egyptians. Ho likowiso laid up stores of provisions 
in divers places, to savo tbo tinny and the beasts of burthon 
from suffering want upon thoir march into Greece. He in* 
qmred carefully about all the eitc», and bad the storeii laid up 
in such OB were mont convenient, causing tbem to be brought 
Boross Irom various parts of Asia and in various ways, some 
in tT.inHport8 and others in merdiantmen. The greater 
portion woe carrii-d to Lcucu-Act6,' upon the Thradan coast ; 
some part, howover, was convwycd to Tyrodiia,' in the country 
of the Perinthians, some toDoriscue,^8omo toEion* upon the 
Strymon, and somo tO'SJaocdooia. 

20. During the time that all these labours w^e in progroBB, 
tbo bind army which bad bcon coll«cted was marching with 
£4>rxe« towards Sardis, haviug started from Critalla * in Cappa- 



1»1, riri. H] D(o CruM. ttU), «i»a (a- 
pbkia iT(|i>awlaMi in ihn pooM wlui.'h 
iinrv ainwil tomm dUHcitltf (Apoll. 
Uwd. i. Vn t Bom. OiL I. IT. s). 

■ BmIi Umo matwU* wen nacA for 
TCpM bj Itm BmtloM. (Sm note* 
ta Soak 11. nhnpTM), Midfilinp. 96 ; on 
Deok riii, tkmp. 17 1 and on Book ix. 

«M out «f Umi Ot<' riU.oH 

tb« COMl ut lll>? i'n :.:.., ^ScjUk, 
IWijil. p. GB I L^rina B'K. Aldb. dM. 

tmU p. liS: wiih tbei ommatt of 
Ilaiistrliia, ap. Uuixicikt. Id vcC-). 
Ii raniuit h«TO bouu tar aorih of 
Hetytm 



' lyrodlia, uocodlagrtoStophon (ad 
voc.X wMthoMUnWplBca MBtfrrUiioi ; 
and tivriMuoi, or SerrliMiai, <na » for- 
tTMa in the Drifctiboaihood of Dorit- 
ciu, M <■ plain from a pa«mga is Liry 
<Enl. 17). Tlio craft iiltn caimot bo 
Biod 1 but it wi» |iniLnt>lv near tho 
t^eirhmn |>Tomo[iUir7 of 6t«pti*il (*d 
Ti^c>. X</|ktMw), which MtcniB to ba tba 
*'Uinui SorciiUD'* c< PUnjr, betwean 
DortiCDB and UaronM (U. H, It. U). 
Til* (Mt Uial a jmnion <J thin «aa«t 
bcluOKHl U> tba I'uriutlilaiu may ftC- 
ouoat fur their irar with tlia nM>> 
niana (sTipn, v. 1), 

■ lain. ch. W. ■ Intra, «h. 118. 

* ChuUft k n&kaown to aaj oUur 



28 



Zm\ES lUBCB FROM CBtTALUL 



Book TIL 



doctft. At tliis Spot all the host nrliich was aboat to accom- 
pofijr tbo king in Im poseago octobs tbo continent bad been 
bidden to a«g«nibk'. And hero I b»To it not in my power to 
mention which of tbo satraps was adjudged to hare brought 
biB troops in tbo most gaUaut array, and on that acconnt 
rowardcd by th« king according to his pronuHo ; fur X do not 
know whether this matter eroc came to a judgiueut. But it 
18 certain that tbc bost of Xerxes, after crossing the river 
Holys, marched through Pbrygia till it reached tbo city of 
Celsnffi.* Here are the sources of the riwr Maiftudcr, and 



wHl<r. "So doubt It \Ay, mi RranoU 
nr« (Goognpfay of H«TOilotiu, p, 
Sl!>). ou ths rujil nod ltt«i Sum Iv 
Sknb*. but the canmo of Uiia K«d 
ihnwlt OftMttdoGt* U TCI7 tmccnaia, 
Md ll ta UnpMrfbU to mj m wtat 
poiBt it crowoJ Uie EUljrs. CritnUft 
MrUialr laj to the bm( t£ that river, 
•nil pmbaUr u BO creotdiiUDoe from 
ft, 

BmntTi'B idenl'fiMltMi of CriUIh 
witk Iho moden Erryti U lauod npoD 
■ donUo wMr. Ho bdlcTM tbo nngo 
d ItMnM to tfiT* riM to tho priiLelp*) 
■tnaaa of tbo Ualft, wliioh ■• tliua 
iammfmei to dov 1^ fiVa^I^ loaving it 
tolSooul. ABd ko (Djipoam llic royal 
raad to have )iM»n1 thiu»i;() lh«i Cili- 
«uu> intM kod tbo plain of luiiis. Hut 
tbo nod took » Bdttbesly coone, aa 
liM b««n ainaiy «ipUJuod (hdiiri, v. 
6S) I and Iba H«lj« h*4 so oourco in 
Ibo TiUTOO nuiicc, nnr oof icrMin of 
moaMnt foUiiiK into tt from Uio aouth. 
ErT-)li u iu Ptir^i^ not Cappadocia, 
and Diul hatia lain caniidciably oat of 
tlio nmM pMt^niod. 

* Tbe tito of Celmun, Dnknann till 
witbin Ibiwi fow fMMi baa boon de. 
l«n«liiU*l7 fiiod by Xr. Romlltoi 
(AslaHtnor.Tol. I. ]>p. 498-600). Ilia 
tha loMlnm Dmair (lat. 8S* X, 1oa«;. 
M^a/}. TbJalutm, wliicb aboQtukia 
rauain* of litgh oatiqniif, la nitoalrd 
soar Ibo oonroo of ilic ttooilinra or 
nocn atTMOi ot th* Mmudar, anil in 
■U TMpMta GurnHpend* toUwaooooata 
lott ot UiH aocwot Celionas Two 
atitMue. liutk probtUj wppUod from 



Iho Uk» of Danb»t (ti. Stnh. xU. p, 
H3&), aitaatod at a much biithor lovol 
in a plnia • lillla to tbu not (Haioil- 
ton, ii. p. 966). riaehoD (bomigaAf 
bUla Kbicb maa fron ir«M-Berl«M to 
JtKikU, nador (^roaniataiioaa encll7 
ia ocoonl with tbo doior^liona gim 
by aocieiit writon. ^o i* a gentJo 
atrcoin, ood iaovo* tmu n icndy Uko 
two BdlM round, •anloard aniil lofty 
bills. Tliia in oridpiidT tli« MRondor 
("kmnU Umandcr orlna i Uc« is 
llcola AnlocreDo," Ftiii- H. N. v. 2&]. 
Tba otbor "gubni out with f(raat 
rajnditvrtoiBWlialwviiia toharoboM 
OQciB ■ mTrm at Iho ban of a rooky 
cUR, and flow* down a uumn chansri 
with oouiidraaUa forco nad nolaa" 
(IlaniiUoa, 1. p. 490). Tb>« ia tb« 
Catarthoctoe or ItaniyM. Tbo two 
■ticama join at a abcrl diatoiKv frnm 
tho pcMont town. (Commni wltb tbo 
aoeonot in Boaiilton, Colunol I>mko'a 
ontidpaUcBM, Aaia Hiaor, p. ICO-U& 
and tbo poiMKoa Ihcrc qaotod; Zon. 
Aiinb. I. i). ;, S; Sicnb. >il. p. KUt 
Atriau. Kip. At<ti. t. Sd ; Qaint. Dart, 
iii. ll liir. uxvilL 33 1 Uai. i'yx. 

CoUddid bMomo a MT*) ro*ld»noo on 
lh« rMun <J X«rs««, itbo bnilc him- 
wlf apolBKiDtbcrvot tbeamrvaof ibo 
JUnjraa (Xon. Auab. i. ii. JO). Oy- 
nu, in btM tlmM. hod aln a jmrkand 
a palaco tbcro. Tbo tinlii<^> wa« aiCD- 
aUKlattliabooiIcJ tbo Muviudnr (ilild. 
! 7). Cvlnaw woa a town of ffnai 
•iio and iBporlaooo (^ry^o «■! 
lili^ior, XtOL "Capot Vbryipm." 



^ 



d 



OBAr.2»-S8. 



WTIinrs THE LYDIAN. 



=9 



likewise of nnothor tttrcam of no less size, wbicli bears (he 
canui of Ciktarrhactos (or the Catorscl) ; the laet-Qatned river 
has iU rise in the market-place of Celieiue, and empties itself 
into tbo MiMtidar. Here, too, iu tlu» market-plnee, is bung 
up to view llio skin of tbo SiK-uua • MarsyuB, which ApoUo, 
as Iho Phiygion story goefi, strippctl off und placed there. 

27. Now tliuro li\'ed iu this city n ccrtivin PythiuH, the son 
of Atyn, a Lydian.' Tliis man cnt':'rtftiiii'd Xorxi.« and bis 
whole army in a most mogititioe&t fashion, offuring nt the 
Rnmo time to giro him a sum of raoney for the war. Xcrxts, 
upon the mention of money, turned to the Persians who stood 
l>y, and a«ked of them, " Who ia this Pythius,' and what 
wooltli baa be, that be shonld venture on snob an offer as 
tiuM ? " They aoawercd him, " This is the man, O King I who 
gave thy father Darius the golden plane-tree,^ and likt-wiso 
the goldeo vine ; " and he is still the wealthiest man we know 
of in all the world, excepting tbee." 

28. Xerxee marvelled at these last words ; and now, address- 



Vt*.). Antaectaw RM«r UtuiHhnvil 
tlio iohaliitaiit* to A)*irrMi, wbioli he 
tiiull M ■ nl"??! ilMiwoo (Sttnb. Lir,). 
Afsmeo •■< lott ll.« muDe neid 

bMUMl .. H. \. I. ». eO- 

* SilMiiu, c<rii;ii>i>Jlf applied m » 
Proper nane to Uio ddwt and man 
CvnB«l of thtt RatjTV, mM tttixt iift*T- 
•r«til« M • PoeimCB MppvlUliun tnr 
Ihunr araiurtm irmvnJIf. (rtiti Hem. 
ajrnw-in Vcn. 363: Blrtn. Ma«. ad 
r«& t Mid er. Too. uiVirg. Ec). t1. 14.) 
Th* norj at UarwvM In tntd Ii; 
ApeUnlonw (l. it. { i). Died. Siuulos 
(ill. EOf, Floiarob (Do Vouo. ii. pp. 
1133. 1I3S), n.TKiDM if»b. cliT.>,aiul 
c4bon. Tliu Bkm wm Mill rIiowii at 
rniiiiMi in XMioplMa's tima (Acob. i. 
H.J8). 

'IKn Mlb PylhlDi m BKliTiilan 
<IL N. ixxliL 10), itt. Qrot* » Vbrj. 
l(iaB{Diit.ef f:rvi<(ir, T. p. M). Tbrav 
ia on KMMi to <lo«bt Om (tawmcnt uf 
n«adatUb 

■ Aaiioelimi Um Amdion, who had 
fSNi lliii pltB*4i*e, dodOTMl tliat it 
wu M Miall it would •vMvelf ibade 



mfiTca. Xen. UcIL tii. j. f 3S). He, 
boWDrer.niny well \» mitpeotciiof lui- 
UrnoM, aiaiici hU uLji-ol m« to <l«cry 
tho raKmnjM of Fefnia. The plane. 
tn« VM nry- oolobratcd (Athec. xii. 
p. fiSS. D. ) nio. n. N'. zii. 1. iixiii. 
10; Ttvt. Oiil. 1. xxxii. 0-i&; Die 
CbrTD. Ont. Irii. ad fin.). It was 
finally carried oft from the oiUtdol of 
Sum b^ Anttcooni (n.c. ZIS), wlienho 
foaght HgAiiMt EiitM&M (Dioil. 8io. 
six, 48). 

Aecardins to FlaUKh, tlM woalth 
of Pylliian was dtirind fMm Knld- 
iiiin>-ii in the noiKhlxiiuliood (Ue TirC. 
MoHiibr. ii. p. S62. D.) 

' T!tc i{ald«ii vIbo voa oren tDoro 
famoiu Ihiui Iho planv-trMi. II ia aaid 
to bavo Ihh>ii th9 work af Theodora the 
Sumian {llimer. Bel. sizi. B). The 
biiBeliM of xnpo* vno imitotod by 
BMoa ot &xi i&nt ocqilly prodoM 
*C«in* (Phvlorch. iiji, Alhuu. I. s. o.). 
lb ovcnli>doi>«d tbo CDUcti ua nhioh 
tbe kiaga dcpt, 




30 



WEALTH OF PTnntTS. 



Book TIL 



ing Pyihinfl vUh Iits ovn ti))s, he nslced him what thfl luaoiuit 
of his wealth really was. Pytliiu* aiuwwed as follows : — 

" King I I will not liido thU mattor from tiieo, nor make 
prelciiice that I do not know how rich I am ; but as I kaow 
perfectly, I will declare all fnlly before the*. For when thy 
joamoy was noised abroad, and I heard thou weri coming donit 
to the Grecian coast, straightway, as X wished to give thee a 
Hum of money for the war, I made count of my stores, and 
found them to be two thousand talents of silver, and of goM 
four milliona of Daric Btatcrs,' wanting seven thooeaod. Ail 



> Tlie atalAT w>i Ibe unlj gold coin 
known bi tlia GttoIu ^nerkUf. It 
««■ wlopted by theta fmu tha Aiin- 
tlca, froin Khom lh4iir gtM wa* in 
Uionulier tinto t^Uroly dcriTed. The 
•Uia» ot diSBCnat eouiuriM ditkmd 
•lit^rilj in ««l«bt ml raliw. Tbo 
lU««danwa waJfflMd US ffnlM(«mlii« 
IC Si.GJ.)' *1m> AUio 13^1 gn. (rain* 
IL St. Cd.), the LamiMDOOns 1S9 
gs^itf (nlue II. Si. Bid-), tbo Plwcmw 
127 Knina (rolao II. it. 6id.) Tha 
Pmum Darie wm n itolil coiu *IU7 
like tte iiUUc : it wcigbod about 
ltt-7 K******* "^ ""* MtitcaiiDiit)7 
wprth M04 qniW twontj-two JiUliiigl 
(IL li. letd.). PjttiiM Uxnlon, 
acomling to the atBteneiit of Hero- 
dMiUk pcwMMd Rold mill to tbe ntlso 
«< t,saajUS>- UU SOOO UUnU at 
a!lT«r WMilil be irorth 4S7,W0(. ; «o 
liu Ibe entice loiu which Pjtiua* 
oflond to XentM would be « little 
■hott of Dto loiUkiDa of OUT iDoc*r 
(4,n7,I'WI.>> 1 do not know whf ibu 
«titnkt« ahoold be lliontthl iDOnidnilK 
(See Qmie'e lU*t» Vt Oceoae, toL t. p^ 
SB, note.) 

Wltb remcl to tk* mid " Duio," 
whioh haa mod dcrired fnon a n^ 
pNed ancient Pnniao nwt I>ard,Klgai. 
flfiiiK a InoK (Gnunlan, llab. L«. ad 
Toa lU'^; Brotl and Liddell. ad roe. 

tfimii I Snitb'e Siol. of Ant., Ac.). 
•4 Ihoni u no «ride(ioe ot the enM- 
rooe ot anj* lock root ia andtDt Por- 
aiaa, pnrfaape il 1« beet to afijaUeoe in 
tlM mi dwiTBlJun, MtnTMtMl bf the 
««/nok|iala (EtjrM. Vifn. ad tdc. ; 



Utrpoent. ad rec), Mtd to rctiMCC 
tlio lona wltli Doriai, wboae KoM ooi»> 
ten waa *o eetabmteil <«u|!«a, iv. 160). 
It woqIiI iboa naemble the FMMh 
wonla ■■ bait " and "aepelimi.'* 

Tbo Oorlobote tm itm ImpoMlan, oa 
tha eao aldo, the figuiw nt ilie ktofi 
wMia bow and a>n>w in hie hand* (of. 
Plat. Vit. Artaxnri. c 30), kncelmK 
on one kaiee; aad on the othtrr an 
invgnlai deft, or " ipiadtal* Incmaa." 
Tho m^i^ed Asora la token from a 
Bario tn tho Brldib Uweoa. 





There are kUvot Dnric*. aa w«ll m 
ffeld eoM, with Ilie eaB* doeloe. 
Thuw ar« genanllj leDadraehma, 
weiKhioii nbont EtS Kiwna, 

A new theerj hoe been raoontlf 
•tarted en the eabjeot of Ibo '■ Aiy* 
andSoa," «e ailror cotiu Isracd bj A17- 
audte (mjirra, ir. 106). U. laaanauA 
baa dcKiribtd (wo odn>, npen wUeh 
thoDBine ot Arnndee, M a Mtt ot U 
(AVqA » AVUVq A), appean In Onab 
tkaratUn, and wbioh ho. oonaidera to 
have been iatoed bf the oelehnted 
Satmp (Enni >xit l«e Utainaiea dM 
LigidiN^ PL US). Tbo derloe i* > 
chariot dmi>n iij two hoiDM, ccmtaiii- 
Ihr; a king and a ohnriotnir. mlh a 
bMtlementod wnO and a gallo; on tho 
ebrem. Hie naoM 1> on ilii* Uit«r 




Crap. S&-90. 



WEALTH OP PVTHIU3. 



it 



this T willingly make orer to thco as a f^ft ; and vihen it is 
I gone, my slavra oud my estates iu land vnll be wealtb enoDgli 
for my w»Dt<." 

29. Thii spoceli cliarmcd Xotxch, aud lie replied, " Dear 

' Lydian, aince I left Persia Uiere is no man but tliou who has 

«itlifst desired to entertain my army, or come forward of bin 

own free will to offer me a sum of money fur the war. Thou 

bast done both the onu and tbo other, ft^ostlng my troopu* 

\ maenificunUy, and now making offer of a right noblo sam. 

In return, this iu vliat I will bestow on tbeo. Thou sbalt be 

' my 8wora frioud from tliia day ; and the BcTon thousand 

Btatera wbtcb are wanting to make np thy fonr milliona I will 

SQpply, ao that the full tale may he no longer lacking, and 

that thou mayeet owe the completion of the round sum to me. 

Continue to enjoy alt tliat tboa baet acquired hitherto ; and be 

, mm to remain svct Huch m thou now art. If tliou doet, thou 

' wilt not rop«nt of it eo long as thy life endures." 

SO. When Xerxes had so epokon and hod made good bis 
promuM to Pythius, ho pressed £Drward upon his march ; and 
passing Anana, a I'hrygian diy, and a lake from which salt ia 
gatbered,' he oamo to Colosace," a Phryf^n city of groat sise, 

tin aalt, at nhiah tlie isliftbiUaU or 
tho mnghboaring nllw* ol Chwdklc 

DvMlj dn, tLo «Ua- In tha contM it ao 
thoovngfirr aMnratvd Uiat , <>wing to tlw 
xrtAleviiporatinnMiuUolljr miii(t«o, 
ths n]t cryitnlliMa on tlu) ■iitCbo^i Mid 
u •onpcd off wiib IvrgD wMilea (padM^ 
... As It ia obtolnnd It ia bnniirlll 
on ibora Mill ^Mwl in Utys heapi 
•lOD^ tlw bankf, when) it sraored 
cltiur and in bugs- crfitoU ; it la pro- 
earnd In oOTuiddniltlo qnaiitillc*, und 
■■-llii (dT Cod inma (lia ok», or nfcouc a 
tiirtliinK » jiuluiil; lUu) afUr HQppI jing 
llii> nF'glilKnirint; otnmtrjr, th« ivtt la 
Bi-ot to Sm^TUA^' (Aala Minor, vol L 
pp. Ka. SOI). Arrion <nlli tlda lako 
LnkoAM»i)i>(Eap.Alvi.t.I»). Stmbo 
noDtiuiia it (xii. |i|>'t>i'N(>^)>^'>^^i>M 
not j^** it k lUBie. 
* OohMUt bM bMS tBoam\f tap. 



1*ltar •fitai. Coini at Um miw tjp* 

an iu tba Bnti*b ItaMmm aBric^tml 

laMW witli tiM iMuno^ Arjraoido*. On 

oncUiBtwhiowB tt»coc<nn»iiioi bat 

it la nrf fnint; and tbo cfciimoUn 

tiiptar cob* nKMnciMt. Tba Bonmi 

. iy^ >»««on to lbs ikacriplkin of * 

I GotBnHionMt (teiiptfawnt.(a(ii.TiU, 

pp. 4as;«]t7, No. M), vUcb ho Uiiiika 

?WriML OmmIim flffttm* m eoln 

■rlj ahoibr (Uononioiits rticmie. 

Tib. 36, U), and caUi it Ciliciaa. 

> Of AtuiuA iiadl ao further notloe 

la (oBDd ; for 8t«ph»n iii«rHy laiiinn 

from IfmdoliUL TIselakoiaaTjilviit)/ 

^ ^ht Chmiak, whieb Uoa on Uio luiito 

I'bctveM Dmtair (Cckraai) iwd Co- 

lloMKi awl ttUl mppUiM tbo wholo 

r«cinBlr/ TinitA wilb nU. Ur. IfoniiJ. 

flua My*.~"Afi«r (aMtng tbiihill.wH 

luttMl iww tbo oxu«Bitj of lb» bilw 

to abMm tba pnoew of oeUeoliag 



3* 



XERXES RUCnGS SABDIS. 



Book VII. 



Bittiatcd at a spot where the river Lycus plimf^ into a ohtinn 
and di8ap]>ou'8. Tliie riv«r, after nmning underground a dis- 
tanco of ttbont five fiitluujjs, reappears once more, and empties 
itself, like tlio stronra nhovo mentioned, into the Mtcander. 
Leaving ColofiBS, the army appronclied the borders of Plirygia 
where it abuts on Lydla ; and tlicro they camo to n city called 
Cjfb-ara,* wliere was a pilUw »ct np by Crcesus, having an 
inscription on it, showing tlie boiindarifs of the two countries. 
81. Where it quits Phrygia and enteral Lydia the road 
separates ; the way on the left leads into Caria, while that on 
the right conducts to Sardis. If yon follow tltis route, yon 
must cross the Moandor, and then pass by the city Callatc-bns,' 
when! the weo Uvo vho moke bonoy out of vh«at and the ' 



poMd to har« b<<es ultantMlftl Clutni*, 
th« kDciiMii ('linum, with itUeh (km- 
•MatiDo F<T(ih,vrcvmiina idfotillM it 
(da Tb(«nR(. i. S, p. 11). Vr. Bunil- 
too, Wwi-Tcr, ■QmoatotuiTodlaoovctctl 
Ih* Imo altn. at Uio dintimoo ot tlinw 
niUd trtau Cho»6f, ia Uio plnEn, on \h« 
fcwiki ol tliD Ljvaa (IVWwt). Um 
h* (oond Ml iui«iiuit Uuotrc, uni ■ban- 
dMt tanutna of on axteniivo tomi bj 
Ifaa aido of tlia rircr, m>i1 U a point 
wbam it ia TCrjr conorivBble that Uio 
Ljeu BMgr lut*« bad ift formec tiinM 
■B RndMitnMuiil couno. Two ftrouna 
fkll into Urn i.jron at Ihia jxiiDl, fmni 
tbu north an'I (nnu tho xmtlii both 
poaiawni of •trong pttrUriog or in. 
enitlng noaUllM. Tb» l.rcn> bora 
flomrt in » <looi> cliann, anil t)i« Rireami 
trioktinic anr tho roclui ffrndiutljr in. 
era*t thcrn with their itepnli^ TIm 
OfieTatiaa ot tUa procM* aalurallr 
OMiaM iIhi did* itradaatlf to appxauiA 
oM aoothar, and DUf, in the time of 
Herodolaa, haire aotaall;r aivhad over 
tho main atRam. Eorthqualcaa, to 
whiok th« diatiiet ia Twrrliabla (ef. 
Smb. xii. 837), mnli] mtonillf bicklc 
op thii aoft orwt, which wnold foil in* 
l<i iho Tirtt and be cnirivd amy, alter 
wliioli Iha pt«o0M would rammnione*. 
(Soe Hamiltan'a Atfa HiDor, toL L pp. 
CI&.61I : and oampaie tho pawigr of 
Itiaj' whjcb b* qnotoa, U. N. uxL SO.] 



There aeonxi to have beon another 
■imilnr cnrorod paMaffO, lowwr down 
(be atToam, in Iha titoa of Stnbo 
(L a. o.), whicb haa alto diMppeartd 
■Ineobiada}-. TtiitWMiioarUndiot*, 
}uM aboTO tho JonclloD of Die Lvcna 
with Iho Cadma* (Oieuk RniKor'Sti. 
The Itaditiona of tbe oaUToa vmixm 
the Dotioo of and! oorrawl woja l^av. 
ing aiiitfld and bcwldng np (Uaiiul- 
lon, p. biZ), 

* CTdcam ia thooKlit to b* idontioal 
with the Canntef fitmbo (L a. «. and 
XIV. IK W8. 8(* LMliB'a Aala Ulnor, 
p. Sb\. and cf. Bihf ad lo«.), which In 
Ilia timo WDK thre iMsnilarjr bolwom 
PhiTgia Knd Carit. Hm Ml niriiin 
nror gurai Jfi«ut aocan to nuurk thia 
Kilo. It ia cvrUUn Ibat Iho atpaiAtloo 
of tho roada mut hare Umid Marl* at 
lUa place (d. heaku). Tho read to 
Sardi* nsdoDbtfidl^ paiatd thfovgh tho 
opmisK <B lioonl MaMOeix trbor* 
l^polii itaada, and tUm amok lata 
tlie T>Ilo7 «f the Cq^amu. 

* CallBubna tt uMoUcat^ hf no 
other writ«r, tt wa aio>'i'( Rlfiphan, 
who follows Hsindotaa. Pvihttpa it 
oecapledthDaUoe<FhilBiMpfaiB(JltaA 
SUkfr). Tbe faiUiqaakaa to which 
th^ wbol* dialrict (the Cntacecaiimoiifi 
of Strabo) in lialil*. aooonat fur tho 
diwppeanuKo vt otiia*. 



« 



Oii«F.«0-S8. 



XERXES RTJlCUta SARDIS. 



S3 



fruit of the tamftrisk.* X«noH, wlio ctiotkt tliM wiiy. foiiiKl 
lioro a plane-tree^ eo beAatifal, tbat be pr«s«uti>ct it with 
golden oniftmcntB, and put it onder the care of one of his 
IiniBortAU.* Tho day afUtr, he entered the Lydian cajutftl. 

32. Hbre his first care nas to mad olT heralds into Groceo, 
who were to prefer a demiuul for earth aod vator, and to 
rtriuirt' thiit pn-paratioti<t ehmild be made everywhere to feast 
the King. To Atlious imki-d and to Sparta be st-ut no such 
demand ;* bat these cities cxoi^ptcd, his messcngorii went 
everywhtTtf. Now the reason wljy he sent for earth and water 
to 8tati>B which hud already refused, was Uiis: he thought 
that altliough tbey had refused when Sarios made the de< 
mand, tbey would now b« too frightened to rcntore to suy 
bim nay. So he sent his heralds, winhiug to know for certain 
how it would be. 

S3. XcruiS, afler this, mado preparations to advance to 
Abydoe, where tlie bridge across the Hellespont* from Asia to 
Eurojto wuB lately finished. Midway between Sestos and 



'TWlnmui'k Mil] entn la kban. 
A»nc« down Ida wIkJb r>Ilcj ot tlin 
CVttntBiu <IUiBiltvn, t«1. ii> |>p> 374- 

' Tlio phnn'ttvoi el iHlii dirtrM an 
maicniflrfnt. Ur. UaRiiltoo Bullcad 
Ibe " holf-niiniKl trunk ct eon ot tb* 
■nnat gigantk' kw kutl ctct •«■ " uNtr 
Uodlms <£>M HuMr), in tbc rMej cf 
th« I^roua (,JM» HlncT. L p. AIT). 



* Ikfn, oh. 63. 

* Tlio TMam for tkb ftbitinaDW I« 
gliwa briow (ob. 133). 

' The Kiln «f this bridir* ii tnjipoMA ' 
(a tava btco frnin XaJcin I\a»t bi tli« j 
low ipot coatnH of Scatna, vbere Ifaa 
lorol (hOTD <a «nlbgr lido U ooDVelilabt 
for th» mutili iif trMipi. Tbo cbauin*! 
n fnoTf thna 7 iiailiii brua^, beinic 
about 1| iDil« Easliib.— [O. W,j 



.i/V 



X'ttn r*Iol, Hit m AbfdK (bra tbi WuCJ. 

VOL. IV. D 



34 



BRIDGE AT iBXDOS. 



Book Til. 



Modytue' in tho IIvUoepoDtiiie ClierBon«M, and right over 
against AbydoR, there is a rockj t«ngue of laiid nliicli runs 
out for Rome distance into the aea. Thia ifi thu place where 
no long time aflvrnarda the Grc«k8 under Xanlliippua, tb« 
son of Ariphron. took Artayclt'B the Persian, who was at that 
time govunior of Svstott. and nailed him Uring to a plank." 
Ho VAB Ute Arta^^ctes who lirought women into tho t«n)pt« 
of Protesilaiis at Elieus, and there was guilt; of most unholy 
deeda. 
8-1. Towards this tongue of land then, the men to whom the 




au (d li*™e Bhi^ iqipiiriM Kifln fUM. 




I 



<)•«(« IVHI. An}ih> ^llalk U« HlMy 



* Hul vtu «M on* of tho ItM im. 
potUiit nilM* ct tbe C3>«T«saMe. It 
ia omitlwl by Scrlkx Md Plolfm;. 
XeaojihoM haw«irer tnmtioiu it (Qol. 
b*. 1. 1. J 9j i uiil htrj la two plocca 



(Kixi. 16, mnd niilh aM). It bwl uiM 
brra notiMd bjr U«cntioiu (8t«iiii, 
Bjt. «d mo.). Tho iilooe ud muuu 
ttHMin la tlw tnudetn JUaito, 
■ Vido intn, it. lie.lSO. 



Canr. 33-30, 



:c.Kaxiat Liiimis tue HBixESPOin-. 



35 



bosineHs was aligned, cmrricd out a double bri<Ip;(> from 
Abydos ; and while tlio PhooiicinnB oomrtruotMl otic lino with 
cables of white tlnx, the Egyptian)) in t1i« otlicr u»o^ ropes 
made of pap^niti. Now it is xeven furlongs bctohh from A)>y<1o« 
to tbfi oppmiit« coast.* When, therefore, the chaunol had 
been bridged euccvtttifully, it ba]>pcned that a great stcmn 
iirising brok« Ui« wholo work to piuoea, and dustroyed all that 
had lK'«n dono. 

95. So when Xorxee hi>Ard of it. he was fuU of wrath, and 
straightway gave ordora that tbi.' HelleRpont Hhould Kiceive 
three hundred lashes, and that a pair of fetters should bo east 
into it. May, I hare eren heard it said, that lie Imde the 
braudfts lake tboir irons and therewith bniiid the IlfUespont. 
It is certain that ho commanded thoue who scourged the 
waters to utter, as they lashed tliem, these barbarian and 
wicked words : " Thou bitter water, thy lonl lays on thee this 
paniHhmeiit becnuDu tliou hast wronged him witliout a cause, 
hariug suffered no evil at his hands. Verily King Xerxes 
will cross tlioo, whether tlion wilt or no. Welt dost thou 
di'serve that no man should honour thp« with Kacrifico ; for 
thou art of a truth a treacherous and unsavoury river,"* 
VTiiilc tlic sea was thus punished by his orders, he likewise 
commanded that the ovorseCdD of tbo work should lose tJieir 
beads.' 

3C. Then they, whose business it was, executed the nnpleas- 
iog task laid upon them ; and other master -builders were set 



* Sanr*, (*. M, Dole ^ 

* n* reiBwh a Ur. VOnktrnttf I* 
jB«t, tiiBl " Ilia Bollo*fKni», pt«foollr 
UaA-k/ekBd, an4 with ■ atraun nn- 
•itw woMi Uino knota ui hour. 

rienu to ■ pvrton kIib U isitlni; on 

tiirt;" and Ibttt ''it i* IroRI tliU 
Bnllui Ui»t (b« vpltLpU vM*t-i and 
iwtiptm ara kpplitd to I* (n tlio Uo- 
Borie po«Ba " (nul. aA loc). 

* Mr. Orctt htn wvll rintlioBled Ibe 
MTmJ poiiiticillIii<i)UTalii«rmniihA 
•M|>tKuldoiAtit1u««ncvtt>r (.arctiOT 



(ao(e Bd loc.), Ufilln' <Elo<no Sehvit- 
tpD, ii. pp. 17. m, Thirlwall (H^'t. nt 
Gnwoc. ii. p. IM), Stuilvr (*<) ^Mh. 
IS'ra. 7»i), BIimbHoIiI (ibiil.), »n<^ 
'>il>«T« <HiKi; cf Onecv, t. pp. Sl-Si). 
Tbof «ra tliorc«KU]r In kc«piDK wWi i 
lli« cliarwTlor ttf » OrloM«l dMjMM, 
and wilti traiU wliicb HTil«ir* ininiini 
to Harodolaa Tvooid of Xcnoi. (Com- 
|«i« Uie letter la lloiuit Alhioa in 
Flulareh, ii. p. 45A, K, and tba niM- 
■■UD td Inmlt to Apollo, reoonlvd by 
Ci»uu, K»e. Pw.*. f 87.) 



36 



OOMSTBUCnON OF THE BRIDOB. 



Bom TIL 



OTcr thfl work, who tKOomiiliBbcxl it in tbe way vhioh I trill 
now doKcribOt 

Tiicy juined together trirAmra an<1 pi>nt«oonton, 3G0 to 
enpport Ibo bri<lgo ou tbe side of the Eusine Sea, and S14 to 
sustain tbo otbvr; and titem tbey placi<d at right auRlcB to the 
S«a, and in the direction of the- current of tho Hi-l]c3|>ont, 
rnlieviiig by tliese raeatiH the tennion of tlie shore cables.^ 
Having joined tbe reHsels, Uiey moored them vitli uiobors of 
nnvLSual size, that the vessels of the bridge towards tbe Kiixinu 
might resist the wimla wliich blow from within the strnittt, and 
that those of the moni n-cBtom bridge* tixcing tbe Egean, might 
wilhittaad tho vriuds which set in from tbe Boutb and from tbe 
60Utti-«ftfli.' A gap was k-ft in iha peiittoouiers in no fewer 
than tltr«e places, to afford a pas^agH for ancb light craft m 
choee to enter or leave the Buxine. When all tluN van dono, 
they made the cubks taut from the shore b; tbe help of 



' I tgrt* «Htb llr. Gnil« (flt«(. tt 
Omvf. r, p. 20, nolo) m ta tbe «cin- 
tUnctioa *miA oHtiiing ot tU* difficult 
fmmag^ HcrmloiM oconMota Ih* 
•bora fttblci to bs tbe- rMl briden (Hil« 
nDjim, oil. 8*), uid th« ahip* to 1m unl; 
i><i|if>)-rt rou'tofotl Do«c<*Hury by iko 
lUnuxoiil niiUh ii( l)in clinniKil. li« 
I liiM In his mind lli"britlKi-«<ivi>rriTrr*, 
nunmcv in IVnin (X«rn. Annb. ti. 4). 
wliK li gnrti tho Htm of tbii urnnd 
Wfitk, mlii-TO, U til* itnAm itni nkr- 
row, ili>> MpM paa»od ttam Oaom lo 
■hare rcqaind no Bnpport at bU ; if il 
tnf widor, tbof hnd t« bo aiuUiiMd 
liy bontv, or tonio nllwr ooiitrifutot. 
Th» ikifM •utainiaK Ilia rapaa «vra 
moored (be Mn) [anUol to th« 
■tnara el tke IlcUaiqionl. and bo of 
<ri,tU ai^Ui irith tbe Bniiiie, the 
looROit ilitvolkoi ot which lio kneir to 
be nmn eaal to wmL Trirfonea and 
p«atooB«it«rt wore naeil indiONTutly 
ia tbe work, tto gnatcat namber in 
tho Bpfxor briiliCi *'''■■?'' bitcaaaa Ibo 
obannol wa> wi'lnr Kt (Imt part, «ir 
booanae, to meet tbe full fore*cf tLe 
osn«nt, ginaMr itrengtli wa* rw|aii»d. 
All ttu tUiw woro Koorcd atom ud 



tliTu 4a*m tbo ilraKn of the Heltea- 
pool, which here rasa irllh roouditr- 
aklo npiditf (IVoud'a Dncripuun of 
Uw Tivnd, ]>. SHO i Chaiiilh'r, *<.L i. 
p, 13 1 ItVBiwll'e OHotrmph. of Ifered, 
11. l'J3. Compere (be Homeric onitbot, 
ijifPiti, 11. ij. StS. xa. 30). Fro. 
bably tboj alsKiK toudMd on* anMbpr, 
*ici)pc iu ttie tbrM i>lBoe* wbeiq an 
iiitarT«l irael^ft. 

* VTo ate beco that Herodnta* la 
itwnro of Ibo fkol. Ibni iho mil dir««- 
tion of lh« RitUi-iiK-iit ia uwib.nut 
•ni touUi-wMl, not (Idd norlli and 
nnlh. 

■ Odd would bare expected UMtb- 
icut h*Te, laiber tbaa amitb.«a<(, an 
ilut IlellMpont IJM aiuirt opta (o a 
wind frcon that tjnartcr. Uarodolua 
porbapa (pcoka from la«n) kii««rtedKO 
of tba actual direotiaa of tbo hlgWat 
wiDdK. VTe oertalnljr eanno* tako 
Nnloa snil lunw (a* Ur. BUkMley 
doet) tor arindi tilowwi; np anil down 
tbo cbaanol rnpcctinj;. Ibsy aru 
■openuod by only one pnet of tbo 
cotepam. (.Sm Ihn taUo* In GOttUeg'* 
Hottod, pp. K), 3U.) 



Cur. 98, 97. 



THE AllMY LtAVKS SARDll 



37 



voodcn CApslana. Tliis iime, moreovor, inetcnd of nning the 
tu-o niatvrialD sepAratel.v, tlicy ABUgn«d tn ahc)i l<ridg<^ mx 
eablee, two of wliicb w«ro of whiUs flax, wliilo four -were of 
papyrus. Botb cjibks wore of the name size and quality; bnt 
lb« Q»xim w«ro tbe beavier, weighing not less than a talent the 
cubit. AVbeu tbe bridge across the channel was thus complete, 
trunks of tre«fl were sawn into planks, wliich wvra cot to thu 
width of tbe bridge, and these were laid side by side upon the 
tightened cables, and then faat«nt>d on tbo top. Tbia done, 
bnicbwood was broiisht, and an-au'<ed upon the planks, after 
which earth was bt<apcd upon tbo bruabwood, uud tbu whole 
trodden down into a solid mass. Lftxtly a bulwark was eet up 
on either side of this causoway. of such a boigtht as to prevent 
the Eampter-beasts and the hcffseH trom Bovine over it and 
taking bif>hi at th« wat«r. 

ST. And now when all was prepared — the bridRcs, and tbe 
works at Atbos, tlie breakwaters about the mouths of tbe 
(ruttinp. which were made ti> hinder the surf from blocking up 
thu eutrunces,' and the cutting it»elf ; and when thu nowa cnmc 
to Xerxes tbaL thi» lost wait I'omplcU-ly l\ni»hed, — tltcn at 
Ifngtb the boitt, liaviiig firxt winti<r<.>d at HnnUt), bi,-gnn ito 
luorcb towards Abydos, fully equipju-d, on the firet approaiOi 
of spring. At tbe moment of departure, tbe sun suddenly 
quitted hia seat in tbe heavenn, and disappeared, tbougb there 
were no olouds in sinlit, but the sky was clear and serene.' 
Pay was thus turned into niyht ; whereupon Xerxes, who saw 
and remarked the prodi<;y, wiw seizccl with alarm, and fioud- 
iug at once for Uie KragionH. inijuired of tliem the meaning of 



' Wlii-n IhoM btethvnlen wore 
aOnWHl to Ull liiti>J(>CBj,IIwtiroi>ii>li 
nl Uiu cnoal imalil Mwm bo tilli") ii)', 
atiil ttl>A|>|>«r. Ilcnoo Ihu (voifTirn. 
Utd uUii-TniioD b[ Iho oudiDg at iU 
two utrMuUMM. (£«• Uio yioa, |j*ea 

' A*tnmonnm dcelara th«t ilior* 
WW BO ocllpK ot tl>c ■on Tuiblo in 
SVuKl^re Akim tUa ynar (mo lArcbcr, 



iinio ad toe), lint ttut thran wnn onn 
iJin joar li(<f»ri>, iu tliw tjitinBj Ajnil 
llHIi. ll*nri'tulii« ma* ixn^ngia have 
unilMnlMid of ihc H'tliriK f^Fili tnim 
Sanlii. what wa* tolJ tim •.( th« dv. 
poTlum truiQ !>UM in llio •j<r,ii)r nftlm 
|>r«miliiiB ynar, Jt niajr (liro fanrn 
bmo Ilia <nm Fnujcvtiini lliat Um 
pr^lgy ftightcned I'jtUiM. 




38 



TBEATUCKT OP PTTHIL'S SuX. 



Book TIL 



the port«nt. Thoy replied—" God ia (orediowinR io tho 
Greeks tlic destruction uf tlioir citji-n ; for tho sim forctdU for 
them, and the moon for as." So Xerxes, thus instructed," 
proceeded on bis way with great gladness of heart. 

88. The army had begun its march, vlien PythiuR the 
Lydian, affrighted at the heavenly portent, and emboldened 
by his gifts, came to Xersea and said — "Grant me, my 
Lord [ a favour which is to thoo a light matter, bat to me of 
vast account." Then Xorxes, who looked for nothing lees 
tlian such n prayer as Pytliius in fact preferred, <-ngng('d to 
grant him whatever he wished, and commanded him to t«ll 
his wish &eely. 8o Pythius, full of boldness, went on to 
nay— 

" my lord ! thy servant haa liv« sons ; and it chances that 
all aro called upon to join thee in thin march agajufit Gr«oce. 
I b«B«eoh thee, have compassion upon my yvurtt ; uud let one 
of my tions, tbu eldest, remain huliiud, to bo my prop and stay, 
and the guardian of my wealth. Take with thco the other 
four; and when tbou hast done all that is in tliy heart, uiayust 
thou come back in safety." 

89: IJut Xerxes was greatly angered, and replied to him : 
"Thou wretch! dareat thou speak to me of thy sou. Vfheix 
I am mj-self on tlie march against Greece, with sons, and 
brothers, and kinsfolk, and friends ? Thon, who art my bond- 
slave, and art in duty bound to follow me with all thy house- 
hold, not excepting thy wifol £now that man's spirit dwelleth 
in his ears, and when it heara good things, straightway it tills 
all his body with deUght ; but no sooner doea it hear tho 
contrary than it heaves and swells with passion. As when 
tbou didst good deeds and madi-st good oJTi-r« tu m«, thou 
wert not ablo to boast of having outdone tho king in bounti- 
fulnesa, so now when thou art changed and grown impudent, 



* He explMtklinn h tM porlicalftrlv 
clear, lie Sua uiil lloon *oi« both 
wontil|i|wd bj- ttw P«ni*n« tram % 
T«r* t*rlf data (nipra. vol, i. p. 418), 
M ID* QfMk* (Mm tu baT« bMB awara 



(Arukqik. I'm. aOO-408) i Md tho Sun 
(MUbnt) nan oipeeiiiltjr (m« Book i. 
eh. 111. not*'). The kdMdote i> 
jirotaibljr apoorTiit*!. 



CR4r. il-iO. 



OBDER or TOB VJJICU. 



39 



thou Shalt not rwiplve all thy ctewrts. luit loes. For iliywl 
and four of thy five boiis, the enterUiimnont which I had' 
of thee shall gain protflction ; bat as for him to whom thoa 
cUngfist above tlie rc-st, the forfeit of bin lifo shall be thy, 
puaishincnt." Having tliua spoken, forthwith ho commanded 
thoee to whom euoh tasks wore aesignea, to eoek out the 
eldflst of tbo sons of Pytliius, and having cut his body^ 
aanndor, to phioo the two IialreB, on« on the right, tho other ' 
on the left, of ttio groat road, so tliat tho army might march 
out between them.* 

40. Tlien the King's orders were oboyod ; and thci army 
marched out between the two halves of the carcaoe. Firat of 
all went the baggago*l>eacers, and the Riimpt«r-bMUt8. and 
then a vaat crowd of many nations mingled togetlicr without 
any intervals,* amounting to more than one half of the army. 
After these troops an empty apaoo was left, to scpiirato 
between tliem and tlie King. In front of the ICing went Qret a 
thousand horx^inen, picked men of tbo Persian nation — then 
gpearmen a thousand, likewise ehoMU troops, with tlidir 
spear-heads pointing towards the groiiud— nest ten of the 
sacred horses called Niflican, all daintily vaparisonod. (Now 
these horsea are called NisaBan, becaune thoy conio from the 
Nissan plain, a vast flat in Media, producing hon^^os of 
tumsnol size.*') After the ten sacred horses came the holy 



^ * Compara with Uiia th« aioiiliir 
(tOtTof (Ent)UI»<iT. St). Tba laJu 
tnimpnrunt.u UidwntiiiK Iherisonr 
with wkioli panookl wimrxi iriur ox- 
Mied unung tlut Ori«tiul »ii1il>iiii, 
•HMouill f wlMni Ihs Dinnitntli iru liiin- 
■eit ruIm to (ho fipld. 8m tbn 
ra>ukii o( Mr.OrcM (ni«l. of OrMOO, 
Y. pp. 88,87). 

* I do Mil iindMrtU&d RMwIflliiii to 
mwil that Iho luldioni of th* iliKt-n'itt 
Mtkiiia irorv miinl loi^tber. u tha 
•uMtM* from dilTnvnt prorinco* in 
Ibe Frvnnh km^ (iMr^tr, od loe.}, 
bat ool; llxit thr ooniiiiKcnin of tlia 
TarloiM nalioMi w«re not npitnt*<l bj 
UiMraliv ^' marabed wathmt vaj 



rotrulor oni^r in a ainifla bodj. It I» 
jiUin fnim llio whula onrmtiro (Infra, 
oh. 60-86, SlOi is. 311. thnC in llti- 
Fcnloti Mtay. m In tlio Orvpk, the 
oontlnnota of ilia wraral natiana-1 
furmad dftlrnct anil aep«nte mrpt, 
Campan) tho Mvi:«iit of Xcnoplinn 
(AnilK I. riii. f 9; Jiirrtt tt eirti 
nari Itrih ira^aaiif'wk-^pii irlfivrair 
t Katfror fh $9rot tiii>^iitrt)i ftiii] 
wu aIw ArriM) (KipmL Alex. iit. 11). 

* Tha NiHBan brred of homa ewi. 
licDBil in ivpvto down to ifaa tinoa of 
AnuniaanaUwoallJDiMlxilU. G), Tlia^ , 
eiocdlad all olbna in *bo and upctid 
(t>tnb. i/flirrtii ml luytartiit Said. 

ftd *oc- Hi'ctft), tad wan ^oerellf 



-^ 



40 



OBDEB OF TUB MARCQ. 



Book TIT. 



chariot of Jupiter,^ drawn by eight milk<wIiito stMds, with 
tlio eharioteor oa foot Whind them holding the rein<9 ; for 
110 mortal is orer allowed to mount into the car. Next to 
this cnine Xerxes himself, riding in a chariot drawn by Nieiean 
horfles, with his charioteer, Putitamplies, tho 60Q of Otunes, 
a Persian, staadiog by fais side." 



lb» property of lb* P*"r*ittn Vmg« or 
nelileii of the higbfit rwik. 

no tatoMioa of Ihc Nimaui ptftin 
rmni w^lch Uicy worn Mid to dorirr, 
Llii'ir luuair, ia unotTtaiii. AccnnliiiK 
to Rlrabcs Mm* pJ»d«*l it in Aniinnia 
(ai. ]>. 76S, 769). Othen, acooitlinit 
to SuidM (lid voo. Nftfota*). >" Ptni*. 
Tho irciMToI conarot, howDTor, of tlio 
lii<*t nHU'ra amiiirn* it to Unllk. ir)inra 
WB know fnim lh« B»hi«IUn Iim-rijv 
lion, tbsl thoiB wu k diolROI Kwu'a 
ur Klwa (ool. i. pkr. 8. f 11). Am 
Alr'uuiilor vlnitcd It on Kit wtij ttaai 
<'piK 111 E«tiatuiK (Arriiin, Kxp. Aloi. 
til. 13), it mair f>n>l>nbl]r luir« b(^>n 
tlia tn^ of exmllciit |iMt«i« land 
whMi Um bet«««a Miittmi and 
XTuimm-Abail, known u tht pUna 
i4 XKausiK ftiiil Millar. (8m Sb H. 
llKwiiiuKia'i wuxih from Zohiib Ui 
Kbnxiitaiii in Ihc OeoKraphknl 
Boclolr'a JootmI, voL ix. p. 100.) 



* Tho wornd chariol of JspiU'r (Or- 
miutl) ■■ inontiunvd b; XmopL'iD Id 
hiK ilnoriplioa of ilia tnun ftf Cyra* 
IC^'^-*'"- >"->!()■ ThowblMtiorwa 
bail goldoo yako*. and irnrn ii6(ajitA 
«itb garbutda. It wa« f(<llov«d, b« 
BajH, In lb* chariot cf Ibo Son 
<llitbna1, and hj nimlher ebaii«(, 
■acrod apparently to lb* dlnin«nt o( 
Hr*. Doe* thin nark Ibn pngnwi in 
ODiTHplioii ut Ihn Pi-rniMD rvliKion 
bt'liri-t-n llii* lint* »r Xprxira, and Utat 
«f An*rtnpi lliictnini. (nth tba 
ciiDtom* o( who*'' luuo XoDopbun wm 
alooo anjaaiatod f 

* '11)0 Poninn taooarclia fad)|bt 
from chaiiota do<ni to tho cm of tbu 
Uaaodooian oeoqinal. ThU In plalo 
from Aniui (Stp^ Alex. II. 11, lii. IS) 
aiul oilier writer* (Q. Cart. I*, i. j I 
ami 15, S H; Diixl. Hie. iTii. M). 
licroin Ihpy fulknnil Uio pnMcice of 
1'te ARjTiiio king*, aa apjioan from 




NnUn ChMM ((Ma riiHptll^. 



OUAT. fO-tS. 



ROUTE TBKOtrGQ HTSU. 



41 



41. Tling rode forUi XcrxM from Sardis — Liit ho was accus- 
tuincd fivery now oiicl theii, whcD tlio fiincy took liim, to aliglit 
from his chariot a»d trai,-el in a litt«r. Itnmodintcly bohind 
tlio King there foltoved n botly of a thouitiuid ei>cjirmcn, tbo 
iiobluat and bravest of the Persians, holding their luncvs in 
the osaal manner* — thea camo a thousand Poraian liorBe, 
picked mou — then tvn thousand, picked also after tlio rest, 
and Ecrring on foot.* Of tbeise last one thousand carried 
epearB with golden pomegranates at their lower end instead 
o[ Bpikea ; and tliesfi viicirolcd tbo othor nine thousand, wbn 
horo on tlieu: spt'arB pomegranato* of siUor. The Bpearmen 
too who poiufcd their laucoa towards Ihc ground, had golden 
])oinegranate8 ; and the Uionsand Ferstans who fi^llowed close 
uftfir Xerxes, had golden apples.* Behind tlie ti-n tbougand 
footmen came a body of Persian cavalry, likewiao ten 
tliouBand; after which there was again a void spaee for m 
luuch ns two furlongs; and then the rest of the army followed 
in a confuR'd crowd. 

42. The march of the army, after leaving Lydia, was 
directed upon the river raicns and the huid of Mysia. 
Bvyond tbo Caicue the road, leaving Mount Cana upon the 
left, passed through tlie AtAmean i^in,' to tbo city of 



Uis •caMaTW ivoontl;' ncarued. 
Tba ebatiot iu«d VMrnu to hftro boon 
{Ilk* Uiiiwt of Uia Oreclia «»J Ruouiim) 
lixht ■■>) tmM, tSortiiKii hardly ny>m 
(or Um« moo to ititiol in it. tu bnttki 
ai»d i« bmititig. th» Vitig »□<! bl* 
Sliariotrcr <i«re thn Mil; occuianU, 
Mid vtocd lido hj Ma ; v.i oeoaUau* 
of jut« tlHTe iriiii a tbjrd iMtnrMl in llii> 
CAT. >a •ItcDilkdt trha ban ibc n>^ 
ponuuL Tbo ropnaealiainu on prv- 
coiIiB(c (W^ IMi-a frcw K«r Piir".«, 
wilt funitili ■ Utoreblr oi>iT«at outiua 
cl Um diunot4 «< Um Pcnias kiuga. 



* That Is, with tlio point niiwkril 
' TliuH woro pioiitlily Uuf Int. 
miirtiklf, wlio ikr« qioki'a i^ in cb. S3, 
oTiil am thoM SMil to bkTs *orrcd on 
foot, 

' .Sco Atbeb. Ddpa. xH. p. M4, a 
In iLg tcnipiiim nt I'orHojKiliB, tbo 
«|Mnrcitv, •• lit! uvidcuttjr tnjirenMit tbo 

tiD'fjr-inutnl vt the king, liave tlio 
kmcr citrvmtijr of Ibodr upaani onut- 
iii'-'Tiiod with • ball, irbiob Rinj lio 
I'irtifir nu ii|>|il« or a |ium«gnuuito, 
TIiq; bear tbifif qitttta orcot. 



* TKp roaln ot Xcnca from Siudit 
tu llic Cfl'ru' bi iiiiiMiftalu. II" way 
vltbn- haTu dciovlidod Iho nlivy of 



ibo nonuuii, and tkea folIinr«il ili« 
ooMt road hf p^mo, U]rrioB, Qrjr* 
BciuD, and Slsaj or ho ninj havo 



43 



XERXES AT TROV. 



Boos VII. 



Cttrinn-* Quitting this, tbo troops odvitncecl aorota tbo plain 
of Tbttl)6,*pa6giiig AdnunHtinm.'anil Autnudnis,' tho Pelaegic 
oi^; then, holding Mount Ida upon the luft band,' it entered 
the Trojan territory. On this msrcb tho Persians suffered 
aome loss ; for as they blvoQacked during the night at the 



mMrad Iha opp«r nllny of Ibo 
CbIcu*, wb«r« Divclonu mch it <m 
thctr w&jr from Thjruira (Ak-hitiar) 
to pMgktPO* (Brnma), Tbc t&ltsr la 
IIm ■borwr, but tbo formnr (ho toiiicr 

Wilh reipoct to tha litanlion of th» 
AtAnioBii plain, Tido aupra, L 100, 
•sd tL 28, EtI. Tbo gcogmphj of thia 
tnotia •till vwry paitiiklly known. Ky 
U<nint CoDK Bendotui appmn to 
ana tha modtm Uoimt Katada, 
Ojipcalta tbo •aatli.«Mt«ta extromitr 
of llTtilen*. Tha armj wonlil naln- 
nllj Ifaro tbia moant^iii to tho Mt 
btfOTo cnt«ruiK tho Alameaa |ilain, 
wUlob iraa va tho const near Dtkrli 
Kiiiti. In »,tUt lluK') tbo nama of 
Cans or Canio wna apgilinil to it muoh 
iMgor dutrlct (Sitob. liii. p. SS3.) 

*Tlia attDDtioo of Carina cnn 00)7 
ha co&Jaotortiil. Il ajipMu* (com tbia 
poanga to bato Iain on a ridge topa- 
TBtinKtbe Alanioaa plain fitiiu tbatof 
ThttM. Thia didriol i* ilill on*i- 
ptorod. I botini'a. Corion irna • ottj' 
of acona «un>«^iini)i^n at tbo tiina ot 
Uw Imian culonisitiin), and (umUliod 
eotoniata to Ej>hi!«uit (Epfaor. «p. 
SUph. nyi. ad voc. BJrw). Alter tbo 
tiBO of ilonidiAaa it dlaappuan tmm 
hiauirj, bnnit onlj uootionod by 
VUnj, and th»D aa a placa lh*t had 
DMacd to Mut (n. K. V. SO). 

■ Tba pkin of Tkobj «aa aa callnd 
from an acnioot (own of ttitt nnius in 
tha Bortb'.'m part of IIhi )>1ud, at lliti 
foot of Jtoaiit Ilia. RuiiM at (bia 
town, eclobmtod m bcinK tho notivo 
citT td Aadnmnchd (Uciio. II. ii. 
>Wi nil. 470>, TOinainod to tho tima 
a Stnbo (lui. p. H7». Tto pkia. 
i> Iko centM of wbick tbo citjr of 
Jinmyti (Adnoifltiiun} now MuiiU, 



1« Mio of KTMt bwtQtjr and trttiUtf 
(F»l)o«r», Aaia Uioor, p. 42| cf. Lir. 
xiirii. 18 1 Poljb, iri. 1), and ma in 
nnciont timea a Mnulant object of 
OdutoatioD, fint batman tbo HyaUna 
aod Lydlniii. Bud ■riorwtrdi botiraoD 
thain and Uii> Urcvlca (8tnb, L ».o.)> 

* Admnjrttinm ia nid to bn<r« been 
toonded b; Adnmjtt*. ot AdmnM 
aon of one of ibe I.ydiui .kingi (al. 
Ariitot. ap. Simh. hyi. mb. too. 
'Al|)^vmr>ir, and Nic, Dam. Pr. fit). 
It KM K>voD to tho oJKCIcd DcliaDi bf 
Phnnuuoa, in Iha tenth jruar of tlie 
IVlcfioniiMian mr (thoej-l. r. 1 ; of, 
Tiii. 108) I nod from that timo aecms 
to har« boon rvokonad a Gni«k city 
(GcTlax, Poripl. pp. 87. 8**). Tbo 
nwjdvrn town of Jldramt/li, which i*. 
l:MnH both tho nama and aita, boaaU 
but few nnnaiu «l tha anoient caXj 
(t'ollowa, nt aniiffn). 

' Pot tha lilnatko of AnUodiBiL 
Tida iiapn, T. SS. Tli« maroh of 
Xooopbon ttom Trvj to PornmnB 
aaf ooarimiontl; be comparM wiib 
tbia portion of tbo rout* of Xonaa 

lrtpdirt4i tiir 'Itnr, tli 'Amu^par 
k^utroHrrot apvTDi'' ilta vaf>l i^aTTar 
•gpiDwinu Tflt Avtiai, ii'f ^Mi|>'Aiai'. 
'Emitftr tf 'ATfaiivrrlai aol ka^oriao 
■at>' 'Atepria lit Katittv wititr /KtArrn, 
Tlin*M"- KaraU^Mroun T^t Hwrlat. 
Anab. 111. Tiii. {) 7, 8). 

■ Hio traa Uk nmat bar* ttaaa Mt 
eonaiiUiTaUr to tha right, tha »n>j 
oroaaing tbo tidca whiOb aslaaida from 
it woatward, and («nBinat«« ia Capo 
Bala. Bcrcdotiia appean to havo 
Bima tbo Bam* of Ida to tho tkitrb- 
Und« whieh cloaa (n tbo nll^j of tl>o 
Scamandw od tjie loft, Ijing wc«t and 
aoulh of Nwiiariatbi. fSm Iba Chart 
on tlto folloiriag paga.) 



I 
4 



CaAV.49: 



PUN OF THE CODNTTIT SEAR TBOT. 



43 







44 



OFrEKIJta TO MIN'intVA. 



bomvu. 



foot of Ida, 8 storm of thunder and Hglitmng burst upon 
tlivm. and killed no small number. 

48. On reaching thu Scamandcr, vhlch was the firBt 
Etream, of nil that tliejr bad croBsod Binee thi'j left Sordis, 
whose water failed them and did not euffieo to entisf}- the 
thirot of mon and cattli-.' Xcrxc* ascended into tie Perpamus 
of Priam,' since he had a lou^ng to behold the place. When 
ho had 8ei<n overytlnng. and inquired Into all particulars, he 
made an offering of a tbouKand ox«n to tb« Trojan Miuerra, 
nhilu tho Magiani) ]x>iire<l libations to tlie heroes who were 
slain at Troy.* Th« night after, a panic fell upon tho camp : 
but in the morning they si-t off with daylight, and »klrting on 
tho left hand tbetowiiH lthc('ti'Uiu,Oi)hr)-ni-um, and DordOQus' 



* nioa)|fa lh« Srvmandur of B«r«- 
AMnt (lh« inodtTD Hmdir*) hna b bnl 
fram SOO U> aoo feat broad, tm tho 
ttnmm In tho ilir iMuuni iti rwuiixl la 
n I'U.iulftr bniiilt oai ninn> ttiAii thrvv 
fM't ikvp (Gvoxniph. Jonru. tdI. xii. 
p. 31). It iBiij Ihcroforo tiMilf hava 
pnirnd Iwiitliclutxt u> nffunl fixii 
ntur tot (lie ontini h<w(. 8i» Um 
reoDftrkBcf Mr. QiiHa(Qiit.of Qrt«ce, 
vol. T. p. 37). 

■ By Uio ■' PdTipitDiM et Priftm " U 
li> be nniliiralaed lli» Mmipoli* of 
New lliuin, which <Jkiou<it, nnil ■»• 
boUcvod lill n/tcr Um> tlma ct A\ex. 
nndor, (o •tniid upon tho kilo ot Ills 
nnciitut cily (Stnh. xiii. ii. H&i), 
Ililhor AltitkniiM- >1ae saMwlPil. luiJ 
■■orilloc<l (o Uincrra (Arrum. Bip- 
Mox. L 111 Sinib. I.f. c.|. Thnniina 
Diar h'«ii>-ti«iri*, Sro iiiilut t'> the 
Muiilli.cii"! '4 Kim.kaUh, or tbo Uytirr 
Matte of tlie UkrtlancllcB. IMI^i tho 
•itDMuni I.I KowIUum. (SMLckko'v 
AtM MiiiiT, i>. ZT&.) 

1')ii< t|n<-ir..<n at lite •iioalion of Ihs 
Itomn'iu lltniii •cDiwtf oomoa witbiu 
Ibo pnnlnro of m coniMtitator on 
HoRxhitak I mif bywiiTcr b« kl- 
kiiTMl to •tproM iw opinion tw'>><'Ii 
mcvBt 4i>oMWTiCt hmt not iliaken) 
in fiiimur of lh» tmkh of Ihoio irho 
diclinir«l*h li«(irMa Old kud K«w 



Ilium, and pla<« lb* tarmvr at Bmiuu-- 
haihi, on llie lufl bank ot tho rirMT. 
(S« tbo mvompui^tiE map.) 

' Tlioco ai!t« nrn "»lraii]t«it Imo." 
Tlir]' iiiaj liiiro lioni dvnn to oonolli- 
olu the Aiiutii^ Crm.'l», whose dettc- 
tioa wu fiured |iii(n, chu. 51, tm. 
Or Ihnj Riav liarn tit^a kcl« of w<4r. 
tliip, of wliiob tha tiraolu nu«w>ilcr> 
■twcl, or niinvprnwatod, tho tno 
elantoicr. Tho Uot^ woold be m 
little IiIeoIt nil tho Aclttunonlui IVr- 
tinnti, to naorlflf* ui the b«r(«i who 
frll at Tnijr und lo tba Tt^ba HI- 
Dunra. 

* TtiMo wtm alt plocn* ot Mnatl lan> 
poRHuoe on et noar lb* cdimL Bbta. 
t«uni, atcunlInK to Strnbo, iraa kotc* 
niiica frum SiiCfiiia. at Tfau BXnitb of 
tho HeUinpont {I^Emh. ilii. p. ».'■!)). 
Ii aaa ii>iiu(U<d nmr Ibn bacnnr of 
Ajni, which is nlill a mofkad faatsra 
on tho Intern cdira <>f Ihe l^vjnn 
plilii. CuL Loalm IdonlUkM Bholaim 
with the rainn (PaM.h'oilrv) near 
li-OA'InM, whkli aLanil on an ontl. 
nence ovoriookinaihe atrail (Leako** 
Ana Itiner, p. SJi) ; bat (bno am 
IB0<1 probably tho ranaliia ul Ojihry- 
B«eni ((M Om«. Jonin. vol. kii. f. nu), 
wluofa vaa aaid to hare brvu thu 
bsnol-^c* of Boohir (Ariilodoni. 
tlieb. ¥f, 0). BbcMcuHi may Imtb 



UBTB I 



Cii^r. •U-46. 



XERXES VIKWS D13 AKU.VUEKT. 



45 



(which borders on Abjdos), on tho right the Tcuorione of 
Gfirgifl,* BO reached Ahydoe." 

■l-l. Arrinxl hfiw. Xorxw vrisliod to lool: upon all his host ; 
«o, as Uicro van a tlirono of whitu marblo upon n bill near the 
city,* which they of Abydoii hiid prcparct) bcforclmud, hj Uiv 
King'fl bitUiag, for bis especial uim*, Xoncca took his scat on 
it, and, ga7.iug thence upon the shore below, buhuhl at one 
view all Ilia laud forces and all his shijKt. While thns 
employed, be felt a desire to behold a eailing-niatch among 
his BhipH. which accordingly took place, and was won by the 
FhcBnicians of Sidon, much to the joy of Xerxes, who was 
delighted alike with the race and with bis army. 

46. And sow, as he looked and saw the whole Hellcspout 
covered with the veBsels of his fleet, and all the shore and 
erery plain about AbydoB as ftJl as possible of men. Xerxes 
congratulated hiuist'lf on his good foi-tuue ; but after a little 
while, he wept. 

4G. Tlien ArtubauoB, the King's uncle (the same who at the 
tU-Ht 80 freely apako his mind to the King, and advised hiin 
not to lead hift army ugEiiiist Greece), when ho hi-urd that 
Xivxofi was in tvar«t, wont tu him, and said — 

•■ How diffcntnt, siro, is what thou art now doing, from 
what thou didst a little whilu ago! Then thou didst con- 
gratulate thyself ; and now, b<;hold! thou weepest." 

"There came upon me," replied he, " a sudden pity, when 
I thought of the shortness of man's life, and considered that 



MXMpifil tho hill iminMliKtcIf opiKirit« 
Ite louib »( Ajiu, whom ihm an; 
tiBcm) "t a Imin. Conocralng Iho 
ilw ot r>*ribfiiM. vids aupra, r. 117. 

•8<ijin.T. 1S2. 

* Tlis inoMrBi o( Ab^-dua Uo m Ultlo 
ntrth o( tlin appnr uitltt of tbo D*r- 

IIm fat *nd Uiu •itrvnutj ot Hi* piu- 
■BtWT hcin^ Soaitm, lliejr an ao 
•ligfat IhM Sir C. Frilowa pMMd thorn 
(inoe witboal pcn»lrliig lima (i*lB 
UioMT, p. SO}. 



• It moy lio qiwationDd wfcetlmr by 
apfiliZirn AlOav AiiwsC a tiirono i* in. 
tc-iiilu<l. imii not n>lh»r na tlm/attd 
plat/arm wlmrron lli* kinit'a thmne, 
which be nrricil with htm Iknfm. riii. 
90t, wna Co bo pls<wL SqdIi ■niflcial 
platfonua am t»unil in l1u> AmjrTiaii 
(OuliiluTM (Ln.riit>r< Niiifivch knd 

■nntle kwtc not, bo*r«Tcr, lukaown 
to tho Qnok*. {Soo n'olpolo** Tu- 
Tuj, vol. L 310.) 




DLUXWUE 

of all Uiis host, so nnmcrous aB it is, not one will 
when a hundred ycarB lure gone by." 

" And ^-ct thfro ar« saddiT tbiuRs in life than that," 
returned tlio otbt-r. " Short aa our lime is, there ia no man, 
whether it be b.vtv> among this multitnde or elfiewher«, irho ia 
so happy, ae not to have felt Iho wieb — I ^ill not e»y onoei 
but full many a tinio— that he- wtn.- dead rather than alive. 
Colamilioft fall npon ub ; sickQcfiEeH vex and barttSB ue. and 
make life, Bliort thongb it be, to upiKfir long. So d(^ath, 
through the wretcbednvss of our life, ia a most sweet rofitgo 
to DUr race : and God, who gives us the taster that wo enjoy 
of pleasant times, w seen, in his very gift, to be envious." 

47. "Tme," said Xerxes; "human life is even such as 
thou hast painted it, Artabonua 1 But for this veiy reason 
lot us turn our thoughts from it, and not dwell on vlint is so 
sad, when pleasant things are in hand. Tell me rather, if the 
vision which wo saw had not appeared bo plainly to thyself, 
wouldat thon have bwu still of tliu same miud as formerly, 
and have continued to dissuade mo from warring afiainst 
Gn-ecu, or woddst thou at this time think diOfereutly 7 Come 
now, tell me this honestly." 

"OKiug!" repUed the other, "may th© droom which 
bath appeared to us have such insuc as we both desire t For 
my own part, I am still full of f«-«r, and have scareety power 
to control mysuif. when I connider all our dangers, and 
sqitdaUy vheu I sco that tlio two thiuga which ore of most 
consoquuMw aro alike opposed to thee." - 

48. *' Thou strange man ! " said Xcrxca in r^ply — " what, I 
pray tbee, are the two things thon npeakest of? IVoes my 
hind army seem to thee too small in number, and will the 
Greeks, tbinkest thon, bring into the field a more uanioroas 
host ? Or is it our fleet which thou deemest weaker than 
theirs? Or art thou fearful on both aeoounts? If in thy 
jodgmont we fall short in either respect, it wore easy to bring 
together witli all speisl anoth^ir armament." 

49. " King ! " said Artabanus, " it is not {wssible that a 



J 



Cajir.4S-«l. XBRXES* DIALOGUE WITH ARTABAKUS. 



47 



man of undenttaQding Bboolcl find fault with the size of thy 
army or the namber of thy ships. The more thoa addest to 
these, the more hostile nill those two tJiinRfi, wttcreof I epake, 
beoom«. Those two things are the hind and the sea. In all 
the wide sea there is not, I iniagiuo, anywhtre a liarbonr large 
cuuu)^)] to receive thy veswht, in case a storm arise, and 
aSord them a sum protoction. And yc-t lliou wilt waut, cot 
0D« Bueh harbour only, but many in suceoBsion, along the 
ontiro ooa«t by vhich thou art about to make thy advance. 
In default then of such harboiv», it is well to bear in mind 
that chrinpos rule men, and not men <:h«nceH. Such is the 
first of the two dangers ; and now I will speak to tliee of the 
Hfcond. The land will also be thine enemy ; for if no one 
rofliBta thy advance, as thou proceedest further and further, 
insenf)il)ly allun^d onwards (for who is erer sated wltli sne- 
CM8?), thou wilt find it more and more hostile. I mean this, 
that, should nothing eliio withatond thee, yet the mere dis- 
tance, becoming greater as time goes ou, will at last produce a 
famine. Motbinks it is bt-sl for men, when they take counsel, 
to be timorous, and iiuagiiio all poHviblc calamities, but when 
the time for action comes, then to doal boldly." 

60. Wiereto Xerxe.t answered — "There is reason, Arta- 
bannii 1 in everything which thoa Imst said ; bat I pray thee, 
fear not all things alike, nor count up every risk. For if 
in each matter that comes before us thou wilt look to all 
poaeible chaneoD, never wilt thou achieve anything. Far better 
U it to have a stout heart always, and sufiler one's share of 
vvUfi, than to be ever feariug what may happen, and nerer 
incur a mischance. Mori'ovtT, if thon wilt oppose whatercr is 
said by othiTB, without thyself showing us the sure course 
which we oHt;ht to take, thou art us likely to lead us into 
failure as they who adnsc diHereutly ; for thon art but on a 
par with them. And as for that sure courst^ how caust thou 
thow it ntt wh«n thou art hut a man 7 1 do not bt^lieve thou 
canst. Success for the most part uttemls thouo who act 
boldly, not those who weigh everything, and are Black to veu- 



48 



XBRXra' DLLLOaCE WITU JUtTAAUil'S. BOOK TH. 



turc. Tliou 8p«ftt to how great n lioight the power of Persia 
has now nxtclteil — never would it have growo to this point 
if they wlio ftatfl upon Uje throne before me had been Ml-- 
minded with thee, (n* even, though not like-mtndt^d, had 
listened to coiineillor!) of snoh a spirit. 'Twas by brave ven- 
tures that ttiof extended tJieir enay ; for great empires can 
only be eonciuewd by Brtat riske. W'« follow then (ho example 
of our fatlierit in making tluH march ; and we set forward at 
the best seaiion of tho year ; so, when wo have Iironght 
Europe under us, wc ftball return, witliout sufTiring from want 
or experiencing any other calamity. For while on the one 
band we enrry vast stores of provinions with un, on the other 
we Bhall have the grain of all the countries and nations that 
we attack ; &ince our morob ia not directed against a pastoral 
pL-oplo, but against men who are tillers of tlie ground." 

SI. Thi-n said Arlabanus — " If, sire, Ihoii art determined 
tliut wo uhall not fear anything, at least hearken to a counsel 
which I wi»h to offer; for when the matters in hand are 6o 
many, one cannot but have luucli to say. Thou kuowi-bt that 
Cyrus the aon of Canibysca rwhiced and made tributary to the 
FereianB all the race of the loninns, exci-pt only those of 
Attica.' Now my adrioc is, that thou ou no acconnt lead 
forth these moii against their fathers;^ since we are well able 
to overcome th^m without such aid. Their choice, if we take 
them with nn to the war, lies between showing themselres the 
most wicktx) of men by helping to enslave their fatherland, or 
the most righteous by joining in the Btnigglc to keep it free. 
If then they choose Uie side of injustice, they will do ua but 
scant good ; while if they determine to aot juEtJy, tbey may 
greatly injure our host. Lay thou to heart the old proverb, 
which says truly. ' Tb« begiuoing and end of a matter are not 
always wen at once.' " 



iht FtMiaM nii)tht net iiniiutiirnllj b« 
nmNMBd Ignomnt of nil Iho looiwia 
of Banip* «)c«Fpt Ihe AthenioM. 



* Vtd* Infn, riiL it, whnr* Th*< 
tDMivolM make* aw «f Uw ataot ujCtu 
awBt. 



r.SCMSS. XERXEeT JU)nRI-<S TO THE CHIET PERSIAKa 49 



» 



IS2. " Arifthanns." aoewtrwT Xontes, " there is notluug in 
all timt tliou hast oaicl, wlirrcin titoii art so nliully wrong as 
in i\m, Itiitt thoa suspecicst the faith of the [ottiane. Have 
they not giwn «9 tho eurcut pn)of of their tittnchmoRt. — B 
proof which thoa didst thyself nitness, and likewise all those 
who fought with Dariua against the Soythiane ? WTien it lay 
wholly with tlicra to flaro or to dcttroy tho «ntiri> Pi-rsion 
army, th^y dealt by tui honourably and with good faith, and 
did iiR uo litirt at all. BesidH. tiK-y will lonru bfhtnd them 
in our country their wives, their children, and tlioir proper- 
ties — con it then be oonceived that thi'y will attempt rebellion ? 
Haro DO fear, therefore, on this soorc ; but kei>p a brave heart 
and uphold my house and empire. To thee, and thco tmly, 
do I intrufit my Bovcreignty." 

SS. Aftt>r Xerxes had thus epolcen, and had Rent Artabanus 
away to return to Susa, he summoned before him all the 
Persians of most repute, and when they appoarcd, addrcased 
them in these words :— 

" Perwans, I have brought you together bccauso I wiahwl to 
exhort you to behave bravely, and not to sally with disgrace 
the former achievemente of Uio PerHiau people, which are very 
great and famous. Rather let un one and all, singly and 
jointly, exert oorsolves to the uttermost; for the matter 
wberdn wo am eneaged concerns tho eommoa veal. Strain 
every nerve, then, I bcBeech yon. in this war. Braro ■warriora 
are the men wo march against, tf report says true ; and eiich 
that, if wo coniuor them, there is not a people in all the 
world which will venture tliereafter to withstand our onnii. 
An^ now let us offer prayers to the gods' who watoh over the 
welbro of Persia, and then cross the ohannel." 



*Onmd fn Bpokm o( IhrniiKVint 

rtli«lM«ripUdUM"lhe cbiirl of tho 

'Btdt" (niilJkIA Biftnat) or the 

l*M< Gvd" (Baga ratartii); ftnd llio 

*■ <><k«r ifwlf ** (uBiylbuiha) are {iflcn 

hI irtlh Um. llie rvpnwnta- 

laan of Uarcdutoa {■ ttMnfbc* m far 

et; botiiU^oMliinaUBiiMlMr 

TOL.IV. 



Ihv FsrwiMui bad (h« notfon ucrlfafd Ui 
IhiMn in tliia placo, of d •p«oiitl fupBr. 
inlt-nd^rm of diSnmit oonntriM bj* 
diitinct dRltim. Gods wbciM bnaiaaia 
It li t» guard th« Idng'a hooao (vidU^ 
bajdha) am mMiliaaecl i but naUonal 
d*[liM an KnTben bdioated. 



B 



50 



UBATIOK AKD PBiYEB Of XKRXSa 



Book 



54. All that day tbc prcpomlioug for Uie puMteo continued ; 
imtl on tlie inorro^i' U117 burut all kinds of epices upon tbe 
bridgi^n, nud btrewtd tlie way with mjitle-boogba, while they 
wait«d anxionsly for the Btm, which thoy hoped to see as he 
toee. And now the Bun apjK'ori-d ; and Xerxes took a golden 
goblet and pourtd from it u Ub«ttuD into tbe sea, praying the 
white, with hifl fooo turned to tbe buu,' " that uo nuBfurtone 
mi^lit Ixifal hiiii hucIi as to hinder his conqnest of Europe, 
until he had ponctrtttt'd to iU nttcnnost boundaries." After 
be had prayed, bo cast tbo golden cap into tbe HoUeepont, 
and with it a goldon bowl, and a Peninn sword of the kind 
which they call atinactt.' 1 oonnot say for ceitftin whether it 



* Ko tnficatioii «t tfao wonUp of 
Xillm hu jM bven AhibiI ia tb* tn- 
•criMioat of Xmo«> — nOM indMd 
unlll the tiin* of ArUxocsM Odnw, 
the fourth in tl^neant from thftt nun- 
arc^ Tha FNonlf hnwnvcT of tto 
iBUTTnain^ period HO •Inott It bbnk ; 
uid oQ Uw wLoId it m not inprotable 
that, M «ily u tha nign of Xtmt, 



th* AJtM wM rall7 cBtaUiibcd. A 
ntorroti*! raganl tor Hittmt modm to 
hive bwR * part of tha raKgion 
lirongLt bjr tlia Ariraa Ikon 0M-ir pn- 
loltivc rooiittj, (Sm to). i> Emsv v. 
p. 41H0 

' The Pcnian aci'norM n** « iihoct 
tironi, cot atcjmilar. It wwauaichl, 
not corf od, m jMtphua oziinMly d^ 



4 




OiAr.H-». 



PASSAOE OF THE HELLXSPOKT. 



SI 



was as &□ ofTering to tlte snn-god that he threw Uicso things 
into the deep, or whether he had npoiitt-d of having scourged 
the UelleBpont, and thought l; liio gifts to make uaeads to ' 
the seft for what he had dono. 

65. 'When, however, his ofTcrlnga were made, the army 
began to cross; and tho foot-itoldi6r«, with t]io horscinon, 
pOBScd ovtr by ono of tho bridges — Umt (nnmvly) vrhicli lay 
towards tbo Euxino — while the Biimptcr-beasts and tlie camp- 
folluwerB pHHSixl by the other, which looked on the Egean. 
Por«nio»t went the Ten Thousand Persians, all wearing gar-- 
landa upon their heads ; and after them a mixed multitude of 
many nations. These crossed npon the first day. 

On the next day the hurtscmen bcgna tho passage ; and with 
them went the soldiers who carrii-d their speais with the point 
downwariU, garlanded, like tho Ten Thourand ;— then came 
tho sacred bonit'S and tho snored chariot ; mixt Xenes with 
his looccrs and tho thotisnud horso; then tlio rest of the 
onny. At tlio Rame titae the ships sailed over to tho oppuxite 
tihorc. According, however, to another account nbich I liavo 
heard, the King crossed the last. 

C6. As soon as Xerxes hod renched the Enropenn stdo, ho 
stood to Gontemplato his army as they crossed under tlie lash.' 
And the crossing continued duriug seven days and seven 
ni^ta, without rest or pause. 'Tis said that here, after 
Xerxes had made the passage, a Hellespontian exchiimed — 

" Why, Jove, dost thon, in the likeness of a Persian man, 
and with the name of Xerxes instead of thine own, lend the 
whole race of mankind to the destruction of Greece ? It 
would have been as easy for thoe to destroy it without their 
ftidl" 



flMM(Aiit.JDd. 0.7,(10). Api"*- 
MMKtiuM of It abaand in Um Teito^ 
|wHbU wmI vtlicr iculptBrc*. li i» 
MHm hont^iiiir in H* *liinUi, at Uu 
wtarar** WaAt imId (Aniin. HitK. xriL 
4), tn tb» £gmvt of ftlttniUnta, irhils 
la Umm fsppcMd to rcproMbt UHbca 



(■M wcodeat on prwrimw fogr, ttnJ 
oompun r. I^ijard > Culu- >!(• Miihnc, 
K OMfpufleaiit work !), it spptan oat 
at iu uabtard. A nimltar pooktil U 
iram oonunoulj lij Uio IVtu&iu ut tha 
prvtont My. 
'Sn^n-a, ch. 22,Do[o>. 



53 



UARCR FIIOM SESTOS TO DORISCt-S. 



BookTTI. 



!>7. Wlien ibc whole army had crosBod, ami llio troops ■were 
now iijion ttioir march, a etronge prodigy appcarcil to tliom, 
wbereof tlio king made no account, tlioagh its nienJiing w»a 
not dini(!tiU to conjocturf. Xow the prodigy was thin: — a 
mare hrotiglit forUi a htiro. Efrubj it was shown plainly 
tnough, that Xerxcn would lead fortli liIs host aKiiinst Greece 
with mighty pomp and Hplendour. hut. in ordir to roach again 
the spot bora which be Bet out, would have to ran for his life. 
There had also been another portent, while Xerxox was still 
at Sardiii — a mule dropped a foal, neither mole nor female;* 
hut this likewise was disregarded. 

68. So Xvnies, despising the omens, marebed forwards; 
and bis Inud unny accompanied him. Bat the fleet ljt:<)d an 
oppoBit« courw, and, siuliug to the mouth of the IleUespont, 
mode its way along tbo shore. Thus the fleet proceeded 
wwtwaid, making for Cape SarpAdon,* wlmrc Iho orders were 
that it Bliouid await the coming up of tliv troops; hut the land 
army miut^hMl eastward along the Chersonese, leavrng on the 
rij;ht the tomb of Hcll6,' the daughter of Athamat), and on the 
loft the city of Canlia. Having passod through the town 
which is called Agora,' they skirted the shores of the Galf of 
Melas, and then crossed the rivnr Melaa, whence the gnU 



'"Main* mnluni pupcril piniUIia 
habeotMn laniiMrbtwn tamioiB; bo- 
inrlom mutam nuiwallna emit." TIid 
itvdullly of IlfTtxIuttiii wltli miptct Ui 
jiurWoUU onruiiilf greu. Uu ralntoit 
^ ihtM wiihoul th« *ti|^toat doubt << 
Xlh^nality. Hia hnowUdgii a( lbs 
wtmdKfiil thipK* Uuftt do MCFiur, and 
lite boUot In Ibo freqiiDiit Bcthv loMr. 
podtlon of Dliluo truTtdmoe in tba 
nSain ut mttt, u« tbv caoao vt but 

* Tbl« pMM^o itlono inint^nKlj d«- 
twinliiP* lh« jioiilit'ii ut Cajw ISmrpt- 
don. Tba pmit irb(s« Uio S«et and 
moj mwld DkiimUy mnrito, uiil tba 
oolj Inpottaat pKoaooiciry bntwoMi 
Uio BcllnjMDt uid Darbcn*, is (bn 
nodnn Vmp* Ortaut. llie ScboliMt 
oa Apolloaiu Bbodia* (i. USS) ia4i' 
<»tMthk*iM> 




* Tho moni goiu-nil tndliian wu 
(hat B*IU Ml into tho tN« to whicb 
■he pkVD her Dame (Aiwllod. I. ii. ) 6} i 
bat lucoi^Dg U> lomp, obc irrivrd in 
■he Cbiinicdii^i'. and died ihcrc : — Bo!. 
iMiou* (Pr. HH) wj« at rmatjv. Wn 
mof conolad« Untt llio t«iQb mIiowr u 
bm wu near Ihia cilf . whicb wm oa 
the cant couC, and w to Ui« ligbt a( 
Uwannjr. 

< Thin plnce ia mpntionM bj Br^Ui 
(FcTJpl. p. OS) M l/lng bDtwwa EWlja 
nnd I'lirdla ; wid b]r Ocmealboiie* w 
DmrLiiiK, iii tho opinion of tooM, Uhi 
bountlsTjr ot tbo Cbtwo n ow to tltc 
iwirth (do Hklonec 1 M^ p. Sl>. An*- 
tooHf ibontvn it ooenpitd ibo *it« 
of Lynlmoctibi, whMi boouno Ucxa- 
nibun (PioL Qvogr.lii. U), aad U now 
U«maM (ride topn, ri. 33, noto ■). 



^^^^^^^^■^^^H 


1 

Cbat.st-cs. xER:tES Bcriinvs his soldiebs;. 55 ^M 

takes ita name," the waters of which they found too scanty to ^M 
supply the host. From this i>oiut their lunich vas to thu ^H 
west; oud afk-r passing jEaos,* aa Motiaa settlement, and ^M 
likextisu Lako Stcntoris,* they came to PoriBcns.* ^M 
69. The name JOorisons is given to a beach and a vast plain ^H 
tipon the oOAst of Thrace, throngh tJie middle of which tloivs ^H 
the (ttrong ntream of the Ilebrus. Hera was tho royal furt ^| 
which is likewise mW&A Doriscus, whi'ro Dariiui had nmiu- ^H 
taiTied a Tersian garrison ever since the timvwhen hu utluckcd ^H 
the Scytliians. This place seemed to Xvrxos a conv^niout ^H 
spot fur reviewing and numhcring his Huldicrs ; which tUtngH ^^^H 
accordingly he procuL'dod to do. Tho Bca'Captains, who luul ^^^| 
brought tho Soot to DoriscuH, were ordenid to take tlic vessoU ^H 
to the beooh adjoining, \iriiere Sa16 Ktauihi, a city of the Samo- ^M 
thraciaiu, and ZOue, aDotb«r city.* Tho beach extends to ^M 
Scrrh^uiQ,* the well-known promontory ; the whole district in ^M 
fonaer times was inhahitM by tho Ciconians.* Hero then the ^M 


■BoptBiti. 41,iiota'. 

1 J£aK» ivUIm 1m nkOMi nlmoiri en- 
cbui^l ta iho mcdfTii KnoJ (tat. 4lf 
46', ]img. SO* V). It nsM ■ pboo id 
0)oMtlmbk» Mtmi^h (Lit. ixx. 1^, 
AoectHtig tn Sloplica (mItoc.) H wh 
OBM cnllcd ApajBlbiu, and inu a 
oolonj fK0 CuaH. E|)facaiia bowwrnr 
MUCMd Uiat (bu fint vvllletsinit irsa 
intdo Irom AlopccauwaiM in the Obvr. 
•oMW,Mlo(iM<boliic»nsni»nl added 
frnro Cmna t&d BJitTlcne (Pr. T&). 
Tb« ancunt nania of ^;i:«« wait Vlolj. 
obtia (SUab. rii. p.-l«Ui Sltrpb, B;^ 
•nb *<«.), from wbtdiafwctlmatcni.'* 

«t KUK I'ollr* <Apol>^- >■■ '■ $ B| 
UutaKb, Ap(<iiliUK«. 11. p. 174, C.}. 

> Hinjr wuna to liaT« nad )kv>'>« 
for Abirqr m ibio pMmeo— at leaM ho 
•jirakt a( a " ^wrtiu Slcaiori* " botitoca 
Ihv moutb of the UabTut and JKaat 
(TI. K. >r. 11)) b«tUotQ<k4a*ai>(4im 
hi lal«nd Ibu Tart lako or murih 40) 
tlwlaft haiik<^ tlioHebnu{SrantM), 
near iu uoaib, wUeh it vine ol Ibo 
moMl ntuaAablo fwlorM of tl>[* dil- 
utee So Kiaiwn ri|tbi1r judgM 
(Kacta tw HolUa, JUati t.}. 


■ Sapia, V. OS, net* *. ^H 

■ Zooi is merDtiootil b; M>r<>t«l an- ^H 

wanlit (llccnv Ft. 132; Scjl. IVripl. ^^^1 
p. 65 1 I"!-"- H. K. 1. ». c 1 rcnip. Hck. ^^^H 
li. Si Apoll. Bhod. i. :K<)i bul tba>^^^l 
lumo of &tli is not found tUvwhcMb ^^^^| 
Tbi* latter olty hod probably poriiiluHl ^^M 
befora tbo time ot AlMDUidiir. TUmt ^H 

waa nut a plaoo of nuy cou>>oqannco ; ^H 

tba tmdition whlob made it the Mena ^^^^H 
of tbd (aroon* ralnuJft of Orptunu (Me.^^^^H 
A))»lli)«iiii*and Mvln. 1. r. c. ; ciiio|iara ^^^^| 
alw Iba SoliollMt on Nim't.lor, |), S3). ^^M 
< Scrrhiiam ia undcabttdly Ca|>« ^^^^t 
JIairl. It \aj MUt of U«ainbriii, m ia ^^^^M 
nplianiat both fKmi thopmdiutivuMwa^^^^^^l 
and frorn anuttiM'fnrtlirran (m(ta,ch. ^^^^^| 

1116). I'Udt (!I. N. iv. 11) ftiM A|>i>>an ^^^M 
(do Bel). CW. ir. p. 61S) in*^ t>>u naow ^^^H 
of Serrh£am to llio aminlaiu, nWcb ^^M 
eaOAM the wimC to pnijrvt at tUa ^^^^M 
poiDti nod Lirjr (an!. ll!)ip|>lkM il la ^^^^H 
a fdtifliil poat bailt buro tu <vmnuuiA ^^^^H 
UiD omit. mad. TliiilMti* Ibu 3(^41- ^H 

* The Cicuaiaaa ircr* bbuhk ika ^^^^H 



54 



KATIONS IK XERXES ARXl' — THE PEHSIJUfS. Boos VII. 



captains were to bring tlicir shipE, and to ban] tliem ashore 
for rufitliug, whilo Xorxcs at Dortscaa vaa employed in 
iiutnlK'riiig the Holdiers. 

>* GO. Wlftt the esact number of the troopa of each nation 
/waa I cnmwt say with certainty— for it is not mentioned by 
any one — bnt the whole land army together was found to 
amount to one miUion seven hondred thoiiKand men. The 
manner in which the numbering took place van the following. 
A body of t<jn tliouimnd men was brought to a certain place, 
and the men were made to stand as dose together as pofiiiible ; 
after which a circle was drawn around them, and the men 
^^^irere let go : then where the circio bad been, a fence was built 
^^^Vftbout the height of a man's initldlo ; and the enclosure was 
f filled continually wiUi frcsli trooi>B, till the whole army bad in 

I this way Won numbered. When the itiunbL'ring was orcr, the 

^^ troopa wL-ru drawn up according to tluir suverol nations. 
^B 61. Now tlieHo were the nations that took part in tins 

^^ expedition.' The Pereiana, wlw wore on their heads the Ruft 
^^ hat called the tiara,^ and about tlieir bodies, tunics nith 



moat oe1«'IitBl«<I of tba Mrljr Thmoinn 
trlbm. nomDr repraxiiita thrai u 
Inhabit ill B lliii IIUDo met M tbo timo 
Of tliH TraJHii War (Odyn. Ix. a».bH)- 
Aeeonliog to Hi'rodola*, wb«n Xraxm 
inailo Ml expedition, thoy weto «tiU 
DiuUr* ti > pdrtion of tbo coaatry 
iKiir this coftU {icfn, ebi. IDS ood 
110). At one lima IbaiT limiUMwn tu 
hnTo cxiciidtal (««lirrBrcI crm bajond 
tho Utbnu <•(« Plin. H. K. ir. 11, 
" 0* Hnbri ; porUu BUmtcria j Opjii- 
<l«ni ^nM . . ■ deonnni <)a(n»lnDi 
tCfftot" w>d cemprire Yiti;. G«<>Tit. iv. 
C^&it). Attar tfas exptdiiioo of 
XunM ilMf diMpp«ar (k«ca hlitory. 

I Uuir paojilo at AjiI* kod Africa 
an rvpTeMntM in tlio EiiTpUtn Bculp. 
tnrvi: and *ii •ome «l Oitm nt* 
doabtlua* in tbo arm; of Xnntoa, It 
Trill bo inU'rnuInK to comjara L>t«lr 
MtuMnn witli lliat Di#uliOD*d bj* 
IlaradMai (•«« pp. GO, 67. Mid ooot. 
pw« Tul. U. p. SU>. Thtm k m 
afptvetnoeot tho ftmcatiim (4>KdXq)i 



or Ibong for throwfnp the ipfir. in 
any of tbcae >abjcci<; thongh Ihcro 
b > kind of thoig whicli Itllml intn a 
Dcitcli (tt til* end of ih» fiii)untt.'<|"."r* 
of (lio EcTptiuu) bat the nmMstatn 
MMed TOimd tbo •baft about half .wn;r 
down, Htd WH •omMlina* loft en it 
wbcia tbnnnit ** whoe PhflopoiatGn 
irna woanilM b]r a }Br«li)i that ]MJwd 
thranuli both bu tbigha. 

ThoM in Ko. L (p. M) orv— 1. the 
Sburotnui 2. tha Tokatii 8. the 
6b . . . . I 4. th« Kobo. 

In Nix II. art! — G. h mnn «f Fimnt i 
8. Chicfacf Sbarij 7. theltot-li-no, and 
«na «^ their ttraDon. 

1dKo.III. (p.67}— l.itnuuiof Kofoi 
S to S. MMne of ihs KLila (lllttil#i T). 

la N4>. IV. u»— ft, a mas of AnaMc 
(Samaria h; G. of Lonmn (Lobanoa f) ; 
7- of Kanann or Kimaau (Caunou) i 9, 
11. BinclM of IMT^wa and Unr.A'ift 
and 10, II. CbkfaoECuab (Eiluojiia}, 



-TO. W] 
'Tbot 



Tbo bat or cap hen deMrrihcd, (md 



Oflir. B9-ei. 



oosnJMES or tbk SATioiia. 



is 



nleereSt of clivers coloore, having iron scales upon them like 
tbe scales ot a fish.* Their legs w«ro proU'cUtd by trousere ; 
and thej horti wicker iihiolfis for bucklers ; their qnlvors 
hanging at their backs,' and their arms being a short spear, a 
bow of anoomniOD si^ie, and arrova of reed. They bad like- 
v,-i»e daggers saspeiKlrd from their girdles along their right 
thighs. Otanes, the father of Xerics' wife, Amestrie/ was 
their leader. This people was known to the Greeks in ancient 
times by tbe name of Cephenintis ; but they called themmlves 
and were called by tlicur neighbonrs, Artaans.* It was not 



okllrd hj Btfoclotoa Indifforentlj mf- 
dofla (v. 40) and rttfo. iiwiDa to ba 
tb« nmu ■itktIwpUn"roiinii>to]ipod 
t^p, imjeetlag U Um U>i> a litilo ovor 
Ua tfoin," trUob f> tlio unliiinr; 
tead-ilnu el Ulosb who wear Iha 
Prrtin* eoMaina in tbo (ctUMiuiM of 
Pmopolin. A npMWDtatlaii ha« boao 
almd; iprea (f»1, L p. 2i51). U olbw 
reapa-U tba deacriptiaii of lltTadolua 
doM BM tbow tnj giMt contapond. 
«nM wiih tb*.£s^£]U|j| nmieaU- 
thm, Tba wMpoM indMii mo tlw 
Hno. Tbt. *jfv. tho bow, ihc qnlvcr 
rmdkBl M ibe bock, and tlio dAggw 
iiangiBg fnmt lb* gtr<ll« on Iho rigbt 
•tde^ an kU te^oA. Tb* cptua Iww. 



vm U* not Tunarkablj ibort, belntt 

littlo Im* thiui the IvDKlh uf Ibv (htrlt. 

I.e. abtiut MTTDo feet ; nor uv tlw 

bowl loDf;, bu (that wo ■boald c^l 

rvr; atunt, nuiwtjr kboat IVm feet. 

CoaM <4 ACal* armoor, eomiiMgi in tho 

AHyriftn MnlplBna, are nowbera 

fennd. TVooMni ara irorn, but ii» 

■Uold rwombliDK oat aolbun iloHcri|i. 

tiCO «r tb» yiffirr (inftn, il. IK!). The 

Odljahield lound it rarj liko thv Bm>. 

lias. EoTodottM probabtr dcwriboi 

the Penloa otMlume c/ hU oicn day, tu 

doM XoDoplion tiaX ot hi* (Cyroji. in. 

i. } 3 1 oompsm AaAb>. i. viii. % S). 

The Bobjoiiiod fiKnTea. whiok am Per. 

aopolitBu, will lUoalnito tbia nuUh 




* Cmbmi* Infrs, ii. £3. 

* 8«« SchMeighaicr'a Lex. Ilcrod. 

Mill VOC nO. 

* CUiia* M3« (Bsc P<n. $ S») tbat 
AneMfi* vu Ibe daochcvr of Dnupbiu, 
or AnapliM, who waa tbe koi oI OianM 
the oonvpintcc (iaba, ch. 6S), Ue 
bowarcr imdm tbe Muplnt«r Oiu>- 



phaa (f 11), an that fap roallf tgroc* 
with llModotiu la ovcijtLiiitc viQopt 
tbo nnmo. 

*$t«phon of BjmntiameiTMWrnrsl 
•CQOunWof Ihiiwutd. Aitoia. buaajs. 
vrai. aooording (o Uclltiniciu, the aamo 
of Iho nftmn iahabitod b^ tho Vox- 
nbo wot* called .^ituaiii on 



Cmf-^' 



AXD AFRICAN NATlONa 



S7 




SiVjl 



58 



TBE 1IEDE9, 



Book TIL 



till Perseus, tlie bod of Jave and DAtiftv, visited C«pb«Q8, tlio 
son of Bi.'lu8, uud, marrying Iub daughter Andromeda, liod by 
hvc a gon ealkd Pcrsos (whom he left behind him in the 
eoantr; because Cejibcus ha*! no male offspring), that the 
nation took trom tins Parses tlie name of Pcnuans.' 

02. The Medea hod exactly the same equipment as the Per- 
Bians ; and indeed the dress common to both is not so much 
Persian as Median.* They had for commander Tigranes, of 
the taee of the AchsmonidB. These Medes were called 
anciently by all peoplo Arians;' but when MedSa, the Col- 
ohian, came to them from Athens, they changed tholr iuudq. 
Such ia the accoimt which they thcmselTCe give.* 



t^t Mwannt — «i oxplnnatloa nhioh 
IflikTv* Itia real nrifiin iui<l liiipott of 
tk» term •mtuuchfil (i-t. Mti<|<h. Bit. 
mib TOO. 'AfTa7»), Agaiu. I>u *>iji, iliv 
PonuM emti "aum" id old Itmw 
Artmi, M tb» Oreoba <n1lc<I tlicm 
■■b»roM,' ntksro Artat ateiD* con- 
lbonil(4 Willi Arii. Finallj h» ecu- 
D«ctB Uw piwlLs I^TA in ArtM«ircm, 
ArUbun*, to,, wuh Artamo. wliioh 
wodldglvo llu meaning of "grval'" (f«> 
&boTa,r<il. iif.App. Book Ti., Nolo. ^, ad 
fioo. Abtkl'h). LaMenaiproMw-itlilliu 
(Kailiatohritien, p. 168). P«ili8pii tlw 
aumt prabaUo noeonnt that nn Im 
RiTiMof th« iuimo"ATt*MDa" i« tlio 
follMfinK. It ■tasd* for tha A/arU ot 
tb« Boftbio taUrta, which ia not &n 
Ailns oama at all, tiut th» oltl Bcj-Uiio 
tltLa tot tl» aiicicnl iiihnbitiuiU of 
SfUlaaa, knd (piubablf) cf Pcnlft 
hopar — which ajipMn in InUr liiuoa 
nwur tlw lonna of Iberi, perhapa of 
Albwriana. Mri asatn of Aran or 
Xbttn—M Tnnunlan mm*. (8oo A*. 
Sw. Joum. vol. IT. p. 4 1 Hid ^aln 
pp. SM.236,) Tb* IVnia&i woni thiu 
AittMUU oTilj'ia the nuno eutiMtliat 
wo M« Britona ; the titlo hiu llnl 
Mhnjo ; tinea torrlCorlal, M IleUaalcoa 
Mid I it boianxod roalty to tlio tohabU 
Untacf thonpon ia qMnliod botora 
tb* PMriua iaTMdod it. 

■TidttiifM,<:h.lSIX IcandlMom 
no W ot tralh in the fabln ixxpoot- 
fii(^n«aa. Beli»,kiDg<iIKs]'pc Qi 



OnihcDn bis ton, kiott «f Kthiojila <l), 
nod FMiof , tlio gnuulaon ot tLo Iftltor, 
«)iD prooMda fioin Eibiopia to Ponia, 
and there becomM I ho pmienitar 
o( tbo IVnias Iringa (I), ocolratlict 
nil that U knoira M tMM coimlrint, 
oicliiir hiiuvicallj or ettinalf^^lcBlljr 

(hM AFvilod. n. I. S 4; and Iv. § U j 
ccnnpwo aborv, Tt M, iu)lo"j and 
•icc alao Bir G. WilklBMii'a noto * od 
Book i>. ch. SI). 

' Compnio Book I, A. I3E, wbora 
tbo adiipiiim bj Iho PtonUaM of th* 
otdinary Medina outtimiu i* BMnteoawd. 
It nppcon hy ihia pajsaRv tint tbejr 
likewiM adopted their mUitarj eqwip- 

BlMlt. 

' S«o Appvodiz to Boole 1. Euay 
ULI 1. 

* Ic U BTidoiit tliat tha Oriontal m- 
tSoDJ) ia the tjcna ot Horodolun woro 
Dot UBWillinic tv clniin a tUDiiHCioii 
urilh tho DoiuuhinK and pOTrvrfal 
G(«ck people, vith whom tbe^ hnd 
ivcoDitr mada MnnAlntanee. Tlio 
Kgyptiana acooptcd lUe ito^ of 
Daoana (ii. 91), and nainlai&til thai 
tbrj- contnTL-il faroora on )[eiiiilaal at 
tl>u uate ot tho Tiviaa Visa (iL 118, 
1 19). Ho I'oniana doolanid IIM7 got 
tboir Buao frooi Ponau M. 64), ud 
Iho 9tt>U« thoira (Mm HmIm! I 
doubt il truth ef aay t(*' la hi<ldon 
(iiiideT tbmo aotiona> whi«li aeeni to 
nm rathot tho pcoduco of uuMnptUoua 
tvnihtj. 



CSAf. 61-68. THE ClSSIijrS, HTRCAXIASS, AND ASSYBl.UtS. 



59 



Tho Cissiuia vore equipped in tlio PcrEiim fosliion, except 
in one respect: — ^thej woro on their liemls, iiistc-ad of lists, 
fillets.* .^lapbes, tlio eon of Otanc«, cominaiided ttiom. 

The Eyrcanians* wero Ukcwiso armed in the samo vay eu 
the Persians. Their leaiLir was jregapanus, tho sttme who 
was aftcm'anlB sntrap of Babylon. 

63. The AssjTJauB went to the war with helmets apon tht'ir 
heatlB made of brass, and plaited in a strange foAion which it 
ia not easy to describe. Tliey carried shields, lancet, ami 
daggers very like the Egyptian ; " but in addition, the; had 



' Tb* idrfm. wliiefa KM mm alM 
bjf tho Cfpriaa prinooB in Uk« fl«*t of 
XcTMa (iBfra, cti. 90}. nad by tho 
BBbjrloBlMM M part of UiDtr oroitiuj 
R»t«iw (npra, i. IBS), WDi n^urdod 
beck ti7 Orooka >Bd Komaiw m a 
Ufc(«i M aSeiiuiMOy (Ariiloiih- Thcani. 
6M. «d. Bo«b(>i Vint. Xa. W. im). 
It u gcoeniUf tlMO^t to hare beun a 
Mot of turbaa (aoo Kol. of Antiq. 
t, *, Caiamlica ; Emit and LiddoU, 
Lax. a. T. f^Tpa) i but tbl* U nnccnain. 
ll BMy pwbap* bar* been a weio 




bud or fiU<n. nch h iba Aj^an 
tcvlptnrca Malgn t« thft poapl* in 
Ha aaiioii. 



* On Ui« ByrcADlnna, and th» otbet 
obwnira CribiM bem nii'iitknHKl, we tlia 
Amnndix.Bk. Tii., E«ti<r i. fS.M wqq. 

* The Anjrriaoa do iwt a^p«w ftniD - 
tba monumiiDU (A hnvo been nrmed' 
lilu tba Kicj'iitiaaa. Tha •■ (plan wid 
ibffinn" (lea ««odcata in n. on 
Blc. it. ch. 83) nuy have boan aimi- 
Inr, bot (ho "kliiiildi" of Ihu Edyp- 
lioiia tfrni of {»ciiliar ilinpc. nnd lu- 
tnarkablB for a anmU orrvulu- d«prci- 
aicm inMoail of a boat (No. 1). I'll*)' 
wore a wooden fnimo, ■ometiniM 
covraad with biiir* bide, nnd boanil 
round the rim with iiiotal. Their form, 
rumid at tbo autnmil, uid tquniwd at 
tbc buH (K«. I. B&d II.), U ttill Ti>< 
tnlnod in (but mod at tho pmont d»y 
by tho pfDpIn of Bomon. (Sco Den. 
ham and Clnppcrlon, y. ICii.) Tbo 
Sagger tma ■t'tniilimM unfii fordUib- 
Mng downwiudi. (No. 111.) Tliit b&ir, 
la a nvMi at Ibo bock of the hoad, 
and bound by a Allot, ai worn by tbo 
iayiinat, u ooiRRionly giirta to Ajt- 
atlc> on the Egjptian tuonnt&anU. — 
CO. W.] 





Vo I. 



€o 



TII£ CHALDJIANS. 



UooK rii. 



wooden cliiba knotted willi iron, and linen cornelots." This 
people, wham the Greeks called Syrians, are called AaBjTiaiiA 
l)y the barlwrians.' The Chalda^aDij^ Berved in their raiika, 
aud lliiy had for comninndtr OtiispcH. the son of ArtucliQUj. 




](«. n. 

'' TliU descripllon o^ivoa tcIorsLly, 
bot out qallo oinclly. witti lli« eoa- 
tsnM ivoii in Ilia Hculi'iufM. Tli« 
ilifferenuo i« out tfUrin-iiiiitr. M lb« 
lal«t ■culpturos Kni M lutut (wa oso- 
taria* earlier ihiui Hid timo of Xorxoo. 
TliO wmiioit vrtfxT, tat tho icDat rinrt. 
BiPUl bfrliiicU, aanut of wliivti Imto 
lH<ao roniul i-cilira. Th«y uv innd* nf 
trooi not of bnua or ctippcr (Ijariud't 
NiSAVoll. voL ij. p. 33£i),kn'i luivo no 
•ppaMWioo obout UwnD <4 imf twiatcl 
<tf pUiM iTort:. 'Ilin woaicmU (pi. Gl) 
(jira iK* oliM-t iiuiuiiM. 

Th«ir onlioarj- odeoMin wfnpmM 
nm Ibo *po*r, ths bow, IhD Bwunl, iho 
l«iiI»«io, anil tha iUkkm. Tbo 
dub, iQcb •■ HtnxlotM doaedbM (t, 
iii>«ihcT««l't>«ar() batlUplaonUUknn 
Kv • wrt of BM*, not nnlUi) lb« 
I^Tptlub (Sm DUt pi^) ll ii not 
•wjr etntf vrfacthor Ibnj Inro «ano< 
lc«a, liul iboir ahieldt, wUdIi u« 



gcii<?mlly ronoil.liiil MiuioliiiiM ohking, 
and «f n Kri-at ■!>», M* TMjrcMnioa- 
mf. Onv nf thp loltor i< )iiraii (uifn. 
ix. n9) M All illntifnUonot t)i« Pfrrina 
ydf^ar. See p. 61 fur »aiD« of tho BOM 
09111 >nan formf* 

' •■ S/ri«n " Aiid " Aurrlta " mo in 
ivnlity two eeliiv]/ dilfraout wnnb. 
"KTnan" ia nnttiinK bal * ntrliiDl of 
"Tymiu* Tbo Urrok*. wlwn thtry 
11 m b«c*imo aoquaintiM witli III* 
ouunlry Lr<tircvn Alia Ulnar tauX 
KlIyp^, (onnd tbo pcopla of Tyre 
(T:ur) prcdotnlnanl tlMin>, (Mil fKiia 
thvm mIIckI Ibo ocnmlry Ib wliich thoj 
d«L>tl Sjria (for rfyrin, wbiuh wtm 
bcrooid Ihoii powerm of arlicii1atk«). 
Alloroiuil*, nhoD i)i«y hcanl of tlio 
Awyriuu, (tioy niipiKiwd tho Mam* to 
bo (ho DiRio, lliiia|t!i il luul really 
a vtitj ili(|i.T«nt •uiiuil ODd uriffiti. 
Hpiww tile UMi of tlio t««n Ttv^aiyrit 
hy tfao Onlphlo oiade (nL 140). ami i 



Llajr. C3, $L 



TUB BACrttlANS; 



6l 



Gi. Tlio Bftctriftne went to tho v&t wearing ft licad-drosa 
very Ijko tli« MttUiui, but nrnK^I witli bows of oaqc, aftur tbo 
custom of their country, nm! with short Hpcars. 




AMTrtia M«M<Li>n<4> 



AiqTfen Sli1>td>iUfvaX 



IJ^MT hf ^^bTlon tVtrt. 80). whom 
" AMjriiui"l>|itaiinl]rliit«D(lcd. Hero- 
doCM Mwm* In liBtn Imcu tha Arat 
writer who tocikoaliMof lbef»et,thnt 
Um gn»t MMila of tTpptr Moro^o. 
Unta oUtM tMIDiclTH, DbC i^rnnn*, 
bat AmttImui. Tbn ounfciioD bnir< 
•TCf cvAtlaDMl aflxr bk linid. Xima- 
pfedi, Uwoob MmMinM dnwinz iliu 
diUlaetUM, irhioh Berodatoa )mHjii> 



cally nmkM, betwoon tho tiro ttvrow 
tunc bota * on Book J. ch. A), a* for 
iDttoDvo In tlie CjropMclia |i. i. 4, asj 
I. T. 2), 7M in tnncjr placi'* cuvlouty 
tUM " Syriu ■' for '" JUcyrlto*' (CTTOp. 
T. i*. Gl| VI. ij. 19; viir. tILSD. to.). 
Scjlu. em tho othur haod. callt tbc 
CajiMdocduu " Awjrrian* " (p. 60]. ui 
cpiiliot to whioh they cuuld iwt pcc' 
•ibljr b» •niitird I <rpt in tbi* ho i« 



63 



TnE SACX. 



Book' 



The 8mic, or S«yUis, wcro dad in troaeers, and had on I 
their hoHiU tall »iiB cftpa rising to a point.' Th«y bore the 
how of their country And the dagger ; hosidcs which thoy 
carried tb« I>attle>axe, or tasarit.* Thej were in tniUi 
Amyrgian^ ScytliianB, but the Ferainnit called them Sacw, 



(1. 7;S), Arriua (». 48), Md oUion. 
"StTUtt" a^n i« need for "Aw]'- 
rlu" bf tbo Latin wtitcra, FUdt 
(B. N. T. IS), U«la (1. 11), Ac 
Hm difforvnco ti«t<*««n the (no 

wonli will bo MOD iDCiat dIiuqIj bj 

reforcnco U> tba tniginal unuiroasM. 
Tlio rc>ot «f " S^ui " it la Ilebirow 
•nt (Taur) ; thn n<ot of ' AMjrian " 
J* -Wk lAMhir). A Htill ■rn<(t(«r dii- 
tInetiDn ii foanil in tbo A:tyrii.a in- 
•cripltonr, where Ainyrin li called 
A*-*»r, while tlia TTriftu or* lb* 
TMr.ra.yi), tl« ohM»eun uaed beinff 
cntlnlr dUhrest, ^Lh TiBiiN<oe to 
oclKlaM inoMuii& Ttur wemt M be 
riiibtlj aiplalDDdui •ac*Uod ikton lb* 
rodb (TC) on which tha town waa 
bn3ti Atiit<ir la pcrbapa to be c«ii- 
SMtod with ipM"bappiiii0Mi"»ta]i7 
imtoitOMiliaviiiioconneotioQwIthlmr. 

* Hnrodotni noma bdt« to luo tlio 
wonl " Cb«ldM>a " Itt Bn«t)iBla mdm^ 
and t» d«liKii>t«, not lb* pri«iit.«ut« 
of y> ent Book (cha. ISI-I83), bat 
tho InhabiuiDta of lower BabTioouL. 
(Cf. Stnb. xti. p. 10S0; fori l) ^EaA- 
«i Twv XaAStlwr, vs) x^' ^* SafliAv. 
r(u t** imlurr aiiravfiVri), >Xi|«wt(«iwa 
rwl 'ApM^i, col Tfi iHTi nVpirm AfTWrp 
AiAiTTp; MidaMabotv, ToL Lp. ltt>Z.| 

■ Pooitod up* and hobnctaof n pccn- 
Uh' Und are oouimon in th« BDcient 
MnlpltttM ef Ai>». The SryLhian c«[i- 
tiTe in the Bohiatoii BcalpiDi«, bton 
on hk bfMid m nott rcnmruible cap of 
thif chtracltir. It ia nu«« (ban cod- 
thinl of Uie lMq|tht <it tlio man, uwl 
aiiart, therefotv, it <tniwn in propoT> 
tko, bftTo been about two foot lon^ 
There ia a aliRht bead in tt towarda 
(he point, wlii^hwem* to indioate (hat 
itwaimadeof telt,notaf mstaL The 
Jbijilaa p^ted hefanet {i«se 6tt 
Ko> 4>, wucn In eemo napecta w aem- 
U«d it, wat of Bietal (Lajnid'a Nlne- 



T«h, i«LU. p. StI). and not more than 
haUtbe height, of Lbeacooupanjitig 




ffOL I. Its. 1: 

woodcuts, K& 1 la from th» Bahiitan 
aoalploiv, while Ko. 2 ia fnun • vw^ 
arohoio tablet in Cappadooia IQsiuod 
bj Toller). 

• Tb» watrion who *M»r tho hood- 
dteet (Ko. 2) in tba lut nolo, boar a 
battlC'^e, of which (ho lalloiv ing it a 
npreaentatioD. It i* |irobotile tboi 
Ihia 1* tho Sacan rafarw. 



^ 



SiTtbtati Itouta-Au. 
* Is tbo liucnptloa on tbo tomb of 
Darin* at NaUub-l-IbutMD, the Aaiatie 
Sojrthiaiis under P«nlaii mle are dic- 
tin^iritlwd u " £a(a JIamaearfa ' and 
" fioJi* IV^nl Ands," the tonner afipa- 
nntlf daolKnating the CMteni Sor- 
thiana cm the oonnnaa ot India i tliu 
laUo-, thoae eoattered through tho 
ompiro, who are known utrnply a* 
" bowoieo." Acondiai; to Uollauiraui, 
tba word "AmTisfan" wu stricily n 
gaographloal title, Amfrjium boin^ 
the name of the jilnin in which thoae 
BeTUdane dwelt, (tstopb. Sj«. ad roc. 
'A^ '*p;<fTnr, wttSvr Xww' 'EMirune 
l«Ma>i.) 




CKAT.ai'CS. 



TH£ IN'DUNA, AniA>'S, ETC. 



63 



since that is the name which tlicy give to all ScytJiiaiis." 
The Bacirians and tho Saero hod for leader HjHtaapoB, the Bon 
of Sarins acd of Atoesa, the daughter of Cjras. 

65. Tho ImlianB wore cotton dresses, and carried bowe of 
cano, and arrovii also of eane, with iron at the point. Such 
was the equipment of the Indians, and thoy marched under 
the commuid of Ph&roazathrcs, the iion of Axtahatcs. 

66. The Arians cotric-d Median bowi«, hut in other respects 
wero equipped Uke the Bactrians. Their commander was 
Sisamnes, tlic sod of Hydames. 

The Parthians and ChoraBmians. with the Sogdians, the 
Gandarians, and the Dadicn, had the Bactrion equipment in 
all recpeets. Tho Parthians and Chorasmians were com- 
manded hj Artabazus the son of Pbamaccj, tho Srg<lians by 
Azanea, the son of Artsus, and the Gandarians and Uudics hy 
Artyphios, the sun of Artabanus. 

67. The Caapians wore clad iu cloaks of skin, and carrii^d 
the cane bow of their country, and tho Hcymitar. So equipped 
thoy vent to the war ; and they bad for commander Ariomar- 
dus, the brother of Aityphius. 

The SarangiAQH had dyod garments which showed brightly, 
and buBkina which reached to tho kneo : they bore Median 
bows, and lanocs. Their leader was Fhetendates, tho son of 
Megobazns. 

The Pactyans wore cloalin of skin, and carried tho how of 
their country and the daggur. Their commander was Artyutos, 
the son of Ithamatxes. 

69. The UtJans, the Mycians, and tho Paricanians wore all 
equipped like tho raetyana. They had for leaders, ArHameoes, 
the son of Darius, who commanded the Utions and Mydana ; 



I I'SiM" ■ thoumxl mod Ihroagli. 
(Mt tho Perakn jnti^riptjoot. Il inny 
ptriupa bo iho tnic oatiannl oppclln. 
ttn^ wlianoo (he oUior DuniM bjitlilcli 
tlM Gnska koeyr tbo nwo ynr* d*> 
(iTad. 



iiUli Ap. or Oa— OrK-Kl (— OhI) 

Apu-ll— Anu-lUu (- 
Votal). 

Iifltnr vTltort dlatinguinh thn Soph) 
•II K pnrtlcalar trllio (rf ll>n Scfthn 
(Smb. xi. p. TMi (i, Oori. n'i, t), uid 
riii. 'il Plin. Q. N. TJ. 17| Ptcl. ri. 
I3i Ac.}. 



Ok 



64 



THE JUUOti^SIf AN'D ETUIOPUS'a 



Boos VtC 



and Siroiniti-«8, the soa of (Eobazus, vho oommascled the 
Paricnnians. 

G9. The Arnbions 'wore the teira,^ or lonj; cloak, fastt-ncd 
about them viHh a girdio ; and carried at tboir right sido long 
bowR, which when UDstrtmg bont backwards.^ 

Tho Ethiopians woro clothed in the skins of leopards and 
lioQfl,* and had long hovis made of tbo stem of the italm-leaf, 
not Is'Sa than fom- cnhita in length. On those they laid short 
arrows mado of reed/ and armed at the tip, not with irun, hat 



' Tho flowing ittta cc pMticott 
colIcJ Milm (lira), mpjioTtoil bj » 
ffftdJo, is votT aiinilu' to thclx i<nM«al 
DOaComv. Ziira, "toine-l," in uii) bj 
Bciako (ut Qoliai] to ■Ignir^ kUo * 
" Blgbt-dmu," ihooKli it ia iiiil found 
in anj Anbio kuioon i aail th* only 
>rord likB it in rinih, • " ocnc of mail " 
io PonitD, MumtW to Uid Aiablo 
t*rd^(Q. W.] 

* Bob-* at tUii kitid were not maal 
KTDODg«(tIiurtboUnHilca«rtfaeOrioiiuJ 




AdUtui hiw ;iiL'.i • iit'~^-> MarX 



iifttloD!. Tlifj nra nUd to hnro txtnn 
IxiniP bj til* HlvjthiHru (Allii-ii, >, )i. 
iAt, 0}, Mid >ra (umeldawB tlvpiotvd in 
the fauidiiit ilatotiM CO •ednot rawa. 
(Sa» ihn aubJoIaBd WDodcnt.) Sophu. 
clM, ia t)toTniohiniB(l. &ll).ucnbci 
K bow «{ thi* ohacBcMr to Hnrculmi. 

i'* A nnnll bow, 'b»iil back,' iaiwriiKl 
17 (h» AtajriKD captlTo* of Shcakoblc 
(Shuhalt) at K«mi.k."— [G. W.] 

* One of tbo Cnrj-it id(« At IVfwopolit, 
wbtMO fvftlura pnrra bin) to t» mi 
BthiopiSD, bsa au upper gBimml mods 
of tbo akin of luiaiilinAJ.w tlicoccom- 
MnyingroprcBFuUtinn clmrty tthowg. 
fVisonan ir''^ *'■>'' ■ki<» likowiae ap< 
pMiinMnw of tho liabian templos, 
wiieni tlie oonqoett of Eibiopla by 
BKjpt •MiM tobo conunomonUKl (km 
II«Mr«i'» AtricM NUiou, i. pp. 3&7, 
3G8. E.T.). 




KUiloplui (rmcfwlla). 



I IVm wars MHnetiinM nseJ by 
t)i4 Esrptiaiia alfD. moMy in tho 
chiao. ncd nwiT ban bwu foBiiid at 
Tbtbca. (Ko. !•) 1^ atoM) tued wa« 



an aitat^ tbo ao-MUnd Et^rrptlon'' 
pebble, 01 Kno otbtir of tho wUi-u'iia 
■CoDM n ooniBcnk in KUuqii^ TUa 
hard wood«ti club*, ^^mJM tiAvrd, 



^^^^^^^^^^^H 


cma.ea-10. 1UK ETHIOPIANS or asia. 65 ^M 

with a piece of etooe,* sbaqwned to a poiut. of the bind used ^M 

ta GCgruving seals. Tlicy curried llkcwitH) Bpi-Jirn, the bead of ^| 

vhioh was the shujpcitiod bom of on nntelope ; and in addition ^| 

th«y bHd knotted clubs. When tb«y went into battle tboy ^M 

painted tbeir bodies, half ivitb cbulk, uiid half with vcriailion. ^M 

Tho Arubiuns,* and tho EthiopiAns who came from the region ^| 

above Eg}'i>t, wcm comituutded by ArsanK-e,* the eon of Darins ^M 

^ and of Artystdn^ dnngbier of Cyrus. TbiB ArtjKlouA was the ^| 

^m beat-beloved of at! the wires of Durius ; and it was «liv whose ^M 

^B ststae he caused to he made of gold wrotigbt with the hammer. ^H 

^ Her sou Arsamus commandrd tliciio two nationn. ^H 

70. Tliti •.•aHtoTQ KUiiopians — for two natiooR of this name ^M 

Bcrred in the nrmy — were marHhalled with the Indians. Tliey ^M 

(liffen'd in nothing from the other Ethiopians, save in their ^| 

langiingu, and the character of their hair. For the eaBtem ^H 

Ethioptons haro straight hair, whilo they of Libya ore more ^H 

wooU}'-haircd than any otlier puoplo in tbo world.* Their ^| 


^H wm iht nma lie Ctkinpiua now dm 
^K (nttde of tmaii, or sd ebony, and 

P cbUwI Umtti, tram Iho irappotod ro- 

L •rtiibUiico U> • "IvDKVC*'), am] intra 

^^l nlM lulcftvi) br lh» Kglrlitiitn infMitry. 

^^M Thinr cln>M, ot bvU'a, or otbcr lixtc. ii 

^r cft«ii rvprcKBtfd tm tbo Kgjpuuk 

manoBnoU. (Soo tnM on Bk. IL ch. 

l04,Hi(IBl:.lii.cl>.i>7) Htfir bow*, uul 

Im* lIuiB -1 cubiu, «r 6 it»t in luiistb, 

w«re TGiy like (tie adtitnrr lung^ow 

d Egrpl : hat UioD^ |iroIia)il7 iMigWF, 

tkcj dn iioc Hppou to tava eioocdod 

6 tpct. TWv w«f« «j a tiiitilttr kinil 

of mxtti ftad thorn or the polmhrancli 

BUM kam beeo awd by inferior irilica 

(■M voutoal >'o. II. in a. ', ilk. iiL 

ch. VT), Dt nil a< lliclr upeort, lijipitd 

wtiti tlic oryx -bora ioKlMd nt iroo. 

KoithrT Ibis Innn-boir, nor tliat cm- 

falBnalic ot Toab, ewUd luiva boon of 

{*Iln,lvaucb.— [0. WO 

' Tbn InnfT bfad flinu fovnil at 
UanMhiiR Imvo bovn rnppcMtxl tn b» 
Uww Ktbiopiiui am>w.hpad> {Thiil. 
«bU, But. t>r Gnoco.nl. U.p. £4S) 
Slbr, ad tor.). Hal Uia dlnour*!; ot 
•Jmikr «tuaM in pt»l kbaiuloiiM cn 

¥01, IT. 


ft Tut nvmbM of (uirrioot Atli(^ (rtoa ^^| 
tnoko* it loipfwuble to rc^rd Ihooi, ^^^^| 
in anj pbico wboro thoj oocnr, a* ^^^^H 
t(-knn« vt Fenian iriTatrion. It has ^^^^H 

are arroir.hndj at all, and not ntbnr ^^M 
OBloml prodocllnDn (aoo C(d. LoUi/t ^H 
Uwaii otAuira, y. 101 , nato of IfiST)- ^H 
■ Th« Arnbinnt bvre QKifcjtn of, WBO ^^^^t 
aerrnl nnii^r the samo comniaiidcr ■■ ^^^^H 
tbo EUiici)iiiinB, nura prabublj' tbo^D «rf ^^^^H 
Atrioa. nrhooccnplcd (bo tnMA botwaeiL ^^^^H 
th* nUnr of bhu NitoMd Uia Btid Sea. ^^^H 
Vido tapni, u. 8, and oompara Jaba ^^^^H 
ap. Plin. in. K. tL t», n. 374) ftod ^H 
Stnbo (mi. p. UU). Tbo AalatJo ^M 
Aroba wwv nob •nbjciot to P«ni(> ^^| 

(iii. m. ^M 

< TliU ia one of tbo few p1ao«a ^H 
where ihi»D ii a eloM ngrtcmDnt be- ^^M 
twoen Ucrodalua and /EtebylDa. ^^^^H 
jKwhrlaii qiaIki* ArMinea — "grM ^^^^| 
AnAniKt." M lio oalla htoi— pivDnier ^^^^| 
ot E)cy(>l (Pen, 37), nhich wtmld b« ^^M 
quilc in BCcarduioa iritb tbo poUtiOD ^H 
hero KHigDOd him. ^^M 

* yUiii inpn, it. I0#, note *. ^H 

' 1 



66 



BQTFTUN U»Na-BOW. 



BookTII. 




uc 






80 U. 







xom. 



Cbw. fD-73. THE UUYA.V8, PAPHLAO0SUK3, Eia 



67 



(Minipment was in most pointa liko Uiat of the IndianB ; bat 
thoy wore upon tlioir licads th« iwalpa of hois«B,*witli tlie eon 
anil nuue attaehcd ; the ears were made to stand upriglit, and 
t}i<> mane serred as a cr«8t. For shields this people mode use 
of tli« sliitis of eroDea. 

71. The Libyan!) wore a dress of lealber,' and tnrriod 
javetins made bard in the fire. Tbcj had for commaDdor 
Manages, the son of Oarixus. 

72. The Paphlogoniana went to the war with plaited 
helmets' upon their heads, and carrying small Bhielib and 
spears of do great size. They had also javt'lins and daggers, 
and W0T« on their feet tho huskin of their country, which 
reached half way up tlie shank. In the same fashion were 
cqiiipp«d the Ligyans, the Matienians, the Mariandynians, and 
the Hyrians (or Cappadociana, as they are called by the Per- 
sians'). The Paphla^uuiaDB and Matienians were undt-r tlie 
oominnad of Dotus the son of Megasidnui ; while the Marian* 
dyninos, the Li^vnn!), and the Syrians had for leader Gobryas, 
the son of Darius uqiI ArtystAn6. 

78. The dress of the Phrygians closely resembled the Paph- 
lagoitian, only in a very few points differing from it. Accord- 
ing to the Macedonian account, the Phrygians, during the 
time that thoy hatl their abode in Europe and dwelt with 
them in Mact doiiia, bore the name of Brigiana ; but on their 
removal to Asia they changed their designation at the same 
time with their dwvlliug-plaoe.'" 



* Soaie GrMk bronae IiulmoU h»4 
botMs' wn fit BBoUl, u well «■ tlie 
BuM^O. v.] 

' O* lb« BMiafBotmv ot iMtbnr 
Ml') DM of ImibwdnMMM vaeng (Im 
nativi- Afrimu, Tiil« aupn, ir. 160. 
notes ' mi '. 

* Tlw riiiilihtniihii Iwlniobi mm of 
lca*h*r <Xcn, Anab. t. It. j 13), imi- 
tuI.lT of |>bitixl Uwiic«. 

* Kdiob. i, IS, niii) T. 49. On the 
mine ~ Ca|ifado«Jk," «ao nota' on Uio 
tcciDor putik^ 

" It M <|ttlta |Ki**{h1(i tlint th» 
Brigw 01 Brjrgta, wbu mru Ctum rerj 



boUT* q( tlio Uacodutiiuia (aea Uu Iter's 
UnnoDt. L p. GOO, B. T,, inil tha 
ftatboffitisa there oil«d), uid of whom 
k remimt oontinatd to «3iiC in IhoM 
rr^ioat long attw tha tima of Hsro- 
dotu (tiim anprm, tL 46, nnin *) , inn]> 
hoTo b*«n conaMlod oliinioutly with 
thfi I'brjt^Bna of tbo cppc>(ril« ociii- 
tmt^nt. But it idiot at at) tikcif ihat 
tho entim PlirrHitii nnliun, ai Uoro- 
dutai and Xaatbiu (Cr. 6) aMiu to 
baTO thuuclil, pruo»«d*d from them. 
Katbrr, tliojr mmt be mntr'!'^ m 
ooloaitta at tho fbrfponi, tiw atrsMa 



68 



THE AHMENIINS, I.YDIAXS, ETC 



Boot TIL 



The Armenians, who are Phrygian colonistfl,' were anned 
in the PhrytTian fashion. Both nations were under the com- 
mand of Artocbnies, who was married to one of the danghtcrs 
of Dariiiti. 

74. The Lydians were armed rery nearly in tha Grecian 
manner. Tb^ae Lydinna in ancient tim(4 were called 
Msonions,* but changed their name, and took their present 
title from Lydus the son of Atys. 

The MyHians wore npoQ their heads a helmet made aft«r iho 
{oshion of their countTy, aud carried a email backler; they 
nsed aa javelin staven with one end hardened in the fire. The 
MyeiatiH are Lydiau cnIoiit9t»,' and from the mouutoia-obain 
of Olj-mpiie,* are ciiUud Olympieni Both the Lydians and 
the "Mysiana were nnder the command of Artaphorncs, the 
son of that Artaphemos who, with Satis, made the landing at 
Marathon. 

70. The Thrftclnns went to the war weftring the skins of 
foxes upon tlK'ir heads, and about their bodies tiiiiica, over 
which was thronu a long cloak of many oolom*!).' Their legs 



of iDdo-RoroiNMi oolonlmttiDn liavinic 
•M wevtwkid, from ArniL>nia tcto 
TliiTgte, Atitl trcm Plirrtos acnw tbe 
■bMU into Knivpft. Of coatati, (t ia 
eompacibl« iritli Ih^ vl-'w, and b>j;blj 
|irobnhli>, tliat t)<'> ltr\y:it in Imvh 
DIIBboni. whirn <ianip«-(k»l to puM to 
Iha BttAoka of U>(<nloni>D or Illyrlaa 
ooeanic*. rccrc«L-d iho ■tnlM into 
Jlala, ind miaghl a itlaga (liko th« 
'I^trlinuSui I'lUaJgi) amonK Ibuii 

TliB word * Brym" In Ifaeodeiilan 
would ba Idtnlkal with " PliryKOtt" 
for tbit ilMwIonukas oouU nob (ouiid 
Ibo lullflr ^ but uid Hlurwi, Btpt- 
>if17, 6iMiv»'i i"' *(X>r*»i, tvfMJirr), 
^ixaxpat (mm SMpJi. Byi. ad roo. 

■ Tlio modmi Annpnuu> Inofriu^ i> 
•IHod to Uio moat Bnoi<>iit diklccl* of 
Iho Ariaa i«i«* {rapn, vol. 1. p. 677). 
It doB* not WOK, howoTtr, nolorilb- 
rtoiidliic the nmiurk of BloptMo (if 
fMf nUA fri^fa*«(), 10 b* fHtieo- 



IftHr «<■»' to Iho aneiont Fhrjirian,— 
vo fai as tkn fow InuM* ramuiiinji of 
that IncKuago oiiaUa na to jnd^ 
KoTottLalMa, tho Bwocnpbieat pMUion 
of llie two oonntrioi, and tkoir oou- 
mon ImlO'Buropaui chanirur, make 
it probablo tbat <ina wm poopU'd from 
tho othor. Hur^lota*. and Stc^heo 
(ad Tuo. 'A(Ut<>^a), irbo followa bim, 
a«riTO tlia ArmRiiiuli from tho Pliiy- 
iciana. Tbu mnlern olbnologint wuiilj 
ioTorc tbU liitcrf (mo Apjibiulis to 
Book i. Emuj- xi. p. 6^. 6S9). 

' So|>tm L 7. And Rto Appmdlx to 
Book i. Umaj i. p|i. ata. M4. 

' Ccmporo i. 171, iib«iv ilio I.piIj>D 
OBd Ujaian nro lupTowoled, protebt^ 
with morn inilb. a* mltr cacM, 

* On tho Ufakn Oijt.ipoM •(« Book 
i ch. 36| Mid aoDip»ni roL I. Eaakf IL 
p. STi. 

* Tfco ThradaiM of Enropo wore 
oxacti; tho Mnio owluno, aa nppi^ara 
from a paaMC* in X«M>pboD (Aaob. 
Vlt. iv. I dt at Crl*** bwnaitai ^1 




Cx*r. run. TBK CBALYBIASS, CABALUNS, AND UILTAKS. 



69 



and feet were clad in buekina made from the BkinB of fawns ; 
and Uivy bad for omiti javelins, witli light torgeci, and short 
ditka. Tlii8 pooplc, after crosxing into Asia, took the naoio of 
Bitltjuians;' before, the; bad bet'a called Stryoiniiiaii!), whilo 
they dwelt upon the Strymon; whence, according to their 
own aoconnt, they had been driven ont by the Myaians and 
TenerianB.' The commander of these Asiatic Thracians waaj 
Bassaces the Bon of Artabanas. 

76. L^be Cbulybians'J bad small shields made of the hide, 
of the oz, and carried each of them two spears such as are 
used ID wolf-banting. Brascn helmets protected their beads ; 
and a1>ovo tbcae tbey wore the cars and horns of an ox 
fashioned in brass. Hhey had also crests on their helms ; and 
their legs were bound round with pnrple bands. There is 
oraob) of Mars iii the country of this people. 

77. The Cabnliana, who ore Miconians, but are called 
LasoDtans, bad tb« same equipment as thu Ciliciaua — an 
equipment which I alialt describe when I come in duu course . 
to tlie Cilioian contingent.' 

The ililyana bore short spoars, and had their garments fas- 
tened with buckles. Some of their number carried Lycian 
bows.** They wore about their heads akull-cape mode of 
leather. Badres the sou of Hystanea led both nations to battle. 



rak vifMaTt papnvn ird Te7r M, ml 

**Ur M twr Trnr (%avaiw, iAA' lA 
^ftiMirtni) It wna ntp e — ry to Kiittrd 
MraiMt Ilia «>i(rMiia ri|;oBr of tbo 
elimiifA In ibww ivsiont. 

* Kui<ra, i. 3S. 

' C«<npw« ck. SO nb tea. ani) doUi' 

• Ttwn *|i B (InfcQt hwrt in Ili(i Wit 
o( II"RHlt«iit I tll« ttunn cf Ihi? nuii'nii 
hu bcfii Sxi. W*a*Dlliis wiu tbo 
KM lo iyn(Ifpiarti ■' Chaljbliuit." 
Wkioh IbIct ci|iTi«i liiiT« adajilnil. 
Ccnalalr ii"< Tiiali l»ari(. nho ara of 
(nttnMii imiKiiiaiKu In noonr in the 
Mnimatsliun of Um aatiuns of A«lk 



Minor, not on I; in HcnuJotnt (i. !8) 
boc in Ephomi (Fr. 80), miiitit bo 
cippcied to kcoIt* a dUllnct montimi 
ill tttiii plao*. Mp<ioially niif* all thOj 
nthtd- iintiiui* niiMilioDvd is th* li*t 1 
nnr>duIuB bid apoVtm of •* onntrilmt-l 
ing oitliDC lo tlio flocl or to Uu IbaiI 
vnaj. And fnrtliDr, thn Ctialjtrian>, 
if rmtllir Soj-IIiiaoB (.TCxrliiil. 8up(. 
0. Til. iS3), ni'iiht \tf likrlf to bun- 
an onwlo o( Hmb in thoir MootTT 
{■npr*, I*. 61). Tho dnoriplion 
thd annf, tuKrara. U imllka that 
Dii- RinrB Miolurn CDibIjIhu in 
pboii (Aiutb. tr, Tti. J Ifi). 

> Iinr». eh. 91. 

'"Tbatii. bonqfconut-wood. Tid« 
Istni, «!■. 92. 



70 



TUE UCKiCIlIJUiS, THB UABES, ETC. 



Book TIL 



78. The UoBcfaio&a wore bchacie made of wood, and carried 
shields and epttwa of a small size: tbeii spi-ar-heods, Iiowuvor, 
irere long. The Mosohian equipment wiw that likewise of the 
Tiborenians, the Macronians, and the Mo«jit€DcianB.' The 
leaders of tlicso nations wore the lollowing: the Motcliiana 
ujd Tiharoniana were under the commoad of Arionuurdus, who 
was tlie son of Dahas and of Parmjs, dotighter of Smerdis eon 
of Cjms; while tho Macroniana and MosyiKBciann had for 
leader Artayct^s, the hud of Chcnuiuiis, the {^vunwr of Sestoa 
upon Uib IIuLloHpout. 

71). Tho Mares woro on their heads the plaitid htlmet 
peculiar to thoir country, and uHc-d biuuU k-athern hucklvre, 
and jav«lin3. 

Tho Colohians wore wooden hobnets, and rarricd email 
Bliielda of raw hide, and short iipfara ; boBidea which thoy bud 
swords. Iloth Marcsi and ColoUiana wore under the oomomud 
of Fbarandates, th« son of Teaspes. 

The Alarodians and Saspirians were armed like the Col- 
chians ; tlioir leader was MoeistM, the bou of tiiromitras. 

80. The lulaudiTf) who came from tho ErjrthnMn sva, where 
tlie; iuhahit^^^ the islands to which the king sondit tbono whom 
he baoiithes.' wore a dr«Bs and arms almost exactly like tlie 
Median. Thi^ir leader waH Mardontve the son of Sagnas, who 
the year aftor perished in the battle of MycuU, where he was 
OQO of tlio captains.* 

I 81. Such were the nations who fought upon the dry land, 
^and made up tho infuntxy of the Peraians. And they wure 
commanded by tho captains whose names have bitn alwve 
noorded. Tho manthulUng and numbering of the troops had 
been committed to them; and by them were appointed the 



' TbM* tliK* nMioM kkd boesMM 
ladapaadeu cf Ptnik bj tha tiam of 
Xwopboa (Aiikb. Til. riii. f 95). 
Hm; wwi* hliu belt«r kmod. thoj 
bid MlxUluml (Iw yJt^f tat tlw 
Hgkt Ui1t*l tlxdr •T>o*'*i M loaM 
tSma of ti« llQB)rfii*4i, w<(« nis* (o«l 
kniKi tlHirMMM wan of ItaltMrt 



ud ih*7 lud MMl Wtlc-«xM (Aub. 
IV. TJii. gS: T. ir. }|]^ tS). 

< Supn, tit. sa. CbNM* nMitlaaa 
tho buiuhmaDt of Uesabyioa lo 
OjtttB In Uio Br7thncaii atm l>r lh« 
MBiDAiul ot AiUionca (£m. Fin. 
{40). 

» lain. U. 102. 



r.78-M. 



THE " IMMORTALa." 



71 



captains over a thoogand, and ilia captains over ton thonsand; 
but the leaders ol t«n mva. or a hundred, were named by tbo 
captains orer ten tlionsand. Tbcr« were other olEc<trs atso, 
who gaTO the orders to the various ranks and nntionn ; tut 
tho90 whom I havo mentioned above were the ootnmandorc 

v83. Ovex these commimders themsolvoa, and over the whole 
o( the infantry, there wtre set six goneraU, — namely, Mar- 
dcmioB, son of Gobryas ; Tritantieohmea, son of the Artabaoiui 
who gave his advice against tlie war with Oreeee ; Smeido- 
meoeB, Ron of Otanes — these two were the mns of Darine' 
btrotben, and thun were cousins of Xerxes — ^Uaslstes, eon of 
Darius and Atossa; Gergis, son of Aristu; and Megobjzta, 
aon of Zopyms. 

^ BS. The whole of the infantry was under the oommand of 
these generals, excepting the Ten Thousand. The Ten 
Tboasand, who were all Persians auid all picked men, wore 
led by Ilydames, the son of Uydames. They were called 
" tbo Immortals," for the following reason. If one of their 
body failMl either by the stroke of death or of disease, forthwith 
hia place was filled np by another moo, so that their number 
was at no time either greatn^r or leas than 10.000. 

•^ Of all the troops the Persians were adorned with tlio greatest 
mngtuficence, and they were likewise the most valiant. Be- 
aidw tboir arms, which have been already described, they 
Ottered all over with gold, vast (juantitics of which they wore 
abont their persons.* Th<?y w<-re followed by litters, wherein 
rode their concubines, and by a nnmeroofl train of attendants 
handsomely dressed. Camels and sumpter-beaets carried their 
provision, apart from that of the other soldiers. 
81. All these various nations &gbt on horseback ; they did 



* AP ■leowU M[w« ia Tap weating 
Ibe 1MB of onmauiou in pwa goU ■■ 
MnnmiMi amoox ih* Pnrilnn* (Ma loa, 
Rr. 4 1 XoB. AiMti. I. ii. { £7 1 vlii. f 
SBliw.: Qoini. Cnri- ill. iii J 13| 
jHlis.si. Si Ariii^J. lluiatli. P.SIO1 
I)i» ObfiTMial. Omi. a. p. 29, B, Ac.). 



Tlial thore wns no miitalcit khnot tti« 
niAtU-T ■min nvidtnl tnim what ia 
n>U(«d cunecroiiig tb« *(<cuU KtiaaA 
■it FlnUN, BDil ttia gn^t inalUi which 
thpKbj ■mu«il to tlu9 Eginotft&t 
(intn, ix. 80). 



72 



SATioNS wmcn mtmSBED CAVALBT. book Tit 



r ^^^^ 



not, bowATCr, at tbis time all fumisli horsemen, bat onl; ttie 
following : — 

(i.) Tlie Pf-rBionH, who vete armed in tlie tuune tmy as 
their own footinen, excepting that Homo of Uiem wore upon] 
their botuls tlevices Cushioned with the hammer in brass at\ 
Bt«el. 

85. (ii.) The wandering tribe known by the name of Sugar* 
ttons — a people Persian in langaage, and in dresH half Pcr-iian, 
haJf Poctyan, who fmnlehod to thu army as many as eight 
thooHand borm. It is not tlic wont of tbis people to carry 
armtt, either of bronne or titeel, except only a dirk ; but thoy 
nm lussocH mado of thongs plaited together, and trust to these 
whonevcr thoy go to the wars. Now the manner in n-bioh 
Ihey fight is the following : when thoy meet their enemy, 
Btraigbtway they diaobarge their laeaoes, whioh end in a 
nootK ; then, wlintever the noose encircles, be it man or be it 
bono, they drag towanls them ; and the foe, entangled in the j 
toUSt ifl forthwith slain.' Sacb iu tbu niauuor in which this 
people fight ; and now their horsemcu wure drawn up with the 
Penuans. 

8€. (iti.) The Modes, and Ctssions, who liad the same equip- 
ment as their fool-Boidii-rs. 

(iv.) Tlio Indians, equipped an their footmen, but Bome onj 
horsebaok and Kome in chariots, — the chariots drawn either 
by horses, or by wild asses.* 



* Tht wn of Uio Imm m* ontnmoa 
in u>ei*»t UvM (« muiT of tlio iin- 
tioM d WMl<m Alia. U is seen iu 
Iha AMjm'iUi MnlplnrMi tnat lbs 
iwkoa ot JUdmr-buil-pBl, mm of Kinr- 
haddMi, KLlch ar* bow tn the Briiiih 
Mntvwn. FttmiuM RODDtii^i It w n 
ewrton el tbo Sormattea* (i. izl. $ 8), 
Bnidu M in a» aaumg tb* Puihiiias 
M *<M' "Nx')- It vu alBo pnotiavd 
hj Uia Hnii«, the Alanl, and nuui; 
othar barbaroni nntioni (iw<* tho ob- 
MnMloos of Kiuior aa Snidt*, voL 
iij. p, 303, and ihosa qf Lipmnn in hi* 
traaUio Do llilit. Bomaa. toL iii. p. 
413), aa U a at tha pnaoit dajr bjr 



tbo inHuliiiiuiU of tlie Pampaa. Thft 
•cuvilf Dt icotoli, or niM ot tb» 
means of irorklcg Ibani. gava riaa to 
Boch acoctiitaDM (at. I^uaan. 1. «.«.). 
' Tliu wild aM mnat not ba COM- 
fonndcd (u it baa b««n bjr La>«lNri 
will) xbo lobra. It l> an cntirolj dU- 
Crrriit aaiiiial. Krr FurtAr (Tnrelt, 
voL L p. 460) lia« dawrribcd one wIMi 
he taw at a abort dulano« rvrj aeca> 
tnielj. -■ no Bppoarcd l« na," h* 
utyt, " abiiat ton or tirsira l«nda 
hi>>h, tlin *kin timixilh Uk* a dAer's, 
Bod (•[ a ivcliliib (nk>Br, tbs b(<1W and 
bindoT parta putnkis^ of a illvnr; 
gnjr ; lua Back waa flnac tban tbat of 



i 



CflAr.H-9& 



NATIONS WHICH FURXISHED CAVALRT. 



73 



(t.) The Bactrians and Caspious, arrayed aa their foot- 
floIdiLTa. 

(vi.) TIio Libyans, equipped (19 their (oot-soldiors, like the 
I68t ; but nil riding in cbarioti*.' 

(vii.) The Caepeirians* and ParicaniaoB, equipped ns their 
foot-soldivrs, 

AaiTTiao laii-Toliefa. knd one Bppeini 
■Enong the jmacnli bnnifrht to tlio 
ppTvian IdQg aa tribute at Pampolli. 
(ScQ Ui« nubjniocd wondcuL) Wild 
w>e( et Ibis fjHiciio ai« eumtnon in 
tlw iltwert brtituiiii loilia nnd ASKhan* 
ialwi (<MM> El|ibiiuC<iii«** Cal'u), and 
oonpora Cl«a. IbJJc. f 15). Tbi^y nro 
nuttimll)' irotj klU, but om •oDwiimet 
tamod. 



I ui, bvins lonitnr, ■nd b«nd- 
Ins like > ■Mfflh Mtd kia Itiga lmutJ> 
foilf (UAdor; ibo litad Hid om* 

wnmiiii lugD in proportleai 

Uta KMUi* MAI Hliurl Kod black, m 
■1*0 WW ft taft irbinh tonninslncl hi* 
tail. Xo lino vhaleriT nn alunii his 
back or ccotBcd bia iIuniMcrt, lu am 
Mvn in til* taiDB ajicoiM." Jiepro- 
MTiiiiIiDtit of tbrm nr* fuuud In Ibo 




. ,•//*■ 



voaAmirvrfBa*\ 



Tflnpra.W.]T0«D>|]S9, 

•Tlw if!*.'*, irirp "Cugnanil." who 
ItBTv boon alrrftJ^ mraltonrd, !□ ft 
WVparcoiiucticin. willi the ItartTinni. 
jMft* oanjin*liir<il, iiid Ibi- ]nt*T nJi- 
Un hatp iri*>'n, "Ci.-(n'iii-iii»" fmni 
81*I>l>m of Bi uinlinni. "No qticlpi 

4liD M»o " Cupoimi " M from Iloro- 
dutna. in* irfm ho«o*or lo Book 
UL iMlmit<i<BocJcvli.,ftiulhia"CB»- 



ji'irtiH " pifarlj- trprppvnl* lb« CMp»- 
lyroa of iii. lOX.) Tlio CuptnHsiUi 
u'rrc ft pfopio im Ih^ l>frtdcn od India 

Dii^iivH.*)!. Hiiipliu Kouii DiiiiiT*- nli-i 

■ml pi>rlin|i« Flolom, vii. 1, pji. 301, 
SO'Z). Tlief tvfm lo baru b>>«a Ih* 
ialiabilants of CaabmuiT. (Sm Ap- 
pBAdti, Eaaftf i. I S (ittii.) 



74 



C0NTI1K1EXT8 TO THE FLEET — PHtENICUIia Book' 



(Tui.) The Arabianfl, in the eame an-fiy as their footmen, 
bat all riding on caniols, not inferior iu ili<.-tm'«8 to Iiorses.' 

87. Tliesv nations, and these only, fumifllied borse to the 
army: and tbo number of tho borso was eighty tbonsond, 
without counting camela or chariots, All van mamlmllod ia? 
squadrons, excepting tho Arabians ; who were placed last, to 
kToid frightening tb« lioraee, which cannot cnduro tbo Bight of 
tho camel.'" 

88. The horse was commanded by Armamitbras and TiUmm, 
Bcmi of Datis. The otlier commander, Phamaches, who iri 
to have b«ca tboir oolkague, bud binn left Hick at Sardia ; 
since at the moment that he wu leaving the city, a sad mia- 
chance befell him : — a dog ran under the feet of the bono 
upon which bo was mounted ; and tho horse, not seeing it 
coming, was startled, and. rearing bold upright, threw his 
rider. After this fall Phamuobes spat blood, and fell into k 
e<nisnmption. As for the horse, be was treated at once as 
Pbarnucbes ordered : tho attendants took him to the spot 
wbcro ho had thrown bin master, and there cut off bis four 
legs at tiie hough. Thus Pbamucbes lost his command. 

89. Tho triremes amoimtvd in all to tirelvo hundred and' 
seron ; and wcru furnished by tho following nations : — 

(i.) Tho Plicc-nictans, with the Syrians of Palestine, foP' 
niahcd three huutlrcd resflolB. the crews of which were thus 
nceoutred : upon their beads Ihoy wore helmets made nearly 
in the Grecian manner ; about their bodies they had breast* 
plates of liueu j' they carried shields without rima ;* and were 



i 

vf 

4 



I 



• Tho rp«cd of the lircrmedftrylipinj 
equal to tbat of a liorw it nu crrcr i It 
Mwvclj •MaecU nina nUw an hour. 
Tbe camel knsiran to Iho Mrt-hnr**, 
ll« ^medurr to the rnddlv-ticn*. 
Back hM one bampt the Bnolrian 
eamd ha* two. It u liiigiilu that the 
eaoel a not r«pr««rntcd tn tlio Egjp- 
tint •mlptnre*. Au inatanoe ocenre 
0ttl7 id kto line. Sot thu tloM iMt 
)irvT« Ita DOD-aiI»teneo hi EKypi, aa it 
WM there in tho ago of Abraham. 
Poettr; anr alao enootlMil od the 
awMUMOtai acd it U poaaiblo that 



tbej irero tare la Egj^t fa «w1j 
timea. Thtj appear to h«va eMn* 
Oti|[taBl1]F (rem jLfia, wher* elm* 
tliey an atUl foaed wild on Ika 
land end ita ulosd*.— [O, W>] 

" Sopra, i. Bft 

■ Fur a doaedption of tli««e 
let*, iM Book a. ctL 183, iioto >. 
were worn alto hj the AMjrriaaa 
(kiipnt. ch. B3). 

* Tliii iiBa the diara<1eriatio of the 
]uib>, or UgU (ante. Inirodoccd amoas 
tho Gneka b* Iphieiate* (Cum. Nep. 
lphlcrl.8| Dled,Sie.ST.-U|Baq^ 



I 

jfrtaM^^ 




OmtM.M-». 



BOTFTLLXS. 



?s 



'armed vitli jarolliu. This nation, aceordioR to their own &c- 

tootmt, dwelt anoienU; opoa the Etytluwao aea," but, crossbg 

'tbenoo, fixed tbemBelves <ni the seB-coast of SjTia, wb«iti they 

still iithabit. Thi« port of Syria, and all the region extiindiug 

from henoe to Egypt, i» knova by the name of Palestine.* 

(ii.) The fifjEyptiaus furnished two hundred ships." Tliclr 

[ erews bad ploiU-d helmets upon ht^ir ht-euls, and bore concava 

shiiildit with ritas of itinisual aize.' Thsij were armed with 

tipcars enitod fur a »L-a-light, and with huge pote-axt^s. The 

[greater part of them wor« breastplates; and oU had long 

cutlaases. 



kdvoc^fto.). Bcoo*Utcdot«fnunn- 
work «f vraod or trldurtiMlc. ntor 

I which WM lUMdicd a coTwiiHi of 
lawLidaorlsatbcrftM KtA-ol Aatiq. 
P.8H2). 
* Sm Appmdk, Gd«7 II. 
*T^ naoic nJ*iiLia« i» htjtmA ft 

I dtiQljt tfco Qimik form nt Uw- il»bfvw 

!> rCTp PMiMia, «r tba ooocLry of lb* 

I FbiliMlM* {«oaii*rB note ' od li. 128). 

I And llie iwnoaa hnv Indiutcd «ra 
tte ialwbiliiaU of the M*-bo<trd be. 

' tnen nitcaiclk nml Egypt, idich b 
tfce DfiofMT 3>yfa naXwntq «r Syria 
of IM PhLliiitiAn*. It bM buen ■*■ 
«qm*d hf K(^n«ll (GmiKT*p)'T ■>' 

j Svrod. pp. XiS-tIf) anil oiliirn Ihut 
tbo ialniilUnU □( tUi tract la cbu 
lint* of Xormt wttv tho Jtnra. Dat 
thi* MNiiiw lo b« taDurTT'cl. Tbe omuI 
tTMoi, mMaiandMl by ih» thrw tuwon 
of Qmb, Akbiloil, aod Awi>k<Oi which 
«B« oomiarrvd at (he fint «nlnuic« of 
iha Jon* into tho Unil of CwMan 
(Judsm L 18), wM a(t*rwar>la n- 

^oorarad by tho PhilUlibMi <Jd'Ik*<i xiii. 

' 1 at Hq.), uul fKblibncil in ibcir 
pOMCMkm, wlUi mlf temporary and 
noeaalmal oiocptluu (1 Cliron. xivi. 
C), Ull Iha KaiiiitcaiiBa oonciamt U't. 

', Jaram. iItii. i Z«ph«n. ii. 4-7 : 7,wh. 

■i*. G^ S| Kubum. nil. tSi Jai^ith ii. 

l38 at teq,). ^lUa Inot, with Unu 
(C*djrtU) for lla chief town, t* tta» 
csij portion cl U*n>iloli»'4 l'iiLMiIn« 
Kyria, whtoh rancfctd tb« coatl, uiid 
Hi imbabicaBla am Philiatiofi, a noo 
akia to Un Ouaaiutw. Tbo Jews 



4««]t {&Uad, and, !f thoj icmii] at 
all in tbo anny of Xwnto*. muat baT« 
brea aonlM amanR Ua land forcM, 
Bat in the tima bMavaa Zarobbabel 
and Etn thcjr w«n too «r«ak to ba of 
auT aoMODt. 

* Of iba Egyptlana u (ailon. aaa 
notaa ca Bk. tIU. eh. IT, and Uk. iz. 
ob-U. 

* Thcae oonoavo ihialda, witk Ur^a 
riDM, are nioi« U'ka Oreok than Eevp- 
tiui, onbwa nntndotiai meoiu umt 
(b<<r moD ad|{«(l with notal faa in 
wooileut Ko. ll. in d. od Bk. rti. oh. 
63). Tlum la, hnwnvor, an initanco 
(No. I^ of oosoaTa Sgyptian akielda. 




.Nl.t. 



Thftir IrowiiLahapoil iIaCK"'*i w^i"^ 
(So. II.), irsre not nDcominon t and 
ikip-apoan, ci boordiiu; pik«, at* ro- 
pMiaatod in tko too-ilgiit at Modataat 



oi*r. ee, 90. 



crrntANa 



77 



90. (iii.) The Cyprians furnished a hun<Ircci and fifty ships,, 
ood wore equipped in the following fAsliiou. Their kingH had 



lagaitUid lAonu, KunrtiiDc* covrnd 

f«ritli BBkU Biotkl plitiM (No. III-). 

kvM eoiBnualj wcm by wilili^n null 

mOtm. (Sm Bfca. H. 16, in No. V. 

• woodeat in Moto «i Bk- is. cfa. 32.) 

' BmIa and ohaiii-annoar Hcm natd b^ 

na^ paoph^ mnd ovon ia Iho Bomiui 

onnji M Uio mcsnmBDU of Ibo eia- 

plm, and Latia writcn nfflpinitlj 

t jircv*^ wbanoo TI^I apotk* of " Lon- 

CMD oontrattMi hifais aaraqaa trill- 

I MCD." (i^a. iii. 467), and " Ifaonu-n 

' ladatn* ahFiiii* horrobkt wgoAniit." 

(.So. il. 467, eonp. 771) Tlii>7 irere 

bIm itdoptod by Iha AwjrioM (m 

I ■bcnm I^ Mr. 1«t»(1), ktul b; Ika 

I ForsiBaa. (BftimImiu, ni. SI. AnIIat 

In 1^K7{A atak-iiniiiiur U Tfrpre- 
iimtnl at ■ mwh tnrlin pnioit In Uw 
tomb tf RciMWB 1 1 1, at TbebM (u>0 
A(.Bp.Td. i.n331,Bfi(1 rUU) IH.1. 
aod ia Dr. Aboott'a oolWtion u port 
of a eoimiw fananl et ]>lnl« icwn 
npoB a Imtbvr drablct. Tiin plnCM 
are of liieimi, in bma imitntivu »( tlio 




'Ken^iaii «h36l<t, with lb* tvaua end 
downwarcli.and on Ivo of tbftni i* tho 
nanM of SbsthMilE, Sliiahak, to wbom 

' Ota CBii«aa probabW belongtd. Tho 
Bannatiana nod olMni wom aenlo- 
amour, mado of [»mm of born, ot 
how hoof*, cut onJ Mwo ID lb* form 
of faaUMn, >poo a linen duublol 



(PnnuiD. L 21). Tbo tiDga ulilcld* 
mcnt.irnod by Xftiiophoii (Cyrofit«l, 
Til. i. § 3S), wltiob (acconlioK ki bim) 
Ui« Ec^ptiiin pbalanx hod in ttwamif 
of Craitiu. aro KprMeaUid at Slodc 
TbMCs bo uj«, oovtood thcdr bodiaa 
far iDc-n) lluui th* Paninn yiitf aad 
ihs thonu. Tbi>y wvr» of troiid <Xiin. 
Anab. i> and ii.), and ivacfacd t« ttuHr 




«*.T. 



feel, and, botng mpportod bj a tbODR 
orer the iboaldf r, gava Iliem a potrar 
of pimhiag 'a a obama (ona of tha 
(Croal utaa of a ihiold eftan rrpra- 
■ontod is Urofk lonlpiDro), wbioh thn 
Ponriani, hnlding Uioir ftrtha in tlin 
band at orni'a Imfftli, oould sot irith- 
ttaiid. Tbo f[«nha naad by tbo Par- 
■iiuii at I*liil«<a aod MyoaUi appear to 
batT rcarmblcd tbo aJuolda adoplad 
bj tbc K^xpliaoa at (i«|toa. wbiob 
warn aapjKVtod by a cratch (iroodoDt 
Ko. VL,fi{ct.a,b, r, <l), or rather tboae 
in tbo NinoToh ■oolpUirDa (aoo Lajard, 
NInoToh and Ita Banalaa, vol. il. p, 
948) wbara tbajr ara aJao raptmastad 
is aipiraa, illaiCialiag tba aRireMknt 
in Ua. xnni. 33 ■ "nor (boot an 
arnnr thoro, nor coma bafora It (tha 
olCy) with ablalda, aor caat a bank 
apLinat it." Tba ahiald of tha Ka. 



78 




CTPRUNS. 



torbane bound about their lii?ad.i, while the people wore ttinios; 
iu othtT respects they were clad like tlie Greeks. Tlit-y ari> ol 
Tfirious ractsj^some are Rprung from Athena and Salamis, 




x&vi. 



ncToboo n«gTO in Afrira, aeoordiiig Ui 
lifloham i^nd ClapportoD'i dd^^viti^ 
uf it, Ihl* iha utmn (orui M tlint of 
VgJV*- >""' ^'' ''"■■'■'I pnrl iH ii1*u hclil 
nppormotl (r. aaiirn, oh. C3, fp. M, W, 



wpwlnciU No*. I. It.)— to. W] 

' I'hc miied olinniolor of ttie po[iila 
Isilon of Cjpnu hu bntai alrMdj 
nnlioiHl (raprk, t. 191. note *). Tht 
illaoit siipMi* to bara bo«a culj 




Omit. 90, «. 



dUCIANS AND PAHPHTLIAXS. 



79 



ftome fix>m Awaiia, Bome from Cj-thnns.'some from Phtcnicia, 
and a portion, accordiBg to thoir own account, from Ethiopia. 
91. (iv.) The CilicJAoa famished a hundred »Lip». The 
crewB irore apon tbur beads the helmet of their country, and 
carried instead of shields light targes made of raw hide ; they 
were clad in woollen tunica, and wore each armed vith two 
javelins, and a Bword closely resombling the cutlass of the 
ERTptiane. This peflpio l>oro oncipntly the name of Hy- 
pachKans,' but took their present title from Cilix, tho sou of 
AgeDor, a Phomiciau. 



ooldated from FlMtaEdk, M llm MunM 
of lU »«M wioient loirni, and Iho 
iMtimcoi— ol rarlj writon, taT- 
fidcDtlj iadtcKto (ww Boclurt'a Cfo> 
gnu)i.SM.ill. ch.3). The tnulitiona 
wluiMpMt (o CmjnM (Apolki). m. 
■t*. { Si l\»cm|L rr. Ill i Mor. 
rr. Kl), uul Bofu (Tire- Ma. i. 6:1 ■ 
Btopli. Bjs. ad TO»A)hiti>l>> tb> parlj- 
emu, iiucftptioai, and other reiMiiu, 
th* bacwm M taru kaovn (DMjtili. 
•d voo. HdJixH, Ac), or* in kCMnlutc* 
Willi Ilia dinct luMimnvr cf ScrUz 
(FaripL ^ 9S. 'A^tftiSt, a^fx*»^« 
•Irvi ooibpuv Tlxiopomp. L *. o.)aiid 
Btepben (ad t«o. *A«ia#«vt) : and oil 
pant to « PkomlclaB oocopotioa of 
th» oOTDtiT M a Tory ntaol* ara, p«r. 
h*Fa bf&ra it bad rManvd inbabitM>M 
rrom anj other qvuUc. Th» Snt 
Grerk immi^ivnla f«asd tba Fhoaii- 
euna Mtablufatd. Thaf ara aaid to 
faavB antivd mdar Taocar, aooa kttnr 
Itet^eian ««r <«Bp(ft,v. 110, note*), 
ud to baT« antilcil at Sklaori*, which 
thay ao cnJIcil ailcr tlM) naina of tb« 
Uud tb«7 had urt. Aboal the «uqo 
tiaw Ika AUmiiADi Bn> re;K<iti^l lo 
bam ooloaiiod SoI>, call«l hl &rat (»o 
an loU) .Eptik ((Sjin, V. ILO^ note *). 
A lats* infiai of Oni«k aMtloca 
. fcllawcd ; for CTpnu 
Dtod in tha oarl; Aicfitan 
u aa tli* laiuj of Uia 

< CUam), aixl ia ibe timo of 

I CHiam, Idalinaa, Ooriius, 

UnwBia. and Aphro- 

aa w«a M SalaMla wd Soil, 



to haTO been goromrf by Grsek 
kbga (leo toL 1. lisuy lii- p. 491, 
nnt* *). Bnbi«c|tinRllj thorn rooit 
hafa boon • nnatiun. Sirytni (IVrlpl. 
pp. 87, 98) nppenn to Imvu rric^nlcri 
only Balanda and Uannm aa Oraalc 
ettML All tba iMTua of tho interior 
be oxpmwij calb "barbu^an." Wben 
the Anwlian* and Crlhaionn amrod 
ii Dnc<m&m. Tini Elhiopian CTpriana 
Binj hm-o biMo a remnnntof Umi KiQli* 
linn canqoiut (lapna ii. ad 6a.) \ ox 
iiiey nutjr ivprearst a prlmltivo Ham* 
itio populaliOD, which maj haTO hold 
the uland before the an-ival of tbo 
rbomicians. 

■ Cvlbniu woi (mo of tbo CyoloilM 
(Art«iiid. ap. Scntb. x. p. tOS ; FIlB. 
H. N. i». 18 i Slopb. BjT. ad voc,). It 
lay between Ceo* and Seripbua (Soab. 
l.a.c.y TbenadDtonasiennOTmia 
(RoM'a Intolmiao, Fret, tortl. IIL p. ib). 

* No otber anoiaQt wrft«r mmtiaaa 
thie namu, which ia aMmiogly of Qal- 
lonio oriEiix. The Ciilwiaiu wara on. 
donbtcdty n kindred nee to tha 
PhtxaicrUna. Tboir anna and cqnip. 
miint HTR almoat idnaticn) {mpia, on. 
89) i aad tradition* a« la their origin, 
howerm they difleced in detail, war* 
nntaimoiM in tbia reapeet (compan 
witb the proaont paMag* Apollod. m. 
LSl.uidziT.fS). ThaQMokooleniea 
npon tba ooaet wora not nnmoimik , 
Snlaz Dtanliuiu bat tiro, Uolmi 
8oli (Feripl. p. 90). The Utter U i 
to hare been tooaded by tbe Aohaau 
and Bbodlua (Stnb. afr. p. »8}. 



So 



LTCUNS, DOKIAKS, ETC. 



BookTU. 



(r.) The Pfimpbyliiuie fumisliod tliirty ships, the crews of 
wbiob were arinnl osnctly as tho Groekfl. This luitton Is 
descended from those vlio on the r«tam from Troy were dis- 
persed with Amphilochas and CtUchan.' 

92. (vi.) Tho LycioQB furnished fifty ships. Their erevs 
wore grcftwts nad breastplates, while for armH they had bows 
of cornel n'ood, reed arrowii witliout feather*, aud javoliiu. 
Their outer grumont was the skin of a goat, which bong from 
their fibouldt-rs ; their bead -dress a bat encircled with plames; 
aod besides tbtiir other wcajions tlioy carriwi dagger* and fal- 
chions.^ Tliis people came from Creto, and were once called 
Tennilfe ; they got the name which they now bear from Lycus, 
the son of Pandion, on Athenian.' 

93. (vii.) The Dorians of Asia fumhihed tiiirty ships. They 
were armed in the Grecian fashion, inasmuch as their fore- 
fathers came from the Peloponnese. 

(tIli.) Tho Carians furnished aerenty ships and were 
(^quipped like the Greeks, bat carried, in additioa, falchions 



' Pampli^tlft •M'lii* t« litTO been 
S^oniMtl Bt k Biad) corllor period 
tliae Mhur Ljoi* or Cilici*. Tho Int- 
4itiaQ lion rec«nl«>l br Hvroiloiiu, 
Mid in port reported ^ PaunaiM 
(ni. ilL I 4), hoirorcr bitli? credit it 
in»j doMTo H a luattDr ot fa«t> j«t 
iodiMMi th» Ckrly and comtdcto 
HelkoiHBlioii of the ppn|it« of thi> 
ng^co. It dvrivm t)ie RuDpIiTliuia 

imryiclrfir). Ko liuubt tlio Groolc inu 
intarmiajtUd fanv witli Ljuian aod 
OiUcJao, Mtrbap* olau irilh Plirjuiau 
Md RudiMi blood lirbMioe pntelilr 
iba vAmm ot tUii^>kci) i buttneGroM; 
no* WM lb* piwloninact one, M tho 
ftdoptioQ of til* Hollonio OMiuiiw 
would olono intpljr. 

T«rioa* aloriM ven UM of Uw vm. 
daiinici of CalobM and Awphlt^clwia 
TtMT -wtn Mid to bava left Ttvy <ni 
loot (11wopciiDp.FV.llSi t)«nb,iiv.p. 
SSI), and pRwtwIed to Clara* tioar 
Colopbaa, when, acowdiug to aoma, 



tha omteat took plaea b«t«*an CoIp 
ohaa and Mopaiu (Suuti. t. o. PfattraCTd. 
Ft. M; CciiOD. Hon. vi. p. £U| 
Tiotx. LTcopbr. 9I>D|, and CalctuM 
diod o( i^vt. flthnni tocuIncUid both 
Cklcbu and Atnjihiloohna to Ibo 
aonlhom ooait, irhioh ma oallod in. 
ditConially tVuniilirlk or Cilida 
(Stntb. lir. p. BCS), and tcada tha 
contMrt tnlco placo Ihaio. Amphilo- 
chu* n by oommoD ooMMot earriod oo 
to CiHoia, when be foonda tlw> oitj 
Hnllii* (SUnb. Dt aoptai oommto 
AnioD, Eip. Alex. li. &, oad) , Mlnr- 
WMda tikniooa fur hii oniclo (Arriui, 
I. c I LufiiaD, Kl»x. S ^, Fhilufiwod. 
J 38), and neat whicb bii tosib waa 
■hcwa <SlT»b. L «.)• ud a2K> Tou. 
doium (Butyt). 0° the eonflnoa of STria 
(iAi|ira, iii. HI). 

* Tbo itrikin^ wnttaat offerocl by 
tliia dworiplian to U>a draaa uf tlio 
wttmon in ibo LjreUB moDnsKTUci U a 
MroQ^ pnof, among monr otlioni, ot 
Iba oompacaliraly raoont i!aU> of tboaa 
acnlpiarei. * Vids aopn, i. 178> 




»p. 81-OS. 



10NUS3, XI0UIS9, HELLGiU'OA'TUXS. 



8i 



and daggers. Wliat namo tlio Cartann bore anciently was 
declared in tlio fint port of Uiis HiHtory.* 

94. (ix.) Tiio loninns furuished a liundrod ehips, and urere 
aimed like tbe Greeks, Now these lonians, during the time 
tlint tlicy dwelt in the Peloponnese and inhabited th« lund 
now called AcIieeb (which was before the arrival of Danatis 
and XuthoH in tbo PcloponiMw), were called, according to the 
Gre«k account, ^gialean Pelasgi, or "Pelasgi of the Sea- 
ahore ; " ' but afterwards, from Ion tbo eon of Xuthos, they 
vcrc called loniana. 

i)5. Tbe Islanders fumialied seventeen gliips,' and wore 

[umiB like the Greeks. They too were a Pelasgian race, who 

later times took tbe name of lontans for tbe same reason 

'as thoee who iuhabitt^d the twelve cifiea fonndftd front Athens.^ 

The £olians funuehed sixty uhipt), and were equipped in 

le Grecian fashion. They too were anciently called Pelos- 

s, as the Greeks declare. 

Tbe Helltispontians from tbe Pontns,' who are colonists of 

the lonians and Dorians, furnished a hundred ships, the crews 

'of which wore the Grecian armour. This did not include the 

Abydenians, who stayed in their own country, becaii»u the king 

had assigiied thc-m tlio special duty of guarding tho bridges. 



• Snpm. i. 171. We mny <vDC<1niI« 
1 all p— iga t)uU Epro'lotiu m. 

'|mt4«dU«troriiMdl'ri<tcdiiito rorUin 
■MlniM porticni i tlioogh at ooarae wn 
■r« not MittUml to idmiify Ui«m with 
Um divuiotii which hft*B oono ilewn 
to aa (in Sbiknltr, note mi loo.). 
Otbw pbcM, whoni hn ppr*ka of tbo 
dMpton (>-hi—) inUi nhi^h hi* work 
ilindsd, are, i. 7G, lOfl i u. 39, 
; r.aC; n.99i andni. SIS. 

• Sr* U«Je L <^. 14a. and Book r. 
h. 6tl. will) nnin * nt iha Ultnr plaoo. 

b%« adrpciMd (late of itm tonici mipiT*. 
FtiOB waa abonl B.C. 1050, Dsnaila, 
[XuhM. mi lea aeem to bo purely 
• mytlHiloRiMl panoaa^*. 

• Tb* I*liuMlanhor«iikt<nidfil do not 
seem to be tiKM of iba pfolaile*, who 
lUd not joia tbe Seel tiU klUc Art^ 

VOL. IT. 



miaiam (infm. Tiii. IK) ; liot ntlhor 
tho inhabilaiita of Leinno». Imhrna, 
and Samothmoo. That tho iahabt- 
tanta of thoao JalnDda wore of PolMgio 
ofigrin Korodotua haa alaowhera ttatod 
(ii. Gl, T. 26). 

' That ia, thsjr nccirMl oolonioa 
from Atboiw, but at what tine la nti- 
oortnin. 

* UrnHJlotaa inirlDcIoa in this exprea* 
■ion the iahubilADla o( IhcGtvok cilioa 
(III both lido* ol tha Hollcipoiit, tho 
pKipontl), and th« UoDphorna. Far 
lh« Kn«tvr DiimlHT ot thMo wefe 
fvnnili.-'l from lonin (ato HMnann'a 
IV>!. Ani. I ;s). Cbkloedon. how«T«r, 
and Sructiani, m well m 6«l7»bri* 
Odd Aiatacua, weie Doriu, hanng booa 
•rrlllcnienta ot the )Ii>ft«rian« (aeo 
MOIlor'a I>uriDii«,i.pp.lS6-140,B. T,}. 



tm 



82 



THE OOHUINDERS Or TOE FIXET. Book TIL 



m 



y 9C. On board of eveiy eliip was a band of eoldierii, PersianB, 
Medes, or Bacans. Tho Phomician ebips were the best sailers 
in the fleet, and tbe SidonioQ' the best among tJie Phcc- 

H nicians. Tbe contingent of each nation, Tvbetber to tbo Hoot 
or to the land arm;, bud at its bead a nntivu leader ; but tbo 
names of these leaders I shall not mention, as it is not noces- 
sai7 for tlie oonrne of my History. For the leaders of some 
nations were not worthy to hare their names recorded ; and 
besides, there were in cnch nation as many leaders as there 

v' were cities. And it was not really as commanders that they 
aoeompanied the army, but as mere slaves, like tbe rest of the 
host. For I have already mentioned tbo Persian generals 
who bad tbo aotiiol command, and were at the head of the 
sereral nations which composed tbe army. 

d7. The flc«t was commanded by the following — Ariabignos, 
the son of Darius, PrSxaapes, the son of Atipathines,' Mega- 
baziLB, the son of Megabates, and Aduemenes the son of 
Darina. Arinbi^cs, who was the child of Darius by a 
dnnghter of Gobryas, was leader of the Ionian and Carian 
ships ; Achatmenea, who was own brother to Xerxes, of the 
the Egyptian;' the rest of the fleet was commanded by the 
other two. BesideB the triremes, there was an assemblage of 
tbirty-oared and fifty -oiired galleys, of oercuri.* and transports 
for oonTeying horses, amounting in all to three thousand. 
98. Next to the commanders, the following wore tbo most 



' Snp**, efa. M. Xonea tberrtcrc 
enliufca in » Stdonua gaUnj (Inbn. 
elk 100). 

' PMbably th« Atpittiand who «u 
qillTitr.bmr*r Ut rnriu>, Bcd wbam 
Honxlotia TPtpudod n* <nio of the 
Mvou oooiptnttota (niinn, til. 70, 
not**). Wo nuj mnait* frnm dii* 
|«Mi^ ()lU^«|»a<hln4 mm the MOD uf 
lliePrexnancnhaiBtlia {^eodo-SnCK. 
dia puc la dMtli. 

* AekwmmH «■• iMtnp at Egjrpt 
(np**, di. 7). 

* OMVDri wM« I>kU bcala of nKuiwl 
length (B17111. U^. ad. voo.). TIM7 



ue nid to h*TO beon bf enled b7 tha 
C}-priuu (lliD. O. K. rii. S6), or bc- 
coitUng Id otbnni. by Uio Corcjrauia 
(Soiilsa, nJ toc.)) bet Ihla laM ii pn>. 
bkhljr HI ctj^iaciluKiciU fniic;. Tbe/ 
UilDngpropcsly toAna (Kuo. Mu«.p. 
CSS: " CnrouruaDBTii c(C jU>[iiu»lin»- 
limtiJi*"); wlii-iu tlinjr ocaitLnaH ia 
DM duwii U> thv tiiii0 «f Atitiuoli«a 
(Li*. ixxHi. 19), Th« word ia piwnljr 
ocaii)ect«l nitb tho Kobiww "q^s, " tu 
(liuoa, or noTs ijaicklj." whaao* 
(Iroiiw^nM H* Mubd rrra^ 
OoMB. L«x. B«br.}. 



I 
I 



Ck4F, W-09. 



ASTEUISU. 



83 



rMioimMl of tlioee who sailed aboard \he Heet : TetramziAsliM. 
tho BOO of AuyHTHi, tbti Sidouian ; ilap^n, tlio son of Siroin,* 
the Tjrian ; Morbftl." tho son of Asbal, tho Aradian ; Syen- 
Desis,' tho son of Oromi^don, tho CilicioD ; Cyhcrniscus, the 
fton of Sicas, the Ljcian ; Oorgtis, tho son of ChiTriis.^ and 
Timonax, the e<M] of Tinutgoras, tJie Cyprians ; and UUtiisus, 
the eon of Timnes," Pigres, the Ron of Selddmns, and Doma- 
eithfious, the son of CandaoleB, the Carians. 

99. Of tho other loner officers I shall make no mention, 
since no necessity is laid on me ; hut I must speak of a certain 
V- leader named Artemisia,' vhoso participation in tho attack 
upon OroMi}. notwithstandinR that sho wa» a woman, mores 
my spocinl wonder. She had obtainid tho eovcri-ij^u powtr 
after the death of her hnsband ; and, though she had now a 
KOn grown np,* ytt bt-r brave npii-it and manly daring sent her 
forth to tito war, when no nt'cd rctjuirt-d lier to odTcntore. 
Her name, as I said, was Artvmitiia, and she was the daughter 
of Lygdnmis ; by race. she woa on his side a HalicarnasBian, 
though by her mother a Cretan. She ruled over the Ilalicar- 
nasaiaus, the men of Cos, of Nisyms, and of Calydua ; ' and 



* Slfon if prabnUr the inmo nimo 
wiUi ninun (cT^), u* roegh upinii* 
brine nrpUovd tmliffaraBtlr t>jx<a^. 
Joa«Tfca« (oontr. Ap. SI) oontuutB him* 
•elf witk k »iB]ite h uid gim Etpm^t 

' MvrbiO tMoii b) b» ttia Oulbi«I. 
nlan ItnlMrbal, whicti BcchMt enilaiiw 
M Ditjntiu (Qoog. Swr. 11. xlii p, 
?M). b U tonad a^Jn m ihe nanis 
of » '^tJob IcJnit in » tngti>«»t of 
UmmW (Py. S). 

* Cuncenins Um aoiwlMit oocmr. 
reooe of Uiuiiuuiu *>hMttw> CUicdon 
prinoe la hubUoumI, vid* inpix, i. 7'^ 
not**. Aocccdiairlo Acli]rli»(I'n»- 
8S8-830),Sj«nii«uBdiMiiignliil)tKl Lim. 
•oU men tkan way jMt cUn u, Uut 
bfttUo (if fl*l*wit*^ uA pontfacJ irton- 

' 8i)|<ra, T. lOk 

* nistiMtna wu king ot Tcmi«n 
(•Bjitii, *. XT,) aoid li»l DO doubt U'«o 



mUiml to Iiii g^ovDrsmi^et oD tlio lltji- 

" I'lio tjKicial uiiiiw takna of Arte- 
tniiiA i*iindanbtedlj'dii*in portlohar 
buring twcn <nio«n of Haliounuatu, 
tlw iutti*a puiM of tbo kirtoriu). 
TtkODgh lio bacaoM U Milo fran bla 
eouiitry, aiu) Iboiiigh tbo )ri«iul*on of 
Aiti'miKJa. Ii^ipdamia. becanio ■ tyi&Dt 
ID tho mintHDMcl tkoMrta (Suidu, 
ad Toc. 'Rfltvrat), j«C witb Harodotn* 
IHtCriulimi (riniupbi orar mcy Mhor 
motivu, and be ww lunpla jii>lia* to 
tbaduuBctoraf o<Miriio,bo fult, but 
eonfcrred bononr vpoa bii hirthplaoe, 
Piutbar notioM of Hut irntiutiuiiut 
i|>ie«4) will t« fiiund intra, vul. (it), <i£li 
S?,8S,II3, 101.103. 

' Pwlmbly l^ailulM!>, who tneoMded 
hot apoQ the thrun* cf IlalicanuHana 
(Snidb*, ad TOO. 'Hfilmt ; and com- 
|MniCI>)ituii.P.H.ii.p.40i OLNO.t). 

' It i* T«iDarkil>Io Vuai Cus, (houfli 



Ufa 



84 



VESSELS nmSISHED BY HER. 



Boos TIT. 



Ibo five triremes which ahe fumiahod to tho r«rBi«nii were, 
noxt to tito Sidonian, the most famouB Hhip» in the ilciH. SIid 
likewise gave to Xerxes eounder coautiel tlitin any of hiH otlifir 
ftUies. Nov the citiuB over which I have mentioned tliat she 
boroBwa;, wcro one and all Dorian; for tho HnlicorDASsiiins 
were colonista from Trccxcn,' while the remainder were tiora 
Epidauras.* Thus much eonoemins the sea-force. 



cat of tb(> Itvo vlotoa of the Doria 
vtrr^ToAil whiuh Iiiui utrliiilwl Hnli- 
(omuiiu frcTD (heir Amjiliictj^Diijr 
(npra, i li^l), ihcnili] at, tliii time 
imn bocti flDbJcct to lUo rcjoclod cltj-. 
Pnbtblf Ui0 •DOTS!f ■>' Ariitiiiitia bbd 
tifiablod her to obtiuin a MveraiKiitj-, 
wbicli fanoot but be ivswdod a* (»• 
oapUoDol, Dvor Ooa aaa tU depend- 
MelM. Nlayra* nnd Coljdiui (or 
C»lfiiiiut) yiw two lEooll idtnda on 
eitMr aide of Coi (now Ka, or witli 
tho prefix *i t^, StanSio) whicli 
had fmn a rttrT' oxrlr age bom lob- 
j«uC to that RtAt« lUum. II. ii. Ij7i>- 
BTe : Diod. 8io. r. G4X ThMO ialanda 
retain tbdr naniea, bt^g oallod rcapco- 
tlretj Kijyre and Calymno (Bou, 
vol, tit. Ptvf. pp. X., li.). 

*Tra!iiMi,anoientlTPo«idoiua(6trab. 
vili. p. &13 1 Si(ph, li.vc dd roc.), «aa 
■jluatnl on llio eMtcm ooaat of tho 
PeloponnMe, not qiuio two milM (IG 
■tadea) from the ahoni, Iwtwem tba 
ponliwiila tit Mettena and Hetmimii. 
Tlio remnln* of tbo atieient dtf ntj 
bo tnuKul noar tho modoni *U!Bgo of 
Lliimata, bat they ar» (caniy and 
pOMea* btllo int*rat. <Sm Cliandln-, 
li. p. SMi Gril'a Uorca, p. 186 1 
LcAKo'a MoTDi, ii. p. as.) 

Ha oolouiuilJoa of HallcamaMni* 
nt»nii to bat* taken pUoe ahurtly 
after the ntorn of the Henclidie, and 
ILa coaqaoac el Argiolii and tho ■>!. 

Jkwat fiataa, Sosm> irrilRn antli^iod 
a t^ eohiny a far aarlinr dat« <$irabL 
viiL pb Btf I liT. p. U39i Strph, Bjv 
ad TM-): but Ihcir Matcannats ara 
ooatnilielorT. imd incoiDpatibU with 
Um otisiaal i)unas charaotM of llio 
MtUemani. Tim tnth MXima to bo, 
that ofNai Om ooonpation of Trctten 
bf the Dodan*^* ponion ct the fomier 



Inhabitaota del^rniinod to ^miitnile. 
Doric Icwlon, ot the tribu of thn D?- 
manca (Callimaoh. ap. Slcph. Bn^ 
Booompanied them : but tbo balk of 
Ibp coWiati irnro Aclitenn*, doaoesd- 
aula of tho myihio Anihn* (l*aaMa. IL 
XXX. S 8), tuid ao aomeliine* c^led 
.,<n(hni>i<>(Stepb. Bj^adrocv'Aftn.). 
Thcj ouned with thorn tho TtffiMBlna 
worihip (Mullcr'* Doriao*, i. pL ISO, 
Doto ', E. T.). and oonliaood to ngard 
'iVattoo B« tbt<ir mothtr titj. (Cf. 
Pnaaaa. II. mil. f fli raWl#i>ai4r< 
ir fuirpnitAi rp T^ntfiin 'AAmyggtli 

' Kpiilaonu wM Bilenttid on iho 
mmeroMt iritti'naMn, bat bighcr np, 
and clcae upon tho xtt-aboro. Ita ute 
it markod hj lliu wiiall vitlaR* of 
rUhotre, which liMn, in a oompttt) 
form, tlio nnolcnt oanio (^rCtmfct 
wonld bare brcn pnmo'iDccd EptdaT- 
roa). The (rainnM ol thie looalMjr 
oxHt-lly corri-tcpniid with tha deterip- 
lion in Stnibo ! Rifrai 4 T&kit ir ttuxf 
raCI iafurauii tti}>*BV rir wtflwKtvr 
IX'von rrridlity vfrrivallira, 0Xinr«a 
itp&f waTdXit Stfiifif vipm^titrmi 9 

»ar, Sffr" ipvui-^ mntatiiaB^m ♦»»wit 
wmyiQ.xii>' (nil. p. &U}. Wllbin a 
little dl*lanco are tlio nilai> of the 
famoiM temple of .AMolaptoa i}ii. 
ilr. SS| FauMD. It. nriL {{ 1, S), 
tthoio wonhip wu oominoa to Co* 
with Epidunma <£tn>b. xIt. p. Mlt 
huwn. 111. uiii. S 4.; Thecfiomii. 
Fr. Ill), a fact t>aatcrm»Mrj of the 
connediun belwwn tho two placei 
wbioh U hM» aaaM'td \ij Entnlctsa, 
Tbo rcnaina ot Epidanrua aro lulg. 
nlltcant (CbandUr, IL p. !W ; Loako,. 
ii. p.4aO}. 
The eiiQamataiiDM of the o^ooiw. 



4 
4 




:uF. «9. loo. 



XEKXES UEVIEWS UtS FOilCCS. 



8S 



100. Now when Uie numberinK taxi marslialliiig of tiio host 
voA ended, Xerki'S cuuciuTcd u ytuh to gu liiiniMlf tbroughout 
the brcos, and with liia ovn cyo« behold evcryUiing. Accord- 
ingly be trarereed tlie ranis eentcd in hin chariot, and, going 
from nation to nation, made manifold inquiries, wliilo Lis 
scribes vrde down the answers ; till at last h« had passed 
from end to end of tlie vbolo land army, botb the boriH-mou and 
UkewlsQ the foot. This done, h« exchanged hia chariot for a 
Sidoniao galley, and, seatinl bcncAtli a golden awtiing, sailed 
along the prown of all his Teasels (the vessels having now been 
haoled down and lannohed into the sea), while he tnadtf 
inqturies again, as he bad done when he rericwod the land- 
force, and caused the answers to be recorded by his sciihes.* 



I 



tion of Cm wmo protebhr nmiUr to 
Umim vI BBltounuMMi That Honor 
DadD Ic B Qmk di^ bdon tho Titihui 
w»r (II. IL 917), M lio did al*D liiAna 
sad tba other Khodiui towna fib. eS61, 
QwpUliD* (tb. 970). 8fmi (ib. 671), 
tc, !■ Milj a ptuat tMl it wm Hot. 
laniMd long boror* LIi time. It mnic 
not b« •BpfNiteil UiAl Qonier was » 
leaned ifltivnarian. 

* HoMVED w»t aasgcatAd that nc>ro> 
dMiu bad ponNttal ucvm to Iho cliwn. 
BMDla dmm oat cm Una ccaaitm, anil 
doriivd his oetimato o( tbo IkM ( aiipia. 
cb. SB) u»l amr ('B'ni. chi. 18'1-ISG) 
from then (An. Nnt. toI. i. p. 4il. 
IE. T.). Hr. <lroie ilimkn tliin iin. 
proboblo (Hivt. of (>n<«OP< t, pi. EI, 
noU '), enil believu that tbe <jr««k« 
who Mcom)Mnin) Iha ctpoditloD woto 
oar ■nthor'a infonniuita. To mo Uio 
■MMtaMHi of tbe (iMcriptiun, wbieU 
eooipliee* tbo arDimir of torty-lir* 
netjoiw, the oiode is which Uutj woto 
Mr A* lied, wbetbcr ■epontf'ly or in 
OombviiMlon with olberf. iho oainnti of 
Ibeir cOB»oA«lar* itad «f t)iu citkfr 
goaormU and Mlsimlf, thatj-niae in 
Biuubcr, nDd lo »U Int a voij few 

i» pCMf pmitjvo tlikt (ho fuUDdatiiin 
«( the "holtt ia Dol dMultorj tnquiiy, 
bots dooamoiil. (See tbs lutruilao* 
lotj Kmny, cb, il. p. AG.) 

nltb nvpoct lo tbo iiuoibcr* tliatn- 




MilvM, thai of the trircmei taay bo n- 
e&nlcd u Mrt*in. TUl-}' wouU Ini 
Mnilj coontod, and Ibo cuinlior iciTcn 
(Ittrr), whiobbMTtuiMlawuiipoaJle 
luce, u (1 tbink) ooaSnued b/ tbo 
fitmow poiwigo ot iGMthrlu (Ptn. v. 
SU-MA), a puMigje iri)!di biu cldarly 
not fumlilifiil our Authcir witli bii in- 
formHtioD, liiiQe it a4Mi)riu tho 1307 
■hipa to tho ptdod at tbo 1»tt1o i^ 
SnlaDiit. (On tUi puMB» mg SUnlny 
nd jEiKikjI. Pw. aU.) Mr. Orot* 
(Hint, cf Ureeoo, t. p. 47) apiMiara to 
fircfirr tlio otalMneut of ^Beobylu* to 
that ci! llcTodatiU: but to mo it Uomii 
uiilikclj that tba exact tiilmber which 
fuagbt at Sobuniii wonld bo known. 
Tho fleet is not lilcelj to b>*o bcco 
cooated mm thoa oiuwi aad wbon 
.Amhybn a^Md tbo eaptirM t»km at 
Salunie lu nombin^ Iboy woold teU 
him what bad boon aaowtamed at 
DoriMiiu. Tho tbne (howand tnni- 
poTta and wnoll etsft are nuinirMtly a 
rongb OKtiniato, on which rvrj littlo 
do|<«iiil«no« oaii boplacml. Thaiartat. 
Inm bundivd IbonMud iariuilrj. whioK 
fbrme by Ear Uio tnoat m&rvnlloiu item 
in tho wbolo Uft, on do dixilil calon- 
Utod from tha known tact that the 
rirrnlnr i^RcIcmiiie wne filled one hioi- 
lirwl und wvontj tiaiee. At bowivrar 
it •roold be tbe wlaii at the latrapa to 
oxaggemto, ilu vptco oiny oftoa hare 
been Tery tue tvoia fully tUled. Tb« 



86 



XERXES 6BKD5 FOB SEUARATUa 



B(K.K.T1L H 



The captains took tbi>ir shipa to l}ie diHtanco of about foar 
haodied feet from the Bhorti, and there hiy to, urith their 
vessels in a siQglo row, the prows facing tho Iui<l, oud vitii 
the fighting-meD opon tlio decks a«ooutn>d as if for war, whiio 
(he k^ sailed along in the open spaoo between tho ships and 
the shoro, and bo rcvicwod tlio fleet. 

101. Now after Xerxes had soiled down the whole lini> and 
was gone ashore, he s«nt for Di-manitos the son of Ariston, 
who had aecompanied him in bis march upon Greece, and 
bespake him thus : — 

"Demaratus, it is my pleasure at this time to ask thee 
eertoin things which I wiiOi to know. Thou art a Greek, and, 
I as I hear from the other Greeks witli whom I ooaversc, no less 
lian from thine own lips, thou art a native of a oit; which is 
not the meanest or the weakest in their land. Tell me, there* 
fore, what thinkost thou ? Will the Grot'ks lift a hand against 
us 7 Mine own jndgment is that, even if all tliu Gr«eks and 
all tlie barbarians of the West were gatliered togethw in one 
place, they would not bo able to abide my onset, not being really 
of one mind. But I would fain know what thou thiukeat 
hereon." 

Thus Xerxes questioned ; and tho other replied in his turn, 
— "OkingI is it thy will that I give tbeo a true answvr, or 
dost thou wiah for a pleasant one 7 " 

Then the king bade him speak the pltun truth, and promised 
that he would not on that account hold him in less farour than 
heretofore. 

103. So Demaratus, whoa he heard the promise, spake as 
follows : — 

" king I since thou biddeet me at all risks speak the 

truth, and not say what will one day prove me to have lied to 

, tbee, thuH T uiiHWor. Want has at all times been a fellow- 

' dweller with uh in our land, while Valour is an ally whom we 



mDM thiit nw oui oonchide w(th eor- 
Muirfy from Uw mUdiUu ii, tl,U Mcli 
• tfKSt ma B*da to XtriM u Ut* 



time, and mM not loo ntnTiigKiit to 
obtniii bcllaf (rido ihh^ eh. 10S, 
nou*.) 



rCiur. lOO-UM. tUS COLLOQUT WITH OEUABATL'S. 



87 



bare gainiid bj dint of ms<loni itsil atrict laws. Her aH 
. enablM ns to drive ont want nnd eaoape thraldom. Brave aro 
All tiio Grocke wlio dw^ll in any Borian loud ; but wbat I am 
abont to say doc« not oonc«ni all, but only tbe LaoedS' 
m<Huana. First then, tome wbai may, they will oerer acoept 
tby terms, wliiob wonid rcdaoe Greece to staTory ; and foitber, 
ara sure to join battle with theo, though all tbo rest of 

I Greelu sbonld submit to tby will. As for their nnmberB, 

I not Oflk bow maoy tbcy are, that their rosistonra sbotild be 
a possible thing ; for if a thousand of them should toko tbo 
field, they will meet thee in battle, and ao will any aombex, ba 
it lc«s than this, or be it more." 

103. WboQ Xoncs beard this answer of Bemaratus, bo 
laughed and aniswcred, — 

"What wild words, Dcmorntus! A thousand men join 
battle with such an army ns this) Come tlion, wilt thou — 
who wort oa«o, as thou snycst, their king — oogago to fight 
this vety day witlj ten men ? I trow not And yet, if all thy 
fellow-citizens b« indeed such as thou sayest they are, thou 
ougbtflst, as their king, by thine own country's usages," to bo 
ready to fight with twice the numlier. If then each one of 
tltem be a match for ten of my soldiers, I may well call upon 
tliee to bo a match for twenty. So wouldost tbou assure tbe 
truth of what thou hast now said. If, however, you Greeks, 
who vaunt yoarselroa so much, are of a trutli men like those 
whom I have seen about my court, as tliyself, Demaratiis, 
and the others wttb whom I am wont to converse, — if, I Hay, 
yon arc really men of this sort and size, how is tbe 8i)eech 
that tliDu hast uttered more tbnn a moro cm]>ty boast ? For, 
to go to the \'ery verge of likelihood, — how could n thousand 
mm, or ten tliousnnd, or even fifty thousand, particularly if 
tbey were all aUke free, and not under one lord, — Iiow could 
BQch a force, I say, stand ugainst an army tike mine ? Let 



* Th» ■Jloiina it apponintljr to the 
"doable pMtioii " wbcreto Uic king* 
mn entitlad at baaqiMtt (Mpra, vt. 




5;}. and parhapa to tLclr (mppoicd) 
■'donblo roM" (ibiJ. nd fib Uomp. 
Thucjd. I. SOi. 



DEUABATUS OPIKtON OP THE SPARTANS. Bom TIL 

»them 1)P five Uiousind, and w« shall liavo moro than a 
tliouBnnd men to each one of Ui«ir8.' If, indcfd, like oar 
troops, th«y bod a sinRlfi mnster, their fear of him might 
make tbom coumgwuis beyomi their natural bent ; or they 
ini^ht be urged by lashes agaimt an enemy wtiicli far ont- 
numberod them." Hut left to tlieir own fnje choice, assun-dly 
thoy will act differently. For mine own port, I believe, that 
■ if the Grcoks had to contend with the Persians only, and the 
I nnmhtTs were oqnal on both siiK-s, the Grui^ks would find it 
^^Ard to Btnnd their ground. W« too hare among as Buch men 
^^bthose of whom thoa spoltest — not many indeed, bat still 
^re p06«es8 a few. For instance, some of my body-Euiird woold 
bo witling to engage eingly with three Grobks. But this thoa 
didst not know ; and therefore it was thoa talkedst 00 foolishly." 
104. IXinaratus answered him, — "I knew, king! at the 
outset, that if 1 told tliee the truth, my speech would displease 
tbine Cflirs. But as thou didet require mo to answer thee with 
all possible truthfulness, I informid tlieo what tbo Spartans 
^rill do. And in this I spake not &om any love that I bear 
tliem — for none knows better than thou what my love towards 
f])«m is likely to be at the present time, when they have 
robbed mo of my rank and my ancestral bonouni, and made 
me a homeless exile, whom thy lather did receive, bestowing 
00 me both shelter and imsteaanoe. What likeliliood is there 
4}igt ft BIO" ^^ understanding shontcl be unthankful for kind- 
HMs ihown him, and not cherish it in his heart ? For luiue 
own self. I prett^nd not to cope with ten men, nor with two, — 
ony, had I the choice, 1 would rather not fight even with one. 
But, if ocfiA ai»pcar^d. or if there were any great cause urging 
mo on, I would contend with right good will against one of 
Qioee persons who boast themselves a match for any throe 
Qfeekft' Bo likewise the Lacedemonians, when they fight 
^ngly, are as good men as any in tbe world, and when they 
light ia a body, ore tbo bravest of all. For Utougb tbey bo 

I 8m b>kW' cIl IHO, wbora tLe oi»ir» IVmiu boct b mekoned to excMJ Bva 



^ 



109 lOO. 



COKOtJCT OF MA9CAMES. 



89 



freemen, the; ore Dot in all respects free ; Law i;) the master 
vhom the; own ; and thiB master they fear more than tliy 
snbjocts foar th«e. Whatovor ho commanda they do ; and hiii 
comnumdnient is alvayn the same : it forbuls Uicm to iico in 
batt1«, whatm-cr the number of their foes, and rcquiroa tbom 
to stand firm, and either to oonqner or die. If in tliese words, 
O king ! I scorn to thoo to speak foolishly, I nm content trom 
this time forward cvcnnore to hold my peace. 1 had not now 
spoken aniesa compelled by thee. Certes, I pray that all may 
torn out according to thy wishes." 

106. Such was the answer of Dcmaratns ; and Xerxes was 

[not angry with him at all, but only laughed, and sent him 
away with words of kinilocss. 

After tii'iA interview, and aft«r ho hod made Mascames the 
BOD of Megadoetes governor of Doriscus, setting aside the 
governor appointed by DariuB, Xerxes Btarted with bis army, 

i^and marrlied upon Grcc«o through Thrace. 

106. This man, \Iaseames, whom he left behind bim. was a 

' psncm of such merit that gifts wore sent bim yearly by the 
king as a epeeial favour, bocauso ho excelled all the other 
governors that bad been niipointed cither by Xerses or by 
Darius. In like manner, Arta^terxL's, the son of Xerxes, sent 
gifts yearly to the descendants of Mascames. Feraian 
governors bad been oetablisbed in Thrace and about the 
Hellespont before the march of Xerxes began; but these 
persons, after the expedition was over, were all driven from 
their towns by the Greeks, except the governor of Doriscus ; 
no one succeeded in driving out Mascames, though many 
made the attempt.' For this riisasou (he gifts ore sent him 
VToiy year by the king who reigns over Die Pertttaua,' 

* Ur. GroU (UM. tt Otpot*. v. pp. 

MS, 8V7| Dotlcca th* inpntanoe of 
I'Iki* poMOw OB ihawiatf Iiow maali 
I hittnry it poMtd OTtT in rIodco b^ 

TUocfdidM in tdf brill (Ufnuary (i. 

K>, W) AUiniM, h» obmrTM, Auring 

th« lint i««i j«Ma o( her liflKOtDcny 

tnnat liaro b«oii Mtgagcd nort BotiTftr 

ta cunabuit mrfuv BgaiDit Ui0 Per- 



HMU. Not £lua oloDo, bnt a TUt 
nnmbor <d Vemiaa [itintii in Euroua 
vroro tnkaii, and (roqueat Bttiicki maeta 
n^ion Doriivaa wliboQt tueoott, Hd. 
loi^ (CimMi c 7) ti Iho only othtv 
■micr whonukMnUtuioiL to Uwm en- 
t«rpriMa^ 

■ DoriMua appMoa b7 this psonsa to 
km otmtiaanl oador tho Pcnluu la 



90 



XKItXES UXItCH FfiOlI DOBiaCUS. 



Book TII. 



107. Of tho other goTeniora vhom tlie Greeks drove out, 
tbero vas not one who, in tlie jadgment of Xerxes, showed 
Iiimself R brave mnn, excepting Bogcs, the governor of Dion. 
Him Xerxc'B never could praise enough ; , and sach of his sons u 
were left in Pcraia, and sarvived their fiithcr, he very Bpecially 
honoured. And of a truth this Boges wn» worthy of great 
oommendntion ; for wWn he was besieged by the Atlienians 
under Cimou, the son of BLfiltiodes,* and it was open to him to 
retire from the city upon t<-nn8, and return to Aslii, ho refused, 
becfloso be fonrfd the king might think he liad playi'd the 
coward to save his own life, wherefore, innrteftd of sum-ndering, 
he held ont to the lost extremity. When all the food in 
the fortress was gone, ho raised a vast funeral pile, slew his 
children, his wife, his concubines, and his honsehold slaves, 
and cast them all into the tlamvs, Then, collecting whatever 
gold and silver there was in the place, he flung it from the 
walls into the Strymon; and, when that was done, to 
crown all, he himself leaped into tho fire. For this aotiou i 
Boges is with reason praised by the Persians even at tho H 
present day. ^ 

108. Xerxes, as I have said, pursued his march from DoriRctn 
against Greece ; and on his way he forced all the nations H 
through which bo passed to take part in the expedition. For 
the iriiole country as for as the frontiers of Thessaly had been 

(as 1 have already shown) enslaved and made tributary to the 
king by the conquests of Ucgabaxus, and, more lately, of Mar- 
doniug.' And first, after leaving Doriscus, Xerxes passed the ^ 



ptMsnt Urun Iv/iivrrai) ptorw tkis. 
Haaciuoof, tbou((li dotd. it ingBrdoil 
0* livliig on Ib 111* doaonidnaM, wbo. it 
li wobtblcb mltl baU lbs soTorsmOBi. 
* 8m Plot. Til. Cim. c. 7, Miil nam- 
pwa Panauu tut. Titi, f B, when 
Oiatm !■ mU to hare taken tho «iij 
by tnniinir (he fon* of tlw ■trcatn 
■poo ih« wallt, which w*n of anB. 
drM briok. Tbi* namtivft {■ wHb 



rtaam 4aabM br Larchar and othm 
(*M KotMO, Da AihaniMia ItDp.p.81 
Gruta, T. p. S97> nutc. It iwina oer- 
UUn tfaat Kaa niu icdoovd h<f a itciet 
blodcada. Sob lb* iaicripiicti pra. 
••Trad in ^MkiMa (adv. Clwti. } M. 
Tho data of th« (wilim Ilea wilhtai 
the nan kx, *n-1M, but eaonat b« 
(tma witb ntty oaHaiatjr (•«• Ur. 

OtoC*'N DOtO, Tul. T, pp. 4U9.«tl}. 

*Sii|n*,T.2.Ult Ti.44,4». 



I 



107-lOSl 



PASSAGE OF TU£ USSiVa. 



91 



ihrociaD fortrcs8o», vboreof Mesambria is tb« fnrthermost 
08 oaa goes toirard tlio wist.* The next city h titrym^/ wUioti 
beltmga to Tbasos. Midway between it and Meoambria flows 
the river Listfua, wliicb did not suffice to furnish water for the 
army, but was drunk up and failed. This region was formerly 
called Galliuca ; now it bears the name of Briantica ; but in 
strict truth it likewise is really Ciconian." 

109. After crossing the dry channul of the Lissos, Xerxes 
passed tJic Gntcion cities of Uardneia,' Diosa,* and Abd&ra," 
and likewise the famous lakeswhicb ant in thctr neighbourhood,^ 



* S*liK«>n«M pa 



tdKtnet npoii 

tialnard t«(cniUii(t (torn osar 

nriwiu to tfati LuBiu (tapes, ch, 69). 

f oat of the hirger Uandi •><«iir«d la 

~ pmiMiIra* tU» admulwi*, •• ChJM 

[(i. inO}, lit^klMm (r. »1), nMO^Ao. 

The Siunotknciaa MMiimbria uood 

at TMrk, hmI moct Kii be oonfoniKloit 

^irilh lb) ettj at ilw mtac luuno (ncnr 

YiwwH, apoa llie Ciuiui), aupm, iv. 

* Stiymf , BCMmling to IIiirpncntiDn 
(nd TDc. 2*piti^), KOi) nliutct] on • 
■mall {«l(Dil, CiiTni*<l prvhatjly bj two 
baaebcaof Ibt LiMw. It ouftDaue 
of iraatret betwvra tha Tluwiiaa* aiul 
tlio UonmittM (Pliilork. Fr. I2S). 

* 8m abovn, <th. Ul. wliiuh f»»M^ i» 
fa th* mritar'* mind. Ho tDannii V> 
n]r that aotonlylhophunurDurtAoua. 
but tlie wbolo oo«iii(r tbenco to tla> 
himfui, wa* aadtatly Clooi^ttii. Per- 
tMM tb« oliopt^T* Rom SI to lot aip 
■ later inairtiun, bitvkinx tbe con- 

_tliurlt<r of Iha urii<uial uftirstivo. 

Willi mpivt lo Iha niunca of tlila 
R<*tiSr*, (lialul OnUalcn, which iomiiii 
an oriit^l C«llio nocopo. 
[I ra«ntioMdcliawhM«. Tha 

Liii<..ii,.,m ut oar antlior Tnkppran in 
Priuito of Pllny tn. y. )V. U), 
Id Lirf'a "Catai>ai Vrinlicaa" 
(mTiii. 41). 
f Maroiwi* mu « plnfo of fomo con- 
uiHicff. nioncod on tbn coul. a litilo 
llio nil lA ibo [>imait (ScjUi, 
L II, Oa ) Kjihor. Fnxm. 74 ; LW. 
iP, A«.). It nu a ouh^ ot til* 
i(Sa7mii.Cb.L977). IIwbudo 



I 



Mtn Mmaliu In lh« noibm Jfnvgna. 

■ UietM Mppvan in SoflKi (Puripl. 
6E], Brill i> muDtioDcd bj' llmjr 
I. a. 0.) and Stcphmi. It wna novw a 
plaoo dT trach out*, nod probslily por. 
itliad duiaK tba nan of PluUp (wa 
BihT ad looX 

* Abdjn in* founded b^ tha Toiui* 
fnpnt, L lOSi Scjain. C)i. Cilt>, <>TD). 
Ita oxaot nilo hivi, I brtiovv. DHivr tiMn 
idontidvl I tbuuich Cbuiiiiul-Uanffler 
(ii, p, ]13) apcaki of ic* mini u " dla- 
tlngnlihablo at tlio BotilOTn cxlntntitf 
of th« Uar of jAig<u:' Tlio poaiUm 
irhieh U Kirm ii on our mafa, lot or 
twtlTo nulM ea«t ot the month of tho 
Koitiw, osd «i^ aix or mtvu fima 
Lnka BUtonli, MaU nalnl; on Iho an* 
tharily ot Ftolrair, nlto int«i>oM* a 
ouiuidfrabia apnou betwotn the Mcatuc' 
embonctinro and tho cit^. Hcndottia 
•vena* to bavo thought that Ih* rlvM 
fMuad IArov;btliodl7<iiJr>,oh. 1E6|. 
11 ii oeitoin that then we now no 
mill* sear the montli of the alieuu 
(Clarkc'i TrnroU In Grooo*, rol. iit. p. 
42!1). Bat tb« whole oounirj in hare 
"a fiitt tmd ■wampj plain" (ibid p. 
42E, and oconpers pi 4211: nod tho 
eonno of the lloatna baa ptotjably 
DiidBTi^n* Buaj cliango*. Scjrlu 
(PHHpL p. 6S) end Stmbo (rii. p. 4tt2) 
Uitli j)1aco Abdim inuDodiatcly outof 
thr nwr. 

' I^ke Lrmui* mm named from a 
l>>wa Imiiiiniii]. ihit niirinit MLpilal of 
lbf> Cioraiana (Hum. UiLii. 40), whioh 
ia ideMilUd bjj aomo with Uarooeia 
(Ephor. Fr. 74; Eoe^oh. ad tco.) U 



92 



PiJBBiaB or THB XESTLTS. 



BOOK 



Lake Ismaris between Mnrdncia nnd StiymS, and Lake 
BistODis mar Dicna, wliicb Kccives tlio vat^^ra of two rivera, 
th« Travua and the Compsatiifl.' Near Abdera there waa no 
famous luko for liini to pass; bat be crossed tbo river Ncstus,* 
which tbiK rt-fteboa tho sou. Proceeding ftirtlicr upon bis 
way, lie pftssed by several continental cities, one of them 
jioBsessing a lake nearly thirty furlongs in circuit, full of fiab, 
and viTy salt, of which the sumpter-beasta only drank, and 
which tlicy drained dry. Tbo namo of tbis cify was PiHtyms.* 
All these towns, which wcro Grecian, and lay upon the coast, 
Xenes k(-pt npon his k-ft hand ns he passed al<Mig. 

110. The following are the Thracian tribes throuf^h whoso 
country ho marched : tbo Pieti, tho Cicomans, tho Bistoniajis, 
tbo 8aptDAns, tbo Dcrb-feaus, tbo Edoniana, and the Sittrte.* 
Some oC those dwelt by the s«a, and furnished nbipfl to tlte 
king'a fleet ; while others lived in tbo more inland i>arts, and 
of these nil the tribes which I have mentioned, except the 
Satrffi, were forced to servo on foot 

dOM not vxi«t now. Lake Kistoiuf, 
wbioh ia Ihe modora Inko of Bum, 
dcmod ill Biipcllni if'ii tfia tlio Bin- 
tonian Thniriiinji, who iiilinbitMl ita 
baalia (Suym. Cb. t. 673). Auoonliii^ 
to Sinibo. it hud been fomiod, witliJtl 
thu hiitoric ppiiod. bj tho bDrattng la 
D( Uw KB (Stnib. i. p. K7}- tVolMblr 
II ■hmalc in liw aftvc it ma joinixl to 
tb> H* bf m caiial, 

* Onljr ono riicr e* axij tAm Ct*»* 
Jitntymiy Dcrt) DOir mitim the 1»ki> ot 
ilMni. TU> la DO dunlit thn TruTiii. 
Tlte OompMtaa mnj bo tbo ■trKam 
itUeh NBchM ihi> tea n little to tbo 
woM of the tkkp. kiid wUcb, U th* 
klu mttv Mnnc>i>lAt Uritnr, wonld nin 
Into it (too KWpMt'i AtlM Tod HuUm, 
BlaU xvi.). 

* Tbe Mttta, «f Kon Sh. Thto 
•hMm >t pniMat felb lata tlio mm 
nora Umd tn milM totlw WMt of the 
nfKMed lite ot Abdtn. It hm pro- 
bebl7 ehkiigod lU cenne trDqaenttf 
(wc nbonv p. 01, new *), 

* Tkttr* ars loine entt InkM <in tlio 
■ban, Dbout ten ipIIm Ima ibe Mtrta, 



\ 



wbich may lintp to A( the nt« of 
PinjTD* («•• Uak"'* Map, Koctliern 
Gr*»i:o, tol, i. <'h<1) i but tlii* nbobi 
ditti'iot ia onuxplorvd lir InvHllot*. 

Btviphcn tnoDtioiu KatitTU* M " 0^ ' 
arifBr 6p4ttr Jtviyiir'' (aub tdd.- 
Catnpw* eW Blrripoi). IlDrpocmtioa 
call* tba pken Pialrini. 

■ Th«a# tribe*. DKTpt tbo iMt, sp. 
mar to be onitiiioniicl is thmr order 
from out to wal. Thia ii eridenl 
tmai Iho potitinn ot lb* Cicooloiu, 
Bistcmisa*. and Eikminn*. 1'bil^ll olw- 
wlim) fliod (■QPta, obit. 104 and 109 j 
and (otrn, 6b. lU). Wr nis; Ibtte. 
toiv plapo the Pnil, of wliom notbing 
ebe i* komns, about ibo Uobnu, bo- 
twnn the JlpB7Dtbia>ii and Cloonkni^ 
asd tho SapMuia {iMoticinnil bf Flinjr, 
1. i. o.) and Dannian* (ateutioned uf 
Tliuordid(«, ii. 101) aboat th« K«Mim 
—tbo former nut, tlie Uttor west ot 
tbat rircr. The 8*tnt (muDlioncd bj 
Boeatmh Tr. ISB) dwelt inUn4 
abore ib« Denaiae* (an Leake'a 
Vvnima Qnm, a\. p. IWJ. 



wis. lOO-lU. 



UARCH THROUGH PJEOHU. 



93 



111. The Satrffi, so far as our knowledge goes, ha.\o never 
/oi been brought under by any one, but oontinue to this da; 
a free and uneonquered pco]ilc, nnlike the other Tbracians.* 
They dwell amid lofiy mountnJna clothed with forests of 
different trees and capped with snow, and are very valiant in 
fight. They are the TliradimH who have an oraole of Bacohns 
in thoir country, wtiich is iiitunt<:d iii>on their highest moan- 
tain-range. The Bessi,' a Satrian raw, deliver tho oracloe ; 
but the prophet, as at Delphi, is a woman ; and her answcn 
are not harder to read. 

112. When Xerxes had passed through the region men- 
tioned above, he came next to the Pierian fortresses, one of 
which Lb colled Pbagrea, and another Porgamus." Hero hii 
lino of march lay close by the walls, with the long hi^lt range 
of Faogiinm* upon his right, a tract in which there iii-o minM 
both of gold and silver,* Bome worked by the Pierians and 
Odomantiaos, but the (freater part by the Satrie. 

113. Xcrxofl tliin marched tlu-ough thu country of the 
P»<aiiaii tribcB— the Dobcrians and the Pmopim' — which lay 
to tbe north of Pangicum, and, advancing W6»tward, reached 



* EOKidoIiM Mirtii* btre tn aUuilo to 
Ui* «aiK|iwaM ot thp OdryHO, which 
fobbed M toMj ThiMiiu tnbe* of 
lhiEdriMlep«iHleoc«(TliM7d.iL0ft-&7): 
lint Ua atntoiMnt lioTWAMrn, OB lunj 
b« MOB fivm ThnojiUdM. 

' Th* B«Mi MV mentioiinl by Liirr, 
(mix. U) ud PtinT (H. K. ir. ll) 
H ft dMinct TbfMiui rhml Tholr 
inma U pfflmMT ccSDocUd irith Uio 
tUl* JtoMomM. bj wliiob thn Tliraciftn 
Biwektw ma knonn (Eor. M. i. itiii. 
11). aad with the tcnoi Banaflt, 
B arg^f^ BofftfwJit, K. T. X. 

*Th* orlglBkl HfviM wm the ili*- 
triet b«lwo«n the Haliftcnmn usil tbo 
Ra««*. Vrben thi* wm cciKiacml 
by IIiB Hwodotiluw, the (nlinbituitii 
ttmttit • ntage bnjotiiJ tlii> l^tryinon. 
ItaKT** w»* tbcnr prindiinl tows 
(Tbooyd. ti. 99 1 Scjliui.Pi'ripL p,fl*). 
It U iwaotit. with aomo probabilit}', at 
Oijbnd Mad PtfgBniiti ac rruviitd 
(tnkt^a K«*Uwrti fintm, toL iii. pp. 



177. 17B). 

• Vide mipT*, y. 16. 

' Tho trhoh) ngion trtna Pliilippi 
and Dntnm on the OMt to Djtorain 
OD tlia WMt WM nual Hch in Itte 
pr*«li>ai moMliL ArUtotU r»lkt«a 
tliat aflvr limvjr nina "DUKgota'' ot 
rirfcui pilil vcre oftvn toami ot nbore 
a pound woiglit (vniji itnr). Tbcra 
w«tw lw»-~oii(i of Uinw iiuuiiili aa<l 
OTIS tH Bv«— in tbo jvMtvtaioa of lb« 
Macedonun ^'"gt (Uu Aaw- Mir. p, 
83U, { 43. Sao oUo. inpni, v. 17. 28 ; 
vE. Hi; intra, ix. 75: Htntb. iii. p. 
mii Tliuo <r. lUSi I>iod. 8i«.Kri.8t 
Ajipinn, B. Cir. ir. 106 ; JbUoi, viii. 
S; riin. H. N.Tii. Wj *o.). 

' Th»c rnxiDJan triboa bavo b«on 
manliuui-d bufoni iu conDootion with 
th» aam* iunlity (aapis. *■ IB, 16). 
The annj of Xenn rridsntli' diridKl 
about IVrennini: luid part nutrobcd 
mirtli, part toath ot ruigiDDm. (Tida 
infra, eb. 121.) 



94 



PASSAGE OP THE STRYMON'. 



Smk 



the river Strymon nmd the oity Eion, whereof Bogc«, of whom 
I Bpoko a 8}iort time ago," nntl who was then still olive, vas 
governor. The tract of land lyiag about Uonnt Pangieam, is 
eallfd Phyllis ; on the west it reaches to the river Angitce,* 
which flows into the Strj-mon, and on tlic south to tho 
StrymoQ it«clf, where at this time the llagt were Bocrificing 
white horses to make the stream favoorttble.' 

114. After propitiating the stream by these and many other 
magical ceremonies,* the Persians crossed the Strvmon, l)y 
bridges made before their arrival, at a place called Tho Niuu 
Ways,' which was in the territory of tlie Edonians. And 
when tlicy learnt that the name of the place was The Nino 
Ways, they took nine of the youths of the land and as many 
of their maidens, and buried them alive on the E^iot. Burj'ing 
alive is a Persian cnstom.' I have heard that Amestris, the 
wi£e of Xerxes, in her old age buried alive s^xea pairs of 
Persian youths, sons of illustrious men, as a thank -oQfering to 
the god who is supposed to dwell underneath the earth." 



* Sopm, ch. 107. 

* TIki Aniriio* U nndtmbtodlj tbo 
ritur (if Anfkitiat which h(nr*nT Aaot 
not now Mb tlw Stfyraoa, bat fluws 
Into tbo nin» StTTmaaloni At aoine 
diltBDC* ftoui Iti luwer (Mtntmity. 
fflM Luklu'a Korllipru tin)D<»i,vu'- '■'- 
p. 183.) 

' Tho vietima were ucHftecd M, the 
edgo of UiA dUimdi, but not (u Mr. 
OnM mjK, vol. T. 1). 66) "Uitotto 
into it." or klloirod ta pullnlu it with 
Umr blooil (Stniti. xv. p. lOM)). Ths 
coitain eontinniKl to a Into iloto (k« 
TMlt. An. vl. 87). n'kilt honoa 
■•Mm to b*i« b«cn tt>Kitrcl«d •• •■- 
pMtelV tMjred (iin'ra, ob. 40). 

TbMe li MO need to •appWD, witb 
KlMikoF (ApiwDdii to ZendavDitA, 
Tcl. 'i. I't. iii. pL £4 at •Miq.) uid 
Bbodu (U«li((« 8>4K. p. 613), Ui*t 
HoradotMi bM isiin'purtcd Out ocour- 
iHiDa. 

* or tbt>M Stnibo (L •. o,) sivM tbo 
IWIowing Mxnsnt 1— 

"Wlwa Iho Ppniana," ba M]r«, 
"aamo to a lolo, • (tnwD, oc • 



ntring of watts', thoj dv * pit. nad 
tiuim uorinco tbntr rEotlm, inking 
CUD thM til* pnro liqaid nMrtbem ba 
□at staiscd with tbo blood, since Unt 
would bo K poIliitiDD. The Booh of 
^M rioUm Ii UMo pli«ed co mvitlo or 
Utuvl Imm, aud tho Mittfi Ml ft od 
(iro with tnpcr wvnils, malcinf; DiOMt- 
tntioni all tiia while, hdA pooriac n 
libBtiaa ol oil mlsRlcd with niOt aad 
boooj, not npon tho flro or inM Iha 
irat«r, but upon tho srwuiA," 



I 
I 

a 

« 



'AftirTwatdaAmphipolia. tSeonote* 

iS6; and comporo 

Tliucfd. I. lOCVaed ir. 102. to wliMi 



on Booh T. ^. is6; and comu 



Riay be Added Pol;wnii» (Sti*l«f. vi. 
63} and 8l«|diaB of BTuntinm (ad 
TOO.) The Atbmian town had not 
boon loandftd whan IIoradMn* lofb 
CnN>«o Tor Italy 1 whioh may aoooQsl 
for hia rantation to mantion it. 

* Bm> nolo* en Book ilL ch. 35. 

* h thia Altriman t or dooi Hm- 
dottu msrcly opoak at a OrMkF 
Pnrluip* thi> Uiusr ia tliu doto prob. 





CnUR. lU-llS. MAfiCB AOtOSS TilE STLEAN PLAIN. 



95 



116. From tho Strj-mon the army, proceeding westwriKl. 
oame to a strip of slioie, on i^hich tlitru stAnds the Grecian 
town of ArgiluB.* This Rhoro, UQd the xvholc tract nlwTo it, is 
called Bitiallia.' Passing this, ami keeping on Uic left band 
the Gnlf of Posideium,' Xerxes oroased the Sylenn plain,* aa it 
is csDmI, and passing hy Slagirus,' a Greek city, came to 
Aoonthos.' The inhabitants of these parts, as veil aa those 
who dwelt about Mount Fangsum, were forced to join tlie 
armament, like those others of whom I spoke before ; the 
dvelleis along the coast being made to serre in the fleet, 
while those who lived mora inland had to follow with tho land 



* AigllM, like Stiif and Btof^nis, 
«M a cdtmj'nf llio Ao-irtau* (Tbncjd. 
It. 108 and loe). ll vm iltiiiitod at 
• my ^icirt disUnc? frmn AmpbipolU, 
DMTJbe ocxut, bctwDcn the montii of 
tto HtCTtDOB Mid tbM of tho itroain 
trhicpi cuTJiM off tlio tajinrilauufl mtUr 
fraM UlM BcJh^ CoIoimJ l^to 
pUlw it un Iho tfcirti of Uio nounUm 
chain, oight taHom traasi Amp&ipolJn 
(N'oithoni Gnwco, *oL UL p. 171 uid 
Map). AccordiBK to Hnaolide* Fan- 
liOM it was orifrinalV * ThjwiBn 
toirn <Fr. iliiO. Att*a tho PolopoQ. 
noriaa mu it *)lupf«ara (mm tiiHorf. 

* Thn IIJMltat irti* a braT« and 
crful ThraoiaD pooplv (loitiMini 

rirl. Lir. lU. 30), wbo, UimiKli «on- 
bjT tb* Uacvdodaci (Hioafd. 
W), praMTTwd tbair nam« aqd 

tiooalitf for b*d7 oeelnrin afti-r- 
wmcda. Tlicj Hcm, whilo rotaining 
Ibo region aaaignod thiiu b; Btm- 
dotaa, gTBdnallj ii> ham eztvudod 
UiemMtTM b*]-uiiil llip SiTjrmon nearly 
*a Uta Kntat (of. Li*, xlv. S9, 30| 
•■d PUo. H. N. It. 10. 11). Hetodotiu 
InliwBU Bi In th* nait bi>i>k (ch. 116), 
that at Hun lime Umj- Bed to (lie 
monnlaiiiK, and rrfoMtl all MnlmiiMacai 
to Xana. Obarea of Laimwaca* 
told a alniaga alajof their oa one 
nee — J Bti attiMkiajt Cardinl (Pr. 9. 
See Uia ialmtnoloty Bnair, toI. i. y. 
1S8, wiio*, »bcr« tha bragmcnt ie 
pnsi truni CoL Uoni'a traailalkiiD). 

■ riiiij- tuealiuart PMidaiiBin aa a 
torn HiUi a haj ia Uni lc««lilf (U. 



K. iv. 11). 1 bollavft no other aatbor 
«p«ak> of (t. Th« bay lDtra<leit aintt 
Im a ]wnian <J the Ga\t ot ttmjiiia. 
Th« town lay «loH) to tbp L'Cfut ("in 
eri," niti. 1. 1. e.) t bat IM oxaet «ito 
baa aim to bo dliin>Tes«d. 

* By tlio etviitiii plain, «rhic^b no 
otli«r trriCcr muncjona, ii to bo lUKter- 
Mood the flat tnet, about a alio la 
widtli, nnr tbo month ot tbe rivor 
ithlch diata* tlia lake et BoIM 
(Iltriiiia). (8oo htake'* Nortbura 
tirMcc, iii. p. 169.17D.} It ia ntieer- 
tain whcDoo the name to derived. 

* Suginui (now Stovroi, Loake, UL, 
pp. 167, 168 1 or parhap* Hitmnt, 
llowen, p. ISOl ii aaid bjr Thnoydidaa 
to hare b«co a colony d the Andrinoa 
[ir. S8). It va« a REnall place, and 
dcrlvoe all ita celebrity from liaTing 
ffivun biith to AMtetla. Some 
nnoioDt walla, " of a Tory raogh and 
iircgnlw apccie*," vera noticed by 
Colonel Irfaka on tho eamern tide M 
th« hiHxht wbiob ha loppasea to haTo 
b»«n occupied ia the oitr- Bir 0. 
Boven pleoda In Bvoorol the claim of 
Jfi»enTO to reprBneat 8t<miraii, l.'tha 
Dtiivpiml tinililioQ of t)in Uaiiedoiuaii 
peimntii," and 2. the nluation. wbidi 
trould mnko it natural that the amir 
ot Xone* nhonld ham ** pOMod It ty,'' 
whtTMu tbny would hara pawed 
lliivtrjk Smttos. Ho alao fooad 
" nabitjnctiaina ot Hcllenlo maaonrf 
all arvimd,'' and paitlcDtuly *■ ia the 
beeatlfol glen to ue wott." 

* Tid«fa]>n^Tf.44,ai9W>. 



96 



DEJLTB OF ARTACH.Sm. 



Book 




foreeB. The rond wbich the arm; of Xerxes took remainB to 
this d&y tmioucbtd : the Tliraciiuu neither ploogb nor Boirit, 
liQt hold it iu gront honour. 

116. On reaching Aranthns, the Persian king, seeing the 
great x«al of Iho Aoanthiang for his Btrrioe, and hearing vhat 
bod been Aonc. about the cutting, took tliom into Uie number 
of his Bwom firiends, sent tliem as n present a Median dress.^ 
and beBideB commended them highly. 

117. It v!a» whili- ho remained hero that Artacbses, who 
presided over the canal," a man in high repute with Xerxos, 
and by birth nn AcliKtmonid, who Tras moreover tlie tAllcvst of 
all the I'ereiaRB, being only four fingers short of five cubits, 
royal measure,' and who bad a stronger voice than any other 
man in the world, fell sick and died. Xenes therefore, who 
was greatly afflicted at the mischance, carried him to the 
tomb and buricsl him with all magntficeneo ; while the wholt 
army helped to raise a mound ovir his grave.' The Acan- 
thions, in obcditince to an orncle. offer sacrifice to this 
ArtochlNs as a hero,' invoking him in their prayers by name. 
But king Xcnes sorrowed greatly over hLi death. 

118. Now the Greeks who had to feed tlio army, and to 
entertain Xerxes, were brought thereby to tho very extremity 
of dietress, ioHomuch that eomo of them wero forced oven to 
forsake bonse and home. When the Thasians reoeived and 
feasted tho boxt, on account of tlieir possessions upon the 
mainland,' Antipaler, the son of Orgea, one of the citizens ol ; 
best repute, and the man to whom the business was assigned, 



4 



I 



* Ctmpiim iii. R-i. luiil noui * aA Inc. 
XlTMacoiiltnctrrl n timtlnr fn>ni!sh{{> 
wilh thp Abtliiii™ (inf™. *iii. 120), 

* 6d|>™. cb. 21. Tlin jinwMDiKr of 
lb* work mi ilumd bclwtMO bim uxl 

fiOlWTM. 

* That is, about S fe«t 2 inehM. 

I Tbo tomb of ArMc^ai U Ihmigjit 
to be Mill viaibls CO Um McUan tud* 
of tbo cutting. Mar tbo wnUMnk 
•liorr. tbc ttijipcMd lU* of Stsf. Boa 
Ibo jil&ii, p. 21, and miiifaiv tke puwr 
bj IL Forpbommcr ia tba Jotmial of 



tlia GrognfiUcal SocMty. toI. xvii. p. 
lid. Bnt It wvold •ppisr fmui t)io 
Kordt of Honidoilaa, tiuil tbe lotnt) it 
niher to be woi^l in tlie Beigbboiir. 
IiotHl of AoKnlbna (Enup) wwtof tba 
PQtliD^, and on the nnrthcmcoaat. 

' Compnrc tbo roDilaot ol tbn poopl* 
ti AmpbipolJ* with rtgud to Hn«idM 
(ThDOfd. V. II I Aiiik Eth. Nia r. 7. 

il)- 

* Strnrti, Mid othw plaoM (tnim, 
ch. 10S> 




Cb*p. 115-lSO. PBBPABATIOKS FOR FEEDIXO THE ABHT. 



97 



proved tbftt the cost of the meal was four hundred talentH 
of silver.* 

119. And estimates almost to the Bnme amount w«re mndo 
bj the sQiHinntcndents in other cities. For the entertain- 
mcnt, ii'bicb hud bo«n ordered long beforehand and was 
reckoned to bo of much comtcqnenoc, was, in the niunucr of it, 
end) nB I will now di'scnbe. No sooner did the heralds who 
broHgbl the orders ' give tlieir message, than in every city the 
iuliabitanta made a division of their stores of corn, and pro- 
ceeded to grind flour of wheat and of barley for many months 
together. Besides tins, they purchased the l>eat cattle that 
they could find, and fiittvncd them ; and fed poultry and 
water-fowl in ponds and buildings, to bo in readiness for 
the army ; wbilo tbey likewise prepared gold and stiver rases 
and driuliing-cups, and whatsoever cImi is needed for the 
MT^iee of the table. These last preparations were made for 
tlio King only, and thnne who sat at meat with him ; for 
tlie rest of the army nothing vras made ready beyond thu food 
for which orders had been given. On the arrival ol tho 
Peisians, a tent ready pitched tax the pnrpose, received 
Xenes, who took his rtist Ihoruin, while the soldiers ruuioined 
under the open licaTen. When the dinner hour camo, great 
was the toil of those who ent«rtain«d the army; whilo tho 
guests ate their fill, and then, after passing tlio night at tho 
place, tore down the royal tent neit morning, and seising its 
cont<inte, carried them all off, leaving nothing behind. 

120. On one of these oocasions Uegacreon of Abdera 
wittily' recommended bis counti-ymen " to go to the temples 
in a body, men and wumon alilce, and tliere take their station 
as sniiplianls, and beseech the gods that they would in future 
alwaj's spare them one-half of tho iroes which might threaten 
their peace — thankingthem at tho same time very warmly for 



• HMtrlr 100,000), of onr monnr— » 
m nut tat thnn vt tbo wbok •nitiiiil 
I t«T«au» TvonlTvd bj Alhcna tnat her 
^»IliM umW the niing of AiKitdci. 

rOL IV. 



' Siipm. eh. 52. 

* Sri! (bi^ InCitiducCoij tmtj, toI. I. 
p. 13?, ikfIc *, 



FASSAOB TBROUUU THE CkNiX. 



BoOKTn. 



their post gooduMS in that they bad cauaed Xerxes to be 
content with one meal m the day." For had the order 
to provide breakfwst for the King, as well as dinner, tb4 ! 
Abdorites most cither have fled before Xvrxcs came, or, if 
tboy Birait«d his coming, hare been brought to aheoluto min. 
An it was, the oationa, thoa^ Bofferiug heavy pressure, 
complied neverthcloss vith the directioDB that bod botaj 
given, 

121. At AcAQthus Xerxes separated b-om his fleet, bidding 
th« captains sail on aii«td and await his coming at Tberma,* 
on th« Thtrmaic Gulf, the place ttom Vihich the bay takes itSJ 
name. TUri>ii<^h this torn lay, he nnderiitood, his sbortea 
road. Previously, his order of nmich had been the following . — 
from Puriscas to Aeanthas his land force had proceeded in 
three bodies, one of which took the vay along the sea-shore ii 
oompMiy with the ficot, and was commanded by Mordonit 
and Mosistcs, while another pursued an inland track und 
Tritanticchmcs and Gergia ; the third, with which was Xerxe 
himself, marching midway between the other two, and having 
for its leaders Smerdomenes and Mogabyzus.' 

122. The fleet, therefore, after leaving the King, sailed 
thro'ugb tho ohanni'l which bad been cut for it by Mount 
Athoe and camo into the bay whereon He tho cities of Abso, 
pUOnw. Bingns . and Sarta;' from aU wh ich it rooUTAd 

QoU c< Afhi<m-«ni. CoIoboI Leak* 
BlBM«A«n Bt l>MV«nU(M*,iMH'CBr« 
Won*. rUAru at Vm% r«n>«rf, BiM. 
gm W Von SUM, Knd Bvtm a* Kar. 
Uti. AU tiMM t«>nia tnoU Mctatnl^ 
teve tkin on tho tAtWm coMt ot ths 
pMiiaante ot tortini, bM«r««a (ho 
•ontbern mouth of Uio canal of AlbM, 
ami C«po I>Ar<r«na. BingM. bou 
which Uw baj derirad lU Mmo, irai 
tho mtM Impoiuuit. It oconr* i» 
Thnoydid** (v. 18). Plinjr (H. S. It. 
10), ruid Ftolomr (GMgraph. ill. IS, 
p. 9t\, and also la a& Uucription 
lOftcUi'a Coq>. IM. t ^ *>»). Th« 
Mbar pIsM* am ment»ncd 01J7 hj 



S^i^-'i'^' «* Al8«wi« (ab. S.C. 
Mui\ It bocamv ThoMmlomoa, itl*i» K 
™w u> b. ibo mow impoTtani crty rf 

%*tri^U«i»«." (xl'. 30 ■ Th* 

^J^M. (8ooStn*.Til.pp.4«7, 

les I «ia. B. N. i»- W) . , 

Tbanamo Tho»ialc.nii» wmaiw la 
tlM galoaa-i of the prwinil day. wblch 
^^nww totb. B«U «^W a«a«.tly 

n)).ln-<tilc(. , , _j_. 



Ctiir. ISO-IS. 



OOUBSC OF THE FLEET. 



99 



I 



oostingoitts. Thonco it stood on for tbo Tbennnio GulT, and 
rounding Cape Ampi.<lu4,'° tbo promontory of tlio Tordnteans, 
passed tho Grecian cities TorAn£, Gslcipsus, Sennyi», Meoy- 
bema, and Ulynthas,' rec«iTing from each a number of sbips 
and men. Tbis region is called Sithonia.' 

128. From Cape Ampelus tbo Hoct Btrotcbed across by a 
short connw to Capo Canafttrtetun,* which is the point of the 
pcitiiniiula of PaU&id that runs out furthest into tJie xea,* and 
gathered fresh aupplicfl of ehips and men from Potidsa, 
Aph^'tis, Neapotis, £ga, Thcrambus, Scione, MeadA, and Sani.* 



k 



'•C»p« Anprloi Uf itMtinud of 
Oap« Dwnhi*, m> ap^xan fi«m l^lvm^ 
(OM^ph. 1. a. «,). It dcMd Um 
BlM|{itie OoH vpon IhowMt, and mnit 
dlMT IkTB bc«a tbe owdeni Capo 
Dhrrp»no,cthfitAatUlll fnTthorto tlt» 
««Mw»nL Caliin*II.a>k(ihumiiipl>ciHl 
Okpoi DtnMtaad AmjMiliu. {Map of 
KotthMti Gtveoo >t Uie ond ef tul. i.) 

) All llwaB were nlaoea of mna cod. 
Mqa««oa«iccf4 GflI«i>«iM, iriiioh ■Hau 
Bot l« b« iD«BtloiiM bf »Bf other 
MtalOBt writer. TbMv !• todotd » 
Oklnaoa, t. eoloay <it Iha IhaMUto*, of 
wfiiol w* tuiTfl heqnunt notion, both 
In tb« fai«UiriBB« Odd tbo nocnphon 
(HMtt. Fr. 121 i Thncjrd. It. lb?, v. 6 ; 
Sycluc Pcri|>l. f. Mi LIT. tHr. 45; 
PWlach. Fr. IB), Ac.) ; but It lii« «Mt. 
w«t4e<lb«8U7nKin.b«t<Ti>t<'i !%*«(»• 
uti OEijrlna. Hw situ uf t)lI^ Qnloih 
ant iMUt ba aonffht (or on the court 
batwom Tnr&Di and Sonsvha. To- 
Htttt waa at Uw waoatii of Ibo unW, 
Mar ftut &>M wlwra llinra are ci. 
taitaiT« ramais*, ittU oal>d b;r ^<> 
■neiaiitiiBBW (Ltake, ilL p. 110). lu 
iMrfNtvr WM cutoellant (Lir. ilr. SO). 
StETMylbk ealUd alao Ilarm^Ua (Thu. 
eyiL i. <il[), waa tn tha n«<*m of tho 
tnj. Ii («taiiia it«*nci(^t aii|»tlBtioa 
ml^nti mohaecfKl ia tha moHDrn Or. 
w^ia (licmkf, Lii. n. 1S3), H«e]:b«nia 
«M t««babl7 at UMvS <Eb. |il llUi). 
TkM It lay otnilite tba pnJoiDla of 
rftUInf, b«e»*«n Olrntbaa and S«r. 
M^tia. aptMV* fnna tliia paasaga, u 
•tn ftvM Sejlax (Pcri|it. p. 621. 
BaoataMa mnu ban been nutakco 



In etXUog It TJXit na)hX<)n|t (Stcph. 
Il;t. nd Toc.). It wo* a wry ■hart 
(Imtkacu tiixn Otyatbu* (Oiod. Klc xli. 
77, «ti. 63), And iinritin bwrn takro by 
tbo Ulyntbism iq tbu IVlcponnMiui 
nr (Thaoyd. t, S9)i bccatno the lural 
■inticm or port of thnt lown (Strftb, 
vli. p. 4H0]. Oljiilhai i* lent well 
Ifiiown from th« (ram ot FliiUp to 
dmkI any eonunoiit. Ita poiitim ia 
narkod by tbu modem rilbgo of AiQ 
Uamdi (Ifoako, n. 1S3}, vthero rcitij^a 
ol tho aiidoiit city UFO aim to bo (nood. 

* Tlio BttlioiiSaiia woro prvbnUy an 
aacIoDt Thiacian pwpbk Thry wa 
foniul on the EnxiDe^ as w«II iw in tb« 
Toranaati ptninnla (Hin. U. N. ir. 
11). TndiliDii conaoctcd tbom with 
OipbAB* (" Sitboail, Orpbei ratU goni- 
loraai'* riin. ul fupni). Siibiin,tbo 
falbor «f hlMoJ, wad thoir mylhia 
ptogaoltcr (CoDon. Katrat. x. p. £SS, 
wiicro KCaiv I* to bo read iat OWou-; 
Slepb. Bys. a<l too. llaxxtt*^)- By tbo 
Ijitia writer), tho nnmo ia oaed M a 
mcro ■ynoDvm for Tbfaduk (Tbc. 
K(J. X. ee ; Ifor. <M. I. ivUl. S, Ac). 

* It ia )ilHiD rmm thi« that ouly a 
pi'rltd'i of tbu aliipa mode the oirciiit of 
the bay in ordw to oollool chipa and 
Men. Tbo stain body of tlio Doe* tmlod 
MtTtiiu tlio olooth of lhi> bay. 

' TbL« dNcriptioD •uffioliuitly id«ati> 
11m tlM CasutnMn ptumoni'iry with 
tho modam Onpo PadiUic oibcr im- 
ounntu mtt (cf. Thmyd. It. 110; 
BoyL hnpL p. 03 1 Liv.xxiLU) and 
sliT. U). 

* Tho ntnalloa and aa^a nt 



loo 



const or tiie fleet: 



Book re 



These u« tbe dtiM of the tnd ealkd ancwntly Plilegia. hot 
DOW Pallene.* Heooo they ugain foUoired the ooost, stQl 
Midraseing towuds the place nppoiiited by the Icing, utd had 
MWOMioos from all the cities that lie near Palltii^, and border 
the Tbennaifl Golf, whonoC the naineB aze Lipoxtu, Com- 
Lass, Gig^ofl, Campw, Saila, and fnAa.^ The tract 



dldM (I. M-6S]. Lii7 ralalM ite 

akMiit* W nkioh it bMWM Cm- 

liilm (iln. 11 1 DODiian Rin. 

H. H. It. ID). TW ■>(• i* DOW m 

eetpfad br ti* tUIm;* of n<MJia 

•,lH.p.l6:0- Aphrtl*. NmtpoU*. 

,Miil Tbanmbg*, w»ra pticjii ec 

I oonacqiMmco. 1b«j> •■>« all »a 

khi on tlm ewt WM* of Uw 

TliB Arat !■ nwBtktMd br 

(i. ei>. and etnbo (viL 

. 4Mi'>| I lb* £nt aiul iMt by t>«vUx 

|]L L p. al Of M^ and Ktajiolia 

I oiliar witic* l» mjnitcn (owid. 

I li pfaead by LMluwItb maeh 

ikUlitr It ^!it|i<o <XonWni 

Kc, iil. p. IM). Kmiwlit and 

.Jt(aan, on Icia *Dr« ktooxIi^ Hod- 

tUM Twpvolinly with JVijknw* md 

i;iif«lUH (ibid. Uip). TboMBbM 

' k placcil ft little inade Oftp0 Oan*. 

Eatiatiina (iliitt. p. 1I10)l SciAno, Ufodj. 

l>Bd Um^ hv ewUialy on Uw oU«r 

"t<d thai pnunoalwir. towatd* tbtt 

«. BcUnj wa« Uw no** ImpoHaat 

•f IbM* cllka. ll wM aaid la bar* 

bom • eolonjr ftmn PuUtoi ia AchBs, 

Ui doW from tho tiata <d Um 

(Thacrd. Iv. U0>— an 

ilioa ftt anjr rat* «f nry high 

ntbtaitj-. II 1*7 pRibablTalxnilbaU. 

vy between Capes Oanaalnmin 

{I'alitri) oad FoudouiD <rM)iiUi>, 

rerlaiiilv ncanr to Ik* fomior than 

.HcoiluCThwj'll.iv. 190). Uandiwaa 

ran Krttriui cvloajr (Tbutrd. ir. 1£I). 

lit wu iit«ai«d a naj liiUs to thn 

f Mat ef Ca|Mi PcaldMim (itiid, aod ocid- 

CliT, kxxi. UX aad waa famona 
Ibe ••>ns«M a ila WiM (Ulan. 
' Ktm. Ft. 3t>>. Like ScMaJ, it MffM«d 
Kmaljr in Uie PdoponaMiaa war 
(71mm^. It. ISO). Ctmeeniog Saaj 
init lutlo ia knowK. Blrabo bard/ 



nretioM it (tB. pw 480}. Kate (ii. S> 
pbea* it Ma* Cap* C anaat r w im ; bat 
tba crdor o( nana* in UwvdMni wontd 
load na to look te (t bMwem C«p« 
Fottiihi Bad tka iMbaaa. Tho 
Saoaiana of l^aoyd- '■ 18, boloac 
pnitKhljr to tbo olbn Saai (anpa, 

* lUefria, tha aotiMt bonw of tin 
paau wbuia Uemilea dow. wa* bf 
aoBM piKed in ItalT, aUnw TMoriaa 
(Paljb. III. ici. 7i Diod. Sic iT. Zl. 
«bo i]Dat«« Titamu), by other* idea. 
tifl«d with FalUnt (Strab. viL p. 460 1 
Bpb. ap. TbMUk PratrmB. Fr. SO; 
naacfm. Pr. 11 1 Eottaik. ad Dioaya. 
Ftr. SSTt 8(epk fiyt. ad voe. Haxxir^i 
amajmn ApolM. i. vL f 1). Tba 
Mmo FUegrawaa ni|)pga*d lo natk 
tba doatmciloa of iha eiaata by liriii- 
atac (Eiuialli. 1. a. c). nOtitTn 
Palltoi (Tbonyd. pa«i») waa tba 
aaiii<> of tba mniMala anondhig f ran 
Kxiibca to Gap* Cknaatwani (Liv. 
>11*. 11). It waa aappoaad lo hara 
darivod Ila apfidlatKn fttan the 
AebMan town wheaca SdAai ohiaitd 
to bava beaa tonadod (•«« (ho pta- 
(edioK note). Ttn tn<!t was cela. 
btatcd foe lu fotUitr (Lit. xUt. 10, 
»It. 30). 

' Tbaaa tOHM mwt an of lb«ai IwTe 
lain OB IIh) osaat b«4w««a tbD FotUBan 
irttanuu aad llMnna. Bxcajit Jlnta 
tbajwaraollltiloKnuMiDPDoa. llMt 
ot (bcm wwm to b*Ta fallen into deoaj 
when Th«Ma1unk» and CiuuutdTCa 
wore built. Mat* wm at Capt K«n- 
fciirnii<^D(«iii),iftMuinUaa(9oiiiaB) 
tnan TliMma, <^po*lu tba mouth o< 
tho Haliacmon (mo LcaIio, iii. p. Ml- 
464v and of. Lit. iliv. 10). II waa 
Blnatt^ ID a fertile U^nilatj (" fvrtili 
Hfn," LiT.>, ft»d waj from Ua ^atition 
ao im|iwtaiit atatiott (Lit. xIit. 33), 



I 



ABatTAL IN TEE TOBBUAIC GULP. 



101 



fe 



vliero tltose tovne lie still retains its old name of Crossna." 
Aft«r passing S,uea, tb« city which I last named, the fleet 
found iteeU arrived in the Themnaio Gulf,* off tho land of 
Mygdonta.' And so at length they reached Tliorma, the 
appointed p1n«<i, and camo likewise to Sindua' and Chnlostra 
upon the river Axios,' which Bcparatts Bottiiea* from Myg- 
donia. Bottisa has a scanty soa-boacd, which is occupied by 
the tvo eitib-s Ichnn and Fella.' 



TradlttoR McKbod lt« fomuUlion to 
Um htmi Alaf»* <LIt. xL*}. GipNutia 
wia pmbsbly M Apa*om{ (Lcakc, iil. 
p. 4S3). It ia nwBiiinuid by Tkncy. 
oidoB IL fll). Bioila fwd Li|i>in« 
win known to UeoittaiaB (Fr, IIS, 
119). or CAnbrela w>d Lisc t)m« ia 
BO olbv kotioo. CainpHi U c]«tl; 
tte C«pM o( SUiphM, which bo call* 
K Unrn of CbAlcidiof, nmr ?klltej, 
irinwd M Um Tburmaio 6tUt (»d 

■OnultorCnMM h Uif iia.mo mora 
OonniMtl; icivnn to lUi dinvicC (lee 
ThMjd. iL 711; Dwnfs. lUI. L 47, 
40 1 Steiib. Bji. aJ rue), vhiub U 
BOW called Salanuirii. In tbu bilor 
tiBM ol GncfW it «ra« ci«intlar«l a 
potlkn of MTgdodB (Stepb. Bjt., 
wbo qncMa 8tn^m). 

■ ItorDilodM ooiifinM Uis ntm* of 
|h« l%annalo Oalf to tbo nnBl] bnj 
oantatDBd *rulii> tho JfiiH»a ptowon. 
totjr Bad tho taoath <d ilio Ajtiai 
<r«nlhan). U hAd uiuniljr m lot 
wider nmvptot''^ (S^jlax, tVrtpL p. 
fit; Pba. H. K. i*. lOi Sltatk tU. 
p.«ni rtoL iil. 13. D, &2>. 

' n* luumi Ufgdosiw WM Mm*. 
BOM afiptlol to tho whnlo tract 
b<tw««B Ibii HUyancm imA lli« Aiin* 

(Thmo^d. ii. M). Tbo UjjfilciiM, «o. 
oofdlitK to Itiiif, wen • Paxnuaa 

> No Mbor wittof uration* Sludiu, 
noepA Bipphan. who wriiw tb« nuiM 
Hiaihtu. It {iroMil* •iptrivnoad tba 
■Mna f*l4> M ChalMtfS [hbs ttia noit 
Dol«). Thp Bite ouinot bo fliod. 

*Ctel«tn (or CholMtni) wiu, %o- 
awiimg to Uocslww (Ft. 110), a 
Thtaohui oltj. U bij on th* right 



bnok of the Axini ffitnb. tQ. p. 479). 
Tbe port and towo, both e*ll»d by thn 
nme nunc, worn M|>w*t«<t b^ u in. 
tomJ tStoph. Qrf^itd TOO.). Anoord- 
iag lo Scmbo (rii. p. 480), tbo inh&bi* 
Miitairvre tnii«rerrcd to ThMwIosJob 
on its foondatfon bf CwBaudu'. Still 
Ftiu; ipRLk* of tho «ilT m oiiatlag In 
hi* day : " in orA •inua Uncnlonioi 
opplduin CbnlMti*" (U. V. It. 10}. 
Tlin Axioi » bcjrond a donbt tho 
Varihari (■(« LeiUw, iU. p. SiS). 

' ThowcBltro iun« be<li*tingDitlif A 
trontliaonM«niBDKiMb Thewuitera 
tMOt, wLioh bky b*t<reea tho Axioa 
■Dd tbo UnliaonuiD (iobn, ch. 187}, 
was tlio oriirinnl neritlcDuoit of tbo 
tmliun. Prom thi> the Bottlanasworo 
drino bjr the Uaocdcniiiuii, whoa tbcj 
found k rafogii with tho Chklddtami 
in tho country abovo IVIUsd (I'hucyd. 
ii. iKi, Hl^Kl. viii. 1S7). Still tho 
ii«*t«ni ButtiEA rvuunod ila auiio 
(Thucjd. iL 100), 

* Pclln (irblch Iwnmo aader TUlip 
Iho eapilal of lUcedoniii) wna not 
npoa tho oMsl, aa we ■bonld gMhor 
Irnm Uiia paM»|(e, bnt oboro twtn^ 
inOoa from Iba ma. na tho bordw* of 
a lake lonnod b; th« iivvrituwiDg* of 
the Lydlaa (Scyliu, I'onpl. (<. 01 ; Ur. 
sliv. 4Cf. Iti exBot silo in Hied b^ 
Colonel Leako u m plaeo wbnm tb«ni 
are oxtanm*« rainaliii, not (nr tnim 
JamitMa {N««ham Oreooo, iii. p, set). 
It hu boon luppowd that lelinai wm 
aba an island town (Kivpwt'a AUm, 
BUtt iTi. I Xannotl, vii. p. MS). 
Bnt Flinf axreei with Ilfvodotu in 
plkdng it upon the nut (" In eri," 
fa. KTIt. 10). 



132 



THE CUl£L8 ATTACKED DT LlOKa 



Boos TIL 



134. So Uio fleet ancLorcS off the Asiua, nnd off Thermft, 
and the towns that laj' betvecn, waiting tho King's coming. 
Xerxes, meaawliilo, with his land foroe" left Acauthun, and 
started for Thermft, takinR his way across the lond. This road 
Jed him tbrouRh Pjtouia' and Crtstonia" to the river Echei- 
dorus,' nhicli, rising in tlie country of tho Crostosians, llovs 
through Uygdonia, and reaches the sea near tbo marsh upon 
thti Axius. 

125. Upon till* march tho wimels that carried the pro- 
visions of the army were iwt upon by lions, which left their 
lairs and came down by night, hut sitnred tho men and the 
Bumpter-beasts, while they lunde the camels their proy, I 
marvel what may have been the cause which compellnd the 
lions to Icaro the other aninmla nntouchwl and attack the 
camels, when they bad never seen that beast before, nijr had 
any cxpcrionoe of it. 

126. That whole region is full of lioos, and wild balls," 



■ He bolli of th« knd fn«e irovld 
luulaubtwtir ham b»)it Uio dlMCt r(«d 
thio*^ Apolloiu* whicli St. V»al fol- 
lowod (AcM xriL 1 1 oomp. Aalonin. 
Ilin, p. 22) i whtlo Senw, willi lii» 
iinui«(lialu iLttrinlnntn. vUiUxl Anii- 
that, (o •«) lh« ewiftl, aod Uum r»- 
J«inctl llio mnin imy b; a moaatoio- 
i>Ul> «)iich fell into tlu DMiu NMl 
bv'T'^iuI AiKillonlb. 

■ Ucroiloiaa appaan hero, aa In ▼■ 
IT, to oitood PiMnut fa«j«aiil tha Buj. 
uum, itud to isolnda in it portionjt of 
wliat uv oaatmosJ/ calliid llf giloni* 
and Biuaila. 

* Ha CrMtonia of HMwdolDt !• 
dcailjr tiio Omtonia or (ircMonaMi of 
olhw wrilcn (Thnc ii. 89, 100 1 Tbocc 
pMnp. ^. 2Im), nkich oomaxmly oo- 
enn ia oIom nrtinMtion wilb BImIUb 
(fido aapn, ch. IIG) and ltTiri4<iniit. 
&Midf« the upper nJloj of Iha Schei- 
dAnUilhiidiiicrlctappaust«ti«<ro«oa- 
Udnad Mm eonntr; b»tw»an tlsl ritw 
■nd tiio naiintaia nnffo of A'VrUniii, 
WItkin tbu R^on mait b« tilacoil 
tlM* ancient TclHiftc Icmn ot Cnttoa 
(lupn^ i. 67 i Stopb. Bji. ad twc.J. 



* Tho EeboIdAnu ta nndoabtadly 
tlio OaUiko, whioli (luirs &«nt tba 
rango of XanJofk {Ccrcinf}. aad rm- 
niag uaaclr da« aoath, omptiM ItatU 
into Uio (JdU <J Saloniit, Oro «r ^ 
miiea Treat cd Iha ciij- (Lrako, iiL p. 
4311). A largo mlt manh Um belwon 
ita mouth and Uial of tte Axiua (lb. 
p.«7). 

>° Tho wild bnll of Bwodotna la 
proUOilv the boniMa* of Aiiolollo, 
Trliich ho dmcriboa m a nntlvn of 
J^onia, dw«>Ilinff in Ut. Mmuapiua, 
which ftirmcd tiie bmindarx bntwam 
PtcLiiiin aod Uicdicn. la o|i|>oamac«, 
■iio, nod voicm, tio aaf^ tho bonanu 
roaamblod tho ox. It bad a mnDa i 
it* odour waa lawnr ; and It «tm 
booted toi Ibo aafco of ita fla*b. Ths 
bona war* ewod, nad iBC»*id loorarda 
ouo anothor, ao •• to be oatJna for 
attack. Tbeirt^nirUioxoeidpdkipaa 
01 tnehaa) t and ther w«f« ao Ihiek 
ml oaoh hold aannjr th/«a pinta i 
tlMdr oolonr wna a ibiatng blaek (Hiat, 
Aa. he U ; conii»r« iniD. II. V, tM. 
16 ; and MO alio Xhaa, Kat. An, tU. 
Si Ft«u.tii. ui, >: Atbm. IMpa. 



I 



Otur. tS4-US. 



XKRXES ItE&CHES TEtERllA. 



lOJ 



I 



mtl) gigantic horns wliicli nro brought into Grepce. Tlie lions 
nre coiilined witliin the trnct lying betwven th« rivor Nviitua 
(which flon-s throngh Abdera ") on tho ono side, and the 
Aoheloaa (which wnters Acamftnia) on th« otlior." No one 
over sees a lion in tho fore part* of Earopo cast of the NestoB, 
Qor through tho entiro continont weat of the Aohelous ; but in 
ths sptce between these bounds lions aro found.* 

127. On reaching Thorma Xerxes halted his army, which 
encampod along the coast, boginning at tlie city of Theima 
in Mygdonia, and stretching oat as &r as the rivera LydiM 
and Untiacmon,' two streams which, mingling their waters in 
one, form the boundary between Bottisa and Macedonia. 
Snoh was the extent of oonntiy tbrou^ wliieh the barbarianei 
eneamped. Tho rivers boro mentioned vans all of them suffi- 
oiont to sopply the troops, oxcejit the Echeidorus, which was 
drank dry. 

128. From Thormit XerxcR beheld tiic Theflsalian moun- 
tains, Olympus and Oasa,* which are of a wondcrfol height. 



xi. SI. Aa.). Tb» boiuunt hu b«ou 
UuHwht W b« tb* moJcm aunch; 
biU Sir 0. C. !.(»>(■ rcipuiJs it w " a 
•peeUa of wilil ox, oo|rMt#i line not 
liWiitinil.iTltbtiMioMcooh*'* ('Siitaa 

** TiJ« lupnt, ii. la 

t We have lictv u iiullcnlioii that 
lU« (Sft of tho work «^ wntloD \» 
AiM. To DA Aaiatic aloiM wmid (bo 
put o( Kotopa eoM of tin NmIiu b* 

* CdL Hbto ridicnlra tliia whclo 
•tcty of the Uco*, hekI ilaoiM thU iho 
Una iMD toTv sTcr been isdlgttncn* Is 
Eompo (Ul. of Onvco, to). It. p. 
40:). H» Miet*« Ihut " Ite croa- 
tnrM Blluiied to, if no* sllo^tbtv 
iotltkm*, IIW7 laftt/ bo elauod aa 
•onw ipadM ot IjTKa or wBd oot." 
Dm AHmoUo, a DalJTo ctf tUa itlttrict, 
uakM tlie vkoio otatAnunt at IIi-iv. 
ili4ii( (BMt. Anim. ri. SI) i and Plinjr 
fiiUcm Un (H. S. iHi. 16). DIo 
OhiTMMoa tDcratlotM Oat hj bin tlmo 
i^JK 190) Uoiio bod dtaappMivd (rom 



Ebropa (Ont. nL p. !)t9C-). 8m M 
tbiH tatijoct two eicnilmt lapan bj 
?ir n. C.LeinliB ' NotM nsd Qneriei,* 
Ko. lS7.nndKo.ai8. StrG.C.Lowl* 
pTDVci that ci«i*i««y RTDand ibeiute- 
ausDt of UatodolU to anUtled la ao. 

MClMWf. 

moilem. JforofmiU, and /ajiAom, or 
Futn'tm. At pra^nt tha Lfdiaa 
ttama a Junction irlth tbe Aiitu (ronl. 
baW) a«Br ila inovlb. Fram tbe tino 
ta So^iIbi (B.C, 3S0) to that ot PtoloM; 
(i.n. JIO),it badabanbonoharaof !U 
oira, diitlaet alikn from that of tb« 
Dal^uoo stid ttot of the Alias 
(Sojhi. FeriuL p. Cl ; Stisbo. vli. p. 
479 : Pu>). lit. 13. p. 92). In grait 
allDtial pkloa, Ilki> ihia of tba aucimt 
Dottivs, tlio couno* of lirtn m« 
liabla to eoUinaol ohangrn (rompara 
tha diftngw ill fha nvera in Lower 
Katijilosia, aad tn ClUdit CanipottrU, 
■upttt. rol. L p. S7S, not* *, and m. 

* In okar wonttiw OlTTDpn* and Oaat 
M«iii (all view ban Thonna(Sa{si*Ui), 



TWO ENT&.1NCES INTO TU£SSjU.T. 



Book' 



Here, learning lliat tbora lay between these niotmt«ins a 
narrow gorge' through which the tivor FcneaB ran, and where 
there wan a road that gave an entrauco into Thossaly, he 
formed the wish to go by sea bimEelf, and examine the tnoath 
of the river. Hifl design vns to lend his army by the uppef 
road throngh the country of the inlund Mncidonians. and eo 
to enter rcrrhsbia,* anil come down by the city of Oonnu9 ;'' 



i Umgll the Utter la inon> than ■vrtnily 
' jnJiM diilact (Claikc'i Tratoli, oh. ii< 

p. a72i LHLko'a Kortlirrn Gn»oo, t«1. 

■u. p. MO). 01r>i>[-ua, Hlill ckUod 
'. £lymi«,i>tlielug;besloflh»TliMMliaii 
[ noiuUtu*. lu priDcin] tamroit M- 

l^u >n rtlonuioD cl Mora 0OOO f««t 

ib. p. SO). It Si oonrad wlUi mow 

danng • grmt portiua cl tha r*"r. 

Onk, Um) inwlcni A'uMro, to tbe Mnth 

ei tht PBDoiUi, U inferior in Iieif[)it, but 
, avwi inoTv atnklnK ia Kppcimaeo. It 

BOkrocilr fiovo'la £0(Xt tmn; but It* 
\ eooiokl p«^, oJMn ««pp«il irith inov, 
I wd ita well-woodod slopo^ Uuokljr 
hO(>TM«d #ltlt bcoehM, rendor it one <if 
■ t1i6 moid rvmnrknlilo lui w*tl m ona of 

tho moil bcfliitifiil ot t-hf (Jifnk mouti- 

Uinl (iwo Lookc, i. p. 43 » ; if. ji. <11). 
• Tliis ilPBcripCioQ of Ihc i«H of 

Tcqmp^ (tido itdrt, ch. ITS}, tbaDgh 
i'liri«^iiromai'k>hlj»ooBnit«L Uodom 

tnnUoT* obMTTO (hot Ttrapf IiM iio. 
I propMlrbocDtMrniodaTnltcir. "Tcai. 
I fir ■?* ' rfOoaC t<rari>t i^ (omttrfc- 
, kIiU powcn of d«*criplinD, "!* not a 

Tklo — it ia a narrow p«i*— ftoil thanKb 
1 axMiinoly bMotiiol on Mwonnt vt th« 

Cipltooi Kdn on ««eb vdoi tba 
MM flowing deep In tfao inldtt bo- 
yttrem tho rich ornrhatieinff plmui- 
'irooda, atitl it« (^raoloc ii dialiocllr 
that «f a lavino or conce. In aome 
put* tho pan, wbiDh u flT« or lix 
nrilM trma aoA to end, it ao barrow aa 
laMnlj' to adult tho road atui tho 
Fjltori In oUwm ttio roeka rwcde froni 
' tlio atraaw. and llien ia • little apnoe 
' ef gnou ntaadow. The clila thon- 
aalTM an y*rj loflj, and bgaati- 
fnllf htniE with vnepen and otiiar 
.follag* " (Uar'a Tour in Allmnia. Aio-, 
Cpp. 400; 410). It ia interMlin^ to 
'wnpon with thia aeoonat tbe two 



wrllknown deterlpUeu of tho Latin 
nriipra. 

"Soot Tninpe saltna, MiaoMi Don 
ballo fiat inlcitiu, inuuiin diffledla. 
Knrn ptMor «ogninia« pnr qsinqno 
millin, qol oxtfcOBni JBineolo odinIo 
iter oat, Tupoantrtnqno ill abaei«»nnt 
nt daapid fix iom Tottigino qaUaa 
aimnl ocolonim animiqnu poamU T«r> 
tvt (4 K^hai trl altituilii |vr ncdiam 
nllMD fluoatii Pcuci nnuui." (Lir. 
lUv. C.) 

" la •« OTr»B (aa. Ponci flnmini*) 
Tampo Tooantor qnlnqvo iniUia pa<- 
■niun loagltDdlno, at feraio nuutnl- 
jngcri tattlodino. nltrft vlanai homioil 
nttollnntibu* m dratrt boriqae lenilor 
Cfliirvita juicia. IntlU rtnt lum Tiri. 
danta aliiibiiar Penttii, riiidi* cat- 
colo'lf), anKBiiua cirvli ripna gntnlna 
cnonnia avlam goocodui." (rila. 
H.N.lT.8,) 

* Porrhnihia wna tlie coostrr w<m( 
and •nnth of Olriiipo>.wniom} bv Iho 
atrouna whirh form ttio riiir Tiiaro- 
ahi. It dill not roach t« tho m* 
(SctI&t, PvripL p. CO, Jr iitovydf 
MoM^w Itrv* UtffmM. 'EU-vHi), 
ImnK bonndod on tlw cnM b; tho 
Olpnpla ohaln. Hio I^TrrliaihiaBt, al 
a tain liiiio, «««« aubjoot to tha 
Thoauliana (Tbao. i*. 78). For tba 
oxiiot nolo ponnod \ij Xtnm, vidn 
intra, «h. 17S. 

* GooDD* wM al tk« WMUm ox- 
tnmilf cl tbp |ioM of IVspA, noarlho 
nodoni Dtnii (Sm Leako, iii. p. 389). 
It commanded two pmuat, one iMtdiat; 
ncroa* tl>e flanki of OlTmpoi lo [lct«- 
clcia abd Dinm, tbo otWbj OlnOnwa, 
Pvthinm, onii Ptrtra, nmnd OI^Mpva, 
to Prdnaand UethAof. It was Iho* 
■Iwairi a place tt ooaatijueaoe, and 
toema to havo bc«n ooo of conndenvlile 



I 



ECili'. 12^ 129. 



DBSCRIFTIO:? or TRESSALT. 



10! 



I 

1 



[for b« was told that that way was tho most bccutc. No Boonor 
■ ibenfore had ho formed tliis viah lltaii he Acted accordingly. 
[Embarking, as was his wont on Alt Huch occasions, aboard a 
)6idoDian vfis6«l,^ he gavo tlio signal to tbo rest of tho licet to 
[get ander ireigh, and qaitting hia land armj, set fiail and pro- 
ceoded to the Fenctis. Hero the riev of tho mouth caused 
him to wonder greatly ; and, Bending for his guides, he aalced 
th«ui wliclher it vere possible to turn the course of the stream, 
and make it reach the aea at any other point. 

ISO. Now there is a tradition that TheHi>u1y was in ancient 
ilmofl a hike, shut in on every side by huge hills. Ossa and 
Pelion — rangea which join at the foot* — do in fact incIoM it 
apon the east, while Olympus forms a barrier upon the north,' 
PinduB upon tbo west,* and Otiirys towards the south.* The 
tract contained within these mouutaius, which is a deep basin, 
called ThMBaly. Many rivers pour their waters tnto it ; but 
fire of them are of moro note Uian tho ntat/ namely, the 




¥ 



UnnsU) (cm Ln-, xixri. 10; xlii. &l 
atlv.C). Bouuini of ftn Ancient 
tova btVD Imn itlK>JTDrc>t in 
itioB, whicK go hj tba iiikuin ot 
Um* {liKikr, nA. iii. p. SM). 

• Sopra, cb. 100. 

* Homt Pdim (tha modDra PU*. 
•UM) Uw MiDib-caM ot OiwB M • dla- 
tMie* of nteni -10 ■»'■««. The bMMaf 
tho two BKRinlninK nurprtlicIeM jaio. 
M ncmJotDi lUto. Cotaool Lenko 
Mja, "Tbo oniy ieRaiiiocf In Uiia 

iMMtiru) tiluntaOd (UlO dilllaUoIl <>f 

AgKia) n tbal o4 > ritir of tho BM, cf 
wlikfc, BlIhoaKh ootj • few niln dia. 
Uul. M i» JepriTod Iqra ridge, notiMd 
lij Hsroilotai, which dcsM tha vnllor 
'of IHttnami, aud aiiiln tho lam ttih 
ot OuB «ii<l PriJam*' (Nonboia Onwco, 

it.p. 411(. 

TIm brlRht «t rnllnn it MtlMtnd 
«t eMOI**t. It it riMj olothMl nilh 
wood, tinarly to tbo miinmit (nixiar 

aOU, odkii, planot, and tnunrda tho 
(M"atoroMo( boocJMi*" (Lnkoiir. 

v.m). 

' Tho MUM of Olynpoa ii Im«« ap* 




plied to ihe ontiro nugo. criUcd tome. 
Ilinoo tbo Cantbiuilon (Lit. xMi. 131 
xliT. S), irhlch alrotcbiM woattiar4 
from tbn Olynijiio laiumit, (kpatating 
iHttwi'i'ii tho vnllcy ur Ihu Baliacmw 
Bn<l Itiat of tbo Puuuut and it* Iribn- 
tAcico. 

* UodhI Pludnf, thn back-bnno of 
Grovo*, TBa» in a tlirvctiuii cu^iuljr iltin 
iinrlh and aontb, frum tbo 41*t uiibo 
89tb panltol. It atiaini an eloTUitoi 
in pkoM ot about iVXM font. 

'Oliaj; now Muuiic (ifratt^isaita- 
a(«d daaaoulhof Ums, and aoath-wcit 
«f Pelion. It« b«agbt la Htimatod at 
GOTOfMt. It iioonuMtodwithPliidaa 
by a ebaia oT lnlJi, aviini|ciD|[ 3000 or 
4U00 foot, and runiiiiii; imiljr duo 
wMt, nod wilb Pdius bjr a c«i*«d 
nntfO whifb ikirU Iho Gulf <4 Palo 
(Sinin I'a^naECi«) Ot tbo didonoe of » 
few mllai froiD th» alioro (ace liMko, 
Tut. Sr. «b. 40; and map). 

* T<» tliMe IIto Pliiijr add« a aixlb, 
tho nioDoix (H. N. ir, 6), and Luoaa 
three ugn, tho Aioiiat, tbo Uobw, 
and the Tilarwliu (I'biua. ri. 374. 
376.) But Umoo itniaiiii, notj-t t)i« 



io6 



TDE PEN'EUS AND nS TOIBITTAEIES. 



Soox 




PenetiB, Uio Apidnnus. tbe Onoohdnus, tho Enipous, and tho 
Fumisus. These Rtrenms Qov down from tlio mountftiiu 
wbich surround Thessaly, and, meeting in ttio plait), min^ 
their waters tusotlii-T, and disobiuga thcmflelvfis into tbe sea 
by a suiglo outlet, whiob is a gorgo of extreme narron-neM. 
iitoi tliti junction all tbe otber names diaappcar, and tbe 
river is knu^^ii us tlio PencuB. It is snid that of old tlie gorge 
irbicb allows tbe uratfiraonoatlctdid not exist; accordingly tbe 
rivers, which wuto tbon, as well as the Lake Biebei'a,' without 
oamoe, but floiA-cd with as much wntcr as at present, made 
Tb«ssa]y a bca. Tbo Tbcssalians tull us that tbo gorge 



Tltwwln*, Mnm to h*vo baait triba- 
twiM of lliu A|ii(l&nai (I,vi>ke, iv. p. 
SIG). Tbe TiMTVMnl ia nut io(-liiil«l 
by tlerodDtui nmimg the rircn of 
iWnljr, Wiag tvfwdcd bj him as 
Monging to PCrrluEbiK (an* not* ', p. 
lot). Witii r««i«e( tollioflroautanui 
whicii inf luunet^ h ■■ Mrtiuii Uukl the 
{■counu i* the Saiamerio. the main 
xi*», wblob, rising kt tbe Znftif of 
llrttat^ noi iritli » cowm at flnt 
•outb-cMt, snil 0\cn rant to tbvKPiimvl 
meeting of tbi? waten near Knlot^U 
(LenlK-. i*. p. 31s). Tho Eaipenn ii 
aUo btjrxmil a dunbt the FrriaUti, 
tot it Duwiiil teium (Ithrya (Stnb. viii. 
p. GlSi Vib. S«qne*t. ile fluiuiii. p. ti), 
udpMMKl bv FbAnnliu (Stnib. viii. 
p. 8i&). Abont tbe other vtniwna 
tkaiw is tome DneortAiuty. Tho Api- 
ilaniiii (rir KpiilanuM, iiitm, ch. 190) irtui 
It Iribiitury of tbu ICnipcol (Strali. TiiL 
p, 616), flewins from nuarU' tbe niiui 
qnartec (ib. Botip. Heo. iSl-45a), wul 
tbeMtoni uiut 1m olUwr tbe river «f 
Tryiii, or that of 8:itfi<U«i, pnibabljr 
th» tenant CLoake, iv. p. 820). Tha 
OnoohAvn* b»» beea tliouKht to be the 
tlTcrot5Hrl<'{ib.p.6UJ. ThiaMream 
would undcabtcdly han lain apon tbo 
roitU) of X*rxflji, an<l may cadly ItaTO 
failed hia anny, for !C Sa a mare aiun. 
met tecniiit (intra, ch. I%) i but thw 
toot that it it not a tribuiiLry of the 
P«Mna at oil, Mul the poMtioQ th«t it 
eompiM, aa mU in tho llatof FUb/aa 
la tlAt ot Uwodotua ("Apidaaai, 



Oiiofliftii II •, Rni (xmii ■• — " Eaipooa, One* 
cIiiWbf, Rtiiiiaiia "), appoar to me 
Uiaarmoaiitabla objectioiif to Colonel 
Leake'* tlicarj'. tW OnocUtsna oioat 
bnro booD ia c\o*o pruiiuiily to the 
Eulnooa auit Apulamu, and na;, I 
think, iDO«t pnibikbly bu iilealifiod <«ith 
tbo So/ddhM atnam. which b alao "• 
torrent often irj <m amnner " (l^eAfc*, 
p. S£l). ApactotthoatBiyof Xenu* 
may have talon a eonrw aa far iaiaad 
aA Ibit, aiace it waa politio to aprted 
the army ontr » lar^ apAeo bMh to 
obtain auppUo*, and to oollect tiidi- 
tiono] tiuopa. Tho hut aimm, tti* 
nuniioa, may well bo («■ Qotnatl 
Lfoke nppaiM, ir. p. bit) Uu> Sljnr* 
or If omJti rirer. 

* Lake Bicbtl*, to wltod from a 
•mail town Itmbi^ M lu M«t«ni ex. 
troniily iStaliu, ix. p. 6SS), i» the 
nKi'lrrn lake of A'aria, apiece of wnlor 
which haa no o«itle4 to tho •••, aad 
which rariM greatly in Ita dlBOUkaa 
at iliScteMt auaona, bolBfir dvitad 
cliioHy from the orerfluwiiiga c< tte 
Puofua. Wbto thia river ia anch 
awolloD, ft ohoanel ritualed at a ihen 
diitasoe below Loriwa ooodiicta tha 
■opcrSuoiu w«tta« into the lake oow 
called Kanifitr, and aDofontlr Noi* 
•emia. fVom thia baain tlior flow «a 
duwii tho Atinak rtror Into tho lake of 
A'arle, which la fad alia irf a Bnatbcr 
of onall atraama daeoKidiofc from Ihn 
flo&ka of PDllam (im Ltake, >v. p. MS 
and p. 428). — 





'lur. 119^ laa 



XEKXC; AXD THE GUIDES. 



107 



» 



^ 



*: 



ifaroiigb which the water escapes was OAUHcd hj Nopttme; and 
this is likely eooogh; at least any man who belieree that 
Ncptuno caosea eotthqaakes, and that chitsms so prodnc«d 
are his hondiworlt, would say, upon seeing tliia rt'iit, that 
Keptano did it. For it plainly appeared to mo tliat the hilln 
hid been torn asiindor l>y an &arth<iuake.* 

ISO. When Xvrxes therefore oaked tho guides if there w^re 
any othor outlet by which the waters could reach tho ms, tbey, 
boing men veil acquainted with tho nature q[ their ooiutry, 
madoaaswcf — 

" King ! there Is no other passage by vhich thin stronm 
can empty itself into tlic 8c« flave that which thine eye beholds. 
For Thessftly ts girt about with a oirolot of hills." 

Xerxes is said to have observed upon this — 

"liViBe men truly are they of Thessaly, and good reason had 
they to change their minds in time^ and consult for theu: own 
safety. For, to pats by other niattors, they must have felt 
thai Uioy lived in a country winch may easily be brought imder 
and subdued. Nothing more is needed than to turn the river 
ttpoD their lands by an embankment which should fill up the 
gorge and foroo the stream from its present channel, and lo I 
all Thtiiisaly, except the mountains, would at once be laid 
under water." 

The king aimed in this speech at the Ronn of Aleuas," who 

ere Tbesiialians, and had been tho flritt of all the Greeks to 

make euboiission to him. He thotight that they had made 

fir friendly offers in the name of the whole people.* So 




* Hddttn BOMincw will Kanwljqiinr- 
I wttb UiU tlpfcriiitluii «t TbMHily, 
titow llarwlbM* to h«To hail 
t cf a pliycicfti gnoitrBpliar, and 
jti»*tioa «f • KvuluKiit. 'I'hnc 
. plain ot ThMuljr ww origin- 
11/ • bifce, Md that th« gorge of 
X*Upt iM* CM tliroasb bj tho acdi.u 
ol mUar, oMtoted iu timn nuMun) hj 
vcJcaaio aciiDtTy, ia wUm tliu iiind«TU 
B«cJi>sial WQold voDudur tniluliilnlil*. 
He vranlil it^ti tIaeclMiigB in4c«iJ h« 
iam witrtim Ibaa Qofodecni mn; liavo 




thunicbt il, and woold *ab«Utate fcr 
" an •orthquake," " a tcriea of rolnnjo 
muiremttiu.'' S«« Httwkiiu ia Wal- 
)>oU'« I'nrkoy, p. MZ. 

,, ' X(>rx«» lUluau* Imro totlia alUnnpl 
Vhioti till) Tbeanliaiu mixlo Ui iDililM 
tliu Gnr'ki to M«ai Thewalj (intra, 
eti. I7i), whloh WM vlToa ap on tbo 
ctiwxiTVfj of Ik* lalBDd niDta Uumgh 
rerrliAt^ (ob. 173, ad Oil}. 
-> ■ Bupni, cli. 6, note*. 

'< ■ Ttut mw iiut tliu tnae. Itappaars 
in the nljaequeat fturatin, tbu Ite 



loS 



STAT OP XERXES Ul FlBRIl. 



Book'^ 



Xerxes, wlion ho ha-l viowod tbo place, and made tlic aljov« j 
apeoch, went back to TJiPnaa. 

131. Tlie stay of Xerxps in Pieria lasted for seTonl iUys. 
during wLicli a tliird port of liis army was employed in cnttiiig 
down tlie woods"' on the Afaoedoiiiiui moantoin'rango. to give 
his forces freo passsgo into Perrhnbia. At this time the ' 
heralda who had bcou scut into Greece to roqniro earth for 
the king retumod to the camp, some of them empt;-haudi,-d, 
others with earth and water, 

182. Among tho number of those fVom wliom earth and 
vrat«r wi-re brought, were the Thvesaliane, Dolopians,* Enia- 
ntaus.^ Porrha-biiuis, Locrian*.* BfogsetianB, Malians, Aohauuu 
of FJithioti!!,* Thebans, and Bceotians generally, except those 
of Platoia and Thospiftv. These an) the nati<His aguuut whom 



ntCMallMi ptofh ma rrrj ilceiruim et 
n%tf\iugiiut luntioaot Xeax» (iofm, 
oh. 172-171). 

■*Mt. Qrvlo nnutrin tkat SitalcM 
had Ui main m road fiir tit moij- ia 
1^ mmuiiir, "In the tuljput of 
lb* PolopODDiMkn «r«t'' (5l*t. of 
QroM», T. p. 109, nolo*). H* refon 
<■( connio to Tlincyil. il. M, whor* tho 
fitel i* relutcd, bnC not na ttelooKiiiK U) 
tbe lima niipiupd. Sitalc«s ii ttio 
fear dc. i-2it, "mareliod bgr m road 

wbioh li« linil /urmerly Inad*^ bj CDt- 
ling ilown th(> wuod, whoD ho mnrdind 
■t^Biiitt tho l^jMinanx." Tlio data cl 
tM Pmnlnn cxjistlition it tinl ^rtau 

' Tho Dotopca, who rantma«d to 
form a dlallDoc proplc lUI tho l^maef 
tho Komaii con'iOCaA (Lit. ili. S'^), in. 
habited Iho muoolaia InolatUiubaiO 
of Pindtut, adnidiiig from Iho Adia- 
loA* to Lake Tauttt, tho nudcm ebaln 
of Ajrt/ii (coDiparo ThnoTd. IL lOSi 
T. 61 : t^Ux, IVirlpl. p. CBg Stn>!i. ii. 
p.lVlSi I^ir. xairiii. a-»,fto.| aoJ »M 
Lcalco, it. pp. 27 1, SIB), Aomrdingl; 
HMfaraaonit-iiiiiiM niokoa cf in ooa- 
bMIJco with tbo Itiba* oMt ot tbo 
MBtml T>4iii>, tho TboaiwlMn, Kaia> 
idanA Mnlm'i*. Seiiiaum ot flttthiulia, 
&«., HoiuuCiinca iritli Itia irMtcia 
tiatioa>, tho Alhaaianiaiui, Amphiio. 
cUaoB, and ^toliaaa. VTv inajr uisder. 
Hand hen tlu intabitaaia of eaatom 



Doloi^i whicji eitcndod appojontlf a 
onrtain dloane* Into tbo toutbara 
Tlmwalltii plain {Lir. iixii, 13). 

* TheEniKnM(<irvEoiftiu>e,Th«CTd. 
Sojtfli) uc<'U]>i«l (he nppor nllny ot 
tbo Spenheiiiii, beltrM« tho (Xuan 
moanlaini and I he rid|^ whilab rnaa 
woatwnrd from OUict*. Tbair Montry 
did ni7t i«ach to (bo *na (tntm. ch. 
IBS; Scylu, rurijil. ■>. CS, Conipan 
smb. ii. pp. «U, 6S0). 

* TliB EpicaieiDidiaa and Opnntlaa 1 
Locrinna at« probably iniocul.nl. ii«t 
tho OidKiui Lccriana u|iiid ilic Corin- 
thlna fca\t, ta wboni il i> wtj on- 
llkolj ilat ambaataden won aont* 

* Tl;o Ua^ootiano, Aebmo*, and 
Ifaliona, wctn tbe inbabllanti of tb* 
ooaal tnut bolwaoa Ttuaualy anil Lo- 
oria. ainifnwla oiUiuImI alMi( lb* 
«oat of Thfutiily, fnKo lbs moalb of 
tha Fciifot to FaKiuae. Jl wa* tbo , 
oountrjr ftfftncd of tho tni> MonaUilni^ j 
Oxa and Polimo. wltb tbo rldga con. 
uocUng Ihom (infra, dit. 1«3, 11>S| 
Soyllii, lVri|>L |i, 60; Lir.xUT. Il|{ 
Flio. U. N. ir. 8>. Aohwa PtitliKMia^ 
WM tbo tract afiont llomt OHurt. 
Iia aea^boatd teadiod from ilw Dilddla 
of tbo I^itaasan gatf (Svrlas. rrrlnl. 
p. 6SJ to Umi mootb k4 Uio 6j>nrob(ioa 
(iafrn, ob. I'JS). IoIoikI it once <«• 
teodod beyond riinnalna, callml 
ancianUr PMIna (Loake, ir. pfi. «M, 



k 



Cs*P. UO-IM TBEATXEST OF PERSIAN HERALDS. 



109 



the Greeks iliat had taken up anns to roeiEt Uio barbarians 
sworo ttio onth, wbicli ran thus — "From all those of Greek 
blood vbc delivcj'ed tbemftelves op tu thu Fiir^inua without 
neoeesity, when tbeir affairs were in good coudition, wo will 
take a tithe of their Roade. and fiW& it to the god at Delphi." 
So ran the wordn of tbu Gn^-k oath.' 

133. Kiug Xerxes had Bent no heralds citlier to Athens or 
Sparta to ask earth and water, fur a reason vhich I will now 
relate. VTboa Darius some timo bcforo sent moBsengvis for 
the Bome purpoM," they woro thrown, at Athens, iuto tho pit 
of pnnishiiient,^ at Sparta into a well, and bidden to take 
tberbfrom earth and water for themselTi's, and carry it to their 
king. On this account Xerxes ilid not send to ask them. 
What calamity como upon tho Atheniaim to punieih them for 
their treatment of the heralds I cannut say. uuIchs it were tho 
laying waste of their city and territory ; but that I beUero was 
not on account of thia criinc. 

134. On the Lnci-dwrnouiaiiB, however, the wrath of Talthy- 
biua, Agamemnon's herald, fell with violence. I'althybius has 



48S) I bat at Oat lim- iU cc^rlh^ra 
boaudw; Menu to Iutq tncn the Uiw 
of hilli atNtehlng freta Lain Xfiiiu 
(TiiuJ.lf> icTMa to the golf of PnpiMe. 
Kiiil (timtlnatJng la ths promoutoiTy of 
Pjrrrl* (C»l>« Antiiitn). WMtwnrd 
it w&a Ixioiidoil bjr ilii> Dulupiand nad 
Bniaiiuiiia. Concnniiiitr tho tKianUj 
oit iha MdiwM, tiilo infra, cb. 19S. 

* A good doal «f donbt hnng* kboiit 
tUi uUh. Both (hn tim» and tlio 
tatmt of ie ■!• diSuraolIr nportcil. 
Diodorm klooe Bgran with HeroJotua 
in aMlgMDg it to tlii4 priiod ot tbo 
w«r (il. 8). All Dtbor imtcn jiloco 
it Kl lbs anlBnui iiMeting uttnr tbo 
rictcry ut rWwt {hjcarK. iu Li<Qcinit. 
xIk p.l£Si Scbol.oil A>iiili<l. II. SS4| 
SoMm kI roD. $t*arti*ir, Sx.). 
Mgtiu Diodwna, wbo oeroo* nicb 
II*rodotiii na to tbii tiin», (UlEm «■ t« 
lb* UvBM. And Tboognnipiii M«'tii« 
to l*ra t^teU^ Uia cir^um-itituca ttl. 
toother (Fr. 167). If (b<; imniiih- 
tncttt ma kltonronb infliolcd bj tbo 



Ain)ibiot}'[niic Counnil [iDtn.ch. £13), 
the tlary ot the uuth umj uuilf havu 
^rotfru up. 

• Snpi», Ti. 49. 
v/T 'nMbAnlbriiin,(ir''pit of pnaiitb- 
mvnt" Bt Atbvnit. was n dovfi hula 
Uku B waU into irfaieb crimlai^ wore 
pn?di<i[Atoi). Iron hooka won la- 
■crted in Ibo aid**, vbich tora tbo 
budj la pIdOM an St hl\ <Schcd. »A 
Ari«iopli. rinl. 4S7). It comiiKiniltd 
to Ibe Oodju of tbo Lnecdmcoiuaaa. 
Apcordiag to k alnglo obaonin writer 
(Biblialboe. OoUllniND. p. 491), It «aa 
■ItDotod within tho iUm« of Omtdot. 

'fhe fato of tbo honibb I« nolicsd 
hj Mfnni wrttora (Folyb. ix. 39, f C t 
iSiaaikn. Ill, liL J 6; I'lntarch, il. pi. 
2361 Stobonu, Til. 70 ; Soidoa, odmo. 
Ba>U,ii, fto-l. Panuoia* wkja ihAl at 
Athraa, MlUlailM ma soabilr raqion. 
(iblti for tbii iiep, and contdilora that 
Uiu ralamitiea nhiuh bvfvl him and 
Ilk faniilf wcro a jadgoxoEit on bin 
is DODaoqoegiea, 




no 



STOIIY OF SPERTHIAS A^'D BUU& 



Book 



A tcmplo at Sparta; oaA his AeeceaAuaie, vbo are c&UmI 
Talthybiftdw,* still live there, and liave the privilogo of being 
the only persons who dlRobarRe the office of herald. WTitn 
tlierefore the Spartans lia<l done the deed of which we epoA, 
th« victims at thtir sacrifices failed to give good tokens ; and 
this failure tasted for a rory long time. Then the Spartans 
were troubled, and regarding what had befallen them as a 
grieroOB calamity, they held frcqiKitit aftscmbtioa of tha 
people, and made proctamntiou through tlio town, " Was any 
LaoediDmoniaD willing to gire his life for 8parta?" Upon 
this tvo Spartatu, SpcrthiaH, the uon of Aneristas, and Bulia. 
tb« son of Nioolaiis, botli men of noble birth, and among tlus 
wealthiest in the place, came forward and freely offered thom- 
selvcs M an atonement to Xerxes for the heralds of Parius 
slain at Sparta. So the Spartans e«Qt them away to thai 
Medes to undergo death. 

185. Nor is thi) courage vrhich tliese men hereby displayed 
alone worthy of wundiT ; but so likowleo are tbu following 
speeohoe which were made by thcni. On their road to Sosc 
thoy presented themselves before Hydames.^ This IlydameH 
was a Fereian by birth, and had the command of all the 
nations that dwelt along the BCft-coaRt of Asia. He accord- 
ingly showed them bospitality. and inritcd them to a banqupt, 
where, as they feasted, he tiaid to them : — 

" Men of Laoedfflmon, why will yo not consent to Ix) friend* 
with the King ? Yo have but to look at me and my fortune to 
see that tlio King knows well how to honour merit. In liko 
manner ye youraelveii, were ye to make your submiitsion to 
bim, would receive at his hands, seeing tluit be deems you 
mon of merit, some govcrmnont in Greeoo." 



• Bvpit, yi. 60, noto^ 

* TU* HjilsroM (Fcm* to ba tho 

Sinem BUadvd lo la Book vi. tv 123. 
k hmd cooondtd »p|M(«nlly to tb« 
^'olBc« of OtBD«€ (t. S6| birfoi* tb« 
oloao Ot Iha toiiiui roroU. This oflJra 
WM not a utmpjr, but iho comntuiil 
of Uo Pcoiui IroDfM in tb» «it[ft{tf 



of Ljdia, and port*pa *lao b tlwl 
niibfm* (mw A|>Mmdis to Book M. 
Eiu«r tlL, 'Ob Uo Permn >]r*iuni 
of AdmiaiitnliiBi ond GovursniMrt,' 
S S). Ho nor poHlbljr bo tlu con- 
(piiMor (iii. TO), bM wM mora pro. 
bobl;- hia (on, tho hwdoT el UiO 
'— — ~*-^ (Mipn, ck. 8e>. 



4 



i 



o&AP. w-isr. 



MAGVAKDUTT OP XERXEa 



lit 



"BfdamM," iliey ftmnrered, "thou art a one-sided coon- 
Tbon hast experience of half tho matier ; bot tho 



to "B 

■eUor, 

^mll«r half ifl beyond thy knonludgc. A duve's life tliou 
iinderstaD<]cst ; but noror bnring tasted liberty, thoa canst 
not tell whether it be sweet or no. Ah ! haAel thou known 
what freedom is, thou wouldst have bidden ue light for it, uot 
with tho 8p«ar only, but with tho battle-axe." 
So they answered Hydomcs. 

186. And afterwards, when thoy were come to Snsn into the 
King's presftnco, and tho guards ordered them to loU down 
and do obeisanoo, and went so far as to use force to compel 
them, they refnsed, and said tliey «-ouId never do any such 
thing, eren were their heads thrust down to the ground ; for 
it was not their custom to worship men,'" and they had not 
oome to Persia for that purpose. So they fought off the 
earemony ; and having done so, addruescd tho King in words 
mocb like tho fulluwing : — 

" King of tho Mcdcs ! the Lacedmnonians have sent us 
hither, in the place of thone heralds of tliino who were slain in 
Sparta, to make atonement to thee on their account." 

Then Xorzcs answi^rcd 'nith true grcatucHS of soul " tliat he 
I would not act like tJio Laccdicmonians, who, by )[illing the 
heralds, had brokpn tho laws which all men hold in common. 
Aa ho bad blamed such conduct in them, he would never he 
guilty of it himiioU. And beaidce, ho did not wish, by patting 
the two men to death, to frco tho Lacodnmonians from tho 
stain of their former outrage." 

187. This conduct on the part of the Spartans caused tho 
aogor of Tullhybiua to ccaso for a while, notwithstanding that 
Sporthius and Bulis returned home alive. But many year» 
afterwards it awoke once more, as the Lac«diGmonians Uicm- 
selvea declare, during tho war'botweon the FelopooiicsiaDS 

' and the Athenians. In my judgment this was a case wherein 
tho hand of Heaven was most plainly manifest.^ That the 



** CompaTO tbo nranl of Callii>tti»- 
: to proitiMo ItioiMU Won Alri- 




auditr (Anion, Etp. Alci. i'. 10-13). 
' Sncb iit livfooA a doubt the 



tl2 



FATE OF MCOLAUS AXI> ANFJUSTtn. 



Boot 




wrath of Taltliyb'ius sliotild have fiillcn npOQ ambassadors, 



and not slacked till it had full vcut, 8o much justicu required ; ■! 
but thiit it ehoald have como upon tbo sons of tliu very mca ^^ 
Tk'lio were sent np to tlie Persian king on its account — ai>on 
Nicolaiia, tbu son of Bulis, niid Auiriaius, tbo sod of SpcrtUios 
(Utc same who carried off fiabennen from Tiryus, vbcm 
eroismg in a veil-manned merchant-ship*), — this does seom 
to mo to bo pluinl; a supL-roaturul circumstance. Yet certain 
it is that those; two men, bavmg bcc-n sent to Aeia ns ombne- 
mdfaa by tbo Lacedemonians, nere betrayed by SitAlccn, tbo 
son of Teres, king of Thrace,* and NymptjoddroB, the sou 
of Pythes, a nutivo of Abdera, and bciiig made prieoners at 
Bisanth6,* upon tbo HellespoDt, wero convuyMl to Attica, and 
th«ro put to death by the Athenians, at tlic same time as 
Aristeas, the son of Adcimontus,* tbo Corinthian. All ttiis 
liappincd, however, very many years after tbo expedition of 
Xerxt^,* ■ 



oiMiiIiiit «f tbii paMng«. Slnuco 
(liffionltiM hAvo bcea iDBdo bv uio 
•otaneDtaton (TnlckdMoTt Tpaw, 
lAfdber) Willi rrnprcl ItolU to lU 
Iwigiueo mill iinjiorc. Tho phruo 
JvTMi 0iiitaTW, wliii^b poTilt'il Valc- 
kcnMc, ■■ oomaKni mcDgh (Tbuoyil. 
i. 61 ill. 17, 81, ««.)■ 'Er -nuti 
modillM Um fccoo of ilw mperlatiro, 
•dd gtvM tha KDH «tf "«ne of Uio 
■nott difino " — " KinoDK lb* Buat 
4irin«." ll ia Durioiu lliat bo iroud 
k critic aa Untttiin) bni not »rtm that 
(GrMk Gnunmnr, { itiO). Anil per- 
sona amu, have tmnuiJ n vnj mis- 
lAkeD lutian of tlui □>lnil of IIiirtHliitut 
to Sad m dimcultf in liln uorihiiiic tlio 
•note rvlMwl to Hupcrtratunil OKeacjr. 
11107 an nrrtainlj' itrikiog aDongb to 
BTTCfit (lio BticntHm t4 tlio inoM onro- 
lAM^tbonlnniKeRiHuuf l)M>«)iuriclviic* 
bcuiK on]; iHjUly (liiniiiirliocl by II10 

bmditux dcwent iJ tbo bcnld'o 
oBoo ai Sptrte; tnt Ihcro mmt no- 
donbtadlr Mvo booa uiasjr foouliM of 
TdUnbindML 

* Ttnojilid«a telb lu <iL f7, mil) 
Ihw Um LaoodBmottiuu ttam clio 



vwf UciBninK of tho FbloponaorfiB 
K*r inoile priie of Uio (ndlng.ToMalii 
not ontjr of their adrorHiriM bat «t 
nnotnl*, if lbc<r canghl lh«ni oil tho 
rolopcDnotfiia cunaU. Tlia woaM 
•om lo bw ui illoitntkai of Uic kttv 
pnictiiie, for Tiryoi^ >a ArsriTc (own, 
Ic'ok 110 i»it Id tho war (ThucTd. ii. 0|. 

* It ia ocrauaJjr nmaikaUo IbM 
SiUlcoa aliMld bo dcoohlied ten, ud 
not in Botdi It. ob. BO. It londt to 
eooSrm tho view tbkt tlitmt last iluoo 
book* (ren tbe Gnt miUoa (nifiSi 
<it. l.noto'). 

* BinntH oftcnomla nltod Rbo- 
dcatni (Ptei. iii, 11), iraa aiinotod m 
tbo Pniponiia rMha tboa tbo BMef 
pont. it oecnpiod tW aito of Badoito. 
Tbo original cii;r 1* Mid to haTB btca 
Wk «ok«i7 nf iSo SoBilnea (Xna- Aaah. 
VII. li. ad fio.) PliB. U. N, ir. Ui. 
Ftol. iii. 11. p- 89). 

* CunconioK AdwMMitw^ Me belotA 
TiU. UI, ei, 9(. 

' Tlia om>t UkJc placo {a tbo jmp 
'n.c. 430, iioail^r liit^ jv«n nfirr tha 
manlvr of tlio I'uniaa covnirti. It >a 
RiUUad hj TbDcjdidM {ii. 6;), nboM 



I 



I 



d 



F-138. PATSTOnC OOimrcr OF TUK ATHE^'U^'S. ItJ 



188. To return, however, to my main subject, — tlio cxpc4ll< 
ion of the Persian king, thougU it vn» in nama directed 
.i Aiheae, thrvalent'd really tba whole of Greece. And 
if this tlio Greeks wcru avare some time before; but tlioy 
id not all view Uic matter in tho samo light. Some of tbcm 
lad given the Peraiao earth and wat«r, and wero bold on this 
account, deeming themselves thereby secured against soffering 
hurt from the barbarian army; whUe others, who had refused 
compliance, were thrown into cxti-ome alarm. For whcreaa 
they oonfiidcred all the sliips in Orceoo too fow to engaj^o Iho 
enemy, it was plain that the greater number of statAs would 
take no part in the war, but warmly favoured the Medes. 
W 199. And here I feel constrained to deliver an optuioQ 
'wbioh mo«t men, I know, will misliko, but whicli, as it seems 
to mc to bo true, T am dotermineil not to witlihold. Hod the 
AtfaeoionH, from fear of the approaching danger, quitted their 
eooDtry, or had they witliout quitting it submitted to the 
power of Xerres. there would certainly have bven no attempt 
to reaiiit tho Piirsians by sea; in which case, the coarse of 
ovAnts by land would have been the following. Though tho 
Fetoponneaians might hare carried ever so many breastworks 
ikcross the Isthmus, yet their aUiLi! would have fallen off from 
tho LaccdiBmoniane, not by voluntary desortion, but bccaueo 
town afior town must have boon taken by the fleet of thu bar< 
barinnn ; and lio the Lacodiemoniana would at last have stood 
alone, and, standing alone, would have diBplayed prodigies of 
', and died nobly. Either they would have doue thus, 
elso, before it eamo to that extremity, seeing one Greek 
after another cmbraec the eau»« of tho Mcdcs, thoy 
vould have come to terms with King Xerxes ; and thus, either 
way Greece wonld have been brought under Persia. For 
I eamtot understand of what possible use the walls across the 




nanatli* doMljr iMnEiaiiiaM vritb timt 
of «w Wlhor. Tk> chief dUTeroiics 
li Um wini TKoof iliilM Mcnt>M to 
fiidovati, Uic ma ot Sitalon, it ben 
[iftervd (o Kfnpluxlotw, bi* bcvUier- 

VOL. JV. 




In^lnw. But S»domi acaj ireQ haTO 
noUd nndor tho inlliionco of N^pbo. 
di)ra* (too Thoo^d. a. 28. aod with 
rmpiMH to AriatcM, d Thncyd, 1, S0. 
0S, mi) n. 07). 



1 14 THE ATHBNIAKS, THE SAVlOHItS OF OBBBCE. Boos 

Isthmus, conld havs been, if tiie King had hod the iQiuctoiy of 
the aea.^ If then a man sboold nov say that the Atbuniuu 
were the bavioun of GcMoe, he ironld not exceed the troth. 
For they tiuly held the bcoIcs; and whidierer side tb^ 
«spoiised masi have oarried the day. They too it -mas who, 
when they had determiaed to maintain the freedom of Greece, 
roused up that portion of the Greek nation wbieb had not 
gone over to the Medes; and bo, next to tlie gods, lA«y 
rcpnlHc-d Uio invader. Even the terrible oracles which reoebad 
them &om Delphi, and struck fear into th«ir heorte, failed to 
persuade them to fly from Qrooce. Tboy bod the courage to 
remain bithful U> their land, and await the coming of the Em. 
140. When the Athenians, anxious to consolt the oraole, 
Bcnt their meseengers to Delphi, hardly bod the envoys com- 
pleted the caatomary rites aboot tbo Baeied prcciitct, and 
taken their »:at!i inside the aauotaary of the god, Trhen tbs 
Pythoness, Ariatonie^ by came, thus prophesied — 

" Wretches, wfaj lit JO lien t Flj, Ay totheeadaolorcaUon, 
Qnittinic your bamca, Uid thn otap vUah yxrui dly ctuwas with bn 

ciiclet. 
Ifcithcr Ibe hcnd, nnr tbo body U firm in ita i^ao«, nor at bottom 
Finn tho feet, nor tlia hud* i nor loctetb tbo nidiUe anlDjur'd. 
AI]---«U ruineid and lost. Knee fii«, micI unpvtiKiiM Arm, 
Spesding along ia a ^laa chariot,* haatea to deMioy ber. 
Not alooo abalt tboa anffiv ; tall nun; the towon ba witl level, 
Many tbe abrioM ot tbo god* Iw will give to a ftcrjr dtatractwiL 
Sren now tbe; atond iritb daik *w«at borriUf drippliig,* 




I 



* Tlioia arBomenta are quite u- 
Aanrorabl«t and eeem to doiImiis 
•Imoat too plain to be eDaaoialedi 
liut Ihfir tam> «•« not toU at Ui» 
time (tide Icfra, iz. S) ; dot wai It 
tfrtu. Be Bppoua from tbli pUia^o, 
admiUed taiU a oeniorr afl«vwanla 
<eee Mr. Croto'i raawzk* on thit 
chuUr, vel. r. p. 83, now *}, 

■ nat ia, Aai^TlaB (ride aopfa. eb. 
W, MU ■}' Compare .AfcbyL Fbn. 
8S, wlwre tbe npreoion need Homt 
taken boai tbii onole. Tnkmi; 
"STriBfi" ia thin «aaM, we may taj 
tbat tbe aipiaMion ta biuoriealljr 



oorract ) far Ifao IVniana, as the tn* 
habiuuibi of a menntsiD r«^0B>> waaM 
niot moke wo of w-ehorioU (ill tiiBf 
teenit to employ jl«m bom tho Awy. 
riaai o( lbs HeeapulMnlaii plain. 
Xenopbon liaa afaewa a pietMn- appie- 
«ialioB ot (bene aircumdwion (Cjrop. 
ti. i. $ 5.7; Ti. {. f se, 37). It !■ 
toarcelf nooMNuy to oInkto iliat the 
Aanrlana >)^fM•r bj tbe tcolptvraa 
to have enipluycd cliarinlti, Uke tba 
EgTptiasi, tma tbe mrlital timoa. 
A rmrBaeutaliwi of a Peralau cbaiiot 
bae Moa afaeady Klton tNpn. p. 40). 
•Cf.Dlod.Sio.xni. ID) Uvj.ull 1. 



1^1 



9. ua-ua. 



WABHUa OF THB OEiCLS. 



"S 



Del 

E 



TreniUuig *nd (iqalclBg for fou ; tai lo I from tlie h%b loob tikUeUi 

Bbck Uood, ngn propbuuo of lurd <luti<MMa impending. 

Got ye arajr Iram tbo tempU ; and brood on tho Uk tlwl nwutya!"'^ 

141. Wlion tbe Atbeuiftit measengcrs beard this r^ply, they 
were filled vriU] the deepest affliction : wbereupoQ Timon, the 
tson of Androbulns, one of the mon of most mark among the 
Delpbi&ns, eeoing how nUcrly cast dowo thvy wore at tbe 

oomy prophecy, advised them to take an olivu-hranefa, and 
tcring tho sanctuary again, consult the oracle oa oupplionii. 
le Athenians fc^ovcd tliis advice, and going in once more, 

id — "0 King! ve pray tbee revereoee them boughs of 
supplication wlueh ve bear in our hands, and deliver to us 
something moto comforting concerning oar country. Else 
we will not leave thy aanotvary, bat will stay here till wo 

le." Upon this tbe priestess gave tbem a second answci-, 

iiioh VOB the following :— 

''' HDMbw not bc«n able to aoften tlio locd of OpnpaR, 

Tliaiigh alie baa u<l«n pv^fed him, and nrgod him with ciMUont oounod. 

YetoBM mon I addiwa tboe in wocda tban aduiHiit finncr. 

When tbe foe dull bave takoo whntovcr tbo limit of Cecropa* 

Holda trilbin it, ami all wbkli dirinc Cithnron kboltota. 

Then far^eeing Jove i;rant« tbi* to tKo [vaycra of Atb«iWl ; 

Safe aball tbe wooden «aU oontinuu for Umw and thj' childreD. 

Wait not tbe tnunp of tbu honv, nor tbe footmen migbtily moving 

Ortir tbo lasd, but turn four bock Ut the foe, and retire ye. 

Toe ihall a day arrive when fo tbail moei bin in battUi. 

Holy Sslaniia, tbou slull dsMn^ tbo oSkpring of women, 

Wiien men antt«r tbe aeed, or wlten tbey gaUwr tke bniTMl " 

i-12. This answer seemed, as indeed it was, gAntler than tho 
fornier one ; so tbe envoys wrote it down, and wont I>m1( witli 
it to AUuinH. When, however, upon tbeir arrival, they pro- 
laced it Iwforc the people, and inquiry began to be made into 



att.:. 31, xttS. 4, xiTiii. II ; Tttt^ 
Oeow-l-MO: O. MK.xr.TSKii Ao. 

** Tlio laM ciptreiirm i» aiubiiriMOP, 
■■A leey mnw, "afbir a bold b«iui to 
yeurtlU" ta*S<chiToIg!iiEU*c(,t.an:hrr, 
and nkr undenUuid It) ; bnt tviiii 



bat roretr Ihii intemiitiTe KD*e. 

' By tbe "limit cf Cocropi" Uio 
boandarloe et Attite nro iDteeded. 
CitbetiuD, 1^ boundoij of Attioa 
iMwirdt IMpkt, oeeon netnnll/ to 
the pRjibetten. 



xr6 



THE&Q3T0CLB3. 



Book' 



ita trao meaninj;, many an<l varioas vcre tbo intArprctatioiiK 
ffbioh men put on it ; two, more especially, B«om«d to bo di»:ctJy 
opposed to one ouotiicr. Certain of the old men ircro of opinion 
that the god meant to tell them the citadel vonld escape ; for 
this was ancifiiitly defended by a palisade ; ' and tbey Hopposed 
that barrier to be the " wooden wall " of the oracle. Others 
maintained that the fleet was what the god pointed at ; and 
their udrice wa» that nothing should bo thought of oxecpt the 
ships, which had bcHt he at once got ready. BtJU soob ob mud 
the "wooden wall" meant the fleet, were perplexed by the last 
two lines of the oracle — 

Wlieu xuen icattor tlw swil, or when thaj gaUier tbc faumt." ^H 

These words caused great <Usturhanco among those who took ^ 
the wooden wall to be the Rhipn ; Binoe the interpreters nnder- 
Btood them to mean, that, if they made preparations for a bm- 
fi^t, thoy would suffer a defeat off Balamis. 

lis. Now there wus at Athens a man who had hUely mode Lis 
way into the first nuih of eitizcns:" his true name was Thcmi- 
Btocles; but he was known more generally as the son of NeooleB.* 
This man come forward and said, tliat tho iuteriiretera had not 
explained the Oracle altogether aright — "forif," he argued, "the 



> Thi* mMtiing of Pnx^t atfm* to 
b« pMtembU lo thnt at a " Uwm- 
k«dg*" wliioh in «d^t«d hy imno 
hiitoriana and luiioogmphcn (LiddoU 
Hid Soolti ad Toc i Thiilwmll, ii. p. 
X9C). Tho Ult«r it k moat miuDiU 
dotcnoc. wlioroM Ibo lotmar wu iroll 
Ipiowii to tho Qrwiki tnm tott axrlj 
dsM* (BoiD.arii.4U,xii.6S). And 
Um eloMSf, hx*u ^v^yiti* (Gloat. 

Ham.), #ax#> {vAlry vtpiMky (ru 
OTaupifiari [BoluiL Aristid.) autliariM 
tUi nwaofng. wliick may Im Itett eon. 
acctad witli Ibn otber bjr balp of tho 
Btfuologioom Uifcnam, wbm fox^i 
ii axplaiaad •• i tuitio^ i bn»MSqt. 

■ AeoordlBg to PlaUrch (VU.ThoBi. 
n. 1), ThwsiuoeUM, thooah do« ftbao- 
hitdj kA tow <nif|iii, owad liUIo to 



KcoelM Old not bolojis W tlio nuM 
lUiuirJoiLi clwH ot clcbaw {tb rir 
Irifar in tfw I'w 'AW'Tgi) , "wd t>i« notber 
wa* k Tlinciaii or a Halioarnaagaan 
woman. Tfainnmtocln woald llnw oalj 
hoTo obtalDod dtuoiialiip (liro*^ IM 
(•nftmocliiaaiiMlit mado bj ClislheDG* 
(«api»,ro1. f&. Ap|>.Bk.T. BMayii- SS 
80,81), and would hA*« had maa/ pn- 
judioot to contood acainit bc/ocv lie 
ooold beoome ft kMing itntaanwui. 
Tho tortima loft Urn to bla fub« 
waa aaiil to haro bw* UirM tslMtit 
or about im. (Cnl. Fr. 8). 

* IliB pnciico of addrwMJmt pcrauiw 
hf tbair fatbora^ namoa «■• oomnon 
in Oraoo*. *n *u XAiivlfii, i ru 
'Itpwrfftfv, 2 ni 'InrariJMV, Ao., tiw 
luunl fanni in Itato. eopociaUf in 
addrMM* to Uio yMMf . 



^ 



CSiP. t4S-Ul.. 



HIS rEOPOSAl TO BOTLD A rLEET. 



iir 



elftHM in question had really respectwl Iho AUicnians, it would 

not tuiTc 1)uL'D fiXj^eeeed bo uiildly ; the phrase used would have 

^^ been ' Lncklon Solaiois,' rather than ' Holy Salomis,* had those 

^m to whom tho island belonged bc«n about to perish in its ncigh- 

^Mwaxfaood. Bightly talccn, tho rceponse of the god threatened 

Vthe Qoemy moeb more than the Athenians." Ho therefore 

counselled his countrymen to make ready to fight on hoard 

their Bbips, since thty were the wooden wall in which the god 

told them to trust." When Themistoates had thus cleared the 

asttor, the Athenians embraced bis view, preferring it to that 

of the intcrpretors. Tho ndvice of thcHC laet Lad been against 

engaging in a sea-fight; "all tho Athenians could do," they 

Raid, "was, without lifting a band in their defence, to quit 

Attica, and make a settlement in some other country."* 

144. Thomistocles bad before this given a counsel which pie- 

'V Tailed veiy sftOBonoWy. Tho Atbt'uiatie, having a largo sum of 

money in tbelr treasory, tho produce of the mines at Laoreium,^ 



* It hM bom yrith rtttaa Rupected 
tbM Um faig«Biiltr of Tlwiiiiitoclee 
WM loM tfaown ID anpaaaAiBg thme 
anwleo tltui ia ccmlriviuK thou). Ha 
had profcalilj "hinuelf pivjarKl tho 
cri*i« wbidi he noir otept fwwaid to 
OkUo" (TMHwoll, Tof. IL p. 206). 
^0 oracle wobU bo opon to itiJIu«DiM> 

V. 68) vl 66) I and Tbrnnif 
I would soi be likely to ocfukct 
i«ainii>o. ICnwi hlo objootto 
I tu n*(iml olio^iifc to bono 
I eosBbTsHiD, luid to driTo tlivm 
■ Uttw to tbt«rilup«. Thmoo 
■ of Uw dtaoliM. Hli "kwa 
•1m woU h>T« "eauglu & 
tio sUmpoo of the ovmiU th»t 
I hMtow thoihoreaof Solami*!* 
be nw tbo impottanm of tbo 
porfUoD, aod ddonnlMd tint thoM 
til* fffiot baUlo miwl KDd nhciild IaIco 
plMO. Don Mr. Omt* iutmict by hit 
•flanoo to oppotn thl« new, itliich mol 
wUli Bcceptaaoo oron M9cai)r tho 
■ncknU (toe Plwt. TWm. o. 10) ? 

* Thii plan appnj* to bar* bora 
^aeriooaly •Dt«rl*i»td ; and Siji< in 

Jul/ «M «voo filed npoa m tba bMl 




louUtf ^ofis, tUL 6S). It miut ba 
nunomb^od that Ibo plan hnd been 
adopted wjth cncOMa bj tb* Phooanai 
asd Toiani {(opra, L les.lOS). 

' Laonliim, or lAuiimi, vraa the 
name ot tho mouutaincpua coontrj- 
ImoiedlatclT aboro Otpo Colonna 
(.Sitniam), TfOolilng BOTthwardii to 
Anapblyttni and TboricuM. Lrjnna, 
a (moU phioo to thii distriot, u a oar- 
mptlan of tbo ancioot w«vd (Aoi^ior, 
pTODonnaod Lavrioft, Aiypiar, LegrmM). 
Tho nlror.&isw, with wbiob Iho 
wbolo tract abtrandod, had b»«& 
irorkod (ram time immemorM) (Zbd. 
do Vifcl. iv. 5 Sy Tho wealth of 
PiiiitiMos oofiat to tiATO boon In 
KTMt port dertTod from Ihsm (sDpra, 
i. et), dd mu aft^rwardo that of 
Nieiaa uid Hlppomcai (Xcn. do Toot. 
ir. f 14 1 comp. Uonunab. SoCT. U. T. 
I S). Tlicy waro nsaKlod td iiutvra- 
praty oC tho slate ; bot prirato tkdl- 
vidooli, «TCB foreiKoen (ib. { 12), 
won ajlowed to wmk them on paj. 
merit to tho atatoof ono twanly-toiirth 
of tfaepradtioe(8«hlaa,nd TOO. iTp^w 
nrritAm tin- Oompara Un>«Tid. 



ti8 



ATUtLVS A QUEAT UARimiE FOVEB. 



Book 



rn!^ 



vem nboat to share it among the full-grown citizens, who woold 
liare recoivod ten dracbmas aptuco," nlien Themistooles per- 
eaaded them to forbear the distributiou, and build with th« 
money two hnndrtd shipe," to help them in their war againgt Ota 
Eginc-taua. It was the breaking out of the Eginetan war wbidi 
was at this time the saving of Greece ; for hereby were the 
Athenians forced to become u maritime power. The new Hliips 
were not used for tho porpoeo for which they had been Iniilt, fl 
but became a help to Greece in her hour of need. And the " 
Athenians had not only these vessela ready boforo tho war, but 
they likewise set to work to build more ; while they dctersuned* 
in a oonnoil which was held after the dehnt« upon the oracio, 
that, according to tho advice of the god, they would embark 
theur whole force aboard their ships, and, with stidi Greeks as 
chose to join them, give battle to the barbarian invader. Socb, 
tiiea, were the oracles which had been received by tho Athenians. 
V 1-15. The Greeks who were well affected to the Gr0oian cause. 



Ont. pro Eaxmu'pp. Col. 43). Dating 
U|e tWqMiuualan hv thej continueil 
to b» o( inpemmeo (ThDc^. rl. 01) j 
but ia tto timo or XunupliciD Uio 
praOMdi had laiha off (lien, floer. 
III. tL f U|, Uiongti ha <b for fram 
tliliiMBg Ihem «xbaaitcd (Vect. ir. j 
S,90|. Howovtir thi>7 iccm gnuliuU]r 
to h*va dMiioed t f^i '^^ »> >^^ 
taupt to work Um eld tcoilin, nfaleh 
did not aniwa- Ions (Slrnb. ix. p. 960)> 
dthj were Gnalt; alandoiiBd by tlio 
tUno of An^iton (ib. : compnra Pko- 
MB. t. L { 1). Kueioniiu tniOM *tUI 
Mottia of tlio old Morin and ]ilU 
(Leaho's Dmqi. pl 66), 

■ U Uio itsmibeT «l dtiMon at tbt* 
tuno mM, HooidiiiK to the otttnuto 
alimif us^i SOiOOO (nqira, r. ST), 
tho mlro nm which tbe^ won) •bout 
to bav* ihond wtaong tbem inait 
dove been flflj Ulnite.or nther more 
tkan 18,0001. Wo ovinot howenr 
eooelodo from tUi, m BOckh Aoeo 
(Pnblio Ecmonr of Aihmm, App. to 
TwJ. U. pp. 463, 463, K. T.), tbU tho 
(muHOl pioofmlii of tb* minaii mm ot 
Uiii KDootit, for tho lUtj latcnta nwj 



btvo been the proilBoe of an aenna- 
Uiiciu 

* Tlib ii nliac Qcrodotw aeje, bat 
Pttbapt not wtAi lie uuNUit u> ekf. 
It toonu ccrt^n that the real deter- 
mimiioQ «a« to nuo tfaedr ntty to 
Ihu Diunber of KM) <rc«wl». Thia woa 
tho ooinbecMitiiaUyonplored botbu 
AitoraiiioiB {iatn, rlii. 1 oud 1^ a»d 
at 8ah»la (ib. 4.1 wid 46). Acoord- 
iaftif Plutanth (Th«n. o. 4), PtdvoMHU 
<i. ixK. J C). uiid CMrnctlviVtpOS 
(TfaiMu. e. ii.) rpjiort thai tme buBdml 
■hip* only woo r(K«^< lii>plri>V ttat 
tho AihMiEuia al^itdj puoMMd at 
tho liaio o( tho volo ooe hnadnd 
trimnw. Thia is poMf U*. tfaoogfc • 
lew jemn eoilin {*.<;. IPt) tho^ hod 
but OltT (rapni, t1. SB). A^ain. 
It la ovidnt that Oftj tafenta woold 
hare beeo too litllo for Ibo poipaae 
indloMed, »<Mm if wo limit tM) now 
•Um to oao hvadrod (BOehh, tL p. 
Uiy. Wo nojr thorcCom oonoloAo 
tbot llio volo MrrfgMd ovor the pn>. 
due* ot tha atiooe bff o nomber of 
T««ra. Cta Um fact tbot TbnnietoeW 
goTotbe •diiae,oraa(«n Tbucrd. 1 




M. Mf-US. XERXES' TBXiXaSST OF THE ORE£C SPIES. 1 19 



^ 



having asasmblM in one pince, and tfafie oonHoltod togotber, 
and JntiTcbftDgecl pledgtia with each other, ognwd that, before 
any other step was tolcen, Uio fonds and onmities vhieh existed 
betrvetm tlie diflcrent nationa Bhould litet of all be appeased. 
MaD7 such thero vcro ; but ono van of more importance than 
the rctit. namolj', the var which nas ebill going on botwecn the 
Athenians niul the Eginetans.'^ Whon this bonoMS vaa eoa- 
eluded, ondt-retandinK that Xfirxos bad reached Sardia with his 
army, thc-y resolved to dcspotoh apioB into Asia to tafco noto of 
tb« King's afEftirs. At the same time thej determined to Bond 
ambassadors to tbe Argtves, and ooncludo a loaguo witli tbom 
aflamst the Persians; while the; likewise despatched mi>33GngorB 
to Gfilo. the eon of Doinomcucs, in Sicily, to the people of Cor- 
oyn, and to tho90 of Crete, exhorting them to send help to 
6. Their wish was to unite, if possible, the entire Qreclc 
name in one, and so to bring all to join in the same plan of 
defence, inasmnch as the approaching dangers tlircatencd all 
aUke. Now tho power of Gelo was said to bo TOty great, far 
greater than that of any mtgjto Grecian pooplo. 

146. So when those resolutions ha<1 been agreed upon, and 
the qfuarrels between the iitates made np, first of atl they sent 
into Asia three men as spies. Those men reached Sardis, and 
took note of the King's forces, but, being discovered, wcro 
•xaminod by order of tlis generals who commanded tho land 
amy, and, having been oondenuied to snffer deatli, were led out 
to ezeoution. Xerxes, however, when the news reached him, 
disapproving the senteneo of tho generals, sent some of his 
body-guard with instructions, if they fonnd the spies still alivo, 
to iH'ing tbem into his presence. The messengers found the 
Bpies nlive, and brought them before the King, who, when ho 
heard tho purpose for which they had oome, gave orders to bis 
giuirdf) to take them round the camp, and show them all the 
footmen and all the horse, lotting them gazo at everything to 



^i^Gwoei 
^Kname 
^^ defenc 



"Sapra. T. SI, 89; ri. B7-08. Tho counoil appcM* to Ii&to 



■bbdab 




■20 



OREEK EUBifiiST TO AIHI03. 



Book 



their hearts' content; then, iriien they were satiefiod, to e«Dd 
tbem ttwuf imbarnici] to whatever Gounti7 they deflired. 

147. For tb«e« orders Xenos gave afteiwards the following 
f reasons. "Hod the epics been put to dculh," ho said, "tlio 

Greeks would have oontinaed ignorant of the viutncss of his 
army, which sorpassed the common report of it; while he woald 
bave done them a very tmiall injury by killing tlir«u of their 
men. On the other hand, by the return of the spies to Greece, 
luH power would become known ; und the Groeke," be expected, 
" would make surrender of their freedom bcfon) h« began his 
march, by which means hie troops would be saved all the trouble 
of an espcdition." This reasoning was like to that which he 
n«cd upon another occasion. 'VMiile he was staying at Abydoe, 
be saw some corn-ships, which wore passing through the Helles- 
pont from the Euslnc,* on tboir way to Egina and the Pelo* 
poonose. His attendants, bearing that they were the enemy's, 
were ready to capture them, and looked to see when Xcnos 
iTOold give tbo signal. He, howcror, merely asked, " Whither 
the sbipH were buund?" and when tliey answered, "For thy 
foes, master, with com on board," — "We too are bound 
thitlier," be rejoined, "laden, among otber things, with com. 
What barm is it, if they cjirry our provisions for us ? " ■ 

Bo the spies, when they had seen everything, were diBmiaBed, 
and come back to Europe. 

148. The Greeks who had banded themselves together ogtdnst 
the Persian king, after dciipatching the spies into Asia, sent 
next ambassadors to Argos. The account wliich tlie Argives 
give of their own proceedings is the following. They say tbat 
thoy bnd information from the very first of the pr(<pamtions 
which the barbariitns were making agnin«t Greece. &o, us tliey 



' TIm oant.gfRiwiiiK oonnUiM upeu 
tlia Uack 8m>, in socicBt u In 

, modam Uidm. rappUed Iho commcr. 

< cM natitot *>tli todr cMof utjele of 
locd. The imporluica ol tlila tt»da 
to Alhniu tiM bora inil nUted hf 
lUokli Il'cJ. Econ. otAUtenf. ToLi.pp- 
107, 1U6). We ■ni boro thu ollior 
Ontk •Mca mn cng»e«Nl in it. 



Camiopt wiih thu lub^t^t the follow. 
Ing patmtcni, i\. t7(XiMw if n jfn, 
«t ait M virfiau m^Mn rtr #rrar, 
iM' M ■)><i"i|. T. 6 act] SCL 
' • Thnt Xvnpt wni not sttof^ther 
dvroid of mngniDiDtily In plHin brnt 
Uicao amecdotM u w«dl aa tram Ua 
DonilBct lowarda t^ hanMa ^)«rtUaa 
and BaUf (■■■imi cfa. US). 



I 




Cna. 1»-Ha. BEPLT OP TBE AKOIVE COVNCII* 



121 



expected that tlie Greeks would oome upon them for lud ag^nst 
tbo asBailant, thoy si-nt envojH to Delphi to mquiro of tho god, 
vbat it vonld be best for tJiom to do in tho matter. They liod 
lost, not long before, six tbousand citLzeos, 'nho had been slaJn 
b; the Laoedfemoniana under Cleomenee, the eon of Auaxondri- 
das;^ whicbvaHthercHHou why they now 8ont to Delphi. When 
the PythouoBs heard their qucBtion, she replied — 

I" Hated of ill tby noighboun, bclorc^ of tho Uewod Itamortala, 
Sit thou (till, irith tliy bnoe dm*n inirord, [«ti«nlly Hatching ; 
Watiily gaaxd tiiiao h«»d, and tho head will take cue of tho bodf." 
lis prophecy had boon given them some time bcforo the enroyB 
me ; hot Rtill, when they afterwarda arrived, it vas permiticd 
tbem to enter the counoit-house, and there deUver their mes- 
sage. And this annwer vtaa returned to their demands — '* Argoe 
is ready to do an ye reqaire, if the Lacedamonians will first 
make a trace for thirty yoars,* and will further divido with 
Argos the lead-^r^hip of the allied army. Although in strict 
right the whole command should be herit/ oho will be contont 
to hare the leadership divided equally." 

149. Buch, they eay, was the reply made by tlie council, in 
Epite of the oracle which forbade thim to enter into a league 



^fipiu 



* ir« hftT* kcMi Ml aftimato of tho 
_[lTe loM In Um btlUo utd mwcro 

! frUcfa Mt *MOiU)t w«« giTon iibov« 
(mw TJ. T9-60). U, ■■ <• proUtblcs 
tbe nsmbor of c^ixmm wu not 
gTMlor thma U SpMtn (sbont lO.OOO), 
Um Uow «u ovrbklslf tnnnandoia*. 
W« hRTe •fa'Mdi' Mwn to what nsonuU 
tUpe il led (ibid. 8S. txAv '>. IVrb&pt 
tbo iMt ti»e of the oneJi^ rrtert to 
lb» tttpedluejr rt pnicrriiur whnt 
renatnedof Uio DitIc blood, thotop- 
MM( mik in ih* (Uto. 

* In the PvlopiiHieiinii rrtt tho 
poatlan o( tbe (wo nalkou wu w lax 
«buie»d, ll*t Sputa proMed nad 
Aisoa reftaad ntb n tnuo (TbacTd. 
*. U 76, B3), 

* AnCM ncTop (or^ bOT <J&im or 
KlIaqkMied ber bopiM of the lii>i:ic- 
luear- Tho tUni lutod in pkrt on ilio 

Crgo* wa* tbo anil of gov- 




cmmont tmder tho Aohonn klDgi, la 
part on the mppMOdcboiMot Ai^lii 
(or hiskiiig(Iiiaib7Tnnniiu,lheetdMrt 
of tho Henelidte C*eo Hcrmaiui'i PoL 
Anl. S S3 ; and npn, rol. iii. App. Bk. 
v.EBHir). g S). Tbabdpodotoimhiod 
tbo polle;r M Argo* at all porioda of her 
hiatcTf. It lodDCfid bur lu itasd tXtnl 
froin ([T«nl •trti)rKl«a~rroiii tho Pe]o> 
IKmnmisn M irvll bm tnaa tbia — ht 
order to nnrae bor rtrKOgth. And Ic 
<niiK(l her in crillcal time* to incline 
atnaji (omrdi alliance tritb the 
raeuiM of Sparia, aa irith the Uoa- 
ecnian* in their oarlT wan (FUMBa 
i*, 10, II : IS, S 1. i) : with Albsw 
iDi>.c.i61 (Tbncra.!. 10S),andaeaba 

>u n.r. 4;!0 (lb. V. 4i.i71 ; with tbo 
CViriiillilian* in nc. 431 (ib^, r. ^, S8. 
Ktil« the wmtls 'Apffloi i\wlcmrttt f^t 
iiiAivmi-Hivav 4Y4a<rfai). nud with tbo 
Tbobana in KO. 3G9 (Diod. Sic. rr. Gil}. 



122 



AxoTHEB ssonr. 



Book' 



with tli« Greeke. For, vbile not wilhont fesr of disobeybg 
the oraolo, they were greatly dc-sirons of obtaming a thirty 
years' tnice, to givo time for their sons to grow to maa'a 
oetftte. Thoy reflected, tlint if no such truc« vitc concluded, 
emd it Ehoiild be their lot to sofTer & second calamity at the 
hands of Ihu PerHious, it n-os likely tlicy would foil hopelessly 
asder tlie pon'or of Sparta. Bat to the dcmnnds of tlie Argiro 
ooonci! the Lacedatmoninn enroys made answer — " Tbey 
would hring before the people tho question of eoDeloding a 
truce.' With regard to the leadership, they had rceexTcd 
orders whnt to say, and the reply was, that Sparta had two 
kings, Argos bnt one — it was not possible that either of the 
two Spartans Khould be stripped of his dignity — hut th^ did 
Qo( oppose Uic Argivc king having ono vote like each of them." 
The Argiveii say, that they could not brook this arrogance on 
the part of Sparta, and rather than yield one jot to it, they 
preferred to be midci- the rule of tho harboriaas. So they told 
the envoys to bo gone, before sunset, bom their territory, or 
iboy should bo treated as enemies, 

150. Such is the account which is given of these mntten by 
the Argives themselvou. There is another etory, which is told 
generally tlirougji Qreeoe, of a different tenor. Xerxes, it is 
said, before he set forth on his expedition against Greece, sent 
a herald to Argos, who on his arrival spoke as follows : — 

" Men of Argos, King Xerxes speaks thus to yoo. Wo Pw« 
sians deem that the Perses from whom wo descend was flie 
child of Perseus, tho sou of I>ana<i, and of Andromeda, the 
daughter of Cephcus.* Hereby it would seem that we come of 
jOQx stock and lineage. So then it neither befits us to make 
war upon those hrom whom we spring; nor can it be right for 
you to fight, on behalf of others, against us. Your place is to 
keep quiet and hold youritclveH aloof. Only let matters pro- 



I 
I 



< VWtr (Dortenca p. 01. note-) 
liu amfoDr oaU««ud the pMMkgta 
wUeb ptoTW tlMt qoMUana at pc*oe 
and wwr wvn alwayi d«eldcd bj tlM 



tho pmaont. Thucjri}. f. «7, 78 j TiTTi 

' ":X«ii.H«'n.iii.iLeitSi 

' Vi<U ■upn 
oonit«ra vi. M. 



4 



Ti.S9;X«ii.H«'n.iii.iL§itS|iv.vi.sa: 

As 
Nda ■upni, <ib. 61, HUM 



Ag««.c.6. 




Chat. UO-ISS. ALLUXCE BCTWEILV PERSIA AXD ABGOa. 



123 




ed OS I visli, and there is no people 'whom I shall have in 
' esteem than you." 
ftddnes, oayB the story, was highly valued by Iho 
A^TtB, who tliez«foro at the first neither gare a promise to 
the Grcckit nor yet put forward a demand. Afterwords, how- 
ever, wlit^n the Greeks calliKt upon them to give their aid, thoy 
made the claim which has been mentionod, because they Icnew 
jvell that the Lac«dit<monians would never yield it, and so 
'they would have a pretest for taking no part in the war. 

151. Some of the Greeks say that this accoont agrees re- 
markably with what happened many years afterwards. Caltias, 
the son of Hipponicus, and certain others with him, had gone 
cp to SusA, the city of Momnou," as nmb&asadors of tlio Athe- 
nians, upon a business quite distinct from this.' \\^ile they 
vere there, it happened that the Aleves likewise sent ambas- 
ladors to Snsa,"' to ask Artaxerxes, the son of Xerxes, " if the 
friendship which they had formed with his father still con- 
tinued, or if ho looked upon them as his enemies ? " — to which 

_King Artaxerxes replied, "Most certainly it continues; and 
is no city which I reckon more my friend than Argos." 

152. For my own part I cannot positively say whether 
'Xerxes did send the herald to Argos or not; nor whether 

Argive ombassadore at Suaa did really put this question to 
^KAitaxerxes about the friendship between them and him; 
^nK^thcr do I deliver any opinion herenpoii other than that of 
thu Argives themselvei!. Tiiis, however, I know — that if every 
naticm were to bring all its evil deeds to a givun ptitcc, in order 
to nuke an exchange with some other nation, whuu thuy hud 




> > Snpn, it. 10s, BDd «. fiS. H. 

> DdJilnuwn (Lifo of Herod, p. 301, 
B. T.) i* of optpim Uiac thk vnAeaty 
n«« tget f r«a AthctM in tha flnt feax 
ot tba PalopniiMalRB wkr. or. at anf 
rU, bMnooii that dtio m'1 n.c. 43^ 
Uwyotrof iha d««th of Anxutv-t. 
Mb> (All loo.) adopU hia rivn. But 
than aMin to bo mo coffleieol i^ddiU 
lor InpogMlafr tlw wt«iuit (circs bjr 
Dtodonn (xU. 9, 4), that OalUw waa 



mat np to Sua after tho Tidoiea at 
C^rpva (g.c. MO). imA lUBOtiatod tbo 
ao-oalkd "p«aoo of Oimon." (Seo 
llr. QfoUf* Tonwrkv, Hist. <A Grceco, 
r.pp.45W*7.) 

'* An At||^v« &aibMMdcr, not how- 
oror acoroililcd bj Ua icwrenunaiti 
was on fail *r>j (o Sou in the ]r«ar 
u.c 480, nod wiu involnd la tbo (au 
o( MioolaOB nod Annrialus (Tliuo. U. 
67. and oompuo *uiii«, ch. 1ST}, 




124 



IXCEimtT OF GELO. 



Book 




oU loolud careful]; at their nei^boars' faults, tli«; vould bo 
trnl; glad to can? their own bftok agun. So, aAor all, th« 
coiulact of the Argives was not perhaps more disgraceful than 
that of others. For mjself, m; dnty is to report oil thai is 
said ; tiut I am not obliged to beliovo it all alike — a remark 
which may bo understood to apply to m; whole Histoij. 
Somo ersD go so tor as to sa; that tho Argirea first tnntod 
the Persians to invade Greece, because of their ill snccess in 
tbo vror with Lacedsmon, bIqco thoj preferred anything to 
tho tmatt of their actual sufferings. Thus mnoh ooDceming 
tho Argires.* 

153. Other ambMsadors. among whom was Syagrus from 
Lacediemon, wero sent by tho allies into Sicily, with instnic- 
tions to confer with Gelo. 

Tho ancestor of this Gelo, who first settled at Gela, was a 
naUve of the Ishi of Teloe, which lies ofif Triopimn.' When 
Gela was colonised by Antiphimua and the Liudians of 
Bbodes,' ho likewise took part in the eipodition. In course of 



' Tbe«emiBtBUol tha nwndo-nn. 
(AToh on Uiw paygia (Do Iblitca. 
Hm«>L ii. Pl 8S>) Ma putienloit; 
UKfUr. □crodMoi fa*d oridtnily 
fvniadfiiod prolably en goodsToaadji, 
Ml ouiaioo deeidodlr onbiTOtmbU to 
lli«Xi^rea(nd«iafn,nii. 73)- Tlu« 
ojiinion h« U pBxt\y ftfnid, p»rllj oii. 
wiUioK, to mako too apptuvot. Tlio 
anly (nnlta of nhich Iidoui taltiy ba 
tMcniod ar« linuitity ami or«r>t«aa«r. 
IWM toworcU a gailtr nutioo. 

* Tttlot, atiD Imown by Ita old mma, 
but mora coaunoiitT c«ll«d Pitcapi, 
Un duo Mditli of tlu>lV{ii]iiui ]iranan. 
tiuj (naar Caiw 0K», npn, i. I'^i}, at 
Uutdiatanoaof ilKnittiraitTnulM. It 
lartrj inooReoilf d«actlbc<Ibj8tntbo 
(t. p. 713X who bovfrm morlu ita 
IXMiUoD will) luffloiMit Mcunicy hy 
idacui^ it bMnreon CtialcJa (ATarlt) 
and N117TM (NirijTa). It baloiv^ to 
diBfaluda MUod tb* S|>oindM (ibM.1. 
not, M tttopbon taf a (td toc), to tin 

■ QgiB, Uta nott «[ tbe Sicilian 



* 



towu (S(«plL B7E. ad roe, 'Ay j )Tii ) , 
donred ita aaina from the atnaa at 
vboM baaka H ma bvUt. Tkat 
atr«aa (tb* Bodcnt Fitimt <U 3ter». 
Saora) i* Mid to bava |to» ita nave 
from tba irbitn froata irblcb it cr«aie< 
atcmff il« baoka K'^d. ad roe. TAal. 
tho SioBiaB ami Ommb p«te PB|TaaMC 
iag tba Lattn galiL Tho cofcataatka 
of Q«la t> daekrod b;r TbuoTdldaa 10 
baiBlakoa plaoa forty-Bra j«aia aftw 
that «f Sjmum, or about s.a Wa 
Aeocodiog to him lb« ooIodj:' constat 
of Cretaaa aa wdl aa BbodiaiM (tLI; 
compara Artemoa, Pr. &). fiiill Ibt 
Bbodian* ptvpondiiralod ; and tba 
•ettteicinit mM at fint (all«d £4nd«( 
(ib. ; compare PaDaw. vtii. xtrl { >: 
Hcliol-ad ViDd. 01. Ii. IS; AthaMHUV 
via. p. £97, f-i Stopb. Bt*. ad too. 
r^i Etrm. Ham. ad voe. eaad.). 
Soma ootbovf mado Dainomaoea ba- 
faoA a dodbt tba anoeator of Gela 
irbo U bara apokea of (of. Scbol. ad 
Find.)— aetnal foimderaf tba citj (ato 
Etjn. Uagn.). 



%Ar. lS»-Ufc 



msTORT OF aajx 



123 



ijmc bis desceniliint!) becnme the hish-priestB of the koAb who 

^^wcU bclow-~an office which they held contiDually, bom the 

^Kme that Tdlines, out) of Gfilo's anceBtors, obtained it in the 

Htray which I will now mention. Certain citizens of Gcia, 

^norsted in a Hcdition, had found a refuge at Moctorinui, a 

town Bitoated on the heights above Gel&.* T§Unes reinstated 

these men, witiiout any human help, solely by monna of thfr 

^Kflaored rit<i8 of thexc deitios. From whom he received them, 

Hpr how he himself iicqnired them, I cannot say; but certain 

it is, that relying on their power he brought the exiles bock. 

For this bi» reward was to he, thu office of high-priest of those 

gods (or himself and his seed for ever. It surprittcs mo 

eepecially that Ruch a feat should have been performed by 

T^lines ; for I have always looked upon acts of this nature as 

beyond tho abihtiv^ of common men, and oiily to be achieved 

Esnch AS ore of a bold and manly spirit ; whereas TeUues is 
id by those who dwell about Sicily to liave been a soft- 
arted and wx>manish person. He however obtained this 
office in the maimer above described. 

1S4. Afterwards, on the death of Cleander, the son of Pan- 
tares,' who was slain by Sabyllus, a citizen of Gchi, after he 
had hold the tyranny for seven yuunt, Hippocrates, CleaQiIcr's 
brother, mounted the throne. Ihuing his reign, Gelo, a de- 
scendunt of the high-prii'st Ti'Uncs, served with many others — 
of whom ^uesiddmus, sod of Pataicas," was one — in tho 
king's body-gnard. W'ithin a little time his merit eaased him 
to be raised to tho comiunud of all the hwse. For when 



OOMl 



* TLoocilf otbornotiaaiit UactariDin 
thM in SuplMai, *hcr« wc Sni] that 
■ nciUmind bx rUllfttu of Sfnt- 
oa vjw-wiloMi «< the Athonka 
dabttt, ac. 416. lu MMt aiM evtnob 
b« flxad. Tirra-Kuar* wmd* to oo. 
c«p7 1^ pcttltloB of Gola, tliOQgh the 
uukont MCMiiiii (oaud tbrrc m« vtsrf 
tnOiiuc (Smnii'a SieU;, ch. v. pp. 
196, 1»). 

■ Chwidcr «M Oto first (jranL 
Bttr** bii tiato ttw MMnuntiat, m in 
Doric aUtta, md beoa m oil- 




RkTchr (Arilt. nil. T. 10), 

ibl' 



Olcondra 
prolinblf niooDtod the tliroiia in kc. 
606 (CluiU'o'a F. U. Tol. il. App. lOj 
Umnuui'a Pol. Ant. f SS, iiolA*). 

' iJBpaaiiloaMi wm th« fsiliur «I 
HifTOTi, Ijmuit et AKTijrratam not 
lODR ttftormu'ilB (ibfn, eh. 16S 1 oncip. 
I'md. 01. iii. 9, Diuoo). Ho tna 
daaovuded fram TDlomAcbm, (the in- 
alKifar of Plialnii^ nnd bolaagcd to 
tbn DoIiU funily <4 lUa EmmaBldiD 
(SohoU Ml Find. 01. iii. S«| OMDp. 
ScbcJ. ad Vjih. ri. i). 



126 



TU£ sraicoauis sav£i> ruou slateet, bomc. vn; 



Hippocrftlcs laid BJepe to CalUpoUs,' and aft«nrardB to NaxoB,* 
to ZauclC',* to Lconti&i,' and moroovor to S^Tacuse, and many 
oitieB of tho barbarians, Gelo in every woi distinguiehed him- 
self al)OTA oU the combatants. Of the various oiti«B above 
nomod, there was none but Syracuse which was not reduced 
to Hlav^y. The SyracueanR vere saved from this fiito, after 
they ha<l suffered defeat on the river Eiarus," by tho Corin- 
thians and Coroyiteana, who made peace between them and 
Hip])Ocrat«s, on condition of thoir coding Caomrina" to him ; 
for that city anci(;ntly belonged to Syracuse. 
155. AVben, faoverer, Hippocrates, after n reign of the same 



' Collipolia WM a Knxian lettlv- 
tneni, nod lar «t no gmi <li*lu)ca 
frctn HaxM {Sejia. Cb. 1. !8fi ( Stiab. 
vi. p. HIH). Ita Ruct BJto is nob 
known. Iiul coDiiot luLvo bnui f itr from 
Vucatt. Almdj in tbu limo oT 
Btrikbo it lotcl uaatd to bo s dty. 

■ Kmcm, AMordiiMC to TtacydidM 
(ri. 3), tho Rnt td the Gn»k anttle- 
niMits in flicil,v. wiu (oundHl about 
the yww B.C. rSB (•oo <;iiDton). It 
mt a cclon7 from Cbaloii in Katmrn. 
DtonTdo* Ibo tfntnt rued it (o thu 
grenndi and tho Tcrj nuoif hud dii> 
•pjiMnd in tho tina nf tUrabn, wbo 
MOms to hard Ihkh qiiito iniaUkon oa 

10 ita lito (rl. p. SSQ), It l5T OS tLo 
CMt eMtit. n tiltlo oontb of Taonnna- 
nJiun (TtaOTmiiu), nilb nhioh it mi* 
MUtMiuoR eonfonnded (PUb. H. N. iii. 
^. Sojlax (IVoripl. p. 9), bowers, 
and «Uier vrilcni lUitinyaiidi th* two. 
KUM BMou to luTD ooonpied tliu 
moll ptomoaiorj immediuol; north 
ttl tbo tiicr j(l«inlura, which I* tho 
AcmIdm of 'Diucydidoa (It. £G] uid 
the AaiDM of Vlinj (U «i o.). A brood 
vtream of Iftis hea or«Mpn«d Iha lit* 
■inw the dcvtmctton of Iho (rity 
(Smyths aieilr. Pl 130). 

* LCMtini WM fonndad from Kuoi^ 
*ti rau« nftoi the aniral of tha 
CteloldMti* in Sloilr ITfaiKTd. ri. 4), 

11 lar aoBio dlJitaiica np ibo TeriMi 
whkA tMoei to be (he nver bf wblok 
lbs nptrflaooa nMen cl JaIw jBiiifri 
are «HTied to the aea (Sefl. FWipL 



p. S ; comp. Tlintr^rd. n. EO). 71w 
came rpmains ia tho medem L«hMi<. 
whiob howDvcr, liDco the carthqoak* 
of 1603. boa becD uionA from th* 
nnoi^ot ailr. Boiua eiiU eoter the 
"df'tl hill " (iKnitpare the iloacriptkoi 
of Pvlxl'iut, vii. 6) on nhiob the totn 
tn-igiuailjr stood. Bomaina of aatiqalt^ 
OTO hen cocMJonnliT dijcavcreil 
(Smrth. p. 1071. 

* Tho rivor KIAra*, or ndAnu, «ti» 
Ita name (o the prinoipal town of ti« 
•QUtii4aat«ni catBcrol Sicilr (ApoUod. 
Fr. 47), to whMh led tha via UorW 
of Tbaer^iAn (ri. 70. rii. 60). It ia 
tunr tha Aiyuo (Smfth, p. 17Q. 
Findar alliuW to the battle hen 
mentioned (Kom. iz. 40). 

* Camaruitt in* fonuM frain Sji»- 
eiue abnut the jrou a.c.Iitl9 (Clinioo). 
ItlB^Milhe aaiUheoain,l>nlN«enOelk 
oDd Cl^ Aehyiuu (PiUMn), at th» 
month «( tha Hipparit (conp. SerL 
IViTipL p. 9| Ylrg. Xa. Ui. WO-Ml ; 

riiMi (H. T. IS i nia. u. v. ui. a>. 

Thia appeals to b* the (trtaea whidh 
TtaehM tha aM betireon StvfliatH lAd 
Santa Oru*. The nonh atiU nitta 
whioh Hndar and Senisa (ad ^k.) 
mention, but there are ennolj nj 
veiU^:** of tho anolont to«a (BaiTlht 
p. liiS), which bad goon to iitvmftm 
t»itj a* SlMbo'a tine <<rL p. 391). 

The ormt is the hiitory of Cana- 
riua M which ntcodoln* Ikto aII«dM 
la ralotcdat gfeatet leacth b; Tbuej- 
dUot (tL « ) MM tlw Fhiliat. yt. 17). 



4 



4 



, Cur. 164.156. 



GELO MAKES B71LICU&E lUS dPrTAL. 



127 



hof^h fts that of Oleander bis brother, perisbcd near the city 
Hyblo,* as he was uraniiig with the natire Siciliantt, tlien 
Ook), pretending to c«poueo the catiEO of the tn-o eons of Hip- 
pocratee, Eocleidea and Clcander, dcfoatod th« citu«aB who 
-were eeekiug to recover their freedom, and baving so done, 
set aside the ohildreo, and himaelf took the kingly pover. 
After this piece of good fortmui, Gelo likewise became master 
of Syraoose, in tba following manner. The Syraeuxon hwd- 
holdorp," as they were called, had been driTcn from thotr city 
by the common peo|^ assisted by thoir own Blavefl, Uio 
Cyllyriaas,* and bad fiod to Caemcnw.^ Gtdo brought them 
baok to Syracuse, and so got possession of tlio town ; for the 
people smrendered themselves, and gave up their city on 
his approach. 

156. Being now master of Syrncnse, Gelo oared le«s to 
eovem Gola, vhich be therefore entrusted to his brother 
Hiero, while he strengthened the defences of his new city, 
which indeed was now all in nil to bim. And Syracneo sprang 
up rapidly to power and became a flourishing plaoc. For 
Gelo razed Cumarina to the groond," and brought all the 



*nwn ««• tbrM cillos oT this 
nUM ia Sietl; (SWpb. By*.). Tlie 

QfbUM. nenu to bavo been known lo 
ItovdMa •■ UcgMB (leo the crit 
«lia(it«r). TtM two otbcni «rr« native 
Siml toirai in lb* interior. Tho 
Hjblk honi iat«Bd«l i* proluljiy that 
wUoh Uv on ibo ront« faun A^igea- 
Mm io STtMcnuo (Itin. Aaloaio. p. S), 

■ In Sttmom m til Kuiin* (Tboord. 
Tiii. HI), tba Llgbort nuk uf crtiiKut 
MOM* (o li»T* bonM Uut litlo (Mum. 
iSv. M)( ptopottT in liud being p«r- 
iMipiaaaflnail to tlwta. At AthoiM tbo 
Oeonwri wam • middl* oIdu ((Dfm, 
vol. iii. Ajip. Book t. Eiraj ii. } 1:!. 

* Otbor wrilcn mil thm> bUtoi 
CiUie;rlMU (I'liot, 
I Tuo. ) llaUreb, Frov. 
10 1 CnrtMh. ad Uoin. II. p. S)E, A«.). 
'Tlmj ircra sadaabWillj taliria S>cwl« ; 
BJid tlurir namo mad h&*c bclong«d (o 
Um SiMt kngunso. 11 ii eoMUmmcf 



Sold. VUtm-. w) I 




to oompaf* them (o tto PniMttt is 
Thsunlj. aod tbo Holct* ia Lao«dw- 
man (Phot, ad voo. KAAcc^m ; Siodai^ 
Ac.)i On thi)<ioii«titiiIlca>ot Sitncim 
U Mt tinxi, Me Uullvr'i borltku* 
(U. p. CI, S. T.). 

' CatmantB wM amlon; c< Sjnnwo. 
Il vu foosded abmt *iut ytax via. 8M 
([Ihnovd. f). 6 1 KoCllatoo, r. H. toL. 
i. |x zOO). Thorn njxr uo utana of 
fUdug Ita aita, «iaoo it ia umittod bjaU 
Lhe RoogtBpben. 

* Ttao Ant dntmetion of CaBwrlBik 
taak pbMO witUn 4S 7«knicf it* fooa- 
aatloD. B.O. GS8 (Soyis. Qh. SUt-SHei 
Sobol. ad Find. 01 t. S). It bad i«. 
roltail ffom B/nciuo> and oa beins 
rvrliimd Ttni rated to tba groand 
(Thaoyd. ri. Ii), Outhoocudon ottha 
(tte to tbo Oeloana ^mipn, cb. 154), 
Hlpp«Ci»e«ar«biulltbnioKii<Tliuo}(l. 
1. «. o. PbiliM. Ft. 17), which iraa a 
Bpciccd timo dmtrojrcd by tielo, ab 
&C. iSi. Tbo dato and 1 



128 



GELO MAKES STHACCSE HIS CAPITAL. 



Soo« vn. 



inhabitruils to Syracuse, and made Uiom citucns; ho also 
brouf{lit tliither moro thou half tho citizens of Gela, and gave 
tbcm tlie same rights as tbd CamanniGanii. So likcwiite vitb 
tbo Mogarinns of Sici);" — after besieging Uicir town and 
forcing them to snirendor, he took tho rich men, who, having 
mado the war, looked now for nothing leas than death at his 
hands, and ciurrj'iiig them to Syracuse, established them there 
as citizens ; while tho conunou people, who, as ihcy had not 
taken any tiltaro in tho struggle, felt HCcure tliat no harm 
would be done to tbem, be carried likewifie to Sjrracnse, wbexo 
ho sold them all as slaves to bo conveyed abroad. He did the 
liko visa by the Gubceans of Sicily,"* making the same difier- 
onee. His conduct towards both nations arose from bis belief, 
that A " people " was a most unpleasant compauton.* In 
way Getc^becamo a great kicg.' 



of it* lAWrnmatabltttunnneBiw imcmr- 
taiu (c«m|«t« Thooj'iL ri. C, with 
tXoiL Sic.c.TA; BmlcMtheSoholiBiil 
on Find. 01. t. ]G, DiuoiiX They 
tiW, hcnroTcr, Into tho Uma of rinilnr, 
wlio qiotlw of CMD&ricA tta bewl/ 

* Uegni* Kjbin* wu fonndod b^ 
lltgviaiui frooi Thapaa*, 24ft jemn 
b*tDt« Uu> OTont h«r* Mmtaeioi)rit«il, 
protnbly nbout i.e. 738 (Hinoyd. vL 
4) •(« Clmtou, ToL i. p. 160, vol. u> 

E, S&t). It kjr on tlio OMt mail, a 
btlo to tba Donh of 8yn«nM (8o;l. 
FOnpL p. 9) Tbu0j>l. *i. 04) Simb. 
vi. p. SHG). TbB ciBot aiU Memi to 
be tb« pUia woat of AjttU, which 
it eoTM«d with roliii (Smytli. p. 161 : 
ccnji. Kieport, Bl*tt. xiiv., wluiro the 
nirtako of Cnmor and otiion U 
vemedlod). l[«g*t* puiiall^ re- 
ooTcred frost itia Iom of it* iohkbd- 
UnU at ttili pcdod; but ll bod 
antirolr dlMppcuod In Blnbo'n Uuw 
Cl.».0.). 

■° Eslxi* Menu never to htn ra- 
eOTOMd IhU blmr. It inu % cdoaj 
tarn Ltontini (Slnh. rL p. 81HX "nil 
probably ailiuted at no Rtmt dit(sno« 
fr««n that city. Stnbc^ lb« unl/ 
writer itbo meutioiu it after B«to- 



ffer- 
lief,A 

1 



dottu, 8i>Mka of it •• CMopleMr A*- 

> Mr. SUknlcy (oppoM* (not* 43Z, 
ad liw.) Ihot th* objoot of Onio <>■« 
" to K«e rill a* naoh ai poMibla of Ills 
ChaloidMii (or Ionic) •InDOot in th* 
popniatian, anil to foeUr tho Palopos- 
noriui, dierlTcd froa Carinth a*d 
Ucgitra." Bat tbU ob]«cC doM not 
appear. Euhme, irbich wai ChalcU 
dean, ii aaid to haT« b««M tmM«d 
eznctljr aa Mcennn whid «■■ Ftlo> 
poooDtlao. Tho object loonu to t>vo 
boan limply tbo iDcicaung Uia lim 
will pronpOTity of tha cl^ by a 
ovfolKKTii of 'KuI|.ti>.do panona- 

■ AriatoUo rvlaWi (Folit. T. S) OtU 
tbo domocracy in Syraoow had pro- 
pared lh» way for Oalo'a tynnny by 
ita own miaaoDducI, harinc plsngd 
JDto nonrohy nnd diMnlar. Hr. Gnato 
<Ui*t. of Gntco, T. p. tW. aatn^y 
vainly ondcavutra to diacndit tbi* 
«Ut#aioiit. Ho Mji than bad not 
baon timo for tha daaaoefSf to eon- 
■titoto it«elt, ainoo tbo iMtomti 
"aftoriinf tn tJU iMmltT* qf fli 
datui," look placo nlnioat luua>d' 
afMr iha axpnlttoa. But tba lii 
bftwoan tba two annta oaaoMt , 
nbly bo ewimalad Inm HciodotM. 



p 



OjA US-ICB. SPEECH OP TBR QREEK ENVOYS. 



129 



167. WLcn tlie Qiook onroys reaohod SjTftcnso, and wmi 
adiniUcd to an ntulioncfi, they upoito ns fotlowe — 

" Wo hiive been sent hither by the Lac«<liGmonianfl and 
AthoBiaDH, nitU tb«ir rospcctire allies, to ask thee to join aa 
against tlio barbariiui. Doubtlotts tbon hnBt lioan) of hia 
inTOstoD, and art ftware that a Persian ia about io throw a 
bridge over tbo Helleepont, and, bricF^ng ^ith him oat of 
Asia all the forc«*i of the Ea«t, to carry -war into GroMo, — 
{■rofesHing indeed tlint he only seeks to attack Athens, but 
really bent on bringing all the Greeks into eabjectioo. Jh 
DiOQ therefore, we beee«ch thee, aid those who would maintain 
the freedom of Greece, and thyaelf assist to bee her; since 
the power which thon wieldest is great, and thy portion in 
OrDcco, as Ion) of Sicily, ia no small one. For if all Greece 
join together in one, thej^ will be a migbty hont ooUe<cted, 
and we shall be a mat<:h for oar assailants ; bat if some torn 
traitors, and others rehise tht^^tr aid, and only a small part of 
tbo whole body rctnaina Houud, tluu there is r«aHon to fear 
that all Greece may perisli. Fur do not tbou clu-rish a hope 
that tlie Pi'-Tdiaja, when he has oouqoered our country, will bo 
content and not advance against thee. Rather take thy 
measures beforehand ; and consider that thou defendeet thy* 

feelf when thou girest aid to ns. Wise coonaels, bo «uro, for 
ths moet part havo proeperoos issaes," 
168. ThuB spake the envoys; and Gelo replied n-ith to- 
bemeDoo— 
*' Greeks, ye hare had the &ce to come here with selfish 
words, and exhort mo io join in Icagoo with you against the 
'barian. Yet when I crewhilo asked you to join with me in 
gbting barbarians, what lime the qonrrel broke out between 
and Carthago ; ° and when I eami'»tly besought you to 



I 



ITr> Hvii alao thai Uia asperior teat» 
I " bro^^U wit)) Un toK. 
i-Uiw thetabniMioiLof iho 

Uat (1m r«aJy imliRiiii. 

t^ fmiitit Htj in Bicily 

DOS, fr. tf) latj irvU b« («kcD 

VOL IV. 



to IndlMta dlttaUihction iriih th*ir 
gavorninaDt (mm M&llec'a Doriui*, vol. 
ii p. IH. B. T,> 

* Nu putioniars ara fcaown ot Uila 
wur. It a»y be oonkctorod iliai Ot>Io 
hui Mmgbl a quum wUfa Uw Ovtba. 



130 



INDtOSATIOS or BTAGBUa 



Bmk 




nrenge od the men of Egesta their mordcr o( Doriotift, th« 
BOD of AiiainndridaH, promiHing to assist you in Bt^tting bee 
the trading-places, from which you receive great profits and 
advantagee, yoa noitlior came hither to give me Eoccoor, nor 
ytt to rcvongo Doricus ; but, for an; cGTorta ou your port to 
liiixlcr it, these countries might at this time haw lx>i.'t) entirety 
under the barbarians. Now, liowerer, that matters have 
proflpered and gone well nrith me, while the danger has shifted 
its ground and at prcHont threatens yourselves, lo ! yon call 
Gelo to mind. But thoo^ jro sUgbtcd mo then, I will not 
imitate you now : I am rrady to give you aid, and to fumisli 
as my contribution two hundred triremes, tw<^nty thousand 
men-at-arms, two thousand cavalry, and an equal number of fl 
archers, sUngcrs, and light horsi'mcu,' togl^UlC■r wth corn for^ 
tho whole Grecian army so long as thu war shall last. Those 
serriocs, however, I promise on one eoudition — that yi 
appoint me chief onptain and commander of tlie Giedan' 
forces during the war with the barbarian. Unless y« agxW| 
to tliis, I will neither send saccours, nor come mynolf." 

ISO. Syagrus, when h« board theso words, was onablo to 
contain lUmsclf. and exclaimed — 

" Surely a groan would burst from Pelops' son, Agamom-l 
nou,'did be hear that her leadership was anatehed from Sportft' 
by Gelo and the men of BjntcuM. Speak then no more of 



I 



slniao*, wiiliio; to «nio1 tlinin rrom 
8icll7, Mid bod ondo tbe dcsUi of Da- 

li«iu in bMllo wiUi tbo EgveUiniW, 
ottiittd ky Carlluiyt {mpn, r. 46), bi* 
pretoxl. Th« tradiiiiC.piMM nicn- 
thmed below natj bo tba mnaXt npoa 
tbs SioUlui ooMt, and th* UeU >'ff it, 
irUcb iha CnrUuffinlM* had oMupied 
fronmry tculy timci t<a coinmncliil 
jiUpOMM (iiimeplai Imttr T^t wfti rtiii 
iMtKait, TbacTd. tL S). Oalo »]>• 
pmm lo liavo bean tDcoaafn], nad to 
bkvo driran tho CartiMjiiniim (ram 
Ui« Inland. lIia*tal«nmit<i(th*BKmt 
bm«fiu ibBitiKoa nccnjng b> iha 
Palownnwiw i» ft Mtonl oxiigg«m' 

tiOD. 

■ I do not knoir wh; IhoM pnmbon 



•hould Iw consiikiTed incmdlbh, ■« 
Uiey an by Mr. Groto (toU t. p. t90). 
BarodoiQii ai Thurii bad good ms<ui» 
cf aocomtaly aalimatia^ Iha jiovrar 
of tbo Sicilian QtMlc*; and iliuy wera 
tb« iuiiiib«i« piren tho by the natiTa 
Uuortjui nnuMW (Fr. ST). Diodonn 
uo, it I* (o b« obaarrad, Bidso* WU> 
a tax luKM array (:>0,000 fiwt M&d 
SOOO bcm«\ when ba B>>i«ili«d (rva> 
Symcuaa to fl^t tbu battle of BiiDe 

(«i. eix 

* Theaa wonta in tliO itftnlnal 
nearlr aa huDBieivr lino. TIm; i 
as adaMatton of lite cxctotniitio& 
SaMw (O. TiL ISl) :— 



Onr. IGS-m. ADDRESS OF TDB ATOEKUS EKVOT. 



131 



any RQch condition, &ti that we should yield thee the chief 
oommiuid ; but if thon art minded to come to the aid of 
Oroeoe, prepare to sorve under Lucedtemonian gencmlfl. 
Wilt thoa not iwrro under a leader? — Ihvn, prithc*. withhold 
thy suooours." 

160. Hereupon Gdo, e«eing tlic indipiiiAtion which sliowod 
itself in the words of Syagmti, delivered to the envoys his 
final offer: — " Spartam Btranfler," he said, "reproaches caet 
forth against a man are wont to provoke him to anger ; but 
the insQlts which thon bast uttered in thy speech shall not 
persuadv mc to outstep good bret-diug in my answer. Surely 
if 70D miiintuin so stoutly your right to tJie command, it ia 
reasonable that I sbonld be still more stiff in mnintAining 
mine, forasmuch as I am at the head of a far larger fleet 
and army. Since, howcvor, the chiim which I Lave put for- 
ward is BO disiileasing to you, I will yield, and bo content with 
lesa. Take, if it please you, the command of the land-force, 
and I will be admiral of the tl^t ; or assume, if you prefer it, 
the command by sea, and I will be loader upon tixo land. 
Unless yon are uatisfied with these terms, you must r«turu 
homo by yottrselres, and lose tliis great alUanoe." Such was 
the offer which Gclo made. 

161. Uereat broke in tho Athenian envoy, before the 
Spartan could answer, and thus addressed Gclo— 

" King of the Syracusans ! Greece sent oa here to thee to 
ask for on army, and not to ask for a general. Thou, how- 
ever, do6t not promise to send us any army at all, tf thou art 
not mado loader of the Gmekfi ; and this command ia what 
alone tliou stickiest for. Kow when thy request was to have 
the whole command, we were content to keep silence ; for well 
we knew that we might trust tho Spartan envoy to make 
answer for oa both. But since, after failing in thy claim to 
lead the whole armament, thou hast now put forward a 
request to have the command of the fleet, know tliat, even 
should the Spartan envoy consent to this, wo will not oon- 
sent. Tho command by sea, if the Laccdfemoniiuifl do not 




133 



RBPIT OF OEtA 



Boot 



t^^B 



wish for it, IwlonRS to nn. While tliey like to keep this oom- 
niflrnJ, wo slmll rnise no (iispiite; but we will not yiclA our 
right to it in favonr of any one else. WbtTo would be the 
ftdvantago of our hdving raised up a naTal force greater than 
that of any other Greek p<?oplo, if nevertheless wo should 
HofTor S}Taou»anR to take the eommand away from us ?— fh}m 
U8, I Hay, who are Athenians, the moet ancient nation tn 
Greece," the only Greeks wlio baye never ehangcd their abode 
— the people who «ro said by the poot Homer to hare sent 
to Troy the mnn best able of all the Greeks to array and 
mnrslml an army' — so that we may be allowed to boast 
somewhat." 

162. Gelo replied — " Ath^ian stranger, yc have, it Reems, 
DO lack of eommanders ; but ye are likely to Inek men to 
receive their orders. As ye are reBolred to yield nothing and 
claim everything, ye had beat make haste back to Greece, and 
gay, that the spring of her year is lost to her."* Th« 
meaning of this expresstoo was tlio following : as the apring 
is manifestly the finest season of the year, so (he meant to 
say) were his troops the finest of the Grc«k army — Greece, 
therefore, deprived of his alliance, would be like a year with 
the epring taJien from it. 

163. Then the Greek enroys, without having any farther 
dealings with Gelo, sniJed away home. And Gelo, who faated 
that the Greeks would bo too weak to witlintand the bor- 
bariana, and yet could not any how bring himself to go to the 
Fdoponnese, and there, though king of Sicily," ii«rvo under the 



^ Tho AOhuuuii ctoimcd to bo oD* 
itxttft Mid ■>it>*w lr (Pbt. UoDOx. p. 
X37,C.| lKicr>S.Pui.ir.|i.ie6t Dent. 
<1« F. h. p. 434}. Tbe cl^m, bowwr, 
did Dot oioloaiTclr bnloDK CO them, but 
vxloodnd >t l(««t to tho Aimdiniu and 
CjmiiriBiu (iiitm, nli. Ti). lu iviX 
baaia wu nmplj that nlloiluil to iii lli* 
Bftzt ckitM i tbo* hwl nOTOr left Attica. 
(Sm on tU« poiiik Ttiacfd. i. %; v. 
M I Plat. Bfmmc. 1. K- c. ; Earlp. ap. 
Plat. d» Bin. p. OM, S. i ud lapn, I. 

ea.) 



'SvoILiLaSS^ 

* A aimitMM'preiaim ia taidbjAri- 
■totle CBhel. i. 7, iU, 10) to bkra bc«n 
introduced iato tb* fonond cffatMO *l 
I'orlr.Ici i but it do» not oociir In tbo 
nporl Ittl by TtiDcjdidM of Uou 
ipaech. Pid an^ o«ber nnkn aaK 
of the xiy*t ^Tdf Ml t 

* niia title la mDorkaU*, bat 



I 




CiAT. 161-16^ CASUCS SBSt Bt 0£L0 TO DELPm. 



'33 



L&oediemonums, left off altogtitber to coat«inplate that coarso 
of aotton, and botook liiuiM-If to quite a dilTereat plan. Aa 
soon as ever tidiags reaobed bim of the passage of the Helles- 
pont hj the Persian;), he sent off three peuteconters, under 
tho command of Cudmas, the son of Sc^'thas, a native of 
Cos ; who wofl to go to Dulphi, taking n-ith him a largo sum 
of money and a etook of Mendly words : there he was to 
watch the war, and aeo what turn it vrould take : if tbo bar- 
barians prerailed, be was to give Xerxes the treasure, and 
with it «artb and water for the lands which Gelo ruled — if the 
Greeks won the day, ho wat; to convey the truaeure back. 

Iti'l. This Cadmus bad at nu corber time nocived from his 
liber the kiagly power at Cos " in a right good condition, 
'snA hod of bis own freo «-ill and without the approach of any 
danger, from pnro love of justice, given up his power into the 
hands of the people at large, and deported to Sicily ; where 
be n^^isted in the Samian seizure and settlement of Zanelu,' 
or MuH&ana, as it was afterwords called. Upon this occasion 
Gclo cbofio bim to send into Greece, beoanse he was ac- 
quaint«d with the proofs of honesty which be had given. 
And now he added to tiia formor honourable deeds an action 
which is not tbo least of his merits. With a TOst sum 
catrustcd to him and completely in lus power, so that he 
might have kept it for his own nse if ho had Uked, bo did not 
touch it; but when the Greeks gained the sea-light and 
Xerxes fled away with his army, he brought tho whole treosuro 
hack with bim to Sicily. 



■OkTcelf Mnns loo stronK whon wa 
eotuidcr Uio «st«*t ot Oclo'* power. 

>* It luu b<irrainutpocl«d(IWi«ni!iUL, 
VoklcKiMr, I^wdiar) ihM Uulmiu 
HTM the (On or naplwi* d that Sr^tbu, 
king ot ZuifiU, wlioiii the Sajniuia 
aWMd, and wbo flod tn tlio court at 
Buim(fupi%,vi.l4). Scfihutiilitlit, 
it i> UiqukIu, Invn beMi prevented l>y 
DKdw itith tlie •oteiwientjr ot Cm. aa 
Cum WM wilk that c4 Ult lUae ; bnc 
had this bawi m llcrodotiia would 
tetictlf hart fkilod to iivIIm itt 



DOF ironld SdTtbM than huro died 
nt nn ndruicad a^ta in Pmia (tr 
Hfyajiiri). BoiidM.CniliiKuwMGlcurljr 
MiuiiK tlin oriuinnl Mttlen who dii- 
potuatmA 8C7U1U. Tho Identity oT 
name i* th«ndMt« ft aun colacidtUMw 
> Soo ainirn, vl. 28 1 kwl (ur Ui* 
chuigo of nam*, ef. Tlmcyil. n. £, 
wiMra wo luid iliot AmuiUaO* nado 
tbo altuntliuii. AiinxilBila 14 nld to 
Imre biiloogml to the UoMealoD olo. 
mcnt io tho pcfiutMian ot ttbagiaa 
(SiiaU ri. p. 370>. 




134 



INTESTIOS OP CEW TO HELP TnE OBEEKS. Boos Tit 



16S. The;, however, v-bo dvell in Sicily, say tiiat Gclo. 
EthoQgh he knew tiiat lie munt nerve under the La«odiB* 
rmooians, voulil nevertheless have come to the aid of the 
Greeks,' bad Dot it been for T^rilloe, tho boh of Crinippns, 
of Himt-rn ; ' who, dritcn from bi« cily by Tlnro. the 
!>□ of /Eticsiik'tuus,* king of AgrigODtiuQ,' brought into Sicily 
at this very time * an army of three buudred tliousiuid men, 
PhcemcianR, Libyans, Iberians, LigariniiR, Hclisycians, Sar- 
is, and Coraicans,' nnder the command of Hamilcar the 



■ E]iherni wd that Gclo wbk on the 
' t at dovpatchlng 200 ihip*. 10/K» 
, ud !000 horn*, to tlui MtliitaiiM 
Ute Qiwkt, irhan b« heard of tlio 
I of tlio Out^giiUMU (Fnig, 
'111). 

* Far p«rtioii1an <^ tlilt placs, uo 
aboTO, vi- Xi, not« *. 

* Tho dMcont of ThoTO from T«l»- 
nutohD*. thn doponr ot Phnlori*, hM 
bcoo oltoiwly inftntif<n>-il (tiitint, oh. 
lU, DOCo '}■ Pio-lar Inwraii liim U> 

I Thpnamdw. tlic ioq of Poly njcra (OL 
li. 43 ; Ff . lIcrtHl. !v. 117) ; uid Dlo- 
(ollii Lini tii« nublml nf the 
dlikn GtmIc* (x. p. 06, od. BipoDt.). 
henB U mii to havo momed a niooo 
of Oolo'it, wkilo Quia iiiftrrlod hi* 
dnriiter Dunnrata [Schol. *d Pind. 
OL IL p. 18) : the two mte noduulit- 
odlj oluoa hIIIm, and bod raoM likcljr 
■'Ueontad Umlr nohMiuM In oooocxt. 

* Agrigontam *tn« foaoded ttvm 
' I&, about B.C. G6S (Thuoyd. ri. li 

I CVntoii, vol. IL p. SS3). It by no 
I ■ontb ooait,at»»uo httlodbtaao« 
I tho ihore, mi'lny bttwveo Ov]» 
SoUniu (Softai, PeripL p. fii 
^Plts. H. N. ill. 8 ; Stnb. vL p. 39«). 
Tfao dOMriptioo Id Pnlybtn* lit. 2T|. 
ttie Dioilfni iuua« (0•r|r^«I<t>), and tiw 
nlficMit rrmniii* vt tviDiil«« iktid 
boT biu1diii(0 (Smvth, pp. Sue.21S), 
Dtly fiidlcato Ibo po«itloa ct tlia 
toirn, which ill Mid IV biiTO 
'oealalnodatono time noorlra loiltion 
inhnblMaU (Dlog. Lacrt. Vit. Bnipo. 
docL Tiil. 63 ) conipkro Diod. Bio. xlil. 
Mi 

' AMCiriiii((o K|pliotiM{L».o.)a>id 
OlodotH (ti. 1), tiua attack <nt «m< 



oetUtS bl^t1r<<c^ the CnrthnffJnlniu and 
the I'nnUiui), nhn pnrpoaMj (ell apon 
tlio o|i)HHlt« eods of Gi««e« at the 
nune mumeob. I cannot eco that 
tlicre u tay jinprotebililj' Id nicli a 
ccunbinotlon, na Dohlioanii arfpioe 
(I,i(« of Herod, n. 137, K. T) i bat tbo 
foot that UocodoEua was ii^nomit «f 
Uia Fcetonded oUianco ii eoiulBljr a 

rr« arsomont agninat iu reolilT. 
Kfcotuit for lb* Mriui'illmca m 
jioint of tlmo of tho (wo titlack*, no 
olliuiM i* needed, tiiieo the Carlh»- 
gittlo&a would glodt; take odraalafpt 
of a MOfioii whnu tli« eUtlo* of Givmo 
PrD{in irtw tuo mnoh mgigad witlt 
their oirn aSain lo aond MMOuon to 
llinlr KlcUtou hmtbrm. 

' ThU it tho &nt laMano* tt tin 
miied niorcoiiai7 nnnioi of Oonbifc, 
by trhioh her oonqnoita ware oMl- 
narilr offoclcd (Polyb. L 17, C7, to.). 
A* >ii<r own Phoiniciftn pOiinUtioa wm 
■uinll, it waa her policy to apare it, 
and to hire eoldiets fnen tbe easntrias 
to nbkb aho bod tho iradiaie oceMa. 
1'hn native African noee ^waya fur. 
nitbed bi^r with the fjmtMit tiDisber 
of troopa (ri ithtnar itipvt i|r AiBvn, 
Polyb. L 6T} i after thnin aho drew bM 
np^iliea trtita tbe TarioM marituno 
nalioua bonleriDB npco tho weaWfo 
UoditemDcan. It la ioMructlTO to 
find no ueatlon of Celte io tkia plaoe. 
If wo canoui Kty wiili Niebobr (Bum, 
Uirt. ii. p. COS. B. T.} Unit tho Oslfa 
had not yet reached the ■«*— and tho 
montion ot Karbnnnn by Flr^tHT* 
(Pr. 16) aa "a Cvllio karboar and 
trodi&ff. place," disimnwi fhie amor* 
lion — 7«i (till we may bo qnito loni 



I 



I 



Ciur. Idft-16A. DEPCAT jLXD DISAPPEARANCE OF HIMILCAB. I33 






of naimo. king' of tho Outhaginians. TdriUuB pro- 
i upon HftDiilcar, parti; u llii svorn fricod, but more 
through tlto )!«alou!i aid of Anaxiiaus tlie bod of Cretine!), king 
otBbegiam;* vho, by ginng his own eons to Eamilcar oa 
bostageSi iodnoed him to make the expedition. Anaxilaiis 
herein served his own fatlior-in-law ; for he waa married to a 
d»iight«r of Ti-rilloa, by naino CydippiJ. So, as Gcio could 
not grvD tlio Greeks any aid. ho sent (they say) tho Bum of 
money to Delphi. 

166. They eay too, thnt the Tictory of Gclo and Thcro in 
Sicily over HamilcarUie Carthaginiau, fell out upon tho very day 
that the Greeks defeated the PemiauR nt SaUimis.' Hamilcar. 
who was a Cnxthaginian on his fathor'H Bide only, but on hia 
mother's n Syracuitan, and who hod boen raised by bis merit to 
the throne of Carthage, after the battle and the defeat, na I am 
informed, disftppeare<I from sight: Gelo made the strictest search 
for him,but he could not be found anywhere, either dtad or alire. 



hfthort« tbejr OM«pi«d no ooa- 
Ridenblv oxtnirt of ccut— a viow 
ihieih Hw n i w i. who MsiR3M liar. 
fwillM to Liitort* (I^. SZ), dMidKlljr 
TliF 101^ ci Fruco, ex> 
; • huH «eni«r bmt tho Pjrto- 
«M now Ligaritt--a couttiy 
doh «ilDndiHl to the Amu (Sojibi, 
JVripl- p. ^V 9pvii itw of iviime, 
'iraja to the Gnsdu (pDlirb.iiM- 
[jMrJB. The only paopM bom 
, who Moaa a dinfeDltr> »** ^" 
_ A Kinbvhr txaiioi^iart* them 

I tbs VotMiuw. which ii poviblu 

ntpEotuirirall}-, md nptocablB to their 
I r-ualtloD in tlie bit c( UfnHlotoii i but 
lit miwt DM be fnrtutton thnt Itrva. 
'tmu (fwk* el tbn Suliayci lui o 
LXtewtM tribe (Ft. 30). 
I Tbn Cftrtkagiaiuii femnod ttioir 
of rntrid mprMMoiea to pro- 
lYmt WHtfntM (FbtfU L 67)l Thn 
junmhir m tlii* Dcouton in pnilabljr 
lcnwC"><«<l: bat II <■ gfr^nt bj Dio- 
[ilrinK(ii. SO) u wDllaabrUenMiotiil. 
■ Tb*l ii, KaffM (cf^). nie QrMk 
rn alirtj^ rpok of thn SolMta 
'kiuge*' (fimf^tU). <Sca Ariet. 



F«d. iiS; Diod. Sic. x!r. »; Pt>l7b. 
ii. SI.) Deoran (Afr. Nkt. t. p. 192, 
B. T.) hM (hontii Mluir»rt(ai]]r iJM 
the OnithayiiuH SuSitii wu «)eet«d 
(or lir«. 

* Bopnt, tL SS. 

* Diodoni Mji the battle «m 
foujthl on tlici tune day with the final 
ktmitKlB at Thermcoylte (ri. S4}. Hie 
dMcriptiiHi of tho fight (d. 21, 23) ii 
pvubtblr tkkon fnna TinuBM, tfce 
■wtivo iiiet«r<an. Aooc«4in(r t« thia 
itcoount llw Tiotoiy waa i^ined ehitiflj- 
throai^h • ■tr»t«ge«ri of Oelo\ wbot 
hoarliiK IIiBI mocottn were expected 

SUkiuIlcBr fi«oi Selinna, foot a> body 
Ue own tioopi to pneoaate thooi. 
Theae troop* luted • tuiault in tbe 
Canha^laa eamp^ dew llamlloiir m 
bo wan iieiTinolDg, and aM lint lo tho 
dii(>li white Qelo with all tila fdar«>e 
mllivd from Himoni,aDd fril iipoo tlia 
aimy in front. The only ini|iortant 
diaaropant^y botwcoa tbi« aooo<ut and 
thu haiai\ hf our anlbur, la tbat tlio 
death of llainilcar ia i^oeed by Uio. 
donia mrly in the day. 



136 



FftOHISES OF TUB CORCnUEAXa 



Ba©s TO^^ 



IC7. The CarUitginianR, vlio tnlcc probability for llioir gui^, 
gire Ui(! following accotmt of this matter : — Hamilcar, they 6»y, 
daring all the timo that the battle raged between the Greeks 
and the barbarians, which was from carlj dawn till ereniog, 
remiuned in the camp, sacrificing' and set-king favounibli' _ 
omena, while he bumod ou n huge pyre the entire bodies of Lhi< H 
Ticttms which he offered. Here, as he potired libations tipon 
the Bacri0ccii, he saw the rout of his armj ; wherviipoa he cast 
hiniflC'lf headlong into the flamoe, and ho was coueumcd and 
diHappcarcd. But whether Humilcar's disappearance bappcned, 
as the Phocnicioas tell us, in this way, or, as tho Syracnsaiu 
maintain, in some other, certain it in tliat tho Carthaginians 
offer him sacrifice, and in all their colonies have monumenU 
erected to his honour, as well as one, which is the grandest of ^ 
till, at Carthage. 7hus much concerning the affairs of Sicily. H 

168. Ab for the Corcyneans, whom tho o&roys that visited 
Sicily took in their way, and to whom they delivered tho 
same message as to Gelo, — their answers and actions were thu 
following. With great readiness they promised to como and 
give their help to the Greeks; declaring that "the ruin of 
Greece was a thing which they conld not tamely stand by to 
see; for should Dho fall, they must tho very next dny submit to ] 
shivery ; bo that they mxto bouud to assist her to th« vfliy ' 
uttermost of their power." But notwithstanding that they 
answered so smoothly, yet when tlio time camo for the suceours 
(o bo sent, they were of quite a different mind ; and though 
thoy maniK^d eisty ships, it wns long ei-e tliey pat lo sea with 
them ; and when they had so done, thoy wont uo further than 
the PeJoponncse, whore they lay to with their lleet, off the 
Lacedicmoniau coast, about Tylos* and Tanarum,* — like Gelo, 



* To N«t<tiin(>, acondinR to Diodors* 
L ■> o.) i^o p*B«tiM u( bnmiBg th* 
ealire bodjr of tlio rlctbn, init4«d of 
ocrUJn H^riflein) pwl«, wni ot^Imllr 
ooramon W tbo VhcmiiHftnA witb iho 
Jowa (Porpbjr. Da AbttinenU iv. !&; 
L«T. Ti. 23). Ib IlMt timM it m* 
rrad tor gr^t occanumt (Uorani, 



Itas OptonNMa dcr EftrtfaMor, p,71. 
*o.). 

* Pjr ke, 4>«1ebnt^ in poetir ■■ tl'o 
aboio of Neilar (tl- u. ilfl-Gba). mmI 
In 11181017 ^* '^ •crno ■'f tbc Itnl In- 
porMnt (Mmt inttMrnl bj tli* Spai ■ 
UD* (Tbao^ it. 35-40), wm •iMaleil 
«■ Um WMl ooaal oC th« PduptauuM, 



I 





Ciur. Ur-USL 



EHBjLSST to CRETE. 



117 



tnttciiinR to see Tvliat tnrn the vta vould take. For tlivy 
deRpaiz«d oltogethor of the Greeks gainiug tbu day. nnd ex- 
pected that tlio Pornnns would vin a grt-at battle, and then bo 
Dtasters of the whole of Greece. They therefore acted as I have 
saidr in oidor that they might be ablo to addross Xcnes in 
voida like tiicso : " King ! though the Grcoka woght to obtain 
cor aid in their war with tlieo, and though we had a force of no 
flmall 8L]»!, aud could havo furaiehed a greater number of ships 
tJian any Grt'ck state except Alliens,* yet we refused, since wo 
would not fight against thee, nor do aught to cause thoo annoy- 
aneo." The Corcyrffians hoped that a speech like this would 
gain them better tieatmout from the Persians tliaii the rest of 
tli« Greekii ; and it would have don« tto, in my judgment. At 
tbe Bome time, they had an excuse ready to give their oountry- 
^nen, which tiicy used when the time oame. Itcproachod by 
^Hliem for sending do succours, they replied, "tliat they had 
^Btted out a fleet of sixty triremes, but that the Etesian wiud» 
^'oid not allow them to double Cape Malua, aud thiii hindered 
them from reachint; Salamis — it was not from any bad motive 
that they bad missed the sea-fight." In this way the Corey- 
neans eluded the reproaches of the Greeks.* 
^ 1C9. The Cretans, when the envoys si^nt to osk aid from 
^Hhl^m came and made their request, acted as follows. They 
^Bospotchod messengers in the namo of their state to Delphi, 



near tho liM of tho modrnt jTai^Trino. 
Th« onl/ rcmAlw lU proMiiit ciii>tiiii; 
of ifati ■oalent ti>irB tra Un cmm of 
wUoh tlM«* ia oiOBlion in n^oMiiiM 
X(v. mri. I 3), 6i» LoftlM'a 3I«n«, 
1. |>p. UMSS. 

TniumlB «a« thp Mnc^vnt iwraa nf 

pTaiii««il«iT»ow«Klbil Okjiv J/ufa- 

U yrtn ■ pminnis, jaiwil to 

BiMnktiil \>y a narrow ulhtDiM, 

iMil ea fmrli »dn ■ gDod luibaar 

'luc, Prripl. p. 37) Vttfaua. lit. 

) t). Of tli« IhaNO* t«tiiplo of 

'i-|>tane. irhkh ilood oa ila tmmiiiit 

K, i.2l>, tli«fnnd*tioawth«aght 

Ui nmikln la tba Modem Greek 

nh of i*oim*U> {LcBlca'ii Utcoa, 



Tol. i. [.p. 197. SOT). 

* ThncTilidoa conflrmi th» flouriiih- 
ins «-niliiioa nt tliu CotryrMU nvj 
at Hd» \\au> (i. It). Coroyn OMl> 
tiuuril lu bo tiio bocciikI nttnt fcmtt 
in Cimco down to «.[:. 435 (*do 
Thoojil. I. 33 : HtvTin^ T* ttrritiuit 
■*i|» Tou raff iit'o/ ■AtiWoi'). At that 
tiior llioj neiv oble to toaa • SeM ot 
110 irJnniici (ib. Viy, 

' Tlio Scliolinrt OB ThocydidM ((. 
13G)ma>orU tlikt it tinn nl unit lim* 
Um iMvstion of ilio ccDr*dm«lod 
(tmiki lo panUh the CorrrrMuii for 
tt«iriiDntnlIty>b(it lliue Heinutocliv 
lotDrpcvad in tbclr farnur. and uic< 
ooedod Ib [irevefiUiig th» cipoiUtioo. 



^8 



uimnc BisroRY of laxoa 



SOOK 




and askod Uio god, whether it wonld maico for their welfare if 
they should l«nd auoconr to Greec«. " Fools I " replied the 
Pjrthones!), "do ye not still complain of the woee ivbich the 
UBJBting of MeneUiis cost yon at the hands of angry Minos ? 
How wroth vas he, when, in spite of their having lent you do 
aid towards avenging his death at Cnmicnfl, you helped them to i 
avoige the carrying off by a barbftrian of il woman from Sportal " ^| 
When thij answer was brought from Dt-lphi to the Cretans, ™ 
they thought no more of assisttng the Oreeks. < 

170. Mines, according to traditi<m, went to Sicania, <a fl 
Sicily,' m it ia now called, in search of Diedalas, and there '' 
perished by a violent death.' After a white the Cretans, ' 
waruod by some god or other, mode a great expedition into fl 
Sicania, all except the Polichnitefl" and the Praosians,* and be- 



' Tbae^di^M Mln n* how tho EleoU 
froBi luljr •iBtokail tha Slvniii, who 
vmns tho lint i&lutbitaiiM of Bicily, 
nod lorc'inz them ta tbo weatMii piatm 
lit Ihn inlnod, chnngod Ita name from 
Sinai* iDW Sioilf (ti. S). Ho addi 
tlAt tho gionai vrorD Iboiteni driven 
ffotn Spain («h«nt they hml dwplt 
upon tlwi rirnr Siautai}b;theiitUckB 
of Ui4 Li>:i>i'''uit- Ii^ t\>»*» •la[«moQU 
ho won l>>Ui]wail by ItiiliiKaD (tp. 
DIod. r. d}, Bud appMrenilr by Rpho- 
n» (ft. Bl). KJohufaF Fanudn (Ui*t. 
cl Bom*, i. p. ICG. note 008, G. T.) 
IbU, wore it not tar thli mlKht <k 
autliOTitj', "it would Iw <lUnoulC for 
tho moat cBntiniia not U> ooant it olMt 
that tho immo of iho fiiootifaxu hi Ooo 
and tho auno oith thu ot tha Sleii- 
lUn*, ]u(t M the «ftino pixipU won 
oaUcd both .T.^uani asd .Ci]u«li." la 
it not poMiiblu that tho Siuni «( 
Bpua, iihcme dly Sicnai wns mMt- 
tioBtd by IIocAtanit <FV. IS), may 
haro boon ooly iwcaUy, not othiunUy, 
Iberhuii? It ia m«thy ot cotico 
that UocaUtoa enlli tb« city n\it 

' Thia put of tl» tnjtliic hotlor? nf 
llino* la pTta musl fnlly bj Dioduma 
<ir. T&). 1( w*a ttio aobieol c< a 
Iragfldy cif Sopbooica, cmHaa Hlnoa, of 
tht Cutcii, 01 wUoh a fow IngmMta 



remain. I^oaontaa (*it. tr. § &) end 
tbo BobollMt on PiniUr (Nun. ir. 9S) 
Hive tha aame genera] oatlino ot 
CTonta with DiodwDi, liot 4UBtt tnm 
him in acoio cf tiia daUtia. All BKne 
tlmt Coealo*, with whom DNd«)aa 
hnil tnkon ivfoin!, Moaed Htiwe to be 
put to d(<alh while at the hath. 

[Tlio bathi of the modom SetaeM, \ 
tho lliennB flollnantiiim, are ahowKl 
na thorn in which Misoa waa avtCneawd, 
Bat il appcan. from what DioilanM 
■ay* (ir. iw, that thoee fcatba woe 
not at the 'Tlionnn SoUnnniiiun, bai 
at AKrigonlanu— 6. W.] 

* The town I\?liohn» ia montioDed, I ' 
bdiere, only by Stephoix. It aooma 
to hnvo boon ia tbo near nDi^hlMinr- 
hood of Cydnnia, towhioh (t* tamtorr 
WM o»ruisly wolisttoaa (Iliuiya. 
ii. SS). 

> rnotaa. or ]*rM«a (Sinib.), whMt 
la RtiU Mllpd Pnttii (Paikley's Crate, 
vol. i. p. £90), it e |ilac* of ni««ra note 
thaa Pblichna. It naaitaktadtowanb 
the outetn oitMoiity ot Creto, M tho 
diataaea of aoTon miio* fnMD tho ahotv 
<StT«l>. I. p. eati), and ia the iin*e of 
SoyUi potateaad a ttrril-iry «Ttml■^ 
in^ from aoa to ■*« (Pcripl. p. 4X), 
It (oeaii to hnre boco the chief ctty 
of the EleocTctn (Inn CroUuu), who 
ir«re Mt of Qtvoiaa blood, bat a rea* 



I 

I 

i 



3 



Ciur. li», inx 



StEOE OF CAMICUS. 



139 



siogod CamicRs' (wliicli in my time belonged to Agrigonhim) 
by the speca of Sxe years. At lost, liowovcr, foiling in their 
efforU to take the place, and unable to carry on the Biege any 
longer from the preBeure of hunger, tboy dopartt-d and wtut 
their way. Voyaging homewards tbey bad reached lapygia," 
when a furtoas storm arose and throw them upon the coast. 
All their Tesselfl were broken in pieces ; and so, as tboy saw 
no means of returning to CreU*, tboy foundod tho town of 
Byria,* where tbi-y took up their abode, cbangiug thoir name 
from Cretans to Messapion lapygians,' and at tlio same time 
becoming inhabitoatB of the mainland instead of ietandors. 
From Hyria tlicy oftemmrds founded tlioso oilier towns which 
tho larcQtinos at a much later period codvavoorcd to take, 
but could not, being defeated HignoUy.' Indeed bo dreadful a 



nut «r tfe pre-IItllccia population 
(M« non. Od. zlx. 17G; Slntb. x. p. 
698 1 Dkd. &>e. r. «l|, PorhiLr* the 
FolioknUM wCTo <tl th« >un<> nut?, aa 
thej adJcdDed oa Crdonjft, which olio 
bolonsM to the old inbabitonlii (Strab. 
1. o. : oempu« Iloia. OiL 1. c--.). Thr«e 
oiliM <■( tbo primitiva population. 
nbicb had foccoMdinr defmdcd Uioii»- 
•clrc* UBitiM tho Dcnui ImmignDM, 
weald M oonnw not own the •iraj' uf 
Mimm (tM UiiUef'a Dcriuu, tdL i. pp. 
S8, IS, B. T.). 

* DiadoTM nj* In onn pbc« (ir. 70) 
ib*« CMniooa oocdimmI Uid nok on 
vthxii tht «UM M Afcrigcntniia warn 
kftvrawdd built, but m uictW bo 
ttumw tt*l CwBicD* oxl«t«d i«««lbcr 
with AjprigiMtnui, tuid ma dialioot 
tram it (ziiii. p, any. Thi* I* CM. 
tinted bj tliD ScUoliut on Pitidar 
(Pylll. Ti. 4), ami to •c>m» wtlent hj 
Strabo <n*. p. KM) knd Stefthon (mI 
TOO. 'AicpJytryit). U U prolmliJv that 
the dt^ Uf on tlio nxxIcTn /Vnini) 
lUiU CiiB* (Iho nsricDt rivtr Cuui> 
C(W>, twt far from Sirvtiaii^ <ko Hr. 
BvBitm'* nn«tki to Sniilb's G«o. 
gmpli. Diet, atl tuc Oahicuh). 

* lapTRta eoiucidw tttmeniUf vith 
tbo Trm di Otranto tit oar map*. ox> 
tcodis^. however, •ocoeirhat rnrtbcr 
nratid Uio Ouir ot nnMto (Bc;hu, 
P«ripl. p. 10). 8(onu« ««t« cmbbob 



□pon IhU octtat (npm, tU, 153, and 
aoto ' od loo.) 

* Hjrin i» probohly tlie town kcown 
sa Uria to tho Sonuiu (PIId. U. N. lk[. 
Ill Lit. xlii. 4a), which \ny on the 
mad bMwMa Taiwalom Mid Bnuidn- 
aiitm <Sttitb. rl. p. 406, 40S). It li 
novr.Oria, which m dcachbod na "a 
cicr romnntlcsllf litnalcd on lhn<o 
hllla in tho cDQtro of ^ll9 plains" 
(Swinborayo Tnirvla, tdI, i. p. £16). 
Sams coina of a Uj-iia remnin, which 
ha*i> on ono lido tho Ulaotaiur ; but it 
ii doat;U:d wbnthcr Uuj bvleng to thia 
cily. 

' Under (bo goneral nmwof Inpj- 
(Ciuii woM comutody tnelniltid tbreu 
dittinvt tKbvi, tlie UmMpiaiu, tho 
IVoMtiniu, and tho Danuioni. Tho 
ftrat-Duncd ore «|io3»ii of •• tho la. 
habitant* ot tho lapfffiaa |>«niiuiita, 
MMword of Tanaium and Brnoda- 
■ium (Btroh. vi. p^ 401). Thtiy w«i* 
gmenU; d«rired ham Ccoto, ttranga 
■a It may appsar {Sinb. vi. p. 40S | 
AthoD. xU. p. US, v.; riul. ThM. 
o. 16| Fvatna, nil rni:. Salmlini, &c.). 
FraboUf thof eanD in reality, Ukc tbo 
otb«r inhnbltnnta of •onlh«ni llaljr, 
tixxux ilii> I>oloponneM^ whtve time 
wna a phwe c^ed VoMBpev (Tlwo- 
pomp. rr. 274). 

* DIodonM piMM tltl« war In the 
Toar tx. 473 (xi. ti). Tba 3lue«. 



Ifib 



140 



GBUTB5T KNOW.V SUVOHTER OF QBEEKS. DOM 



wdto 

ODrusS 
imbeS 
i-thnsV 



slauglitcr of Grecka noTcr happoned nt any other time, so Cat 
as my knowledge extends : nor was it only the Tarontines «1m 
Buffered : but tiio nieu of Rbogiuin too, who hod been forced to, 
go to tbo iiid of the Taroutluoa by Micythos the son of Ch 
lost here three Uionsiuid of their citizens ; while the unm 
of the Tare&tiues who fell was Leyond all count. This Micj'tlias 
hnd been a honschold slave of Anaxilaiifi, and was by him left 
in charge of Itheginm:^ ho in tha saiiiu man who vos after- 
wards forced to leave Ithcgium, when ho settled at Togea in 
Arcadia, &om which pliico ho made many offtiriugs of stotoos 
to the ehriue at Olympia.* 

171. This account of tho Bbt^iane and tlio Tomnttnes is a 
digrcRBion from the story whicJt I was rvlating. To return— 
tJie PnesiaQS say that men of \'arious nations Dovr flocked to 
Crete,* which was Htript of ita inhabitants ; bat none oime i: 
BUch numbers as tho Grecians. Three generations after 
death of Minos tho Trojan war took place ; > and the 




plans nppwr bi hnre boon ut tbnl 
timu Tvry powi>rfiiI, and to bttvo 
•ioof«d tho JMlcmi7 «f all their 
Dcaghbonn i^niiut tb«iii. Tboj- w«Te 
■tfckad not only br Uio TArentiiica 
and Bb«|irinM, but bj tho IIuluiiih 
and I^ucutionti (Stnb. ri. p. 40S). 
Tbtar may moat bnro «xl«iided wait- 
ywi am fur &i Uie neittkb<nirboci^ of 
fiirii, wlUTo thftf dijpniod trith To- 
rantum Iho poNKHion of bor colon/ 
Uotadta (ib,). Alter tbo victory 
ban rMonled, ono would haw cx- 
p«et«d tham to make f oilbBr prourvfti. 
Tho rercno. bowcvor, I* tac caie. 
Thof dMKOM In RtrcrnKtb whilo Ta. 
KOtnm incrauvt; and dutiiia ttio 
Felopdbiieiiaa irar th^ aeeta to hnt« 
bMS KJiMl to avail themMlvDa <if Oie 
pnUMkm «t Athnu npLinat that slate 
(liucytL Til. 33). 

T Anaiilii"" liinlprfliililytmnrfwTp!! 
hhi nboda to ZaucW (icu Tliairj*- •■'■ "11- 

■ TlicM) dolaiU are rciunrkiihly con. 
ftrmdil by l^auuiiaii (v.iivi. jj U, 4}, 
Ho fvaail 31 01yin|>ia no (mrr Iliui 
•evontM« ttniDi'* iiiscriVpcl with tho 
t d Uicylbna (wr, at ho writM it* 



Smic^tho*} , Ibo Mn ot Chitorat, Tbo 
inicnpiiona of >cinio igavo Bbcslanii* 
tho couniry of Uicytliun, white ikoM 
of i>th~T» RaTO HtaacDJ, Of ZaneU. 
Oocaaiounlly bo wu uonUiNMd m 
Urine at Tpg«. Beaidoa tbo tMlaM 
whiob PaouialM akw, then wfn 
otiion whteb had b««i oaraiod oB by 
Koto. 

Tbo storr in IXodonu (st. W) ii in. 
cotni«dbla with the iir[iifiiiiij «l 
nnrodMnt, (liftt ]ilirytl>u« " WH toTMd 
to li-ovv (tuTivt) Klii.'tciain.'' 

* Quniur lliaa dcacrilMa tb» inhaU. 
tnata ahoiUy alter th* Trojan mti— 

»^«mj •-• T*i* '» >».»*»riv J 

■i>».>i. .Lx.pM.r -_ :-..r-ltml' ^ 

6J.SB i!" lAkar i*-jJ.. ,.<,..]„<•■' tt Ml* 

IM. III. l»-in. 
' Bfi Hcrni^r <Od. lii. ITS-lSl 1 II. 
liii. 4S1, -US) nad ApoUodorM (iti. 1. 
I S, uiid 111. j 1). Tha wonb nhxA 
follow ba*o i:]M<eial rofemoo to tbo 
<^l'lolla of likmioiMii* Hid UontoiM 
(Uoni. U. liii »»■»»). 




^Cffir, 



Cit*r, 170-173. FUUI OF DEFESDWa TDESSALT. 



141 



tu 

fc 



fe 



were not (he least rlistinguislied ftmong the helpers of Mene- 
]aas. Cat on this aoconnt, when they t-ani^ back trom Troy, 
famine and pe.itilence fell upon them, and dei^troycd botli the 
men and the cattle. Crete waa a seoond time etript of its 
inhahitanta, a remnant only being left ; who form, together 
with fresh settlers, the thirtl "Cretan" people by whom the 
island lias been inhabited. These were the events of wluoh 
the Pythoness novi reminded the men of Crete ; and thereby 
she prerented them from giving the Gruckti aid, thoogh they 
wished to havo gone to their aoifistaDce. 

172. The T])Cf):<:alian8 did not embrace the efloeo of tho 
Medes nntil tliey were forced to do so ; for they gave plain 
proof that tho intrlgnea of the Alenadie * were not at all to theii 
liking. No sooner did they hear that the Persian was sbont 
to cross over into Europe tiian they despatched envoys to the 
Greeks who wore met to consult together at the Istlimtis, 
whither oil the states which were well inclined to the Grecian 
cause bad sent their delegates. These envoys ou their arrival 
thus addressed their comitrymen : — 

"Men of Grocco, it behoves you to gnard the pass ol 
ilympus ; for thna will TbeHsaly be placed in safety, as well 
the rest of Greece. Wo for our parts are qoite ready to 
take oar iiharo in tliis work ; but yon must likewise send us a 
strong force : otherwise wo give yoti fair warning that wo shall 
moke terms with the Pereians. For we oogbt not to be left, 
exposed aa we are in frout of all the rest of Greece, to die iu 
your defence alone and unassisted. If however you do not 
chooM to 6ftnd OS aid, yoa cannot force us to resist the enemy; 
for tbero is no force so strong as inability. We shall therefore 
do our best to secure our own siirity." 
Such was the declaration of the Tlicssalians. 

173. Hereupon tlio Greeks determined to eend a body of 
bot to ThcHsaly by sea, which should defend tho pass of 

lympua. Accordingly a force was collected, which passed np 




■ Sapn, <1l <■ OonptM di. 140, »d Ba. 



143 



OBBEKS BESOLTE TO D£FEKD AIUEmStUM Boos 



i^^n 



tho EuHx)U8,ftnd diecmbarkiagat Alas,* ontlioeoastof Acbfcn. 
left tbe sbipa there, and marched by land into Theunly. Here 
they occupied tJie dt-Gh of Teimp^ ; vhioh leads from lower 
Maoedouta into Tbessaly along tho courso of tho rcnsus, 
hanng tho range of Olympus on the oao band and Ossa apon 
tho other. In this place the Greek forco tliat bad boon col- 
lected, amounting to about 10,000 heavy-armed men, pitched 
their camp; and here they wero joined by tho Thessolian 
cavalry. Tlie commanders vcro, on tho part of the Lacodn- 
monians, ET^enettu, the son of Carpus, vho had boon ohoton 
out of tbe Polemarchs,* but did not belong to tlio klood royal ; 
and on the part of tho Athenionsr Tliemisioole«, tho son of 
Neocles. Tlioy did not however nuiintaia their station for 
more than a few days ; stDco envoys cjime from Alexander, tbo 
son of Amjutas, tbe Macedonian, and counselled them to 
decamp from Tempe, tolling them that if they remaim-^l iu 
the pMS they would be trodden under foot by the in^aditid 
army, vhose numbers they. recounted, and likewise the multH 
tnde of their Bhips. So vhen tho envoys thus ooansoIlM 
them, and the oounsel seemed to be good, and the Macedonian 
vbo sent it friendly, they did even aa he advised. In 
opinion what chiefly wrought on them wrs tlie fear Uiat 
Persians might enter by another pass, whereof they now h 



* I we no KTomndi for tapptmias, 
with Bthr (od lo«.) anil olhoni, that 
tfaov iron) rcall; tw« pUoe* of thia 
BUne. Tho DotioQ aroM tram tho 
(p»iiii>Uiri*a% wbo, Badiag tho word 
owl* •DiDMinM* naMutine, tou^iimM 
fasimiie, iMikgiBed two d^brcntoiiiM 
tee EiMtaUi. mA Hom. fL H. «8S). 
Stnfao doariy idcMi&M tho Al«a U 
Ootatrwith that o( Hcrodotiu (ix. p. 
62T t viil* Mt*, ch. 1»T| by the nioB' 
tlon <rf Athanuut mid the Blnittion 
whkli h» Maigna to It aBtle both t^ 
paaiagta of llorodotna In wbidh tt la 
■witioned. It U7 «o the akirta of 
Othrfa, not far fnm the ahoiv, 
lUttMtt niUc* ftom Pt«lcdn). ami 
aaMn frnin llonat. Colonal Leako 
foand la thia fituMioa ih» raroaiiM erf 



I mtaJ 

.ttuH 



a ^<^UaIllo torn (Northocn Qt««e*. 
vol. iT. p. 330). Tha aput i« 
otikd JTi/.tlori. 

* The Spanan PoloButrcha ara 1 
tkmod both bj TfenoydidM at>d 

Slioa. ^07 ware the hiKhort oOla 
L the army nevt to tbe king (Thand.* 
iv. 60 1 Xoik Boll, iL Ir. $ tfi). SHih 
oonuundod a dlTUioo Qiif^ii 1 jutia). 
tt which la tha tioM of Xanonhaa 
th«m wata aU (E«p. La>\ xL j 4). 
Thcjr bad abo viagMerial i<cw«Ta In 
tho ayialtia and ebawbora (PIbI. hyc. 
a 13; Apopbth. Lkv. mL ii. p. S3I). 

* Tide anpa, oh. ISS. Tbo pao ia- 
lended w p^babl<r tlM wliMi npnacit 
tho Ol^pia laDf* by the towm U 
Pnti«, wbonoa it doMeiidnl to i*yihiwn 
at th« iTMteni haw of tbo inonuaia. 



d 



ClAP. lW-178. 



AND TBCEtXOPYL£. 



»43 



nhicli led from I'pper KTaccdonin* into TliMsaly tlirongb Uio 
tecritorj- of the Pcrrhtebi, nnd by tbe towii of (Jonnue, — tho 
pus by whicb Eoon afterwards the army of Xerxes actually 
: made its entrtmce. Tbo Grcolu thereforo went bock to tboii 
ships and sailed away to tlio Isthinua. 

174. Such were the circumstances of tbe expedition into 
ThesMJy; they took place when tbo king was at Abydos, 
preparing to pans from Asia into Europe. Thu ThossaUans, 
when their nllits forsook them, no longer wav«redj bat 
warmly espoused the side of the Medes; and afterwards, iu 
tbe coarse of the war, they were of tho very gT«at«st serrioe to 

175. The Greeks, on their return to the Isthmus, look counsel 
Ogolher concoruing the words of jVlesaudir, und conHidertd 

!ier« they should iii the war, and what pluccs they shoold 
occupy. The opinion wliioh pmroiled was. that they shoold 
guard the pass of Thermopylie ; since it was narrower than 
.the Thessaliao defile, and at the same time nearer to tbcm. 
)f the patliway, by which tho Greeks who fell at Tbermopylro 
were intercepted, they had no knowledge, until, on their 
orriral at Thermopj'la, it was discorered to them by the Tra- 
chiuiuns. This pass then it was determined that they should 
goard, in order to prevent the barbarians from penetrating 
into Greece through it ; and at tho Kime time it was rusolred 
that the fleet should proceed to ArteniiHium, in the region of 



mi pMi wu kneini to tlio Ronutni 

• " Pmhietoi*. Mltni " {Lir. xlir. 27). 

WM iho odI}- mote vhicb lod 

I PWtla, whnvlboanny i>r Xatkk 

(■Dina, cb. 181), tolo P<'r. 

■TlMtML II mna from Sattrina by 

Pdra {whicli rriAiiull«anei«nlDano) 

Kilo i>^l■^•*In tn OikUtta (Dolldw), 

"* I Uie |iMMC« ■• tmty hy Klat^na 

n) Iu LytMfomo (GoiiDiu) (n« 

KortlNnn firooMi. rol. JiJ. pp. 

[Sn-StSj Mid compwtt LI*. xUv. 33, 

»S,slr.41i Dina. eio. xiV. »). Mr. 

OnX* toinmla tlat IhsOrMkt ahoold 

jimro d«f«ndeil IxXlt jwmw (Iliit. of 

Snooe, r. p. SI). But tbe height* 



Bl>oat Potn, wbero dees n tund 
could havo boen mado with a fair 
pro«poct <l mooMM, mro in (ho Land* 
cf tho SlaMctonluf^ Panian trlbo. 
Iiui'evi and, tha loir gtomi on tha 
irtvt onoo gained, Th«awl;r may bo 
cntcrtd br ■ nsmlMir of rantw. 

*By' dpper Maoadonfa' Ilan^tai 
nrpwm to inmn tbo iipiMr purtion of 
Pioria, wbcie it aj<pTr*ob(i4 tbe Vw 
(htebinn (noitier. Thia followa from 
eb. 131. OtbcrwlK we night bn« 
bera lad to jmntriiiD tlat Xonaa a*, 
oead^d l)ii> vnlW'v of tlio Hallacmoi, 
and octftnl Pi'rrhiDbia iif th< pMi ot 
Toluitana, or Scrrio. 



f'-. 



144 



D£SCRIFnO!> or TtlEBUOrVLJ'. 



Bcoi 



Hjstiieotia ; ^ for, as those piftoes Are near to nne nnolher, 
would be easy for tlt« SetA and army to hold ootamunica 
Tb« two ploooH may bo thus deHcritw-cl. 

176. Artemtflium is vhcro the soa of Thrace * eontraoUi ioto 
n narrow clinnmO, miming between the iRlo of Sciitlltna' ami 
the ntaiulaml of Magnesia. When this narrow otrait i» p&siKxl 
JOS come to the line of coaei caUed Artemisiam ; ^ which is n 
portion of Eubaii, and contnins & tompic of Arlcinia (Dian 
As for Uio L'&tranco into Greece by Trachis,* it is, at 
narroweBt point, about fifty feet wide. This however i» ti< 
the place where the paasa^ is most contracted; for it is s 



tU^ 



1 T)h> nnrtliDni tract c( Eobm m* 
ekU«d illHliwAliii, Irraa the U/mt Di»- 
■)■*, rhioh afU'rnnrOa booma Orgoa 
<rid« ialim, Tiii. 23). 

*Th« awtbicni portion of the Effoaa, 
WtcodisK (rom Hagnoio to Iha Ttinv- 
ema CtwrwaMti. and boonMI oo tbo 
Motlk bj Ihe ialaodi «l SoiBtliiUi B>> 
loiiMciu^ P«|«ntluii, LemwM^ and 
lmbnu,i> bora Mlkd"tlwTfancwii 
Sfo." S(r»bo DIM Uio MpreMfoii 
ntmtij in tlw Main mdm 0- P- ^'>- 
Bat tbo e^KWT iUM»r <if Soptiocdo* 
{(EiL T. 197) ii the Eniiao. 

■ SciBihnt rotaina ita nam* wboUy 
nnaJtored (Uake, vol. iii. p. ]11> It 
If iho bland iiBincdiat«1y cS Cape St. 
0*arfi (Capo Bnpllu). 

> Tlic tumi'lo uf ArlfTntli, (ram which 
the Kne of n^tut rtrisTvil !ia nonio, 
apptwi to kare bMn aituatvd, m 
tauplot M dten wore. At tlio pxtrcnio 
|H)lBt of the tiloDil, tbo promontflffjr 
now caUrd CajM AmnU. Tbo eeU- 
britf of thia lonipla oaafod tho poela 
to feprf t pt kll tho acea anil *Unn>* 
of iMBo parta a« mulor tbo pniicctiim 
ot tbo goddiMt (Sonb. Trub. CSS; 

Apoll- l'l>^ '- ^7'> 'o-)- ^f'^ tl'""* 
natljr 0417 oitf Aci«ui«iiuii T (nia. 
U. N. Iv. 12 j St«pb. Bjft. od roc)L 

' IVtLclila wM one of the cbi«{ citica 
of tbs Maliniiii (iiifn, cb*. 1W», 
190: Bnlax, J'eni'l.p. 6t}. It after- 
mid* bocaino lltoMloM, on beinK 
finlnnlanfl by tb» LoanlmnoaiHa 
fThut^ id. US ; oowpon Stnbb ix. 



niMtjiw 



i\ (t3l> ud iai4«F tUi nrne wm 
iccovn M a plaon of (Teat (treOfUi 
and inpraioBoe (Thocf d. L a. <l, «■< 
V. 61 , I^otyb. X. xliL } 4; Liv. UlTi. 
Sa-SI). Than ia mm doobt nhatbw 
tbc two town* ocoipM «a<ily the 
MUM ail*. OoL Ijaafce"* thaorr 
prcAntbU, that tb« oriKins] 
llifaelt* waa idmtkol with 
(«eo Tfanofd. irAxinr rV 
(■ )iatr*(}, and wsa (iiaMMiI 
foal ci Xhr iwcka betwMo the A*cf>u 
(ur fc'uri-ukBrii) oad tbe Uolu (4firi-ni 
JTma), bat thot thi> dtndrl, wh-i 
waa Ml fh« MfUc aboTD, «im » di 
linft plaoo. Thia can* atUn 
bo tbe only fMM of tfae town ii 
and CO Hcnelt* wai mJA 10 
alailca fron tbo kncic&l Trai:lda . 
1. «. c). Tbe odI^ tact wliic^ 
milllataa nffotstt this riow 
iiinDtioD by Bcylax (I. a. o.) of 
(alio. 

The poti hy Tnichit, wJiich ww 
*■ not marv tlina firiy f«jt wiilo," mii 
luiVi> lain bMw(«D Ibu wnlb of I 
c^ly and the nuinbM of thit part 
tho plain (eeo Llty, I. *. c. i " Agtt 
UoraelttPBala paloator oaanit." "A 
aiso Uoliaao aditora baad (neiltM 
[noraolua] hab«bnt">. Some oait»- 
comb* ar» nil that romain at 
nneioat acttlnmcat va tbo pJaElf 
niDA of a Ildloiuo fotirta* atifl 
th« heigbt aboT« (Leake, toL 
1&-30). 




an* 

m 



A 



L 



DEscniPTiON or thermoptl^ 



MS 






narrower » little aboye an^ a little below Thcrmopylse. 
At Alpfni.' vbich is lower do«ii than tbat place, it ia only 
wide enougli for a single carriage ; and up above, at the river 
iUimx, mar the town calM Antliela, it is the same. West 
%f TbcrmopyUe * rises a lofty and precipitous hill, imi>ossiblo 
to olinib, which ninH np into the chaiu of (Eta ; while to the 
east the road ia abut in by the sea and by marshes.* In this 
place are the warm springs, which the natives call "The 
Caoldnms ; " " and abovu tbcm HtanilB an altar scroti to 
HercuIoH.'' A wall bad oneo been carried acrosB the opening •' 
and ill this there had of old times been a gateway. Theee 
works were made by the Phodans. through fear of the Thes- 
salians, at the time when the latter came from Thcsprotia to 
establish themselvtifi in the land of Mohs. \.hkh thoy etiU 
ocoupy.* As ih« TboBsalians strove to riduce Fbocie, the 
Fhocians rniHod the wall to protect themselres, and likewise 
tumfd tlie hot springs upon the pass, that so the groond 
might be broken np by watercourses, using thus all poaaiblo 
meoiiB to hinder the Thes&atians from invading their cotmtry. 
The old wall had been built in very remote times ; and the 



> Infn. th. sie. 

* Brtodotiu nappowa the Rnwiml 
bMrlng ot Uw ooMt t» thi* fi^at lo 
Imt* boaa nortlt mid ooQtb. m it is 
^mern't'' '" ''<it Ma t/l Qt<<rci<, 
irii«><' .' thu CMWI niM fnim 
wMt <' ii ia K Blnuige miii' 

ftlce fur uua wUo bnd rititod the (ftbt. 
!■• uioKiitiiJii'nuigo to (n (kA $frittU, 
'p^A Ibp MM tujrihot lbop*M {M«lha 
pUa. infra, p. ISS). 

* Tbb Im UiB tolly SMUUkm wUeh 
gilMa* auduM ti Um inkMbo*. 

I mmt Bt bU tlRM* 'b«T* fuRDfd 
riBbl n foktitm of ibu fan 
In, oh. sol, M4« *|. 
>rBiuiiiiiBi(ir. xnv. (8). Tlio 
^ I M TliBmiDp^la rt* bot inliuut 
> ' rilhrniiliiiil,) itai] uilt. Tlii'rii on) 
two of thciii, vtiioli tnm unci'.' lit Ijr lu 
hMVH bMta liavoltd »>[.«[( irtljr to 
tatXa •ad faouJp bnlbtn (I'niiMii-)' 
ThfJ «*• •nciowwl wtihln r«copl«cl«* 
niiMnr.r. itbvat tttv ftat ia deptb, 

VOL. IV. 




[mm wliLch in «»1 wnntbrv % tttnnit 
mpfMir rii«foi, 'i'lio numu " L'aiililnai " 
in lliUB irrry vrptvtwkte (coo LoJlO, 
Tol. ili. pp. il-Wt 

' TliB wliol« ilMtriet nw iVRWildl 
u Minoblpd \ij Uiu kofftna^ WF H«r- 
oiiloa, and aa Mcrad to Us (mo eh. 
1V6, oed tt. SojibocL Ttvchfo. pw. 
(iin}. llniico tlio lutaMi of Uoraclua, 
wliicb ih« SroTlMW tcMO lo Tiachi*. 

•Viileiiifrn.ch.90e. SSI. Sift, tat 
m full coMukTBtiDa of tlio ntkni 
loMltdo*, Me tLo scrtca co ohft. lUS- 
200. 

* Tho ivTcivncw la to Ike oriinakl 
>ninui.i-atiuii of Uio ThcauUan* ^Ilr- 
niini ?) into Uw «oaatr;r Bttawwoa 
cnllcd by tlwiir cane, wbon Iboy ilfDva 
tt-at lbs Ufsoliaaf. aad oOttt XcAio 
trlica (oomiiBit) ThD«yd. i. ISi VoU. 
l'r.t~ i. 3 1 Diod. Sio. ir. 97. *e.y Tli» 
«rai iiijFpoaei) to liara Ukca ptaco 
liny yean ftfUtr th« Tnijan war. 



146 



GBEEK8 ADVISED TO PllAT TO THE WIXDEL Uook 






greater part of it had gon« lo decay tlirou^tb age. Kov, how- 
ever, tlio Grc«k8 TOsoIved to cci>uti its bi-uidice, an<l h<m 
make their stand agtusst tbe Bar}>iinau. At tliis [wint there 
is a village very nigb the road, Alix^oi l>y name, from wliidi 
the Greeks reckoned on getting com for tlicir troops. 

177. These places, therefore, Beemed to the Greeks fit for 
their purpose. Weighing vroU all that vae Ukely to hupjK'n, 
and coQHidering that iu tUi» regiou tlic barbarians oould oiak« 
no U80 of their rast Quuibers, nor of their oavalij, they 
rcsoli'cd to await hero the iiivadei* of Greece. And when news 
roaohed Uiem of the Pei-siana being in Picria, straightway 
thoy broke up hrom the Istbuius, and proceeded, outuo on foot 
to Thermopylie, others by sea to ArtcmiMinm. 

178. The Grc«ks now made all speed to reach tho two 
stations ; "* and about the same time the Dolpliiaus, aUnucd 
both lor themselves and for theur country, consulted the god. 
and received for answer a command to "pray to thewiiuU;^ 
for the winds vould do Greece good service." ' So when tliiifl 
answer was given them, forthwith the Delphians sent word of 
the prophecy to those Greeks who wero zealous for 
and. cliciriug tlitm thereby amid the feant which thoy 
taini-d with respect to tlie Barbarian, eaniod their everloati: 
gratitude. This done, they raised an altar to the winda 
Thyia' (where Thyia, the daughter of Cephiasas, from whi 
tho region takes its oamo, has a precinct), and worshipped 
them with Bn<.-riliC(«. And even to the present day tbi 
Delphiiine sacritico to tlio winds, becaoso of tliis oradc. 

179. The flc«t of Xerxes now departed from Tliurma ; an 
t«D of the swiftest sailing ships ventured to stretch across 

'* Thenxopjrto and Aitonunmiu 

I Chaomi Alenndrinni (Stran. vL 
p. 753) protawta to report tlw tmxA 
w«(d« Jt tlw on«U^ but tlwr do mt 
PMm t« b« thoM which BorodotiM 
k*d board. AoOMrdios lo hlu tb« 

•O Ott^ti. kitrmf ltt*iitllt. u. Xi.«« Irrm. 

amilu adtiM WM gira> to tbe Atli»- 




1 



(fatn, eh. 190). Tha nurfor. 
tuM of UMfdoiilu (■»)>*<«, *i. M) kad 
•boitB trbu goed wniMi tlw wlii* 

* Tlio *lto <4 Thyia, vtudi no other 
anlhnr mpDlionii. it ankwrmt. Tbjl* 
lii-iv-l{ wiui, ttcuordiog to otb«m. a 
daugbtar «f Cartallni. Shv wm tl<u 
tyettjiM of tha Tbyladw (Pumii. 1. 



Our. in^lBU ADVANCE OP THE 1>EBSIA>' FLEET. 



147 



direct for SciatliiiR, at which pUoe there were upoti the look- 
out thr«> Tessels belongiiig to the Greeks, one a ship of 
I'rftizou,' another of Egina, and tbo third from Athens. 
These T«tuol8 no sooner Haw from a (listiuiQo t&o bubftrians 
approaching tlmn they all hurriedly took to (light. 

180. Tho harhariiins at onoo pursued, and the Trcezenian 
ship, whieli va» commanded by Prcxintis, fell into their liaiidB. 
Herenpon the Femians took the handsomeet of the men-at* 
arms, and drew him to the prow of the TCssel, where they 
sacrificed him ; * for they thought the man a good omen to 
their csBOse, seeing that ho was at once so beantifnl, and likf- 
wise the first captive they had made. The man who v,o.s 
etun in this way was eullod Leo ; and it may be that the 
oamo he bore helped him to his fate in some measure.* 

181. The Eginetan trireme, under iU cuptsin, Asdnidee, 
gaTD the rcrsiann no little trouble, one of tho men-at-arms, 
Pythes, tlie son of iBchenoiiH, distinguishing himself beyond 
all the others who fought on that day. After the ship waa 
taken this man continued to rci^itit, and did not oeue fighting 
till hw fvU quite eovert'd with wounds. Tho Persians who 
Barred as mc-n^at-anus in tho squadron, finding that ho was 
not dead, but Rtill breathed, and being very anxioa» to save 
hilt life, lunce be had behaved so valiantly, dressed his wounds 
witli myrrh, and bound them up with bandages of cotton. 
Then, when they were returned to their own station, they 
displayed their prisoner admiringly to tho whole beet, and 
Iwhaved towards him with much kiiidneiis; but ail tho rest of 
tho bhip's crow were troot*.-d merely ae slaves. 



■Til* (TturioB) M McrlAdng tLvIr 
R.m priwmvr i» MOrlM bj nwofiiu 
lutliu lliiitllwor B(BailiMttrui« (B«IL 
Ci-ili. i>. IS), Thu Genmnn mads 
tbolr Aral c«filiT» mnuond wilh « 
obwBptw iit UiDir am mco, a&d took 
4k» riii"iti t- mi oBM<n of tmeeom or 

I . ■■■TO. 10). 

< < I .HpntioD lolhP IBWID 

lag ol i^uw* iu« foand, lapn, rl. HO, 



•Did mfi*, ix. 91. Tt» Rommu wtd 
•f ■IcnukU'MlIf MiMniitloti* upoo ttio 
pmiit <(P» C(Ck dt> DiT. i. <tS : '■ In 
liiau»Ddi ooloDil lb co ^m mldi do- 
(laonot, ol cum impcntor cicrcilnei, 
ceaam potraliini hutntnt, bonii noml- 
nflnia wd faoatlM dnonnuit oligcbttDtiDi 
quod idfon ta daUota Mnmka obMr- 
vkDt, nl pmuu ibUm fi»t bow nn. 
miiw : " Bad comDUQ Flta. u. S. 
nriil. ! ; Tuit. But. ir. S3}. 



T4S 



STELE PIACED OS "THE A^T. 



Qnoc 




182. ThH8 Aid tlio Persiftng succeed in lulling two of the 
v«BSol8. The Uiird, a trireme commnnded by Phnnnas of 
Athens, took to flight and ran aground at the mouth of tlto 
river Peneus. The bar1>arinns got posGession of the bark, but 
not of the men. For tho Athonions had no sooner nm their 
vesael a^nund than they leapt out, and mado their Traj, 
through Thessaly back to Athens. 

When the Greeks stationed at Arlcmisium Joamt what ha 
happened by firi'-signals* from Scinthus, so tcrrifli-d wf ru thoyJ 
that, quitting thtir nuchorago-grouud at Artemiaium , and Icai 
iog sooubs to watch tho foo on Uic highlands of F.ubtsa, 
removed to Chalcis, intending to guard the Enripns. 

16S. Meantime three of the ten vesiwlft »ent foncard by tbe 
barbariaiifl, ad^'aneed as far as the sanken rook between 
Soiathus and Mngnenia, which le called "The Ant,"' and 
there set np a Htone pillar which they had brought with them 
for that purpose. After this, thvir coorso being now clear^'* 
the biif barians set sail with all their ships from Thenna, eleven 
davB from tho time that the king quitted tlio town. Tho rock, 
which lay directly in their course, had boon made known to 
them by Pammon of Scjtos.* A day's voyage without a stop 
brought them to Sepias in Magnesia," and to the strip of ooast 




*Tlia Mnblayniait at f^o-vgeaia 
tmmg tlw OvmJcr wm tot; evmnxa. 
^BMhflai MptMcnU H m knowa to 
Ibom M llM iioM ot lliu TrojMi mr 
(ARsm. 194& 973-307}. Sopbooln 
did th« mno In bin KiLspIioa (Ft. T. 
cd. Valpy), ■ivrjTittiR: tlin iuv^nilon to 
l>«lminoda*M lliat ]^r<u<l. Tli9 pne. 
tios "•• MTtainIjr vury oinal in hk. 
lorical tiowt (Thacjrtl. u. M, lit. 22, 
SO: Fotyb, rm. xx%. $ 1. x. itli. % 7. 
Ao.). IJoMila ct (Imi wipncn iiiny b« 
tooDd iu jttBMi TMtieiu and l^iljr. 

UlM. 

' Thte M«m lo b« tfan rack knows 
toUw OuNk nilon m l/tfiari, wbich 
liiw onotljr Ridmj' betwiMsn tbe coaM 
o( MiigMBia uid Ilia lotiih.nclcnt 
pnaotttotT o( tl« iiUnd. Tbo pr«- 
eulim tuM oiblbdM tho tkill and 



toretiuniicbl «f IIm PlHinMu afl- 
gMati, who hud Ibn chief dSntaUea ot 
lh« fifwt, in k fATonnibla ligM. 

• eo;rD«. ttiU called Styn., W; «tf 
tho cut eo««l at Cvbcn, kl tbo dl*. 
toDoe of obmt 23 niilo* (IM. 98° 6f . 
loaff. £4" 30'}. 11 fao'l, liko OMl «r 
tho EfftMi iolMuli, a caiHtal cttt ol 
tho OBoie Mina (IlaDi. H. t. OM}. 
which WH •tran^lT' aitiinetd on a 
Toeky bolglii. Ml'] oj » iiK-.li coatidtr- 
«tbU tnwM am gtiil to Iw fuiisd ia tho 
Doi^bboiuhooil of SI. Goon^v (mn 
Lc*ko. iii. pp. 108, 106). 

* Tho diiiBBco li D>ka1*U)d to In 
fthoQt UOO Madd*, or 103 BiiUa. Thai 
wonid 0OD«i(lM«bIjp exoMd the k* 
dajr'a rojwn of a nerchnat Tct«el 

IIorodokn»'t timo {•aprft. Ir. SI, aatm * 

but it ma qniw Mthb tbo ]>aiT<;n of " 






tkr. ISa-lSt. ESTIUATE OF TUG MUUiUS t-OHCE& 



149 



wbicli lies between the tomi of CnstliannML and the promoDtory 

, of Sepias."' 

; 184. Ab Unas Man poiut then, and on' land a» far as Ther* 

mi^ylie, the anuament of Xers«s bad l>een free from mis- 
cbaneo ; uid the ntunbcTB ««» utill, oovording to my rrckouing, 
of ilie follovring amount. First tbero was tbc unoivut coiuitlo- 
ment of tbe twulvc hundred fuid bovou tosscId wliiob «amo witb 
the king from A.sia — the oontingenta of the natiouB severally — 

I amounting, if we allow to each ship a. crev of two handred men,* 
to 241,4U0. Each of these TCSeeU hud ou board, besides natire 

I soldiers, thirty fighting men, who were litlur Pursiana, Modes, 
or SiicaDH ; ^ which gives an addition of ^G,'21f). To thcBv two 
DDmbers I shall further add the crews of the pontceunters ; 
wbjcl) may bo Kekoued, one with another, at fourscore men 

^^oeb. Of Bucb ressitls there were (aa I said before") thivo 

^^bioiuaiul ; and tho men on board them accordingly would be 

' 240,000. This was the sea force brought by tho king from 

Asia : and it amounted in all to 517,610 men. The number of 

^ the foot soldiers was 1,700,000;* that of the horsemen 80,000;' 



t Mncn*. <8o* flsiitli't Did. <rf An- 

;. p. 7SS, B, whors Ihv nlt> ot * 

» coa[»retl to Ukt of " H 

>* Cajw li«plM (for Sjtrn In Qcn>- 
ia BM "•hws" bni "jininiou- 
r" — "ft iMil," iu N»tiu1ii'ii <ratil«, 
' whicti jal» oMl to a cuuaiijcnblo din. 
iolo ihc Nft, and hM rml^ wo 
ndjoliiiiig tbn mulBUiid ") ii nn- 
'Vlonblmiljr lb: niodmt pmmontory of 
St. Gp^/t, Kintbo dNcribed it u 
tcrnuealmj; Itw T fc ti m To iralt, and 
M looklDK Kninrd* ito Dfiitli (vii. p. 
4B0). Tbi'tv wn* a unrn ii( llu^ mtnu) 
nanu>, uvoiliiiic to (bin tnthor (ix. p. 
1133), nliicli wim Bflcffwnrdi anlloirnl 
np la Di-mMriki. It ptnlmlily la; 
wvMof llie nipR, wbcn; it Hould koro 
twfn tii»rwh*t alwIti^Hid. 

CMtlMiiM, or Ca^iiiam, hmi wbich 
tba obMtBiU'tR* (>lill abundut m 
tbew p«iru) ilerirtd ila Latin luuii* 
(BljTB. K*e- Bd voc.), Uj 00 tb« 
auun CLOst (EV«up. KeU U. S> o( 




Uagnnain. nlmcat at tlio foot of {Vtlion 
(Stnb. ix. p. C4l, mAiin l*i *«> nqAjy 
luiftirit). Col. Lettke ijcnliliea it wjib 
trnao ruinii iwar TamiLltbarl (toL It. 
p. 3(0). 

■ Tlic cTDw of • Orttt tii(«in» ■wow 
klirajii ti» har«i Iwvd 200 (irido iafn, 
riii. 17) I nnd n ha*o hero «i ovl- 
dnnco that Uc-ndoiiu bsew ot no 

difloMIICD ill thill rMptOt bMwvMi tlw 
0«o*k Tonols mill tbc Ft-niian. Tbo 
proportiat bolwMn (ho <oi]0n and 
fptbatiB, ornwD-at^mu, ii not tmliko 
that wkiob obtninR ia our nirii n;iTy. 

> Vldo NnpiD, ob. US. Thrw IrooiM 
WHO nganUd U tho bwl (too v'uL 
113). 

■ Supra, oh. 97. It appmn frooi 
that paMatfo that In IhMO 3000 mawla 
aro inelojed. btoidea puntcoonuiN, 
rnTioBS other matt of ft mneli uwUtc 

KM. 

* Bopra. «k. 60. 
•$Meb.(J7. 



ISO 



}IU»BEB OP TEE UlSD AND SEA FORCES. Book 



mV 



to which mnst be abided the Arabs who rode on oimels, lUid 
th« Libjranfi who fought in chariote, whom I rockon at 20,000. 
Th« whole Qmnbi-r, Uicroforo, of the kud uud boa forces stliUtl 
t together omountH to 2,317,610 men. Such was tUo foreo 
brought fruio A^in, witlK^iit including tlie oiunp (oUowerfl, ot 
taking any nccount of the pron&ioa-ahips and the iu«u whom 
the; had on boo^. 

165. To the amount thus icached we have Btill to add tbs 
forces gatliered in Europe, concerning which I oao only speak 
from conjecture. The Greelfs dweUing in ThraoB, and in thv 
islands off the const of Thrace," furnished to tht- fh-ot one btin- 
dred and twenty ships ; the crews of which would amount to 
24,000 men. Besides theeo, footmen were funuahed b; the 
Thracians, the PffionionH, the Eordians.' tho Bottinans, b; tbe 
Chalcidean tribes, by tJio CrysianB, the Ticrinns, tho Hac»do- 
nians, tho PerrbiehianB, the EnianiauB, the Dolopians, tbt> 
Uagnesiarm, the AchssnEi, and by all tho dwellers upon the 
Thraeian sen-board ; and the forces of thcso natiooa amoonted, 
I beheve, to tturce hundred thousand men. Theeu numbeis, 
added to those of the forco which came ont ot Asia, mako the 
bum of the fighting men 2,C'tl,G10. 

166. Such then being tho number ot the fighting men, it is 
my belief that the attendants who followed tlio cainp, togutbor 
with the cr«w9 of the corn-bftrks, and of tho other croft aceom* 



I 



' ThMM is tbo onlr <n>B "f ^<^*B 
irlUoh ha* n luuuo ; but thoD nro 
nuunr miBll iaUnda, jorl oft tlm comI. 

' Tbn . BonLkDH, win) «ro ihv onlf 
pcopio hero ntwuHt titat Iiato lut be«ai 
montJoQcd butcro, m tb» ancieat in. 
babltonu o( the distriot known ofMr- 
wanli M EordoMt, which wm onlo- 
bnM in RoaiAn timM (•*« l>iv. xnti. 
a9v40,xlU.U; Polyb. xvitr. n.Ca>. 
nis tnot, wbidi lay beti(c«a nllk 
ud LraoMtia (Stnb. vli. p. 468). acd 
aim bdtwMn tVUa Mil EliiuuM (LIt, 
I. *. «■), nnut hare ooneapoadtid with 
Um nppor nltiTX of tbo ii^dias, Uiu 
ewuitry DOW koowu M Sat^jliiti 
(Leak?, lii. (ilUIC}, 'Iln MBCodoBiMH, 



bowDver, bid MqNlled Iho Gordlao* 
<<rlia iroro m Vaiomiau Irlb*, PUn. It. 
lu) fMm IboiraDcteit abudaa (TliWTd. 
ii. 30) I and liuTf bad •ooght a R(n|« 
olMnrhnv, bat in irtat exact IomW/ 
ii nnecrtniii. 71>D^dlilM *aj» ''Mar 
Phyacai" bat of Phj»» noUtiaf la 
known «iecpl tliat it hm ia JlrK^a^ 
(1*101. i!i. 13 1 coininn) Bt«[iIi.Bjs. ad 
T«a 'Kaflttaift pnibatd}' npeo tlM 
bordenorOhaldiUcA Wte>w«liMr 
ot Ibo AmjTiuu bavinft b««B anoMHtl* 
Zovii (Scud. Ft. T), nv Iwn Unt the 
primitivv aMUomMita ot iU« neo, •• 
at » muaj otbcra, ww« acaltornd ami 



M)pnnt«. Aaiyni* wm bmt IaLu I;ib- 



4 



I 



belt In Tbwul 



r 




ObAT. lU-ieA VOHBER OF THE HOST ALTOOKTBEB. 



iSr 



piuijing the army, made ap an amount ratlicr alove thfin 
Mow that of tho fighting men. However, I will not reckon 
tliem aa vittter fevr«r or mon:', but tako them at an equal 
number. We haro tluircfore to add to the earn already 
roaohfld an oxactly eqniU amount. This will giTO 5,283.220 
ais ilia wbole numl>er of men brought l>y X«rxeB, tho son of 
Darius, as far n« Sepias and Tliermopyls/ 



* U Ma aoucelf b« donbMd tiial 
till* Binoiut la couaUcntlgJf b«7<ai<l 
the trvtii. lb weulil bftv* boon tto 
otijeot ol Um WT«r«l eaMui uf Xonoa 
to exapgcnU) tlm Biunban bimJm' tlioir 
jonunmd, for tketr own cr«d;l id bar. 

abroaslU ■> nuMj hum into tlw 
t Md TUatBt hlmatlf might bkw 
boM ooount to tttva lueb m»b!b«(*- 
UoM iiiBdtvbaUiaaMldinfctotiiaipMT 
nod M t««diii|c to •larm tbo Oreek*. 



AfUr til* faHara of tlio oipcditioa lb 
wiui iMinallj an «bjt«t irilb ibe Grc«ki 
to nufniitj iu gniattiMi, alnea ihoy 
thus iDcTMatd tho merit of tliair own 
(itcotw. StiJI, portion* of llie dctoiU 
of th« BMhnotti wam to bo altOKcthor 
tnwtwoHkjt and it J* powiblo to 
point out tbo cdtlsf placoa whn* *x- 
Bggvntlcn hu orept in. 

Th* «>UmBl« of Htnndotiis wQl be 
bwt exhiUtod In a tabuloi lorm :— 



QudU J ul Trwpi. Suiolnr. 



*yK«ibiai Ailb 



..BMMBbMn Bmqn • 



labolry 
Otvtli7 



Ante wul UbT«u . 
i.t«« tf Uia trtimHH 

■\ nn>4 ftrCBOB toad 

ibiai. 
Cnm nf Uwaaaltir 

nMb. 



ORnotlrlna* 



aii.tw 
3«,ne 



UC1.M0 



MMD 



QmuiuI or ite OOmiM. 



Onmun Rfun— BautaT |[fDUM7 
ttii]iik4 M DulKiUk, 

CklinltM itao Uw towKD anDttr 
otilwMniDtatmh. 

Ilnofh (owi fmn lb* (npp*^ 
uuiDtvr or MMh »— ill (lOMIl 
mil Uit {kmiuumI an*tc« ti*» 

lI'Aiicn m"—. hwrt on 111* aonWr 
inninn^ ■blfli nu Ilkily tw to 



TaUl uf tb* ntUUl* tun* . 
ANnUnli 

OaMT«al . . 



S.*ll.«l(l 



f llwMMioabsntlinfolhnrinftarptftr 
tkoroMl miimiiaa. Tho omn of Iha 
tracBca, JUiatici md K^ropooM, 
S41,«W ana MAO— tbo anutd ton* 
<« bosH Iha fcniirr, 3B,SVh-%aA tim 
Aciatio oaralrv (a law Mtimatp), 
SOkOOO. na bUoiriaff an open to 
qtiMllMi Ann ih* aiidtat want of 
■■ffldnit lUla. and fRim i)th«<r cuotoa. 
I . Tb» orvw* (i[ tbo Pmtcacinlm ami 
twaUw TMMb, wfaidi are twMtd at 



8000 in BnDl>«r, witb a nipiN«ml 
uiwentee cnw of 80, giniur a nAai of 
MOfloO nan. Tbo anrage of 80 
■Mima MTj nadalj UTg« ; ucoo it li 
difieoli u tappoaa thnt wnii tbo craw 
of a pcalMoaMr muoh siomeM that 
MUDbar, and iba tnaUtt Twatli ma*t 
huTO eanled nrjr man^ Itaa Perhapa 
40 w bO noolil bp a falivr aT«M^ 
And tbo namber of Ihrat ibonrntd 
Might nfdjba reduecd lu mm, (or die 



F52 



moimr of fbotisioks bequibbd. 



BWK 



167. Suoli then vras tlie amonnt of the entire host of Xcrx^. 
As for the number of Hia womvii wlio ground the com, of Uiu 



trinnn« had now bocoata the ontinaij 
■Up of war. These mdnotloiw «o«bl 
Mrike off HXftOO man. 2. The Antm 
uul Li^TBiu Mwm OTPrr&I«cI»t Stf,000. 
U tho entice carftlnr. to whioli eo 
Ruuij of the ohlaf nitioait coiittibat«d 
(ehi. M JiC) , wu no mora thftn 80,000, 
tho (WDola KDil Ehariiits are not likoly 
to horo RMhod 10.000. It mnu be 
doobloil, I04 wbotboF the Anhian 
Minitl.ri>l«ra, «Iu> wore Mntioned in 
Of roar (ch. S7), iliit not maIIv bnlonii 
to the beggege-train, in irhieli oMe 
UvTodota* vrouli] hare counted tlivm 
twfoe. 3. Tbn luiil force whiafa joined 
tbe •spmlilion nu ita uiorch throng 
Bnrope Ml probtblj far ahuct at 
tOOfiOO. ThnC anmbuc wenld leem 
to bo * high (iiUioeta lor tho f;ceeto«t 
nlliteiT torco irbleh the ooantrice 
BemMl oonld Mijhoir (urniih. Tho 
briM bMlilj nutod on ilio lino U 

Aiblk lAbbtrr, tin. . . Wil-I.MO 
jiMMKc*nli7.aK . . ta.nuo 
LUifiiii In <liartiu. tb in.ooa 
Sunpau Mnd am*, ilk loD.uoi 
Cmnuf Ailiilcirtnoia »l.<Oa 
Jlnni>l funnunilMiv . ScttO 
trrw* nt Hnril' t immU nil. lAMO 
Oram vl KwupMO WnvHi M.OIIO 



BBRih of tho PetMn atinv era sM 
Ukdr •» hkr» lUMihod OM-tUrd of lb* 
■inoaDC. Furlhor, it ia w«tb ooUee 
what ft Kreal di«]in>pc>tion th«4« ii 
betwMfi lbs Iriiwaie* hmuhed <190). 
which «Mild t«ro been cnailf coonted. 
and tho Inod Ibrco, wUoh oonld ool; 
be giiMfod. i. Tba Aaaatio itdaattj 
was no doubt pvrpoaeljr jn gj tWMeJ 
br ita commMiden, wlio vmld order 
their men, wben they onuiMd tha<» 
cloHM (aotn, ch. 60). not to msl 
clone toirMbor. The anrannt of tUi 
Bxaincmalion it ia alnmil inpoaaUft 10 
BitiiDBip, bnt it can eoucoly iMS 
amouiiUHl lo Ml Diiicta a« owJiait. 

If lb* navnl and iiiUilai^ ftvoa be 
Ndneed in acoanlaMw with tlte »bof* 
aniocMtioni^ it will alill ooneiat uf aboat 
> nuUioa and * holt «d oombataoU t 
*it. — 



h 



l.lM.no luH Mc* 



••»(Mlomlgraai 



1.UI.II0 



lib nqiOOt to tho noD.oambalAnta, 
Ctrote'e ramark [Ui*t. of Gr««co, 
vol. *. p. 48) la tnoat aoond, that Ho- 
rodiFtne haanppliad a Ot««Jc ftnodard 
to a caee where aooli anplirailioA i« 
wbollf nitwaimuited. ^o n«ini of 
tjie TOMchi wooU deoided)}' hnvo h&d 
so attendants— and th« " grmt imwi 
e* the annj" wonli! liktnrito liaro 
boon withoDt Ihi-m. "AfewirmndMa 
mjgbl be riohlf |iR)*i<)nli'' jvt oren 
tlMir attendaate would moetl; ban 
OUti^d anna, and bmn conuied anumK 
the intantij. It wae llior»fore 
eoanely aeoeewnr foe Uemlotua to 
httTO WMo anr nddicion at all lo bia 
ati>nuu«i on tlM iccro uf aitcndaniei 
•ad if he taaih> tmj, it should' hwM 
been mrr trif <>«. 

The OBtiowiM fatntahed b/ cthw 
wnten Iutv Utllo itnpertaDee, th» 



00)7 original etatement* beinji tbOM 
ot .AiebTlna and Uomim. Th« funMr, 
n« wo hnvft aaan (eniaw, qfe, W, 
noto*}, oorTebn«l«e Bendot^ m 10 
tlw oiaot ntnnbcr o( Fwaaan trliMBM^ 
with the exception that bo ajipltaa 
tlio nanib(« lo tbe fleet at Saltimit. 
llcuona ham already lircn gina 
(miIiih, loo. cH.) for iirttorintf, iM^i 
thia bfad.tbe atataiMotof QevodotM^H 
The Uiiot siree the nunber of IW^ 
S(«t at 1000. that cl tbo laad fonw ak 
800.000, enJoaiTo of chariote (IVniA. 
Kid. S X3). Bat Ctaciat ia an nlMrl)' 
VOTthleai anthoritr.aia thi* yan of I 
H'MiXT <iii6. S6)aMatpUl>l7 abaM.1 
Diodorw (xi. 3) hM howwTM- h>l~ 



(xi.3)l 
bim, aa baa ^iaa, amept that be iW 
made a farther d«dacte>u at VKtflM 
for tlio «ako ot itNBKv probabUUj 
(7. H. xiii 8)1 wSKhjrlH do« ' 




;i8& 



FIB3T SIOBU. 



IS3 






concubiooB, and the ennuohs, no one can gire any mre acconnt 
of it ; nor can the baggage ltors«a and other numpter-bea&te, 
nor tlie Indian lioonds whicli fullowid lliu urmy, bu culuulatod, 

reason of tbeir multitude. Hence I am not at all surprised 
tbal tbc- watvr of tbu rirtrs was found too Bcont for tlio army 
iu Bomu iuijUutccs ; ratlivr it is a niarrel to mc bow tbc pro- 

iaions did not f:ul, wbvu tho numburs wore eo great. For 
I find OQ talcolation tbat if coob man coosomcd no more tban 
A ebccnix of corn a-day, there must have b«on aaod doily by 

e army 110,840 medimui,' and tbis witbont counting what 
Voe eaten by tbe vomen, tbe eunucha, the Buuipter-beasts^ 
and tbe hounds. Among all this multitude of men there was 

it one nbo, for beauty and stature, deecrvod more tban 
:es htmsolf to irield no Tuet u powi>r. 

188. Tbe fltiet then, as I euid, on leaving Tberma, sailed to 

e Uagnesian territory, and there occupied tbe strip of eoasb 

ivntta tbc city of CastltantBa and Cape Sepias. The ibips 
if tbe fint row were moored to tbo land, whilo tho remainder 
Ismmg at anchor further off. The beaeb eitendcd but a very 
little way, bo tbat ther had to anchor off the oliore, row upou 
row, eight deep. In this mnnuer they passed the night. But 
at dawn of day calm aud stillneas gave place to a raging sea 
and a Tiolent storm, which fell upon them with a strong gate 

om the east'— a wind which tho people la those ports call 




Ire (ho ammnt of tbo Innd forcni 

A bk vxpnmiouM affTtt nitlicir vitb 

rati n«inb«n of Uvrodoluii, tliaa 

lb iho mani sodunM t«t*i of 

;m (Pm. K-M. ISa-tM, 724, 

.738> Tba pcfrnkr balfot of tha 

in« ma iJiM XnoM bronchi a Und 

ct a^OUO.OOO lo TlicnDupj'U* 

[«ee tbo uncriptkoi, mfn, oh. XK). 

* tioM U ft mUcptcnlatioD. Tbo 
MtOAl aiiiQont, accdnlloK lu tha aain- 
btr M wbttA Umcakita* rcckuns Ui» 
would b« llO^J^fi,^ MvdiinDi. 

Willi Tvtfovi (o Iha mod* in wUeli 
inmiTiM bwl «•• mutually aup- 




pllrd, w« miiat tioAr in mind, 1. tbnc 
Aiistic* wre konuUimi^d tv lir« upon 
a vmj Mcoixi,j <li»u S. tbat cummU. 
eariMprapwationiaa tho Uf^Mt Male 
had boon made (or icTonl jcan (riL 
SU). MagBBDM tf uoroa^iMl boon 
bjil np «m tbo liso of tnwek (ub. ItSX 
and Ibu natiniti hait bccu ttiiimlntod 
lo prrnaio ntiplio> vl focd of aU kiiul* 
(nh. llu). S. Ihnt a vimt biunbor ct 
tn>iii>|iGort« laiUu with oom (nra)tr)4 
vAfia) acooir|«iuod iLn h»t nkuR 
thoiD (ch. IM, lUl). Ai»l 4. iLat not. 
iKilhnttuiduis all tlioiu prtuaatunt, 
Iho DXpodiilaa did nittat (roiu waiu 





^^^^HU LOSS TO TOE PES5IAN FLECT. Book VII. 

^m Hellespontias. Sucli of them as perceiTed ilio wind rising. 
^^^ oad woco so mooivd as to allow of it, forcstftllod tlw tempett 
^^^V by dragging tlieir ships up on tho bench, snd in Uiis vay, ii 
^M SAved both themaelTeii and their veea^. But the ehipA whiclnj 
^M the storm cnnght out at 6«a were driven nahore, some of them^ 
^B near the place called Ipoi, or "The Ovens,"'" at the foot of i 
^B Pelion; others on the strand itself; others again aboat Capofl 
^M Sepias; while a portion were dashed to pieces near the eitiea oCV 
^^1 Melibsa'aQdCosthaniBa. Thcrewogno resisting tho teinpMt.1 
^^^k 189. It is said tlint the Athenians hod called upon Bi>rcas' 
^^^^ to aid tho Greeks, on account of a fn«h oracKt which hud 
^M readied them, oraimanding them to "seek lu'lp from tbvir 
^M flon-in-law." Fw Boreas, according to the tradition of th« 
^M Greeks, took to wife a woman of Attica, viz., Orithyia, tbAM 
^1 doaghter of Erechtheas.' So the Atheninrm, aa the tale goes«fl 
^m considering that thi« morriago made Boreas their son-iu-law^l 
^M and pc>rc<.-iviii^, while tliey lay with thuir ships at Chalets of ■ 
^^^^ Euboca/ that the nmd was rising, or, it may b«, oveu bi-fore it J 
^^^P freebened, offered sacrifice both to Boreas aod likeii-iso to Orl-fl 
^^^ tliyia, cnti-cnting them to come to their aid and to destroy theV 
^M ships of the Imrbarians, as they did onoe before oil Mount ^ 
^M Athos. Whether it was oning to this thnt Boreaa' fell with 


^H ■" Colonel Lunkri <ii. p. 8R3> pUoM 
^H Ipni nt JiTdipiri, dinwlly iinclnr Polinm, 
^H wbiek •grco* wvll counKh vritli Ibis 
^H iioMMgr, Rud ndlh tho colloo in i^cnbo 
^^M (ix. p. S41),*Tirrovrra riler rpax^'*^ 
^H iMf 1 ntAivr). The niiinp, irbk-b Ri«nn« 
^^M " Tbs Urcnf," wa* not very aniMtimDn 
^H <io« 8t«pli. B/i. od vou. 'tvm it 
^^1 *tomvt)L 

^H >Uetiba«iiirnionPof llio<'liii]f rilio* 
^H of lh>>H> parU (Hum. 1). ii. TIT i tvnl. 
^1 roipl. p. m: Ut. illr. 13: Pltn. 

^M o.M.w.Si Apou. BhoLi. ma). It 

^H WM RitnUod M lb« foot of Otfo <Ltr. 
^H 1. 0.), in • »ballow bay to whicb it nv* 
^^^B nano (Stnbo, Ix. p. 6U> C«ioud 
^^^H I«ak* pteoM it, on good gimwda, U n 
^^^V phM «*ll«l A'^Mln* M(V iMnMU 
^V <;f. a. Tol. iv. p, 411): KUprit, 
^H wnnflf, tiuU it on tlio Uuu of 
^M ViUm (lUatt XTl.). 


■ n» latMMi llura la itlll rtrUiMo} ia 
lk« AdriMio lor tbu N. E. wind.— ^1 

to. w.) m 

"Thi* table ii fnaalwllh ttrw wja>m 
Umw in Plato (Ptu>ylr. p. 239 n.), h)^ 
the fr«cnient« ot AirotiiUiiu (P). il), 
in ApalludoniH (iii. xr. {It, 2),nMl 
in PMMBia* (i. sii. § By, Plato laH'i' 
tiigl7 MtseMU a ratlanol mpUnatto. 

• Supi*. eb. tas, 

* It ii eridaat itiat tho pomte el Uie 
ecmpaw wet« not Oxed fn tlw Una vt 

HorodoCiH wkh tho prMWon which , 
had boon alUUsed wbon Kitij ^l^iHH 
> <B. K. xviti. 34X Setmlotoi «Hfl^H 
Mima Kuid tniUOaRntly ttarenaV^H 
Ap*HaUv<nonh.«Mtand OMt, ni-oord^H 
but lo tilny** wxplanAlion), If Um^H 
wtsd ronlly blew tmm lb* Uvll«>poiil^^| 
its ditwiioa wo«ld turn been oonlt^H 
eft«t bjT oait. ^B 




C«»y. leS-WL ESBICHMEST OP AMCIXOCLES 



i-'S 



Ttolence on the barbanans nl tliotr nndiorAge, I enonot any ; 
but the Atbi-niiuii dcclftrctl thnt thfy bud recelTed aid from 
Boreas bvToni, and tlmt it viaa ho who now caatied all these 
disasters. Tbcy tbcrofore, on tbeir return borne, built a 
templo to this god on tbe banks of tbe Ilissn»." 

190. SiHih OS pat the loss of tbe Persian fleet in this storm 
at tbo lowest, say that foor bimdred of tbeir ships were 
destn^ed, tbat n flcnmtliiss moltitodo of men were slain, and 
a Taet treasure engolfod. AmoinoeloB, tbe son of Cr6ttDc«. a 
MaenoeiAD, wbo tanned land n<mr Capo Sopias, found tbe 
irreok of tliese reasela a source of great gain to him ; many 
,-wcre tbe gold and BJlver drinking-cups, cast up l<»ig afterwards 

tbe Rurf, wbiob he gatbered ; while tieasare-boxes too, 
bicb ba<l belon^^ to tbe Persians, and (;oIden aitidea of all 
Bud boyojid count, camo into bis potBession. Ameinocles 
iw to bo a man of great wealtb in this way ; but in other 
ipoeta things did not go over well with bim : he too, like 
Other men, had bis own grief— tbe calamity of losing bis 
offspring. 

191. As for tbe number of the proviiuon craft and other 
merchant ships which perished, it was beyond count. Indeed, 
such was the Iobs, that the commanders of tbe sea force. 

aring lest in tboir shattered condition tbe Tbessalians 

hoold Tenlore on an nttnok, raised a lofty barricade around 

eir station out of the wreck of the vessols cast ashore. Tbe 

la«t«d three days. At length the Mogians, by offering 

Tietims to the Winds, and charming them with the help of 

conjurers, while at the same tim« tbcy Mwxifioed to Thetis and 

tbe Nereids, succeeded in laying the storm four days aft«r it 




lb 

Mill II 



■ TbB njili mM that Onlbyuk iaA 
MK dwrlM «0 (ran tbo ImbIu of tbo 
llUwiM. Tbo Mnipl* aypMtn to hura 
Imn bult m tb<> «iT|ipo*Ml tit* of tli» 
ra<ruUuiHiut, whnv in I'UtD'i Ums aa 

tb» tmnpla haTla]! pivtebly goM to 
doMjr. WboB I'wimuIm wtvu, ihac* 
•MUM le ban bMD oiMhar uwplt uor 



«Uan Tbo (met tlto oT the botldfaiir 
CBH a)B)0)t b» fiivd tnna V\W uu 
SUobo (U. pp. S70, 661}. U MM on 
lh« riicfal bank at Uio tliMU, lirotttfalr 
about oppodto tlM iniKUrn OMnb of 
St. Vaut Uu MartyT (fttrai Uinoh 
iMBM ; Sm L«ak«'a Athwii, pp. ITV, 





156 TIIAXKSOIVIXO TO XEPirSE "THR BlVIOUB." BOOK Til 



fint began; or porlinps it c«asvd or itself. Tbo reiwon ol 
ttioir olToriiii; Rnorifico to Thetis vas tluH : thoy wore told bv 
tho loiiiaiis tlmt here was tlie place wheuce Pekus carried her 
off, AifQ that tho whole promontory was sacrod to her and to 
her siator NoreidB.' So the storm lulltd upon tho fmirtb day. 

192. Tlio scouts left hy the Gretikti nhoiit tho hi};hli\iids of 
Eubrxft hastened down from tlieir etatioos on the day following 
that vbercon the storm began, and acqnainted their country- 
men nith all that bad befallen the Persian fleet. Tbtee no 
sooner b«ard vbat had happened than straightway they 
rotumcd thanks to Neptune the Saviour, and pourivd libations 
in his honour ; after which Ihuy hastened back with all Bpwd 
to ArtemiBium. (•s;i)ccting to find a very few tdiips k-ft to oppo«o 
them, and nrriviug thcro for tho second time, took up tbeir 
station on thut strip of coast : nor from that day to the proscnt 
hare they ceas«d to address Meptime by the name then given 
him, of " Sanonr." 

103. The barbarians, when the wind InlUd and tho sea grow 
smooth, drew their ships down to tho water, and proeee<Ii>d to 
ooast alonf; the mainland. Haring then roopded the estrvnw 
point of Magnesia,^ thvy sailed straight into the bay that runs 
up to ragafMc." There is a place in this bay, belonging to 
Magnesia, where Hercules is said to have boon put ashoro to 



' It is QnnMMMij to n«praC tha 
mll'Icnown bUe of tbs Mixiim vf 
Tbelia li]r Pnlpoa. Tlia taXo » fitva 
bticCfb^r ApaUodomn (in. xiii. %*), 
inoEo Rt louclli bj Ovid (Hotaounrpli. 
xi.)' AeconliDK to ihs SoholiMt open 
At»llc<niiM lUiodiua (i. (6S), Thrti*. 
•mong hn Other tconstorawtiocw, b*. 
coino • cnttlO'fliii (nrv(a). Mid tfcoioa 
tho pronuaiUtry dnrivod its oiuno. 

* llr. Qroto (ii;ipMM tliia to bu " the 
•oatli^aatoni ceraer of 31as"'*i*" 

iHiat. of GroMe, rd. v. p. 112. nota). 
tUalc It WM tha ■oacli.uMCom. Tlio 
flaat prnoOMted fTom 8ei>iu kIixim 
abov to tUa " petnl of UatiiMma," aoil 
dmbling It. anlM atmgM into tli» 
F^tMcoa OoLf, witUn whleb (fr rf 
nitiWfi waa AfhtUB. TUiewj dia> 



UtigniabM Oapo UagBMls fraaa <3ape 
Svplaa. flxacllr io Uw ■bom mj aa 
Uotvdotoi (Uoofrr. iii. 13. p. 93). 
Plinj oaUa tbo Uaini<^>uui pnMtKaitac7, 
Chjie Xtnutmi (TI. N'. ir. U). 

* Tbia la imdiiiibKNlljr Oio uoden 
Gelt of rate. It ia ir«ll d««mbod br 
Ec^lai (IVipL p. eo). PftRwao tUotf 
lajr in the iuncrnoirt Mcoa* of (ho bay, 
aUiat two luilu* itma IiJoiia, *ai Ub 
fWnn Fbana (Strab. ii. p. 632), ll 
belciiifcwl Io Thowaly, vrbwh tud oaly 
twoainallalilpaot aco'boord.MiohoM-,. 
Olid ooa M Iho Bontk of tlin Pmnu* 
(iicylni.ulnr|mi| oouiaro Btratt, L«. 
M>'l V\in. U. N. IT. S. 9). 

L'u1i:<iifI Loake fouM comt'ilpnkblo 
lenuuiu of tbot«iniallllln uiCiiewcat 

or v«h (s. Gt«ac«, IT. pjh aCH, sto). 



4 



H Cur. in- 



cur. 191-lM THE GREEKS TAKE FIFTEEK SUI{^ 



'57 



I 

I 

I 



fotcli wator hy Jtson ' luid Iiir eompanionn ; wlio tiicn ttcBcrted 
him and went on their way to Ma in Colclus, on board tho 
ship Atgo, in qaest of tho golden fleeee. From the circum- 
stance that they intended, after 'watering their Teseel btfthis 
place, to quit the shore and launch forth into tho doop, it 
received tho name of Aphotse.' Hero thou it was that tbe 
Heet of Xorxos came to an anchor. 

104. Fifteen ships, vhich ha4 la^nl greatly behind the 
rest, h&ppening to catch sight of the Greek fleet at Arlemisinm, 
mietook it for Uioir own, and sailing dovn into the midst of it, 
fell into the hands of tho enemy. Tho commander of this 
Kqnadron ■«&» Sanddocs, tho son of Thamaaim, govomor of 
Cyrak,' in iBoliB- He wait of the number of the royal judges/ 
and had been crucified by Darius some time before, on the 
charge of takin;; a bribe to determine a cause nrrongly ; but 
while ho yot hung on tb« cross, I>arinB bethought him that 
the good dec<lB of Snnd^cs towards tho king's honso wore 
more nnmerons tbnn his evil d.^edn ;" and so, confessing that 
ho hail acted with more baste than wisdom, be ordered him to 
bo taken down and set at lari;e. Thus Sandoces escaped 
dottnioUon at tho bands of Darius, and was aUve at this time; 
hot ho was not fat«d to come off so cheaply from bis BOcond 
peril ; for as soon as tho Qrcoks saw tbc ships making towards 
tliem, they giioHsed their mistake, and potting to sea, took 
them without difGculty. 



* Tim m»aj torn* wliioh Ihc myth 
toek aakT ba trtnt in Apoflodomi (i. 
ix. S 10). Accoitlini; to thkt which 
nrwknilcatvd, Uurcnlo wm iftt la 
»y*te fApoU. Bhcxl. i. lITn-lSKI). 
Phcrecyora bcrnnr mHinMiiiuil llio 
TtEtMon of nerodotiu ^. 97), nddtngr 
■liU H^rcaln* tna ItA MiEail, bocaQM 
Iha Arfo ilKbMd dM eonid Bet bear 
kU WBight. 

■ Tbe funo ^erir»t{an of Ui* nano 
JiylMm tna i^tm, "to looaoaliip." 
UirirnnbyApvlloiuHiiItlKidiatti. GOl), 
KIM bf HluphfD <ad TDc.l- Tlio plaM) 
atipMn (o hare b««n ni(fa«T « huboni 
UM a town, tlioogh Sl«plica otUi it 



« j^if T^t ttrfrngUt. It* eifwt tlt« I* 
DiiivttniD, b«t It M«iiii tpom Haro. 
dotni to Liarn bMn "ifillivr (be har- 
baar <it Triiwri, or that bctwoMi tbe 
inland of Poiod Triktri and tho main ' 
(■CO IiMko, IT. p. SS7)> StAbo'* 
nacrtion, tb&t it wm ntor PtgMw, 
nnHt bo t4kon in a wido mm* (ix. 
p. 632). 

* 8<ipr«. i. 149. 

' Sapn, iii. SI i aad mo AnMndli 
to Book m. Eonj ili. S C. 

* Tho Pentlnn law, iie«ariUnii to 
Bcrodotu, rcqnind anob a reriew 
(i. U7). 




158 



XEEUC£S AJiniVES AT ALUS IK ACHJU. 



Bool th. H 



195. Andulis, tyriuat of AlabaQcbi io Caria,* was cm 1>oaril 
one of the ships, and waa made priEoner ; aa also was the 
Papliian general, Peiithylus, the eon of DemonouH, who waa 
OD boai'd another. This person had brought nith him twelvo 
abips firom Paphos,^ and, after losing oIuTcn in the stonn o& 
Sepias, was tukun tn the mmainiiig one as ho Bailed towards 
Ariemiainm. The Grooks, after questiouiug tboir prisonors u 
inach as thoy wished conoeming the forces of Xerxes, scot 
them a,v!&j in chaioa to the Isthmns of Corinth. 
■ 1D6. Tbo aca force of the barbarinnA, \rith the oxcoption of 
the fiAccD Hhipa commanded (aa I said) by Sanduoes, cnmo 
safo to Apbcta. Xerxes meanwhile, with the land army, had 
proceeded through Thcesaly and Aoliea, and three daya earlier 
had entered the territory of the Maliana. In Thessaly be 
matched his own horBCs against the Thossaltan, wlueh be 
heard were the beet in Groc«o ;" but the Grc«k ooaraera were 
left for behind in thu race. All tho rivers in this region had 
water enough to »upply his arniy, exeept only tiioOnocbdnos;* 
bat in Achtea, the hirgi'st of thu streams, Iho Apidanus, barely 
held out. 

197. On bis arrival at Alas* in Achica, bis guides, wishing 
to inform bim of eretylhing, told him the tale known to the 



4 



In tho nitxl book <cll. 13») ; but It wM 
luiinllj Kprdud ba a Curiwi l<iwn 
(Sink xn, p. Mt; Plin. n. S. t. 
xxis. I Btcnh. Bn. nd voo.). Tbo do- 
tctiptton oi StiMio, and the enloi f onad 
ou tbo apot anSot t« Idontif^ ibo ax- 
toiwir* ruiiu M dml Hutar witb the 
UuionC AT>l)>nd» (FbUowtfa Lrda, 
PP.M49). 

' hpiunt •wmt to liATe bono oqq cf 
t)io«ar1ia«t PLomiciwi Httloiacnt* in 
Cypn*. It WM wid by *oiim U> haro 
boni lonadcd b; ui anotonl king 
ASriMi otliDra awHUid ft to Cis]r>»« 
(TWt. An. iii. 6S, itiit, a. 3 1 Apollod. 
III. kIt. S S>. fftptioa h; upua Iho 
wcM eo«at. Tho Midont city itm nt 
tbo diaunotoffUKint amtla fno th»wB 
(Stimb. Bir. pp. 97% 978} ; but » toot* 
Bodcnt town Mcribtd to Aiftptmor 



(Stnb. La. «.t Pwuna. riir. r. { tX 
gtw «{> nC MDio litlla diMlance spoi 
tha Kliora. Thia btUr. whick i* (tfU 
known M B^fit, Httam l« bo iha 
Fophut of Dcr^alna. 

■Tbo ciccllctko; <4 Of ThoMkliu 
bonira «sa pvtivorUiil. Hew* Tbau. 
cr>tu« *pMkiBir <f DtUa np,— 

nonco 'loo, in Cbe Dndo wbleih WM 
siren to tbo UcgaHui*, m b«w— 

ra>'>i i^> ultm t* ll«*»«T " *' 'V>'* t^nnn 
Inb DwdiWa*^ Aa^^iu*"^ M yrraUtt-^ 
"^ HWtA. TUwtA. Ut, (1.) 

Compnnt 8npbcx-l. KUctr. 700 ; Rat. 
U>p|K Maj. SSlA.) abd vinlo onpnv** 

63, DUtO '. 

• fiapm. eh, 129, 

* Snpn, oh. 173. 



f 
I 



BflAT. 19S-lfi?. TE3IPLB OY LAPUV8TL1>* JI'1>1T£A. 



159 



dwcUtTfl in tliose parts coneonung tlie temple of tlie Laphys- 
tiau Jupiter' — liow that Atliftmas, the eon of iEoIiia, took 
floniuKl witli Ino tmd plottod the Avatii of PUrixas ;' and bow 
that afUtrwarda the Achxann, warned by an oraole, laid a 
forfeit apoa bis posterity, forbidding tho eldest of the ra«e 
ever to enter into the ootirt-bouBti (irhioli th«y coll tbu people's 
faouw), and keying vatcb tbdmselves to Be« tbo lair obeyed. 
If one eomee vithin tlia doors, he con never go out ugalo 
except to be sacrificed. Fuitbor, they told him, how that 
many personii, when oo tho point of being shun, are seized 
vith Hueb fear that tlicy fleo away and tako refago in some 
other oonnlry ; and that theSie, if tliey come back long after- 
'wordfl, and are found to be the persons nho entered the ooort- 
boose, are led fiDrtli covered with chaplets, and in a grand 
prooessioD, aad are Baenfleed. This forfeit it) paid by the 
deeoendanls of CyttHSorus, tlio son of PhrixttH,* becaose, when 




* Tbe iMCt bnDMtMDi^af JnplUc 
lAphjallu wu in Bmtio, bftvrcn 
CoroMM rmI OrAooMuu f^uun. n. 
xvciv. % 4). Tbora It Mid to hn>^ 
> UMUxtf in Bithrnin (Schol. »d. 
1 Bbod. U. eU) I aail it luM booii 
U«t norodotai ho* tfiMkl 
a' tlilrd at Ahi> (lorchur nd tdc. 
liua. Tablo Q<oRn|Ji,)- But 
iul tniipoaittea is muio e imtt r y. 
I inUsda to tB7 Uml Urn taJo 
' vhlcb Xeno* lioanl vt Ala* inna*d 
him aftcnrorct^ «■• M* fOHSf* Unngh 
KsoMa, toKpara thb •hfiiie »mi gitm 
at IdjibjMitnJupiUrlliRra. Aa Aim 
w«i, Booontinic to tndjtios, foniidad 
by AtboDuii (Stnb. ii. p. dST), wa 
may unibntaad hiow iho inhabitauta 
<ma» ta 1*0 Xonaa tlHt Rtory. 

A gOoA dMl of ctwcurily attocliM to 
thawnd''I«pk7«UMi." Ftvpnlj it 
f'lp^*— "gtattonou," % DininioK 
wudi la coqiatihLe with tlio toftli 
(••• the n»n nntfl). Somo, hcnrercT, 
Mira t«|iniilail it iu Ihii otmnaclioD u 
» mtro looal 8p|i«UUir* (Larebcr, ad 
loc.)k tdiwa tho BKFaMsin wbmn ito 
temtiU mood (tho tnodorn moootAin 
of OratUlM, Lcttko, iJ. p. 140) wan 
lAphfMlvm. Bat the racma- 



lalD ptA«bl; took ita nurio from th« 




'he tab wont, ttiat laa, wiahiafi; 
to dcitray tho cUldmo of Athamaa by 
bi* linl irif« H^pholi, pnxlGovd » 
(loarlh b7 baiioit tbo sevitrfinm aKrotljr 
(MTcheil Irafaro it wu aown, and wlion 
AlhiLmai conioltcd tho cnicb} oil the 
Bubicct, |«muulod tho Dieaanngvri to 
bttog I»ok anoixl, that Pbrinis Butt 
bo atcriHcod to Jopiter. AlhaouM 
«M InpaaiKl npcn, and pivpaivd to 
offor Us Hn t but If«pbeu laalcliad 
Phrixca frcon tho altar, and pUoad 
tim ttpoQ B mm with a KoUra floM 
which ih« luid obtainoil from Uenmcji 
ami tho nm oarried him thraoKh tho 
air to Cotcbi*. whwaUwaaoOModbf 
Phrim to Japit«r. Th« Amm be 
gxm to .dhiUe the Cololiiaa kiiv (tf. 
Apoticiil. I. iz. g 1 ; Pb<mbd. I. zzir. 
$ 3, IX. xxxiv. H: Plot. Kin. SIS, 0.1 
AjKilI. Bhod. ii. 6U>. 

If thi( talo In imUeatira of the fact 
that, la cnrlj limoi lb* OrcticnDooiiui 
Uuifw oSerod bomaii •acrUlooa to 
JoT», wo mar wdaniaiul why tboir 
Jot* wai callDd " Laiihrttiau " <im 
UiiJJor'o BiUMiD. S U). 

* Pbnm^ in tlia """"■■" tmliUuu, 



i6o 



DESCRIPTION OF UU.t& 



DODX 



the AchiPftns. in obwlience to an oraele, made AthamaB, 
SOD of £ulus, their sin-offering, and were about to sla; hi 
CytissoroB eamo from £a in Colchis and roecned Atbamas 
by which deed ho brnnght tlte nnger of the god apoD his own 
posterity. Xerxes, therefore, having heard this etory, vthea, 
ho reached the grore of the f^od, avoided it, and commnndei 
his army to do the Iil;c. Ho also pnid Iho sam« respoct to 
honse and precinct of tbo dL^ccndiints of Atbamas. 

198. Such irero the doingH of Xorxos in ThMsaly and 
Aohtts. From honee he pasiied on into Mtihs, along the iih< 
of a bay, in vrhicli there is an ebb and How of the tide daily.' 
By the side of thia bay Uee a piece of flat land, in one pi 
broad, bnt in nnntber very narrow indc«d, around whtoh nmfl 
a range of lolly hille, impossible to oUmb, enclosing all Mali: 
within them, and called tbo Trocbintan cliffs.* The firet cit. 
npon the bay, as you como from Aclimi, is Antieyra,' near 
which the rivrr Spcrcboins, flowing dovn from the country of 
the Eniftnians,* empties itself into the sea. About twenty 
(brlongs from this stream there is a second river, called th« 



WM nU to b**« lio') four toiui, Argw, 
M«lu, nm)ili%ftnilO]rtiuoviu(Abnl. 
led. L •■ B. ; Apolko. BIkhI. li. llUf). 
l^Baaadu, wlw glTw Ub * no, nrMbM 
{a, snir. { B), niiMt han CoUoirtd > 
lURcMM (torjr. On tbm (dTwing «t 
hOBMti «criSc«a kj (iM OtMkK no 
W«dumDtb'« ndlaiMeb. AH««tlinDW. 
««1. ii. V ^*^ «'' ■°<N- Cmb|mu« th« 
MtiDla BAcsiticiim taSoilli'* DteLot 
Aatia. p. 8D9, A. 

■Im tide* in tlw Ibditwrmeaa 
Midon r(M mom tham ■ ttiw faot. In 
potii* \'>Mcoii not >b«T« 1! or 13 indiM. 
Tb» OaU>«iu nt tb« cmat mind tto 
aUfao Qulf wool'l renilor tho rian nad 
IM KMn pevoeptitiln then thoa ebe- 

* Cooipoi* iriifa ibt«the d«w*Tption 
iit ImVo (N. C. (oI. ii. cb. 10), bj- 
whicli U appMn that, howonr gr««t 
lb* (diMww whldi If M hM ni*di\ Ika 
lWn<wl chniBfUr o(Umi»c*b* rtawbiii 
wnaltartd. The pInUi ni th« bttid of 
Um fanji mylnB P'oUljr in i1« brntdt h. 



Uie nnff* of hilla nnanBdhiK tt on 
■ulM^ tiiit oliffii and pr«dplcc)i which 
in iDKnjr ptaoca abtit njioii th« dai 
eontry, an now, n* fnnnurlj', tbo 
moat eoaaptenoua fiMam of tk« 
looalitjr (rMDpara CIniWa TntTak b 
Oreeoe, nd. 1. cb. riii. p. EOOSiS). 

'AdiHoyrn inaat bovn Uin towwdi 
tiiDBOrtb of tW Italian plnima, nM 
Bntenlotrnor 2(liiai{lAniw). Ni 
nina kani ujrelbMndiamraTDdtci 
tbe emot ail«, which tba {cnat altoim- 
Ueaa tfaat hnvo takan |itar« is tW 
oonrM of Urn 8p«rdioiaa ([fitl.lil.' 
nnder Tsry diffloolt cf dctarminati 

Hio M'^llfin mntt b« dlsti: 
tron tba Elodaa Antiorm, wfakk 
latuc )b7 M iha OnU «t Corinth. an4 
woa • tDDch inoT« fninoatnct place. 
Auiondr vuoiigh, bc4h vitie* trnrn 
ftuDona m tbotr lirDllol»n< (mh> Sui^. 
li. p. OOS: 8t«ph. Ujt. wl voe.1 at4 
coapara TbaoploaM. BkL Plank ix. 
U). *^ 

* Tide mpm.ah. US^bqU*. 



1 




p.l»-SO0. 



UVBBS SEUt THEBUOn'LJi. 



l6l 



)ynis,' which if) said to hare sppeand Urst to help Hercules 
rbon he was banting. Again, at the distacco of twent; 

furlongs, there is a Btx«am called tho MoIob, neat wbidi, 

within about Crc furlongs, stands the city of Trachis.* 

199. At tlic point where this city is built, tbe plain hetwocn 

tho hills and the sea is broader than at any other, for it there 

monanres 22,000 plethnt.* South of Tracbis there is a cleft in 

tho mouDlain-rangfl which shuts in the tji^rritory of Trachinia; 

and the rirer Asopos* issuing from this cleft llowa fur a whilu 

along the foot of tho hillt. 

300. Further to tho south, another river, callod the Phanis,* 

wliich baa no groat body ot water, flows itom tlio eamo hillB. 

and fallR into the AsApus. Here is the narrowest placo of all ; 

for in this part there is only a causeway wide enough for a 




* CoIomI 1.m1m hmt •kliitfrnctorilj' 
tdtntibd tbit mrttaa aa woll w tbe 
MelM <K. a. TeL ii. pp. ZG, »). Tbo 
lUtor, wUoh WM litUc mom thiui lutlf 

* lalto trom TiMliia (e(. Lit. xxtri. 
I colj Imi tho ■IrmniUc (ADHd. 
boir rktl*d Umi ifdmi .Wria OF 

EBiror, irhioh u a trsmlatioti of 
bo ■wrieot nwHh Tlis Drna mnil 
be Ui» Ovrya, «mdli oIoim 
inUrrcna* brtwwn Ibo Jfiitva XMa 
Mil tha BperchaiDS. At prMtvnl, 
the«B two atremms join in tti? niiildlv 
dI tbo pbun, koil togeUioc hU into tbe 

■ SoBcn. efa. ITS, note *■ Stn>txi (Ix. 
p. 811) Ikrowi no Ij^t on the ^eo- 
gnpbyot Ihit t*gicD. It {lolcar llitt 
bo bad no pttxuikl kmnrli^ito of it, 
and gimfHj folloirotl UNodotnt. 

* Tbii ia cetliuDljr an incorrect iDaul. 
iog> Twenty.tno tbooauid plotlim 
■ro ftliOVD 420 «!]«•. wtMonu tlw plain 
i* ■WDwew.atUic nlaiott, i<«Tr«i in<liu 
MMm! It it impoMililo, I tliii>1i, to 
nadBntond tbo pM*age an CoIon(>l 
IiG«k» oplaios it— tbat " tbe wA«I* 
»ffat4 ol (bfl ulaln coot«inad 2S/KW 
pMbn ~ (NaiMm Qneoe^ii- p> !!)■ 
Qeredoioa iMrrcr gJTM mm, and aacb 

* notdcdng dnipo altOKetbcr tbe im. 
portaat particle yt^ Wo mutt (op- 
poM •■ ai m» UoB of tbo Biuabon— 

VOL. IT. 



poseibly «A (23,000> for <t» (88). 

■ Tha Aa^poii is tJoitIj tbo jTam- 
nan'a. U i* nws^iied ij (ta paajthili 
iouth o£ the roim o( II(iracl»ia (T»- 
obii), and by tbn " Din((niliR«3it (iluuim " 
Uirongb wbiob it itmo* upun tbo Tn- 
cUdIm pkia from tbs monntauit tt 
<EU <OdI. p. £80; Utkt. II. p. 11). 
It likewiae mtill flowi tbrongb IM 
plain, onulj at tbn toot of tbo billB 
wbiob boanJ tliri plain to Ifao Kiatb. 
At prMxnt it falltf into tbo SporcUiM 
inaWod of roBcbloR tbo wa ; but thiH 
foot doca not IbreW anjr dotibl opon 
tbi) idontifloMioii, tlnco it j* tbo no. 
<c«MuT eonaequpnco «t tbo gndnal 
growth ot the alluTJam, bf wbieh thu 
BiouUi «l tbo SparoUoi bu t><<pu 
cnniod t« ociina dittauoo bejrond tbu 
slrnttf- 

•CDlonfilL«tt]teId«iit(SmtbePb<Miix 
(Bed RiTor) wilb * (mall atraam of 
iut mtnornl «rst«r, baring a dopcolc oC 
a ml ootonr, wbidi flovrn from two 
oonrco near tb« buo ot tho mountain, 
nngc, and omptim itMlf into tho 
fiporaUiu, ralh«r more than half a 
loilo boknr tho point whom tbat atrcam 
r«00ivm tbe Aadpoa. Hern is atiU ono 
of tbe oamnmt poitioiu ol tho paaa i 
and tho diitAnoo to tho principal bob 
■princi ii olmntt oxnctljr Ifi gMm 
(L«akr, ii. p. 33). 




ld2 



FOSmOIf OF THE TWO AB3CIE& 



Book T^^^ 



single carriage. From tbo river Phasnix to ThermopyUe ts * 
distance of filtcon furlongs ; and in Uiis Bpftco is Bitnato the 
village called Autli61a,^ yrhieh tho river As6piis passes ore it 
reacfaes tbo ecA. Tbo epoco about AnthGUi is of somr width, 
und contftius a temple of AmphiotyoniAn C«r«$, as well as the 
scatti of tb« Ampbictyonic deputies,* and a tomple of Am^c-, 
iyon himBeU.' 

201. King Xenes pitched bis camp in the region of M; 
coUed Tracbinia, vbile on their side tbo Greeks occupied tli«' 
straits.* These Htraits the Greeks in general call Tbermopyln 



hio-j 

ftUsI 



IM. It it bIio [iotii.i>cl hx Sl>>ph«n. 
ProMbly it wu ntnated on Ihs 

diglitif «ilov>t«d tisot wbioh Um at 
Uio foot of the gnat preeiptoo*. be- 
twMii tke Md ijirtoK* ct Pbn&ix. uid 
tlw m*Iii MNiroM (Leake, pp. SG, SO). 
Ho MnM^ni ftro to bo tonna eithsr of 
AtitbtU iUalt «r of thn otiua bnild- 
Inn mantioiuMl bj Ilerodotua. 

* Ainphlctjvnia* wern reb'ctotu 
loogOM of atntf* poicauiiiig n oonuiKni 
MWOtmrj (bfiaifcnf, ortgi&kllr 
■/■fucrlfritV Time were MTanl boUi 
in A«iB uid Ewvpe (Scnaami, Ful. 
Ant. |_Ui Smith'* I)let.«t Avt. p. 
7!^- Tfae Amphiolrony whlab mot M 
HucBomrln iraa Uio mo«t «»I«bt»t«d 
fit alL U oooiuWd of the folloiriiis 
itttioD^ tU., tbo Thowriliuri*. SaaotMah 
Doriuw, lonivu, Porrbmbiui*, Uag- 
nedoDi, Looriana, ^niwriani, Aa h W OT i 
of FhtUuit, lUliMw, nwdHW *o(l 
(pTobeblf) tin Dolopiui* (eL Mtoiiia. 
So F. h^i- p. 28&, and Paomu i. viil. 
I X). It bold ita reicDiar mettlntcii 
twice a jtw, in tlie firing end in tbe 
aotmna. The qirlng meMing waa at 
Delphi, tbo antnmn one at Thcr- 
moinrlw. Etacfait«t«a<mtt«adepDtlna, 
kfiyMfarai and a Mrtmnnnan. The 
Pylagorm formed the w^galar iweenbly 
— tbo RieromnemcDM wen a aorl ot 
■Ciuidmg eommitle speoiallj ehatiod 
with the execution <d deoreee. and tbe 
care of tbe templee. UiUler eoea is 
the two neetlng-plaMaot tUt leafpie, 
an aulMToor l« iiaite tbo BeUaaia 



irtlb the Folaaeio wocehip (Ootltai, 
tol. i. p, 2S9. B.T.). 

' Ampliictyon would aMoa to be 
moat clcarlj an in*eBU)d aame^ 
formod, aooonling lo tlw Urook ooe- 
torn of refeiTi^ alt appeOatlnH to a 
hem epenymM, (ran the word Aa- 
pbletvoiay. Tet the adrmtnm of 
AmpUelyoa an fraetdr aamtad *a 
thongb thej were Metoifaal tmlhal 
(See ApoQod. i. vii. $ E, m. xir. § I ; 
Maan. Par. 1. S, up. e^> 

■ The acoompeajiMf plan, which ie 
takan (with few altentMna) from the 
adminble woik of Cotoaol Laaka 
(Korthoni 0^eoo^ Tol. U.), will (H fe 
hoped) (ende* elabente i iiilaiwiiow 
of the koalitina nnniBBa»ry. It ec- 
hibtta Ten elearlj the Kroa* alMn- 
tloni whie& ham lakea paaoe throB(h 
tbe BOCBimiUCien of depotita fma the 
Sporcbeins and the oUber atnama. 
Tbe b«id of the Kutt haa leoedat 
about foui mllse, the UaJlao fdain 
bnrlnK adTenoed that dieianoe. The 
nootb of the Spenshenu ha* bean 
thrown from the north -eattom to the 
ooDtbarn abora of tbo gait, and ail. 
ranoed eeiea or eight mllaa trMa ila 
old poaitian. The paa* it new tepa- 
nCod ban the ana tkrengheat it* 
entire oxtont, bj a tnct of manh; 
KTound, ■ mill* or two in width 
through which the Spareheio* iewt^ 
and Bcrow whooh a road, otHf pfa*. 
ticablolti nwMBtr, lead* trMo Boniham 
to Sottharn Oreeoe, BToidiBg th« ; 
ollogether. Um n^nor alna«> i 



^ 




CiUT. too, Mil. 



PLAN OF TnERMOPTLX. 



I6S 



(the Hot Gates) ; bat the nativM, and tliose who 
nei^boorhood, oall them Pj-i(o (the Gat«8). Here 




IIURItDIRVIMiKPlSt. 

1. MiB— m l t* l«*nMiaL 
S. TlHtUll Cw>iB-Mw> 

S. HiMlipitai. 



I ramlgn of Ibo fSfWll •tlq)', 

3. Bqmmlc i>rc*iiL<lri>tiiii>^ 

1. SHtalUia U^uuBieui U LmldHi. 




162 



Book 




yVUHEBATIOS OF THE OBEEK HCOOPS. 

Ringle^g took tlieir stand ; tho one master of aU tlie 

Tnorth of Trachis, the other of the country extending south- 
ward of that place to the verge of the contineot. 

903. The Groeks who at this epot awaited the eoming of 
Xerxes were the following : — Prom Sparta, thr«e hundred men- 
at-arma : &om Arcudla, a thoosand Togeane and Mantineans, 
five himdrt'd of tuch iK-opIo ; a hundred and twenty Orchonic- 
niooB, from tho Arcadian Orcltomcnos ;' and a thoosand from 
other cities: &om Coricth, four hundred men: from Phliui,' 
two hundred : and from iSja-am eighty. Sach was the number , 
trom the Peloponneao. There were also present, from Bccotui^ 
seren hundred Thespians and four hundred Thebang, ™ 

SOS. Besides these troops, the Locrians of Opus and the 
FhoeLons had obeyed the call of their countrymen, and sent,! 
former oil the force they had, tho hitt«r a tliousand men. Fo 
envoys had gono from tho Greeks at Thormopyln among 
LocrioQH and Phocians, to call on them for assistance, and to say 



the 



tiOMd by Btrodotns ham all bMooM 
tribaUriM o( ttw SporcWof, anil btve 
ehaagcd Ihcir oimn(« in tome dtvree. 
Tbo wood Dpoti Uoimt AcopcM luia 
bMM to B groM aiicrat cat down, and 
Uw ilopM an nofr cultiTatod. Von- 
nl TCMi t«(i of a nogh Iciad har* 
bsoi naile, when in Uio lime cf 
Qarodota* thcnt wm bat a da^o foot. 
f«UL Still, inanj fntBroa of tha 
iMna nmaia unalCMod — tbo bi«ad 
plaiMj tlw hich TiBohmiaa fndfiot*, 
the garigo tbixn^ whloh tb« rirar 
Aaftpua aner^M tnt^ the ntoiuitaiM, 
ihg hot niriiw* or " canldrona," Uiia 
M la Ibe daj* ot Pansania* (it. xat. 
t E)) Um tnanbM, more oxlcnoird ncnr 
than fw w iy, tnva the ode nopdi 
Upcai CalUdiDun*— all lh««f> aro mt- 
BiMWl to hj madam tfardkn, and 
MUaA the iteowaer of the hialoriaii. 

* 11« Arcadian wberodiitiiipiUhed 
rrom tho Bccolinn cltjr of tbe aune 
name (iofm. vliL 34). Tho formcv 
•KM nIoalMl a I)U1« lo tbo nonb «f 
Ifaatiua. betwMQ that plooo and 
Fhtoaw (Pwmh. tiii. xiii). It it 
now ITaljNtU, wtietv Doosdcnblo miiw 
ot tbo anoioat town may bo tracad 



(GdH-s Karoa.p(i. 144, 146 1 Lcako't 
ll<n«,iii.tq<.99-10:f). 

' Tbore an* «aid to h**s Iwmi Ihnv 

Slaoo* of thii namo. One, Uie tuun 
■iDOiw, WM Btaatcd i» tliD ncctb- 
•aattni itoit^ni of th« PclBfoimWft 
about LsU-HBf beiwooD Aivtm aid 
Sio^^ovfFaaMa.ii. xiiLJl). AjioiIm*. 
ncbiJOMd onlf bj Ftolomjr (Omp- 
lit. IS, p. 100), woa on tba coait, M- 
twom Itanpliu and Haami«o«. Tfao 
thinl WM near CyUoat^ in Klfa (Rin. 
IL M. iv. 6). Then cnnnat be any 
doQbt that tbo flnt d tloaa U the 
town «hioh U bm apokoe of, M>1 
whieh nib»K|M)ollj fomUlied tnofii 
at PlaUoa (infn, iv. 28). 

For a deoctiptioD ot tld« PbUaa, we 
PlHuBBiai (11. xlii.)- It ««a rilnalad 
on the Polopounoston AiApM, which 
nn iato the am n«af Sii-TaB. Origis. 
nUj an Aobmui oitjr, it iraa ooaqoered 
by tho Doriui* of Jltgos. but Mona* t* 
bare rataiaod alwajt a decree ot la- 
dt^tidenoe- EitM*iTe roina ilUl 
■Dark tbo aite, whioh it at Fsifffntfa, 
not far fniin At Uhttrji (OeU'e Mort^ 
p.l6di Loako,T0LUl.p.Sil9). 




Hciur. sol-see. 



DESCENT OP LEONIDAS. 



l6S 






— " Tliey were tlipmsclvos Imt the Tftngimnl of tlic Itost. sent to 

precede the main body, which might e\eiy day be expected to 

[follow them. Tho sea vas in good keeping, watchtd by tho 

Lthfinums, tho Eginetans, and the r«et of the fleet. There wau 

f no c«u» why they should fear ; for after all tho invader was 

not a god but a man ; and thcro neT«r had be«Q, and never 

would be, a man wlio was not linblo to misfortunes &ou the very 

day of his birth, and those misfortunes greater in proportion to 

his own greatness. The assailant therefore, being only a mortal, 

must needs fall from his glory." Thus urged, the Locrians and 

^the Fhocians bud come with their troops to Tracbis. 

^^ 20-t. The various nations had each captaiuB of their own under 

^■jAom thfiy served ; but tim ono to whom alt CBpe«ially looked 

^^p, and who hoA the command of the entire force, was (he 

^^ Lacedtemonian, Leonidaa. Now Leonidas was tlie son of 

^BAnoxondridas, who was the eon of Leo, who was the bob of 

^"Euryoralidas, who was the son of Anaxander, who was the 

8on of Eurycratcs, who was the Bon of Polyddrus. who was the 

^■fion of Ali-amenee, who was the eon of Teleclcs, who vtas Ute 

^■son of Archelaua, who was the son of Agesilaus, who was 

Btbo son of Doryesus, who was tho son of Labotao, who was 

H'the Bon of Echestratas, who was tho son of Agis, who was 

the i*on of Kurysthi'nes, who wa-s the son of Aristodfimus, who 

was tho son of Aristomachus, who was the son of Cleodans, 

who was the son of Hyllus, who waa the son of Hercules.* 

ILoonidaa had come to be king of Sparta quite unoxpoetedly. 
205. Havuig two t;Idcr brothers. Cleomcnes and Dorious, ho 



■nd m oMmiaa of the 8|>iui*ti kug* 

of tba atdoF bonM^ and tnuf Im ca- 

' ttom tHUij •oaTfm. Th* lino 






BnryitkmM.to Al«ain«nn* in 
fonnil ID DiodorBo (op. Etiseb, CHran. 
Con. pan. t. e. 36, p. I^ii, oho pro. 
fsMM M ffivo fIRiip ApDllodorai tlio 
csMt luuiibfv ol r«m ibab «acli king 
^_ rdpvd. ftujkaiu (ill. i.-iii.) luii 



tb» cnlin list front Arintadnmn* to 
ADtuandridai, bat witboat aaj obro- 
nolofnr. It i* pUin, howcrnr, that he 
would not tmvD vfrttA witli tho nnm- 
iHjr* or Uiodonla (ms hi. ii. } 3. «n1). 
MiUlvr Unnka (D«riitDi, I. p. 148. E.T..> 
that tbo oBoieB <J tho klngi and thn 
fcdT« of their reiKiu '"*"* prMtrrad 
at Sparta Is poblic resiiMn (oraTyafaJ) 
from Tur^ cvl; time*. 



i66 



Boos Tit. 



r 



» 



ChonBHs died wjUiovl nak '*Trf"e, as Dotisas ns Ukc- 
niM deeeued, hariag p«id»d id ffidl;.* the trown fall to 
I ico ni dag, who was older Ibao Qcanibrotas, the y o on g w i of 
tba ■ons of Anaiandridaa, and. moreover, was married la tiio 
<hnghtor ol Qeomenee.* He had doit come to ThvnnopjFla, 
acoompanied hj the three handled* men which the Uv 
■■■igpsd hitD, whom ba bad liimsalf cfaoaea from among tbe 
d ti aeofl, and wbo ncm all of them fathers with sons UTinf. 
On his my he had taken the tnwps from Thebes, wboM 
nonber I have ahread; mentioned, and who ireie nnder tbo 
eonmuutdof Leontisdes'theBonof Eurymachas. Thexeasoo 
why bo made a point of taking troops from Thebes, and 
Thebes only, was. that the Tbebaas wen strongly sospeeted 
of being well inclined to the Hedes. Lconidas therefore called 
on them to come vitb him to the war, vishing to see whether 
they would comply with his demand, or openly refuse, ood 
diBclaim the Greek alliance. They, however, though tlictc 
wishes leant the other way, nercrtb^eas seat the mcn.^ 

aOG. The force with Ifconidas was sent forward by the 
Sporiana in adTanoe of their main body, that the sight of 
them might encoorage the allies to fight, and hinder them 
from going over to the Ucdcs. as it was likely tbey might 
have done had they soon that Sparta was backward. They 
intended presently, when they had celebrated the Coroeian 



I 




*Bafn,r.*0. 

* Owgo, nho WW tneatietiod •bow 
(v. IB, SI), mnd uccsn a^ia. lain, 
«h.S3ft. 

' Ltoaidaa pti— to haro bB«n f idly 
•vtwa of UiD dc^wnU) DAtnre o( lAa 
wrriM whlcfc h* now ■ndotoelc (mm> 
the DHratif* in DMon*, A. 4). Ho 
thtnbm, inaUad «f lakiag with hisi 
hii ta^ioarj bodjnnd of yo«(h* (•«• 
aol«* oa i. 67), MMCtad ft bodjffmrd 
Bnm MaonK tfaa man of ardTsnoaa ac^ 
Mkiag DOM bat mtb aa bad main cdT- 
qirlng hriag. In otier that no faaifly 
■Ight ak«e«th«r iKtrith (aao HUlw'a 



Dniui^ ta. tL p. SS7. K. T.). 

* AriMorhaaM Ibe Baotian mli 
that tlw oamnMdar of bbe Thaban 
wmOnmA at Flaw* mat. oM. Leon- 
■ladea.bMaocrUiB Anaiamlar (Fr. ft). 
It ia. of eoonc. poMtbb eMmgh |1M 
in nwh a mMUr BorwMna maj hara 
beoN nialalien. 

' AoKO'daig i<> Diodsrw (I- •■ ^) 
than mm two paitiea m Tbabaa, a«« 
for and Ih* other tgtintt tW Pcmiana. 
Tha iBtlnr b* rapromnt* aa aaxKng 
TohintanI; tho ocmtinipat of *» (•«• 
ftlw Pltit. d» U»lic«. Uocud. il. 
807, A.). 



^B*f.l 



9D6-90S. MOUNTED SPT SENT BY XERXES. 



167 



fcetiToJ,' vhicb was whnt now kept them at home,* to leave 
A garrison in 8parift, and hasten in full force to join the 
army. The rest of the 6Lllies also intended to act similarl;; 
for it hjippened that the Ohinpic feetiral fell exactly at thia 
same period." None of them looked to seo thu contest at 
Thermopylie decided bo speedily ; irlien'foro they were conlent 
to send fonrard a mere advanced guard. Such accordingly 
were the intentions of the allies. 

fi07. Tho Greek foroes at Thermopylio, when tho Forsian 
army drew near to the entrance of the pasa, were Boizod with 
(ear; and a council was held to consider about a retreat. 
It was tho wish of the Peloponnesians generally that the 
army should fall back upon the Peloponnese, and there guard 
tlie Iiithmus. But Leonidas, who saw with what indignatton 
the Phociana and Locrlana heard uf tliU plan, gave his voice 
for remaining where they were, nhile they sent envoys to the 
several cities to ask for help, since tlity wlto too few to make 
a Btand against an army like that of the Iklvdes. 

208. While this debate was going on, Xerxen sent a mounted 
gpy to observe the Greeks, and note how many tlu-y wlto, 
see what they were doing. He had heard, before ho 




■ nioOoraeitB fwliTtLl ftJI In tbo 
I moBtlt Omwinii, tbu Allii^iiiaa 
I eorMqMRdiss nwrljr U> 
nor AngMt. Ii vm hoU in bononr d 
Apollo OwMaas, a d«Hr wenUpped 
htm 1W7 uNiant tim« ia the F«lo. 
pOBDMi^ MpocUI/ nt An jalv. UOUcr 
(OrcbMD. p. 327) lappasM tUa irenh^i 
U) hat* bata tMwtlit to Amjcba from 
Thtbca hj the JS^k. le appwn 
o*fUlnl}r to IiBTa boen actcriar to the 
Doriaa «0BqaMt (Boriaoi, txJ. J. pp. 
Vn-^n, E.T.). tlo Spartan foatiiol 
la Mid to baro been iDBtitntml o.c. 070 
(Atbon. liT. p. 63$, B. ; Kaath. Claoa. 
Oaa. pan i. o. 33). le wm of a irar- 
Uko DhaiaottT, like tlia Athenian 
Botdronio- For furlher paitioulan, 
•oo Smiih'i Diet, of Aatiq. «iib voo. 

That the origia and Mtaniiiit ot the 




w«rd Oameiai iru onknovn t« tbo 
Gre«ka, apjiran from tbo varteot ex. 
planationa of nttiMuUu (tn. xiii. { 3) 
and otliora (Sobol. Tbeocrit. r. 03; 
{"haTorln. ad too. , Ao.). 

* Vide eanm, ri. 106, note*, awl 
oomptre in^ix. 7; ThnejO. ir. 6[ 
T. M, Ao. 

" Tide infta, tiiL Sa. TheOIyiBpio 
tmtiviil nu cclubrat«d at tba t^na of 
tb» iinC Tall moon oftar the nuuner 
whtioo (Bockh ad Ptad. 0). iii. 8S). 
U tbtaaioro ordinarily ptooodcd the 
Spartan Qimoia, fallia; la tho latter 
end of Juno or in Joly. The Oieeka 
ironld bo vfiTj DuwillinK tu ipve np^ 
withoDb abfolnlo ti«icanit<r, their at- 
tusdaaee npsn the great gamea " oon- 
ctoted with eo nuv porpono ol 
plfianiM, biulnoi^ and niliKioa " (of. 
Thirlitall, tol. i. oh. x. pp. 890-3S3). 



168 



XEBXE8 OmSHlXm OSUABATCa 



SookTIL 



ootno out of Thessaly, tliat a few mon were usembled nt thin 
place, and ihst at their bead wert- oertam Lacedfemoiiians, 
uixior Leoiiidas, a tlf&condaut of IlircuUs. The horsvauui 
roclu up to thfi camp, and looked about bim, but did not sen 
tbo whole army ; for suoh as were on the farther eide of tlu 
vail* (which had been rebuilt and was now oarefally guarded) 
it was not possible for him to behold ; but he observed those 
on tbtt outside, who vn^so cnoampt-'d in front of the rampart 
It chanocd that at tbix time tbo Laccdjcmoniane bold (bo 
outer guard, and were soon by the spy, some of them cngsgod 
in gxinnastic exercises, others eombing tlK'ir long hair. At 
this the Epy greatly marvelled, bat he counted their number, 
and when be bad taken accurate note of everything, ho rodo 
back quietly ; for no one pursued after him, nor i)aid any 
heed to bis visit. So bo Ktumcd. and told Xerxc» all that^ 
be bod flOOD. H 

200. L'lWQ this, Xerxes, who hod no mcAns of eurminiiig ~ 
the truth — namely, that the Spartans wen preparing to do or 
die manfully — but thought it laughable that they should be 
engaged in each employments, sent and calUd to his preaenoe 
Demaratns the son of Ariston, who still remained with tbe 
anny. Wictt he appeared. Xerxes told him all tliat he had 
heard, and questioned him concerning tlie news, litnoe h»fl 
waa anxious to understand the meaning of such bebaiiour^ 
on the part of the Spartans. Then Doniaratus said— 

•I spalto to thee, King! concerning these men long 
since,^ when we had bat just begun our march upon Greece : 
thou, however, didst only laogb at my words, when I told , 
the« of all this, which I saw would eomo to pass. EamoBtl^B 
do I struggle at oil times to epeok truth to thee, sire ; aii<n 
now listen to it once more. These men have come to dis- 
pat« the pose with us ; and it is for this that they are nofffl 
making ready. 'Tis their custom, when they are about to 



' n* frail ballt bjr llio Fboo>M> 
(npta^ ch. 170), which Ooknol Lndm 
phciM ■■ > LiiW «a*iwatd d tba wmU 



emMlt-cprinff" fKortbns Grmot^iL 
p. K). 8«s Uw riM. nipnt, p. Ida. 




^IPM"- 



ATTACK of T0E VJiVrS. 



169 



' liai 



liazard their lirea, to adorn their heads with care.' Be assured, 
faoweror, that if tliou eunHt Bubdtio the men vho arc huro and 
the LflMdtDmouiuDH nlio rt-main in Sparta, there is no other 
nation in all the world which will vouture to hit a hand in 
their dofenoc. Thou hnot now to deal with the firat kingdom 
aod town in Qrec«e, and with tlie bravest men." 

Then Xenee, to whom what Demaratns said iKcmcd alto- 
gether to surpass belief, asked further, "how it was jWissiblo 
BO Bmall an army to contend with his ? " 
' O King ! " Demaratus answered, " let me be treated as a 
iar, if matters full not out as I say." 

210. But Xerxes wmt not ptrHuiidcd any the more. Four 
whole days he saffcrcd to go by,* oxpocUng that the Greeks 
would mn away. When, however, he found on the fifth that 
ifaoy were not gone, thinking that their firm Mond was mere 
impudence and recklessness, he grew wroth, and acnt against 
them the Medes nnd Cissians, with orders to take them alivo 
and bring them into his presence. Then the Bledes ruBhed 
forward and charged the Greeks, but fell in Titst nambers : 
othera however took tbo pliwe* of the slain, and would not be 
beaten off, though they sufTered terrible losses. la this way it 
beoamo clear to all, and cspc«ially to the King, that though ho 
bad plenty of combatants, he had but very few warriors. The 
stmgglc, howiTcr, continued during the whole day. 

211. Then the Medce, haying met so rough a reception, 
withdrew from Iho light ; and their place wue taken by the 



* nio Spvtoa oiuUiiD «( inMriDR 
Um h»ir tonff ba« boon nbtmij notioeil 
(tiifin, i. 81). Hw putimlar mtloo. 
eicM imiUnriti oa iu adenmtal ia 
Un»M of Immtnentda^cr ia witnMMd 
to bf FlaUrch (l«eiug. d. 23), and by 
X«ac(iboB (H*5>. Lac. xiiL g tl|. If wo 
*dapl ia that pism Ihn ntadini; 
««irwif>ufr«>. ^0 MUDre mitiUnr cox- 
ooanbtjr wm (bowti in tbo bright 
pdlah of Iheir amuxir M looh mmkhiii 
in the|[viiuubi*h«r«irlth uc eiit4riii|t 
laittla Ihpjr kdomx] tbnr titvnii, nnil 
1b tha torintdr—w wUob (hoj wuro 



(XcM. vt mipmi Xtina. V. n. tI. S; 
KI7111. Vaga. m1 vm. Vi fointlSat 

* DtoilMiia rdatw (ri. S) that XorxM 
nade pcomfBl owtoiva to Loonidwi 
during Uii* intanl. Then U, bow- 
oTor, CO prolMbllit/ In Ua Merj j and 
it U dlfliculi lo aoeonnt tur tha leag 
lixiaj whioh vooumd, nnloM wo najr 
mppoio that the Pcniao king lMk«d 
at Anc to obiainiDfE tho «D.«peralicn 
of hii Beat, and coIyboKao thoallack 
wb«ii that bcipo faiUd hita. 




fro 



ATTACK OF THE IMXOBTALS. 



Book 



bond of Persians nnder Hydamea, whom the King called \aa 
" ^moi'tnls : ' they, it was tbooght, would soon finish the 
InuiiMSs. But wheu thoy joined battlo with tho Greeks, 'twu 
with DO better bucoobb than the Median dt^tnvhrnent — thin^^ 
vent much iks before — tho two armies fighting in a narrow 
Bpaoe, and the baihiurians using shorter spears than tbe 
Qrocks,* and having no adTOotago from their nombcrs. ' Tba 
LacednmonianB fought in a way worthy of note, and Bhomd 
themselves far mate slcilful in light than their advoraarieB, 
often turning their backs, and making a>i thongh they wm 
oU fljing away, on which the barbariana would rush after 
them with much noise and shouting, when the Spartans ai 
their approach \Tould wheel round and face their pursuen, in 
this way destroying vast aombors of the enemy. Some 
Spartans Ukewitie fell in thoeo encounters, but only a very 
few.* At last the Persians, finding that all their efforts to 
gain tho paHS availed nothing, and that, whether they attoekfid 
by divbioQs or in any other way, it was to no purpose, with- 
drew to their own quarters. 

212. During theae aseaiilts, it is said that Xerxes, who was 
watching the battle, thrice leaped &om the throne on wbicli 
he sate,* in terror for his army. 

Next day the oombat was renewed, but with no better 
success on tlio port of the barborianii. The Greeks were w 
few that the barbarians hoped to find them disabled, by reason 
of their wounds, from offering any further rceiHtonce ; and ao 
they once more attacked them. But the Grcvks were drawn 
np in detachments according to their cities, and bore tbe 
brunt of tho battle in turns, — 'all except the Pboeians, who 
had been stationed on tho mountain to guard the pathway. 
So. when tlte Persians found no difference between that 
and the preceding, they again retired to their quarters. 



\ 



*Sgpl*,cli-88. 

■ 8m Mt« ' on oh. n of IbSi book, 
uid otoapan v. 4S. Diodcna ueribra 
tliD ncveai of Iho Or*ok» In th» 
gTMlar tiw cd Uioir AiAit (». T) ■ 

' Diodonu (L o.) HMO tlu muo ox- 



51 



ptcMdon itJiwr ttwitmt i mr. Ctiillti, 
with hk DMl dbn(pTd ol ttvifa. M' 
" liro or UifM " (Kie. Fan. { ta). 

* Coiii|«ni iii. 1S&, who* Uiu 
iign of exeiud (Mliaf i» noBtioAod. 



Oa*f. illSli. EPniALTES TELU Of TUK JIOOSTAIN-PATn. 171 



i 



218. Now, M th« King was in a great strait, uul kuow not 
hov Ito should deal with tho emergent^, Eplualtos, the iton of 
Eoryd^miu, a tnau of M&tie, came to him and was admitted 
to a conference. Stirred by tlio hopo of rccoiving a richrevai-d 
at the King's bands, bo ba<l eomo to tell him of the patbwny 
vbicb led aczoBs tbo mountain to Thenuopylfe ; by which 
disclosure bo twougbt dcstmction on the band of Greeks viho 
bad thero withstood tbo barbarians. This Ephialtes aftar- 
words, Erom fear of tho Laoedtcmonians, fled into Tbcssaly ; 
and during bis cxilv, in an assvubly of tlie ;Vmphiotyons bdd 
at Pylip, a price was set upon bis head by the Fylogom.' 
When some time had gone by, he retnmed from oxilo, and 
went to Anticyra, where be was slain by Athenadtis, a native 
of Tracbis. Athc&adcs did not slay him for bis treachery, 
but for another reason, which I HhaU mention in a later part 
of my History : ** yet &tiil the Lacedemonians honoured him 
nono the less. Thus tbcn did Epbialtos pcrisb a long time 
aflorwards. 

S14> Beetdes ibis tboro u another story told,* which I do 
not at all believe — to wit, that On^tao the eon of Phanagoras, 
a native of Carystus, and Corydidlua, a man of Aniioyza, 
were the perscms who spoke on this matter to the King, and 
took tbo Persians across the moontoin. One may guess 
which story is true, from tho fnut that tho deputies of the 
Greeks, the Fylagorie, who muHt have had tho best means 
uf ascertaining the truth, did not ofTer the reward for tbo 
beoda of OnMas and Curydallus, but tot that of Ephialtes of 



la ah. 900 ot thli book. 

■* II f* enriom IhM Earodotiu hwi 
oaitud tc tedMu tliia pl»d|(e. D*lil. 
MMm ttim in t*iB dw o nn lM ioa a proof 
lh»t " tho iratk *>•• brolMn off in tho 
inidM el it* oompilatlOB bj tlw ma- 
Mr* of uUnial «inicDn*toneM " {Lif* 
<4 Hirod. p. S4, B. T.). Sm Ictnxlaot. 
Bn», ««)■ I. ek. i. p. 33. 

) TUrtawll Moutrks Uwl " nuuijr 
to^pim " wovld h»T« t)o«n likvlj to 



rtfriMl Um •eerct (Hiit. cS Orvcfo, it. 
DlSW). QottAinljrtUducroditof Out 
botnijAl wM iharad br k oonstdtmblA 
number of penon*. BmUm Iho Ihiaa 
hpre montioncd, OtMina ItJIa «• of 
Oftllindci tuni TinnphoraH, two !h«- 
ckiniiiDB apparDntlf «l high rwik. win 
lind joined X*no« wItJi o bodf of 
tnxipn (rem Tnohis, nnd whont ho 
makci iha actual ocnulucMn of UiO 

FRnlnn uTuv BcroM the moHitain 
(Sm. PH«. i 8t>. 



»7« 



UTDiAKES Sesr WITH EPHIii-TES. 



Bom TH 




Tnchta; and again from the Sight of Ephioltw, wtiifib *e 
hunr to have been on thi« aocount. Oo^tas, I allow, allhon^ 
he was not a Ualiao,* might have been aeqaaintod wHh Uw 
path, if be bad livc<l macli in that part of tbo country ; 1: 
afl EphialtM was tlio person who actually lod tho Fei 
round the mountain by tbc pathway, I Icaro bia q 
noord aa that of tbo man who did tbo de«d.' 

215. Great v&a the joy <rf Xerxee on this ocoasion ; 
be approved highly c^ the enterprise wbtoh Ephialtea tmdei^ 
took to accomplifib, he forthwith sent upon Ute errand Hy- 
damos, and the Persians under him.* The troops left Ibe 
camp aboai tbc time of the lighting of the lamps.' 
patliway along which they went was first discorered by 
Maliana of tbeso parts, who soon afterwords led the 
solians by it to attack tho Phocians. at the time wbeo 
Phocians fortifl«d the pass with a wall,* and so put tbeaiiclTCj 
imiicr coTort from danger. And ever since, the path ba* 
always bc«n put to an ill use by the Malians. 

21C. Ihe courHO which it takca is tbo following : — Begiaunf 
at the Asopus, where that etrcam flows through tho cl«ft ifi 
tbo hills,' it rons along the ridge of the mountain (which is 
culled, Uke the pathway ovei- it, Anopie),' and ends at the oitv 



ft UM 
Tbe^ 

Theafl 

n thJH 



'CarTitoa wu la Enbcn*, on tfcc 
■Mrth oooit (supra, Ti. 09, not* *). 
Antio^, tbo oitj of CorTdriItu, «•• 
ft Jtklian town (iiqm, oh. 19S). 

■ Tbo Grooki greoorallf leom to 
b&nt 40piiMC«d is thii Judgmaat) cf. 
Sirab. i. p. 15) l^'iwii. i, Iv. ^ S; 
Polirieii. Tti. 15 1 and tliu TfX'"^' ^" 
of Diodorai. xi. 8>. 

* Tho lOfiOD Imniorta]*, k bMMF 
aiunbar foe % nigiu ni«rdi tlum tht 
tOfiOO voMiiT* at Diodnra (L a. e.), or 
tho 40.000 of CtMiM (KxaBtn. ( 34). 

* Tliia mode of narldng tho ttaix 

rtion at tb» nighe ia not Dncominon 
Giocfc nnlhon. Tmco* of it irill 
ba fowtd in Phdlootnlot (Tit. Apollou. 
Vna. tU. liX Diotlonu Sicolw (xli. 
af), AtbuMBM (XT. p. 70S, B.), mud 
otMn. nwjmoCiooMdiaUngaiihlag 



diSerenl p«riad« or the dbj sad Mfjkl 
bj tbc LniiMi ooevpotiona of tbo Imw> 
apprdo IAiiwIm Im tho eiprtMkM 
*ipt **.i*»ynr i-yafir <8il|irs, i*. 181). 
£avA>TM« (Horn. \\. xvi. 778), *aJ 

the lika. • Scpn, ^i. IK 

> Snpm, cb. lOOi 

* Strabo (<x. n. 60), Lirr (ton. 
1&). and Plinr (a. K. ir. 7. «nd), «« 
tltp laountain Callidromiia. whioh mnh 
to hart beoa prc^rly tho namaofow 
of in holght* (LiT. xnri. 16. »d tm.)- 
AppUa nakoa 'Atnpaa' — Uio vwd 
oomnoolj uod in Greek fee pMhmgr 
— the proper naan of thk porlkalW' 

Cilb (DoB«Il.Syr.p.lW>. No writer 
at UnodoliiB tM pr«MrTi>d Ibo UKm 
'AnOpn*.' Tbi> noualain w noir otlM 
BurSmaXn (Lccko** Sortfaem GrEOMi, 



r. S14-S1& THB I>£BSUK8 ASCEN'D TIIE mua 



i;3 



of Alpfniis — the fimt Locrian town as ;ou come from MiUis — 
by tho stone called Melampygos and the seats of the Ceroo- 
pianB.' nere it is as nairov as at any other point. 

217. Tho Fenians took this patli, and, crossing the AsApas,'** 
continncd tliuir march through the whole of tlio night, having 
the mountains of (Eta on their rifjht hand, and on their loft 
tho«o of Truchis.' At dawn of day tho; found thcmaclros 
close to tho summit. Now tho hill was guarded, as I havo 
alreutly 8aid,* by a thousand I'hocian men-at-armfl, who were 
placed there to defend tho pathway, and at the same time to 
neeare their own ooontry. They bad been prtn the guard of 
tho mountaia path, nhile the other Grec^ks defended the pass 
below, because they had volnnteered for the service, and had 
pliMlged themHelves to Leontdu to maintain the post. 

218. Tho ascent of the Persians became knovm to the Pho- 
eiana in the following manner : — During all tho time that they 
were making their way up, the Greeks remained unconscious 
of it, inasmuch as the whole muuntiiin wais covirud with 



■ Vh* CcnMeiojii la tho Icinod d 
U«reiitM v* lisinarMU Uilcrof, nha 
nilenaUij unoi* uid anno; him. 
Tliojr an MmrtiiDM ialrDilawd into 
kii Aaiatio adToatiirw (DumL Sic It. 
ai ; ApoUod. n. Ti. S 8. itc.), bnt bo- 
loDK mean* property U> tlili lootlity, 
wflb whid) Uw laime of Hf'nnUt U to 
(mmUu'lT' Maecialtd (inpra. vb, 176, 
uol* ' : anil comjaro MOUcv'a Doriniw, 
rot. i. p. 4S7. K T.). Tbn Uto, wluro- 
to alturiDa U hue* moflp. anil from 
wkieh ilcrcviM ilurirril tlm vgiiUipt of 
MeluipTKU*, b Umu lull! 1^ K. O. 
MAIter; 

" EmrnlM^ siuu>TO(l at Out iiuolU 
oCtecd l4 liini hj t)ia CiTOopiiui^ 
Uttd* two ed Iheot (o a pcJo In the 
muiBiw ivpronoMd an tho baii>r«liaf 
ct SaliiiM, and Duuebcn alt with hli 
prbn Bii|/pil7 fir ihH nBt'iiiivrr, Uia 
mntkr pattt m UwoaJu had bnooas 
lamod hr eoaiiniMd laboor* and ox- 
IMHB* to tlta aimcaplivM, which t*. 
ip-lftf^ Uca of an old pt«F^D7, 
manlag thimo to bewara c4 » penoa 
of tUa vooiphuuaa, and tbo wditn. 



danea eaoLsod themi to hnist «at tnto 
an EmmoiiraAUi Ht of langhlvr. Ttiia 
aiirprlaad Htrcnlaa, who iiiqiiin-d Uie 
noaoii, anH wan liimioU m> dircrlod 
br it, thai he tet both hii priaonon at 
lioioiy " (Doriaiii. lol. I. p. •164 . 

''' It la to bo *uppoMil, that at Ibn 
oIo4U of iiaoh day thu Ppraian troapt 
engnjEcd fell back upon tho gtpm camp 
at "Awchia. Ilydaniaa vonld that 
bSTOto orowthe Aadpoa.cai beginainc 
Ua maich ovw tho mountain. 

■ Theaa woida fonuab ■ diffleally. 
whioh Colonel Loako baa dono > good 
deal to KmoTo, by chimrriug that tba 
hMichta abovo tbe Trnvhininn precri. 
pJMBOn Ibo lafl bonk of Ibo AMpoa 
may at thia titno haro boon in thu 
TwaatMion of iho (Elxoni, Tthlla 
Honna CallidTomn* (AnDpoia) ntaj 
havo beloti^ to Tiaohia (Kortbara 
Oreaco, toI. ii. p. tS). Tboa tho 
ranse betiraen tlw gotvn of tbo 
AtApna and fhaniunylic wiU bo tha 
"Tneblniaaawtmialaa'of thla paa* 

^ Snpnt, eh. SIS. 




174 



PAssAQi: OP THE notsiAKa 



Book TIL 



fjrOTU of oak ; but it happened tliat the air was rery stOl, ukI 
the iMTee which the Pcrnans stiirod with t)i<:ir f^t ntado,' u 
it WM likely they would, a loud rustling, nliiiicupon tbo Fho- 
eians jumped op and flew to Betze their arms. In & momect 
the berbflrians came in sight, and, perceiving nic-n ftrmiag 
themsolTOs, nero greatly anusfid; for they had fallc^ii ia with 
an enemy whsn they expected bo opposition. Hydamea, 
alarmed at the Riglit, and fearing leat the Phocians might be 
LaeednmoDianR, iuquired of Epliioltes to what nation thou 
troop! belonged. l!:phinlt«s told him the eiaot truth, where 
tipon he arrayed his Perstans for battle. The Phocians, 
by the showora of arrows to which they were expofwd, ani 
imagining tbcrasdros tlie i?p«cial object of the Persian attack, 
Bed hastily to the crest of the mountain,* and there made 
ready to meet death ; bot while their mistake oontinavd, the 
Persians, with Ephialtes and HydameB, not thinking it worth 
tlieir while to delay on account of Phoeians, passed on tad 
descended the mountain nith nil possible speed. 

219. The Greeks at Thermopyln reecivcd the first wamiag 
of the deetmotion which the dawn would bring on them from 
Uie seer Megiatias,' who read their fnto in the victims as he 
was BOorifieing. After tliis doserters came i»,' and bron^ 
the news that the Persians were marching round by the hills: 
H was Btill night* when these men arrived. Lost of all, tha, 
scouts came ruooing down from the htiights,^d bronght 



■ Oobmcl L«aki) mnorb, tliBt " Uw 
MtUliMM of Uia daira, wMeh MTod tfaa 
Phooiau from bring- laTpriMtt, la rtf 
ctenotMlttiout the oliouU of Oroaoo 
in Iho •euon whtm the oac«m«M 
took place, Mid, liko mknjr oUier 
triBinB dniamaUuKaa oaoiurtii|t in 
Ibe hutaef «t tlio Penrian Isnaiott, U 
■n liil«reating proof ot the aaeiauej 
pbA voncitjr of the bUtotnn " (Ncoth- 
an OrMe*. vol. il. p. BS). 

* Tlw Msio po(t WW kgaJn antnutod 
to t^ toenail*, M tb« tima of A* 
IfMai QaUia inmuioD, and with SMilr 
tfae HBO NmlU Tbo Oallio g m at i 




took Kdnnta([o o( ■ tbick fc* to i. 
eaal Ilia appnadi, and sorprned 
Pboeian^ irtio, boinvOT, madg o I 
TWrtMioe, and whop forced to yWd. 
kQ tmck spoo dio Oin>ka U> iha fmat, 
who wora oiiabli>d to mro Ihiniailiw 
1)f • hattj cmbuluiLM, (See tb* 
namtito in Paonsiaa, x. St.) 

> Infn, olu. tU a^ en. 

■TjTutiadM, aa .SoUan Oiwfc 
from Crin£, 1* Wimttonod toj OkNlcna 
oi tho p*noa wbo bi««;lit tbo neitt 
(li. 8, td fiB.). M 

' About Didiii(W (vipl ^irof f*^ 
irr«i>, aocordioK to Died«na (si. 0). 



A 



CSAr-tU-SaO. BEASOXS OF LEOIflDJlS' BEMAUIKO. 



175 



I ti 

I 



tho suno RcootmUr when the day vas just beginnmj^ to break. 
Then the Groekn h«]d a council to consicler vhut thej should 
do, and b«e opinions wew dirided ; eomo wcro Blrong agftinst 
quitting their post, while others contended to tho contrary. 
So when tbo council bad broken up, part of the troops de- 
parted and went tbeir wajfl homeward to their Bereral states ; 
port however resolved to remain, and to stand by Leonidaa to 
the last. 

220. It is said tbat Leonidaa bimscU sent away the troops 
who departed,' because he tendered their safety, but thonglit 
it unseemly that c^ithor ho or bis Spartaas should (juit the 
post which they bad bom especially sent to guard. For my 
own part, I incline to tbink that Lconidas gave tbo order, 
bocauo bo pArooired tho Allies to be oat of heart and unwilling 
to •oeounter tbe danger to which his own mind was made ap. 
He therefore commanded them to retreat, but Raid that be 
himself coold not draw back with honour ; knowing that, if be 
stayed, glory awaited him, and that Sparta in tbat case would 
not lose her prosperity. For when the Bpartans, at tbe very 
beginning of tbe war, sent to consult tho oracle concerning it, 
tlie answerwbich they received from tlie Fythone&« was, " tliat 
either Sparta must be overthrown by tbe barbarians, or one of 
her kings most perish."" The prophecy was delivered in 
bexamcter verse, and ran thus : — 

" O fu men wlio dwuU in tbo itrcoU of broad lAOMto-moa I 
-Eitbor soar gUiriouN town duU be aackwl bjr Uie ehildxan of Poneut 
Or, in ncliuige, nu«t aU Uurotigh tbo whole LMOOka ooonttj 
Voon for the toe* of n king, doacenduit of greU HMdca, 
Ba etaaot bo witbrtood by tbe ooonge ot bnlli nor o( lioiw, 
Btxin M tli«r naj ; bo it mi^tjr u Jove ; tbare u ooaglit that aboU 

'nil lis 1i4Te got (or bu pr«y four king, or ^onr gloriaut dljr.'' 
The remembrance of this answer, 1 think, and tbe wish to 



■ Bo Oiodonu Q. c.) and Jattin (ii. 
11). 

>A ifanfler dMlerkUon b Mid to 
lw?e been tnade b; tlie cs«4<> ia ro. 
i o( Oodrvs (tupn* t. 76, uulo '). 




Tho i<l(«, whi«ti wee ekUt to that of 
Otn tpevM rtRctiej at bainiM naiiiilliiii. 
1* found »l*o kintiDg the IiaUe miwM, 
en in ibo tr^-kBOwn deuaMe of the 
Itoia*!)*. 




fiecnre the wbole glory for the Spartans, catufid Leonidas to 
send tho allieu awa;. This is mora likely Uum thiit they 
quam-Uvd with him, auil took their d«pftrtar« 14) .such onmlj 
fashion. 

221. To me it eceniB no small argument in favour of 
view, that the seer also accompanied the army, Megistias, tbaj 
Aoamnnian,' — Miid to have bi-eu of tho blood of MelampntiJ 
and tlio name who was led by tbo appoaranoo of tho notims ' 
varn the Greekii of the danger which tbrcatoni'd them,— I 
received ordera to retire (as it ia certain he did) from Leonidas, 
tliat he might escape the coming destruction. Mogistaas, 
however, though bidden to depart, refused, and stayod vitb 
the army ; but he ha<l an only sou present with the expcditioD, 
whom be now sent away. hJ 

222. So the uUics, when Leonidas ordered them to rettmfl 
obeyed him and fortlivrith departed. Only tho Thespians and 
the Thebans' romaincd with th« SpArtaos; and of these the 
Thebans were kept back by licomdas as bostagM, very mudi 
against Uicir will. The Thcspiani, on the oontroi^. stAj-ed 
entirely of their own acconl.^refuiiutg to retreat, and dcdanng 



> Tl>e colL-brity of liin AoRinnlitD 
■ecn ha* been nlmidjr mvntiouail 
(•apin. i. 6& nolo ^. To tbo biBlorieal 
cliafl(«t«n tlicre iinnnicmtod we maf 
add tbo mjlbic C«miu^ fitmi trbom 

(OHM BDprpOtFd lh» CaTDIMIt fMtiv*! tO 

tuir« dcrired itt name (Psbkui. iir. 
xlil. S 3 i *f. Bcliol. Thoorrit, T. 8S, 
not\ HM Loboek, Aglaoph. p. 310, 
nolo "•). 

' Melampaiwu pUceil in th« gene- 
ntion t<lora tko I'lD^nn tnr. Ho 
BMTicd roro, the «Ui«c ot NraMr and 
d«DK'>t*' '>f K«l*ui. Hi* mytUc 
UctOTT "ill ^ Tonnd ia Hum. Od. xl. 
tBT-W, tr. U0-S«3t ApollMl. i. ti. 
I IS, lt.il. % 8; P»aaui.ti. xriii. {4j 
Fhsrecrd. ft. S4 aiut 7i. Vida mpf, 
iLW. 

* PaamniM kIuIm n traditioa that 
Out 80 Mjtnnnani (*upia, eh. 3(KJ) 
choa tA rttnaia, and thiu laonmd 
Uia bittar hoMflltT <■( Argjoa (ii, avl. 



^ 



; 4} x.tx.% 3;ima). yuUherbaaw 
Diodonia inoaliniM tbu pnMDOM tl 
Iha Thcbativ, which, hcwPT w . oanitM 
bo daafat«il. It ba« bomt ■Irua^^r 
argaod that tbMo Ua ri. 
ivmainvd ot tlioir 0ira a. 
tarch, ii. p. SS&iTbirioall, i>. y. ^i,,^, 
■mcoIimoldHwoatil ban bad anillur 
mottTD nor moana to daiain Uun*. 
Thirlwall tlitiib "tluiir fir«t eMsa 
wat on tho udo ot Iwnoar, tlioir iMt 
oa that of prudeooo." Perhi^M Udr 
flntohoJco wM intmilod to lull *ai. 
picioo, and at tlu aaino tin* to (It* 
ition that apacial doin to a raeoB' 

Kate wbidi da*ert*n ia tho hov 
ttio aro ooiuidared U> pocatMO 
npta, vL Si). 

' ThU eondoot of tbo Tfcoipiiw 
rrtj mnarkabJe. tiMy 
excited to it io, wqm dM^*«*by 
bopo «f beoomlag. if Iho Grade aaota 
pMapand, tho b«ad of tho 



rii 



I 



«■ (f uS 




^^ARMO-sm 



LAST COSFLICT. 



1/7 



tbat tbey would not foreako LconidoB and his follnwers. Su 
icy ftlioile witl] tbo 8partaii8, and died with ttieiu. Ihuir 
iet wnA DetnopliiluB, the &oq of ]>iadrome8. 
2'2i. Ai sanrisu Xerxee made libations, after which he 
FaittHl until thu tJmti when the forom is wont to Qll, and tb«i) 
ogftQ Iiis advance. Epliialtcs had instructed him thna, as 
) dosoeot of the mountain is mucli quicker, and the dietance 
inch Eibotter, tlion the wa; round the hill», and tho aBocnt.' 
80 the barbarionx ander Xetxes began to draw nigh ; and the 
Greeke onder Ltiuutdaa, as they noir nont forth determined to 
die, advanced much further than on previous da>-;«, until they 
reoebod tho more opou i)ortiou of Ihu pass. Hithvrto they 
had held tlietr station within the woU," and from this had 
gone forth to light at the point where tbo pass was tlio 
narroffwt. Now they joined battle beyond the defile, and 
carried slaaghter amou£ the barbarians, who fell in heajn. 
k^HUid tliem the captains of the squadrons, armed with nhips, 
^HQn their men forward with continual blowv.' Many wcru 
thrust into tho sea, and there pcrishod ; a still greater number 
Vere tramplod to death by their own soldiers ; no one faeoded 
the dymg. For tbo Greeks, reckless of their own safety and 
des|>erat«, einc« they know tliat, as tho mountain had been 
eroesed, their destruction van nigh at hand, exerted them- 
Belves with tlie moot furious valour against the barbarians. 



eoeftdcraef. Thofo wu ftlwaym • 
Jaftkaw bMBrem Tbebca snd ThMpiu, 
wbloli nrokc oat Ktnmglr apcm qcob- 
■Um* <tM« Tfcuord. tv. 133, xL flSj 
Soil Dell. n. iii. S 1. Ac.}. 

* CoUkI Ltako n^ <II. O. ii. p. 
M) Uuit " iho dntccu wiu cot much 
Im* lliaa tlio wcMiC la acioal din. 
Umvi" onlr M Iba KTunod va» 
beUtr. uul (M mni^ iiorfcinni>d by 
' ■■ " , llw (imo apent *«» shorter, 
kMcrU tlwt "CiedO. 
> mmth tharUr." Thb il be- 
if iIm rooM by Ai loMni b» 
w Um tnd: vl IlrdutiM, ia- 
*IC*d of tho aim ein^totia «no 
« hl«^ Cakttel hnka prnlcn (p. 39). 
Ue nuautt that tlio ctnnltoiu nmio 

VOL. IV. 





il In fact the <|niokNt. No donbt it 
in to atr.nul I bnt to lUieend ia k dif. 
tcrent mutter, na all trmVDllcEri know. 

• Tbo oinct podtiOD of tUa wall U 
diilloult to fix. Ko tnwaa uf it ar« to 
bu [iniaJ. OolMial Leake ■nRRrata 
tluU it " «na boilt ■ Ultla nvtmid .4 
tho irMtan Mlt-apdagr, ao tbot iho 
earrmtl from tliii apring may liaT* 
flowed aXtiiig tItK aztMicr «lda of tba 
■nil" (ii. p. SS). But ia that oaw 
thu wuTuir pun of tho paaa wonid 
ha to baca oatiroly icitMn tho WhIL 

' Olaataa ralataa tha aaina of ona of 
(ha ««tli«r eotsbaU (txc Pm. { sn, 
ConoonuDg thu practiM ilMlf, viiM 
raxmt. ch. S3, Dnlo." Ariatotlo par. 
hup* ntcn to It (£th. itL vliL | 6}. 

N 



178 



DEATH OF LBOSIOAS. 



DOM TIL 



224. By tbis Umo tho speAis of tlio grotitor numb«r mm all 
shiverod, nnd with their sworda tliey beved dovm the raniu ol 
tbe IVrttians ; and liere, as they ntrove, Leonidas fell fitting 
brftvely, together vith many other famous Spartans, whoee 
names I buro tttkon caro to loam on account of their ^taX 
worlhinow, as iudood I havo tho8ti uf all thu tbroo hundred.* 
Tltu'o fell too at the same time Tory many famous Persians : 
among thi'iii, two sons of Darius, Abrooomcs and Hyperantboe,* 
his children liy PhrataganS, the daughter of Artaaea. Artanc* 
vas bruthctr of King Darius, being a son of Hystastpes, tlio mo 
of Arsames ; and when bo gars bis daughter to the King, lis 
madtf him hoii lUcbwiso of uU bis eubstuioo ; for she vas 
only obild. 

^5. Thus tvo brothers of Xerxes here fonght axul 
And now tbcni arose a liorco stniggto between the Pi 
and the Lacedeemonians over tbo body of Loouidos, in wbieh 
the Greeks four times drove back the enemy, an<l at last by 
lbL>ir great bruvvry Huccecdtsl in bearing oiT the body. This 
combat was scarcely ondod vhcn the Persians with Epbial' 
approached ; and tiio Greeks, informed that they drew ni, 
mode a change in the manner of their fighting. I>rawiB, 
back into Uio nairowost port of the pass, and retreating 
behind the cross wall, tbuy posted themt><.'lve8 upon a hillocV,' 
where tliey stood all drawn Qp together in onu close body, 
except only the Thebans. The hillook whereof I 8pc4kk is 
the entrance of the straits,"' where the stone hoo stuids whji 
iras sot up in honour of Leonidas.' Here they defended 



Ling, us 
■waaiju 




' Thc«e Diunn* Ktiro all btMribad on 
n piJtor itt S|«ita, wUdIi nnoiiwd 
«UuiiinK in tlut titDo of Fwuuiaa 
(III. liv. }1). 

>U ouinot b« •appMsd tliat tho 
■001 ol Dwiot reoU; bor* nnuM m 
thcaoDghlj Gtitk M thoM. Wfl msit 
oldier tcnppoM'lhoin In bo ths Qivek 
oqulvklonu of lh» P#riiaa naniM, nr 
FonJui nones diitorUd into s Qrevic 
fbm. CciDnro Zorirstt* (aupah tuL 
ill. bM pMru). 




*" Th«N uv lira faniock* in (111 
TOW ponton nf Uio pan, buUi 
On «)U, tba oMtoni, ctAiub 
mMlurn Tarlddl Denfwni, or i-uriom- 
luioiw. Coknel Looks mgM^ iIn 
t>«lMr, which U noonv iko Phanko 
nil, and b Iho ncy iHWT<*f t mA 
d the |iouk «• mora prateblT- Ux 
«oone of tho Ud amm^lv, aod thotv* 
foe* tliO nU ol tb« inoiMnout (M. 
Tol. ii. p. GS). 

' The ireU.kaotr« Uam aaonbod 



X 



d 



Ciur. 124-23. 



BEMARK OF DIEXECES. 



179 



boItcs to the Inst, eacli as still liiul swords using Ibom, ami 
the others resisting witli their Iinmla oiid teeth ; till tlic har- 
btu-ioQs, who in {MUi had pulled down the wall luiil attacked 
them la front, in part hiwl gone round and now encircled 
thorn apon «v«ry side, ori^rnhi'Inifid and huriud Ihe rcumiuit 
which was loft bemath ghowors of miBsUe weapons,* 

221!. Thus nohly did Iho whole body of Laccclninoiiiaiu and 
ThefipiAnR behave; bat neverlhckeB one man is said to haro 
distinguished himself above all the rest, to wit, Di^neces the 
Spartan. A spoccb which he made before the Greeks engaged 
the Uedcs. remains on record. Odo of the Trachininna' told 
hjm, " Buch was tbo ntnnbiT of the barbarians, that when they 
shot forth tbeir arrows the nan would be darkviiod tiy thc-ir 
maltitu<le." Di^neces, not at all frightened at these words, but 
making light of the Median numbtTs, answered, " Our Traehi- 
niaa friend brings us excellent tidings. If the Medes darken 
the son. we shall hnvo our Ught in tlie shade." Other tiayings 
too of a like nature are reported to have been loft ou record by 
aome person. 

227. Next to him two brothers, Lacediemtiniaiis, ore reputed 
have made themselves conspicuont) : tliey were uainc<l 
Alphuus and Maro, and were the buob of Oreipbantus. There 
was also a Thespian who gained greater glory thtui any of his 
eounti^nson : ho was a man c«Uod Dithj'rambus, the son of 
aUdas. 
The ahtin were buried where they foil ; and in their 



^ 1 



[228. 



■Um •ni nndosbtedlj* an epl* 
gnpfc inUdidcd (or tbi* DMnanwDt> 
bvt 11 !• nu4 cnrlala lluU (bay «oi« 
«W ttiMntioU ojiau ii. TIihj •bow 
(Im lion (o tiKTi) b<«a ma iillwtr^i lo 
ib* bun'* mumo. 



I l^t *J,f ittvt tfi, fc*i<^ y tfT 4-TH 9v* 
— J^ *f^ Pify A*iiv i^tfitfitit. 

I tnuBinnimt sMDiN lo havu bcoD 
UK s4 letui «• Iitta m llw llmo of 
1m« 11m e^KnuD ot Bmum 
I Mrefaw ntoM^ note ftd lou.J. 



* Tho «m;:gvra(od aooMinU el Iho 
lut itTuiEitlK a[l«nrud« cvrrtDt givn 
Mtdltluiuil valuo (o llw modimto do. 
»ch|,ltciDoflleTodotn». SooDiodonM 
(ir, 10},irlieii« th* On<ek* attack Iha 
ruraiaa Munp, Mmatnta lo tbm lonl 
tcoi, and MO a-Ittiin a littte of iOixoa 
Ilto Icinf^ Cotsparo Jattin pi. 11^ 
uiil ArictidM of MilMoi (Fr. SI), wIhi 
B&iil UiBt LoanJdw luatdicdtLo diailcin 
tram Xwntf head. 

* Coupan) Cio«ra (Tii«e. Dii^. i. U), 
will], bcnruTer, MorilMM tlie wuM* Ui a 
Ftrtian. 



iSo 



IXSCIUPTlfiSS. 







bonoiir. nor less in liononr of those vho dloj bcforo Loot 

sent the allies away, an inscriptioa vos set up, wbicb aaid,— 

" Iter* did (oof tliotuaod tmn tnat Pttopa' ImmI * 
i^att tfaroo hiuidrej mfrand* bmvelf rtuid.** 

This iras in honour of all. AuoUior -v&n tor Uie S; 

alouc ; — 

■' Go, ttrooi^OT, uil to Laetdtenstm tdX 
■ Tliot here, cbujin^ her ittiteiU, w« foU." ■ 

This was for Uio Laceduimomims. Ttic ecor liud the foUoV' 
Ig:— 

" Tha KTVtA Mcfnatiu* tatah 7011 here aaj *ieir, 

Well tho iriM MOT th« eomlofc d«alb tordnuir, 
* Y«t Kianieil lie to farmtka hit SpoitMi tad*." 

These inscriptions, and tlic pillars lik^wiff«, were all set i^ 
tho Amphictyons, except that in honour of MegLitiAS, wliMi 
was inscribed to him (on account of their sworn friendship) by 
8im6aidc«, the son of Luupropcs.' 

229. Two of the throe handrcd. it is eaid, AristodiVmns aail 
Eurj-tuB. having ho«n attacked by a disease of the eyes, biul 
rbcoivnl orders from LL<onidas to quit the catnp ; luid both la; 




* HtTodotna bwbm to huva mitcott- 
odvcd tU* inwriptiOD. Hb resardnd 
it w an tfiiUpb npoa the Qivtiks slain 
nt TliormiHijlm. Bmioo bo tets the 
notuIxT <Jr the rlnln kt 4000 (Jofra, 
riii. ih]. Bat it iilniiily nppcar* from 
tho wording to liavo bMn an Istorip- 
tkin Kt up bi bonanr of the JVIdiiim- 
nttians only, nod to hare rottmcl to 
a!l viha tov^hl, not monJy to tho«e 
wthn foIL We vmj <]<^t« tnon it 
ft OcnfirnMlion of the eUUmeal med« 
both li;- Diodonw (xl 1>) Mid IwMjmte* 
fin two pbwM, Pnneg. p. SS8, and 
Arolkld. p. 7B, ad. ABB«r.), ttut a bodr 
el IiHodmnioDiuii MooinpMiItd tM 
800 Bpartiuiii. Tlie P«Iopcniiiciiiai)* In 
noTodotut'i lilt uaon»t vtAj to SIOO. 
Add to thne the lAoedBmoniea*^ 
TOO octiordEnR to bocntoi, 1000 •«- 
oerdlDff to niodonM~'*iiil we bem 
» totaV 1& dthor coae entitled to bo 
wiluD tt 01 4W0 Tbe HelMa wnald 
M conno bo (nniiuiL 



*Thk (uNona toeorlptino (• (irni 
with now liUtn AlffpTMiiw by l.roir' 
gut (in Leocr. | SH, |>. SilS), Okdccw 
(xi.SS). uid Stfobo (ii. p. 023). Th 
•uoDDd line, •ocMfdiait to tbeeo 

lUllhiM— 

It i» t)xl« vordoo whieli CMoro 
tmtulated In the TawoleM (l 43) 
- PKv bclfHk tefia Mt tn bfa tMUv IMMM 
DoBMfiMlt (iMrM liei»iH If tillT* 

* Simonldce wu ibo puel Iwnale 
of the line. All three iMertpttaa 
Bf« eeorfbed to klm b^ ottw« wriien 
<iee BdmL fed A/i«li>l. ii. p. Viu, *Bi< 
contpore C$e. Tueo. 1. «. n,). 0* 
epp«en alee to have wfjttca one c( 
bia lyrio pleoM on the eene MbleM 
(H« Died. Ii 11). - Simenidw. ll« 
•oa of Leoprepee," (1 idmtioel viil 
the " SiiBcoiidM ibe Cnta " of I 
oh. 102 (we Sobot. ad AilA. 
1«>2> Oa bie iiucrintioiia et 
too book ix.e5.Mte^ 



1 



COKDUCT or AHI(TT0I>t31l'& 



l8l 



at Alpeni ia the worst stage of the malady. These two men 
might, hod thi>j- Immh bo muiili.-<lt hare ogruud togcUicr to r«tam 
alivo to Bparta ; or if they did not tike to rr:titru, lliey might 
have gone both to the field and failen with their countrymen. 
Bnt ut tJiiB time, when either way was oi>eD to them, unhappily ' 
Ihey couid not agree, hat took contrary courseB. Eurj-tus no 
eooner henrd that the Persians had come romid the tuountain, 
than straifibtwny ho oallvd for his armour, and having hiioklcd 
it on, ba<U- hiH Uvlot^ lend him to the place where his trienda 
went fighting. The Helot did bo, and then tamed and fied ; 
bat Earylus plnnged into the thick of the battle, and bo per- 
ished. Ai-iHtuiK'iiitiB, on the other hand, was faint of heart, 
and remain^ at Alp«ni. It is my belief that if Ari«todumu8 
only hod been sick and returned, or if both had oome buck 
together, the Spartans would hare boon content and felt no 
anger; but whvn there were two men with the very same 
eionse, and one uf them wb8 ohnry of bis life, while thu othor 
frocly gave it, they could not but be very wroth with the 
former. 

230, This is the aooount which some give of the escape of 
Aristodimus. Others say, that he, with another, bad been 
sent on a message from the army, and, having it in his power 
to return in tim« for the buttle, purposely loitered ou thu road, 
and so sim-ivod hia comrades; while his fuUuw-meesenger 
come bock in time, and fell in the Imttlo. 

Q31. Whvn Aristodemus returned to Laoedtemon, nrprooch 
and disgrace awaited him ; disgrooe, inasmuch as no Spartan 
woald give him a light to kindle his fire, or m much as 
address a word to him ; ' and reproach, sinoo all flpoko of Imu 



«» M« to sodnrMuid llio qxwlal tn- 
TKDt (PipdM-X whow bmlnnw it htm 
to aUanil eontaallr ajxni Uio Spartan 
wnnkv (XaUc«'« IXiriana, tdL iL p. 
80). BMfdM tlM> Btpiwwr. vmcb Svw- 
laa Men* to Imrp btwn fotkurad to 
tint Hold bf aix vllivr Hvluls (infra, 
tU. tf ncU * ud cCMpoiv ix. 10 



Mul S8), 

* Ooanara tka bma nf oollawiT In 
SgphDctea:- 

•Sd-Tir-UB-MK 

'ATwJa at Sparta haa not tliu dcHsiM 
diaiaeMr w&lcb it bore at AUim^ 



kS2 



COSDVOT ^N'D riTE OF TUB TBXSAXa. 





as "tJje craven." Howoror, he wiped away all lus ehanM 
afterwards at the battle of Platoa.' 

282. Another of the three hundred is likewise said to hare 
survived the battle, a man named Pantit«8, whom Leonidaa 
bad sent od an emhassy into ThessoJy. Ho, they 8ay> on hb 
retom to Spnrta, found himseU in auoh dises(«£m Uw| 
plunged bitn&i'lf. 

388. The Tbebans under the eoDunMtd of 
nuuned with the Greeks, and fought against the 
only so long ae necessity compelled them. No sooner did thay 
see victory inclioing to the Persians, and the Greeks under 
Laonidos hurrj'ing with all speed towards the hillock, tlum 
they moved away &om their oompaoions, and with hands 
Qpraiud*" advanced towards the barbarians, exclaiming, u 
was indocd most true,— " that they for their part vishvd well 
to the MedeB, and bad been among the first to give earUi and 
water to the King ; force alone had brought them to Ther>fl 
mopylre ; and so they must not be blamed for the slauglit**™ 
v)iieh had befallen the King's army." These words, the truth 
of which was attested by the Thessalians, sufficed to obtain 
the Thehaos the grant of their lives. However, their good 
fortune was not without some drawback ; for several of them 
were slain by thu borbariuns on their Crst api^oach ; and tin 
rc«t, who were the greater number, bad the royal ouuk' 
branded' upon their bodies by the command of Xerxeo, — Iiood' 
tiades, their captain, being the first to suSer. (This mnn'R 
eon, Eurymachua. was cftem-ards slain by the Platcans, «b«a 
ho came with a bond of 400 Thcbons, and seized their city. 



3 



but depeodod tec lu dvgito npon tk« 
TDte M tb» pvoplo on the oraaiioi). 
Tli* £pMlana trho mimiidnred in 
6pteel«ii* imv proUiod hr noiv 
lighthr tiaa AcUtcdimu (lliicjd. 
T. 8t). 

* Vid« iBfra. Ix. 71. 

" lUa tokun of rabmiDicni li foe. 
<lMut]j tepcwoinMd oil Uio Kg]rpdkB 
f UM ienli. (Sm flg. 7, in wo^cot 




of note on cli. 61, 1^ IV. flo, S, 
-[O.W.] ' 

•Ontbaeaatamof biwidisg] 
i«bo war* ngudod m (bv pnpon 
n ilcjty, M« nol»< un Bwk U. ch. Ill ' 
It is n lataotmMjb ccojcctnni diM lla 
•larM Kd lbs IVnoBo fciim wan 
tnadod, boMOM b» hail « fwi».diTtei 
cbwMMr. (Sm BUknloy. ri tM.) 

■TlMdoUili olttikaUMk, Which 



cuAt. ai-ai. XERXES' colloqcv wtra DiauitA'ni& 



1S3 



28'1. Tha9 foQgbt the Greeks lU ThermopytiD. And Xerxes, 
Attar tbe fight was over, called for Demaratas.to qaestion 
him ; and befptn as foUaws : — 

" Demaratus, tliou art ft wortliy man ; thy trav-BpoAkiog 
proTCe it. All bos bapponod m thou didst foroworn. Now 
then, ti'Il mc, how many Laocdnmoaians are there left, aud of 
tbosu loft bow many oru Bii«h braVD warrion as thcsu ? Or 
ore they all alilie?" 

"O Kins!" ropliod tlio other, "tho whole number of the 
Litocdiemoniftns a very great ; and mnny oro tbv cities wluoh 
they inhabit.' Bat I viH t«ll thco what thou really wisbctt to 
liiam. There ia a town of Lnccdgemon, oaJled Sparta, whieh 
contains within it about eight thouumd full-grown men,* Tkfff 
arc, one and nil, ecjtiol to tliow who ha\'o fought here. The 
other Lacedsmomaus ore braro men, bat not such warriors 
aa tbase." 






wna tho (ignol for tbo brMikinit not of 
tlM PotocwBDOriin war, are girpn b; 
TliiKTWUa (d. 2.0), «hD iidIV dUEcn 

HflivdoWi by makiofT Ik* nwii. 
of llw Makikntt " very lluk •x> 

»o.- 

■ Phili>c4MinM appeui to btvp ran. 
'tMrmldl 100 lAaanioB citio* in hit 
Mlhit muph. Btx. Ad Tcc. Ai»ili. I* 
Ml U<UI«r BiicUkoa in nifcmiiK (ki* 
rtntmnoot Ut AiMbotiim ? Sm Doiiaknii, 
vol U. p. SC^ 8. T.). Tbo iMfonikn 
pHmUUnn bM bno MtiaiaUid nt 
acCoOO (CUntnit, P. II. voL U. App. 23, 
407), mhI iiic»ia (UUIar, Dor. toL 

' At uDo lime the mnlwr <4 il» 
■Ba wnaul to hat* Bmoiuitcd to 
I (Utltlcr'a Doriaaa, voL IL p. 4ft|, 
whMK* tbo npattoA crvntitia of Iho 
8000 lot* (tK'ifti), irtiich wi-rc in- 

llMtna . ixiet , 

I^B-ltmMtm . , 1M.CM 
BiMi . . . . ntOM 

I wnolil ffi\* nn annita «f alviiit 

to I ho wiuoru mtlv. whicb ia 

tbu we find in Sowilac^ )«•• 



tmdfd to Mpeoct ni inuijr famUiM 
<l'lBt. An. c 6; L^cnrg. o. 8, to.). 
At tho uoriod d th^ war tbnj rmv b« 

Kmaed at 7S00; fbiM tho SOTO al 
Um wmw pmliably two-ihicdi of th« 
wk'lu (fa tfc ^/(nt), th* ordlBH; 
pniportion of nililArr ooMinimu ■( 
criticDl •ouoiM (Thacyd. fu 10). D». 
maratiu, nMantly monich, a litilo 
exaapmlM tUa muBhor. By tlio 
timi? «t the IVIopoiuiadan wftr lb* 
nnmbor haA taUra lo Ioh thoa 60DQ 
(I'hucyil. r. ffi, wittt Hfllln'a cnlcnk- 
llaiM, Doriana, toI. ii. pi, MS, B.T,). 
It &fl«TwanIii nak vtill lowar (m« 
AriiL PbL ii. a t Pint. Aff. c. 6, Ac.). 
Mlillor iDoiriaB*. a p. Hi) )ri\t« Um 
foIUrwlnii aatimUo of tbo popoUtloit 
of I^Aoouia at th« data of tho luTadoa 
i>r Xonoai— 



sn,«M 



M.OM 

lluin !n BwlltCTfaaS, nod almoA ut* 
nc«l]r that which ousta m Vattofpi, 



M 



I 



% 



XEBXeS COLLOQLT WTTII DEMiRATfS. BwnTtt 




"Tell me noTT. Detnaratna." rpjoinc*! Xones, " how mi mny 
vittikast ttrmbk' EuMtto tbc-se men. Tboa miuii knowaUtlM 
patlu of Uisir couQHcIs, as thoa weti onoe tb«ir king." 

235. Then DemanUns aiiawcr6(I=^'0 King' siDoe tb' 
aslcest my oAxice eo comestly, it is fitting tUat I eiionii 
infono tbce what I consider to ho tbe b&st ooani«. Dui 
three hundred ressels bom th« body of tby fleet, and mod 
Uicm to attack the shores of Lseonia. Tli«re is on i<tluid 
called Cytbimt in tboeo ports, not far from tbo coast, concKini- 
ing Thicb Cbilon, one of oar 'nrisest men.* ma<Ie ilie romnrk, 
that Sparta would f;iiin if it voro snsk to tbo bottom of tlw 
s«a — 90 constantly did be expect tlist it would give occasion to 
some project like that vhich I now recommend to tltef. 
I mean not to say that he bnd a foreknowledge of thy attacl: 
upon Grcooo ; but in tnitli be ti-an.-A all ormamentti. Suod 
tby ships then to this island, and tbonce affnght the Spartans. 
If once tbcy have a war of tboir own close to their doont, fuor 
not tlieir giving any help to the rest of the Greeks whilci tliy 
huid force is engaged in oon(]aering them. In this way any 
all Greece be sulidncd; and then Sparta, left to herself, will 
be powerless. But if thou wilt not take this adt-icc, I will ti^U 
thee what thou mayost took to see. When thou oonicsl to tht> 
Peloponncsc, thou wilt find a narrow neck of hmd, whcrvall 
the Poloponnesjans wbo are loagaed against thee u-ill b(i 
gathered togotho- ; and there thou wilt Itave to fight blootlior 
t«ttli« than any which tlion bast yet 11,-itnosaod. If. buv- 
erer, thou wilt follow my plan, tlie latbmns and the cttJefi of 
Peloponnese will yield to tliee without a battle." 

286. Achemone-.t, wbo was present, now took tbe word, and 
spoke — he was brother to Xerxes, and, having the eomnuuid 



* CluIaD WM iodadnd amant! Uio 
(•Tea wiM naa (Plat- hot. p. 3iS, A.). 
Tho niuinj "yrOti ^Mnr^," mad 
• ^if Simr," w«n) «Mnlwd to lum. 
1I« •■ nui to )»rD diml of Jw nhoa 
bit KOI fCBinsd llw pries o* OlTBptt 
fnia. *ii. *!). [to ma conUrciponn- 
with Pinoratiu (•npra. 1. 1&). 



Ilw row of Oh9M WW i«diOT4 
thv Polopcmiodwi w, whM 
AlheniMi ■ndK' Ulclu teek 
fioD (f Uio Iikttd in ii«Mtioa < 

It. $S, M). m« iiMnu l« bmn] 

ona of lt« ouMoa whicAi waott hnpeUst 
UwB to nuk« ptmee (ib. r. 1 IJ. 




^ 




ODJQCTIOS OF ACn^gJlEStS. 



ISS 



K 



tlie fleet, fearefl lest Xerxes might bo prfvaUed upon to io 
';Aa Demiuratos advised — 

*• I perceive, King " (he said), " that thon art listoniiig to 
the -words of a mun who is onvious of thy good tortuoe, and 
seeks to hctnt; tli; catiBO. Tlil» l» indeed the coniiiion temjwr 
of the Grecian peo]>!e — they fnvy good fortune, and hal« 
pover gT«at«r than their own. If in this postore of oar affoin, 
after no hftvo lost fowr hundred veaJiela by nhipwreck," thre* 
hundred more be sent away to mako a Toyago round tho 
Peloponneiic, our enemies will beoome a match for as. But 
let ns keep our wbolo fleet in ono body, and it will l>o dan- 
goroQs for them to venture on on ntts«k, as they will certainly 
be no match for os tlien. Besides, while our sea and land 
Eorecs advance together, the fleet and lunny oan each help the 
other; but if they be parted, no aid will come either from thee 
to the fleet, or from the fleet to thee. Only order thy own 
niatt«r8 well, and trouble not thyself to inquire concerning the 
cnomy, — where they will fight, or what they will do, or how 
many tht-y are. Surely they can manage their own ooucoma 
without us, as wo can ours without tbcm. If tho Lacedto- 
moninns oome out against the Persians to buttlu, tlicy will 
Morce repair the disaster wliich has befullen thom now." 
237. Xerxes replied — " Aohffimenes, thy counsel pleases mo 
ell, and I will do as thou saycst. But Demaratmi odTisod 
what he thought best — only his judgment waa not eo good as 
e. Never will I beUevo that he does not wish well to my 
tor that 19 disproved both by his former ooonsols, and 
by the circumstanoea of the ease. A eitiscn does indeed 
' any fellow-citizen who is more lucky tlian himself, and 
hates ]]im secretly ; if each a man bo callul on for 
1. be will not givt; his best thoughts, anl««ts indoud ho 
a man uf very vxaltcd virtue ; and such are but rarely 
and- But a fi'iond of another country dtslif^bts in the good 
,v of his foreign bond*triend, uad wilt giro him, when 





• Sapn, ob. 19a 



~:z, ^--... " . r s -Jl It leciirK^. 










- -Wi I:I--L:l7 than 



', " ji: z. ii~ ^?: ~. Tli;^ i: the 






^ J ".77 i'TiZ^T ■^■37. 

-_.'_ :• <z;-; .—^'i tr pro- 
. ■.^:_ zi.:^*. i: may be 
L'. ~L-.: ; crz abrat to 
^rl-ii; rrizm:!:. It liap- 

ii vray l-ecoB- 



■ r--- ■■■■■' ■ 'f •'-.» ---.r-T r-n^ 

■ - ■ ■ ..,-■■ -■' :'-.- .\:::\'r-.-!' 
f ■'•■:.. /.:. .:.■. .. 1 7 . -.-' wv rr.i: 'f 

I- . (■ .r- .■..-■. > .-..- ■ i'. ."sr^:.. V.:. Crii. 
' S^,. ''.■ .; -:-i 1.;:: ^': il.'; *i- 
ii-i^Mi- i.r i.l.lfih'.r.;' t:.'- \i'At rf a 
'I. .-I I ii' riiv '-r,;,r:i, ri. 111. AccvH- 

"•/ !■• Ad ti'in 1,1 Mi:<t'i4 fF>. i;i>, 

'<"r("4 lin'l t.<''ii:j'likH' Ji'-nrl r-i\ cut, 



E --?. p--<'^-;r»i ti> b« those rf 
T.-.F.:!'-*. W.7..- -^K-rwTirJ^ biwieht w 
J" -l:;.; 5t Pa^saEii*, ihe son rf 
:::-; \-.-ii li". B.r. -H"''. anJ wcTO 
'■. :■?.; i in a !■ cb rpiv'ilp llw 
!:■■ .-4:r-;. (Iriir.os and itmiinl orations 
h ; i fii.r.-sll.T at tho ^I'Tinlclire, pre. 
f.Tvi-l iKf u-.^miTy of ttio hero (PaO' 
lari. til. liv. $ 1). 




Cii4r.2a7-138L 



GORGO ASD THE UFAXED TABLED 



187 



iDg acqnftinted vitb bis design, he resolved to send tidings of 

it to Sparta. So an there was no other vn.y of effecting bis 

parpose, einc« tho dniigcr of being disdoverod vu greatt 

DemarstUit framed the fotloving contrivance. He took a pair 

of tablets, and, clearing the wax away from them, wrote what 

^^0 king was purpofliog to do upon the wood whereof tho 

■tablets were made ; having dono this, bo spread tho wax onoo 

Vmore over tho writing, and bo Rent it. hy thane laa&as, the 

Vgoatds placed to watcb the roads, observing uoUilng but a 

blank tnlilet, were sore to give no trouble to the bearer. 

VHien the tablet reuched Luci'dcemoii, there was no one, I 

tliidetstand, who could find out tho seent, till Gorge, the 

daughter of ClMmienes and wife of Leonidas,* discovered it, 

and told tfae others. " If thoy would eciapo the wax off the 

tblet," sho said, "they would b« soro to find the writing 

ipon tho wood." The Lacodtemoniaos took bcr advice, found 

ie writing, and read it ; ^° after which they sent it round to 

lie other Greeks. Such then is the account which is given of 

[ibis matter. 



* B9i>n. Uk. T. M, Kd flu. •nd SI. 
atni^M of bdeIm wiib thalr 
M and Bcphcm wiUi tlivir aiinU 
*r«« 1104 nneotnowB M SparUt. (Sm 
nbote. 1^ 71, DoW *.) 

*" Our* ira ha?o cno oat ot nuunj 
butaiioM ot tte vooiiBCBi pnwilo* it 
wrlllng MDons Oa Sviutant, an 
tttMiotlj allea w i)ao«tiQ«i hj Mr. 
OraW <BiM. o( Qmooo, rol. U. p. 13G, 
■Bd tM>M '). Th» etnuUBt nao a( Uw 
•Cftaifta the IrtnuBiittk-n of nawiffoi 
ti th« tnoat fitilFftbl* of Uis fMU 
which dkjwoTv \m tbpory (•<« tb9 



■Bcmftrka' o( Calonri Mam; uul 
oaiii[an> Rcbot. Bd 'tbilcj^ j. 131; 
nut. LtvuiiL 0. 19 1 AuL G«11. rrlL 
9 1 Cora. K«p. it. S, 4| SuidM, nd 
vcc : Kijm. Uask. kd nw.). Or 
OVUM it DHUt be BlW«d tliat liwmuf 
jiiinaita coonpind a rvry difloroot 
IKMition at Spute and nt Atkcnit 
bat. divpateof thetbotorloof laoen*^ 
( l\aatb. { St, p. 298), it !• pK^ble 
that avoTf SpurMn eonld bulli road 
uid write (Piau iMuig. c IG 1 Ion. 
Uc. p, tST, A). 



APPENDIX TO BOOK VII. 



ESSAY L 

OS THE OBSCCREB TBIBKS COSTAISED WITHDJ THE EMPIHB OP 

XEBXEa 

1. Geneml division or the ptoTiocca — Eastern, WcBtem, Central. 2. Tribet 
that rcqnirc farther conaidcTation, chieSj those of the Eaat and North. 
S- Aocoimt of tho EoEtcm Trib<w^TU. (i.) The EyroaoiaDB — (ii.) Ths 
Parthiana — (iii.) Tho Ciioraamiana — (ir,) The Bogdiana — (r.J Tha Arisju — 
(vi.) Tho Bactriuna — (vii.) ThoJBgli — (viii.) The Sacra — (ti.) The Caipiani 
— (x.) Tbo SogartiaoB— (eu) The Saiangjaiia — (iti.) Tha Tbamaiuaans — 
(lUi.) Tho Pactyana — (»iv-) Tho Sattagydiang — (iv.) Tho Gtuidariaos — 
(iri.) The Dadico! — (J»ii-) The Apaiyta) — (iviii) The CaepeiH — (rii.) Tha 
Indiana — (x.t.) Tho ParicaniaDa — (xii.) The EtbiopiaiiB of Aaia. i. 
Account of tho SoHhern Tribos— vii. (i.) The Mosohi — (ii.) Tha Tib«reni 
— (iii.) The Mncrflnes — (iv.) Tho Moajiiceoi — (v.) Tho Mares — (vi.) Th* 
Colchians— (vii.) The Sapcirea — (viii.) Tho Alarodinns — (ii.) The Matieni— 
(i.) TheCagpiana— (li.) The FaQBicGO— (xii.) Tha Fantimatbi — (xtii.) The 
Daritoi. 6. Very obacore tribea of the Westom and Centcal diatrioti — (i.) 
Tbo LaaonianB — (ii.) Tho CabaKans — (iii.) The HyRonnes or Hyteonei — 
(iv.) The Linyes — (v.) Tho Orthocorybantoa — (tL) The Faricaniana of tha 
toulh EatraiJj-. 

1. The provinces of tho Persian Empire may be divided most con- 
YCnieatly into tho Eastern, tho WcBtem, and the Central. Accepting 
tho account of the extent and divieiona of the empire given by 
Herodotus in his Third Book, we may say that the Western Pro- 
vinces contained tho six eatcupics with which the historian com- 
mencoa his list ; — that the Eastern were composed of seven satrapi^ 
which were tho seventh, tho twelfth, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, 
tho sixteenth, tho seventeenth, and the twentieth; — and that the 
Central consisted of the remainder.^ Tho lines of demarcation nptm 



' The oighth, ninth, tenth, eloventh, thirteenth, eighteenth, and Diaetaenth 
(bco Herod, iii, 90.D4). 




TBIBK or THE EASTKtlN PROVINCES. 



IS9 



I 



* 



wbich TOcb m (livision is bMcd «« not &rtiflciiJ or arlMtmy, bat 
strongljr narked in nataru, bcin;; no otlier thui tltooe two gnnt 
baiTMn wherebjr tbe Feretaoe and tbor immcdibto naigbboura wen 
ilhnt in on the right hiuid nnd (in tlio left— -Uui low Mndf dtMrt of 
Arabia and Sjrnn toirtirds tho west, luid towardn tbo ciwt Ui« 
ckrfttcd mit dccert wbiob occnpira the whole centre of tbe noclem 
Into. Bj- tbcao nntnrnl hurivnt Ibu Ptmian Empin) whk pUpicftll; 
divided for two-tbirda of its width, and vra hare only artificially to 
prolong tlifl linee thus gwned • abort distuico towartla tbe ntulfa, 
in order to oompIetA the Mparation hero indicated. 

2. The gcognpbicol position of tho principal racea inhabiting 
«hat are hotn called th« liVMtero FroviuoM has been approxi- 
mtoly dotvnuinL-d in tbo tArlicr portions of thix work, more 
opecially in the EiBsay ' On the Physical and Political Geograpliy 
of A)>ia Micor.*' Tho trib«s and nations of the Ceutrtd Pmrincot 
from Armrnia eontliwordti, have eleo tvccivpd tbcir full share ef 
ntteattoa.* Out tbe nations of the taat, and the niunerotia neeg 
occupying the niore northern portion of tlio centntl trMt, lying 
M they did at tbo vorgo of tiw empire, remote alike from the 
Qrtela and from tbe obief Asiatic powers, and thus playing a 
very sabordinate part in Porsian history, hare boon but raldom 
inentionMl hitherto, and have never been made tba subjeot of 
snstaincd eoniiidonition. It ih propnicil now, in order to completa 
tba review of the trtbea iubabiting the Persian Kmpire. wbioh 
baa boeo commenced and cnrriod on in the two Bsmyst wbonto 
allnaion has just benn madc^ to give some account of the northern 
and eastern races, nt tlioir [loaition and limits, and — so far as can 
bo done without nndoly extending this onay— -of thoir hiiriory. At 
the auDO time the reader's attention will bo directed to certain 
ohacure tnbm belonging to thf central and weatem prorincce, which 
were omitted fivim the former roriow on account of their com- 
paratiTP insigntfioiDCO. 

3. The uuinber of tribes mentioned by Horodotiui as inhabiting 
the seTcn eastern satrapies is twenty ; or, if wo include tritrax not 
expnMsly mentioned in tbe list of the sntropie*, but known othnv 
wise to belong to this region, twenty-three. Of these, howorer, there 
ara two — the Utii and tbe Siyci — whose proper position is in the 



' BspteWly Is ilio EiMy on tbe 
'^Oeegnp^ ^ Kewpctamla and Ibo 




lutjocont cooalrioav vol. i. 
pp. 6UI-«&& 



Easy ix. 



190 



THE IIT[tCA:nAXS. 



An. Book TIL 



ceatAl iltstrict,' luid who liiiTe tints ft]readf been sotioed. Tb« 
flMtcRi trihna ara tinnfon tw«ntj--ODB in nmnfaer, rix., the H]fTtft< 
tiiam, the Putiuana, the CbonBniuu, tiw Sogduui*, tb» Aruzu, 
tlio Bactriuw, tbo ^^li, tbe Sacn, the OupunB, tlie Sieftrtii, lU 
SnraBgiana, the ThanuuuMns, the PkctjuH, tlie Sattagrdlans, Iba 
GwnJartMUi, tlw Dadioe, tli« Apuyts, tke Cupeiri, the Induuii, 
the ParicftniuM, and tlie Ethiopians of Asia. ThoM tribca will U 
CtmaAcreA teriatim. 

(i.) Tba Hyrcaniaiu. — Thia people is mentioned by Herodotai 
ooij twicf^* uid each tim« to a connection wltioh doua but bttle 
towarda fixing their exact locality. In Book iiL tboj occur aaaoag 
tHo five nntionii to v!hiom tbo water of tbe river Aoes is diapeawd 
hf the Qrent King, and aro tbna iMtoctated iritli the Chonunuaat, 
tbo Partluans, the Samngiaas, and tbe Thamaiueana. The ecocl 
poaitioD which thej- occnpj in this lid ■■ bvtwoun tlie CbomRaiau 
and tbe Faithiaos ; and their territorj might th«refon> bo exfweted 
to lie adjacent to Parthia and Cbonumia. Sabaequunl wrilvta 
Hx it to the sonth-eaat«m oomer of tba Caaptan— the modem 
piDiiitce of Atterabad — from wbicb point tbey extend it eoioewliaS 
rsriosalf. Sttabo aaaifpa to Hjrcanin » large portion of tbe low 
plain vast of the Caspian, uron earthing it beyond the Oxns (Jy&tin) 
rirer.^ Mela brinp it round to tlw west of th« aamo aca, and niaka 
the Hyroaniaaa border on tlie Iberiaoa and the Albaaiana.' Tfai 
can howeror be littlo doubt that tlic true btart of the oonntrj- wu 
nlnaya the region abont Ast«rebad,* whera Lluj diittnct and riverof 
OitrgdH Btill r«lain the appollatton of the old inhabitants." It na 



I 
I 



* 8aa Iho Uap of the Sklnpios at 
the Mid ef vol. U. TW pwltjoa then 
glTm to tho VtH daptrndt on Ibolr 
IdgatlHMticia nitli Uio CiiMU ot 
Suabo and Airian (lajin. Booh iii. 
ch. 08, iicto'). Tli« ]'uf<ya of tbo 
BoUrtan loamiitkiiii (ool. lU. cm. 5), 
lluiiiBh ngudodM adicuiat of fVwte 
RvMt, Mtna, from ita ooanoclim 
with AtBobniB (]ar, D), to hare Uio 
MfMldoablr taorv to tbo «aaL Tlio 
Mfoi too, u nifanbd a« tb* tlaka i^ 
th» InMiiptioM, who am vritod with 
the BMana sad Aiaohoriana, vcmld 
•{ficar to bavD had a man saaiuni 
omplaMiMBt than that aM%ii0d thvia 
ta (ha map, Tbajr maj hBT« ccoo- 
pM not oolf thu patt o[ tho oumI 



opposUa Capo Haotta (jramtiM), 
tat a coniiitoabin portioa of lh« 
Kodtn Utkram, whleii aaana alfll W 
rMaln a tnea ol iholr aaaia. 

* BarocLiii. 117, aadrii. 6S;adfa. 

* Sttab. d. p. TtS. PoljrUMMkM 
the Oxu tba bonniUrj (x. 46). 

T I)v Hit. Orb. iii. 6. 

" 8o« Mpoc-latlf Slrab. ri. pp. 7ti- 
7U( Arrian, Eip. Alci. iii. ts ; Itidtv. 
Clutr. p. 7i AcatlMtn. IL 6) itin. U. 
N. n. IDj Pi<Jain. ri. 19] <J. Cvt. 
*i. 4, Ao. 

* Tliia dbtitet has bem wcD 
•cribod by Hr. FriMir (Kanativo of 
Jiianoj into Khotanan, e>lL xxiii. 



i 



pf. fiO».^03)L U coawitB of a linirla 
n«til;r-a'ooded aad ntort to*el;r talk; 




SmatL 



TBB FABTHtANSL 



191 



from the paasogD of Aloxftsdcr thmng;]! tItU conntiy, vrhoro for tUo 
fi»t time he came ia si^kt o( tbe CaBiuaOt tbat tbat aea acqaind in 
tliu pngc« of hia faiatoiWi tbe titl^ which ia prefcrmi b; Stnbo^ 
Poly bias, Agnthomor, and ma*t of lliu lutor gto^rftpUuni, of " the 
Hyrcwtiaa Se*."'** Tbe limits of Hyrciuiia aro not T017 easj to 
det«nnine. lU natoral bonnditry on tbo north eoema to havo be«n 
tite toAy roDgo wbicU ebala in on that side tho vallcj of tbe 
AUnJi; on the coat U may bjtve reached m far w the Oi)th or Gist 
de^reo of longitado : whilo on tbe soath it vtas probacy confined 
within the outonnoet of thoeo pamlltJ rongrs of hilts" which 
■tretchfroin tboaonth-cnstan^eof theOaBpioDtotbeHindoo-Kooeb 
Dear OabnI. The Chorasmians probably bordered tho HjrrcanJana 
on tlte north, tbv Pnrthianfl on tlie sontbt while 00 the east they 
may bare «>nie in contnct with the Ariana of Hvrat, and with tbe 
Dadicic, or possibly with tbo Bactriani. They were cle&rty an 
ancient Arian mce, their oounttj bein^ iucloded (nnder tbe name 
of Vehriana) among tho carhost of tho Arian anttlcmcnts in the 
ZendsTesta, their ethnic appellation being sigi^ificativo in the Arian 
language," and tho names in use among them being tmeoable to 
Arian roots.'^ Tiiuyntnotimoaltained to any distinction." military 
or other, and disappear from hivtory aboHly afUr tbe time of 
Alexander." 

(lL) Tbe Paitliians aro mentioned by Hcmdotns in Lliroc plnecR ; 



(into wbirh <a\j nnall glona open from 
tlie nitt), i^nMiMllr widoDutg w it 
d«»o«riid» lotrarda tho rradoBt plain of 
Astoiat^ and Biallj' oiitaring tlio 
plain bi aboDt Icm. U' 40". Tbu 
OMjrdn tirer lluiri into Iho Cnopian, a 
liUle to tliu iHiTth at It* Kmth-catt 
Hwttk fnlllug into tlw tny ef Aitom- 
bao. Con>|nr« tiM dN«riptJonK of 
Suabo a r -Tfto^ r^ipa •ttaf;M..r 
■ol awAAt ■<' *t wKttr wit^ii, zi, 
p. 741), aud Arriui (mrfdi q Tpufta 
X^f* ^ if^^'fi Tir iSoi TBI M 

itif^trai itaivt ni Hn^''i, ^ tk 
witla/ a^i mMmi If »» V>) rhr ju- 
^JAjw rfev Totfn ti\mtvy, Exp. Alex. 
iii-SS). 

>* Stnbo iwM both iianKa (li.p.Tin, 
Ac), bttt moat conununljr aJupu lis 
later llUo. Poljbiiu knowv onlf tbo 
lauw (v. 44 4B. and 6(\ AgklhaoMor 
nsM tbe MTlitr mo«t fnqnmtljr, bat 




in bis (onnal Bcoonnt «f all Uia kncnm 
toai (1. 8), hu Ibo oiproauon 4 "TfKti- 

ria ^Tfli Komrla MXHao. 

" Seo vol. i. p. 6S7. 

'* llnd. p. JOtt, J Tii.. cote ». 

" Ibid, nolo *. Tbu root carta la 
th«[r ohlof city Zadr^eortn (Iffriui, 
111. E8), £• nrobAblr tb* Ikmlaii ftitrd, 
which ia foiind ia Moh names as 
Dfrni^Wil, r)lii9{ihml, Ac. Ot conno 
it ia alMi tbo AnacaiSA ««rta, foimd in 
TiffTanotfrta. 

"Qointaa Cortfaa Mil* tliom "a 
warlikooatimi" (gDnibcllio;«u,Ti.tT. 
g IG), Hnd remarln npcm ilicir t^valry 
a*"rn«UeDt"(iii. U.}ej. Bat they 
do not *Mini to havo rtatly rJFcred on* 
*nrioai rtaiinaDOS to Alaxnndor (cI. 
Arrian, Exji. AImc. iJL S3.1CS). 

u Their conatnr ij, howerar, alUI 
tomd under Its old name of Byfoanla 
(Urlumitk) In 7aoBB (ab. a.d. 11IK>< 
ISOO). 



192 



THE FAltrnUNS. 



Arr. BmuTIL 



first, M joined in tbe eame satrapy witli the Cborasminnsv tlin So;;, 
diaas. and tb« Arisns of Herat; '* sucoodly, aa olitntaitig a tiuu^ ol 
the wslvnt of tke river Aoea, in common with the Cbanunuaiik 
llj-rcnniaiis, S«mn^iu, >u>d Tbaiwuiwutt ; " thirdly, na nrntui 
witb the Cbi>t»60Uftns, nndor one and the eame commander in the 
urmjr of Xerxes.'* These notices all tend to ptneu tbuni tonnrdfthe 
uorth-eBStom frontier ; bat the Mcond aloiw is of nsc in ddUutelj- 
fisii^tbcir position. T\ujy thenoixvTl/etieeei*llte ITyrMniam iiad lit 
Saran^iiiiJ ; and this seems to have b«en oxactl; thrir proper looalitj, 
Tbey dnett nlnng the «outhorn flank of tbo Blbnrz rangc^ in \im 
diHtrici now cajicd At<\k, or " Uio Skirt." a district '» capable of a 
high cnltivntioQ, and strvwn with tlie rmnit of miigmficont oitiee, bal 
now nearly a <l«i)crt. Tbctr weetoni limit is said to hare bcoo tbe 
Caspian Gaten,'" while their eastern wu tlio temtor^r of the Aiiaas 
{HenUeti) ; on the nortli tbe; had the Hjrcanaiu for ucighbonni 
on the Aontli tlicy melted into tbe great desert of Klionusan, beyond 
which, on tho Ilnr-Mt-rmi, or river of Bnhtatmr, won the Samngians.' 
T1]i« location a^^roes perfectly with all the noticeaot good anlhcritka 
The liatfl of Darius join Parthia with Snrangia, Aria, and ^' 
white a part of tlio namitiTO of tbo Behirtun InfcHpticn 
closely with Hyroauia.' A^in, Alexander's histortans retaiL- tbnt ni 
I time of bis expedition it waa under tlio ^orernroent of tho moo 
trap with Hytcaoia.* Sbmbo' and Pliny ai« more distinct, and 
oraaghly in acoordanoo. The notioc of the latter is particnlarir 
clear and yaloaUe : — " Aa regards tho Parthiaos," ho aaya, " Porth^ 
luM alvays been the country lyini^ at tbe foot of the moantniiu 
whieh we have ea often mcntionod, whereby all those nations «• 
cnaoropaesod. It is bounded on tho cost by the Arinos, on the aoatb 



'• JttiToa. HI. 03. 

"IbiiL lU. in. 

" Itid. rti. 66. 

•» 8n|i™, vol. i. p. U1. Sir. Viasir 
RiTM tlio followlufc dMoriptfen d tbli 
liiitriot :— "Thaw aioiiiitaitM (the El. 
bun). althoDftli the; preio&t to Uio 
ilMrtt ibvir loftiml fooe, Mill nnefi 
doirs in a DuniicT to e;nAial tuctu 
(t«# baM, •• to ■tfferi, In tho rallojra 
•ad carloM lUvy Inclaili*, at wall •• at 
tbsir Utt, a qaaatitj of rich Imtil, 
wttorA hf muiiorotu tirnlvt*, wh'xh, 
Mioe iru well peopled and FaUiratad. 
ThU ftrip <<r eoimli? haa betm Mnnod 
lif iba ohliTin tlie <tlt«cls a word oig. 



niffios 'ad:irt*aaaf ft gansaattn' 
it ooaMiard tbo ootiMdcsahla Uxnu rt 
Nifsa. Ablrard, Dirocm, H^Uaife wilb 
tlioir d^penilaat v<ll^p«, alt nt whUh 
are now in ndaa." iJoimaf Ua 
KbomMan. p. MS). 

» Slrab. jd. p. 7«. 

' Comiaira Ptolara. vL 6; Stnb. tL 
p. 751 1 AgaUien. it. S, Ao. 

* Sapra, Book iii. oh. U, nota *. 

> CoL IL par. 16 {npra, Jm. 
Book Hi. Bm7 Ir. not* (C> 

' ArriaiH Bxptd. Atra. iil. SS. Altt- 
andcr biMSlf ooatinaed Uia 
(ibid. iii. IX). 

• Soo 8Uab. xL pp. TJO, TSX 



Ecurl. 



TIIB PABTHUS& 



193 



hy Ciirmnnia and Ariana, on tlic west hy tbe Pratitn (?), wlio are a 
m«t of ^[edcB, and 011 tho nortlt bj- Uw> HjrrcaniitDn."'' Tlio only 
dillbnli7 hcrv M the extent soothwards, which is carried eomowhat 
fnrtlx'r than b^ most writers. 

Tlio Parthiaiui irero one of th« Tsoat important of tli« tTibea 
tnclndt-d williin tho limits of tbo Persian Empire. Thojr appear 
to have bclonRnd to the primitive race of Scytlitt,' whom th^i Ariun 
immif^nxits had in g«n(>Tnl oxtcrminatcid or rednced to subjection. 
!)}■ aomo pecnliar inlieront BtMDgtfa thsj prceenrod thcnuolreA intaot 
whilo their kiodrMl cNewLoro was absorbent or perished ; and 
patiently biding their time snccoedecl, after the lapse of nbont fire 
centnriM, in oxelianging attnationfl with their maslen. The estab* 
liehmont of the Parthian kingdom of tho Antncido inverted tbo 
position of the old Scytfaio moo and thoir Arian conquerors, giving 
predomiiuinco to barbarism over oomparativo cinliHition, and eob> 
jwtiuf; Western Asia, from the Euphrates almost as far oa the 
Indos, to tbo opprcwtivc yoko of a coarse and rudo peoplo. Tbo 
Faithian oontiacsts were verj gradaalljr efTeclod; and some of them 
ware nsAintoined only for a short period. We jiuteuwi no olwr 
Bcconnt of the estest and arrangement of their empire: bnt the 
" Parthian Stationa" of the native writer Isidore of Charax (who 
lived about B.C. 150) show that it renohed from tlio B\ipbratf« to 
the Affghan tnonntaina ; and there is reason to boliore that in the 
moat doariiihing period it cst^mdod onir tho greater portion of 
Western Asia. Tbo route which Isidoro describea passed throngh 
nineteen districts,' vifl., ^Ifesopotamiii (which inclndcd Babylonia), 
Apollonintiji, Chalonilia, Uedin, Cambodenn, Uedia Snperior, Media 
Rhagiana, Choarena, Comisena, Hyrcania, Astabens, I'arthyena (op 
Partiiia Proper), Apftvarctireua, llargiano, Aria, Anava, Zarangiana 
or I}rangiana. Sacnstana, nod Anchosin. tba strngglcs of Ibo 
i'arthinns against Rome, tJio defeat of Crassus, their losses in tbo 



* n. V. vi. SS. " Qoo^ nd Pnithra 
■Ittn**, Mmpw fait I'sctbia in mdi- 
oibiis neallnn Htfnna dicUiniin. (|ui 
omMS SM B«ntia {iRDmmnt. Balx-t 
■b oitn Aril*, a BMvridin Cornutniiua 
et Ariaaoa, ab oowno !^Milaa Hodn*, 
• anUMtnozM) U^Tosnot." Com- 
pare Isldor. Cbtu-. p. 7, where Vw- 
tbjuna eriikotly rcprcKoU thit «■■» 

ir Owe vol. i. pp. fl7S, GT6. Tli* bokm 
VOL IV. 



ef the I^rtliiaiiwhMnAle^raiider made 
Httmp, wlucli WM Ananniapw (An. 
K<p. Al. iii. S2) or Ibmapi* (Q, Cntt. 
ri. 4, ad fin.), Is ibciilodly man 
ScTlhio ttinn Ariao. 

« Miuu. rnrtli. pp. 1, S. Flin. (S. 
"S. Ti 2G), iui<I Soliniu (Talfhue. c 
611), n; that tho cmiiibor of the pro> 
vince* I'M eifluoitni but tfcoj io cut 
raanwiate laeni. 



'94 



TU£ CUOUASUUXa. 



Arp. DooK TO. 



reijfu of Trojan, Uieir BubeeqacDl noovrrj of nil that thuy hw! kM 
front AdriAa, and iheir final re^ubjoction by tlio Pcrsiui*, uv ««IK 
known dranmstaiict* in their liistory, «ud scaroely nxiaini nan 
than a pawbg notioe. Th«j mitmbuiuMl Ibeir independemm tor 476 
joos ((nm B.O. 250 to a.d. 22G) ; and during tbia period, wlacfc 
coincided with tUo acnff of IloBi«'« greatoMa, wen almut Um only 
enciaj' Uiat ehe feared, or at wlxwe faanda s1>« miffer«d amoai 
defeats On the oonqueet of Arwioos XXX (Artabannii IV.) hf 
Artaxersw, tho ivin o( Siueukn, Uie empire of llin I'luiJiiaiia oeaaedi 
and with its disappcartkDCo we Iimo uU tzooo of tbor oti«amf u 
II nation. 

(iii.) Tho CboiMiDians w«to a prunitivo Anan nux,^ m ia 
•rident from tho menlion of tltoir connfary (JTJUirtido) among tlu 
eariUct MUleownU of that people.* Hiiey vxm in llw tin* of 
Hnodotaa to Itnvu ooutipied the low dosort nortli of Ujrcania, 
whicli is atiU called "tlie dMort of Kharetn."' Tliia pontian 
entirol; Baits all tho onri; notloea. Tho fourtli Farganl of tl* 
Vondidad joiua Kliairisao with Hanfu (Aria), QugdAa (Sogdlana), 
and Mm (Margiiuui).* The lists of Dariiu nnite it with Ariat 
Baotria, Sogdiana, and Su«ngi&.* Hcrodotua attache* it to 
Hyrcanio, Parthia, &ig<liaiia, and Aria.* No aitnatioD banooaiM 
thtee varions statomcnta ao well as tliat nbovo oangaed to Iha 
coanti;j-. It waa probably bounded on tho south bj Hyreania; oa 
Ibe mtt by Snttngydia, Bactriii, and Sogdinnn; on tho north hj 
tbo desert betwoon tho Caspian and tho Aral; oa the wait t^ 
tlw Caspian. Choraamla was not liatod by Aloxaodor, ainoe it 
had notiuiig to tempt him, and lay too macb to the loft of bi« 
ronton It liad by this tine BhalcoD off tbo Fenian donuaion, and 
was under a native kio^, Flianwmancs,' who made overtorts 
to Alexander which wero favonnbly entertained. Aocording 1» 
Airiau, this monarch stated that bis ilominioaa exteodvd to (hi 
borders of Colchis and tlio oonntry of tbo Amaions (!}, and offend 



■ Soo Tol. L EHajr xl. p> TOO. 

' 3umoiif B CotuDomain' bbt le 
Vsqaa, aMM, p. oriii. 

*Viaiii'» Sbonnu, p. 2tt, and 
Appcadix B. p. 68 ! TTaum'a Ariaaa 
Aatlqas. p. ISO. Fm « dmcripUon of 
till* couBtrj, vid* •Dpn, Tol i. ]>. CM, 
iKrt«*. 

» Unmotif , L a. e. 



* See tqI. Q. p. 407. ooto *. 

■To ItelUa, BogiliMM. iwil ki^i 
In tt>« U*i of MtnpJM (Iii. 93% n 
Hymaia ia lbs aoeovnt «r the nvie 
Aoe> ^iii. 117), to nHlhi* In u 
MpeciiU Mtkj, io tbo oocuant «( lb* 
mrmj at Z«itm (tu, iW). 

' ARtei Ec|)«l. Aki. IT. 1B> 



I 



EniT I. 



THE SOODlAXa. 



19s 



to conduct Alcx&ndor to tbooo pnrts; bnt haw tli« Imrutt wHit nnilcr- 
Ktood data not appeu*; and tbere is no eridcoice to show that 
Cltomsmia ever roocUed Dorthw&rd funkor than tho latitude of tUc 
Sm of Anil. 6tnbo tnilr<-il inc)ii<luti Um Cbonutniianx kmong tbo 
Sacec and MaasfiseUe ; bnt ttill ho eecms to mnkn thorn border upon 

[Bactrim and Sogdiaita,' aa that hut CTvidracu dotst not rcoUy oonfUot 
with that of tfao earlier writcn. Ptoli^my placw tbcm in Sogdiana. 
on the banlu of tho Oxuh.* By hia time the; had eridently bcoomo 
k Tvry unimportant triba 

TIm Cbontsmians cannot be said to have a biittorj. Nothing 

tdcitnite lit IcuowQ of them ttSUir tho Lime of Alexander.' It ia 

|jin>bablo that tbcy formed a part of tho nemi-Gredc B&otrion king- 
dom (fonodcd 11.C. 251), and pembed und«r the altackit of the 
nomade nc«9 from tho north, by whom that kingdom int over* 

. urowDa 

(iv.) The Sogdians, liko the IIjroaimuiB and the CbomsmianB, 
an Arian nov. Their cnnnlrj, called ^uydha in the Zcnda- 

^Tnta, ia tl)« TC«7 earlioet of tltc Arian •uttlcmcnU.' It laj next to 
Bactria, which it alwaja follows in the bs(« of Varius,* beinff 
Bcparatcd frotn it (itcvordlni; to Kr&toHthi-nea*) by tli« Oxus. Sog- 
diana tnu reprc«anted by him aa extending from tho Osna 
(/yAiin) to tho Jaxartea (SyJiiiit), being bounded on tho north by 
•Scytbia, and on tbc sonth by Bactria. Eiwtward it np[>cani to have 
rauihod aa far aa the Dolor mnpre, while westward it niay perliapa 
hava uxtaiMled bo tho Aral. This region is still cnlJMl the Valo 
of Soghd by tho Uaboioetant.^ Ita ancient capital, Maracanda,* is 
continnod in tbo modem city of Samarkatui; and to gcnoroJ 
poeition and extoul it may be regarded as nearly eocTMponding 
bo the prweal kiugdam of Bukhara. The Sogdtana are by ino&t 



(' 



• EIrnb. xi. p. 747. Tn !> iw 
Hatf«i*y<TM' «•) *w Xhmp Itrtvt ool 
al 'Att^mi tat el XnfiritM. i!t uDt 
at tir BaiTTMnr ml T&r %iytit^ir 

• Gcognpli. Ti. IS. 

' Tho pivot Kbarcamiaa ■Bpiro, 
wblcb WM daMnyed by G«igklR Kboo 
•bouc *.ii. IXIM. jiav* to tka luaao 
fill ■■ win oc KluirriBi, a k'oT pr** 
tiomij BDknown to it, THia mipic* 
4|«94tm Iti ordiniu? dwlgnntiwi bom 
lbs eapilal eltf KhaT<*m {or tfkyvnpa) 
wbitii tod luin tbo oM Dame uF the 



conntry. Bat it may be qaetfteod 
wbotlifT ths paoplo and rMllr any 
cIcMt coDnooliun witli the andent Cbo- 
numian noe. 

* It ii tho flnrt wUboiont OMii^td 
attor the primltiTO abode nf the ntoo 
(Jryowm vofjo). See •bw»e, toI. i. 
p. 6S9. (Onhoiuly anongb the wcod 
iiMtta* "llrtt'* or "hMd" ia tbe 
BaniUo BnbjIcmiAn.— B. 0. B.] 

* SaIl^^ toL ii. p. 447, ooM *. 

* Ap. Sitab. n. p. 7*8, 

■ SooWlling)'*Ari>niiADtiqua.p. ItD. 

* Soo Arriu, Kxped. Ala. iii M). 



195 



THE ABMK8 or HE&IT. 



A«r, Boo&T 




irritera connected in » rerr special vhy witli Hm Bactriaas;^ aad 
It may be enspoctod that nt ui enily period tlic two pravuicn mn 
nnitcd in & unglo satrapy. Tbe imtions strongly reaeuUe m» 
another;* but tbo Sogdiiuis aro of a coanuir type, nnd in milituj 
reputation fall short of their neighbours. Stjll they offered a 
respectable rcsistnnoo to tho army of Atcxander,' and were anon; 
tbo tast of tho tribes rcilueed by him before be quitted Battiis 
to attack tho Inilinnn.! Sogiliiina formt'd a paii of the Baetriu 
kingdom which nroso out of tho ming of Aloxandcr's empire, and 
becamo thenoeforth merged ia that oountt;, wfaose fortiuiei 
foUowed. 

(t.) The Arians. It baa been aln-ady noticed* tliat tiio tpcdl 
name of thia tribe was in reality quite distinct from tino gmoal 
ethnic title of Arian, which belonged to the Bnctrians, Ibe Medcs, 
the Peruana, the Hyrcaaians, the Cborasniiaus, the Sogdiam, lb* 
Sarangiana, and to many otlur oatioiu. There ia an initial A in tbe 
one case which is wanting in tlie other, and tliera is farther n roct- 
tetter w or c iu the special which has no coTTcnpoiiiIont in tke 
general namo; bat tboagh the resemblance of appellntiou appcan 
to be acciduntal, there is no reftson to doabt that tho pcoplo ia 
qncstion wore n bmnch o( the groat Arian stodc. Their oonntiy 
is fonnd, under the name of Itannjv, in tho Kondareaia, anumg Uw 
earliest Arian seltlementa, in conjunction with Sogdiana, Uat^giaaai 
and ChoraamiA. Tboy nro alvrays classed with Arian rarc«— in tie 
Inscriptions with the Sarangiana, the Baot/ians, and the Cboiw- 
mians;* in Herodotns with tho Sogdians and the Ba^rtrlana;* ii 
Stmbo * and Isidore of Charax * with tho Margiana, The moAim' 
Herateet, who inhurib their name, are prohaUy in some aeason 
their duKccndatits ; and tlicy are certainly ao Arian people. 

Tbo Aria of Ilerodotns does not appmr to have been an esUnuTe 
tract. It was probably bounded by Parthia npon the west, hj 
Choraxmia npon the north, by Sattagydia and Uie country of Uw 
Dadicie attd Aparytte on tbo east, nod by the ThamanaMns upon th* 
Kootlt. Strabo gives it a length of 2000, with a breadth of only 









^ Comiiaro Arrinn, Eip. AL lil. fl, 
tv. 1 ana 17 : Smb. il. pp. 7-17, 748 1 
PUn. ». >'. Ti. 17 ) AfcUtumei, !i. Ii | 
Q.Cart. III. ii. $ B.Ac 

* Slntbo tsys, Xi iiir ■n^aibr ot toAI 

iUptfiOV toU filoti H«l *^1 "'ffj Y«r 

npiAM' •! ft ityiunt cat ci 8a*TpiaHl, 



TplOM'. 

> ATrian. Bip. AL HI. SO, Iv. L Ao. 

' Ibid. iv. in, la. 

' Kapn, *«I. i, p. 099. 

* Supra, roj. ii. p. -IST, atA» *. 
■ BtToiL m. fa, ■Dd nL e&, 

* Stwb. il. pp. 7M, TSl, 

* Hun. Purtli. pp. 7, & 




THE BACTEIASS. 



'97 



im 

0X1 

■tut. 



r 



SOO atadM,' extending it iilonf; tho ttouthcrm Bnnk of tJio ntouDlAiit 
chjun which here bound«d linctrinna (tiio Panipamittu), proljabl/ 
fmia abont CJUrian to the aounxia of the Anoa river (the modem 
Heri-r^t). Plolcmj iacUncs it, npparrntlj't a Httlo more to the 
wMti* bnt in tbo maia of^ea wtih Strabo. There can bo little 

iiibt that these ArinnM occupied th» aouthcni Kkirto of the Klhon 
tunge, and the fertile conntiy bctn-ecn that range ftnd the deaert, 
immccliiitolj to the east of tJie ParthiaDa,* extending thonce along 
the valief of the Ucri-rud to sumo diatAocu above llvmt ; but their 
ox&et bonnda en either aide it is impouible to determine.* Thej 
bare never bruu n diatingaished people; but tht--}- offLTcd a stunt 
redstance to Alexander,^ and appear at that time to havo consti- 

tcd adiMiDct autrapf.* 

(vi.) The Bactrinna arc the most distinguished of all the tribes en 
north-eaateru froatier. Tarious atories have come down to am 
attesting tbo belief of the OreulcA in tho power and iraportanoo oC 
Baotria during the Assyrian period;* bat no great valae can bo 
attached to tbeao talca, which aro prolmliljr devoid of an; biaterio 

andation.' TheZoodavcBtahowevorabowa that tho Ariana Kittled 



t fitrtK «I. p. 751. 

■ Q«otrapl>. ri. 17. 

* Pcoini; bmiail* AHa on the wral 

by hrtUa and Carnmiiit (1. a. o.|. 

Bnt tliii if boiMiae ho extendi Car- 

nanJa ao at to {nclnda la it almoal tlia 

whole eft tba dtatrt. SUabo, pmcaod- 

Ing MLitirnTd tma iho Oufnan, ilv- 

•cribci Alia cUitcttr att«r I^rthn. 

idora ol Chaiax ha* two dlairioti 

iweea them, Apavarctirhij nml ^f »r. 

a (pp. 9j 8)> But Atni'arPttoiind 

a part of Pnnliia {PloL ti. C) , and 

Isnrioe* Ixnuidcil Aria apon tbo nvrth 

'\>id. pIi. 17). 

' TliD heart of Aria wm probohlj 

'% the eoonirv ikboat Hunt. 

ia "a rieli weil-watoivd voltnj, 

the lea|;lh of wkieh ia aboat 30 nuli>% 

and the bmdth U, tha whole bainit 

with viUngca and gardcw." 

|)oatdoa a^madanaff <rf th» flnett 

(he iBalberrr-baati i« onl- 

to a KTEBt elicit, fur nariDK 

:.w«nM; whc»t nbd baihy ara 

plaalifal j paMnro of tho bed qoalitf 

abwnda in tbe nonataiD*, aed all tlio 

of life are cb-n|j uad 





Jilsntifnl. TliAanaraitidn pt-nt KTOwa 
D givnt qaimtitira itjiiii ihi> jiliuna aad 
lilll* all aroDDd the eilf." (Fraaot'B 
inKinMan. Appendix B., pp. 90-3t. 
CompaTa Fomot'a CaiaTan Jaamoj*, 
p. IX). and n. 16S). 

> Arruui, £tp. Al. iiL SS and 28. 

* Ibid. ch. SS. 

* DiodoFui, appunntl J rollowia^ 
CtcalM, nuilcM la'inna march iata 
I)a«lria and oanteod, for aome tiBM 
duahtfallv. with iti king OxTaitaa 
(ii, 6), niio it floollj rodnrad by Setai- 
ramli. Jaatiii (I. i) and Oei'^alion 
(Pt. 1) have the tame itory, bnt «ill 
the kuit; ZoroMtor, and idoitify him 
with thb tonoder of the Xatrian re. 
ligioa. Afain, Diodoraa nakca Ilia 
auccota ct ArbaoM, in hii attack oa 
Ninerah, depand naialron the atalat. 
aoM which ho laoalraa from lb* 
Boctriana, who har* bwn aammonnl 
to aid Iba KiaatilM, bat join their 
aawilsnt* (ii. £6, at asqq. Comparo 
Tol. i. p. «01.} 

> It i* notlcoaUa, howarar, that tho 
rtmiaa tnditinna made Raotm tlw^ 
carlint oapital, ia tho limes aiiI«riQr 



198 



THE BACmiAXa 



Arr. Booi Tit 



io theooualrr at a very tArly date:* and tUen csn bo so dovH 
that th« hiatorical Bactriiuiti vtvm of tlut remarkiiblo r^ce.^ Tfaej' 
are spoken of as & powerfal people in the time of C^ma, trbo looktA 
upon tlicir trabjuction m a mitttcr whioh ho could not safely intnit 
to his lientoniuitfl.* The Feraiana almaja regarded tlicm dm anioBg 
the bmTcst and nont warlike of the nations whoroof their empire 
was composed;* and the Bactrian satrapy sceina to baro been oon- 
sidLToiI as a sort of rnjml appanage.' In the linid Ktra^glo of the 
Pcrsifios against Alexander, the Dactrians played a rory conspicaou 
poft ;* and it was no dunbt aa muoh owing' to Uie energies of tlio 
iMo as to tbo advantages of potttion, that the Greek goTeniors 
appointed by the Solencidw were able to assert their independcuot^ 



to Eri Kliosra er Cyrni: and that 
Gcncml Forrirr obftvrved amon^f t)jo 
niln*, bric):« with cnaoiform inioip- 
tloiw (Ciunnn JonrnoT'*, p. 207), 

• Sop™, rol. I. R. UW. Tha Bae- 
Iriuii BTo nlio Mioliralnil xmAt* the 
namo of BiUiUkiu, in tho esrijr Itmindi 
of die HindoM (Wltooa*a Aiiai'ii 
AntiqoBa p. ISS) j bnt tlins do Dot 
roach mnch bc.vnnd the 8rd or 4tb 
otaitui7 Rc. >'oMtut*ol(irT'iiicaaiiiff 
has jrol beta found for the noma 
Baetvln. Bumnuf (CnminDo^ p.eil!.) 
doriVMl it from B Zccd word, apaXtnra, 
whfeli mratia " norUi." Bnt BwHn'a ia 
(inljr called hj n n&ni« »! all oIoipI; 
reanabllo)? tliU iii tliii Arincuiiui pro. 
KTaph/. wliich is not. lilcvly to Ii*t« 
pniMrred Iho rrol Zmd titl«. The 
Iruo Mhaid n»( la |vo)«bl/ cmlj 
BtttK thn -<U of Uio Kondarcala, tho 
-tfi<h of tha AohBinieiiiuL tnblvl*, and 
lb* 'Tfta of Urn GrcIo b»inK >nvr» 
loNiliva niffijM*. But iriiat Haiih 
mtana ii nncwTtain st prmsnt. Hnng 
nahM It rqnfn>li-nt to htgM, which iu 
Zend ia •' fwl.inMp." (Vido mip™. 
App. Book Ti !)at« A, aob r«\ Bx- 
•XVI j and oompun Bumud'* I'liilo- 
BCphyot UittMriVul. iii.p,48A) 

' Bnpta, ToL i> p. 698> 

• Hwod. I. IS). CiMdas pnfMMd 
to t^Mr dotno «t th» cirtfnnaUuioM of 
Uiis wmi (Penio. ( S) | bat ao d»- 
pcndeooe can bo |>lMcd on hia nura- 
lirs. 

• Tha Baoli'.uui woro aiDans ,tho 



tnupa Mioctod bj Uardonia* en tha 
mtrtftt ef XnriM (Herod, riii. 113). 
T)i«7 liold UiK Wt winf; at Arbeta 
(Arriaa, Kip. Al. iii. II), whora thirr 
(CTOktl}- dJKtiiiiiuUbed thnnM^TM (ibliL 
c. la I Q, Curt. ir. zr. I 18). AJiiaa 
fl-wipl. Mar. Eiytbr. p. «). if It bf 
lip, caUa tluna />ax'J>^'«^» f*"' 
Strabo ni|{nTtl« tbcro mm ^liUr in 
chuno(i>r Iu tlin 8cvtlii«B« (ti. p^ 
7Se, 7S3), and Q. Curtina tbm At- 
■cnlWB their baUla: — "Soat biii*di 
Baetrlaai lot** IHaa mntc-a )>raiuptla. 
limit horridi* iBtraaiia. naltilcaqiM a 
Fcraarum lua abbcm-ctibaa, nli 
haod procnl Sc^hanuii bcllJciwlMiail 
emlv, ct npio Tlnre naiaetai (Wd. 
pcngun in «nsia ocrauS " (Vtt. Aln- 
IT. ri. S 3). 

■ Accordiafc to Ctoalia fBto. Par. I 
S), Boclria, Cknuula, I^rth{a,aad 
Oanuauia, wars ooulcrrad b^ Cjna 
apoa hii aecoMl son, Tanjuinie« 
(=Snwrdiah Aftorwarda, in Ui« 
r««Ka of Xanoa, w» flad )iis biothar 
l(ii«isl«a ta pauaaaloB ct th* Bootriaa 
aaltapy (Hmd. it. IIH). Again, 
npoa uio ilaath of Xcncea, it ap|«Mii 
OxM anotbec tumlher, BjrMaapoi, baA 
rMoirad lb* KororMoant (Diod, 81<< 
ai 69). Dadataea, k»w«Ter, Ibt 
Mtrap ct Bactria nador nariaa K^- 
lacpaa (Bob. Iiiicr. m>I. ill. par. 8), 
Wia Bol, ao far aa Ira know, of tha 
ronl huoaa. 

* Airiaa, Exp. AL iii. 29, It. 17 aad 
£2. 



I 

I 



CEoaaiPHTCAt LUirrs of bactru. 



t99 



[and to eslablifth a D«ctri)iii kingdom, nli!cb cortAinly oontinnod for 
Hbpvo n ccntniy. In tbo connu of ttou) tbo; liftVQ yidded to Uie 
lof Titar immipralioD,evpT|>rMniigMntUimLrdfromtho AsiAtio 
ateppM; but in the non-Tiitar popnlatioD of the conntiy about 
BftUih. whose lanj^ge is decidedly Arian,' wo probably hnro tho 
represfiDlativeR and d(«ccndaaU of ihe Rnat BacLriao nation. 

Tho gco^mpbical liiniU of Bactria an for the mont part wctl 
marked and deQaed. Sof^iana boanded it on tlie north, being 
sopanted from it by tltu Oxaa or /yAua riter i * the Htuanth inonu- 
tains (called anciontty Paropamians*) was its limit apon tlw 
south ; * on tho west it was probably bounded by Choromnia or tho 
gmt desert of Kharent ;* white on tho (laat it was ahnt in hy the 
snowy obain of Botor, which nnitot tho Thianc\an with the Hindoo- 
Kooih, Thna it included BadaJtihan and Koondon, as well as the 
alkh diatrict, to which tbo ancient name etiti attschca. It wns a 
anutry of varied oharaoter and multiform products. On the cast 
id aoath, extending to the aammits of lofty monntain-ntnges— 
rhile on the north fb descnidcd into Uie flat of tbe Ozua ralley, 
on the west melted into the low sandy drKcrt of K1inr<rom — ^it 
ercry species of soil and ereiy rariety of climato.' Its capital, 




at Ibe 3p*t ol War ' (lit c).>. p. 33. 

*HixiLb. ai. p. 7GS) FiotMO. «i. 
II, IS. 

* Or rHtnoaJsa*, aeoMdiog to Mme 

anthon. Tim word smbis flrrt Ut 

our in tlie ItKbjIu&ian traaaeript ct 

I BohiituD lotcription, wbdv aador 

! form Piim}unirjan>a U ropfMeoU 

nd ropWmi the Psriuui Oibtar^ or 

ndaria (w« Sir IT. Hiiwlinton'a 

BKbyloiiBuiTeitcf Bcbiiiliui Iiuorip- 

tion, p. n.). 

__ * It •{■pinni fmm the trsT^ of 

HMraoral fWrivr, (hut no f<nrei Ihitn 

^HboT raoKMof nxiiiiktftitH^onlyilishtljr 

^HiTonntiit, aopknuv liotwoou tha tcnr 

^BbDBirf ti>inird* tho On*, uiil lh» 

^^bt n<8Ma of 8««U«a, lowaidi Giriiilc 

BDd Fnmli. (Oumvan ionmej*, pp. 

230, SH Wa, ud »7: and compan 

Uia mnp.) It i* tbo amcd ot iIikm, 

•a oik» pnieMiti from nartb to xintb, 

tliat S» hers nifntnled M tlia maia 

ntn^. TUa la tho mowiitaui -obain 

V*Uliig botWDoD tho vnllcjra ot tha 




Hargaab and tba Hen-rod, wLich ia 
now kmnni as the Sm/iH Kok or 
White Moimtaia (Fnrlcr. p. £39S 

' I'telamj (vL 1 1) bonnda it oa the 
«o«t tiy UarKiaaa, ur tha oonnliy 
waternl br tbo Mwyavk, the ondonl 
diatriet M Horvi but Uio doaort of 
Kluuvimi oitondji fortbor oast Uin 
■h(i iluTfaub, and tnoM hnra boon at 
all tiniL-s tlw natioal fraotice in tblt 
direction. 

■ Q. Cartiaa tbiia dmcribo* Baetrla: 
" Baoirinim tarrw multiplex cl mifa 
natsmtul. Aliln taaltaarbEv, »t ritia 
lugoa mitcoqu* hnotoa aUI. SoIom 
piuRiiD L'TDbri fontM rifrant ; qnw 
tniliois aunt tnimaoto coiuMTintur, 
tofieta itriiicDtonua ptbnlo coilont. 
Uaeuikio ddlodo partmn ^ijiindpni lonmt 
■[cinloi MT'iiga t«aenc. Sqnaliila pic- 
citatii rwio nan bomisom, noo fruBatn 
nlit I qaun tstd vodU a IVcllco mari 
spirant, qnieqiiJd aaboU In <«mpia 

Iacol, cMiTiiimiil : quud ubi onmu- 
atom rat, tnaawraiu tnlliom prooiil 
ftpeuloa Mt, omaiiujiQO prialisi itineri* 



200 



TSE £0U— THE 8AC£ 



Arr. Bool TU. 



Unctra, ia roproseoted hy the modem £aUA, which is now moatly ia 
rains, but lieauD ample trncte of it aacient Bplendoor.' 

(riL) Tho JEgii ato meotionod 1>; Hcrodobu ia ono pMMigw odI^, 
whandn they appear aa ncSjihlKrani of tho Bactriatu.* There is v> 
tlSM of them oitbor in tlio Inscriptiona or in tbe Zendavesut. VtH- 
sibly they are tho Aiigali> of Ptolomr, whom be plaoes opoa the 
JazarU«, and thficefora the pcopio intended in tfae passage of Uw 
Pasohiil Chroniclo which speaks of Alexandria K^ubau aa bein^ 
frAlyobif- * Or thojr vay bo idoRtiBcd with tho .£gAl) of St«pbati. 
who Heem to be the GUm of Stntxi, and the Gebe or Geli of other 
authors, the inhftlxtanla of the ilodeni GJtilau.* In this caaa wa 
may enspoct that thc^rwero Ariaus, siace Stephao's -AgAli an 
"a Median people."* It is impoaaiblfi to fix their locolitjr ia tho 
timo of ncrodotiu. 

(riii.) The Saon\ — It U rerj- difEcult to locnto with any certual; 
the Socia of Herodotna. In his notices they aro geoemllj connocted^ 
with the Bactrians,^ npon whom, therefore, it in nntnral to snf 
that tliejr adjoined ; bnt on whicfa taAo ho intended to pbtco them 
ia not aaaf to determine. Their conjnnction in the list of tk»^ 
entiapiUH with certain OaMpJons ' might lead o* to locato thorn apoa 
the lower OzaB, in tho region bolwocn thnt river and tho Ciuipiaa 
Sea (tho nmdum Ebauat of KJtiva); and this pcailioQ wottld ettit 
exactly tho aotioo of Uclkniciis,^ who derives the title of Anyrgii, 
by which a portion of the Pcniitin SacB were oortiunly dirtta- 
gnifllicil,"' from a tract called *' the Amyrgtan ptaim," which they 
inhabited. Uot on tho other hand, it mii«t bo remarked, firat, that 
this region baa with good leofion been already asdr^ed to tho 
Chonsmiana," who were cortiiiniy not Sacsg ; ^ secondly, that tint 



Toatigu int^nrnnt" [Vit. Alri. ti. tt. 
{ 34^ ST). "Tba kngnnffo of lh» 
moK g^phEo writer," njt Sit A.. 
Bonw, "coold nol <lnlini>«kli^ thla com- 
tT7 with fTTMler oxnotnm " (Bokhai*, 
vol. L p. 215). A ilctailod mcuoont at 
Uis trhola Mffioa nrUl bo fonsd in 
FiBTriw (W- 19"-BS0)- 
> Se« FDirior'a Owsvaa Jooiaeji, 

* H«rod. III. GS, «J da. 

* (htv^l'*'- ^''- 1^- 

* Tide iTipTn, toI. ii, p. 4Sfi not* '. 
*8i™b, li p. T3*! Plm. VH. 

Pomp. o. 35; hia. 11. N. *i. 16 1 
ru.1. vl.2. 



* 6t«rph. Br*- tA v«c Arygi^af. 
1 Hmoi). i. 1G3, Til. S4, viii. Ui,\ 

anil ii. 113 1 oompuii ArriuB, Bapt 
At. iii. 8. Oa tho gcnontl aabjoot ' 
the BMW, WW btknv, Emtkf U. 

* Bvrcd. iij. S3. , 

* Ft. 171. •/it^ln*'^ w^Ur aMfc,] 
"800 Uorod. rii &i rr*4nM ." 

fofTU SiMan 'A^w^7l«ut, Xiicu f xilk* 
•od «oinpitr« tbii Nalctuh-i.RnM 
IniKTiption (i)4r. 3 1 iafn, p. SSO). 
whcro tho SoiHi Homooori^ am bcb. 
tionvd. 

"Sapnt.p. 194. 

» Slnbo incli<«Kl 1B7R, Trf H rw- 
KMVwyrriiw mi vAr Xomt tinvt m1 »t 





IBS, SAC£. 



201 



ipons joined with the Socans ore nob tlioae tma whom the se* 
d«riv«l itfl name,' und tbervforo niny hnro dwelt at any distaticv 
from it ; bdiI, thirdly, that tho Alexaudrioe geographen knew of 
no SaoD »Diith of tli« Oxus.^ Tliu oonutir bofoad tho Jaxartcs is 
that nsaally aseigned to tbem by thme wiiMro; but this cannot 
btttboSaciaof Hcrodotiu. It ia too remote from Bnctm ; andhcsidea. 
Herodotna aacigDS it to the MaaMgvt*,* who woro not 8cj:thiaii%* 
and were not anbjcct to Pcnia.* Thero ranain two tracta botween 
which onrcboicD lies : one is the district between the lower Ozna 
and iht! lower Jaxart««, which has been ref^arded above as a (lart of 
Sogdiana," but which otay poaubly bo the Sacia of Uerodotoa' time. 
It ia a low plain, like the country south of the Oxne, ao aa to answer 
tho description of HcllaniciM; and it approachea, if it does not 
adjoin, Bactrin. Tbiit whole tract, however, except along the lircr- 
ooQTBefl, is an arid d<»ort, and can never haro anpportod more thitii a 
very scanty population. Tho other is the le^^toa east of tho Bolor 
nnge — the moiU^ra kingdoms of Kae^gnr and Yarkand, the most 
weetem portion of ChincM Tartaiy. This seems to bo the Socia of 



Khrrirm (7) <Mi gl Xmpitnioi (xi. p. 
'47) 1 bnt tWi atataniMt in of Uttio 
«liic. Tlio CbcTMmiau eonlil ngt li« 
St oDoe lUuk][<XHr <Arisiu) and Stem 
(Tniaiiivnt) ) aiiil if we noat ooniHict 
them witlx either, it ■hcmld be with 
Itw tamer mUice th>B with tlio laltcc 

' The Oupumi, from whcrm ili<< tm 
<1nired Un tmnu^ nro imiiuubttillr 
tbo«D whom llcrodolaa plncoa in hu 
lllh mirapr (>ii. Sij. Tlmr dti^H 
towMtlD 1(« Klutb'ii'twl anit)*, ia Ui* 
aiodoni OhHan (iofra, p. S38) . 

* ArriMi'it Scf t^ (irVom ho Idralf- 
Am Willi tlio Sunn, iif. H) dwelt nortb 
el th* Juanes (it. 1 ssd 4). Su the 
SaaaerBnUa«theiwe|Bp. Sinb. xi. p. 
740), who are tepanted by the Jaiar* 
U« (hnn Ibo See<l><">*- Strabo u Iom 
ciusr, bu tiriiim tb(i Soyiliian oon- 
qiMKirs of t^ (ir<c«u.BaD(riMi Lioic- 
doai ifi rSt Wf»in tvC 'la(ifrav rqt 
iMiTa Simt mi Srytiariabi, l|r KaT • U 
xor Utai (ibitl. p. 7t4). Thora 
i>«re, of c<>RrM>, Smsm in Amioinn, tlio 
See««Dn of Anina (E(p. Al. iii. H), 
who a(l)ulapd ea tfan lledoi and thu 
Cadiiatis (oomp. Smb. vi pp. "Hi, 



fST.Ao.) Ptiii.!LKxL10:uidrtoL 
v. U). Bat t^MMcamiot bo theSacM 
whom BffodotBi jinrttd utOt Iht fia<- 
irianti and indMd thvj ara avrra 
called Baem, bnft 8ioediue or Sanu- 
Dili : and their oonnirf ia Dot Sndn, 
bal i^ncaMoni. Btralii appcnn lo 
n-Ksnl ttMaa Sndbii m ■ Tfniiinnt ot 
lli« imraden who fafld <loiniriiE.n in 
Upper Ana for S8 ywirj, bal woto 
(□bdocd \>f CT&inrM (ooiDpam Smb. 
xi. p. T4A with Hnrod. L loay. Dut 
por^p« tbii)' w«*« Mally a ninuiant of 
Iho nuwt andont ialiabllaata of the 

CC^BlrT, 

1 llirul. LSOI. 

* lUI. rb. Sin. Tbo VaaB-Octn 
ahould hj their naoM bo Gallu(cn|wa, 
ToL iii. p. SIM). That the^ wsra 
Aijon* ia ahowD by tha niuno of Ititrir 
prinpn Spaimi'itM (HeiviL L Sll), 
whicli iiiny b« rampanjd wilb tli» 
Spnr^pDilhca of the A.galh.jTn (iU<l. 
It. m, ond of the Euivpcan SoytiM or 
Scvli'ti (lb. rli. T$}i who«* Indo.luti* 
jHinn cliimctor bM bMa alread/ 
pn^Tcd (toL iii. pp. 187>SWS 

» Hcred. i. SU. 

• ^pia, p. 1&2. 




303 



THE aACX or »MU. 



i 



Arr. BdoiTO. 



Ptolemy' and Cnrtitui;* krcI nt its flBBtern position and tinr 
approncb tn Gnndaria and lodia ooMrdfl with tha place Msigatd tb 
the Sacffi (^SaJia) in DariaR'R llsto, * it is poriiapa on the vlwie to b* 
prefcrrad to thu otUcr. Tbe weetera and nortlwm porCtou of Hut 
region are TcrFmoantiunoua, but OD tbofonthand east it sinlcBdowB 
into n vn«t sandy plain or draert, which exl«iKlB lutintemipledlr 
from ahont long. 76° to long. 118i° E. from OrecDfrich. 

ThB SnciD of Persia wero probably a TurouUn race, or at IcaM • 
popniation in whicli the Tontnian dnmcnt prcponderatod.'" tbej 
wteo among tho bent troops in tho Persian annies," their ehidf 
weapon* boing the bow and tlio battle-axe." It apjxttra that soim 
time before the inTaaion of Alexander tboy had raoceedod in detach 
ing themselves from Persia, and completely establinhing thth 
independence, eo that they foaght at Arbcla, not as aubjeote, bnt a 
anicN of DnriuH.^* Soon aftownnbt we find Samna contending 
without dishonour with the army of Alexander ; >* and aboot a 
century lat^r, tribcit which bore the name snbrerted the OnK<^ 
Baclrian kingdom,*^ and eiitubtislicd their role over tbe entire trad 
bctvruc-u the Ar»I and the Indus." They even vcutnred to inrade 



'PtflnnT^ Sncia, whicli he In a 
narkod mf dutingvisliH IVom Soj. 
Uila (Tl. 13). t)M Mit of Soffdiuw, 
and BorUi of Monnl Imtaa Uio (lllma- 
Idyaj, OMupnrti tbrt'ikii. Hnrncl. (p. 
3Si I ti irrin riyiov »otiv>oS 'trtiiril 

iftt nv^ nit InnfiHinlrBVt t>rr»i 
2iytmrtil aol ZXrat. 

■Tib Aim. VIII. iv. J SO. 

• 8e« rol. li p. -187, note '. Dariiu, 
Itwill bo iMo.owJoIiilSnola. (I) nilb 
OanilaTia ud 8»IU|I7>1>«; (:!) wilb 
OandMia and Medai (3) nilb Inilia. 

>°8t«TDl.i.pp. 67>.6i3. ThinTioirr 
l« not itkCDiDpaiiblo with that tniuii- 
Iftlcod Id Tcil. lii. (Bock ir. Ktmv II. 
pp. U7-S0Q) irith tmpool to'Uia 
«(luda cJnracter of tks EunipMa 
Bo;th*. Tbo mm Scjtli, or Booso, 
it proluibly uot » ml ociialo niuno, 
bn.t niCTvlj a titlu icitpii to n3l no. 
inado*, like tho If^"' of >iic"l*)ru IVnia. 
FVom tba nmw (cmi Sr^h, llieKfoi«> 
w* oinnot ooDclado Mijtbine a« to 
tb* alliDJe c)(»nwl«ir of a pMJiu. CI'* 
tl« Btbjlooian UnaaeripU of tb* 
AobRiMaian iiucriptiona, the tern 






irbich ropIkOM the 8*h» cf tlia 
Bi>a an<l SoftUo oduonM ta Ofj 
(qnorir, GomnilM F)--a tcnn wUdb, 
cUowbcre la BatbTloaianaliirsTa 
"tbo trlbte." Compnro the On«k 
teAJ«vXoi.— B.C.K.] 

»Tbi)7 fuiiubc woU at IfanrtiHa 
(Horod. li. IIS) 1 they waru ladaMt 
aouiiig tbo picked troop4 of NanloDlM 
(ibiiL viii. US}, and lb#7(IiMinf^iaM 
lh«aiiel*ii* )tt Arbeb (Arr. &v. AL 
lii. U). It IB alM> to bo iiota^ tW 
tU(7 fomiod, t«^hor niib tbo iMm 
uui pHFtiaiM, tbn luwinii* ot tha FtT' 
eian Ont (ll«t«d. riL IHi). 

" Boroil. riL 61. 

UAnlaa, Etp. AL lil. ft. «: 
.... ttx t^iwM .... a^Al 
•MMMXl* *V auifoib 

" IWd- It. «. 

"Swabot A p. •Hi. Soo 
StnMh'a OMgniibical DiclionBr7, 
voo. BtcraiAM. 

■* Of oonrH iboM exploit* an aot 
b« auiijiicd to tbe PenbM 8iuw «nl|L 
Tho Sttcot of Ik* Bttonntb Mlnpj 
WMV bat lb* adfanood irtMnl of tliM 
fr«at ScythJo or TItar pcopla whiA 



1 



d 



EtUTl. 



THE CJtSnXXSi 



203 



Intlin, bnt were npnlsod with gnat loM (d.c. 5fi),' after wliicli thflj 
f«Il nader tbe dominioii of the PutliiaoB, and wete Saallj abeorbed 
in tlu> fcingdoin of the Sunnidn. 

(ix.) Tbo Caapians are mentionod twice in the liat of the Mtrapiea 
— onoe in connection with the ohscnro tribos of the PnnsiciP, tbo 
Fftntiinatlii, and the Darito) ; * and a second time in conjanction 
w-itli the SiOra'.^ lu tlie former |iaMng<i thoru ii rctuino t^i aupiiuKu 
that the inhabitants of a portion of the tract directly eontb of the 
Cftapian 8w — froni wliom indeed it dcrirod tlmt name — am in- 
l«ndcdi* in tbo Inttcr it hu bcon proposed to alter the reading, 
BobstitDtini; for Caapii either Casii,' or CftapeirL* Bat this prac< 
ticx^ of nltrntion in otfics of difficaltjr , where there ia do rarintion 
in the MSS., is alwBjs dangcrona; and in the case before us the 
readiDi,-H saggested are neither of them reinarlcftblj- happf. Tbo 
Caaii nro finit mentioned in Ptotcm^,' and then thoy appear to be 
placed in cast«m Thibet, on the borders of China, far beyond the 
utmost limits to which the Persian empire am bo thonght to hAV6 
oxtewlcd. Tbo Ca«p«iri, or people of Cashmere,^ aro less remote, 
and they were piivbably Persiau anbjects; but still they are not 
likely to have been includnl in the mnao satrapy with the Siuw, 
vrhichonr riew we take of the conntiy occupied by that people.' 



lias at all timM bcld «niti»iiaMl Bvriijr 
io Uut elCMio coontiy of crolrul Aiiik 
Tlio SoytUo indvx of the Bnt mil 
Hcond eonluriu boforo the Cbrinliaa 
t4tt wna * BMrmneiit bfina prubabl^ 
id tlin bout of Aai>i and eitondiiiK to 
D moJtilnda ot tribM briidoi (hcBo 
vbo had at oil* llmo boon mt^cat to 
Vvnln (Sirab. I. «. o.). Iia itncoaaa 
wM ohieHy owing totlio mat nambns 
of Uie iiiTadon, who gnidiwllr won 
thatr wajr to ibo PHrapnnalmii. wbiau:'!. 
In ODO lino, tliejr daaoMuled the ruUuy 
of tha BokBOnd to tlie consttj nbcnU 
lake Ztmh — mUmI from tbom Sncna- 
leno (Ittd. Char. p.(t|,iiLlch paucd 
into Sffntait (bow b'tiitan) — nhiln in 
aaotbn- Ifcry )'nl«rcd India niid 
mehed tka moutlK ut tlio tndiu, 
wber» ibcj am plnccd hj Pioluoiy 
frit. 1} and Aniaa {foiipl. P. Bryth. 
p. SI. kv.1. 

' e«« Wilffio'a Ariao. Anifq. p. 302. 
3 Uxtd. iii. &i. * Ibid. (^ S3. 

, ' Vida InfM, ^ S28. 




* Tho TMidiDK Ca^i was, I believe, 
limt jiroiKeod bj Lambor. It wu 
ailofiiLil bjr B«anoII (Otogr. of Horod. 
p. 3u2), nlMnM It puswito Belaa and 
itio Mtinr traiitlauitK 

* ThtB eonjectcra *raa flnt made bj 
Bciiini (Frrr. od lIoit)d. p. zt(.), who 
tupported it, hj the f^tntUt in 
Stephen, wk«fe tbu tbiH Bunl: of 
Haradotos ia inado on aalhority for 
L'liapfinu na a ciiy uf tbo ranbliuiii 

'Irliicp 'HpillaTvr Tjrfrji). But the «ir- 
reolicn foopcard woald cot jiutify 
th» oilalioQ, wliieb nellf ■bewi a 
rpading of luCnrtieiii for KacnrvMi In 
Unrod. Ul. lOS. 
' (■(loerapli. Ti. 15. 

* Vi.lc inrra. IK Sll. 

' Tbnugb CkiOiDiera la not tat ft«oi 
Ibo tofritory o( Xtuh^ar anil I'd* land, 
yet, beinit eotupIvttJj Mfanted tnn 
il \ij lb(> highMt rauiin of the llindoa- 
KooiK, it ronld loancly laU iblo the 
aunoMtrapy. 



204 



THE SA0&RT1AXS. 



kr*. Boot TIL 



On ttio whole it sccma b««t to accept the reading ks it itAiidB, and 
to suppoMa tUnt tli« Cuspi&ns, liko bo niany otli«r tribos in this 
part of Asia,' wvn) itiridud, part liavin^ prod'cdvd wmlward into 
Qhilan and Maiendwan, while part alrade in more pciioltiTO Mttb- 
mcnt« nuarcr the original aittt of the Anan nation. It is m- 
possible^ howcrcr, to lucata tho castvnt boaacli otlicrwiM thaa 
GOnjectarallf. 

(x.) Tho Sagartians (op Atagarta) wore probahlj the principal 
people of the Great Oeaort of !»□, which evtvuda irom Kaiihati iin<l ^ 
lafahan on tho w(«t, to the Barool-mdy or rircr of Suhsatntr, on llut ^ 
east. Thej are placed by Herodotus in bts great ceutral aattap; 
(t]i« fourtocntb), whore tiicy are coDJoined with tlio Santagiana attd 
Thamanipana on tho one hand, the Ulinns and Uyciana on tin 
other.* This trad is only capable of bearing a vtuy tiparf« popv- 
lation ; ' and tho Sar^artinns were at no time a people of any greal 
power or inflnenco. It is rather aurpriaing to find that they fni-S 
Dialled to tho aiTiiy of Xcrxcei as nmny as &000 troopa (honenwivfl 
armed with !<»*oef'), tincc. except on tbia occaaion, they aiwf 
Kcarooly fouud as a military nation. Their tribes appL-or to ban 
baeD scattered and isolated. Darius, in one InKxiption, * conjoiw 
them with the IMrthlans; in another,* represents tbem as inhabit- 
ing a part of Hcdia. Ptolcniy places them immodiately to the <a«t 
of ZngTDS,* while Stephen epoaks of their oocupjing a poniotola 
projecting into the CiiNpiiui Sen.' By tho other googr^hen th^y 
arc unnoticed. I'robably their main locality in the early timta wai 
the southern shirt of the monnUiini from the CWpian Oatos east* 
wnrd to about SItahrud a,rtd i?t:«ttim, or tho district immodiately west 
of Partbin.' From this posiliou Uiey commanded all the nortbon 
portion of tlio Great Dfacrt. Ronoe they had sent colouista to 
aci»ropauy the Persians in their great migration, who may Lavs 
been the anccntora of Ptolemy's Sngnrtian*, immediately to Ilia east 
of ^iagroB. K Stephen's autliority is allowed, we must snppo«e that 
the casterD Ssgarllaaa, being grndnally dnven from their < 



I Jk3 tbo Mudiuis. tliu 8*i^rl>iuia, 
tiiO OandnriiuK, th« AiaoboeUDa, and 
etlMn. 

» Horod. in. 03, 

* Supra, rol. i. pp. CSS, SSk 

■ Hwod. vlL 85. 

> Tbo gnat iiiicriptitai M Porwipft- 
Ik. Vk1» riUfirt, v<A. U. p. 497. nvM *• 

■ Bah. Inacr. ool. ii. far. IS (vaiua, 



App. Book iii. Nule 0.) 

' Ooomuli. vi. 2. 

• Stfpb. flyt nd voc. Zart^rla. 

> Soo JiMtni, xli. I, whi-rv '■ S»{_ 
tani " Diait b* rehd for "SpMnanL'l 

ittoce lbt«r nana «ccnui to muwia [ ' 
ho tncdsm La^rd or At At^trt. i 
apptllatEon of a *«nr nooMcl 
Uuie parta^IL 0. B.] 




TBE EABAXQIAXS. 



20S 



by the PorthMas, f<mnd a refngo in MarenJemn, where they may 
havn oocnpi«cl the long promoatorj which foniu Uio nortlifirn pro- 
tection of Ailerabttd Ttny. 

The AriAu oh&raoter of Uio Sogartifttia has been proved in & 
fonner Ewmj.' They Bocm to hare been a tribe very closely nkin 
to t^ Uedo-Purxio ntock. Herodotus tolls us that they rcemnbled 
the Persiana both in langimge mad drcm;* and wo Itnd bylho 
Uebistun InacH|itioa, tliat wlicn m pretender to tbe crown of Ssgar- 
ti> roAo up, be clnitnod it as a deeoeodant from tbo Great Uedian 
prtnee Cyasares.' In war they wrved rather a* b portion of tbo 
Persian oootingvat * than as n distinct pooplo ; and their omiaaiou 
from some important lista of the pnivinci-ti ' may be noconntMl for 
by their probable indnsion in JUcdio. They are thought to have 
IwttD oonDDctcd with the Indian Ameas, and are regarded by soroe as 
tbe auceators of tbo SiTandinavian nations.** 

{»i,) Tbe Sorangians. — ConcBruing the position of this pc'oplu 
there can be little doubt. Tliey are clmrly identical with tbo 
Zaiangi, SioniQgioi, or Dmogw of Arrian,' tbo Drnngtp of Stmbt^ 
and Ptolemy,* who occupy the region directly soath of Aria, bounded 
<ni tbe east by Araohosia, on tho wM by Carmaoio, and on its 
own eonthcm frontier by QixlrnKia. They may bo recognised in tbo 
Zarajca of Darica'a loNcriplions,'*' who are joined in the lists with 
the FKrthians, tbo Anaoa, aiid the Ai-achoaians. Their name >■ 
dorired by BuriAuf " from tho Zoiid word Zarayo, or Zaraifti'ujh, 

wa," a t«rm which still ntfnchoii to tho great lake into which tho 

'idmmd empties itself, called Zorrah by tbe Persians.*' They wore 

■ Vol. i. Emst zi. p> TOa 

' ncTod. rii. hi, 

* Bah. loKT. col. I!, pnr. 14. 

* Herod. L •■ c htrtrUx"'* '' '">^' 

* TboT nnt omitt«^ from tho Beiiii- 
taa and Kskbah-l-BiuUm liit*, onV 
appMUiag tn tlia Ptnepolitan. (Soe 
voL iL p. «a7, note •}. 

* Soe Sir II. ItawltiMan't Tocabalury, 
■d *«e. AsioiiTt (p, GS>. 

* In KODO •dilioD* of Aniaxi (m tbe 
l^uiehniU) ono (onu only it oatil. tii^ 
Diu^ (a/ivy<u). llut the Km. 
Ii**c ta iii. 25, ZtyMyya^i, ia Ui. X8, 

iryat, and In vi. IT, Z<vdn«i. 
• Mnib. IT. pp. 1023, 102S, «c. 

* OetCTspti. vi, lit, Ac 
» S«pt% Tol >i. ^ 487. n«t« *. It 



¥. 




muc bo nmioiaboivd that tho Fmlami 
euulil not arlieototo tbe n Mart » 
coDiotUknt, nnd thet^ore tnJlI Qitdara 
(or Onndaria. Hidvih far India, A«. 

" (JauunoQlaEro mr la Yaf no, p. 
xcriii. [Aj, >ww«tw, tli« kucirnt 
[Vniiui word for am waa glnrnyn, not 
tarayit, this dirtiration cBH K^ioelj b» 
rofArdixl na aouiKl. — II. C. SS] 

'^ Gun. fwrier My* t)iHi t!ii« nama 
ii "nut known to ilic |cit«I niiii'n'ilj 
of Anatica" (Canrnn Jonrnprn, j>. 
iS9}, and that It I* onlT fonml in cUI 
Per*i«i antlionL Thn inhablEnsIa of 
Ibu lunniindiBX oonntry, acotiiibng to 
tbii writer, now ooU tbo lake J/e(Kil« 
Snjtan, " the lake ot SuiiIsd." or 
3lttl>ila Ro>iUn. " tb« Iak« of Boos* 
t«ia," tfce fmA Puniaa bero. 



206 



TUC TBAKAX£A2IS. 



Afp. BwixTII 



ren>dotal 



prolmblj the occnpnnte of tbo country i»nn<I Uie lttl», and to Knoa 
QXtcnt of ti]D Imnks of tlio streanu wliich flow into it from tbo cmi 
and north, iw Hut Bolmond, the Statw/t-rud, the river of Farrah, iht 
nrer of Khatb, &e. — the modem iirovlnnu of Sci«tiui.> Tbpy ftppett 
to hnrc beun Ariniui bj race,' fwd aro colled bj Q. CiirtiDS a "«l^ 
like people ; " * but neTOrlheless they ore among tha nations wlaA 
oflEerod lee«t rceititftnoe t« Alexander,* and mn M Uttte 
gviahed in histoTy as anjr Arian trib& 

(lii.) Ttio Thamnnaxuia arc a very obecare people. He 
nuiutioas tkcni in two ]>1ac«s ; first, in the lixt of tbn sUrmpit 
where they ocoor between the Snnuigians and tite Utiana;* and 
■«eond]y, in hia noconntof the rinr Aoc«, where they ore ooapM 
with the SaTWipans, Buthlans, Uyroanians, and Cfaorasmians.* lb 
other anciont nnthnr, cxcq>t Stephen, Rtonttooa tbair tuune^ aai 
Stephen merely echoes Herudutus.* Under theao olraniaaUiicw 
they can only be located coiijectamlly. Sir H. Bkwlinson snspects 
that they an the tribe who gnve name to JDamo^AtiH, Pmioiec (II?, Ac.,' 
which would lead na to look for their aettletneata in the bill coantry 
immediatelj sonth of the Caspian. But as this is too remote tioa 
the territory of the SarMtipans, and from the conflnea of the othtr 
tribes who nscd tlie Aces wnt«r, to bo the position intended liy 
Herodotus, it is perhaps best to suppose that the Thaauutnaaa, liks 



• Tho folliywincr dMoription of Sol«- 
Um !» itin-'n liy (l«o, I'urrlnr :— " flein- 
tDa u ■ Bat oounlry, wiih here anil 
ItuTo taam low hillB. One Ihinl of 
tho nrfooe ot the •oil i* oompoeed of 
niOTln;; wnila, and tha two other 
thlrdu ot a eomi>«ct sniiil, riIku) witli 
a little olajn l>^t vt'tj rli:h in vng^ 
(ablo matter, aail co*etv(l with wwxla 
of till) tavDuiik, rii^iAn). iaf, nnd nwda, 
in lb« midst ot whir.lt thoro i( abon- 
doDt jiwiCiin]. TlipM wood* are mora 
Npniinllr milt wjtb in the OMtrml 
pMt of tlie prorincB, (hrongh whioh 
th» nehneod and Ita affinenu flow. 
The drtritn* acd Mmf noil which fi 
dnpoiitrd on lliu laud >[l«r llio nnnTiiil 
inviulaliiiiu feniliai!itinkr«iniirkBl>li> 
nuutiur, and thii luM probaUf bm<n 
the 0040 from tlmo tmniemahal " 
(Cunras loatwryt, pp. *SG, *S~). It 
may be ail<M that tbo pti<4ocl(T« 
lanci is almoM eonfined le the rirar 



coanet, wfait« tbo interaiodtsto eim- 
try in an arid dctcrl voij diflfeelt M 
travnrne. 7^ DM countrj ii ileal* 
D|i llio HnlBataid ai fur aa OiWiM. 
wl'i^noe » liu<> drawn acroM to FWvak 
will tnro the nainral huHa el 8«iMM 
in lliii direction. 

' (inpra, voL L p. TOl. 

) Vil. Alox. vt.Ti.S 36. 
natio eit." 

• Anian, Sxn. AL iU. 9fc 

• Ucnid. liL Sa. 

• WiL eh. 117. 
' Bl«pli. Bj*. ad Toe. 

Um niftan MIkhi- 'hfilam 

' Monob on tho Canoitom IneoW* 
tkai; Tol. li. p. CS. [Aimwt WM tk* 
Arian oomepondnnt ot tJiit Tntfcitk 
Alsi:, "tkitt" and was «^iullr ap- 
plied to the Bank of the tnouiitala* la 
then poru. Tho J>iiiimi>>, or Tba- 
manaianit, wers lh« kuliabitaue at 
ttiia " akirt."— U. a B.J 





.EtMlI. 



TBE PACrVASa. 



207 



■ho nany of tlie other Ariui tribes,* sent oolaato* timg with tlio 
^^reU mifrnttor; •trmm whiuli preesiMl vraslwuTcl,' and thus carried 
their n«me in that dircctiot), wliilo lUe bulk of tho iwtios coDtinned 
ia tiidr old quarters, oocnpjing a more cutcrl; position. Tho 
ntaation which bc«t Htiits tho two notices in Herodotus, and vrkicli 
mil pcrhapa formaltj aamgncd to the ThainanRaiis by laidoro of 
Cliarax,* is the district south aud eoat of UeiuL, from tliw sources of 
Hie Khiuh-rud and the Baroot'nui, to the banks of (he Uolmend 
about Oiritk.* Exiuitly in this position is fonnd the modem tribo 
of the Tagmoune^,* which appcan kt retain aUnost unchanged Iho 
a{q>cUatioii of theucieat inhabitaots. 

(xiiL) The Pkc^iuis. — Herodotus hns two nations of Pacty&n*, 
one inhabitiuj* a portion of Armenia,' and tlio other adjoining npca 
India.* It is the latter with which we are hero cunc«mod. Their 
rotiutcy ia Raid to have bc«n upon tho Upper Indax, and to Itavo 
contained the city of Casftttjnw,^ which most writers aro inelioed 
t^deotify witli Uie city oE Cashmere.* If thin tdcuti6ctttioa be 



»Ju>a^ B^artiaaa (fapra, p. OM}, 
Uie SUrikiia; and Dro^ci (•nprn, 
ToL i. 413), th« Gondanaiu (ibid. p. 

roi). *o. 

' BmiilM Icarinic Uioir name n]ony 
the Wtan nuigv in tho wonU abatfr- 
mentlcsed, the Ttomanieaa* appMr 
to bur* brongtit It ui tm went >« tho 
Kunliuli nuttntk'.ii*, wlivre AKOlliiM 
baa iirfMii li»iiar^ (wo vol. ii, p. 4ST, 
note*). 

* By as IngvaioM eBiendalloa oom- 
mmkatad to ts* by lei(«r, Uona. C. 
UOUer of Tui* k^ broyicbt a ]iaaMa« 
of ludora t« btor oa tliia iliSealt nh- 
Joct. Be afaMTTCN IliU onr pTMKSl 
•dMoas of bUoro girv, alW an ae> 
eonat of the gnt I^rtliiaB route 
from weft to (Bit M far aa Aria, tha 
fall»wfof~—AT<±S(» 'A^aiuw x^fi t4i 
'Apttn (HodaeD, p. V), and saut that 
thaaa 'Amww axe wholly nskimwa to 
US, Ho tbonfon prumca to tviul 
Jftitttr [0mi] volwr x«pa> ■-*•*. Tho 
ralalaUi might nuilj artaa tnon tho 
can>l*Miwa* of a tnu)*oKli«r. 

* Tba Uniwt invalioned by iKidore 
of Cbama la bis acooant of tho Thk' 
man—a eoantry an> Phnt (epJ), 
wUeh la cUarly P<urak; hi; wUeh 



ia th:- Bmi j cr Abotlj of Fliny (H. N. 
Ti.S3).thDiDC*lcniiti*t; 0«ri(&(>iat) 
and Kla, »blcti k nalutcnm. llwas 
nauiM ctnuly niatl: Uu» position of 
tho Tocntry. 

• nU* rMombbMwe of aaina m^ ba 
manly aectdantal. for tke TaynMionMa 
oaaaot b« Incwd tviy Tiur tnn-k ill 
OriMtal bialoty. Tlioir countiy was 
traveraed in aereml dirootioiM by 
CcB. Ftnier, who Ibaad it to ocm^tc 
of a Mrioa of monntalDa, TalUy*. and 
snaJl plaina^ woU watat«4 towank 
tbo ca«t by btMitifal lakea and ri-ror*, 
bat booomiag drier and nuno diairt 
townrda tho wotl. On tlio acratb It 
tornuiiatM sbmplly in ennoe of high 
Dountaiai, whMdi prcaont IMir steep 
Kdo to the broad plaia «f S«MaM at 
thdr baaa, lominc a -rety marked 
lEmtt bslwem ibs Ugh md the tow 
OountTy. (See Fenier, pp. X7S, 374) 

• Hcrod. lii. 93. 

• Ibid. oh. 102. 

' Ibid, aad «imp«w fr. +1. 

' ivte I>r. Smitfa'ii Oeographiaat 
nidionary, lab too. OiWATTmvs, Sad 
coBOPara Bahi'a Bxonraos ad Herod. 
til. loSi and snpra, vol. U. p. 468, 
note*. 



208 



THE SATTAGTDIAX8. 



Ari*. Boot TQ- 



LOM. 



approrod, PiictTioEi most bo regard^ aa the Caslimere mllej, or 
perh&ps ad iliAt re]?ion, togetber with the vtiUoj of tho Indas sbim 
Attoci:.^ Tlia ntuno I^uitywi luts b«en thooght to be connected nilli 
ihie word pBuAimt, or PuAJan,' tbo title b; wlucb tho AfFghuis ciUI 
t]i«msel7GS. 

(xir.) Tlie SnttA^jdiann nm n ptioplc entirely nnknonm U> all tbc 
clasMcnl writer* i;xd>pt Ilorodolas. Yet it is certain tbat in ttit 
time of Darius tliej wdre a nation of eonaitlcnblo importAOM. 
TI1C7 nro iQcmtionod in tho Achvmcniiin Inscriptions whcrerer 
list of tho subject pooplo ia given ; • and we an f nrtbor (old 
tliey were atnun^ the tribes which teroltod from Dunns in 
curlier pnrt.i»n of bU reign.* Their cmot eitnatioQ can only 
conjecianNL HorodotoB, by uniting them in tlie etaao B»ttnpy witli 
the Oaudarians,'^ vho dwelt in Cubot)! and on the Upper Iiuliu,* 
tliCWH that they mDKt be Honght towards the extnme east of ibe 
«mpire-, and Darius, by attM'hiag them in all hb ItstN to tlie 
AnehoMans, leads ns to the same conclusion.' They probably mn 
tlie chief inhabitants of tb« high tract extending from Cnboo) to 
Herat in one direction, and from Sirpoot to the bunka of tho Bit- 
mond in another. The Inscriptions eren seem to extend tlita 
eastward to Marfj^ana, or the district of Jtlerv. Tliey nay perluqM 
be represented by Itolcmy's Paiopamiaade, or occnpanta of the 
monotain-ch^un of Paropamisns, whom he plaoM between Bactna 
nod Anwkosia.' Their nnmo ia mid to hare ngnified *' the pas- 
Beaiora of ■ bandrod cows,"' an appellation aaffidently indicatiiig 
tbo pastoral ckonicter of thdr conntry.*^ 



I It U Hild that bokti miflil io- 
M«a<l thn Jrluiii fnim tlm lakn tl'ulur, 
a litlU Iwloir CMhmero (Dint, of fir. 
niul Kom. Qtognpb, rol. i. p. SHS). 
nad UiKt ITcraitoMa may hnve Ihhid 
miatklron aboat tUe dlMctlm in whioh 
tbs stroam no, 

*llnLli»-BRin, AnnslM iiciiiTe1t«a (lea 
Voyagw, torn. iL o. 3^1, at man. 

* fieb. Inicr. 00). L jmt. 6 ; t'craop. 
later. pei.S; Nakhth-i-UBMam limor. 
par. £. 

' B«h. laser. ooL u. par- 1- 
*0ero(Liii.91. 

* Sc« vol. I. p. 701 , and Infra, p. 210. 

* The ArMJio«iuui are plaord bv 
PtolMn; wMt of Iha 8MiiDf[ianB anit 
Dortfa of the CMroaiawi tbey are 






bonnilcJ on tbo MMt I>j Ih* TsUfty 1 
tlin Id^Iiu. There oan bo liiilo iati 
Hint tlieir Mnntry was Uw andna' 
Canilahnr, or the traet lying apea Ih* 
AracbottM (Urpkaadal) liror. (9w 
WUaoa's Ariana Aatlqaa. pp. 1 ce, ISTJ. 

* Ovografili. vi. IS. 

* Bee Sir. H. Bawlfaaoa'a r»niin 
ToMbalar^, >d too. Tu*Ttnc«n. 

" Tba rvffina in qoMtion U fented 
bj a fui.llkfl rndiaUun trf no fwnte 
than lire iBMDtain-nuiMa froa a 
point in tho grtat htUndual chala of 
Aus, a Uttla to Uw nc«t of CabMl. 
Tbn meat uorlbcm of llmMi innufi' Im* 
a dirvolioa (rata S.K.):. tn N.ff.W., 
the nimt Matheta from K.M.E. te 
8.8. W. 71m Mwyatit, llm.rvdtud. 




EsuTi, 



THE CllSD^BLUfS. 



309 



(zr.) Tho Gandarums are a nry remarknblo people, nnrl held in 
niticient tiniCH n roiy pramiuont poution uraong tbo trihea dwelling 
between India and Persia. All the early Sanscrit aathoriticii give 
the tttme of Sindku OattdhSra to tli« cotmtty lying upon ttie banks 
of the Upper Indus and iUt trihntAriuit crv thej iwne i^m tbo mona* 
tains;' and tin' term Oandhdracoatin^te to be applied tolhoCabool 
coantry in tho writinga of the Arabian geographers,' down to tbo 
l^tfa or 13th oentiuy of oar om. This then appears to have been 
the primitive conntry of tho Oandariaas, and may be regarded an 
their proper abode iu the time of Diu-ium, of llccatnaii, and of ricro- 
dottai.' Hi-nco, at a very cnrly date, thoy seem to have sent out 
colonies,* which acicompaaied the firat Arian emigrants, and settled 
partly on the northom frontier of Sogdiana, whore we find them as 
Candori,' partly in Kborassan, where we meet with a towu colled 



H«lM«"if, ooonitr tlie nllaft between 
tlw noKcB. Oen. Ftarier gina tli« 
fonoiHiiK deuiriplioti of thit comarf 
M won notB the hfghMit of tbo rfdKW, 
tbe Biati-tch, which boDiub the valley 
ol tb« iron-riiil on the xnitb ; — 

" SWmiing actnnltjr on the highoat 
potnt of the ridgo 1 felt on IndoBnable 
aoiuBtlai ef ndnuniUoii &t Ihe eplea- 
did (iglM tbrawn in tiold nUaf at mj 
f««ti Then wa< mneh Titriotir in tho 
•nngaifleent riow, and It m4 poauttlo 
to ••« klradj tho dntalU of It. In 
the hotiKo, mkI M thirty iMnanfie 
fraiB n*, wsB thn gnaui prmk of 
TtMaf, wbich, capped nich it« 
<rt«riuil Mid nnehimging (now*, aMtiiMd 
to naeh the bcarwu. The hijth inoaii- 
taina which wb bxl enMwd in our 
MMdt looked men blllooki compamd 
with the dlMaot giaat. Tho dimricC 
we bad tr«n>r*iid betirocn lu etui 
BitfOsl wa* bat a apot oa tbo aurfaoe 
of the e«wtr|' ipread ont betoie ni i 
and the o^m on which wo ttooil 
atmildiod B, and W. t« a dUtoso* th^t 
vxcevdcd the powora t>f ritiiun to mco- 
aatv. An infinity of lorn chaitia 
diTCfgod (root the prinoxpal, and (l 
nM7 aar) Imperial ratig*, dncivajInK 
giaoaaUy la hn|[M toward* the eoorili, 
t^viaf wtalj aad proiliiplir« Talloya 
between Umio, with here and there ui 
•noaotpaiani of the bhuk lente <il tba 
noMeiWe InhabltaBta^ and loxnriaiit 

VOU TV. 



verdare iDloneoteil \iy Rtieama of 
wator ibininK in tha ma liko thntod* 
of (llror. All thia hail inch animatioD 
aboQl it that I folt rivntod to thn aiwt 
bjr the oeimnciiiic pleMaie of con- 
tvmpUtiag it." (Canvau Jennian, 
p.23«.) 

' See WiIiion'« Arinna Antiqna, ip. 
131 etwqi].. Hinl llIH f^Tiilirkx 111 111* 
Aaiatio EciHUtcIici, vul, xv. p. tC<3. 
Oompim LiLUca'i IndiEChB Alter. 
tliaiaalcuDili?. p. 422, Dnil hii HotDOir 
(in Hactriftii hiilorj, tTan*latod in the 
ninth vulnmo of the BenitHJ Anatic 
Joornal (part. L p. 473, et onqq.). 

' A« Belttdbon, Uata'aodi, Aba Rl- 
hau, £itri*I, and AbuUitdn (ko Sir 
II. Unwtiaaoe'a Pertiau Vocabulary, 
p. 188). 

' Dirins speofally etlaohea tha 6an> 
dariaas to the Indian*, conneetiog 
them aleo with the SutlaRfrliiuiii and 
tbo Smww (■npTB, Tul. ii, p. 467, 
lute *}. HeeatMos cnUi tbom tint 
'IrSvy {Ft. 17S|, and plaoM tbo city 
DiA^prrtM in thtiir eenntij (Fr. ITVJ. 
Umidotnt, by uniting them [tii. 66) 
with tits Fuithlanii, OhonsmianB, 
Srigdlnud, aad Bacirinna, aMma to 
givo tliein a norihrm rather tbon a 
tuuthern •inplaeoinant. 

* Snpra, Tol. i. p. 701, nete "• 

* OoQipnr« Plotam. Gvotrraph. vi.U | 
Flin. IL N. vl. 16; l^im^ Uol. L L 




2IO 



TRB DADICjG. 



Art. BooiTIL 



Qadar.t In I&t«r ilram a second moremmt took plKCO OB ft gnnkr 
■Oftle. The Outdariftiu of Sindlitt nan<Hi4ra, prnaed upon bf tk* 
Ytu-CM, ft TftUr nco, i«liaqaish<<d their ftticient ftbodea, ftnd mi- 
gnUd westward, in the fifth or aiith eeaiarj of onr cm, canyiif 
witli tixm tlieir sacred renel — tbe water-pot of Po — rogarded ai 
tlM most li<dj nlto of Bndilhi«n, which tlu-y transportetl from the 
Cpperludaa totliflTicinitjof the ArylutiKiiib.'* TotlitanowcoimUy 
tbej carried al*a their name, nod here it still r«nuiinB in the BKxlcn 
Candakdf, the appellation alike of the proriaoe and tho CftpitaL 

The Qandarians seem to be moio prc^crly regarded as mn lodiu 
than lu an Imninn tribe. Henee (hie expreesion of TTfii.al—i. 
rirt«fai,'Miv ttraif and hcncs the attaehmont of Oandaria to India 
in the lists of IWina.* So Strabo ref^ards Gandaris, or Qftiulahti^ 
as ft part of India ; ^ anil VlrAvmj inclndea tlie Oaodara ftmoBK bti 
Indian nittiunn.* Thctrnanio among the later and Ims auefolwtitm 
became confosod vrith that of the GangaridiP, or iulmbitante of Ih* 
country alxmt tho moaths of tlio Ganges^ — an ftdditkmal proef 
that their Indian cyinnection iras undoubted. Liks tbs otiur liiO* 
tribes of IhfBo pnrt-s thi-y tMxjm to hare been a warlike twx \ and it 
is not improbable thnt thtiy were incladed amon;; the ludiaas what* 
servioos vrcro retained by Kfardonios aftrr the retirvment of Xenra.* 
It u onrions that they do not appear amon^ the opponents of Alei' 
ander, nnco bo mnst havo marchcil throngh tlivir country on kii 
way to Ui« ludos. 

(sri.) The Dadicm are joined closely with the Gandariaos b; 
HsTodotns, being not only immodiatuly attached to tliem in lbs litf 
of satrapies,* but also nnited with them nndcr tbe sano commasdsr 
in tbe nrmy of Xerxra.<* No other writer speaks of the Dsdic» 
nnder thin name. It has been conjectnrcd" that th«y ar« tho 
Daradne ol Ptolomy," who seem to bo tbe Dcrdo) of Strabo,** and tli« 
Sardn of PUuy ; " hut etymological considomtjona forbid thb ideii' 
ti&catioa. Ptolemy KccTma really to indicate the oouatry U tbs 



• laid. ChW. p. 7 (nnd»on). Tho 
Pn^an form ot Ui» name GAndnria, 
It msit lio mmembered. is (iadira 
(Boll. Inner, col. I. par. OL &«■). 

• 8*0 till) DoiiM ot Ihl* ulmticn 
is Kc H. IU«liiit«ii'» Pun. Tocab. 

uir. 

• rr.ire. 

• Bm BboT^ na. <L p. 487. note •. 

* Btrab. xr. p. (WS >im1 p. Utf& 



* rt«L Geoicnpk. ra 1. 
' Okinn. rcricff. UM. 

* Hsnxl. riiL 119. 

* Ibid. iii. 9t. •• Ibid. Ttt. M 
!■ 3m Dr. SiBith'a Diet, of Oiwk 

•sd Botaan Goagtn|ih;, ad voo, Du*. 

'» G«ogTaph. Tii, 1. u 8tiab.xr. 
** rUo. H. N. Ti 13. 



1UE APABTt£ AXD CASPEIBL 



211 




Hvadicw by hia Tatacjnfi, which he placee in Dnngiana, toirarde 
^ita Borth-wMtom limib.* Prolml>1y they had been bmoght by 
^Cmigmtioa to thia ro^oo in tbo time of the Kgyptlau geographer, 
ftTiDg pniviunsly dwelt further to the cast, perbitpii ftboot OhumM 
t the course of the QkusHM liver, where tfa^ would bare been in 
ot with the Oaudariaut ; or at any mto in Mme pert of the 
raropamisufl.* It is GOBJecturud tliat the moilum Tat*, or TajIJct, 
who tvna tbo bulk of the nfrricaltDrnl populntion in ErmUth Persia, 
are the inhmtor* of their namt, and (poraibly) to Bon:o extent their 
descendants.* 

(xvii.) Tlio Aparyt«B are. perhaps, Bcar«ely a distinct race. They 
have been properly enoui;b compared with the Paiyete of Ptolemy,* 
whose name nimply meant *' roonntainoiir*," from the Kend, pourv, 
SaitsL-rit, pamh, "a mountain."* From the connection of Uero- 
dotns' Aparyttt with the Oaudari&na and Sattogydians,* it may 
bo oonjcctured that th^ were the inhabitants of some part of the 
EindoO'Koosh range, a portion of which, near the aonn^o of the 
Cabool rirer, is atill called Kohistan, or the "moontain country."' 
Bat it wonld bo raah to attempt to 6x Uieir exact scat, or to Identify 

Kiem with any pnrticalar tribe or nation, 
(xviti.) The Canpinrido uotoccnrin themanuacnptaot Herodotns, 
id it i« nnccrtnin whether they were realty mentioned by him. 
iiey are found in Ptolemy as the iuhabitanta of the ooontry abont 
the aourcca of the lljdaspcs, or Jdum river,* and are therefore fairly 
entifiod with the Caahmocroos.* It bna been propoiod to irabsti- 
lie their uarae for that of the Oaapiana, in two pasngea of Hen>- 
otns;'" and the pnaont tnuulation, which follows the editiou of 
laiatord, adopts the emendation in one instance." Uut the altem- 
>a thna uuidc in cither too mnoh or too little, fur it only lemovos 



■ GMRcaph. tI. 19. 

■ So Wilwo (Ar*n. Antil. p. 1S1). 

■ Sm Sir H. lUwUiuuD'a IViuui 
Fooabolary, v^ 17Z. 

* UtUr'a KulkiDida von Aal«D, v«1. 
p. 3»i BUir, ad loo., Ac. (boe 

PuJpm. vi. 16.) 

* Tbe KBnMi Tocrt appeon in Panh 
^Kamlaiaor fiarvptaiMta, and (pcrli*p«) 
^^B hficenU and /'anitacoal. 

'The river Cophen (tha Cobf-ol 
river) and the Uma ot the udid dbiho 
(Hia. U. K. n. 2S) haTo a ■uoilikr 



derl T*ti(in, knf tn eld Pltrtlaa b»[a)l 
#]rikVI>ym{iuR tilth jHinncT, wbic^ u 
Ihi! ¥vnian fiinn uf the Saaacgctt 
paruh, "a monnl*!!!,''— [H. 0, B.] 

• Geagnii>ii. vii. L 

' Hia Dr. Hmldi'a Dial, ot Grade 
»n<l Uumui QMgiaplij, ad too. Ci«- 
rtimiL. 

'» Uewd. UL 63, and rii. 80. Tha 
coDjocliiro HOB dni uind* by Ueiiina 
(f R>{. ad U«(Mtl. p. xvi.|. 

" III vii. 80. It ii ailopled hot* not 
onljr by Oniaftiril, but br 8oliI(Mr, 
Bckkor, BaLr, and A. UatUiioj, 




212 



THE UfDIAXS ASD PARICAyiAXS. Arr. BOOK TIL 



one difBcaKj to inlrodnco hnotbcr.' Tknt tbcro bu bMB ■emu 
corraption of the text eeema cwtain ; but very liUte depeodcaoo on 
bv pl»i-fil on the name wliich biM been iutrodnced conjectomlly. 

(xii.) Tbo Indinns ioclnHcd vrithin tho Etn]riT« of Darioa vcn 
probnbly the tnhnbilnnts of tho PDnjttnb, togctbor witb tboso of tbe 
lower nJIry of tho Indus — tbe conntry now known Bb S<tui<1o.* It 
IB impossible to fix their boandarics witb ezMtoGSB. Tboy soen to 
liave biHMi enclosed upon tbe nortb by the QAndarioDR,' on tbe woit 
bjr tho Pftctyitns, Amchosianfl, and Gedrosiuis, on the east bj At 
gicat Indian doscrt, »nd on tho aonth by tbe Ben.* Tbey wero k 
wnxhlto race in tbo time of Darios,* who forcibly broogbt tben 
nndur tho Pcnian aw&y;* and tbey maintained tbe Bftme ohuMUr 
down to tho inrasion of Alexnoder, who fmind in tbo active prisM 
of tbeso parte (Porus) and bis men, tbo enemy whom bo bad moat 
dilScutty in couqncrtngJ There can be no doubt that tbey belonged 
to the trao Arian or Sonscritio fltook, to vrbicb alone this auno of 
Indian (Hindoo) properly attaches. 

(xx.) Tho Pni^rnnianti ni-o rcry difficalt to locate Ifc bas been 
costoinary to identify tbom with tbe Ottdrosiana of later titnM,'on 
the DoLion that thoir name con»<>cta them witb the capital dty of 
that psoplOi which is cnlU-d Pura {mipa) by AiriAU.* Bnt tba 



' 31m i"un* montian of Cnspij 
among tho natloiui wliich faniiihcd 
canCiT i» thi) diflloDlty which in re- 
moved bnr the mbttilution of Cupeiri 
for Ciup>> ■" tlio M^Ond pM$&(rB- Bat 
if ire make thi« «Db«titation, wo rrad 
that, " the CM^rian hanamoa wcro 
armed ranflty at (A«fr /ool," whpD no 
moDtim at all hM lioaa int4<> of tlicir 
foot prerknH>ljr. To tnMt Ibis it luui 
been pror««eil to inBert Cupoiri in 
tlw Isoma nl tho beginnioi; of vli. 70 
(BUr ad Oonid. rlL HO). But thoIr 
atKHJlnctioD In llmt plnco among IKt 
n«li'Dn« (ff A*ia minor ia quite inad> 
nuMiblo, 

• Thla ii pi7hkpi dnobtto], iui<l <a 
not Mprowed on tho map of the 
Batnqiiea I17 Mona, 0. MiUIer. wUch 
Kooowpanios thoM volaowe ; bat ror 
own eonvletioBO ars (n Ita favonr. 1 
think It foUowB ttma th» dNornt of 
tho Indoo bj Soyhtx and tbo roii(inu«d 
HM of (he occoji and rivor a> a Uae of 



3k 
A __rfi 1 



conuDonicalion with thn omtAtm 
Tlncoa (norod. It. 44). Tka 
cnnld not hnr* bom aafoljr nwd ondl 
tbo trihoo whid> dwell aloaig it* banki 
wero Bofajogated. 

' Tbia, vMni I* not oxpnaod n 
tlio math Tbo Oamiiumt, bowovK, 
of the Hindoo writen oitend acra* 
tho Cppor PiLojaab to Cai^mra (ink 
non'o Arian. Aotiq. p^ 131). 

* For a dnotiptioin of the I^uijanb 
and the Indu v!Xej, rido Botm, vet. L 

* Thia ia abown bjr tboir boi^ fe 
olodod anuw ttio Irocfia atlet«ed br 
Uaidoniaa (Uerod. Tiii. lU). 

* Unrod. ir, 4k Otnapara tbo h- 
■cripliuna vl Darioo at BobiatiM aad 
at IVncpolii (vol. \\. p. 403, aole ^. . 

' Arriitn. Eapcd. AInx. t. 13.1th 1 
' BoonoD'a Uonsrapby td Uietol 
p. S03 1 Bibr ad Uorod. UL M. 
*Bi[)«<L AtobTLSA. 




blATL 



TIIE BimOPU>'S OP ASIA. 



213 






[■scmbknce on wliicli ttiis theory is bnilt, slight in iteolf, becomes 

' wholly vnJubltiiia when wu find reason to believe that Van 13 Dot 

TCuUy v, proper norao *.t iJl, but merely Uic imtivu word for " n town," 

whioh appears in tho torminfttioait of Ciiwnpoor, Nn^poor, Bhnrt- 

poor, Ac Tho Paricamaos eeem to hare hod a. city, Parican^, 

which iraa known to Hoaattom,' and which may pcrrhnps bo donotod ' 

bj Farice» in the Peutingcrian Table;* but wo kavo do Bofficient 

moaot for determining its site. Oar data do not really allow us to 

ny mora with any conSdenco, than tluit the Paricanians uuiit havo 

abited ft region in cIobo proximity to tho Ethiopians of Asia;* 

' in other woi^, moBt have been inoludod within the oouutry now 

I as neloocbiatan. 
(xri.) Tho Klhiopians of Afiia, its RcnnoII saw long ago,* most 
Dt the inhabitants of the " Boatb-easteru angto" of the 
npiro— the traot intervening between EuAtcm Ponia, or Carmania, 
fand the months of tho Indns. Hero iitono, oat of India, would 
ftbsolnto blaoka* bo found ; and to thi« country, and tho region in 
immcdiiite contact with it, the namo of Etluopta eeonia to have been 
attached in Qmcian legend from a very high antiquity." The 
reasons baro boon already cnnnioni.ted,' which mako it in the 
bi^uat dogroo probable that a horaogeueotu people was originally 
qmad along tho entire const from tho modem Abysainia to tho 
Indni. Tliis Cusbito race, which probably advanced from tlto 
^•bore deep into tho continent, was nt a later date cncroacbod upon 
'by tho mora cncrgetio and expansive Arinus, who in tho n^ion ia 
qncstion soom to have continually pressed it back, tilt it was once 
^■more almost confined to tbe sea-board. From this nee, however, the 
^Bwhola tract east of K&vuut (Garmania) was, as lato as the time of 

P : 



»i 



■ Fr. 18IX Tlf ucirv, "^A" n<P"K4- 

* 8*Kmont. 8. 

* SiaM tbcf nvre eontatned En Itin 
•ame •atnp7 (Ilcnxl. iii. 04). It in 
bM linprob*bIo thnt in tbs term Pari. 
oaail wo hSTo ui oiiaiTalciil of A-parj/- 
tK> Pm^Aitf, Pxr«^tao«ai, t»., f.«. a 
term of Arian ori](iii, mcTcljr «iK>>i- 
f Ting " monntttioPM." Pcrli»p», tlicn, 
tM lUcaaiaiia, am tho Arian aa dls- 
liaKVililiml from tlio Cotiliita Inlinbi* 
t*al« el BvloDChitlsn, itiuiding M 
tbeae tart •■ tho Brtoothert now «i*n'l 
to the DrvAoo*. Boior th« ■trcini(ter 
people Ui»y woDlcl hold Co tho nioim- 
tataa ol the iatorlor, wlum eoltivn- 



tion is poMible and ({iriiiga ot wftttrr 
abonad, leaving to ti)aw*ak«rOa*hlt«« 
tho jiwehed coart a&d tlie but arid 
ptiuDfl. A (omowbab lirnilar diaUibu. 
tion □! the fidoodieea and BcabOM ia 
oT«a now tonsd. 

* Qoopaphr of HwodatiM, p. 303. 

* Tho BoloocboM of Iha inletioc arr> 
of an olive comploiiaD (FDrriMr. 
p. 433): but tboao aicing tlio ooaat are 
iintrljr blaclc 

* Cf. Uuin. m. !. S3, » t and com. 
part tho tiwlilions conoeniiirjt Moui- 
Dun (aupm, voL iii. p. 112, noto '). 

'fia|»a,vol. L]ii.6T5,n(itea'aiul* 




214 



THE KORTIIERK THIBES, 



Ait. BooiTn. 



■i 



the S&as&niai) prinres, cftllod iTufiit ; ' and they probabtf oonntitnleS 
in some measure ibu jitouk from wkicli tbc Brahui diriaion o{ tb«^ 
Bolooch nntion is descended.* Tho abi«nm of any mertioD of 
Etliiopiaoa in these parts hy tho bulk of tho lat«r gtM>gniphen, ii 
perhaps to be occoantcd for by the division of the nation into tribts. 
and the prenlence of tribo-namua — Oodro«i, Oritte, ArUi,' &o.— j 
over tbu K^nci^ ethnic title. 

Tho ancient conntrjr ot the EthtopisM may bo regnrdod im nearij 
equivalent to the moderu Bcloochiatan, whieh extends from Um 
Indian Oooan to the Ilclmcnd, and fr»u Cape JaA to Kifradtf. 
Tito general dutract«r of this tnct has been alrvii'ly ^iron.* Aa it 
in chiefly rock aud oandy deaert, it can never have been more thas 
scantily p<!op]<'d ; aud accordingly we hoar but little of ita inha- 
bitanis, who seem to have been (at IcMt towards the coast) a wmIc 
race, living on flab,' and content to give theraselvce np at the Sat 
SBinmona of aa inradcr.* 

4. The northern tribes not inclndcd in tlui above sammarj 
CODsist of those which either skirted tho sonthem shore of ilia 
Caspian, or else intervened between that sea and the eastern limit i 
of Asia &Iinor. They wcro comprised in tlirce satrapies, Uw 
dcrentlt, the eighteenth, and the nineteenth i ' and wore is 
nambor thirteen, vix., the Uoichi, the Tibanini, the UacrOne*! ilw* 
Uosynceci, the Mares, tlie Colchi, tbe Sapeirea, the Alarodii, tb« 
Uatieni, tho Ca8|Hi, the Pansicv, the Pantimatlu, and tlie Damta. 
Theoe tribea ore for tlie most port exceedingly obscure ; bat ia 



I 

M 



< Sm Sir n. BawliMon's Barljr 
UirtMj cf Babf Ionia (A«. Booi Jossn. 
vuL XV. part IL p. 133). 

*Tha BtaSeoi sra taH to Iist* 
mijn^hUKl, tit a eampantiwlf rt«««i 
(imr, from Ai>l>a (i> IMnm ^jd.) j 
bat, if (U> be trao, tkojr wers pro- 
bsbl/ drairn thilbcr hj Iba knonlcdga 
that tL»y woold fiud ii inbsbitod bj a 
kindrvd taee. Ttis Ibmbai diatt«« is 
ecjtbM: or TnsniaB, while tkotoflbo 
BslooebM* is Aitaa (m* IbL Sofuonr^ 
nota in roTTi8r*a Oaiavin Jouaayi, 
p. 481). 

' Sii H. RAwtinsm (TMabolafj, 
]ip. IS), 13i>} !»■ iiiovra gronudi f<ir 
oonofctinii lbs Omlrciai with lb* 
CaOiMii gr CadnisI (Ptio. H. X. ii. 23), 
wboM ScTtbio ohuacttr is Doarlj 



Mftaio (Sirsb. xi. pp. ;rn. ;i%i Ar- 
iSoD, Eip, Alex. ilk. S anil 10, Ae.). 
Tho dMcrlptlvo tvm liJitbjuJan 
wuslsaniMd t» dMiftiste Uia tttta 
of (tie Ooa*t betwoen Qia Oriim wU 
Cannuua (8ttab._ ii. pi. 173j it. 



p. llUli K«aMli. Vnn.p\. p. 17 1 Asa- 
tbarc. d* Knb. Unr. p. S7: Ftia^ 
K. vi. S3 i SoKd. 0. G7, 4o.>. 



' Supra, voL L Em^t U. ppL GS4 nd 

* Kcarob. FitnpL t. «. o. 

* Arriaa, £x[^ AL vi. X3. OoMBors 
(^ QartiDi^ IX. X. { ft. AlMandst"* 
bMMf i» (Ills ccmiitj irsro oagnd by 
lu wBBl of MMuraM, Mt br tba 
•IfcoSUi or TslDiur of its inhamants 
(AniaD. vi. S&. SO), 

' Horod. iil. M aod M. 



&^ 



THE HOSCm. 



2'S 



gtiirrft) it will be fonnd Ui&t we can lonto tfaeia witbont ntocb 
^difficnlty. 

^P (i.) llui llottchi Adjoined tipoD Colcbio,' which, according to ous 
^▼iew. was included in tho Motchian territory.* They appear to 
hvn inhabited the raonntata distnct about Kars luid Enccronm— 
the Ma(rx>*i «/nj of Strabo.* In this n.>mote looalitj Tory litUe i» 
known of them ; but stit) they arc a raco of eonndomble importiuico, 
which hut playod no ondirilingaisbod ]>art in tho world's liistory. 
Tliey are frequently mentioned in Scripture under the name o£ 
UmliL'cb (^■f? ),* and oconr aa Muiili'ii, in many of the AKsyrian 
inacripiiona. In tho flnariitbing period of Assyria they were the 
principal people of Nortbcm Syria, Tanrna, and Cappadocia; and 
in thia laat-namcd placa their name long eontinnud in tho appella- 
tion of tbo city ila^ara* which wax tho capital of the province.* 
The great Ariau iuvaubn which iutroduced tbu Cappadocians into 
tboao part*, about R.O. 700-650,^ aeonui to have driven them nortli- 
wanl into the ooantry immediately below the CancAstna, and porbapa 
■orott tbo Cancnaiu into tho xtvppo*. At any rate there is reaion 
to beliorv that tboy nltltnateiy found a n-f ngo in tho steppe conntry, 
wliere tbey became known as Musliovi, and gave tbiix namo to the 
Hbld capita] of Rnssia.^ 

^B According to tliu Afosaic genealogy, the MoBcbi were dosccndaote 
^bf JaplieL* Thoir «tbnio character, liuwever, b not Indo-Europeaa 
^Bbnt Totanian. This ia apparent from tlio ncunos of tbo Moochian 



■ Strab. xi. p. 736. al ri MiV^itn- 
riiA airy^^aifi 'A^ouivf Ar^um 
vp^aWf tira Hirfois^ tfra 'HftAx^^^t 
(Its K.tftrTu (al MJvxsvt nol KM^vvf ■ 
CcDipnrD Fliii. U. N. ti la 

• Stnb. li. p. ras (ride *npra, 
nd. L p. S35, Doto '). Baoatnnui on Iho 
Other hand oalM tha M-wolii " a Cat- 

peopla" {Un$ Kixx*"^ >'r- 

■IbU. IL Bu BO; z{. p. T2G, Ac. 

linj (I. 1. C.) ptaoM tbe Uotchi en 

titer n>na<i, as affluent of tho 

(Jlmi') . gpjUs «bo«r», by hie 

nltckni o( Jixrta, that tboy did out 

'i thn (duil. 

* Til. exT. & 1 Ea-k. txtij. 18 1 uxii. 
9G : xnviij. i i mil. 1, &o, 

* Joaepb. AnU Jod. L 6 ; Hot. 
Oboren. i. 19. 

• Sttalh xiv. p. iH8, 




' Soprn. Tol. I. pp. erJ-C70. 

• IIjuI. p. 67(1, iiut« *. 

* (itn. 1. 2, Wo veti not ba mir. 
priipil nt nntliDK Tiuaniana aoonit the 
itptcuDdniita «( Slieca and Japhet. 
" Tho whole cbrth wim «f one Kpoceh 
and tmo lan^nn^to" till tho time of 
Pfll«K (of. UuD. xi. 1 with X. S6) I aad 
(bvie i> «rnT roEMon to believn (liiit 
tUU form of qimioh wa* Tanuiiaa. 
Tlie form which ws call Somlcio was 
dovoloptid ainiiiiK the d«ao«ndanti of 
Shorn, but WW) not Bdopted bjr all of 
thorn, while it wm adoptnl by •omo 
namjics, for liutanoa, tbo later Babjr- 
louiano. tiimilarlytha Indo-KnropMn 
t,vp0 ot i[i*iwh wai dur«lop*(l amti\g 
tho ■((■wmilaod of Japhat i trat nma 
had BcparTtlcd from th? mt bofnio it 
w»i fonncti, and thcio oontinacd Ta- 
raniiiD. 



3|6 



THE nURCXL 



Arr. Door TIC i 



king* in tlio AMjn»a noordit,* mkI oUtenriae ii in accordftnce vith 
what w« ksovr ot the people. The/ wcnii to "bam formed the nb- 
atntnm ot th« population in Cappkdoci* down to dajsical tiian, 
and gare it that *' setni-IxtrbaroDS " cbanctcr whidi hmm been notioei] 
H bdoQ^ug to it.' Tk<;^ " traded in the persons of men " * willi 
tho Tyrians, probnhljr eclting tbcir own children for cxportoUoD 
Tbvir "wooden behuots." "abort apeots," and /'small dnelda,' 
iudicotfl tho low condition of tho mcchanieal arts among tlWBi 
tho time of Darius. At <»ie time, in conjanction witli their tm^ 
bonrs, tbe Tilnreni, tbey appear to hare kept the inhabitants of 
Syria anil Mmopotamia in oontionol dread ot ttieir ravagos ; * bai 
tbo establishment of tlio Median, and afterwards of the Peniu 
power, over th« wtiole tract within tho Cancaaus, bronglit Hum 
incutsioiia to an end, and rodaced tbo Uofichi to tbo condition o( a 
Bubjcot peoj)Ic. After a nhort t«Tm of Ruluniiuion thtgr avotn to faa>n 
shaken off the yoke;' bnt they never again became fbnnidnUoiB 
this part of Asia. Tho bntk of the nation hod probably oroued tlw 
Oancasns, and fonod a home in somo qaiet portion of the iiiimitaMn 
Bteppe rejirion. 

(ii.) Tlio Tibairni are oommoaly united with tbo Moscfaj/ anJ 
tbey vrero ondoubt«dly of the same toce.* Uoreorer, Iho tvw 
people bad once bcou cloac nctghboant ; * hnt in tbo time of Darin* 
it Is probable tbat their tcrritorios were separated by those of tve 
iatorjscont tribes — tho Mo«ynoe«i and tbo Uacrtnn.'" Tho Tibarpd 
ocoapied a amall tract upon the ooaet, lying about tho Greek city 
Cotyora, which scenia to bare been the modem Onfffu." It itai 
little more than two days' jourDey across" and nppoara to have 



ID .J 

I 



' Sopni, ToU L p. C78. 

* lI««r*Q'« Aaiatio Nations, mL i. 
p. Il», K. T. 

* E>ek. nrii. U. * Hnta. *il. 78. 

* Keok. eh*. uciTflL and xiiii. 
*TUs tuy bs ttatbereil tram tk« 

Anbsab ot XMMpbon (vtt.Tiii. (2S), 
wlwre we find tbat nil (ho trlboa la 
tUs qnattcf bkd bccomo IndojiaBdsDt. 
Tba U«aeU, bd««d, arc not sientioasd i 
bat tins is becanw the G(«(k> had not 
mwasd ttteir territory. Thcj e«n, 
howSMP, teareolylM M^ipoknl lo han> 
tOBtlBiied aalnaot, wbsn diu TSbareni, 
tU CUlrbo* Uw HaertMe, sad Um 
UesrniBd h>d raniatd thoir fretdook. 
'Burad. iiu Ml Tii.78i SInb.iL 



p. 766, ic Thoj wmv not oaty Jeia«d 
in one satrapr, bnt Ihey fought nadw 
ooa leader in the onn^ of JConoi. fl 

* Sm aborc, vol. i. p. CTil H 

* Whaa tbor dwelt in lonor Cappa- 
ioeSth Bm T«l. {. p. 199, M>t« •. 

■• Cr. X«n. Anab. t. *. $ 1 ■ Srjln, 
Peripl. p. 79 ; rUu, H. X. vi. i, 1«. 

■* S*o Uunillon'* Aiia iliaor, voL U 
p. 267. Acconling to Mr. Ai&mx4 
howsTor (l^nsls in tb« Ttaok of lbs 
Ten Thonaand, p. KM), Cotroca I* f «r. 
«hmtak, botwooi Capo Jomim aad 
(Mm, 

"Zenoplian raadiad Co^ont afUs 
a two ■!»«* nanili tkniugh tno OMBlrf 
ol tbo T&anal (Anab. L a o.>. It aan 



d 




EhatL 



THE TnUBEKL 



217 



► 



w° 



been bounded on tho ono aido hy the Htot Mclnntliins (tho Jlfr7.rj 
Ji-mot-, and on tlie other by the spur thrown oat from the cooat nngo 
icbich forms the pronaontory known as Cape Yatoun {Juooiam). 
lalatid they may have extended to aome diatanoe along tho range 
(PhryadrM)/ bnl probably not beyond the 39th dcgn-o of bngitnda 
The most ralnable portion of their coantry was tho cooat tract, 
which iraa a low plain, well watered by a number of utroama, and 
liigUy prodactiTO.* 

The Tibar«m who alw^ ncoompnny tho Monchi in Horodotua,* 
are foirly enough identified with tho Tujttai of the Assyrian inscrip- 
tions, and the Tubal P7^) of Scripture,* who hare a aimilar close 
oonnectieD witli the Mtukai or Mcshocb. They are first found in 
lower Cappadocia, on the sontheru flanks of Tauras,' whcro they 
Rppear as a nomlwr of petty tribc« ntidortho goTemmoDt of separate 
chiefs,* and offer a weak rcaistanco to the arEos of the As^rian 
nwDorchs. It may bo gathcmil fmm Exokid that about this time 
tbey eontetimOB joined with tho Moschi in the raida which that 
people rondo in Syria ;^ but their power constimtly diminishod, and 
they were gradually pushed bock to tho north, till at last they 
found a refuge in tho curui-'r which they occupy tbronghout the 
claaaictitnM. They aro stated by a Scholiastto hare been a Scythian 
people ; * and it ia probable that tlioy came of the sumo ntock with 
ib» Moschi, whose Turanian character has been proved already. 
Thoir mnnncT^ however, were of a more gentle type than thoHC of 
most Scytliic nations ; they received the Ten Tboutnnd hospitably 
their retnni from Cauaxa ; " and they wero generally reported tu 



hare ext«n4od but v<<rj litttu furtlior 
to the wMl, aa Ihe Jiuonina prtmiDD- 
tMy WB« in tho tcnitcij' ot the 
Ob^boa (Scf lux, Fcnpl. p. 80). 

■ TUt Is Uilicatod by Ktmtio, who 
■lalies tbe Hoaehiso ami Culchian 
■wnntauw nm on la (A^ Tibami (il. 

6766), and (peaks of tlioM Iwrt •■ 
in([ otior* Pbnniftcia (lii. p. TUG). 

■ lUnov the wiih of Iha Ti'ii Thoa- 
■and to |i1«nd«T it (Xeo. Atiab, 1. a. p.), 
llr. Haerilton dwcr^bca tlio moanlaxiia 
as rMvding from Iha dior* a, littl<> 
to Itw M«C ot CoCfoiA (Oriloii), anil 
tho ec«Dtiy Iiei*DDn lhi>ir biuo nad 
tbo M» at boeomiiag " leu bill/ aad 
Biers eoltjvatod" (A«>a llmor, vol. i. 

tt6 1 CMnparo Ximophau'* x^P^ 




nAli titiftiiifit). Ho oroMoa hwe "aa 
allorittl nad highl/ prodocttvo plala," 
nhcro " uuuiy bcrdi o' <»tlto ime 
fcmuiig." iCuiiipara tlie wetkiifiint 
I'tBufitral of DiuDj'iiiu, 1. TOT.) Thrco 
Mrcama, tbo Ifurma 5u, tbo MtM 
irnuU, and "anolbgr amallor and 
iriadinK straam," vstar tbi* itixioD, 
wliicli in chluDy onltivahid in riM idiI 
mnlbDirit-ii. 

* Qua. I. 2 I ICtuk. inrii. 13, tA, 
' Kiigira, vol. i. |>. 199, aoM *> 

■ Ibiil. PL 169, note '. 

' EmIe. iiXTiii. II, 19, Ao. 

■ SchoL ad ApolL Bhod. IL 1010. 
•X«a.AM.bT.v,J3. 



^^ 



3l8 



THE iucito>n& 



i 



Arr. BookTU 



addict tliemsd res to siKirU and Uiight«r,&)diDg therein their grnUol 
hA^nncn.* 

(iU.) 1!1ie Vaataea of Hcrodotaa an probably the MMatxwpUi 
of otber writer*.' Tkctr rcftl niunc appeals to have been Salmi,* 
or rath«r TKaui;* but from a costom preralent amongst tbfsi (i( 
artificialtj titongating the head, the; rcccirad from the I3re*ks Utt 
dMignations b; which thof vora most commouly known.* That 
coimtry wu a portion of the ooast about Tiaptms ; ' together with 
an inload tract soeth of the Bechotri/ who hsM tha diatriot Mar 
Rhims* (tho modem Bisek). According to Herodotna tboy pia^ 
timd tho rito of circamcision,* which tbey bad received from tlia 
Colehiasa, who wcm not confined to the oonntry abont the Pbasii, 
bat dwelt also in other parts of this moaotain-iTgioii.'* Tbtir 
nianQ«» are oud to have been leaa sange than thoae of their ndgb* 
hours, the Mowynoici, bat still safficirntljr nnctriUaed." Hvrodotas 
rdatcs that in the army of Xenes tticy had tho same equipment m 
tbo Tibareni and Uoeobi — wooden bclnuits, imiaU shields, and short 
epoais.** XenopbOD adds to this that their slUelds were of widM< 
woric, and tbat tUcir garmcnta were made of bnir>* Liko the otbor 
tribes in thc6e parts, their snbjeotioD to tho I'crsiana was of brW 
duntion. In th« time of Xcnophon they yrcn independent;'* bnt 
they appear to bavo fallen under the yoke of tho kings of Pooloi. 
and from thcu to hayo panod mdcr tli« Romans. Justinian ooa- 



■ lylMir. Tt. 8S ; Sotmo. Ch. Tt. 
177. UOi FOmp. Uel. i. SI. 

* Dr. Botnnit* rrjccU tlii« idontifl. 
oation (Dice of <ir. and Bon. G«»- 
frT*)>l>y, vol. ii. p. HI) tmOMiw Pllnj- 
III. N. Ti. 4) diHtinKniithM b«(m«n 
tlie(<Kk But TMT IjIIIo itj>viuStoo» 
am bo placed oa Fliny'i diniaetioiu. 
Tke SfhoUwt on Apolionln* Rliodia* 
(1. ID^I) IdontlllM ih« Iwo niuni>«: 
soil a oompariMD otXvoopbaa [Annb. 
ir. 8) with Sojbw {renpl. p. 79) 

tbs oaa and tbo JlaomM^liaU of tbo 
OtW oooupled H nnurly m* pMiibtv 
tlio Mnut tnKt. Km-[il Pliny nu 
nrlter noogaitM Ibo two Iribv* an 
diatinot. 

■ Uaontteiw, Ft. 191 1 Strab. xil. 
p. 796) Eoftntb. ad Dinn. I'm'. TtWii 
SUfh. Bjs. ad TOO. Kic|Mvtt. Flinj 
utftaa duliiu[ai*l>Bi tlia two (L a. c), 
but ptobabljr witliunt reaion. Arriaa 



(PkripL P. B. ^ IS3} protaM Ik 
bcJi»( iliM ite Dribs ut Xasopfcw 
•at laiUi 



(Ansb>i r. S) nera Soimi ; bat 
ba stoada akitio, and indeed be eri- 
donUy put* forwanl tha riow m a 
met* ooajMtani. 

* KnatMb. ail Oif'nTa. Per. I. & tk 
Comparo Amm. Uuc. xxr. 1. wbcn 
tbo ImB Zaai la luod. 

*Hinio<nl. de Aire, Aqoa, et 
LooiR. c 35i Suak xi. v TU. 

* Seylax, Fcrif}. p, 7». 
' Eixtatb. Lao. 
•Sejliu,l-aa 

* Ucmt ii. KM. 
'° See X«o. Anali, ir, ft 
=> Pomp. Ud. L SI. "Detads 

fM-i, Tcrna ot bl iiicaUia nteriba^ 
UMKie^hali, BMhiri, Boaeci." 

>• IlerwL (ii. 78. 

** Xen. Aaab. t». riU. ( S. 

MIbiid.*it.*iU.(XE^ 



sa. et 

i 



E«mtL 



TSB UOStV(£CI. 



319 



vcrt<M] Uiem to ChriaUanitjr.i wliicli n-lif^on thoir durccndnnU nocrn 
Rlill to ntAin in » mdo form, togethor wilH llic rite of drcumciBioa, 
ft rulic ol tli«ir old religion.^ 

(iv.) Tbo AIonyiKoci, or Masjni, aa the; ar» aomotimte otlled,* 
ue mid to Itave denved Ui«ir namo from tli« wood«ii towori 
(pi^trtt) in nliich they mndo tbi-ir nbodc.* It wonid Mcm ihcre- 
foro that theu reftl ethnic tiU« has not come doim to na. They 
iuhabited the trad of coaat between the Tibnrcnt nnd the KdicriMiGii 
or HacTDcepludi,* heg^nning » little wMt of CerMiu* (marked hy 
the KeroMtm Den 8a'), and extending hnjond Chmradca^ot Phar- 
naoia, the modern K«nuunt. This is a ricti and beantifally wooded 
tract, eooaietuig of a aeries of spurs from the raiijfce of I^rjradrea, 
botireeo which are deep gorf[w* containing clear and coptoDa 
streama, and czponding nt the coniit into amall plains of grtai fer* 
tolitj.'* The maoDcra of the Moeynaxi were Ter^ peoaliar, and 
attracted mnrh rcmarlc from (tie cUmIc wrilcTR." They wore the 
mdrat and most uncivilieed of all the inhabitanta of Western Asia. 
Tb«7 tntUiocd tlirir bodies and df od them with toIoqts ; tbcy atterlj 
diaregarded all deooaoy ; in war thej 00b oS the hvadM of tlwir slain 
enemioa, and carried them about amidst dancca and foags. They 
dwelt in wooden towera, and somettmea tn torees, wbeuce th^ 
ponnced down npon the nnwnrj trsTcIIcr. They are »id to hnro 



> IVcMp. tir JM. JdsL iiL fi. Ao- 

* Ur. Uaimltoii otMoma thnl tbe 
JahabtUtDt* cf ttio numetainow ttigjion 
aonlh of TroUund aro > romarlubta 
peepth The}> are !n RaUiy Clihttuui^ 
Mt piobM HalionKitiuiiaiii, vBbinil to 
be ctawncted, ntteitd noaqnea, and 
jinKtlM all tlia othtr MrBBumlw eo- 
louiKid by lb* IfabomtUM r«llit>on. 
Hb tliinlEJ it picbntilo that Ihcj ar^ 
Ilia doMendaiita and rcpmK-ntntivri 
of tke aDolmtt Uaor&niM, and that, 
altbmiitlt tli»7 ara not aware nf U 
tbaoiadTBi^ tlioir ciTcumoiBiuti ii in 
teaUtjr tha ocmtiniDaDa) of oti aiwlmt 
name, and not doiiTod from the Mii> 
liOBMlna* (Aaia Hiaov, tdI. U \f. £40). 

■ Cr. Soflu. Pm'pl. p^ 19, who naet 
both t«rnw : Nic. Dan. Fr. 1E6 1 Ilin. 
U. K.Tt.4i Q.Ciin.vl.4t Tlboll. iv. 
itf.Ao. 

* atnb. xu. p. 796 1 Eoalath. ad 
Ofantra. Per. 760, Ao. 

* Sojlaif 1. *. c Xonoplion intar- 



MtM aoBM Ch^Tbaa between tfa 
MoijnKeoi and tM TttiMMai (An. v. 
V. 1 1} i bat h* admlti that tbtjr wen 
Mbjacl to tha MotyooML SacatMia, 
like So^lat, plaoed ibe Vo^obc* 
immodiatrlT (u tbo eaat of tho 
Tf banml |tv. im). So PUdj. L a. cl 

• Son. Ad. t. ir. } 1, i. 

• Bm Baiiiillon'a Asia Minor, TtA. 1. 
p. 260. 

• Si^jlax. PoripU I. iL 0. 

• a. X«u. An. V. iv. i 31, The 
vilWert ou aJihor ti<la of tlie |p>rs>a 
cnuld oMnmonioato Inr ibonta, whoo 
thoir rilU(pM ware elKbt «r nioa mllM 
dUtant bjr tfaa nwd— «St»i <4^4 n 
ml inUn n x^a ^■'■ 

" Uanultun'* Aaia Miner, vol, i. pp. 
3&1.X6S. 

" The oarllaat oitaat doaeripttim i« 
that of Xaacpbon (Aaab. r. 4| 1 bat be 
ovideolljr oonridora bimaetf to bo 
doaonbiag what the Gieeka gonoraHf 
knew (loe eapooally j !S). Prubabljr 



130 



TOE uutes. 



Arr. Boot TIL 



lived nnder oMeCs of their ovn clioice, nlio vera raftiabunod kt the 
paUla ezpeaae in towers placed on tho most clerKtod poiat vitUs 
Uie lillngM, wbtch towers tbcy were not allowed to quit for a 
moneDt dnrinfr the whole ooorae of their ItriM. In goncnU Ua 
oomimuids of the chiefs van implicitly obeyed t but if tbey di» 
ploMod their stibjocU, food wod no Iod^t snppUed to tbom, uid b 
tliia wfty tlioy wcro KtArvctI to death. Bye, lilbcrta, salt fish, sad k 
rongh wine, constituted the common food of the people ; and so 
this diet they throTO ao wdl that, acconling to Xonophoii,* tbt 
children of tho richer men among tbem were very nearly as broad 
as thejr were high. The Mosymeoi used oanoea capablo of coirjiag 
threa men. Their arms, in the timo of Xonopboa,* weio leothen 
bdmets, wicker shields covered with ox-hi<le and shaped like aa 
ivy-loaf, faoavy spears nine foot long with a knob nt the lower etxl 
of the shaft, and steel hattle-axes. They were brave and wariikti 
had ncovored their independooco before thvy wcro visited by 
Xenophon,* and prohutily maintained it to the time of the gr«at 
Uithridates,* after which they passed nndur tho Romans. 

(▼.) Thu Marcs are a very ofaaonre tribe. They are noticed onh 
by Herodotus and Uocatcsna. HccntEeug said that they adjoiiMd 
tilt IfosyncDci.* H(Todotua atlaches tbem to the Uosj-nooci in ooe 
place,* in another to the Colchians.' Perhaps thu Colcbians intended 
Oro those placed by Xenophon In the monnlaitts between tlM Ms- 
criines and the Mosynixci,* who appoar to haro been a dedaoM 
body dwelling qnito sepamto from the groat toasa of tho natian 
upon the Phaais. If this bo allowed, wo may locate the 3>(arta is 
tho Paryadres range, about lon^. 39°. Aa th^ ore omiUod liy 
Scylax, it weald seem that thoy did not reach the coast. 

(vi.) Thu Coluhians appnir to have l>ocn in part iadcpendeat, 
in part subject to Persia. Tbc4r tmo home was evidently that 
tract of country about the river Phasls, where, according to tho 



IIoc&tSQB hud givon an aeoonat d 
thorn. Tho laUr irrStori add Utile to 
XoDoplion. Bn* £plior. Rr. SI t Stinb, 
xii. p.T9Sr Nlo. Dam. Fr. I!6| JloU, 
LSI; Dio(L81o.iiT.80t 6cTiiin.Ch. 
Ft. ira-irS; Dlonyi. Par. 7«6. ?67: 
BuUth. sd muni. I Apollon. lUiod. IL 
10U.1030. 

' Xtn. An.T. iv. | 93. 

* IW. jr. S IS, 13. Uerodotai 
8tT« tbeu tlio Mmo oroM m tke 



MomIi) (rii. 78). 

* 3C««i. An. vir. nu. | SS. 

* KoDOof Ui«MuartMntrib«s«tM 
imeml at Arbala (soa Aniu, Exp. 
Al. iii. 8). 

* Pr. Wt 
« QtTod.iii.9i. 
' IWd. vii. 7a 

* Anil. I*, niuf 9, ot. 
ViL viiL f SS. 



4 



EauiL 



TBE OOLCHLAXa 



321 



wcll-kDown ihny,' ibej wero settled by the great Egyptian o<n- 
qneror, Sesoatria. Horc they finit bocaiuc knoirn to tLu commeruiLl 
Greeks, wluwe early tmffio in Hun quarter wuma to haro givea nM 
to tho poetio I«g«nd of the Ar^ooaats. Tho limits of Colchis Toried 
at difF«reat times ; but the iialoral boumla were cerer ^rektlj de- 
parted from. Tltoy wen the Euxioo on tlio cost, the Caiica«DS on 
tho north, the inotintaiQ>mn|^ * which forms the watershed between 
the Pbasis (£icn) aod the Cyms {Kur) on the eaet, and the hi^h 
groond between Bati-um and Kan (the MoNcliion mountainii) on the 
Bouth.' This conittry, which include* the modom Mingrolia and 
Imeretia, together with a portion of Gunnel, is |)ictuK«que and 
. well wooded,* abounding with streanui and game> Occajuonally it 
is diversified with rich plains, especially at the months of tho prin> 
cipal rirent ; but fur tliu cioftt part it is a sncoeesion of rallcys and 
wooded height!).' The Colehiuus also possessed, beades this region, 
a further tnet situated more to the west, in tho monntnin country 
above Trapczns, or Trihi^nd. Here they were found 1>y Xenophon,^ 
in the immediate neighbourhood of tho Monynccci ; and heaoo perhaps 
(•omo tlM> Colchian aoldiera who fbnght tn the army of Xerxes.* 
The nottbem Colchians were independent of Pcwin, not being in- 
eloded in any satrapy, and only paying every fonrlh year a tribute 
of 100 boys and 100 maidens.* 

The most interesting question connc«lrd with tlio Colchians is 



■ Herod, ii 101; Died. 8I& I. 9!) 
Dionrt. Pw. eS9, A<\ 

* Thii rang« i> said to ntloin an 
eloratim ot 6000 foot (Qcognpli. 
JoDntml, vol. IIL ji. 33). 

* !W«6(Tab.ii.pi>.729, T30tSc7las, 
P*tiiil. pp. 77, 7bi Plin. vi E> Ac 
Itolomy, bowcTpr (t, 10), malcM tho 
riiaals iW soaUiora booadiuy. 

* Woods ot oak and b«cch elotho 
Uie moDAtaiiii i vino* are oultiTSted. 
Tbe flat Tolloj of tho Bion, whldi 
bc^in* IS mile* bolow Katalf, U tcrtSh, 
bnt Uabte 1« flood*. Tbe wholo Ah- 
triot (• nry n»ho«1tlir (Ooogrtjih. 
Jeom. rol. iii. pp. 84, 86), 

* nio pluMMWl ((Ipru *a«iw^) mu 
Inttcdaeed lalo Kofopo Sioai thla 
nifim, aad d«ri«*d frma tho riror 
P^^ the aaoe whicli has now jmsmiI 



Into all tbo Isngnagea of inoiloni 
Europe. 

* Sm OecfiTapli. Joam. L a. o., aod 
oarapuo StAb. id. p. 1S9. 

* Anab. V. 3. i. 

■ Ilerorl. vii. 79. Tbotrehso ecu. 
nectinn wiili tbo Uitrot, who were alao 
□etghboon of tho MonyiiCMi (UoeA 
Fr. 19X}, tarcmvt tbia Tiew. Bat it 
miut ba nUdWod tliatociptisfjvnt* wei* 
aometimo* furniiihod \ij tho Mniii. 
{adependeot naliuuSi (8o« vuL ii. 
p. 106. Doto '.) 

* Ibid, iii, 87. 

■> HcrtiJvtiu was not tits flnt to 
nnt« (hia, Fimliu bnd alnvd; coUed 
tbo Culoliiana nAavvrai (F^lh. 1*. 
37SI. Forthawhit«oomplMiaao(Uio 
nntivea <d lliaao part* geoitrmilj, tuw 
6Mb. ZTi p. 1016 : Xon. An.v.iT. (S3. 




J 



222 



THE C0LCHUK8. 



Art. Bow tJX. 



i^iilat <)( wliitoa. and id % country irfaich doea not tonil to make il* 
inhubitiuiLs durk-cunipk'xionvd. Tlvt thoj vctq compantiTelj 
reoeat immigmnte from » hotter climate seeina tbcrcfom to be 
Mrtnin. Tbo notion entortainiud bjr Horodotns of their Egfptka 
extraction appcnra to havo boon a conjcctnre of his nwn, bwed ca 
rcmiinblaDCM wbicli struck faimBclf.' It was not, Htrictlj apenliiDp, 
A tradition, but ratber tbe fancy of a lively and ima^naliro OkA, 
who found the two nations willing to MOCpt bis tbpory, which icu 
flattering to both alike. Probability ia against tho view, -wluch i* 
nniinpportcd by any other nntboF of weighty and vfaich onsoidi 
ncitlior with what we know of tlio Kgy pti*a Dhftnctor and custom,' 
jtoT with Uio tenor of LUu InacriptionH, and ths limit* they aanign U 
the exiwdilloas of the greatest kings.* Feriiape tho modorn tbeoiy 
that tbo Cotchians were immigraotafroin India' i« eatitJedta nou 
share of onr attontion. It wonUi bo nsttnnd for sncfa persons to id- 
low the line by which thoir own morchandife passed to tbo Greeks :* 
and in this way tliu dork compk-ziou of the Cokhions, the extvUtan 
of tlwr textile fabrics, and vrcn tbo namo of ftiMfiMi, which tbiMsn 
Ifaonght to hare home in Greecev' would be accounti-d for. 

The Colchinus are by some writers idoatifiod with tho Laii of 
later times ;^ hut it is doubtiiil whether there wu really any my 

* Tb!i S* Btllvi'i thMCT. (Sm Ui 
VMliallo BDropaiaeli. Voikwahan. n^ 
36^, quoted In the ik^cs to BU«'i 
HotodotDi, vol. I. p. 715.) A* «o» 
tbli «i»«rla not qnile uUiJifMlorT, • 
tliird mi^ {wrfaftpi bo iiii|tKval«ii Ha 
Colobi nuqr powtbU Iwto b««s tnM> 
pcvted from ilm ISwoian Galf lo ik 
nonntalas of Armenia bjr sono U tW 
AMjrbe inoiumha, who OMiali^ 
tmupoTted ChikUtnma tolhia localiV. 



proHly lajr* thu be " ivDuirkt-d " tho 
■ppMvnt oooaMtton hinuclf, witliunt 
bMria; BOi;thing of it from otbtEra. 
When "th» IhouBhl stmok Um" bo 
procH^d tn mnliu inqoiiiMi, by wUdt 
lij« ooDviccicm tru ooDfinned. 

■ Tba writon wbo nuort tbo Egyp- 
tian OTiKia of the Colohloni, oU, pio> 
bably, totlnw Hcroitotii*. Thojr ar« 
Diodonu (1. ■. c), Valurini Flaccos 
(r. 419-423), Apolkmiiu AhoiUoa (ir. 
288, el Mqi).), Ammlttniu HaroDlUniM 
(ecU. 8), Slid DioDjiion Forirffrln 
(OSOi Ot Mqq.)— Uie •BrtieRt a nriU* 
M tbe Aacrnabui n^ when it i> npiia- 
TODt from Strabo (d. p. ?28} that Uio 
SDppowd rswmbluioo wm not to tte 
tmocil. 

' Tbo EjrypHnni nerer eolooiio t 
thej ate fuaiui In bat nno plaoe on* ot 
Africa (X«u. ll«ll. 111. i- f 7i eompb 
Ofrop. VII. i { 46} ; and there tber 
were Imvti aoltlprt, 

• Btun, Td. ii. p)i. 3S7, US, 300, 
SU, 366, Ue, 367, 3U6, Ins. 



(See vol. i. p. 2S&, note ■ ; oeoifMe 
UtM. ChOTm. ii. 4, knd tbe I riiilei 
QeoKtapli^, p. SiO, wbore ChaUaaH 
aie mBotHined anuag tlie OolcUaoal 
A people oalkd OOthi eppear In Ik 
eMrame Dortb et AnaoHa, la the ta> 
•criplioiM o( Aseyria. 

* SDpTa.Tol. i.p.4£0,Bc>to\ nsB 
were ontainljr SimII fn ttua MrV 
bourhood (Ilcrod. It, 28. Sd« note , 
adloft.). 

' 8m Sir Gardaer WItklMoa'e aote' 
cm Book iL ek. lOS. 

• PrDoop. de BelL t3<Ah. 1*. Si 
AgalU.a.18. 




TilB SATETOES. 



223 



cIoHO connection.* If the trae Colchi woro n colony of blAckii, tbcj' 
mast hire become gndoallf abtorbod in the wbit« popuhitioo pro* 
per to the conutry. Probtibly they vrore never more th&n oue 
cloineDt oat of many in tUi; region whicb went by their name, nnd 
were gradually lost amid th« Bacceasion of laccs vrhicb ha\-e surged 
ftod eddied obont the Cnoainms. Tliey rcmnincd, however, nn ira- 
! portant people to the time of Kithndates,* and are evcu montioned 
as contiuuiu^ by writvrs of tho Byutntino EmpiTe.* 

(vii.) I'bo Sapeirce appenr to bo the Ibcriana of later writera. 
Tho naiuo ia fouud under the various forms of Saspoirea, SnpeirvB,* 
&fib«itvti * or Sabeiri,* and AbcuVH,^ whence tho transition to Iberos 
is easy. They are always represeoted aa adjoiiiinjf on tbe Colchians 
to tbo cnst and south -cael. bo that tht^ must evidently haxo inha- 
bited tlio (greater part of th« modem provinco of Georgia. Tliis is 
a rich and fertile divtrict,^ consisting of tho largo and opeo valley 
of the Kur or Cyrus, together with tho flonka of tlic mountnins 
which on three sides surroand it. Tbo valley is 350 tallw in length, 
and rnns almost straight, in a direction a little to tbe south of cast, 
from Souratn, wlnrre the river first cmcrgM from tho mountains, to 
tboplftin of Jfo^Aan npotttbeCaspian. Its width below Tiflla varies 
from 2& to GO or 70 milea ; above tho defilo at whoso lower end that 
^lown is placed — which divides the valley iuto two eeparattf portions 
^^^it is narrower, not exceeding 10 or 12 miles.* Both theappor 
^Knd tho lower pkuns are rich and fruitful in tbe highest degree,** 



* PtolMDf pluM lb* Lum in 
C<dohi*> but dutianiiKhM Uivm from 
ttiit Colcluaii« (r. 10). Airiui mMi- 
tKioa Ihom lu two dlnllnot people 
(PeripL P. K. p. 128). TtiM* i* no. 
thie^ peodlisr ia tlie langiUM oT the 
modem I^tcc, which elo*^ rttem. 
biH G«orgJBii Mid tbo bulk of tbo 
CaaoaiiliD di>lactii (MiiUur'* Lnn- 
HSi^ne nf UmSmIoI War.p. llS,l>t 
mix 

* Applan. do BcU. Uitbrid. pp. 2S1 
andSM. 

* KoC onlj hf Amminnnl (xii'i. 8), 
whose geoirnpbf ii dnwn from beoka, 
bnl by fnoh whlcra ob UcnoDdor 
Plotecter {Fr. ll,jk. 810), Th(«phaii«a 
ByiaMio* IW. 4), sod tbo lik*^ 

* Tbe Ut<8. of Heredolua vary 
bctwcca tbwo two na^ngk 

* St«p^ Bf K. ad VOC. H!r••p^1. 




(yide npra, vol. L p. €17, aote ^■ 

* Menand. Fnt. FT. », U, 4!!, ««. 

' Ibid. Ft. 48. Coinpam Etysi. 
Mug. 8/x*ip> '^1 2ni*uctf, ^*A*iip, 
4 /it^it T4V IT, ^tAjnipi 

* ninth. XL. p. 7SSI. KvIoIfiM- x^ 
net <rfit^ ictAAi pi'murSai tvr^im. 

* Duboia* Mnp fVejraff* aatour dn 
CaneaM, Atlu, 8£iio OMloglqao, pi. 
ii.), wbieh io takan tivm tbo BuMian 
Korru^ pTobablj Ki^es the bMt iilsa 
of thia MgiDD. The two pbuua Bad 
tbo dctUo an lerf dliUnelV nuu-kcd, 
anil sliow Ihs Importamxi ot tho iIidb- 
tionorTillift. 

■* Ker FWtcv thu dMcnbea th» 
upper ploia fftnvela, vol. I. p. 114) i— 
■'A»wn followed (ho tnrtboTpnigrM* of 
tho KuT tlio meuitaino gndo^j lo«t 
both tbtur m^ aod tmvM •omm?, 
pMMcating immeoae iMiglitd oovered 



224 



TUG SAPEIIIES. 



Arr. Boos TIL i 



— Hetm H 



. boing almndftoUj' iratcnd not only b; the JTvr an<l its tribBtarj 
^Ctrwuns, bat by & cottntltsa nnmbor of eparkling tiruletA ifliu.-ii 
descend from th« htlU oa all ddos. The epecinl fcnUira of tlie 
country is flatocfis between the f^reat mountnin-cluuns, wbicli nm 
soddenly from tho loir ground, betraying abuadanl marks of tbeir 
volcanic origin.' Iloir much of this district vriut nwtly oecajiti 
by tho S»pein» in Eomdotas' time, it \a impowible to deter miat 
By declaring that it wm feasible to orosa from tlio BIncIc Soi i 
Indian 0«can, pnssin^ thruugh tbo turrltory of fonr aatioDS i 
vit. the Colclii, the Snpcircs, the Medes, and the Penuans ^— Hen^ I 
dotuM woald eocm to extend tbo SftpciruH to the ifogham distrielt 
wliero alone tlicy conld come in contact with the Med«. lator 
writcni assign thin tracts and all the moro cnatorly portion ei 
Ovorgia, to the Albaninua,' who were nnlcnoirn to Horodotos, aad 
who finl cnmo into notice in the time of AlexnndL-r> Tb« SapoiM 
[•of onr anthor eeem to occnpy the whole coQutty which Ntrabo* and 
Ftolemy* aastgu to the two imtions of the Iberians and AlbMuu^ 
namely, tbo entire tract between Colcbia and tho Ciuipian, boBBiW 
on the north by the Cancaaua, and on the Bonth by tbe Arat riTon 
Thoy may also have inhabited a pioco of coontry, amigncd c om- , 
nonly to Armenia, along tho nppcr eonT«o of tlic Tehontk Sv^^l 
rircr of lialoum, where tbe laodom town of I'pir, or la^itrA^ aal^l^ 
eim to retain tho niune of tho primitiro inhabitants. 



\ with beikutidil TonluT*. The conrM 

of thrto or itmi wvnU branghb ot ta • 

L flne 1m«1 djituiiti cf oounlrf in liinh 

, oultlTfttion Hiid iravnec'l by a thou. 

, mxiA •puklisfC tivulou troiii the bill* 

' on Itw wMtem lide of tlio plaiii. 'i'hn 

xirer alae aiUod il< imtc» to Ihs 

InfMililnflr boftuty el Ihericnr." Tlia 

lemr pUun U imtioM In tbe Qvo~ 

jcropliiciil JuDmnJ (rul. iii. p. 31) : — 

" KolhinjCi" ntift tlie writer, "could 

fricvod tho ricbnoi* of tho Mil or the 

ImuriiuiM ot tlio vn|^l«tIon .... 

We OOuttiiBfd ou- rente OT*r ■ oonntiT 

eerered irilfa what niglit be ceU«1 a 

fomi of gMdsna .... Ponwgtva&ica 

(toil tl|{* wore gctmHg wild. The 

tiliuti wM •« let*] M the Ma, with a 

iiott ef Ikick tmnt on tho bunka of tbe 

KuT, a iloop and brood bat BlaegKuli 

■timin." 

■ Miiil Tti1i«ni>M ue a remarkablo 
fi»tuni of Ihut district. Tlipf are 



Btoapod In two diitioct fi«1<If, om • 
fittl* to tho eoat tuMl nanttcMt «( 
TiOil, betwMd thsl pluoo and tb 
Cmoaaiu, tbe edior alonff tlx vborarf 
tbo OwpUn, noith of the ambnodnu* 
of the tear (*m Dubeda' Atla*. %bk 
Ofoloi^ii*, Id. ii.). 

• Hwod. ir. S7. 

•Strab. ». pp. 781.7*4, PKn. tt 
10) Pt<i1oiii.T. 12; Emtntb.od Dioo^ 
IVr. 731 1 SlcfJu 111 (. Bd TOO. *A*ir 
rxk 

Arrlna, Exped. Alex. <IL 8. llif 
Hro • powrrrfnl aatioo M the tteeol 
tint llilhriilatio«»T(.\ppian,B.lllUK | 
vo. %ti Biid ZSO). 

• Strab. si. pp. 7S9.n4. 

• Peelom. v. 11. 12: 
' Ufir Sa llio fm naed hj Kr. 

nnmilton (Aa. Uiaor, ml. i. pp. SI^ 
830). Ur. Ainawonh fFnivoU la tke 
Track, Ac, p. 180) bu Zi^wtf. 



^ 




TOE (iAFEIBEa. 



22S 



The SapeirlftnB, if we mftj [clc-nlifv tbem willi tli<i Tboniina, li»vo 
an iiajKirtAut history. It would be wrung to In; nay utrcus on tbo 
nstiw tnditioDii of tlicir ciri^n,> which arc probnbly nwro fictions, 
doBtitcte of any hintoric foondation ; it wotOd be eqoally wrong: to 
accept the atatenuint of Uejjnitthencti and Abj:'denna — that the 
eastora Ibonana wctb p1anl«d by Ncbachadoczzar ou the borders of 
the Pontns, and consisted of captirea brou)(ht from thv irG«l«ni 
Iberia ; * bat still, setting aside thcao fablo, wo may aay with trath 
thai the Iberiana have n history liuti&g for above a thousand yean 
— from B.C. 550 to a.D. 600 — and continniiig in one euutia down to 
tbo prMcnt day. TliU biatory may be diTidud into five periods :— 
Daring the Bret, which lasted from their conquest by Cyrus (abonb 
B.C. 500) to their rccoveiy of independonce (before II.C. S3l *), they 
were nndcr the dominion of Peraia, forming a satrapy in conjunction 
vith the ^latieninnii and the Alarodianx.* During the second, 
which was the interval bctwcoa tfao decay of the Peraian power and 
(b« cstabli«hmenb of the kingdom of MithridatoM (b.o. 1 12), they 
were independent. Daring the third—from B.C. 112 to B.C. Gi — 
tbcy were ilithridatt-s' suhjeots.' During tbo fonrtli — from B.C. &t 
to A.p. 364— they were pmcticiilly independent, but oontinocd under 
the nominal saxerainty of the RoBUUia.* During the fifth — from 
A.P. S64to a.D. €00 — tboy wcro again wholly fri.*e. In ibis last 
period tliey su(feT«d greatly from the attacks of the Avars, Unns, 
sad otlier northern barbarians,^ who poured in a perpetual stream 
over the Cancaans ; and to this flood they seem at last to have 



' nas* ar» gima bj St..Uaftin in 
Ut BacbanibM nr rArtD£ni», and hj 
Dnbois IVajrmgo antoor <la CnacMn. 
Tot ii pp.8 ct am,). Thuy *eein to 
tieno, Iram tho mmo •ource an tbo 
•nlj A-mfPiaa liadttMU in UiMo* ol 
Cbortnf. 

* lltgaiUimi. FV. SS ; Abrdra. Fn. 
B aad lOi ni»snibl»non cf nftiuo icu 
gansiallyaDiipaMdiuDonit tlinanoioiiu 
to Invi^va so idnniitj of nioe, bat in 
this OMV tlw7 fbnnd it impoaiibla to 
•elil« wileb wa* Ihooriginal aad i(bi<>h 
the d«r(T«d pMi|il«L Applan Myi 

— 'lAlpai H r«if fr 'Aptf at iiir 
wffYJmt ol It treltmit ttyvurrai nv 
tifmaitir 'iMpvr, lo whkb, lio»«r<T, 
h«ailda— endcnllj ■■ bii own optnfoa 
— •Ill ^nr JfiH^fUwt' fOaf yip 
s(S)« 4r tfitttr 4 yXiKiaa (Do 

TOL, IV. 



Bi-U. Uitbrid. p. UO), 

' Tb* Iberfsas uod no treopa to 
Arbtia (Arian, Bip. At. Hi, 6), » mre 
■i>a of indr>i>»iid«nce. from X«nc>- 
plum'c DiuTBtiTa and comniflry (Auftb. 
oil. vtil. § 3I>), we iboald htiTa eon- 
eluilcd Ihiit al! the tiibM above Ar< 
mcDiabnii ruciuiiedlheiriadepiindMioa 
by hii tima (&0. 4CKp>i but aa the 
Albauiiuu Mtd tho SaocatiLt (kia 6oy> 
tbioi) airvo at Arb*l>, it it oricleDt 
tlutt Ffma hail, evua to the laaC, an' 
infloenoe in thoio ramciM rcgiona. 

•non>d.lU.M. 

'UomuOD, Fr. xzi.i Appiui, B. 
Uilhr. i<, 160, Ac. 

* Dio Cau. Iiii. IS I Tacit. Ann. ri. 
89-30 : retr. ntlrie. Tn. S, 8, and 14. 

' PziMO. ramt. rn. 30 atul 37: 
UeniuidT. Prtit. Fr. E, Ac. 




22S 



THE JUJJtODIAXaL 



An*. Booc^ 



fielded, dUappearln^ from bistoiy alxtnt tlio end of Uio lixA 
contoiy.' Even then, bowover, Uitj wero not dcNtrojri-tl, bat otiij 
became obecare. TItere ia kaboii to bcliere tliat the modrrn 
Ooorgiitns — stitl cttllcd TtrA by their netghboors ■ — ate their dcMod- 
ftnto, and prescrrc, in the original seat of th« natioD, a sune ood t 
nationality which bars deflcd the dcslroj-iog touch of tuno for son 
than twenty- fonr centnrios. 

Tbo maiinors of the Iberians are described at some lengtli bf 
fitiabo. Acci>rding to bim tJioy ivtre divided into four coolea; tt* 
first, a royal tribe, which Inrnighcnl tho kings ; the Bccond «HBpoetd 
of prioets ; the third of soldiors and hasbandoon ; and tho footlh 
of slaves belonging to tbn GmL Tho balk of tho population nu 
HottlL-d and agrictiltnral, but some were nomads. Thoy lirod {■ 
tovna and 8cntt«rod formsteadii, irhioh wcro roofed with tilee, nil 
hod KHSO pretensions to arcbitectnrnl elegance- They had market* 
places in their towns, and other pnUic building. Their law et 
inheritance mode property common between all tho childna,bal 
garo th* monagetncnt of it to the eldest EOD.' In war the Iberiuii 
nover oxbibited aaj large share of either aktll or conrogo. With • 
conntry pnacuting cTcry facility for defence,* tbcy srani to ban 
fallen a ready prey to each bold invader ; as allies tbo osHaoluea 
which they render is alight, and aa enemies Uiey ora weak and 
without Diitcrprijic. Attogetbor they are of a softer efaaraeter Ihaa 
most of their ncighboars; but combined with this softness is a 
tenacity of uatioiml life, which enables them to maintain thi 
nncbonged amid almost ccoeoleu shifts of popntotioD. 

(riii.) The AUmdinns are entirely tmknown to eveiy 
euccept Herodotus, and Stephen, who qootea him.* In the array of 
Xerxos Uerodotns couples them with the Sapcirra, as armed in the 
same way, and inclmled under the same oomnuiud.' In the list of 
tlia salrapicH, ho joins thorn with tbo Sopcires and MatSeni* 
Nothing can bo gathered of their exact locality from these 



■IMHB M a 



' Tba ls«t elanio notioei tffm to 
belong lo the tfigm et (lie eaaperara 
AnoaUMhw, Jnttui. and MaariM (md 
Rraoop. do Bdl. IHt*. 1. 10; Ucnandr. 
Ptril. Vt. 47; Thpiipli. Riixct. Pr. 4, 
Ae.) , tho iMt of wliou di'od a,o, 60e. 

* V1>S« titpn, ToL >. p. ATS, huIa*. 
The OonrituinB iippi<«r bjr thsir Ian- 
gqae* to be Tnraiiiaiia with a ooa- 



(u3<nil>1« Ariut adiaJxtiire. 
> Strab. zi. p. no and p. m. 

• Ibid. p. ?3a 
•SMpb. By«.»dTee. 'aauMm. Oa 

tlw KviMTsl asblBel of tbo Alarvdiaai^ 
■M botew. Easy lU. s. 'ia. 

• U«Md. Ti<. Til. 

' Dnd. iiL 93. 





TUB UATIESI. 



22; 



I 



meofa, irhtob only show in a gcnoral i^aj* tbdrconnoction witU Uio 
tnbva 1)otwe«n the Enxine and the CMpian. It hns txjon oonjectorcd 
that tticy went tbo uiomton of the Alftoi ; * 1>ut for tVta auppoailtuu 
there iti no tilile of orideDCfl. 

(ix.) T!n! MuliCTii. UA b&s toon ftlrenily oljsorred,* Mcm to be 
Kssignnl bj Jieradotns itlraost tbo wholo of tho mountnin-mngc 
from tbeBourocsof the DtydioA, near JTEimadait, to Uioseof tkojlnu, 
or Araxw. nw>r Ertfroum in Upper Armcni*,* Tovnurd* the ioutli 
they aitjnin on C'isnin, or Susutna ; * toirards tbo north thoy npproAcIi 
the Alarodii otid Snpiiri, nilb wbom they ue united in one antrapy.' 
Tliey thus appear to occupy tlio monnUina of Kurdiatan. from tho 
35tli pantlei to Idlce Tan, and tbcnce extend alon;^ the obaia which 
rnna on by Itayasid and Ararat to Encrontn. Tho whole of thin 
region ia mountAinoqa in the extreme, containiii)]; many ])eaka which 
mrt covered with puTpetual niiow,' nud coiixi.itins; throughout of a 
series of lofty mngt*, from which flow down nil tho grmt rircra of 
W€«tcm Asia. It has been sn^geBted that the word " Matieni" 
may mean "ntountamecr;" ' and certainly no term conld be mora 
appr^'printe fur the iiiliabitanta of the tract iu qnetition. 

Tho Matieni appear in history aa a weak pi-opin, with dilBcDlly 
maintaining tbemaelvea against tbo ag^asions of tbetr more power- 
fal Dcighbonn. 7hoy ore scattered in different partti of Wuatem 
Asia, being foand on (ho Ualys* and in tbo disbriet abonb ItlMgoa;,* 
u well aa between Klcdta and Annonia — alwaya where the eonntty 
is strong, and prcaoats obstacles to an inva«Ior. They gnuloally 
decline and disappear, being kuawii to Uecatniis,^" Xanthos," Hero- 
dotns. EmtodthcncK," and Polybino," bat not appearing m a people 
in Stiabo," and scarcely traccabto at all in tho Geography of 



■ 6eo Bafar ad Herod, ili. 1)2. 

■ Bapnt, ToL i.p. 80!>, miW *. 

* Compcu* Hvtoi. i. ISO, wiih i, SOS. 
< U>id. T. VJ mmI fiS. Tba Uollaaa 

«f SUnbo, wKiah bo rcg^arda aa a 

|Mrt of Itnlia (ir rg Marurp rvi 
Jt^im, il. l>. 7-t:!), in jB tlii« ilirno. 
Ikoi, Im( moom ka to •sieuil w lur 
cllhi-r north or ooath. 

* Qerod. til SI. 

* Bopta, voL 1. p. tiit, not*'. 

* Sw Sir II. I[«wliEiaoB'« Dot*^ rd. i. 
f, SOL Tie ftj'iiMlasxiil Ktvowl fur 
(Ub eccjootom hu, bowoTt-r, roOutl 1 
ainoa th» weed r«a4 a« mati ia traw 
leaad to ba r«illy Milt. 




• Horod. L 72. 

* liid. Chnr. p. a. 

•• Fr. 188 Wl 189, » Ft. 8, 

" Ap. Sinib. il. p. 718. 

" Vtiyb. T. +1, S 9. 

" Wh*nScnboB]i(«ln«f tVMnlieni 
(cT Uatiaui) aa a pMpIo, be ia alwafa 
luuig tD« wOTda of MOM otltcE wrlur, 
a« in Boole L p. 72, vfacm ho qM** 
Xantbnai la Uook xi. f. 7tH, wfaoro 
be n>|<orU Bntoctbone* 1 ■■)<) in Ibe 
aame book, p. T7I. whore bv makM a 
ivfunncc to onrBathor. lli> <nra Tlew 
acoDiB to bo that Jdaiasn to a diolrioi 
<•( Mr<dla,)n(t lika Atr(>»(«iie,tli*ia- 
bobitaci* ia both oaceo bnoK Uvtloi. 



338 



THE CASrUNS. 



Arr. Boos TU 



Vtoteiay} Tbeir territory b«cnni(« absorbed in ModJa, Annesik, 
and Cajtpudocaa; aod finally tbcir nanie only attaches to ft Iftlu ia 
tli« bonrt of tliat district whiub ooiuttitntcd, in tlie timo of 
aatbor, their prinuiiNtl oonntrj. 

(x.) TIk Cas]>iaDa of tbe twelfth Mtrap;, wlioao plnoe in the 
of UnrodotDK in betweon tbo Medcs and the Bactriam,* nro prabaU; 
tho people of tbnt nanio wbo arc noticed by all the geographeOi ai 
dwelling on tbo uLomH of tbo CMpino Sea, aboat its »onth-wM 
angle.' Thoy adjoined upon th« Albama&s, to whou their connlrr 
was eometimce reckoned.* Stmbo ii))cukH of ihem oa already 
" obacnre " in hi* own day ; ^ and rery tittle is told ns coaceniiig 
them by any ancient writers. Wo may gather from their tuune that 
they were AriiuiH.'' Strabo mys Lliat tlicy starved to death all pereoni 
who exceeded seventy years of age, after which tbey exposed Umb 
in a de«ert place and wntubcd to m» whether the body wns attaclad 
fay bcaete or birds of prey ; if it were torn by birds, they rejoiced 
f^eatly ; if by dofpt or wild beaAts, they were tolerably pleased ; but 
if it rumuinud intact, they were veiy nnbnppy/ Thu last is lil» 
Magian custom.' 

Tliu tract inhabited by the CaspiAna seems to have been the 
of low plain wliiuh intervenes between the Caapiaii Sea and 
mounlainit on the west and south, from the month of the JSCmt* to 
ilatandiran, togotber with the ralleys of the Shah-ntd and Sefid-nd 
south of the mounUins. It thus ooinoided with the modem pro* 
Tiooca of TufiiR, Ohitait, sad Tonnn,— Htbont thu richest and most 



1 



3l 

ith4 



• Ptolnmj, socnrding to coi presmt 
copiu, OalU L«k* t'rumiyi^ tho KltirTi 
Mtfriari (Ueognpb. ri. S). It liwLtJi 
reason oonjectDred tlmL MapT<arh i* 
a ocCTQpCian of Harriart (Hvn Dr. 
BniUlli Oiot. of Gr. and Bom, G«u)cr> 
ad wo. MATIANA). Bo^cniil lliia he 
hMnom(iiiU<>n of llio MitMUiiauB, «'lu\ 
as a disliuoC ncv, wvtv proLjobly lo*t 
bf^oin the tims of Stnho. That 
Pliny <rl. 16) and Dionynu PeriegtetM 
(I- 1003) moatlMi tliem. ariaw from 
the book-keowladgn of tlioM writer*, 
who pro(« hot litUo cDDMniAg tlia 
reni Keognplij of their daj. 

• UoNd. >u. SS. 

• St»b. xl. p. 713 : Plin. H. N. W. 
13; Dlenjra. to, J'M; lUla, iii. 6, 



* Stnb. L ■. c IWi U T%i 'AXSva* 
Xiffiai h1 i KAifVMrAi tm Karwim 

a^arovl 5rtp| rvfL 

' tloo tlio precodiDc note. Tbe city 
of Katiin or Soti-in in thii qnatur, 
th'iniib tdtoatod rather in Ucdla th«a 
in t)ie iKttiial Oiapian 00110117, '"V 
prolmblf bave been doiiimI (mm iU 
MttteiDODt thtco at ■omsUmaoTotW 
cf a body of Coqiii. 

* Saptm, ToL iii. p. M7, ad T«fr 
Cxtrii. 

' Stmb. li. p. 757. OBmpam p. 

* So* Qoroil. 1. 140, nod note * ad iM 

* nnj Mji, " A CjTo Caapinm ibh* 
Toeari JDoipiti accolnnt Ctuaii." tL 
H. Ti. a. 




lUAiL THE PAUSICX, PAHTDUTHI, AXD DARTTJ. 



239 



I 



iMfttitifal region in Persia.* An this i^istrici liM ftlrnadj' ti^cn Ac- 
Bcnbcd,* DO more K.teil bu suid of it here. Tbo Caapiana seem to 
bare been gradiuJIj doprirvd o( tlieir conntrj \)j atrangor racu,' 
nntil, in Ihe time of Ptolemy.* they were confined to tUu pliun of 
iCoyhan, or the tnct between the months, vrliioh were tben dbtinct, 
of the Ktir and Am rivOTS. 

{ri.) Tlio Pnnsicts are nnknown nnder that appcnatioa to »ny 
writer except Hcrodotna. Thej tinvc been conjootn rally identified* 
vith tho iSwiiani of Stt«bo,* a Scythi«i tribo of eomo noto, which 
took part in the de«tniction o( the Orwco<Bactrian kingdom,' and 
was iUtclf, probably, svrallowcd cp in the empire iibortly aflvnvards 
Mtftbllsbcd by tbo Parthiiuw. This tdentificfttion, bowovor, ia very 
donbtfnl ; and wo may with more reason regard tbem aa tbo Pnnav 
of Mela* and Pliny,* whom Mela assigns nposition to the oast of the 
Caspian, upon his 8'fiu Seythieitt, whioh may lepniMrnt tlie golf of 
Kvli Dsryei." The Pannicio of HurodotoB ar<i, bovmrcr, mon pro- 
bably to bo longht in the tract aontli of the Cojipian^^thcr in the 
SIhwn chain or in the province of Mamndcran, wbcre a tribe called 
Pititi i» still found at the prcwmt day. A description of thc«o 
tncto boa been alrody {^Tea.» 

(xii.) The Pantimathi nr« wholly and nlu'ilntdy nnlmown. "Hie 
form in whieh their name hiia oomo to ua is so nearly Greek, that 
we may anspoot a coDsideroblo rnrintion from the native word. No 
same, bovever, that in the least nsembtoa Pantimathi \n f nmisbod to 
nsbyany other writer i and we can only conHudo that Hcrodotnn 
hiM here preserved a trace of an obaoute people who periBhed soon 
after his time. They probably dwelt in cloae proximity to tbo 
Fansica*. 

(xiii.) TIh) Danta^ We are not vritlioiit some knowledge of the 



' EDnUthiBi (ad INonji. Vvr, 730) 
B»7« that, is (bit oousttT' of tlie Cw. 
piaiu^ the Imitw of Uie tnm itiatiUud 

botiej, Ui» vine wa« mwD Umd oQm- 
moaly pndaetinv and tha flg 7lold«d 
•0 •bnadknllj tliattoiDttimMM maoh 
a« 90 b«*b(ils (60 m«>limBi) wnra ob- 
tained tiom a tingta tr«e. Cumparo 
BOmlio'a deacdpUoa of Rjitamia (d. 
pp. 7«. •HX). 

■Se|Nra,ral.t.pp.Gfi8,SG9. Totl)en>- 
fttranMS tbar* mado mar be added, 
rnsor'a SboiBSBan, p. ISd, and p. 171. 



* Amonit oUtaxa by tbo Aoni (Slrab. 
zi. ■p. T38). 

* Qaa(>raph. vi, 9. 

* Supn, ToL ii. p. 4^ nolo *. 

* Suab. xi. ji. 74*. 

' Strsb. 1. 1. a— MJAm^b )) yr^pitun 
yryirmfi rdt- raiiiOtrr tt *ebt 'EAAqrar 
AfUAJfUHl ri/r Dampmrlir, 'AjfWi tat 
Dairiar*! ltd Tdxvvi *al 2ditilp«i'Aei. 

* H. K. vi. IG. 

* Dm Sit. Orb. iii. 6. 

■• Sapra. vol. i. p. CM. 
" Itrid. pp. (MUtiST. 



230 



THE LiSOVlkSS. 



AptvBootTn. 



pntiitioit of the Banter Ptolnnf hu » diltrict which Ii« calll 
I>Arit!fi,> in tho iiiinie<likle TicinitT of Rhftgiana, or tlw oonati^ 
uUtut RbagM, vhich waa soar tho Ciwpian Qal««, on tlio sonU^mi 
Hide of the Elliun nage ; * ami Plin; mentioM n pItKO ckUwI DnriiUD 
or Darioam, whicli woa "ce]ebnt«d (or iu fertility,"* Mid wo* 
inctoded u the regpon i»ll«d bj him ZnpftTurttno, m tntot of coni»- 
tf^ thnt lay inmiedifttelj east «f the Cftspinns. Now, if tho CnspUM 
oociipi«d OiSam, Zapnrortt^^ could onlf ho Jfaiandn^a, or that 
ro^oa together with Att«raba4, and perliapa a tract stilt fartli«rtO 
the eoalwanl. An<l Pliny's Dariom, which ih menlioDrd hetwera Uw 
CnKpiana and the Tapyri. who gave to MaxoHderan its old name of 
Tabnritt4u,* must have lain towaixU the w«Blen) vdo of that pro- 
vince. Perhaps the country abont VevKntend and Tire* Koh may b« 
Ihe tract int4-ndc<I. This district pouenea a peculiar chancterof 
isolation, which would fit it for tho habitation of a ncpamte tribe; 
and ll la one of gn*i fertility and Uauty,* which would nit 
the dcucription given by Pliny. 

5. It only remains now brieflj to review tho smnll and obecna 
tribee of the coutrat and we9>t<!m provinces, irhkli were omitted &oa 
tho gnncrnl account of those regions given in a former volanw.* 
The tribca intvnJcd aro thu following: — The Lasoniacs, the Caho* 
liann, tlio Ilygeuuea or Ilylennes, the I^gyes, th« Orthocoiybanttai 
and the Puricaniaus of tho t«nth sutinpy. 

(i.) The Lasooians, who occor in tho second satntpy, between 
the Iiydians and tbo Cahalians,' with the Inttor of wbont thry an 
identified in another place,* are probaUy the same peopio with ths 
liysineans of the noinismatologitts,* who were the inltalntants of a 
town ciLlled LyHinou ■" or J^sinia," situntod in tho ntiighbonrhood rf 
Sa|[alMsuB, on the borders of Pisidia and Cnbalia. Tho exact site 
hM not been disouvcrcd. Mr. Humilton augf:;«ata a spot nesr 
Aiuchar, on the tetetem coast of t}io bku of E^erdiri " bat this is 



' Otofrraph, ri. 8, 

' See Terriat'i CnMvaa Saaraojt, 
pp. M-dO; nod coiuiMu* Sir H. Haw. 
Ilnum'a map in tbo Gvogisjili, Joarn. 
T«1. X. jinrt 1. 

' U. N. 1. a. c " A Cwpiii ad Otton- 
t«tt vcnni n<^ Mt, Zaparoncna 
: dl«M,«t la •A/prUUfatfj ■•K/ytii iMins 
tkttionai. Mn fontM Ta^iyti, . Ana- 
riiHii, StflQri, HjraMu, Ik qoonmlttto. 
ritm* iilom man B/roaaam vooaii 



Iccipit a flinnbia Sf^eri." 
' Am Renn^'i Uougnpky of lien- 

iiutni, p. tro. 

' Fnrior'B OsfttTaa itnneft, p, CI. 
• Tol. 1. Emut* ii. and ii. 
' Qcfvd. ill. ua * lUd. vllL T7. 

■ liiamirl, (UpplfiiDOnl, Wm. lU. p. 
IMk Ko. t&t, *«. 

>• roirb.xxii.ii>,sS|UT.mtiji.i«. 

" Plolvm. T. 6, 

" A«ia JiiaoT, vol. L p, 4ia 



I 




TBB CABJU.!AX& 



231 



certtiinlj too f«r from SngilAssufl, and in (bs wrong diroctioD. 

• L^inoii akould Ii« south or eonUi-weHt of tiugaliuaua; > and in tliia 
directioD, at the <IislAn«i of tbre« miles,' b a Tillago cullod Ahytoon 
or AUuAtnit,* in which it mar bo conjoctund Uutt wo have a rem- 



I 






AUtiAtnn,* in which it maj bo conjoctund 
nant of the nndent name. 

Tho Lasontans were prolftWy the roort important ponpla of 
eastern Cabn]i». TogdhcT with the Hygonnos or lijt«Doe8, tbejr 
iaa.y ropremnt tho Ptsidians of la(«r wnt«n, who are bo Btmogol; 
omitted bj oar nnthor. Thrir ethnic ('hurftctOT is somvwbat oncor- 
tniu. If we must accept aa asccHained their identity with the 
iroroninna, n-bich lIcrotlotaN amcrU,* wo KhatI linvo to regard tbem 
aa toii^tives fi<om lA'dia, or at I«ast as akin to the priinitive people 
of that coantiy, whom tho Lydiana conqn(4<cd or druv« vnt* In 
tiiifl oaae they would probably he Indo-Bnropcans of tlio Pelasgio 
type,* differing but little from the bulk of tli« inbabitants of Asia 

□or. If however we may discard tho bare and nnoxptiiinod state- 
ment of Horodotus, following in lieu of it those indications of cthnio 
affinity which position, langoago, manncnt and eostomt,' and an 
iDiportnnt notioo in Strabo* seom to anggcst, we shall probably tea 
reiuion to rank th«m among that small Semitio element which has 
bom already mentioned na existing io this region," extending to 
» thin strip frtwn Upper Syria to the borders of Caria. There is 
rcaaon to belteve that both tliu Pi^idians and Calnlians cai=« of 
this otock : '^ and, tborefnrti, if the Lasonians held the powtion 
hero BMigncd to them, thejr are not likely to have belonged to any 
olber. 

(>■■} The Cabalians, who nro identified by Hmodotua with the 




I- 



ACMaaKsaliBaia odnkDrinjc frmn 

•nth, torn TwtMMnji nod other 
luw dtio*. CD hii v/aj lo 
when bo rrcoivcw Ujo mD- 
baiiadoM o( tlia l.fiiuciuii (I'oljrb. 
L 1. c i Lir, t. R. c), 

■ Felknra't A*ia Hioor, p. lOd. 

■ HanUton. ml. i. p. th6. 

• Beroa. liL 17. KaflnUii 1) si 
l/hnt, Aarivim It taXii/uroi. 
' Snpis. vol. i. p. a-tl. Bimbo 

■p«ak« «f foeitim from hjdia in (hi* 
nslea, bnt MantldoB Ibam witli lb* 
Ctbjriao (itU. p. »M). 

• ConpMV ml. I. p. US and pp. 692, 



' Nota their vicinity to tha F\Mn, 




whow^nSemJIia (rol, i. pp. ASS, 6S3)t 
the nune of Ottuliani. whidi b ap- 
plied to tbom, and wblett maj- ooui- 
por* wilh (iobol {Ibid. p. (m, note *), 
and tbn r?tH<nibli»i«u of tlunr l^ql]ip■ 
nir<nt to thiit of Cilioinn), wlio ircfv 
Sinnilic in Ucnidolua' tima (ibid. p. 

■ fitnlm uja thsl the (^lalisn* 
irtTO grnenOIr called Solymi (till. p. 
80*). Tbo SivilUc cbiirnctor of thn 
Soljinl M«iil« w be fallv MtnblUbod 
(*opr>, *ol. I. pp. 68X. G83). 

■ 8apn, *sL i. p. SitS, not* ', and n, 
686,18. 

»Buitb.l.«. o.: Plla.H.N.T. S7i 
Blopb. Ufi. ad no. IlitfiUb 




EmutL 



THE BVOEXSES— THE LIOYES. 



233 



bkve long mninbunod tliemsclves ; and the name Cabklia ia fonnd 
applied to the regiou in quo«tion by Pliny ' and I*lolpmy.* 

(iii.) Thu Hygcnnca, or Hytcnnca, (m tlio numo sliould prolmbly 
read,* BOem to bo tlie people called Etennenscs ('et«rv>») by 

iljbioi,* Risd OktonnetiBcs (Kartmh) by Strabo.* They nro com- 
Ij reckoned among the Pisidi&ns ; bat Stephen calls their oity, 

lytcnna, " a city ot Lroia." * It appconi to huvo been ritaftted on 
toathem Baolc of Taama, abovo Sida and AspendDS, and in tlio 
soighbonrbood of Solga bimI Homoruida.^ Coins of this place nro 
common ; * and it continued to be the bo«? of a bishop down to the 
ninth cfiotury of onr uru.* Tlui EUTtmcoHea or Cntoiinnuot may 
hRTe been connected ethnically vrith tho (lataonians of Cappadocin, 
who are nid to littve been diatiuj^oisbed by the early writers from 
the other CappadoeikiiH ns a diffurunt people.'^ Like the rvait of tho 
IHsidians, they wore probably ft Semitic race. 

(ir.) The Ligycs, who ore joined in the army of Xerxee with the 
Uaticni, the Uarioodynions, and tho Cnppadocians," seem to belong 
to the Dorth-eoatern portion of Asia Minor, bat cannot bo located 
with any approach to ozacineu. They probably dwelt east of the 
Hnlya, within the limits of the re(,*ioii oommordy regMded its 
Armenia. They most bavo been in tho timo of Herodotns a. weak 
and expiring nee ; for hut a single notice of th«m has been di.ico- 
Tored in any hitrr writer. Eostathins, in his cotomcnt on the 
P«riegtms of Dionysios, informs ns that Cyt«a (or Catacesinm, the 
j modern Kutait} waa called by Lyoophron " b> Ligarian city; " and 
draws the oondaiion that, besides tho wcetem Lignnans, there mnM 
Icnro been othcn in thn region of Colchis, whom ho regards as colonists 

Kii tho IfoTOpean Lignria." A more probable coneluaion wonld bo, 
y jn. N. T. 8*) and Ptolpmjr (r.5) 
•okoned to RMiplijliii b; Ihoia 
4<r». It ia iL* oooalry about 

TermMfSil. 
' Plio. H. N. T. 27. 
» PuJ. V. 8. 

* Sfc tliu Uasonni rhilolo^nrnm, rol. 
L p. 634 ; Mul lopni, vol. iL p. 486, 

DOM*. 

* Pttljb. r. 79. 

* Smb. xii. p. SM. 

* BUph- Bjt. ad. ync'Trtrra. 
T Ctmipun Uis noiico* iu rMrtiint 

and Blr^e—'tftrrtTi, at rvi niinliiifit 
Hi* fvV ^'''l* 'p'u'b' ffmitvrru 




ZiStfi nol 'AmJrlin/ . . . . ttxrtx'i^i 
yttiXaipti ^at^jo, i\aiAfvVu vJj^o, tq i' 
iriji ■minaii', j|li| ifuti, K«T(mrf 
(Smb). Cul. Le«k« hiui niarktul tho 
probabl* site eomotif iu lun luap ot 
Ana Minor. 

' Sec Eekuol. Docl. N. V<rt. rol. lit. 
pp. II. 12, uml lUiunnm. DMCJfit. das 
hiM. Ant. vol. Hi. )>. m, 

" Kflit. Kpijo. (..two. 

"•Simb. lii. p.775. 

" Unod. Tii. 72. 

■* Kuituth. ad. Dioayt. Per. 1. 70. 



234 



THE ORTnOCOItTBANTCS. 



Ait, Book TH 



timi in tlui AsinUo Ligarium (m in tbo AsUtio Ibcmns') wi 
have a n>raDant of Ibe pnmilive race^ which, while seodtDg oot 
porhnp* the greater portion of ibi tiodf to join tbo oniigraats who 
wera flookiug (lum Aei» into EarDpc, still kept a. hold npon tlie 
plsca of iui original abode. A conaectiag link between the 
eutem and tho WM4«ni lignriana ninjr, pcrlispa^ bv foanil is 
tfaa HgjnatBM of Thiac^ who ftre mentioned in a tngmeat of 
Ariatotie.* 

(v.) The OrthoooryhantM may periiaps be beet irgnrdcd as tbf 
inhahjtonta of tboCorhian^ of Stntbo,* which ho reckon* to Bljmait, 
and placoa tn the Zagroe monntain-mogo between Media and 
Sunana. Tbej' wonld tfana be the Corbrtea (Corbi^aw ?) of Pol}'- 
bioa^'and tboinbabitAntsoftho"Uoi>aCharbann«"of PlinjT-* Tht 
tnet which tbey occupied was probably that lying immediatch 
aonth of Ecbotoniv {Uamadaa). between the river of Di:j»i and %h$ 
KerkkaK, which is now inhabited by tho tribe* of tbo Puh-kuk Lvt, 
and ia known aa Luri-hiekvii. It ia a poeitioa of great strength,* 
very Dioniitainons, and ooo in which nn oppmaed nco woold bt 
likely to find a refuge. Thus it woald natamlly become tbo home 
of the Elynueans when prewod ajion by tlieir Cushito invaders,* and 
onco occnpicd would bo a placo in which they might eaiUy ntain 
their nationaUty for many centuries. 

(vi.) Tbo Parioaniana of the tenth salrapy,* who are nnitad b 
that political division with the Mcdcs and Lbe Ortlwcorybautca, an 
probably the Uedian trihc of tho I'armtaooni,' who inhabited fiaii 
of ZogTos, and whose name in an Aiian mouth meant aimply " umoq- 
taiueeM " or " faiglilandera." "> Or they may possibly (aa Ur, C 



Alyvtt tim, inutat riai Zt^anafio' ml 

* Baun, p. 3X6, note '. 
•Fr. X84. 

• 8t(«b. rri. p, 106T- Comrnrc 
Rnnnoll ((lM((npfa;ct nvtiHl p. t:;0). 
This IdontiflMlion rrsii princ^poUr on 
th» (imiliLtit; of "Cor^hanMa lo 
" Oorblflcri," which It dotn ; bat It w« 
tAopt it, whnt account ahfjl wo cire 
of th* pnrflx, Orthnf (Probablir it 
repmMDU thp Zenil ErtMa. Tlio 
nonntaina tjiinx bptn-ron Unilia and 
Saaiaaa an now culled liala-striva, 
or "Ilia bj^ cotiaUy "— tlM axact 



Zroil eqalralcnt for whieh wnald *•, 
INwfha-j«r«Fait,wh»noe n«iliaUj'*t 
tbocarrbantM."— U. O.BO 
« FulTb. T. M. 

• H. K. tJ, ». 
' 8m tbo daaar^Aien glrcn by L 

n. BawUnaoo fa the nioih nliuae < 
the Gaagnshkal JontwO, nn L | 
ftt-lltt. 

• Bnpn, rol. j. pp. 4a7-t39k 
' Ocroi ill, 98. 

• Ucrcd. i. 101. Conparo ««L 
p. 6QI>. nata *. 

"Sopia.p.tW.nc**'. Thcjwonlfl 
(bra b« icieirtiaal with ih« PanHawnli 
a w««d of the mam nMnisg, 



EsutL 



THE PARICANIASa 



335 



Muller thinlcBi) represent the Hjrcanians of Boot \n.,' who are 
termed " Barcaniana " by Cteaiaa,' VehrkuTia in Zend, and TarkaTta 
in ancient Persian.* Hyrcania requires but a little extension 
towards the west in order to adjoin on tbe district of BJutgiil^E^ 
vhicli was always inclnded in Media ; and some indicfttioa of a 
connection between tbe Hyrcaniana and the Medea is perhaps to be 
traced in the position which they occnpy in the list of the army of 
Xerxes. 



' Se« the map of the Satrapiea givcu 
in au earlier Tolome. 
' Book TiL ch. 62, od fin. 



■ Eioeipt. Pen. S S. 

* Beb. lucr. ool. ii p&r. IB. 



236 



EASLX lUdBATlOlIS OF T1I£ FHtENICUSS. Art. Boat. TIL 



ESSAY II. 
OS THE EARLT MIGRATIONS OP THE PH<ESTCIANa 

Dlrvnlty of apuucni on the nibjoot — Weight of ibo aiiEiiBioBta tn tavev 
k miitntion. 2. Tito vion ot tho mlgrmtloti — tho imntgnuiu BMoitN 
SenuMi. 3. SoppoMd idvuUty ot tba fiuaaieiaoa wltb tba OBpaaniM— 
wgonunt* in ita farcrar. 4. Ant°<i>*vt« to tlie mntni;. S. IW n» 
nloiMia diittuot from the boMuiilM. 6. Btwlr iniiT«mant of w»«uh^ tnm 
BiLbjloiiift to the MedJtQcmuttiia 7* Wnifar aorwoont of BondiM iribi^ 
qoeiiily— 'rh!« Iwit tb» ulgtMloa <^ tho PhoMifoliM. S. Otw-wMmi rf 
Btnbo and JoMin. ft. Uotms' sToanda foe rrJMtiiif; th« nign&M—^ 
Sileom of Scclptaro — (u.) Actliority ot Kfuichoniftlhett — ExaadBilicK <f 
LhMO gronnd^ 10> Frobnblo <htle uf tbu m)gi>CJos> 



1. TbI niignktion of t!io PhoDDtdiuui, ftt b totj- wirly time. Stem 
shores of the Sonthem Soa to th« cOEist of the ^lt.-ilitnTTatiou), 
ho'-n coiit<i!H]]ttiously ridicaliid bj nomo writers,' trhtle bj otlton it 
liiis been regarded ns ft fact enmxily ftdmittin;; of qnisstioa.' 
nnthoiitj of Herodotus," of Strabo,* of TroguB Pompeina,* of P1i»; 
of DionjHinH P«ri«getc«,' of Solioiu,* and of SUrpbun,* U qaoted 
favour of the movement; while agMnst it can only be urgod 
difllcnitf of tho rcmoTal, and tbu vmall mine of half a doten Oteck 
and Baiaan ivathoritica in rwpcct of a ^t admitted to be of k> thj 
rcmoto an autiqa!^. If indeed we wore obliged to nippoae ■ 
migratioD fry no, inTolriag the dboorety of tho Ciipo of Good Ho|W 
and the oircnDmaTigatioa of Africa," Bosnd critidsm 



r»it 

1 



I 8m Toltaire't QaMtiooa aur I'Gn. 
iinlco<dl*t pub IT. p. 810. BoohtLTt 
ffiMriMMW the notion of > migratroD, 
itlmoct without aikininatlan (Ooo. 
Kmph. 8ee. it. St, p. 301). Honna 
(Ab. Ns(. tpL ii. pp. SM, 410, Ac, 
B. T.) lilcoviBo Ocndp* URaiiwt it. 
MoT*ra <D<n Pbteitiiot, ii. 1, S8) take* 
a umilar rinw, 

iKcnnok'a Pbcmiioi*, ch. HL pp. 
4G.S''. 

* Uamd. 1. 1 1 rIL 89. 

* Stnb. XTi. p. 1090. 

* Jiutin, iTiii. 8, I & "Tj^rimtun 
K«ni eonrlica a. PtiwnJoIbD* fait, qni 
l«rm mota rcnti, lelivto patrin Mlot 




AiKjrriDa •t«|{num primbni, ntn 
proiimuoi litlDi iMMtono." 

•H.N. i». SS. "IVfl . . . , 
ab Erjrthra nwri fvmbijiutr,* 

' Dkmn. Per. tN)(i^ 

• Polyhtat c. M. 

* Ad. TOO. 'AfirrM. 
» 8v Voltaire anjniMl:—nn 

rut que le» DibiictaBa m 

DinLaninfa nn golfe At Swea, qn^uiMi 
an (Ijlroit da BaM Uudol lU e«Mit 
(Kriofj I'Ethiojii*. pan! la Utit 
doublj la Oip del TnmpttM, apptl 
dopola le Cap do Boons SapjiaaA 
romonli au Mo mtra I'ACrJuns * 
VAiDbiq;a», qai Ml le nol ci 



J 



XuhtIL 



AltCL-MtHiTS FOB A. UIGBATIOS, 



237 



tin3oiiljtci31y iwioiro n rejection of the story; but tlio tala which 
has come dovru to as ia one far diffcreot from this, and robtljr 
pK'itMtta no intrinxio diflicnitj vrliicU can properly bo regardod W 
very sorions. The romoml of Abiaham, trith biii family and 
d«pendaut«, from Cbaldna to Fktcatine, and tbe expedition of 
Chedor-IftomoT with hia confcdcmto kingn, from Elnm to the vulloy 
of the Jordftn,' dmionstrftte the feasibility, even at a Tety early 
time, of sach migrations lui that traditionally ascribed to tbo Pbco- 
ciei&na ; while they afford a further support to the tTadition, by 
■bowing that at a very ancient period there was certainly a luovc- 
meot of tbo population of Western Aua in ibis dirct^tinn.* And 
tbongb tbo antboritiea allogcd may be of less tuIuo than at fimt 
sight they appear — tlioagli they may in port merely copy,' in part 
oonlradiot, one aaotber/ — still tbey must bo allowed to posBess, 
cren in tbemselt^s, & oortain oonsiderablo weight ; and in Bome 
CMM tbo pecDliar character of their tostimony lends additional 
foTca to their opinions. For instancMr, Hcrodotas does not merely 
t«1at« to na the drenmstance as one of whose troth be wait himself 
convinced; but infontu ns that his belief rotod on the doublo 
teeiimODjr of "tho Penuans best informed in history,"* and "the 
PhcDniciana tbemsclToe." * Tho latter of tbceo statements is of 
pecnliar importance, sines nations are rarely deceived in such a 



repMtj la lisne, mtrf de I'oojan dan* 
la UMiMaaii^ ^ lea ooloiuiBii 
d'Hacoli^ CO qot aniaib itS an 
vnyiM do pina da qaaae mitle do no* 
p»adM Ueuni suLrinni, dam im toma 
ob la nanRUion tuiil daoa ton ea- 
futca." (Qnmlioni, Ac>, L s. a) 

' Goa, nr. 1-lfl. 

» Sm abovo, vol, i. p. IM, note ', 
tatt Kitaj vf. p. 438. 

* FiJDj, Scilinn*, and DionjRiiin 
sioroly npeot a tc*<litioii whiob bad 
porliapo obtahiFd currmej ohisBjr 
trim tbo slateDiMiti in ncrcdotii*, 
Tbey aro ocarecly nd^tiuiiitl wiu 



* It has boot uid tliat tlie acoonnt 
(Hnn bj Btrabo of tho rotation bo. 
tweon tlie Pktwikiiani propor and tbo 
Inlabitanti of the ulanila io tho Por- 
•inn GdII, '' rovenMi " tbi< tiwlitioa of 
HorodoloK. nnco it mnkM tliono in- 
habitantt " oolonttta (nan Pborajiiia'* 



(BUtlcOBle/o noTodotnt, vol. L p. 3"!), 
note 31 4>, But tliii fa nntm^ Etralw'a 
words ore, rXtivsytt ff irl irx/oi- tAAot 
r^cTqi, Tvpvt feol *ApoS6x, •I^if. it pi 

riiv ^miiurr ri«wt «al rit-ta A«*I> 
iraui Javrvr (xrl.p. 1000). Aaiot* 
ml dUcropaDCT oaitta botwoon Stiabo 
oad Harodotua oa the oa* hand, aod 
8tephmi on tho othsr, wlio apoafca of 
(ho Itod Sea Pham<«iiuu aa r^ftu 
{^uyiSti) trtim rbmaioia Propor (ad 
voc. 'AfvToi), Joatin'o noeonnt 1007, 
pnrhapa bo rocoiioilod wilb H4'ii>dotaa 
(aoe Kooriclc'a Fbcnu'cia, pp. 46, 4*), 
thoagih it u cot in rtij polpabto 
aooordanot, 

' Tltfitivr tl X^iDi (Ilmid. L 1% 

timot, lit a b T ) Xiyirvai, M rf 

'tpvff^ teA^irp (il>. Tii. 69), 



238 



JUtOUMENTS FAR 



Aw. BmiTC. 



ciue. The fiict of an immignttaon, and the qaBrl«T from nbicb It 
cwao, *i« lumilcd doira from btfaer to son, and can acarcolj b* 
oormptad or forgotten, unless in the nao wlivic Lkv puop!e sinJci into 
absolate barbarism. 

S. If wo Alton-, on tbcwo ground*, Ui« probnbilitf of meh & iaoT» 
raont oa that to nhicli Ilcrodotos n-itOMMB, & <ia»tioa wiD Mill 
ariae as to wbat exactly we are to nnderatand I^ it Aio mi t» 
identify tho PhtDnictunii nitb tlio CannaniteB, and to anderstBiid a 
Hatnitic Riigration from Cbnidim or Snxiami in timea long aatenor 
to Abraham P Or are we to distingDUh bctwcfin thn two lacea, and 
to Tvgard oar author na deacribisg a long aubacquont immigmioo', 
of SnmitMi into tbow parta — a mUlemont of the Phcsniciana, mcf 
OS ve know tlieia Id bistor;-, among the Cannanitni, a |>oopla 
quite a diSorcnt cluunetor ? 

8. It was long a^ tnaintaiii«tl b; tho learned nocfaart,' and it 
has been Btrougly argned, within th« laai few TSan, bj- 
Kcnrick,* Umt tho PboDnidans and the CanannitM wore ono 
tho same mcc. Tho inhnbitantx of tuiTCral towns known to va 
lat«r timoa as chief scats of tho Pboonician power, aro mentioned is 
Oenesia* among tho dcacendanla of Canaan. The genealo] 
biatorians either identify Oanaan and Phoenix,* or mako the fi 
father to the latter* The Hellenistic Jews nse the tonna 
and Pha:nicin, Cniiaanito and PhoDDioian, indifft'rentlj ; and 
is ereo some ^ronnd for asserting that the PhtBniciana, both ia 
Syria and in North Africa, knew thomwlrea aa Oanaanitea to a lat*^ 
date.' Such are the prinoijwl firgnmonta addncvd in faronr of 
hypothesis ; a bold etjrmologist might add Hat PhODOtx is pirobal 



\ 



at 

-a, 

I 

dit — 

.*3 




' Goosraph. Saw. if. 81 

* Plicraioiu, oh. iii. jip. 4S, 43. 
Hi* ntnn riuw ii taken lir Mr. Dyor 
in Bmith'i Gcognphicol SiHioniuf, 
and W tho wrltra of tho articlo on 
Pbcenlcla in Klitu'a BibUonl Cjido- 
liHdia. 

■Gen. X. 15.18. Bldon U men. 
tioned bjr Dane m tbo " &^l^bom " of 
CMUan. Andoi^ Area, and Simyra 
•Mm to ba ntautmled br " tha Arra, 
(lite, Uie ATkito,andtha2«marit<<." 

* Aj SanebonlatliMi, who apcaki of 

Xm toC [vp^av] ittTorvuBntiirrot 
^elrinot (t]!. Eiiub. I^p. l:*. i. 10, 
p. HH. Ml. (tniit.). 

* Su KuiKilouiua (GiuoK Prvp. Br. 






ix. IT); TwrM> St tW XorairTCT^a* 
rir var/pa rdc ♦«»>l«iir. 

• Sco the S(iit^[iDt renkn, Bk 
Ti. ]5,xt1. SS; Joah. V. 11 j Job ili. 
e. Ac And eempaM Halt. sr. tS. 
with Mark vii. tB, 

' AnKnatiaa aan (Ep. ad BonL 0(^ 
Iii. p. 9S3) tliMt th« matiw in U* part 
cit At^cn, ** taletmgntl ijaiil aini. 
I'linirft Tfapondifnt, Cluaani." TImn 
ii aim a ooan of lAodioaa, Um lepial 
upon which has baaa nad a* jjua Ot 
M-mSS nad expWaed aa ■• Uudloca 
mntrin in Canaan'* (Oaaanina, Liai|«> 
BorlptBttMioa Phonleln HoaaaHuiUi 
PP.:T»^S71> 




Bmat II. 



FBOU SATISFACTOIIT. 



=39 



R men tmnslation of XvS or U», whicli is Uio namo of Uio ni 
dye so admired bj tbe Orientals. 

i. Bai UiVito ar^monbi, though plnnniMo, tiro tar trom utls- 
&otory. There is a marked contrast, which cannot fail to Btriko 
the lenat obsermtit eo<|uirer, bctiruen tbe wbolo character of tlio 
Photniciatui nnd that of ttio Cannanites. Tli« Cana&nitca are fieroo 
and iatractable warriors, rejoicing in tlioir pmocing Btoods nnd 
cbuioU ol irOD,' neither given to comtneiv« nor to any of the arU 
of |M«oe 1 tbe Pliceniciana are quiet and ptiiccablc, & nation of 
tralEelcGrv, skilfQl in mtTigntioB and Ed tlie arta both naeful and 
omatnental, nnwarlike except at sea. and wboHy dcrotcd to com- 
msroe and manatacturcs. Again, whereas between the rrat Cimaaii- 
ttM and tbo Jews thero vnui deadly and pcrpetnal bostililv, until 
tbe former were ntteriy rooted oat »nd dcatroj'cd, Lho Jowb and 
Pbcmicinna wi-ro on t«rnui of alinoat purpetnal amity* — an amity 
oncooraged by the best princes, who would Moavelj hare con* 
tncted ft friendaiup with tbe accursed rac«. Farther, if tbe 
argnmeots nddtioed in favoor of tlin idontity bo cxunined sOTonny, 
th<'y will be found to lose much of their foroo upon ii noftr acratiny, 
Tbo tuwiw Si'lon, Aradna, Artit, and Siiuyra, may bare boon 
origi]islly wttlod by one rac«, yot havo paMcd into tho poasraaion 
of uiothor witbont kwing their appellations; just as we know to 
have happened with Asn^OD, Oaxa, and othor citica in this neigh- 
boorbood. Tho gCDCalo^cnl bintorinnfl are n^irtr mnoh to bo 
dopcndod on ; and in tbo ca»o beforo as. they may hiivo meant no 
more than that the onu namo (Chna) precedod the other (Phcenice) 
IB tba eame country.' Tho indifferent ose of Canaanite and Phca- 
niciaii, Oanaan and Phoenicia, by the Hellenistio writers, may 
mandy indioito that the diittinciioo botwoon the tcrnu had ceased 



>Jadmlv.S(*. 22. 

■ So Dr. Slanlcr nimnrka :— "Tbo 
LiitoriM at l^u-nicia anil PitlMtioa 
hardly toDoh. Their rplalian* wvre 
otwayt pMcotnl" <Pnl«tuia, p, 163). 
Uio only opparoBt exooption* cooiUc 
at a tan p«iiMffM of anna b«tir««a 
tbo laraalttM sod tbe Siilonian* in Uii» 
oar); period ot tho Jailgu (Jnil^. x. 
IS, arliKib pcobablT' refinm to tbo timo 
of JatilB. and xtUIsT. 16), wboa It b 
not iwUkoly that Sidoa naa •lUI 
Cwaaaits. 

* The (tatemaul «t HacaUmw |Fr. 



SH) tbiC "rhrrFLicIn irM fcrBIBrlr 
cnllnl OhriMin " (Xra, aSrw vftrtfitr i 
^sivlim Am\<ns) baa brea qnoUd aa 
an anramenl in faranr of tbe olbnio 
i(!«Dtit]' (Konrick. p. 42). Bui iU 
rottl force it tho other way. It i« pro. 
bablj a pMsllol to >uch onraMiuu* u 
tiM follovfnii : " KnRland ma for- 
ni«rlj oallad Britain r " " What li acnr 
TnrKcir waa formurl; tha Gn»k Bn. 
pire." ChangM in tho nama ot a 
conntry alnuMt alirnji Indiuata aame 
cbaa^ ot thr* isbabilaiits. 



340 



I>U(ESICU!9S ASD CAKAAKITCS. Apr. Book 



1^^^ 



to 1» appreciated wlion tliey wrota. It is pdrhapa ft parallel io tie 
indiEtcrcnt nun of Bribun ami Eii(;Un<l, Britoo and Englialisan, 
comiDon among oarfnlvee at tho prwent day. The etatemcnt oi 
St. An^stiu^, tLat the conntiy pcoplo nboat Hippo caUed tUtk 
selves " Chaniini," and ihe vi-rj donbliul mterpr<it*tJon ' of a tingle 
Phcwiician coin, famtHh but ft BlcRder foandatioa for tb« boIJ 
neacrtioQ tbnt "tbo PhomtcinnH boru the name of Cftanftnitea,*" ud 
" knew tbdr country by do other namo tban tbnt of Canaan." * Vo 
nnst bear in mind, that except a single passage of one ecolesIaBtical 
writ«r, and a single logend on ft coin, thoro ii no evidcoco at all tlial 
the Phoenicians ever applied to thomBolvos or to their country Uin 
tcrnu in qnestion. It tectas scarcely possible tliat llkCy abonld nallj 
hare done so, and tbnt no cWiimt vrritt'r KlK>iiId havo li'lt ns any 
hint of it. It is hin perception of this difficnity, whieh leads Boebui 
to suppose that though Ibe Pbcenicians were rmlly Canaanites^ thoy 
wluilly laid aiiido the name, on noconnt of the discredit wbkii 
attnchcd to ntt tboso who wore known to bo of the occarsed nx.* 
Tbiii cuncluaion is curicia»ly at variance with the tIow of Gosoniiu* 
and Keiirick ; it is not very probablo, for a nation scarcely tmt 
TolantHrily hiys aside its own niuue ; but it in far more in aoooid* 
anoe with tho mass of facts, as they liave come down to ns, than the 
ingcnions specnlationa of tho more modem writers, who reganl 
Ouiaanito ds the only appellation by which the Pbcenieians knaw 
tbcroHelres. 

5. On the irholo, it nuiy be conctnded that the Caoaanites 
PhcenidanM were two distinct races, tbe former being the o: 
oocnpanla of the coaDtry, and tho Intur being immigrants at a oom> 
parativoly n-cc-nt dale. Hamttic roera ^em to have been the Snt 
to peopio Western Asia;* whether starting from Egypt or from 
Balij-lonia, tt is imposniblo to determine. Those Uamites were the 
original fonndtTH of most of the towns, which sometimo* ntainsd 
their primitive names, aometimua exchanged them for Samitae 



I Knaw 

es an^H 
rigmafl 



' In the otbv <*tet where dm «o- 
cnr* DO a «via it aigniSM " moClmr. 
dty," and la fdlowvd by tb* nuno or 
oaoiM nf tlio piMM (iippoMdto >Uod 
fn the rvlalion of eolcoues (loo Gens 
ciiu, nt BUpra, p. £63, wad p. Sff!). 
Tbons ii oo (smiii] incluDca nhora cm 
CSC bo OTOD «Dp|ioiu)d to be aiu4 aa a 
taun title of buooar, oquindunt to ** a 
great oltj." 



* Kmrick, p. 4& 

* ILia. p. «. 

' Goc«niib. Sae. iv, M, p. 101.' 
' Liagnn Scdptnneqiw neaa. Mao. 

p. 938, note. 

* 8m 8(t II. Bnwtinmn'a artide ca 
ttiM " Barly Hittorj of Babf toaia " in 
tha &(ti>mtli Tolaote ot On Jmmal 
of tho ttojal AaialJo 6aeiMT, partS» 
pi. ISO, aote ». 





TWO HioiUTioxs nrro fbosmcia. 



241 



k 



ftppellatlons. InsbtncM of ib« former Icind are Uftrftthna and 
lUnllx'ic — till) oii« n naino rcr^ tnt4!ni^l>to tn tbo uurly or Gnaliite 
B&bylonUn,' Uie other oouUming an Kgjpiiaa root and formed on 
ftD EgyytitM model.' 

6. It miglit perbapa be a anffioioDt expUnalton of tlie trodition 
which Hotudottm rononln, to tuij that it nfcn to thin early Uiuuilio 
cuuDection, which was pvrh&ps uot tue-rely a couocctioD of nco, but 
one involvint; actaal migration from the aliorat of the Perman Gnlf 
to Ihose of tho Mediterranean. Of thi« the loco) onme Uanlhna m 
a sign ; for a position on the Syrian eoatit would not he " the w«at " 
to anj people but ono which rcachod it from the Euphrates ruUey.* 
Another si^ is, perhaps, to be found in the Canaimitic wonihip of 
BobI, if that word ia really (as oommouly supposed) identical wiUi 
thii B<il or ll<l of tho Babylonians.* And ibo conqacstM of Chodor- 
laomer, king of the Hamitio Elam," furnish an actual exaraplu of 
tho extension to this qnartor of an influence from the Persian Golf 
in the CusLite periud- 

7, But although the Pheenician story of a migration from the 
Fenian Gulf might, by poaxibility, refer to thig ancient Hnmltie 
morement, it is far more probable that the tradition has a diSercnt 
nriiiin. SemitiAm, ua has boon so often obxcrvod,* originated in 
Bnl>yIonia, and from thig primitiro sent, ttprend itsolf northward and 
wotward. Out of Babylonia "went forth Assliar"^ — from Ur (or 



> Marhi, probably tha arigiiml fimn 
of UaratbiM (compnra the hfttl of 
BoDcboniMlion), i» Iho Mtliiutr^r t«nD 
in tJM mtIj Cukhita or Bamitio Babjr. 
loniaa tm ' the WeM," and fa cipL*. 
olally naed ot rhmaloSa and tha Mrdl' 
tananoBB (•Djim, vt.l. I. p. 4SI, nota *). 

» BaaLhdt, "iliB dly of ItBal," or 
" th« San," comspoiiilii nxneilj trilh 
jftor-WAi'*, "the cliy of Athor," or 
" VcDBf," mcntioiKid by U*rixlutua 
(ii. 41. anil wu tii'to ' od lor.). BiM 
ii «lill bakI n^T " « oit; *' in lh» Ooptio 
or mcdem Bg^rptian- 

IiiiN«an,or^lA->Aan(SeythopoU*), 
WB hars a nanw ocinipo*ad of on* So- 
mjtie aad ona Bamitio «lainaiit (aopia, 
ToLL p. 631. Dot« ■). 

* Tha tnnni the Cunoifuttn Innortp- 
tlonl arc ulndinl, iiui mora il b«0[>inli* 
eridpnt Ibnl HhI'^Icoi, or " tho tuiiil cit 
Shiaar," km Iha real onuUu «! early 

VOL. IV. 




dTflkatEoo. It oaolil only hare baaa 
fmiD thi« oantnl |m*iIion ihnt tbo 
namea of " hrfora " and " behind," or 
RbbI and Woat, oonld hnTo boon i^t. 
pliod to tho roi^DtlTaeoantriM of 811- 
ciann and Fticauicia. Sneh, bowovor. 
Km oniluublocUj tlio limt'IicaUons of 
A'ui'ii and Jfartu in liamito Scxthic, 
act) ot i.'iam and Akhir in Btanltlt^, 
/Tldininilnail being oognato irilh 0^7 
ill llitbrvw, and "olioi" in lAtia — 
wnrtla wbiob in tboia tomaea inilitaMd 

fifitirity in r««ud to tinw, tbon^b aot 
D T*f(ard lo piooo. — [H. 0. B.1 

* It i« ananl to aasnmo tho Uantlty; 
bnt tilynioluicioallr wa cannot bo turo 
that V;3 i* Iha tamo root aa ^a. 

' Soo aboTot tdL i Eaaar ti, C 
(p. 43D. 

*IUtl. ; SI, p.4aSi and E^y 
p. 673. 
' G«iu 1. 11, 



243 



ACCOUNTS OP CTHABO AND TSOGL'S. Ari>. Book ' 



Magheir) depRticd, in aearcli of a n«w bomc, tb« ftunit; of Alnnlunt 
^-and from the same quarter inaj be tnoed Ui« Araian»n tribUt 
which are found to liavo gradually n«oe&d«d the EopfanUot.' Afiut 
from any Uudilion, tb«re is aufficient reason to beliere that th« 
Pbronicians, liico tJiii other Semitic rncoa in Uicwi parta — the Jewa 
and tho AranuDans — wcroimmijraiitSi whose original abodo wMtb^wtr 
Mt»o{)Dtamia. The tradition doea bnt conSnn historically, what wo 
should liavo oonuluded without it analo^cally, from our gcoenl 
Imowlcdgo (if tlic early murt-mcnta of mcos ; and it may tlwrclor* 
Im accepted as in all probability Ui« statement of a real occoirenoe. 
8. When Strabo, however, going beyond licrodotna, attompto 
exactly to determine tlie original babilat uf the Phceaiciati nwm, and 
not contfnt witb placing Lbom "npon the ErytbneoD ac»,"* db* 
covers that certain islands — those, namely, of the Bahnu\ groa[H— 
were tbo fimt Huttlomentit of the nation, from which tboy stortad to 
found their great cities; and when again Trogna Tonipeina nnder> 
talcM to give the cause of the emif^mtiuu and tbo route purxui'd by 
the emigraots — we mast ho«itat« to follow these late authors, who 
ftre 80 ranch wiser than the Father of Uistoiy. The tduulity of 
name*, upon which Strabn builds, is ft weak Brgmiwnt — sa^ 
identity, where it is real, being very deceptive, and there beii^ in 
this case rcn«on to snspcct that it is not so mnoh real at appanat. 
The name of the island, which Stmbo calls Tynis, aeeina to have 
been, not Tyran, but Tylua* — a term aufiicivntly rcmotw from the 
native Zur or 3>ur. And Araiy which is still the Arab name tar 
one of the Bahran ialandB, is scarcely the same woid with Arvad * — 
the trao original of the Syrian Aradne, As for the esistvnoe o( 
PbcBiiieian temple* ou tbeiie inlands in Alexander'* dme, it is not at 
all improbable; since the Phocmicians, ns the great carrien of 
antiqnity, may easily (as Heeren supposes^) have occupied the 
Sahrr.in islands for the ]>urposQB of trade, and have carried with 
them Iheir peculiar worahip. 



■SmtoI. t. p. tfa [Etiitobeob- 
aarrsd also tliM tbo fivrlaat wor* 
"bronghCDpfmitL^Jp" (Amoa li.7)i 
and that Ktr, whioh is auooiaMiJ ui 
oa» text with Klniii (I*, xxa. (S), and 
Bnmud in ■uiotlin' ga th« connlry to 
which tho Iinioliio captii-M were 
traoBtioncil (2 Kimrn ivt. 9), can bo 
no otiiC'r tlion tlic Kit nt iho Iniorip* 
Uont, la8<nitlioniCbiL!diBa,eoalig^Oiis 



to Sonano.— H. 0. LI 

■ UttTMl. vU. 89. 

'Tjlna (Ti\p|) tl tlio torn dmA 
bolh bj jniny (B. M. H SS) aat 
VuAowj. 

* Arvai U i!i<> fim need thfoogkoal 
tho AMyrten iQtoriiitioos. Oa m pi W 
Ui» •^■w or Oon. X. IS. 

* AsiMia Nation*, vol, ii. p. Stf, B. 



I 




GBOmnn FOB BEJBCTIXG THE lIlGBATtOK. 



^Mi story of Tro^D* — tiutt tlic Phomicinrtn kft tlioir country in 
COnceqneDco of tai o&rtbqD&ke — is paorilc; and th« ronto whicli ha 
mnkca the mig^lioa punne, tbon){li not improbnbtr, cnn scftrcoly 
rt«t upon naj better bui> thnn oonjoctoi*. Tb» " AssyriAa Laks " 
— wlierc (according to him) the emigrwita fint nttled — rcprMOtt^ 
in all probttbilit;, ti» Sob of Nedfif, or thftt natami basin together 
with tbo marshoi vfaich luoallj Borronnd it.* A people asceuding 
tbii Enpbrotca on ils right bunk, would ncccsnuiljr p«m this Uigo 
bodf of wat«r. 

9. The onlj important gronniLt upon wbiub the migr&tion from 
tbe Ponriftu Oolf bss eTrr bcrn rejected, are those advanced by 
Moren,^ who dwells iu the lirst pluco ou the aileuce of Scnpture, 
Mid cocondlf on tho Phconicinn mj'thio hiNtory, ui rocordcd in Urn 
work which I'hilo-EIj'blins pat oot under the venorated name of 
Saaehoniathon. This work uDdoubt«dIy MSaiaed the PhumtcianH 
toharo been aboHginnlB. Like tho cosmogonies of l^grpt and 
Bsbjlon, it nuulv the bncuin mce spring op in the oonulry of tho 
writer — a viow which Battered the national Tsnity far more than a 
tnic of early wandt-riugi^ and privations. Out thu speculations of 
I^hilo-nvblius, thoDgh tbey occftsionally throw some light on the 
Flioenkiao laugnage and rtliKiou, arc for historical purposes valna- 
! 1ms.' Tbcj bnvo no claim to bo considarod u nal DAtioDftl 



* Iff. Ktnrtck *BT«, " Tbo AmitIm 
litk* ea* h« lui dXtT tluui Iha l)ead 
8sa> or Iha t^k« at (ieonmarM " 
(Phcsnicu. p. 47) i tmil Mr. Dyer, in 
Us article on PlMBiuaia in Smith's 
OaognpUcal DMiamuy, tuliM thn 
■us rhnr. Tba gromil at Ihi* lUMir- 
lien 'm the Mppond fact, that " ia 
Sontbnn AHjria tlinn ma no ooDec- 
Ikn of water* to wbich tbo name oi 
lake coald bo a[>pliiy]" (Krarivk. 
L a. «.). Bat the So* of Iffdjtf ia rx- 
actlf pack a ootlriction of iraltrt. It 

b a poTKanciit toko of conDilcnblo 
dfpll^ BORMinihid br elllli of a riMl- 
diib aaMdMolM— ia pU«M 40 fast h iKh 
— and eitoDd* in • wuth^eaatnlr 
firacUon a dutancc of 40 mika, btdctg 
a* Ita grtotcat width about 9S tnllca 
ta«ad (a«o Lotlnn'ii Chaldao. p. 4A. ot 
saqq.). Tbo fsmcas " Ctmlibnui 
Karifcta " ara qmto diatiart fnim Ihia 
Uka, thon^ ibej blend wilb it U ibe 
tine of tb* tnandalisfc 



* Dio PhSntilar, nL U. part L pp. 
2S.6B. 

* II MaiiB to be anivvnMlly ai;t««d 
that the work of Fhilo-Bfliliu waa 
cot what it prctcEjnd to be — iho 
tnutilaliui into Qcwik of a Phamlciiin 
writi-rwbu lirad oatloiiKafUtr M(i*«>a. 
The vnljr donbt is whether it v>« Ibe 
mere irark ut Pliilo hiouMtlf, or tnua- 
lat^ if bim Ihnn a nuDoloian ori- 
ginal oc a ooiupafktiTvlf ncnnl dat«. 
Mr. KciiHck JwiiiJaa ia fttroiirof this 
lattiT aappoaition (Pbasnioia, p. S&4) ; 
anrl n^cgcat* that the vnirii waa 
mitten in tk« foorth or tbiid ocntiBV 
bnfo* Cbifrt (iliid. p. soot. Bat it la 
at Ititat a* Wtoly that Fhiio bimaaU 
eompoaed the trc«liM i irhioh,(huu|tli 
called "a nKcnimaa tirtwy" bj pi- 
phjTj (Da AbMineU. U. Sti). j«, to tar 
n* ear oitntfta go, an accoaDt cf t^ 
PbnnioiaD ni7tho1«ST, of wbich (be 
(ndomiDaDt elemnt is Greek [ 



244 



PltODABLG TIUB OF THE UIGIUTIOK. Arp. Book VII. 



tnditionB, heing mythological fftnoics potrallcl to those of Hnnod, 
and cloarlf d*ting from n time iiot varlinr tluui AJoxBDder. With 
nspecb to th« siloDce of Scripture, it mny bo oteerrod, in tlio fimt 
place, tUat tbo argnnusit a tUmtio U seldom of mnch weight ; and 
■eoondty, that tbo slight contact between tho Phoanicians and tha 
JowN cnusca titllo to be said of tlio forawr, to that wo havo do right 
to fool nurpriw At tlio omiMion of any mferonco to their origin, 

10. liVttli respect to tbo tamo at which the migration totik jAnee, 
it ia impoMiblo to npcak with oonfidoDce. tf Tjrf. and Sidon were 
originally Canannitir, and uftcrwarda paaiod into the poasefeion ol 
Phmniciaa immigrauts, wo con conclndo nothing concarDisg the 
date of tbo migration from the mention of thoKo towns in the book 
of JoBhna.* Much Ices can wo dmw any inference from the state- 
ment of Herodotus, that t^io temple of Uercnlca at Tyre was stud by 
the inhabitanta to bavo boon built 2300 years before hia visit to 
that city.' The Tynans wonld be likely to exaggerate on anch a 
matter; and the tciapio iteelf may have boon more ancient than 
tlieir poiueasion of the city. I should incline on the whoto to place 
the immigration in the thirtocnth contury before Christ. This wa« 
a time of incraasing Semitic inSoence, as tnilicatod espocially tn iho 
rise of Assyria to eminenoe.* It was when tlio Jows wore Buffering 
oppTDSsion at tho hands of tbctr eoatom and oontheni acighbonta,* 
the povror of tbcir northern ones being broken. Again, it is 
sufficiently early to nocord with the Greek Irndittons, whioh mode 
the Phuiaicians predominant in tho oaetem Meditermnciin at the 
time of the Trujan war, and spoke of their scttlemcntit in Uoeotia at 
a period still eorlior.* And it is snfEciontly late to faonaoniie with 
Scripture, which does cot introdaco to oar notice the raid artistio 
and commercial Tyrians and Sidonians till the reigns of David and 
Solomon. 



* Hwud. i). 4k 

* Bm kbovD. tol- L Euaj Tii. p. 4G!. 

* The Uldiuuto, Ibo Aramotutftt, 



and th« FhilisUnes (loe Jnig. *t. 1 1 
«.7.*e.) 

* On th«M settlamrata m* sole ' i 
Book ii. di. 49 (voL il. p. 9X), 




bma* in. 



TH£ ALABODl^S OF UEUODOTU& 



ESSAY XII. 



I 



OH TBS AUBODIANS 0I< HSBODOTDS. [EL a IL] 

Tbo Atomliaci «f HsnvlotDi i<lt<ntifli<d with the Vrar^ or pooplo of AnnU. 
i. TtvepMittoaof tko Hebrow Arnnt. 3. ODnnoction «f Uio OrairiaiA 
thwtfTti Tilth IYt Trl-jrT— -t Durtivror AkkiuL 4. BaMmbUncoot the 
wtiting onplojrod b; tho tiro raeoa, oiul probiUilo cocnocUuii ct tli*tr lui- 

1. Tni AlaroiIianA of HcroclotiiJ, joined with tlto Sap!raa both in tbo 
notice of tbe ISllt Satmpf ' itnd in the muster-ioll of tlie atray of 
Xerxes,* aod intcrvcniug ftppiucutly between the Maticauina to tho 
louth itDil the Culcfaiftiui to tbe north, nro almost certamty the inha- 
Ixtsnts of Armenia whose Semitic name woa Vrnrda or Ararat. 
Alanid, indeed, is a mere mriuDt form of Aramd, the I and r bc^ng 
nadistiutfuiahahle in tho old Ptiraioit,' and Aramd sorvoa deteroun* 
ateJy to oonnuut the Amiat of Scriptun with tho tXrarJa or UrarAa 
ot lh6 Inscription^.* It mnst be rumcmbcrod that HcrDdoIos was 
tutncqtuinted wilh the name of Armeoia, as applied to the cuontry 
of tbo Alarodionji ; he osed tbe titles " Anncnia " and " ArroeuianR " 
in eoDDoction with tho more woitcm part of the country, particularly 
with tlukt part of the mountain chain of TanruH in which the river 
fiolys takes its riso;* and although it \» pretty certain that the 
Armenians in his timo hnd rrally extended tlieir sway over thia 
central portion of Asia Klinor, it is equally certain that the uonrccs 
of the Ualvs could not haro been included within tbe limits of tbe 
sncipnt UrarJa, That country was co)it«rmiuctis with Asiyria to 
the south, commencing; at £u/i(nii,iuid it Stretched to tho northward 
probably as far as tho Amscs, comprising within its UmitA the lakes 



> Herod. 111. 9i. 

» Ibid. Tii. 7». 

■ The Aclivmoiiian Feniiu poi- 
•MBod no I. soil OTtiywbctro lliorcioro 
nbslUiiUd on r, M is Biib\ru for 
Bs^oB, iNra tor Bol* to. 

'Tbare i> a Kmnrkablo ccDfuvion 

cf the doDtols in Bsbyloniwi omioi- 

fomii (lie two poirwa ol da nod t\a 

htlag leprawntiei] Iif a (iuglo lottor. 

H tad OBOtlM* ehanotoT haTio^ sIm tbo 



ilonlilo TSlne ol a and thi. Wbnn tho 
rowol «, howerw, termiiiBiu* tho 
name ot Anmt, tho conaoiuuit oiu. 
ploj^ la eloorljr tbo lA, KunrcTiog 
ctymohi|[joklljr to tlio Hebrew o, 
tliuuirh it » iiiobalilD that tbo pro. 
naDoiation moio nearly spprosohMthe 
Amino 3, or the hotd l^ (m ia " the." 

" Ihoo," " that," ^.) of tiie BeElijU. 
* Hated. uTS. 



POSinOIT OP TfEG HEBREW JUtAlUT. Arr. Boos 



^^H 



botli of Tna ftad nratnijob, and lisving for its capital the ftncicat 
cit; upon the former lake, the (ouudation of wluch WM ascribed to 
' Sei&inunis.* 

S. The name of Ararat ta oonstantl; oscd in Scriptora. bnt alnrnys 
to dcDote a countrr ratlicr than a particular mountain. Tbo famou 
passage of Goncsie,* which Una girco a world-wido cdebntjr to the 
came of Aramt, refers to a moantatn range trrut in, and was oii' 
dentood by all the best oarly aathoritica oa Bastem googrophj to 
indicate the lofty chain wliioh cvi-rhung the plain of Astoria to the 
sortliward of Ifinereb, — thU chain, Icnoiro to the Grveks as the 
Qordjasan mouutains, to the S/riaoa a* Moniit Rvrdu, and to the 

Aiahs as J()(aJ Jiu/f, t;^^^ ,V*^,|)^i]giBoreoTn"risitod by Christian 
pilgrims of the present day aa the spot on whtoh the ark of Noah 
rested, and where remains of thosacrod vessel are still, it is IwUoTod, 
to be seen.* Tn other passages of Scnpture^ where Ararat is mm- 
tioncd,' the English Tersion, ftdloning the Soptnafcint and Valgate, 
employs the term Armenia;' and there is no donbt bat that as 



' Thdt thin wu tlis rail country ot 
Arnnt U proved by tlia cniicitarm 
icwrtplloiii of Armenia, wlii«li, n» 
ii wcill known, itn> tuiiiiil aruunil Iha 
lake, but principally on tlio rook form. 

I log tbo acropolia at the city of Van. 

' Ta» BSine ol UrarJa at Anrat norar 
CAM OMDn, it i4 trM, ttironfliOQt 
thoM inaoriptionH, lb« mor* aompie> 
IiMuiro titlo<-f A'airi liN'n^ npparantlj 
used in iU plMO; bat tlio ioml kings 
wtio ars tuimncnitcd, mich m drgitUi 
sod Btlat-Duri, im pnolMly those 
who «a ths AoyriaD slsbs and ^tin* 
den of Sar^on and Aahur-hant-pat, 
are named kio^ of I7rania. Tlio 
enDDifona Inacripllon* of ArmMia fec« 
not, biiwriTnr, cuiliiKiil MrliiHiruly to 
the imiiii'iliivt* riyinity of lake Van, 
tior indeed to tha limits of tlio pro- 
vince of Aiantt proper, bnt nro lo bo 
mnt with tliriLr[i|;huut Ihciwlidlo (<i(«^t 
tit Hairi, — wliitn)ir*r i n f;HM l.liO froti. 
diani or Alarodiuii bad canied their 
arm* j mruiiirtnl cablcU having bem 
thus carrtd upon tlia cnckn nc Jf uta- 
tiyth and at Patoo to tha wo*t, and 
on in the phia of UijtaiuUth to Itio 

Fsasb bw witliin tlw bordM* of Uodi& 

* Oon. vlii. 4. 

* Bodiart has collected oil the 



aothoritiat, from Bergme down to 
Epiphonini, in Us PhuJog, lib. 1, e. S. 
The fdoDliUoatlon of tbo ■criplnral 
Anmt with tbc remorkablo peHk now 
callud A^i da}h, on tlie Atai*a, does 
Dot appear to hate obtained any enr- 
toaoj DDlil mbaoqiMatly (o tho Clui»> 
tioninlloo of tlio Aimsnlan iiBtiaa,SBd 
the MtabliahmcDl of tbo famous oca> 
veot of Klftiiiiiddiia tn the tnunodjate 
vicinity of the Mionotaia. St. tetam», 
at any nue, ia tha Bitt WoMfrn aa. 
thor vlio placed liount Ararat oa th* 
Ames. 

* t King! xix. 87. sad It. rxvdi. 38. 

* Tbo poMBgo* hJero qtiMcd lofor to 
the flight Into tha looaatains of tbs 
•onR of Seoiiaeherib afior tht mmdsr 
of tlieir father i and Atiuat or Ikihtan 
would tha* bo tJ>o fint dlMiict ttiity 
would Toach on aaocBding troia tW 
pining. Their posterity, bowem', ao- 
ocmling to Uos, Chor. 0>I>- >■ c- H^. 
■etiled farther ia the interior. There 
I* still saotbor paaingo. howoeer, ia 
Scriptnm whtm Anrat in tneotiuoed, 
nud irliPTO the Enciiali Teruon pre- 
■erne ths oiginal name, namcty. Is 
the deannelallon of Jeremiah Wudi 
threaten! Ba1>7lan with tlio power <f 
tha klnedoias of Ararat, Miaiu. and 



I 




&WT in. THE CHARDA COSKECTED WTTn THE AKKAD. 247 



«6rl7 M the time of IHrius Iljsiaapca tlie tiro names were oaed 
indifforontl)' in tba cnantry ; for in tKo Bobistua IiiMoriptiona tho 
PusiaD anj Seytliic texts every wUcro employ Armenia for tho more 
ancient Aiuyriau titlo of Untnla. Bnt notwithstaniling Ibis con* 
fuaion, it secma bif^bly probable tbat there won in reality a marked 
otbnic distinction betnwn tbe Armonians and tbe UnrttUiHt or 
Alarodinns. Tbo Iatt«r wcro certainly closely connected with tho 
Soythio inhabitontii of liiibylotiia, whotti) vcrnatiatar name was 
probably Barbiir,* but who were known to the Semites as the 
AUad, while tbe former were to all appearance an Arian raeu, 
baring branched off, as [lorodotos hirasolf affirms/ from tlio Phry- 
gtans, who were themselves of Tbnu-ian origin. Tliis etliuio dif. 
fonmco, however, between Armmiia and Ararat, nutwilh.itniiding 
ihe geographical int«rchangcability of tbe iitunes, is a subject of ko 
mnob interost, and so entirely ojipoat^d to the ret^eivod opinion, that 
it may bo as wdl to stato iu sumo detail tho groonds upon which 
tbe argument is founded. 

S. I'hc conncetion, then, of Unrda with tbe Babylonian tribe of 
Akkad is proved by the apptication in thu InBDri]>tiuns of the ethnic 
title of Hunbur (?) to tho Armonian king, who was cont«mporary 
witli Sorgoa at the commencement of his reign, and who niuy be 



Ari«hmta (Jot. II. 27). in aUiudoa. It 
luaj bo »up[io««d, to Ilia invMlon of 
Cynu. with whom probnlilj tliu iiiirtli> 
era king* were lumcciiiivd aa tribn- 
toriM. Miniii ii well kmnro from Um 
Insetiptioti* bcitii of AjBjrla and 
J>iiB<iiiiii. li«inK aiipiimntt/ lium*iU- 
tluAj to tlu) w«t of Annvti and it 
liaa boManmctimp* mppused— though 
cm innfllciciit cndcDti: — M bo tho 
MOM nam* m Armanla ^hfifAa=^ 
•n— n Bar-Uini, or mowitaitis of 
Ulanl) J bat Aiihch(<nsi hai not ;ut 
b««a raco^iic-d <>tttitT in the IwmU 
■DDBb or in Givok googiaphy ; atuj 
tbtro if sTdTT tiamid to *Q'f>itcl a falio 
rwdlbg in Iho ilubrvw ivil. 

* It t* wtib tame diffidenm I bito 
thia mtdlog for tho natire namo «( 
tbo AUnd.aiil^eoniponadeQiiolforin 
chomotrr which reptMtmt* it, ocean 
Va no othtT word. It iMint, howsTM', 
b> b* a nicM doubled letter, of which 
tboonliuniy po»-tf U Bur; and Bar- 
hH-,£ar(ttr,KidArbtrar«ircU-luKnRi | 




olhnto ticloa, which hftro Mtnnfled 
from Ftnia to U<ffv<ieo. It i« fiiKbur 
curiimi to ntunnnber Ihnt in tbu t'criw 
d ^(cliylut. tlic (,'hcHi of Dnnoi li 
taJMd \>j iDcimlnliijui in [hn Ilarbjur 
longDO (fioAAr, ifX'^" fSaXf\r, L t!n9). 
' Uitrod. »ii. Ii, HUil Stri'h By». in 
TOO. 'ApfMrlo. StraU) in the utreu^nt 
•ia}> confoimclB the AraiDDiiuia with 
tho AmmcoDa 0- p' TU), thouKli t^xfa 
wu ndt in roality tlio allKhtuU con- 
n'ction botiroen thun cithor otlmio- 
all/ or gnognphieolly. I am net 
pr^pand at proaint to soKgoxt m^ 
etf BKilagy for tho nama of Armoals, 
thongh, as I obcnro tliat ina*t of tlio 
anoioat namos of oountrieo wers 
adopted from th«T rnpeetiTo nut. 
tbeoiw, sad tm tbo Gnoks rooognlMd 
AnniwDii as ono ot Iha Ar^nnata, I 
would r«f«T •• a potable doriTatioo tu 
the ^oil ^pmmnti, who is nid ia ono 
of aSa CDneiform myttiolqtrico) liats to 
LsvD been wcsihjppod st liiaM. 



24$ PROBAULB ISVESTORS OF TOE ALPHABET, ^n. Bo9X TIL 



thus irappoiicl to bikTC Win Uu) iminctlmte predeoeasor of Jlrytttitt 

nd Ui« fftot, mentioned iii th« Bekistnn InacripUon, of tbo Anocniaa 

IraJtAo tutrisg penonated XnlmcbodroBSor, the aon of Nabooidus, 

Htronglj oonfirnuttorj of tlits otbnio rolntioiijibip ; but tlicn is 

to proTO wlicUicr tbo Burlur or Akkad of Bsbylonis de- 

in » Tciy romoto ag« from the monntaina to colonic tti« 

a, or whothor tbo Vmrdiun* were rcfngmi of n l«tcr period 

riren norlhw&rd by tho growing power of tho Scmiu«. The 

omutT BQppointion, lioworer, ia moat in conformity with Scriptarv, 

incidentally witli tbo tenor of tlu; InHrriptMiui ; for whito tli« 

lurhar or Alka<t are found in Babylonia at least as <«rly aa 2000 *.c 

' — ^being in fiict, in all probability, the Accad mcntionod in tJio lOtb 

oh&pt<T of (iciicaie ' — there ia no trace of the passage of tlio irJbo to 

tbe uorthn-itrd throtigh Aaayria at any period of liiittoiy. 

4. It wuuld bo going too far to derive tlie Babylonian ooaeiform 
irritiii;; from tbo UrardUm^ altliongb tho Burtiur or Akkad in llicir 
i>ntkcm KMts were not improbably the inventors of tbo alphabet ; 
or we havo no iuNoriptions in Armenia earlier than the 8tb century 
8,0. J and llm artificial ayatem of arron-hcadod signa, together with 
the neo of idcogniplis and determinative, would thaa aeem mora 
iiatnrnlly to have been introdncvd into tho mountain:! from Uu> im> 
mediately neighbouring kingdom of Anyria. wbidi was then in it« 
most fionriBbing state;' but, on tha other band, onteu tbero had 
been an identity of race between tlie Byrbur or Atkad ol tlie soaUi«m 
plains, and tbo Ihirbnr or VrardianM of the nortbern monolains, it is 
not likely tliat tliu latter wonld liave readily adopted anch a mnltt- 
tudo of the BabytoutAn aigna for the common objoctj of nature) nor 
can wo otborwiM explain the dominant worship in the mountains 
of tlio famona triad, the Mooa, llio Sun, and .^ther, which wna the 
distiognisliing fcmturu of primitive Babylonian mythology.* That 



> T«Mn lOi 

■ A fnttlicr proof that the UnuiUana 
fotmcd their ijitflot of writinK fnwn 
ttu) AM^riani ia 10 ba fotiiKt in IliO 
fnut iJiBl tho snrUoat inaorijilion ia 
tka counlTj, odnunoniMatliig natiTo 
kiugn, !■ in the AmjtUh langiuiB« : 
and It 1* to lUa reoord, irhM« Uio 
geamphical title «f Uw kiog ia, in 
the oaaal AHwrUn tkaUon, apponded 
to tho ntimn, that w* uo ladftM..d fee- 
Mr kMwIod^ that thoo* klnM MyUd 
tluMuolree kinga «( Kairt TUa pco- 



rinco, it may be added, whieli tt do. 
■(Ttlbcd villi w) much oUoatebMi of 
dplail in ibo Ia*cri|>tiaa* of AjgijrtBa 
•M<ni in its UritMt bmbv to havn vx- 
ttmlcd alonjc tho mctuitatnii, ftmu the 
fnHiliim of Uodt«t6 Cb] inl 

to hnro thiu incladcd «■! i \t 

■I) llio minor dlviafoiu «t Ariiiaw 
Jliuiii. (be Sapirle, and even northon 

iluopatanua. 

* t mxat hwo take eoeufant to 
modify tho ofriiiion fpvoa in Dijr E«af 
on tbe Ai)«jrTiaii wd Babylonian 




^ 



EuiT m. 



raOBABLE OOSNECTION OF LAHOUACE. 



249 



^ 



w 



th« Aocnd again of tbo Sonth oontioQod to be a cattivatcd and lit*!- 
my race is proved bjr their oraplnyinctit nodor tho AssjTiiui kiags 
in dmwing np compnrntive vooabuIarUis of thoir own language and 
other <luilect8, and by tbcir being pruinotod ev<!n to tho pcKit* which 
aeetaa to answer to that of tbo Ministry of Edomtion aiooug modem 
sationa, and we can tlms undoreland bow tlieir breUireo in Ibe 
laonntaiss camo to be tUu only norlbum people wbi> nitcd a written 
taagnage. 1 am not in a condition at prvccnt to protionnco on tlie 
precise degree of afBnit/ which nwy exist between the Urardian kn- 
guage at prcocntcd to uh in the luacHptioiu of Van, and tbo Aocop 
diaa tongue as it appoars on tbo curly Cboldmui bricks nnd on tha 
later grammatical ubleld of the Adsyriana ; bnt I tbink I can detect 
nnmerona points of rracmbUnco, and I buliuTC Uiat both dialects 
will be found to bo allied to ibu AL-liwrounian Scythtc, witb which 
we are already sufficiently faniilisr. At any rate the Urantian, 
whether purely Scytbic like the Ac<adiitn, or partially Ariiintswd by 
contact with northern nic«S| posscMos, na it wonld scent, no affinity 
what«Ter with tbe modem Armenian. I'ho race speaking tlu^ 
tongoo would riNiUy Kcvm to bavu cuignttcd from I'hrygio, and 
gradually ta bava brought the monntainooa conutiy to the eastward 
itnder their sway, driring out or absorbing the old Uruntiuiis, and 
Bnbxtitnting in thoir pliu:D tbcir own name, langnag^ religion, and 
tradilione.*— [li. C. IL] 



I 



Hytbologr (mpra, vol. i. p. CIO), tlisl 
Ilia pnaopst Armcoiaii diriiiTl jr ihuhikI 
XlmUi, aniworod to tlio iuhur at 
VttmtvXi. Kl>a]df, bcsiig InvnriaUy 
Jdui«(1 with Uio 8uD suil tli« JElbiti, 

,caa oaljr rrpnwent tha Uoon ewl. 

i'kanni M Ibo Aujtia»» a* Biit, and to 
tbe Iiabjltmluii iM HurM or Ilw; 
■kd a tiutpiciun i« tbu* nuMsl lluic 
AnrM or IMinIa may ntlcr all tro JIar. 
mtrdb, cr tho Uooa ooniitrjr, and tn 
tfau* a more vj^oDyia ot Clialdnn. 
TUa eeon«ctiOD of Ut mi KhabU ss 
iwlependeDt namM Tot Uih Uoan god, is 
■t anjr »1« ourioavi and a laDicnuio 
•tjKiokgiKt mljiiit ovcQ Tcfrr Utni\i, 
^roMHia, and llar.raina, U> tbe samo 
■onrce In an Ariaii luugue> 




' Tho SAinu, wbetbor bi^ pricat 
or tnimly lucpor <d tLo nroliir**, wat 
ocrtiuolj ihe nipurintnulitnt, nnJor 
ttid AMjriniui, of tlio litvmnre «t the 
Dniioit : luid in ■otocaI ytiwgw a 
Burbor or Akkod l> nii J t« lure oocn- 
picd that otni;«. 

* la this woy, LOiIeoi], aud Uiia mgr 
01J7, oso wo, I tMnk, aeeonnt for tiM 
Domiilew diaotopoaoy botwocn tha 
onrly Armoolon aacnd nnuM, as yn- 
iierrcil to OS in tbaliiitorror UoMaof 
Uliomach and Ui« same* both of god* 
and kings that ooont in th» Insoriu- 
tion* of van. or In tho Auyrlan nnmla 

which dMCnbO lUOOOSIlftll OXtllMlitlCdUl 

of tbo kinj^ of Hinvreh sgaiut tbe 
wcnotaiBeta. 



250 



K^tUISU-I-BUSTAK IKSCBtPTIO:!. 



Arr. Boos Tit 



NOTE A. 

-. . ittMumndM tli« Mpdchta of Dirfoaat 

XurfiiiiH B^irwIlM urth «f FarMfMHt, brtiiMa dut oi^ nd ir>rg««Bi 
tadMl PMWftadu. It U Mocmt>niii«d hj s Dibirloiuau utd m Bejrttuo tan- 
*ohi<(, which hul|i to drtfrmiiu) tiio iioc rottonktioa cf tho Pcnlim («%lBail !■ 
thi> plnwii whcra il it illegible. Thua coujvclanl nwlcinttlnni am, in tlio 
foIlovriiiK pogDi, prinMi] k italic*. Thnro U bIm • mkiodiI iniKM-i|)tkin M thi 
nuDo *pi>(, nliioh I* In tlio F«niui eliMMitw onlr. Thi* Ittttnr ii in a rcty ba4 
ODndlttdn, uul appcan to h»i« boon parponelf mnttlatMl. It hma not jrvt bo* 
oupiod bjr anj trar«ll«-, bat i* thiraglit, frnm the aptatiag amUtKa, t« bit* 
bera " prooepHT*, not hutortoaL" rrobabl; it ** oonUiniid tho laal aolMna 
nilioouillonii M Dariiu ta hii oonBtijinnD itith nwiinct tu \ho\t taXtm ormimm 
Id polity, mcmlo. and religion." (S«« Sir H. KawliiuOD** Uauiuir ua tbe Ci 
twia losoriiitiDu^ vol. i. p. 311.) 



^ 



Par. 1. Bso Yuuka AiinunnnU, li.vn imAm biimba iwU, hjv swam a>- 
minuniMU. hyniDbrtiyuiiaiUt, livniibiyiiliin aria tnartiy^ji, hyaD&r- 
yavum kliaMyathiyam akuimuuli, iiivmu paruvtui^m kluUj'iitfatjrwBf 
aiviuii paxur&n&m imnat&rain. m 

Tlio KTMt ffod Oimanl, he yarc thU cortli, 1)« gan tb&t beftTcn, bA^ 

STft muikinil, 1)0 gare lifL>(r)tunuutlund : ho niMlcDuitui long, M trail 
loos of tb« i>i.-u|ilu M tliB lawgirccot the people. 

Fvr. i. Adam IXlryATiuh, khBlu&yatblya Taurka, khAh&rathira kluUva- 
Uiif Jiiiii jnkhkliJLfatliiyB dithyauniiin viflpannAnam,kh*Uyuliiiya ahvAj-i 
bumiyi vnotfUty^ duhApiyn, YUhtJiitithyA pntn, ilMluunonislkiya, 
F&na, ninnliyli putra, Ariya, Ariy» cAitta. 

I (am) DoriiiB, the urtttt king^ the king of kinga, the kiag ol nil ia- 
hnhitou cuuiilriuK, thn kitiK of this great mirth (nr and near, ike ecin at 
HystMpM, aa Aduoiuciuiui, a Peraian, tho ion c^ a Fondan, an Jlrian, 
of Arinn daMMnt 

Par. 3. Th&tiya D&ryavnHh kliali&yqtiifra :— VatliiiA AunmaidiUt link 
dahruva iyi adam DKorbdyam apatnnua luwU PiroL AdnniliAm paCln- 

khaniuya. Aland Mjira abam tyaihiim haiAAiBa athaJM 

ouM dkunnra. Ditam t^a maud also ad&ri. Uida. 'I'toja, 

Partlivn, Ituriva, Biiihtruh, Saada, 'Uvanmnlsli, Zar&ka, Hanuntiili, 
Thata^iA, Oudilra, liidiuli, tiiikX llumnvtiryii, -Sakil Tigrakttiidi, 
BiUiiraah, Athiird, AraMya, 3Tii<lrJ^ii, Jrmina, Katapatuka, Saperda, 
Yiina, Sakit tynit/ii jt^radaraya, Skudin, Yuiui tokabftRl, Pu/i'yd, KnahiyA, 
Mjlohaiyd, Kiuk^ 

Sa^a Darius the Icin^t :— By the gn-M of Omia»d tbeee (an) tbe 
DOUntnei wliich 1 havu aoiuirod bmidc* rcrsla. I have oatabliahed my 

Crar over them. They bare brouifbt tribntv to me. That which kaa 
D toid to thum br mo tbey hare done. Tboy liare obeyed my law. 
Sludia, Sutiiina, Parthia. Aria, nnctria, Sr>|{diaiia, Chonumia, Zaranpa, 
Ajiu.'h»lia, SntUji^-dia, Oandnrin, India, tli« Sacmd Aroyr^i, tho 6>akaa 
bowiDon, Babylonia, Anyria, Amhia, Sgyi't, Anponia, Otppidoeia, 
Sapvdaj loikia, th« Saen beyoiid tlw aea, ue Soodne, tho lonuiu who 




SAKUEU-I-BUSTAM IXSCRrmOS. 



2SI 



. bdlWti, tbo Bndiuu, Um Coukuuu, tlui Mksnuii, (uid) tho 

Put. 4. TUtij^ft Cii^ATuali kluili^yiitlii}-* :— Aimunftasti yalH &v&iuii, 

iuuUa bumim yv jiiLrdvn'liiu iiiitrul frAb&nk. ItUin Huhtiya- 

tiliyua •Iraaitiuh. Adnm ktiihili/n/riiyn nniiyft. VMhnil Aiinuiinnlnhd 
lulain^iim s&thini uifoidiiiduiriuii. 'l)/tuhim athohiun, avn nkunnvatd. 
Talha otimKimtt iha y«lijia>liyiL iiia&iyiiAyii (jra chiyakiiniiA, dri daA^oa 
tyA jDiryBciuh hfuitAyaihiya HdArftya pttlikanna diViyii . . i . . hyu 

r0[tliam bimtirk A IchiiliniuLui Adntuynooidil I>nvif£ya 
Fttmhiniiiutitiy«li7iidur(i)'aun .... ill pftnlgMnat4. AdatniyaiuaMU 
bocfttiyiL Pino, marUjnk, dunya hacA& Viai bo/amiu paliyHJaU. 
&yi Dciriu* the Idiis ;— Onnssd, «h«n bo taw that Uia world waa 
lMr«tic«] (or rcbollioiu), bo rendend it nibjeot to my power, flo nutdo 
mo Idng. 1 am king. B; tho moe of Onnaxd I have eofonaod it com- 
pletely. Tliatwhlclilhavetaid to the people, that ibeyharodone. If 
■11 ptutiet thiM roAjwctirel V obMrvo a luio of conduct iwnNmblo to my 
vUnc*, Ihn ■tability wbidi prodncos nBrmanence Hhair bo finjoTod by 
tbiMMi ODontrid* wliiuh Uuriu* the king haa pOHcued (!). Tliu *haU bo 
tuBUtvd tuUi«»,Orul«ru( the Peruao people 1 RipremacT over . , . , (1) 
Tliia shall bo auurcd to Ihoo, Paniaa pooplo I thy niJcr thall inherit 
prcwpcritjr hwa Porsia(T), 
i'lir. 5. Thifiya OitrraTTisb khaUyathljra : afta lya kartnm, ava rifpn 
, vuhiul AuiaiuasddU alcnnavam. Auramaiditnuiiya njiiuUiii ahum, yit& 
I kartam ^unaMm. .Vdm AumnaKdipdtuvahaieMMuni .... utAniaiya 
^^ Titbua, ntA inulm dfthydutn. Aita adam Aimnuudim jadiyibiuyft. 
^^m AttiHiMiiya AuruuskiU daJ^tuvn. 

^^1 8an DajiuB the kiii^ : — That which has been dome, all of it I have 

^^m MeoiBplUhad by tho gnico of Orman). OrmnEil l>roiiitht help to me, to 
^^F that i accomplished the work. May Ortmusd protect from injury [)) 
t mo and my hoiue and thi^ province I That I oonuuit to Onuud. That 
I may OnMwl aooomi>l)sli fur mo I 

I'ur, e. Hartiyit, hyi Annumuddlul tnmtnA, hauTatatyagaatd, xoi thadaya. 
Pathira tyim r^lim md avarada. Mi itatern. 

O, people ! the law of Orman]— that iLurinit n^liiniRd to yon, lot It 
sot p«rali. (Bowan) leat ye ahaudou the true duclriuo. (Bowam) lost 
jt ituuUe (or, l«<t j« opproM it). 



253 



FAMILY or THE ACQ£MESU>JL 



Air. Book ' 



NOTE B. 

FAUILr OF THE ACH-^MENID^. 

pf.B.— ^Iie nunban oarrctiMiad with tbciM in Um fiiimliigiial tnt. 



1. AtmxMtsm, the fint kaown founder of ibo tampy, vu prabaUy L-_ 
ckUf under wbum Ui« Peniani perfonnKl (lie la«t atop ol tlicir lo^' 
Blgntiou, ui<l DUttlvil in tbe eoUDtry whidL bu er«r ainoo bonw theb 
Buna;* U* ia not » idmv i«rM i^nyniiw, lu cii|{ht be thought ftvm Oa 
oonnectioii in which ha oomn in Slvpbi.'n ' and the Etjrinologwuit 
Hagtuun.* UModotua ^re» him hLi right {iLmw in tho gmntiogy of 
X«nM !* and th« Behiatim InRcripti"!) ahuwa ui Uut Ukriaa tncvd 
U* dwoont to him through foiir intcrmcdiato uMMtora.' Herodotua 
•gtin i* quite ooireet when he sHerta that the Pornan tayH funilv w«n 
«iul«d AcWmienidji ; * Uid Nkolaa of D&mucos wm wel) infonneJ wlieii 
ho oannocted the dynulic nnmo with tho hcrw.' Tho Peniaa kten, tnm 
Vrnw to Artaxcrxea Odiua, maku oac cf the titlo m obv la which Ui^ 
gjotj i* and Dariua expnoaly oonniKta tho term with tbo name odFhiagMU 
anoottor* Thu date ol ACMBOaenta ma^ be nguded oa about B.a TOO. 

3, Txlsrsa waa the aon and micooaaor of AduBOianoa, aa appoaa both 
from tho Bchiitun luacription ** and from oar author.*' He anaiM to 



haTe had at Uaat two •ooa, Oambygo* and Arianuonca.'* Wo maj- Kath«r 
froin Diodorua that h« hnd alao a daaghtAr, Atoaaa, whom ho marned to 
Phaitiacea, hing of Oapi>adoiiia.>* (8oo bolow, Mo. 16.) 

3, CAunv.iei 1. ia a peraon whoee exiatonee ia aonewhit donhtfiil. 
Both he and liis son Cyrua ar« omfUed from the gonealoinr o( Xcrxoa, at 
given in Herodotus," aooordiiut to our preeonttvit; andKodanaa, in the 
pnaMgo whore he porliapa ndly namea him, Mcma to intend the father 
of Oyraa tho Great.'* The Cambjsoa, howovor, wlioee aisttr wu tho 
BttOMbtoH, in tho /(furth degree, ot one of the levun oonaptraioia, diould 
be an earlier kioa than one whoae aoa wm MBtemponrr wiUi bo«m 
of thorn." Thua Oainbjsaa ia wanted, on dmooloipcal gnnmda, to sire 



' ngretli, or Partt, which waa tho 
elil IVmion w<ad, ii atiTI Tart or 
ftrtiiloH. T%e ttuBM oiiilinuci in the 
old ptDmN dciiffnntiii); Iho piUTinoo OO 
the I'cnian GuU. <jt nliicli tthiroa S» 
Ilia <uipital. Iran in tU« uatira tono 
for tho whole coontrjr. 

* 8eo Stejib. Bjrx. od too. 'Axav'^o. 
'Ax- 4 Itf^isiitt fu^a, isl 'Ax*V>'Pi>vi, 
III s S A i >/■■. 

* Ctj^ni. ilng. aA vno. 'A:t«i^/nii. 
'Ax- t f)**". if' 'l «>1 •>[ n/pirai' Axni- 
^*fliu- '>^w(r *lii n t pa i It- iiirt' 
tiftai I' ItI ni <tr«i T^ wptwirtpa 
aitti dit t4i 'Axo^. 

* Benri. TiL IL. 



' CoL L per. 9c and eompat* tho 
dMMhad iaaeHMioaa (iDaorip, Ai 

' B«oalioTO,iioU*. Theatttlurilrot 
MIcoIm Ii qnotod bj tho EtTMoloRtat. 

* Sm Sir n. BawliMoD'a Behkioe 
Memi^r, n>l. i. pet IBS, 190, 2QI. tlO, 
K\. 37^ tS7, 2&. sao, 8M. S», 2% 
93'l.3$r,enaa4a. 

* Sratol. i. p.Stf,noto^ 

» Ci.I. L par. t. »i Bw)d. »li U. 
" 8m nolo* on Bodt vii. oh. It. 
** Ap. Phot. {BlbUMb. p. IIH). 
" Loo. oit. " Au. Phot. 1. ■. c. 
** Cjpna the Otml m vaaXetnptnti 
with Dariw, tho^ the latter ta of 



a 



Dora It' 



FAMILT OP TOB ACnXKESmX. 



253 



the MUM number of abiM ia tbi* tim tlist th«ro an In the nthera : nnd 

X'q ho i* wnntad, on ourtArical gnxind*, to fill out tho number of ItiiiMs 
A l)«rini dedtUM tbera to liaT« beeo "of liunui>"'befarsli«luHUMif 
moVDled th» ihrono.* W« vmy tbcroforo rwud CutibrtM I. aa tli« 
■on and mwMCor of TcMpm, and th« biuthor of AnuaauiM and AI^mbl 
(800 NoiL 13 and 16..) 

4. OrkVs I. ia mentioned hj Harodotna, In one paaaage onlf , u tb« 
tallicr of tli« Cambf«oB who married Mnndnnf.* Thi* jiasM^^ it mny b« 
ramrlMd, U inoomiiatibta witli tho gencalogr of lliidlc vii., a> it noir 
■tands, aiooe thera Ounbjraea b tli« aon of TdapM. Crnia 1. wtuilhu boq 
•ad anooeaaor o( Oanbjioa L, and Uio fonrtli king of Fciaia. Uia <iUM 
«■■ about %x. COO. 

6. Cakkijou U.. tlw MO and iucomooi «( Crrtt L, and *h« fatbor 
of Ojrus U., oaU«a tb« Qteat, wot not a mare P<nian ol f&ir fnniilj, u 
Herodotua statfa,* but wa« kinn of th* oountrv, lik« hia aniwilon aiid 
hu i1<af«iTiilgTit» Xenophoa hu atatod tkia * diitinctly ; and bin tUtt*- 
nent ia fully confinned hf t]i« native neordi. A brick broaght fiun 
8aDker«lt ha* the in«ni))tion : — " Cpnia tha graat kinj, aon of Cftmbjaea 
the graftt king " * ~n jikin proof tlint OamlwtM, tbo fBtli«r of PrnH, b 
iudadod among tlie " siuht kitiKa of hia race wbo are notioed bjr Dariui* 

d OrBr* IL, Biiniamed the (neat, doea not require aiur pnloiued notioe. 
Bis EoiuoiM loKription at Uir^ub haa been already giT«a.' He la ncn- 
tloBed intt)eIIc)tutimInKrii>tuin.*inthoOanonof Ptolemy," in Beroaua,'" 
and in .£ediyliu," m ncU aa m Hvrodotua, Olcaiaa, Xcnophon and 
Sariptnro.i* Wu mny gnlkei from Uerodulns Uiat he reigned bum b,o. SAB 
toB.cD29. 

7. Caxbtse* hi., thn inn and tiicocaaor of Ojru*, i* the subject of 
two lon(t poraj^Titph* iu thu Jk-liiatuii Itucoiption,'* by irhicb it njipcara 
that he put hia brotlier Smerdia (UardM) to dc«th, uiTsded E)Kri>l| lo«t 
ttia kingdom to tbo F!Mudo.8mordi> (Oi»nAtoa), and died, probably by 
Biuddo. Hia nuno oceun in tlie Canon, in mMtctho," and in Eju'ptiiu) 
Inaoriptiana," aa well lui iii the ordiu&ry hiBturioui. He is alluded to, 
but Dot mentioned by name, in jf!«chylns.i* Ho aooms to be iataaded, 
in tho Book of Exra, by Aluunuinia " — a n&mo vhioh orthmnuphic^Iy 
correapoinda with the Oreek Xvrxee. 8. mardu. 



coaTin a nrnch joonKOr man (Heied. 
1. 209). At Cwobrata mantoa the 
dang^ler of OMnea (ib. iif. 68^ th«t 
BoUa moM b« reganled aa abont the 
ageetOTTU*. 

■ 8*0 Boh. Intcr.col.I. par, 4; nnd 
oampare Sir II- ItawlinnaD'a noto on 
Dook 1. cb. ISG (not«), ad lin.). 

* Herod, i. 111. 
•Ibid.l.ia7,>dQa. 

* Oyrop. )■ a. I !• 

■ Snpre, rol. i. p. S36, note *, 

* Ben. Inac. «ol. i. par. 4. 

' Snpim, vol. 1. p. SiM. net* * 

* Beh. low. <dI. L par. lOi 

* ItoK- Syntni, t. 14. 

"> mguMMU M aail !&. 



" IVe. 1. 764. 

" The moet remnrknble mmtion of 
hi> nnme ia tho pKoihetio ooo In 
luunh (xliv. 28. and ik. 1). which 

CBdod bit bitth by abore ■ cenlnir. 
p Miagm In which he la introdnoed 
hlMcricallj m S Ohr. znrt. tt, SS 1 
Kir. {. 1.8, Ui. 7, ir. S, 4o.| and Dan. 
i. SI, ri. IS.X. 1. 

■> Col. i. par. 10 and par. 11. 

'• Fn.68aod6gi * 

'• Tide (ttpm, toL U. p. asD. 

" Van. L 76tt. 

" Exru It. 0. ItJi thon|[bl bj tome 
that Atiftioanu here Sa the Ine Xors«a, 
•nd thitt the ArUsenea of the next 
rente ia Artuenoi LongimanM. the 





^i!i 



lijsi tfli UifU mu 



.-f. O-i 



li <d •; 



2 

m 












eu 



U I 






.1 - -EfS 









•-ll-Ooa 



ii#* si! 






3$6 



rAUtLT OP TOE XCasuSiUDS. Arr. Book' 



& Aa«r</(>.tbeionof pfTUS.An(lbtelh(rr of CunlnrsM.wurMlljr Dolled' 
Sorjijra or Budea. Hu Mcnt dutnictton bj hi* hrotfaer U mentionod-' 
in th« Bohistnn InwriiiUon.* OttaiM eallM liim Tanjrontrow.* 
wmild norm to be Ml epHbet m^^njnf " grml i-r aUutu of bodv " ' 
indioativa Uienifon) of Uio Hme nhjnitai Runcrioritjr whicfa is maenbed to 
him tnr HercNkittu.* The nrtiboa of trnnUrrj betwwm CambjWM Mid 
Sraor^, which C1«i1m aaenbM to Cymi, b rory ntdikelv. 

Sl AUitM, th« dangblAT of Oyim, &n<l ri(A «ucoeuilr«fy of her brotW 
C&mbvBtie, of the pMad»-8nMrdi*, Mwl of IXtrioii, i* kn<iim t<i ua chkdf 
from 'HenKloliM M>d jSMhyliiL^ Tbcrv u nu mvntioa of bcr in the 
Iiwcnptioru, nor by way hutunciO writer of wpute,* «x<«i>t H«T«dotu» 
utd itieh iw follow hiin. According to one KoaUDl she was killed hj 
Zentu in » lit (if pMaioii.' 

10> Ariifat<mf wm probahlj tho ToongMt dao^tw of OjmK Am she 
WM not taken to wife by the PaetMo-Smerdi*, w« n»^ eoncliidi: that tha 
wiu not in hi* reign ut marnageable ue. Her mamsge wiili DkHim ii 
rvklvd by ilcroclotna ; < aa bIm Uiat ■»« bore lum two children, AnanM 



I 



Dario* tmder wliom (he temple wai 
flntifaad, boocanlng in that eant Darlnii 
KoUitM, anil tba Ailaxeno* who ww 
con t«Di|>r>nuy with Em and {i^^miah 
bolcg thcD rcgaided aa Uncmon. 
Certainly Iha aaiioemoe of the namea 
it in thie eaa* all thai oan he wiehed j 
and Ihon) i* in eoniiKiaence (esaidnr- 
ablo toniplntion to arlopt the ricrw. 
Uui the fiilknrlng objocticoi* notn 
to IB* lUal 1o it. 1. Zarubbab^ the 
priooe^ and Jeahoa (be HiKh Prlei(, 
who omnnunoe tha bnildtng oT the 
tamplo vnder Oymf^ s.c 6)6 (Gv. iii. 
2), praalila alM over the renewal of 
the work in tlio Mooud year of t(u> 
rwtni of Duiax (ih. v. S). Now (he 
aeoond year of Dariua Ketbaa waa 
K.O. 4S3 ; ff WD tappoie Um to be tho 
kinitwba fonad the docreoof Oymi. 
we ehall make Jeahaa oertajniy, and 
iSenibbabel pnibably, 141 ywirt oU at 
tim Itatt when they rnnew tha boild- 
iag\ Nay, aa Kenibbabel waa to flciih 
the tein|ile (7mA. W. 0), he moat have 
llrod at Iraiit fosr yaani more^ cr 
•llAinmllollu-nirr nf 148. E. Bliaahib 
wn) tho lliah tVicint at the lime whan 
N'ohcmlah began to fortify J«rnnlnm 
(Keb. iii. 1). I!o waa the Krandwa of 
jadma lib. zii. 10), who. oa we hare 
•een, cfime ap to jeruanlnm at Hiich 
Filcat in ».c. 636. If wa maVo tho 
Aitasenea who amt Nobuimnh to 
JmiaaleBa ArtauTrri Unomon. nu bla 
2CHh year wa* a.c. 3t>5, we uliatl have 



tiu- apaoe ef 161 ywa core r e d by % 
fnthnr, a een, and a giaadaoai, thi_ 
falhMr being at leaat 30 wbeo (he 151 
jven benia, and (lie frnadaen bdag 
Mill riiccmna and not («o far m 
BfptKTt) near hie ead wbm tbey ter- 
M{nate<. S. If wnmalca tha baiMingef 
the walla ef Jamnlan eeenmeaca m 
B.C. tSS, we eliall find it impoMbJe to 
brmg tho Tfan ot Daaiol'a prophney 
cf ib» arDcka into aoeordaocw witb oer 
(mppoaed) (acta. Aoeordinit to the 
lowMl oomputaticai, tha yeaia ioUiadad 
amnoBt to 400 yMuai and 99 ytm 
(Ihe longst tcrs for oar Lord'a life) 
ad^o<I lo 39S weald ei*D only 41S 
yiiani, or 62 vnan ahoct. 
' Col. i, pit. IIX 

* Knv IVn. | 8, 

■ Vide lapm. App. Bh. vt. Kot* A. '. 
ed mo. T*llYoIJHir«s. 

* UoKid. i!L 30. 

■ Ibi<l. iii. 68, K. 133. 134; eiLS,J 
ad Ha. i Xtehji, Pen. I&7 ct aoqq, 

* Ctcdea oppeora to have icniircd 
her. The Aleoai mentioned \iy Hoi- 1 
laniena (l^aKmenU 168* and 163b> la 4 
not the wiffl of Ihrioa, bnt the Aaiy- 
rian or Babylonian oneaa, called other. 
wl*o Seoilnmla, who eeeena to hare 
been the wlieof Pal, and mother (F) <J 
NitbonaoMr (eDpta, toI. i. pp. 471 aal 
Glt. Comp. Paaclial CIitmi. P. G6 t aad 
rhoL BIbloth. p)i. 427, 4»). 

' Aipaiina ad Atiato*. Kth. p. 171. 

* Uorod. i\L S8. 



'0 



liont B. 



FAUILT OF THE ACUJEUBXIDX. 



257 



anil OnliayM.* (8m Ho«. 34 and 35.) Sbo vm* of all hb wirei tho one 
whom DuiuM lo^md ImsI.* 

IL A Jfaughttr of O^iis, wboao nanw it not giT«n, vm miuried to 
Ciuiibysw and oeompMiied him into Bfmtt, wham tiio di<d of » nii*- 
cairia^ cansod, u van siuil, by bU bnitaUtj-.' Sbo waa hi* full siat«r, 
tho tUraaktuE of Oyrun tiy Cawandano.* Notliiiig tuorv ia knoimuf bcr. 

12. AniMM, tli« diiut|lit«r of the tnio Smunlis, waa one of the wira of 
Dariaa.* Bbe was Ibe mother of Ariomordiu, who commanded tho 
Moadii and 'nbarani in Um army of Xonoa.* 

13. AriMaman Appears in thu t!olii>tuii Iiiacriptinn among tho ancntova 
of Dariua.* Bo was tho aon of Tuispea. Ilerodotiu montirau him in tho 
gcDvntogj of Xenea.* 

14. Artamei, the aoD of AriaramiiM and father of Byataspoi^ ia nwn- 
tionod with Arianmiu* in tho two paaaagca abora qootad, H« ia i^ 
noticed bjr Uorodoiiuinaaeoond{HUMage ;* and f uruior ho ia raftmd to 
by ArtAseniM Ocbu» lu au fnecnptlun as iu Homo oort tho founder i^ 
the family." 

10. //yntiupu, the son of Annmsa and father of Danus— the Qiutatp of 

Portiiui romiuico — not only ocoiiia in the gonoalogical luta, Greek and 

nntiTo," but likowino appeua in the BohiituDlnicnptiDnaaaotually living 

in the reigu o( IiIb aoa andaerrine under him.'* Aooordiug toCtMiaa, he 

traa sccidenlAlly killed m ho wtab<»ng drawn up by ropea to e:[aiiiine the 

I KadptnrM which Dnriun n-o* lurinff oxccutud for hii own tomb.^ I liavo 

I atreadf'* notictsl the jirobability tliat UvitAapoa was tho roal boir to tlio 

' throne, on tho failure cS male iaeue in uie line of Cyrua, but waived hia 

right in bvour of his eldeat aon." 

18. Ai»t*a, tile ciikt(!r of a Cainby*c« who wu fnthor of a Cyrua, king of 
Peraia, according to Diodonu," miuriod I'htimucc*, king of Oappadocia, 
and wu tmccatrou, in the fourth dryrre, of Alia]>hc« ( — Otiuiea), one of the 
MVcu conapiiatora. Thia circumatonce makea it pivbablo that thia 
Oawbyaea and Cyrus are not Cyrus tho Gnat and his father, hut two 
cwrllarkiiui. 

17. fiwu* is mentionod by Diodurus oa the son of Fhnmncca and 
Atoasb Hotbiug mose is known of him. The uanio is anspicioua. 

18. Bmwdit is mentioned by Diodoms as the sou of Oallus, and Either 
of ArtamnM, who is the faUi«rof Anaphoa. 

19. Artamnt*. according to Uiodurus, ia tho aon of Smerdia and the 
father of Anaphes, who cltsirly tvpieaente Otanea. It \» cnrioii* that 
Diodonu, Berodoltts, and tho Bohittun Inacdption, slionld each i[ivo 
Otanee a different fatlicr. Diodoms, as wo hsve soon, make* hiiii ihu boh 
4>f Artamnoa ; Berodotus uaJua hin father a Phomaapcs ; ■' the Bchutuu 



1 Derod. Tii. 69 nod TX. 

* Ibid. Til. Gi). 

> lUd. lii. 81, 33. 

* Ibid. iii. SI, ad inil. 

* Ibid. tij. 88. • IKd. »ii. 7a 

* Oel. i. par. 8. ■ Ucrod. vii. 11. 

* lUd. I. 309. 

" BesSirlf. lUwIinson's Uftnoir on 
the Coneiform losoriptietUb voL i. p. 

VOL. IV. 



■I Herod. TiLll,and Bob. later.ool. 
Lpar.!. 

" Beh. iMcr. ooL ii. par. 16, cot, iii, 
par. 1. 

'» Km. Pen. S 15. 

'* SapiB, vol. ii. p. «), note •. 

'■ Hnrod. i. S0». 

" Ap. Phot. Kbiiothec p. usa. 
" uuioo. iii. ea. 



B 



358 



FAMILY OF im: ACILit!ME»lV£. 



Art. Boon ^ 



Iiucrlntiou citllalilm "thowncf 7%i^ra''(SocTM).' Thi> ttfitliori^ i 
this aootitn«nt u of coiinKi pnntmount ; Mid tlia coutnulicuoii wliioh ! 
ofloti to DtodoTui tlunn « siupioion on hii wholtt tiorj, l>ut <1om 
pu-liftpt deprive it of all cUim to conaldenition. IHodonu nuy b* iBtmtjr 
wroDg in tna Dame. 

30. Otanf*(i>T Anaphf*),thc ccmtpinrior, «i>pMn In tlie Brliiitun In- 
KcriptiaD, nut quite in tlio [loaition Miigned to bim bjr IkTottntiu,' Uit 
•till iu one of •one pronUnvnce. H« i« there th« aeooci<t in tb* lial ct 
those who usiaUHl Dnriiia.' PtoImMj he owed tfck positiiM), kod tho 
Bpetnol iirivilegol of vUich neiodotiu spMbi/ rather to hi* high birth 
nnd nnfc than to hia wnirina any eUim to tho throne. Horodntus apeidu 
of him Bs emplofod to estabudi Sjlooon in Soukm,* and probtibly inlende 
to npnaent mm u the eonunaader o< the Peraian eontinuent in the anny 
of Sent*,* and alio as th« father of Ameitrii, Xerxer vitv.^ It bu 
boon qnetticned whether ia theao tiro last mms, Oiiophtia, the eon o( 
Otanet, ahonld not bo lubetitntcd for Utano* hiniMlf, on itccoiint ot the 
great i^ of the Iatt«r,* but 1 do not aee the neoeasity of njculing the 
authoH^ of Herodotua.* 

31. /"AiitcliTnit, thodBnght«rotOtan«a,RUimed{aooordiR;toHcTodohii) 
llrrt CfttnbjMa ; lecondly, tlio Peoudo^oiordi* ; and thirdly, Dariiu.'" So 
far u nppuors, nho had no eliildmn. Tbu (Ireek ca«t of Uor name ia 
cuspiciotu. It hea boea oomparedwith Fatima; » but that is Anbic, not 
Fenian. 

93, AfiutMt, the daughter ot OtwiM, aceording to Herodotua,'* of 
Oni^n«aceorditiKtoOt«u>«,"'«aathefBVMirito«>taof Xonee, aadba 
biiu at IcMt live cuildren. Her crimce and enieltiua ar« rdatod by Cteab 
at «amo Icnstb,'* and are glanoed at by Berodatva.** 81i« mny l>e 
Vaahtiof Esthori^wlKMadugraceirasperliapaanlytAmpofaiT- ^ihn lit 
to a giwat BgOt dying, at it would Mem, only a littU boforo lior 
Artaiorxca." 



■ Col. ir. lar. 18. Tlio BahTlmlon 
and Soythio Tcnioiu *((«». (8i>« Sir 
B. BanUoaoTi'i 'Additiunal JIoW un 
tbo Bebiitna laicription' in Ihu IStb 
Tolome of lite Asiatic Society's Jooi- 
na], part ii. p. ai*-) 

* ^aod. &i. 08.M. 

* lQtB|ilierDM i* the Rial {Bub. lose 
e«l. jv. par, IS). 

* Herod, iii. S*. 

•ii.id.iii.iiL 

•Ib!d.*ii, «i, 

' Ibid. Ctraiaa mny bo contiilrird 
to orrvv, (houi;!! lu> niakea Amutris 
the dnozhior at Onophas (Eko. Pent. 
I SO) ) for, like DIodoms, bo nanea 
uip cvii>|iint<ir Ono|>hiiii (^=Aii»plu:i>). 

* See Aa. Boa Juam. riA, xii. jiiitc, ii. 
note nd ia. pp. xHi. xiv. 

* Olonot neod net hnvc hoen mero 
thaa about eighty n( iho Umo ot Ibo 
capedittea of Xeiseii and, a« Mr. 
makoaley lemarfcs (note US on Book 




t!!. oh. 61), his command wonid harv 
been almost aominsL If bia daagbloc 
Plindinin mafried CambyMu In ~ 
t20, at tbo age «f fourteen (not 
tiarly ago la the East), his om 
ria^ nood not ha*o faeon bafi 
*x. Cll, or bU birth (conseiiaantl 
before 1I.C. B60. This ironld nake bl 
rmetly cigbry la n.c. 4S0. Th nay 
biiTo bod a ilauittil4>r liom to tit™ at 
tixly who woulil bnv* b«C(n qaile 
TDonir enrrngb to bars nanuil Xerxca. 

■" lIotod.liL68aad89. 

" By Von Plainer, qaoted in Ul 
Dcto to Book iii. cb. 85. 

" ncwd. vii. 8L 

" ttcfc POrs. Eie, $ SO, 

•' !bi(l. JS40.W. 

" IlOTod. iii. 114. ii. Ila. 

'* Thii trIU <4 ODnrse dsjwed 
on tbo Idtotlly of Xortot with 
AliasnemsotEtttlinr. (Sm No. 28). 

" CiM. Vm. Kio. { 43, ad ' 



m 





Kona 



FAMILY OF THE ACH.CUEN'IDA 



259 



Six Pitlirampiii, tbc charioteer of Xcnteo, ia (Otil to havo been the son 
of OtMiM, " s P«Tsiiu)." ' It ie nncortiuii wliotlter tho Otaiics iotmided 
u the con*|>int<ir or Dot. Thcra w«t» at lout two other pmton* of tlio 
nano lirinig About the ume titno ; * and of cuuno Uiciu lunjr Imvo been 
•evuMkl more. 

34. Arum!,a», tho eon of Ot&nei, wlio comm&nded the Oisnana ia the 
army of AerxM,* is klmuet Mrt*mlv » eon of th« Goni[iinktor, or the 
name* would not Iiato been confbuaJed. Bu nMy perhapi be tlie bther 
of AaiMtru. 

2&. Dutttrs, Um eldeet eon of Hyetaepcft, U the Purtko )nag who hae 
left by far the meet coplooa reoorde. Ikadce tli« BcbUtim IiMoription — 
th<! most prccicu* of all cuneiform documpiit* — bo has tuft iiitnuoriala 
wliich may atill be noA, at PcnvpoUs, at KlwauJ, at Naltlisli-i-HuKtam, 
and at Suei.* Btnodotua declaroa tliat h« wt up pillars with iucrip- ' 
tion«, on* colnnui of which was Greoh, in Eorope.* lio is alutoet 
oertain]]r the noaiarcb under whom tho eeooDd t«inpl« wna finished ;* 1 
and thofl his namo appeara iviiBatedly in Scriirtun-/ lie is Itkowtsa' 
nentioaed ia the Oanou of Ptotemv, in Iklaneth^* iu ^icliylua,' in tha 
FngiMDta ol Pbeivoydoa,"' of U«llaniciis,>' and of AbydvuiM." It ia 
iiniieMetaiy in this ploco to nivo an account of tho cvontu of his reign, 
which oeeupj the diiuf part of four books of Honutolut' lliitory. 

Sli. Artabasanrt, who is called Artenieuea by Jiialiu," and ArianiRncs 
by Pluteroh,>* ««e the eldest son of Dariua, bom before he came to the 
throne. His mother was ■ danshtor of the eoupirator Gotvyaa. Mo- 
tbing is IcDown of him bcyimd Uio fact that he daimeil to auooeed his 
father, but was obliged to yitkl bia cUini in (arour of Xeriea.*' 

37. Ariabtgtia, who was one of the chief oammanden of Xerxes' fleet, 
wsa own brother to Artnbwtiuica," Ho fell in tho battle of Salnmii. " 

38. Xbbxbb, the oldest of Darius' sons by Atosaa, th« daughter of OyrnSf 
liae left reeonu at Perseipolia, at Van, and at HamsiUn.'* Hie innMioa 1 
of Qf«eoe «u witaastedand rooordod by .£»chylus.'° His name appean 
in Ptolemy's Canon and in Monotho,"' while his actions are renndod 
by the Gnek wiiteta gensnllj. Ai the oame Ahaenerns (K'l^t^^ is 



' nctroa. ri(. «. "MiAttUp«W 
' Otaues tlio son of KUbiiuiri 

fHcrod. r. :!l)),aoil Oiaara tlio Lrotlior 

«f Darius (UotdJ. vii. 62). 
3 Ibid. *ii. St. 

* gcc sir U. Bantliuon's Ifexnob- 
on Ibo Cuncifonii liiapripliun*, vol. I. 
pp. £Tl-3lfl| aad db the Sues ttoaf^ 
ride eopea, toL ii. a. ZtO, note *. 

* Herod. It. S7 and 01. 

* Sm afaow^ page S5a, unto ■'. 

' Esra IT. 6, U, T. G.7, ri. 1-14. 
"Duiiia {A4 XtJe," hOw«T«T> in tliu 
Book of Dsainl. is a dUfcnnt penon, 
a« also la the Darlns ntentkmod In 
Nehemiah xli. Si. This last is Doriua 
Codomannas. 

■ rnwmeats 08 and 60. 

* IVmCTT-SSS. 



» Pr. iia. 

" Pr. 166. 

» Pr. H, ad fin. 

>* Jiiatia, a. IOl 

" PJut. do Prat. An. Ii p. 4S3. D. 

" !!«od. Tii. 3. PjQtarch and Joa. 
tie giTo a romnntio turn lu this stury 
by rtptesentin; Ibo cuntniTnny itf 
laiMd atl«T tho death of Dario*, and I 
amicably roteiMd to Artatwans for 
dcciiloa. 

" Hwed. Tii. 97. 

" Ibid. viii. 89. Compnre rint. 
Tlmnisl. o. 11, and Died. Hk. xI. 1M. 

" See Blr U. Bawliiitoo'a Monuiir 
on tho Cnoelfonn Inacr^ptiuas, Tol. 1. 
|>p. 3194S9. 

■* Sau the Fenm. pavim. 

■* EiagneDts 66 and CO. 



2G0 



FUULT OF TUB ACII-GMEKIDX. 



AtP. Book TU. 



the utnnl H«breir TepNaentotion of tbc r<;rniin word wUi«]i the Grc 
rwdcnd by Xerxos, vi&. Kithamnlut ; ' un J >ji Ui« <lMorij>tioii of 



! Grcolu 

A]i«niMnuof Erthor oocord* wclf with vlmt wo know of thio Unniwr of 
Xorxc*, we uc perlwpRJustllied iu luaiiming it u mart jwoImUo Hut tho 
prinoo who ditsrana Vatlici, aiid oiiule Extlier hit quMn, «m Uiti wMt 
AitU Huocwaor 01 Dtiriiu.* Yuhti nuj in tliia com liar* been Amoilrla, 
lutd thongh dojiriTod for m timo ot tho positioit of sutUna or diief wtfe, 
nuijr hum boen icrtorcd to f«rour atterwArdi. 

29. l/t/ttatpa, a Bon of Darius by Atom, oomniuid^d tliu Boctrians 
And SMcanB tn Uie aimy ot X«nc*.' Ho wu pro}nl>ly llie fittber of thu 
PiMUllinM who held uio L^dian «atn[7 a ItltJo beforo tho bnwJung out 
of th« Pclopanncniiii War.* 

30. AtAtemm**, another ton oE Duiut hj Atonn,' mu made witrnp of 
EgTPt aft«r its rtrvolt iu n.c. 497>* UMaaipaaiud XerxM aa oomnuider of 
tha £en>ti»n contingent in hi* fle«t,* and probably oontinuad aatrap tiU 
tho rfiVoU (if Inonu. whim ho wm aloin in tho grokt bftttlo of Papi«aui, 
b/ it'liicli Kgyi'tian mdepMidetice wiu roooTcred.' 

31. jWiNitfM, ako a aoa of Darins by AtoMa,* wa« one of the raperior 

Enenls in tho armjr of XoTM*. H« hdd the ntrapy of Baotrfft : and 
tag ill-iucd by Xono*, wu about to rsTolt, when bjr tho King*! otditn 
btt was put to d«*th.'° 

3S. ArlasoHra was a daughter of Diuiua bj Atooia." Shs in&nied 
Ibrdonins, tlio *on of Qobryae, nboiit b.c'. 492 or An. 493. 

33. Ariomardiu waa n «on of DoriiiR by Paraiya, tbo daiqtht«r of tlio 
tnio Smerdig, Uu oomsuuidcd thu Mouht tud Tiborcni in tbo army of 
Xcrtea." 

34. Arttma wu a son of DAriiis by Art^stAnf , liis fnTonrito wif«. Be 
eonuaonded the Arabian* «nd Etliiutiians in t)ie amiy of Xorxo*." Pro- 
bably h« ia tho Ar«aniea coUod by .jfuchylu* {pyrtmoi of Momphia,'* who 
poriahod at Snlauiii, ooecnliag to the auno Authnr.'* 

35. Oobruiu ma aUo a son of Dixnua by ArtyatAu^. Be oommandod 
the Cappadoeisii*, tlM Hamudyaiani, and tlio Ligyana, in tbo army of 
Xemea." 

36 nnd 37. Abrotomm and llteperanihu Win Bona of Doriua by hin 
niooe Phr^tat^ini.', tlu> daughter uf hii hrothor Otancs. Alt that we knuw 
of th&in is th&t tliey fell in tlie final itnig^le at Thvnuopyln;" 

38. ^rtam^ruM vriuaBonof Darina. Hu mothor it not mentioned. Ho 
commanded tho Utiana and Myoinns in tho army of Xerxca." 



' Tho ptoathetio a wu nltrara pnt 
by tho Bebrewa brforo iho Pornaa 
KhA I and tho mbitituLioii of r fur y 
('I for •) naa aUo a comniou <tiELtut:(io 
pocoliarity.— f U. C, H,] 

* Thia ■Pcnis to haro been tbo 
ophikai ot Uoorcn. (Se« his >ln,iiaikl 
of AnciOiiC Oiitory, p. 11)3. K. T.) 

» Hcwd. »iL 6*. • Thiicjd. i. lis. 

* fierod. rii. 97. * Ibid. vii. 7. 
1 Ibia. tii. 97 

■ Ibid. ill. 12 and vl. 7. 

■ Ibid. vli. SS. 
" Ibid. 1>. 113, » Ibid, Ti. 43. 




" Tlerwl. Tii. 78. Thi« oan awuivly 
ba tho ATionia.tiliii wham .Aachyluv 
mnkca goronior of Kgyptian Tbebee 
{Vtftt. S7. 8S), and who ia rsrmamted 
IU amooff the Sleia >t Ealaioia f'b- 
016). 

<< Hnod. vlt. 69. 

" l-nt*. U. M. »7. 

» Iliid.1. SIOl 

» neiod. Tii. 7». 

" Ibid. tii. 2a4. 

" Ibid. vU. 6a. Thia mafcM Ihf 
tw«>I(th Mil of Dariu. Hellaniona 
gtTO him only oleren (Ft. 108). 



KotcB. 



FAMILY OP TBE iCOMHESlDJE. 



261 



SO, There vere tevcrkl ilaiiglitcn of DoriuM ronrricd to goncnl* in Iiia 
Miay : one to Utan«* tli« «oa of Sinmooa, anutlier to Dsunsea, uiotfaer ' 
to Hym«M, and othora to otlwr gtfnentla.' Among tboaoniaf be ineluded] 
Uandaef, the wife of Artafotcs, irhoao three vnnx wrro takou prisonon ftnd 
iBcnfieed hj tho Gncka bvtoro thu battle of SiUiiiiiiii.* 

M, DaHai, or «i Ct«sia« mar« eorr«otly givoa the luuno, Daniatu,* 
ma, McorditiK to him; tli« oldait ton of Xgnet, bjr AmwUs th« dant^l 
tar of Onoplia*.* Ho u mentjogiod bjr Horodotua* aa aiaiio by hia hther 
to many Artayntn, tho daughter of &lMiri«a, who wm tlim hi* first 
ooiuio. Ho wDH {lut to death bv hia younger 1iTotli«r Artaiurxtu, ua th« 
chaige of liariDg aasHiinatod Xcnua— « <niBft of whtch b» noa quits 
innooont.* 

41. Hyriatpa, acoordiDjc to Ctcnna, was tho mcond >od of Xonp* 1^ 
Ameittia,' Aa Ctoaiaa aaya Dotliing «E him at tho timo of Xcrxca' dcnth. 
we Daf BUtfcct tUiit ho had died Wore Us father ; otherwise be would 
him Men the heir to (he tlmn* after the exocutloa of hia elder brother.* 1 

42. AnTAXBHXiM I., saroamcd lioneimiuiiiji, via tho third ton of Xerxes, 
it we inaj> beliere Otcaina.* Uc won a m<.'r<i boy at tho timo ot hin fAthor'a 
mnider, and did not mount tho throno fur seven months afterwordi,— 
tlie captain Artabaaus, who had murdca«d XarxM, harug the t^yal 
power during the interval." Artaxonus fttisneil forty years, from iLa 
4CC1 to D.c. 42{t." He nuuried Uamaspia, and had ono only loijitiniato 
child, Xcrxc* II." Uo is mentioned bj Herodotus onoe," by Thuoj-dides 
frequently." Both writers were hia cootsniponriea. Tlicre is every 
reason to believe that bo was tho king who sent Ktrn and Nohominh to 
Jermaloni sad tanctionod the restoration of tl» fortifieatiou." A brief 
Aotdi of his Kogn ii ooatKiued in the epitome, wfatoh ia all that we 
pcMsaa of Oteabai*' 

43. ^rtsritu appears in Cteeiafl aa & hnlf-brolhcr of Aitezerxcs, beins 
the BOB of Xerxes out not of Amestris, Uo is stud to hare been satrap of 
Babylon ondor Artoxerxcs." 

44. Amgtit, daughtor of Xorxes hv Amestris, msrriud Mi-cab}-zus, son 
clZopjms.'* According toCt«MMshowiisToryill-conduot«ir,aBd Anally 
deetrcved henelf by hor irreguloritica." 

45. RhoitoTvnf waa also a duughter of Xcrxce by Amestria.** 'So par> 
tioidara are knovD of her. 




■ nerod. r. IIG. 

■ Sec the account trUch PIntarcH 
CTetessie lo lako from rlmoias ot 
Bresna (V't- ThomicE. c. 13). Tba 
Artsyctee JntcDcJod in probstily 1I10 
euvomor ot S«sl«s (Hun^. ii. IIA). 

■ The nsUvo name Datyavuth is 
better rciireseatod by Danime than 
by Darciuf^ 

* CtM. Exe. Pm. S SIX 

• HcNd. ii. 106. 

• Clss. Bn. Porn. { !& 

* Ibtd. S sa DioilunM makM hlta 
the third son (li. W). 

•Ibid. I £9. *ii»a. sso. 

" Ibid. VI 29,30. Compcm Jiutin. 
iil. 1, Dod blod. tik: L. s. e. 



" Ri-o Clrnton, P. FT. toI. IL p. 380. 

" CiM. 1-urs. Etc. j 4L 

» Herod, ri. 98. 

" Thnoyd. L lOV, 1S7, IL 67, W. GO. 

>* £m m. 1, Ac. Knlinm. ii. 1-8. 
The irre«lc8 ot Daniel, t>owfT«T they 
arv rcclcoDKl, am only coimt from tlu) 
rcifin <t this prince, br wlic™ the 
oommsnd to " toslora sniJ bnild Jcra- 
solsm — Uie ebeel and the Kail;' was 
Riven. (Conmre Kvli. ii. 8 witli Ilau. 
U. 25.) 

■• Phot. BlbXothcc pp. US-121. 

>' Ibid. p. 121. 

■• Ibid. p. IIS. 

" Ibid. p. 117 and p, 1 2 1. Compare 
Diop, Pr. «. " Ibid. p. 116. 



3fa 



FAUILV or THE ACn.£MK:NtD£. Arp. IVdok VIL 



m 



4fi, XbkxkII. «utli««Btylegitlia)rf«>on of ArUseriM Ixmglmiuiii*.' 
B« r«i){iMd (or two inontha, whan be xn* muntered by bia bnlf-brotlmr 
BogdiiuMU, lui ilU^timnto (on of Artoscrxc*.* 

47. Piuiilhfut was uTDlably « aon of ByfttAanra, Uie liroUwr ot Xeriea. 
n« wan Mtnp of BMdia in ii.c> 440,' » poal vliicl) he Menu to hiiT« Mill 
occupicfl ID n.e. 4S?.* 

48l Arfa^ila n-wi tho dkuuhfcr of llMi*t«*, th« Ivotbor of Xcnoa (Xo. 
31), She wu givuu in mormt^ to Imt fint cotuin l>Mitu, XcrXM* «1<l»t 
aon, l);r ooinmiitiil of XerxHi, vlu> tlioU^t thareby to pltMo b«r nu>tluir> 
Aftonrarda Xcrxca f»ll in lovo with ber binuotf ; nnd tba intriguo wbidi 
foUotTDil loll tfl tho ruin both nf Iter fittlinr and hor mother.* 

40. Arlantf waa o bruthur of Dfti-itia. Uk hud only uno diild, a dftUKh- 
ter rAinod Plmlwia^i vlio vm tnktMi to irifo bjr licr uuchi l>arins. ao 
is aaid to havo msd« her hit aol* b«ir.' 

I>Q. PltTotar/jiH^, wlut nmrricd bcr unelo Dnriu«, v»» tho raothar of 
AbrocumvB tuiil Uj-penaUin, the tm) hodi of l>«ritu who (ell al Tbor- 
mopjlKv* 

IVl aii'l G3. OfitfiM, tli« brotbor o[ Dorina, la mentioneil hj Herodotua 
onljr, nn<t in n sin^lo piuug«.* His aon 8m4rdMn«ntt wM ooe of tlio aix 
■upcrior commimdwii in tlio army of Xotxw.^ 

bli. ^riiilidiiuj ii tho most di*tui|fuishcd of all tlie brothnvof Dttritui. 
Ho la rr»pruBL>ti It'll a» obeoking tliu wa^likl^ t<riid«iiek'8 u! both Darins" Mid 
X«rxc«,'* toWArili tho latter of whi'!\i h« !W-U aa a iiorl of Mentor. Ilia 
four ion* aocin to ocouny poaitioni of inipciH-ftaco undor Xerxca." 

M. Tritnntatkmfi, ti)o aon of Art<ibaimi. was on<.' of tli« six auperior 
seiwr&lii of tbo miuy of XorsM." It is not IniiMMiblo tJiat lio may havo 
beon satrap of Itabyioo at th« tinio of H«rodotua' visit. '^ 

ftfl. Arltjiihim, K-a of an Artabanua, commniuled the Gaadariana and 
Dadicfli in thu nrmy of Xcrxos." It ia not aaid thn*. Uio ArtAbauua in 
question waa Xorx««' undo. 

66. AriiimordHJi, Uri)th«rof tlio Artyphios just inentjoood, oo mnum ded 
tiw Casniana on tho same occnsiun." 

SI. AiaiuuMi (of Bimae^), tho son of an Artnhnnna, oomnundod tlw 
Aijatio llmclan*,** t.«. the Thyiiiiuis and Bithvniaaa. 

DS. Artaphfmet, a b*If>krc>ther of Uarius— the son of H)rslMp«s bjr » 
nito wlio was not tho mother of Darina— waa left by him as satrap at 
Snrdia on hia return from SRytliin.'" After suppveasing the Ionian revolt, 
h« made tlie tuliag irliicb woa in tcKo throughout Asiatic OrMoe in 
tho ttmo fif ITt^odotus.*' Ho was tlie father of tho Artaphones who 
nooDinpimioil l>AtU to Manthon. (Seo the neit namo.) 



• Hiot. BJbbetluic. p. ISl. 

■ Diod. Sic. xil. 71 1 Us&eUio, 
l!'iO(l:nioilIa fiS and Uli. 

■ Thuovdi i. US. 
' Ibid. iii. 81, 

• Berod. it. 108. 

• Ibid. U. US. 113. 
' Ibid. rii. £24. 

• Ibid. 1. a.©. 

• Ibid. Til. B8. 

'<• Ibi'l. L a. o. nad til 131, 
» Ibid. IT. 83. 



■' ncrod. rii. 10.18. 40.G3. 

" Sco tUa foor tolkiwiug nnmbera 
at. DS, BO. aud &T>. 

■< Herod. vU. bS and 131. 

I* Bets howVTOr, note* «■ Book >, 
A. 1S& vhero Um iiiv>-«tabv(t(]| of this 
iianraod. 

" Uorod. rii ce, 

" Ibld.vii.e7. 

'• lliid. Tii. 75. 

* Ibid. T. ?5l 

»• Ibid, »i, 41: 



VonB: 



FAMILY OF TUB ACH.CMEHIDA 



3<33 



69. ATlaph«rne$ Ui« yotiiiger, irlio AMompanitd Datia, b t^d to liavd 
been « ii«plicw of Dftriui,' bdiI nmy tltcNforc bo furtj rcgtrdvd m tho 
Bon of the Mtnp of Saidia. Ue ftppcon to Iiavs liul little to da witli tha 
conduct of ib» sxpadition. 

GO. A Suttr td Doriu* b nid to Imta mrriod Oobtyu, tli« conililratoT,* 
but her DAino is Dot oiTcn. Tbcir Uauo wu Mordotutu. (Sm No. 61.) 

fiL JUanbiifw, who wu in so andi fkrour both with Dmiim* uid 
• with XcrXM,* b uid to twre be«D th* ton of Oobn-na wid of • sUter ol 
Daritu. Bo Darriod bia fint coiwn Arttmoilra (No. 3S), d^uriiter of 
Dariua and Atoau, and full (Utor to Xanaa.* Heuoo perliapa ua great 
infliienc« witb tb«t nuinnich. Hia actiona an too well known to iMad 
raoapltubllDg. According to Ctealaa be vaa woonded at F1at«^ aud, 
b«iiig aftarvaida scut by Xerxca to plunder Ddpbi, vaa tbere fciUei bj 

HI and 63. Another tauter of Darina miuricd Tcmjhm, ot whom wo kuov 
I notliiog exoepi that lie wiui the fatber of Satatpea, who waa required aa a 
p*uu>oo to cfieumiut i^jiu> Africa, and failing to do ao vaa Lin{«Ied bj 
Xcrxca.' 



■ Emnd. «L H. > Ibid. Tii. 6. 

* Uud. riL B, fP, de. ; Tii 07-ra, 107, 
tie 



* Iblil. ri. 43. 
' Ibid. ir. tf. 



THE EIGHTH BOOK 



or Tfli 



HISTORY OF HERODOTUS, 



ENTITLED CRANIA. 



1. Thk Greeks engaged in the pcft-Borvieo irwe the following. 
'The AUieniaua famiahed a hundred and twenty -Mvvn vossele 
to Hio fleet, vbiclt vtexe mitnned in part hy the Plottoiaiu, irho, 
'.ibODgb unsldllcd in such matters, were led by iheir notive find 
Soring spirit to undertake this duty; the Corinthians fur- 
lUHhcd a contingent of forty vessels; tho Mogortons sent 
twenty ; tho Chalcideana alBO manned twenty, wbieb had boon 
ftunished to them by the Athe n i ans ; ^ tho Eginetana came 
with eighteen; thu Sicyonians with twelve; the Lacedie- 
monions with ten ; the Epidaurious with eight; the Erctrians 
with fievcn; tho Trajzonions with fire; the Styreons with 
two ; and tho Ccans* with two trirenicg and two peuteconters. 
Last of all, the Locrians ol Opus came in aid with a Bcxuadron 
of »evcn pontocouters. 

2. Bucb were the nations wliich furnished reesels to the 
fleet now at Artomisium; and in mentioning thvm I haTC] 



* Th«K Clintciilonoii an) bcjcnd n 
ilonbl the Athuniun «I«ni«)it or ckJo- 
nliU. Bctllcd oD tho laaila of Uio Qip- 
potdlB) at (tic tluia ot tho (ocood 
inrBKiuii of Cleomrniii (lUprQ, v. 77). 
Ttteir nambar, 4000, wuukl oxocUy 
nfileo l« muk SO uiremo*. 

* C«M, oae «f tlio CjrcUdei, cow 
Jala n ^ta, lie* oil tbe jiivuumMTj ot 



SuniuD, at tho ^bUiiivo ot about 13 
milw. It in aboal IS mUm lonf bv 
S bcwd. Like 1^ olhcT Cjolmka ifc 
wM arigiaallr ooloftiMd from Aihniia 
(loin, etu 40), SimotildMi, ttm lyru- 
|io»l, and PruUcui, tk« •qihixt, btit}i 
natito* ut Ct««, b>T« m%ia il dm* 
faaone lliau niaajr o Uuget place. 




Ciur. 1-i. 



CnUKUID OF TnE OREEK FLE£T. 



26s 



given the nnmlicr of eliips furnislioil ^f oacli. The total 
number of the ehipa thiis bronght t&getJier, without countbg 
the pimtccouters, was two hundred and seventy-one ;' find tliu 
captain, who had the chief command over the whole Qaet, 'w&s 
Eurvbiades, the son of EutycleideB. He was fumiRhcd b; 
Sparta, tiinee the oUius had sold that, " if a Lacedaemonian 
did not tako the oommand, thoy would break np the fleet, for 
never would they serve under the Athenians." 

8. From the first, even earlier than tJie time wltcu the 
embassy went to Sicily * to solicit ollioQce, there had buun a 
talk of intrusting the Athenians with the command at sea; but 
the allies were avcnto to the phui, wherefore the Athenians did 
not prctH it ; for there was nothing they had bo much at heart 
as tho solvation of Greece, and they knew that, if they quar- 
relled among themselves about the corammid, Greece would bo 
brought to ruin." Herein they judged rightly; for internal 
strife is a thing as much woroe than war carried on by a 
united people, aa war itself is worse than peace. The Athenians 
therefore, being so pcrHuudid, did not push their claims, bat 
waived them, so long m thfy wore in such great need of aid 
from tho uther Greeks. And they afterwards showed their 
motive ; for ut tho timo when the Peraiaiis had been <Iriven 
from Greece, and wem now threatened by the Greeks in their 
own country', they took occasion of the insolence of Fausoniaa 
to deprive tho Lacedfcmoniaus of their leadership. This, how- 
over, happened ofterwarda.' 



* Tbii number »r«M «xact1j with 
tlw MtoMmont of &« MT«ra1 conlin- 
IC ft to ■ ttn DDomtl clmttDiMQca in 
aur prwant ooiiUa of llorodotiu. It 
in coaSrmed bj Dimlomt. wlio uiakca 
the bet ooniiat of 'J80 trmnum, Imv- 
Ing OTidoQlIf ooonWd u taieii tbn 
bIb* ptDlccoDlcn (xi. 12). Wo may 
eoftk* k fair MtLnialo of tho mlulfo 

iibtbI iilm>i|th of lliu jiritivipa) Qra- 
eiaa atMes frDm Ihk catakffoo, oom- 
Uned with Uio Uit of tbo coatingoiiiii 
whkib fought at S«lft«li. It u doom- 
MT/, Uo*OTM , to beor In mind, iliat 



Kfrina wM nnniBff bar rtKneUi (iufn, 
«!.. 46). 

* Sacm, rii. US, «t Mqq. 

* AUieiu prud^ntlf nn!vi>(l htr 
elftlm, M to tii*i*t on il mitrlit Iulvu 
caoMd Uio williiLrBiral of t1i!< Dmiui 
tonwiiJirtLiob BinountaltollStrintntWi 
or nearl^r one-hatf of tbv fleet. Btvn 
with tbui cooccBioD alio foanil It tUill- 
nilc ODODgli to ictkln tlicui (iixfru, cha. 
*, 6, 74-7B). 

* Probabl; in B.C. 477 {ten Clutaa'N 
F. It. vol. ii. App. Dh.6). Ttwdteniii- 
•tanoM on rclotod U Innsih bj 



266 



TSEUISTOCLCS A»D AOEUtAXTUS, 



BookTUI. 



4. At the prosttut time tlio Grcoks, on tlicir am7ft] at Artc- 
roUium, vhett tlioy baw tlic number of lliu iiliips which lay at 
anchor near Apneie, anil ibe abundnnce of troops oToiywbiBTO, 
feeling {lisAppointedtbnt mstlers had gone with the barbarioiu 
BO far othernisa than thoy had expected, and full of alarm at 
-n'hat tlioy turn, began to speak of <lrawing haok from Arte- 
□UHiiim tovards the inner parts of their country. So when 
the Euhomns heard what was in debate, they went to Eory- 
biades, and hcooiight him to wait a few daye, while they re- 
mOTod th«ir children and their Blaves to a place of safety. 
But, as they fonnd that thoy prevailed nothing, they left 
him niul went to Tlteinistocles, the Athenian eommandfr, to 
whom tliey gure a bribe of thirty talents,* <m his promise 
that the Sect Bhould icmaio and liiili a battlo in dofunce of 
Euboa. 

C. And Themistocles succeeded in detaining the fleet in tho 
way which I will now relate. Ho made over to Eurj-biadca 
five taleiita out of tho tliirty paid him, which ho gav« as U 
they came irota himself ; and having in thi» way gained over 
the admiral, ho addressed himself to Adcimantus, the son of 
OcytaH, tho Corinthian leader, who was tho only remonstrant 
now, and who still threatened to Hail away from Artcmisium 
and not wait for tho other captains. Addressing himself to 
this man. Themistoctea said with an oath, — " Thou forsake 
us ? By no means I I will pay thee better for remaining than 
the Mcdo would for leaving tby fi'iends " — and straightway ho 



TluievdtdM (1. 031 and Diodorni (xL 
•UM). It Rpjwitni from llie latter, 
that tho (icaitrMt oSeroil by tbm p«r. 
Mttftl chuncier ot Arittidcs to flat 
iswlKia* of PikOMniM, wu tn port tho 
oaiiM of tiM nlllm *al>mlniDi; to 
AtiMti*- FnomniM ImiI not iialj a*- 
■onsd tliD itato Bod h&bilt uf • IVr- 
Biaa Mtnp, but »fftct«d Iho Oriaatkl 
qntom <•( *>-i'Ii»ioi>. Bod mu *io1(iiit 
bnd oBpriciouii (Tbiicyd. L ISO). Tho 
^ngp. howcror, wuiihl •mtw-ly hnro 
lMi)ii«lEM(inl, hod aol tba luiiiku elo. 



nont in tbo alliaiiee olittinri n Tnree 
nccciiisin of «M<unli bf tho uildiijim 
of tbo Aalktti) Qn»lt> to tbo md- 
Mmer <il>. 1. 9i). 

' PlaiBTob ndoiUa lUt oondnot on 
tho put of TbenM«df« (Vlt. Tbam, 
c 7). irlii«li Im qvito la uiwrdanoe 
Willi hU itioicRkl ebantotor {vlila Infn, 
clii. Ill, lis). 11(1 ifitn* UiouanMoI 
tfae EntKnan nho broosbt llio monej 
M IVbmn. Tliirtj- i«loi>t« nuNld b» 
aboM fOOOL of oar mtoaof. 



Ctuv. 4-7. 



PLAN OP BATTLE. 



267 



Bent on board tbo fillip of Atloimiuitas a pr«8«nt of three 
talents of silver. So tJioso two cnptoina were won by giftB," 
and came over to Ibe riows of ThenustocleB, who was tlicruby 
ouublcd to gratify tlio wishes of the Eubaaos. Ho liltcniso 
made his own gain on the occaBion ; for ho kept tho rest of 
the uiouoy, aiid do one knew of it. The oomiuiuidors who 
took the gifta thought tlmt the mims were furnished by Athens, 
and had been sent to be used in Uiia w«y. 

6. Thos it came to pass that the Greeks stnyod at Eubwa 
and tliere gave battle to the enemy. 

Now tbo buttlo was fHi thifi wise. The barbarians reached 
ApbetiD early in tho afternoon, and then saw (an thoy had pre- 
viously heard reported) that a fleet of Grttik Bhipa, weak m 
uiunber, lay at Artemisiuni. At once they were eager to 
engage, fearing that tho Greeks would fly, and hoping to 
capture them before they should get away. They did not 
howercr think it wise to make straight for the Greek station, 
.lest the CDomy abould see them as tbey bore down, and betake 
themselves to flight immediately ; in which caee night might 
clovo in boforo tlioy camo up with tbo fugitives, and bo tbey 
might got oloan off and make their escape from Uiem ; whereas 
Uio rcrsians were minded not to let a aingle sool slip through 
'their hands.^ 

7. They therefore contrived s( plan, which was Ibe follow- 
ing : — They detached two hundred of their ships &om the r«atr 
and — to prevent tho enemy from seeing them start — sent them 
round outside the island of Soiatbos, to make the cu-cuit of 




■Flumlu of Errm Tclatcil, iTuit 
ArddtolM, tbo captain of tbe Atht>niiui 
ThMrii, «M lEkoKiio brlbud (up. PIu- 
tuob, La. a). 

* In tho originiLl tbe g r piwien uatH 
U — " tbnt 1901 ofion Ibo lartk-tMrvr 
ihonld ownpo tbdr lianda." In tho 
8pMt*ii imuiH llics* iTiu • m^rcd 
turoli>bt«r«r, i>ti(iti) hoiiuoM it *aa ti> 

fireiiVYD slJKha tbo holy Qro kiniUcd 
torn Uw nlUr ot 3vm U SpKrta, 



iThi«h trai w»nt«<] forllw TUieu* nc- 
rillcGa olTcred tlarin^ ad nxpedition 
(XoD. Bop. Lne. siil. J{ 2,3). Aa tbo 
fir* WM caiwldtvod to bo irf *lt*l im- 
jiortiinoe, OT017 oJIott nan modo to 
dcfviiil tho " ttvch-bcMvr,' aiul ho 
ocliloin tell iuiImd the Ttholo Brrojr waa 
doatmyod. The MMf«ioD pMiod 
Into B proverb (Zoaob. Cent. t. Hi 
SehoLwl Enilp. Fbaa.1377; Soidu, 



3<)S 



STORY OP SCYLlIAa THE DIVER. 



Book Tin 



Eaboea by Capliarena "• and Geritalus,* and to to rciioh the 
Etiripufl. By tliis plan they thought to enclave tlie Greeks o: 
every side ; for the ehips detached wonld block ap the only 
way by which they could retreat, while the others would prew 
npon them in front. With thc«o designs theroToro they dis- 
patched tho two ImnJrcd ahipfi, vhilo they tliemselvcs waited, 
— siiice they <iid not mean to attack the Greeks npon that day, 
<Hr until they knew, by Eif^ml, of the arriral of the detaohmeut 
which had been ordered to Bail round Eubcca. Mcauwhils 
they made a mustor of tho other sliips at Aphette. 

8. Now tho Fcrsious had with them a. man named Scyllias, 
a native of Scionc, who was tho most expert diver of his day.' 
At the time of the shipwreck o£F Monnt Pelion ha had recovered 
for the Persians a great part of what thoy lost ; and at the 
same time lie had taken care to obtain for himself a good 
share of the treasure. Ho bad for some time been wishing 
)|oovcr to tho Greeks; but no good opportunity had ofTerod 
now, when tho Persians were making tho muster of thur 
ships. In what way he contri^'ed to reach tJic Grvoks I am 
not able to say for certain : I marvel much if the tale that is 
commonly told be true. 'Tis said he dived into the sea at 
ApltetED, and did not once come to tho surface till he reached 




IS i| 

Si 
I 



30d 

[to J 
tiUH 

am V 



" OAphenq]s(or Capharau) wutbe 
nunu <^ liiit •oath-ra«[on promontory 
ot Eubmk, now cillod Capo Xhn (f*a 
rUo. H. N.ir. »i Ptol. GiMKr.iii.lG). 
It ma Hid to hvn been fatal to masjr 
of the Qittk (hip* o» tli^'c rctnm fton 
(ho TcnjAn war{Vir([. Mn. xi. 260). 
In tho I3tli raiiturir, un ncooanl of Iho 
nwa; Bhipwreoka M irhieh it was tho 
MoDc, it bote the nemo ot Xjlopbagn^ 
"wood-" or "ahlp-doroamr" (Teets. 
LyoOPfar. T. S73). 

' Oenoitwi *aj a tonrc anil pr^^ncrn- 
torv at the extreme •ontKcrii ixmioF 
Rum*, famoos for k lompto ot Sey,. 
tono ^e^lwi, r*ripl. pi. CI i comjiare 
FlUi. B. N. I. •. o. 1 Lit. »ii. 4A i 
Stmb. s. p. esl). ^^a promomtOt7 ia 
Bo«r Cape JCani^fa, Urn towa E»ttri. 




* PiiuaniM Tdala«(s. six. 1 1) tbM 
this Bc^Uiu, vhoax tm calla tjcyllie, 
liad K •tatoo nrctod to liim at ~ 
ti7 tho Ampliietrmic, wbioh rei 
to Uti own day. SojUiB, Dcoordisg 
him, Maiitoil bj hiM cUiigbter, wbA 
na* alto a direr, hnd loeaonMl tba 
anehora of lb* IVnieB tbipi) ab tha 
limo of the Btorm off Capa Bopia«, and 
had thereby doiw the onnman eoenv 
great dam^o {eompaie PUd. B. K. 
xxxT. lit Athon. vU. p. S&G, r.) 
Anthol. Or. i. e». 1). 

Co). Lcako remark* that aomo of Iba 
LeTWiuao GrtolB nro to tb!s day 
tamoDt for thoir alciU la dirinit — tha 
ma«t eeMmtoit I>ei»c the epong»- 
«ntt«r« of ^int (Duui of AttuM, p. 
Jit, note*). 



Owr.7-ia. COUNCIL OF THK CHEEK CAPTAISa. 



3C9 



Artcmisiitm, a dUbtnco of nearly ciglitj furlongs.' Now 
many things are related of this man n-hich arc plainly &be ; 
bat some of the Htorics e«om to bo true. My oim opinion is 
that on this occasion ho mado tho passage to Axtemiuam 
in a boat. 

Howover this might be, Scyllios no sooner reached Artcmi- 
sium than ho gave the Greek cuptains a full act^oiiiit of thu 
daniago done by tho storm, and likcwtiiQ told them of the ships 
Eont to make tho circuit of Eubccu. 

9. So tlio Greeks on receiving those tidings hold a coiracil, 
whereat, uft«r much dobato, it was resolved that tliey should 
stay qaict for the present where they were, and remain at 
thoir moorings, hut that after midnight they should pat out to 
sea, and encounter the ehipa which wero on their way round 
tlic island. Later in the day, when they fouud that no one 
meddled with them, they formed a new plan, which was, to 
wait till near eyeniiig, and then iiail ont against tho main body 
of the barbarians, for the purpo&o of trying their mode of Cgbt 

I and skill in mantenvring.* 

10. When the Tfrsian oommandcra and crows saw tho 
Greeks thus boWly ftailing towardit tbcm with their few ships, 

[iboy thought tiiem posaeeaed with madness,' and went ont to 
moot thorn, expecting (as indeed seemed likely enough) that 

I they would take all their vessela with the greatest ease. The 
Greek ships were so few, and their own so far outaomborod 
tliem, and eailcd so much better, that they resolTCd, seeing 
their advantage, to encompass their foe on erery side. And 
now such of the IcHiians as wished well to the Grecian causa 
and served in tho Persian fleet unwillingly, seeing their 
countrymen surrounded, were Boroly distressed ; for they felt 
Bure that not one of them would ever moke his escape, so poor 
an opinion had they of the strength of the Greeks. Ou tho 
other hand, such as saw with pleasure the attack on Gicece, 



* no dblDM* acr«M the *lnil u 
abonC 7 MitM, or Ultle moni Uum CO 




* On U18 MQtlnl Bi>ncBiivr« et tito 
*Vid«M>pm,rL112. 



270 



FUUtT KXVAS. EXOAOEHEXT. 



Book 



now vk-i eagerly n-ith cacb other which shoolcl bo tlie firBt i 
lOflltc prize of an AtlioninQ ship, and thereby to RCcuro 
a rich reward from the kiog. For through hoth tho hosta 
DOne were so mach accounted of as the Atlicnians. 

11. Tho Greeks, at a signal, broaght tlio stoni<i of 
ships together into a small compass, and tnrncd their prows on 
every side towards tho harbarians ; ' after which, at u seeond 
signal, although inclosed within a narrow space. And closely 
pressed upon hy the foo, yet they fell bravely to work, and 
captured thirty ships of the barbariantt, at tho samo iimo 
taking prisoner Fhilnon, tho son of Chersis, and brother of 
Oorgos king of Solamis,' a mnu of mnch repute in the fleet. 
The first who made prize of a ship of the enemy was Lrco- 
modes the son of ^schrcas, an Athenian,* who wtis after- 
wards adjudged the meed of valour. Victory howoror was 
still doubtful when night came on, and put a stop io the 
combat. Tlio Greeks soiU'd back to AitcmiBium ; and 
baibarians returned to Aphcto?, much surpiiited at th(> reso 
whidi was far other than thoy had looked for. In this bati 
only one of (lie Crooks who fought on tho side of Mm kin^ 
deserted and joined his ooimtrymoQ. This was Antidunis of 
Lemnos, whom the Athenians reworded for his desertion by 
the present of a piece of land in Salamiti, ^M 

12. Evcnmg had barely closed in when a lieavy rain — Ifl 
was about midsummer' — began to fall, which continued the 
whole night, with terrible Ihunderings and lightnings 
Mount Pclion : the bodies of the slain and the broken pieol 
of tho damaged ships were dri^d in the direction of Aphe 
and floated about the prows of the vessels there, ditttnrbii 



the 




iinpni 

niprrior in (ijtca ttie-ptml tlilii nrnui)^. 
ULCnl of thuir «)iip« in llu^r Gnt m. 
Sngcmoitc Willi Phorinio, llir^oirh Itnz 
it tho nip^riorit; cf tliu Atbouioiia in 
tanBtamrtiDg. 

' Supi*, r. 104. 

* Ptiitarcb tnitkM LycomMoi imTonB 



Uiia mqilmt At Salami* (Ti(, Tlma. 

» From tMi puMm and from 11m 
'fiet aiantkaiwd ftborn <iii. 306), Ihu 
the mcagMnuDta at Thoiraoiiyte ud 
ArWmuinin ooin^cd villi lh«li^oC 
tbo OIvDpio snoMa. wn innj bo ji 
in Sxiiijt (lio ImKIm lu Iho latt 
oi Jniut or Uw bctiBDing of Jniff 



;a*r.lO-lt. STORM, AND SBOOSD ESGACEMEST. 



271 



the action of tho oars. The barbarians, hearing tbo Blorm, 

I were greatly dismayed, expecting cerUiinly to perish, ns tliuj 
had fiiUea into socli a mtiUittide of misfortuscA. For before 
they iiF€ie wetl recovered txom tlie tempost and tho vrock of 
Ihcir vessels off Mount Pclion, the; hnd been surprised by a 
sea-fight which hnd taxed all their strength, and now tho sea- 
fight \tU9 Rcnrci'ly orer when they wore cxpoecd to fioods of 
rnin, nnd the rush of uwullca utrcams into Iho sea, and violent 
I thundering!), 
^H 18. If, however, they who lay at Aphcttt possod a comfort- 
^■less night . for worse were the Bufferings of those who hud been 
sent to malio tho oirouit of Enboca; inasmuch as tho storm foil 
on them out at nea, whereby the iesue was indeed colatnitous. 
They were soiling along near the Hollows of Dubtea,'" when 
the nind began to rise and tho ruin to poiu- : overpowered by 
tlte force of tho gale, and driven they know not whither, at tho 
last thoy fell upon rocks, — Heaven so contriving, in ortlcr that 
tits Fcriiiao fleet might not greatly exceed the Greek, but bo 
brought nearly to its level. Thiii squadron, therefore, was 
entirely lost about the Hollows of Euboea. 

l-l. Tlie barbarians at Aphetro were glad when day dawned, 
and remained in quiet at their station, content if they might 
enjoy a little peace after so many sufferings. Meanwhile 
^^^fircT'came to the aid of the Greeks a reinforcement of fifty* 



■* It li not qrito oeHatn vrlint trad 
wa an to nndtnUiul by ■• Tho Uol- 
lovn,'* Slrabo (k. p. GU) and hi* 
EpUonlKT aro at TariODc* oo tho 
poJnt, tit* fomcr roaking it Ike tract 
iMlirifon OonMUl and tlio Euripun, 
irhil* tha latter «>ja it fa tbo piao) of 
Maat between Oernsatna anil Ciuw 
Oopliareiw. Oel. Leake pr»fcni tlio 
aeeewit of ttin Kpitoinln^r (Qoml of 
Altioa, A|>iK-i»tix, jwiw tij, note '), 

witli leas, t tliick, th«n hit luunl jarl;;- 
iucdI. It 1> plain (rom tW irholo poa. 
aaii* Id Stmbo that lii* Bpliomlaer 
nu*r«pr««»l«J bloi. And Iha aUlo. 
DMOtn of other writeai, m jiartioaUilT 



Talorina Uaxtmai and nJIoatrntna, 
coaflnn tka taxt tt Stnbo. TolBriua 
MasiiDiu dfacribM " The Hollowa " 
aa Ijing betweec Rkanmaa (in Attien) 
and ChJrTitiia <i. viii. j 10} : and Phllo- 
Btntna apeak* of thotraet unlioDacl. 
iniC ia pnnnontonM HcyvTllpi*, Tit. 
Ap. I^an. iii. S9}, whiob i« troe of tho 
ivkIdii weat of Geraatiu^ bat not of 
IhaC betwom OanMloa and Capo 
Capbaraot. 

"Tbo Bollowa'aeomtohBTehBdat 
all time* a had Hun* taumg milKra 
(tfve Ktirip. Troad. M ; LIr. z»i. 47, 
"Eat alBii* GaboiC'i«. (|ucid Cu^U 
Tooant, auipMtiia naoUt. J. 



372 



THIRD ESGAOEUEST. 



Book Vm.. 



tbreo ohips Grom Atticft.* TLcir arrival, and the neirs (wL 
xoadied Artomieium about Uio sftmo time) of the compl 
doetnictioQ by tho storm of tlio aliips Rent to soil roond 
Eubffa, greatly cheered the spirits of tho Grctk sailors. So 
tlicy waitid again till tho same hour as tho diiy ht-foro, and. 
OQ€0 more putting otit to sen, attacked tho enemy. This timo 
tboy fell in with some Cilician veBselfl, which thoy sank; whea 
night came on, and they withdrew to Artemisium. 

15. The third day was now come, and tho captains of tho 
bnrbarians, atiliamed that bo small a uuuibi-r of cliipii rIiouIJ 
harasa their fieet, and abaid of the anger of ^erxofl, instead 
of waiting for the others to begin the buttle, weighed anchor 
tliemselros, cud advanced agaiuBt the Greeks about the hour 
of noon, with shouts encouraging one another. Now it hap- 
pened that these sea-fights took place on the very same days 
with the combats at Thermopylm ; and as the aim of Uie 
struggle was in tho one case to maintain tiio pass, ro in the 
other it was to defend tho Euripus. While tlic Greeks, there- 
fore, exhorted one another not to let tho barbarians burst 
upon Greece, these hitter ahonted to their fellows to destro] 
the Grecian fleet, and get possession of the channel. 

16. And now the fleet of Xerxes advanced in good order 
the attack, while the Greeks on their side remained qulto 
motionless ut Artemisiom. The Persians therefore spread' 
thomsolTes, and camo forward in a hulf-moon, seeking to en- 
circle tho Greeks on all sides, and thereby prevent them &om 
escaping. The Grccke, when they saw this, soUod oat to 
meet their assaiknts ; and the buttle forthwith began, 
this engagement tho two fleets ocmtended with uo cUar 
Tootage to either^— for the ftimameat of Xorses in^urvd ited 



od- 



' TUa NCm* to lure bom tlio«ltd» 
of tbo Athwiian Teaano Bmc. Tba 
JxAUij Ol TbOBLlttOclM bad niMd their 



Mi*r to flW TBwU (npnt, ^V. Hi 
hronKht wl« B«liT» Mrtfoa t— 



IIT maoaM br Ibe Albfni>ii*uil PUibmi (ctt. 1^ 
U uiivel (liw til* MMB fb. Mjk 



TtiUltW 



Cfl*fi 1*-17. 



CONDIXT OF TUC EUVITUNS. 



273 



by its own gNAtDess, the tcbsoU fftUing into disonler, ntw! oft- 
times running foul of one nnoUi«r ; yvt Blill tlicy did sot give 
way, but made a stout flght, eincc tbo cr«ws felt it wonld 
in<)e«d be n disgrace to tnm and lly from a tli.'«t so inforior in 
number. The Greeks therefore suffered much, both in ships 
and men ; but tbo l)ArbarianB experienced a far larger loss of 
eacb. So th« Smta eoparutiid after suc)t a combat as I bare 
dttseribod. 

17. On the side of Xerxes the Egyptians dietinguished 
tbemselres above nil the oombatouts ; * for boKidus ]H'rfi>rmiii;{ 
many other noble deeds, they took five vessels from the Grvekii 
with their crews on board. On the side of the Greeks the 
Athenians boro off th« meed of valour ; and among them the 



* VMormt t»jt lt]» SldralMM won 
tha mott dislintraiitfl (>■• I3)> in 
•rtiitfk *lal«ininil h» leona t« har« fol- 
kwod iffolubiillty nther tfaon tut 
(rido iDiini. tU. 41, 100). 

(The EKvptiana htmu to ham htiA 
Bbi|i« mkI cvmtnerM at n ver,* mjI^ 
tinke. (See doIm un Bool: ii. I'bnpa. 
103, IW, ISl.) IlL-roilDtua utcrU 
ttaC tho EgjptiAD iKililioTi at PlMfot 
bid pnrioiuJjr •onoil cm bokrd llio 
PwiMi Dnl (It. 32). The noliou of 
tkw Kgjrptiui prejodioo neaifitt tbe mo 
Is npeotcil witbont ocouitlsrui^ tbTtt it 
(■ manliDcrd in cocDoclton wild (b^ir 
bolRiI cif Tj^lioai »o'I Diiic it vn* 
nnvl^ IwcnoM the Mnvtsi (.vrnFiilrntl 
injnrioiu, 04 the Ntlt wm bincd^i^l to 
Bgjrpt; irhlcli iMt, Aooonting to one 
iBtatpmtMlon of IhiU Ii>bnloiu IiUturr, 
WB* OMri*. But thi* dill 11(4 ;>ri>r4iiit 
tbeit atiog tha tea for tlie pnqwtn of 
coDqneii bnd oomin«T(w. Th« l)at«h 
barn hifl a DMtn puiliva fcoliiin of 
anUwtMiKiu BgainM III* tM, wlitoli in 
(■bnt u i liiBM wonld tiavo been uiadi* 
intoaiiniUr mjth. Anilirboihur wu 
boUoTv <T reject the cominon rcpoH of 
GKyptliin and (irrn-k tiiim, tbnC 
MlMiiM wnnC from KktP' to Allwnia 
ftnd Argni, it prort« ihat tbe T.f^jp- 
tiKMWora bcIicTod tobi- io (bo baMt 
of frnqnanUsc tbr M*. It l», Iww^tvr, 

^B TOU 17. 



(Ttira Diotttlf M^ngMi who tt«d Irau 
Eitvpt, un the •xpuUioo at *iiuie 
iinttTU or eTen fonliicn djnuty, tbnn 
that tlio KKjptiaot wem a colimiung 
pooplcb Tbo tomnxcnx loo of Ukimi 
daja WH tn tho linndi at the Pbiant. 
QianK, who bad thw principal omriuK 
Iiniit. even trotii I£|{jpl,in tbtir hnnila 
(IlcErodol. i. cb. 1) 1 and alto aurfanurd 
tbo asafuiiig GfM>k> in tbo ciivnt ut 
their Inda. Bat tU* ironld not ptc. 
vent tbo E|cyp'i*ii* ■"*■'>? '!>■< "<" 1 i^"'' 
thcj vrrae «iDpb>f«d with tbe Ptiieiii. 
clans for tho Pernan aea wrrrire in 
tnuuportlDg proTJxioD* for Ibc nrniy 
{BIc vif. <!b. Sti) I anH on cchnr oi.v*- 
BioM. A|(iitn, the fact of Ihoir mpinr- 
iog dro Oreck abi)* is llio prewot 
batilo, and still men tfaslr Mng able 
to CDUtefKl at «• wllb Tvra and 
Sidon (iC Ifil), prore tbeni t« bkvo 
been excel V-iiI tBitnra. Tamui, on 
Kf^rpliiwD, oauuiADdfd A tqaadron in 
ibn H-mcn of Cvma ths jcaiisttr 
<Xc«. Aimti. i.), ftud tnontJaa i« tnn<.lo 
of olber «xp«Tt saiJorii from Ej^Tl'- 
A >«-fl;;bC indLvd la ropjraenle-l at 
Tboliiu, In Ibo earl/ time nf Itanwatia 
lit., will* lime bnroro the ^Vc^on nnr, 
lielween 12 nnd J3<wiit<iriM u.c; at>d 
their inent prsolice in rowiiitc on iliu 
>~ilogaTetb« EgfptianaanadTiinbUi-e, 
at a tliue when ouniVDVTea depended 
ao Mneb ob tlia oar.—U. W.] 

T 



274 T1^* <1U1:K^ WITHUBAW to TUe. tXlERlOti. BoOkTOl. 



most distingnisbed was Cliutas, tb« son of Alcibindes,' vbo 
eerrcd at his own cliorgo vith two buutlrDd uicu,* ua bourd a 
V(J88*I whicli bo ba<l biniself furnwhed.* 

lU. Tbti two &i:vU, on BcpanUing, bit8t«iii.>d very ccladly to 
tb«ir loicborago-groundH. The Greeks, indeed, vaUtn the Imttla 
wiu over, Utcame masters of the bodies of the slain aud 
n-reelc!) of llie Tessels ; hut they bad l>een so roughly bau 
i-spt-ciiUly the Athcuiuus. onc-bolf of nboM vessels bnd sufl* 
diimaKo. tliut th(.',v dct«riniiiL'd to bi-i-Alc up from their station, 
aud willKUftw to Uie inner parts of tlicir oountry. 

10. Then TbemiHtocles, who thongtit thnt if tiio Ionian and 
Cai-iiiu BUips could bo dt:tachMl from the bar1>arian floot,* tlie 



•I 



> T!il> Clltiln* WAS tbo hthor of Iha 
fmol AtcibiftdF4, wliom he loft ft mars 
ohilil at hi! ili-aib, wlii<li look ptiwa 
B.C. 447, in iLe bnUlp ot CVauiUH* 
(I'lBt. ^«ib, i. p. Hi, □.) iMcr. lie 
ll}i;. p. »(>a, B.). OUdUli nmrr'iad.I 
DiiiMnuclif, ft tLiiighlvr c( Urgftclci, 



gnadtoa«l the MeKocInt mtImi uuirM 
SgktiM of Slo^reu (Hut. Vii. Alrlb. 
o. 1). Ucnti* lb* ivUtiiiiiship twtuwni 
Uio grv^l AlciliiiidM Biid IVt^c-W. th 
nordina (PtU. Atolb. p. US, 
The fftmiljr <rf CUoJ** umy b« UiOn i 
UUlod :^ 



Aunu*« 



0»i<it 



lil«cliw 



I 



Cuyiu (S) Aicnuia 

* TUi m* Ihe ordinary crew of ft 
lijmuo. lu ftppnwa ttvm aamf pfti- 
■iilii-i'. Tim Bumbpr U nMiiuiiiNl(Mlpiaf 
viL. INI) 111 tbf bMiii u( ft («JcutatiA», 
■nil iDkir b» oiafirmwl fivm Tdliimii 
jilncci in TlincT'iliiloa ftnd «tb?r 
•utliori, S. J. TJin Atiio pwIV-t rp- 
roiTiiil ft (Inivhnift s-tUy (rjiurj'il. iii. 
I7j, ■■■■I tliu ITVulftT (ay (<irft liintmu 
wax a lalvnt ft mouth (ibicl. vi. 8), 
Now tho IaIcdI cootftiiicd 0000 ilnoh- 
luiw, aiid Ilia moalh irat tvokooMl at 
SO liar*! bat 0X10 -i- 30 = SCO. Of 
ttiMo S^iO, it IK <«1ciUol«1 that 170 
reiD ruww», whilo 30 iriTT uilon 
and <itBcor* (&4okl>'* Urknailoii ilWr 
da* Seairetan lUa Att. SrautM, y. MV). 
TbH EpibatiP. or KaruiM, artm to 
hftve Wn adilitionnl (*u{im, vii. IHi). 
Tlu>7 tai'ird in (lumber (rani WtiitiiTft, 
vL IS) to 7 (TLucyiL vi. 48 j ct. iutM, 
riii. 8), nou>}. 



(fl Ciiiiu(S) 

* Tho ktftlo iiMaJly famisbed 
vrawl and it* oqajpoount, tbv in«r 
Imiiig IniubiI to Imp tho •KhiAe in 
iwir. Trionirctia often Ktrul 
«t|«iii« of cttnippliiK ibaii t« 

Ibuit own cuM (Tbocyiltilot 

ItommtlKriioa e. l>ulycl.) i bnt it ' 
a ranf ibinx fur lliciB to hrnbji i 
rmMi Ilwir. Still tboy did •• 
•oioft JMUBrMft (we Dooi. c M«kl, p. 
6(».S<M). 

It iupcMliablo lliot tboTr l w rnr diyrf 
inilivifluab baJ bjr thia tlmo ispaN 
acdcd th» old armngvaicDi ti( xht 
Kam^anca (Cf. ll«rauuui'« IVl. Aul. 
i lUl). 

* A« th« Oatiana liad twice tivfem 
rem*t«4 Tutila in anni) (lupra, I. IT*: 
T. tUS, 116-121). Ttx-im>ttv)i>« lu^bl 
(liiiilt It wottb whila (o try to < 
ttiiiui uuw. 



Chxr. n-*o. 



ORACLE OF BACISL 



275 



GrccltB mifiht be well nlile to dofn-at the reet, called the cjiptnins 
togetlit-r. Tiivy met upon the sea-ahove, where the Euhteans 
were now ORsenibluij; ihc'ir flocks and herds; and here Themis- 
toclea told them ho thought timt he know of a pinn whereby 
he oould detach from the king those who were of most worlli 

[niiong bis allica. This was all that he disclosed to them of 
at that time. Miauwhilo, looking to the circum- 
I in which they were, lio adviMcd them to slaughtLT as 
many of the Enbreim cattle as tliey liked — for it was bctt«r 
(ho said) that their own troopa should enjoy them than the 
enemy — and to give onlers to their nit-n to kiudle tho fires 
as usual. \Vitli regard to tlie retreat, ho Biiid tliat ho would 
tiiko upon himfi4.']f to watch the proper monient, and would 
miuiage taailerH so that thi^y Bhuuld rL-tum to Greece without 
loBB. These words pleased the captainR; ito they had tho firoH 
lighted, and began the slnoKhler of the cattle. 

20, Tho Eubatans, nntil now, lind mado light of Uio omclo 
of Bnci»,^ AS though it had been void of all significancy, and 
had neither removed their goods from tho island, nor yet 
toltcn them into thpir strong places; ba tlipy would most 
certainly have done if they had believed that war was ap> 

[proachlug. By thifl neglect they had brought Ihoir aflairs 

[into thu very groatost danger. Kow tho oracio of which I 

I «poak ran as follows : — 

" Wlinn t^«r tha nu^ *ha.\\ b« Uiroirn » bjlilnf foka bf a ■tcn«|[*r. 
Bo ttxiu wnrc, ned driw from Eabma Uio imi'*' lond'bliMitliiB.'* 

[ So, as the Euha-ons had paid no regatd to this oracio whoa 
[the evils approaehed and impended, now that thoy had arrived, 
[the worst was likely to bt-fiiU them. 



) Ihtn ar» wid t« hare been tlvitw 
f,pR>|duil» of tbli naipc — an Arcniliuu, 
rui Atkoiiiiin. ntiil n Itrnolinii (^c)ial. n<l 
l^ritlvpb. I'no. 1071. Kq. 123) ; biit Ibu 
■(, ybo ia cnlled too mcvt niici«nl. 
I Bla» hf fair tbo mort oc1obrM«d. 
lilt omrli-B ore qaotod, lafni, ohi. 77. 
ysf; oii'l IX. 43. THef am riilicnliHl 
\\)j AriatojihaoM (At. 899-9161 l^ko. 



100a.lOia.od. BnIM, bat ■|wk*«i ol 
wlib BT«Bt r««peo» by Cici-n>(t>><r. (. 
IX) knd PkamniM (>▼. XXrii. J 2, 1. 

X.W. t a, Ae>). Tha BonliwM teem to 
bam paid reganl to Uwoi itown to tho 
UiDo wh«a niuaoia* irnta (ix. xvii. 
J 4). TbDjr wura all wrtiUo, a|>pn- 
nailj, fa Lazftuiotvr vunok 



276 



INSCBtPTION'S Sn- tn> hV THEUISTOCLES. Cook VUL 



-31. \Miilo the Greeks vcro employed in tbe iray <tescril: 
nboTo,* tbv scout wbo hnci been on the nutcli at Trochia luri^-cd 
nt Arteniii^ium. For tho Grecl^ had ciQplo,v«d two watchers i 
— Polyas, a nnlivG of Anticyrft, hnd been Btationed off 
misinin, mtix & row-boat at bis command reiidy to Hail at 
moiui'nt, bis ui-(Ut8 bi-iiig that, if Au ongag4,-iiii<nt too): plaeo 
by 8L1L, bo sliould convoy tho iic\ts nt once to the Grvukii at 
Thermopylte; and in liko manner Abrunycbiis, tiie boq of 
Lysicles, an Athenian, hod be«n stationed with a trincont«] 
near Leonidas, to be ready, in casa of disaster befaUing Uia 
land force, to eorry tidings of it to Art«miBiam. It vai 
this Abrunychuq wlio now arrivnl with news of what faa^ 
befallen LeoniduA nnd those who wore with him. 'Wlicu tb< 
Greeks heard the tidings they no longer delayed to n-treat, 
but witlidn-w in tbe onlur wherein they bad been Bt4itioned,j 
tho Corinthians lending, and the Athenians Muling lost of all.] 

22. And ROW Themi»toolc:8 cboew out tho BwifltMt Aoilvra.^ 
from among the Atheuuin vesHels, and, proceeding to tbo 
^'arioas watering-places aJong tbo coast, cut inscriptions on 
the rocke, which wcr« reod by the lonians tbo day following, 
on their arrival at Artcmisiuin. The inscriptions ran thus : 
— " Men of Ionia, ye do wrong to figbt against yoiur own fiithtirs,j 
nnd to give your help to enslaTo Greece, We IwBoech yoo 
therefore to come over, if possible, to our aide : if you oannol 
do this, then, wo pray you, stand aloof from tbo contest your-' 
9tAve», nud pcrsmidu tho Cari&us to do tho liko. If noitbi^r of 
these things ba possible, and you arc hindered, by a force 
strong to resist, from venturing upon desertion, nt least when] 
we come to blows fight bnckwnrdly. remembering thiit you arej 
sprung from us, nnd that it was through ynu wo iiret provoketi 
the hatred of tbe barbarian."' Themistoclos, in putting up] 
these inscriptions, looked, I bcliL-ro, to two vbiUKreH — litlit'i 
Xerx«s would not discover them, In which case they might 



* Saiirn. ch. 19t ood. 
■ AUiiiliBK In IboaMiaUnra f^tva by 
jUIiuus (« th« louiaa* in tb* gmi 



revolt (mpn, *. 9V, om) Dcuii|«i« v. , 
105 1 «. W; nlLO, S 1, to.). 




CiiaP. Sl-Sk ADVANCE OF TBG PEHSIAK FLEET. 



I 

I 



bring OTer the loniana to the side of the Greeks : or they 
vonld be reported to him, and mode a ground of nccusntiun 
o^nst the loninnti, who vould thereupon Ite distrusted, and 
vottld not be allowed to take part in tho een-fights. 

23. Shortly aUvx the cuttins of tho inBcriptioiis, e. man of 
QisUwa went iu a murchuiit-f>hip to Axihotto, niid told tho 
ForBians that tho Greeks liad ftcd from Arteininum. Dis- 
believing hiii report, the Persians kept the man a prisoner, 
vhile thoy sent Rome of their fosteet vessels to ?e« what had 
happened. These bronght back word bow matters stood ; 
thereupon at BOiiriBfi tho vihuh fleet ntlv-nnccd to^'otbcr in a 
body, and sailed to Artcmittium, vbere tliey remained till mid- 
day ; after which they went on to Uistiiea.* That city fell into 
their hands immediately ; and they ehortly ovt^rroii thy various 
viUttgee upon the coast in the diatriot of Hcllopia,* which was 
part of the Hi«tiieau territory. 

24. It was while they were at this station that a herald 
reached them from Xcrxee, whom he had sent after making 
the following diB]>o.iitions witb reepeet to the bodies of those 



■ BUtlMB, altennrd« mDck) Ot*u» 
(Stnb. I. |i. F't9 ; Sl«pli. B;r^ wl n«.). 
«a* thr tn»t impMrUutt towaot ntntli. 
mh E«lMitt, uid m« ekow to ft eon- 
■UcnUe ImM, •mhUti hui bMs klroady 
nvBtloDod M lIi)Ua>ati* (npn, rii. 
I7G). It i»,f Dbcnt mklWBj in tho 
trorClieni ooaot of tho iiluiiil (Lir, 
XXriJi. S), nt llio wpatcm fitramily o( 
K blcad plain, and by tho aiilo of • 
■mall riror <aIIo<I Umi Calk* (SImb. 
L «. o.). Iu r«pniaai* »!« r<nin>l in Uiia 
pMitian (LrAke** Ihrni of Attioti, p. 
Stl. nuto *),Mid tUa bear Ibo Mnw of 
Oraot. Wa Icon tteta Theopompna 
(^r. IM), thM ntxM IWielM Mn> 
qnuivil KubcM and expcHud th« Bia- 
UMkii* (TliacTd. i. IU). whilo tliejr 
•■■Dglit ft nftiga ia UoccdDUift, SOOD 
Atlioniaa dtitona Mok Uttit place, 
■ad eolgntaod Oraoa, whioh hiwl b»fi>r* 
boM ft towiubSp of tlittiwa. The 
BUDO Uliriaia, bowfTor, ttill eoatiansd 
in MM (8«r'"> Pwipl' P- SO), and doo* 
not Hen to haw be«n npMMdad 



nlto8«th<T l>7 that of OroiM till aft«r 
tbo limu of tlio AitUoiuM (I^uan. 
III. riL {-ti XTJi. gS, ftdfia.). 

* Tbo QclIoplMtf, oiM of tbo tmtif 
PelMgiD irilwt, cooB to bato been Uio 
nriiriiml tiili»bltM)la of Bubcna, whIeL 
andmllT biir« Uw aam* of HvOoplft 
[iliilock. Ft. I87| Stiab. x. p. 6W: 
gtoph. Bj* ad TOO.)- Thuy an fc-nnj 
la Tarlom pacta of Qtkco (Stopk 
By*.), ofproiallT Mar DoJoaa, wbtmi 
tlM7 nra <bUin1 alao Belli, aiul SolU 
(Strfth. Tit p. 476). PMbftp* (be 
Mu»e Kiftj be oonnMtcd with tho move 
fBino»t««m,'*DDllDDO.'' Tb«Ho1(a. 
Iilaoa of EDhiaa had in bbtloKeal tJoMi 
lioen driTeo to ibe nortb of tlM Ulan^ 
whcra they oompitd Uie manctalB 
tmot eDllL>(l Toiolhriiim (Stnlt. i. p. 
GUI), vhlob U tho line «tf hilla mnninB 
aael and won botwoon XinkMri ftoa 
CmywifM. UoKiduiae aotn* to mean 
bj Hollotria tfaft wbote pMlaanlft veet 
ol BiHi— I 







3?S SnUTAGEM OF 

wljo fell at TLcrniopylm, Of 1 
been sliiiii on the IV-i-Ninn aiJf, '■. 
field, wliilo lio ^urii'<l tlio rvut in 
fully lUk-d up with oartli, and b 
migbt not eeo any fiiRna of thi 
HJHtifea. oaueed the wLulo forc« 
spiiko thus to thoin : 

" CoDirad«8, King XerxM girt 
to quit their pOHte, and seo Uo^ 
mpi) vho think to orertbrow lii)i 
22. No sooucr bad tliose von 
difttoult to got a loat, no great 
1 desired to see the Right. 8uoh 
^H passing among the heaps of den 
^H tacit'. Mimy Holots wcru iuc 
^H ono imftf^inud that the bodies wt 
^H TboHpians. Uowe\'er, no oue 
^B lind done vith hia own dead. 
^H laughable devico— on the one 8 
^H lying abont the field, on the 
^^^^ together into <mv spot.* Tins < 

^^^^^ ■ HeriNlottii hwS pot diiMtly nic«- 
^^F tionixl lliraB ttoluU li«[o(«. It Ifcar 
^^U Ikiik llin pnrpciriioD. found oUowbcra 
^H (iarni, ix. 10. !A), of mtmi to dm4i 
^^1 8uitan, tlioy miul haro nmcniDtod to 
^^1 £100 mm. Tlio ootiro DDmbar of 
^^U Gi«ok> who fonjclit at Ttwrnaopylu 
^^1 wDold tiroM Im ntiaoil to ftbore UOOO. 
^^1 Til. — 

^^1 R^MUH „ M« 

^^H liustdmaatam _. Idj** 

^^M iUUM .. .. :im) 

^^^L l«MlUH _ „. ... 1000 

^^^^H IdstiM _ _ ... ICVilf 

^^^^^m_ fliMiitHK ... _ M ... 'oD 

^^^^H TbiWU ... » -. *V) 

^^^^B And tba nuntor »l Ui» final tiniggla 

^^^H tfium „ Mt 

^^^^H iiiiiii i>ii _ i««o 


XERXE& Boo^ra^l 

he twcDt; thoueand who h^H 
le left one tboumuid upon tli^| 

tfbiicliC'H ; and Ibeso be au^^ 
A Trith foliage, tliat tlio sailo^H 
>m. The liorald, im rwichiw^n 

to be oollettwi together, au^J 

» pernuBsion to all who p)eaal^| 
V bo figbt« with tho »<.iiMy^| 

armiflfl." ^^^| 
s bven tittered, than it ImS^I 
waH the number of tbow wbfl 
as went crosxcd tho strait, and 
d, in this WHY viiiW(;d the apec- 

uded in the sliiin," l>nt cvfty 
10 all i:ilhor Laoudmrnoniatis or 
was deceivwl l>y what Xerxes 
It wa-i indoisl most truly a 
ide a thousand men wcro seen 
oth<>r four thousand crondt-^l 
lay thc'uwaa given up to aight- 

il*iti ... „ .. „. ... tM 

■tboilUM _ „. _ ... TM 
ntlim* ... «,__,_ <M 

Dmlaotliiit lh« TheboM, whn (rafTm. 
drroil, tlwro wauU Uiw b» nboui -UNXI 
Hlitin. (I'u'^P*. hmtma, HMialoias 
Ukea tliii Boaber tram the ln«Tl|ii. 
tioa. whkb b» mboittooired, mta», 
vii. as.) 

' TliiHw*!! (Hist, of Oraooo, 11. p, 
S90) <t('niM that Xorm wwl »ltf 
"•ir1il)cu''<tttliiai>cowloa: liui if Im 
had Ibe gnrtm whora he lud tinrli<d 
bin il>«4 OHcfulljr roncotkd nn, 
ch. :i), uiil loft B lUniaad of ib«m ' 
««itIt<Ttd alwat aad nnburird, whou 
inlh hi* TnM luunbon bo laight m 
etuilf Imvo inUfTMl ihou kU, It k 
luiiutwt UiiH a cfacM mw intendal. 



CniP. U-XT. 



desertehs from abcaoll 



379 



I 



freeing: on tliencxt tlicKOHtnta <-ni1>r.rk^ on loard tlieir ships 
and saihA hack to Hititiica, while \«rxes and liis lurmy 
inoceeded upon their march. 

26. Tht'ru cumo now a few deserters from Ai-cadin' to join 
tbe PeisiiuiB — poor men who had itothiiif; to live on, mid wor« 
in want of employment. The l'*r*iftn3 brought thoia 
into the king's presence, and tliere inquired of them, b; 
n man who acted an their flpokcsman, " what tlie Grwks were 
doing?" The Arcadians answered— "Thoy arc holding tlje 
Olympic games, seeing the athletic sports and the chitriot- 
ntcea." "And what," said the man, "is the prize for which 
they contend?" "An oU re- wreath," rotumid the otht-rs, 
"which is given to the man who wins." On ht:aring this, 
Tritanttochmi's, the son of Ai'tatmnus," ottered a speech which 
was in truth most noblv, but which vausud him to bo taxed 
witli cowardice by King Xersos. Hearing the mrn itay tliat 
tlie prize was not money but a wreatl) of olive, he could not 
forbear from exclaiming Iicfore them all: "Good heavens! 
Mardonins, what manner of men are those against whom 
tliou hast brnnght ua to fight ? — men who contend with one 
another, not for money, but for honour! " 

27. A littlo before tlus, and just after the blow ha*! been 
struck at Thormopylie, a herald vf&s eont into Phociti by the 
TheMalians, who had alwayx boon on bad terms with the Pho- 

feians,* luid c&pecinlly hiiico their last overtlirow. For it was 

many years previous to tbia inTasioa of Greece by the 

;, that the Theu»ilians, with their allies, entered Phocis ia 

[ force, but were defeated by tho Fhocians in an engagement 



' It la c«i]M)tdrt>d (Bkhr <u1 loo., 
lATchcr. Ac.) (Iiat itliuo vcn tbo 
CnryMlii', or itiliabiUiita o( Cutjw^ 
who ar«> Mid ti> lavo lipcn Mrrcivljr 

Kniihcd by th« Orccks for joioiUK tliO 
nrian* ui thii irnr. nod nbuw 
wmnra un ropmonli'il la Iho Car^o- 
UdM(Vicniir. I. i. S &). There wstw 
two mtiet rallnl Cnryaj, both «rigi- 
tMllv AKwIiftn (haiMi. vni, xiu. I S, 
ud alT. S 1). 



* Snpm, Txi. R3 ; and rmnptni Ap* 
pendix to BocJc vu.. Knio H, No. ^ 

'ThaPhocian ihII, boill lo dpfrad 
FUcif fmin tha ThM^iuii ((tipm. 
rii. ITS), ii & chnr proof at tbiti long- 
Oitalilitlicd boitjllty. Quo or Ino of 
tliD ■>utraB*ii rouimltWil in liiuciMinM 
of it hkTK ti«ts pieMSTTWil Iif aaciBiit 
writon (too jBmw. do F. 1^ p. 40. 
Mid Plni. lb Virt. MnU voL U. p. Hi, 
B.). 




2SO 



TUi: TDESSALIAXS THHKATILV PUOCtS. 



Boim' 



It Btt ! 



wherein they were very roughly liamlk<l. The Pbtx^iiins, wi 
had with them as aootUsayer TelUas ol Kiis," were biot-koJ 
in Ihe mountain of I'anmsiiiis, when the foUowing slratagvi 
was contrived (ox thvm by their Etean ally. He took »x~ 
hundred ol their braveBt men, anil wliittuud tlicir bodies 
their srms with chalk ; then instructing tlieiu to Hlay ore 
one whom they should meet that was not whitened liko tliei 
eclvcs, bo mudu a night attack upon thu IhtissiUiuns. 
sooner did the ThoHsalio]) sentries, who wvr« the firitt to ee« 
theiu, behold titis ntrange sight, than, inia^tining it to bo a 
jirodigy, they were all ^ed with affi-ight. Fi-om the Bentrioi.^ 
the alarm spread to the army, which was seixed with such tfl 
panic that the PhociauB lulled four thousand of them, and b«- 
cuuic uiEuiti.'rH of their d<jad bodiiJi and sluuldB. Of the ahuilda 
ouu half were sent as an ofTeriug to the temple &t Abte," tba I 
the othur half were dc-poxitod at Delphi ; while from the 
tenth piti't of the booty gained in tlio battle, wore made thL> 
gigantic figures which stand round tlie tripod in front of the 
Delphic shriue, and likewise tho Sgores of the same eizc audH 
character at Abie. ^^ 

28. Besides this slaughter of the Thoeeolian foot when it . 
was btai'kutUug them, the Phociumt had dealt a blow to thc^Hj 
horse upon its invading their territory, firom which tbcy haj^^ 
never recovered. There is a pass noor the city of Hyitmpolis,' 



* Til* ftroaX tiaiabcr [>[ Eltrao Kioth- 
Mitn Who oro iiiciiIii;.iioil hboal thit 
tiuu*. bM lx*u alivntlf uuluMd (iDpni, 
ill. 138, now *> 

* For the gntl e«I#brity of llila 

tMDplCi HO itbcrp, i. 4<>. Hutu *. It 
lay lit k liUlc diiiuicr froiu the eitjr 
(Dindar. xri. SU), nrLicli w io tlie 
BOrtli.outrm KtiitU «f PIiAcIa, «cnua> 
irhM Id tha \*tt «f tha tii»In rmil 
iMiti&K fmn Ortihomoniu U> 0|iiiii 
ffaimn. x, u«iT. | 1). Colooel 
IiMko fatlioTeU UiBt h» diacoreroi] 
■MDC KTOMIl* «f tho tnnijilit ou • 
■oibU o«k)i>eDO» about Imlt-wtt^ be- 
UraoD £«drlM kii'! Vi";Jh4ni, tbg 
■noiMl B7Mit>oli« (N'ortlievn OrMM^ 



vol. ii. p. 165). Bui tho at^s^rlptSnn 
wMoh iStniuiiiw giTM (L a. c. f s) c^ 
II* rnromely luliiQa* aUI* Is Iiit liaf . 
cnakoa Iho MaDtiflflttiae acn tkwi 
iloublfol (Tida iafn, ch. 33). 

' Bf aiii]Wlii lay rcry nvar lo Mxm 
(tUQfon. 1. «. § 4) a little north at lL« 
Duidncik rofiwdHi. Tha llns of 
wnlU may ■till b« eonplMvly 
(l.«ikp. ii. p. 16S; Oell, p. 
o«<.-ii;)>«d ln« •otnaoa ot ■ 
tulloj leadlui^ItiloliiAc^i and 1 ^ 

f Kiui tbo ouiitit ry of llio ^icntraMiau 
Uirrinn*. Tliiii |><iti*ioD coWwd it tn 
Hoffer OS manj uvcauioii* (infn, 
S>l Xoa. UeU. VI. IT. {S7| IKod. f 
ivLMi PBttMO, I. o., to). 





CHAT. 37-31. WAKS OF PIIOCUKS ASD ■SUKSHAUXXS. 



2S1 



where the Pliooians, hnTiiig dug n l>road trench, filled ap 
tlie Tuid with empty wine-jsrs, after which Ihoy corered the 
place with mould, ko that the ground all looked alike, and then 
awutod tho coming of the TbossaliacB. These, thinking to 
destroy tlie Phociana at one fiwe^ep, rushed rnpiiUy forward, 
and became entangled in the wine-jars, which broke the legs 
of their horses. 

S9. The Thesaalians Lad therefare a double cause of 
quarrel with the Phociuns, whdu they dispatchud tliv herald 
above mentioned, who thus doHvorcd his messago : — 

"At length acknowledge, ye men of Phucis, that yo may 
not think to match with na. In tunes past, when it pleased 
us to hold with the Grt-eks, wo bad ulway the vantage over 
you; and now our iuliucuoe is such with the Barbarian, 
that, if we ohooeo it. you will lose your country, and (what 
is even wox«o) you will Iw sold ait slaves. Hawevor. tliough 
we can now do with you exactly as we like, we ore willing to 
forget oar wrongs. Quit them with a payment of My 
talcntfl of eilvur,^ and wo undortaku to ward oil the oviU 
which threaten your country." 

80. Such was the mcBsago which (he Thessalians sent. 
The Phociana were the only people in tlic«o parts who had 
itut espoused the cause of the Medea ; and it is my delibe- 
rate opinion that the mi:>tivo which swayed them was none 
other — neithiT more nor l««8— than thtir hatred of the Thes- 
Miliuu: for hotl the Thosaolisiu doclarod in favour of the 
OriH'ks, I believe that the men of Phdets wontd have Joined 
the Kledian aide. As it was, when the message arrived, the 
Phoeians made answer that " they would not pay aaytliiug — it 
waa open to them. equiiUy with the ThesMaliana, to make 
common cause with the Uedes, if they oniy chose bo to do^ 
hut thfy would never of their own Drue will become troitor* tn 
Greece." 

di. On the return of this onsurer, the Tbesaaliana, full of 




> Botbor mora Uun UfiOOl. d onr maatej. 



232 



FLIGHT OP THE PHOCUSa 



BOOK nil. 



wrath against the Pliocituis, ofTcrcd tbemsclres as guides Ui 
the 1>nrhariHii nnny, and 1<h1 them forth from I'mchtuia int-> 
IWrio, In thitt place there is a narrow tonjjue of Itoriiin teni- 
tory. not more tlian tliirty (uTloogs acroes, intvrpo!^ hetwi»iu 
MaHs and DuVin ; it is tho triut iii nnvient timvs 
Uryopifl ; and the Und, of which it b a part, U the moth* 
country of the Doriiuis in t]i« Peloponnese.* This torrit 
tho barbflrians did not phudcr, for the tnhabitnnts 
«apoiiiied tlicir ^ide; nad besidc-H, tho ThossaUima 
that tboy fibonld he spared. 

32. From Diiris they mnrobEnl forward into Ph(\ci8 ; be 
hor« thu iidmliilnnts did not fall into tlicir power : for 8ome ■ 
thi-m hnd talifu rtfiigo in tho hij,'h fjroTinds of ParnaAHns — od4 
Rummit of whit^h, called Tithorcu,* etandinf* quite by iUcl( 
not far from the city of Neon,* is well fitti-'d to giro ehelter 
a large body of mtn. and had now rcffeived a number of th 
Phocians with tlitir moveables; while the grcator portid 
Ii&d Hod to the country of the Ozolian Locrinus," and pla 



* SnptK, I. C6. Tbo Tpinnn in qtira* 
lion mnan to hav« coiuiaUil M the 
ii]>pi>r *n)li>T* of tlin Ophiun* and 
iu moiii Irilicilnrr, lliv Piciln* (.tfuii. 
Inlh). See UuIWi Dorlanr, i. p. 
'43, E. T. Atlclantiv Dryopii biid 
uxtuniliHl fiitth»r bolA wnyR, lutTtoic 
Tiiicbuil frc-ni tbe Sppri'liioc ID M<>nDl 
Ljrvcin* (rUcMCj-tl. Pr. £3 ■. PknisD. 
IV. xxxir. I 6). TbotODgao «if UcH 
wlinnwf tlrnixlotni irpMilLi, >oun* to 
liars urecchnl >lnuj[ th* S«nk ot 
Mount Anpptn^ or CnllidrMiiiia. (Sen 
KloMrC'a Alio* Ton HelUi^ Blntt zit.) 

*Thora la •om* At/nbt nhoilicr Ibn 
mnniit tnUmlln!) i« Itio ntVy iioali 
wluob riaw inmedUUlj lifhioJ tlm 
modetn FMftM. «c tlie f^rcat aumtnit 
nr ParDftMan beynod that peak. Tbo 
litCItT trtipiKMiti'iii Is nilofitM hy 
llillW (DoriMiK, Hup pn5i(<il In vvl. 
i.}. Ploloreh. ho«fi^-i!r, clmly iinp. 
powd tlie lumr rocky peak lo liaiv 
llM>n lhi> gilnrx uf rtfiigo va lliii oork- 
•Imi (Yii. Sitl. c. 10) : axil lli« vranli 
cl Itri^iluiua Bay, 1 ttunfc, bo to 



Ik. « 



' Ximn nft«nnuila rTC<>{vail tlia' 
name of TitboMa, wliloli luul pr«- 
viciQily boon RpiilxHl ik4 tneMlj to 
lh« ptnk, but lu ifii- ciroamiarant 
nr^'on (PiKuaii. x. xxtH. g 6). Uonn 
WD nm cnablci) to flx It* tito i ftr an 
InieriptioD bnitl iiita [Imi uhnl^ c( 
VfUlia thfiwt that placo l»occnp<r tis 
invuiul when Tilhorm itood (tjuln, 
'l\. p. '8: GHI. p. 2U). Thruv 
rcint^ilcinbtc roBSMioj <it Ibo ODOiai 
wallk nuil towcn. 

" T!ii> r>iJi|Lan LorriinidocltCin lb" 
(hc>[T7i of Ibo Corinlhiaa Gulf, ttm 
111? ttralu (o CirrtM. Tlirii' ci^cn 
(ilondcd Inland to iIm m>i[« o( 1 
iiniitn<<. wh"tv it hiinltmt on DAi 
(C/, ThtiPTd. iii. »i: Soylax, Porii 
p. 33 ; Slrnb. ix. p. 01&). Ami ' ' 
MWma to bars bMn iboir . 
tcnrn (Pmwma. x. xxxriii, ( S, 
ml infit^Tatin riXit Ti" 
Comparo Tbapr<l. iii. 101). ll Uy f' 
a Tallcy rnnuiDg from tbs irarlti< 
Into tm Crlmtoan plaio, and i> tdaiiti 
finl, by oiMuia oE an inBcription 
MM cf tbe ctinrdiot, wHb $a'«Na. 



i.wartl 



Cii*F. 81-SS. 



BAVACES OP THE PEBSiAXS. 



383 



their goods in the oil; called Amphi&sa, wliieli lies ahovo the 
Crissfflon plain. The land ot Pbocis, liowovvr. was entirely 
overran, for thu Thi-sKiilianj* Ic-d the I'ersian iinny through Iho 
whole of it ; ond whcrttvcr tliey went, the country was wasted 
with llrti and »w<>r<l, the citic-d and e\tn the tcmplcit being 
wilfully net alight by tjie troops. 

88. The mai-ch of the army lay along the rolloy of the 
CephissuB ; ^ and horo they ravafjod far and widu, bumiu); the 
towns of Drj'miiB. Charadra, Erucbus, Tethr6ninm, Ampliiciea, 
N<.H)n, Pedieis, Triteis. Elatuia, Ilyampolis, Parapotamii, and 
Abie." At the last-named place tlierc wns n t<-iupl<> of ApoUo,' 
very riuh, and adorned with a >'ast numbc-r of treiismes and 
offerings. There was Ukewieo on oracle there in those days, ae 
indeed there iu at the present limo. This temple the PerBiuns 
pluiulerod and burnt ; and htm they captured a number of 



few nclloaro Uimtm and fottu'Uliona 
of wnlU Mill aji|>car (Luke, ii. 
p. EM). 

' Tte Cvphuina tuo* Trom iha \vi*o 
of PwnOMiu, nvar tho PaMktutrv, 
nbicb anrlu ttm «lta ot Llhoa. IlDro 
nn> «iplou> Hournw, fnnulnc ihA trao 
ImmI of tliv riT«r, m Hi* mo(li>ni niiino 
for tlwa, Xr/alotr}ttt, iadiAlM (m-o 
Lwki^iLppiTl.Mi QeU.p..StiT}. II 
tniM Mt Ont in a iian]i>«wtarlj oireo- 
lioD, liut tftor mo* JTJas tbo ApoiUlCa, 
or Piii>tci«, whicb ouiiii.'* <luwii fmiu 
Uonnt (ElA. it uikea (bucounu of llmt 
■ircDin, and tluwi mi Um-ftrda Ibo 
NUtb-vnol, Id th* CopUudt, or Loko 
filial. I'iiAcU tnonis to bnn ox- 
Undnl nlonic the thIIi'j ct tha Ojilii*. 
ani, fmni Iha dc^&l« iin>r DhitdM to 
that luuncdintoljr aboni Clucmioa 
(Xayunu). 

* Of Ihuto pit;**, IVdiituf knil Tritxn, 
or Triliu, srv inimtioDod bj- nu ulhvr 
ftolhor. i'rnoi tbcii poBtion in tbo 
lint ot Umilulai, nnil from Uio UDmo 
cf the forraiFr, wb mny pluoe Ihom In 
the plain tjiag btinvea KIia*ia 
(Ifllld) ■lid Scon (rdffM). Er(K*"» 
tt iiionllirnni. bat Dot dcacribiHl, bf 
I^iimilM (i. Hi. I 1). It miun btvo 
lata in the Dpi>«r pottkm of tbo mllu; 



Dear STiaJAf. wtorti Drfmun, diam- 
drn, Tctlimuluiu, ami AmphlciD* nlM> 

(lood. Cvlouci Ijl-ollV llMH KbilWB 

^mtidt for I'lldiiiu th<<4u oilioi, 
wbich UTS mi'iilicruvil hf iPTFrni 
*iTi(cl->, at A'luiiura. Suv-Ha. AfiiUl', 
aad Mailht mpmiivftj (N'liibnrit 
UrcOM, Ii. pp. H«, W). Kidl.a, tbo 
■UMl iinpurtiint u( all Xiuf PkuviaO 
cii «« in alter liuie* (Siinb. ix. p. 
OOS ; rauun. x. xixiT. $ 1 j Kteph. 
Ufl. ad Toc,, Ac.), la idDntiDiiil 
bjr an !niori|iti<in, m. ni'll n* bjr iu 
name andaitiinlioii, wilh J>/la (Luaku, 
ib. p. 6Z). Buapotami) i> taid ocrcr 
to haro bMB robailt af lur IId dutreo- 
tlonlntheSaond WaT;aadnuiMDiaa 
faiM to iliMMivur aoy InuHu of it (X. 
Xixiii. I 4)1 tmt inodprn* >cch) lo 
bare beCD mors forluaM*^ aad point 
out 1(4 ruiiia M oocopyiait an oIoto* 
tiiui DU thv Ml bank <rf ihn OnhiiUDH, 
a lilllo alwvD tlio dpfilo nlilch itpn. 
raiiHl Pbtcia fdnn Dmiiia, nor tha 
modem riUagiMjl Jt^f>».(I,«,kc. Ii. p. 
llil:0nll. p.X9)). t^lial"' (IX. |>.«-U), 
Tlirvpumpo* (FV. Kl). luid Kliilarch 
(Vit. Sjil. c IC). confirm llii* viuw. 
Tbe aitca of Aba), ll;iini|'«1-*, and 
Xcou. hale bona atrMdjr tDEaiiaaod. 
* t»upra, i. 4(i, nuto '. 




DIVISION OP THE PEItauy F0BCE3. 



Book Tin. 



tbo PhocianB buforo tbey could reach the liills,' and caused 
tbo (loAth of Koiuo of tlioir wonicn bj ill-UBag«. 

d'l. After jiHsfling Parnpotaiiui, tb« borlxirinns miirchcd to 
Panopeis;' and now the army 6e])ftrii(i^ into two bodiw. 
whitreuf one, which was tbo inoro iiumeroos and the Btronsw Si 
of the two, marched, undtr X«rxo8 himfielf, h)Wi»rds Athens, I 
entering Bototia by the country of Uio Orebomoninns." The 
BtrotinnH )ind one and Ml onbnicid tbo catieo of thti Me<1o« ; 
nnd tlioir tii\nis were in the posstiAsion of Macodoniun fjani- 
BOH!), whom AlC'Siuider had sent ther«, to ninko it muuifvst toj 
XerxeR that the Bdotians wero on the Median (^ide. Sudt] 
tbi'Q WAX tbc road foUuwi-d by one division of thv barbAriatn. 

35. The other division took guides, and proec«di'<I towards 
tbo temple of Delphi, keeping Jlonnt Pomassn-t on tbt-ir right 
hand.* Thvy too laid wa«t« Boeb parts of Pbucia as 



ITh* A1«Mi«, dnvlltnic M tamo 
dutanoe (Ota niilM) [ran tho ratify 
of tlio CepUinu, anil in a MmnK 
tM«ltJmi *iDong tlie bib, tciglit hero 
MpWtod tL« Prrnluu ta tirvcp «li 
wSUwtit tiiiii')iiii;T llioni. Tbo IVniuu 
wer* delormiDvi), howuviT, in lru« 
ioenoolMtio apiric, lo il»(ro}:, if ]iot- 
■liijo, (lII tbo pnncripitl Crock faocv. 
(Villa eapra, v. 1U2, nolo *, uid cam- 
para Cic> do Loir. ii. 10.) 

* Pancnwiii. I'ttnopeiH, or PnnnpS 
(Slcph, Dv«.), whicii KM oftcrKariis 
called ri>niU'ti~iu (Strab. Ix. p. 614). 
wu tbo frenlior town of ItiAcin tn- 
inirda Bwotiit in tlie mlt'-y of tbo 
Cf^hiwDf (^DHtllL X. ir. { 1).' It Iny 
(Mjroed tba iWllo whlct fonniHl lb« 
Iiktimi boondnrj bnlwnra llto two 
COUnlrio*. niul m-ilhiii abiiiit two nillei 
of thu Bw»tiiui citr uf Oia-rniipn, 
Colnnvl Lmko htt* iloicribcd it« n). 
muiM (NorUmn Gm«ir. Li. pp. lOD- 
IIS), whicb w« MluftU^l on tt Tneif 
emJBMDW above lbs villoiro «f A"' 
Yla*i. on the rifchl tjMik of tlll^ 
Coj^wua, « liltic below ti* juurtion 
trlih Iha ilaer^nJri (comporo Coll, 
p. 201). 

■ Orcbnannu, tli* moat fMnonit ot 
th* BnitiMi c(l4u« next to Hi«>bM 



(EVnwn. ti.xnir. § ti). wmM tH^St^j 

by Uie Onil u l WIi . mmt Vt» point it brro] 
it patcTMil tlio gnat BUibM tCvpb 
us), which font the WMUrn pocti 
of L>k« CofoU (Tapaliat). 8m1 
PauiuniM (IX. ixxTiiL $ fi). It ac«a. 
piwl tbo hill KlxiTn lb« iiioiuuti)r}P 
of StripO, •( iMoripliMliS Mill 1 b« ao> f 
cohltttiM of th* r«ainiii* with tbaH 
dcKeripllon of PiDMmiiM, aalEcaDDttj 
pnivu (tut Loako, ii. i>p. l-ii-lSI). la 
tho intoription*, anil npoD tbn totiMot 
Iho piseo, tha tottn ia caUod EratM- 
mcnuM. 

* Th!a dirtiloB maat bam erotod 
tbci ploiini^, ibe MrMn wbioh ruaa 
butww-n PaaCfM-D* (Jw I7sn) aad 
Dauli* (l>ihitt<a), aad pn>ceodnl lit 
Panlii (iror Iba hltla (o tbo 'x*"^ 
Utt, wbtch urn* ilio ttad'tkoul aoMiB 
of tbn dMib t.t I.Aiat (hoMii. t. r. t 
S>. Upnoe Ibnre wa* a atraiirbt roaa 
to DI^Ipbi. over tho xiig» or m1 oon- 
BoctiDg llonnt l^lma»M wllb Itoool 
C<r|iki). Tbli ta tbo Modern roBl« 
from Z>iul<*d. hj PaiUai. to iTiuM 
<0«1l,pp. 172, ITS. 180.1»l). 

Manila aaawcra lo DaolJa in vmef- 
Ibing bat tbo dint&noo from Aio ~~ 

iraMpoual.wbMi if mid in nmnuiiM 
s. iv. J C) to bo DO UMC* than aofuD i 



CiLLr.3»-aeL 



ATTACK Olf DELPin. 



28 e 



passed tbroQS^, burning tti« city of the Fnnopeans, togc^tbor 
vitb those of iho DaoUonB ami of the JEoMa. This hoi\y 
Iiad beon dcUiclied from the rest of the ruiny, nad inndv to 
mnrch in tliia direolioii, for the purpose of pluudering the 
Dulpliiai) tumple aud conveying to King Xurses the riches 
which were there laid up. For XcrxuSr as I am infonueil, 
wns liftUr noiiunintcd with whftt thcttf was worthy of not« at 
])elpbi, than L-vtn with what ho had loft in his own house ; BO 
many of those nhotit him wcro oontinuAlIy describing the 
treneurcx — more especially tbo o£rcHug.t mnde by Crcesus, the 
Bon of Alyattes.' 

30. Now whtn the Delphians hwurd what danger they were 
in, yreut fear fell on them. In their terror they consii!t<?d tho 
oracle concerning the holy treasures, and inquired if tht-y 
xhoultl bury them in the ground, or carry them away to Bomo 
other country. Tho god, in reply, bode them leave the 
treasures uulouched — "lie was able," b« said, "without 
help to protect hts own." So tho Dclpbians, when they 
nioeived this answer, l>egan tn think aWut saving tlicmselvea. 
And tirst of all they Gent their women and children across 
tbv gulf into .^chtca ; after which tho greater nunibor of them 
climbed up into tho tops of roruoseus,* and placed their goods 



ctodM. Tlnl IS pnibablj an error for 
twentj-MTni {Lmkp, iL p. 110). Tho 
■lu t* ecruint/ idciiilflcd by n Icia; 
iBaertptidiii on ttw iijhjI. TIio moilarii 
vUUffe ia onvhoiiK tty an einiiMsco on 
wtuoli th* wftlla of Iho onoione tonni 
may tw dmrly Imrod, It wmi mv 
■tniiis(UT. ixxll. IS: Gi<tl. p. ns). 
Tb«"f(iraalcf cakii" whlrli nuw covttt 
tb* groond jMlidpt llii> <iM uama, itr. 
rirad by the tiieivaU Irvm toB/Ji, an 
«uniini'i'Ut of tifiom (StrnK Ix. p. 
DIS : Pnn^n, I. •. iv ; oml compui) 

Ji: ■' . - -- i«wiHii). 

lire ruioa of 

kiK »..:.. :.i .11.. |..lif^nal ttjle ot 

•rehilcclQiv (Cell, p. IMIJ, ■nd wtikli 
lay npon lli* roiitu (nk>*ii by Ihw K-r- 
•ittna, i* p«.b«l,ly tli" tiW ot lliu " city 

vf tlig ^liilah* Tha cviyeotnro oi 



Gcll, vMch plomi >t u Santa Lucii 
(pa ITS), ia Ituuliululbto. Tlioro nre 
bo grDiudii for thiukieg Uiat lbs 
IVniani vnadorod no tax from Iho 
iliivct ruulfi. 

» Sopra. i. BO, 51. 

* Tlie Iwo pnki rtilng lmioo(liat«)j 
nbOTD Dvlphi (A'utn), wliich itnder 
ita aito c«o«tdouuus u a dutuofv but 
whiob an of Ht lowar elarUion ihaa 
tho iwO (Dninit, %n proboibly intoBdod. 

Oco of Iheic, lh« COntCIB, KIM tht 

Iljaiiiiwia Bwulloasil U>lbW (cb. 39) i 
tliuMbur, Mliieh it Mwrntiil from it 
by n rnviap, wiu callnd Kaaplia IPIai. 
do Ser. Knm. Viud. jj. p. U7, «.). 
From IbcM poaki Plimaimiii ubuiuM 
iu apiihn of "biooiM" tl\n. FnJ. 
S : cvnpai* Soph, AM, IWJ i Ewib, 
rhom. XM, ie.}. 



286 



CONDL'LT OF THE DO-PBUKS. 



BuOkVl 



for caffty in tlio Corycian cave;' wliilo Bome cffoctM thpij 
escftpo to AmphiHsa in Locris.' In tliifl way all tho Dulpbiaos^ 
quitted Uie citj', «scept sixty men, and tbe Prgpbet. 

87. 'When the barbarian assailaiita drew near and waro in 
siglit of the pUic«,' tbe Praphet, vbo was ttam«d Ac^atus, 



* Ttin Caiyflnu ™vo, mctmI Io Pan 
anil till' Xyni|i)i.> il'iiuMkn. X. xtii. f G), 
i( clmrlj iik-nlifiisl lijr iU potitioa, it* 
•Jm, ntiil na inxcHption at iuiMilnMi<% 
It it in tho lula ot a cTiDical hill rising 
(iDCof ttiD bula on nhkh tholniTcllpr 
<omm aftar moniitinft llio hoti^U 
iDiiniHliHivl.v lM<l<ii"l DHplii> tTom 
wkidi it is diiMnt hIkwi (erra mil«a 
Id m dircrtion m^nrlT' dno north (Oall, 
p. IDL t Loalw, ii. I'll, anti, Cal). 



[Tbo MiTWtm {* liboat 19 tin 
liroiil 1 iha c«vo (him liirr«<t>p* i'>U 
ri>i<(, niid Ui SS 1b ibn l>n>'. 
tW Irxglh i« Isl frcl, t' 
u-Wro i[ irmTii«> anil ■■ hall ■ i.i»--i -.^ ' 
■tnlBOlltc* ; Uid bofnnd lUal tl M- 
IhikU libant tha Muao cUiuuiMi n 
that in foremr llmos it appnu^d maA 
lanffsr thna at |<rraijtii> (IhwM(h I> 
6.aiidJ2.>-G.W.i 




ll«Mb at Ik* CMrcba Ow« 



' IVTiitber ibp olhpr Phooiim* hail 

Alroad; tlifd (•ui>[%, cli. 32). 

* iMplu at<KHl on the ndo of • 
nokr hill, in tha fona of a tbootrti, at 
SmiM Mir* (Ix. p. 0OG] t to whirli a 
miocewIoD of (Dna<i»a fuTe it a xlill 
p«at«cr r«M>inblaiK«. The Tmiplo of 
Apcdio waa nboat the contra of Iba 
oumv and that of Minorvn Pnmnia 
Iflwanl* thi> Eanoni i>itroinit7, nenr 
tn llio Caitntiau fuontnin, and not far 
troa Cti« chunrh ot the Pauogia, wluch 



maj vart ila *iio, or (bat of Ikt 
Gfimatlam, which itn« (ii>i )ivId« ri. 
At tho VTiiilnn) dii: ' I ; liw 
ohsrch lit 8(. J>Uiu, < , hb. 

a«odiiJ to an vliln- ■jihihiti^-, and 
farther taiwnrd ia iho aiwIiaDi, iM 
RMtom and hewn in tk« mt'k, U^ 
aboT* tha town, nnil aliont twt foot la 
lenipb. Bsyond llio Eiuivra 
W««l«ro oxtrconitioi ar» icimliti. (0 
tha old LfMnla, mo t>lrnhu, 1. a i 
and I^uMiB. z. 6.) hiuooM 



Ciur. 30, 87. 



PBODIGK OF TUB SACRED AllMOCIL 



287 



liohuM, in front of tlte tempk>, li portion of the DAcred ftrmour, 
whi(;li it wdH not la^tftil for any mortal hand to toiicb, lying 
upon the groiiud, removed from the inner ebl'iuo wlitre it was 
wont to hang. Then* wont he and told the prodig>- tu tJj« 
Ddlpliians who had remained beliind. Meanwhile tlie enemy 
pressed forward briiikly, and had reached tlie shrine of 
Minerva Pi'onaia,' when tliey were ovvitHkc-n by other pro- 
digies still more ^underfill than the first. Truly it was 
marvel enough, wheu warlike hamv8« wan Bct-n lying outside 



d«MTlbM th* pCritlOB of tbo tcmjllo 

cf UitMfTk Fronaia (x- ''I ' " '^ ■"> 
IcnviD^ Uio KymoBsiain jott Inrii tu 
tUe 1^ and go iluwn nboul thivo 
■tadlk, jroa flod tbo ritrr Pliaitm. 



whleh miM la ttin um ■■ Clnhit. tbe 
|iurt of P«t[]hi I bnC if iii9U>nil uf KOiasf 
iluwn jaa ucccd Uiwnrd lhL> icBiplo 
u[ Miit«rvD, you will nee on j-oor ligliS 
the faaculn of CuWlk." (Sea alio 




^^fciiu. 1L 7. as, ud 

^^^^uunio* pboM lh« ttntiw of Apollo 
r In the krge ipacs quite at tlia top a( 
th* t««m (e. 6>> ihowlng thnt ibo 
lHtt«r mu ofIow tbo modam vUlogo, 
wliich oocvpMa (In tlM of tbo Iviiiplo 
KDd >t« ticmilj. Tliv |>aiiit to wbich 
tiio rcnlMuMTiniJ.WMiiUMrt'iwugb 



D!od. xl. M.) tuid« ib<- lumpl^ of ApoUo,«M«iidiir 
tlio n>ck> in Iha Dndiltu of tiio riew oo 

' Sen (he ftbofo note. It u doubt- 
fal nhvthcr uir nnMiiii of tlii<< 
tample ou b* tnovd (Linke, ii u. 
631!). 




DELnil — EAST. 







290 



DiscourrrrKE of the rEESiASa 



Bool 



vital 



the temple, ivmorcd there hj no power bat its ovn ; win 
followed, however, exceeded in fttrAngenesB ail prodigies 
had ever before been Been. The barbarians had just reached 
in their advoneo the cliapel of jrim-rva ProDoia, when a etora 
of tliundcr burst mddenJy over their hvoAs — at the ftamu Umu 
two cm^ eplit oCT from Mount Pnrcassua, and rolled down 
xxpoTL them with a loud noise, cmnhing vaet numbers bencatb 
their weight — while from the temple of Uinorva tbero wi 
the war-cry and the shout of victory. 

88. All these tbinr;a together struck terror into the 
rianH, who forthwith turned and tlnd. The IhilphianB, aeei 
this, eomo dowa from tbeir hiding-places, and Bmote them 
witli a great tduughtiT, from which eitcli &» escaped fled 
straight into EtKotia. These men, on their reinm, declared 
(as I am told) that besides the marvels mentioned abom, 
they witnessed also other supernatural Bights. Two armed 
Koiriors, they B:iid, of a stature more than hnman, pursiud 





Hnai rarrHUBu4(be blllttm' Iirli'li', n'.iU Uje \.tiiitK 14 Chijti tat On 





Cair.n-80. 



PHVIACUS A5D ACT0K0U8. 



39 1 



after thoir flying ntnkii, pressing tbem close and staying 
them. 

89. These men, the Delphians maintain, were tiro HiTOce 

belonging to tlio place — by nam© Pliylacus and Autonoiia — 

each of whom has n, saori-d precinct noar the temple ; one, 

that of Vliylaoua, liiird by tlio road which ru»« above the 

; temple of Pronaia ; * the other, that of Autonoits, near the 

I Cafitaliaa Bpring,* at the foot of the peak called liyampeia. 

^The blocks of stone which fell from Parnassus might stUl bo 

seen in my day ; * they lay in the precinct of Prouaio, where 

they etoppi-d, after rolling through the hoxt of the barbariant;. 

Tbiu waa Uiis body of men forced to retire from the temple.' 



* pMinftiM niMiUaM tho precinct 
ot Fkjlaciia 0* vxJBlicg in tho Minio 
pwiticn in hi* lUjr <X. tiii. { *). Tha 
tMnpUi hvl. appitraitl;, dlMp|iokr«rl. 

*Th« CiMlaliMi tftiu^ KiH.v bn >lii- 
tiBoUy rmai^iBMl, bean tliia fiti. 
■Bgo and the ileicriptiain of rDDiwiiii' 
(l. Tiii, ( ft), In tho BledMli (oantain 
id Aia Jituni. ItliMMlliabuaoliho 
pr*eip>c«* «< PknaMas, on the rij^t ot 
111* nMil bj wbadi kloiM Delphi can bs 
•ppniMhfd bom tiin eort, at the 
nuHUb or* mtjno which Hpanilai tlie 
two fpoM Dflpbian pwkit. The rock 
baa btaa oic«v»i«J, ahipB miulo Co 
iMid duwn into tho pool, and nicUea 
ont in Ibo ataaa ova it (L«Akc, ii. pp. 
US, SiTj. 

[Tb* rcctu aro k lilictont limwtoBCh 
rMtioK ou nil anriUiMKCw bMA Hi« 
.WBt«r ia ooUi-ohd in • aqiMM tuil^ 
■boT* which I* oco of oblioio; torm, in 
» raoiM out In tha rook, and ttbo%» It 
>• • nic^i* in (he ciiDtiti. I'iKi WAler, 
M hnBinins mje, 11 " fxeetlval ; " it 
!■ aow |ffinc7if«]ljr wed by wuhar. 
innwM; Mid a atRSm ruiin ffiiti ilin 
foontajn b«t««aa U>* t^l' ut llie tuwu 
■ad the Kfoiuuiooi, mkI fall* into tlia 
riTor-O. W,J 

* The gronud at tlw fool of t)in pro- 
ciplciu T* Mrmrn witli " niiinvnxi* 
li«C"'«*><* " wliioh bara lallen or been 
precipilaii'l from the rocka aboTg 
(L«ke, p. sm). 




' U ia dlfBooll to mj hew menSi pf 
tl>>« MroDDt ii, )o far U tha EmU CDi 
trae — tuiw mnoli la nt^genbca. We 
maj, bowwrar, N«dDf ooaoain that 
tlin priexla arranKad a plan of dcframn 
Uutli on ibiaocciuion.aH'lou the «iib>ii>- 

?oeiil attaokof theGauU, ii.r.£Tl' (tct 
'ddiul I. XXili-J, In wbichthov aimed 
alionpiiJngtbBliaiukilaiiia wttbaopor- 
ttil'ouj) t*ar. aad tbvir own aid* with 
rpliirioaa truat and eonfidaiuM. Tb* 
fnfp&enli of rack ma; have betncara- 
fullj' propftrsd befoivhomi, bdiI havo 
boEU precipitatod \>j the hand* ot 
Iheaa who ara Mid to har* takaa 
ivfti^ in the p««k>— > mode of de- 
fcDM oonalkntly fTactiacd hy tho 
iuhnbitaiita «f uiciintaiDona coimtrio*. 
I'ho Kiond which tliof niado In &lliag 
najr bare been taken for thondor. 
The priid'n' of the ajnioar wonld 
rcqulit! not Ling Lot tbo faaadi of a 
•iii^lo iirtiul, aiul would be intvndnd to 
iiidical« that the ipDd was ttoiOK "at to 
the battle (See Xcn. HcU. VI. ir. { Ti. 
Tbo vBt-cty '""■> UitMrra'a temple 
nitybt be tlio voloo of another prieat, 
uid would have baan M onco tkn 
aiicnal and enoontngomant of an ktt*ck . 
Eren tho Befoea mar b*re btcn )rer. 
■Dilated br two (Don or naiuaa] itatiuc ; 
thoogb if Ihi* portion of th* Ckla ori- 
ginatod with (ha Paniani, it majhaTo 
been a mm mmae offarad lo Xonea. 
which the Dolphio prieatt tuned to 



SStr. 40, 4t. 



TBE ATBENIAXS QUIT ATTICA. 



293 



I 



■10. Moauwhile, the Grecian Rcei, wLieli tiftd left Arte- 
tnisiuni, proccccli^d to Salamis, a.t the request or tbe Atbeaians, 
and there cast anchor. Tbe Athenianii bad begged tbem to 
take up this po»itiOQ, in order that the^i' might convey their 
womea and children ont of Attica, and furtlier might de- 
liberate apon tbe course wliich it now behoved them to follow. 
Disappointed Id the hopes which they bad previouBly enter- 
tained, thej 'were about to hold a council concerning the 
preBcnt poBturo of tbiir affiure. For they had looked to see 
the Pelopouneftians drawn up in ftiU forco to resist the enemy 
in BtKotia, but found uothing of wimt they bad expected ; 
nay, they learnt that the Greeks of tliofte parts, only oon- 
oeming tbemsclvcfi about their own safety, were building a 
wall across the Itithnini), and intended to guard tlie Pelo- 
ponnese, and let tbe rest of Greece take its chance. These 
tidings caused them to make t)ie request whereof I spoke, that 
tbo combined fleet should anchor at Salamis. 

41. 80 while thd iMb of tbe fleet lay to off this island, the 
AUiaiions cast anchor along their own ooatit. Immediately 
upon tlieir arrival, proclamutiun was mode, that evory Athe- 
nian should save Lis chiltlrcn and household as be best 
could;' whereupon some sent tbcir families to Egina, some 
to Salamis, but tbe greater namber to Trojuen.^ This re- 
moral voB mode with all possible haste, partly from a desire 
to ol^cy the advice of the oracle," but still more for another 
reasoa The Athenians say that they have ia their AcropoUs 



tboir otm ndnntnm (len tho remark* 
ef Thirlwmll, vol. k p. SW). 

Il is curinun llint rinUrrh ulinnld 
Mf (Vit. .S'uai. V. t>) ibal lliii Uolpliinii 
laniplu WM •CIIMII7 bntnt by tb« 

*1b» AtliMiiBn wlio, without *iicli 
prMloffinHon, left hU <iMmtnr Ml • 
Uni* of danjrsr. wm oaiwidorM tpahy 
<if a miilal olfrna* (IgruBTf. odr. 
U»et.f, 466; Ml I HO tbe not* of 




• 'The TnneDiBiiaiwcalTedtliain with 
mnch Ifindnofs, tmi votnd tbem *aaU>. 
naztor^moBtif kt tli* l*l« of Iwo cbtiU 
^^d.) ft iUta Ibr eocli |>Kn<«n (Plut. 
Tatm. o. 10). IVcsmd, fur htr nic, 
took Bn MiCTgetia part in tbo war. 
8ho cmmgcd in it both bj- Innd oud 
•■«, wndlny fi*ii Irinuufli t« ArWnii. 
niuin (llllp^^ ch. I) «od SalHinis (iafm, 
di. 43), and a tboUBrid btsry^mned 
to Flktaai (infra, ix. S8). 
■Sapn,rlLUl. 



294 



KATIOHS COUPOSIKQ THE CBBCUN FLEBL Boos TtH. 



A hag« serpent,* wliicli \Wes in tho temple, and is the guardian 
of tha *ho!o pluoe. Nor do they only say this, but, as U the 
serpent really dwelt thorc, nrcry month tlivy lay out its food,** 
which oonsiata of a honey>cake. Up to this time tho IioQi>y- 
cako had alwaj's been consumed ; but now it rematued on- 
touched. So tho pricste^ told the people what hod hap- 
pened ; whereupon tliey left Athens the more readily, Bince 
they believed that tho goddens had already abaudonod the 
citadel.* As aoon as all was removed, the Athenians eaikd 
back to their station. 

42. And now, the remainder of the Grecian sea-force, 
hearing that the fleet which had been at Artemisium, was 
come to Ralamia, joined it at that island from Tnnzeii— 
orders having been issued previously that the ships should 
master at I'ogon, the port of the Trtxzenians.* The tcbmIs 
collected were many more in number than those which bad 
fought at Artcmisium, and were fumiished by mora cities.* 
Tho admiral was the same who had commanded before, to 
wit, Eurybiades, tho son of Euryolvides, who was a Spartan, 
hut not of the family of the kings : tho city, howerer, which 
Ff.nt by far the greatest number of ships, and the best sailers, 
was Athens. 

49. Now those were t^e nations who oomposed the Qreoiiui 



« 



I 



4 



* Ct. Arittopb. LT«i*tr. {TOO, 710, 
ei. BoUie) i— 

it vS f*« Af .• J^ r*f d^ctH^k •off. 

Later wrilKn muJliplled tho one aer. 
pont inio two (wo I'hot. Loi. Bjnag. 
ad TOc. ginovpiu- t^ir : HoutrIi. lub vtxi. 
Jie.). Tha toDipIo in wliirh it wim 
Mii«iilert4 to 4*rall waa tbat of Hi. 
nerni I^iUm (Fhotiiu, 1. ■- o.), whkdi 
liu bivii «lrM4y d^'^f'bod (lupra. v. 

I* t-DOipaiv tb» cuitom of th« Bthy. 
loniniif. u trended in the apocrgrptal 
ponloa at tbo Book of Oanlol (Eir. 
8-t). 

' On thn lieltcf In in]cbabnn<lonnii>nt 
«f hdooiiii*d city. of. IrfV. V. ^1 i \';iit, 
Jia.ii. 831, SfiSj TMit, Uiot. T. 13 i 



^^ 



JiwDph. B. J(ul. It. G j Burin. T^m4. 
ta-. i-Hu. U. y. nriii. 8 J JUcnb. 
Snl. tii, fit Aa. 

' The hkrtiimr o*11«4 Ittflm Ujr vmi 
of tlio poDirunI* c< Uotbuui, ojirnrtM 
to tho «in*ll istoail of Cahinria (StfKb. 
f iii. ]i. MS), It is nuvt verf tlmlliiw, 
B(i>roiall}r townnla the >it« of TtiMan 
(Ohandler. toI. ii. p. 211). 

'Atcorilng to □•nidola*' total*, 
Iha nimilMiT of chlpi'al B»himi« wm 
nrcMtM' hj' H thm Uie nasber «t llio 
icnind bnllls ot Artonuiiim. TIm 
citio* whioh noir tor tho Or*( (ing 
•ont thipa wero UcrtniocJ, AmbnolA, 
livncaa, Xaica^ Cjihug*, Scripkna, 
Sifiliiiiit, Mein, >nil Crotona. Tb« 
ptil<r -Icfcciipn from tlio Greek 
1TM that of tbo Optuuian Lcicf iuaa. 




Cair. 41-44. 



TIIB PU,T£AKS LEFT BEUIMD. 



I 



fleet. From tbe Peloponnese. the following— tlie Lacedw- 
monians with iist««ii uJiips ; tho CoriuthiauH nitb thu Hamo 
number as at ArtdmUiiim ; the Sicvoiiiaiiit with t'lrti^H^n ; the 
Kttidaurians with t<?n ; the TrcEzenians with five ; and thu 
HermiuuinuH with three. TIh>m were Doriftos and Mnced- 
nians * ull of tlicm (except those from H«rmio&4),* and bad 
emigrated last firom Erineii», Pindua* and Drjopis. The 
Hermionians were Dryopians,'' of tho race whtcli Herctilcfl and 
the Malians drove ont of the land now ciUlud l>i>rts. Suvli 
were the Peloponneaian nntiona. 

44. From the mainhind of Greece beyond the Polnponno»e. 
came tho Atheiiiuns with a, huiiilrcil and ei^hly ships, a 
greater number than that furnislKtl by any other peoplu ; aod 
tli«se were now manned wholly by th<'iiiM-lvus ; for tho Pla- 
tioaas did not Hcr^*e aboard tho Athtuian abipiS at SalamtB," 
owing to the following reason. ^Vhen tho Qrookit, on their 
witbdjawal from Ariemiaium, arrived off Chaloix, the Platgeans 
disembark)^ upon the oppoiiite shore of Bu'otia, and set to 
work to remove their households, whereby it happened that 
were left behind. (The Athenians, when the region 

lieh is now ciUled Greece was held by the Pelo-tiji, were 
Fetoagions, and bore the name of Cronaana ; but under their 
king Ceorops, they were called Cecropidie ; when Erechtheaii 
got the Borereiguty, they changed their name to Athenians ; 



* Snprft, L 66, Conpun? Appendix 

to Book T. Ko>r ■- ri>. 3ii^-3:m. 

*n«l llnmiont <(«i al all lim*« 
Ba inilrppnilmt *Uti> hw beva alnwclf 
twttood (•■■pr«, lU. KD, nota'). it In; 
mat a4 Tr«n*a, ooni|n4ng Um pn>- 
moaUiTf opfiraiM to tlut Ubwdt o( 

tl^^rn snJ Sptaia (Spjtax. Prripl. p, 
4b; Strab. viii. pp. &41. BIS). Tho 
M ulloUod OD the puint (it Und 
prtqi>oU iu fixml i-l tlin Diudurn 
I of JiO'Iri. Conaiilanlblu I*. 
■MJwi of iko nnll* and tcnplM an 
■nil U, bo WWII (Ooir* llar«», f. 100; 
I.iwkn'i itcr*», SI. p. 4eS). 

* KniiFii* *dJ t'inilB) -mm 1«d of 
Uh) i>UMa OMiMitoliag Ibo old Dorio 



fceWy 



Tatmpoli* (Sorm. Ch. 60! ; Rtrah, fx. 
|i. lUU: FI.Q. 11. N. Ir. 7). TIh< UlU>r 
WM caUfid alw Aejpbw fi^tnti. cf. 
8U-|>h. Uyt.). Botb hiwiu wcM to 
hwn l&in t«i th« banln <tf (ho rimr 
Piodiu, or Acfphai, «Ucli i» (b* 
mciIi'TD AfKitloUa. The lallm' wan 
ncarctrt Ui ila soiircv. Tbo eiacc Ktoi 
hnve not In^ea jri iilentilied. 

' AccanJinit to Arutotlo, thajr ajinuq 
tmax Drjopa llit .IivihK*ii, <rb<i bruuicht 
Uii-m into tb(> P<'1u|Kiiin(>to trvm il»i 
InnliDriliuSpcfvIioxw (Kr. IH> Tbo 
tyryvpi^a origin of <ho llifiuionlaiu 
i> agKbi MBMIcd, infin, cb. 73. 

* A* tbtj did W ArtouiMlttm (lapf^ 
e!>.lj. 



295 



isuxDEEts WHO rinjiiisiiED vessels. 



Boot VII 



utd when Ion, tlie eon of Xutiius, became their general, tlie; 
woi-o named ttitcr him louians.") 

46. Th« Mcgarinns scrvod witli the uimo Dumber of sbips 
tiR nt ArtcuiJHiuin ; the Ambrooiota'" ooiac u-ith seven; the 
Leucadiiins " (who wure Dorians from Corint!i) with thruo. 

46. Of the ieluudors, the Egtnotaos furnished thirty ftbipa — 
they had a larger number equipp<.'d ; but sumo were kept bicl; 
to guard their own coasts, aiid only thirty, vrhicli however 
woru th«ir best sailers, took part in tlic fight at Salamis. 
(The E^'int^titua are Dori&nii from EpidaiiniH;' their inland 
was flailed formerly (Edoo^). The Chalcideans camo uuxtin 
order; they furnished the twenty ships with ivhich they Imd 
. ierred at Artemi^ium. The Eretriaus Ukewise rumishe^l tlicir 
< seven. These races are Ionian. Ceos gave its old number' — 
the Coans are lonians from Attica. Nasos furnished fo»r:* this 
detadimcnt, hkc ttioec from tlii^ ollivr i^Iaudo, had be^vn 8<inl 
by the citizens at home to join the Hh-dcs ; but they made 
light of the orders given them, and joined the Greeks, at the 
iiiHtifiation of Democritus,* a citizen of good report, who was 
at that time captain of a trireme. The Naxiaus aro louians, 



■ Th«M Irndltfoniv lieloniriRK t« a 
ptrlod loux nnlraiur l« all knibmljo 
hiilory. mniinr bo <wni[il«rtd to likre 
an^ Kn«t vnla«L Ttikt th« Atheolftlu 
«reni toniam ud PtlMf^ had bcMi 
|»vTloaa1j dtidarcd (nipra, J. &6). 

" Ainlm<n& WM • oolony from Co- 
rioth, foiiiKkd in the reitin ft Cjpf*- 
laa about u.r. 63S (Scj-m. Ch. 4S4 i 
Kttnb.Tli.p. m. and x. p. 669). Col. 
liMiktt bni tluiuri sluiDilnnt (froaDdn 
for liitli»i in:; Ihnl Amtincin tteod 
tiafllv VII ihp aitc of thn mixlFm Aria 
(Northern On^cp. vol. I. pp. 207.B08). 

" LsDca* «'>u fniiuili-il by Ilin Co. 
riathian* nt lliv iqiiiii? limu wiih Am- 
bnwHi (Strab, 1. b. c). It lay on thu 
MaWtm- ndo of lb* penfimk of Uxo 
Baitin aamo (wbieh f* the modem 
jtanid ilawv oT L^fbUka), al ()id 
rixH) nt Iho higih (creniiil ornlookins 
tna mnrthy IntrorMi (hnlf Uiiil, hnlf 
water) whjirh cuiinoc-W I*in-ndia wiili 
Uu I'DOtiDCDt. It* rutii^ii', vrltl<li 



nif i>nn*ic1trab1o. tegm tba PaMliattm 
nf Aiiliy^ni, B mita and k half to lh« 
•rmh-odit of A'*^jU'hi, thf moHoin 
Mpilitl of I ho iwiiiniRil* (Loako'a 
X»iih(-ni 0n^(*,r6l. iii. pp. li-IS). 

' Sill,™. T. 83. 

' Tn-o thmnH and tiro p«Bt«eaBtari 
(unprn. ell. 1). 

* Itrllsnicua nrnde tho iMiiibar ol 
1h(> NLitiun iliip) ail, Eptiurn* fii«. 
Plnlnrcb uwnii (« hnvp loiioil Ihrtt i* 
h<> fiipy of lIproLUitut (Do llolin- 
Ih'rol. ii. p.6e»). 

* Plutarch, in hi* erilldiiai vpea 
tliin aUtcincril. iwnliut iiblch he hM 
nolhiiitc to nlt''t:p Inil tlim aih-ara of 
HttlUnicfil and Kjilivni*, haa furin- 
nalclT pvaorred Mm» IIbw wriltaa 
hj Simonfdu npMi lbs Dcniorriliu 
bnrn innmioiind. From thMf wolenrv 
tJat with hill rnnall *i|nailnin iio dn- 
Mtrojred lira of lh» mcnif '■ ihipa, and 
rwnncd trnta Ihtaa a Draian rataol 
lliat bod bc«a copliued. 






m 




TTIK CR0T0KIAT3 FUItXISH ONE VESSEU 



257 



of the Atbi^nian stock. Ilie Stj-rcana served n-itli the same 
HLip8 MS before; the Cjthnians * contributed one, and likewise 
a jwntccontcr — theae two nutions arc DryoiiianB : the Seri- 
phians, Siphninne, aiid Meliano, also served;* tLoy w«re the 
only islanders who Lud not g,ivea earth aud viitor to tho 
BorhuriiiQ. 

47. All tlie<ie nations dn'olt inside the river Acheron and 
tho country iuhnliited by the Theeprotians;' for that people 
borders on tin' Auibruciuts and tycucadious, who are the most 
remote of all those by whom the fleet was furnished. From 
the ooantries beyond, there wan only one people which gave 
help to tlt« Gret'lis in their danger. This waH tjc people of 
Crotona,* who contributed a Hingle ship, nnder the oomniand 
of Phayllus. a man who had thrice carried off the prize at the 
Pythian Sii'mes.* The Crotoniats are, by descent, Achaaua.* 

4S. Most of the allies came with triremes ; but the Melians, 
Siphnian.'i, and Soriphinns, bronsht penfecoiilers. The Melians, 
who draw their rac« from Lacediemon," furnished two ; tho 



* Cnnocrninn Cjtbnioa, vlda mpat, 
vn. W), noi«". 

* Scriplm*. Siphna*. unil Mvlos — lh« 
Srrjilui, 8'ylnnta HmX il<l'j ot the pre- 
•eu* (IflT—dirm, t<«i'i)i«r iriih C(>a* 
and Ciilinii-i. ilifl wfii'ni f'jcUdta, 
which wore now ttpcoiiitly tlii'WtBnml 

, by the ndvtutM of tlio Pi-nmii ll'^-'i. 
lii»ir Tt>ninli>iW!M fmm Akin hml cm- 

thcor ilniRcr now uiiJawiU t>ioiu M 

' AooonlliiK ta SIniba (lij. p. 4fifi), 
ThMprvtia *itniil*J from Itn Acru- 
nrUiniaa i»r<i]iilainit Ut llm irnK ii{ 
jUnbnicia (.(rial. 'Hi* river A-lii'mn 
f* cJfaily iclirnlilipil, !>;■ tlu- cliivriih 
liuns of tbiK'iitidM (1. Vt), I.ivv (vilu 
H), niul oiiiiir wriWnt. wita tlio 
fMliitiro, or Fatiarilikn, '-f (ke proMM 
d«r (I'VAko. vol i. p. 232.) ' 

* »<>|m. ill. lati 

* A itklOB WD* imclH to PhayDiM 
*t Ddpbi, iiihicli IVcuAiiina mw <i, ii. 
S I). Ul> ficEuripi. ■i?<»nliii|' to tbia 
■atlior, were twice tlio pitnlUhloa uid 



onw tho irtadiDtu. The >hip wbioh ha 
oomraBiuiDd waa not fnmiilipil b; Ilia 
■tat*, bat by PhajtUi huawtf. who 
iD*one<l it with hdHi of bi* cuiintry- 
mea m huppcncd to be M lb* time id 
Gr«ao«<. It I* prolMhb that tba 
Phnyilii* who !■ twim nimitloocd bf 
AriHi.ij.lLruiiif M a fut miitx^r WM it 
diffi'iviil iwi-kpii (cf. Subol. ail Aii*(vph. 
AchMni, 210). 

> Acm'rdiug to Slnho, Achaiuii act- 
tlixl nn tlio oiiMt slxiiic I'nii^na on 
thttir Tvliirn from lh« Tn>jtii wnr (vl, 

!> 37'{), Ari'<Twardi(nboQi n.c. i3l, or 
Ulcr KiOiirdlng to •miU"). MyicnDaa. 
lui Achmui from Bhypow <ib. «U1. p. 
6111). leiloiitacolon; t<>Cn)ti)nnii«<>]F, 
which wu in tho poacMaiun of tba 
Inpyirlana (Eph. ^.4^1. Onil ind«ed 
ltiai«a MjMialInt an .\ra>va (Motaph. 
xr. 19, 20) i ani] thin ni«y iiiillmut a 
Donan ailniiilurq in the culuuri but 
CrotAnM wna almfa reEkr4i(<d aa 
Acihma tnwn (Anliocli. aji. Slrnb. vi. 
p. 377 1 Sf^mB. CU. 3:!2i I^iljb. II. 
uiix. J 9, dci). 




S98 



jrVlEBEB OF THE GB£EK HHlPiL 



Bom TUL^ 



■ SiphnMnn and Seriphitas. irfao are louians of tito Atbuuan 
I stock, one each. The whole Dumber of the itLip«, viitiout 

eonnting the peDteeoat«n, voa thieo Itondnxl and Hcvootj- 
I eight.* 

49. When the captains from these Tarions nations vera 

eome together at Sshimis, a council oi war was snmmotwd ; 
pand Earybiadoa proposed that any one who likisl to advise. 

Bhoitld saywhtob plaeft Mented to him the filt«Bt, among those 

still in the poesesakm of the Greeks, to be the scene of a naval 
||Combat. Attica, he said, was not to be thoagbt pi now; but 
I be dc«irod their cooosel as to tiie remainder. The spenkon 
' noctl; advised, that tbe fleet should sail awa; to the Istlimm, 

and there give battle in defence of tlie Peloponnese ; and the; 

urged as a reason for this, that if tliey vere worsted in a sea- 
I fight at Salauus, they would be shut up in an island, where 
fthey could get no help: but if they were beaten near the 

Isthmos, they could escape to tltoir hom«B. 



I 



* So Thno^AidM, *. M. T\e «a)i>- 
, Itiiitiw WM •nppoMd lo bav* Uksn 
( |>>Bt wiUuo oaB bOBdivd j»w* <d ibe 
I DotJHi ooaoMrt at tb* FMonaucM 
kObt V. US ; Ca*M. Karr. W). Tbe 
I eoloniiU wora <Uofly Htnjttt «adtr 
' B^MUn ItwlM*, Lb* nmaMai *p- 
. ^t^mtXj lafl in LaosdMoMn afUr tbo 
[iwlaiiiMitJM <A Then (**P'*> i*- '^ > 

Hal. it p. 247, D.). 

* Tha nunbor pfodaetd Iw •ddiag 
the Btmal «ciiliiiKi>iita togMlior m dm 
ST8, but SOa &iina mppoto tlwl 
tmvlvc KfclnnUn abijit. tntp\oj^ In 
IPiuilinK Ek>b^ >r« iorluihd hj Hrnii. 

:<lci«i in bii total (Ut«kc'< De«i, \f. 

XAI. M>t« : lUtit •■) loo. Ae.) j but ihit 

ia a fwj tarveA tuiilanMicoi ot Lb* 

. lU^cvltf. HarcalMnB is t^nax wi 

)■ ftoooaM at th« ikipi acMallir niiwtinvd, 

' nad would baro d» nctfo rca«oa for 

iiivlDilinic Ui» iv*H-lii in nvrrt* in 

Eiciiia than th(M» reialiitfcj \aj otbm' 

■Laior— (.'Mbuh, for iMtaa««, whidi 

»iwt baTa had a naval latt* of abova 

t<mj tnrvuMa. Agala tin naarrs at 



Kgia* coMbrtcd. tt k likely, of ftnj 
■Up* latbar ibaa twalra (•npn. rC 
9t,tM»*% HHcnaawnt !■ nunbtti 
mrt^a na at erwj nun in Bwodoua 
<nipn, T. frl; oL DMhlaiaBa'a Uh^ 
p. 7*. E. T.). Wbtlbw- it procoMla 
tr«tB bia own i^ «lM« Mmiu . or front tb* 
coiniplioa cf Ott JI88., oiual b« UA 
to the jadfwnil of Uw lexiitr, 

Tbo aetaal n«mbcr of tho Qtsok 
abijM «a f »j>d ia taricvdj atawd, 
fftfhjtn^ wbo wa« a*« ol Ika qo«. 
baWau (Ikuaa. i. dT, $ 4). malm 
lb«m 800. or 810 (IVra. 841, U 13. aud 
e(. Sl(un£«ld'anci|4>) iTIinrjdidrt.WO; 
or Mcordias lo n">>u )[SS., 3o0 (i 
74) ; ClMla«, TOU (Eic. Ten- } Sl^i 
D«aK»l]itnw.llOO lUa l^or, p. 306. Jt3| i 
and TcMaa*, 271 (ad LyoiJir, 1431). 
AttcfrMbtT lb* pTepondFraniMi vt «■• 
tbontT i* in favuw uf ■ ■miUlm naa. 
bcr than •tibor td ihc** in ibo Iwxtt 
bol <•• niatt rauMoibor ibal Urro. 
dotiuU apnkiaK of tha onKtaal ■■»*(•*, 
aiul it u Hut anlikrlT that bMwoMI 
that and tlia battla nuuij khiji* HOTf 
iriUidrawa. 



I 




Cur. «41. 



XBRXES ARRIVES AT ATQEX8. 



299 



50. \n the captains from the Peloponnese vere thtia ad\ifl- 
ing, there cnme an Athenian to the camp, who brought vord 
that the barbariaiis had entered Attica, and wito rJivnging 
and burning everything. For the divinion of tho army uiidtr 
Xerxen was just mrived at Atht^nn from its march through 
BcDOtia, where it had burnt Thespiie* and PIat»a — Itoth which 
cities were forHaken by their inhubitauts, who Imd fled to the 
Peloponnvae — nod now it was Jayiug wiiKtu all tbt- possessious 
of th« Athoniana. TheHpite and Platiea bad been burnt by the 
Pereiane, bccauso they knew from tho Tliubans that neither of 
those cities had espoused their aide. 

61. Since the passage of the HeHexpont and tho commence- 
ment of the march upon Gr«eoe, a space of fijur months bad 
gone by ; one, while the army made the eroiieiiig, nnd delayed 
about the region of the Hellespont ; and three while they pro- 
ceeded thence to Attieo, which they eutvred in the archonsbip 
of Calliadee. They found the city forsaken; a few people orUy 
remained in the temple,* either kocpera of tho troasurM,' or 
men of the poorer sort. Thi'se pentons, liaving fortiAcd the 
citadel ^ with plonks and boards, held out against the enemy. 
It waa in some measure their poverty which had prevented 
I them from seeking shelter in Salamin ; but there was likewise 

^^B * iDBoriptinU ftod COiaa svxm to 
^HnT« ttut Tho^iv stood M tho 
^^■mMM et tbo Kammidri, in tb« plain 
^■ionth cf Kimoktulni (Lpako. ii, ppi. 

4T9-4SI 1 (Ml, p. 119) ; ollmntiin w« 

nriitht liikT* pipi>f-t'<'l t» R'lil it Raiir«r 

lolho ikirti <if Uction (cf. [^aian. 
I II. zxtL i i: rbilsa. up. Slcph. Bjt. 

■d Tno.). llio laiualiu kra Tcrj> ex- 

tenxito. 
' The tmpJe of Hinra** Puliu in 

Um AcTopvb'i to wUoh allaiioa boa 

bMB (MoneDiljr nuwla {nipi«, v. !3, 

Sit, Tili. 41 1 oami«ro rlli. fi3). 

* TLii ki><qM>r« of (Iio Hienxl trn*- 
niM of Idiiiarrk wan t«i in noTnbnr, 
chotDO annimlljr from kidodj; tho 
l\)MMo»ODia(ltinnL Their roDinin ins 
In Iha i«mpl« wooM ibon tlat it had 
\ fODad inpcolbl* l« muora all 




tha tmunrM. 

' TIsH Atli'^ntnT) (iiliti]i>t, OT AnopoUa, 
ii >tini>«t too wvll known to tixtd At- 
KriplioD. IL ia An oblung ora^gf 
bill, TWlnK abrupil/ (ram tho pUln ou 
tlinio aiili-ii. and iiu Ikr (iiortli, irhjob 
i« tnwknii* (he wmI, aliipiatc alaaflj 
down loth«baaoDfaBeoiindhlU(tbAioir 
AfFopagni), wbidi it oDB of group of 
lucky rlnratloni lyiog wmt andaonlk- 
VMt ci( the «itadnl. In Ihn liaabatiiaan 
it and Uio PiraniiL Tha Minanil of 
tlia AoTDpotia ia nid to ba 400 ftet 
■bore Iho IctdI of (lio plnia. It ia a 
plaltitnii. abor.c lOOO fool loDg bjr SDO 
iin>a<l. Til" la'-f pnuHloable aocaaa 
wu at the wrrl'TnuttrttaHj. ItwM 
hon> that tho few Aibimiana wbo ra- 
mofnad In tha l«<m bad butity nioed 
thair woodtn dofanoca. 



300 



THE PEBSUKS JLTTi£E ATUKNa 



Book TOL 



another reason which in part induced them to romain. Thcr 
imagined themii«lves to bare discovered the truu itu-nning d 
tb« orflcio ult«r<!d 1>y ttio PythuneeH, wlucb promised thftt 
" tlie woixlon wall " should never bo taken* — the wooden wall, 
they thouglit, did not mean the shipa, but tbo place wbcn 
they bad taken refoge. 

5*2. The Persians encamped upon tbc liiU over n^airiiit IIk 
citadel, wliich iti ciillvd KUi-h' Hill by tbo Atlu-iiijiu»,''nnd hegaa 
the siege of the pinoe, attnoking tbo Qnwks with arrowB wht'Rlo 
pieces of lighted tow were attached, wbieh they »hot at tli-- 
liarricade. And now those who wrro williin tbo citadel foand 
tbemHelvcii in a most woeful case ; for Uieir wooden rampart 
h«trayed tliim ; titill. however, tlicy continut-d to re»iiRt. It 
was in ^'ain tlitit tho Pisi^tratidin eamo to them and offered 
temui of surrender — tliey stoutly refused all parley, and juamR 
their other modes of defence, rolled down hnge masses of stooo 
upon tbo barbariaas as they were mouuting up to the gates : 
M that Xerxes was for a long time very greatly periilozed, and 
eould not contrive any way to take them. 

fiS. At laift. however, in the midst of thf»e many dilRonltieBt 
tbo barbarians made discovery of an access. For vorily tb« 
oracle bad spoken truth ; and it was fated that the whole main- 
land of Attica ' should fall beneath the sway of the Persians. 
Right in front of tlie citadel, but behind tbo f^ates and tha 
eommon oeccut — whore no watch wait kept, and no one wo: 



I 



•8up^^Tii. 141. 

* Man' Iinj, tlio Bcat cf tbs ml(u 
bnt«d court of the &impaxat, inMle 
«tlU mora fnrnona b; III* proMtliiiiH of 
Bh Rknl (ArU xTil. 23), iaun* of tha 
f ikinrw iif At bi-iiiiLa (ojinjentiihr wbiuh 
MnnDt bo iDiitnVf^. It is tluo ooif 
Ull tliaC oppivAclm bmr la lbs 
Aorcpolia, tmm ih* in-mern niti^niitj' 
or whioh it i* MiMintT<l liy a holloir 
of bat A few jraMi in wiiltii (ljMk«'» 
Athon*, p. I6i). Umv tb« Admmo* 
•ram fabled to hnr* takm np ttmir 
pcail^ «li«s ihvj Mi^rkwl iha for. 
tnm «f TliMHua {^SxhjX. Eunu 



6SIi.9S9. eil. SolwMtiU). 

VarioD* Mieuiinta swra gtvM «t 
origin of Ibe Muno (hona. I. «. c, | 
Bloph. It;-!, mil T(«'. Itr.). Tbe 
pcebablr io tlint Hnr* uiu wmKIpp 
Ibvn from lyrT* i*iiilr lim« (.XmcUjX^ 
L 8. v.). \ Icmplc iJ Mrkr* nlinnl I(i k 

buo dalo on ibo auutliiini loib- ft tlw 
hiU (l-Biuu I. riii. £ b) «!. Lnako, p. 

> A difCtncimi i* latendtd bMwfwi h 
IhvtnalalawlMHl Ihaliknik, (>*lamU,H 
PnyttiiM*. lb UMb aiMwnni c4 ib*^ 
orvoto d^lariMl lbs DOmpIi'to ilorw**. 
ban ofAltic* {npm, rn. Ita luj. 




CiAT. 01-69. 



CAFTURE or TDE ICROPOUS. 



301 






ban thought it poBsibl« tlmt any foot of man ccmld cliinl) — a 
few BOldicrft mountfrd bom the sanctuary of Aglaurtut, Cccrup^' 
daugliU-r,* notn-ith»taii(lmg the ftteepness of the jirecipice. Aa 
Boon as the Alhenianf) saw them upon the summit, some threw 
thems^lvci) Ijcndlong from tlio wall, and so perished ; while 
othera fled for refuge to the inner part of the temjile. Tlie 
Peraiann nitdied to the gates and opened them, after whicli 
they massacred the eupplianta. When all were slain, they 
plundered the temple, nnd fired erery part of the citadel.' 

54. Xersen, thus completely manter of .\th<>nn, deHpati^hi^d a 
hoDH-man to Suea, with a message to Artnbanus, iiifnniitug 
bim of his buccobs bitborto. The day after, he collfotcd to- 
gether all Uio Athoniuu eulcs who bud come into Greece in 
bia train, and bade tliem go up into the citadel, and there 
offer saoriGce after thi.'ir own fa»hioQ. I Imow not whether 
be bad bad a dream which made him giro this order, or 
whether he felt some remorse on account of having set the 
temple on fire. However thi.i may have been, the exiles were 
not alow to obey the command given them. 

65. I will now esplain why I have made mention of this 
circumstanco : there 13 a tcmplu of Erechtheufl the Earth- 
born, aa be ie called, in this citadel, containing within it an 
lUve-tree * and a sua.* The tale goea among tlie Athenians, 



* AgIaiiTiu,tho<lan|cht«r ol 0«CTop«, 
mM to ht,vB throim benoU oTor 
tha pncljilcM ot lh( AonijKill*. Dif. 
r«»n( rMMDt irore U8iirned for the 
diMd (Mmpun t\iuaii. i. irtii. { S, 
wUk Fbltooh. Fr. 1«),_ Hia;_i*D«iiiu7 



piD 

on (lio iubjdft KM Faoflaniaa (I. *. o,), 

£uripidca (Ion, poMm), ftnd Clplan 

{»a DtoiMUi. V. U p. 4311. od. ItnUkg). 

* The tmcM of thi« itMlruoiion may 

■till bo aMTii though lti« alrtiolam 

near tlio Cam of Pan (Eurlp. laii, tutro biwa robBllt. In the wntl DOtho 

; Tid« •UJ|^^ tI, 10k>),Kn<l wem* norlti tldn u« tha dnlnia ot dolDniw, 

and ulhw blnolu b^louginit to l^" tiU 



riffhllT pltKwd bjr Lrake on lb» 
DCiTtlion aidit of tbo Ac^ropolit, which 
lIfTodo(u.i lomu iiA front » lu most 
pKaoiiK. both natiTOf uul Ktnoictvii 
an Mill Mid to do {ltmk»'* Atben*, 
pp. SaS-S07). Hon tba rooka are 

r'to a> t<reolpiiUia*, atiMraUff, ■■ at 
oaat ooil, irUlo Itwm i* a ploro, 
DMkr tha probahU ails of tha Axlio- 
riDB, wUoh ■■ not nrj diffloolt of 
For the o«wt «lt« aee Col. 




tpiuijlcH. nhich pitivo III? tmlh of 
whnl Thorvdiilpi si^i (i, 93), that Ihs 
AlhcDlnni, nhilo dcloiaintc tha del*. 
Rittf* from lijmrU. accorillnif to the 
iDtenictimiii of Tlw-mUloclen, " retniilt 
(he wsIIb ot tbs Acro|Ki|i* in graat 
huin, lu tho nuuDHTV ahoir* to thia 
<lAj."-[Q. W.] 

* 8m aboTo, T. 92, nolo*. 

■ PltiwaniM (l uvi. { fi) telli aa 



Uiat Ihia "(««'* WM ■ wnll of nalt 
wnlct (r>i*/> tajJatitr if fip^aii). U* 
b*liaTe<l It M ooniMiinMBtA witb Uw 
Bg«an<Tiii. I. t S>, tb* roar of wbich 
tl OODT*^ M tLo MT, wtMiu tbs wind 
blow fnim th> •uoUi. K« Imw of ftnj 
nah wall can b« now foonil. 

• Tho inyih i* prcn aeoro fslljr by 
JLpollixInrai lluui tij way olhor writer. 
"Thagod*," faa Mj'*, "WMV nindod 
to dioMttlt*aaMlr*«eiliM wb*t« thny 
•hooM b* ■pooiiinT' worafaliiped. X«p< 
InM m* lbs OrM M Mocfc AltiM, 
wbOQ lia MDOlA wltb hi* Uidmt, and 
mado « M> iV'^ir op ID Ibu nidtt of 
Ibo Acroiiuli*, whore it romaina to 
ihii dar, and 1« «allad th« 8«« «r 
KracfctbMI. Mlswrvft (AUionij M. 
UxwmL aad Okltlnir Cvorep* to b* wit- 
MH that libo tmik tbe land in yomtt- 
ika. planted tha otlrs wkich Milt 
irrvwa in ilio lonipla of raadmavt. 
Thaa a Millo anin eoDoenilDg tho 



oonntiy : M Japltar, to nooBella 
rivalM. •ppotntod jnilipM, who w«f« 
OwTOfH aoiil CnUBAn^ aa kmhc aaj, aM 

&Bptahlbena,biit tbo Iwnlvu >l«iii««, 
If daeUon •djodgwl tbe laad to 
Athanf, npcai Iha wiianaa ot Otcramt 
•adao Atbona |^D«d jla naow, bcaf 
oall<daft«v(b«KiiddMi"<iti.ii*. (I). 
■ TIm Uorj InuiroTed wiib Um& 
hnwahu b^u* tba ahoot lira onMU 
in lon«tti, e« tha wwy ility af tha bocn* 
JnK (I. xiTil. % S). ScpboolM pn>h*blr 
aliudu* to th» fnilBni of Xrrtna' 
•l(»iu|it to dntivj th* aacivij eli*«y 
whun b» o»Ui It— 






«T«^ «£T«r«ioi^ 



<Ed.CW.. 

* Anocodtefc to FlMwrob, 1 
belongod to tba tch«o( gf Solco* i 



QBEEES SUOLVS TO BAIL TO TOE mu»t'& Bonm 

thftt they were plaud then m iritiKssc.i bj NppttUM ml 
Minerva, when tboy bad tbeir contention about tljo eoxaHlj^ 
Now this olin-tree \mA. been bamt with tbe rest of t^ 
templo when lb« barbaxiuis took tho place. But when tb« 
AUiviiians, whom tb« King bad eommatided to offer Bftcriflof. 
went op into ttw temple for the pnrpoEe, thejr found » frah 
eboot, u much aa a cabit in leor^, thrown ont from tbe oU 
tronk. Soch at least «a> tho ucvount which these persoo) 

66. Uoaa'rtilc, at SaUmi)*. tite Greelu no sooner h>:ar<l 
what bad befalli-n tlio .\tlteniiui citadel, than tliry fi-U into 
sach olitrm that some of tbe oaptaioa did not evim wait for 
tbe ootinoil to ooiue to a votv, but embarked hastily on bnonl 
their tmmIs, oiid hoioivd sail ta though tlicy woold take to 
flight immediately. Tho reel, who stayed at the eooneil 
board, came to a rote that the fleet tdiould giro battle at the 
Isthmus. Night now dr«w on; and the captalnB. dispersing 
from the meeting, prooeeded on board their respective ahipe. 

67. Theraistoc-IeH, as he entered \n« own twso), was met by 
Uneaiphilofi,* an AthL-nion, who asked him what the oo! 



nnril— 



A 



A 



OiF. CS-Bft. 



auooESTioNs or UN->3iii>utLU& 



303 



» 



bad resolved to do. (Tn learning tbnt the resolvo was to stand 
awAv for the Isthmus, and tli«ro giv« bftttU on bcLolf of th« 
l'clo|)unut:8(;, Mui-iiiphilus oxcloimod — 

" U thene men sail nway from Salamis, thon wilt have no 
fight at all for the one futlierland ; for Ih^y will ull scatter 
ttioiuM-lv(!s to their own homes; and niathur Eurybiudos nor 
an; one tUo will be able to hinder tlietn, nor to stop the 
breaking up of the armament. Thus will Greece be brougbt 
to ruin through evil counsels. But haste thee now ; and, if 
there be any possible way, seek to mtsettlu these rvsotres — 
mayhap thou mi^htest pei-suade Eurybiades to change his 
miiid, aud continue here." 

08. The suggestion greatly pleased Themistodes ; and 
without answering a word, he went straight to the vessel of 
Eorj'hiudvs. Arrived tiiere. he let him know that he wanted 
to ipeok with bim on a matter touching the public service. 
80 Kurybiiide^ biulo him come on board, iind say whatever be 
wished. Then Themiatoukts, e<^atiug hinitii-lf at his (iidi<, went 
over all tlia arguments which ho had heard from Mm-fiiphihis. 
preleitdiiig as if they were his own, aJtd addod to them many 
new ones besides ; until at last he persuaded Eurjbindes, by 
his importmiity, to quit his ship and again collect the captains 
to oc^ncil. 

£9. As soon as they we-re oome, and before Eurybiades had 

opcnod to them his purpose in asR'mhliiig them together, 

Themistocles, as men aro wont to do wlien they are very 

xious, spoke much to divers of them ; whereupon the 

riuthian eaptain, Adeimantus, th« eon of Ocytus, observed 

"ThinuHtMcle?!, at the games they who Hlart too soon are 

icourgtsl." "True," rejouicd the other In bis escuMo; "but 

ttbey who wait too late are not crowned." ' 



bbooTWl in Ibp t»mf fl^lil of pmoliotl 
•Bid pvlii cul win'lum. Ud HaBtnibor 
Um IflVk-irfT lk*D lliu fncnd of Tbo. 
BJatoclu*. wh" nti'tidail til* iiulmo- 

(lOU Bbllllt t^M I>1IJC Clf hi* IU*t (•Dirj' 




to lh« «ama i!<<mfl, that «f Fhreurhi 
id ilic trib« LmmliK (I'lot. Tbtm. o.SJ. 
* I'lmarob, in liia life «[ Thcnli- 
toclM ie. 11} tol>i the miic Marjr.bot 
aHCrili*' tho (Miit tnluni bj Aiiniimalu* 
to EiijjbiBilM. U« ftdiu tlwt Gnry- 



304 



TUEUISTOCLES' ADDRESS TO KVRritlADES. Boos TIZL 



60. Thus lie gftve the Corinthian at this time a mild 
onswi-r;'" and townrdH Eurvliirulvs liimecU ho did not iinw 
use any of those arguments which lie had iirgwl before, or Bay 
atiglit of the allies betaking thtm.selT«3 to fliglit if onoe they 
broke up from Salumis ; it n-ould have been ungraceful for 
him, whcii the eonfedcrati-s were pntsont, to make accusattcm 
againKt any: but he hud recourse to quite a now sort of 
reaBoniiiR, and addressed him as follows : — 

" With thic it rests, Euryhiades ! to save GrePRO, if thou 
wi]t only hearken unto me, and pive tlie enemy battle here, 
rathor tlmn yit-Id to tho advice of those among us who would 
have the llett witlidrawn to the Isthmus. Htar now, I be- 
seech tliee, and judge between the two courses. At the 
./ lathmua thou wilt fight in an open sea, whioli ia greatly to 
our disadvantage, since our ships are heavier and fewer in 
number than the enemy's; and further, thou wilt in any caRO 
lose Salamis, Hi-gara, and Egina. even if all the rest goes 
well with uB. The land and sea force of tho Persians will 
advance together ; and thy retreat will hut draw them towards 
tho relopouneso, and so bring all Grt^ecu into peril. If, on 
the other Iiaitd, thou doest as I advi»e, these are the ad- 
vantage's vhich thou wilt so secure : in the first place, as we 
shall fi^ht in a narrow sea with few ships against many, if 
the war folli>ws the common course, we shall gain a great 
victory ; fnr to fight in a narrow space is favuurubiu to us — 
in an open sea, to them. Agxin. Salttmis will in this case be 
prcscrvud, where we Imvo plac^'d onr wives and children. 
Nay, that very point by which ye set most store, is secured as 
much by this course as by the other ; for whether w« fight 
here or at the Isthmus, we shall equally give battle in defeoeo 

UrimjH. Tt,l. T. p. IGA, nntn)- Ho ))*■ 
unit hdWiiviT. rviimrk^ lluti Plataftih 
cUowhani (Agiujililb. ii. p. IbS) t«lk 
tbc ttotf of AderisKnto*. 

"Tlin cgntnut iiileiuM ii botve«n 
(h# iiiiidnius Ot Uili reply knd tli« 
"billur Oiiofa" <if wliiob iro luti<i 
nionliun in oh. 61. 



l^^l 



biKdo«, titgry M tlic nrply whicli TliB- 
mislficW madn, raiSHJ h>i *tn9 in a 
thrwittmiinc ninnnpr, wlimiupiiii Tlio. 
mialacln niNilH Ihu fnuioua (-loluiuii- 
tion, "Strike, but lipur mc." Me. 
Grotc liu well iboWB thf vrHut o( 
[nUrnal ointiaieDcy uid pnibubiUt; 
in PlutBtoli'* DumtiT* (EiM. of 



I 



« 



CiUP. eo-«2. ADBDLUITDS SILENCES TnEUISTOCLFA 



305 



of t])c Foloponnc8c. Assuredly ye will not do wisely to draw 
the I'ernians upon tbat region. For if tilings turn out as I 
anticipate, and n-e beat them by soo, then we Bboll hare kept 
your isthmus free from tho barbarians, and they will bare 
advanced 00 further thnti Attica, but from thence have fled 
book in disorder ; and w« shall, moreover, have saved Megarn, 
Egina, and Salamis itself, when) an oracle has Haid that wo 
are to overcome our enemiea.' When meii counsi-1 reasonably, 
reasonable encoefts ensues : but when in thoir counsels they 
reject reason, God does not choose to follow the wanderings of 
horoon fancies." 

61. When TliemiBtoclea had thus spoken, Adeimnntns the 
Corinthian again attacked him, and bade bint be silent, since 
bo was a man without a city ; at the »une time he called on 
Enrj'biadcs not to put the question at the instance of one who 
Imd no cotmtry, and nvRcd that Tbemiatoclee shoold show of 
what state he was envoy, hefur« ho gave his voice with thL> 
rest. This reproach he maile, because the city of Athens bad 
been taken, and was in tho hands of the barbarians. Here- 
upon Tbcnii&tocles spako many bitter things against Adei- 
maatuB and tlie Corinthinns genernlly ; and for proof tbat tio 
had a country, reminded the captains, that with two hundred 
ships at his comuiaud, all fidly manned for battle, be Itad 
both city and territory as good as theirs ; since there was no 
Grecian state which could tesist his men if they were to moke 
a descent.* 

C2. After this declaration, he turned to Eurybiades, and 
addressing iiim with still greater wormlh and eamestnese — 
" If thon wilt stay here," he said, "and behave like a bravo 
man, all will be well— if no{, thon wilt bring Greece to ruin. 
For ilie whole fortune of tho wot depends on our ships. Be 
thou iKT*iuadi-4l by my words. If not, wo will take our 
v£amihi.« on board, and go, just as we ore, to Siris'iu Italy, 

) Bnpra, Tit. Hl.nilftn. Msto, excqit SpiutM, eaaU tura 

'Twu triiudtvil ahipa iiDtilil implj bmiiKht wtn tbo Sold. 

■C l«a*t 40M"i toon, a Torco cmtor * Ccnorruliig tb» pMiliott uii] hii. 

((«otiM%)ll>«illi*t»kic^ui7 Gnxk torjr <J girls, ni)o*ujits,Ti. 1ST, noW. 

I VOL. IV. X 



306 



DCTEUUXATIOS OF KlUtnttADKa. 



SuoKTtn. 



wliicb is ours from oF old. and vbioh the propbociefl doefau* 
tre are to coloniio somo day or other. You then, vben yoa 
have lost allies like as, will hereafter call to loind what I luru 
now 8ft id." 
^ 63. At these words of TbemistoeleB, Enrybtnilcs changed 
bis determination ; principftUy, as I bclicro, buciiuse he feaitd 
tbftt if ho witltdrow tho fleet to tbo IstbmuF, the Atfaouibiis 
would sail avay, and knew that withoat the AtlioDiAnii, tL« 
rest of tlioir ehipa could be no match for the Qoet of the 
enom;. Ho therefore decided to remain, and give battle itt 
Salftiniji. 

64. And now, the different chiefs, notwithstanding their 
skirmish of words, on l«&rning the decision of Enrjrbiadoa, at 
iTnce made ready for the fight. Mornini; broke ; and, jtut M 
the sna rose, the shock of an earthquake was felt both on 
shore and at eoa : whcnitipon the Greeks nwolvcd to approaoli 
the gods with prayer, and hkowiso to send and invito the 
^acidu to tiicir aid. And thin thoy did, with aa tniich speed 
as they hnd resolTod on it. Prayers were offered to all the 
gods ; and Tolamoa and Ajax ware invoked at onco from 
Salamis, while ft ship was sent to Egina to fetch ^aons 
self, aiid the other £acid8.* 

65. The following is a tale which was told by Dieaens, 
son of Thi.'ocydc'S, an Atltcnitui, who was at this time on exil 
and bad gained a good report among the Mcdcs. He declared, 
that after the army of Xcrses had, in the alraoooe of the 




Tban toema to bavo b«en no pu- 
Uenlw reano vilrj Ath«iM tliould 
ha«« claimed it •■ hor*. oxnipt Uat lb 
ITM loDJan. Itnnxliitnii pcubnblj tuM 
in hia ninil claim* which wan tnaila 
ftnd pn>ptiuciu« wlii(Ji vera nddnoed 
on «ccnnon of tho fooDdiii^ at ThuiiJ, 
tX * liltio ilii(iuu\e frvm Siri*. 

• I l«»o »pok»n abovo (t. VO, nctn 'J 
ot th» >U]wi*iilico« n^rcl pnid \ej 
(bo Gri:(>l:i tu thdiw uul oUier iaiiacaa. 
To tbo InslanoM Ihtra oallMl«d tens 
U«n>ialn* majt tw added Suab. vUL 



p. OU. Tho njthicftl feaoileo «f 
On faaifljr of Jfeeua !■ ^ran br 
Apolladana (iii, sij. J S, A«.) h ui- 

Jbrm. 



.1 



rilnn Ttliooa 

AiblllM A]ti 

Tolaaioii hihI Aj*i on Um prMidin, 
bunwt ot SalkiKiib rnlmu kikI Phoca 
an probBb); iIm SglM(«a iBaeldt. 




OUea OF TDB CLOUD OF DUST. 



307 



Athoniami, wBHf«il Attica,* bo chanced to he vitb Domoratus 
the Laccdipmonian in the Tbriasian p1«ia,' and that vhilo 
thiTC, hu Haw a cluud of dust adroncing trom Kl«usis,^ enoh 
u ft host of Ihiriy thuiisand men might raise. As he and his 
BompenioQ voro woudorinj; who the men, from whom the dost 

IBiose, could possibly be, a sound of Toiccs reached his ear, and 
be thought that he recognised the myotic hymn to Bacchas.' 
Now Demarotua vns unacqoaiotod with the litce of EIoubis, 
and BO he inquired of Dicnoii what the voices wen suyitig. 
XHctena made answer — " DcmaratuHl beyond a doubt »om« 
mighty calamity is a1>oat to befall the King's army ] For it 
is miinifeitt, irniAmnob an Attica is dett^rtMl by its inhabitaots, 
that lhi> soimd which we have heard in an unoarlliJy one, and 
H[i8 now apoD its way from Elousis to aid the Atlicniona and 
^"thoir ooufcdcrateB. If it desceiKU upon the I'elo|>onn«ee, 
danger will threaten tho King himself and his land army — if 
it moves towards the ohips at Salomis, 'twill go hard but the 
King's fleet there suffers destruction. Evcrj- year the Athe* 
nians celebrate this feast to the Mother and the Daughter;' 
and all who wish, whether they be Atheuiana or any other 
Greeks, are initiated. The sound thou hoorost is the Bacchic 
Bung, whiuh is wont to bo smig at that fostiTol." "Hush 



* Flnionli (Tit. Thmnirtoe.) m;* Uil* 
hBpi'oiiiHl dmjng tb* tttUlo. (Sfo aoUi 
w. rfi.'ja)— [G.W.] 

* TIm ThmaUM plnia n«a ao nunai) 
trnm tbe town at Tliria, a pkoo of 
wetoa owweq u aace fai tb* tnunodioit* 
iwlRbbMrtKiod ot Itniifa (Suk !>. 
pp. Ki, I1T3). n* moM iHMltian of 
TWia i* BnkDoirn, CcJoml Laaka 
iaclisM Ui |>la<« it at ■ haight oallad 
Magiia, m tha left bonk ot tha Bo* 
nmiilfiif*, «r KJenMnfaa Oephiiaa*, 
iMhcF nw(* tb«a two mlloa fnnn th* 
laa (Dnml of Alllcft, p. ISO). Ite 
plain «t«nila akmir thora « illalaac* 
of MVUD or «isl>t milw, Troaa lte«nt 
Pawitum iPhtifin) to llonnt KoiMn 
ilCmndili), and raaohoa intatid abuot 
Sv* DuliM to tko loot of Uouat Af^ 

It it nuw, and w«a pnbotilf 



in anrimit tisMi, tatj nwnlkj dsriag 
tha graattr part lA Ilia r<«r (Ltaie, 
p. 140i eospara ApolkKliir. lit. itr. 
f I). Bwodotw i noinioiia It aj^a, 
lafra, i>. 7> 

' Sunn, r. 7*. no«9l 

•the eUof •Mailf oaoMn^ Uia 
ItraatoF Blooaleia, vt mhlek tfao myMo 
h jaBD to Banhna m« a j*xt, ani cai«. 
Inllf ooUaelcd in KiiiHIi'a Uictiunaiy 
of AjitiqaitiM {ad «oa. Ri.>i iii.via}, to 
■rkich tlio TMMlpr ia rafpmn) fnr infur. 
matkm. Tb» wrilcT woppute* ibat a 
Hiii W M on «f 80,0(10 pcTWH along tb« 
anarA nnd iriiiali M fKon AlboM to 
Blaaah wtm "aMbing vutumuaen" am 
tb* gMM daj dl tho fcotinL 

* Cenaaod PRMrpino <0r. lad. da 
U7at.lSt Ajwllod. t. T. I 1). 



3o8 



TERSIAX FL£KT BEACHES POALEBUM. 



BooK^Bl^ 



1 HUE 

ratofl 
btoM 



now," rejoined the other ; " and s«e thoa tell no mtut of (UH 
Dmtt«r. For if thy words bo brought to tho King'a ear, tba^ 
wilt assured]}' lose thy tiCJid because of them ; noitlicr I QOC 
any man living can then save thte. Hold thy peace tbonfi 
The gods will see to the King's army." Thus Denuirat 
counselleil him; and they looked, and saw the dust, 
which the iiouud aroHC, become a cloud, and the cloud rise up 
into the air and sail away to S&lamis, making for ilio stalioo 
of the Gructau tlcot. Then they knew that it was tbe fleet of 
XerxeH which would KufTer destruction. Such was the tab 
tuM by Dicieus the son of Theocydes ; and he appeaJcd for Ite 
truth to DemaratuH and other eye-witnesees. 

66. The men belon^g to the Hoet of Xerxes, after thsy 
bad Boon the Spartan di-od at Thcnnopylm,' and croxscd tL« 
channel from Tracbis to Hititiiva, waited thi'ro by the sp&eo' 
of three days, and then sailing down through tho EoripuH,* in 
three more camo to PhaKTuni,' In my jiidt^iiirnt, the Persiaa 
forces both by land and sea, when they invaded Attica, wura 
not leuH numerous than they hud been on their iirriTal at 
Sdpiatt aud Thcrmopyhu.* For against the Tersian loss in the 



■ Snpnk. «h. ZS. 

* Tho ii&Din HuripDS nppliMitrieU^ 
rjiAkiiiit' ""1? to *^ nrj ■uuroiriiM 
port of tbe olmnnpl htrlwivD Eubtn 
KDd the Duunland (ThaujiL in. S9; 
Stivb. ii. p. iSi). nhich ia opponte to 
tho modem tovm of £j^^, vhora 
llio liridgo now tUnilii. Tli« o)iiuiti«l 
M*in« U> bnr« bem Infl io ila natuml 
■l»to until anvT tho revolt ofEubcck 
trom AihcMu In n,c. 411 fl'ho^ryd. riii. 
S£), wlma iiiok« ifwiw thruwn out 
trom oitlior dido, tnd a bri<lK* ««• for 
t^ fint timo Uir«ira •oroM bma 
■ban Ui (liorv (IMod. Slo. tilL 47). 
lUa ■iTDCIom hna enntiniMd, with 
•OtoA iiil'-rrui'C ioii« uiil irnumtiniia, 
e*«r (inco. It ia gmtlly (aoilitatod 
bjr the oiiaUmca «f k rook aUoMt mid- 
vnj In iJui ctuuind, apoa nhioli o 
t«wer tuu lMi*n ntitnl, oonniwlod by 
ft •kno bridRO, 70 fact ui leiulL, with 
tlw raetinoDl, and bjr n iiioTDUa 



mcArm <iob, Bboot kolT a« lon^. wltb 
ibo itlond and tho tonu of Mgrtfo, 
Tbn brundur m wo*t«ni chaiifiet ■■ 
vi'iT KfaoUowt the tnalcm mi*, tluvngh 
which rtwnb jMu, hu alwajn a Jivptk 
of B or 9 frot. A *utatfc oihtmU «dI« 
throngli tit* oh8Diii>l, nsd (Ul tIdM 
ljitvi> AiwajB bws mattpr of •ladjrio 
tlio onrion*. {S» Lmko'a TJialfciii 
ar««ot^ iL pp. atw.2iti.> 

*Althoiij[b Th«inii>lOFlM, imbtgUa 
■rrbc,iitibi)i (n.c. 4M), had brssn fala j 
wiitki at tho rinBU (ThiKi. i. 92), jtt 
rbaMnm (till oomtuiiicd tv bv tiiB M<*> 
ctpal peat of Atbou* (inrra, cfc. 91). 

*C«l(maI Lmk* (Dvui c( AttW 
p. S&O) and Mr. (bvl« (nifl. of flf«M*, 
*ol. T. p. 150>, with reoMm, <|%tinio> 
thii ■tatdiiiout. tVilh mnpoot to tha 
llnvt, (Im (erniM- n'mai^ ■' U U 
aMTodjr pcBtible to iKliovo ttat tram • 
a few oitio* bocderin^ on tb» canal ut 
BobiM, and bom iqiuo oC Uw vniallw 



I 




KUUBEH OF TOE PEBSIAB TESSELSL 



309 



I 

I 



storm and at Tbcrmopylie, and again in the MS-figlita off 
Artvmidium, I set tlie Tarions nations which had since joined 
the King— as th« MalianB, th« Doriane, the Locrians, and the 
BoQottuis — each Bon'ingln fall forco in his arm; dscopt tho 
laat, who did not nombcr in their ranks eitlicr the Tiuspions 
or the Piatseons ; and together with these, the Cory^itiane, tho 
Aodrianii, the Tenians, and the other people of tho ielands, 
who all fonght on this side exoept the live Btatea already incn> 
tioned.' For as the Persians penetrated farther into Greece, 
the; were joined continually by fresh nations. 

67> Beinforced by tho coDtingODts of all these Tuiotis etaten. 
exoept Faros, the barbarianB roacbod Athens. As for the 
Pariana, they tarried at Cythnus. waiting to soo how the war 
would go. The rest of the sea forces eomo safe to Pholcnun ; 
vboro they were visited by Xenea, who had conoeired a dniire 
to go aboard and learn the wLibea of the fleet. So he came 
and sate in a i^eat of honour ; and the sovereigns of the 
nations, and the captains of the ships, were sent for, to appear 
befbro him, and as they arrived took their seats according to 
the rank assigned thom by the King. In tho first seat sato 
the King of Sidon ; after him, tho King of T}to ; ' then the test 
in their order. When the whole had taken their phices, one 



^B in tht 

I L.J «.. 



of lbs Eko. ik^ Olio cf wbioh 
had fomkbod too Grooka with moMi 
thftn four CfiivmN, Xvma ooald liai'o 
mrali«d lb* kuu of bftirs BMt which 
It bad Ukea him Mvan j>»n to «ul. 
Iccl fnnn all EKTp'i ^H)^ ■*'iA Aai<^ 
Xiaot," Tbo lloM, it iniut ba rtauaa- 
bored, i* deolHTOd to lave lo«t ood. 
■idcrnbl/ nbon 660 Tcnwlii out of 
13S7, vii. 400 oS Okpo S«puia (rii. 
IWt. 3W on Iha a>iu>t ut EuboM (rill. 
7. 13, III, 90 in tha lint luitUn •! 
ArtMuuism (viii. 11), & ocruiin num- 
ber tn t^ KCoDd (Till. 1 1), Kiid a rrr;' 
huic* niunbtfr in tbo tbicd (nil. lli). 
It a difflcutt Ui toppoM that tbn t*. 
iatotceDianCa reooinnl from EuIkuk 
and tbo WMtera CjrclBdoi can havo 
amoiuud (o morv tb*a toraa 30 or -10 
TMWil. Tbu ttllwr tlin loaiai muit 



linre been BTcatlv aaRKCTnted, or tbn 
DombiTr « IVmlan uliiji* at Salami* 
mj much ortimti-ij by tlio tirork* 
tEOiiunUl)'. Tbe oirnmon Mtunals 
accortted with tha riow uf Ilcrodolu. 
JBiKbjlu* (a* I nudontaod bintjgim 
ISJJ, tho axaot DiualMr of th* mnst«< 
at DariMU (Pera. StS) t Flolo (hag. 
Hi. 14) and CCainii (Exe. c<. S6), a>baro 
lOOQi Coroollo* NciKH. 1»X) jThomin. 
O. 2) ; and laoml^n, 13X1 (PaD(«. £7, 
3S}url30O(r)u»th. 17). Bat if from 
60U Ca too wero lost botirvi^a Scptu 
and Solamb^ tJie iiiuab«r at the latter 

Glaoa can bmtcbIj barn eieveflMl TOO. 
^th ivfard to tl"^ kuid foroM tb« 
r&ct ina7 bs at Hervilitnii •lACca. 

* Koxo*^ Ojrtbnai, Scriphiw, Slpb- 
tio«, and ll«lot (fido ii^n^ oh. 46). 

* Compora vii. es. 




310 ADVICE OF ABTEltlSU. Itoaki 

•Aer laoUifr. ud irere ect iavn in orderly amy, Xerxee, 
li; Ibraa, mni Uorjomas &n<l qaeetioned each, tvlietltur k 
flS^I shoold be risked or no. 

tS. Uudoniiu ueoHin^Iy went ronnd tlio entire amois* 
Mn *. brginning frith (he SidonioQ monaroh. nui askeA Uiii 
^MBtion; to vhich all gave the Mme answer, advising to 
MSKgc the Greeks, except only Artemisia, vrho spak« u 
(bllows:— 

" Sny to tlio King, Mard&nius, that these aro my vord> to 
him : I wna not the hiait brnvo of tliose who fooght nt EnlKrn, 
nor were my achiovementa there among the meanont; it is 
rl^ht, therefore, my lord, to t«ll thee plainly what 1 Uii: 
k> bo most for thy advantago now. This iiivn is my ad 
Bpara thy itliips, nnd do not risk a battle ; for those people^ 
aro as much anperior to thy people in seamanship, as men to 
mHsen. What bo great need is there toi thee to iacnr haziud 
at aoa? Art thou not master of Athens, for which thon didst 
nndortake thy expedition?' Is not Greece subject to thee? 
Not a soul now resists thy advance. They who once reiusi 
were handled even as tliey dt^served. (J 2.) Now learn ho 
I expect that affairs will go with tby udviTtjartos. If thou art 
not over-hasty to engago with tlivm by sea, hut wilt keep tliy 
fleet near the land, then, whether thou abidost as thou art, or 
morchcst furwiud towarils the Peloponnese, tbon wilt easily 
accomplish all for wliich thon art come hither. The Crocks 
cannot hold out against thee very long ; thon wilt soon part 
tltem asunder, and scatter them to thuir suvcral homes. 
the island where they lie, I hear they havo no food in 
nor is it likely, if thy land force begins its march towards 
I'l'loponnese, that they will remain qoicUy vhero tb(7 
at least such as come from that region. Of a siuvty ttny will 
Mol greatly trouble themselves to give battle on bchnlf of tho 
MbenJana. (§ 8.) On tho othor hand, if Uiou art Imsty to 
flght, I tnimblc lest the defeat of tby nea force bring harm 



Iws. 

smhJ 

n to 

toid 
lidst ' 

'^ 

hoflW 



1 part 

8. 1^1 

st<»n^H 




* 8«pn, vu. a, s a. 



Oitf. 67-701 



FLEET 8MLS TOWABDS SAUKISL 






likewise to thy land nnny. Tliis, too, thou stiooldst remcmbflr, 
King; good masters lure apt to bare t>ad servants, ood 
bad mastoni good ones. Now, as thou art tho beet of men, 
tby servants muRt needs bo a sorry B«t. These Egyjitinni!, 
Cyprians, Cilicians, and Pamphyliaiis, who are counted in 
the number of thy sabjtct-allies, of how httle servicb are they 
to tbeu I " 

60. As Artemisia spalco,* tlioy who wished her well were 
greatly troubled «oQoeming hor words, tliiulung that she 
would EuETer some hurt at the King's hands, because she 
exhorted him not to risk a battle ; they, on the other band, 
who disliked and envied her, favoured aa she was by the King 
above all the rest of the allies, rejoiced at bcr declaration, 
eipooUng that her life would be the forfeit. But Xerxes, when 
the words of the sercral speakers wore r«portttd to htm, was 
pkaeod beyond all others with the reply of Artemisia; and 
whereas, evcD boforo this, ho liad always esteemed her much, 
ho now praised her moro than orer. Nevertheless, he gave 
orders that the advice of the greater number should be fol- 
lowed ; for he thought that at Eubcsa the fleet had not done 
its best, because he himself was not there to seo — whereoa 
this time Ete reeolvud that he would be oa eys-witneaa of the 
combat. 

70. Orders wore now given to stand out to sea ; and the 
ships proceeded towards Salomis, and took up the stations to 
which they were directed, williout let or hindrance from tho 
oucmy. The day, however, was too far spent for them to 
b^tn the buttle, since ni^ht already approached: so tlicy 
prcpArod to engage upon the morrow. Tho Greeks, me«D> 
wliile, were in great dibtruss and alarm, more especially thoee 



■The tlMlra of Borodnttif to do 
honour lo ArUdnifia, llio qntfn nt hi* 
oaliTc cii^, hajt bovn aln«il}' outicivl 
(ta|in, *>i. 99, lul**). tlvn he hu 
Moriboil to k(T a tnldnew «l ■p«ooh oa 
wluoh It y dlAcnlt (o btUen tbmt the 
««n1d Iam TCDtwvd. Gh« mmT havo 




dUaaMlod Xf rzM fram bctnKlmc M a 
Ixitclni but abs «e«lil •onid]' l»n 
iiljolon with ooitonpt of Uw confeda- 
ratM bFtnra Uitdr (mm (••• 6nito, r. 
p. 100), DMn MpMiallf ftllar tho 
salUM oooduat ot tb« EKjptlMU U 
Aft«Mitinii (lupn, oh. IT). 



312 



PERSlAMa Visum TOWABDS THE ISnUIUK Book Tm. 



of the Peloponnese, vrbo vcto tiooLkd that tliey bad bees 
kept at Salamia to fight on buliulf of tlio Atbcoian ieniioTj, 
and feared that, if they should nuJTor dcffAt. they would be 
peat up and I>eaieged in an isla n d, whilo their ovn oonotiy 
vas left unprotected. 

71' The some night the land army of the barbiu-ianR began 
its march towards the Poloponnose, where, however, all that 
was possible had been done to preront the caomy from fbroing 
an entrance by land. As soon as ever news reached the Pelo- 
ponnsBO of the doitth of Leonidaa and bin companions at 
Tboimopylic, thti iiihabitauta flocked together from the rarioiiM 
oitiee, and «ncaini>cd at tlic iHthmuB, under the comroand of 
Cleombrotus,* son of Anaxaiidnilns, and brother of Leooidas. 
Here their first care vott to block np tiio S«iroittati Way;' 
after which it was determined in council to build a wall acro«a 
the Ifithmus.' As the number assembled amounted to many 
tuns of thousands, and there was not one who did not give 
bimaelf to the work, it was soon finished. Stones, bricks, 
timber, baskets filled ftill of sand, wcro used in the building ; 



* Snprk. T. il. Cleombrotai in* 
Dot Ung, bat regent fcrr niitarofaaa. 
Iha Intaiit am at Looaldu. Ho died 
bafom lh» •priog of Ih* luit j«ar 
(infn, ix. 10). 

'Tho Soironioa Vtj led ttoa 
ISegtxa l» Corinth, dan^ tlw cMtoni 
iheM of Uio Ixtliniiiii. At ft iliOTt dli. 

' (anoa tnta itogait, it pawod kloiitf 
Uio KviriinirLn rnckr, a inag raofln ^ 
firMiipion ovFrhiui^ng tbo KB. farm* 
iDif tho citn^it/ of K *paT nhivh 
diMcvndi trom Uflnat Octiuiuint 
(Stnbi. ii. p. StiS), Tlii« jiurUon of 

, tiM roMi i» noir Ietkiwii no thu A'ltli 
SniJa, Hud U piwaod mriili lUiiiie diffi< 

J oaltj (Goll. p. S). Tbo nay ■ooiiu to 

; luiTa boon no morn (Jiui « footpUh 
until tiui limu ot Ailrian, who mada * 
good carriaj^-road thitiaKhiiul tho 

r whole diilAiuw (Pntma. i. xlir. f 10). 

( TImi* i' bat ono otbpr roatc b; which 
tho iMhmn* CM) ho trai'<m«d. It 
ntna faibiud, and f^rna* omr • higbor 
poftloa of Mount QimMiam, proMct- 



iag to Iho tnTsUn oi]«al <b' graalar 
diffimlciea ((Mt, vf^ 8, 9). 

The nythio Scinm. who fomd 
■truietn OTOt tho pooka tola tb* •«•, 
nhoiw lh»j ic«i«din(nir*d b^ » laiif«, 
WM Mill to hot* KiTWB nitnip both to 
tha lOckB and the rcMl over then 
fFMiH>.ib. i 111 Btnb. L ■. c). Hb 
«vtl d«od« wMv powthttl bf ThawiiM. 

* Tho I*lbiiiM 1( ftbom foar siilna 
MTCW at it* aanoiroM |ioinl, and 
DMttr firo wbar* Ihn wall was built 
(Diod. 8Jo. ST. 10). Tranu of (ha 
wall an> itill tonad (Gcll'i Orotwf, 
pi>. 1 and 10). Aft«r Iho rnnrian war 
It WM kIIowm) (o (ftll into dootir, Imt 
wna rctiPwiKl sfn-la upon Iba Oallla 
iovMion (B.C. 310). when tho Pdapae- 
BMlaiu took QD pnrt in the Maad 
mndn nl Tboroop^lin (I^Mtn. m, ii. 
f 4). 1%* Tnai'liaM ia Iho atti-path 
ceotor^ tvaloiwl it otiD* (•««, sail In 
tbo MTontWsatb it termod for lomo 
tino t)w boandaiT- bcrtirMa thiiir 
doatialao* oikI tkoM ot tbaTiuk^ 



I 



I 
I 



I 



^^ 




I 




'. TO-TX GREEK SATIONS OOLLCCTED AT THE IfiTHMUa 313 

nnd Dot a moment was lost by those vbo gave their aid ; for 
ihty laboured without ccaiunf^ either by niRlit or day. 

72. Now the nations who gave their aid, and who hud 
flockod in full foroe to the IsthmuH, were the following : the 
LftCLvlivmonians, all the trtbus of the Ar»iilian<!. the Elcanfi, 
the Corinthians, tbu Sicj'ouian», thu Ejiidautiuus, the Phlia- 
fiians, the Trcezonians, and the Hcmuoninns. These all gave 
their aid, being greatly alormod at tbo danger which threat- 
ened Greece. But the other inhabitftntfi of the Poloponncse 
took no part in the matter; tliough tbu Olympic and Cemeian 
festivals wore now ovor." 

73. Seven nations inhabit the Pcloponneso.* Two of them 
are aboriginal, and still eontinne in the regions whoro th«y 
dwelt at the first — to wit, the Arcadians' and the Cynurians.' 
A third, that of the Achieans, bos never left the PeloponneHC, 
but has been dislodged from its own proper country, and 
inhabits a diKLriet which oneo belungod to others.^ The ro- 
xnaining nations, foiu* out of the seven, arc iiU immigrants — 
namely, the Dorians, the .^toliana, the Dryopions, and the 



* SopT*. Tii, JIM. 

* A flTO-fold diTldon of tbo Pola> 
nun WM mora amMj ujoiiUhI 

huoyd. i. 10 1 FnnWD. t. !. } I). 

.i« consitlrd of Argvlia, lAccmiit, 
UuBcBm, AnndiA (iEioIu<iiiM Bli*), 
uul Aoboa. It WM not cthaloal but 
gDogT^hicnl. n«iDdol(u mokiia kn 
•ibninJ iliriition. 

* Tliot tlui AnoAans woro aban'ip' 
■wl inliabiiliintd of itio IV)o]>oiiMM 
•mM tlw nuDlmoiu indiiioii 0I aa. 
ttqoi^ (ThDcjd. 1. S; nrllnnle. Ft-. 

I Xm. n^IL til. i. S 22i DnrnMUi. 
P. L. I*. *3i. 1 1 Stmb. Tiit. p. r,l1'i[ 
limn. L B. 0. Ao.). Unict' tluiir 

>t. Knb. 3» i ApoU. Kb«l. It. 2(11. 
Act. Thoir ooaBtry wm Iha 
eriKiok) IVlucis (nin. K. N. ir. C) 1 
•nd IVlMtto IM their vajwcial king 
(Fmmw. v. i S I : Apollod. m. r'm. 
g I). Sooora In their moaatMn hct- 
DMM«, tlior mkinUliiod tlutr (»de- 
pgndfoco at ibe liiug ot tbe Duiaa 




C'l'itinasl, nnd vtm dM «v«ii feMtd, 
liko tlio Aebitniii, lo alitrt thuir alfMlM 
(■>ii|>ni, ii. 171). 

• CjiinriB, or Criio»nriB, m it in 
(wlluil bjr Thue^UM (it. iS, uid v. 
41X <■■>■ tlio bordrr Irarttwj li*t*r«M> 
Spoil* and Atipie ii)Kin tlio mmC. It 
WM k tmall tniul coiitiiilia^ of ft 
■initio nDvj ((lint of /.uta) and ci 
tbo adjolninf; billi 1 but (t «m of 
great iiuMniuior, an cominniuljuit iho 
paHM wbich formed lliv iiatiinil ram- 
munlcaiiMi bi)twiH<n tbu two ocfuu. 
trioo. ilonco it ma fot ao lociK a 
tima an object of roctcalloa botwwn 
ibcm (laprn. i. S2 1 ruuMn. lit. ii. $ 3 1 
TliuiTj'd. at lujini, Ac). Bumo fiaaUf 
xtjtutKfd it to ArgBU" (l^tuBiu II. 
iiiviir. S S). 

Tlnitlliei'T^ariaasiremiiotDMiMUb 
bot onr of tbo <i]d r 
i* Implied i& tbo aanaliTctf 1 
(.11. U.). 

• ^Bpra, viL »t I mmjitt 
MidtMl'nuMn. III. i. t( " 




3 '4 



INHABITAKTS or T&E PSLOPO:?NES& 



Lemnlaiu. To the Doridns bdong Bcrcral very famoa 
cities;' to the ^tolians* one onl^r, tliat is, KUs ; '" to tin 
Dryopians, Heniiion« and tliat Asiai * wliivb lies oTtT aguitft 
Caixlamyli in Loconia ; * to tlie L«mniaDS, itU the towns at 
ttio Paruri-ats.' Tho aboriginal Cyntmans alono socm to be 
Ionian!) ; i^vcu tboy, liowfiver, bare, in course of time, grain 
to be DorianR, nnder tlie government of the Argivus. wboM 
Onuats and vassals tbey were.* All the cities of tlivw una 



* Spartoi Afco^ UrMnwi Tnmuv 
Ejndauras. Carrnth, uid Slcjon. 

" TrndilloD «u<l llint iTh«a Ih* 
DnrinDjt noro nbt'iit to inrvJo lh« 
MopoTUilMl, til a ^loli&ni, iui<t«f' 
OsylnB. ccnT«,ro<1 thooi nera** tho 
■trait btim Astlrrhluin to Illiiam, Bud 
kftotwnrd* M«l«to<l tlic'ii in llioir 
•ntR. For tliiMa aprncM ttisy n- 
Mired u ttnr niciinl tjio eooatrf 
tbnnccrortli known a* KUii (Pmbmu. 
r. (IL { G; ApallixJ. tt. riii. § S; eoiin- 
pu« above, rol. iii. p. 320, 331). Thn 
eineUtd inhabitant* (Pyli&niJ ll«il to 
AtMCtf (nipt*, V. OS). 

» Wh«D Stnbo nyt (riii. p. 400) 
Ihkt Klia dill not *xiiit M tb« Uma of 
tlio Ponliui •rar. he nTidcotly <»«r- 
itatM tlM foot. Eli> inorMNodfEKall;' 
In iiaptirtaiico lijr a rvralicivii ibortljr 
kftiT thia tiui« (Diuil. Ric xi. M); but 
it had Iwim n c^ly tn'ia tlio tijn« <4 
□omcr (IL a CIS). 

t nnnnloaJ And A^ltif aro Bwa> 
tloiM"! lo|r»lIiur vBty fi»«niinilly by 
Miai«&t writen (Bun. II. ii. GOOj 
Btnb. Tiii. p. S4Ii rnniMi. ii. xxxr. 
ftnd xixTi). nod ora alwaj« mgardrd 
u Dt}v|iiiui •ettlatncnta (■a[m, ch. 
43) Ar»l. nji. Hinib. lilL.pi. fiUi 
£ty<n. MiiK- nil voo. 'AtriixTi, Ac). 
Tin geni^ml traditMni npntenlei tbo 
OiyopiuM u oxpcJIcd h«)n tb«lr 
oriRvikl aboittm near Uoimi <Kta 
(auiira, ob. 81, note *> by HivvuIm 
and tho Doriim, uiil oa Ihtmcie taking 
nru)ini ill thn Pclopoonoao (Slmb. 
L a, r. I Apullnit. n. vii. { 7 ; PuiMa. 
I*, xiiiv. S Si DuyJ. Sfe. i». 37. 4*-X 
wbarn the Imct iiWnl U«rin>ou£ vna 
aMltn«l to Ihpm. Ilvr* Ihojr ooeo. 
|ii«d thiw oiliM — iluraioDJ, Aaim'i 



■nd nalk^ After ■ ttmo iba takaUt- 
•nu of Aalni war* vk|i«1UmI tnt 
ikair city by tba Anpvoi, and tel 
NOOurM t» (ho Spartuw, wtm gin 
Ihom a ait« in Mnscnla, nlicvq ite; 
built tlio Aaiaf boro mltrndcd ij 
Utvodoiua (m* E^inan. t«. iiijr. 

J 8). It Ujronlha wmC oruut iit H- 
UuMtnianarCoruaiaanOalt (O^ ij 
jr«fwii% not tor north cf Uw grrat 
tuMdland ot Acrita* (Citjn tMWl. 
Son thn nccDRitaiUMcrii't ion nf Sti^ba 
(riii. <p. 621), and fi-Tiinr" Koilu 

(PffripL p. 87) a»a r. ;;; if), 

Tho modem riUogti <jI -ivmi 

to OaCOiiJ tho «tl« V :■—* IKl 

oihiUit iui]r )l<JloDia rtOMaM (LiMhe'i 
Uutvo, Tol. i. n. its), 

* Cardamf l6 waa on thn op|MMlla 
•Ida of iIm Corowran Grilf to AMoi 
(Rtrab. viil. ji. 623). It ws« an old 
Acliii.'an RlElnncnt. aad imporunl 
(■oontih to be meoillaiirBd W ni)«M« 
(IL Ii. ISO). Strabo dr<«aSbe« U •• 
bnilt Ml a RKJky hoinfct at (rraU nwta- 
nl itranKib ((ri' witf^t /f^B^t), and 

nknuuiiM monttiiiia IIm! it iisx aboo* 
a nih) tram tko ahorr- < . J B). 

Tbo inodom nanw it ,'« or 

$AanlaBta>ita (Walpuli- n i^rtcy, |\ 
(Si Ooll^ Uorea, p. 338), a oonnn. 
tion whidh had fcciliui tinfora tM 
titaa of Bt«ph«ti (aro Sinfh. Byi. ad 
VDC. iMpi vir ^Xf'" Tiit^BfiMTi 1 1 m 
a/titbi). On a rock befalMd lh« 
modi-m TitlacOi «Uob orldoattf 
tarmtA tho anolcnt amopoUa, • &ra 
HoUonio fbandatlcM najr ha tr««gd 
(Handbook ot CrooM aoal Ttntor. 
p. 107). 

'8n|ii»,iT. Its. 

' The OnoaU {icopar wera tba !•• 



1 




DISSENSION JUtONGST THE UREEES. 



3'S 



nations, except those mentioned iibovo, stood aloof from the 
■war ; mid by so doing, if I may speak Ireeli*, Uiey iu fact took 
part with tha Medes. 

74. So the Greeks at tlie Isthmne toiled nnc«asiiigly, as 
though in the greatest peril ; since they never iinagiued tliat 
any great saccees would be gained by the fiect. The Greeks 
at Sul&mis, on the other hand, when tboy heard what the rest 
vcro about, felt gioatty alanuc-d ; hut their fear was not so 
much for thomBclvos na fur tlio FvloponiicBe. At first thoy 
«onv(iri)«d together in low tonon, eftoh man with his foUo'w, 

P secretly, and marvelled at the folly Khown by Earybiadca; 
but presently the Bmothered feeling broke out, and anolhei' 
oHSi'iubly was held ; whereat the old subjects provoked much 
talk from the spfakers, one side maiutainiiig that it was beet 
to sail to th« Poloponnefte and risk battle for that, instead of 
abiding at Salomis and fighting for a land already taken by 
the enemy ; while the other, which consisted of the Athenians, 
Egisetaue, and Xle^arinns, was urgent (o tvmaio and have the 
bottle fought where they nero. 
>/ 75. Then Thcmifltocles, when he Mw that the Pelopon- 
neaians would carry the vote against him, went oat secretly 
&rom the council, and, instructing a wrtaiQ man what he 
should sny, 84--nt him on board a merchant ship to tho fleet of 
the Medes. The man's uamu was SiciuuuH ; ' ho was one of 
^■Thcmistodcs' household slaves, and acted as tutor to his 



iIUbU of OntMD, a mnll town on 
Ite front iiT* <i Ai^oli*. to«w4« 
nilrai %oA Sioywi (I^iiMu. ir. x. J 5| 
{Unb. *lii. p. GM> Thny atrta to 
hftre bMB > rMDDanl of iho old popn. 
"id Uia I'ol»tKnaei», nbd 1« bavo 
' hI Die D«rika Immlgmita 
a. niii. < 4). At longlh 
vera rcdacoo by thu Ancirra 
xx. ttffy hm b<!c«tiia ilicir 
~, OT fnM voMvli. Vtam Xbeta 
«lo fltiui «l Forioci *t Aigo* 
> haT» Uio mnw of Omaua t 
I tfao CyiMtlan*. wbo W1 bclaoiced 
ArgoU* until Um bUlIa ol Tbyntt 



(aspra, i. SI), and bnd boon in tliu 
ctmilitloii, ai« tltcsofon inclodail 
noilnr iLo rants (bm UUUoc'a Doriwu^ 
TuL i. pp. DC, ISl^ ToL iL p. W, S. T.}. 
* Flouioh (Than. a. IS) mja thu 
KdnnM wm * Pmiian cantivD. Ma- 
ohrlna dlitiiiotly dociMM him to havo 
hMii*Oi«ili(P«nL»!l> llr.anM^ 
Co neODoilo liiu ttaieoMtnta, •ngBoaU 
Ibat bo mBT bare bwm "aa AtiMc 
Gnvk" (Hut. of Grt«ca, tcJ. t. p. 
170^ Tho fact of tbo ((ntaitaiu la 
witiiUMwI bv ThaeF<lidoa (L ISFT) oa 
irvU a« XncbjloA. 



^^31 Iff ■'■uj» !.-..■ 



T] 







i.T.^T.1 -.Z. 



'-■'~ - 1 



— -i-jf? Lis se=5 c- ta yon pmfl 
j^i :f lif ;ii-=r Gr=tis- He is a vej 

1 lii .-::=,'Z7^T- : ■"■hertfcre he bids n 

i i^.iz^i ili Oz^'i- ani ihey sre med 

y;"="ti.-:r :t J -j'i^ t.3T-oa to achiei 

ziT. if cnir ye will iunit 

-: .::L;ir izr^if izr^n^ themselres, « 

'.■: an- ^i=i=:a=i^E — jiax: 'tis likel 









■- p 
*_ 






J-^- 
./•... 



i.Tia.- T 



,-;;r "S'ri'^ni "sniir 



ZjTii; :-ir::i: l-frx=T= =::;h as favour ui< 
: ri-f^." .It niifenzir. when be ba< 
If. £-;t ir.vi sni -i? s^:; n? more. 

liis* -Lie n^esstnger fau 

i a I^rrv t.ij ;I Pfrsian tn>?p3 ■ on tbi 
Uoh ii^i l.Tt^^n Silamis azid the Tn«m . 

: _: :i:e L:-t:r cf ciiinirht, thcj advanced 
* Tari? Salaiiiiis, so as to inclose the 



''■rf- -^' - __ 



I.- 



Ti":,: 



I-'- 



.. i- ' r l"— /-- — 



7 i'.- 



■! !■:,:. f:-.:: 
!(.!. Jl.> 
,'.-.i :.■./!.■( ffiT* fi. nir:. ; 2< :tii 

(!.;, t-r.-ir'-i Iv ;.^'-'.r'[H i:;lK'-r with t!,e 
" l.-irir'- ly-/ly 'jf l''-rt!iirn" firtWiir ii» 
fj'fi-i'iwj (,f r.nr u'ji1ii,r, '.r n-iifi the 
jriijiifrtTiri'^^ Jl'-'L^J*."I t*j th'/ mc-dcut by 
^K-.<'li_iliin ff'-r'. ■15;i.l7li). 

" Tli'i will kri'iwii d'.-.'icriiiliivn of 
>KHch3')ui (yljoii nt itrit itpArBt 
3aAmu>«i rinr, 0iiii, tirtpiim 



t:-.fj, T^n. 1. ■- c^. »Bi tte eWtr 
-Tr--rrar'-j ■= Sirabo (ii. p. STS), 

.---." iOi-l ciT calli^ tijjiiiiJili, 

17 :.:,■>. ::*a ;-.?:iTO=n im Piitpiu mnd dw 
'i-i-vra ei:!v=;:;v cf Salami*. It ii 
'■ : ■?, aEd :^rrt.t-;d^ eren wiih neh 
7.irT!.-iT rreckj » afforded safe^ to 
;■-•> 'sa'l vfiseU (t the nncieati" 
I [.oak^. DcTiii ff A:tica, p. 267). Tlw 
■T!':;:;'! is r.vkv («TpA(fi, Sirab.). 
bat C'->Tfred iriih ahnbi. Tho islaniJ 
i^ abi'Ci a mile 1> n?. and tiro or ttin« 
KnD'ln.'dyar*!*bri^nl iLcakc.nl snpni. 
lis pofiii'iii fallr accoonia fur iti 
1>i.'in™ cn!lo*1 bv eom^— -n-hat E^na 
wan more conituoniy oonsidf red to ho 
— tho fii'/nrr of Ihe FinBna {m(;i^ tbu 
n«i/>ai(i»j. Stmb. I, B. c). 



OiAT. 7S, 78, 



PCBSUSS ntCLOSE TUE OBI^EEa 



317 



Greeks." At tho eAmo time the force etationcd nbout OMi 
mid Cyuoeura moved forward, and filled tho whole atraii as 
fu oa Muiiycliia with their ships." Tliia advance was made 
to prevent the Greeks from escaping by flight, and to block 
them «p in Salamis. where it was thought that rengeance 
might be taktn upon them for the battles fought near jVrtviiai- 



* A>chjltll ilMpribM tills tDCrro- 
iDMil tcty gnphionll; — 

** Upon tliu mhuU tli* vUtw tokon 

2S6.261) of tiio •mogBimiiffl lions do- 
■erilwd, lORRii to mo prcfrrnblD to 
that adopMd by Mr. (Inii^ (IIUI. of 
Gneot^T, pp. 17t-17S). Thoy difTor 
rliMjr H M tho movemenU of thi* 
Pniilaii 1«ft wing, and m to tbc 
podlion of Coo« (Lol Cynonrn. Hr. 
WM nvards th«M poaitiraiii M odTtain 
tukaown jwinli ca Ihu iKntth-irotoni 
eoaot cil Attio*, bctvecn PhaUnm 
•nd Soiiinm. Colimd L«k<\ witli 
Bartliflcniy, EniMi, li&lir, 'I'hirlvrall, 
■nd Kie|iorli jiIikvr tln-m iii llii> it-likni] 
of Bihmh Ur. Oroti.> bniitn tlio 
Ftnlui taet from their uiFJiarBge 
alODjc lh» Attio eoMt, by • MA^iIa 
movcmeai, to » pocilion a]>pairlt« th* 
GrqIc fleet in front of Saliiniii. Cul. 
IiMka Inil; nnuttrin thkl the B^riiima 
iDMle • devU* moremnnt. In ths 
afleraooa of tho d*r bcifora tb« buti* 
tbair acot advancoil to Iha nioatli of 
tho (tnit bptwoni Salnmia nnil tho 
nain, and thoro took up ihcit iMtioo 
(«BpT>i oh. Tu), TwatiiiK In port on tho 
■■laiHl, in gxirt on tho Altie ahorvk At 
kighlAill a frtah odranati look |ilaon. 
Tw right iriog:, wbloh had ptohoiAf 
rMl«4 OD the Pirainn, inavnd along tho 
Attio ibor*! thrunffli ihu rluuuinl irhicli 
(OpAialoa Snloints fniiD Ibc roaitiland, 
and, baving pwacd the (ireok fleet, 
btotikod Bp Ui« cbuiarl nt it* north- 
wntorn vxti'^mity toward* Elnnainj 
wbthi thu Mt vinK. which L(ul lit-t>u 
•latkuwd aUint I'lTtUduui and tbo 



promtiDlorj of Ai/hia Vanan (■bloh' 
ia CfDiHara m tlui Cbccvy), flUnd th« 
channel at its KOtb-ooilon) and to- 
vraids PhaUmm ami Miiujiihia. CoL 
l.i>iiko JQDlly n>f<>rs(ulli«wardaDf tho 
omcio (infn, ch, iT), M iadlRatlog 
that both "tlio nerod ntnad ot 
Diana" and likowiM "marinn Cjno- 
am*" WTO on tha Salaminian ocaat. 
Tbo (urmer he conneola, niaiotuibly 
mougfa, with tho poaitioa coT th« 
"tcmplo ot Diuin" moDtionod bj 
niuiantaa aa atondiog La thin part of 
SiUiunia [t. Ktri. f 1). Tho inllor 
mnj noil liave bt<tm a aaioo of tlio 
Salaniukuui pratDontorrwhk^ KmUAim 
out tonnia Pfjttalnia {■«• th« L«tt 
ttoM hot ono). Thin pauui^. and 
tbo now cf oh. TO with ch, JA, mv 
tho BtRiog poiuta of Ci^ Loaka'a 

theory. 

With m^ai to tho dirtadiici«at b* 
tba F«nian» of a aqnadroa vhicL 
Mulod aoDlh ol Salamia, and blocked 
ap Iha Megnrio surait at tho north. 
woalanioiltiiBiitjodhcilidandi Ihmiith 
it tvtM mainly on tho aulhon'tjr of 
Uloilonu (it. IT), it ia sot perhaps to 
be attoeotlier rejected. Acoeoding to 
JK*eiijlOM XcrUM mnt a dotaehmwit 
" to onoloan the wholo island ot 
AjM-— 

This can acarewly b* aoo^Uid litorallj. 
Tho rad noremeiit may have been 
liiBt which Dfodoma doaenbc*. Ho 
is ptobablf wnmg In making the 
irAol* Rityplian tqnadraa go c«i this 
■PTvioe fmfra, c<h. 100]. Tiut num. 
meet WDold not hani hern (as Mr. 
Grots thin 111) " noncceiiory," U a 
portion of tlia Oraok d««t hod broken 
thiODKh the Ptnian Uiw aod flml 
wortwanL 



3i8 




rSTTTALElA OCCDWEDt 



BJnm. Tho Persian troopa vctc. landtyl on the tslel of Psj»-j 
taloia, because, as booq as tliu bntlle littgiku. the men ui' 
vreoks were likely to be drifted Uiitlier, as the isle la; a 
the very path of the coining fight,— and thoy would Ihns h» 
ahle to save their own men and destroy tboso of the eiwiiir. 
All these moreroents wrae made in sili-noe, tliut tlie GnHb 
might have no ImowU-dgo of tlinn ; and tliry oocnpiod tbi 
irhole night, so tliat the men had no time to got tlieir itocp. 

77, I cftimot say that there is no truth in propbede*, or 
feel inclined to call in question those vhicb Bpook with oleai- 
neas, when I think of the following — 

•• Wlioa tli«7 aball (iriil|[e with Iholr ibipa lo tbt Mwroa atmnd ot DtaH ■ 
Girt with Ilia Roldon tkMiiiin, oaf eke to in|rino Oyaonm,* 
Uad hnp* twollinff llwtr botuU %t thn ikmnlaU of boaaUf nl jUImw ^— 
Ibm tkall Rodtlkn KlgU eKtingabh b»iii;lit7 FianuopUum 
liuoll'* fvnoiu olEiprinf , who Uaiakotb to omrUuwr »11 lUitffa. 
Draw wHIi lintM ilkftU Mlagttv u>d Hm« with blood aball «ni|<ur]i1« 
Oc«Bn'« WKTML Tb«a— thrta tbnll tho d*^ <rf Oi«ei>'a tnwtluni 
CiMno fNrat Viett/rj fair, Mil Sotnn'i Ma »11 muh ut," 

When I look to this, oud pereoivo how dearly Baois * upckt. 



' Ciil. I^mfc* nppoan Ihu Ipinjili) of 
DiaA>, whlcU bolioirnl IliU •lic««, b> 
]iav« ftooil oa th* wnUcm eoait at 
tb« b*j of Am^Mkia, bejoai tho 
Uluid of j4rj>a<Mn« (Dmn! of Altien, 
p. 171 wid p. SSI) i but ttM solicii in 
I^nsaoiM (i. xutL f 2) doe* not aliaw 
HUM thHD (lifti iho inraple wa> on Uila 
tMo Ifae iilaiiil, t»r lb* town uid tli« 
rtnOt. 

* Qfoocun, MoeordlnK to nt«TvliiB* 
(•d TOO.), wu • noainon naino for a 
MBinfuu. It oonld, howaror, titan 
lU •iKnifloation (dog's tnil)> unljr b« 
DfipUnd to nioh.M wer« niictiouiarly 
long ■nd thla. TUt U Uio MpociM 
ebuwiU'r of tho llunlboniui pramoD- 
Uaj ot Uw niUBo, ui'l it bt-loiiK* foffl' 

Yarrora. It would bedOfkuIt to &iid 
■ noiftt oa tlui WMbem Atilc cmal to 
WDloh tho MKio ArMatpiloa wmld 
*ppl]r. Cofiiittro tho Cyprian pro- 
nuatoiT ef noMora (ui-btil|, »lil«h 
wu Mcntiooail abot*. Bunk r. oh. lOHt 
iiol« *. Ur, 8liik(Bl«7 hu rerivod 



th» Uiom7 d( liuvht'r. tint Cn« and 
C^nonn are tho vrctl-kT..><m UbiBl 
anil thoUnrUhoiuan pr lUaJt 

(vol. IL pp. 41-(.|17). .J. 

IbfQtet to hftto bcvn ,„,.., ^^ ,u ib. 
laohmaiitai aod tluil, on tixi ilHlMrBl- 
■uukoi to block Id Uio Gtv«k» al 
SaUmU, (ho aqaMlnina at ('mi »mt 
UafSrlhun w«ni'st(tiial«l tv uhve m-.' 
fl« finib the '■•Bar«4 almi'l of Omm" 
oa tin Bttbcnau mm! mmv Knitoii^ 
wlieni then wm ■ tmnplo |« Dba* 
Anuraalh Rn )• oUinW, hinrwnr, 
t«*uppoM that Rarodnttta wsaquOa 
iftiMaDt (if the ilulnr.nn of tin two 
pWoM fpgoi jUIniiii (Vol. ii. u, SU. 
not* lUI. 

• ■'BriUiM»"or«'fniltfiilAlJi«w" 
wiinld b« ■ ohiMir tnnataliun. n* 
apnilwt Aitval i* ■ tavoitrho finx la 
thi* ooanactlca (I'faiil. latJt. ii. AU| 
Ariotojih. Et|. tza»; AciMim. OM. 
Kurtp. Alo. 435, in.). Tlwn' l« p«r- 
haiM an aUiiHiun is it la the oUro. 

' SujLta, oh. S>. 



I 



BB*f. 78-79. 



ARKITAL or ABISTtDEa 



319 



! neiUier vonluro mj-Mlf to say anyfliinj:; against prophecies, 
lor do I approve of othera impugning tbem. 

78. McHUwliilo, srooug the captains at Salamig, tlie strife 
of vonls grew Qorco. As yet tboy did not know that they 
vere enconipossod, but imagined thut the barbarians remaiDed 
in the same places vhcro tb(^ had seen tbena the day before. 

79. In tbe midst of their contention, Aristidcs, the son of 
Lysimscbns, vho had crossed from £gina, arrivod iu Salamis. 
He was an Athenian, and bod been ostraciMd by the eom- 
monal^ ; * yet I boliove, from what I have beard coiiccmiug 
hiii clmract«r, that tboro vas not in all Athens a man bo 
worthy or flo just as ho.' He now camo to tba council, and, 
standing outside, calltd for Th^mistoclos. Now Thcmietocles 
was not bia friend, bat liIs most determined enemy. How- 
ever, under the pressure of the great dangers impending, 
ArifiUdes forgot their feud, and called Tlfemistoolcs out of the 
eouscil, sinco be wished to confer with him. Ho had beard 
before his arri^'al of the impatience of the Puloponuesians to 
witlidraw the fleet to the Istlunos. As so<m therefore as The- 
mistocIcB cnmc forth, Arititidoa iKldresacd him in those words : — 

"Our rivalry at oil times, and especially at the proeefit 
Mowm, ought to be a Ktrugglo, which of us shnil moet adran* 
tnge our country. Let me then eay to thee, that so far as 
rrgnrds the departure of the Polopnnnesians from this place, 
much talk and little will bo found precisely alike. I faavs 



* After ft Ions vtrnxtflo, Ariatidn 
l>»d bc«B oalTBciiwd (Einoiieh tbo »• 
AaeoM «t TbsiBt*toetoi uine y*an 
Mdiw, u.e. 46S (Fbtt. ArMia. o. 8). 
Wbn Xmxm km id ThMMUr, aO 
mUm wlwa* banlahMMnt vm otuy tor 
• tcnn d jt*!*, wnro r(>ail)od, Tb»- 
miModm himwlf nioriiiK ll><) iltcrec 
(or the pnrpoM (Hat. liurtn. e. 11). 
Aiulklw Bpfiaroatly tnci not till nan 
HTallod biniMir tit (tiD pcnaimea to 
nrtorn. Tbo tluriM UM in ccoiMiotiati 
with liMottracMinmiv«oll kiu>iri),atiil 
will Iw foond in I'lalunb. 

Tba gmorul mbjscc of oMnutam bu 
I jBtUeioa*!; haiidled bf Ur. GroU 




(Bill, of Omm, i*. ri>- EOe-EllQ, M. 
copling UMt b* DM ncMd*4 0» pto- 
ocMlng too nnoh in Ibo light «f a 
MMftatlittt agniMt tjn»tij, tui Kn 
KUlo in tliNt «f aa aRBag(inmi& for 
lolTiDX th« ImsiIo of UiO >wia7W}tf 
froo kiid unfullvivl (*o« » t*P*' i^^ 
tha Oxtcrd uul Ctwiluidg* lt»ri«w, 
vol. iv. pp. l-U). 

* fwihv! twUnuMtoa to tlio U(h 
clianiotur of ArifUtlni will txi fooad 

SrUnocr. ap. Tint. Tlwtn. c. 21 1 Pint. 
org. M6. Hi relyh. xiiii. 8; IHod. 
Sic Vi. *ti. 47; Ch;. do OS. Hi. «i 
Fist. Ariitid piwuMj Con. Kop. 
Ariolid. e. 1). 



320 



niS COXFEEEXCE WITH TnEiaSTOCLE& 



Boo« Tin. 



1 



seen wifli my own eyea tiiat which I now report : lliat, bow- 
erer mncb the Corinthiana or Eurjbiades himself may wi»b it, 
they cannot now retreat ; for we are enclosed on erery side bj^ 
the cn«my. Go in to them, and mako this known." 

60. "Thy adrioe is exocJlent," answered tbo oth«r: "andl 
thy tidingH are also good. That which I eariKstly desire to 
bappon, thine eye» have beheld accomplished. Enow thai 
what tho M<di;8 have now done was at my instance ; for it 
vos necessary, as oiir men would not fight here of th«ir oini 
firee will, to make them fight whether they would or no. But 
come now, as thou hast brought the good ncvm, go in and 
tell it. For if I speak to them, tliey will think it a feigned taJe. 
and will not Ixdieve that the barbarians have inclosed na 
aroand. Therefore do thou p;o to tlicm. and inform them how 
mfttt«r»( stand. If tbty bcliuvo tbcc, 'twill be for tho best ; 
but if oUierwifie, it will not hnru. For it is impossible that 
they should now Bee away, if wo arc indeed shut in on all sides, 
as thou sayeHt." 

81. Thtn AriBtidC's entered the assembly, and Bpoio to the 
captaina: he bad come, ho told them, from Eginn, and had 
but barely cscapod the- blockading vessels — the Greek ficet waa 
entinsly inclosed by tbo ships of Xerxes — and be advised tbem 
to get themselves in readiness to resiKt the foe. Having said 

so much, be withdrew. And now another contest arose ; lor^^ 
the greater part of the captains would not believe the tidings. ^M 

82. But while they stiU doubted, a Tenian trireme,' com- ^ 
manded by PoiiX'tius tbo son of Susimenes, deserted from tbo 
Fersians and joined tbo Grei-ks, bringiog full luteUigenoe. 
For this reason tho Tenians were iugeribed upon the tripod at 
Delphi ' among those who overthrew the barbariana. With 



• Plntnrob Mj* " » TmfSian tri. 
Tvma" (Tbcfd. c 1!). wliioh i« pra- 
baU; k moro inoociuac;. Diodorns 
mkkos iDtalliKcnnn Mm* front tho 
SuiiitLiM in Vw E>rtian doct. wlio at 
th# MiiuO limo jinxii^"!* l<y il^J^rL to 
thw OnAa in tiio lintUo (li. 17). 
URvdotui^ CD tho contnuy, ipwika 



Iilghlf of the *Bl(jnT BhMni b7 tb* \ 
Sumiana Cii>^*> cluSA). 

• The uripoiJ Icto niMitioopd wi»« 
dpilimted from tbo Ulb*ot ttin apoil 
tnkcn at Platam (iafn, ix. SI), ftnd. 
Ilka tli(> colotul tUtoe of Jiipiti^r, 
[■TMontud Iv Olympu on Uio luno 
uccwiUDi had uiacrib«<l npea it tlw 




Cii*r. 79-S3. 



BATTLE OP SALUllS. 



321 



tbis eliip, Trhieb Joscrted to thcjr side at Salamis, and tli© 
LcinniaD tcbsoI which oame ov«r leforo at Artcmisiimi," tho 
Greek fleet ivaEi brought to the full number of 380 ships; 
otLcrwiso it fell short by two of that amount. 

88. Tho Greeks now, not doubting what tho Tenians told 
them, maite ready for the coming fight. At the dawn of day, 
all the men-at-amifi' were assembled together, and spcoohos 
were mado to them, of wliioh the bc8b was that of Themia- 
tocles ; who Uirougliont contrasted what was noble with what 
was base, and bade them, in all that «ame within tho range 
of man's nature and constitution, nlimift to mako choice of 
tho nobler part. Having thus wound up hia discourse, ho told 
tliem to go at once on board their sliipe, which they accord* 
ingly did ; and about this time the trireme, that had bt-cn eent 
to Egina for thu ^Kacide,' returned ; whereupon the Oieeks 
put to eoa with all their fleet. 



tMnc*, not miy of iko Greeki wlio 
ftni^it in tbot battlo <u I^nnnim 
■aJMolcvnlr obMrvcs vt Uio atatno, r. 
xxiil. ) 1), bnt tl ftU vho Iwit *nj 
<dr«cliTo aid to tiie QnA tiilo ilorinji 
tlia wtr. PwnaniiM, nbo pro* tlw 
list mon tke padMtnl of the lUttuv 
mcMiont (bnMM llio Tetdao*) iho 
CoMs^ ifflinna, Kaxiaim, niul Cyth. 
ninM, wlio all Icmi'liiul i-lufi* nt 
SolHDii ((iqnii, ch. 46), but bcdI iu> 
contfagMita to Piodcn (t&lrn, ii, 28). 
Vbato iiUDM ti>TO all Men deviphcroil 
on thu UTTMiiit whicb fornio) tlio 
IMilaital irf tlie Uipod, im hut thai of 
Ui0 ThMpiana, who w.-n» prelmMy 
iMdribcd <■ •ooomitof tbcir condicl 
at Tbcrmopjln. Cootriboutn, kcit'- 
oTcr, of a tuiKle tmuI do not uoni U> 
bato beta ganenllj dtcmtd worthj' of 
oomnmnontion. The Lemiii&iu, Cn>- 
toKlat^ and SoHpluaiu, who «koh jcavs 
ono vmhI to tho oembdnodGiMMti 0ccl, 
wQpa oBifttwl tt<m th* IcK^ipUoiu. 
Fntebhr th* Tcoauw oirad do Iii*«r- 
tioa of their nana bi tka jwooliar timeU- 
neaa of tkatr airiral aod the inportanoo 
ot Iha Mnn whkb tbojr hrongnt. The 
SiphnuuiH, luj««T*ri ara Inicrfliod m 
Ibc triiKxl, Choujcb we do not kuoir 



VOL. IV. 



tliat they were at oil dI»t!iifal*liod. 

It had long boco known that tbe 
stand «f tho tripod. afUir tho Boldos 
bowl had boen nuovod hf Out Pho. 
ciani (l^oran. I. xiii. J 6), was taken 
to CoEutautinovIo, and tboto placed 
in the ilippodnioio (fco Gibboci'a 
Decline and Fall. vo\. ii. p. IG ; Spoa 
and Whoitlor'a Vojafpo en Qrtcow loin. 
I. p. t7S). Beopntly tlie irUnd haa 
been unoornred to its bate, and ibo 
iaioripUon docipliered (vide infra. 
Book IX. ob, 81, Dot« ad lee.). 

■Sop., oh. 11. Tho cnlcolat Ion here 
mad<> coDllniu tbelofulin cli.40,adfiD. 

' The E|>i1nlai, tr armed porlioQ o< 
tho crow of a tiirmne. carrcapondilig 
to onr marine*, taxied in amooBt at 
diffetvBt pceiodi of Giofik hltiorj. 
TLa BMnuat miahar a*«r fvoad (• 
forty («Dpra, ti. 1&). Dntinir tlio 
IVloponnodan war tbe complenxnit of 
BD Atbonion tritrnivwa* Um (ThQcrd. 
Hi. 91, Hi ii. 9i, 103; iv. 76. lUl). 
Flntarch aayi (Thom. o. lA that at 
Salamla it waa *i|tl>toon. I a caroeljr 
tiiink Iberp ara RnlBoieDI srounda for 
deabtiaK tbii ■latemeati ai Col. Leake 
doea (Dhdi o( AUioa, p. 302, umo ■}. 

* Supm, eh. 6L 




322 



lUTTLG OF SAUXI& 



Book T^^| 



84. The fleet had Bcarco left the land when they wero 
attaclted by the barbarians. At oqco most of the Greeks 
began to back irater, and were about toncbing the shore, when 
Amoinias of Pallcni,* one of the Athenian captains, darted 
forth in front of the line, and charged a ship of the cncmj. 
The two vessels became entangled, and oonid not separate, 
irheretipon the rest of the fleot came np to help Amemias, 
and cngogt-d with the Pvi'sians. Such in tho account vblch 
the Athenians give of the way in which tbe battle began ; 
bat the Eginetana maintain that the vessel which had been 
to E^a for tbu ^acidie, was the one that brought on the 
fight. It ia aiRo reported, that a phantom in the form of a 
woman appeared to the Greeks, and, in a voice that was 
heard fiom end to end of the fleet, cheered them on to the 
fight ; first, however, rebuking tbem, and saying — " Strange 
men, how long are ye going to back water ? "* 

85. Against the Atlienians, who held the western extremity 
of the line ton'srda Elooeis, were placed the Pho-nicians; 
against the Laecdromonians, whoso station was eastward 
towfli-ds the PiriDua,* the lonians. Of these last a few only 
followed the udrice of Themisloclea, to fight baokwardly ; the 
greater nomber did far otherwise. I could mention here 
the names of many tiiorarchfl who took Tcssels &om the 
Greeks, but I shall pass over all exc«pUng Tfacomt-slor, the 
son of Androdamas, and Phylacus, the son of Histisns, both 



> Falltnj wu onn of tit? unit 
bnoii* of tlio Alheiiina pruviudHl 
tonu (I<i»k»'s Demi, p. U). Forilj 
•lt«^ til!* oiipra, i. GS, noW ', Acrard. 
inxtoPItitaicti {Them. o. 14), Anid&iM 
IwtoQgcd not to PalUof , tint to Doori**. 
Ho vfw, if irn laaj h^ier« Uitxlonui 
(xi. S7), B Lirotliiir ik ^Hchylag, whon 
other brcilhw, CfBwiiinu, tad cqnaltjr 
djstinguivhed lumiclf nt Mnr.itlinn 
(npra.Tj. lI4tDot« >}. It tliin iatrae, 
It londi a peoollnr LDl4ire*t to tbu bma* 
tifnl limiiUeitj of tha wurda in which 
.£«chirlfta noLiiM* hit broibe^» action 
— i(ift •" VupoXSi 'BAAqvuril »aDi, HMO- 



(Pon. <t!6-(17). 

* Compsra wilh thi* nttitj tba lalaa 
UM ootUMnuDgr tbo battica of Man. 
thou (Mifn,vL 117} Bod Dp)phi(nu. 



* Tho Finmia na aot at tUi tEm» « 
moio'*tialur>l koAiMir,'' wbolly " an. 
laiprovrd by art," aa Mr. Oroto an. 
pniwi (Iltti. of Otvooa, to), v. p. 17^. 
ThvmiktoclM hadcommpBccd Itugmiib 
warka to improro jti nnttml Dcnt&ioci 
wboa lio ma uw^an, lUtUca j««ra 
oarlltr, mc. 463 (wo Thacfd. i, 03). 
Thnj Toaiainad, boirOTW , in • ^07 
uufiuiabad ataUk 



.8I-87. 



BATTLE OP SALAUIS. 



3»3 



I 



SMoiuLg. I ehoiT tluB preference to tlicm, magmncb as for 
this Berrioe Tbeom^stor was made tyrant of Samoa by the 
PoraaDS," while Phylacns vaa enrolled among the King's 
beoeffflctors,^ and prcs^^ntcd with a large estate In land. In 
the Persian tongue the King's bencfuctori ore callMl Oroaxngs." 

86. Far the greater namber of the PiTsian sliipa engaged in 
this battlo irerc disabled — eimer by the Athenians or by the 
EgiDetons. For ae the Greeks fought in order and kept their 
line, while the bftrbuians vero in confusion and had no plan 
in anything that they did, the issue of th»>batUe could Bcaroe 
be other than it was. Xet the PorKiauH fought far more 
bravely here Uian at EaboM, and indeed «urpa«8cd thtmHelTes; 
each did bis utmost through fear of Xerxes, for each thought 
that the King's ej-e was upon himself.' 

87. What part the scTeral natious, whether Greek or barba- 



* Aa Oote wM mads liinic of tiM 
MjIi'Ibww fcr hi* aeniaia la the 
SsyUuMt axpedUioa (mpni. r. II}. 
TkcMDAtlor aiipun U Iiaro ntoeivwl 
is* rvmrd iuiMlbloIr (infra, ii. 90). 

' A tfsoe of the foruml on of tbo 
npcMMioa, " EoDK*! bonehotor," moiiui 
ta ooent (npts, UL 140} in tha om 
otE^laaeoi Ui«r«Bn>alaabiiitBaM*iD 
IKodorw <xtu. U) uil JKtia» (Hiit^ 
Tv. 40). Ttia prentico of iMoriUng 
tht lama* of tbc tvyai bmaflutnn In 
a RCMtot, whlck Appear* a)piln at tlio 
cod cl ch. 90, is ttricn a!lnil«il to ia 
tha Book tit RiifacT ia ntervaet to 
Moitltcat (ii. S3. Ti I). Icit likairlao 
DaaAJoiKd by Joaaiibna la Ua AatS* 

* Aa Bocedotoa aan'f^na thia Ttnm- 
(TOlar till? lu ihnn- iilia had da*a good 
Hrrira to tlit) kins (ai tit^jiri ni 
BtaAim) M ocwwotlce with tha Morj 
«< FhjIaMik wtnao aaoio wM iaacribvd 
lor aaeh aarriM aoiong iha hanoofwd 
liil, U teaataial to infcr tha» ifaa term 
itarif mact iaTotra aeno alloaloa t«tha 
eutov of tbiM rcgiiloring tba nanaa 
of IhMO «tio kad dMCTTod weU uf 
thai'r •aantrj'. Thp moat rtoacnubla 
«x|il«nalion of tha tiilv, thc(«t<n«, 
would atviB ta bg "wsnfaj of baiag 




teeotdad," tram kKvr (jya^ wortt^, 
aed aJMo (4l|4)> " to aay ot pvaiM," 

wLlch booccona IJtala is old I%)ntBDi 
anil *a^h) ia Zmtd. It voald bo 
mora oomfonnaUo pcri»p« to thn 
gdnina ci tho IV«*iaa to nmno tbo 
coUocatitm td tba two ilwiiciiiti (m In 

tfa« Boden (arm »»>Uii Jbrnl&u', 
&«.). but atill I tluaic tte otrnolafcr 
ho«* ixypaaod (oeEnBUo atthur lu thu 

arbanta of OfT***- * RMordiD(t Uia 
•ante.' ia lOpvatudlT- ■[wkaa of in Iha 
Inaonptia«« <pf JLj^ti» and Babfloma 
aa tha hl^teat objoct of aua'a ambU 
tion, aocl Iho ris» lo pwisit aach a 
teootd HBBM i« ban boM nrj Jaa. 
ionaljr Kuardod bj ths ktajr, oa a Baltor 
of tmrnguivo. Bnunploa ala> of 
thia viogo la Psniaara not wandoff 
nth« in profaoo «r ncnd Uatofr^— 
Canmra Kathor ri. 1, 4c., and TboCT^ 
did. l.l».-tH.C. K.J 

* SapiB, eh. 00, and mfr*. ch. DO. 
!%• ascOT of Xtrm, a* •« aaa in tho 
bUer pan«g«, M to naj aariau oos. 
aoqacoioci. 



324 



COXDUCr OF ARTEmSU. 



Book vln^^ 



rian, took in the combat, I am not able to say for certain ; 
Artemiflia, however, I know, diotinguiahed herself in SQch a 
way as raised her ovoti hiRhor than sho stood Iwfore in the 
esteem of the King. For after confusion had spread Uirough- 
oat Uic whole of tlio King'H ilc«t, and her BhJp was closdj 
pursued by an Athenian trireme, she, liaving no way to fly. 
liiiico in front of her wcn> a numher of friendly resseU, and 
ahe mu nearest of nil the Persians to the enemy, reBOlvcd on 
a measore which in fact proved her Rofety. Pre-ssed by tb« 
Athenian poreuer, she bore straight against one of the ships 
of her own party, a Calyndinn.' which had Damasithymus. 
the Calyndi&Q king, Itimflclf on board. I cannot say whether 
she had had any quarrel with the man while the fleet VM 
at the Helleapont, or no — ^neither can I decide whether afao of 
set purpoKo attacked bin voBsel, or whether it merely chanced 
that the Calj'ndiaii ship came in her way — but certain it is, 
that she bore down upon his veascl and sank it, and that 
thereby she had tho good fortune to procure herself a double 
advantftge. For tho conmiandor of the Athenian trireme, 
when ho saw her bear down on one of the enemy's fleet, 
thought immedtately that her Teasel waa a Greek, Of elnc had 
deserted firom the Persians, and was now fighting on the Greek 
side; he therefore gave up tbo chase, and turned away to 
attack others. i 

'88. Thus in the first place she saved her life by the aotioD.fl 
and was enabled to get clear off from tlje battle ; while fortb^, 
it fell out (hat in tho vory act of doing thu King an iiyory she 
raised herself to a greater height than ever in his esteem. For 



' OitlTncla \ta», nacarAlng to Bero- 
dotna Vrii. 88, ootn|ni*il with IhiB 
poms"), a CnrinQ town. Fur iu 
jiroliabloaiio, vidDntpra, i. 172,iio<«'. 
Plnltirct (dn Mulicn. Horod. nil. ij. p. 
833) quamil* tritb Hnrixloia* tor tclVaig 
tlua alary at luub li'i>)[t)i. No itoobt 
ho doci it in part from iiriilu in liia 
own countrTToiDiui (iwa nbcrra, Wi. 
S9notn»iTi'.i. ISl>,iiote')ibiitwcliftTil 
ntthor to regret tliat Ua itifonnntion 



m» cot ao copaoni about olfaer*. 

I do not (DO yihy Mr. Grato ittfvM 
ijniialtou tbo mi[|M>I of tbo ■totT' (BiM. 
of GreoM, rol. r. p. 183, iint«}— Uia 
sotico takoii by XonM of thi» act o( 
Aitfrniiua, and lii« miitako of ita 
DbtDTO. Had tbo truth boca known 
to him, *ha ironld crTlamlT hkvo fallMi 
into diNKmoci, (acUad of haiuK ao* 
tnut«d wilb tb» mMen TMOTded, 
inln, bb. 103. 



C0*r. m-^). 



LOSSES OP THE POSUKS. 



325 



M Xoncs boLcld the fight, ho rcm&rkcj (it is eaij) the 
destruction of tho vessel, whereupon Ihe bystandcm obsvrved 
to him — " Seest thou, maeter, how well Artt'misia figlittt, and 
how she haa jtLst suuk a itliip of tlie enemy ? " Then Xerxes 
asked if it were really jVrtemlfiia's doing ; and the; answered, 
"Certainly; for they knew her ensign:"' while all made sure 
tliat the sunken vesHel belonged to the opposite side. Every- 
tbing, it is said, conspired to prosper the queen — it wua 
BBpeoioily fortunate for her that not one of those on board th« 
Calyndian ship sorrivcd to become her aeciwor. Xenes, they 
say, in reply to tlie remarks made to liim, observed — "My 
men have behaved like women, my women like men t " 

89. There fell in this combat Ariabignes, one of the chief 
commandei-i; of the deet," who was son of Darius and brotlier 
of Xerxes ; and with him perished a vast number of men of 
high repute, Persians, Medet*, and allies.* Of tbo Greeks 
there died only a few; for, as they vrere able to swim, oU thoeo 
that woro not slain outright by the enemy escaped from the 
Binking vessels and swam across to Salamis. But on the side 
of the barbarians more poriRhed by drowning than iu any 
other way, since they did not know how to swim. The great 
^kstmction took place when the ships which had been first 
cnfjagcd begun to fly ; for they who were stationed in tiie rear, 
anxious to display Iboii- valour before the eyc< of the King, 



^P PolTicDni pratondt <Slrali>K- ^i"- 
HL § 1) that Ai1«DU<it> mtiti hrr ra- 

'Bmm floniwi coloun. Tliia, boiroTcr, 
ia the mflnoroeat of > Ifttvr a«o. In 
AftanWtel tfana tauagnt of thu kiud 
Itbioh Poliwnu Intamdi «rare not in 
Bao. Tho odIj ea*>Kii wu tho Sgnni- 
bgad, on ima^ or )>ictinv pUcod cm 
Um proir ot (bo Tcuol, whjoh coald 
Oat b« ohaagod at plcwiora <Gf. Hi. 19 1 
hu) •«• BuhalMa'* Opucala, p. tli, 

* Siq«*, xlL 07. Ariab'ignM (tti« 
*hi<twwiM c< Plototch, ThciD, a U) 
BcnamaiiiM th« loniui nad Carian 
AOMiagmte, .StchjIudcaiDotMoin 
bo bo kWMO of hie doUi) nalON h« 



oonfoanilt liiiairilhAriomudnihwhom 
ho bowail* moT* tfam oaco (Pen. SS9L 
»»). Flat«RhutdDloilonu<d.»! 
reprMmt hint u the nrmmftnii^f <a 
the T«No1 Rnt ebvRad bj imiti"'Mi 

*JE»c)tjlat profOMM to mantion 
■omo t«eiit7 of tho ctimbor (Ben. 
007-33I) ; but hla Dnmoa 10 mvl* 
ftcooid with thoM of Uorodi^tiui, and 
liam for tbo meet fan k StiltliucM on 
ttir nboDt Uiom, that Ihej' con acarotlj 
bu rcgutlcdu illuitruniKUaUoyfeeo 
tho romork ot Bithop BtonSold, ntt. 
od .Swh. Fwm. p. i!t. od fin.). 
87enii«oia,tl>eCJIioiui priaco, iaolaoat 
tho cnljr imiQU cmt <>f the tncotj' whicb 
can bo diatincU; rocogniM^ H hk- 
t«iical. 



I 



J 



$26 



Pn<£KIClASS BLAKE THB lOXlANS. 



DoM Tm 





modo eveiy cEfott to force their vray to tbo front, and Ihtu 
becomo entangled witli bucIi of tlicir own veasels ae 
ntreutuig. 

00. In this confusion tlio following OT«nt occurroil : 
Fliceoiciaas belonging to the ships whiob liati thus 
made their appcomnoe before the King, and laid tba bluu of 
their los8 on the lonians, declaring thnt they were trsi 
ncd littd wilfully destroyed the vessels. But tho upshot of 
complaint tvab, thut the Ionian captains esoapul thA 
whith tlircatfiiecl them, while their Phcenician accusers re- 
ceived duuth ue their reward. For it hnppened that, exactly as 
tboy spoke, a Samothracion resHel bore down ou an Atheoias 
ood ^titilt it, but was attacked aud crippled unnicdiately Ly 
one of the Eginutaa squadron. Now tho Samothraciana ver» 
export with the javelin, and aimed their weapons so u-oll, that 
they de&red tho deck of tho vessel which bad disabled th«ir 
own, after which they sprang on boa«l, and took it. Thi* 
saved tlic louians. Xerxes, when ho saw tho exploit, lunwd 
fiercely on tho PlKtniciaus — (he -vas ready, in bia extreng 
vexation, to find fault with any one) — and ordered thoir beads 
to be cut oS, to prevent them, he said, &om casting Ibo blame 
of thoir own misconduct upon braver men. During the whole 
time of the bnttlo Xerxes eato at the base of tho hill called 
^^^EgoleOs,'^ over against Salomis ;' and whenever lio eav any of 



( 



* Tba nnnie of ^gnlefi* la ajipUed to 
tho oitir* moiiiiCiun.mise MtWMQ 
tiiopoMof liiuifni and tba toatt, by 
wblol) ih» KlomHaiaQ anil Atlieniftii 
pUiu ara Kparatod (of. Thncrd. U. 
JO I Schcl. aj Sojib. (£d. CoU llli). 
Tlio Hit of Xorzcn wa4 laid br Pluwo- 
domas (up. Pint. Than, a 18) lo bsT« 
bofa plOMd • littlo &bova tbo Wmple 
of HercolBf, whicU ii knoini lo bare 
■toed on tbU tharo (CUc F*n. ExA 
1 M ; Died. Sio. si. IS). Col. Leaks 
wliOTttl that ha hui dtMov«nid Um 
nioa of lh<« totnplo ihmt Fort Phoron 
(Dcmt of AltiM) pp. 83, S3) I but th« 
poaitioii nf Xernv mutt hnro been 
GOBiiderabl; mora to tb« w«u 



Aecatcdonui Bbm4I^ d«cUred thai 
Xono* TioBvd ibo faaltla from Uosat 
Kwata, on Uiebord«nat tb« Mof^M, 
viliioh ii tight or sin* milM Amai llv 
•Mno d the action ! (I1ut*rdi.1. a. ej. 

Tho throno of JEonoa, which had 
alJrvr fMt, irai prMKrred Cor Dunf 
jaaia ia the Aoropolia at Atboo, 
mrmg boon lefl bvUnd cm hb rv. 
tnat (Harpocrat. and Ssidaa, ad to^ 
Vtiv'nut; Dsm. In Tbiioc. 741, Ti. 
Tha KlUnd panMol (Flat. Thooi. c Ifl) 
irbich thalicivd him trom tba aan 
aanna not to haT« bam oaptorvl 
For a i^r«aeaUiioa of Um thnwa of 
a Ttniaa kitie, tMo lapra, «iL 16. 

* ITbe exact ptailM* of Xecxaa' 



< 



I 




Cur. 80, to. 



XERXES SEAT. 



327 



his own captftinfi perform any 'n-orthy exploit bo inqaircd oon- 



WM ntiitiotocilj MO«rtaiccd b^ 0*p- 
UIb (noir Admiral) Sb Jum* Slixlinic 
mnA m7Mir In ISH. It wna on a uanll 
Moiiiriieo attacb«d b>, and "beiickUi," 
iu N.W. •ztmniilr ; tad tbkl It wm 
•I lliis Mirois* pciinl it abown bj !U 
iMJeir (ho Ti'rf part oi&otl; "oppcwU* 
Salamia." HanoKKn^fat foril* «i(« 
alonf' tbo wholoolUUtputof tbo bill 
ie tUa po^t, ira ititETO p«r<*ivcd Utal 
Ibtfatnnca bad boon poneaoly elcand 
&wmf «n il( aummit. aail tao^Dd rottnd 
it (O a* In form k margin to ita terwllird 
IU«» (*t A in th« |>Ina>, wiaeh oonld 



■oattvlr bavD iKiOD dono f«r »af otb«r 
obj*at than tbat ot wttneaiiiiig Ibo 
battlei Mid th* piaoo {« oppoaiiiK tha 
net floot of no Poniaa* oonld not 
tutrabocai bottacdioMni bjr tbe Qraoki 
than bolow tU* |>oE&t, wtiiiib U tbo 
nrreirMt put ot tho tej. It atp^M 
«rilh lhi> oocanct ffivcn fn Flstarob'a 
Lifa of ThnniaUichtf, <d th« aito of tbo 
bblllo, ialbupMt "wboi* thaohannct 
irbiob (Cfantaa tbo «aa«t ctf A(tiaa 
(nan tbo itlaad ot 3*\nmit ii tlw nur- 





CHAr. 90-92, 



ROVT OK THE PEHSIAXS. 



339 



ccming him ; and tlio mail's name vns token iotm hy IiIb 
(CriboM,* together with the names of his father aiid hi» city. 
Ariaramucs too, a Persioa,^ vho was a friend of the loiuaiu, 
and present at the time '^Thereof I Ep<.>ak, had a shai'e in 
bringing about the punishment of the Phcenicions." 

91. ^Vhen the rout of the barbarians began, and they songbt 
to make their escape to PhalOrum, the Eginetana, awaiting 
them in the channel,'" performed exploits worthy to be re- 
corded. Through the whole of the confuHcd struggle the 
Athenians employed themselves iu destroying such ships as 
eitJier made resistance or fled to shore, while the Egjnetans 
dealt with those which endeavoured to escape down the strait; 
Bo that the Persian ressels wore uo soonoi: clear of the Athe- 
nians than forthwith they fell into thu hands of the Eginetan 
squadron. 

9*2. It chanced here that there was a meeting between the 
Bhip of Themistocles, which was basting in porauit of the 
CQOmy, and that of Polycritus, son of Crius the Eginetan,' 
wbioti had juBt charged & Sidoniau ti-ircme. Iho ^idonian 
Tcssel was the same that captured the Eginetan guord-slup 
off Sciatbufl,* which had JPytbeM, Iho son of Isclienoiis. on 
board — that Pytheafl, I mean, who fell covered with wounds, 
and whom the Sidonians kept on board their ship, from 
admiration of lus gallantry. This man aftcmardii relumed 



» Eiipra, Tii. loa 

'lie una |'ii<l:«blT ono Of lli« rcrytil 
teii#, lincotbo njal nameit, of vtliich 
ArimuniiM wu «no <i(Dpra,rii. II), 
do not M«m to bsTO been nesDinod \>j 
Oth«r FodiUm. 

* Tltia id Uw ordinary (rftnnlntloa ot 
Okillonl'a evnjetttffal nnAiaie, rpoat. 
xtfitrt, Mr. BlakMl«7' (note ad loaj 
RDSgcato that tho bna MDM b, " *hu«d 
tbopnttsfamMtt" bat l>a ulilucwiw 
va&nipla of thii uan uf the- wctiI. 

" iiUlez (JBgiD€t. p. 1°1) misxeitg 
Uutt wlula the tMitk jmoccded mthln 
tboBlmlt, •trMli EgJMlui tqn^diaa 
anjvod ttom EffliM, »iid cocapivd tLo 
cficuio*] »t iM «MUaa axtronlly i bol 



it tbSt baa bMn Ihm au». It i* inicly 
that no aliDulil havofatwl iiooniO (iiitln(^ 
Dolicv of it. ProWbly Ilarodotusoa^ 
iDC-uiii tbat the Epn«(iui ocntisBent 
alMAil; mrationod (ok. 40), Wbick 
■oem* to h«** bMn po«l«d with tfao 
SpoTinns <m th* wbWB» right (cf. 
Diotl. Sic. zi. 18), took up a jmiitioa 
Berou th« noath of tlw channel aa 
■ooaa* tbo nut began, uiid Uiiu ioier. 
coptod tha fljjng iLlpa of the ru>;«ii 
OMkti* aad rifbt wing. 

> Orina had bo«D nootioned as odo 
or tlio chief men in GOi&a Iwaptm, li. 
73). 

' Bapn, vli. 181. 




330 



EXPLOITS OP POLTCBITUS, 



Bom nu 



ID safety to Egina; for when the Sidoaian vesBel trith iti 
Pereian crew fell into thu haudit of tho Greeks, he tvaa stitt 
foand on kounl. Pulycritus uo sooner Rnw the AUmidjim 
trircmo thau, knowing at onco whoso vessel it yr&», aa ht 
obHUTcd Ihat it bore the onflign of the Admiral, ho sbontad l« 
Tb«mi8toclts jeeringl/, and asked him, in a tone of reproaell, 
if tlu) Eginetans did not Bbow themEelTOs roro Mends to tbo 
Medes.* At the same time, while ho tbos reproacbod Th«ni»* 
tocles, Folycritos bore straight down on the Sidonian. Sndl 
of the barbarian TCBsels as escaped from the battle fled ta 
Phiilerum. and there sheltered thcmeclTOS under tbo protw- 
tion of th« land army. 

93. Tbo Greeks who gained tbo greatest glory of all in the 
ns'flgbt of Salamis were the Eginetans,* and after tbem tbe 
Atbraiang. Tbo indiridnals of most distinction were Poly 
critus the Egin«tan, and two AthenianB, Eiunenes of Anngynu 
and Ameinias of Pallcno;' the latter of whom had pre 
Artemisia so bard. And assuredly, if ho ba<l known that tha 
TCRHcl carried Artcmiaia on board, bo would never have given 
OTor tho cbaHo till bo bad cither eucccc-ded in taking hvr. 
else been taken himself. For tbe Athenian captaina bi 
received special orders touching the qneoD ; and moreorer, 
reward of ten thousand drachmas' hod been proclatmod Sat 



•psolal mtrciiM to Uie chKrgoof Mo- 
dim bnuelit AKiiiait bia father (imimi 
vi. 60). I>o*aiblr ncoDutoalH liad 
bctrD aiDcing Uian who iudueod Uio 
AlhceJoM to iwUln bli btbsr Is eu- 
My, dospiu lite ■oUoiuileo* o( L«o- 
tjcbiilai, Tlw pic* KlIi^fRd on tlio 
oeearion (rl. 8S) larciim of bit cleTor. 
tKM Mud uatcni]ml'>u»im. 

* Piiitwli (lie lUlitni. UoTod. vol. 
iU p. 871, D.) nrpa at thi« ttatcmmiti 
bvt ic ii cobflnDod br Kpluniw <Fr. 
112), DIodonu (xJ. »}, ud Mim 
(Tu-. H.iU.10). DiodonuuoribMlt 
lo tbfi jHtkiiHf of i1m> KporlMi* ibaX 
K^iua trai prntcnfil Kbcn^o Atbvna. 
iMMeciuitkppovitcibu iuil»p«odiBt 



: ue 

>oly^ 

at 

en 

I 

lot 

I 



of that of o«r anltwr. 

Flndur hut ft Oiio nlhwion (« 
g\arj sBliwd bj tlio KipDatana te 
b«Ul« (Iilbn. iT. 4S.M, «d. DlMHi). 

* A<*tLJ'w» <*™ (>»o of tho marlUM 
dauM between Ifae Pinen* Mid SaniuB 
(Ktnb. Ix. p. 678). It Mctna lo b*** 
lain IMW CnM 2A«l«r, tbo taade 
Lvm&ariKo (noMin. I. nxi. { ]| 
Tho CISC* nte hM beni detcnnlwil < 
tli« iMlghbmirlHKid ol F«ri br aa 
MKipUm whkl U kItod in ClM>d _ 
rn*r«li, tdL U. cC xxxi. n. lAQ, 
Bamoiuw ot Anafjrma U MteOnwha* 
noticed. 

* Supra, eb. M, Mt« *. 

T Ten thnewBd dnohnu iroald be 
•qnat to 4061. «I o«r noBoj. 



2, 





cnAP.es-91. 



CONDCCT OF ADEOUKTUS. 



331 



any one wtio sltonld make her prixoncr; Bincc there vu great 
indignatioQ fcU tliat a woman should apiwu in nrmA against 
Atheoit. However, aa 1 said before, she escaped ; and eo did 
some others whoso ships survircd the cngagomcnt ; and tliess 
irere all now ass«mbled at the port of Fbal^nim. 

94. The Atheuituis s&y that Adeimantus, the Corinthian 
commander, at the moment vhen the two fleets joined hattio, 
"KM seized vith fear, and being b^ond measaro alarmed, 
sprond his saib, and hosted to fly away ; on which the other 
Corinthians, seeing their leader's ship in full flight, sailed off 
likeviso. Tlicy had reached in their flight t}iftt pnrt of tbo 
coast of Salnmia where elands the temple of Minerva Scints,' 
when they met a light bark, a rery strange apparition : it was 
never discovered that any one had sent it to them ; nnd till it 
appeared they woro altogether ignorant how the battle was 
going. That Ihoro was something beyond natnro in tlio 
matter tboy judged from this — that when the men in tlie bark 
drew near to tlivir shipi^, they addressed tlu^m, saying — " Adci- 
mantaa, while thou playest the traitor's part, by withdrawing 
all these ships, and flying away Erom the flght, the Greeks 
whom tbon liast de^crt^d are defeating their foes as completely 
as tliey ever wished in their prayers." Adeimantiu, however, 
woald not believe what the men said ; whereupon they told 
him, " he might take them with him as hoiitagfls, and put 
them to death if he did nob find the Greeks winning." Then 
Adetmantus put about, lotli he and those who were with him; 
and they rejoined the fleet when the victory woa already 
gained. Such is the tale which the Athenians t«ll c<H!ioeming 
tliem of Corinth ; thcao latter, however, do not allow its truth." 



* I oannol prcwiul t« lU Uia aiu of 
Out WWfile, which i> m(«ition«d, I bo* 
lieto, by no othor ftaUiar. Kioprit 

(Bktt K.) and CoknQol L««ko(Dnni,p. 
72) BM It «*HiuiM an tbo •nbjt«l. 
Tbnt th* AtbmiAU wonibipprd 311- 
]wr*» nodar Iba uBia of Sclnui in 
mJlkncnrD. Tli«E!ciraor6«li«pbori>, 
: tnm wUck Ibo Allic moDili rtcvivfd 
^Uh MOW, wen in b«r boMiir. Than 

wm. 



«a« stN • twmple of U iacrva Seinj 
nt Plaltrnm (Pannn. I. i. | 4^ sxiri, 
I 3). Tho «itiffm of tho iuwm vb> 
to tho Gradci UmwmItm nsoMtala 
(Sobol. Aiiitopb. Em). IB : BwpMnt. 
nil roc Xd^v ; Etjm. Blagn. ad voc 

* Th«i« CM b« so donbt that tbs 
tal* WM nltocsikn- tato^-ano of t hoM 
calomaieg wbich, wdei faeJiDga 



33» 



expijOit of abistides. 



Book TtU. 



TOI-™ 



On the contrary, they declare that they tpmo among those who 
distinguished tliemsolves most in the fight. And the rest of 
Greece bears witness in tlieir favour.' 

95. In the midst of the confusion Ariatides, tlie sod of 
LysimachuB, tJie Athenian, of vihom I lately spoke as a man 
of the greatest excellence, performed the follo^'ing eeivico. He 
took a namber of the Athenian heavy-armed troops, who had 
previously been stationed along the shore of Salamis, and, 
landing with them on tho islet of Psyttaleia, slev all tba 
Persians by whom it was occupied.' 

98. As soon as the 8ea-%ht was ended," the Greeks drew 



I 



their enemiof. Frcm tho jear b,c. 
■193, whon the Atheuinni took nrt 
nitb tho ComjTwaiui fl);ftiu)L Cmmth 

sp bstweM tlium and thu Cortntliiiuis. 
liiB Cofial.hiaii allock opoa rolidm 
(ib. £0.65) n;rs™*^<o^ fio broaeb. la 
iiiia, ArUtctii. I'u- (on <if AiUlHiaittiif, 
took a |irmiiiiiuii( put. Vf» <aii iroll 
aodentaiid huw, wider nob ciii'iini. 
tibuioM^ now culnnmiM wore inrfrnlpil, 
or old ODoa mkcd op, btBckonlne the 
chamcU'r at tlia iKniulrymcQ uid tbo 
falhvrof ArixtoiM. 

Plntarob'B witncmoB (do Hnli;^. 
Herod. tdI. ii. p. S70} aro not Do(^de!d 
to doatroy Ilin credit of tho wti>n. 
HorodoloR [ilniiily ili*b<ibaTod It. Ho 
itiuurdvd it prubaUf murv od mccoduI 
of iU poctia cbuaotar than from ill- 
inll toit&rda CoriBlb, wbioh he clie- 
wbero ■how* no diipoutitm to troitt 
with onfairiMim (we t. 75 and 03, tx. 
ItiS). Uii> CI^-BoKUiai'« tkla aK»ia>t 
Hurudotna (Oral. xxiriL p. US, 0. ; 
aupca, vol. L p. 76) ij Dot wortby of ■ 
loomaiit'a nttoulioD. 

> Urea Did AUicoIau* Iion • eilniit 
tnctimon^ Ui tbu biure t'ondaot of Iba 
Cwintbiiiui* on the occadoD, bj allow- 
ing tho following Loicription t>Q tbow 
wl« fall to remftLn at Snlamii i — 

(Plot, di! UiUgn^ tIfRid. L *. C) 



' WbaioTcr tbu nnmbar of Iba IVir. 
Hinntnwpiin PtTtlnloia (BUpra.cb, 78, 
noto 0. their dcairu^tioD nppeara to 
bnio baen regarded M ooti of tho chief 
calatoilie* of Iha baliU. .il^bylai 
loprcioDt* XpTxoa u tMbTitiK fail Rar- 
incDtB and ahnekin^ aloud nbeo ho 
behold tho abinghtci (Per*. 474). Tbo 
abiin. nnrording to him, ooqiMmI of 
Rii<n of Ili4 iint rack, tha btat ntd 
broTMt lit tba nalinPeraiani,tbC|Ri»- 
cipal dcpcudeiic« of Ibe Qroat King 

yjrtiiw itwpnnltt airrf f ' &vcueti vftrrff 
A- •(.iiwu d«;. yen. 4 17 -US). Tliia 
hunDoDiMx with a invlaini), which I 
do not think wd ahoabl be j>»t*lied w 
reJaoUbg wboHj, that anuoK thi^ 
wara thraa nephewa ot Xoecs^ tka 
■out of bit Biatar l>andn(\'. who wan 
takon priiionorB, and biuiijjht to TW> 
mititoaloB (Plot. Them. c. 19 1 ArUtid. 
c. 9). Whether them yoatfa* weitt 
ncnOcod or not, ia a farther qaoatirai, 
wbioh ono U iclad to rMolva in tho 
negttiTv, on tbo groand moDtiiMod b^ 
Ur. Oroto (Silt. «l Greooo, roL v. 
p. 177, noto). .^tcbjlna agnxu with 
Boroduloa i» placioff the attack <ai 
the Peniani in l*Bjttaliiia lonrarda tho 
cloao of tho notioci. He repvoaeNla iti 
liuwsTcr, aa loada bj the ootonl amn 

of tbu Rhiixaiijcatr*^ "'■"'"B"^ t^*"!** 
BclvM for tba pnrpoaa (IVn. 480.403). 
> Tho deaoriptioa of tbu batUa of 
»alnmia in Jlkottjlat (Pen. 85M3S}. 
s» till Bcconni ot ao cyo-witaeM and 
combatant, mitn alwaya hold a pri- 



I 



Mkf.M-OS. POEPJUUTIONS TO HESBW TOE FIOHT. 



333 



together to Saltimis all the wreclcs that w«r« to be foand in 
I that quai'ter, nnd prepari-d tliomeolves for anotLor engage- 






^_ Tl 

I aldor 



ptaoaMwns the reocirdiof tho 
It dees not Appear to hare been 
known to Ceradcr[ii«, jot It confirtn* 
his MOODTiC la ^l tho prlnotpii !•>• 
tares I for in«l«i)Mintb«fal)cnrinK: — 
1. The msB^cu scnl to Xenca, in- 
fonning lum (hat th« QrMla wet» 
aboot to dltpoMo. S. Hla olirht- 
noTVinMit to «ne1o«a thfm. 9, Th* 
bold Ml Vance nf the Grrek* to moet 
lb«ir rocK, 4. The commoDDcment of 
the ong>^m«nt b<r n chorgn on t)io 
pU't of a lunglc Grrok thip, C. Tl« 
rrnh and confatlon «inoaj{ thu Per. 
tii(U]>. 6. Tho Krnui(ieiiuait of their 
fleet in more thui k single line {Mt- 
cfaylna Mft. "in throe ISnea"). 7. 
1m great Inui <if Pereitni of high 
nitk. And, H. Tho proIonKed reeiit- 
Anoo and final dieorderly flight of the 
Foniana. jGaobflo* gco* into no 
dotal] withrntatd toaaoiaearDalion*, 
«icept that hn rItm a liat «f ihir 
inwiileo* who Tnli upon the Fenian 
■ido, irhich lom> out on ex&minaticin 
to bo ircnUeia. Ho addi little to tho 
Inlbnnktion which IIoK>dota>i mipplicii 
— <inlj, I think, th»M faoU:— 1. That 
the Fenian fleet waa drawn np in ClrM 
linw (I- >>»• >- That on both iMai 
tho ficeta adranoed with load crioi 
and ahouta. 3. That the Oreolc rtf/ht 
wintc uavanecd Unl (1- MS). And, 4. 
Thut tki; Oieeks excoaled ogainit tho 
Fenuaat tho miuuNine of the npfrXoei 
(I.42S.4M]. 
Theaa nonarka wAm wriltoD btiTont 
poblieatioa of Ur. Blakenluj'a edi. 
I of Uerodotaa. A carefal von. 
•IdoMtion «f hi* Bxennoa on Book 
viiL <tdL iL pp. 400.41S) hoa Uled to 
oouTince nm that there ia any eaam* 
tinl Dppofitiun between the a«o(iDnta 
ot .Saohjltia and Berodotw. Ur. 
Ktlamioj tUoIia that ttio dcaorlptlon 
«r tho battle Ja ^t^hjlua ia "qailo 
inoompntilila" with tlio ananttumeiil 
CiC tho rmiiui llot't in tinv alony tho 
.ttio eooat, and that it inpliee, on 
contfary, 4hat the floot (or the 
ot it ftrU sn)ptg«J) WM drawn tip 




ocTDj* the ehaonel which aoparalo* 
Balanu'e from the miki eland. Um 
rnioDi acem to b« ohlofly the follew. 
ins - -I- I' thopoiltlon bad been idcIi 
a* Uvrotoai deaoribei, tho Feninu 
oouU not have been atlaokod n&nc- 
peotedlft S> Tbo right wing ot tb» 
Grcoka eonld not hare been Bnt aeon 
loading tha on»at| S. The Peraian 
fleet would Bot bar* preaontod tho 
appermDcoor n tfrean of iUpa (^tvfio, 
I. -Ill}: 4. Thof would not have ran 
tiial at ono aaothor; S. Tbvy oout<l 
not hare been ncrrewnited \>j tbo 
OriMtkai and 6. They would not, wbtu 
defeated, hare Moaped into tho opt* 
net. (nAevfar SXa. i. 429). In itpXj 
to thcoo obJeotioQi, let it tic niBU>k«d, 
I. .Sachyliu do«a not vpttlc of any 
tvrpritt fttrtbor than thu, that when 
the Perviana expected no TO«!*tno(ieh 
thej- found tho Grccka aoiling out tti 
moct tUroi ; S. The right win^ of the 
Onraka is not said to baro been Ont 
(am) on the oontiarr, Ihoj' tnre all 
Mfn at onco (tawi >l v^vrii ivx» 
/N4»ai-<ri !tt7r, I. 400), but tho 
right wing lad {ri Itliiv .... vjtitn, 
401, 40!) I a. The tvmi ^iZiui ii ap- 
plied by .^^hf Itia and tbo other ttn- 
gcdiana to aoj greet boet, in the aanae 
of " flood ' ralhiT than of " itraana " 
(of. JBkA. Fen. 90i Bopb. Ant. 1(9 ; 
Burin. Ipfa. T. 143?) i 4. Heiodotoa 
cloaiV explains tho eaaao of the oon- 
fnakoi In ek. 8S^t aniae ftotn the 
proiBDre loworda the front of the 
•econd and thiid linoai G. Tbo FViesian 
fleet ia net furnmadad ia tlM daeori|h 
tioo of JS»ehj]'a» ; but eftor tho tout 
haa bognn, tho r*pi'>u«f la jimctiaed 
open Toriuna knot* of vo*tris|aoletlM 
imfSiftcf tense, M«u«r)i ami 0. WhDo 
it majr be granlod that the balk el ih» 
IVniui Scot miulo at onca for the 
Attic ahore, a jmrt ma; well have flod 
icio tho open see — in panie> ur as tho 
TVadiest oonrae, or beoense tho eeast 
(where it oenld bo need) wna ooou. 
plod (aee BoTMLcb. 91). Tho ponirit 
of those would concinne, warn the 



334 



SBDOMD UESSE^'QBR REXT TO PERSIA. Omi 



nii>nl, BUpposing that Uie lung would renew llie fight with Uis 
Te«5«la which still temaiuod to him.* Mauy of the wreckit hid 
' lieen carried away b; a westerly itind to the oout of AiUei, 
where they were throira upon the strip of shore called Culiu.' 
Thus not only were tlio prophocios of Bacia and Itfosffios* 
concerning tliis battle fUldUed completely, hat likowise, bjr 
the place to which the wrecks were drifted, the prediction of 
LysietratuB, an Athenian Bootbsayer, nttered many jout 
before these events, and quite forgotten at the time by all tlu 
Greeks, was fully accomplished. The words were— 

" Tlim ihall tV liglit «t tho Mira flU Cola&n duDOt vtHli nmuanivnt.' 

Now tliis must have happened oa eoon as tho King ves de- 
parted.' 

97. Xerxes, ivlicn ho saw tho extent of his loss, began to be 
afraid Imi the Cruolis might be counselled by the lonians, or 
witliout their advice might determine, (o siul etraigbt to the 
Hdlespont and break down the bridge» there ; in which caM be 
would ho blocked up in Europe, and run groat risk of pondi- 
iiig. He therefore made np hii; mind to fly ; but as he wiabod 
to hide his purpose alike from the Greeks and from bis own 



othvn iron Mh uliorD ■ ind banco 
Jir^laa wind* np li<a acooanl with 

I tfattr objection, that Ilia wreolm irould 
aot bavD been tbro*m m fur down tho 

' «mat M Cape ColiM, <f Ibo bntttc hod 
ttictn jiliKip in tho nt*lt (p. 411), do- 
fcndt fcir it* lifter- on hi* iwiimpKim 

I llut tho DrdiauT Und and tot, biwona 
oloD* blow on tho d*7 <4 tbo Iwttis: 
but Borodotat neolu oT ft mottcAf 
bTCMo (vli- Vfl) IiaHdk •(wnss up, 
vrhloh •wms to tiaro been ■ cMnnl 
wlod, and not tbe ordliwr; •»-br«exe. 

* Aooordlng In DiciiIon»>.tba GmikN 
bad 40 riiipt iliMttn);^, th* PondknR 
XOO. Tbo rpniana IitkI sIw MTonl 

■ dtlpl okl'tiircd (Ki. 19}. 

* Stnbo loonia to bat* mWaken tha 
I-tfte of CA1Jb«, wliioh bo pbwo* fix. p. 
rVn) n»r Ai]*(>MT(to*, <.a not ft* 
I'fiKini B>ninm. PauBuiiix IvU* na (l. 

I S 4} tlat it w»« » prMoonttrj Uttlo 



nocD tbui two tnilM trom Fhaltnaat 
■bd ihla la oonfliovd by Stephsn (k4 
roc.), (tod to a enrlBia extent b^ Ari^ 
tepliaiiea (l.ri!at. S\ who IbiUcMm 
that itwat in the neighbourhood «l 
Atheui There on bo liUle dontt 
thM it ie the modem Cepe ot IVunryi: 
wharo tho Noaalo* cS a templo. pea. 
bablj that el Venoa OoUaa, bavo beoa 
d i eooewed. Odonel Loaln nmtulkt, 
UwftUaieptedaeljrtheiwrtaf U* 
eoeet npon wkeh veM»la wmild be 
UiMim bj weoh a wiod ea appear* 
from Herodotoa anil Fletat«li to bare 
blown on the day o( Salamla ** (Deoi 
of Attics, PP.B1, S2>. 

* CoDcarninK iboM poete, eeo above, 
tii. 9, note *, and rili. SO, note '. 

7 Wben the lababAuta of Atikn i«. 
tornod on tlia depaftnre of Xenea, the 
Coliiui wODMD wonbl flait their ekore 
en-ered with tba een aod vn^a. 




latf. lW 8. 



PERSUN UE&SEXOE&S. 



333 



to 



lo, he set to -voTk to cnrry a mnund across the cliannel tn 
lis," iiikI lit tliu same timo bL-guu fu^Uiniiig a oambor of 
Phoemoian merchant ships together, to serve nt once for a 
bridge and a wftlL Ho likewise made many warlike prepara- 
t'tions, as if bo wore aboat to ongago the Grooks once more at 
Boa. Now, when these tbingR were seen, all grew fully per- 
euftdod that the King waa bent on remaining, and intfindcd 
to pasb the wax in good earnest. Mardoniua, liowcTer, was in 
no roflpect deceived ; for long acquuintanco enubied him to 
read uU tbo lung's tfaongbts. Ueanwhilo, Xerxes, thongh 
''engaged in this way, sent off a messenger to cany iuteUigooee 
I of hifl miafortnne to Persia.' 

^k 98. Nothing mortal trarela so fost an these Perninn mcxsoR- 

Hgc)-8. Tho entire plan is a Persian iuvKUtjon ; and this is the 

Bxiicthod of it. Along the whole line of road tluiro arc men 

' (they say) stationed with horses, in nnmber equal to the 

number of days which the journey takes, allowing a man 

I and horse to each day ; and these men will not be hindered 

^^rom accomplishing at their best speed tho distance which 

^ihey havo to go, cither by snow, or rain, or heat, or by tho 

darkness of night. The first rider delirers bis despatch to 

tbe seoond, and the second passes it to tho third ; and so it is ' 

borne from baud to band along tho whole line, like the light 

iu the torch-race, vhich the Greeks celebrate to Vulcan.'* 

Ltn thi* my AImuiIw ttiennxia 
«oded in nianiof Trrr, tboaxh 
TfTfani KWTo miuton of tha m» 
<Ait1u>, ii. 1»), U'lio iiluid Tvn, 
liowfiTor. Uy within holt a mile of tho 
moinlaiKl (Sr;];u, PiTijil. p. 101 ; Q. 
Cut. ir, 8) I wliilo SatumiH i» tiotrty 
* nlle trtm Uio ahora. AIjo, ths 
ehftnnol In tb» tanom com mt« U 
BiM( tbrw Ulboou in daptfa, wbDo at 
blsmii Uio dopUi of lli« Mivit naebe* 
fonr frtt"wi* nt ilie poiat whore it ia 
utellcnKat. (See the Oiatt, sBfx*, p, 
337.) 

Otmiai (VvTt. Sac 8 IS) anil Stnbo 
(ii. p, &T3J t«pn«iiLi tiM wiowiil at 
I beloco tho batUck 




• AMordbv to Bftraletni, lUi wm 
til* i»t«nd gpwM n o iw aiM t dt> 
«pat«hod (icDBini oil. &(). jfiwIiflM 
tnakM him tB« firii, or ti li«4t tho 
Snit id arWwc (of. Tonn, 14, 15, »Pr> 
Til fiyTrXof oCrt tii Ivvitt trtv ri 
n»iri-iAr ifiiKniTu]. 

" Tbo toToh-raoo waa net {wcoliar 
to VnloM). n«rodotiM bu a]r«adj in. 
luraod na that it fonaod at Aiheo* • 
part of tha WorAlp of Pan (v!. 100). 
Flom othor aadTOM wa loarn that it 
«xu oelobcatoil to Jliaenra, ti Proaw* 
thoiu (ScboL ad Aiiat. Oan. USi 
IInr|H>erBt. ad too. Aa^vdi), a»d in 
lat«r tiRwa to BantUa (FUt. Hcft. p. 
3S8A.). [.,.,,„ 



336 



ARSIVAL OF TEE lIESSAOKa 



Book TUL 



The Pcrsiftns giro the ruling poat in this manner, the name of 
"Angarum."' 

&0. At Sueo. on the arrival of tho first message, nhich said 
that Xerxes was master of Athens, siich was tho delight of 
tho Persians who had remained behind, thnt they forthwith 
strewed all the streets with myrtio boughs," and burnt incense, 
and fell to feasting and merriment. In like manner, when 
tho second message reached them, so soio was their dismay, 
that they all with ono accord rent their garments, and cried 
aloud, and wept and wailed without sttnl. They hud the 
Hamo of the disaster on Sfm-donins ; and their grief on the 
occasion was lesii on account of tho damage done to thetr 
Bbipti, than owing to the alarm which they fvlt about the 
safety of the King. Hence tlieur trouble did not coase till 
Xerxes himself, by his arrival, put an end to their fears." 



Tho nature ot the oo>tt««t fiu bc«D 
Tally cniiatdvrrd by Dr. Liddoll, in 
BiDtth'a Uiotii'iinry of Antiqnitiim, ar> 
ticleAAftwiiliI^pIa, towLich Ihc rrader 

' Tha oxplftDAtioa of thin term !• 
raudprod pocolliu'lj diCQcnU by tbo 
»Tidaiio« wo poMeu ot tho arliitrvry 

K plication d dkuim t« tho Siuiam 
ct.ofllco, nnd by «iir coniogqect mi. 
urtaJnty as to tho diicetion in whioh 
WD MO to aMrch for no atymnlnitr. 
DndOT (lii> C*lii)li» llm poKt»I Borrfpo 
o( the Empire was iJcui^niiilpd by tho 
D&mo of Be'i'd, a title which WM Ions 
tho itnipair of Arab ctymologon, boc 
wliioli vrn now know to hAvo bMn 
ilrriTCil troin tlio ftocid«nl of dock- 
laUrd iiiiiloi [Fmaaa buHdth, "ontor 
docked ") beinK employed to earty Iha 
•xptoam: ADiI it ii tboi qoito poa. 
■tola that anfiir may raproiont tomo 
' kindnd Ofntlwl (aocli «« "paintod." 
Ibr inilanco, from anfaridaiit "to 
paint," or " retpitercd " from anydrih, 
''auaooount Imok") appti^^d to iHWt. 
liMM l or ouiial) JD tho rjirlinr |ivn*od. 
Uy own idea ia, hvirtrwr, Hint dryaf»v 

is • oonaptioii of Aarlirr'' (x.U'j^), 

or, (Mjcordlng to tbo vulgar proaancin. 
tlOD, KoJiiliiinA, which liternUyaigniQM 



"ftDMO At for ovopy ncirt of frork,* 
bat whinh h tperilicnlty appliad hr 
rxprtst ni«weti)^ni, wbethcr tia*«l- 
I'mg on foot, on lioraobaclc, or en 
dromedarica. It {■ probobla tha4 at 
tbo tifflo of ncrodnlD* twiH rairiiJf 
worn OEsplojod ill tho pottol aeTTJoa 
of tbo Poniuii Empirr, ac in tlul iii> 
Btsnco mentioneci by Strabo (p. 7Si), 
where tho cpwB of tbo death <i( Mulo- 
tai, and ordsni tor Ibo ez*<«UQa of 
his fnthor Paniinnic^ w«rg tkna oob- 
vey«d from tbo vicinity of Beru (a 
Ki'batanft or Hnmadno, a diiiiuicn of 
8S0 mflcit in 11 day* ; and it la iot^. 
nsting. therefore', to obmivn that tb« 
dromtidarioi ii(i»d for aocb purpoaca 
ai« atiU k>i(nni by no otborsnoo than 
karbinih throu^unt both India and 
PMsio.— (JL 0. H.J 

■ Sapra, vil. 64. 

' Thn rnpreanntntion of Hcrodotni Is 
mor* Orimtat, and Ihcrofure pcobahly 
Diuio tnithfol, than that ot J&cfaylita. 
The htttcr cihibiti but litlto aoqatiint. 
anoo with OrM^tnl frclinjt* or can- 
torn*. Iiiitonil of r('|tn)8sotiag tlw 
anfi'ty ot the Kins aa tlia firat tbcmjtht 
(if tbu PCnianr, hia iDewcBgcr la on 
the Btago ttjT hail n tccno betorn tli« 
poiot ia touched. It is llutn ciTlnioly 
pat forward with aome prominobcj-. 



ClAT.W-lOO. UiSDOSim ADVICK TO XKUXEa. 



33 



'$1 



100. And now Mardoniiu, peroeivinR ihat X«rxcs took the 
leifent of liiH fleet greatly to heart, luid Biispecting that be had 

aa<1e op hia mind io l&ava Athens and Hy away, began to 

liink of the likelihood of bis boing Tisited witb pnniehment 
having persuaded tb« King to undertake tlio war. He 

lercfoio consicii'md tliat it would bu tlio host tiling for him 
advonturo furtb«r, and vitlior bocomo tho oonquonv of 
fGr«fGc — .which was the rasolt ho rathor expected— or else die 
[igloriouHly aftor aspiring to a ttoblo acliievement. So with 

iiese thoughts in his mind, ho Knid ono day to tlio King — 
" Do not grieve, master, or take so greatly to hcurl tliy lato 
loss. Our hopes hang not altogether ou the fate of a few 
planks, but on oar brave steeds and horsemen. These fuUows, 
whom tliou inmginest to have quite conquered us, will not 
Tonttiro — no, not one of them — to come ashore and contend 
witb our laud army ; nor will the Greeks who are upon the 
mainland fight our troops ; such as did so, have received their 
punishment. If Uiuu so pIcuiH.-st, we may at once attack the 
I'eloponneae ; If thou wouldst rather wait a whik-, that loo 
is in our power. Only bo not disbL-artcned. For it is not 
possible that the Greeks con Kvm\ being brought to account, 
alike for this and for tlieir former injuries ; nor can they any- 
how escape being thy shives. Thou shouldet therefore do as 
I havo said. If, however, thy mind is madu up, and tliou art 
resolved to retreat and lead away thy army, listen to tho 
counsel which, in that case, I havo to offer. Uake not tho 
Persians, King ! a laughing-stock to tlie Greeks. If thy 
affairs have succeeded ill, it has not been by their fault ; thou 
canst not say that tliy PetBians have ever shonn themselves 
oowardi. What matters it if Phcenioians and Egyptians, 
Cyprians and Cilicianu, havo miHliehavod? — Uivir mittoonduot 
toaches not as. Since then thy Persians are without fault, 



b«t it In not d<ro1t opoD. Aod the 
grist tad •railinff eonllniio nnabatod, 
not onljr till XsrsM n*kM hia »p. 
poftnnm, but t« tho enil of tho plaj. 

VOL. IV. 



The pool's nutiTo ia obnooa. It 
wonld not bkv* ploMod tbo Gnvlci (o 
Imaglao thM tlw Paralwu carod but 
liuls for their lo 



338 



xERXss ooxsvLra wira abtekisia. 



Boot Tin 



be wlTinnl by me. Deport borne, if tboa nrt bo miDtlcd. tai 
take vitb thee the balk of thy unny; bnt first let mo efadOH 
oat 800,000 troops, oud let it be my task to bring Qnta 
benoAth thy sway." 

101. Xenee, Then be beard these trorJs, felt a sense of jq; 
and delight, like a man who is rclievt-d from care. Answeriof 
Mardonius, thcreforo, "that be would consider bis eoimael, 
and let liim know vbiob course be might prefor," XerxcB pn* 
oeedad to oonsult with th« chiuf men among tbo Pertuoai; 
am] boeause Artemisia on the former occasion bad iilioini 
hcmelf the only person who knew what was b«rKt tu be duoe, 
be was pleased to summon her to adrifie him now. Aa tasa 
SB she OTTired. ho put fortb all the rest, both conncillors sol 
body-gnards, and noid to bor : — 

" Mardonius wishes me to otay and attack the Poloponnese. 
My Persians, ho says, and my other laud forces, are not to 
blame for lliu diiuuslcrs which hare hofallon our urmn ; and d 
this he declares they would very gladly gire me tbo proof, fie 
therefore exbturts me, either to stay and act as I have said, oc 
to let bim choose out 800,000 of my troops — wherewith be 
undertakes to reduce Greece beneath my sway — while I my- 
self retire with the rest of my forces, and witbdrav into mj 
own country. Do thou, therefore, its Ihoa dlditt counsel me no 
wisely to dedino tbo sea'Sght, now also advise me ia this 
matter, and say, which course of the twain I ongbt to take for 
my own good." 

102. Thus did Ui« King nsk ArUimisia's eoonsol ; and tbs 
following are the words wherewith she answered him : — 

' Tis a biLrd thing, O King [ to give tlie best possiblo ndvics 
to ODD who asks our counsel. Nevertbelees, as thy affairs now 
stand, it seomotb to me that thou wilt do rig^t to return homo. 
As for KFiurdonins, if be prtfers to remain, and undertakos to do 
as be has said, leare him behind by all means, with the troops 
which be desirM. If hix design snoceeds, and be eabdan tbs 
Greek«. as he pronusos, thine is the conquest, master ; for tliy 
slaves will hare accomplished it. If, on tbe other band, afhirs 



CiUP. 100-104 ABTEMISIa'S advice to XERXES. 



339 



» 



ran counter to bt8 wiKhf!', we can anfTer no great loss, so long 
as thou nrt natc, and tliy lioiiee is in no danger. Tlie Greeks, 
too, vhile thou livcst, and tby house fiourishes, mnst Ih> 
prepared to fiRfat full manj a battle for their freedom; 
vher«as if Mtirdonins fall, it matters nothing — they will have 
gained hut a poor triumph — n victory over one of thy slaves ! 
Iti-nii-mbc!r also, thou goest howu lla^Sng gained the purpose of 
tJiy (upcdition;* for thou host bunit Athens!" 

103. Thfl advice of Artemisia pleased Xerxes well ; for she 
md exactly uttered his own thoughts. I, for my part, do not 

belicTO that ho would have remained, had all bis cuunscllors, 
both men and women, united to urge bis stay, bo great was the 
ninrm that he felt. Ah it was, he gave praise to ArtcmiBin, 
and entrusted certain of his children to her caro, ordering her 
to convey tliom to Kpltesus ; for be had been accompanied on 
the oxpodition by some of bis natural sons, 

104. He likewise sent away at thiR time one of the principal 
of bis eunucbs,* a man named Hermotimus, a Pedasian, who 
was bidden to take charge of thene sons. Now the Pedaatans 
inhabit the region above Hulicaraassns ;* and it is related 
of them, that in their country the following ciroamstance 
happens : When a miBchance is about to bEffltl any of their 
neighhonrs within a certain time, the priestess of Minerva in 
their city grows a lung beard. This bas already taken place 
OQ two occasions. 

^B * TId* nipra, Ot. CS, f 1. 
^V * W« havK tipn) Ui« &«t JDiiMiM in 
^■mllMolio Pksnian hiaUvT' of t)>o in- 
^'aImoim of tho ounaclM, whicih ofUv- 

•ru<W baeam* m ipni fto ^iL 

CUbIm tndMd nprMmtfc almiMl 4'T<>r7 

Panian king ai uikIim tlin iiiflin'iico <•( 

one or mum vnnnolM. picsiiaA* aDd 

UngapoCaa Law gnat wulglit niili 

Cjrw (PW*. Bio. | 6 nml i 0), lis- 

MtM M)J AsptulatM with Camlijvo* 

(ibid.) I hitofraa nil«a tt>e pmioAa- 

BDMdli ({ 11), KauoM^ Xorma 

($ tot, A«. Itat the lulIuiiDCB of Uw 
> ntilf to bM<n Omi d»> 




T»Iri|ieit iUotr in (be rriga of lbi« laat 
kintf. 

* Tor Ibo ■itaation of Pcduna, Tido 
•Dim, i. ITS, noto*. It laiMuiou* U>M 
IlMndolD* (bonld ha** rI* •& lb« atory 
«f tha baatd in Iwa plscaa ; but 1 ■*• 
no nffirient groanda lor ^ua*tiaiuii|[ 
Ihc (i:ciittiii«(ioM of citber piMig*- 
" Atlqoando be&oa doriaiut.'* TW 
ill itm'panojr aa to iba nnmbor ot I 
thnt (bo phonummoTi hod oooa 
t*ieo, aa hon:, or tbricu. aa 
before (1- *- c.}— S* more liko 
avconic; of ao onffiiDil 
th« arrot «1 a furvorori 



340 



8T0BT OF HEBMornnra 



BnoiTm 



lOo. Tlio Hormoiimus of ythom I spolce abore was, u I 
said, a r^'tlnsian ; and he, of oil men vliom we Imotv, took tltr 
most cruel vengeance on Ute perxon irlio hod done tuiu u 
injury. He hod been made a prisoner of var, utid wlion \aa 
captors Bold liim, be iiras botiglit by a certain PauioruDtt, < 
native of Chios, who tDad« hi» living by a most nefarioni 
traffic. Wbt'Dttvcr ho could get Any hoys of unasnnl heaniy. 
he iiindo them eonuefas, and, carrying (hem to Sardia or 
EphesQs, sold them for large soms of money. For the lar- 
barians value eunuchs more than others, since tlioy rvgarJ 
them as more trustworthy. Many were the sIatm that 
Panioniua, who mode his living by tho practice, bad thus 
treated; and among thorn was this Ct^riuotimus of vhom 
I have here made mention. However, he was not without his 
share of good fortime ; for aft^r a while he was Hout ftonx 
Sardis, t«;;ether with otlier gifts, oa a present to the Einj;. 
Nor was it long before he came to be esteemed by Xerxce mora 
highly tbiin all his cunuche. 

IOC. When the King was on his way to Athens with tlw 
Persian army, and abode for a time at Sardis, Hermotimaa 
happened to make a jouniey opon business into Kry^iin ; and 
there, in a district which is called Ataroens, but belongs lo 
Chios/ he chanced to fall in wi'b Panionius. Recognising 
him at once, he entered into a long and friondlj talk with bim, 
wherein be counted up the numerous blessings he enjoyed 
through his means, and promised him all manner of favoon 
in return, if he would bring his household to Sardis and live 
there. Panionius was oveijoyed, and, accepting the offer 
made lum, came presently, and brought with him his wife and 
children. Then Hermotinins, when he had got Panionius and 
all his family into bis power, addressed bim in these words : — 

" Thou man, who gettost a living by viler deeds than any 
one else in the whole world, what wroug to thoe or thine had 
I or any of mine doao, that thou shouldst have mado me tha. 



'inda«npn,LieO: vi. ss, ». 



CRkr. 106-10& PEBSUITS SXXL TO THE BELLE3ro:rT. 




I 



341 



liotAtii; that I now nm 7 All < BQKly thou tliotigbtc«t that Uio 
gods took uo note of tb; crimes. But they iu their justios 
buvo dolivcrDd thee, the doer of unnghtcousncss, into my 
bADds ; and now thou canst not eomplaiQ of the Tengcance 
which I am resolved to take on Uiee." 

After these reproaches, HermotimRS commanded the four 
sons of Paoionius to be brought, and forced Ui« father to muko 
them eunuolis with bix own band. Unable to resist, be did as 
}{ermotimus required ; and then bis sons irere mode to treat 
him in the self-same waj. 80 ia tbis way there came to 
Panionius requital at the baiide of Hcrmotimns. 

107. Xonas, after charging Art^miHia to convey bis sons 
safe to Ephesus," sent for MardoQiun, and bade him chooso 
from all bis army each men as be wished, and see tbat be 
made bis achievements answer to bis promises. During this 
day bo did no more ; but no goonor was night come, than he 
ieeued his orders, and at onco the captains of tbo Bhi]>H led 
Pbalerum, and bore away for Ibe Hellespont, encb making all 
the speed he could, and hasting to guard tbo bridges against 
the King's n-tuni. On tlitir wiiy, aa they sailed by Zoster, 
wboro certain narrow points of land project into the sea," they 
took the cliETs for Tesxels, and- fled far away in alarm. Pia- 
oorering their mistake, however, after a time, they joiued 
oampany once more, and proceeded upon their voyage. 

108. Next day the Greeks, seeing the land force of the bar- 
barians encamped in the eitutc place, thought that their ships 
most still be lying at rhali-rum; and, expecting another 
attack from that quarter, made preparations to defend them- 
selves. Boon however news came thnt the ships wore all 
departed and gone away ; whereupon it was instantly nsolred 
to make sail in pursuit. Thoy went as far as Andros ; ' but, 



■ SapK, di. 103. 

• Cdf* Ztator b niulaalitixlly lti« 
Modem Capo Litmlianllui. li bus Uio 
ialand ItiMni (now Hfi-a) in JU ttvui 
ieL9U»\i.ix. i>,BT8J. TboptUDKnilarT 
i» m" pcoiiwiiW, tcrailokUsg la (faroo 




<«|M«" ilniiko't Doni, p. H) I b«t It 
ia not TU17 likelf thAt Uhv oquU linvo 
bMo niiiokcn bf tbe ronluia (iir 



■The Fttnian Smi ant tiabu' 'f 
»sUt oiF Uie £ubaaii ocart wb* 



^ 





t4» 



THE GREEKS HOLD A COCNCIL OF WAB. Boo« rm. 



aeing nothing of tlie Forsian fleet, they Btopped at thai place, 
and held a couucil of vas. At tliis oouiicil Th<-iaistocle« 
a<lviit«d that Uio Groclis should follow on through the islands, 
Htill prl^i)iiing the pursuit, and nuking all liiiEte to the Helles- 
pont, there to break down the bridges. Ean,'biade6, however, 
delivered a contrary opinion. "If," he said, "the Greeka 
ehoold break down the bridges, it would be the worst thing 
that could posBibly happen for Greece. Tlw PiTsian, supposing 
that hia retreat were cut off, and ho oompc'lled to ri'main 
in 'Europe, would be sure never to give them any peace. 
Inaction on his part would ruiu all his affairs, and leave him 
no chance of ever getting back to Asia — nay, would tven caa»e 
his army to perish by famine : whcreaa, if he bestu-red him- 
self, and act«d vigorously, it was Ukely that the whole of 
Eorope would in coorae of time become subject to him ; since, 
by degrees, the various towns and tribes would cither fall 
eforc his arms, or else agree to terms of submission ; and in 
this way, his troops would find food sufiiciint for thorn, ainco 

eh year tlio Greek him-i-st would hit thoti-s. As it was, the 
?ersiaD, bc«augo he hud lost the sea-fight, int«ndv^ evidently 
to remain no longer in Europe. The Greeks ought to let liiui 
depart ; and when he yt&a gone &om amon^ them, and had 
returned into his own country, then would hv the time for 
them to contend with him for the possession of that." 

The other captains of the reloponnewans declared them- 
selves of the same mind. 

109. Whereupon Themistooles, finding that the majority 

%B against him, and that he could not persuade them fo push 

IScm to the HeUospont, changed round,' and addressing himself 

to the Athenians, who of all the allies wcro tho most nettled 

at tbo ODcmy's escape, aod who eagerly desired, if tbo other 



^ Grocki huA poncd Atidros, nnd conM 
• full rinw to t]u> iHirIb, Uirj- 
anici knnw lltnL fmraiiil vraii vniii. 
Ttiit Ti>uy BCKouiit tor tbuir KDinK so 
far and no fnrUior. 



* PlntBreli (ThBm. o. 16) attribotBa 
Thmniihiclc*' ctunf^ootistiut (n a esja. 
(nmnon sliicli he Ki'td niili AriitldiW} 
bitt Ihrtr^ U iici i-cawhi Uj doobt Uw 
iiurnttiva <jS Qurodictaa. 



4 
I 



Ciur. 109.10a THEMISrOCLES ADVISES TOE ATBENLLNS, 343 



Greeks would not stir, io sail on by thfimsclvcs to tlio Hclles- 
I pont and break the bridges, spako as follows : — 

" I have often myself wituesscd occasions, and I bavo beard 
of many more from others, where men who had Iteon eon* 
quered by au enemy, having boon driven quite to desperation, 
I liave reneiwed the fight, and retrieved their former dieasters. 
Vfo htkTO now hod the great good luck to save both ourstilrcs 
and all Groeee by the repulse of this vast clond of men ; let lis 
then ho content and not press thorn too hard, now that they 
bare begun to fly. Be sure wo baro not done this by our own 
might. It is the work of gods and heroes, who were jealous* 
that one man should be king at once of Europe and of Asia^ 
more especially a man like this, unholy and presumptuous — 
a man wbo esteems alike things socri^ and things profane 
who bas cast down and burnt the very images of the gods 
themselves ; * who eren caused the sea to be scourged with 
rods and commanded fetters to he thrown into it.* At preaent 
all is well with us— let us then abide in Grc«oe, and look to 
ourselves and to our famihcs. The Barbarian is elcan gone — 
we have driven him off — lut each now rcpnir bis own house, 
and BOW his land diligently. In the spring we wIU take ship 
, and soil to tlie Helle»<poRt and to Ionia I " 

DclcM«xUMt«d by IJalin/'u eoeolo- 
«ivN (ID th* cnbjtct. Bat Datid ■«• a 
Ucdo, not a Fmias, uiil wonM U>ars> 
(ore, ot cuone, bo fnw tram ibe •{Rrit | 
and Iho MorifiMa U tha tlcOMpont 
may coBlljr havg booa ■Diaim(lMiC<)<)d 
\>y th* Gnvka (••• aMo • on Ikofc vil- 
ch- 43). Fnod iko Ionian Imerip- 
lion* tb«n> k p-nrf raacoM to bnUtva 
ihM the Court Bcligian iraa kUU p«ra 
in the rci^D at Xcnc*. 

Uauj n!a*i&« <it tb« tmnpla* bank 
at tliia tlmv oontiaBOil to tba daj* of 
lliiuanina (t. L | *i 3. sniv, t S). 
wlw belisTcd tha GiMka l« M*a 
poaKil a docrao againat tartcdoy. 
IbMD. (Cf. Ljftag. <. teomt. (IS 
p, 1G8.) Bat tli«i« MQ Ihi ho doabt 
ttat vrrat nombm wvn twtondi M* 
Lvaki?ii Atbnu. p. U). 

* Snpia, vi). SS. 



* Savra. Tji. 10, J R. 

*JSMh]ili» dcHnbiM tbo con<Iiiol 
. ef tha Porilaai lo<Kat>li lbs Umk 
Ltctntilua and altan in Icmul orea 
IttroQCer tban IhoM:— <A ttir ppini 

It) r tiarti, tmii U ni* t lIp'iiaTa 

(IVn. SOS-sod); M>d Clcoro i«tat«a 

I {Ou Vtf. A. lOi ail Qn.) that an leodo- 

I slMtie afiirit m» at mvk, Uia gronaid 

tt tha deOnetMa buin;; ttot th* 

<irooka ahot np their fc«4a wHhin 

' walk, wlioraaa Uio wbola Mrld k tfao 

(nia t«Biila «( il>o Sn^mno. Ur. 

OUcwIor (oota ad loo. and Ki«nmt 

to Book 111. to). L p. 436) ilniiM lUt 

tha Ptruan mligiao cam ot tkU tiuio 

bat* boon looBOdaitlek O^d iiiBlanaaa 

I "tbo Hafian hMo-wonUpal lUiun, 

^mand tba aciapnlona tovorcnca fcr 



1 

I 



TlJEUI?rOCLI3 SecOXD UESSAOE TO XESXGS. Boox Ym. 

All this ThcmistocIcB Eaid iu tlic hope of Mtablishing A^| 
claim upon the King ; for hu waiitctd to have a safe retreat ia^* 
ease (Uiy mischanoe ehoold befall him at Athens* — which 
iodeod came to pass afterwards.^ 

110. At present, however, he dissembled; and the Athenians^ 
Tcre perttiiaded b; his words. For they were read; cow to do ' 
vhtteTcr he advised ; since they had always esteemed him a 
W^e man, and he had lately proved himself most truly irise 
and well-judt,^!!^. AccortUugly, they came in to his Ttews ; 
whereupon ho lost no time in tcndin;; messeDgers, on hoard 
a light bark, to tho King, chooiiing for this purpose men whom 
he could tivist to ktcii his imitructions secret, even although 
they should bo put to trory kind of torture. Among them 
wMtho bonsc-slavo Sicinnus, the eamo whom ho had madaj 
luo of previously." MiTifn the men reached Attica, all 
others stayed with the boat ; but Sicinnus went op to 
King, and spake to him as follows : — 

" I am sent to tbeo by Themistocles, the son of Kcocles, who ' 
_ : ib« leader of the Atbenian?, and the wisest and bravest 
man of all the allien, to bear thee this message: ' Tbemiiitocles 
the .Athenian, anxious to render thee a service, has restrained 
the Groekti, who were impatient to pursno tiiy ships, and to 
break up the bridges at the Hellespont. Now, tbensSare, 
return home at thy leisurt'.' " 

The messengers, when they had performed their errand, 
Baili.>d back to the fleet. 




• Acoonli'i); t" ThupyilirW (i. 137), 
ThamiatocliM ilid actiiBlJ; clum orodit 
wiih tho pCTiiaiu (or tnvvDDting tba 
diHrtractioD of Iha bridga ; t>nt it ta 
ilitKciitl Id iiiMKiua him lonkinK f»r- 
n'linl at tliu limo to mmh a, oontin. 
gtiacj w osUc. Still, u Ur. Grole 
otM«rT«ii, " long-alghtcil rmnnluK" btm 
on* of l.lw iMuiinn tTklMor lii« cJiitntc- 
<«Tl oii'l " H clvviT niaii, tjiinli-i) with 
taeii oonataDt guilt, might DBtnr&llf 
colcolato f>n hoius; oiw day dMvcl^d 
Bad imiiiilicd " (Uial.uf (ii'coi»,Ti4-T. 
pp. laa, 189). 



' Cf. Tliocjd. L a. c. wlMn> Ui* far- 
cnnuinccci by irUoh TIiranbloclM be- 
Cftmc iBToIml ia tlin thtl of t^nsanlMi 
nm fully pc>'<v. Sm als> PUtkndk, 

' Supra, ch. TV. Flntarok frknn. 
0. IG) lEuiliM n cortAhi AniAvas, oao of 
tlia nijal Minnebt who had bm tmkva 
jirianni-r iii the nwmt battl«^,lli* 
nwoMitei-r on tbia ncouioa. Ia 
Iia U folloncil bj I^llJa'lmll (Strat. 
sxx. S 9). Vliit DimloTM (li. IS) atvl 
Jiudia (ii. 13) goofinn Bccodotas, 






Oku. lOD-Ilt. 



SIGOB or A!fDROa 



345 



^ 



lit. And tlio Grcokfi, having rceoh-td that they would 
Boither proccud furthur in pursuit of the barbarians, nor push 
forward to tbo Ilfllespont Knii dostroy the pasaago, laid siega 
to Andros, intending to take tho town hy storm." For Tlio- 
Diistoclcs had required tho Audrians to pay donn a Bum of 
monvy; and they had nfutud, being tho fit«t of all tlie 
islanders who did so. To his declaration, " that the money 
must needs be paid, as tho Athenians had brought with tliem 
two mighty gods — Persuasion and Necessity," tliey made 
reply, that " Athens might well be a great and glorious city, 
since she was blest with such exccUunt gods ; but they were 
wrotohedly poor, stinted for land, and cursed with two unpro- 
fitable gods, who always dwelt with tliem and would norcr 
quit their island — to wit. Poverty and HelplesflnesR.' TheBo 
were tlie gods of the Andrians, and tlierefore they would not 
pay the money. For the power of Athena could not possibly 
ho stronger than their inability." This reply, coupled with 
the refusal to pay tho sum rcciairod, caoBod their city to be 
besieged I^ the Creelns. 

112. Mtanwhile Thomistocles, who never ceased his pursuit 
of gain,* scut threatening messages to the other islundors with 



' Tho Cxcladu, wtUi fair oicoptioii*, 
oontalnotl mk-Ji > iiiikIu town, bMrinK 
Um Mue Damn as tho i«lMii) (of. 
807IAI, FMipl- pp. iSiO; Plalom. 
OoDgr. ill. 1^}. Tlio town ut Amlro* 
!• prored, hy ititcrii>Uo<i» knit ruiiui, 
t« bkfB laiii (m tho loimr ooaat, • lew 
milcfl wsC of tho modorn vlIlngD at 
Arna (Tonriiiifort, vtJ. I. p. 969; Kow, 
vol. li. p. 161- It turOAMnllf niutlod 
AloibaMloa in H.c. HOT (Xou. BeU. I. 
IT. { ZS 1 Died. 8ie. uli. 69), bat ww 
■akDn bj- AiUlui 1b (.c 200 (Lit. 
mil. 4i). 

' Ptnrrl/ aai TbUpitnaef had 
\ilsf'.to tLia tiswboCtterapItdtoaMliM', 
liAiing \n*B ti-rmod >iit«n bj' th* pott 
AloaMi. St*th» rnipnOBt in Stobvua 
(Ui. p. X&8, Uaiaf.)— 

BMHsiM tpotkt at an Mtuol t«sip)e 



tg Bib oiul 'Arifat U Cnistb (tt. ir. 
ST). 

' Cf. nipra, oh. 4. CharSH ot tUa 
kind ynn btnoffht igaiBic Tbtcala. 
Uclra vTta in hi* lifD.iiini>. Tli* pMC 
'nmooreon loaded liiiii with nprcM-he* 
for hiH araiiov (ap. Ftnt. Tbcm. e. 21). 
A mon nnaiUFpielcrM (mrtiBxmj, per- 
hapa, 1* fDiniiJMd bj Ihu umluubtcd 
fkct o( h<« «nnnuoiia neiUth at tlio 
period of hi» oxilo, which wa* wit- 
sowod lo both by Tbcotwntpaii (Fr. 
&)) aod Tli««]ihnita« (iti.), TW^ 
bis onguial patriiDonjr did not oxoMd 
UiT«e Ulonla, Ua oooltoatod pMoionj, 
■ftor Ua frieoda had aoctvtad aM oon- 
Te7«d inta Aala k teif* potion of H, 
amoniilMl, amwdiiiR lo tho lattor 
wcil«T, lo aiirtilr (IS^GOOJ.), aoMnrding 
to (bo fonaor tu a buadivd lokala 
(24.3751.). Campora gJw Crltiaa (au. 
.£L Vb». O. z. 17). 




346 



KBX&UT or THE TmOlAX jUUTT. 



BoMTtC 



demands for different sams, cmplojlng the same mflssengEn 
and tho samA viorda as he hod osod towards tlio Andriui. 
" It," he said, " tlicy did not send blm tho amouDt reqoind, 
he woold bring the Greek fleet ojwa tlii-m, and 1 ■ ' -'Nvm 
tillhe took their cities." By tliese moans he co., ■ 
eama from the Carystians ' and the Parians, who, when tbt; ] 
iteaai that Androa was ah-eady besieged, and that Themif- 
toclee was the best esteemed of all the captain», seat ttuj 
money through fear. Whether any of the other iaianders ilijj 
thu likti, I caimot eay for certain ; but I think some did be 
tlioHo I havo moutiontd. IIowl>vi>t, tho Ctu^stians, tbon^l 
they oomplicd, were not spared any tho more ; but Themis- 
todoB was eofUtniHl hy the Pariana' girt, and thorvfon tluyj 
received no visit from the army, hi tliis way it was ibai] 
Themistootea, during his stay at Andros, obtainid money froaj 
the islanders, onbcknon-n to the other captains. 

113. King XerxM and his army waited but a few days afttr I 
tho sea-fight, ami then withdrew into Bcootia by tho road 1 
which thi-y had folluwid on their Advance.* It was Uio wish 
of Mnnlonius to escort the Xing a part of tlie way; and as tL« 
timo of year was no longer suitable for carrying ou war, be 
titoiight it bcuit to winter in Thc-SHaly, and wait fur the spring 
before he attempted the Feloponnesc. After tho arruy was 
'Come into Thessaly, Mardonios mad« choice of the troops that 
were to stay vith liim ; and. first of all, he took tliu whole 
body called the " Immortals," • esc«pt only their leader, 
^■damea, who refused to quit tho person of the King. Neit, 
he chose the Feisiana who wore breaslpUten,* and the 



' Saprn, ri. 09, Doto *. 

* Probably tho nua «< PhyUi for 
r 4hoagh TbMpIn uid FlUoft w«r» liuriiS 
Ifia tM kdruioo (nupin, oh. DO), which 
V night Mwan In liriiiu tlio Ff-ninns intd 
^Atti« bj' Elcutlirnu uid (Bac4, 7«t 
LUia Biidii oTinv, «no tour bo «ue, 
^ Biarohod itniKht from OrcnomoDiM lo 

Tbcbca, Mid frtim Thobofto Atboua. 
*8iiM«,rlLS3.2n.±ia. 

* Tu* It Mt qnlto cIcBTi «itic« tho 



^mt body of tbo rcraion tnranlij «u 
«nJd (tu. 61} u ti*<ro wen »ms oT 
■cnlo Drmoar, whOo tb« faccui|ib(B 

liApvD WM not M«tt!n«4 to uijr. If 
the oi»tot»etitmtmxinw u IicidobIM 
Ufni. Mid Uw graU bodj trf tlw Ifl. 
haUr i* nMat, fWnu whum kp* Umj 
dlitiag^bhcd t IVmi ilie •pc«lml u. 
tenduiu n|>an tlio ldn(t'a pcntw (oh. 
40)7 But eliew would not )>• |m* 
wctl VDiod thui tba nai^ I imIIim 



i 



llt-llS. XERXES' MAHCU to the HEtXESPOXT. 



347 



Bood picked horse ; * likotrlso llio Mcdcs, Uio SacAns, the 
Hans, and the Indians, foot and harm equally. Tboso 
itioQs ho took entiro : from tho rest of the allii'S ho culled 
men, taking cither euch as wcro KimarkaWo lor thoir 
nnce, or else such as had performed, to his knowlodgo, 
[>mo valiant deed. Tho Peniiaas fumiHhtd him with tho 
reatest number of troops, meu who wcro adomt-d nilh chains 
anolcds.* Next to thorn were the >[i.'«li^, who in number 
oqnolled tho Persians, but in riUour fell short of them. The 
wholo army, reckoning the horsemen with the rest, amounted 
Jo 900,000 men. 

114. At tho timo when Mordonius was malung choice of his 

Dps, and XiTxcs still continued in Thcsnaly, Uio Laocdicmo- 

ians reocivL-d a meseago from tho Dclphio oraoto, bidding 

Book satisfiiction at the hands of Xorxod for tlie death of 

aoidaa, and take whatovor he chose to give them. 8o the 

Spartans sent a herald with all speed into Thossaly, who 

arrived while the entire Persian army was still there. This 

man, being bntuelit before the King, spake as follows : — 

"King of the Midix, tho Lacodemonians and the Horaoloida 
of Sparta require of tlieo tho satiiifaotion duo for bloodiihed, 
because thou slowest tlioir king, who fell fighting for Greece." 
Xorxes laughed, and fur a long time spake not a word. At 
last, however, ho pointed to Uardonlus, who was standing by 
him, and said: — " Manlonius here shall give them the satis* 
faction they den^crvo to get." And tho herald accepted tho 
answer, and forthwith went his way. 

Xerxes, aflor tliis, luft Mardonius in Thesaaly, and 
ic4 away himself, at his best speed, toward the HoUes- 




tliink t)>ac ■ ditciiKiion i* <lnini 
■twMtn llw Iwtl^T nod Iho won* 
ncd kmcmir iho i'cnion lolWntrj', to 
the Ibrnior i<t wliom alooe Ilia dM^rip- 
;iOD ill vii. 61 i« (u bn applitd, Tho 
(pnnioii — ' Tho«« nationa he t«iV 
BlirB," 1 ibcmld limit to Ibo iUniot, 
, QMIifBii*, ud IndluM. 
I " UnnMad hcnvcMui, picked 




num of tks IVr*l«B tadian," who 
fonncd the ran of iba body ot tnap* 
(pcolaUf lUliwhiul Ui tb« kilig*«paMMl 

(kOflT*, ¥11.40). 

*8npn.Ti>.83,iioC4i'. Tho "ehojiw" 
aiid"BrTnle«"Rraipcc{»lly»n||Dnd bj 
nmnivli (TImuil c. IS) toi X«ooiibui 
(.^Ilall. I. Tlil. I SP). 



348 



SUFTERISCS OP THE ARMT. 



Boob 




pont. la five and forty divya hf roflclicd tlic place of passage, 
wborc ho arrivcid with scarce a fratition, 80 to epettk, of his 
former army." All tUong their lino of march, iu every country 
where they chanced to ho. hie soldiers eeized and devoured 
whato^'er com they couH find belonging to the mha.h)tan(e ; 
while, if DO com vas to ho found, they gatlicred the grass tliat 
grew in the fields, and stripped tlio trceSt whether culUvAt^d 
or wild, alike of their hark and of Uieir leaves, and so fed 
themselves. They left nothing anywhere, bo hard vere tbey 
preeaed by hunger. Plague too and dysentery attacked the 
troops while stiil upon their march, and greatly thinned their 
ranks. Many died; others fell isick and were left behind in 
the diOfcreut cities that lay upon the rout«, the inhabitant* 
being Btrictly charged by Xerxes to tend and feed them. Of 
these some remained in Theesaly, otliers in Siria of Pffionia,'* 
others again in Macedon. Hero * Xerxes, on his march into 
Greece, had left the sacred cut and steeds of Jovo; which 



•Tim wpll-kiumn diwcKjitloti in 
vGiolifluv (Pem. 4St-S16). nhilH it 
OMiflmu tho noconnt hero Ki»m of tho 
I^Bnltu) TQtrsat in nmnj rc^ftiocta. ei- 
OMJila iL iu (vrtiiiu iitrikliiKly porllo 
p>irtu:ulnn. AreonliiiK li> tliB lr»- 
g^ediiui. buid«i tlin ilcathii fTom aUr- 
tntina llicro woro many ftnm Uiint, 
%n4 •iiiup inna Kitm gnaping for 
bmtUi! Tlia Rnint luw nn* at tlm 
BtFTmoDi nhicb, in tbu niRlit of tliu 
day whpn tho rcnian ■rmir «rriT«d 
npon itR bniik «, wn» fro*!"!! orer bj no 
uuiWMOTint'lu froat, to Kraily and 
hknll^ Ihnt tho TiiniBiM TOinmoDcad 
crawing upon tho IM. XThen tho auu'a 
r^r* grow hot, tlrn lea hu-IIihL osd tlxs 
gtMtor porlioa at Ilia nrmy poTlilind 
in tlui Klrpttin. Biahoji 'riiiilvnil of. 
Cnpta thin tCor; lu tmu (nixl. of 
Grc«co, vol. iL p. 318). Mi. Groie. 
with rBKHiJii, dincnfitiU it (Uiitocr, 
Ac^,td1. V. |>. 191, nolu). Tho fri-raiiii; 
of the 8trj-iiTOn, ft rinrr ISO jiinlii wido 
(Leake) at ihii fttt, in Ih? lutjtailoef 
Knplci, and at the bogtiuiing ot No. 
Tcmbpr — to drop All montltin of tho 
" «Snglil cfght" — It K iiui>ix>bab1n ft 



ririiuinntaiiM. tbat m tra wairsaUd, 
on tliis i^roniii) sluiiw, in n>JH<;(<ii|c it. 
Thv fn<-t that o bridxe o( bmU 1«4 
bwQ thrcmn acrau th* rircr (lleEiaL 
Til. it, 114)00 tlioinaicktkUi Gtmm, 
whiiOi rentniDed uiidfr tti« iirM«cUtM 
of tho mmBon of Klun, and fwnnftsil 
a Becan) nwuJu tA tiftncil. it abo of 
imiKirtaiii^e. It I* vcty doMbtful 
irliotluT jKichyloR had aiij foandalion 
■t nil for thin innrtio fmtufv in hi« 
nuTBliTc — whether, haring oariMd U« 
tiMLron Bonhiru'd to a mfflaoiit di*- 
tanoo fnnn Athcim. Into rcgtotw irfth 
tho Tor; Ktoffmiitij of which be imm 
hiuuvlf oniuniiainii-il (!■ 491^, hu did 
□Dt ragwd UiBMlf u at Ubottv lu 
Indnlgo bio Inaguinlicn in doaeriben^ 
wliat ho iDiiiioftfd to b» n poutblo 
(limivii^r. Hvwould be vun of BMdtng 
in hiii beoron Torf indolfeni oitic*. 

" Tide npra. v. IB. not* ■. 

' At Sliis, not In Jlaecdonia t aa 
appoam by llio iieit mbIvhcol Tbo 
" MiTpd car owd atcMla of JuTC " |Or. 
Duud) won briefly de«cnfa«il. riL 40. 
Th« >t«cd> which dicw it wrru thMv 
Kud 10 bo " oiffht whit* tiortt*." 



UxjlT. U5.117. PEHSIAXS CROSS THE HELLESTONT. 



349 



apon bis retom he vas onaUo to recoTCr ; for th« Ficonions 
diitpoeed of them to the Tbracinns, aud, wlic-n Xcnca 
ided them back, tbey said ihai th« Thracian tribes who 
Ivclt about the sources of the Strymon had stolcu the maras 
18 tlicy paalurrd. 
lie. Ilii-re too a Tbracmn chtoftain, king of the Bisaltians 
id of Creatonia,' did a deed vhicb went beyond nature. He 
lad refused to become tlie 'nilling slave of Xen^x, and bad 
Sed before him into the heights of Ithodope,' at the eiame time 
rbidding his sods to toko part in tho ospoditioa against 
Greece. But they, either bceaase they oared bttlo for his 
^orders, or bocaueo thi-y wished greatly to see the war, joined 
Bthe army of Xerxes. At this time tbey had all roturucd home 
Bto him — the ntimhor of tho men was six — qnite safe and 
"eound. But tbcir falber took them, and pimisbod their offence 
by plucltuig out their eyes from tbu sockets. Such was the 
^Ltrcatmcut which tho8c men received. 

H 117. Tho I'ersitins, having journeyed tbrongfa Thraeo and 

Breached the paflnage, entered tlioir ships hastily aud croesed 

the Uellespout to Abydos. The bridges were not found 

stretched acrot>a the strait; since a storm had broken and 

dieporsctl tbt-m. At Abydoe the troops baited, and, obtaining 

lore abundant provision than tbey bad yet got upon tlieir 

loroh, tliey fed without Btiiit; from which cause, added to 

jtho change in their \s-ater, great numbers of those wlio had 

litbcrto csoaped perished. The remainder, together with 

Lenes himself, came safe to Sardis,* 



1^. 



' For tfao iKMitiona <il UifiUii* and 
ONitealft, vioD npra, *u. 110, uvto', 

' IB4, Ml« •. 

* BhoU«]ii propar apprara to tuva 

>n tbe «IiuD now c«ll«d Iktpola 
Dayk (iiopn, ir. 4% notv *), which 
■opamtci iko vnlky of tho N«(o« 
(J(ar« Su) (ram ibat of tho Ilebiu 
(Iforitta). Th» nam*, bowaTor, ox. 
l«nd«d to aooMi portion of tliu Balkan 
(ThacTd. it. 96 ; Ptc^Fiu. Gp'icr. iii. 
II)— that, numoif, upon wtiki) tliia 
diaio adjuiui. 



* Xnn^* nmtiatd at Soidl* Iha 
wbulo o( the wialer, and daring* «o«i. 
Bidonblo poTtioa of Um noit yoar 
(Infra, ix. 107, ad On.). It mu at 
thia tioD tliac bo wm wid to h>vo 
pIaDd«nil and dMti«j«d iha totnpto 
at finnohidn (npra, *i. IV, DC>t«*) i 
ttoiuj ooriou rmnaiiw bom wUok, 
JnclndluF filglkl flf tba Bfohalo alUdiuc 
atataaa Inpra, t. 84, Mta *). l*vo 
b«*ii IiroBK"^ 1^ tUa CDontiy, ud an 
now in the Britjili UaaeuiB, 




350 



bftcb:; of zekxxs 



Boot Tin. 



118. There is like^se another accotint giren of thereton 
of the ^ng' It 19 said that when Xerxes on his VAjbm 
Athens arriYcd at Eion upon the Strymon, he gave np tnTd- 
hng by land, and, intrusting Hydarnea with the condnct of hii 
forces to the Hellespont, embarked himself on board a Fliam- 
cian ship, and 60 crossed into Asia. On hi8 voyage the ship 
■was assailed by a strong wind blowing from the month of tl» 
Strj-mon, which caused the sea to run high. As the stora 
increased, and the ship laboured heavily, becanse of the 
number of the Persians who had come in the King's train, and 
who now crowded the deck, Xerses was seized with fear, and 
called out to the hchnsman in a loud voice, asking him, if 
there were any means whereby they might escape the danger. 
"Xo means, master," the helmsman answered, "unless we 
could be quit of these too numerous passengers." Xenes, 
they say, on hearing this, addressed the Persians as follows: 
"Men of Persia," he said, " now is the time for you to show 
what lo\e yo hear your king. My safety, as it seems, depends 
wholly upon you." So spake the Kin g; and the Persians 
instantly made obeisance, and then leapt over into the sea. 
Thus was the ship lightened, and Xenes got safe to Asia. As 
soon as he had reached the shore, he sent for the helmsman, 
and gave Lim a golden crown because he Lad preserved the 
life of the King,^ — but because he had caused the death of a 
number of PL-rsiaus, he ordered his head to be struck from hia 
shoulders. 

119. Such is the other account which is given of the return 
of Xerxes ; but to me it seems quite unworthy of belief, alike 
in other respects, and in what relates to the Persians. For 
had the helmsman made any such speech to Xerses, I sap- 
pose there is not one man in ten thousand who will doubt that 
this is the course which the Ring would have followed; — he 
would have made the men upon the sliip's deck,' who were not 



* Tbo Kpibntir, or •* marinpfl/' of 
which enoh Irircmo in tho rirflinn 
HotC carried thirlj (eofira, ISI). It 



mar will be doubted whether, nnd^r 
BQch circa mstHDces, the PFntiso kin- 
iruald iiot have preferred Pbrnniciu 



r. 11S-1!1. 



VABIOCSLT BEPORTED. 



3SI 




nly Ponions, but Persians of th« Tery hl^wl rank, qnit 
place and go ilon-o below; and would have caet into tho 
a on cqoal i]uinl>er of the rowers, nho were FlicetliciaaH. 
tho truth is, that tb« King, as I have nkeady said, 
WtHrucd into Asitt by the eamc rond as tho rust of tho army. 
1:20. I will add a strong proof of tliis. It is ecrtaio that 
ierxes on Iuh way buck from Greeoo panscd throagli Abd^ra. 
here he mndc a contract of fiiindHhip with Uic inhabitants, 
d prcKcutc'd them with a golden scymitAr, and a tiara broi- 
with gold. Tho Ahderitcs declare — but I put no faith in 
this part of thdtr story — that froiu the time of the King's 
leaving Athens, he never once loosed hia girdle till be come to 
their city, since it was not till thuu that be felt himself in 
safety. Now Abdera ie nearer to the Hellespont than Eion 
find the Stryuou," whore Xerxesj according to the other tolo, 
ik ship. 

121. Mt-'snwhQe the Greeks, finding that tbey could not 
captiiro Anilros, sailed away to Caryetne, and wasted the lands 
of the Carystians,' after which they returned to Salomis. 
rived here, they proceeded, before entering oQ any other 
atter, to make choice of the Grsi-fruits which should be set 
apart as offerings to the gods. These consisted of divers gifts; 
among them were tlireo Phcenician triremes,* one of which 
was dedicated at tho Isthmus, where it continued to my day : 
another at Sunium ; and tlie third, at Sahimis itself, which 
was devoted to Ajax. This done, they made a divisioa of the 
booty, and svnt away the first-fruits to Delphi. Thereof was 



Btoo 

ea] 



MMiaB to DMkilleil IVrauut. Thran 

fi, ImWVVW, du grouBd f«c ■UnchiDg 

amr wedenoe to thn itorjr, «hich in 

OMJ Tkliwblo M • ilrikiptt cmlHxli- 

__S/M|at«l tho Teal Orinntitl f<«linir with 

^^^^Hf to ili« jmncqi of thu nioaarc>b 

^HHInim, c^ $9, Bat«*, luiil ob. 

^K^* For lbi> iltv of AbiUn, vide tonra, 
^*U. lot, sou*. 

' TliomkUolM •Maw to bkre Lkckod 
^tlia ]afla*niw. or the boBCBtj*. U> kcpp 
^Bda bMxaia witb IkoM ufortanaM* 



(npi^ oh. lit). 

* OonqiM* Tbaofd. II, B4, tot Ui« 
pnutica of iadii^tiag ibipi to omd- 
iiuf uiat«(« » iiaTBl victMT. The eCer. 
in;; DC tho Isthiuiu irM utda (o 
KcptDDc, M ^oi c4 tho (CB (cT. Faiink. 
II. L f fi-^)i tliat »i Sonian lo 
UiiMm SiuiM (ib. 1. i. S 1), obobMl 
iOHpirod TlMtaietoole* intli wudom ; 
that vt Sklamj* lo J^ki, in aokiioir. 
loHgnMat of tte kdp nndDred by tlia 



3S2 ATTEMPT TO AVTAitO THE PRIZE OF VALOtlB. BooC TtH. 



xaadb tlie statue,' holding in iU band Hie beak of a sliip, wbie! 
is tvolro cubits high, aud which stauds iu the sumo pl&ca^ 
wiUi the goldeu one of AJexaoder the Maoedouian."' 

122. After tho firet-fruita had been sent to Delphi, tho 
Greeks niado inqniry of the god, in the name ot their whole 
body, if he had receiyed tiis full sbar« of the spoils and was 
satisfied therewith. The god mado auewiT, that all the other 
Greeks had paid }iim his full due, except only the Eginvtons ; 
on them he had still a claim for the priiw of valour wluci 
the; bad galued at Salamis.' So Iho Egineiocs, when thi 
heard this, dedicated the three goldeu stars which stand on 
the top of- a bronze tnaat in tho comer near the bowl offotvd 
by Croesus.' 

1'2S. When the spoils bad been divided, the Greeks sailed to 
the Lstlimus, where a prize of valour was to be awarded to tho 
ninn who, of all the Gnitks, had shonn tho most tuerit daring 
the war. When the chiefs were all come, they met at the 
altar of Neptune, and took t!ie ballots wherewith they were to 
give their votes for the first and for the second in merit. 
Then each man gave himself the first voto, since each con 
ftidered that he was himself the worthiest : but tho eccond 



I 



M 



M 



* I pTOMune thia ia tb« atetiia rata- 
tioDCd by Pttnuuiina (i. ilv. § 3), m 
■lill rdiiiniiiinic at Iluljilii in hig itnj, 
wliivh, liu Bors, wii* fTPOtpd by tl>F> 
Grmlu tu ciumacniDnilo the bntUra of 
Artcmuinm luid Salunls. It wni > 
(lAiDO of Apollo, nnil kt»M],»ppiimiiilT, 

the vtatun doilicult^d at OljmpuLle 
cammtMaunCo Ihc victarj at PUum, 
WM h 11111110 ot Jupitor, not quitn ■» 
eolMial, llin liiiJKlit Iwlnic 10 ouliits 
iaatMil uf IS (infra, ii. 81). 

" ]lr> BiRlMiULf imosinci (nolo &d 
1oe.)UifttthiiI«uiRCl[)iLi«nb7ni»itlior 
huid. and thitit tb# Aitinuiihr wbo luid 
ft golil •tattu) Bt Delptii WM thu oon- 
qnanr d A«Ui. UqC thn molth of 
Alaiander tho *od ot AmynlaB, irbo 
derivm) from a Rinitlo minn ntnrl^ 
SU,O00:. A you (tujira, T. 17), niBf 



won liare lofflood for noli an tdttr- 
taa. 

' Snprn, eh. 98. It la thoBghl tbat 
tho B([ini?ts.TU( ethibtt«J their Jintl- 
Indo fur the rictatj of 8aliiiiua ebWIlj 
" apnn th<dt own •oil'' )Saa Ur. 
BlfJcHfiloy'a not* on Ihi* poawcv.) 
Tho tPiii]il«> rrom irkicli tL« Meuch 
mublos itm taken va* proboM/ 
"onMtod In oonmonomtioM of th« 
rieliiry." Itt onuunODta ashibiU^ 
"till! iriiinigih of th* BoUaole ant tb« 
Aiinlio new." 

1 Sapn, i. BL Th» »ttww boiirl of 
CnaMna to Intoodod. whleb stood " at 
Iha onnjor of (lif ani^-clM]"'!." AH 
the moto firve'iowi tnairarui of Ui« 
DclpliiiHii ware loM bofon tho dtU* at 
PaoMiiuiK. hnvins boOD eanivrltid into 
nionvy at Ibu UuM of th« Sacnd Wa 
[B.C. 367.347}. 




p. m-ia. TIMODEMUS AMD THEHlStOCLES. 



353 



were given oJiIefly to Themisloolfis.' In this way, whilo 
otlierB received but one vot« apieov, ThL<tuiBtocli;B Lad lot 
id prizo a largo majority of tJic saBTrAgoB. 

134. I^iivy, liow«ver, hindered the oliiefs from coming to 
a duvisiuQ, and tbey all Bailed away to their homes without 
making any award.* NerortheleHs Tlicminloclcs was ri-gard«d 
ercrywhere as by far the wisest man of all the Greeks ; and 
the wbulo country rang with bis fumo. As the chiefs who 
fought at SalamiH, notwithstaoding that be was really untitlwl 
to tiie prii!o, hod withhold bia honour &om him, ho went 
without delay to Lacediemon, in the hope that be would 
be boDoured there.' And the Lacedjemonians receircd him 
handsomely, and paid him great respect. The prize of valour, 
indeed, which was a cruwo of oiivo, thsy gave to £uryl>iades ; 
but Thcmistoolee was given a crown of olive too, as the prise 
of wittdom and d«^xt<?rity. Ue was likewise prot-ntvd with the 
moat beautiful chariot that could be found in Spnrta; aud 
after receiving abmitUint praiws, was, upon bis departure, 
esooried ae far as the borders of Tegea, by the three linndted 
jKckod Spartans, who aro called tbu Eui(^ts.* Kever was it 
known, either bcfoto or since, that the Spartans escorted a 
man out of their eity. 

125. On the return of Thomistoclos to Athens, Timodemus 
of Aphidnee,^ who was one of his €uunue«, but otherwise a man 



^■^ * FlatArvli, with hi* oanal oin^CM. 

^Bbmd ir'";a to Tltsmltloclu uiuini'H- 
' tmttv ITbaok «. 17] D« UiOign. U«r. 

VoL ii. p. »71. D.). 
* It WM protMbl;f eoiurid«i«4 !■>- 

pMiiUa (« tnnrd • momuI priw with. 

MU * Brst, anil tho fint «<nitd not ba 

•AworJing to Diodonia (li. 87), 
TlinMiatoolM ««nt to SfoiU on inri- 
tatko. Tbs SpKrUnit wen kf nid (Irnt 
in hli (lis>pp(iinlin*cit liii nitfitiC eaUz- 
tain prvjecla dneiccniuii (o (jimc. iixi 
wUbvd ttf bnpg bim biuik ki goad 
biunPOf. Awcoir other farom Ihef 
g^pnMBWd kia vilk * mm «1 vmuj 

TOL. IV. 




dooblB tbo Mnouit of tiMt wLlck 
PoJ^critoi and AmftlaiM had MotiTod. 
To hia •oeepUnwo of Mm torn Dio- 
doRti uorjbaa it, Uint bo ww mpcr. 
Mdail in his comEoinil ilie aext yott 
by Zanlhippiif. Ftucnrdb likntrlM 
■peak* of Tneniiatiielo* aa inTitod to 
Sparta fFheBi. c IT). 

Thnordidaa (I. T-tj I* an tmirartaiit 
irilMM la tba nnTMOftl dtiwaotar ot Ikia 
bonoura •bjeb ThaDiiatoolw rtcaltad 
Oi'Aio'ra iritiiatn* Mm Urarjwr 

* Oonoeralaif lb* 8|iar1as fcaiciUb 
rid* nipn, L liT, BoOa ■ and vii. UU. 

' A|A>'lo*>, or Aphidna IStrab. ti. 
p. GT7( St«pk Dyt. %d *■«,) in« oo* 

2 A 



3S4 




RKVOLT OF THE FOTLDXiXS. 



of no ri^ate, became bo maddened with enry th%t ha i 
railvd ngtunst blm, and, roproadung Ijim n-itli im jotaoejit 
. Sparta, said—" 'Twos not hia own murit tliat bod won hia 
r honotir from the men of Laoedttmon, hut ILo fumo of Atlits), 
Ilia ooontiy." Then ThonuBlocIeB, seeing that Timodo 
repented thin phrase onceasingly, rephed — 

" Thaa Btonds lh« case, friend. I had never got this 
from the Spartans, had I been a Bclbiiiito ' — ^nor tbon, '. 
thou U-cn OQ AUienian ! " 

12G. Artabazus, tbo Eon of I^amoooB,' a mtoi vrhoa ' 
Fersians had uln'ayH hold in much esteoni. bnt vbo, after I 
affair of PhitflMi, roHe Btill higher in their opinion, eieart«l 
King Xcrxea aa far as the strait, with sixty thonaand of Ibc 
chosen troopa of Mardonias. When the King waa aafo in &at< 
Artabaxoa set oat npon bis return; and on arriving vea 
PaU('u6,* nod finding that ^forrloniaa bad gone into irinter 
qoartera in Thefumly and Macedonia, and 'naa in no horr; Cv 
iiim to join the camp, he thought it bis bonndon duty, as tlH 
HotidieanB bad jast revolted, to occupy himself in reduebs 
them to slavory. For as aoon as the King bad passod be; 
their territory, and the Persian fleet had made its hasty 
from Balamis, the Fotidieans revolted trom the barba 



b«;aaL 
tiari^H 



of tli» niDdit Miebnt of the Attio dani, 
it« funndatloii bolsg Mcribod to 
Ovoropt (Smb. L t. o.). Tht lU* k 
UBONlain. but on RToiuidi of Mrooff 
ptdwliUltp it i« EWMwd bj ColoDM 
\Mk» M kvttini, Cd tlw Dppor pict of 
I bo Talloj formed hf tu rlvor ot 
MMWbon (Dsmi of Atllea, p. SI). 

* Then mav twoplMM* of tbaname 
<>rB«II>iiM. Ooo, o«Uod alM DolnuDa 
(Pdfb. II. llr. f t), «r Bdoiai&a 
(PkDwm. III. ni.SS,Aa.),«Mk town 
of laeodMonoD, on tb« bordon <jI 
Arckdla. Tb« otbor «aa iin uland itt 
Ito montli of Ibo Smmuo Golf (i^tnil). 
irtiL p. 6M}, not f»r (rom SudIqdi (lb. 
Is. p. 678 1 of. 8crlM, Poripl. p. m), 
iifach womB lo b» ibo modara utisnd 
o( BU ONuy* (Loak»1i Dom, p. 8Q. 



Tbo laltflr ii iinilodbtodlf (ba p|M> 
intcndod in thia ptiauge, 

TinmdAiniiii Duut imt* baen « mUm 
ot R»lbtD», itho, «m rMahrncr Ika AUm- 
niaa eitiionaliip, ma mraloil in Ik* 
dMatH «f Apluonw, IIoDOn Iba point 
of tbo MfiMteo. Pl*to(K«p. L p. UO}, 
wlio it (ollovnd bf Tout othar wrJiM* 
(Cio. ibf 8oD*ot. o. 3| Pint. Thin. e> 
IS) A;ioptilh. Tol. ii. p. 186, B.i <ktg. 
adv. CfiM. L S9, Ao.}, tolU tkn (tury «( 
a Snriphlaa. 

' Arubtun* had piwiosily oom- 
nikiutixl the htthiMia and Cbo 
miniu (sa|>rn. viL 8S). Hia 
ecindiiat nt FUto* k noUood (illicit 
Ix. 6S). 

>tjoi>n,vU.Ut,iiO(»*. 





Map. Itfi-ua. 



AFVAIB or TI110XEKU& 



3SS 



■ 



openly; as likewise did al) the other inhabitftnts of that 
linsula. 

127. Artabaxua, therefore, laid siege to Fotidirn; and 
having a suspicion that tlio Olynthians wore likely to revolt 
shortly, he besieged their city also. Now Olynthus was at that 
time held by the BotUtcans,* who had been dhreu Irotn the 

fforto about the Tlicrmaic Gulf by the Macedoninnn. Arlnbaxus 
toofc tho city, and, having bo done, kd out all the inhabituitt 
to ft marsh in the ncighboorliood,* and there slew them. 
Mtor this he delivered the place into tho bauds of the people 
called Chalcideans, having first appointed Critobuluii of 
Toron^ to be governor. Such was tho way in which the Chal- 
cidefLQ9 got Olynthus.* 

128. When tliia town had fallen, Arlabazua pressed the 
riege of Potidjea all (he more anremittingly ; and was pushing 
bia oporationa with vigour, when Timoxenus, captain of the 
ScionfcoDB,' catered into ft plot to botray the town to bim. 
How tho matter was managed at first, I cannot pretend to say, 
for no account has como down to ua : but at the last tliis is 
what happened. Whr^never Timoxenus wished to sitnd a letter 
to Artabazne, or Artabazus to send one to Timoxenus, the 
letter was vritt«n on a strip of paper, and rolled round the 
notched end of an arrow-shaft ; the feathers were then put on 
over the paper, and tho arrow thus prepared was shot to some 
place agreed upon. But after a while tho plot of Timoxenus 



■ Conpore Tlncj^. U. 09, and om 
tbun. ril 133, noia *, pL lOL 

■ Tb« lil«DOD BpI|IC^ » bUlA lo tli« 

SMt <d Ui* city, ia prvbsbl}' inUntloil 
(t««lE«'a Horihnn Qreeoe, t«1. iii. p. 
IM). 

• fim alto and ceUlirily o( OlTathni^ 
Md tks pntilicn of T'>rto6, hiir* fcMn 
«lr«w)y Butiocd <*ii. ISS, nM«>X M 
■lao kare tho nmsber and iinpatUnM 
of tb« CluJcldMO Mltl«iDoaM fn thttc 
pMta(T. 74, not*). BxMptlng Acao. 
tliDa, B*n#, Slojeinia, and AT|[il"*>, 
wbictt were oolooica ficm Atidrai 
(ThncTd. i». 8*. 88, 103). Olpittiui, 
nbioh WM Boltlww, iietidi, irluob 




<raa Ef«tnaii(ib. ISS), PotidBM, wbioh 
wu a ooloiv iroiD Canuih (il>. i. K). 
and BeiM, «lileh clalmod to Im 
Aehmta ((b. It. 120X kU Om cnilm iif 
tba gnst paniunla iadiuM bolwMm 
tlw Tbmnaio and StiTiiioaio in>ifi 
apptar to hara Iiomi m Cbaloidmn 
oii^ (wa UanBannl PoL Antiq. % 
8I|. Olfntboa MMUV *V7 ■hortly 
aTicr it w&H gireo to tba CmIoUmm, 
to hale ociBB to bo rcfcanlcd aa tbair 
chiof dij (Tliaci. t. M : i*. 123}. W« 
Soil if. brtixc^ tta c<»u|i]cat b; PbQl^ 
M tba haail of (kirtytiro cUioa (Dwn. 
niilipp.iU.p.117. {SIS 
* Sapca, TiL 128, note*, p. Ml 




PERSIAN AKUr OESTBOYEDi 



BoosTnL 



to betiaj Potidsa was discovered in tiiis way. Artn1)ftms, on 
ODfl occtision, eliot oil his arrow, intending to send it to tbe 
accuHtomcd plact-, Ijut, missing iiis mark, hit one of the Poti- 
dicans iu the Bhoulder. A crowd gathered about the vroQnded 
num. OB commonly happens is war ; and when the arrow was 
polled out, the; noticed the paper, and straightway carried it 
to the captains who were present from tho various cities of the 
peninsula/ The captains read the letter, and, tinillng who 
the traitor was, nevertheless resolved, out of regard for the 
city of Scione, that as they did not wish the Sciomeans to be 
tbeneeforth hrmidud with the name of traitors, tlu>y wouM oot 
bring against Iiim any charge of treachery. Such accordingly 
was tho mode in which this plot was discovered. 

120. Aftor Artftliazua had continued the siege by the space 
of tliree months, it happened that there was an unuflunl ehb 
of the tide, which lasted a long while. So when tho bar- 
harians saw that what hod been acft was now no more than 
a Hwamp, tlicy dt-termined to push across it into PallOni. And 
now the troops had already made good two-fifths of their 
passage, and three-fifths still remained before they could 
reach Pollen^, when the tide came in with a very high flood, 
higher than had ever been seen before, as the inhabitants 
of those parts declare, though high floods are by no means 
uncommon. All who were not able to swim perished imme- 
diately;^ the rest woro slain by tho Potidicans, who bore down 
upon them in their sailing vessels. The Potidtoons say that 
what caused this swell and flood, and so brought about the 
disaster of tlie Persians which ensued therefrom, woa the pro- 
fanation, by the very men now destroyed in the sea, of tho 
temple and image of Neptune, situated in their suburb. And 
in this thty sctim to mo to say well. Aitabazus afterwards 



4 



Jfcajioli*, 
add, and 



•Thiwe wem Aphytia, 
j£gii, 'rhnrnuiliai, Soif-nf. Uoni 
Buii (viiln nujini, rii. 1:^1). 

'A mora «iir<io>i'f<il piusfit^ «X4 



issM 



tliiRn*, wh#n pirliii1i<fl ttcta TnUHmmJ 
by the Trotarii<Dh AlbcuixiM 
c5>!liu. Bo Gontrifed to mivy lito 
men into tho tcntn lhrout>L lb* mm, 
with oiAj B •light loai (Tliucj'd. !. G3). 



Cii*r. 128-130. PEHSIAN FLEET KU3TEBS AT SAMOS. 



357 



^ 



; led awajr the remainder of his army, and joined Mordonius 
in Tlicseiily. Tbue fared it with the PcrHiana who escorted 
the iutig to tlic strait. 

130. As for tliat part of ttio fleet of Xerxes vhlch had but- 
Tivod the battle, when it hnd made good its escape from 
BakiniH to the coast of Asia, and conveyed the King witti liia 

' army across the Btrait from the Chersonese to Abydos, it 
passL-d tho winter at Cym6.' On the first approach of spring 
thvre vfts an early master of the ship!) at Samoa, where some 
of them indeed had remained throaghout the winter. Most of 
the men-at-armii who Bcrrod oii board wcr« Fcnuanii, or dse 
Mcdex; and tbo command of tho fleet had been taken by 
Mardoutcti, the son of Bagieue, and Aj'ta5'nte8, the son of 

. Artaohteus ; " while there was likewise a third commander, 
Itbamitres, the nephew of Artayntefi,*^ whom his uncle hod 
advuDCi.'d to tho post. Further vest than Samos, however, 
they did not Tentore to proceed; for they remembered what 
a defeat they hud suCTered, and there was no one to compel 
them to approach any nearer to Greece. They therefore 
remained at Snmos, and kept watch over Ionia, to hinder it 
from breaking into revolt. Tbo whole nambor of their ships, 
including those furnished by tho lonians, was three hundrvd. 
It did not enter into tliuir thoughts that tho Greeks would 
proc4>ed against Ionia ; on tbo contrary, they supposed that 
the defence of their own country would content them, more 
especially as they had not pursued the Petaion fieet when it 
fled from Salamis, but had »o readily given up the chase. 
They despaired, hovrerer, altogether of gaining any Hiiccess by 
0M tbonuclTW, though by land they thought that Mardonins 
was quite sure of victory. 8o they remaiued at Samos, and 



■ Snpn, i. 149. 

* Ait*irnl«a wm pcDbklilr Uio wn of 
Ilia hnMU nobt* wbo bail bMa on* 
of lib»«ap«rinl*Dcl«sia st UouBt AUioa 
(rjt. S!1. Hod bad died tbcro (ib. 11T). 
Analhir at kit ma; OlMp^i^ com- 
Tniinri*il tbo AjaTrun coulioffvut Ia t^ 




ptmy cd Xcnat (Ib, 03). HMdootco, 
ilio nh of Bnpir'ui. wai in««Lii)n*d 

fib. 801 tj eoMiDiwiiUiig tto troop* 
nniiahod bj tba ialanda in tho nr- 
■inn Qa.tr. 

" IaItd, U. 103. 



358 




GBECIAK FLEET FBOCEEDS TO EGIXA. Book VUL 



took counsel together, if b; &ny means they might harus the 
eD«my, at Lh« eame ttmo tlint thoy waiitsd eagerly to bear bow 
matters would proceed vitb Mordonius. 

131. The approoob of spriug. and the knowledge tbat 
IfardoniuH was in Thessaly, roused tbe Greeks froni inactioii. 
Their buii] force indeed waR not yet oome together ; bat tbe 
fieet, cousbting of one btindred and ten ships, proceeded to 
Egiua, under tbe oommand of Leotychides." Tbui L«oty- 
chides, who was both general and admiral, was the son of 
MtmarcG, the son of Agesilaus,' the son of Ilippocratides, tbe 



4 



*' Sapnt, vl. 71. Kj luiiixpiuine tha 
|tMwn]o([7 )inri> irivi^n with Iho list of 
Sputan Icina* uf thi* lownr Ijmura in 
EtaiNDiM {ill. oiu] iv.)i ytf flnil (bat 
IIm tina vl Lootji^hldH doparU'il from 
Uutt of DdDiaratiiii. ntltii 'I'liiKipouijiii*, 
tbit oiglilli king. Tli« DiuiiiM b«tw««a 



BMaoBOtV*, 



melM 



Ruryphon 

QuttlUu 
Rlsandt 



<iu, III J. 

BttM 

I 

Oiufltoi 
KtnndM 



'nic«>|Hmipai 

Bofia •M'm* to bn wrongly omiltcd 
(rom ibp list, .if HerailutiiH. luid Knno. 
mull aptH-'orii to bi! an tiitiTrf.i[i1»lioii in 
all Um linla. Eiiiiomai in a GotitioiiS 
■iMa». atandiiig lor Lvcargiu, wIidm 
h^llstioD iFiM i-aII'hI ivnr^a (Plat. 
IiyaDi^ o. t). Xow I.ycurifD* wm 
not king ot all, or in t.lio di>««t lia* o( 
HKva*'i<'a. Iln wna •on of Prrlanis, 
bn/thvir ot IVIydrctM, knd nncla to 
Oiuuillim or OmrilnrM (Sph. Ft. 61). 
Tho tnie KaomloKioal dMOwnt fmoi 
Surypou wui prolmlily tlis FnllontiiK 
(Sea nulo ' ou Hook I. cb. 6f>| sn'l 
ootnpnni CUiitoa'* F. n. tcJ. i. p, 114, 
Mid App. eb. <L for iLo gauealugf 



LnotvRliidnt knd "nioopomplia M« 
biiovTo only fnmi Hi^mdotuK. WiUi 
nKord to lht> cnlior kipipi tbnv ■■ > 
good dcnl ot diToruiT Bmong ttio boA 
■nthorltloi, •• itio tollonisg L«ta mil 



(Cbrun. I. |i. icr). 



frixlia 



rrrunh 

I 
Eiii,«d1ii> 



PlartM 



XUTTIBB 

I^Ttiali 

EunoinW 



TbHpOIBplM 

livCw*i>n ProrliM and Hurculoi^ *'idft| 
Eupn^ TO, 2W : — 

Karrret 



I 
Tlicv^iirjiQi 



KIwid* 

' RorodotB* RtVM Ag)> ft! tho n«na 
iif lh4 EaUwr «[ ItaiMWi in Itouk viL_ 
ob. 65. 



Bflir. 130-13S. nKR0DOTT», THB CUUK UIRASSAJMB. 



359 



on of Lcotycl)idt!8, tlio son of AnauJaus, the 8on of Archida- 
HUB, tile sou of Anaxanilriilofl, Hie son of Tlieoi>ompus, the 
DQ of Nicandcr, the sob of Chtiritln», the Hon of Enaomtu, 
!ie eon of Poljdectes, tlie eon of Prytanifl, the son of Ear;- 
phon, the eon of Procles, the eon of Aristodt^mas, the eon of 
rlHtomiLcbus, the eon of Cleodnos, the son of Qyllue, tho son 
' nerculoH. He belonged to the younger brouch of the royal 
Bouso * All hU auct'stors, except the two next in the ahove 
St to himsi/lf, had bfi.'ii kings of Sparta." The Athenian 
TOSsels were coiuraauded by Xanthippud, the son of Ariphron.* 
183. When the whole lie<.-t was ooUectcd toK<^ther at Egiua, 
aadors from Ionia arrived at tlie Greek Btutiun ; they bad 
[bnt just come firom paying a vieit to Sparta, where they had 
been intreatiug the LacediemoniatiB to undertake the deliTer- 
ance of their native land. One of these ainbasaadota waa 
Henxlotue, the son of Basileidos.* Originally they were seven 
in number; and thc«b(d«MTeDbad eoDSptred to slayStrattia, 
the tyrant of Cbioa ; ' one, however, of those engaged iu the 
plot betrayed the enterprise ; and the conspiracy being in this 
way discovered, neR)dotua, and the remaining fSve, ijuitted 
Chios, and nent straight to Sparta, whouco they had now pro- 
cMded to Egiua, their object being to beseech ttie Greeks that 
they would pass over to Ionia. It was not however wiUtoot 



I 



■ Sofm, Ti. 68. 

' It MOOUAltnMt niK««wrrtan»d, 
bMb««<i propoMxl (FtUmvr, Kxurcit. 
89; Lanber.ad tec.), "tmo'tor 
two" (( for B} bora Tho Una of 
king* tmin TliiMpoiitinu k icivan lijr 
RmmiuM m (ollotra: — Tli«i<!fK>Tnpuis 
ZomidtMiiu, AnaxKtnRiiin, Arr^liiiia- 
BUt AgMJcIca, Anilon, DeiuBnu.a9, 
LMtrckido^ Ac. or IliMo tli« tMt 

fOBT we OMlEnBod b; JlM^dotllH (i. 

es, OT, T. 76, Tt. TIX to Mat tiiare i« 
no nuea to think, na BU)t ntggfitta, 
tliat he and Ucrodatiis dnw fimu dlC. 
fcTNit MiirciM. TIw tvrti Icaiirli** at 
thw lotror tryjtl hoam jHiricJ at Tlito- 
ptonpa*. Um oighib luiMvtor of I>r«l]r. 
eUdM, nod the wTuiitk ot Dcnuumlu 
(of. Cllntao, U. p. tBO). 



* Bmpn, Ti. 131. That XtMlhippu 
hiui (ooocmM ThiiWncU* In ttut 
(omniMid of the Bm(, dsM not imply 
that ilio klt«r bad oeMcd hi b« a 
Stnttegu. TImm la no naaon to 
luppoHB, ■• Diodeni doo* (it. XI), 
Uat Th(iini«Ui«lM km ia aaj diagnoa 
(ttot. Tbom. CL IT). Tho f*«liD« pm- 
t«btf irai ttiol bo emld not bo «pM«d 
uu diiiiiuit (orrioe^ Ho Uiorntoro ra- 
mainml at Albrii* to Kivu liia oonMiy. 
UKUI the bvncDt of hia comimi*. 

* It i> coeJHtarnI, wilb win* taaaan 
(DaUoioan, Life of UmviMnt, p> S, 
R. T X that iUj Uondotoa waa ■nla- 
tion oi the binoriui. 

■SiraltiB WM monlinnnl aa aoooaa- 
panTing I^uini (o tho Daaoba (nDjiia, 
1*. IMJ. 




360 



WSStOK OF UT^ 



Book VUL 



diffiootty tbai th«y vere iodiicod to advance eTen so fax 
DeloB. All bejond that seemed to the Greeks full of dongct 
tho places went quito unknown to them, and to their faD«f J 
swanued witb PerBian troops; aa for Samoa, it appeared 
them as hr off BH tbo Fillara of Ilercultis.* Tbus it came to ' 
poBs, that at tho vciy mmo time tbu barbarians ven hindered 
by their fears firom venturing any further west than Samos, 
and the prayers of the CbiauB failed to induce the Qreaka to 
advance any further oaat than Itelos. lurior guarded Ibe^ 
mid re^oD. ^M 

133. The Greek fleet was now on its vay to Delos ; bui 
UardoniUB etill abode in bis winter-quarters in Thessaly. 
When ho was about to Icaro them, he despatched a maa 
named Mys, an Europian by birth,^ to go and consolt Uw 
different oracles, giving him orders to put questions evety- 
where to all the oraeloa whereof he found it posaible to make 
trial. Wbat it woe that he wanted to know, when ho gave 
Myn theso orders, I am not ublo to say, for no account has 
reached mo of tbo matter ; but for my own part, I suppose 
that he sout to inquire concerning the business which be had 
in baud, and not fur any other purpose. 



* Thi« ia per)iftp» lh» gtoatat in- 
Btancfl in Hrrodutiu of rhtUuricAl ex- 
nggenitioD. Tb«paiMae«froiii Kiir^gw 
lo Alia, thnrngh the Idanda, mtut 
hava boon tKnrongbl/ hmillnr to tbo 
Qnttk* or Ihia iiitrind. Em tho Sji^r- 
tWU wvrtt tK:ciiKt<]iD»d to mak* ft 
(Hert>d. i. TO, 153, iiL 47, &4|. Tho 
hot thut for fiftoon ypan, ainco thn 
tamiiiatiDin of ths loniikii nTnh, iha 
ira*l«TD natsn of tho Egcrui h»d borMi 
little Ti»il«d, cooltl not produRo (bn 
■toto of ifCDcmnca which HorndnlDa 
dweriboa. I h^fm with Mr. Grot* 
iHirt. of Greeco, »d. r. p. 198), thiit 
tho fyti nhlch kopt tho Givciu nt 
Doloa wu cot a divad of tho dtiMnoo, 
hot "fear of nil eiiwiiix'* RonntiT, 
whore they could o'lt pnlaulale tim 
ritk WoNhaiu) ; " bat I oannot n|[i«o 
with fai« in thiakios that tho wurda 
of DorodotDa mnon no Duira. Uo 



clearly intrada lo aawrt l&at ir«oeT«>' 
phival iprnovaiicu wa>(>t Itoiit ia patt) 
tbo cauiie of the di-Int-. (On tha 
priMicnpai <d IlamdMvi to rliptarical 
nasgcnttion, aao tha Intdodudunr 
EnukT, ml. I. pp. 07, !IS.) 

* Tlinro trcov tirn tritiiM of tba MbiV 
of Gor^'pu* in Ma(y«l([|iia (FtoloB. UL 
IS I Itio. U. N. ir. 10), and a third tn 
Carta (Slrph. Byi [ Eij-moloft- Uag.). 
From StcphoQ Itnppran (t r Tffmiuii 
and ^fnxii) that IbaCarlaa ^lApcM 
WM tlie cilj IIII1CV ruiiiBioalj kntiwn 
aa EurAniu, whivh la^ at vino liUI* 
dislaDoo fram tha <:(«([ (Strab xiv. 
p. 9I£). prohablT cot far from Itj Ism 
(Lit. ilv. 2S). 'C<Jon(>l Uaka tklnfca 
Uin iiiinB Dt-ar laiii (ftfcBtcd ta Fel. 
Iiin-i ■ ^ia Jlinur, p. 3CI) lo br tboaa. 
cdthi* tmra (tii«k*'B A»5a Minnr, pf 
nt). ICIickar fron oh. inSaaaii 
that Deroilatua intcndt tha Caiiaa «■ ti 



1 



Cup. iSP-at. 



TeUPLB OF AUFsrARAtn. 



361 



134. Mys, it is certain, irent to Lebadeia,' and, by the pay- 
ment of a sum of money, induced one of the inhahitants to go 
donn to Troiihdntus ; > ho likcwiw visited Ab« of the Pbo- 
eiao»,^ and there consulted tlie godj while at Thebes, to vhioh 
place he went first of all, he not only got access to Apollo 
lemcniiw' (of whom inquiry is made hy means of victimB, 
according to tho custom practised also at Ol^inpia*), bat 
keviflo prevailed on a man, who was not a Theban bat a 
l^ibreigner, to pasfi the night in tho temple of AmphiaraaB.' 
Mo Theban can lawfully consolt this oracle, for the following 
reason: Amphiaraiis by an oracle gave the Thcbaus their 
choice, to have him for their prophet or for their helper in 



I 



ia (1m aoilpm Liradhia, 
OM o( ths miMt Boniiftbin; l«int> of 
KoitbOTD OrMCO. Then an n uniu- 
bpr of uiKTriptioa* on tbo >pot «on- 
tkinlog tba anolone mun*, bat 1*17 
f«w rninaiD* of ]I»llanMl boil'lingt 
(L««k«'a Konhani Qiogovi toL iu pp. 
IZO-ISS). 

I Tb« mvn af Ttoplianiiu «u aits* 
fttcd M K lltUo dlMaaoa fnin the dtj 
([■niitoD. IX. xiiii. S S), fovbabljr 00 
thii hitl to t)jp Kialh (Lokkcv p. iM). 
PtmnniM Ium doanibcd M l«ii)tui 
(Lo Ter;r eompl«s opcraticm of iliu 
dMMiK, dmrlaff tma hia own cxjio- 
tiooem <!.•,«. j; 4, G). Ilia oMontit 
i* oonfiniMd in all important punloit- 
iu» bf PhilMlniiw (Vlt. Apoll. !>)■. 
tIU. 1iI> AMordmK to Ciaaro frnto. 
D. L 47), TropbAniiM And Aj{Bmedo* 
«M« (bo crlsiiud boilAan el the 
tMii|i>lo o( Apollo ■( Dplphf. 

*Su)>[ii, i M, iwlo*, and *iIL 83, 
■>ota>. 

* Tbi* UmjAi>, wUoli Iim b«(c> »l- 
naidj nuntioaeil mo«« thm nne* (■•• 
I. SS, ud V. Sa), (tood on a hill Inndo 

aWKlU. to tliD riKht of tbo kkI* 
•d ElKotnp. bjr irhiob roa enlored 
TMmI tn>m tba math {ranuin. IX. 
S. i i, ooRowtod niih Till, cnill- 
BMcbUi tbia bill to tba aaalinnl, and 
|« f^n hom It, dim#d Iba lamliHia, 
tfon Hbiob Um» Apcflo bora v««- 



ttWmd noaJnad Ui nana. Vo n- 
moinaof (be ueiMK baildliiK Imtq yot 
bran fooDd (LtokVa N. Oneoo, <raL 
iLp. iS:ti. 

*0>aif.n Plnd. 01. ri;i. S-£. Oi- 
^H>iir(a . . . ba iJmitt <rl>>'t. iiittfion 
riKfiBip^inii vi^anipw-Toi Aiifi. And 
note tiia «s»t«ooa at Olyopla to tbo 
tiuio «f FmmoIm of an altv to lay^ 
tw Mmrafttiu (PaoMUi. t. i». S 4)- 
Alluaiona to tbo enatom aa prviailinx 
«l the tampla of Apollo UoMmiiia will 
befotuul, Soph.(Ed.T.Sl (ia"UM<t»C 
T* fiBTTi^ 0v9&fJ, and inutocb. Fr. 
197. 

> Tliat Ihi* Ininplo waa not at 
Tbebea, bsl M1U <ln^t>a«, baa b«OD 
alread/ proTDd (mprn, i- *S, nolo *(. 
Soaaa nnnaoi* o( tlip ar\ctvii( baildlnfc 
■m (bouffht to havo Iwcn diaeorcnd 
U JfntTK-lMdiui, bM-wn JIarhSpmia 
ud A'alone < l.i«ke, toL II. p. 441). 

riwpbotio drtunt war* anppoaed to 
«Ut tbnM nbo alcpt in Ihi* Iranplo 
OB tba Hoot* ol a ran wbioh thay bad 
fint offarvd to the god (PaoHA. i. 
KUIT. ad Sa.), nniarvfa pndeMc* to 
leoonnt Iba divam wbklt vbtUad tbia 
man cmfjojed on Ibia eecHkn. H» 
tbonght tbat he waa «ntering the 
lompl« wbM the prion (liod to atop 
htm, pniibod bbn (owarda tba docs', 
and finally, wbaa be wovU not iMira, 
aimck bim nn tba bdiid with * atoDO 
(Tit. Atlttid. c. 19}. 




363 



OiUCLE OF APOLLO PtSOa. 



^ 



BoosTm 



vta ; be b&de Uiem elect betveen tlie two, and tatego either 
(mo or the other ; so tbty cbose rather to hnw liini for tboir 
helper. Od this oecount it is unlawful for a Tlitiban to ekep 
in bis temple. 

Ift5. Oiie thing which the Thebans declare io bsTO h a ppened 
at this time is to me vcrj' stirpriEiag. Mvb, tho EuoinMi, 
thej eay, after bo had gone aboot to all tbo oraolea, came at 
hist to the eacrcd preoloet of Apollo Ttoiia.* The place its«lf 
Utars the name of Ptdiim ; it is in the country of the Thebaat, 
and is situate on the moontaia side overlooking Lake Copals, 
only a very Uttle way &om the town called Acnephia. Heie 
Uya arrived, and entered tbo temple, followed by tluvo Theban 
citixens — picked men whom tho stat« hod appointed to take 
down whati>ver answer the god might give. No sooner wm 
he entered than the prophet delivered him an oracle, but is 
a foreign tongue; bo tha.t his Theban attendants were as- 
tonished, hearing a strange language when they expected 
Greek, and did not know what to do. Mys, however, the 
Europian, snatched from their hands the tablet which they 
bad brought witli thorn, and wrote down what the prophet 
uttered. The reply, he told them, was in tho Carian dialect. 
After this, Mys departed and retiirmd to Thwealy. 

136. Manlouius, when ho bad road tbo onRwera given by 
the oracles, sent next an envoy to Athens. This was Alex- 
under, the eon of Amyutae, a Macedonian, of whom ho made 
chuieo for two reasons. Alozaiider was connected with tho 
Persians by family ties ; for Gygiea, who was tlie daaglit«r of 
Amyutas, and Ejister to Alexander himself, was married to 



I 



I 



* The U-mple of ApoUu PtAiu ttoud 
on the fliwlu iif ihc moantain (Mouut 
FMltm), troiu nliicU [irobably it do- 
itTdd IM luuiiix. Mount I'lAiiiii iviui 
th* rid|^ bvlwiwn llii> i<uFtmi ;4irC of 
lialce CcpDli and the una (Sirab. ix. p. 
660; rnnaan. ii. xoli. H 3. 4). It 
bod tlimo bci|[hU {Tfiiiidpi)i>in', Plod. 
Bp. Blr»b. I. «. ?.), nltich >M>in Io li« 
llonnta Poini,, fiirulnno, and Silro. 
i'ontri. The t«iDplD ul Apollo ««• 



prolmbly oo Mcnurt Faltd, iriiera tlM 
DonMiu^ of Paled tormtaif atood 
(Leake. toL li. jr. Si9). Tte tows of 
AcnvjiliiK, or Acni'iiiiiiift (Thw>pnn|i. 
Fr. S41 : Pmuan. I. « u.). uocapiod * 
ongST ctninenoe lun-cr domi. mmI 
iimr*r Oopola. It in idcntiflad, by 
itiAonn at iatdiiititia*, with tbn •xteot. 
rivu niiiiB nv4Lr XtrtlhUaa (OoU, p. : 
148 1 Lo»ko,ii.p.30:>. 



Onip. UI-137. ALKXA!n)EIt SENT AS ENTOY TO ATHKKS. 



363 



Buiwiros,' a Peruinn, and by bim had a eon, to wit, Amyntaa 
of Aftia ; who was named afler hia moUior's faihar, and 
enjoyed tbo rercnaes of Alabanda, a largo city of Phry^A,* 
which bad been assignod bim by the King. Alexander wm 
likewise (and of this too Mardonius waa well aware), both 
by Borricee which bo had rendered, and by formal compact 
of friendship,* connected with Athene. Mardonins therefore 
tlioiight that, by sending htm, he would t)« most likely to gain 
over the Athenians to the Petsian sido. He bad heard tliat 
they wero a niimcroiu and a wsrliko people, and ho knew that 
^disasters which had befallen tho Persiaoa by sea woro 
their work ; he therefore expected that, if he eoald 
allianoo with them, he would easily get the mastery of 
sea (as indeed bo would have done, beyond a doabt), 
rbile by land ho boltOTcd that he was alreedy greatly stipe- 
' ; and so he thongbt by this alliance to make snre of over- 
; the Greeks. Perhaps too tho orack's leant this way, 
ooungeUod him to muko Albcus his friend : ^ so that it 
hare been tn obodienoo to thorn that be sent the embassy. 
137. Tbif) Aloinrt'Ier was descended in the seventh degree 
bom Perdiccus, who obtained the sovereignty over the Mace- 
duuians in the way which I will now relate.' Three brothers, 




■tr 

not.. 



' Sop™, r. 21, 

■ Alixb«i>d>l«B^»boT«(riL IK] to 

iT« bfloOKvd to Coria. Tba limiU 

the tvo caantriai were norpr very 

■trliitl;r ilDftnod. Tix (he ritn, ■«« 

noto* on tlio kboTo paawK*. 

* !%• OMnpwt here ipoken of )• 

of wfoitrU, the nstara of wliioh 

bfea nlra»d]r axpltused (riiLe 

annm, rl. GT, note*). 

" It le likalj eDo««h thftt the Thi- 
bMi end Phocwi ornoloe t« nbich 11^ 
obtainifd iciMM, wDoM ksTe rnoom- 
■ended tlii* <io«nM — OMrtMnly Um 
■Mt JndloiuDe tb^l oonld hero horn 
pnmod. Heriaic cMdfnd ee deier- 
■uMdlj, Ibeee twg utioni wore now 
Seeplj iDtereeted tn tlie cocoeee ef the 
Pwsluie. The nUgiatu wtMmry 
bTODfht bie plej hf tb« hNlaa 
fa lbs witk BMiM tppMn 




agaia (infn, dL 141). 

> Thu naitMlre bed beta ptowtaid 
(mpn.T. 22). hpneeeoMUIttehle- 
torioal interMtl, dnuo it doee nM >Aet 
Uie netioa 1 nad tlMi Aiff** defMoi 
GTMi <4 the Unocdiwia* kins' ■• sttea 
to qaaetlon (e«« BMu ".ad loo. ik alt.). 
Tb«r» were tw« iBeerapadblo tndi- 
tiona on lii«- lebjec* 1 «ne, tfaat f«). 
loirod by UpTodDlna And ThecTdtdee 
(11. t)9, 100). nude rDidic«a> Sj bom 
Arxo* *»d band the kiogdonit (^ 
uikpT, which eeema to bere boat cnr. 
lent Bt leeet ^ enrlr •• TbeopcapM 
iFr. SO), end wUoh le giran ta Boae. 
biue (CbroB.OMi. I. eh. ST). Syiwelln 
(pp. SS2, 2d3), and othet wnten^ re- 
lated that Ifao Knu-snndAuhw of 
Pefdiocee, Ceianoa, led an expedllton 
tram llw MopomeM ialo Haoedonle, 



364 



SrORT OP t'ERDICCiS. 



Booc' 



dceccndAnts of Tteicsu?, HcA from Argos to the niTriaiu; 
th»iir n»mes were Gauanp«, Aeropos, and Pcrdiccas. From 
Illyria they wt-nt acrosa to Upper Macedonia, where they came 
to a certain torni called LebtBa.' There they hired themselves 
out to Eerre the Hnf; iu diJTeroat employ's ; one tended tbo 
horses ; another looked after the cows ; while Pordiccas, who 
yme the youngest, took charge of the smaller cattle. In those 
early times poverty was not confined to tlie people: kings 
themselveEi vere poor, and ao here it vas the king's wife who 
cooked the victuals." Now, whenever she baked the broad. 
she always obson'od that th<t loaf of the labouring boy Per- 
dtccas swelled to double its natm-al size. So the queen, find- 
ing this sever fail, spoke of it to her husband. IHrectly that 
it came to hia ears, the thought struck him that it wu a 
miracle, and boded somutliiug of uo Email moment. He there- 
fore sent for tlic tltrco labourers, and told them to begone out 
of his dorainionfl. They answered, "they had a right to their 
wages ; if he would pay them what was due, they werft qtutd 
willing to go." Now it happened that the sun wot shiaiog 
down the chimney into the room where thoy were ; and the 
king, heanng them talk of wages, lont his wiis, and said, 
" There are the wages which you deserve ; take that — I ^ve 
it you ! " and pointed, as he spoke, to the Eunehino. The two 
elder brothers, Gauanes and Aeropus, stood aghast at tlio 
reply, and did nothing ; but the boy, who had a knife in fats 
hand, motlo a mark with it round tlie sunshine on the tloor 
of the room, and said, " King I wo accept your paj-meut." 
Then lie received the light of the sun three times into bis 
bosom, and so went away ; and his brothers went with him. 

188. Whfiu thry were gone, one of those who sat by told th«l 
king what the yotingeet of the three had done, and hinted that] 
he must have had some meaning in accepting the wages given.] 



oordinfl to thi* Tcriinn tlipre wn» 
thM* Temonid kinga bcfors rprdlc«a> 
— Cu*&n«, Cbuuu, kud I'yriutuiw or 



* Ko cil7 of Ui!* BUna 1« tnoab 
bjr taiy olkfr vritur. 

* CcmpM* Hon. Od. vi. G7; Ao. 



At. 137, 1361 



STOBT or PBRDIOCAa 



3GS 



lien the king, when he liciird vluit htid imppcncd, WM nngry. 
sout horsemen nfter tho youths to tilay thvm. Now thcro 
B river in Uaccdonia to which tlte detwendants of tliene 
lives offer Bacrifice as their saviour. This stream swelled so 
eb, as soon aa the sons of Temenus were safe across, that 
liorscmcQ found it impossible to follow. So tho hrottiers 
oaped into another part of Macedonia, and took up their 
ie near the place colled "tho Oardens of Midas, son of 
dias." * In Uiese gardens therd are roses which grow of 
thimselTefl, so sweet that no others can come near them, and 
with blossoms that buro as many as sixty pttals spiocc. It 
vos here, according to thu Moeudonians, that Silonus was 
mode a prisoner.* Above tho garden stands a mountain 
oalli'd Bermius, which is so cold that nono can reach tho top. 
Hero thv brothers made their abode ;' and from this ploco by 
dejjrei^ thoy coui[Uc'rC'd all Macvdouia. 



* Thi* nuni* i» eoiuiocUd with tho 
mdiUon nfaleb doriTcd llio fhrjgiaiui 
of Alia ttvai tbe Ktje<^ whum tiio 
UaMiloniitn* ilruvo <ial (lUfn, riL 73, 
iiiilv "). Tbe tra«t launrn muler tho 
name lav prab«blv d«bi Oorrhtso 
tiMke'a N. Onooo, toI. (il. p. 447). 

* Tb* Uto irtat Ui«( iliilw, 0110 dny 
when h# wn« fanntiniri (wi^ht 8il«niiB, 
nnij Tiivod hiiD tooiuwcr B numbor of 
qncationa. Thaw, ai la ontonkl, oro 
rarionUf roparliyd ^m Thi>»|ic<in|i, 
1^. 76 1 Ariiit4)t. ap. Flat. Tul. it p. 
US. n. K. I Cio. Tiuc i. IS, Ac). 

* Uunat Brnnini !■ ODiJoubt^idlj 
tha raago wliioli irliuta In tho Uac*. 
dotUan mariliino plain Dpon ihi* WNt, 
•xtMiitinit Item Iha Ljd'aa (iCanunitl 
to Um) Ihliaomon {Vitiritia) (ef. 
Smb. Tii. p. 480; and Tlotem. Geo- 
gMpli. lU. IS). CoIomI hnkt ob- 
Mma of tlio (littriot b«lirt«B iho 
appar i-iirt ni ihii ridga and Iho 
inanhca ■ hicb docd^ 7 a ^eat poition 
ot Iho pimn, thkt It M "AbMOtUiLl 
ivgion, prolceMd oa all aidM hj 
uoaDUfna or manhM^ at a Mciuvbnt 
vol inciinvenient dJUanos fpom the 
M«i Kiftcd witk Uiree iiMfpiiflo«nt 
fOtitJMa tar dtiM or (octnnM In 



fAnria (Brarhma), SUiaU, and T*i' 
knti; blowed with vntj tmM^ o[ 
olovatlon and aapMS at nMOOtua, 
wood, (ettiU plaiti, numtDg wnM*. 
■&•! Iak«," and tbcovfot* " admiiably 
adaptod to bo tho Kiirwnof tb* it>MU 
nioooTchj of U«o«do«w, wbara ft* 
wualth auit powor night tfarire and 
incTvaar, nDtU tb« tiiuo oam* Ua Iho 
bORinoniaticai of its Icrritoryai ornrf 
ud<i " (N. Otnoos, lil. p. 446), 

V. tnoms InM to nj (hat this wiu 
thu inrlint tMt it tho Uaoodoniiia 
kingdom at t^o (w-oallad) Taatonldw. 
Hoiodotna properly AMiiwailbM bo> 
t<r««n Uio "appir UaeMsaitt" boi' 
dxriofc spoM llljTia, to wUek tko 
fn^tirt* flnt caaie, and tha " loirec 
Uacodoaia" sboot HoaU Bannin*. 
Tli« ronoor -na tho ooonlir of Ite 
LjOMtian aad tUimiot Mac oJo mi aBit 
which la; wMt of tb* Twumld Ung- 
dont. and «ra* not rvdaead to mbjoa- 
tloii by ttaoTofflonld Unn UUIator than 
tho timo of PonUocaa, Uia aon o( Aloi- 
andcT (nao. IL S», I*. 83. Aol), no 
l*ti«T WM lh« met daae rtt o d abova i 
it« cbicf t««^ war* JK^m or BdatML, 
and rcUa-tte coo (Bd«M> citwlai 
at tto point wbero tbe TaUef of tha 



3fiS 



FBOroSAIS OF MABD0NIU8L 




Booi 



199. From the Perdiocas of vbam ve haxt hero 
Alexander thb descended in the followmg v&yi — ^Alc 
VBS tho BOD of Amyntu, Amjutas of Alcotas ; the Eatbs of 
Aleetan was Aeropas ; of AeropUD, Philip ; of Philip. Argsns; 
t)t Argieas, Perdiccas, the first sovereign.* Sui^ was 
defioent of Alexander. 

140. (§ 1.) Vihon Alexander reached Athens as the amb: 
sador of MardouiaH, he epoke as follon-B : — 

"0 mca of Athene, these bo the words of Mardonins. 



:| 



LjdiM opimi ciiil npnn Ihn plnla. tlio 
poiltioii «t tbn nudnti Vedhni 
(L«k«, iu. p. S7!), B moat m^cnifl- 
mmt kite (Lear*! Jonnial of n Toar in 
AlbuJB, fto., p. 96) t the other Iflcg 
In tho plain itanlf. on tho bordnni ot 
th« |{rwt LydiM l»ke, SMLr lh» tjml 
now ooonpied b; Jannitta (L«bt> ji, 30; 
LiMko, iii. p. S*0). GiloBa tiiu b«Uer 
claims Uittii ctcn Bcrrhim to be con- 
■idorod tba ongfinnl mnt of nmpiiw, 
■Idm Uiars «*«tb0 lniriiil-pUvi' o( tliti 
kinm OTtni is later timt-ii, afttir TcIIb 
bocnino die capital (Diud. Sie, lii. 
GK.x^l. p. aOT; rDQiiui. I. ri. § 3; 
Flis. H. N. Ir. ID, &<;.). Fnim tho 
titict in nin-Bliijii, wliith «it(-n'lpd 
nuith to UoUDt Pdii'iaDil nut perhajM 
to tbo Alius, but which nowhtro 
roochad thn ico, being *rpnralRd frvira 
It bj Bottiwaaiid l'i»ria, lh» Teimi'iiicl 
Kngt pnwevd^d on tliat Ormr ot 
eotiiiniiit, tlie earlier at^p* rf whleh 
arc [(-Inled by Thncydidoi (il, 1181. 
Thof Crat attacked nucl mdiioGd Plana 
and Butiiixft, NiwHioK tlie lubabit. 
lUiU^ wbo fl«(I (■aHtwanl (aupiv. vii, 
II!, note', and 123, note *, p. 101). 
Kcit tbo; mndo war on tho wcitom 
nBoabuii. aod took fii>m thfoi tlin 
IowarTalli>y of tlia At'iua. Bvymitl 
tbil riviT In? Ilyi^donia, thv ;:ii.-ittpr 
part of which they proccedKl to con- 
quer. AftoT Hii* thoir omx* vera 
tnrned aftain^t tbo Eurttiaim, a I'mn- 
niaa tribe (sapnl, vii. I8S, note ') 
occapying tbe upper irallcy of tba 
Iifdiu, bplwccn ilmmt Bcrmim and 
th* paiallol rang<D to tho ynmt, tho 
dintrlot now fcaotrn m SorigMol. The 
OoequMl orihlinA)iia,whiefa M«mi W 



he tbo coDTxtry north ot S[o«Ei Fait 
{L««ik», ill. p. Uti), fnllrm^d. Antbo- 
■niu, a tofm and iJ»ilrict b « t«— a 
Hy^oDia and Chalcidici (*^nt i^^ 
III), waa appareMI; ndoMd B«d^H 

•inn innaioD (aM UfUIw, Doriant^ i. 
Apr- '. S 16-18). 

Becncen tbo Peraias asd Pnlopoo. 
tiMinu Rim. CrutoniiHi, BiMjlia^and 
poitiinna ot Upper Uacodcnua woa 
rv^uuod. Indavd a awt ot limiwinij 
iitH.'iDa at thii (iine Ui k>Ta bean afc 
tnbtiahed by tho Tmnoiud UogX tnm 
tho ootire Utumtrjiiiaa nalto^ llwagb 
tho ilillmrpiit tnboa ntaintd tMr 
nionarrhH, and wbea prvMad, aa in Uw 
cuw uf Arthibntua (Tbw. iv.), da* 
frndcd thoir qimn-iodepvudenc* in 
oinia. Tbo (nrlbar gTOKih of Maoo- 
diinia wa* afl^rr thta chacfcod Iij ■- 
t^irna] inniblc* until tlia tUMt i£ 
Philip, ton uf Amyntaa. 

■ Thii niu tho accepted gattMieC- 
It ta to and complolo in Ruavfaiia 
(Cbcou. Can. t. cli- ixirit,) ; with mu> 
(acciiJental f) omMnm in ffj'nrnllw 
(p. S6Z). TbeK writcni prM«Bd to 
gi\B tho oioot cumknr of j-oan which 
mch liiug reigned. TharoKoll cl lliair 
ciilriilitiioiiit IB (o plaoo th« aooanoM 
<>t Pi<nlrf.itiu in tbo lallvrport of iW 
cidhth cesmiy BA (abont ■.€. 790). 
Kadcpcudoiicc,lioiworcir.canb«p]aaad 
on thU dal«, ntir con raal UacMoniaa 
hiatory be Mnwidomd to TTrnmrf 
any earlier (ban Ibo reiirn of Amyalaa. 
BTea then tbo chronoloor ie Twy on- 
eartain (na CUntm'a F. H. VOL Iu] 
App. eb. 4). 



■u>. laa, 14a 



STBECB or ALEXANDER 



307 



King has sent a meBso^e to me. fiaving, "All (he trespusee 
'hioh tb6 Athenians have comiuitled against me I trveiy targive. 
bw tht'D, MardoniuB, thus Bhait Uiou act towards tbem. 

to thoiu tbnir territory ; an<] let tlicm cbooso for them- 
wliatuvur lanJ they like bcsidot), and let tbvm dwell 

oroin as a free people. Build up likowiso all thoir totnplea 

1 burucid, if on these terms they will consent to cut«r 
a league with mo," Such aro the orders whioli I have re- 

, and which I mast nvvAs obey, unless there be a hindranoe 
your paxt. And now I say unto you, — why are ye so mad as 
levy war against the King, whom yo cannot posBibly over- 
ime, or ctod rosi»t for ever ? Ye bavu 8«cq the multitude 
d the braT«ry of the host of Xerxes ; ye know also how large 
power remains with me in your lajid ; Boppose then ye should 
the better of ns, and defeat this army — a thing idiercof yo 
not, if ye be nise, 4tut4.'rtuiu the least hope— what follows 
titeu but a conttrBt with a still greater force ? Do not, 
jOa would fain match yoursdves with tho King, con- 
sent to Io8e your country and live in oonRtant danger pf your 
lives. Itather agree to make peace; which ye can now do 
witlinut any tarnish to your honour, since the King invites 
you to it. Continue &ee, and make an alliance with us, with- 
out fraud or deceit.' 

(S 2.) " Theye are the words, Athenians ! which Mardo* 
lus has bid me speak to you. For my own part, I will say 
nothinf; of tho ^^ood will I bear yotii nation, aince yo have not 
ow i-jt tho firet time to become acquainted witli tt." But I 
add my intreatios also, and beseech you to give car to 
ardonius ; for I so« cU-urly that it is impossible fur you to go 
on for ever contending against Xerxes. If that had appeared 
to me possible, I voolcl not now have come hither the bearer of 
such a messego. But the King's power sutposBM that of i 
and bis arm roachus far. If then ye do not hasten to 
dude a peace, when such iair terms are offered yon, I trembi 



■S^f^TiL 173. 



p.! 

no 

^Uai 




3G8 



J.KCF.V£MOSlJiiiS SENU CJ1V0TS TO ATOCXS. Bow TUL 



to tliink of what you will have to endure — yon, who of aQ ibe 
allies lio most directly in tlio path of danger, whose I&nd will 
always be the chief Imttlc-gFoaiid of th« contending powcn, 
and who will therefore constantly have to euffur alcme. 
Hearken then, I pray you, to Mardonios ! Surely it is no small 
matter that the Great King chooses you out from all tbo rast 
of the Gret'ks, to offer you forgivt-ncHs of the wrongs you have 
done him, and to propose hims«If as yo:tr &icnd and ally I " 

HI. Such were the words of Aii>xaud<ir. Now tho La«eds- 
moninns, when tidings reached them that Alexander was gone 
to Athens to bring about a league between the Athenians and 
the barbarinns, and when at the sacoo time they called to 
mind the prophecies which declared that the Dorian taeo 
should one day he driven trom the Peloponnese by tlie Medes 
and thu Athenians,' were cicocdiugly afraid Icst the Athenians 
might conR^nt to the alliance with Persia, They therefim 
lost uo time in eending envoys to Athens ; and it ao bapp«ne<l 
that these envoys were given their audience at the same time 
with Alexander: for the Athenians had waited and mode 
delays, becauHe they felt sure that tbo Laccdamoninns would 
h«ftr tliat an ambassador was come to them hum the Pertiians, 
and as soon as they heard it wonld with all spocd send an 
embassy. They contrived mattfrs therefore of set purpose, so 
that the Lacedfcmoiiians might hear th«m detiver their senti- 
ments on the occau(m. 

142. As soon as Alexander had finished speaking, 
ambassadors from Sparta took the word and said, — 

" We are scut here by the Lacednmonians to entreat of 
that yo will not do a new thing in Greece, nor agrvo to the 
terms which are ofTorcd yon by the Barbarian. Such 
conduct on the port of any of the Greelcs were alike nqjust 
and dishonourable ; but in you 'twould be worse than in otbore, 




* Ur- GroU iwnnrlL* that tbcio pro- 
pbrcint tniisC hnTO tHVn reO'ialjr 
(oinctl, nnoe "si do dtlirr poinl of 
(line couM Ihe cipalsioii ot all ihe 
Variiua fram PsIopgiumuK, b; imitcd 



ronlnni anH Athealui*, htvn bc«a 
tirr-a divamt ot " (Rut. <it Or««. 
Till. V. p. 1N)0l oola >). Tlia faoiUtj 
with nbieh jm^hoviM wcra toij^ 
Bpptnni frMD Book tU. cb. ft. 



AW. 1«>-I4a. BPBECB OP TUB STjUITAN AMBASSADORS. 



3G9 



T diver* rcasonfl. 'Twaa by you that this war was Mndlea 
tlio first nmong us — our wixlit:)! wt-rc in no viay considered ; 
le ooQt«at began by yonr Bwking to ost«ud your empire'" 
now tlie fate of Greece is ioTolved in it. Besides, it were 
rely an inlolernble tiling tliat tho Atlit-niiuis, vbo bare 
ways hitlierU) bees known as a nattOD to vbieh inany men 
med their freedom, should now become the m«anM of brini^ing 
other Greeks into slavery. We feel, howeTer, for the heavy 
lamilics which press on yon — the lose of your harvcHt tbcM 
yean.' and tho ruin in which your homes have liun far 
long a time. We offer you, therefore, on tlie part of the 
liemonians and tho allies, Bustonance for your women 
for the unwarlike portion of your ltou»clioldH, 80 long as 
:e war endnreii. De J^e not seduced by Alexander tho TlSace- 
loiiian, who softt-ns down the rough words of Mardonius. He 
loos AM is natural for him to do — n tyrant himself, bo helps 
>rward a tyrant's cause.* But ye, Athenians, should do 
ditJerently, at least if ye be truly wise ; for ye should know 
at Willi barbarism; there is neither fuith nor trntli." 




" If tlii* nMxIinjt if ■c«nil, <«• mnat 
(1 Qoodulna m ffoiltj' <rf an an>- 
itmi in UirowinglMcli to the liino 
Um loniltB iaimvctiim Oid aiitiiiti 
ef ui AtheniiA btK«nion7. TbiammM 
be tarelCMMv*. not iipuioacc, on hii 
p«Tt J ttjt bo wna wdl twtta M what 
tJBMi Uio Alhnniaii omptTO raJlr («m. 
itt»wpri (•Dpn. ch- 3, ttd Dil). A 
rtmilBr inouivotacaa «np«an in Uie 
DMl ■cMenco. Il could not paadhly 
h»Ti> baen nU l> tW yww B.O. 47V, 
liiM "ntnjr Ri«n owwl iWir frHMlnai" 
U> tte AthcniiuiiL Cjt to lliis tuuo 
tbojr had norcc toktm iwir (MUi in 
Ulio*ling MDj iMtion. Bat IIorodotM 
tnoitfnnt la th* tinw of tfa* PM«i»a 
mt wlut Biiifbl haT« Uson Mid with 
•am* tnrth of tbo AthcaiMM el bit 
otm day. Thla anet kodii •onw ooon- 
tamsBco to Umi toT v m : <illi<-ri>itrt I 
•hMild b« inolinMl to ndopt ibo nml- 
ina <f 8«luD(or, wbich Uekkw and 
aebw*i^iiMr follow (ink' l>^ 
Ipxn*)' aad Inailat* irith lAogo :.— 

VOL. IV. 



" Tb* tetnM nu bvgmn b itttw* of 
joai imiUaj." 

' U woald (cnm Ihttt tb* «ihc«U- 
fit TlkMuiatoctM (lapnk, «h. 100) a/Ur 
foluni* — " IM Meit now rr^r bii 
oim hooMi aiid fM* Au hnij diN- 
fwnlly "— )«d beta dkrc^aidod. or had 
eema loo lato. Tfcc aMd-oorn bad not 
bMTi) icCit ia, Mid BO lb« bMTml of 4T9 
niH ImI, m well aa that of «eO (>oo 
GiDtc. TuL T. p. HK!. nolo ■>. 

*Alei)aiuI«ma&ot a i^niKt (W^a*> 
mO in aor prapar aitoqiUliun «f ilio 
woni lie bad not aoaniivd hi* po^or 
nacoiutiiuUcnaUy, noltbor did, he m. 
orcJM Itcrorllj'. Ho iia« a klafi(Jlaef 
\i{n) *J tral7 M Xtrm tv LaunidaC) 
aard ao otbor Gnwk writvn nana 
tlM TMiona tnonkivha of hi* koMo 
(TbncTd. L K, a. luU: llut. Cira <■. 
14 1 .Yta. Uftt. V. ii. I t- 
Ibu LaocKlMtuioaiaaa afr ' 
dramatic proprit 

M^WUMi lo dl 
Mriotir appUcab 



J70 



A^'sn^n of the atueniaks. 



BOOKTin. 



143. Thus spako the envoja. A&er -nliich the Atliciii&iLS 
returned tliis answer to Alexander :' ^m 

" We know, ax well as thou dost, tlat the power of the MtxbM 
is man; times greaU-r than our own : ttc did not need to have 
that cast in otur teeth. Nevertheless, we cling so to freedom 
that we shall oITor «hat resistance wo may. Seek not to per- ^ 
Buado us into making terms with the ImrbArian — say wholflj 
thou wilt, thou wilt never gain oar assent. Betom ratha*^ 
at once, and tell Mardonius that our answer to him ia this : — 
' So long OS thu Eun keeps his present course, wo will never 
join alliauco with Xerxes. Nay, we shall oppos« him un- 
ceasinglr, trusting in the aid of those gods and heroes whom 
he has Ughtly eAteomcd, whose hooscs and whose images he 
has burnt with fire.' And cnme not thon again to us with 
words like these ; nor, thinking to do us a scrrico, pcrsnade , 
us to tmholy actions. Thou art the guest and friend of onr 
nation — we would not that thou shouldat rcocJT© hurt at oar 
hands." 

14-1. Such was tlio answer which the Athenians gave to 
Alexander. To the Spartan envoys they said, — 

" 'Twas natural no doubt that t3ie Lacedsmoniana ehouli) 
be afraid we might make terms with the Barbarian; hot 
ncvortiit'leBS 'twas a base fear in men who knew so well of 
what temper and spirit we are. Not all tbo gold that tiM- 
whole earth contains — not the birest and most fertile of all 
lands — would bribe us to take part with the Medes and help 
them to enslave oar countrymen. Even could wc anyhow 
have brought ourselves to such a thing, there are many very 
powerful mutivuB whiuh would now moke it imposRJble. The 
tirst and chief of these is the burning and destruction of oc 
temples and the images of our gods, which forces us to mali 
no terms with their destroyer, but rather to pursue 
with our rcseutment to the uttermost. Again, Uiere is on? 
common brotherhood with the Greeks : our common lon^age, 



* Plotorch nuliet Ariitiilaa Uin 
■t««k«i on Uut ocGuiOB, »ad wja L« 



WM Apfiuiiitoil b> deliver tho roplj bj 
k public dncrea (TU. .&n«tul. c luj. 



ir. 143, 114. 



BETCmS or THE SPABTAS& 



3; I 



le altarR hdA flio sftcriQccB of vliiob wi> all partaltc, llio 
immon ctiaracter vhicb we bear — did the AtheniaiLS betray 
tbese, of a Inith it would not be well. Know tlion now. i£ 
bare not known it beforo, that while one Athenian reunuux 
:Te, we will never join alliance with Xerxes. We thank you, 
iwewr, for your fyrt-thonght on our bobal/, and for your 
rieb to give our families sufltoiiance, uow that ruiu bus foUon 
Qs — tho kindness is complete on jonr part ; but for our- 
,TW, ve will endure as we may, and not be burdeDSOnio to 
iQ. Such then is our resolve. Be it your care with all 
to lend out your troops ; for if we eurmise aright, the 
ian will not wait long cr« be iuvado our t«n'itory, but 
set out so soon as ho Iconis our answer to b«, that w« wtU 
none of thoBo things which bo requires of us. Now then is 
time for us, beforo bo enters Altica, to go forth oursi-lvca 
ito Bccotia, and givo bim battle." 

Wlivn tho Athenians bad thus spoken, the anil>Assftdors 
m Sparta departed, and returned back to their own country. 



THE NINTH BOOK 

or TIIB 



HISTORY OF HERODOTUS, 

ENTITLED CALLIOP^. 



I. Uabdomts, irben Alexan<Ier upon liia relnm made fcaovn 
to him th« auHViT of tho Atlioniane. forthwith broko up from 
l^esttal;,* and led his army with all speed ngainst Athens ; 
forcing the BE<rcral nations through whofle land lie passed 
to furnish him with additionftl troope." Tho chiof men of 
Tlicssaly, far hrom repenting of the put which thoy had taken 
in the vror hitherto, Qrg«d on tho I'orsitma to the attack man 
eamesUy than ever. Thorax of Lari«»a* in particular, who 
hod helped to escort Xerxes on his flight to A«ia, now ox>oiilv^ 
cnoooniged Hordonius in his marcli upon GreK^ce. ^| 

2. AVhcn tho nrmy rouchi>d Bteotia, the Thebons sought to 
induce Mardouius to make a bait : " lie urould not," they told 



' Mnnlunia* wiatcTod his nnnj in 
Thmnokly unct Xacfdonia (>npni riii, 
188). Tlio difflcnlt; of procMii-iDi; nip- 
pliM, alwr iba cihiLiKtioa cnnfcd hf 
tho prraDQOl of tlM fmaiciiin liott of 

XcrtD*. IDlulo itDKINMiMLT^ U> fKll hndlt 

npwi] tbuM n'cli sml IitIiIh ODuiitrint, 
too ehief giwiitric* of Gronatf. Tint 
■mo eMUH) cumpcllDd thi; wiilo dU- 
pnnjnn of Iiii vcoopt, indioalcd bjr 
thnir (ii^i^npnlion of bothregimi*. For- 
IrAp* il inu Hilb a rnir of fk^ftotlDK 
llio liniliiix of (iind that ArtntMnu 
was prrmilfHl 1^ Kiiitcr in tbo beieli- 
bDnriim'l c>r Piit.rilH« Diiil Olyntlina 
(Tiii 139). it muni Im burno iu tuiuil 



that lh« loCT vf the hutlo of Snbmi* 
hnd tmatfcrrrd to tb* tlnvki Ut* 
ooDUBiuilDf the w<i,>iid tlwl no mp. 
ld.lo« ooold atiy Imgor Im ilnini fnna 
Ail> Minor. SjtU, or ^urpt- 

• Kodonia «ya tlat (ho ttDopa 
faniiiihnd to JUpVmia* by Ibo Tb*- 
oifuiR, MacudonBn*'. imd odter bIUu 
Hiiioonlod to SOO.OUO mca (sL SS). 
Hurodoiiu finb*, «h. 32) kiumm tka 
ontiro Baniwr of the Qrwka w^ 
fought on tfao PdmIhi dd* nt 8(Vi00l 

*Tli(iru «M Um ohliue of Um 
Aleandic {infhi, ch. K t Find. I^tli. l 
100). <>otio«miu£ wkm liia mpr^ *U. 
6, noto '. 



Oiur. 1-3. 



JUADOMIUS BE-OCCCFIES JlTUEENa 



373 



I 



bim, " find anyvbcro a more conTenient place in n-litch to pitch 

' his camp ; AQtl tlioir advieo to liim vas, that he should go uo 

further, but Hx bimsolf there, and thoDc« take meaearea to 

; subdue all Greece without striking a blow. If lh« Greeks, 

I vbo bad held together hitherto, etill continued uait«d among 

Lthemselrefl, it vould be difficult for the vbole world to over* 

oome tbcm b; forco of arma. But if tboa wilt do ns wo 

adviHc," thuy went on to my, " Uiou maycat easily obtain the 

direction of all tlieir counsels. Send presents to the men of 

most weight in the BCToral et&tes, and by eo doing titnu wilt 

60W division among tliom. After that, it will bu a light taok, 

with tlio hvlp of 8ucb as tiidc with thee, to bring oudcr all thy 

; adversiirieB," 

3. Such watt tlio advice of the Tlicbans : bnt Hardonius did 
aot follow it.* A strong deaire of taking Athess a Meond time 
possessed him, in part arising from Iub inborn Etnbbonmora, 
in part from a wish to inform the KJtig at Sardis, by fire-signals 
along the islandit,' that he wa^ master of the place. However, 
ho did not on bis arrival in Attica find the ALbeniana in their 
country — they had again withdrawn, some to their ehipe, but 
^Ibe greater part to Salamis — and he only gained possession of 
a deaerted town. It was ten months after tho tukiiig of the 
city by Uie King that Mordooius oamo agaitut it for the second 
time.* 



* laUr writois Mid tht,t odd Aitli- 

[mIoi cf Zebt (In Ckp|«dM)ia) wm aent 
hy MonloidM Into ttt» PBloponiUM 
witli ft tor«« aani et Bwncri fc t^* 
pnrpMQ of ■owinK ittMMwkn ameaf 

|th> Grwka (llat. Tboin. «. 6t Pan. 
rUllpii. bl. p. Va, S S7i eomp. Diod. 
6)0. XI. Ky, UomcMtkMiM qnnlM n 
Aren^ Bgaiiiit bim, which m* in- 
■eribed (bo •uf*) in tho^Lcropalia. 
* On tlio Kcnornl anbieM ot &«• 
■ipiali, MO »ol«' on Bulk tII. ch. lt>S. 
It i* onriow that wa ilo not bum ul 
ttidr kkring been lUMid hj JUnea 
hluaelt, who oaqilnT* McMnif crt (nil. 
M, 974/0) to «i»n>y (ntoIU«oD0O d 
hia doiiHck. lUtdamioM, •ppMfoUr, 
BUM UbmU hk*« ocpu^wd tba Ula- 



Knp)i'o oonunnalcalioa li«ro apakM 
ot, which, in that com, omi MMttel^ 
liki« paand tlirooi^ th* OrtiUdM, 
■iaoo, fttUr bUnii, Iho Qrecb wcm 
iDMUn of th« Ml. I am inclinad to 
b«li«T« tlurt tke tea) Unn ot Momnai. 
cauoD iMMWd tioug tbo Rnnquwi 
oiiMC to AthM.aiiiJ (lieno0 bjr i-*"—"- 
ti> A«ia— tho Udo dcaoribMl in • r«. 
vcno order b^ JSttitjlat (A^iuii. 27S- 
290) — wlio anj h*T« Uiu'a hia tdsa 
from thwfMit bor* not«<l. which woold 
hnra omw in pui luidor hi« ow> ob- 

* Acoordine to PIntarab (Citoiill. o. 
tSX tbn faktUo of Salttmi* took phwc 
on tb* aXh oT tte moath DoSdnnnioB, 
ootmiNiadiag nearl/ with onr Sap. 



374 



LTCIOAS SIOXBO TO DEATH. 



Boua 



Mordomas, being nav in AlliMis, ocjii on ctmj li 

f Baliunis, one Murychldes, a HelleRpuulino Greek, to offct U* 

Athenians once mora tbo fianiA terms vLich had been tea- 

.Teyed to tliem by AIozoiiiIlt. T1)« reasou for liis Bending i 

tteeond time, tboogli he knew beforebaBd their nnfrWIty 

I feelings towards bim. vos, — that be hoped, when tb«j tt* 

tbe whole land of Attica conquered and in liiu powei, tlinr 

etubbomneBS would begin to giro way. On thi« accoos}, 

therefore, bo deapatebed Uurycbides to SoJomis. 

fi. Kow, when Murychides camo before the oonneil. tDddt- 
liveied biB message, one of the ootmcillors, named hymiu, 
garo it as bis opinion — " that the best eoarae would bo, U 
admit the proposals brougbt^by Murychides, and lay tlieta 
before the assembly of tho people.'* This ho slated to bo bii 
opinion, perlmps beoaose he had been brilwd by ATardoiutu, 
or it may be becanse that conrse really appeared to him tbt 
most expedient. However, tbe Athenians — both those iu tb< 
council, and those who stood without, when thcj heard of tbt 
advice — wcro full of wrath, and forthwith surrounded Lycidw, 
L&ad stoned bim to death.* As for Murychides, the Holks- 
oDtino Greek, bim tbcy sent away unbanned. Now tL«n 
a stir in tbo island about Lycidas, and tho Athinian 
Iwomcn Icaml what had happened. Then each cxhortod her 
F^lellow, and one brought another to take part iu tbe dt^d ; and 
they ail flocked of tbcir own accord to tho house of Lyoidiu, 
and stoiiod to death his wife and bis children. 

■ction <d Uoidonia* tliKmefc 
*pnii)r. it M«m* MooMHv lo n 
BcurUliiMiQBtitoftrDlh'in tbo >mr 
iDMit of Dioihinni Bixl atbcr*. u U 
btuwttstra^ liBD In oIKtIb to wia arvr 
(ome of th'e Gtrcikii «tuc« tir anwcy 
(mpn, eb. 8, nolo *). 

• DwuMthmiM (<1« Cor. p. 896) toHi 
a liniilar Btorj ol ono Cymilut, whn 
WM »tc«Fd, bo nfa. tlw jnuw b^lons 
for adridDK nbatMion on I)m an. 
pnxtoh ot Xwxot. na b (dllovml b* 
CiD«n> (De US', iii. IIX I do not MM 
vlij botli ftoriM nitty not bo ti«a. 



[tombpT, n (lAt« which iii bnrno out I'j 
" > •jnolimiiicin, npiKitrcntlj in (fueled 
our nalhor (riii. i>&), burwofn tlxo 
M of the OD^nLgoDiDiit and (liat ol 
lEleminKUi myiilvriw. If thii b« 
Qowwl, tlie lAkiisK of Athi-nt hy 
iWM OtUinoC hum bocv fniiicr tliAn 
Lngnrte wbkb woold lunkn tlm xinmil 
aag bj MardonJDi IM in (hi; M- 
■rlnir Jtma. TliiiitMiua Ulo in tho 
T«art but it occonla with tlio tima 
lndlMt«d, infra, «h. 7. luid alio with 
tho traditional dale for tbo bstll«of 
PlktaM, llio 4th of Uotdrnmioii (Plat. 
Ariltid. c lli;. To aipltua ttia in. 



ATSEXIAX UISSIOV TO BPAItri. 



3;s 



G. The cu-cnmstanccs QnJcr vihieh tlio Athenians liad Eooglit 
refuRo in Salami^ vere the following. So long ns any hcrpe 
cmttiuoil thiit a Piloponncsian army would come to give them 
hid, tbcy abode still in Atticn ; but when it appeared that tho 
lies were alack and slow to move, while the invader was 
reported to be pressing forward, and to liave already entered 
jlkeotia, then they proceeded to remove their goods and chattels 
rom the mainlnnd, and themselves again crossed the Btralt 
Bakmia. At tho Bame timo they sent ombassiulon to 
jaoodicmon,' who wore to reproach tho Laccdnmonians for 
baring allowed tho Dnrbnrinn to advance into Attica, in- 
Bteod of joining them and going oat to meet him in Bceotia. 
iThey were likewise to remind the Lacediomouians of the oETi-rs 
ty which the Persian had sought to win Athens ovtr to Uis 
Bide," and to warn them that, if no aid came from Sparta, the 
^■UheauADB most consult for their own safety. 
V 7. The truth was, tho Locethcmonians were keeping holiday 
Hat that time ; for it was tho feast of the Hyacinlhia,' and they 
Bthooght nothing of so much moment ns to perform the servico 
of the god.' They were also Gtlga^od in btiildiuf; their wall 

I across the Isthmus, wliich was now so far advanced that tho 
battlements had begun to be placed apon it. 
When the envoys of tho Athenians, acoompanied by ambas- 



* Aeeor^ifS! to rialarrh, ArI«ti(U« 
rccrjoimciuled tloA cunrso, and tho 
WubMOulon nont "m Cimoo, Xam- 
tl>i)i|iu*, kiul U;n)uiilei(Vit. Alutid. 



■ e. 10), 
* Supra, Tiii. 1*0, J 1 



m 

of 

m 



> The ttnin ot tbo UfkcintlUa wu 
hold ftnnnallj M Auj'Cliv, on tho 
longwt il»7 of tho lituUD monili 

coatOBibiiaa, ocrrMpiinilinH ■" u^r 
'fiD« and JnljT' It wan matiilMtlr a 
part of tlio oDcIcDt clpmputnl rcliint^n 
of t1ii> AcliiimiR, wiivli )ti><l b(«n 
Brloi>(t{1 lo turrtfi I'Xtrnt by tltf l)i»riiLiiJi 
■1 tno time cf tbp cun>^ii(.-*t. llyiiciii- 

na, Ihe bi«uti[ul joath rlain noci' 

iiilallj by Apullo, na* Uio cliiof 
'et>j»ct t4 lh« tranliiji. □• look bU 
Ban* Irani Uie Uuwvr, vbivh nu an 



HnUen of 4«atk| ud tba original 
f«aat at^ma to haro Imhsq altK^tbvr 
a moniDfnl cmaumf, — a lanwotatJoa 
oiroT tin; i!i-i>tnicti(in o( ti>* itnrtrutt 
«]iriiig by tlia ■nmsMr boat, paMunit 
on to a mora matiBl laawnt orrr 
■ImUi iUpir. The AmyolMiiu at all 
timM inaJc a point ot allniiilini; Uin 
fon*( <Xnn. U«II. ir. t. | 11) i and I ho 
SjuKaiM IbMUMlTM MO koooa occa- 
aivnally to IWT* ntOTBed homo from 
• forri^ taip«4itwn with tho umo 
object. (rnuMft. IV. kIx. § 3.) Fiir 
tbe dnalli of tha c<tl*hniti><ii, urn Uio 
i-i<;iitU«t article ia Smiih'n thtttunarjr 
of Anilqaitits, aoti. Ti>o. UVACINIUU. 

■ Sra on litis poj&l, sota* cm Ocok 
«i Eh. 106, 





376 



AnuitKSS OF TBK JlTHEXIJUC EXTOTa BooS IZ. 



Badors from Megara and riatiwi,' roachod Laocdarmon, ihaf 
came befort) Uiu Ephors, and epoke as follows — 

" The AthcQtona have sent oa to yoa to say, — the King o( 
Ibc McdcB offera to give us back our cotintn.', and tUIics to 
conclude an alliance with us on fair and equal terms, without 
fraud or deceit. Ho is willing UUowiso to bestow on us 
another country besides our own, and bids us cLoo«« any land 
tliat ve like. But we, because we rererenced Eellemo Japiter, 
and thought it a shamL'ful avt to betray Greece, instead of cihi- 
Denting to tliose t«nni(. ntfuscd them; uotwitbstaodiug that we 
havo bi'cu wTougfid and d«scrt«d by the other Greeks, aiid ord 
fully aware that it is far more for our advaatogo to make 
peace with the Fvreiau than to prolong the war with him. 
Still we ghall not of our own free will, consent to any tenoi 
of peace. Thus do wo, in all our dealings vith the Greeks, avoid 
what is base and counterfeit; whilo contrariwise, ye* who but 
now were so full of fear lest we should make terms will) thai 
enemy,* having learnt of what temper we are, and axsureiLJ 
younwlrcs that wo tdiall not prove traitors to oar eouot 
having brought moreover your wall acroBs the Isthmus to aal 
advanced otate — cease altogether to have any care for vn. Yal 
covenanted with us to go out and meet the Persian in BteoUa; 
but when tlio time came, ye were false to your word, and'^ 
looked on while the barbarian host advonoed into Attica. Atfll 
this time therefore the Athenians are angered with yoa ; and 
justly, — for ye have not done what was right. They bid yon, 
however, mnko haste to send forth your army, tliat we may 
even yet meet Uardonius in Attica. Now that Boeotia is lost 
to US, the best place for the fight within our oouutry, will be 
theplttiuof Thcia."* 



pcaioeaian lUitoi. wcra ajmUy in- 
tprcaled nitli Athi-u* in hiviajj tlitt 
nilniDof) ot Mnntouiu* i^nukvil. Me. 
Kn% win MjK'iriullif roiKiurnai], for 
I'loipia hod bni>n |itniii)i«Tw1 tuiii burnt 
(i>D{ii«t vlli. IM), wbviiHU Mc;«n hod 



liU)i*rl« MOiipvd ravagv [inln, oh. 1 4). 

* SopTB, nil. lis. 

° Buprn, viii.OS, note*. Tho nnmber 
of tho Pcrduu b«iDK DOW m mucli i». 
(lucod, tho Grrcis mo itlUIux to toMt 
tbcm In tho pUiat. 



« 




DILATORT rnoCEEDIXaS OF TTTE KPnOIB. 



i77 



8. The Epliors, when Ihej had lioard ihis BpMcb, dolayod 
eir niiitwor till tlie morrow ; and when tliu morrow eomo, till 

day following. And thos tliey acted for ton days, con- 
ually putting off the ambassadors from one day to the nest. 
'bile the Peloponnesions generally were labouring witb 
'«al at the wall, and the work nearly approached com- 
I can give no other reason for the conduct of the 
acedamonians in showing themselves so anxious, at the timo 
bcQ Alexander e4iiuo, that the Athenians should not join the 
Mi'dvti, and now being quite eoreloes aboitt it, eioept that at 
that former time the wall acroM tlie Isthmuti was not com- 
lete, and they worked at it in great fear of the Persians, 
bcreas now tbo bulwark bad been raised, and »o tboy 
d tliat tboy bad no further no^d of tbo Atbcuianfl. 

9. At last Uio ambassudoTB got uo answer, and the troops 
arched forth from Sparta, under the following circumstances. 

The last audience had been fixed for the ambassadors, when, 
the very day before it was to l>o given, a oerlain Tegean, named 
Chileiis, a man who boil more influence at Sparta than ooy 
other foreif^or, learning from the Ephors exactly what the 
Ath('iiiiui8 bud said, addrcssod these wuivls to them — " The case 
ataikis thus, Oye itlpbors ! If tlie Atliuuiaiis are not our friends, 
t league themselves with tbo barbarians, however strong oar 
across the Isthmus may be, there will be doom enough, and 
ide enough open too, by which the Persian may gain entrance 
the PcloponueBc.' Grant their request tbon, before they 
XDoko any fresh resolve, which may bring Greece to ruin." 

10. Such was tlio counsel which Chileits gave: and the 
Ephors, taking the adriee into eonsideration, determined forth- 
with, without speaking a word to the awbaasadorti from the 
tlit-ee citiits, to despatch to llio Isthmus a body of live thousand 
Spartans; and accordingly they sent them forth the same 








* That I*, (bo MTttl powoT of Atkmt 
inl4 l>r ill* «IioIb ccoit of Uw Pdo- 
ponsaM OMB M tho rbnrina*. Till* 
Ma tMKaljr liar* bten » new Uiouylit 



to U« Ephora. FMtaiUj wbal mond 
(ham wu lh« bomic raiaiMdml tliM 
tbof mool not c«mt too onlirclj oa 
the MU'doroUon of tbo iltfcuiinni 




378 




BPABTAS TEOOPS START FOR THE ISTHiroS. B<x« IX. 



night, appointing to each Spartan a rctinne oC seven Helots/ 1 
and giving llio eommand of th« oxpcditioa to FoDstmins. tba 
son of CleombrotuB. The chief power belonged of right at this 
time to Plcistarchns, the son of Leonidas ;* bni as he was still { 



* MQllw — tliDDgb in cne placo (Do- 
riuK. vxl. ii. p. 4&,noto*, S. T.) ho 
uaiuaea thiR propnrtion of llclota to 
SpnrlaiK w ttic IiMi* of » cklculkliou, 
wbfivby bu would implj' that it wwi 
ui«i>l-in aoDtber (Hi, p, S£9) mmii- 
tun« tlint thii vu tJio oqI; tima irbon 
tho cuuilwcnllciidiiiK <ai encli fijiartnii 
WU H> grant. Of tliia, bdovritr, lii' 
bring* no pn»f — ami tlio Irath mHMni 
to b* tlikt tltcn tan no ilM> for d?- 
IcsniiiTiig tho qaoMlan. In Ibo nb- 
■aaaa of nny ffriilnnm tn th* oontrkry. 
It !■ nuDtt n<HiH.mnli1i* (u ■appuio the 
prnpactian to hovo twen the <«tab- 
liahod cmo (Tido (DpA, vij. SXS; Till. 

].ro 

I 



* PlviUareliiu caaM not Iwrebccn 
more than ktmi or aixht at tU» ttac 
Ula niDthoir Gotgo, nbowu onljnigte 
ytnrt old In tho jcir n.c, UM (mipr*, 
T- 61), i» not llki'ijr l» b>T» rnvrittl 
till Bhe vnu tnmtf i for tho S[)Mln 
law tiicbadc aalj mniTikjee* (llullei^ 
lioriiinii. Tu!. ll. p. 300). Plciatarcbw 
tliMrvfoni conlil tint wsil b*Tp liMa 
bom bvfuru n.c. 487- Ho tlinl, nc- 
ending to Diodotn^ ia B.O. 4^ (liii. 
;s). Iinving boca full fcjng for n lery 
•hurt tine (PMiMa. III. T. § 1). n« 
toniiljr true <it th* A|rid>^ doriofc tha 
p«^cd embnio«<l b; the Bi*toru« nf 
nnodclns and Tliacjnliib^ maf bo 
tliu eiLibilod i — 



AUHUDEOU* 



rr.inacna 
floigu.d. 



CuriMH 



l,|[(>iriD*a 






FtWHlIU 






Fxcunt* 



AHMMbl 



Annxandtidn* mmctli'il Leo slKiiit 
B.C. WW, and rtigncd probnbl; forty 
jtMn. CIcuDicTiPii mcoocdcd hiu ia 
B.C. Em or HVJ. lla d.<'<l II.C. 491. 
DoHoQs b(<inff ftlrraiiy ttrnd, Lcniidju 
njooiilvd tho tfarmp, and rpiKncd 
eloTBn jears, till n.u. 480. On the 
acMHion of bin mn, PlcinarcLiia, in 
that JtUT, C1i>ointirotiu, miclo to 
Ptoutarohas, Im^me ii-f,vul, but, 
djrmg th« Muno ;pur. nnii Buccfcdixl 
in hM offico \tj rnnianioi, bji won, 
wbo, tb(in|[h conitii to I'lriiilarrliDa, 
vac otinHidvrablj oldpr, »iiii-n I.i<(inn1iui 
hod DiniriiHt']itt« in lifp. FMiuuuiui, 
thoutrb oftjn culled kin)r (inftn. oh. 
76 J Ariat. Pol, Tii. 13; Bcmoith. c. 
Kuer. p. 1S78 ; SduA. AtigL Sq. H 



Itc), wiLs Dcvpr mora Ihwi muxit, 
no held tbo office ania hi* dwatb, 
wlueh wim probably in n.c. 4IBJ. 
WhiX-hnr XicnmedM. bit timth^r, iw 
Wriiuio ii'jronl, or wK'ibce Ilrutw. 
cboa aHtiiocd his fnl) rijchu. i* as- 
certain. All Ibat we know ii, thai tba 
laltBT did Bot onjoj bia •nriDcidignlj' 
long, bat diid, aa atB(«d abov*, v.c. 
4£3, nod lufl no iMae. Tba orcnni 
devolved on Fleattoanai, tfae aldMt 
•am of Paiuuila*, who wa* a taicor, 
and NftiomndRi now ccHnialj becanto 
ri-Ki>nt (I'l'i'i^jA, i. 1071 Diod. Sic. zl. 
7i)) . In Clin yoai B.c.MC, tU* i«Kmo7 
bad como to na end. wkl IloiMaMiax 
wna tall MnR (Tincyd. L HI). 
Sliovtlj att«nr»tdt FUiatoanax waa 



C»iP. 10, JI. LAST AUDIENCE OP THE ATBESIAJT ENVOYS. 379 



a child, Panfanifts, Lis cousin, was regent in bis room. For 
the father of Pnunanins, Clcombrota9, the eon of Anaxnnilridas, 
no longer lived ; he hiid died a short timo nftw Lringiiig bnclt 
from the Isthmus the troops who bad been employed in bniid- 
ing the urall.' A prodigy had caused him io bring his army 
homo ; for ^hile he wan offering Bacrifice to know if he eboold 
march out against the Persian, the sun was suddonly dork* 
entd m mid sky. Pansanias took with him, as joint-leader 
of the army, Eur^'auox, the eon of Dorieus, a member of bis 
own family.' 

II. Th